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Sample records for linearly polarized optical

  1. Vector optical fields with bipolar symmetry of linear polarization.

    Pan, Yue; Li, Yongnan; Li, Si-Min; Ren, Zhi-Cheng; Si, Yu; Tu, Chenghou; Wang, Hui-Tian

    2013-09-15

    We focus on a new kind of vector optical field with bipolar symmetry of linear polarization instead of cylindrical and elliptical symmetries, enriching members of family of vector optical fields. We design theoretically and generate experimentally the demanded vector optical fields and then explore some novel tightly focusing properties. The geometric configurations of states of polarization provide additional degrees of freedom assisting in engineering the field distribution at the focus to the specific applications such as lithography, optical trapping, and material processing.

  2. McDONALD OBSERVATORY ARCHIVE OF OPTICAL LINEAR POLARIZATION MEASUREMENTS

    Wills, Beverley J.; Wills, D.; Breger, M.

    2011-01-01

    We present 990 previously unpublished optical linear polarization measurements of quasars, active galactic nuclei, and some stars observed for interstellar polarization. The observations, covering the period 1981-2000, were made with McDonald Observatory's 2.1 m Struve reflector and the Breger photopolarimeter.

  3. FDTD simulation of trapping nanowires with linearly polarized and radially polarized optical tweezers.

    Li, Jing; Wu, Xiaoping

    2011-10-10

    In this paper a model of the trapping force on nanowires is built by three dimensional finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) and Maxwell stress tensor methods, and the tightly focused laser beam is expressed by spherical vector wave functions (VSWFs). The trapping capacities on nanoscale-diameter nanowires are discussed in terms of a strongly focused linearly polarized beam and radially polarized beam. Simulation results demonstrate that the radially polarized beam has higher trapping efficiency on nanowires with higher refractive indices than linearly polarized beam.

  4. Optically-driven red blood cell rotor in linearly polarized laser tweezers

    We have constructed a dual trap optical tweezers set-up around an inverted microscope where both the traps can be independently controlled and manipulated in all the three dimensions. Here we report our observations on rotation of red blood cells (RBCs) in a linearly polarized optical trap. Red blood cells deform and ...

  5. Optical asymmetric cryptography based on elliptical polarized light linear truncation and a numerical reconstruction technique.

    Lin, Chao; Shen, Xueju; Wang, Zhisong; Zhao, Cheng

    2014-06-20

    We demonstrate a novel optical asymmetric cryptosystem based on the principle of elliptical polarized light linear truncation and a numerical reconstruction technique. The device of an array of linear polarizers is introduced to achieve linear truncation on the spatially resolved elliptical polarization distribution during image encryption. This encoding process can be characterized as confusion-based optical cryptography that involves no Fourier lens and diffusion operation. Based on the Jones matrix formalism, the intensity transmittance for this truncation is deduced to perform elliptical polarized light reconstruction based on two intensity measurements. Use of a quick response code makes the proposed cryptosystem practical, with versatile key sensitivity and fault tolerance. Both simulation and preliminary experimental results that support theoretical analysis are presented. An analysis of the resistance of the proposed method on a known public key attack is also provided.

  6. Linear Transformation of the Polarization Modes in Coiled Optical Spun-Fibers with Strong Unperturbed Linear Birefringence. I. Nonresonant Transformation

    Malykin, G. B.; Pozdnyakova, V. I.

    2018-03-01

    A linear transformation of orthogonal polarization modes in coiled optical spun-fibers with strong unperturbed linear birefringence, which causes the emergence of the dependences of the integrated elliptical birefringence and the ellipticity and azimuth of the major axis of the ellipse, as well as the polarization state of radiation (PSR), on the length of optical fiber has been considered. Optical spun-fibers are subjected to a strong mechanical twisting, which is frozen into the structure of the optical fiber upon cooling, in the process of being drawn out from the workpiece. Since the values of the local polarization parameters of coiled spunwaveguides vary according to a rather complex law, the calculations were carried out by numerical modeling of the parameters of the Jones matrices. Since the rotation speed of the axes of the birefringence is constant on a relatively short segment of a coiled optical spun-fiber in the accompanying torsion (helical) coordinate system, the so-called "Ginzburg helical polarization modes" (GHPMs)—two mutually orthogonal ellipses with the opposite directions of traversal, the axis of which rotate relative to the fixed coordinate system uniformly and unidirectionally—are approximately the local normal polarization modes of such optical fiber. It has been shown that, despite the fact that the unperturbed linear birefringence of the spun-fibers significantly exceeds the linear birefringence, which is caused by the winding on a coil, the integral birefringence of an extended segment of such a fiber coincides in order of magnitude with the linear birefringence, which is caused by the winding on the coil, and the integral polarization modes tend asymptotically to circular ones. It has been also shown that the values of the circular birefringence of twisted single-mode fibers, which were calculated in a nonrotating and torsion helical coordinate systems, differ significantly. It has been shown that the polarization phenomena occur

  7. Testing the existence of optical linear polarization in young brown dwarfs

    Manjavacas, E.; Miles-Páez, P. A.; Zapatero-Osorio, M. R.; Goldman, B.; Buenzli, E.; Henning, T.; Pallé, E.; Fang, M.

    2017-07-01

    Linear polarization can be used as a probe of the existence of atmospheric condensates in ultracool dwarfs. Models predict that the observed linear polarization increases with the degree of oblateness, which is inversely proportional to the surface gravity. We aimed to test the existence of optical linear polarization in a sample of bright young brown dwarfs, with spectral types between M6 and L2, observable from the Calar Alto Observatory, and cataloged previously as low gravity objects using spectroscopy. Linear polarimetric images were collected in I and R band using CAFOS at the 2.2-m telescope in Calar Alto Observatory (Spain). The flux ratio method was employed to determine the linear polarization degrees. With a confidence of 3σ, our data indicate that all targets have a linear polarimetry degree in average below 0.69 per cent in the I band, and below 1.0 per cent in the R band, at the time they were observed. We detected significant (I.e. P/σ ≥ 3) linear polarization for the young M6 dwarf 2MASS J04221413+1530525 in the R band, with a degree of p* = 0.81 ± 0.17 per cent.

  8. Circularly polarized light to study linear magneto-optics for ferrofluids: θ-scan technique

    Meng, Xiangshen; Huang, Yan; He, Zhenghong; Lin, Yueqiang; Liu, Xiaodong; Li, Decai; Li, Jian; Qiu, Xiaoyan

    2018-06-01

    Circularly polarized light can be divided into two vertically linearly polarized light beams with  ±π/2 phase differences. In the presence of an external magnetic field, when circularly polarized light travels through a ferrofluid film, whose thickness is no more than that of λ/4 plate, magneto-optical, magnetic birefringence and dichroism effects cause the transmitted light to behave as elliptically polarized light. Using angular scan by a continuously rotating polarizer as analyzer, the angular (θ) distribution curve of relative intensity (T) corresponding to elliptically polarized light can be measured. From the T  ‑  θ curve having ellipsometry, the parameters such as the ratio of short to long axis, and angular orientation of the long axis to the vertical field direction can be obtained. Thus, magnetic birefringence and dichroism can be probed simultaneously by measuring magneto-optical, positive or negative birefringence and dichroism features from the transmission mode. The proposed method is called θ-scan technique, and can accurately determine sample stability, magnetic field direction, and cancel intrinsic light source ellipticity. This study may be helpful to further research done to ferrofluids and other similar colloidal samples with anisotropic optics.

  9. Self-error-rejecting photonic qubit transmission in polarization-spatial modes with linear optical elements

    Jiang, YuXiao; Guo, PengLiang; Gao, ChengYan; Wang, HaiBo; Alzahrani, Faris; Hobiny, Aatef; Deng, FuGuo

    2017-12-01

    We present an original self-error-rejecting photonic qubit transmission scheme for both the polarization and spatial states of photon systems transmitted over collective noise channels. In our scheme, we use simple linear-optical elements, including half-wave plates, 50:50 beam splitters, and polarization beam splitters, to convert spatial-polarization modes into different time bins. By using postselection in different time bins, the success probability of obtaining the uncorrupted states approaches 1/4 for single-photon transmission, which is not influenced by the coefficients of noisy channels. Our self-error-rejecting transmission scheme can be generalized to hyperentangled n-photon systems and is useful in practical high-capacity quantum communications with photon systems in two degrees of freedom.

  10. Significant and variable linear polarization during the prompt optical flash of GRB 160625B.

    Troja, E.; Lipunov, V. M.; Mundell, C. G.; Butler, N. R.; Watson, A. M.; Kobayashi, S.; Cenko, S. B.; Marshall, F. E.; Ricci, R.; Fruchter, A.; Wieringa, M. H.; Gorbovskoy, E. S.; Kornilov, V.; Kutyrev, A.; Lee, W. H.; Toy, V.; Tyurina, N. V.; Budnev, N. M.; Buckley, D. A. H.; González, J.; Gress, O.; Horesh, A.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Prochaska, J. X.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Rebolo Lopez, R.; Richer, M. G.; Roman-Zuniga, C.; Serra-Ricart, M.; Yurkov, V.; Gehrels, N.

    2017-07-01

    Newly formed black holes of stellar mass launch collimated outflows (jets) of ionized matter that approach the speed of light. These outflows power prompt, brief and intense flashes of γ-rays known as γ-ray bursts (GRBs), followed by longer-lived afterglow radiation that is detected across the electromagnetic spectrum. Measuring the polarization of the observed GRB radiation provides a direct probe of the magnetic fields in the collimated jets. Rapid-response polarimetric observations of newly discovered bursts have probed the initial afterglow phase, and show that, minutes after the prompt emission has ended, the degree of linear polarization can be as high as 30 per cent - consistent with the idea that a stable, globally ordered magnetic field permeates the jet at large distances from the central source. By contrast, optical and γ-ray observations during the prompt phase have led to discordant and often controversial results, and no definitive conclusions have been reached regarding the origin of the prompt radiation or the configuration of the magnetic field. Here we report the detection of substantial (8.3 ± 0.8 per cent from our most conservative simulation), variable linear polarization of a prompt optical flash that accompanied the extremely energetic and long-lived prompt γ-ray emission from GRB 160625B. Our measurements probe the structure of the magnetic field at an early stage of the jet, closer to its central black hole, and show that the prompt phase is produced via fast-cooling synchrotron radiation in a large-scale magnetic field that is advected from the black hole and distorted by dissipation processes within the jet.

  11. Hyperentanglement concentration for polarization-spatial-time-bin hyperentangled photon systems with linear optics

    Wang, Hong; Ren, Bao-Cang; Alzahrani, Faris; Hobiny, Aatef; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2017-10-01

    Hyperentanglement has significant applications in quantum information processing. Here we present an efficient hyperentanglement concentration protocol (hyper-ECP) for partially hyperentangled Bell states simultaneously entangled in polarization, spatial-mode and time-bin degrees of freedom (DOFs) with the parameter-splitting method, where the parameters of the partially hyperentangled Bell states are known to the remote parties. In this hyper-ECP, only one remote party is required to perform some local operations on the three DOFs of a photon, only the linear optical elements are considered, and the success probability can achieve the maximal value. Our hyper-ECP can be easily generalized to concentrate the N-photon partially hyperentangled Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states with known parameters, where the multiple DOFs have largely improved the channel capacity of long-distance quantum communication. All of these make our hyper-ECP more practical and useful in high-capacity long-distance quantum communication.

  12. Optical anisotropy of polyimide and polymethacrylate containing photocrosslinkable chalcone group in the side chain under irradiation of a linearly polarized UV light

    Choi, D H

    2002-01-01

    Photocrosslinkable soluble polyimide and polymethacrylate compound were synthesized for studying the optically induced anisotropy of the thin films. Chalcone group was introduced into the side chain unit of two polymers. We observed a photodimerization behavior between the double bonds in the chalcone group and an optical anisotropy of these materials by irradiation of a linearly polarized UV light (LPL). Optical anisotropy of the thin film was also investigated by using polarized UV absorption spectroscopy.The dynamic property of optical anisotropy in photoreactive polyimide was compared to that in polymethacrylate containing chalcone group in the side chain.

  13. Linearly polarized photons at ELSA

    Eberhardt, Holger [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    To investigate the nucleon resonance regime in meson photoproduction, double polarization experiments are currently performed at the electron accelerator ELSA in Bonn. The experiments make use of a polarized target and circularly or linearly polarized photon beams. Linearly polarized photons are produced by coherent bremsstrahlung from an accurately aligned diamond crystal. The orientation of the crystal with respect to the electron beam is measured using the Stonehenge-Technique. Both, the energy of maximum polarization and the plane of polarization, can be deliberately chosen for the experiment. The linearly polarized beam provides the basis for the measurement of azimuthal beam asymmetries, such as {sigma} (unpolarized target) and G (polarized target). These observables are extracted in various single and multiple meson photoproduction channels.

  14. Polarized Electrons for Linear Colliders

    Clendenin, J.

    2004-01-01

    Future electron-positron linear colliders require a highly polarized electron beam with a pulse structure that depends primarily on whether the acceleration utilizes warm or superconducting rf structures. The International Linear Collider (ILC) will use cold structures for the main linac. It is shown that a dc-biased polarized photoelectron source such as successfully used for the SLC can meet the charge requirements for the ILC micropulse with a polarization approaching 90%

  15. Polarization Optics in Telecommunications

    Damask, Jay N

    2005-01-01

    The strong investments into optical telecommunications in the late 1990s resulted in a wealth of new research, techniques, component designs, and understanding of polarization effects in fiber. Polarization Optics in Telecommunications brings together recent advances in the field to create a standard, practical reference for component designers and optical fiber communication engineers. Beginning with a sound foundation in electromagnetism, the author offers a dissertation of the spin-vector formalism of polarization and the interaction of light with media. Applications discussed include optical isolators, optical circulators, fiber collimators, and a variety of applied waveplate and prism combinations. Also included in an extended discussion of polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) and polarization-dependent loss (PDL), their representation, behavior, statistical properties, and measurement. This book draws extensively from the technical and patent literature and is an up-to-date reference for researchers and c...

  16. Linear polarization of BY Draconis

    Koch, R.H.; Pfeiffer, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    Linear polarization measurements are reported in four bandpasses for the flare star BY Dra. The red polarization is intrinsically variable at a confidence level greater than 99 percent. On a time scale of many months, the variability is not phase-locked to either a rotational or a Keplerian ephemeris. The observations of the three other bandpasses are useful principally to indicate a polarization spectrum rising toward shorter wavelengths

  17. LINEARLY POLARIZED PROBES OF SURFACE CHIRALITY

    VERBIEST, T; KAURANEN, M; MAKI, JJ; TEERENSTRA, MN; SCHOUTEN, AJ; NOLTE, RJM; PERSOONS, A

    1995-01-01

    We present a new nonlinear optical technique to study surface chirality. We demonstrate experimentally that the efficiency of second-harmonic generation from isotropic chiral surfaces is different for excitation with fundamental light that is +45 degrees and -45 degrees linearly polarized with

  18. Scattering of a cross-polarized linear wave by a soliton at an optical event horizon in a birefringent nanophotonic waveguide.

    Ciret, Charles; Gorza, Simon-Pierre

    2016-06-15

    The scattering of a linear wave on an optical event horizon, induced by a cross-polarized soliton, is experimentally and numerically investigated in integrated structures. The experiments are performed in a dispersion-engineered birefringent silicon nanophotonic waveguide. In stark contrast with copolarized waves, the large difference between the group velocity of the two cross-polarized waves enables a frequency conversion almost independent of the soliton wavelength. It is shown that the generated idler is only shifted by 10 nm around 1550 nm over a pump tuning range of 350 nm. Simulations using two coupled full vectorial nonlinear Schrödinger equations fully support the experimental results.

  19. Optical neutron polarizers

    Hayter, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    A neutron wave will be refracted by an appropriately varying potential. Optical neutron polarizers use spatially varying, spin- dependent potentials to refract neutrons of opposite spin states into different directions, so that an unpolarized beam will be split into two beams of complementary polarization by such a device. This paper will concentrate on two methods of producing spin-dependent potentials which are particularly well-suited to polarizing cold neutron beams, namely thin-film structures and field-gradient techniques. Thin-film optical devices, such as supermirror multilayer structures, are usually designed to deviate only one spin-state, so that they offer the possibility of making insertion (transmission) polarizers. Very good supermirrors may now be designed and fabricated, but it is not always straightforward to design mirror-based devices which are useful in real (divergent beam) applications, and some practical configurations will be discussed. Field-gradient devices, which are usually based on multipolar magnets, have tended to be too expensive for general use, but this may change with new developments in superconductivity. Dipolar and hexapolar configurations will be considered, with emphasis on the focusing characteristics of the latter. 21 refs., 7 figs

  20. Polarized light and optical measurement

    Clarke, D N; Ter Haar, D

    2013-01-01

    Polarized Light and Optical Measurement is a five-chapter book that begins with a self-consistent conceptual picture of the phenomenon of polarization. Chapter 2 describes a number of interactions of light and matter used in devising optical elements in polarization studies. Specific optical elements are given in Chapter 3. The last two chapters explore the measurement of the state of polarization and the various roles played in optical instrumentation by polarization and polarization-sensitive elements. This book will provide useful information in this field of interest for research workers,

  1. A novel orthogonally linearly polarized Nd:YVO4 laser

    Xing-Peng, Yan; Qiang, Liu; Hai-Long, Chen; Xing, Fu; Ma-Li, Gong; Dong-Sheng, Wang

    2010-01-01

    We presented a novel orthogonally linearly polarized Nd:YVO 4 laser. Two pieces of α-cut grown-together composite YVO 4 /Nd:YVO 4 crystals were placed in the resonant cavity with the c-axis of the two crystals orthogonally. The polarization and power performance of the orthogonally polarized laser were investigated. A 26.2-W orthogonally linearly polarized laser was obtained. The power ratio between the two orthogonally polarized lasers was varied with the pump power caused by the polarized mode coupling. The longitudinal modes competition and the corresponding variable optical beats were also observed from the orthogonally polarized laser. We also adjusted the crystals with their c-axis parallele to each other, and a 40.7-W linearly polarized TEM 00 laser was obtained, and the beam quality factors were M x 2 = 1.37 and M y 2 = 1.25. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  2. Optical tractor Bessel polarized beams

    Mitri, F. G.; Li, R. X.; Guo, L. X.; Ding, C. Y.

    2017-01-01

    Axial and transverse radiation force cross-sections of optical tractor Bessel polarized beams are theoretically investigated for a dielectric sphere with particular emphasis on the beam topological charge (or order), half-cone angle and polarization. The angular spectrum decomposition method (ASDM) is used to derive the non-paraxial electromagnetic (EM) field components of the Bessel beams. The multipole expansion method using vector spherical harmonics is utilized and appropriate beam-shape coefficients are derived in order to compute the radiation force cross-sections. The analysis has no limitation to a particular range of frequencies such that the Rayleigh, Mie or geometrical optics regimes can all be considered effectively using the present rigorous formalism. The focus of this investigation is to identify some of the tractor beam conditions so as to achieve retrograde motion of a dielectric sphere located arbitrarily in space. Numerical computations for the axial and transverse radiation force cross-sections are presented for linear, right-circular, radial, azimuthal and mixed polarizations of the individual plane waves forming the Bessel beams of zeroth- and first-order (with positive or negative helicity), respectively. As the sphere shifts off the beam's axis, the axial pulling (tractor) force is weakened. Moreover, the transverse radiation force cross-section field changes with the sphere's size factor ka (where k is the wavenumber and a is the sphere radius). Both stable and unstable equilibrium regions around the beam's axis are found, depending on the choice of ka and the half-cone angle α0. These results are particularly important in the development of emergent technologies for the photophoretic assembly of optically-engineered (meta)materials with designed properties using optical tractor (vortex) beams, particle manipulation, levitation and positioning, and other applications.

  3. Optical tractor Bessel polarized beams

    Mitri, F.G.; Li, R.X.; Guo, L.X.; Ding, C.Y.

    2017-01-01

    Axial and transverse radiation force cross-sections of optical tractor Bessel polarized beams are theoretically investigated for a dielectric sphere with particular emphasis on the beam topological charge (or order), half-cone angle and polarization. The angular spectrum decomposition method (ASDM) is used to derive the non-paraxial electromagnetic (EM) field components of the Bessel beams. The multipole expansion method using vector spherical harmonics is utilized and appropriate beam-shape coefficients are derived in order to compute the radiation force cross-sections. The analysis has no limitation to a particular range of frequencies such that the Rayleigh, Mie or geometrical optics regimes can all be considered effectively using the present rigorous formalism. The focus of this investigation is to identify some of the tractor beam conditions so as to achieve retrograde motion of a dielectric sphere located arbitrarily in space. Numerical computations for the axial and transverse radiation force cross-sections are presented for linear, right-circular, radial, azimuthal and mixed polarizations of the individual plane waves forming the Bessel beams of zeroth- and first-order (with positive or negative helicity), respectively. As the sphere shifts off the beam's axis, the axial pulling (tractor) force is weakened. Moreover, the transverse radiation force cross-section field changes with the sphere's size factor ka (where k is the wavenumber and a is the sphere radius). Both stable and unstable equilibrium regions around the beam's axis are found, depending on the choice of ka and the half-cone angle α_0. These results are particularly important in the development of emergent technologies for the photophoretic assembly of optically-engineered (meta)materials with designed properties using optical tractor (vortex) beams, particle manipulation, levitation and positioning, and other applications. - Highlights: • Optical tractor Bessel polarized beams are

  4. Linear polarization observations of some X-ray sources

    Shakhovskoy, N.M.; Efimov, Yu.S.

    1975-01-01

    Multicolour linear polarization of optical radiation of the X-ray sources Sco X-1, Cyg X-2, Cyg X-1 and Her X-1 was measured at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory in 1970-1973. These observations indicate that polarization of Sco X-1 in the ultraviolet, blue and red spectral regions appears to be variable. No statistically significant variations of polarization were found for the other three sources observed. (Auth.)

  5. Polarization properties of linearly polarized parabolic scaling Bessel beams

    Guo, Mengwen; Zhao, Daomu, E-mail: zhaodaomu@yahoo.com

    2016-10-07

    The intensity profiles for the dominant polarization, cross polarization, and longitudinal components of modified parabolic scaling Bessel beams with linear polarization are investigated theoretically. The transverse intensity distributions of the three electric components are intimately connected to the topological charge. In particular, the intensity patterns of the cross polarization and longitudinal components near the apodization plane reflect the sign of the topological charge. - Highlights: • We investigated the polarization properties of modified parabolic scaling Bessel beams with linear polarization. • We studied the evolution of transverse intensity profiles for the three components of these beams. • The intensity patterns of the cross polarization and longitudinal components can reflect the sign of the topological charge.

  6. Linear optics and quantum maps

    Aiello, A.; Puentes, G.; Woerdman, J. P.

    2007-01-01

    We present a theoretical analysis of the connection between classical polarization optics and quantum mechanics of two-level systems. First, we review the matrix formalism of classical polarization optics from a quantum information perspective. In this manner the passage from the Stokes-Jones-Mueller description of classical optical processes to the representation of one- and two-qubit quantum operations, becomes straightforward. Second, as a practical application of our classical-vs-quantum formalism, we show how two-qubit maximally entangled mixed states can be generated by using polarization and spatial modes of photons generated via spontaneous parametric down conversion

  7. Linear polarizers based on oriented polymer blends

    Jagt, H.J.B.; Dirix, Y.J.L.; Hikmet, R.A.M.; Bastiaansen, C.W.M.

    1998-01-01

    Linear sheet polarizers based on the anisotropic scattering of light by drawn polymer blends are introduced here. The proper selection of materials and processing conditions for the production of large-area, flexible films of phase-segregated polymer blends suitable for polarization applications are

  8. Sources of linear polarized x-rays

    Aiginger, H.; Wobrauschek, P.

    1989-01-01

    Linear polarized X-rays are used in X-ray fluorescence analysis to decrease the background caused by scattered photons. Various experiments, calculations and constructions have demonstrated the possibility to produce polarized radiation in an analytical laboratory with an X-ray tube and polarizer-analyzer facilities as auxiliary equipment. The results obtained with Bragg-polarizers of flat and curved focussing geometry and of Barkla-polarizers are presented. The advantages and disadvantages of the method are discussed and compared with the respective quality of synchrotron radiation. Polarization by scattering reduces the intensity of the primary radiation. Recently much effort is devoted to the construction of integrated high power X-ray tube polarizer-analyzer arrangements. The detailed design, geometry and performance of such a facility is described. (author)

  9. Polarized electron sources for linear colliders

    Clendenin, J.E.; Ecklund, S.D.; Miller, R.H.; Schultz, D.C.; Sheppard, J.C.

    1992-07-01

    Linear colliders require high peak current beams with low duty factors. Several methods to produce polarized e - beams for accelerators have been developed. The SLC, the first linear collider, utilizes a photocathode gun with a GaAs cathode. Although photocathode sources are probably the only practical alternative for the next generation of linear colliders, several problems remain to be solved, including high voltage breakdown which poisons the cathode, charge limitations that are associated with the condition of the semiconductor cathode, and a relatively low polarization of ≤5O%. Methods to solve or at least greatly reduce the impact of each of these problems are at hand

  10. Non-linear optical materials

    Saravanan, R

    2018-01-01

    Non-linear optical materials have widespread and promising applications, but the efforts to understand the local structure, electron density distribution and bonding is still lacking. The present work explores the structural details, the electron density distribution and the local bond length distribution of some non-linear optical materials. It also gives estimation of the optical band gap, the particle size, crystallite size, and the elemental composition from UV-Visible analysis, SEM, XRD and EDS of some non-linear optical materials respectively.

  11. Importance of the alignment of polar π conjugated molecules inside carbon nanotubes in determining second-order non-linear optical properties.

    Yumura, Takashi; Yamamoto, Wataru

    2017-09-20

    We employed density functional theory (DFT) calculations with dispersion corrections to investigate energetically preferred alignments of certain p,p'-dimethylaminonitrostilbene (DANS) molecules inside an armchair (m,m) carbon nanotube (n × DANS@(m,m)), where the number of inner molecules (n) is no greater than 3. Here, three types of alignments of DANS are considered: a linear alignment in a parallel fashion and stacking alignments in parallel and antiparallel fashions. According to DFT calculations, a threshold tube diameter for containing DANS molecules in linear or stacking alignments was found to be approximately 1.0 nm. Nanotubes with diameters smaller than 1.0 nm result in the selective formation of linearly aligned DANS molecules due to strong confinement effects within the nanotubes. By contrast, larger diameter nanotubes allow DANS molecules to align in a stacking and linear fashion. The type of alignment adopted by the DANS molecules inside a nanotube is responsible for their second-order non-linear optical properties represented by their static hyperpolarizability (β 0 values). In fact, we computed β 0 values of DANS assemblies taken from optimized n × DANS@(m,m) structures, and their values were compared with those of a single DANS molecule. DFT calculations showed that β 0 values of DANS molecules depend on their alignment, which decrease in the following order: linear alignment > parallel stacking alignment > antiparallel stacking alignment. In particular, a linear alignment has a β 0 value more significant than that of the same number of isolated molecules. Therefore, the linear alignment of DANS molecules, which is only allowed inside smaller diameter nanotubes, can strongly enhance their second-order non-linear optical properties. Since the nanotube confinement determines the alignment of DANS molecules, a restricted nanospace can be utilized to control their second-order non-linear optical properties. These DFT findings can assist in the

  12. Polarization splitter and polarization rotator designs based on transformation optics.

    Kwon, Do-Hoon; Werner, Douglas H

    2008-11-10

    The transformation optics technique is employed in this paper to design two optical devices - a two-dimensional polarization splitter and a three-dimensional polarization rotator for propagating beams. The polarization splitter translates the TM- and the TE-polarized components of an incident beam in opposite directions (i.e., shifted up or shifted down). The polarization rotator rotates the polarization state of an incoming beam by an arbitrary angle. Both optical devices are reflectionless at the entry and exit interfaces. Design details and full-wave simulation results are provided.

  13. Simulation of Terahertz Frequency Sources. Polar-Optical Phonon Enhancement of Harmonic Generation in Schottky Diodes

    Gelmont, Boris

    2002-01-01

    ... polar optical vibration frequency When a high frequency input signal is applied to a frequency multiplier device polar-optical phonons can enhance the non-linearities inherent in this device, enabling...

  14. Production of linear polarization by segmentation of helical undulator

    Tanaka, T.; Kitamura, H.

    2002-01-01

    A simple scheme to obtain linearly polarized radiation (LPR) with a segmented undulator is proposed. The undulator is composed of several segments each of which forms a helical undulator and has helicity opposite to those of adjacent segments. Due to coherent sum of radiation, the circularly polarized component is canceled out resulting in production of LPR without any higher harmonics. The radiation from the proposed device is investigated analytically, which shows that a high degree of linear polarization is obtained in spite of a finite beam emittance and angular acceptance of optics, if a sufficiently large number of segments and an adequate photon energy are chosen. Results of calculation to investigate practical performances of the proposed device are presented

  15. Linear Polarization, Circular Polarization, and Depolarization of Gamma-ray Bursts: A Simple Case of Jitter Radiation

    Mao, Jirong; Wang, Jiancheng, E-mail: jirongmao@mail.ynao.ac.cn [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 650011 Kunming, Yunnan Province (China)

    2017-04-01

    Linear and circular polarizations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have been detected recently. We adopt a simplified model to investigate GRB polarization characteristics in this paper. A compressed two-dimensional turbulent slab containing stochastic magnetic fields is considered, and jitter radiation can produce the linear polarization under this special magnetic field topology. Turbulent Faraday rotation measure (RM) of this slab makes strong wavelength-dependent depolarization. The jitter photons can also scatter with those magnetic clumps inside the turbulent slab, and a nonzero variance of the Stokes parameter V can be generated. Furthermore, the linearly and circularly polarized photons in the optical and radio bands may suffer heavy absorptions from the slab. Thus we consider the polarized jitter radiation transfer processes. Finally, we compare our model results with the optical detections of GRB 091018, GRB 121024A, and GRB 131030A. We suggest simultaneous observations of GRB multi-wavelength polarization in the future.

  16. Polarization modulational instability in a birefringent optical fiber ...

    effects on PMI gain spectra of a linearly polarized intense pump wave which experiences periodic nonlinear polarization rotation in a birefringent optical fiber in both the anomalous and normal dispersion regimes. The paper is arranged as follows: In Ü2, we briefly discuss the basic equation. In Ü3, using Floquet theorem ...

  17. Linear rotary optical delay lines

    Guerboukha, Hichem; Qu, Hang; Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    2016-03-01

    We present a semi-analytical solution for the design of a high-speed rotary optical delay line that use a combination of two rotating curvilinear reflectors. We demonstrate that it is possible to design an infinite variety of the optical delay lines featuring linear dependence of the optical delay on the rotation angle. This is achieved via shape optimization of the rotating reflector surfaces. Moreover, a convenient spatial separation of the incoming and outgoing beams is possible. For the sake of example, we present blades that fit into a circle of 10cm diameter. Finally, a prototype of a rotary delay line is fabricated using CNC machining, and its optical properties are characterized.

  18. Polarization encoded all-optical multi-valued shift operators

    Roy, Jitendra Nath; Bhowmik, Panchatapa

    2014-08-01

    Polarization encoded multi-valued (both ternary and quaternary logic) shift operators have been designed using linear optical devices only. There are six ternary and 24 quaternary shift operators in multi-valued system. These are also known as reversible literals. This circuit will be useful in future all-optical multi-valued logic based information processing system. Different states of polarization of light are taken as different logic states.

  19. Experimental quantum private queries with linear optics

    De Martini, Francesco; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Lloyd, Seth; Maccone, Lorenzo; Nagali, Eleonora; Sansoni, Linda; Sciarrino, Fabio

    2009-01-01

    The quantum private query is a quantum cryptographic protocol to recover information from a database, preserving both user and data privacy: the user can test whether someone has retained information on which query was asked and the database provider can test the amount of information released. Here we discuss a variant of the quantum private query algorithm that admits a simple linear optical implementation: it employs the photon's momentum (or time slot) as address qubits and its polarization as bus qubit. A proof-of-principle experimental realization is implemented.

  20. Optical polarization: background and camouflage

    Škerlind, Christina; Hallberg, Tomas; Eriksson, Johan; Kariis, Hans; Bergström, David

    2017-10-01

    Polarimetric imaging sensors in the electro-optical region, already military and commercially available in both the visual and infrared, show enhanced capabilities for advanced target detection and recognition. The capabilities arise due to the ability to discriminate between man-made and natural background surfaces using the polarization information of light. In the development of materials for signature management in the visible and infrared wavelength regions, different criteria need to be met to fulfil the requirements for a good camouflage against modern sensors. In conventional camouflage design, the aimed design of the surface properties of an object is to spectrally match or adapt it to a background and thereby minimizing the contrast given by a specific threat sensor. Examples will be shown from measurements of some relevant materials and how they in different ways affect the polarimetric signature. Dimensioning properties relevant in an optical camouflage from a polarimetric perspective, such as degree of polarization, the viewing or incident angle, and amount of diffuse reflection, mainly in the infrared region, will be discussed.

  1. Optically pumped polarized H- ion source

    Anderson, L.W.

    1986-01-01

    The current status and future prospects for the optically pumped polarized H - ion source are discussed. At the present time H - ion currents of 60 μA and with a polarization of 65% have been produced. The ion current and polarization can be increased significantly if the optically pumped Na charge exchange target density and polarization can be increased. Studies of wall surfaces that permit many bounces before depolarizing the Na electron spin and studies of radiation trapping in optically pumped Na indicate that the Na target density and polarization can be increased substantially. 27 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Variation of linear and circular polarization persistence for changing field of view and collection area in a forward scattering environment

    van der Laan, John D.; Wright, Jeremy B.; Scrymgeour, David A.; Kemme, Shanalyn A.; Dereniak, Eustace L.

    2016-05-01

    We present experimental and simulation results for a laboratory-based forward-scattering environment, where 1 μm diameter polystyrene spheres are suspended in water to model the optical scattering properties of fog. Circular polarization maintains its degree of polarization better than linear polarization as the optical thickness of the scattering environment increases. Both simulation and experiment quantify circular polarization's superior persistence, compared to that of linear polarization, and show that it is much less affected by variations in the field of view and collection area of the optical system. Our experimental environment's lateral extent was physically finite, causing a significant difference between measured and simulated degree of polarization values for incident linearly polarized light, but not for circularly polarized light. Through simulation we demonstrate that circular polarization is less susceptible to the finite environmental extent as well as the collection optic's limiting configuration.

  3. Polarized electronic sources for future e+/e- linear colliders

    Tang, H.; Alley, R.K.; Clendenin, J.E.

    1997-05-01

    Polarized electron beams will play a crucial role in maximizing the physics potential for future e + /e - linear colliders. We will review the SLC polarized electron source (PES), present a design for a conventional PES for the Next Linear Collider (NLC), and discuss the physics issues of a polarized RF gun

  4. Realizing Broadband and Invertible Linear-to-circular Polarization Converter with Ultrathin Single-layer Metasurface

    Li, Zhancheng; Liu, Wenwei; Cheng, Hua; Chen, Shuqi; Tian, Jianguo

    2015-01-01

    The arbitrary control of the polarization states of light has attracted the interest of the scientific community because of the wide range of modern optical applications that such control can afford. However, conventional polarization control setups are bulky and very often operate only within a narrow wavelength range, thereby resisting optical system miniaturization and integration. Here, we present the basic theory, simulated demonstration, and in-depth analysis of a high-performance broadband and invertible linear-to-circular (LTC) polarization converter composed of a single-layer gold nanorod array with a total thickness of ~λ/70 for the near-infrared regime. This setup can transform a circularly polarized wave into a linearly polarized one or a linearly polarized wave with a wavelength-dependent electric field polarization angle into a circularly polarized one in the transmission mode. The broadband and invertible LTC polarization conversion can be attributed to the tailoring of the light interference at the subwavelength scale via the induction of the anisotropic optical resonance mode. This ultrathin single-layer metasurface relaxes the high-precision requirements of the structure parameters in general metasurfaces while retaining the polarization conversion performance. Our findings open up intriguing possibilities towards the realization of novel integrated metasurface-based photonics devices for polarization manipulation, modulation, and phase retardation. PMID:26667360

  5. Integrated optical circuit comprising a polarization convertor

    1998-01-01

    An integrated optical circuit includes a first device and a second device, which devices are connected by a polarization convertor. The polarization convertor includes a curved section of a waveguide, integrated in the optical circuit. The curved section may have several differently curved

  6. Polarized atomic orbitals for linear scaling methods

    Berghold, Gerd; Parrinello, Michele; Hutter, Jürg

    2002-02-01

    We present a modified version of the polarized atomic orbital (PAO) method [M. S. Lee and M. Head-Gordon, J. Chem. Phys. 107, 9085 (1997)] to construct minimal basis sets optimized in the molecular environment. The minimal basis set derives its flexibility from the fact that it is formed as a linear combination of a larger set of atomic orbitals. This approach significantly reduces the number of independent variables to be determined during a calculation, while retaining most of the essential chemistry resulting from the admixture of higher angular momentum functions. Furthermore, we combine the PAO method with linear scaling algorithms. We use the Chebyshev polynomial expansion method, the conjugate gradient density matrix search, and the canonical purification of the density matrix. The combined scheme overcomes one of the major drawbacks of standard approaches for large nonorthogonal basis sets, namely numerical instabilities resulting from ill-conditioned overlap matrices. We find that the condition number of the PAO overlap matrix is independent from the condition number of the underlying extended basis set, and consequently no numerical instabilities are encountered. Various applications are shown to confirm this conclusion and to compare the performance of the PAO method with extended basis-set calculations.

  7. Polarization holograms in a bifunctional amorphous polymer exhibiting equal values of photoinduced linear and circular birefringences.

    Provenzano, Clementina; Pagliusi, Pasquale; Cipparrone, Gabriella; Royes, Jorge; Piñol, Milagros; Oriol, Luis

    2014-10-09

    Light-controlled molecular alignment is a flexible and useful strategy introducing novelty in the fields of mechanics, self-organized structuring, mass transport, optics, and photonics and addressing the development of smart optical devices. Azobenzene-containing polymers are well-known photocontrollable materials with large and reversible photoinduced optical anisotropies. The vectorial holography applied to these materials enables peculiar optical devices whose properties strongly depend on the relative values of the photoinduced birefringences. Here is reported a polarization holographic recording based on the interference of two waves with orthogonal linear polarization on a bifunctional amorphous polymer that, exceptionally, exhibits equal values of linear and circular birefringence. The peculiar photoresponse of the material coupled with the holographic technique demonstrates an optical device capable of decomposing the light into a set of orthogonally polarized linear components. The holographic structures are theoretically described by the Jones matrices method and experimentally investigated.

  8. SLC polarized beam source electron optics design

    Eppley, K.R.; Lavine, T.L.; Early, R.A.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Miller, R.H.; Schultz, D.C.; Spencer, C.M.; Yeremian, A.D.

    1991-05-01

    This paper describes the design of the beam-line from the polarized electron gun to the linac injector in the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). The polarized electron source is a GaAs photocathode, requiring 10 -11 -Torr-range pressure for adequate quantum efficiency and longevity. The photocathode is illuminated by 3-nsec-long laser pulses. The quality of the optics for the 160-kV beam is crucial since electron-stimulated gas desorption from beam loss in excess of 0.1% of the 20-nC pulses may poison the photocathode. Our design for the transport line consists of a differential pumping region isolated by a pair of valves. Focusing is provided by a pair of Helmholtz coils and by several iron-encased solenoidal lenses. Our optics design is based on beam transport simulations using 2 1/2-D particle-in-cell codes to model the gun and to solve the fully-relativistic time-dependent equations of motion in three dimensions for electrons in the presence of azimuthally symmetric electromagnetic fields. 6 refs., 6 figs

  9. Visualization of polarization state and its application in optics classroom teaching

    Lei, Bing; Liu, Wei; Shi, Jianhua; Wang, Wei; Yao, Tianfu; Liu, Shugang

    2017-08-01

    Polarization of light and the related knowledge are key and difficult points in optical teaching, and they are difficult to be understood since they are very abstract concepts. To help students understand the polarization properties of light, some classroom demonstration experiments have been constructed by employing the optical source, polarizers, wave plates optical cage system and polarization axis finder (PAF). The PAF is a polarization indicating device with many linear polarizing components concentric circles, which can visualize the polarization axis's direction of linearly polarized light intuitively. With the help of these demonstration experiment systems, the conversion and difference between the linear polarized light and circularly polarized light have been observed directly by inserting or removing a quarter-wave plate. The rotation phenomenon of linearly polarized light's polarization axis when it propagates through an optical active medium has been observed and studied in experiment, and the strain distribution of some mounted and unmounted lenses have also been demonstrated and observed in experiment conveniently. Furthermore, some typical polarization targets, such as liquid crystal display (LCD), polarized dark glass and skylight, have been observed based on PAF, which is quite suitable to help students understand these targets' polarization properties and the related physical laws. Finally, these demonstration experimental systems have been employed in classroom teaching of our university in physical optics, optoelectronics and photoelectric detection courses, and they are very popular with teachers and students.

  10. Optical characterization and polarization calibration for rigid endoscopes

    Garcia, Missael; Gruev, Viktor

    2017-02-01

    Polarization measurements give orthogonal information to spectral images making them a great tool in the characterization of environmental parameters in nature. Thus, polarization imagery has proven to be remarkably useful in a vast range of biomedical applications. One such application is the early diagnosis of flat cancerous lesions in murine colorectal tumor models, where polarization data complements NIR fluorescence analysis. Advances in nanotechnology have led to compact and precise bio-inspired imaging sensors capable of accurately co-registering multidimensional spectral and polarization information. As more applications emerge for these imagers, the optics used in these instruments get very complex and can potentially compromise the original polarization state of the incident light. Here we present a complete optical and polarization characterization of three rigid endoscopes of size 1.9mm x 10cm (Karl Storz, Germany), 5mm x 30cm, and 10mm x 33cm (Olympus, Germany), used in colonoscopy for the prevention of colitis-associated cancer. Characterization results show that the telescope optics act as retarders and effectively depolarize the linear component. These incorrect readings can cause false-positives or false-negatives leading to an improper diagnosis. In this paper, we offer a polarization calibration scheme for these endoscopes based on Mueller calculus. By modeling the optical properties from training data as real-valued Mueller matrices, we are able to successfully reconstruct the initial polarization state acquired by the imaging system.

  11. Polarization variablity among Wolf-Rayet stars. IV. A complete lack of circular polarization in the optical continuum

    Robert, C.; Moffat, A.F.J.

    1989-01-01

    Quasi-simultaneous blue and red, broadband optical monitoring in linear and circular polarization and in intensity has been carried out over an interval of three weeks for several Wolf-Rayet stars that show relatively large Delta P variations in linear polarization. No significant varying Delta V component of circular polarization is detected in any of these stars. The lower upper limit Delta V/Delta P implies that the intrinsic linearly polarized light which does vary cannot be produced by electrons gyrating in a magnetic field, unless they are ultrarelativistic - a rather unlikely situation. The low mean circular polarization typically observed is probably interstellar in origin. Lack of periodicity in the observed variations of linear polarization implies that even weak magnetic field loops are unlikely to be involved in confining pockets of wind plasma. The observed linear polarization variations are related mainly to electron scattering. 25 refs

  12. MgII Linear Polarization Measurements Using the MSFC Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph

    West, Edward; Cirtain, Jonathan; Kobayahsi, Ken; Davis, John; Gary, Allen; Adams, Mitzi

    2011-01-01

    This paper will describe the Marshall Space Flight Center's Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph (SUMI) sounding rocket program, with emphasis on the polarization characteristics of the VUV optics and their spectral, spatial and polarization resolution. SUMI's first flight (7/30/2010) met all of its mission success criteria and this paper will describe the data that was acquired with emphasis on the MgII linear polarization measurements.

  13. Linear polarized fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background

    Partridge, R.B.; Nowakowski, J.; Martin, H.M.

    1988-01-01

    We report here limits on the linear (and circular) polarization of the cosmic microwave background on small angular scales, 18''≤ θ ≤ 160''. The limits are based on radio maps of Stokes parameters and polarisation (linear and circular). (author)

  14. Knot Undulator to Generate Linearly Polarized Photons with Low on-Axis Power Density

    Qiao, S.

    2009-01-01

    Heat load on beamline optics is a serious problem to generate pure linearly polarized photons in the third generation synchrotron radiation facilities. For permanent magnet undulators, this problem can be overcome by a figure-8 operating mode. But there is still no good method to tackle this problem for electromagnetic elliptical undulators. Here, a novel operating mode is suggested, which can generate pure linearly polarized photons with very low on-axis heat load. Also the available minimum photon energy of linearly polarized photons can be extended much by this method.

  15. Polarization holographic optical recording of a new photochromic diarylethene

    Pu, Shouzhi; Miao, Wenjuan; Chen, Anyin; Cui, Shiqiang

    2008-12-01

    A new symmetrical photochromic diarylethene, 1,2-bis[2-methyl-5-(3-methoxylphenyl)-3-thienyl]perfluorocyclopentene (1a), was synthesized, and its photochromic properties were investigated. The compound exhibited good photochromism both in solution and in PMMA film with alternating irradiation by UV/VIS light, and the maxima absorption of its closed-ring isomer 1b are 582 and 599 nm, respectively. Using diarylethene 1b/PMMA film as recording medium and a He-Ne laser (633 nm) for recording and readout, four types of polarization and angular multiplexing holographic optical recording were performed perfectly. For different types of polarization recording including parallel linear polarization recording, parallel circular polarization recording, orthogonal linear polarization recording and orthogonal circular polarization recording,have been accomplished successfully. The results demonstrated that the orthogonal circular polarization recording is the best method for polarization holographic optical recording when this compound was used as recording material. With angular multiplexing recording technology, two high contrast holograms were recorded in the same place on the film with the dimension of 0.78 μm2.

  16. A cryogenic optical feedthrough using polarization maintaining fibers.

    Nelson, M J; Collins, C J; Speake, C C

    2016-03-01

    Polarization maintaining optical fibers can be used to transmit linearly polarized light over long distances but their use in cryogenic environments has been limited by their sensitivity to temperature changes and associated mechanical stress. We investigate experimentally how thermal stresses affect the polarization maintaining fibers and model the observations with Jones matrices. We describe the design, construction, and testing of a feedthrough and fiber termination assembly that uses polarization maintaining fiber to transmit light from a 633 nm HeNe laser at room temperature to a homodyne polarization-based interferometer in a cryogenic vacuum. We report on the efficiency of the polarization maintaining properties of the feedthrough assembly. We also report that, at cryogenic temperatures, the interferometer can achieve a sensitivity of 8 × 10(-10) rad/√Hz at 0.05 Hz using this feedthrough.

  17. Optical pumping production of spin polarized hydrogen

    Knize, R.J.; Happer, W.; Cecchi, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    There has been much interest recently in the production of large quantities of spin polarized hydrogen in various fields including controlled fusion, quantum fluids, high energy, and nuclear physics. One promising method for the development of large quantities of spin polarized hydrogen is the utilization of optical pumping with a laser. Optical pumping is a process where photon angular momentum is converted into electron and nuclear spin. The advent of tunable CW dye lasers (approx. 1 watt) allow the production of greater than 10 18 polarized atoms/sec. We have begun a program at Princeton to investigate the physics and technology of using optical pumping to produce large quantities of spin polarized hydrogen. Initial experiments have been done in small closed glass cells. Eventually, a flowing system, open target, or polarized ion source could be constructed

  18. Accessing the distribution of linearly polarized gluons in unpolarized hadrons

    Boer, Daniël; Brodsky, Stanley J.; Mulders, Piet J.; Pisano, Cristian

    2011-01-01

    Gluons inside unpolarized hadrons can be linearly polarized provided they have a nonzero transverse momentum. The simplest and theoretically safest way to probe this distribution of linearly polarized gluons is through cos(2 phi) asymmetries in heavy quark pair or dijet production in electron-hadron

  19. Direct Probes of Linearly Polarized Gluons inside Unpolarized Hadrons

    Boer, D.; Brodsky, S. J.; Mulders, P.J.G.; Pisano, C.

    2011-01-01

    We show that linearly polarized gluons inside unpolarized hadrons can be directly probed in jet or heavy quark pair production in electron-hadron collisions. We discuss the simplest cos2 asymmetries and estimate their maximal value, concluding that measurements of the unknown linearly polarized

  20. Polarized electrons and the origin of optical activity

    Bonner, W.A.; Dort, M.A. Van; Yearian, M.R.; Zeman, H.D.; Li, G.C.; Stanford Univ., Calif.

    1976-01-01

    The history of experiments bearing on the origin of optical acitivity in nature by parity non-conservation during the β-decay of radioactive isotopes is briefly reviewed. Following this, we present a more detailed description of our recent published and unpublished data and calculations regarding the generation of optical activity in DL-leucine by means of artificially produced longitudinally polarized electrons from a linear accelerator

  1. Optical polarization studies of Herbig-Haro objects: Pt. 5

    Scarrott, S.M.; Warren-Smith, R.F.

    1988-01-01

    Optical linear polarization maps are presented for the HH46/47 nebulosities in the ESO210-6A dark globule. HH46 is part of an optical bipolar nebula illuminated by an obscured source - HH46IRS. The polarization pattern in the immediate neighbourhood of the source suggests the presence of circumstellar disc oriented in such a manner that the well-collimated outflows propagate along the major axis of the disc before creating the Herbig-Haro knots HH47A/B/C on the periphery of the globule. (author)

  2. The optics of secondary polarized proton beams

    Carey, D.C.

    1990-05-01

    Polarized protons can be produced by the parity-violating decay of either lambda or sigma hyperons. A secondary bema of polarized protons can then be produced without the difficult procedure of accelerating polarized protons. The preservation of the polarization while the protons are being transmitted to a final focus places stringent limitations on the optics of the beam line. The equations of motion of a polarized particle in a magnetic field have been solved to first order for quadrupole and dipole magnets. The lowest order terms indicate that the polarization vector will be restored to its original direction upon passage through a magnetic system if the momentum vector is unaltered. Higher-order terms may be derived by an expansion in commutators of the rotation matrix and its longitudinal derivative. The higher-order polarization rotation terms then arise from the non-commutivity of the rotation matrices by large angles in three-dimensional space. 5 refs., 3 figs

  3. Polarized light in optics and spectroscopy

    Kliger, David S

    1990-01-01

    This comprehensive introduction to polarized light provides students and researchers with the background and the specialized knowledge needed to fully utilize polarized light. It provides a basic introduction to the interaction of light with matter for those unfamiliar with photochemistry and photophysics. An in-depth discussion of polarizing optics is also given. Different analytical techniques are introduced and compared and introductions to the use of polarized light in various forms of spectroscopy are provided.Key Features* Starts at a basic level and develops tools for resear

  4. Polarization Nonlinear Optics of Quadratically Nonlinear Azopolymers

    Konorov, S.O.; Akimov, D.A.; Ivanov, A.A.; Petrov, A.N.; Alfimov, M.V.; Yakimanskii, A.V.; Smirnov, N.N.; Ivanova, V.N.; Kudryavtsev, V.V.; Podshivalov, A.A.; Sokolova, I.M.; Zheltikov, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The polarization properties of second harmonic and sum-frequency signals generated by femtosecond laser pulses in films of polymers containing covalent groups of an azobenzothiazole chromophore polarized by an external electric field are investigated. It is shown that the methods of polarization nonlinear optics make it possible to determine the structure of oriented molecular dipoles and reveal important properties of the motion of collectivized πelectrons in organic molecules with strong optical nonlinearities. The polarization measurements show that the tensor of quadratic nonlinear optical susceptibility of chromophore fragments oriented by an external field in macromolecules of the noted azopolymers has a degenerate form. This is indicative of a predominantly one-dimensional character of motion of collectivized π electrons along an extended group of atoms in such molecules

  5. Modeling optical and UV polarization of AGNs. IV. Polarization timing

    Rojas Lobos, P. A.; Goosmann, R. W.; Marin, F.; Savić, D.

    2018-03-01

    Context. Optical observations cannot resolve the structure of active galactic nuclei (AGN), and a unified model for AGN was inferred mostly from indirect methods, such as spectroscopy and variability studies. Optical reverberation mapping allowed us to constrain the spatial dimension of the broad emission line region and thereby to measure the mass of supermassive black holes. Recently, reverberation was also applied to the polarized signal emerging from different AGN components. In principle, this should allow us to measure the spatial dimensions of the sub-parsec reprocessing media. Aim. We conduct numerical modeling of polarization reverberation and provide theoretical predictions for the polarization time lag induced by different AGN components. The model parameters are adjusted to the observational appearance of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4151. Methods: We modeled scattering-induced polarization and tested different geometries for the circumnuclear dust component. Our tests included the effects of clumpiness and different dust prescriptions. To further extend the model, we also explored the effects of additional ionized winds stretched along the polar direction, and of an equatorial scattering ring that is responsible for the polarization angle observed in pole-on AGN. The simulations were run using a time-dependent version of the STOKES code. Results: Our modeling confirms the previously found polarization characteristics as a function of the observer`s viewing angle. When the dust adopts a flared-disk geometry, the lags reveal a clear difference between type 1 and type 2 AGN. This distinction is less clear for a torus geometry where the time lag is more sensitive to the geometry and optical depth of the inner surface layers of the funnel. The presence of a scattering equatorial ring and ionized outflows increased the recorded polarization time lags, and the polar outflows smooths out dependence on viewing angle, especially for the higher optical depth of the

  6. Linear and non-linear optics of condensed matter

    McLean, T.P.

    1977-01-01

    Part I - Linear optics: 1. General introduction. 2. Frequency dependence of epsilon(ω, k vector). 3. Wave-vector dependence of epsilon(ω, k vector). 4. Tensor character of epsilon(ω, k vector). Part II - Non-linear optics: 5. Introduction. 6. A classical theory of non-linear response in one dimension. 7. The generalization to three dimensions. 8. General properties of the polarizability tensors. 9. The phase-matching condition. 10. Propagation in a non-linear dielectric. 11. Second harmonic generation. 12. Coupling of three waves. 13. Materials and their non-linearities. 14. Processes involving energy exchange with the medium. 15. Two-photon absorption. 16. Stimulated Raman effect. 17. Electro-optic effects. 18. Limitations of the approach presented here. (author)

  7. Orthogonal linear polarization tunable-beat ring laser with a superluminescent diode

    Takahashi, Y.; Yoshino, T. [Department of Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjin-cho, Kiryu, Gunma 376 (Japan)

    1997-09-01

    An orthogonal linear polarization operated ring laser with a superluminescent diode has been demonstrated to generate a tunable optical beat signal. The ring cavity contains a superluminescent diode as the optical gain medium, Faraday rotators, and a variable phase retarder (Babinet-Soleil compensator). By controlling the retarder, we changed the beat frequency in the range from a few tens of megahertz to 100 MHz. {copyright} 1997 Optical Society of America

  8. Superradiance Effects in the Linear and Nonlinear Optical Response of Quantum Dot Molecules

    Sitek, A.; Machnikowski, P.

    2008-11-01

    We calculate the linear optical response from a single quantum dot molecule and the nonlinear, four-wave-mixing response from an inhomogeneously broadened ensemble of such molecules. We show that both optical signals are affected by the coupling-dependent superradiance effect and by optical interference between the two polarizations. As a result, the linear and nonlinear responses are not identical.

  9. Direct detection of the optical field beyond single polarization mode.

    Che, Di; Sun, Chuanbowen; Shieh, William

    2018-02-05

    Direct detection is traditionally regarded as a detection method that recovers only the optical intensity. Compared with coherent detection, it owns a natural advantage-the simplicity-but lacks a crucial capability of field recovery that enables not only the multi-dimensional modulation, but also the digital compensation of the fiber impairments linear with the optical field. Full-field detection is crucial to increase the capacity-distance product of optical transmission systems. A variety of methods have been investigated to directly detect the optical field of the single polarization mode, which normally sends a carrier traveling with the signal for self-coherent detection. The crux, however, is that any optical transmission medium supports at least two propagating modes (e.g. single mode fiber supports two polarization modes), and until now there is no direct detection that can recover the complete set of optical fields beyond one polarization, due to the well-known carrier fading issue after mode demultiplexing induced by the random mode coupling. To avoid the fading, direct detection receivers should recover the signal in an intensity space isomorphic to the optical field without loss of any degrees of freedom, and a bridge should be built between the field and its isomorphic space for the multi-mode field recovery. Based on this thinking, we propose, for the first time, the direct detection of dual polarization modes by a novel receiver concept, the Stokes-space field receiver (SSFR) and its extension, the generalized SSFR for multiple spatial modes. The idea is verified by a dual-polarization field recovery of a polarization-multiplexed complex signal over an 80-km single mode fiber transmission. SSFR can be applied to a much wider range of fields beyond optical communications such as coherent sensing and imaging, where simple field recovery without an extra local laser is desired for enhanced system performance.

  10. Uses of laser optical pumping to produce polarized ion beams

    Anderson, L.W.

    1983-01-01

    Laser optical pumping can be used to produce polarized alkali atom beams or polarized alkali vapor targets. Polarized alkali atom beams can be converted into polarized alkali ion beams, and polarized alkali vapor targets can be used to produce polarized H - or 3 He - ion beams. In this paper the authors discuss how the polarized alkali atom beams and polarized alkali vapor targets are used to produce polarized ion beams with emphasis on the production of polarized negative ion beams

  11. Polarized positrons and electrons at the linear collider

    Moortgat-Pick, G.; Abe, T.; Alexander, G.; Ananthanarayan, B.; Babich, A.A.; Bharadwaj, V.; Barber, D.; Bartl, A.; Brachmann, A.; Chen, S.; Clarke, J.; Clendenin, J.E.; Dainton, J.; Desch, K.; Diehl, M.; Dobos, B.; Dorland, T.; Dreiner, H.K.; Eberl, H.; Ellis, J.

    2008-01-01

    The proposed International Linear Collider (ILC) is well-suited for discovering physics beyond the Standard Model and for precisely unraveling the structure of the underlying physics. The physics return can be maximized by the use of polarized beams. This report shows the paramount role of polarized beams and summarizes the benefits obtained from polarizing the positron beam, as well as the electron beam. The physics case for this option is illustrated explicitly by analyzing reference reactions in different physics scenarios. The results show that positron polarization, combined with the clean experimental environment provided by the linear collider, allows to improve strongly the potential of searches for new particles and the identification of their dynamics, which opens the road to resolve shortcomings of the Standard Model. The report also presents an overview of possible designs for polarizing both beams at the ILC, as well as for measuring their polarization

  12. Order and chaos in polarized nonlinear optics

    Holm, D.D.

    1990-01-01

    Methods for investigating temporal complexity in Hamiltonian systems are applied to the dynamics of a polarized optical laser beam propagating as a travelling wave in a medium with cubically nonlinear polarizability (i.e., a Kerr medium). The theory of Hamiltonian systems with symmetry is used to study the geometry of phase space for the optical problem, transforming from C 2 to S 2 x (J,θ), where (J,θ) is a symplectic action-angle pair. The bifurcations of the phase portraits of the Hamiltonian motion on S 2 are classified and shown graphically. These bifurcations create various saddle connections on S 2 as either J (the beam intensity), or the optical parameters of the medium are varied. After this bifurcation analysis, the Melnikov method is used to demonstrate analytically that the saddle connections break and intersect transversely in a Poincare map under spatially periodic perturbations of the optical parameters of the medium. These transverse intersections in the Poincare map imply intermittent polarization switching with extreme sensitivity to initial conditions characterized by a Smale horseshoe construction for the travelling waves of a polarized optical laser pulse. The resulting chaotic behavior in the form of sensitive dependence on initial conditions may have implications for the control and predictability of nonlinear optical polarization switching in birefringent media. 19 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  13. Investigating circular patterns in linear polarization observations of Venus

    Mahapatra, G.; Stam, D.M.; Rossi, L.C.G.; Rodenhuis, M.; Snik, Frans; Keller, C.U.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we analyse linear polarization data of the planet at a distance, obtained with the Extreme Polarimeter (ExPo) on the William Herschel Telescope
    on La Palma. These spatially resolved, high-accuracy polarization observations of Venus show faint circular patterns centered on the

  14. Optics. Observation of optical polarization Möbius strips.

    Bauer, Thomas; Banzer, Peter; Karimi, Ebrahim; Orlov, Sergej; Rubano, Andrea; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Santamato, Enrico; Boyd, Robert W; Leuchs, Gerd

    2015-02-27

    Möbius strips are three-dimensional geometrical structures, fascinating for their peculiar property of being surfaces with only one "side"—or, more technically, being "nonorientable" surfaces. Despite being easily realized artificially, the spontaneous emergence of these structures in nature is exceedingly rare. Here, we generate Möbius strips of optical polarization by tightly focusing the light beam emerging from a q-plate, a liquid crystal device that modifies the polarization of light in a space-variant manner. Using a recently developed method for the three-dimensional nanotomography of optical vector fields, we fully reconstruct the light polarization structure in the focal region, confirming the appearance of Möbius polarization structures. The preparation of such structured light modes may be important for complex light beam engineering and optical micro- and nanofabrication. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. Influences of optical elements on the polarization measurement

    Goto, M.; Hayakawa, M.; Atake, M.; Iwamae, A.

    2004-01-01

    An emission line of He I λ 667.8 nm is observed and the Large Helical Device (LHD) with a polarimeter, with which two linearly polarized components if the light from the same line of sight is simultaneously measured. The emission line exhibits splitting due to the normal Zeeman effect and the π and σ lights are respectively observed. The results indicate the polarization state of emission lines is different from our expectation. From two measurements, for the second of which the polarimeter is rotated 45 degrees form the first, the polarization ellipses of all the three polarized lights are determined. Some observations for a reversed magnetic field plasma operation, for different emission lines of different ions, and also for operation with some different magnetic field strengths suggest that the distortion state originates not in the atomic radiation itself or the plasma condition, but in the optical window at the observation port of the vacuum chamber. (author)

  16. Linear Polarization Properties of Parsec-Scale AGN Jets

    Alexander B. Pushkarev

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We used 15 GHz multi-epoch Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA polarization sensitive observations of 484 sources within a time interval 1996–2016 from the MOJAVE program, and also from the NRAO data archive. We have analyzed the linear polarization characteristics of the compact core features and regions downstream, and their changes along and across the parsec-scale active galactic nuclei (AGN jets. We detected a significant increase of fractional polarization with distance from the radio core along the jet as well as towards the jet edges. Compared to quasars, BL Lacs have a higher degree of polarization and exhibit more stable electric vector position angles (EVPAs in their core features and a better alignment of the EVPAs with the local jet direction. The latter is accompanied by a higher degree of linear polarization, suggesting that compact bright jet features might be strong transverse shocks, which enhance magnetic field regularity by compression.

  17. Semiconductor sensor for optically measuring polarization rotation of optical wavefronts using rare earth iron garnets

    Duncan, Paul G.

    2002-01-01

    Described are the design of a rare earth iron garnet sensor element, optical methods of interrogating the sensor element, methods of coupling the optical sensor element to a waveguide, and an optical and electrical processing system for monitoring the polarization rotation of a linearly polarized wavefront undergoing external modulation due to magnetic field or electrical current fluctuation. The sensor element uses the Faraday effect, an intrinsic property of certain rare-earth iron garnet materials, to rotate the polarization state of light in the presence of a magnetic field. The sensor element may be coated with a thin-film mirror to effectively double the optical path length, providing twice the sensitivity for a given field strength or temperature change. A semiconductor sensor system using a rare earth iron garnet sensor element is described.

  18. Development of polarized e+ beams for future linear colliders

    Chiba, M.; Hamatsu, R.; Endo, A.

    1995-01-01

    We have so far been carrying out systematic investigations to create polarized e + on the basis of two new methods. One method is to use β + decay of radioactive nuclei with short life-time produced with a proton cyclotron and the other method is to use e + e - pair creation from polarized γ beams made through backward Compton scattering of laser lights. Here we describe technical details on productions of polarized e + and measurements of the polarization. The experiments of producing polarized e + will soon start. Although the e + intensity is not sufficiently high, we will acquire lots of know-how for further development of polarized e + sources with high quality which will possibly be applied to future linear colliders. (author)

  19. Light propagation in linear optical media

    Gillen, Glen D; Guha, Shekhar

    2013-01-01

    Light Propagation in Linear Optical Media describes light propagation in linear media by expanding on diffraction theories beyond what is available in classic optics books. In one volume, this book combines the treatment of light propagation through various media, interfaces, and apertures using scalar and vector diffraction theories. After covering the fundamentals of light and physical optics, the authors discuss light traveling within an anisotropic crystal and present mathematical models for light propagation across planar boundaries between different media. They describe the propagation o

  20. Effects of polarization and absorption on laser induced optical breakdown threshold for skin rejuvenation

    Varghese, Babu; Bonito, Valentina; Turco, Simona; Verhagen, Rieko

    2016-03-01

    Laser induced optical breakdown (LIOB) is a non-linear absorption process leading to plasma formation at locations where the threshold irradiance for breakdown is surpassed. In this paper we experimentally demonstrate the influence of polarization and absorption on laser induced breakdown threshold in transparent, absorbing and scattering phantoms made from water suspensions of polystyrene microspheres. We demonstrate that radially polarized light yields a lower irradiance threshold for creating optical breakdown compared to linearly polarized light. We also demonstrate that the thermal initiation pathway used for generating seed electrons results in a lower irradiance threshold compared to multiphoton initiation pathway used for optical breakdown.

  1. Progress in linear optics, non-linear optics and surface alignment of liquid crystals

    Ong, H. L.; Meyer, R. B.; Hurd, A. J.; Karn, A. J.; Arakelian, S. M.; Shen, Y. R.; Sanda, P. N.; Dove, D. B.; Jansen, S. A.; Hoffmann, R.

    We first discuss the progress in linear optics, in particular, the formulation and application of geometrical-optics approximation and its generalization. We then discuss the progress in non-linear optics, in particular, the enhancement of a first-order Freedericksz transition and intrinsic optical bistability in homeotropic and parallel oriented nematic liquid crystal cells. Finally, we discuss the liquid crystal alignment and surface effects on field-induced Freedericksz transition.

  2. Polarized e-e+ physics in linear colliders

    Prescott, C.Y.

    1980-11-01

    Electroweak interactions at high energies are expected to be dominated by spin-dependent forces. Recent advances in the production of polarized electron beams in linear machines provide the opportunity for studying these spin-dependent effects. Polarized e - e + annihilation at the Z 0 pole can provide precise measurements of neutral current parameters and the best experimental challenge to the standard model of electroweak interactions

  3. Optically induced rotation of Rayleigh particles by vortex beams with different states of polarization

    Li, Manman; Yan, Shaohui; Yao, Baoli; Liang, Yansheng; Lei, Ming; Yang, Yanlong

    2016-01-01

    Optical vortex beams carry optical orbital angular momentum (OAM) and can induce an orbital motion of trapped particles in optical trapping. We show that the state of polarization (SOP) of vortex beams will affect the details of this optically induced orbital motion to some extent. Numerical results demonstrate that focusing the vortex beams with circular, radial or azimuthal polarizations can induce a uniform orbital motion on a trapped Rayleigh particle, while in the focal field of the vortex beam with linear polarization the particle experiences a non-uniform orbital motion. Among the formers, the vortex beam with circular polarization induces a maximum optical torque on the particle. Furthermore, by varying the topological charge of the vortex beams, the vortex beam with circular polarization gives rise to an optimum torque superior to those given by the other three vortex beams. These facts suggest that the circularly polarized vortex beam is more suitable for rotating particles. - Highlights: • States of polarization of vortex beams affect the optically induced orbital motion of particles. • The dependences of the force and orbital torque on the topological charge, the size and the absorptivity of particles were calculated. • Focused vortex beams with circular, radial or azimuthal polarizations induce a uniform orbital motion on particles. • Particles experience a non-uniform orbital motion in the focused linearly polarized vortex beam. • The circularly polarized vortex beam is a superior candidate for rotating particles.

  4. Inducing elliptically polarized high-order harmonics from aligned molecules with linearly polarized femtosecond pulses

    Etches, Adam; Madsen, Christian Bruun; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2010-01-01

    A recent paper reported elliptically polarized high-order harmonics from aligned N2 using a linearly polarized driving field [X. Zhou et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073902 (2009)]. This observation cannot be explained in the standard treatment of the Lewenstein model and has been ascribed to many...

  5. Colloidal InP/ZnS core shell nanocrystals studied by linearly and circularly polarized photoluminescence

    Langof, L.; Fradkin, L.; Ehrenfreund, E.; Lifshitz, E.; Micic, O. I.; Nozik, A. J.

    2004-02-01

    The magneto-optical properties of InP/ZnS core-shell nanocrystals (NCs) were investigated by measuring the degree of linear and circular polarization of photoluminescence (PL) spectra, in the presence of an external magnetic field under resonant or non-resonant excitation. The linearly polarized PL data strongly indicate that InP/ZnS NCs have a prolongated shape. The resonant-excited circularly polarized PL decay curves indicate that the spin relaxation time of the studied samples is shorter than the radiative lifetime of their exciton. Furthermore, the magnetic field-induced circularly polarized PL process reveals an exciton g factor ( gex) of 0.55. Thus, such studies may serve as a tool to directly estimate the NC's shape anisotropy and to determine the g-factor of charge carriers and excitons in those NCs.

  6. Linearly Polarized IR Spectroscopy Theory and Applications for Structural Analysis

    Kolev, Tsonko

    2011-01-01

    A technique that is useful in the study of pharmaceutical products and biological molecules, polarization IR spectroscopy has undergone continuous development since it first emerged almost 100 years ago. Capturing the state of the science as it exists today, "Linearly Polarized IR Spectroscopy: Theory and Applications for Structural Analysis" demonstrates how the technique can be properly utilized to obtain important information about the structure and spectral properties of oriented compounds. The book starts with the theoretical basis of linear-dichroic infrared (IR-LD) spectroscop

  7. Digital polarization holography advancing geometrical phase optics.

    De Sio, Luciano; Roberts, David E; Liao, Zhi; Nersisyan, Sarik; Uskova, Olena; Wickboldt, Lloyd; Tabiryan, Nelson; Steeves, Diane M; Kimball, Brian R

    2016-08-08

    Geometrical phase or the fourth generation (4G) optics enables realization of optical components (lenses, prisms, gratings, spiral phase plates, etc.) by patterning the optical axis orientation in the plane of thin anisotropic films. Such components exhibit near 100% diffraction efficiency over a broadband of wavelengths. The films are obtained by coating liquid crystalline (LC) materials over substrates with patterned alignment conditions. Photo-anisotropic materials are used for producing desired alignment conditions at the substrate surface. We present and discuss here an opportunity of producing the widest variety of "free-form" 4G optical components with arbitrary spatial patterns of the optical anisotropy axis orientation with the aid of a digital spatial light polarization converter (DSLPC). The DSLPC is based on a reflective, high resolution spatial light modulator (SLM) combined with an "ad hoc" optical setup. The most attractive feature of the use of a DSLPC for photoalignment of nanometer thin photo-anisotropic coatings is that the orientation of the alignment layer, and therefore of the fabricated LC or LC polymer (LCP) components can be specified on a pixel-by-pixel basis with high spatial resolution. By varying the optical magnification or de-magnification the spatial resolution of the photoaligned layer can be adjusted to an optimum for each application. With a simple "click" it is possible to record different optical components as well as arbitrary patterns ranging from lenses to invisible labels and other transparent labels that reveal different images depending on the side from which they are viewed.

  8. Optical surfacing via linear ion source

    Wu, Lixiang; Wei, Chaoyang; Shao, Jianda

    2017-01-01

    We present a concept of surface decomposition extended from double Fourier series to nonnegative sinusoidal wave surfaces, on the basis of which linear ion sources apply to the ultra-precision fabrication of complex surfaces and diffractive optics. The modified Fourier series, or sinusoidal wave surfaces, build a relationship between the fabrication process of optical surfaces and the surface characterization based on power spectral density (PSD) analysis. Also, we demonstrate that the one-dimensional scanning of linear ion source is applicable to the removal of mid-spatial frequency (MSF) errors caused by small-tool polishing in raster scan mode as well as the fabrication of beam sampling grating of high diffractive uniformity without a post-processing procedure. The simulation results show that optical fabrication with linear ion source is feasible and even of higher output efficiency compared with the conventional approach.

  9. Optical surfacing via linear ion source

    Wu, Lixiang, E-mail: wulx@hdu.edu.cn [Key Lab of RF Circuits and Systems of Ministry of Education, Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab of LSI Design, Microelectronics CAD Center, College of Electronics and Information, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou (China); Wei, Chaoyang, E-mail: siomwei@siom.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials for High Power Laser, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Shao, Jianda, E-mail: jdshao@siom.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials for High Power Laser, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2017-04-15

    We present a concept of surface decomposition extended from double Fourier series to nonnegative sinusoidal wave surfaces, on the basis of which linear ion sources apply to the ultra-precision fabrication of complex surfaces and diffractive optics. The modified Fourier series, or sinusoidal wave surfaces, build a relationship between the fabrication process of optical surfaces and the surface characterization based on power spectral density (PSD) analysis. Also, we demonstrate that the one-dimensional scanning of linear ion source is applicable to the removal of mid-spatial frequency (MSF) errors caused by small-tool polishing in raster scan mode as well as the fabrication of beam sampling grating of high diffractive uniformity without a post-processing procedure. The simulation results show that optical fabrication with linear ion source is feasible and even of higher output efficiency compared with the conventional approach.

  10. Engaging Montana high school students in optical sciences with a polarization photo contest

    Tauc, Martin Jan; Boger, James K.; Hohne, Andrew; Dahl, Laura M.; Nugent, Paul W.; Riesland, David W.; Moon, Benjamin; Baumbauer, Carol L.; Boese, Orrin; Shaw, Joseph A.; Nakagawa, Wataru

    2017-08-01

    Getting students interested in science, specifically in optics and photonics, is a worthwhile challenge. We developed and implemented an outreach campaign that sought to engage high school students in the science of polarized light. We traveled to Montana high schools and presented on the physics of light, the ways that it becomes polarized, how polarization is useful, and how to take pictures with linear polarizers to see polarization. Students took pictures that showed polarization in either a natural setting or a contrived scene. We visited 13 high schools, and presented live to approximately 450 students.

  11. Multiband Circular Polarizer Based on Fission Transmission of Linearly Polarized Wave for X-Band Applications

    Farman Ali Mangi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A multiband circular polarizer based on fission transmission of linearly polarized wave for x-band application is proposed, which is constructed of 2 × 2 metallic strips array. The linear-to-circular polarization conversion is obtained by decomposing the linearly incident x-polarized wave into two orthogonal vector components of equal amplitude and 90° phase difference between them. The innovative approach of “fission transmission of linear-to-circular polarized wave” is firstly introduced to obtain giant circular dichroism based on decomposition of orthogonal vector components through the structure. It means that the incident linearly polarized wave is converted into two orthogonal components through lower printed metallic strips layer and two transmitted waves impinge on the upper printed strips layer to convert into four orthogonal vector components at the end of structure. This projection and transmission sequence of orthogonal components sustain the chain transmission of electromagnetic wave and can achieve giant circular dichroism. Theoretical analysis and microwave experiments are presented to validate the performance of the structure. The measured results are in good agreement with simulation results. In addition, the proposed circular polarizer exhibits the optimal performance with respect to the normal incidence. The right handed circularly polarized wave is emitted ranging from 10.08 GHz to 10.53 GHz and 10.78 GHz to 11.12 GHz, while the left handed circular polarized wave is excited at 10.54 GHz–10.70 GHz and 11.13 GHz–11.14 GHz, respectively.

  12. Measurement-induced nonlinearity in linear optics

    Scheel, Stefan; Knight, Peter L.; Nemoto, Kae; Munro, William J.

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the generation of nonlinear operators with single-photon sources, linear optical elements, and appropriate measurements of auxiliary modes. We provide a framework for the construction of useful single-mode and two-mode quantum gates necessary for all-optical quantum information processing. We focus our attention generally on using minimal physical resources while providing a transparent and algorithmic way of constructing these operators

  13. Interaction of low-intensity linearly polarized laser radiation with living tissues: effects on tissular acceleration of skin wound healing

    Ribeiro, Martha Simoes

    2000-01-01

    According to the Maxwell's equations to optical properties of surfaces, the energy deposition efficiency in a microroughness interface depends on the electrical field polarization component. Considering a linearly polarized beam, this efficiency will depend on the roughness parameters to p-polarized light and it will not depend on such parameters to s-polarized light. In this work it was investigated the effects of low-intensity, linearly polarized He-Ne laser beam on skin wounds healing, considering two orthogonal directions of polarization. We have considered a preferential axis as the animals' spinal column and we aligned the linear laser polarization first parallel, then perpendicular to this direction. Burns about 6 mm in diameter were created with liquid N 2 on the back of the animals and the lesions were irradiated on days 3, 7, 10 and 14 post-wounding, D= 1,0 J/cm 2 . Control lesions were not irradiated. The theoretical model consisted in describing linearly polarized light propagation in biological tissues using transport theory. The degree of polarization was measured in normal and pathological skin samples. It was verified that linearly polarized light can survive in the superficial layers of skin and it can be more preserved in skin under pathological condition when compared with health skin. The analysis of skin wound healing process has demonstrated that the relative direction of the laser polarization plays an important role on the wound healing process by light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and radioautography. (author)

  14. Linearly Polarized Gluons and the Higgs Transverse Momentum Distribution

    Boer, Daniel; den Dunnen, Wilco J.; Pisano, Cristian; Schlegel, Marc; Vogelsang, Werner

    2012-01-01

    We study how gluons carrying linear polarization inside an unpolarized hadron contribute to the transverse momentum distribution of Higgs bosons produced in hadronic collisions. They modify the distribution produced by unpolarized gluons in a characteristic way that could be used to determine

  15. Sky light polarization detection with linear polarizer triplet in light field camera inspired by insect vision.

    Zhang, Wenjing; Cao, Yu; Zhang, Xuanzhe; Liu, Zejin

    2015-10-20

    Stable information of a sky light polarization pattern can be used for navigation with various advantages such as better performance of anti-interference, no "error cumulative effect," and so on. But the existing method of sky light polarization measurement is weak in real-time performance or with a complex system. Inspired by the navigational capability of a Cataglyphis with its compound eyes, we introduce a new approach to acquire the all-sky image under different polarization directions with one camera and without a rotating polarizer, so as to detect the polarization pattern across the full sky in a single snapshot. Our system is based on a handheld light field camera with a wide-angle lens and a triplet linear polarizer placed over its aperture stop. Experimental results agree with the theoretical predictions. Not only real-time detection but simple and costless architecture demonstrates the superiority of the approach proposed in this paper.

  16. Stable Single Polarization, Single Frequency, and Linear Cavity Er-Doped Fiber Laser Using a Saturable Absorber

    Li Qi; Yan Feng-Ping; Peng Wan-Jing; Feng Su-Chun; Feng Ting; Tan Si-Yu; Liu Peng

    2013-01-01

    A simple approach for stable single polarization, single frequency, and linear cavity erbium doped fiber laser is proposed and demonstrated. A Fabry—Pérot filter, polarizer and saturable absorber are used together to ensure stable single frequency, single polarization operation. The optical signal-to-noise ratio of the laser is approximately 57 dB, and the Lorentz linewidth is 13.9 kHz. The polarization state of the laser with good stability is confirmed and the degree of polarization is >99%

  17. All fiber optics circular-state swept source polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography.

    Lin, Hermann; Kao, Meng-Chun; Lai, Chih-Ming; Huang, Jyun-Cin; Kuo, Wen-Chuan

    2014-02-01

    A swept source (SS)-based circular-state (CS) polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) constructed entirely with polarization-maintaining fiber optics components is proposed with the experimental verification. By means of the proposed calibration scheme, bulk quarter-wave plates can be replaced by fiber optics polarization controllers to, therefore, realize an all-fiber optics CS SSPS-OCT. We also present a numerical dispersion compensation method, which can not only enhance the axial resolution, but also improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the images. We demonstrate that this compact and portable CS SSPS-OCT system with an accuracy comparable to bulk optics systems requires less stringent lens alignment and can possibly serve as a technology to realize PS-OCT instrument for clinical applications (e.g., endoscopy). The largest deviations in the phase retardation (PR) and fast-axis (FA) angle due to sample probe in the linear scanning and a rotation angle smaller than 65 deg were of the same order as those in stationary probe setups. The influence of fiber bending on the measured PR and FA is also investigated. The largest deviations of the PR were 3.5 deg and the measured FA change by ~12 to 21 deg. Finally, in vivo imaging of the human fingertip and nail was successfully demonstrated with a linear scanning probe.

  18. Noise limitations in optical linear algebra processors.

    Batsell, S G; Jong, T L; Walkup, J F; Krile, T F

    1990-05-10

    A general statistical noise model is presented for optical linear algebra processors. A statistical analysis which includes device noise, the multiplication process, and the addition operation is undertaken. We focus on those processes which are architecturally independent. Finally, experimental results which verify the analytical predictions are also presented.

  19. Linearly polarized emission from an embedded quantum dot using nanowire morphology control.

    Foster, Andrew P; Bradley, John P; Gardner, Kirsty; Krysa, Andrey B; Royall, Ben; Skolnick, Maurice S; Wilson, Luke R

    2015-03-11

    GaAs nanowires with elongated cross sections are formed using a catalyst-free growth technique. This is achieved by patterning elongated nanoscale openings within a silicon dioxide growth mask on a (111)B GaAs substrate. It is observed that MOVPE-grown vertical nanowires with cross section elongated in the [21̅1̅] and [1̅12] directions remain faithful to the geometry of the openings. An InGaAs quantum dot with weak radial confinement is realized within each nanowire by briefly introducing indium into the reactor during nanowire growth. Photoluminescence emission from an embedded nanowire quantum dot is strongly linearly polarized (typically >90%) with the polarization direction coincident with the axis of elongation. Linearly polarized PL emission is a result of embedding the quantum dot in an anisotropic nanowire structure that supports a single strongly confined, linearly polarized optical mode. This research provides a route to the bottom-up growth of linearly polarized single photon sources of interest for quantum information applications.

  20. Measurement of the Asymmetry of Photoproduction of π- Mesons on Linearly Polarized Deuterons by Linearly Polarized Photons

    Gauzshtein, V. V.; Zevakov, S. A.; Levchuk, M. I.; Loginov, A. Yu.; Nikolenko, D. M.; Rachek, I. A.; Sadykov, R. Sh.; Toporkov, D. K.; Shestakov, Yu. V.

    2018-05-01

    The first results of a double polarization experiment to extract the asymmetry of the reaction of photoproduction of a π- meson by a linearly polarized photon on a tensor-polarized deuteron in the energy range of the virtual photon (300-700 MeV) are presented. The measurements were performed on an internal tensor-polarized deuterium target in the VEPP-3 electron-positron storage ring for the electron beam energy equal to 2 GeV. The experiment employed the method of recording two protons and the scattered electron in coincidence. The obtained measurement results are compared with the theoretical predictions obtained in the momentum approximation with allowance for πN and NN rescattering in the final state.

  1. Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography detection method

    Colston, B W; DaSilva, L B; Everett, M J; Featherstone, J D B; Fried, D; Ragadio, J N; Sathyam, U S.

    1999-01-01

    This study demonstrates the potential of polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) for non-invasive in vivo detection and characterization of early, incipient caries lesions. PS-OCT generates cross-sectional images of biological tissue while measuring the effect of the tissue on the polarization state of incident light. Clear discrimination between regions of normal and demineralized enamel is first shown in PS-OCT images of bovine enamel blocks containing well-characterized artificial lesions. High-resolution, cross-sectional images of extracted human teeth are then generated that clearly discriminate between the normal and carious regions on both the smooth and occlusal surfaces. Regions of the teeth that appeared to be demineralized in the PS-OCT images were verified using histological thin sections examined under polarized light microscopy. The PS-OCT system discriminates between normal and carious regions by measuring the polarization state of the back-scattered 1310 nm light, which is affected by the state of demineralization of the enamel. Demineralization of enamel increases the scattering coefficient, thus depolarizing the incident light. This study shows that PS-OCT has great potential for the detection, characterization, and monitoring of incipient caries lesions

  2. A dual-optically-pumped polarized negative deuterium ion source

    Kinsho, M.; Mori, Y.; Ikegami, K.; Takagi, A.

    1994-01-01

    An optically pumped polarized H - source (OPPIS), which is based on the charge exchange between H + ions and electron-spin-polarized alkali atoms has been developed at KEK. Just by applying this scheme to a deuteron beam, it is difficult to obtain a highly vector polarized deuteron beam. To obtain highly vector polarized D - ions, we have developed a 'dual optical pumping type' of polarized D - source. With this scheme, a 100% vector nuclear-spin polarization for D - ions is possible in principle. In a preliminary experiment, a 60% of vector nuclear-spin polarized D - ions was obtained. (author)

  3. Color multiplexing using directional holographic gratings and linear polarization

    Lugo, L I; Rodriguez, A; Ramirez, G; Guel, S; Nunez, O F

    2011-01-01

    We propose a system of multiplexing and de-multiplexing, which uses a holographic diffraction grating to compel modulated light of different colors to be sent through an optical fiber. Diffraction gratings were fabricated specifically to pick the desired direction in which we wanted the light of different wavelengths to impinge the optic fiber, and also to be separated at the output. It was been found that the system preserves the polarization of light, which give us a one more freedom degree, allowing us to process twice the original information amount.

  4. Applied research of quantum information based on linear optics

    Xu, Xiao-Ye

    2016-01-01

    This thesis reports on outstanding work in two main subfields of quantum information science: one involves the quantum measurement problem, and the other concerns quantum simulation. The thesis proposes using a polarization-based displaced Sagnac-type interferometer to achieve partial collapse measurement and its reversal, and presents the first experimental verification of the nonlocality of the partial collapse measurement and its reversal. All of the experiments are carried out in the linear optical system, one of the earliest experimental systems to employ quantum communication and quantum information processing. The thesis argues that quantum measurement can yield quantum entanglement recovery, which is demonstrated by using the frequency freedom to simulate the environment. Based on the weak measurement theory, the author proposes that white light can be used to precisely estimate phase, and effectively demonstrates that the imaginary part of the weak value can be introduced by means of weak measurement evolution. Lastly, a nine-order polarization-based displaced Sagnac-type interferometer employing bulk optics is constructed to perform quantum simulation of the Landau-Zener evolution, and by tuning the system Hamiltonian, the first experiment to research the Kibble-Zurek mechanism in non-equilibrium kinetics processes is carried out in the linear optical system.

  5. Applied research of quantum information based on linear optics

    Xu, Xiao-Ye

    2016-08-01

    This thesis reports on outstanding work in two main subfields of quantum information science: one involves the quantum measurement problem, and the other concerns quantum simulation. The thesis proposes using a polarization-based displaced Sagnac-type interferometer to achieve partial collapse measurement and its reversal, and presents the first experimental verification of the nonlocality of the partial collapse measurement and its reversal. All of the experiments are carried out in the linear optical system, one of the earliest experimental systems to employ quantum communication and quantum information processing. The thesis argues that quantum measurement can yield quantum entanglement recovery, which is demonstrated by using the frequency freedom to simulate the environment. Based on the weak measurement theory, the author proposes that white light can be used to precisely estimate phase, and effectively demonstrates that the imaginary part of the weak value can be introduced by means of weak measurement evolution. Lastly, a nine-order polarization-based displaced Sagnac-type interferometer employing bulk optics is constructed to perform quantum simulation of the Landau-Zener evolution, and by tuning the system Hamiltonian, the first experiment to research the Kibble-Zurek mechanism in non-equilibrium kinetics processes is carried out in the linear optical system.

  6. Vector optical fields with polarization distributions similar to electric and magnetic field lines.

    Pan, Yue; Li, Si-Min; Mao, Lei; Kong, Ling-Jun; Li, Yongnan; Tu, Chenghou; Wang, Pei; Wang, Hui-Tian

    2013-07-01

    We present, design and generate a new kind of vector optical fields with linear polarization distributions modeling to electric and magnetic field lines. The geometric configurations of "electric charges" and "magnetic charges" can engineer the spatial structure and symmetry of polarizations of vector optical field, providing additional degrees of freedom assisting in controlling the field symmetry at the focus and allowing engineering of the field distribution at the focus to the specific applications.

  7. Optical linear algebra processors - Architectures and algorithms

    Casasent, David

    1986-01-01

    Attention is given to the component design and optical configuration features of a generic optical linear algebra processor (OLAP) architecture, as well as the large number of OLAP architectures, number representations, algorithms and applications encountered in current literature. Number-representation issues associated with bipolar and complex-valued data representations, high-accuracy (including floating point) performance, and the base or radix to be employed, are discussed, together with case studies on a space-integrating frequency-multiplexed architecture and a hybrid space-integrating and time-integrating multichannel architecture.

  8. Dispersion relation of linearly polarized strong electromagnetic waves

    Ferrari, A; Massaglia, S [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Turin (Italy). Lab. di Cosmo-Geofisica; Dobrowolny, M [Comitato Nazionale per l' Energia Nucleaire, Frascati (Italy). Lab. Plasma Spazio

    1975-12-15

    A numerical study is presented of the dispersion relation of linearly polarized strong electromagnetic waves in a cold electron plasma. The nonlinear effects introduced by the relativistic motion of electrons are: (1) the dispersion relation depends explicitly on the field strength ..cap alpha..=eE/sub 0//mc..omega../sub 0/, and (2) the propagation of modes with frequencies below the formal electron plasma frequency is allowed.

  9. Scattering of linearly polarized Bessel beams by dielectric spheres

    Shoorian, Hamed

    2017-09-01

    The scattering of a Linearly Polarized Bessel Beam (LPBB) by an isotropic and homogenous dielectric sphere is investigated. Using analytical relation between the cylindrical and the spherical vector wave functions, all the closed- form analytical expressions, in terms of spherical wave-functions expansions, are derived for the scattered field. It is shown that in the case of conical angle of incident Bessel beam is equal to zero, the Linearly Polarized Bessel Beam becomes a plane wave and its scattering coefficients become the same as the expansion coefficients of plane wave in Mie theory. The transverse Cartesian and spherical components of the electric field, scattered by a sphere are shown in the z-plane for different cases, moreover the intensity of the incident Bessel beam and the effects of its conical angle on the scattered field and the field inside the sphere are investigated. To quantitatively study the scattering phenomenon and the variations of the fields inside and outside of the sphere, the scattering and absorption efficiencies are obtained for the scattering of the linearly-polarized Bessel beam, and are compared with those of the plane wave scattering.

  10. NEAR-INFRARED LINEAR POLARIZATION OF ULTRACOOL DWARFS

    Zapatero Osorio, M. R.; Bejar, V. J. S.; Rebolo, R.; Acosta-Pulido, J. A.; Manchado, A.; Pena Ramirez, K.; Goldman, B.; Caballero, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    We report on near-infrared J- and H-band linear polarimetric photometry of eight ultracool dwarfs (two late-M, five L0-L7.5, and one T2.5) with known evidence for photometric variability due to dust clouds, anomalous red infrared colors, or low-gravity atmospheres. The polarimetric data were acquired with the LIRIS instrument on the William Herschel Telescope. We also provide mid-infrared photometry in the interval 3.4-24 μm for some targets obtained with Spitzer and WISE, which has allowed us to confirm the peculiar red colors of five sources in the sample. We can impose modest upper limits of 0.9% and 1.8% on the linear polarization degree for seven targets with a confidence of 99%. Only one source, 2MASS J02411151-0326587 (L0), appears to be strongly polarized (P ∼ 3%) in the J band with a significance level of P/σ P ∼ 10. The likely origin of its linearly polarized light and rather red infrared colors may reside in a surrounding disk with an asymmetric distribution of grains. Given its proximity (66 ± 8 pc), this object becomes an excellent target for the direct detection of the disk.

  11. Observations of linear polarization in deep minima of WW Vul

    Grinin, V.P.; Kiselev, N.N.; Minikulov, N.Kh.; Chernova, G.P.; AN Tadzhikskoj SSR, Dushanbe. Inst. Astrofiziki)

    1988-01-01

    In the course of patrol photometric and polarimetric observations of WW Vul, initiated in 1986 in the Crimea and Sanglok, a broad photometrical minimum was registered, the deepest part of which being composed of three consecutive weakenings of brightness. The increase of linear polarization up to 5-6% (in V band) was observed in each of them. The analysis of the observational data shows, that the main part of polarized light occurs due to scattering of star radiation by dust particles of the circumstellar envelope. the contribution of this polarized radiation increases when the occultation of the star by the opaque dust cloud weakenes the direct (non-polarized) radiation of the star. Additional source of light polarization is the alignement of non-spherical particles in the dust cloud, which are responsible for occultation. Some arguments are given in favor to the idea, that the asymmetry axis of the circumstellar disc - like envelope of WW Vul is oriented parallel to the local interstellar magnetic field. If and alignment of non-spherical particles is caused by magnetic field of the disc, magnetic lines should follow the plane of the disc. The observations confirm the hypothesis, that the source of blue emission, observed in deep minima of such type stars, is the scattered radiation of circumstellar dust

  12. The radio-on-fiber-wavelength-division-multiplexed-passive-optical network (WDM-RoF-PON) for wireless and wire layout with linearly-polarized dual-wavelength fiber laser and carrier reusing

    Ji, Wei; Chang, Jun

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we design a WDM-RoF-PON based on linearly-polarized dual-wavelength fiber laser and CSRZ-DPSK, which can achieve wire-line and wireless access synchronously. With the CSRZ-DPSK modulation, the wireless access in ONU can save RF source and the frequency of radio carrier can be controlled by OLT. The dual-wavelength fiber laser is the union light source of WDM-PON with polarization multiplexing. By the RSOA and downstream light source reusing, the ONU can save omit laser source and makes the WDM-PON to be colorless. The networking has the credible transmission property, including wireless access and fiber transmission. The networking also has excellent covering range.

  13. Linear zonal atmospheric prediction for adaptive optics

    McGuire, Patrick C.; Rhoadarmer, Troy A.; Coy, Hanna A.; Angel, J. Roger P.; Lloyd-Hart, Michael

    2000-07-01

    We compare linear zonal predictors of atmospheric turbulence for adaptive optics. Zonal prediction has the possible advantage of being able to interpret and utilize wind-velocity information from the wavefront sensor better than modal prediction. For simulated open-loop atmospheric data for a 2- meter 16-subaperture AO telescope with 5 millisecond prediction and a lookback of 4 slope-vectors, we find that Widrow-Hoff Delta-Rule training of linear nets and Back- Propagation training of non-linear multilayer neural networks is quite slow, getting stuck on plateaus or in local minima. Recursive Least Squares training of linear predictors is two orders of magnitude faster and it also converges to the solution with global minimum error. We have successfully implemented Amari's Adaptive Natural Gradient Learning (ANGL) technique for a linear zonal predictor, which premultiplies the Delta-Rule gradients with a matrix that orthogonalizes the parameter space and speeds up the training by two orders of magnitude, like the Recursive Least Squares predictor. This shows that the simple Widrow-Hoff Delta-Rule's slow convergence is not a fluke. In the case of bright guidestars, the ANGL, RLS, and standard matrix-inversion least-squares (MILS) algorithms all converge to the same global minimum linear total phase error (approximately 0.18 rad2), which is only approximately 5% higher than the spatial phase error (approximately 0.17 rad2), and is approximately 33% lower than the total 'naive' phase error without prediction (approximately 0.27 rad2). ANGL can, in principle, also be extended to make non-linear neural network training feasible for these large networks, with the potential to lower the predictor error below the linear predictor error. We will soon scale our linear work to the approximately 108-subaperture MMT AO system, both with simulations and real wavefront sensor data from prime focus.

  14. Bistable states of TM polarized non-linear waves guided by symmetric layered structures

    Mihalache, D.

    1985-04-01

    Dispersion relations for TM polarized non-linear waves propagating in a symmetric single film optical waveguide are derived. The system consists of a layer of thickness d with dielectric constant epsilon 1 bounded at two sides by a non-linear medium characterized by the diagonal dielectric tensor epsilon 11 =epsilon 22 =epsilon 0 , epsilon 33 =epsilon 0 +α|E 3 | 2 , where E 3 is the normal electric field component. For sufficiently large d/lambda (lambda is the wavelength) we predict bistable states of both symmetric and antisymmetric modes provided that the power flow is the control parameter. (author)

  15. Polarized positron sources for the future linear colliders

    Chaikovska, I.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis introduces the polarized positron source as one of the key element of the future Linear Collider (LC). In this context, the different schemes of the polarized positron source are described highlighting the main issues in this technology. In particular, the main focus is on the Compton based positron source adopted by the CLIC as a preferred option for the future positron source upgrade. In this case, the circularly polarized high energy gamma rays resulting from Compton scattering are directed to a production target where an electromagnetic cascade gives rise to the production of positrons by e + -e - pair conversion. To increase the efficiency of the gamma ray production stage, a multiple collision point line integrated in energy recovery linac is proposed. The simulations of the positron production, capture and primary acceleration allow to estimate the positron production efficiency and provide a simple parametrization of the Compton based polarized positron source in the view of the future LC requirements. The storage ring based Compton source option, so-called Compton ring, is also described. The main constraint of this scheme is given by the beam dynamics resulting in the large energy spread and increased bunch length affecting the gamma ray production rate. An original theoretical contribution is shown to calculate the energy spread induced by Compton scattering. Moreover, an experiment to test the gamma ray production by Compton scattering using a state-of-art laser system developed at LAL has been conducted in the framework of the 'Mighty Laser' project at the ATF, KEK. The experimental layout as well as the main results obtained are discussed in details. The studies carried out in this thesis show that the polarized positron source based on Compton scattering is a promising candidate for the future LC polarized positron source. (author)

  16. Nonlinear optical polarization analysis in chemistry and biology

    Simpson, Garth J

    2017-01-01

    This rigorous yet accessible guide presents a molecular-based description of nonlinear optical polarization analysis of chemical and biological assemblies. It includes discussion of the most common nonlinear optical microscopy and interfacial measurements used for quantitative analysis, specifically second harmonic generation (SHG), two-photon excited fluorescence (2PEF), vibrational sum frequency generation (SFG), and coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy/stimulated Raman spectroscopy (CARS/SRS). A linear algebra mathematical framework is developed, allowing step-wise systematic connections to be made between the observable measurements and the molecular response. Effects considered include local field corrections, the molecular orientation distribution, rotations between the molecular frame, the local frame and the laboratory frame, and simplifications from molecular and macromolecular symmetry. Specific examples are provided throughout the book, working from the common and relatively simple case studies ...

  17. Topics in linear optical quantum computation

    Glancy, Scott Charles

    This thesis covers several topics in optical quantum computation. A quantum computer is a computational device which is able to manipulate information by performing unitary operations on some physical system whose state can be described as a vector (or mixture of vectors) in a Hilbert space. The basic unit of information, called the qubit, is considered to be a system with two orthogonal states, which are assigned logical values of 0 and 1. Photons make excellent candidates to serve as qubits. They have little interactions with the environment. Many operations can be performed using very simple linear optical devices such as beam splitters and phase shifters. Photons can easily be processed through circuit-like networks. Operations can be performed in very short times. Photons are ideally suited for the long-distance communication of quantum information. The great difficulty in constructing an optical quantum computer is that photons naturally interact weakly with one another. This thesis first gives a brief review of two early approaches to optical quantum computation. It will describe how any discrete unitary operation can be performed using a single photon and a network of beam splitters, and how the Kerr effect can be used to construct a two photon logic gate. Second, this work provides a thorough introduction to the linear optical quantum computer developed by Knill, Laflamme, and Milburn. It then presents this author's results on the reliability of this scheme when implemented using imperfect photon detectors. This author finds that quantum computers of this sort cannot be built using current technology. Third, this dissertation describes a method for constructing a linear optical quantum computer using nearly orthogonal coherent states of light as the qubits. It shows how a universal set of logic operations can be performed, including calculations of the fidelity with which these operations may be accomplished. It discusses methods for reducing and

  18. Multiport optical circulator by using polarizing beam splitter cubes as spatial walk-off polarizers.

    Chen, Jing-Heng; Chen, Kun-Huang; Lin, Jiun-You; Hsieh, Hsiang-Yung

    2010-03-10

    Optical circulators are necessary passive devices applied in optical communication systems. In the design of optical circulators, the implementation of the function of spatial walk-off polarizers is a key technique that significantly influences the performance and cost of a device. This paper proposes a design of a multiport optical circulator by using polarizing beam splitter cubes as spatial walk-off polarizers. To show the feasibility of the design, a prototype of a six-port optical circulator was fabricated. The insertion losses are 0.94-1.49 dB, the isolations are 25-51 dB, and return losses are 27.72 dB.

  19. Wavelength Dependence of the Polarization Singularities in a Two-Mode Optical Fiber

    V. V. G. Krishna Inavalli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present here an experimental demonstration of the wavelength dependence of the polarization singularities due to linear combination of the vector modes excited directly in a two-mode optical fiber. The coherent superposition of the vector modes excited by linearly polarized Gaussian beam as offset skew rays propagated in a helical path inside the fiber results in the generation of phase singular beams with edge dislocation in the fiber output. The polarization character of these beams is found to change dramatically with wavelength—from left-handed elliptically polarized edge dislocation to right-handed elliptically polarized edge-dislocation through disclinations. The measured behaviour is understood as being due to intermodal dispersion of the polarization corrections to the propagating vector modes, as the wavelength of the input beam is scanned.

  20. Non-uniformly polarized beams across their transverse profiles: an introductory study for undergraduate optics courses

    Piquero, Gemma; Vargas-Balbuena, Javier

    2004-01-01

    We provide a simple theoretical study of beams non-uniformly polarized across their transverse sections which can be introduced in undergraduate optics courses. In order to generate such beams we propose to use a slightly convergent (or divergent) linearly and uniformly polarized beam impinging on an anisotropic uniaxial material with the beam propagation direction along the optic axis. Analytical expressions for the Jones vector, Stokes parameters, ellipticity and azimuth at each point of the transverse section, perpendicular to the propagation direction, are obtained at the output of this system. By means of these parameters a detailed description of the state of polarization across the transverse profile is given

  1. Dual-band linearly and circularly polarized microstrip patch antennas with meandering slot and metallic vias

    Zhang, Jin; Lin, Xianqi; Yu, Jiawei

    2018-01-01

    performances. The characteristics are analyzed in detail where we find that the existence of the vias also improves the impedance matching. Four samples are designed, where dual-band with both linear polarization, dual-band with circular- and linear-polarization, and single band with linear polarization...

  2. Transparent thin film polarizing and optical control systems

    Nelson V. Tabiryan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We show that a diffractive waveplate can be combined with a phase retardation film for fully converting light of arbitrary polarization state into a polarized light. Incorporating a photonic bandgap layer into a system of such polarizers that unify different polarization states in the input light into a single polarization state at its output, rather than absorbing or reflecting half of it, we developed and demonstrated a polarization-independent optical controller capable of switching between transmittive and reflective states. The transition between those states is smoothly controlled with low-voltage and low-power sources. Using versatile fabrication methods, this “universally polarizing optical controller” can be integrated into a thin package compatible with a variety of display, spatial light modulation, optical communication, imaging and other photonics systems.

  3. Method and apparatus of highly linear optical modulation

    DeRose, Christopher; Watts, Michael R.

    2016-05-03

    In a new optical intensity modulator, a nonlinear change in refractive index is used to balance the nonlinearities in the optical transfer function in a way that leads to highly linear optical intensity modulation.

  4. Optical vector network analyzer with improved accuracy based on polarization modulation and polarization pulling.

    Li, Wei; Liu, Jian Guo; Zhu, Ning Hua

    2015-04-15

    We report a novel optical vector network analyzer (OVNA) with improved accuracy based on polarization modulation and stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) assisted polarization pulling. The beating between adjacent higher-order optical sidebands which are generated because of the nonlinearity of an electro-optic modulator (EOM) introduces considerable error to the OVNA. In our scheme, the measurement error is significantly reduced by removing the even-order optical sidebands using polarization discrimination. The proposed approach is theoretically analyzed and experimentally verified. The experimental results show that the accuracy of the OVNA is greatly improved compared to a conventional OVNA.

  5. OPTICAL I-BAND LINEAR POLARIMETRY OF THE MAGNETAR 4U 0142+61 WITH SUBARU

    Wang, Zhongxiang; Tziamtzis, Anestis [Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Tanaka, Yasuyuki T.; Kawabata, Koji S. [Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Wang, Chen [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, A20 Datun Road, Beijing 100012 (China); Fukazawa, Yasushi; Itoh, Ryosuke [Department of Physical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan)

    2015-12-01

    Magnetars are known to have optical and/or infrared (IR) emission, but the origin of the emission is not well understood. In order to fully study their emission properties, we have carried out for the first time optical linear polarimetry of the magnetar 4U 0142+61, which has been determined from different observations to have a complicated broadband spectrum over optical and IR wavelengths. From our I-band imaging polarimetric observation, conducted with the 8.2-m Subaru telescope, we determine the degree of linear polarization to be P = 1.0 ± 3.4%, or P ≤ 5.6% (90% confidence level). Considering models that were suggested for optical emission from magnetars, we discuss the implications of our result. The upper limit measurement indicates that, differing from radio pulsars, magnetars probably would not have strongly polarized optical emission if the emission arises from their magnetosphere as suggested.

  6. Polarization-dependent optics using gauge-field metamaterials

    Liu, Fu; Xiao, Shiyi; Li, Jensen; Wang, Saisai; Hang, Zhi Hong

    2015-01-01

    We show that effective gauge field for photons with polarization-split dispersion surfaces, being realized using uniaxial metamaterials, can be used for polarization control with unique opportunities. The metamaterials with the proposed gauge field correspond to a special choice of eigenpolarizations on the Poincaré sphere as pseudo-spins, in contrary to those from either conventional birefringent crystals or optical active media. It gives rise to all-angle polarization control and a generic route to manipulate photon trajectories or polarizations in the pseudo-spin domain. As demonstrations, we show beam splitting (birefringent polarizer), all-angle polarization control, unidirectional polarization filter, and interferometer as various polarization control devices in the pseudo-spin domain. We expect that more polarization-dependent devices can be designed under the same framework

  7. Proton polarization in the photodisintegration of the deuteron by linearly polarized 400- and 500-MeV γ rays

    Bratashevskii, A.S.; Gorbenko, V.G.; Gushchin, V.A.

    1982-01-01

    The polarization of the recoil protons at the angle theta(/sub p/ = 90 0 has been measured in the photodisintegration of the deuteron by linearly polarized 400- and 500-MeV γ rays. For the first time, all of the following observables have been determined under identical experimental conditions: Σ, the asymmetry of the cross sections; P/sub y/, the polarization of the recoil proton; and T 1 , the asymmetry of the nucleon polarization for the case of linearly polarized γ rays

  8. Plasmonic Dimer Metamaterials and Metasurfaces for Polarization Control of Terahertz and Optical Waves

    Zhukovsky, Sergei; Zalkovskij, Maksim; Malureanu, Radu

    2013-01-01

    We explore the capabilities of planar metamaterials and metasurfaces to control and transform the polarization of electromagnetic radiation, and present a detailed covariant multipole theory of dimer-based metamaterials. We show that various optical properties, such as optical activity, elliptical...... dichroism or polarization conversion can be achieved in metamaterials made of simple shapes, such as nanorods, just by varying their geometrical arrangement. By virtue of the Babinet principle, the proposed theory is extended to inverted structures (membranes) where rods are replaced by slots. Such free......-standing “metasurface membranes” can act as thin-film spectrally sensitive polarization shapers for THz radiation. Proof-of-principle devices (a linear polarizer and a structure with giant optical activity) are fabricated and characterized. Experimental results coincide with those of full-wave numerical simulations...

  9. Vectorial structures of linear-polarized Butterfly-Gauss vortex beams in the far zone

    Cheng, Ke; Zhou, Yan; Lu, Gang; Yao, Na; Zhong, Xianqiong

    2018-05-01

    By introducing the Butterfly catastrophe to optics, the far-zone vectorial structures of Butterfly-Gauss beam with vortex and non-vortex are studied using the angular spectrum representation and stationary phase method. The influence of topological charge, linear-polarized angle, off-axis distance and scaling length on the far-zone vectorial structures, especially in the Poynting vector and angular momentum density of the corresponding beam is emphasized. The results show that the embedded optical vortex at source plane lead to special dark zones in the far zone, where the number of dark zone equals the absolute value of topological charge of optical vortex. Furthermore, the symmetry and direction of the special dark zones can be controlled by off-axis distance and scaling length, respectively. The linear-polarized angle adjusts only the Poynting vectors of TE and TM terms, but it does not affect those of whole beam. Finally, the vectorial expressions also indicate that the total angular momentum density is certainly zero owing to the far-zone stable structures rather than rotation behaviors.

  10. Optical asymmetric cryptography based on amplitude reconstruction of elliptically polarized light

    Cai, Jianjun; Shen, Xueju; Lei, Ming

    2017-11-01

    We propose a novel optical asymmetric image encryption method based on amplitude reconstruction of elliptically polarized light, which is free from silhouette problem. The original image is analytically separated into two phase-only masks firstly, and then the two masks are encoded into amplitudes of the orthogonal polarization components of an elliptically polarized light. Finally, the elliptically polarized light propagates through a linear polarizer, and the output intensity distribution is recorded by a CCD camera to obtain the ciphertext. The whole encryption procedure could be implemented by using commonly used optical elements, and it combines diffusion process and confusion process. As a result, the proposed method achieves high robustness against iterative-algorithm-based attacks. Simulation results are presented to prove the validity of the proposed cryptography.

  11. Broadband asymmetric transmission of linearly polarized electromagnetic waves based on chiral metamaterial

    Stephen, Lincy; Yogesh, N.; Subramanian, V.

    2018-01-01

    The giant optical activity of chiral metamaterials (CMMs) holds great potential for tailoring the polarization state of an electromagnetic (EM) wave. In controlling the polarization state, the aspect of asymmetric transmission (AT), where a medium allows the EM radiation to pass through in one direction while restricting it in the opposite direction, adds additional degrees of freedom such as one-way channelling functionality. In this work, a CMM formed by a pair of mutually twisted slanted complementary metal strips is realized for broadband AT accompanied with cross-polarization (CP) conversion for linearly polarized EM waves. Numerically, the proposed ultra-thin (˜λ/42) CMM shows broadband AT from 8.58 GHz to 9.73 GHz (bandwidth of 1.15 GHz) accompanied with CP transmission magnitude greater than 0.9. The transmission and reflection spectra reveal the origin of the asymmetric transmission as the direction sensitive cross polarization conversion and anisotropic electric coupling occurring in the structure which is then elaborated with the surface current analysis and electric field distribution within the structure. An experiment is carried out to verify the broadband AT based CP conversion of the proposed CMM at microwave frequencies, and a reliable agreement between numerical and experimental results is obtained. Being ultra-thin, the reported broadband AT based CP conversion of the proposed CMM is useful for controlling radiation patterns in non-reciprocal EM devices and communication networks.

  12. Study on polarized optical flow algorithm for imaging bionic polarization navigation micro sensor

    Guan, Le; Liu, Sheng; Li, Shi-qi; Lin, Wei; Zhai, Li-yuan; Chu, Jin-kui

    2018-05-01

    At present, both the point source and the imaging polarization navigation devices only can output the angle information, which means that the velocity information of the carrier cannot be extracted from the polarization field pattern directly. Optical flow is an image-based method for calculating the velocity of pixel point movement in an image. However, for ordinary optical flow, the difference in pixel value as well as the calculation accuracy can be reduced in weak light. Polarization imaging technology has the ability to improve both the detection accuracy and the recognition probability of the target because it can acquire the extra polarization multi-dimensional information of target radiation or reflection. In this paper, combining the polarization imaging technique with the traditional optical flow algorithm, a polarization optical flow algorithm is proposed, and it is verified that the polarized optical flow algorithm has good adaptation in weak light and can improve the application range of polarization navigation sensors. This research lays the foundation for day and night all-weather polarization navigation applications in future.

  13. Efficient high-power narrow-linewidth all-fibred linearly polarized ytterbium laser source

    Bertrand, Anthony; Liégeois, Flavien; Hernandez, Yves; Giannone, Domenico

    2012-06-01

    We report on experimental results on a high power, all-fibred, linearly polarized, mode-locked laser at 1.03 μm. The laser generates pulses of 40 ps wide at a repetition rate of 52 MHz, exhibiting 12 kW peak power. Dispersion in optical fibres is controlled to obtain both high power and narrow spectral linewidth. The average output power reached is 25 W with a spectral linewidth of 380 pm and a near diffraction limit beam (M2 < 1.2). This laser is an ideal candidate for applications like IR spectroscopy, where high peak power and narrow linewidth are required for subsequent wavelength conversion.

  14. Non-polar InGaN quantum dot emission with crystal-axis oriented linear polarization

    Reid, Benjamin P. L., E-mail: benjamin.reid@physics.ox.ac.uk; Chan, Christopher C. S.; Taylor, Robert A. [Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Kocher, Claudius [Department of Physics, University of Konstanz, Konstanz 78457 (Germany); Zhu, Tongtong; Oehler, Fabrice; Oliver, Rachel A. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-27

    Polarization sensitive photoluminescence is performed on single non-polar InGaN quantum dots. The studied InGaN quantum dots are found to have linearly polarized emission with a common polarization direction defined by the [0001] crystal axis. Around half of ∼40 studied dots have a polarization degree of 1. For those lines with a polarization degree less than 1, we can resolve fine structure splittings between −800 μeV and +800 μeV, with no clear correlation between fine structure splitting and emission energy.

  15. Polarization and ellipticity of high-order harmonics from aligned molecules generated by linearly polarized intense laser pulses

    Le, Anh-Thu; Lin, C. D.; Lucchese, R. R.

    2010-01-01

    We present theoretical calculations for polarization and ellipticity of high-order harmonics from aligned N 2 , CO 2 , and O 2 molecules generated by linearly polarized lasers. Within the rescattering model, the two polarization amplitudes of the harmonics are determined by the photo-recombination amplitudes for photons emitted with polarization parallel or perpendicular to the direction of the same returning electron wave packet. Our results show clear species-dependent polarization states, in excellent agreement with experiments. We further note that the measured polarization ellipse of the harmonic furnishes the needed parameters for a 'complete' experiment in molecules.

  16. Optically pumped polarized 23Na vapor target for use in polarized ion source. Technical progress report

    Anderson, L.W.

    1984-01-01

    We are currently measuring relaxation times in an optically pumped 23 Na vapor target. Our research is directed toward improvements in the optically pumped Na vapor targets used for the production of polarized H - ions. In this progress report we review the properties of the optically pumped polarized H - ion source and especially the optically pumped Na vapor target employed in this source as well as discussing the progress of our research on relaxation times in an optically pumped Na vapor target. 30 references, 6 figures, 3 tables

  17. Accuracy Limitations in Optical Linear Algebra Processors

    Batsell, Stephen Gordon

    1990-01-01

    One of the limiting factors in applying optical linear algebra processors (OLAPs) to real-world problems has been the poor achievable accuracy of these processors. Little previous research has been done on determining noise sources from a systems perspective which would include noise generated in the multiplication and addition operations, noise from spatial variations across arrays, and from crosstalk. In this dissertation, we propose a second-order statistical model for an OLAP which incorporates all these system noise sources. We now apply this knowledge to determining upper and lower bounds on the achievable accuracy. This is accomplished by first translating the standard definition of accuracy used in electronic digital processors to analog optical processors. We then employ our second-order statistical model. Having determined a general accuracy equation, we consider limiting cases such as for ideal and noisy components. From the ideal case, we find the fundamental limitations on improving analog processor accuracy. From the noisy case, we determine the practical limitations based on both device and system noise sources. These bounds allow system trade-offs to be made both in the choice of architecture and in individual components in such a way as to maximize the accuracy of the processor. Finally, by determining the fundamental limitations, we show the system engineer when the accuracy desired can be achieved from hardware or architecture improvements and when it must come from signal pre-processing and/or post-processing techniques.

  18. PROPERTIES OF INTERSTELLAR TURBULENCE FROM GRADIENTS OF LINEAR POLARIZATION MAPS

    Burkhart, Blakesley; Lazarian, A.; Gaensler, B. M.

    2012-01-01

    Faraday rotation of linearly polarized radio signals provides a very sensitive probe of fluctuations in the interstellar magnetic field and ionized gas density resulting from magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. We used a set of statistical tools to analyze images of the spatial gradient of linearly polarized radio emission (|∇P|) for both observational data from a test image of the Southern Galactic Plane Survey (SGPS) and isothermal three-dimensional simulations of MHD turbulence. Visually, in both observations and simulations, a complex network of filamentary structures is seen. Our analysis shows that the filaments in |∇P| can be produced both by interacting shocks and random fluctuations characterizing the non-differentiable field of MHD turbulence. The latter dominates for subsonic turbulence, while the former is only present in supersonic turbulence. We show that supersonic and subsonic turbulence exhibit different distributions as well as different morphologies in the maps of |∇P|. Particularly, filaments produced by shocks show a characteristic 'double jump' profile at the sites of shock fronts resulting from delta function-like increases in the density and/or magnetic field, while those produced by subsonic turbulence show a single jump profile. In order to quantitatively characterize these differences, we use the topology tool known as the genus curve as well as the probability distribution function moments of the image distribution. We find that higher values for the moments correspond to cases of |∇P| with larger sonic Mach numbers. The genus analysis of the supersonic simulations of |∇P| reveals a 'swiss cheese' topology, while the subsonic cases have characteristics of a 'clump' topology. Based on the analysis of the genus and the higher order moments, the SGPS test region data have a distribution and morphology that match subsonic- to transonic-type turbulence, which confirms what is now expected for the warm ionized medium.

  19. PROPERTIES OF INTERSTELLAR TURBULENCE FROM GRADIENTS OF LINEAR POLARIZATION MAPS

    Burkhart, Blakesley; Lazarian, A. [Astronomy Department, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 475 N. Charter St., WI 53711 (United States); Gaensler, B. M. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2012-04-20

    Faraday rotation of linearly polarized radio signals provides a very sensitive probe of fluctuations in the interstellar magnetic field and ionized gas density resulting from magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. We used a set of statistical tools to analyze images of the spatial gradient of linearly polarized radio emission (|{nabla}P|) for both observational data from a test image of the Southern Galactic Plane Survey (SGPS) and isothermal three-dimensional simulations of MHD turbulence. Visually, in both observations and simulations, a complex network of filamentary structures is seen. Our analysis shows that the filaments in |{nabla}P| can be produced both by interacting shocks and random fluctuations characterizing the non-differentiable field of MHD turbulence. The latter dominates for subsonic turbulence, while the former is only present in supersonic turbulence. We show that supersonic and subsonic turbulence exhibit different distributions as well as different morphologies in the maps of |{nabla}P|. Particularly, filaments produced by shocks show a characteristic 'double jump' profile at the sites of shock fronts resulting from delta function-like increases in the density and/or magnetic field, while those produced by subsonic turbulence show a single jump profile. In order to quantitatively characterize these differences, we use the topology tool known as the genus curve as well as the probability distribution function moments of the image distribution. We find that higher values for the moments correspond to cases of |{nabla}P| with larger sonic Mach numbers. The genus analysis of the supersonic simulations of |{nabla}P| reveals a 'swiss cheese' topology, while the subsonic cases have characteristics of a 'clump' topology. Based on the analysis of the genus and the higher order moments, the SGPS test region data have a distribution and morphology that match subsonic- to transonic-type turbulence, which confirms what is now

  20. Mathematical modeling and experimental study of polarization echo in optically anisotropic media

    Bogdanov, Yu. I.; Kalinkin, A. A.; Kulik, S. P.; Moreva, E. V.; Shershulin, V. A.; Belinsky, L. V.

    2013-01-01

    As optical systems are one of the candidates for implementation of a scalable quantum computer, it is important to develop an adequate method of description of both quantum states of light and operations performed by optical elements. Using the concept of chi-matrix representation of quantum operations and Choi-Jamiolkowski isomorphism we expand Jones calculus to allow description of evolution of mixed polarization states in linear optical systems. The developed method is then used to give a full description of polarization echo effect, which was described in 1 based on an analogy between the effects of polarization optics and spin dynamics. Theoretical predictions are confirmed by reconstructing operations performed by a series of quartz waveplates using quantum process tomography protocols.

  1. Nonlinear polarization effects in a birefringent single mode optical fiber

    Ishiekwene, G.C.; Mensah, S.Y.; Brown, C.S.

    2001-04-01

    The nonlinear polarization effects in a birefringent single mode optical fiber is studied using Jacobi elliptic functions. We find that the polarization state of the propagating beam depends on the initial polarization as well as the intensity of the input light in a complicated way. The Stokes polarization parameters are either periodic or aperiodic depending on the value of the Jacobian modulus. Our calculations suggest that the effective beat length of the fiber can become infinite at a higher critical value of the input power when polarization dependent losses are considered. (author)

  2. Intense γ-ray generation for a polarized positron beam in a linear collider

    Y. Miyahara

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available γ-ray generation by Compton backscattering in an optical lens series with periodic focal points is considered to produce a polarized positron beam for a linear collider. The lens series is composed of 20 unit cells with a length of 210 mm. Each lens has a hole to pass an electron beam with an energy of 5.8 GeV and the generated γ rays. It is shown by diffraction analysis that laser beam loss in the series is very small, and the beam size is periodically reduced to 26 μm. Electron beam size is reduced to 34 μm in a superconducting solenoid with a field of 15 T. To get a required γ-ray yield of 7×10^{15} γ/s, only one circularly polarized CO_{2} laser source with a power of 24 kW is needed.

  3. Deterministic implementations of single-photon multi-qubit Deutsch–Jozsa algorithms with linear optics

    Wei, Hai-Rui, E-mail: hrwei@ustb.edu.cn; Liu, Ji-Zhen

    2017-02-15

    It is very important to seek an efficient and robust quantum algorithm demanding less quantum resources. We propose one-photon three-qubit original and refined Deutsch–Jozsa algorithms with polarization and two linear momentums degrees of freedom (DOFs). Our schemes are constructed by solely using linear optics. Compared to the traditional ones with one DOF, our schemes are more economic and robust because the necessary photons are reduced from three to one. Our linear-optic schemes are working in a determinate way, and they are feasible with current experimental technology.

  4. Impact of optical feedback on current-induced polarization behavior of 1550 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers.

    Deng, Tao; Wu, Zheng-Mao; Xie, Yi-Yuan; Wu, Jia-Gui; Tang, Xi; Fan, Li; Panajotov, Krassimir; Xia, Guang-Qiong

    2013-06-01

    Polarization switching (PS) between two orthogonal linearly polarized fundamental modes is experimentally observed in commercial free-running 1550 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) (Raycan). The characteristics of this PS are strongly modified after introducing a polarization-preserved (PP) or polarization-orthogonal (PO) optical feedback. Under the case that the external cavity is approximately 30 cm, the PP optical feedback results in the PS point shifting toward a lower injection current, and the region within which the two polarization modes coexist is enlarged with the increase of the PP feedback strength. Under too-strong PP feedback levels, the PS disappears. The impact of PO optical feedback on VCSEL polarization behavior is quite similar to that of PP optical feedback, but larger feedback strength is needed to obtain similar results.

  5. Colloidal InP/ZnS core-shell nanocrystals studied by linearly and circularly polarized photoluminescence

    Langof, L.; Fradkin, L.; Ehrenfreund, E.; Lifshitz, E.; Micic, O.I.; Nozik, A.J

    2004-02-16

    The magneto-optical properties of InP/ZnS core-shell nanocrystals (NCs) were investigated by measuring the degree of linear and circular polarization of photoluminescence (PL) spectra, in the presence of an external magnetic field under resonant or non-resonant excitation. The linearly polarized PL data strongly indicate that InP/ZnS NCs have a prolongated shape. The resonant-excited circularly polarized PL decay curves indicate that the spin relaxation time of the studied samples is shorter than the radiative lifetime of their exciton. Furthermore, the magnetic field-induced circularly polarized PL process reveals an exciton g factor (g{sub ex}) of 0.55. Thus, such studies may serve as a tool to directly estimate the NC's shape anisotropy and to determine the g-factor of charge carriers and excitons in those NCs.

  6. Colloidal InP/ZnS core-shell nanocrystals studied by linearly and circularly polarized photoluminescence

    Langof, L.; Fradkin, L.; Ehrenfreund, E.; Lifshitz, E.; Micic, O.I.; Nozik, A.J.

    2004-01-01

    The magneto-optical properties of InP/ZnS core-shell nanocrystals (NCs) were investigated by measuring the degree of linear and circular polarization of photoluminescence (PL) spectra, in the presence of an external magnetic field under resonant or non-resonant excitation. The linearly polarized PL data strongly indicate that InP/ZnS NCs have a prolongated shape. The resonant-excited circularly polarized PL decay curves indicate that the spin relaxation time of the studied samples is shorter than the radiative lifetime of their exciton. Furthermore, the magnetic field-induced circularly polarized PL process reveals an exciton g factor (g ex ) of 0.55. Thus, such studies may serve as a tool to directly estimate the NC's shape anisotropy and to determine the g-factor of charge carriers and excitons in those NCs

  7. Design of a tensor polarized deuterium target polarized by spin-exchange with optically pumped NA

    Green, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    A proposed design for a tensor polarized deuterium target (approx. 10 15 atoms/cm 2 ) for nuclear physics studies in an electron storage ring accelerator is presented. The deuterium atoms undergo electron spin exchange with a highly polarized sodium vapor; this polarization is transferred to the deuterium nuclei via the hyperfine interaction. The deuterium nuclei obtain their tensor polarization through repeated electron spin exchange/hyperfine interactions. The sodium vapor polarization is maintained by standard optical pumping techniques. Model calculations are presented in detail leading to a discussion of the expected performance and the technical obstacles to be surmounted in the development of such a target

  8. Design of a tensor polarized deuterium target polarized by spin-exchange with optically pumped NA

    Green, M.C.

    1984-05-01

    A proposed design for a tensor polarized deuterium target (approx. 10 15 atoms/cm 2 ) for nuclear physics studies in an electron storage ring accelerator is presented. The deuterium atoms undergo electron spin exchange with a highly polarized sodium vapor; this polarization is transferred to the deuterium nuclei via the hyperfine interaction. The deuterium nuclei obtain their tensor polarization through repeated electron spin exchange/hyperfine interactions. The sodium vapor polarization is maintained by standard optical pumping techniques. Model calculations are presented in detail leading to a discussion of the expected performance and the technical obstacles to be surmounted in the development of such a target. 15 references, 10 figures

  9. Polarization ray tracing in anisotropic optically active media. I. Algorithms

    McClain, S.C.; Hillman, L.W.; Chipman, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    Procedures for performing polarization ray tracing through birefringent media are presented in a form compatible with the standard methods of geometrical ray tracing. The birefringent materials treated include the following: anisotropic optically active materials such as quartz, non-optically active uniaxial materials such as calcite, and isotropic optically active materials such as mercury sulfide and organic liquids. Refraction and reflection algorithms are presented that compute both ray directions and wave directions. Methods for computing polarization modes, refractive indices, optical path lengths, and Fresnel transmission and reflection coefficients are also specified. A numerical example of these algorithms is given for analyzing the field of view of a quartz rotator. 37 refs., 3 figs

  10. Fiber-Based Polarization Diversity Detection for Polarization-Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography

    Hamid Pahlevaninezhad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a new fiber-based polarization diversity detection (PDD scheme for polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PSOCT. This implementation uses a new custom miniaturized polarization-maintaining fiber coupler with single mode (SM fiber inputs and polarization maintaining (PM fiber outputs. The SM fiber inputs obviate matching the optical lengths of the two orthogonal OCT polarization channels prior to interference while the PM fiber outputs ensure defined orthogonal axes after interference. Advantages of this detection scheme over those with bulk optics PDD include lower cost, easier miniaturization, and more relaxed alignment and handling issues. We incorporate this PDD scheme into a galvanometer-scanned OCT system to demonstrate system calibration and PSOCT imaging of an achromatic quarter-wave plate, fingernail in vivo, and chicken breast, salmon, cow leg, and basa fish muscle samples ex vivo.

  11. Fast, high-fidelity, all-optical and dynamically-controlled polarization gate using room-temperature atomic vapor

    Li, Runbing [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Center for Cold Atom Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Zhu, Chengjie [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); School of Physics Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Deng, L.; Hagley, E. W. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)

    2014-10-20

    We demonstrate a fast, all-optical polarization gate in a room-temperature atomic medium. Using a Polarization-Selective-Kerr-Phase-Shift (PSKPS) technique, we selectively write a π phase shift to one circularly-polarized component of a linearly-polarized input signal field. The output signal field maintains its original strength but acquires a 90° linear polarization rotation, demonstrating fast, high-fidelity, dynamically-controlled polarization gate operation. The intensity of the polarization-switching field used in this PKSPK-based polarization gate operation is only 2 mW/cm{sup 2}, which would be equivalent to 0.5 nW of light power (λ = 800 nm) confined in a typical commercial photonic hollow-core fiber. This development opens a realm of possibilities for potential future extremely low light level telecommunication and information processing systems.

  12. Polarization modulational instability in a birefringent optical fiber ...

    We obtain conditions for the occurrence of polarization modulational instability in the anomalous and normal dispersion regimes for the coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equation modelling fourth order dispersion effects when the linearly polarized pump is oriented at arbitrary angles with respect to the slow and fast axes of ...

  13. Alteration in non-classicality of light on passing through a linear polarization beam splitter

    Shukla, Namrata; Prakash, Ranjana

    2016-06-01

    We observe the polarization squeezing in the mixture of a two mode squeezed vacuum and a simple coherent light through a linear polarization beam splitter. Squeezed vacuum not being squeezed in polarization, generates polarization squeezed light when superposed with coherent light. All the three Stokes parameters of the light produced on the output port of polarization beam splitter are found to be squeezed and squeezing factor also depends upon the parameters of coherent light.

  14. Extreme non-linear elasticity and transformation optics

    Gersborg, Allan Roulund; Sigmund, Ole

    2010-01-01

    realizations correspond to minimizers of elastic energy potentials for extreme values of the mechanical Poisson's ratio ν . For TE (Hz) polarized light an incompressible transformation ν = 1/2 is ideal and for TM (E z) polarized light one should use a compressible transformation with negative Poissons's ratio......Transformation optics is a powerful concept for designing novel optical components such as high transmission waveguides and cloaking devices. The selection of specific transformations is a non-unique problem. Here we reveal that transformations which allow for all dielectric and broadband optical...... ν = -1. For the TM polarization the mechanical analogy corresponds to a modified Liao functional known from the transformation optics literature. Finally, the analogy between ideal transformations and solid mechanical material models automates and broadens the concept of transformation optics...

  15. Simultaneous optical and infrared polarization measurements of blazars

    Brindle, C.; Hough, J.H.; Bailey, J.A.; Axon, D.J.; Hyland, A.R.

    1986-01-01

    Measurements are presented of the polarization and flux of a sample of 28 blazars (21 BL Lacs and 7 OVV quasars) at optical and near-infrared wavelengths, with repeated observations for some objects. For 20 objects, these are the first reported polarization measurements in either the optical or infrared, and for most of them the first simultaneous measurements at these wavelengths. Out of a total of 42 observations a spectral dependence of polarization level and position angle is found, although not necessarily occurring together, on 15 occasions. (author)

  16. Early optical polarization of a gamma-ray burst afterglow.

    Mundell, Carole G; Steele, Iain A; Smith, Robert J; Kobayashi, Shiho; Melandri, Andrea; Guidorzi, Cristiano; Gomboc, Andreja; Mottram, Chris J; Clarke, David; Monfardini, Alessandro; Carter, David; Bersier, David

    2007-03-30

    We report the optical polarization of a gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglow, obtained 203 seconds after the initial burst of gamma-rays from GRB 060418, using a ring polarimeter on the robotic Liverpool Telescope. Our robust (2sigma) upper limit on the percentage of polarization, less than 8%, coincides with the fireball deceleration time at the onset of the afterglow. The combination of the rate of decay of the optical brightness and the low polarization at this critical time constrains standard models of GRB ejecta, ruling out the presence of a large-scale ordered magnetic field in the emitting region.

  17. Optical polarization properties of InAs/InP quantum dot and quantum rod nanowires

    Anufriev, Roman; Bru-Chevallier, Catherine; Chauvin, Nicolas; Barakat, Jean-Baptiste; Letartre, Xavier; Gendry, Michel; Patriarche, Gilles; Harmand, Jean-Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The emission polarization of single InAs/InP quantum dot (QD) and quantum rod (QR) nanowires is investigated at room temperature. Whereas the emission of the QRs is mainly polarized parallel to the nanowire axis, the opposite behavior is observed for the QDs. These optical properties can be explained by a combination of dielectric effects related to the nanowire geometry and to the configuration of the valence band in the nanostructure. A theoretical model and finite difference in time domain calculations are presented to describe the impact of the nanowire and the surroundings on the optical properties of the emitter. Using this model, the intrinsic degree of linear polarization of the two types of emitters is extracted. The strong polarization anisotropies indicate a valence band mixing in the QRs but not in the QDs. (paper)

  18. Dispersion of linearly polarized electromagnetic wave in magnetized quantum plasma

    Singh, Abhisek Kumar; Kumar, Punit

    2015-01-01

    The generation of harmonic radiation is significant in terms of laser-plasma interaction and has brought interesting notice due to the diversity of its applications. The odd harmonics of laser frequency are generated in the majority of laser interactions with homogenous plasma. It has been remarked that second harmonic generation takes place in the presence of density gradient which gives rise to perturbation in the electron density at the laser frequency. The density perturbation coupled with the quiver motion of the electrons produces a source current at the second harmonic frequency. Second harmonic generation has also been related with filamentation. In the present paper, a study of second harmonic generation by propagation of a linearly polarized electromagnetic wave through homogeneous high density quantum plasma in the presence of transverse magnetic field. The nonlinear current density and dispersion relations for the fundamental and second harmonic frequencies have been obtained using the recently developed quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) model. The effect of quantum Bohm potential, Fermi pressure and the electron spin have been taken into account. The second harmonic is found to be less dispersed than the first. (author)

  19. ELECTROCHEMICAL CORROSION STUDY VIA LINEAR POLARIZATION IN PEAS CAN

    I. M. Costa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to study the corrosion of tinplate can for peas. Firstly, the characterization of canning solution was made. The values of pH, conductivity, Brix, viscosity, density and content of Fe were, respectively, 5.88; 32.6 mS/cm; 6.6%; 3,42cP; 1.026 g/ml; 12.05 mg/kg. The corrosion rate in the cans was determined by linear polarization technique. The electrodes with and without varnish were analyzed in the first and fifth day of the experiment for the 3 parts of the can. The corrosion rate increased significantly when the coating was removed and the body showed a higher corrosion rate, reaching 1.7 mm/year in the absence of varnish. The microstructure of the samples was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS. The increase of iron on the surface, evidenced by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS may have contributed to the corrosion in the samples without varnish.

  20. Active polarization imaging system based on optical heterodyne balanced receiver

    Xu, Qian; Sun, Jianfeng; Lu, Zhiyong; Zhou, Yu; Luan, Zhu; Hou, Peipei; Liu, liren

    2017-08-01

    Active polarization imaging technology has recently become the hot research field all over the world, which has great potential application value in the military and civil area. By introducing active light source, the Mueller matrix of the target can be calculated according to the incident light and the emitted or reflected light. Compared with conventional direct detection technology, optical heterodyne detection technology have higher receiving sensitivities, which can obtain the whole amplitude, frequency and phase information of the signal light. In this paper, an active polarization imaging system will be designed. Based on optical heterodyne balanced receiver, the system can acquire the horizontal and vertical polarization of reflected optical field simultaneously, which contain the polarization characteristic of the target. Besides, signal to noise ratio and imaging distance can be greatly improved.

  1. MASTER OPTICAL POLARIZATION VARIABILITY DETECTION IN THE MICROQUASAR V404 CYG/GS 2023+33

    Lipunov, Vladimir M.; Kornilov, V.; Vlasenko, D. [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Physics Department, Leninskie gory, GSP-1, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation); Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Balanutsa, P.; Kuznetsov, A. [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Universitetsky pr., 13, Moscow, 119234 (Russian Federation); Krushinskiy, V. [Kourovka Astronomical Observatory, Ural Federal University, Lenin ave. 51, Ekaterinburg 620000 (Russian Federation); Budnev, N.; Gress, O.; Ivanov, K.; Yazev, S. [Applied Physics Institute, Irkutsk State University, 20, Gagarin blvd, 664003, Irkutsk (Russian Federation); Tlatov, A. [Kislovodsk Solar Station of the Main (Pulkovo) Observatory RAS, P.O. Box 45, ul. Gagarina 100, Kislovodsk 357700 (Russian Federation); Rebolo Lopez, R.; Serra-Ricart, M.; Israelyan, G.; Lodieu, N. [Instituto de Astrofsica de Canarias, C/Via Lctea, s/n E-38205, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Buckley, D. A. H. [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, Observatory 7935, Cape Town (South Africa); Sergienko, Yu.; Gabovich, A. [Blagoveschensk State Pedagogical University, Lenin str., 104, Amur Region, Blagoveschensk 675000 (Russian Federation); and others

    2016-12-20

    On 2015 June 15, the Swift space observatory discovered that the Galactic black hole candidate V404 Cyg was undergoing another active X-ray phase, after 25 years of inactivity. The 12 telescopes of the MASTER Global Robotic Net located at six sites across four continents were the first ground-based observatories to start optical monitoring of the microquasar after its gamma-ray wake up at 18{sup h} 34{sup m} 09{sup s} U.T. on 2015 June 15. In this paper, we report, for the first time, the discovery of variable optical linear polarization, changing by 4%–6% over a timescale of ∼1 hr, on two different epochs. We can conclude that the additional variable polarization arises from the relativistic jet generated by the black hole in V404 Cyg. The polarization variability correlates with optical brightness changes, increasing when the flux decreases.

  2. High-energy nuclear optics of polarized particles

    Baryshevsky, Vladimir G

    2012-01-01

    The various phenomena caused by refraction and diffraction of polarized elementary particles in matter have opened up a new research area in the particle physics: nuclear optics of polarized particles. Effects similar to the well-known optical phenomena such as birefringence and Faraday effects, exist also in particle physics, though the particle wavelength is much less than the distance between atoms of matter. Current knowledge of the quasi-optical effects, which exist for all particles in any wavelength range (and energies from low to extremely high), will enable us to investigate different properties of interacting particles (nuclei) in a new aspect. This pioneering book will provide detailed accounts of quasi-optical phenomena in the particle polarization, and will interest physicists and professionals in experimental particle physics.

  3. Studies on optical pumping cells (OPC) to polarize 3He

    Hutanu, V.; Rupp, A.

    2004-01-01

    The technique applied at HMI to obtain nuclear-spin-polarized 3 He, used in neutron spin filters (NSFs), is metastability-exchange optical pumping. To prepare efficient NSF, one must highly polarize 3 He nuclei in the optical pumping volume (OPV) and reduce the polarization losses during the compression phase. Great progress has been achieved in reducing of depolarization due to the recent development of both, large polarization preserving piston compressors and long relaxation time filter cells. It is even more important to significantly enhance the 3 He polarization rate during optical pumping in order to increase NSF efficiency. Different cells materials were tested, such as Duran and quartz glass. In order to use the laser light more efficiently and to decrease the risk of 3 He depolarization due to unfavorable reflections, antireflection (AR) coatings were used on cell windows made of quartz glass. They were compared with the ones without coating, made of quartz, Duran and BK7 glass. The comparison of various techniques to mount the windows such as blowing, gluing or molecular diffusion was also conducted. It indicated that the molecular diffusion is the most suitable technique because of a better purity of the gas in the cell and the preservation of the optical flatness of the windows. Cells, for practical reasons each entirely made from the same material (Duran, Quartz glass) with windows mounted using this method, showed the best polarization performance

  4. Optically pumped electron spin polarized targets for use in the production of polarized ion beams

    Anderson, L.W.

    1979-01-01

    The production of relatively dense electron spin polarized alkali metal vapor targets by optical pumping with intense cw dye lasers is discussed. The target density and electron spin polarization depend on the dye laser intensity and bandwidth, the magnetic field at the target, and the electron spin depolarization time. For example in a magnetic field of 1.5 x 10 3 G, and using 1 W dye laser with a bandwidth of 10 10 Hz one can construct an electron spin polarized Na vapor target with a target thickness of 1.6 x 10 13 atoms/cm 2 and an average electron spin polarization of about 90% even though the Na atoms are completely depolarized at every wall collision. Possible uses of the electron spin polarized targets for the production of intense beams of polarized H - or 3 He - ions are discussed. (orig.)

  5. Optically enhanced nuclear cross polarization in acridine-doped fluorene

    Oshiro, C.M.

    1982-06-01

    The objective of this work has been to create large polarizations of the dilute /sup 13/C nuclei in the solid state. The idea was to create /sup 1/H polarizations larger than Boltzmann and to use the proton enhanced nuclear induction spectroscopy cross polarization technique to then transfer this large polarization to the /sup 13/C spin system. Optical Nuclear Polarization (ONP) of acridine-doped fluorene single crystals was studied. In addition, ONP of powdered samples of the acridine-doped fluorene was studied. In general, many compounds do not crystallize easily or do not form large crystals suitable for NMR experiments. Powdered, amorphous and randomly dispersed samples are generally far more readily available than single crystals. One objective of this work has been to (first) create large /sup 1/H polarizations. Although large optical proton polarizations in single crystals have been reported previously, optically generated polarizations in powdered samples have not been reported. For these reasons, ONP studies of powdered samples of the acridine-doped fluorene were also undertaken. Using ONP in combination with the proton enhanced nuclear induction spectroscopy experiment, large /sup 13/C polarizations have been created in fluorene single crystals. These large /sup 13/C polarizations have permitted the determination of the seven incongruent chemical shielding tensors of the fluorene molecule. Part 2 of this thesis describes the proton enhanced nuclear induction spectroscopy experiment. Part 3 describes the ONP experiment. Part 4 is a description of the experimental set-up. Part 5 describes the data analysis for the determination of the chemical shielding tensors. Part 6 presents the results of the ONP experiments performed in this work and the chemical shielding tensors determined.

  6. Optically enhanced nuclear cross polarization in acridine-doped fluorene

    Oshiro, C.M.

    1982-06-01

    The objective of this work has been to create large polarizations of the dilute 13 C nuclei in the solid state. The idea was to create 1 H polarizations larger than Boltzmann and to use the proton enhanced nuclear induction spectroscopy cross polarization technique to then transfer this large polarization to the 13 C spin system. Optical Nuclear Polarization (ONP) of acridine-doped fluorene single crystals was studied. In addition, ONP of powdered samples of the acridine-doped fluorene was studied. In general, many compounds do not crystallize easily or do not form large crystals suitable for NMR experiments. Powdered, amorphous and randomly dispersed samples are generally far more readily available than single crystals. One objective of this work has been to (first) create large 1 H polarizations. Although large optical proton polarizations in single crystals have been reported previously, optically generated polarizations in powdered samples have not been reported. For these reasons, ONP studies of powdered samples of the acridine-doped fluorene were also undertaken. Using ONP in combination with the proton enhanced nuclear induction spectroscopy experiment, large 13 C polarizations have been created in fluorene single crystals. These large 13 C polarizations have permitted the determination of the seven incongruent chemical shielding tensors of the fluorene molecule. Part 2 of this thesis describes the proton enhanced nuclear induction spectroscopy experiment. Part 3 describes the ONP experiment. Part 4 is a description of the experimental set-up. Part 5 describes the data analysis for the determination of the chemical shielding tensors. Part 6 presents the results of the ONP experiments performed in this work and the chemical shielding tensors determined

  7. Refractive index retrieving of polarization maintaining optical fibers

    Ramadan, W. A.; Wahba, H. H.; Shams El-Din, M. A.; Abd El-Sadek, I. G.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the cross-section images, of two different types of polarization maintaining (PM) optical fibers, are employed to estimate the optical phase variation due to transverse optical rays passing through these optical fibers. An adaptive algorithm is proposed to recognize the different areas constituting the PM optical fibers cross-sections. These areas are scanned by a transverse beam to calculate the optical paths for given values of refractive indices. Consequently, the optical phases across the PM optical fibers could be recovered. PM optical fiber is immersed in a matching fluid and set in the object arm of Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The produced interferograms are analyzed to extract the optical phases caused by the PM optical fibers. The estimated optical phases could be optimized to be in good coincidence with experimentally extracted ones. This has been achieved through changing of the PM optical fibers refractive indices to retrieve the correct values. The correct refractive indices values are confirmed by getting the best fit between the estimated and the extracted optical phases. The presented approach is a promising one because it provides a quite direct and accurate information about refractive index, birefringence and beat length of PM optical fibers comparing with different techniques handle the same task.

  8. Snapshot polarization-sensitive plug-in optical module for a Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography system

    Marques, Manuel J.; Rivet, Sylvain; Bradu, Adrian; Podoleanu, Adrian

    2018-02-01

    In this communication, we present a proof-of-concept polarization-sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography (PS-OCT) which can be used to characterize the retardance and the axis orientation of a linear birefringent sample. This module configuration is an improvement from our previous work1, 2 since it encodes the two polarization channels on the optical path difference, effectively carrying out the polarization measurements simultaneously (snapshot measurement), whilst retaining all the advantages (namely the insensitivity to environmental parameters when using SM fibers) of these two previous configurations. Further progress consists in employing Master Slave OCT technology,3 which is used to automatically compensate for the dispersion mismatch introduced by the elements in the module. This is essential given the encoding of the polarization states on two different optical path lengths, each of them having dissimilar dispersive properties. By utilizing this method instead of the commonly used re-linearization and numerical dispersion compensation methods an improvement in terms of the calculation time required can be achieved.

  9. Polarized Photocathode R&D for Future Linear Collliders

    Zhou, F; Brachmann, A.; Maruyama, T.; Sheppard, J.C.; /SLAC

    2009-01-23

    It is a challenge to generate full charge electrons from the electron sources without compromising polarization for the proposed ILC and CLIC. It is essential to advance polarized photocathodes to meet the requirements. SLAC has worldwide unique dedicated test facilities, Cathode Test System and dc-Gun Test Laboratory, to fully characterize polarized photocathodes. Recent systematic measurements on a strained-well InAlGaAs/AlGaAs cathode at the facilities show that 87% polarization and 0.3% QE are achieved. The QE can be increased to {approx}1.0% with atomic hydrogen cleaning. The surface charge limit at a very low current intensity and the clear dependence of the polarization on the surface charge limit are observed for the first time. On-going programs to develop photocathodes for the ILC and CLIC are briefly introduced.

  10. Polarization preserving ultra fast optical shutter for quantum information processing

    Spagnolo, Nicolo'; Vitelli, Chiara; Giacomini, Sandro; Sciarrino, Fabio; De Martini, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    We present the realization of a ultra fast shutter for optical fields, which allows to preserve a generic polarization state, based on a self-stabilized interferometer. It exhibits high (or low) transmittivity when turned on (or inactive), while the fidelity of the polarization state is high. The shutter is realized through two beam displacing prisms and a longitudinal Pockels cell. This can represent a useful tool for controlling light-atom interfaces in quantum information processing.

  11. Dynamical model of coherent circularly polarized optical pulse interactions with two-level quantum systems

    Slavcheva, G.; Hess, O.

    2005-01-01

    We propose and develop a method for theoretical description of circularly (elliptically) polarized optical pulse resonant coherent interactions with two-level atoms. The method is based on the time-evolution equations of a two-level quantum system in the presence of a time-dependent dipole perturbation for electric dipole transitions between states with total angular-momentum projection difference (ΔJ z =±1) excited by a circularly polarized electromagnetic field [Feynman et al., J. Appl. Phys. 28, 49 (1957)]. The adopted real-vector representation approach allows for coupling with the vectorial Maxwell's equations for the optical wave propagation and thus the resulting Maxwell pseudospin equations can be numerically solved in the time domain without any approximations. The model permits a more exact study of the ultrafast coherent pulse propagation effects taking into account the vector nature of the electromagnetic field and hence the polarization state of the optical excitation. We demonstrate self-induced transparency effects and formation of polarized solitons. The model represents a qualitative extension of the well-known optical Maxwell-Bloch equations valid for linearly polarized light and a tool for studying coherent quantum control mechanisms

  12. Amplitudes for multiphoton quantum processes in linear optics

    UrIas, Jesus

    2011-01-01

    The prominent role that linear optical networks have acquired in the engineering of photon states calls for physically intuitive and automatic methods to compute the probability amplitudes for the multiphoton quantum processes occurring in linear optics. A version of Wick's theorem for the expectation value, on any vector state, of products of linear operators, in general, is proved. We use it to extract the combinatorics of any multiphoton quantum processes in linear optics. The result is presented as a concise rule to write down directly explicit formulae for the probability amplitude of any multiphoton process in linear optics. The rule achieves a considerable simplification and provides an intuitive physical insight about quantum multiphoton processes. The methodology is applied to the generation of high-photon-number entangled states by interferometrically mixing coherent light with spontaneously down-converted light.

  13. Amplitudes for multiphoton quantum processes in linear optics

    Urías, Jesús

    2011-07-01

    The prominent role that linear optical networks have acquired in the engineering of photon states calls for physically intuitive and automatic methods to compute the probability amplitudes for the multiphoton quantum processes occurring in linear optics. A version of Wick's theorem for the expectation value, on any vector state, of products of linear operators, in general, is proved. We use it to extract the combinatorics of any multiphoton quantum processes in linear optics. The result is presented as a concise rule to write down directly explicit formulae for the probability amplitude of any multiphoton process in linear optics. The rule achieves a considerable simplification and provides an intuitive physical insight about quantum multiphoton processes. The methodology is applied to the generation of high-photon-number entangled states by interferometrically mixing coherent light with spontaneously down-converted light.

  14. Optically pumped polarized alkali atomic beams and targets

    Anderson, L.W.

    1984-01-01

    The optical pumping of 23 Na and 6 Li atomic beams is discussed. Experiments on the optical pumping of 23 Na atomic beams using either a single mode dye laser followed by a double passed acousto-optic modulator or a multimode dye laser are reported. The optical pumping of a 23 Na vapor target for use in a polarized H - ion source is discussed. Results on the use of viton as a wall coating with a long relaxation time are reported. 31 references, 6 figures, 3 tables

  15. Ten per cent polarized optical emission from GRB 090102.

    Steele, I A; Mundell, C G; Smith, R J; Kobayashi, S; Guidorzi, C

    2009-12-10

    The nature of the jets and the role of magnetic fields in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) remains unclear. In a baryon-dominated jet only weak, tangled fields generated in situ through shocks would be present. In an alternative model, jets are threaded with large-scale magnetic fields that originate at the central engine and that accelerate and collimate the material. To distinguish between the models the degree of polarization in early-time emission must be measured; however, previous claims of gamma-ray polarization have been controversial. Here we report that the early optical emission from GRB 090102 was polarized at 10 +/- 1 per cent, indicating the presence of large-scale fields originating in the expanding fireball. If the degree of polarization and its position angle were variable on timescales shorter than our 60-second exposure, then the peak polarization may have been larger than ten per cent.

  16. Fiber optic spectrophotometer with photodiode linear array

    Blanc, F.; Vernet, P.

    1988-01-01

    Spectrophotometric measurements are used in a great number of industrial processes, in nuclear environment and with optical precision components. Especially the evolution of a chemical process or of an optical coating could be followed by these measurements. Spectrophotometers, using optical fibers to transport the signal out of the instrument make possible the measurement ''in-situ'' and in real time. The advantage of using a diode array to detect the signal is an instantaneous measurement all over the spectral range without moving parts. It allows an excellent reproductibility. The instrument is controlled by a micro computer. The spectrophotometer is described and technical performance presented. An extension using optical fibers on a ''classical'' spectrophotometer (a H.P. one) is also described and technical performance presented

  17. The TRIUMF optically-pumped polarized H- ion source

    Levy, C.D.P.; Jayamanna, K.; McDonald, M.; Schmor, P.W.; Van Oers, W.T.H.; Welz, J.; Wight, G.W.; Dutto, G.; Zelenski, A.N.; Sakae, T.

    1995-09-01

    The TRIUMF dc optically-pumped polarized H - ion source (OPPIS) produces 200 μA dc H - current at 85% polarization within a normalized emittance (90%) of 0.8 π mm mrad, for operations at the TRIUMF cyclotron. As a result of development of the ECR primary proton source, 1.6 mA dc polarized H - current is produced within a normalized emittance of 2 π mm mrad, suitable for high energy accelerators. The OPPIS has also been developed for use in a parity non-conservation experiment which has very severe limits on permissible helicity-correlated changes in beam current and energy. (author)

  18. Zeno inhibition of polarization rotation in an optically active medium

    Gonzalo, Isabel; Luis, Alfredo; Porras, Miguel A

    2015-01-01

    We describe an experiment in which the rotation of the polarization of light propagating in an optically active water solution of D-fructose tends to be inhibited by frequent monitoring whether the polarization remains unchanged. This is an example of the Zeno effect that has remarkable pedagogical interest because of its conceptual simplicity, easy implementation, low cost, and because the same the Zeno effect holds at classical and quantum levels. An added value is the demonstration of the Zeno effect beyond typical idealized assumptions in a practical setting with real polarizers. (paper)

  19. Development of polarization magneto-optics of paramagnetic crystals

    Zapasskij, V.S.; Feofilov, P.P.

    1975-01-01

    The present status of the polarization magnetooptics of crystals containing paramagnetic ion impurities is reviewed. The paper discusses methods of measurement of circular magnetic anisotropy and results obtained in recent years in the field of conventional magnetooptical studies, e.g., magnetooptical activity in absorption spectra for intrinsic and impurity defects in crystals, luminescence magnetic circular polarization, anisotropy of magnetooptical activity in cubic crystals. The main emphasis is placed on new trends in polarization magnetooptics: studies of interactions of a spin system with a lattice, in particular, spin-lattice relaxation and spin memory effect, experiments in the double radiooptical resonance, studies of optical spin relaxation, nonlinear magnetooptical effects, etc

  20. The TRIUMF optically-pumped polarized H- ion source

    Levy, C.D.P.; Jayamanna, K.; McDonald, M.

    1995-09-01

    The TRIUMF dc optically-pumped polarized H - ion source (OPPIS) produces 200 microA dc H - current at 85% polarization within a normalized emittance (90%) of 0.8 π mm mrad, for operations at the TRIUMF cyclotron. As a result of development of the ECR primary proton source, 1.6 mA dc polarized H - current is produced within a normalized emittance of 2 π mm mrad, suitable for high energy accelerators. The OPPIS has also been developed for use in a parity non-conservation experiment which has very severe limits on permissible helicity-correlated changes in beam current and energy

  1. Collapse dynamics of a vector vortex optical field with inhomogeneous states of polarization

    Chen, Rui-Pin; Zhao, Ting-Yu; Zhang, Xiaobo; Zhong, Li-Xin; Chew, Khian-Hooi

    2015-01-01

    Based on a pair of coupled 2D nonlinear Schrödinger equations, the collapse dynamics of a vector field with hybrid states of polarization (SoP) in a Kerr medium is demonstrated. The critical power for an optical field to collapse is present, and the full vectorial numerical simulations provide detailed information about the evolution and partial collapse of the vector field in a Kerr medium. Our results reveal that the optical field prefers to collapse in linearly-polarization, as a result of the self-focusing effect difference in linearly, elliptically and circularly polarized components. The SoP in the field cross-section changes and propagates with a spiral trajectory when the vector beams are imposed with a vortex. The vectorial effect on the collapse of a vector optical field can prevail over the noise even though it reaches 10% amplitude of the optical field. The unique feature of these structured collapses of a vector optical field may lead to new phenomena in the interaction of light with matter. (paper)

  2. Cross section and linear polarization of tagged photons

    Asai, J.; Caplan, H.S.; Skopik, D.M.; DelBianco, W.; Maximon, L.C.

    1988-01-01

    Formulae for bremsstrahlung cross sections and polarizations are usually presented in coordinate systems not very suitable for application by experimental physicists to devices such as photon-tagging monochromators. In this paper the transformations between the different coordinate systems are presented, along with examples of the calculated cross sections and polarizations in a form convenient from the experimental standpoint. These examples also give the predicted characteristics of the photon tagger currently under construction at the Saskatchewan Accelerator Laboratory. (16 refs., 19 figs., tab.)

  3. Construction of a quantum repeater with linear optics

    Kok, Pieter; Williams, Colin P.; Dowling, Jonathan P.

    2003-01-01

    We study the mechanism and complexity of an efficient quantum repeater, employing double-photon guns, for long-distance optical quantum communication. The guns create polarization-entangled photon pairs on demand. One such source might be a semiconducter quantum dot, which has the distinct advantage over parametric down-conversion that the probability of creating a photon pair is close to 1, while the probability of creating multiple pairs vanishes. The swapping and purifying components are implemented by polarizing beam splitters and probabilistic optical controlled-NOT gates. We also show that the bottleneck in the efficiency of this repeater is due to detector losses

  4. Optical polarization studies of Herbig-Haro objects: Pt. 4

    Scarrott, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    Optical polarization maps are presented for the various nebulosities of the HH34 complex in the L1641 dark cloud. The Herbig-Haro object HH34 and its associated optical jet are unpolarized but their source of excitation (HH34-IRS) is the illuminating star of a reflection nebula which envelops the jet and extends as far as HH34. The optical polarization of HH34-IRS suggests that it is surrounded by a circumstellar disc which collimates the outflows in some manner. There is other reflection nebulosity in the region illuminated by a faint star which we identify as the optical counterpart of HH34-IRS5. We have also discovered a small bipolar reflection nebula approximately 20 arcsec west of HH34-IRS. (author)

  5. High-Order Dielectric Metasurfaces for High-Efficiency Polarization Beam Splitters and Optical Vortex Generators

    Guo, Zhongyi; Zhu, Lie; Guo, Kai; Shen, Fei; Yin, Zhiping

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, a high-order dielectric metasurface based on silicon nanobrick array is proposed and investigated. By controlling the length and width of the nanobricks, the metasurfaces could supply two different incremental transmission phases for the X-linear-polarized (XLP) and Y-linear-polarized (YLP) light with extremely high efficiency over 88%. Based on the designed metasurface, two polarization beam splitters working in high-order diffraction modes have been designed successfully, which demonstrated a high transmitted efficiency. In addition, we have also designed two vortex-beam generators working in high-order diffraction modes to create vortex beams with the topological charges of 2 and 3. The employment of dielectric metasurfaces operating in high-order diffraction modes could pave the way for a variety of new ultra-efficient optical devices.

  6. Polarization-Insensitive Tunable Optical Filters based on Liquid Crystal Polarization Gratings

    Nicolescu, Elena

    Tunable optical filters are widely used for a variety of applications including spectroscopy, optical communication networks, remote sensing, and biomedical imaging and diagnostics. All of these application areas can greatly benefit from improvements in the key characteristics of the tunable optical filters embedded in them. Some of these key parameters include peak transmittance, bandwidth, tuning range, and transition width. In recent years research efforts have also focused on miniaturizing tunable optical filters into physically small packages for compact portable spectroscopy and hyperspectral imaging applications such as real-time medical diagnostics and defense applications. However, it is important that miniaturization not have a detrimental effect on filter performance. The overarching theme of this dissertation is to explore novel configurations of Polarization Gratings (PGs) as simple, low-cost, polarization-insensitive alternatives to conventional optical filtering technologies for applications including hyperspectral imaging and telecommunications. We approach this goal from several directions with a combination of theory and experimental demonstration leading to, in our opinion, a significant contribution to the field. We present three classes of tunable optical filters, the first of which is an angle-filtering scheme where the stop-band wavelengths are redirected off axis and the passband is transmitted on-axis. This is achieved using a stacked configuration of polarization gratings of various thicknesses. To improve this class of filter, we also introduce a novel optical element, the Bilayer Polarization Grating, exhibiting unique optical properties and demonstrating complex anchoring conditions with high quality. The second class of optical filter is analogous to a Lyot filter, utilizing stacks of static or tunable waveplates sandwiched with polarizing elements. However, we introduce a new configuration using PGs and static waveplates to replace

  7. Full-Stokes polarimetry with circularly polarized feeds. Sources with stable linear and circular polarization in the GHz regime

    Myserlis, I.; Angelakis, E.; Kraus, A.; Liontas, C. A.; Marchili, N.; Aller, M. F.; Aller, H. D.; Karamanavis, V.; Fuhrmann, L.; Krichbaum, T. P.; Zensus, J. A.

    2018-01-01

    We present an analysis pipeline that enables the recovery of reliable information for all four Stokes parameters with high accuracy. Its novelty relies on the effective treatment of the instrumental effects even before the computation of the Stokes parameters, contrary to conventionally used methods such as that based on the Müller matrix. For instance, instrumental linear polarization is corrected across the whole telescope beam and significant Stokes Q and U can be recovered even when the recorded signals are severely corrupted by instrumental effects. The accuracy we reach in terms of polarization degree is of the order of 0.1-0.2%. The polarization angles are determined with an accuracy of almost 1°. The presented methodology was applied to recover the linear and circular polarization of around 150 active galactic nuclei, which were monitored between July 2010 and April 2016 with the Effelsberg 100-m telescope at 4.85 GHz and 8.35 GHz with a median cadence of 1.2 months. The polarized emission of the Moon was used to calibrate the polarization angle measurements. Our analysis showed a small system-induced rotation of about 1° at both observing frequencies. Over the examined period, five sources have significant and stable linear polarization; three sources remain constantly linearly unpolarized; and a total of 11 sources have stable circular polarization degree mc, four of them with non-zero mc. We also identify eight sources that maintain a stable polarization angle. All this is provided to the community for future polarization observations reference. We finally show that our analysis method is conceptually different from those traditionally used and performs better than the Müller matrix method. Although it has been developed for a system equipped with circularly polarized feeds, it can easily be generalized to systems with linearly polarized feeds as well. The data used to create Fig. C.1 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http

  8. Linear birefringence and optical ativity in a magnetized plasma

    Vuolo, J.H.; Galvao, R.M.O.

    1982-02-01

    Linear birefringence and optical activity are considered separately to electromagnetic wave propagation in magnetized cold plasma, using frequency approximation much bigger than plasma frequency. It's showen that in some interesting cases, those phenomena could be independents. Explicit expressions are obtained for refraction indices to linear birefringency and optical activity. The correspondents indices attenuation aRe obtained in first orden of attenuation. It's showen that the characteristic states for linear dichroism coincide with the characteristic states for linear birefringence. The characteristic states for elliptic dichroism are obtained. (M.A.F.) [pt

  9. Optically compressed sensing by under sampling the polar Fourier plane

    Stern, A; Levi, O; Rivenson, Y

    2010-01-01

    In a previous work we presented a compressed imaging approach that uses a row of rotating sensors to capture indirectly polar strips of the Fourier transform of the image. Here we present further developments of this technique and present new results. The advantages of our technique, compared to other optically compressed imaging techniques, is that its optical implementation is relatively easy, it does not require complicate calibrations and that it can be implemented in near-real time.

  10. Linear Optical Properties of Gold Colloid

    Jingmin XIA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Gold colloid was prepared by reducing HAuCl4·4H2O with Na3C6H5O7·2H2O. The morphology, size of gold nanoparticles and the optical property of colloid were characterized by transmission electron microscope and UV-Vis spectrophotometer, respectively. It shows that the gold nanoparticles are in the shape of spheres with diameters less than 8 nm, and the surface plasmon resonance absorption peak is located at about 438 nm. As the volume fraction of gold particles increases, the intensity of absorption peak strengthens. The optical property of gold colloid was analyzed by Maxwell-Garnett (MG effective medium theory in the company of Drude dispersion model. The results show that the matrix dielectric constant is a main factor, which influences the optical property of gold colloid.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.4.9558

  11. Optical polarization of high-energy BL Lacertae objects

    Hovatta, T.; Lindfors, E.; Blinov, D.; Pavlidou, V.; Nilsson, K.; Kiehlmann, S.; Angelakis, E.; Fallah Ramazani, V.; Liodakis, I.; Myserlis, I.; Panopoulou, G. V.; Pursimo, T.

    2016-12-01

    Context. We investigate the optical polarization properties of high-energy BL Lac objects using data from the RoboPol blazar monitoring program and the Nordic Optical Telescope. Aims: We wish to understand if there are differences between the BL Lac objects that have been detected with the current-generation TeV instruments and those objects that have not yet been detected. Methods: We used a maximum-likelihood method to investigate the optical polarization fraction and its variability in these sources. In order to study the polarization position angle variability, we calculated the time derivative of the electric vector position angle (EVPA) change. We also studied the spread in the Stokes Q/I-U/I plane and rotations in the polarization plane. Results: The mean polarization fraction of the TeV-detected BL Lacs is 5%, while the non-TeV sources show a higher mean polarization fraction of 7%. This difference in polarization fraction disappears when the dilution by the unpolarized light of the host galaxy is accounted for. The TeV sources show somewhat lower fractional polarization variability amplitudes than the non-TeV sources. Also the fraction of sources with a smaller spread in the Q/I-U/I plane and a clumped distribution of points away from the origin, possibly indicating a preferred polarization angle, is larger in the TeV than in the non-TeV sources. These differences between TeV and non-TeV samples seem to arise from differences between intermediate and high spectral peaking sources instead of the TeV detection. When the EVPA variations are studied, the rate of EVPA change is similar in both samples. We detect significant EVPA rotations in both TeV and non-TeV sources, showing that rotations can occur in high spectral peaking BL Lac objects when the monitoring cadence is dense enough. Our simulations show that we cannot exclude a random walk origin for these rotations. Conclusions: These results indicate that there are no intrinsic differences in the

  12. SDP_mharwit_1: Demonstration of HIFI Linear Polarization Analysis of Spectral Features

    Harwit, M.

    2010-03-01

    We propose to observe the polarization of the 621 GHz water vapor maser in VY Canis Majoris to demonstrate the capability of HIFI to make polarization observations of Far-Infrared/Submillimeter spectral lines. The proposed Demonstration Phase would: - Show that HIFI is capable of interesting linear polarization measurements of spectral lines; - Test out the highest spectral resolving power to sort out closely spaced Doppler components; - Determine whether the relative intensities predicted by Neufeld and Melnick are correct; - Record the degree and direction of linear polarization for the closely-Doppler shifted peaks.

  13. Ultra-high Frequency Linear Fiber Optic Systems

    Lau, Kam

    2011-01-01

    This book provides an in-depth treatment of both linear fiber-optic systems and their key enabling devices. It presents a concise but rigorous treatment of the theory and practice of analog (linear) fiber-optics links and systems that constitute the foundation of Hybrid Fiber Coax infrastructure in present-day CATV distribution and cable modem Internet access. Emerging applications in remote fiber-optic feed for free-space millimeter wave enterprise campus networks are also described. Issues such as dispersion and interferometric noise are treated quantitatively, and means for mitigating them are explained. This broad but concise text will thus be invaluable not only to students of fiber-optics communication but also to practicing engineers. To the second edition of this book important new aspects of linear fiber-optic transmission technologies are added, such as high level system architectural issues, algorithms for deriving the optimal frequency assignment, directly modulated or externally modulated laser t...

  14. Optically controlled polarizer using a ladder transition for high speed Stokesmetric Imaging and Quantum Zeno Effect based optical logic.

    Krishnamurthy, Subramanian; Wang, Y; Tu, Y; Tseng, S; Shahriar, M S

    2013-10-21

    We demonstrate an optically controlled polarizer at ~1323 nm using a ladder transition in a Rb vapor cell. The lower leg of the 5S(1/2),F = 1->5P(1/2),F = 1,2->6S(1/2),F = 1,2 transitions is excited by a Ti:Sapphire laser locked to a saturated absorption signal, representing the control beam. A tunable fiber laser at ~1323 nm is used to excite the upper leg of the transitions, representing the signal beam. When the control beam is linearly polarized, it produces an excitation of the intermediate level with a particular orientation of the angular momentum. Under ideal conditions, this orientation is transparent to the signal beam if it has the same polarization as the control beam and is absorbed when it is polarized orthogonally. We also present numerical simulations of the system using a comprehensive model which incorporates all the relevant Zeeman sub-levels in the system, and identify means to improve the performance of the polarizer. A novel algorithm to compute the evolution of large scale quantum system enabled us to perform this computation, which may have been considered too cumbersome to carry out previously. We describe how such a polarizer may serve as a key component for high-speed Stokesmetric imaging. We also show how such a polarizer, combined with an optically controlled waveplate, recently demonstrated by us, can be used to realize a high speed optical logic gate by making use of the Quantum Zeno Effect. Finally, we describe how such a logic gate can be realized at an ultra-low power level using a tapered nanofiber embedded in a vapor cell.

  15. Generation of Symmetric Dicke States of Remote Qubits with Linear Optics

    Thiel, C.; Zanthier, J. von; Bastin, T.; Solano, E.; Agarwal, G. S.

    2007-01-01

    We propose a method for generating all symmetric Dicke states, either in the long-lived internal levels of N massive particles or in the polarization degrees of freedom of photonic qubits, using linear optical tools only. By means of a suitable multiphoton detection technique, erasing Welcher-Weg information, our proposed scheme allows the generation and measurement of an important class of entangled multiqubit states

  16. Generation and propagation of radially polarized beams in optical fibers

    Ramachandran, Siddharth; Kristensen, P; Yan, M F

    2009-01-01

    Beams with polarization singularities have attracted immense recent attention in a wide array of scientific and technological disciplines. We demonstrate a class of optical fibers in which these beams can be generated and propagated over long lengths with unprecedented stability, even...

  17. Crosstalk cancellation on linearly and circularly polarized communications satellite links

    Overstreet, W. P.; Bostian, C. W.

    1979-01-01

    The paper discusses the cancellation network approach for reducing crosstalk caused by depolarization on a dual-polarized communications satellite link. If the characteristics of rain depolarization are sufficiently well known, the cancellation network can be designed in a way that reduces system complexity, the most important parameter being the phase of the cross-polarized signal. Relevant theoretical calculations and experimental data are presented. The simplicity of the cancellation system proposed makes it ideal for use with small domestic or private earth terminals.

  18. Measurement of neutron spectra for photonuclear reaction with linearly polarized photons

    Kirihara Yoichi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Spectra of neutrons produced by a photonuclear reaction from a 197Au target were measured using 16.95 MeV linearly and circularly polarized photon beams at NewSUBARU-BL01 using a time-of-flight method. The difference in the neutron spectra between the cases of a linearly and circularly polarized photon was measured. The difference in the neutron yield increased with the neutron energy and was approximately threefold at the maximum neutron energy. In a direction perpendicular to that of the linear polarization, the neutron yields decreased as the neutron energy increased.

  19. Fiber-optic polarization diversity detection for rotary probe optical coherence tomography.

    Lee, Anthony M D; Pahlevaninezhad, Hamid; Yang, Victor X D; Lam, Stephen; MacAulay, Calum; Lane, Pierre

    2014-06-15

    We report a polarization diversity detection scheme for optical coherence tomography with a new, custom, miniaturized fiber coupler with single mode (SM) fiber inputs and polarization maintaining (PM) fiber outputs. The SM fiber inputs obviate matching the optical lengths of the X and Y OCT polarization channels prior to interference and the PM fiber outputs ensure defined X and Y axes after interference. Advantages for this scheme include easier alignment, lower cost, and easier miniaturization compared to designs with free-space bulk optical components. We demonstrate the utility of the detection system to mitigate the effects of rapidly changing polarization states when imaging with rotating fiber optic probes in Intralipid suspension and during in vivo imaging of human airways.

  20. LINEAR POLARIZATION OF CLASS I METHANOL MASERS IN MASSIVE STAR-FORMING REGIONS

    Kang, Ji-hyun; Byun, Do-Young; Kim, Kee-Tae; Kim, Jongsoo; Lyo, A-Ran; Vlemmings, W. H. T.

    2016-01-01

    Class I methanol masers are found to be good tracers of the interaction between outflows from massive young stellar objects with their surrounding media. Although polarization observations of Class II methanol masers have been able to provide information about magnetic fields close to the central (proto)stars, polarization observations of Class I methanol masers are rare, especially at 44 and 95 GHz. We present the results of linear polarization observations of 39 Class I methanol maser sources at 44 and 95 GHz. These two lines are observed simultaneously with one of the 21 m Korean VLBI Network telescopes in single-dish mode. Approximately 60% of the observed sources have fractional polarizations of a few percent in at least one transition. This is the first reported detection of linear polarization of the 44 GHz methanol maser. The two maser transitions show similar polarization properties, indicating that they trace similar magnetic environments, although the fraction of the linear polarization is slightly higher at 95 GHz. We discuss the association between the directions of polarization angles and outflows. We also discuss some targets having different polarization properties at both lines, including DR21(OH) and G82.58+0.20, which show the 90° polarization angle flip at 44 GHz.

  1. Optical polarization studies of Herbig-Haro objects. Pt. 7

    Scarrott, S.M.; Gledhill, T.M.; Rolph, C.D.

    1990-01-01

    A small patch of optical nebulosity in the cometary globule CG30 is an amorphous reflection nebula containing a Herbig-Haro knot. The exciting and illuminating star, which we identify with the IR source IRAS 08076-3356/CG30IRS4, is deeply embedded in the globule and is not seen directly at optical wavelengths. Structure in the polarization data suggests that the optical nebula is formed by the illumination of the walls of a cavity excavated in the cloud during outflow activity from the embedded source. (author)

  2. State-dependent linear-optical qubit amplifier

    Bartkiewicz, K.; Černoch, Antonín; Lemr, K.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 6 (2013), "062304-1"-"062304-7" ISSN 1050-2947 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0382 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : linear-optical qubit amplifier * quantum cloning * quantum cryptography Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.991, year: 2013

  3. Operation of the optically pumped polarized H- source at LAMPF

    York, R.L.; Tupa, D.; Swenson, D.R.; van Dyck, O.B.

    1991-01-01

    We report on the first five months of operation of the Optically Pumped Polarized Ion Source (OPPIS) for the nuclear physics research program at LAMPF. The LAMPF OPPIS is unique in using Ti: Sapphire lasers to polarize the potassium charge-exchange medium, and until recently was unique in using a superconducting magnet in the ECR source and polarizer regions. The ECR extraction electrode biasing arrangement is also unique. Typical performance was 25 microamps of peak current (measured at 750 keV) with 55% beam polarization or 15 microamps at 62%. Ion source availability was greater than 90%. We also report our planned improvements in preparation for research operation in May of 1991. 3 refs., 4 figs

  4. Covariant electrodynamics in linear media: Optical metric

    Thompson, Robert T.

    2018-03-01

    While the postulate of covariance of Maxwell's equations for all inertial observers led Einstein to special relativity, it was the further demand of general covariance—form invariance under general coordinate transformations, including between accelerating frames—that led to general relativity. Several lines of inquiry over the past two decades, notably the development of metamaterial-based transformation optics, has spurred a greater interest in the role of geometry and space-time covariance for electrodynamics in ponderable media. I develop a generally covariant, coordinate-free framework for electrodynamics in general dielectric media residing in curved background space-times. In particular, I derive a relation for the spatial medium parameters measured by an arbitrary timelike observer. In terms of those medium parameters I derive an explicit expression for the pseudo-Finslerian optical metric of birefringent media and show how it reduces to a pseudo-Riemannian optical metric for nonbirefringent media. This formulation provides a basis for a unified approach to ray and congruence tracing through media in curved space-times that may smoothly vary among positively refracting, negatively refracting, and vacuum.

  5. The Role of polarized positrons and electrons in revealing fundamental interactions at the linear collider

    Moortgat-Pick, G.; Alexander, G.; Ananthanarayan, B.; Babich, A.A.; Bharadwaj, V.; Barber, D.; Bartl, A.; Brachmann, A.; Chen, S.; Clarke, J.; Clendenin, J.E.; Dainton, J.; Desch, K.; Diehl, M.; Dobos, B.; Dorland, Tyler McMillan; Dreiner, H.K.; Eberl, H.; Ellis, John R.; Flottmann, K.; Fraas, H.; Franco-Sollova, F.; Franke, F.; Freitas, A.; Goodson, J.; Gray, J.; Han, A.; Heinemeyer, S.; Hesselbach, S.; Hirose, T.; Hohenwarter-Sodek, K.; Juste, A.; Kalinowski, J.; Kernreiter, T.; Kittel, O.; Kraml, S.; Langenfeld, U.; Majerotto, W.; Martinez, A.; Martyn, H.U.; Mikhailichenko, A.; Milstene, C.; Menges, W.; Meyners, N.; Monig, K.; Moffeit, K.; Moretti, S.; Nachtmann, O.; Nagel, F.; Nakanishi, T.; Nauenberg, U.; Nowak, H.; Omori, T.; Osland, P.; Pankov, A.A.; Paver, N.; Pitthan, R.; Poschl, R.; Porod, W.; Proulx, J.; Richardson, P.; Riemann, S.; Rindani, S.D.; Rizzo, T.G.; Schalicke, A.; Schuler, P.; Schwanenberger, C.; Scott, D.; Sheppard, J.; Singh, R.K.; Sopczak, A.; Spiesberger, H.; Stahl, A.; Steiner, H.; Wagner, A.; Weber, A.M.; Weiglein, G.; Wilson, G.W.; Woods, M.; Zerwas, P.; Zhang, J.; Zomer, F.

    2008-01-01

    The proposed International Linear Collider (ILC) is well-suited for discovering physics beyond the Standard Model and for precisely unraveling the structure of the underlying physics. The physics return can be maximized by the use of polarized beams. This report shows the paramount role of polarized beams and summarizes the benefits obtained from polarizing the positron beam, as well as the electron beam. The physics case for this option is illustrated explicitly by analyzing reference reactions in different physics scenarios. The results show that positron polarization, combined with the clean experimental environment provided by the linear collider, allows to improve strongly the potential of searches for new particles and the identification of their dynamics, which opens the road to resolve shortcomings of the Standard Model. The report also presents an overview of possible designs for polarizing both beams at the ILC, as well as for measuring their polarization.

  6. The Role of polarized positrons and electrons in revealing fundamental interactions at the linear collider

    Moortgat-Pick, G.; /CERN /Durham U., IPPP; Abe, T.; Alexander, G.; Ananthanarayan, B.; Babich, A.A.; Bharadwaj, V.; Barber, D.; Bartl, A.; Brachmann, A.; Chen, S.; Clarke,; Clendenin, J.E.; Dainton, J.; Desch, K.; Diehl, M.; Dobos, B.; Dorland, T.; Eberl, H.; Ellis, John R.; Flottman, K.; Frass, H.; /CERN /Durham U., IPPP /Colorado U. /Tel-Aviv

    2005-07-01

    The proposed International Linear Collider (ILC) is well-suited for discovering physics beyond the Standard Model and for precisely unraveling the structure of the underlying physics. The physics return can be maximized by the use of polarized beams. This report shows the paramount role of polarized beams and summarizes the benefits obtained from polarizing the positron beam, as well as the electron beam. The physics case for this option is illustrated explicitly by analyzing reference reactions in different physics scenarios. The results show that positron polarization, combined with the clean experimental environment provided by the linear collider, allows to improve strongly the potential of searches for new particles and the identification of their dynamics, which opens the road to resolve shortcomings of the Standard Model. The report also presents an overview of possible designs for polarizing both beams at the ILC, as well as for measuring their polarization.

  7. Revealing Fundamental Interactions: the Role of Polarized Positrons and Electrons at the Linear Collider

    Moortgat-Pick, G.; /CERN /Durham U., IPPP; Abe, T.; Alexander, G.; Ananthanarayan, B.; Babich, A.A.; Bharadwaj, V.; Barber, D.; Bartl, A.; Brachmann, A.; Chen, S.; Clarke,; Clendenin, J.E.; Dainton, J.; Desch, K.; Diehl, M.; Dobos, B.; Dorland, T.; Eberl, H.; Ellis, John R.; Flottman, K.; Frass, H.; /CERN /Durham U., IPPP /Colorado U. /Tel-Aviv

    2005-07-06

    The proposed International Linear Collider (ILC) is well-suited for discovering physics beyond the Standard Model and for precisely unraveling the structure of the underlying physics. The physics return can be maximized by the use of polarized beams. This report shows the paramount role of polarized beams and summarizes the benefits obtained from polarizing the positron beam, as well as the electron beam. The physics case for this option is illustrated explicitly by analyzing reference reactions in different physics scenarios. The results show that positron polarization, combined with the clean experimental environment provided by the linear collider, allows to improve strongly the potential of searches for new particles and the identification of their dynamics, which opens the road to resolve shortcomings of the Standard Model. The report also presents an overview of possible designs for polarizing both beams at the ILC, as well as for measuring their polarization.

  8. Revealing Fundamental Interactions: the Role of Polarized Positrons and Electrons at the Linear Collider

    Moortgat-Pick, G.; CERN, Durham U. IPPP; Abe, T.; Alexander, G.; Ananthanarayan, B.; Babich, A.A.; Bharadwaj, V.; Barber, D.; Bartl, A.; Brachmann, A.; Chen, S.; Clarke, J.; Clendenin, J.E.; Dainton, J.; Desch, K.; Diehl, M.; Dobos, B.; Dorland, T.; Eberl, H.; Ellis, John R.; Flottman, K.; Frass, H.

    2005-01-01

    The proposed International Linear Collider (ILC) is well-suited for discovering physics beyond the Standard Model and for precisely unraveling the structure of the underlying physics. The physics return can be maximized by the use of polarized beams. This report shows the paramount role of polarized beams and summarizes the benefits obtained from polarizing the positron beam, as well as the electron beam. The physics case for this option is illustrated explicitly by analyzing reference reactions in different physics scenarios. The results show that positron polarization, combined with the clean experimental environment provided by the linear collider, allows to improve strongly the potential of searches for new particles and the identification of their dynamics, which opens the road to resolve shortcomings of the Standard Model. The report also presents an overview of possible designs for polarizing both beams at the ILC, as well as for measuring their polarization

  9. Linear polarization-discriminatory state inverter fabricated by oblique angle deposition.

    Park, Yong Jun; Sobahan, K M A; Kim, Jin Joo; Hwangbo, Chang Kwon

    2009-06-22

    In this paper, we report a linear polarization-discriminatory state inverter made of three-layer sculpture thin film fabricated by oblique angle deposition technique. The first and third layers are quarter-wave plates of zigzag structure and the middle of them is a circular Bragg reflector of left-handed helical structure. It is found that the normal incidence of P-polarized light on this polarization-discriminatory state inverter becomes the S-polarized light at output, while the incident S-polarized light of wavelength lying in the Bragg regime is reflected. The microstructure of the linear polarization-discriminatory state inverter is also investigated by using a scanning electron microscope.

  10. Electromagnetic frozen waves with radial, azimuthal, linear, circular, and elliptical polarizations

    Corato-Zanarella, Mateus; Zamboni-Rached, Michel

    2016-11-01

    Frozen waves (FWs) are a class of diffraction- and attenuation-resistant beams whose intensity pattern along the direction of propagation can be chosen arbitrarily, thus making them relevant for engineering the spatial configuration of optical fields. To date, analyses of such beams have been done essentially for the scalar case, with the vectorial nature of the electromagnetic fields often neglected. Although it is expected that the field components keep the fundamental properties of the scalar FWs, a deeper understanding of their electromagnetic counterparts is mandatory in order to exploit their different possible polarization states. The purpose of this paper is to study the properties of electromagnetic FWs with radial, azimuthal, linear, circular, and elliptical polarizations under paraxial and nonparaxial regimes in nonabsorbing media. An intensity pattern is chosen for a scalar FW, and the vectorial solutions are built after it via the use of Maxwell's equations. The results show that the field components and the longitudinal component of the time-averaged Poynting vector closely follow the pattern chosen even under highly nonparaxial conditions, showing the robustness of the FW structure to parameters variations.

  11. New method for preparing a liquid crystal polymer that exhibits linearly polarized white fluorescence

    Zheng Shijun; Kun, Wang; Kobayashi, Takaomi

    2011-01-01

    With the aim of developing a single-chain white-light-emitting polymer, liquid crystal (LC) polymers with a shish-kebab-type moiety on their cross-conjugated (p-phenylene)s-poly(p-phenylenevinylene)s main chain were synthesized by Gilch polymerization. They were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and polarizing optical microscopy (POM). 1 H-NMR indicated that the polymers had a shish-kebab structure, which strongly suppressed the formation of structural defects in the polymers. DSC revealed that the polymers had thermotropic LC properties, indicating that the LC polymers were enantiotropic. XRD showed that the polymers had a mesophase, which implies that they were in a smectic LC phase. A polymer with 'kebabs' of 2,5-bis(4'-alkoxyphenyl)benzene was combined with an aligned polyimide film with orientated microgrooves. The polymer main chain was aligned due to the orientation of the 'kebabs' of the uniform cross-conjugated structure. It lay between the kebabs and the 'shish' of the polymer main chains. The aligned polymer main chain emitted yellow light while and the oriented LC side chains emitted blue light emission. These two emissions resulted in linearly polarized white fluorescence.

  12. A New Method for Simulating Power Flow Density Focused by a Silicon Lens Antenna Irradiated with Linearly Polarized THz Wave

    Catur Apriono

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A terahertz system uses dielectric lens antennas for focusing and collimating beams of terahertz wave radiation. Linearly polarized terahertz wave radiation has been widely applied in the terahertz system. Therefore, an accurate method for analyzing the power flow density in the dielectric lens antenna irradiated with the linearly polarized terahertz wave radiation is important to design the terahertz systems. In optics, ray-tracing method has been used to calculate the power flow density by a number density of rays. In this study, we propose a method of ray-tracing combined with Fresnel’s transmission, including transmittance and polarization of the terahertz wave radiation to calculate power flow density in a Silicon lens antenna. We compare power flow density calculated by the proposed method with the regular ray-tracing method. When the Silicon lens antenna is irradiated with linearly polarized terahertz wave radiation, the proposed method calculates the power flow density more accurately than the regular ray-tracing.

  13. Optically variable threads and polarization effects

    Kretschmar, Friedrich; Burchard, Theodor; Heim, Manfred

    2006-02-01

    Based on common criteria for efficient security elements for banknotes the set-up of a state-of-the-art holographic security thread is described - as first representative of window embedded OVD. We continue with new colour-shifting OVD-threads - based on physical vapour deposition thin-film and liquid crystal technology. These three then form the family of optically variable threads following the same set of requirements for efficiency, durability, service to all authentication levels and economics. In addition to this set of OVD threads we introduce how liquid crystal based phase retarding layer can be used to install new authentication channels for the public use up-to machine authentication. Also we show the perspective how those development can be used to install similar sets of OVD families of foil elements on banknotes.

  14. Azimuthal asymmetry in processes of nonlinear QED for linearly polarized photon

    Bajer, V.N.; Mil'shtejn, A.I.

    1994-01-01

    Cross sections of nonlinear QED processes (photon-photon scattering, photon splitting in a Coulomb field, and Delbrueck scattering) are considered for linearly polarized initial photon. The cross sections have sizeable azimuthal asymmetry. 15 refs.; 3 figs

  15. Advances in high power linearly polarized fiber laser and its application

    Zhou, Pu; Huang, Long; Ma, Pengfei; Xu, Jiangming; Su, Rongtao; Wang, Xiaolin

    2017-10-01

    Fiber lasers are now attracting more and more research interest due to their advantages in efficiency, beam quality and flexible operation. Up to now, most of the high power fiber lasers have random distributed polarization state. Linearlypolarized (LP) fiber lasers, which could find wide application potential in coherent detection, coherent/spectral beam combining, nonlinear frequency conversion, have been a research focus in recent years. In this paper, we will present a general review on the achievements of various kinds of high power linear-polarized fiber laser and its application. The recent progress in our group, including power scaling by using power amplifier with different mechanism, high power linearly polarized fiber laser with diversified properties, and various applications of high power linear-polarized fiber laser, are summarized. We have achieved 100 Watt level random distributed feedback fiber laser, kilowatt level continuous-wave (CW) all-fiber polarization-maintained fiber amplifier, 600 watt level average power picosecond polarization-maintained fiber amplifier and 300 watt level average power femtosecond polarization-maintained fiber amplifier. In addition, high power linearly polarized fiber lasers have been successfully applied in 5 kilowatt level coherent beam combining, structured light field and ultrasonic generation.

  16. Use of Linear and Circular Polarization: The Secret LCD Screen and 3D Cinema

    Richtberg, Stefan; Girwidz, Raimund

    2017-01-01

    References to everyday life are important for teaching physics. Discussing polarization phenomena, liquid crystal displays (LCDs) and 3D cinemas provide such references. In this paper we describe experiments to support students' understanding of linearly polarized light as well as the phenomenon of inverted colors using a secret LCD screen.…

  17. Linear-optical programmable quantum router

    Lemr, K.; Černoch, Antonín

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 300, JUL (2013), s. 282-285 ISSN 0030-4018 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0382 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : quantum router * quantum information processing * photon pairs * quantum communications * programmable phase gate Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.542, year: 2013 http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0030401813002563/1-s2.0-S0030401813002563-main.pdf?_tid=d1f7d17a-66e9-11e3-aa5e-00000aab0f6c&acdnat=1387264198_99aef4d40cf81f69

  18. Direct generation of linearly polarized single photons with a deterministic axis in quantum dots

    Wang Tong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We report the direct generation of linearly polarized single photons with a deterministic polarization axis in self-assembled quantum dots (QDs, achieved by the use of non-polar InGaN without complex device geometry engineering. Here, we present a comprehensive investigation of the polarization properties of these QDs and their origin with statistically significant experimental data and rigorous k·p modeling. The experimental study of 180 individual QDs allows us to compute an average polarization degree of 0.90, with a standard deviation of only 0.08. When coupled with theoretical insights, we show that these QDs are highly insensitive to size differences, shape anisotropies, and material content variations. Furthermore, 91% of the studied QDs exhibit a polarization axis along the crystal [1–100] axis, with the other 9% polarized orthogonal to this direction. These features give non-polar InGaN QDs unique advantages in polarization control over other materials, such as conventional polar nitride, InAs, or CdSe QDs. Hence, the ability to generate single photons with polarization control makes non-polar InGaN QDs highly attractive for quantum cryptography protocols.

  19. Direct generation of linearly polarized single photons with a deterministic axis in quantum dots

    Wang, Tong; Puchtler, Tim J.; Patra, Saroj K.; Zhu, Tongtong; Ali, Muhammad; Badcock, Tom J.; Ding, Tao; Oliver, Rachel A.; Schulz, Stefan; Taylor, Robert A.

    2017-07-01

    We report the direct generation of linearly polarized single photons with a deterministic polarization axis in self-assembled quantum dots (QDs), achieved by the use of non-polar InGaN without complex device geometry engineering. Here, we present a comprehensive investigation of the polarization properties of these QDs and their origin with statistically significant experimental data and rigorous k·p modeling. The experimental study of 180 individual QDs allows us to compute an average polarization degree of 0.90, with a standard deviation of only 0.08. When coupled with theoretical insights, we show that these QDs are highly insensitive to size differences, shape anisotropies, and material content variations. Furthermore, 91% of the studied QDs exhibit a polarization axis along the crystal [1-100] axis, with the other 9% polarized orthogonal to this direction. These features give non-polar InGaN QDs unique advantages in polarization control over other materials, such as conventional polar nitride, InAs, or CdSe QDs. Hence, the ability to generate single photons with polarization control makes non-polar InGaN QDs highly attractive for quantum cryptography protocols.

  20. Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography in dentistry

    Dichtl, S.

    1998-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive and noncontact technique for obtaining cross-sectional images of biologic structure, which was initially introduced to depict the transparent tissue of the eye. It employs the partial coherence properties of a light source to image structures with high resolution (< 20 (m). Recently, this technique has also been applied in turbid media. This tomographic imaging is analogous to conventional ultrasound B mode imaging, except that OCT measures the intensity of backreflected infrared light rather than acoustical waves. First applications, of OCT in dentistry for diagnosing periodontal disease have been reported by Colston et al. presenting in vitro OCT images of the dental and periodontal tissues of porcine premolar teeth. In this work, the feasibility of polarisation sensitive OCT for dental material is suggested. In contrast with conventional OCT, where the magnitude of backscattered light as a function of depth is imaged, backscattered light is used to image the magnitude of the birefringence in the sample as a function of depth. Partial loss of birefringence is known to be an early indication of incipient caries or tissue thermal damage. Applying this technique for caries diagnosis or guidance regarding optimal dosimetry for thermally mediated laser therapeutic procedures, polarisation sensitive OCT would represent a promising new technology for dentistry. (author)

  1. Optical polarization modulation by competing atomic coherence effects in a degenerate four-level Yb atomic system

    Park, Sung Jong; Park, Chang Yong; Yoon, Tai Hyun

    2005-01-01

    A scheme of optical polarization modulation of a linearly polarized infrared probe field is studied in a degenerate four-level Yb atomic system. We have observed an anomalous transmission spectra of two circular polarization components of the probe field exhibiting an enhanced two-photon absorption and a three-photon gain with comparable magnitude, leading to the lossless transmission and enhanced circular dichroism. We carried out a proof-of-principle experiment of fast optical polarization modulation in such a system by modulating the polarization state of the coupling field. The observed enhanced two-photon absorption and three-photon gain of the probe field are due to the result of competing atomic coherence effects

  2. Linearly polarized intracavity passive Q-switched Yb-doped ...

    2014-02-14

    Feb 14, 2014 ... ytterbium-doped photonic crystal fibre laser with a Cr4+:YAG crystal ... average output power of 9.4 W with pulse duration of 64 ns and ... applications of nonlinear frequency shifting like frequency doubling and optical paramet-.

  3. SYSTEMATIC STUDY OF GAMMA-RAY-BRIGHT BLAZARS WITH OPTICAL POLARIZATION AND GAMMA-RAY VARIABILITY

    Itoh, Ryosuke; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Kanda, Yuka; Shiki, Kensei; Kawabata, Miho; Nakaoka, Tatsuya; Takaki, Katsutoshi; Takata, Koji; Ui, Takahiro [Department of Physical Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Nalewajko, Krzysztof; Madejski, Greg M. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, 2575 Sand Hill Road M/S 29, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Uemura, Makoto; Tanaka, Yasuyuki T.; Kawabata, Koji S.; Akitaya, Hiroshi; Ohsugi, Takashi [Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Schinzel, Frank K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Moritani, Yuki [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Sasada, Mahito [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Yamanaka, Masayuki, E-mail: itoh@hep01.hepl.hiroshima-u.ac.jp, E-mail: itoh@hp.phys.titech.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Konan University, Okamoto, Kobe, Hyogo 658-8501 (Japan); and others

    2016-12-10

    Blazars are highly variable active galactic nuclei that emit radiation at all wavelengths from radio to gamma rays. Polarized radiation from blazars is one key piece of evidence for synchrotron radiation at low energies, and it also varies dramatically. The polarization of blazars is of interest for understanding the origin, confinement, and propagation of jets. However, even though numerous measurements have been performed, the mechanisms behind jet creation, composition, and variability are still debated. We performed simultaneous gamma-ray and optical photopolarimetry observations of 45 blazars between 2008 July and 2014 December to investigate the mechanisms of variability and search for a basic relation between the several subclasses of blazars. We identify a correlation between the maximum degree of optical linear polarization and the gamma-ray luminosity or the ratio of gamma-ray to optical fluxes. Since the maximum polarization degree depends on the condition of the magnetic field (chaotic or ordered), this result implies a systematic difference in the intrinsic alignment of magnetic fields in parsec-scale relativistic jets between different types of blazars (flat-spectrum radio quasars vs. BL Lacs) and consequently between different types of radio galaxies (FR I versus FR II).

  4. Linearly polarized photoluminescence of InGaN quantum disks embedded in GaN nanorods.

    Park, Youngsin; Chan, Christopher C S; Nuttall, Luke; Puchtler, Tim J; Taylor, Robert A; Kim, Nammee; Jo, Yongcheol; Im, Hyunsik

    2018-05-25

    We have investigated the emission from InGaN/GaN quantum disks grown on the tip of GaN nanorods. The emission at 3.21 eV from the InGaN quantum disk doesn't show a Stark shift, and it is linearly polarized when excited perpendicular to the growth direction. The degree of linear polarization is about 39.3% due to the anisotropy of the nanostructures. In order to characterize a single nanostructure, the quantum disks were dispersed on a SiO 2 substrate patterned with a metal reference grid. By rotating the excitation polarization angle from parallel to perpendicular relative to the nanorods, the variation of overall PL for the 3.21 eV peak was recorded and it clearly showed the degree of linear polarization (DLP) of 51.5%.

  5. In-line phase retarder and polarimeter for conversion of linear to circular polarization

    Kortright, J.B.; Smith, N.V.; Denlinger, J.D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    An in-line polarimeter including phase retarder and linear polarizer was designed and commissioned on undulator beamline 7.0 for the purpose of converting linear to circular polarization for experiments downstream. In commissioning studies, Mo/Si multilayers at 95 eV were used both as the upstream, freestanding phase retarder and the downstream linear polarized. The polarization properties of the phase retarder were characterized by direct polarimetry and by collecting MCD spectra in photoemission from Gd and other magnetic surfaces. The resonant birefringence of transmission multilayers results from differing distributions of s- and p-component wave fields in the multilayer when operating near a structural (Bragg) interference condition. The resulting phase retardation is especially strong when the interference is at or near the Brewster angle, which is roughly 45{degrees} in the EUV and soft x-ray ranges.

  6. The spin polarized linear response from density functional theory: Theory and application to atoms

    Fias, Stijn, E-mail: sfias@vub.ac.be; Boisdenghien, Zino; De Proft, Frank; Geerlings, Paul [General Chemistry (ALGC), Vrije Universiteit Brussel (Free University Brussels – VUB), Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2014-11-14

    Within the context of spin polarized conceptual density functional theory, the spin polarized linear response functions are introduced both in the [N, N{sub s}] and [N{sub α}, N{sub β}] representations. The mathematical relations between the spin polarized linear response functions in both representations are examined and an analytical expression for the spin polarized linear response functions in the [N{sub α}, N{sub β}] representation is derived. The spin polarized linear response functions were calculated for all atoms up to and including argon. To simplify the plotting of our results, we integrated χ(r, r′) to a quantity χ(r, r{sup ′}), circumventing the θ and ϕ dependence. This allows us to plot and to investigate the periodicity throughout the first three rows in the periodic table within the two different representations. For the first time, χ{sub αβ}(r, r{sup ′}), χ{sub βα}(r, r{sup ′}), and χ{sub SS}(r, r{sup ′}) plots have been calculated and discussed. By integration of the spin polarized linear response functions, different components to the polarisability, α{sub αα}, α{sub αβ}, α{sub βα}, and α{sub ββ} have been calculated.

  7. Optical studies of polarized-electron-noble-gas collisions

    Gay, T.I.; Furst, J.E.; Geesmann, H.; Khakoo, M.A.; Madison, D.H.; Wijayaratna, W.M.K.P.; Bartschat, K.

    1992-01-01

    We have measured the Stoke's parameters of light emitted following impact excitation of He and Xe by transversely-polarized electrons. For He, the 2 3 S-3 3 P, 389 nm transition was studied in an effort to systematically develop a highly accurate optical electron polarimeter. The 6 3 P 2 -6 3 D 3 , 882 nm transition in Xe was used to assess the importance of spin-dependent forces on the continuum electron for this target. We attempted (and failed) to made the first optical observations of Mott scattering. (Author)

  8. Optical polarization studies of Herbig-Haro objects: Pt. 6

    Rolph, C.D.; Scarrott, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    An optical polarization map of the HH83 nebulosity on the periphery of the L1641 dark cloud in Orion shows that it is predominantly a reflection nebula illuminated by a nearby IR source (HH83IRS/IRAS 05311 - 0631) with no optical counterpart. The stellar jet is unpolarized as expected for an emission-line feature. The nebula has many morphological similarities to other pre-main-sequence nebulae such as Haro 6-5, L1551/IRS5, HH34 and Re50. (author)

  9. The Linearity of Optical Tomography: Sensor Model and Experimental Verification

    Siti Zarina MOHD. MUJI

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show the linearization of optical sensor. Linearity of the sensor response is a must in optical tomography application, which affects the tomogram result. Two types of testing are used namely, testing using voltage parameter and testing with time unit parameter. For the former, the testing is by measuring the voltage when the obstacle is placed between transmitter and receiver. The obstacle diameters are between 0.5 until 3 mm. The latter is also the same testing but the obstacle is bigger than the former which is 59.24 mm and the testing purpose is to measure the time unit spend for the ball when it cut the area of sensing circuit. Both results show a linear relation that proves the optical sensors is suitable for process tomography application.

  10. Simulations and experiments on polarization squeezing in optical fiber

    Corney, J.F.; Heersink, J.; Dong, R.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate polarization squeezing of ultrashort pulses in optical fiber, over a wide range of input energies and fiber lengths. Comparisons are made between experimental data and quantum dynamical simulations to find good quantitative agreement. The numerical calculations, performed using both...... effects cause a marked deterioration of squeezing at higher energies and longer fiber lengths. We also calculate the optimum fiber length for maximum squeezing....

  11. FINAL REPORT "Extreme non-linear optics of plasmas" Pierre Michel (16-LW-022)

    Michel, Pierre [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-11-03

    Large laser facilities such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF) are typically limited in performance and physical scale (and thus cost) by optics damage. In this LDRD, we investigated a radically new way to manipulate light at extreme powers and energies, where “traditional” (crystal-based) optical elements are replaced by a medium that is already “broken” and thus does not suffer from optics damage: a plasma. Our method consisted in applying multiple lasers into plasmas to imprint refractive micro-structures with optical properties designed to be similar to those of crystals or dielectric structures used in optics. In particular, we focused our efforts on two elements used to manipulate the polarization of lasers (i.e. the orientation of the light’s electric field vector): i) a polarizer, which only lets a given polarization direction pass and blocks the others, and ii) a “Pockels cell”, which can “rotate” the polarization direction or convert it from linear to elliptical or circular. These two elements are essential building blocks in almost all laser systems – for example, they can be combined to design optical gates. Here, we introduced the new concepts of a “plasma polarizer” and a “plasma Pockels cell”. Both concepts were demonstrated in proof-of-principle laboratory experiments in this LDRD. We also demonstrated that such laser-plasma systems could be used to provide full control of the refractive index of plasmas as well as their dispersion (variation of the index vs. the light wavelength), which constituted the basis for a final experiment aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of “slow light” in plasmas, i.e. the capability to slow down a light pulse almost to a full stop.

  12. Linear Optical and SERS Study on Metallic Membranes with Subwavelength Complementary Patterns

    Hao, Qingzhen; Zeng, Yong; Jensen, Lasse; Werner, Douglas; Crespi, Vincent; Huang, Tony Jun; Interdepartmental Collaboration

    2011-03-01

    An efficient technique is developed to fabricate optically thin metallic films with subwavelength patterns and their complements simultaneously. By comparing the spectra of the complementary films, we show that Babinet's principle nearly holds in the optical domain. A discrete-dipole approximation can qualitatively describe their spectral dependence on the geometry of the constituent particles and the illuminating polarization. Using pyridine as probe molecules, we studied surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) from the complementary structure. Although the complementary structure posses closely related linear spectra, they have quite different near-field behaviors. For hole arrays, their averaged local field gains as well as the SERS enhancements are strongly correlated to their transmission spectra. We therefore can use cos 4 θ to approximately describe the dependence of the Raman intensity on the excitation polarization angle θ , while the complementary particle arrays present maximal local field gains at wavelengths generally much bigger than their localized surface plasmonic resonant wavelengths.

  13. Regional polarization sensitivity of articular cartilage by using polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography

    Xie, Tuqiang; Guo, Shuguang; Chen, Zhongping; Peavy, George M.

    2007-02-01

    In this study, PS-OCT is used to image fresh bovine joints to investigate the orientation of collagen fibrils in relation to optical phase retardation to better understand the distribution of normal matrix orientation and articular cartilage birefringence in different regions of a whole joint. Understanding and mapping variations in matrix organization and orientation within the normal joint is an important issue in potential applications of PS-OCT for evaluation and diagnosis of degenerative joint disease (DJD). The experimental results demonstrate that articular cartilage is not polarization sensitive on the edge of the medial, but polarization sensitive on the lateral edge of the tibial plateau. The collagen orientation on the edge of the joint is different from the central areas of the joint. Normal articular cartilage demonstrates regional polarization sensitivity within joints that is important to understand in order to accurately assess cartilage health by PS-OCT.

  14. Polarization properties of below-threshold harmonics from aligned molecules H2+ in linearly polarized laser fields.

    Dong, Fulong; Tian, Yiqun; Yu, Shujuan; Wang, Shang; Yang, Shiping; Chen, Yanjun

    2015-07-13

    We investigate the polarization properties of below-threshold harmonics from aligned molecules in linearly polarized laser fields numerically and analytically. We focus on lower-order harmonics (LOHs). Our simulations show that the ellipticity of below-threshold LOHs depends strongly on the orientation angle and differs significantly for different harmonic orders. Our analysis reveals that this LOH ellipticity is closely associated with resonance effects and the axis symmetry of the molecule. These results shed light on the complex generation mechanism of below-threshold harmonics from aligned molecules.

  15. Entangling efficiency of linear-optical quantum gates

    Lemr, Karel; Černoch, Antonín; Soubusta, Jan; Dušek, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 3 (2012), "032321-1"-"032321-5" ISSN 1050-2947 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0382 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : linear-optical quantum gates * quantum physics Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 3.042, year: 2012 http://pra.aps.org/pdf/PRA/v86/i3/e032321

  16. Calibration of the degree of linear polarization measurements of the polarized Sun-sky radiometer based on the POLBOX system.

    Li, Zhengqiang; Li, Kaitao; Li, Li; Xu, Hua; Xie, Yisong; Ma, Yan; Li, Donghui; Goloub, Philippe; Yuan, Yinlin; Zheng, Xiaobing

    2018-02-10

    Polarization observation of sky radiation is the frontier approach to improve the remote sensing of atmospheric components, e.g., aerosol and clouds. The polarization calibration of the ground-based Sun-sky radiometer is the basis for obtaining accurate degree of linear polarization (DOLP) measurement. In this paper, a DOLP calibration method based on a laboratory polarized light source (POLBOX) is introduced in detail. Combined with the CE318-DP Sun-sky polarized radiometer, a calibration scheme for DOLP measurement is established for the spectral range of 440-1640 nm. Based on the calibration results of the Sun-sky radiometer observation network, the polarization calibration coefficient and the DOLP calibration residual are analyzed statistically. The results show that the DOLP residual of the calibration scheme is about 0.0012, and thus it can be estimated that the final DOLP calibration accuracy of this method is about 0.005. Finally, it is verified that the accuracy of the calibration results is in accordance with the expected results by comparing the simulated DOLP with the vector radiative transfer calculations.

  17. Quantitative analysis with advanced compensated polarized light microscopy on wavelength dependence of linear birefringence of single crystals causing arthritis

    Takanabe, Akifumi; Tanaka, Masahito; Taniguchi, Atsuo; Yamanaka, Hisashi; Asahi, Toru

    2014-07-01

    To improve our ability to identify single crystals causing arthritis, we have developed a practical measurement system of polarized light microscopy called advanced compensated polarized light microscopy (A-CPLM). The A-CPLM system is constructed by employing a conventional phase retardation plate, an optical fibre and a charge-coupled device spectrometer in a polarized light microscope. We applied the A-CPLM system to measure linear birefringence (LB) in the visible region, which is an optical anisotropic property, for tiny single crystals causing arthritis, i.e. monosodium urate monohydrate (MSUM) and calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD). The A-CPLM system performance was evaluated by comparing the obtained experimental data using the A-CPLM system with (i) literature data for a standard sample, MgF2, and (ii) experimental data obtained using an established optical method, high-accuracy universal polarimeter, for the MSUM. The A-CPLM system was found to be applicable for measuring the LB spectra of the single crystals of MSUM and CPPD, which cause arthritis, in the visible regions. We quantitatively reveal the large difference in LB between MSUM and CPPD crystals. These results demonstrate the usefulness of the A-CPLM system for distinguishing the crystals causing arthritis.

  18. Polarization diversity scheme on spectral polarization coding optical code-division multiple-access network

    Yen, Chih-Ta; Huang, Jen-Fa; Chang, Yao-Tang; Chen, Bo-Hau

    2010-12-01

    We present an experiment demonstrating the spectral-polarization coding optical code-division multiple-access system introduced with a nonideal state of polarization (SOP) matching conditions. In the proposed system, the encoding and double balanced-detection processes are implemented using a polarization-diversity scheme. Because of the quasiorthogonality of Hadamard codes combining with array waveguide grating routers and a polarization beam splitter, the proposed codec pair can encode-decode multiple code words of Hadamard code while retaining the ability for multiple-access interference cancellation. The experimental results demonstrate that when the system is maintained with an orthogonal SOP for each user, an effective reduction in the phase-induced intensity noise is obtained. The analytical SNR values are found to overstate the experimental results by around 2 dB when the received effective power is large. This is mainly limited by insertion losses of components and a nonflattened optical light source. Furthermore, the matching conditions can be improved by decreasing nonideal influences.

  19. A Linear Birefringence Measurement Method for an Optical Fiber Current Sensor.

    Xu, Shaoyi; Shao, Haiming; Li, Chuansheng; Xing, Fangfang; Wang, Yuqiao; Li, Wei

    2017-07-03

    In this work, a linear birefringence measurement method is proposed for an optical fiber current sensor (OFCS). First, the optical configuration of the measurement system is presented. Then, the elimination method of the effect of the azimuth angles between the sensing fiber and the two polarizers is demonstrated. Moreover, the relationship of the linear birefringence, the Faraday rotation angle and the final output is determined. On these bases, the multi-valued problem on the linear birefringence is simulated and its solution is illustrated when the linear birefringence is unknown. Finally, the experiments are conducted to prove the feasibility of the proposed method. When the numbers of turns of the sensing fiber in the OFCS are about 15, 19, 23, 27, 31, 35, and 39, the measured linear birefringence obtained by the proposed method are about 1.3577, 1.8425, 2.0983, 2.5914, 2.7891, 3.2003 and 3.5198 rad. Two typical methods provide the references for the proposed method. The proposed method is proven to be suitable for the linear birefringence measurement in the full range without the limitation that the linear birefringence must be smaller than π/2.

  20. From linear optical quantum computing to Heisenberg-limited interferometry

    Lee, Hwang; Kok, Pieter; Williams, Colin P; Dowling, Jonathan P

    2004-01-01

    The working principles of linear optical quantum computing are based on photodetection, namely, projective measurements. The use of photodetection can provide efficient nonlinear interactions between photons at the single-photon level, which is technically problematic otherwise. We report an application of such a technique to prepare quantum correlations as an important resource for Heisenberg-limited optical interferometry, where the sensitivity of phase measurements can be improved beyond the usual shot-noise limit. Furthermore, using such nonlinearities, optical quantum non-demolition measurements can now be carried out easily at the single-photon level

  1. Nonlinear Fourier transform for dual-polarization optical communication system

    Gaiarin, Simone

    communication is considered an emerging paradigm in fiber-optic communications that could potentially overcome these limitations. It relies on a mathematical technique called “inverse scattering transform” or “nonlinear Fourier transform (NFT)” to exploit the “hidden” linearity of the nonlinear Schrödinger...

  2. Differential Polarization Nonlinear Optical Microscopy with Adaptive Optics Controlled Multiplexed Beams

    Virginijus Barzda

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Differential polarization nonlinear optical microscopy has the potential to become an indispensable tool for structural investigations of ordered biological assemblies and microcrystalline aggregates. Their microscopic organization can be probed through fast and sensitive measurements of nonlinear optical signal anisotropy, which can be achieved with microscopic spatial resolution by using time-multiplexed pulsed laser beams with perpendicular polarization orientations and photon-counting detection electronics for signal demultiplexing. In addition, deformable membrane mirrors can be used to correct for optical aberrations in the microscope and simultaneously optimize beam overlap using a genetic algorithm. The beam overlap can be achieved with better accuracy than diffraction limited point-spread function, which allows to perform polarization-resolved measurements on the pixel-by-pixel basis. We describe a newly developed differential polarization microscope and present applications of the differential microscopy technique for structural studies of collagen and cellulose. Both, second harmonic generation, and fluorescence-detected nonlinear absorption anisotropy are used in these investigations. It is shown that the orientation and structural properties of the fibers in biological tissue can be deduced and that the orientation of fluorescent molecules (Congo Red, which label the fibers, can be determined. Differential polarization microscopy sidesteps common issues such as photobleaching and sample movement. Due to tens of megahertz alternating polarization of excitation pulses fast data acquisition can be conveniently applied to measure changes in the nonlinear signal anisotropy in dynamically changing in vivo structures.

  3. Adaptive phase measurements in linear optical quantum computation

    Ralph, T C; Lund, A P; Wiseman, H M

    2005-01-01

    Photon counting induces an effective non-linear optical phase shift in certain states derived by linear optics from single photons. Although this non-linearity is non-deterministic, it is sufficient in principle to allow scalable linear optics quantum computation (LOQC). The most obvious way to encode a qubit optically is as a superposition of the vacuum and a single photon in one mode-so-called 'single-rail' logic. Until now this approach was thought to be prohibitively expensive (in resources) compared to 'dual-rail' logic where a qubit is stored by a photon across two modes. Here we attack this problem with real-time feedback control, which can realize a quantum-limited phase measurement on a single mode, as has been recently demonstrated experimentally. We show that with this added measurement resource, the resource requirements for single-rail LOQC are not substantially different from those of dual-rail LOQC. In particular, with adaptive phase measurements an arbitrary qubit state α vertical bar 0>+β vertical bar 1> can be prepared deterministically

  4. Optical linear algebra processors - Noise and error-source modeling

    Casasent, D.; Ghosh, A.

    1985-01-01

    The modeling of system and component noise and error sources in optical linear algebra processors (OLAPs) are considered, with attention to the frequency-multiplexed OLAP. General expressions are obtained for the output produced as a function of various component errors and noise. A digital simulator for this model is discussed.

  5. Optical linear algebra processors: noise and error-source modeling.

    Casasent, D; Ghosh, A

    1985-06-01

    The modeling of system and component noise and error sources in optical linear algebra processors (OLAP's) are considered, with attention to the frequency-multiplexed OLAP. General expressions are obtained for the output produced as a function of various component errors and noise. A digital simulator for this model is discussed.

  6. Silver Nanoparticles with Broad Multiband Linear Optical Absorption

    Bakr, Osman M.

    2009-07-06

    A simple one-pot method produces silver nanoparticles coated with aryl thiols that show intense, broad nonplasmonic optical properties. The synthesis works with many aryl-thiol capping ligands, including water-soluble 4-mercaptobenzoic acid. The nanoparticles produced show linear absorption that is broader, stronger, and more structured than most conventional organic and inorganic dyes.

  7. Silver Nanoparticles with Broad Multiband Linear Optical Absorption

    Bakr, Osman M.; Amendola, Vincenzo; Aikens, Christine M.; Wenseleers, Wim; Li, Rui; Dal Negro, Luca; Schatz, George C.; Stellacci, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    A simple one-pot method produces silver nanoparticles coated with aryl thiols that show intense, broad nonplasmonic optical properties. The synthesis works with many aryl-thiol capping ligands, including water-soluble 4-mercaptobenzoic acid. The nanoparticles produced show linear absorption that is broader, stronger, and more structured than most conventional organic and inorganic dyes.

  8. Proposal of Realization Restricted Quantum Game with Linear Optic Method

    Zhao Haijun; Fang Ximing

    2006-01-01

    We present a quantum game with the restricted strategic space and its realization with linear optical system, which can be played by two players who are separated remotely. This game can also be realized on any other quantum computers. We find that the constraint brings some interesting properties that are useful for making game models.

  9. Utilizing encoding in scalable linear optics quantum computing

    Hayes, A J F; Gilchrist, A; Myers, C R; Ralph, T C

    2004-01-01

    We present a scheme which offers a significant reduction in the resources required to implement linear optics quantum computing. The scheme is a variation of the proposal of Knill, Laflamme and Milburn, and makes use of an incremental approach to the error encoding to boost probability of success

  10. Linear and nonlinear optical spectroscopy: Spectral, temporal and spatial resolution

    Hvam, Jørn Marcher

    1997-01-01

    Selected linear and nonlinear optical spectroscopies are being described with special emphasis on the possibility of obtaining simultaneous spectral, temporal and spatial resolution. The potential of various experimental techniques is being demonstrated by specific examples mostly taken from inve...... investigations of the electronic, and opto-electronic, properties of semiconductor nanostructures....

  11. Instrumentation for Linear and Nonlinear Optical Device Characterization

    2018-01-31

    distribution is Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The Pl has acquired six pieces of equipment to extend capabilities for linear and nonlinear...optical spectral analysis • Frequency comb generation in mid-infrared Accomplishments Six major pieces of equipment have been ordered and received

  12. A Multibeam Dual-Band Orthogonal Linearly Polarized Antenna Array for Satellite Communication on the Move

    Yi Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The design and simulation of a 10 × 8 multibeam dual-band orthogonal linearly polarized antenna array operating at Ku-band are presented for transmit-receive applications. By using patches with different coupling methods as elements, both perpendicular polarization in 12.25–12.75 GHz band and horizontal polarization in 14.0–14.5 GHz band are realized in a shared antenna aperture. A microstrip Rotman lens is employed as the beamforming network with 7 input ports, which can generate a corresponding number of beams to cover −30°–30° with 5 dB beamwidth along one dimension. This type of multibeam orthogonal linearly polarized planar antenna is a good candidate for satellite communication (SatCom.

  13. Realization of beam polarization at the linear collider and its application to EW processes

    Franco-Sollova, F.

    2006-07-15

    The use of beam polarization at the future ILC e{sup +}e{sup -} linear collider will benefit the physics program significantly. This thesis explores three aspects of beam polarization: the application of beam polarization to the study of electroweak processes, the precise measurement of the beam polarization, and finally, the production of polarized positrons at a test beam experiment. In the first part of the thesis the importance of beam polarization at the future ILC is exhibited: the benefits of employing transverse beam polarization (in both beams) for the measurement of triple gauge boson couplings (TGCs) in the W-pair production process are studied. The sensitivity to anomalous TGC values is compared for the cases of transverse and longitudinal beam polarization at a center of mass energy of 500 GeV. Due to the suppressed contribution of the t-channel {nu} exchange, the sensitivity is higher for longitudinal polarization. For some physics analyses the usual polarimetry techniques do not provide the required accuracy for the measurement of the beam polarization (around 0.25% with Compton polarimetry). The second part of the thesis deals with a complementary method to measure the beam polarization employing physics data acquired with two polarization modes. The process of single-W production is chosen due to its high cross section. The expected precision for 500 fb{sup -1} and W{yields}{mu}{nu} decays only, is {delta}P{sub e{sup -}}/P{sub e{sup -}}=0.26% and {delta}P{sub e{sup +}}/P{sub e{sup +}}=0.33%, which can be further improved by employing additional W-decay channels. The first results of an attempt to produce polarized positrons at the E-166 experiment are shown in the last part of the thesis. The E-166 experiment, located at the Final Focus Test Beam at SLAC's LINAC employs a helical undulator to induce the emission of circularly polarized gamma rays by the beam electrons. These gamma rays are converted into longitudinally polarized electron

  14. Broad-band linear polarization and magnetic intensification in rotating magnetic stars

    Degl'Innocenti, M.L.; Calamai, G.; Degl'Innocenti, E.L.; Patriarchi, P.

    1981-01-01

    Magnetic intensification is proposed as a mechanism to explain the general features of the variable broad-band linear polarization emerging from rotating magnetic stars. This mechanism is studied in detail, and some efforts are made to investigate the wide variety of polarization diagrams that can result from it. Theoretical results are compared with direct observations of the variable magnetic star 53 Cam to determine its geometric and magnetic configuration

  15. Linear optical response of carbon nanotubes under axial magnetic field

    Moradian, Rostam; Chegel, Raad; Behzad, Somayeh

    2010-04-01

    We considered single walled carbon naotubes (SWCNTs) as real three dimensional (3D) systems in a cylindrical coordinate. The optical matrix elements and linear susceptibility, χ(ω), in the tight binding approximation in terms of one-dimensional wave vector, kz and subband index, l are calculated. In an external axial magnetic field optical frequency dependence of linear susceptibility are investigated. We found that axial magnetic field has two effects on the imaginary part of the linear susceptibility spectrum, in agreement with experimental results. The first effect is broadening and the second, splitting. Also we found that for all metallic zigzag and armchair SWCNTs, the axial magnetic field leads to the creation of a peak with energy less than 1.5 eV, contrary to what is observed in the absence of a magnetic field.

  16. Small-scale quantum information processing with linear optics

    Bergou, J.A.; Steinberg, A.M.; Mohseni, M.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Photons are the ideal systems for carrying quantum information. Although performing large-scale quantum computation on optical systems is extremely demanding, non scalable linear-optics quantum information processing may prove essential as part of quantum communication networks. In addition efficient (scalable) linear-optical quantum computation proposal relies on the same optical elements. Here, by constructing multirail optical networks, we experimentally study two central problems in quantum information science, namely optimal discrimination between nonorthogonal quantum states, and controlling decoherence in quantum systems. Quantum mechanics forbids deterministic discrimination between nonorthogonal states. This is one of the central features of quantum cryptography, which leads to secure communications. Quantum state discrimination is an important primitive in quantum information processing, since it determines the limitations of a potential eavesdropper, and it has applications in quantum cloning and entanglement concentration. In this work, we experimentally implement generalized measurements in an optical system and demonstrate the first optimal unambiguous discrimination between three non-orthogonal states with a success rate of 55 %, to be compared with the 25 % maximum achievable using projective measurements. Furthermore, we present the first realization of unambiguous discrimination between a pure state and a nonorthogonal mixed state. In a separate experiment, we demonstrate how decoherence-free subspaces (DFSs) may be incorporated into a prototype optical quantum algorithm. Specifically, we present an optical realization of two-qubit Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm in presence of random noise. By introduction of localized turbulent airflow we produce a collective optical dephasing, leading to large error rates and demonstrate that using DFS encoding, the error rate in the presence of decoherence can be reduced from 35 % to essentially its pre

  17. A linear polarization converter with near unity efficiency in microwave regime

    Xu, Peng; Wang, Shen-Yun; Geyi, Wen

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we present a linear polarization converter in the reflective mode with near unity conversion efficiency. The converter is designed in an array form on the basis of a pair of orthogonally arranged three-dimensional split-loop resonators sharing a common terminal coaxial port and a continuous metallic ground slab. It converts the linearly polarized incident electromagnetic wave at resonance to its orthogonal counterpart upon the reflection mode. The conversion mechanism is explained by an equivalent circuit model, and the conversion efficiency can be tuned by changing the impedance of the terminal port. Such a scheme of the linear polarization converter has potential applications in microwave communications, remote sensing, and imaging.

  18. Photonic engineering of highly linearly polarized quantum dot emission at telecommunication wavelengths

    Mrowiński, P.; Emmerling, M.; Schneider, C.; Reithmaier, J. P.; Misiewicz, J.; Höfling, S.; Sek, G.

    2018-04-01

    In this work, we discuss a method to control the polarization anisotropy of spontaneous emission from neutral excitons confined in quantum-dot-like nanostructures, namely single epitaxial InAs quantum dashes emitting at telecom wavelengths. The nanostructures are embedded inside lithographically defined, in-plane asymmetric photonic mesa structures, which generate polarization-dependent photonic confinement. First, we study the influence of the photonic confinement on the polarization anisotropy of the emission by photoluminescence spectroscopy, and we find evidence of different contributions to a degree of linear polarization (DOLP), i.e., from the quantum dash and the photonic mesa, in total giving rise to DOLP =0.85 . Then, we perform finite-difference time-domain simulations of photonic confinement, and we calculate the DOLP in a dipole approximation showing well-matched results for the established model. Furthermore, by using numerical calculations, we demonstrate several types of photonic confinements where highly linearly polarized emission with DOLP of about 0.9 is possible by controlling the position of a quantum emitter inside the photonic structure. Then, we elaborate on anisotropic quantum emitters allowing for exceeding DOLP =0.95 in an optimized case, and we discuss the ways towards efficient linearly polarized single photon source at telecom bands.

  19. General formulae for polarization observables in deuteron electrodisintegration and linear relations

    Arenhoevel, H.; Leidemann, W.; Tomusiak, E.L.

    1993-01-01

    Formal expressions are derived for all possible polarization observables in deuteron electrodisintegration with longitudinally polarized incoming electrons, oriented deuteron targets and polarization analysis of outgoing nucleons. They are given in terms of general structure functions which can be determined experimentally. These structure functions are Hermitean forms of the T-matrix elements which, in principle, allow the determination of all T-matrix elements up to an arbitrary common phase. Since the set of structure functions is overcomplete, linear relations among various structure functions exist which are derived explicitly

  20. An L-Band Polarized Electron PWT Photoinjector for the International Linear Collider (ILC)

    Yu, David; Chen Ping; Lundquist, Martin; Luo, Yan; Smirnov, Alexei Yu

    2005-01-01

    A multi-cell, standing-wave, L-band, p-mode, plane-wave-transformer (PWT) photoinjector with an integrated photocathode in a novel linac structure is proposed by DULY Research Inc. as a polarized electron source. The PWT photoinjector is capable of operation in ultra high vacuum and moderate field gradient. Expected performance of an L-band polarized electron PWT injector operating under the parameters for the International Linear Collider is presented. The projected normalized transverse rms emittance is an order of magnitude lower than that produced with a polarized electron dc gun followed by subharmonic bunchers.

  1. Anomalous property of coherent bremsstrahlung linear polarization of relativistic electrons in a crystal

    Lapko, V.P.; Nasonov, N.N.; Truten', V.I.

    1993-01-01

    Polarization and spectral-and-angular properties of γ-radiation of the relativistic electron flux moving in a crystal under uncorrelated collisions with crystal atomic chains, are studied theoretically. Direction of linear polarization of radiation is shown to vary with energy of emitted photon. Reasons of occurrence of this effect are discussed. The results of numerical calculations demonstrating the possibility to form an intensive source of polarized γ-quanta on the basis of coherent radiation of relativistic electrons during low-angular scattering at crystal atom chains, are given

  2. Linearly and circularly polarized laser photoinduced molecular order in azo dye doped polymer films

    Saad Bendaoud

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Photo-induced behavior of Azo Disperse one (AZD1 doped Poly(Methyl MethAcrylate (PMMA using both linear and circular polarized light is studied. The anisotropy is not erased by the circular polarization light. The circular polarization light combined with relatively long lifetime of the cis state in azo dye doped polymers activate all transverse directions of the angular hole burning through the spot in the film inducing anisotropy. Under circular polarized light, there is no orientation perpendicularly to the helex described by the rotating electric field vector, trans molecules reorients in the propagation direction of the pump beam. The polarization state of the probe beam after propagation through the pumped spot depends strongly on the angle of incidence of both pump and probe beams on the input face. In the case where circular polarized pump and probe beams are under the same angle of incidence, the probe beam “sees” anisotropic film as if it is isotropic. Results of this work shows the possibility to reorient azobenzene-type molecules in two orthogonal directions using alternately linearly and circularly polarized beams.

  3. Observations on the variability of linear polarization in late-type dwarf stars

    Huovelin, J.; Linnaluoto, S.; Tuominen, I.; Virtanen, H.

    1989-04-01

    Broadband (UBV) linear polarimetric observations of a sample of late-type (F7-K5) dwarfs are reported. The observations include ten stars and extend over a maximum of 20 nights. Seven stars show significant temporal variability of polarization, which could be interpreted as rotational modulation due to slowly varying magnetic regions. Magnetic intensification in saturated Zeeman sensitive absorption lines is suggested as the dominant effect connecting linear polarization with magnetic activity in the most active single late-type dwarfs, while the wavelength dependence in the less active stars could also be due to a combination of Rayleigh and Thomson scattering.

  4. Optical pulling force on a magneto-dielectric Rayleigh sphere in Bessel tractor polarized beams

    Mitri, F.G.; Li, R.X.; Yang, R.P.; Guo, L.X.; Ding, C.Y.

    2016-01-01

    The optical radiation force induced by Bessel (vortex) beams on a magneto-dielectric subwavelength sphere is investigated with particular emphasis on the beam polarization and order l (or topological charge). The analysis is focused on identifying the regions and some of the conditions to achieve retrograde motion of the sphere centered on the axis of wave propagation of the incident beam, or shifted off-axially. Exact non-paraxial analytical solutions are established, and computations for linear, circular, radial, azimuthal and mixed polarizations of the individual plane wave components forming the Bessel (vortex) beams by means of the angular spectrum decomposition method (ASDM) illustrate the theory with particular emphasis on the tractor (i.e. reversal) behavior of the force. This effect results in the pulling of the magneto-dielectric sphere against the forward linear momentum density flux associated with the incoming waves. Should some conditions related to the choice of the beam parameters as well as the permittivity and permeability of the sphere be met, the optical force vanishes and reverses sign. Moreover, the beam polarization is shown to affect differently the axial negative pulling force for either the zeroth- or the first-order Bessel beam. When the sphere is centered on the beam′s axis, the axial force component is always negative for the zeroth-order Bessel beam except for the radial and azimuthal polarization configurations. Nonetheless, for the first-order Bessel beam, the axial force is negative for the radial polarization case only. Additional tractor beam effects arise when the sphere departs from the center of the beam. It is also demonstrated that the tractor beam effect arises from the force component originating from the cross-interaction between the electric and magnetic dipoles. Potential applications are in particle manipulation, optical levitation, tractor beam tweezers, and other emergent technologies using polarized Bessel beams on

  5. Analytical Approach to Polarization Mode Dispersion in Linearly Spun Fiber with Birefringence

    Vinod K. Mishra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD in spun optical fiber is a topic of great interest in optical networking. Earlier work in this area has focused more on approximate or numerical solutions. In this paper we present analytical results for PMD in spun fibers with triangular spin profile function. It is found that in some parameter ranges the analytical results differ from the approximations.

  6. Ultra-high Frequency Linear Fiber Optic Systems

    Lau, Kam Y

    2009-01-01

    Designed for a one-semester course on fiber-optics systems and communication links, this book provides a concise but rigorous treatment of the theory and practice of analog (linear) fiber-optics links and systems that constitute the foundation of Hybrid Fiber Coax infrastructure in present-day CATV distribution and cable modem Internet access. Emerging applications in remote fiber-optic feed for free-space millimeter wave enterprise campus networks are also described. Issues such as dispersion and interferometric noise are treated quantitatively, and means for mitigating them are explained. This broad but concise text will thus be invaluable not only to students of fiber-optics communication but also to practicing engineers.

  7. The optical polarization of M82 and the local spiral arm

    Axon, D.J.

    1977-08-01

    This thesis comprises two separate but related topics in the study of optical polarization of galaxies. In part I we investigate interstellar polarization within 2 kpc of the sun and attempt to quantify the local structure of the galactic magnetic field. In part II we report the results of polarization measurements of the peculiar galaxy M82, obtained using a new polarimeter and digital reduction techniques, and discuss models of the origin of the polarization. Measurements of the linear polarization of starlight have been collated into a catalogue containing the Stokes' parameters in galactic coordinates for those stars for which reliable distances could be determined. Assuming a magnetic alignment hypothesis we have investigated the direction and form of the galactic magnetic field through e-vector plots and from the periodicity of the Stokes' parameters Q(l) and U(l) with galactic longitude. In the second part of the thesis we describe an imaging polarimeter constructed for use with a McMullan electronographic camera and designed to operate at an f/15 focus. The instrument is intended for observations of galaxies and other nebulae to diameters of up to 8 minutes of arc and has been successfully used to observe the irregular galaxy M82 in the B-band. The results of these observations are reported in this thesis. (author)

  8. Classical and quantum non-linear optical applications using the Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    Prescod, Andru

    Mach Zehnder (MZ) modulators are widely employed in a variety of applications, such as optical communications, optical imaging, metrology and encryption. In this dissertation, we explore two non-linear MZ applications; one classified as classical and one as quantum, in which the Mach Zehnder interferometer is used. In the first application, a classical non-linear application, we introduce and study a new electro-optic highly linear (e.g., >130 dB) modulator configuration. This modulator makes use of a phase modulator (PM) in one arm of the MZ interferometer (MZI) and a ring resonator (RR) located on the other arm. The modulator performance is obtained through the control of a combination of internal and external parameters. These parameters include the RR-coupling ratio (internal parameter); the RF power split ratio and the RF phase bias (external parameters). Results show the unique and superior features, such as high linearity (SFDR˜133 dB), modulation bandwidth extension (as much as 70%) over the previously proposed and demonstrated Resonator-Assisted Mach Zehnder (RAMZ) design. Furthermore the proposed electro-optic modulator of this dissertation also provides an inherent SFDR compensation capability, even in cases where a significant waveguide optical loss exists. This design also shows potential for increased flexibility, practicality and ease of use. In the second application, a quantum non-linear application, we experimentally demonstrate quantum optical coherence tomography (QOCT) using a type II non-linear crystal (periodically-poled potassium titanyl phosphate (KTiOPO4) or PPKTP). There have been several publications discussing the merits and disadvantages of QOCT compared to OCT and other imaging techniques. First, we discuss the issues and solutions for increasing the efficiency of the quantum entangled photons. Second, we use a free space QOCT experiment to generate a high flux of these quantum entangled photons in two orthogonal polarizations, by

  9. Spin and diamagnetism in linear and nonlinear optics

    Andersen, Torsten; Keller, Ole; Huebner, Wolfgang; Johansson, Boerje

    2004-01-01

    We present a local-field theory for spin and diamagnetism in linear and nonlinear optics. We examine all the processes contained in the Pauli Hamiltonian and its corresponding microscopic current density, including the terms depending on the electron spin. The resulting general real-space conductivities are presented and discussed. To quantify the implications of including the spin, we study the linear and nonlinear optical properties of free-electron metals, represented by the screened homogeneous electron gas. The real-space formalism is transformed into Fourier space, and the symmetries of the linear and nonlinear optical conductivities in a homogeneous electron gas are discussed. Numerical results are presented for the homogeneous electron gas, in which we treat ω and q as independent variables, thereby opening the theory to near-field optics and the study of evanescent waves. We show that in regions of the ω-q spectrum, the presence of diamagnetism and spin dynamics significantly alters the response in comparison to considering only the paramagnetic response. Additionally, we discuss the effects of screening, and we finish our treatment by a discussion of how to connect the present theory to existing methods in ab initio solid-state physics

  10. Trinary optical logic processors using shadow casting with polarized light

    Ghosh, Amal K.; Basuray, A.

    1990-10-01

    An optical implementation is proposed of the modified trinary number (MTN) system (Datta et al., 1989) in which any binary number can have arithmetic operations performed on it in parallel without the need for carry and borrow steps. The present method extends the lensless shadow-casting technique of Tanida and Ichioka (1983, 1985). Three kinds of spatial coding are used for encoding the trinary input states, whereas in the decoding plane three states are identified by no light and light with two orthogonal states of polarization.

  11. Proposed method to produce a highly polarized e+ beam for future linear colliders

    Okugi, Toshiyuki; Chiba, Masami; Kurihara, Yoshimasa

    1996-01-01

    We propose a method to produce a spin-polarized e + beam using e + e - pair-creation by circularly polarized photons. Assuming Compton scattering of an unpolarized e - beam and circularly polarized laser light, scattered γ-rays at the high end of the energy spectrum are also circularly polarized. If those γ-rays are utilized to create e ± pairs on a thin target, the spin-polarization is preserved for e + 's at the high end of their energy spectrum. By using the injector linac of Accelerator Test Facility at KEK and a commercially available Nd:YAG pulse laser, we can expect about 10 5 polarized e + 's per second with a degree of polarization of 80% and a kinetic energy of 35-80 MeV. The apparatus for creation and measurement of polarized e + 's is being constructed. We present new idea for possible application of our method to future linear colliders by utilizing a high-power CO 2 laser. (author)

  12. Design of a dual linear polarization antenna using split ring resonators at X-band

    Ahmed, Sadiq; Chandra, Madhukar

    2017-11-01

    Dual linear polarization microstrip antenna configurations are very suitable for high-performance satellites, wireless communication and radar applications. This paper presents a new method to improve the co-cross polarization discrimination (XPD) for dual linear polarized microstrip antennas at 10 GHz. For this, three various configurations of a dual linear polarization antenna utilizing metamaterial unit cells are shown. In the first layout, the microstrip patch antenna is loaded with two pairs of spiral ring resonators, in the second model, a split ring resonator is placed between two microstrip feed lines, and in the third design, a complementary split ring resonators are etched in the ground plane. This work has two primary goals: the first is related to the addition of metamaterial unit cells to the antenna structure which permits compensation for an asymmetric current distribution flow on the microstrip antenna and thus yields a symmetrical current distribution on it. This compensation leads to an important enhancement in the XPD in comparison to a conventional dual linear polarized microstrip patch antenna. The simulation reveals an improvement of 7.9, 8.8, and 4 dB in the E and H planes for the three designs, respectively, in the XPD as compared to the conventional dual linear polarized patch antenna. The second objective of this paper is to present the characteristics and performances of the designs of the spiral ring resonator (S-RR), split ring resonator (SRR), and complementary split ring resonator (CSRR) metamaterial unit cells. The simulations are evaluated using the commercial full-wave simulator, Ansoft High-Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS).

  13. Matrix preconditioning: a robust operation for optical linear algebra processors.

    Ghosh, A; Paparao, P

    1987-07-15

    Analog electrooptical processors are best suited for applications demanding high computational throughput with tolerance for inaccuracies. Matrix preconditioning is one such application. Matrix preconditioning is a preprocessing step for reducing the condition number of a matrix and is used extensively with gradient algorithms for increasing the rate of convergence and improving the accuracy of the solution. In this paper, we describe a simple parallel algorithm for matrix preconditioning, which can be implemented efficiently on a pipelined optical linear algebra processor. From the results of our numerical experiments we show that the efficacy of the preconditioning algorithm is affected very little by the errors of the optical system.

  14. Generation of linearly polarized resonant transition radiation X-ray beam

    Yajima, Kazuaki; Awata, Takaaki; Ikeda, Mitsuharu; Ikeda, Kenichi; Yogo, Akifumi; Itoh, Akio; Imanishi, Nobutsugu

    2000-01-01

    We have proposed a method to generate almost linearly polarized resonant transition radiation X rays by using a rectangular slit placed on an electron beam axis. Our calculation predicted that the linearity is 93.5% for the resonant transition radiation X-ray beam extracted through a slit of 0.5 mrad long and 0.2 mrad wide in case of 1-GeV electron beam irradiating a 7.5-μm thick Kapton foil stack. (author)

  15. Generation of linearly polarized resonant transition radiation X-ray beam

    Yajima, Kazuaki; Awata, Takaaki; Ikeda, Mitsuharu; Ikeda, Kenichi; Yogo, Akifumi; Itoh, Akio; Imanishi, Nobutsugu [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    2000-03-01

    We have proposed a method to generate almost linearly polarized resonant transition radiation X rays by using a rectangular slit placed on an electron beam axis. Our calculation predicted that the linearity is 93.5% for the resonant transition radiation X-ray beam extracted through a slit of 0.5 mrad long and 0.2 mrad wide in case of 1-GeV electron beam irradiating a 7.5-{mu}m thick Kapton foil stack. (author)

  16. Polarization mode dispersion in optical fiber transmission systems

    Cameron, John Charles

    The birefringence of optical fibers causes pulse broadening in fiber-optic communication systems. This phenomenon is known as polarization mode dispersion (PMD). PMD is one of the most important limiting factors for high capacity fiber-optic systems. A number of aspects of PMD are examined in this thesis. In Chapter 2 an expression is derived for the probability density function of the pulse broadening due to first-order PMD. This result is used to obtain an expression for the system limitation due to PMD. The birefringence of optical fibers is commonly simulated with the waveplate model. In Chapter 3 two standard versions of the waveplate model are introduced. In addition, a novel waveplate model is proposed. The characteristics of the three versions of the waveplate model are examined to confirm their suitability for use in subsequent chapters of the thesis. Simulations with the waveplate model are performed in Chapter 4 for three purposes: (1) to determine the impact of chromatic dispersion on the system limitation due to PMD, (2) to examine the effectiveness of three different PMD compensation techniques in the presence of chromatic dispersion, and (3) to examine the interaction of second-order chromatic dispersion with PMD. The simulations in Chapter 4 reveal that it is possible with one compensation technique to have output pulses that are narrower than the input pulses. In Chapter 5, this anomalous pulse narrowing is demonstrated analytically for a simple model of PMD and through experiment. It is also shown that this pulse narrowing can be explained as an interference phenomenon. Chapter 6 presents measurements of PMD and state of polarization on installed optical fibers. The PMD coefficients of 122 fibers are presented and the results are analyzed in terms of the age of the fibers and the type of cabling. Measurements of the time evolution of PMD and state of polarization are presented for fibers installed in both buried and aerial cables. The uncertainty

  17. All-optical clocked flip-flops and random access memory cells using the nonlinear polarization rotation effect of low-polarization-dependent semiconductor optical amplifiers

    Wang, Yongjun; Liu, Xinyu; Tian, Qinghua; Wang, Lina; Xin, Xiangjun

    2018-03-01

    Basic configurations of various all-optical clocked flip-flops (FFs) and optical random access memory (RAM) based on the nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR) effect of low-polarization-dependent semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA) are proposed. As the constituent elements, all-optical logic gates and all-optical SR latches are constructed by taking advantage of the SOA's NPR switch. Different all-optical FFs (AOFFs), including SR-, D-, T-, and JK-types as well as an optical RAM cell were obtained by the combination of the proposed all-optical SR latches and logic gates. The effectiveness of the proposed schemes were verified by simulation results and demonstrated by a D-FF and 1-bit RAM cell experimental system. The proposed all-optical clocked FFs and RAM cell are significant to all-optical signal processing.

  18. The RINGO2 and DIPOL optical polarization catalogue of blazars

    Jermak, H.; Steele, I. A.; Lindfors, E.; Hovatta, T.; Nilsson, K.; Lamb, G. P.; Mundell, C.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Berdyugin, A.; Kadenius, V.; Reinthal, R.; Takalo, L.

    2016-11-01

    We present ˜2000 polarimetric and ˜3000 photometric observations of 15 γ-ray bright blazars over a period of 936 days (2008-10-11 to 2012-10-26) using data from the Tuorla blazar monitoring program (KVA DIPOL) and Liverpool Telescope (LT) RINGO2 polarimeters (supplemented with data from SkyCamZ (LT) and Fermi-LAT γ-ray data). In 11 out of 15 sources we identify a total of 19 electric vector position angle (EVPA) rotations and 95 flaring episodes. We group the sources into subclasses based on their broad-band spectral characteristics and compare their observed optical and γ-ray properties. We find that (1) the optical magnitude and γ-ray flux are positively correlated, (2) EVPA rotations can occur in any blazar subclass, four sources show rotations that go in one direction and immediately rotate back, (3) we see no difference in the γ-ray flaring rates in the sample; flares can occur during and outside of rotations with no preference for this behaviour, (4) the average degree of polarization (DoP), optical magnitude and γ-ray flux are lower during an EVPA rotation compared with during non-rotation and the distribution of the DoP during EVPA rotations is not drawn from the same parent sample as the distribution outside rotations, (5) the number of observed flaring events and optical polarization rotations are correlated, however we find no strong evidence for a temporal association between individual flares and rotations and (6) the maximum observed DoP increases from ˜10 per cent to ˜30 per cent to ˜40 per cent for subclasses with synchrotron peaks at high, intermediate and low frequencies, respectively.

  19. Quantitative investigation of linear arbitrary polarization in an APPLE-II undulator.

    Hand, Matthew; Wang, Hongchang; Maccherozzi, Francesco; Apollonio, Marco; Zhu, Jingtao; Dhesi, Sarnjeet S; Sawhney, Kawal

    2018-03-01

    Insertion devices are utilized at synchrotron radiation facilities around the world for their capability to provide a high-brilliance X-ray beam. APPLE-II type undulators are especially important for their capacity to switch between a variety of photon beam polarization states. A high-precision soft X-ray polarimeter has been used to investigate the polarization calibration of an APPLE-II undulator (period length λ u = 64 mm) installed on beamline I06 at Diamond Light Source. Systematic measurement of the beam polarization state at a range of linear arbitrary angles has been compared with the expected result for a given set of undulator gap and row phase parameters calculated from theory. Determination of the corresponding Stokes-Poincaré parameters from the measured data reveals a discrepancy between the two. The limited number of energy/polarization combinations included in the undulator calibration tables necessitates the use of interpolated values for the missing points which is expected to contribute to the discrepancy. However, by modifying the orbit of the electron beam through the undulator by at least 160 µm it has been found that for certain linear polarizations the discrepancies can be corrected. Overall, it is suggested that complete correction of the Stokes-Poincaré parameters for all linear angles would require alteration of both these aspects.

  20. Fault tolerance in parity-state linear optical quantum computing

    Hayes, A. J. F.; Ralph, T. C.; Haselgrove, H. L.; Gilchrist, Alexei

    2010-01-01

    We use a combination of analytical and numerical techniques to calculate the noise threshold and resource requirements for a linear optical quantum computing scheme based on parity-state encoding. Parity-state encoding is used at the lowest level of code concatenation in order to efficiently correct errors arising from the inherent nondeterminism of two-qubit linear-optical gates. When combined with teleported error-correction (using either a Steane or Golay code) at higher levels of concatenation, the parity-state scheme is found to achieve a saving of approximately three orders of magnitude in resources when compared to the cluster state scheme, at a cost of a somewhat reduced noise threshold.

  1. One-step deterministic multipartite entanglement purification with linear optics

    Sheng, Yu-Bo [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Long, Gui Lu, E-mail: gllong@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Center for Atomic and Molecular NanoSciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory for Quantum Information and Measurements, Beijing 100084 (China); Deng, Fu-Guo [Department of Physics, Applied Optics Beijing Area Major Laboratory, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2012-01-09

    We present a one-step deterministic multipartite entanglement purification scheme for an N-photon system in a Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger state with linear optical elements. The parties in quantum communication can in principle obtain a maximally entangled state from each N-photon system with a success probability of 100%. That is, it does not consume the less-entangled photon systems largely, which is far different from other multipartite entanglement purification schemes. This feature maybe make this scheme more feasible in practical applications. -- Highlights: ► We proposed a deterministic entanglement purification scheme for GHZ states. ► The scheme uses only linear optical elements and has a success probability of 100%. ► The scheme gives a purified GHZ state in just one-step.

  2. Structured caustic vector vortex optical field: manipulating optical angular momentum flux and polarization rotation.

    Chen, Rui-Pin; Chen, Zhaozhong; Chew, Khian-Hooi; Li, Pei-Gang; Yu, Zhongliang; Ding, Jianping; He, Sailing

    2015-05-29

    A caustic vector vortex optical field is experimentally generated and demonstrated by a caustic-based approach. The desired caustic with arbitrary acceleration trajectories, as well as the structured states of polarization (SoP) and vortex orders located in different positions in the field cross-section, is generated by imposing the corresponding spatial phase function in a vector vortex optical field. Our study reveals that different spin and orbital angular momentum flux distributions (including opposite directions) in different positions in the cross-section of a caustic vector vortex optical field can be dynamically managed during propagation by intentionally choosing the initial polarization and vortex topological charges, as a result of the modulation of the caustic phase. We find that the SoP in the field cross-section rotates during propagation due to the existence of the vortex. The unique structured feature of the caustic vector vortex optical field opens the possibility of multi-manipulation of optical angular momentum fluxes and SoP, leading to more complex manipulation of the optical field scenarios. Thus this approach further expands the functionality of an optical system.

  3. Photoelectron linear accelerator for producing a low emittance polarized electron beam

    Yu, David U.; Clendenin, James E.; Kirby, Robert E.

    2004-06-01

    A photoelectron linear accelerator for producing a low emittance polarized electric beam. The accelerator includes a tube having an inner wall, the inner tube wall being coated by a getter material. A portable, or demountable, cathode plug is mounted within said tube, the surface of said cathode having a semiconductor material formed thereon.

  4. Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography in equine bone

    Jacobs, J. W.; Matcher, S. J.

    2009-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been used to image equine bone samples. OCT and polarization sensitive OCT (PS-OCT) images of equine bone samples, before and after demineralization, are presented. Using a novel approach, taking a series of images at different angles of illumination, the polar angle and true birefringence of collagen within the tissue is determined, at one site in the sample. The images were taken before and after the bones were passed through a demineralization process. The images show an improvement in depth penetration after demineralization allowing better visualization of the internal structure of the bone and the optical orientation of the collagen. A quantitative measurement of true birefringence has been made of the bone; true birefringence was shown to be 1.9x10-3 before demineralization increasing to 2.7x10-3 after demineralization. However, determined collagen fiber orientation remains the same before and after demineralization. The study of bone is extensive within the field of tissue engineering where an understanding of the internal structures is essential. OCT in bone, and improved depth penetration through demineralization, offers a useful approach to bone analysis.

  5. Reversible optical control of macroscopic polarization in ferroelectrics

    Rubio-Marcos, Fernando; Ochoa, Diego A.; Del Campo, Adolfo; García, Miguel A.; Castro, Germán R.; Fernández, José F.; García, José E.

    2018-01-01

    The optical control of ferroic properties is a subject of fascination for the scientific community, because it involves the establishment of new paradigms for technology1-9. Domains and domain walls are known to have a great impact on the properties of ferroic materials1-24. Progress is currently being made in understanding the behaviour of the ferroelectric domain wall, especially regarding its dynamic control10-12,17,19. New research is being conducted to find effective methodologies capable of modulating ferroelectric domain motion for future electronics. However, the practical use of ferroelectric domain wall motion should be both stable and reversible (rewritable) and, in particular, be able to produce a macroscopic response that can be monitored easily12,17. Here, we show that it is possible to achieve a reversible optical change of ferroelectric domains configuration. This effect leads to the tuning of macroscopic polarization and its related properties by means of polarized light, a non-contact external control. Although this is only the first step, it nevertheless constitutes the most crucial one in the long and complex process of developing the next generation of photo-stimulated ferroelectric devices.

  6. Bhabha vs. Moeller scattering as a contact-interaction analyzer at a polarized linear collider

    Pankov, A A

    2002-01-01

    We discuss electron-electron contact-interaction searches in the processes e sup + e sup -->e sup + e sup - and e sup - e sup -->e sup - e sup - at planned Linear Colliders run in the e sup + e sup - and e sup - e sup - modes with both beams longitudinally polarized. Our analysis is based on the measurement, for the two processes, of polarized differential cross sections, and allows to simultaneously take into account the general set of electron contact interaction couplings as independent, non-zero, parameters thus avoiding the simplifying choice of a model. We evaluate the corresponding model-independent constraints on the contact coupling constants, emphasizing the role of the available beam polarization and the complementarity, as far as the chirality of the constants is concerned, of the two processes in giving the best constraints. We also make a comparison with the potential of e sup + e sup --> mu supmu sup - at the same energy and initial beams polarization.

  7. Bhabha vs. Moeller scattering as a contact-interaction analyzer at a polarized linear collider

    Pankov, A.; Paver, N.

    2002-10-01

    We discuss electron-electron contact-interaction searches in the processes e + e - →e + e - and e - e - →e - e - at planned Linear Colliders run in the e + e - and e - e - modes with both beams longitudinally polarized. Our analysis is based on the measurement, for the two processes, of polarized differential cross sections, and allows to simultaneously take into account the general set of electron contact interaction couplings as independent, non-zero, parameters thus avoiding the simplifying choice of a model. We evaluate the corresponding model-independent constraints on the contact coupling constants, emphasizing the role of the available beam polarization and the complementarity, as far as the chirality of the constants is concerned, of the two processes in giving the best constraints. We also make a comparison with the potential of e + e - →μ μ- at the same energy and initial beams polarization. (author)

  8. MAPPING THE LINEARLY POLARIZED SPECTRAL LINE EMISSION AROUND THE EVOLVED STAR IRC+10216

    Girart, J. M. [Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai, (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciencies, C5p 2, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalunya (Spain); Patel, N. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Vlemmings, W. H. T. [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, SE-439 92 Onsala (Sweden); Rao, Ramprasad, E-mail: girart@ice.cat [Submillimeter Array, Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 645 N. Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2012-05-20

    We present spectro-polarimetric observations of several molecular lines obtained with the Submillimeter Array toward the carbon-rich asymptotic giant branch star IRC+10216. We have detected and mapped the linear polarization of the CO 3-2, SiS 19-18, and CS 7-6 lines. The polarization arises at a distance of {approx_equal} 450 AU from the star and is blueshifted with respect to the Stokes I. The SiS 19-18 polarization pattern appears to be consistent with a locally radial magnetic field configuration. However, the CO 3-2 and CS 7-6 line polarization suggests an overall complex magnetic field morphology within the envelope. This work demonstrates the feasibility of using spectro-polarimetric observations to carry out tomographic imaging of the magnetic field in circumstellar envelopes.

  9. Joint polarization tracking and channel equalization based on radius-directed linear Kalman filter

    Zhang, Qun; Yang, Yanfu; Zhong, Kangping; Liu, Jie; Wu, Xiong; Yao, Yong

    2018-01-01

    We propose a joint polarization tracking and channel equalization scheme based on radius-directed linear Kalman filter (RD-LKF) by introducing the butterfly finite-impulse-response (FIR) filter in our previously proposed RD-LKF method. Along with the fast polarization tracking, it can also simultaneously compensate the inter-symbol interference (ISI) effects including residual chromatic dispersion and polarization mode dispersion. Compared with the conventional radius-directed equalizer (RDE) algorithm, it is demonstrated experimentally that three times faster convergence speed, one order of magnitude better tracking capability, and better BER performance is obtained in polarization division multiplexing 16 quadrature amplitude modulation system. Besides, the influences of the algorithm parameters on the convergence and the tracking performance are investigated by numerical simulation.

  10. Circularly polarized near-field optical mapping of spin-resolved quantum Hall chiral edge states.

    Mamyouda, Syuhei; Ito, Hironori; Shibata, Yusuke; Kashiwaya, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Masumi; Akazaki, Tatsushi; Tamura, Hiroyuki; Ootuka, Youiti; Nomura, Shintaro

    2015-04-08

    We have successfully developed a circularly polarized near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) that enables us to irradiate circularly polarized light with spatial resolution below the diffraction limit. As a demonstration, we perform real-space mapping of the quantum Hall chiral edge states near the edge of a Hall-bar structure by injecting spin polarized electrons optically at low temperature. The obtained real-space mappings show that spin-polarized electrons are injected optically to the two-dimensional electron layer. Our general method to locally inject spins using a circularly polarized NSOM should be broadly applicable to characterize a variety of nanomaterials and nanostructures.

  11. Polarization tracking system for free-space optical communication, including quantum communication

    Nordholt, Jane Elizabeth; Newell, Raymond Thorson; Peterson, Charles Glen; Hughes, Richard John

    2018-01-09

    Quantum communication transmitters include beacon lasers that transmit a beacon optical signal in a predetermined state of polarization such as one of the states of polarization of a quantum communication basis. Changes in the beacon polarization are detected at a receiver, and a retarder is adjusted so that the states of polarization in a received quantum communication optical signal are matched to basis polarizations. The beacon and QC signals can be at different wavelengths so that the beacon does not interfere with detection and decoding of the QC optical signal.

  12. Spin physics with polarized electrons at the SLC [Stanford Linear Collider

    Moffeit, K.C.

    1990-11-01

    The Stanford Linear Collider was designed to accommodate polarized electron beams. A gallium arsenide-based photon emission source will provide a beam of longitudinally polarized electrons of about 40 percent polarization. A system of bend magnets and a superconducting solenoid will be used to rotate the spins so that the polarization is preserved while the 1.21 GeV electrons are stored in the damping ring. Another set of bend magnets and two superconducting solenoids orient the spin vectors so that longitudinal polarization of the electrons is achieved at the collision point with the unpolarized positions. A system to monitor the polarization based on Moeller and Compton scattering will be used. Spin physics with longitudinally polarized electrons uses the measurement of the left-right asymmetry to provide tests of the Standard Model. The uncertainty in the measurement is precise enough to be sensitive to the effects of particles which can not be produced directly in the machines we have today. 5 refs

  13. Unconditional quantum cloning of coherent states with linear optics

    Leuchs, G.; Andersen, U.L.; Josse, V.

    2005-01-01

    Intense light pulses with non-classical properties are used to implement protocols for quantum communication. Most of the elements in the tool box needed to assemble the experimental set-ups for these protocols are readily described by Bogoliubov transformations corresponding to Gaussian transformations that map Gaussian states onto Gaussian states. One particularly interesting application is quantum cloning of a coherent state. A scheme for optimal Gaussian cloning of optical coherent states is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Its optical realization is based entirely on simple linear optical elements and homodyne detection. The optimality of the presented scheme is only limited by detection inefficiencies. Experimentally we achieved a cloning fidelity of about 65%, which almost touches the optimal value of 2/3. (author)

  14. Preserving Simplecticity in the Numerical Integration of Linear Beam Optics

    Allen, Christopher K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Presented are mathematical tools and methods for the development of numerical integration techniques that preserve the symplectic condition inherent to mechanics. The intended audience is for beam physicists with backgrounds in numerical modeling and simulation with particular attention to beam optics applications. The paper focuses on Lie methods that are inherently symplectic regardless of the integration accuracy order. Section 2 provides the mathematically tools used in the sequel and necessary for the reader to extend the covered techniques. Section 3 places those tools in the context of charged-particle beam optics; in particular linear beam optics is presented in terms of a Lie algebraic matrix representation. Section 4 presents numerical stepping techniques with particular emphasis on a third-order leapfrog method. Section 5 discusses the modeling of field imperfections with particular attention to the fringe fields of quadrupole focusing magnets. The direct computation of a third order transfer matrix for a fringe field is shown.

  15. Polycarbonate-Based Blends for Optical Non-linear Applications

    Stanculescu, F.; Stanculescu, A.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents some investigations on the optical and morphological properties of the polymer (matrix):monomer (inclusion) composite materials obtained from blends of bisphenol A polycarbonate and amidic monomers. For the preparation of the composite films, we have selected monomers characterised by a maleamic acid structure and synthesised them starting from maleic anhydride and aniline derivatives with -COOH, -NO2, -N(C2H5)2 functional groups attached to the benzene ring. The composite films have been deposited by spin coating using a mixture of two solutions, one containing the matrix and the other the inclusion, both components of the composite system being dissolved in the same solvent. The optical transmission and photoluminescence properties of the composite films have been investigated in correlation with the morphology of the films. The scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy have revealed a non-uniform morphology characterised by the development of two distinct phases. We have also investigated the generation of some optical non-linear (ONL) phenomena in these composite systems. The composite films containing as inclusions monomers characterised by the presence of one -COOH or two -NO2 substituent groups to the aromatic nucleus have shown the most intense second-harmonic generation (SHG). The second-order optical non-linear coefficients have been evaluated for these films, and the effect of the laser power on the ONL behaviour of these materials has also been emphasised.

  16. Performance of wireless optical communication systems under polarization effects over atmospheric turbulence

    Zhang, Jiankun; Li, Ziyang; Dang, Anhong

    2018-06-01

    It has been recntly shown that polarization state of propagation beam would suffer from polarization fluctuations due to the detrimental effects of atmospheric turbulence. This paper studies the performance of wireless optical communication (WOC) systems in the presence of polarization effect of atmosphere. We categorize the atmospheric polarization effect into polarization rotation, polarization-dependent power loss, and phase shift effect, with each effect described and modeled with the help of polarization-coherence theory and the extended Huygens-Fresnelprinciple. The channel matrices are derived to measure the cross-polarization interference of the system. Signal-to-noise ratio and bit error rate for polarization multiplexing system and polarization modulation system are obtained to assess the viability using the approach of M turbulence model. Monte Carlo simulation results show the performance of polarization based WOC systems to be degraded by atmospheric polarization effect, which could be evaluated precisely using the proposed model with given turbulent strengths.

  17. Recirculating beam-breakup thresholds for polarized higher-order modes with optical coupling

    Georg H. Hoffstaetter

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Here we will derive the general theory of the beam-breakup (BBU instability in recirculating linear accelerators with coupled beam optics and with polarized higher-order dipole modes. The bunches do not have to be at the same radio-frequency phase during each recirculation turn. This is important for the description of energy recovery linacs (ERLs where beam currents become very large and coupled optics are used on purpose to increase the threshold current. This theory can be used for the analysis of phase errors of recirculated bunches, and of errors in the optical coupling arrangement. It is shown how the threshold current for a given linac can be computed and a remarkable agreement with tracking data is demonstrated. General formulas are then analyzed for several analytically solvable problems: (a Why can different higher order modes (HOM in one cavity couple and why can they then not be considered individually, even when their frequencies are separated by much more than the resonance widths of the HOMs? For the Cornell ERL as an example, it is noted that optimum advantage is taken of coupled optics when the cavities are designed with an x-y HOM frequency splitting of above 50 MHz. The simulated threshold current is then far above the design current of this accelerator. To justify that the simulation can represent an actual accelerator, we simulate cavities with 1 to 8 modes and show that using a limited number of modes is reasonable. (b How does the x-y coupling in the particle optics determine when modes can be considered separately? (c How much of an increase in threshold current can be obtained by coupled optics and why does the threshold current for polarized modes diminish roughly with the square root of the HOMs’ quality factors. Because of this square root scaling, polarized modes with coupled optics increase the threshold current more effectively for cavities that have rather large HOM quality factors, e.g. those without very

  18. OPTICAL POLARIZATION AND SPECTRAL VARIABILITY IN THE M87 JET

    Perlman, Eric S.; Cara, Mihai; Bourque, Matthew; Simons, Raymond C. [Department of Physics and Space Sciences, 150 W. University Blvd., Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States); Adams, Steven C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30605 (United States); Harris, D. E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Madrid, Juan P. [Center for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Clausen-Brown, Eric [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Cheung, C. C. [National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC 20001 (United States); Stawarz, Lukasz [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, JAXA, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Georganopoulos, Markos [Department of Physics, University of Maryland-Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Sparks, William B.; Biretta, John A., E-mail: eperlman@fit.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2011-12-20

    During the last decade, M87's jet has been the site of an extraordinary variability event, with one knot (HST-1) increasing by over a factor 100 in brightness. Variability has also been seen on timescales of months in the nuclear flux. Here we discuss the optical-UV polarization and spectral variability of these components, which show vastly different behavior. HST-1 shows a highly significant correlation between flux and polarization, with P increasing from {approx}20% at minimum to >40% at maximum, while the orientation of its electric vector stayed constant. HST-1's optical-UV spectrum is very hard ({alpha}{sub UV-O} {approx} 0.5, F{sub {nu}}{proportional_to}{nu}{sup -{alpha}}), and displays 'hard lags' during epochs 2004.9-2005.5, including the peak of the flare, with soft lags at later epochs. We interpret the behavior of HST-1 as enhanced particle acceleration in a shock, with cooling from both particle aging and the relaxation of the compression. We set 2{sigma} upper limits of 0.5{delta} pc and 1.02c on the size and advance speed of the flaring region. The slight deviation of the electric vector orientation from the jet position angle (P.A.) makes it likely that on smaller scales the flaring region has either a double or twisted structure. By contrast, the nucleus displays much more rapid variability, with a highly variable electric vector orientation and 'looping' in the (I, P) plane. The nucleus has a much steeper spectrum ({alpha}{sub UV-O} {approx} 1.5) but does not show UV-optical spectral variability. Its behavior can be interpreted as either a helical distortion to a steady jet or a shock propagating through a helical jet.

  19. OPTICAL POLARIZATION AND SPECTRAL VARIABILITY IN THE M87 JET

    Perlman, Eric S.; Cara, Mihai; Bourque, Matthew; Simons, Raymond C.; Adams, Steven C.; Harris, D. E.; Madrid, Juan P.; Clausen-Brown, Eric; Cheung, C. C.; Stawarz, Lukasz; Georganopoulos, Markos; Sparks, William B.; Biretta, John A.

    2011-01-01

    During the last decade, M87's jet has been the site of an extraordinary variability event, with one knot (HST-1) increasing by over a factor 100 in brightness. Variability has also been seen on timescales of months in the nuclear flux. Here we discuss the optical-UV polarization and spectral variability of these components, which show vastly different behavior. HST-1 shows a highly significant correlation between flux and polarization, with P increasing from ∼20% at minimum to >40% at maximum, while the orientation of its electric vector stayed constant. HST-1's optical-UV spectrum is very hard (α UV-O ∼ 0.5, F ν ∝ν –α ), and displays 'hard lags' during epochs 2004.9-2005.5, including the peak of the flare, with soft lags at later epochs. We interpret the behavior of HST-1 as enhanced particle acceleration in a shock, with cooling from both particle aging and the relaxation of the compression. We set 2σ upper limits of 0.5δ pc and 1.02c on the size and advance speed of the flaring region. The slight deviation of the electric vector orientation from the jet position angle (P.A.) makes it likely that on smaller scales the flaring region has either a double or twisted structure. By contrast, the nucleus displays much more rapid variability, with a highly variable electric vector orientation and 'looping' in the (I, P) plane. The nucleus has a much steeper spectrum (α UV-O ∼ 1.5) but does not show UV-optical spectral variability. Its behavior can be interpreted as either a helical distortion to a steady jet or a shock propagating through a helical jet.

  20. Optic axis determination by fibre-based polarization-sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomography

    Lu Zenghai; Kasaragod, Deepa K; Matcher, Stephen J, E-mail: z.lu@sheffield.ac.uk, E-mail: s.j.matcher@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kroto Research Institute, University of Sheffield, North Campus, Broad Lane, Sheffield, S3 7HQ (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-21

    We describe a fibre-based variable-incidence angle (VIA) polarization-sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomography (PS-SS-OCT) system to determine the 3D optical axis of birefringent biological tissues. Single-plane VIA-PS-OCT is also explored which requires measurement of the absolute fast-axis orientation. A state-of-the-art PS-SS-OCT system with some improvements both in hardware and software was used to determine the apparent optical birefringence of equine tendon for a number of different illumination directions. Polar and azimuthal angles of cut equine tendon were produced by the VIA method and compared with the nominal values. A quarter waveplate (QWP) and equine tendon were used as test targets to validate the fast-axis measurements using the system. Polar and azimuthal angles of cut equine tendon broadly agreed with the expected values within about 8% of the nominal values. A theoretical and experimental analysis of the effect of the sample arm fibre on determination of optical axis orientation using a proposed definition based on the orientation of the eigenpolarization ellipse experimentally confirms that this algorithm only works correctly for special settings of the sample arm fibre. A proposed algorithm based on the angle between Stokes vectors on the Poincare sphere is confirmed to work for all settings of the sample arm fibre. A calibration procedure is proposed to remove the sign ambiguity of the measured orientation and was confirmed experimentally by using the QWP.

  1. Optic axis determination by fibre-based polarization-sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomography

    Lu Zenghai; Kasaragod, Deepa K; Matcher, Stephen J

    2011-01-01

    We describe a fibre-based variable-incidence angle (VIA) polarization-sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomography (PS-SS-OCT) system to determine the 3D optical axis of birefringent biological tissues. Single-plane VIA-PS-OCT is also explored which requires measurement of the absolute fast-axis orientation. A state-of-the-art PS-SS-OCT system with some improvements both in hardware and software was used to determine the apparent optical birefringence of equine tendon for a number of different illumination directions. Polar and azimuthal angles of cut equine tendon were produced by the VIA method and compared with the nominal values. A quarter waveplate (QWP) and equine tendon were used as test targets to validate the fast-axis measurements using the system. Polar and azimuthal angles of cut equine tendon broadly agreed with the expected values within about 8% of the nominal values. A theoretical and experimental analysis of the effect of the sample arm fibre on determination of optical axis orientation using a proposed definition based on the orientation of the eigenpolarization ellipse experimentally confirms that this algorithm only works correctly for special settings of the sample arm fibre. A proposed algorithm based on the angle between Stokes vectors on the Poincare sphere is confirmed to work for all settings of the sample arm fibre. A calibration procedure is proposed to remove the sign ambiguity of the measured orientation and was confirmed experimentally by using the QWP.

  2. Microscopic optical path length difference and polarization measurement system for cell analysis

    Satake, H.; Ikeda, K.; Kowa, H.; Hoshiba, T.; Watanabe, E.

    2018-03-01

    In recent years, noninvasive, nonstaining, and nondestructive quantitative cell measurement techniques have become increasingly important in the medical field. These cell measurement techniques enable the quantitative analysis of living cells, and are therefore applied to various cell identification processes, such as those determining the passage number limit during cell culturing in regenerative medicine. To enable cell measurement, we developed a quantitative microscopic phase imaging system based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer that measures the optical path length difference distribution without phase unwrapping using optical phase locking. The applicability of our phase imaging system was demonstrated by successful identification of breast cancer cells amongst normal cells. However, the cell identification method using this phase imaging system exhibited a false identification rate of approximately 7%. In this study, we implemented a polarimetric imaging system by introducing a polarimetric module to one arm of the Mach-Zehnder interferometer of our conventional phase imaging system. This module was comprised of a quarter wave plate and a rotational polarizer on the illumination side of the sample, and a linear polarizer on the optical detector side. In addition, we developed correction methods for the measurement errors of the optical path length and birefringence phase differences that arose through the influence of elements other than cells, such as the Petri dish. As the Petri dish holding the fluid specimens was transparent, it did not affect the amplitude information; however, the optical path length and birefringence phase differences were affected. Therefore, we proposed correction of the optical path length and birefringence phase for the influence of elements other than cells, as a prerequisite for obtaining highly precise phase and polarimetric images.

  3. 5G antenna array with wide-angle beam steering and dual linear polarizations

    Klionovski, Kirill; Shamim, Atif; Sharawi, Mohammad Said

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present the design of a switched-beam antenna array at millimeter-wave frequencies for future 5G applications. The proposed antenna array is based on wideband patch antenna elements and a Butler matrix feed network. The patch antenna has a broad radiation pattern for wide-angle beam steering and allows the simultaneous operation with two orthogonal linear polarizations. A combination of two separated Butler matrices provides independent beam steering for both polarizations in the wide operating band. The antenna array has a simple multilayer construction, and it is made on a low-cost Rogers laminate.

  4. 5G antenna array with wide-angle beam steering and dual linear polarizations

    Klionovski, Kirill

    2017-10-25

    In this paper, we present the design of a switched-beam antenna array at millimeter-wave frequencies for future 5G applications. The proposed antenna array is based on wideband patch antenna elements and a Butler matrix feed network. The patch antenna has a broad radiation pattern for wide-angle beam steering and allows the simultaneous operation with two orthogonal linear polarizations. A combination of two separated Butler matrices provides independent beam steering for both polarizations in the wide operating band. The antenna array has a simple multilayer construction, and it is made on a low-cost Rogers laminate.

  5. Gamma-ray linear polarization measurements following heavy-ion bombardment of odd isotopes of Pd

    Kim, J.S.; Lee, Y.K.; Hardy, K.A.; Simms, P.C.; Grau, J.A.; Smith, G.J.; Rickey, F.A.

    1975-01-01

    γ-ray linear polarization measurements have been used to locate negative parity states in the even-odd isotopes 99 , 101 , 103 Pd. A Compton polarimeter based on two Ge(Li) coaxial detectors was used. Collective bands (I=11 - /2, 15 - /2, 19 - /2, . . .) bulit on 11 - /2 states were observed in 101 Pd and 103 Pd. Many negative parity states were also observed in 99 Pd, but they do not appear to be part of a similar collective band. These polarization measurements also confirm many angular momentum assignments which previously had been made using systematic arguments

  6. High-Dimensional Quantum Information Processing with Linear Optics

    Fitzpatrick, Casey A.

    Quantum information processing (QIP) is an interdisciplinary field concerned with the development of computers and information processing systems that utilize quantum mechanical properties of nature to carry out their function. QIP systems have become vastly more practical since the turn of the century. Today, QIP applications span imaging, cryptographic security, computation, and simulation (quantum systems that mimic other quantum systems). Many important strategies improve quantum versions of classical information system hardware, such as single photon detectors and quantum repeaters. Another more abstract strategy engineers high-dimensional quantum state spaces, so that each successful event carries more information than traditional two-level systems allow. Photonic states in particular bring the added advantages of weak environmental coupling and data transmission near the speed of light, allowing for simpler control and lower system design complexity. In this dissertation, numerous novel, scalable designs for practical high-dimensional linear-optical QIP systems are presented. First, a correlated photon imaging scheme using orbital angular momentum (OAM) states to detect rotational symmetries in objects using measurements, as well as building images out of those interactions is reported. Then, a statistical detection method using chains of OAM superpositions distributed according to the Fibonacci sequence is established and expanded upon. It is shown that the approach gives rise to schemes for sorting, detecting, and generating the recursively defined high-dimensional states on which some quantum cryptographic protocols depend. Finally, an ongoing study based on a generalization of the standard optical multiport for applications in quantum computation and simulation is reported upon. The architecture allows photons to reverse momentum inside the device. This in turn enables realistic implementation of controllable linear-optical scattering vertices for

  7. Imaging linear and circular polarization features in leaves with complete Mueller matrix polarimetry.

    Patty, C H Lucas; Luo, David A; Snik, Frans; Ariese, Freek; Buma, Wybren Jan; Ten Kate, Inge Loes; van Spanning, Rob J M; Sparks, William B; Germer, Thomas A; Garab, Győző; Kudenov, Michael W

    2018-06-01

    Spectropolarimetry of intact plant leaves allows to probe the molecular architecture of vegetation photosynthesis in a non-invasive and non-destructive way and, as such, can offer a wealth of physiological information. In addition to the molecular signals due to the photosynthetic machinery, the cell structure and its arrangement within a leaf can create and modify polarization signals. Using Mueller matrix polarimetry with rotating retarder modulation, we have visualized spatial variations in polarization in transmission around the chlorophyll a absorbance band from 650 nm to 710 nm. We show linear and circular polarization measurements of maple leaves and cultivated maize leaves and discuss the corresponding Mueller matrices and the Mueller matrix decompositions, which show distinct features in diattenuation, polarizance, retardance and depolarization. Importantly, while normal leaf tissue shows a typical split signal with both a negative and a positive peak in the induced fractional circular polarization and circular dichroism, the signals close to the veins only display a negative band. The results are similar to the negative band as reported earlier for single macrodomains. We discuss the possible role of the chloroplast orientation around the veins as a cause of this phenomenon. Systematic artefacts are ruled out as three independent measurements by different instruments gave similar results. These results provide better insight into circular polarization measurements on whole leaves and options for vegetation remote sensing using circular polarization. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Magnetic field vector and electron density diagnostics from linear polarization measurements in 14 solar prominences

    Bommier, V.

    1986-01-01

    The Hanle effect is the modification of the linear polarization parameters of a spectral line due to the effect of the magnetic field. It has been successfully applied to the magnetic field vector diagnostic in solar prominences. The magnetic field vector is determined by comparing the measured polarization to the polarization computed, taking into account all the polarizing and depolarizing processes in line formation and the depolarizing effect of the magnetic field. The method was applied to simultaneous polarization measurements in the Helium D3 line and in the hydrogen beta line in 14 prominences. Four polarization parameters are measured, which lead to the determination of the three coordinates of the magnetic field vector and the electron density, owing to the sensitivity of the hydrogen beta line to the non-negligible effect of depolarizing collisions with electrons and protons of the medium. A mean value of 1.3 x 10 to the 10th power cu. cm. is derived in 14 prominences.

  9. Linear optical absorption spectra of mesoscopic structures in intense THz fields: Free-particle properties

    Johnsen, Kristinn; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    1998-01-01

    We theoretically study the effect of THz radiation on the linear optical absorption spectra of semiconductor structures. A general theoretical framework, based on nonequilibrium Green functions, is formulated and applied to the calculation of linear optical absorption spectrum for several...

  10. Resource-efficient generation of linear cluster states by linear optics with postselection

    Uskov, D B; Alsing, P M; Fanto, M L; Szep, A; Smith, A M; Kaplan, L; Kim, R

    2015-01-01

    We report on theoretical research in photonic cluster-state computing. Finding optimal schemes of generating non-classical photonic states is of critical importance for this field as physically implementable photon–photon entangling operations are currently limited to measurement-assisted stochastic transformations. A critical parameter for assessing the efficiency of such transformations is the success probability of a desired measurement outcome. At present there are several experimental groups that are capable of generating multi-photon cluster states carrying more than eight qubits. Separate photonic qubits or small clusters can be fused into a single cluster state by a probabilistic optical CZ gate conditioned on simultaneous detection of all photons with 1/9 success probability for each gate. This design mechanically follows the original theoretical scheme of cluster state generation proposed more than a decade ago by Raussendorf, Browne and Briegel. The optimality of the destructive CZ gate in application to linear optical cluster state generation has not been analyzed previously. Our results reveal that this method is far from the optimal one. Employing numerical optimization we have identified that the maximal success probability of fusing n unentangled dual-rail optical qubits into a linear cluster state is equal to (1/2) n−1 ; an m-tuple of photonic Bell pair states, commonly generated via spontaneous parametric down-conversion, can be fused into a single cluster with the maximal success probability of (1/4) m−1 . (paper)

  11. A noble refractive optical scanner with linear response

    Mega, Yair J.; Lai, Zhenhua; DiMarzio, Charles A.

    2013-03-01

    Many applications in various fields of science and engineering use steered optical beam systems. Currently, many methods utilize mirrors in order to steer the beam. However, this approach is an off-axis solution, which normally increases the total size of the system as well as its error and complexity. Other methods use a "Risely Prisms" based solution, which is on-axis solution, however it poses some difficulties from an engineering standpoint, and therefore isn't widely used. We present here a novel technique for steering a beam on its optical axis with a linear deflection response. We derived the formulation for the profile required of the refractive optical component necessary for preforming the beam steering. The functionality of the device was simulated analytically using Matlab, as well as using a ray-tracing software, Zemax, and showed agreement with the analytical model. An optical element was manufactured based on the proposed design and the device was tested. The results show agreement with our hypothesis. We also present some proposed geometries of the several other devices, all based on the same concept, which can be used for higher performance applications such as two-dimensional scanner, video rate scanner etc.

  12. Linear Optics From Closed Orbits (LOCO): An Introduction

    Safranek, James

    2009-01-01

    The LOCO code is used to find and correct errors in the linear optics of storage rings. The original FORTRAN code was written to correct the optics of the NSLS X-Ray ring, and was applied soon thereafter to debug problems with the ALS optics. The ideas used in the code were developed from previous work at SLAC. Several years ago, LOCO was rewritten in MATLAB. As described in this newsletter, the MATLAB version includes a user-friendly interface, with many useful fitting and analysis options. LOCO has been used at many accelerators. Presently, a search for LOCO in the text of papers on the Joint Accelerator Conferences Website yields 107 papers. A comprehensive survey of applications will not be included here. Details of recent results at a few light sources are included in this newsletter. In the past, the quality of LOCO fitting results varied significantly, depending on the storage ring. In particular, the results were mixed for colliding beam facilities, where there tend to be fewer BPMs that in light sources. Fitting rings with less BPM data to constrain the fit optics parameters often led to unreasonably large fit quadrupole gradient variations. Recently, modifications have been made to the LOCO fitting algorithm which leads to much better results when the BPM data does not tightly constrain the fit parameters. The modifications are described in this newsletter, and an example of results with this new algorithm is included.

  13. Wavefront Sensing for WFIRST with a Linear Optical Model

    Jurling, Alden S.; Content, David A.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we develop methods to use a linear optical model to capture the field dependence of wavefront aberrations in a nonlinear optimization-based phase retrieval algorithm for image-based wavefront sensing. The linear optical model is generated from a ray trace model of the system and allows the system state to be described in terms of mechanical alignment parameters rather than wavefront coefficients. This approach allows joint optimization over images taken at different field points and does not require separate convergence of phase retrieval at individual field points. Because the algorithm exploits field diversity, multiple defocused images per field point are not required for robustness. Furthermore, because it is possible to simultaneously fit images of many stars over the field, it is not necessary to use a fixed defocus to achieve adequate signal-to-noise ratio despite having images with high dynamic range. This allows high performance wavefront sensing using in-focus science data. We applied this technique in a simulation model based on the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) Intermediate Design Reference Mission (IDRM) imager using a linear optical model with 25 field points. We demonstrate sub-thousandth-wave wavefront sensing accuracy in the presence of noise and moderate undersampling for both monochromatic and polychromatic images using 25 high-SNR target stars. Using these high-quality wavefront sensing results, we are able to generate upsampled point-spread functions (PSFs) and use them to determine PSF ellipticity to high accuracy in order to reduce the systematic impact of aberrations on the accuracy of galactic ellipticity determination for weak-lensing science.

  14. Linear polarization measurements at H. beta. of early-type emission line stars

    Clarke, D; McLean, I S [Glasgow Univ. (UK)

    1976-02-01

    Linear polarization measurements across the H..beta.. emission lines of the stars ..gamma.. Cas, zeta Tau and 48 Per are presented. For the first two stars there is a marked reduction of the polarization at the centre of the line and for ..gamma.. Cas, this varies from night to night. During the H..beta.. observations of zeta Tau, a change of polarization over tens of minutes was indicated in a monitor channel tuned to the continuum on the blue side of H..beta... For the fainter star, 48 Per, the uncertainties of the polarimetry were increased in relation to ..gamma.. Cas and zeta Tau by a factor of about two and at this precision, no differential effects across the line were recorded. Observations of ..cap alpha.. Cyg are also given to demonstrate the reliability of the polarimeter.

  15. Unique heavy lepton signature at e+e- linear collider with polarized beams

    Moortgat-Pick, G.; Osland, P.; Pankov, A.A.; Tsytrinov, A.V.

    2013-03-01

    We explore the effects of neutrino and electron mixing with exotic heavy leptons in the process e + e - →W + W - within E 6 models. We examine the possibility of uniquely distinguishing and identifying such effects of heavy neutral lepton exchange from Z-Z' mixing within the same class of models and also from analogous ones due to competitor models with anomalous trilinear gauge couplings (AGC) that can lead to very similar experimental signatures at the e + e - International Linear Collider (ILC) for √(s)=350, 500 GeV and 1 TeV. Such clear identification of the model is possible by using a certain double polarization asymmetry. The availability of both beams being polarized plays a crucial role in identifying such exotic-lepton admixture. In addition, the sensitivity of the ILC for probing exotic-lepton admixture is substantially enhanced when the polarization of the produced W ± bosons is considered.

  16. Polarized Uniform Linear Array System: Beam Radiation Pattern, Beamforming Diversity Order, and Channel Capacity

    Xin Su

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been many studies regarding antenna polarization; however, there have been few publications on the analysis of the channel capacity for polarized antenna systems using the beamforming technique. According to Chung et al., the channel capacity is determined by the density of scatterers and the transmission power, which is obtained based on the assumption that scatterers are uniformly distributed on a 3D spherical scattering model. However, it contradicts the practical scenario, where scatterers may not be uniformly distributed under outdoor environment, and lacks the consideration of fading channel gain. In this study, we derive the channel capacity of polarized uniform linear array (PULA systems using the beamforming technique in a practical scattering environment. The results show that, for PULA systems, the channel capacity, which is boosted by beamforming diversity, can be determined using the channel gain, beam radiation pattern, and beamforming diversity order (BDO, where the BDO is dependent on the antenna characteristics and array configurations.

  17. The high peak current polarized electron source of the Stanford Linear Collider

    Schultz, D.; Alley, R.; Aoyagi, H.; Clendenin, J.; Frisch, J.; Garden, C.; Hoyt, E.; Kirby, R.; Klaisner, L.; Kulikov, A.; Mulhollan, G.; Prescott, C.; Saez, P.; Tang, H.; Turner, J.; Woods, M.; Yeremian, D.; Zolotorev, M.

    1994-01-01

    The Stanford Linear Collider injector requires two 2 ns pulses of 4.5-5.5 x 10 10 electrons, separated by 61 ns at 120 Hz, from its source. Since 1992, these currents have been provided by a polarized electron source based on GaAs photocathodes. A beam polarization of 76±4% has been measured at the end of the 50 GeV linac. At low photocathode quantum efficiencies, and for excitation near threshold, the maximum current delivered by the source is constrained, not by the space charge limit of the gun, but by a ''charge limit'' of the photocathode. The charge limited current is proportional to the photocathode quantum efficiency, but the proportionality varies for different photocathode types. Experience with high polarization strained GaAs photocathodes on a test beamline and on the SLC is presented. (orig.)

  18. Negative base encoding in optical linear algebra processors

    Perlee, C.; Casasent, D.

    1986-01-01

    In the digital multiplication by analog convolution algorithm, the bits of two encoded numbers are convolved to form the product of the two numbers in mixed binary representation; this output can be easily converted to binary. Attention is presently given to negative base encoding, treating base -2 initially, and then showing that the negative base system can be readily extended to any radix. In general, negative base encoding in optical linear algebra processors represents a more efficient technique than either sign magnitude or 2's complement encoding, when the additions of digitally encoded products are performed in parallel.

  19. IR Optics Measurement with Linear Coupling's Action-Angle Parameterization

    Luo, Yun; Pilat, Fulvia Caterina; Satogata, Todd; Trbojevic, Dejan

    2005-01-01

    The interaction region (IP) optics are measured with the two DX/BPMs close to the IPs at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The beta functions at IP are measured with the two eigenmodes' phase advances between the two BPMs. And the beta waists are also determined through the beta functions at the two BPMs. The coupling parameters at the IPs are also given through the linear coupling's action-angle parameterization. All the experimental data are taken during the driving oscillations with the AC dipole. The methods to do these measurements are discussed. And the measurement results during the beta*

  20. Structure/property relationships in non-linear optical materials

    Cole, J M [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France); [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom); Howard, J A.K. [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom); McIntyre, G J [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    The application of neutrons to the study of structure/property relationships in organic non-linear optical materials (NLOs) is described. In particular, charge-transfer effects and intermolecular interactions are investigated. Charge-transfer effects are studied by charge-density analysis and an example of one such investigation is given. The study of intermolecular interactions concentrates on the effects of hydrogen-bonding and an example is given of two structurally similar molecules with very disparate NLO properties, as a result of different types of hydrogen-bonding. (author). 3 refs.

  1. Source finding in linear polarization for LOFAR, and SKA predecessor surveys, using Faraday moments

    Farnes, J. S.; Heald, G.; Junklewitz, H.; Mulcahy, D. D.; Haverkorn, M.; Van Eck, C. L.; Riseley, C. J.; Brentjens, M.; Horellou, C.; Vacca, V.; Jones, D. I.; Horneffer, A.; Paladino, R.

    2018-03-01

    The optimal source-finding strategy for linear polarization data is an unsolved problem, with many inhibitive factors imposed by the technically challenging nature of polarization observations. Such an algorithm is essential for Square Kilometre Array (SKA) pathfinder surveys, such as the Multifrequency Snapshot Sky Survey with the LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR), as data volumes are significant enough to prohibit manual inspection. We present a new strategy of `Faraday Moments' for source-finding in linear polarization with LOFAR, using the moments of the frequency-dependent full-Stokes data (i.e. the mean, standard deviation, skewness, and excess kurtosis). Through simulations of the sky, we find that moments can identify polarized sources with a high completeness: 98.5 per cent at a signal to noise of 5. While the method has low reliability, rotation measure (RM) synthesis can be applied per candidate source to filter out instrumental and spurious detections. This combined strategy will result in a complete and reliable catalogue of polarized sources that includes the full sensitivity of the observational bandwidth. We find that the technique can reduce the number of pixels on which RM Synthesis needs to be performed by a factor of ≈1 × 105 for source distributions anticipated with modern radio telescopes. Through tests on LOFAR data, we find that the technique works effectively in the presence of diffuse emission. Extensions of this method are directly applicable to other upcoming radio surveys such as the POlarization Sky Survey of the Universe's Magnetism with the Australia Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder, and the SKA itself.

  2. Mitigating of modal instabilities in linearly-polarized fiber amplifiers by shifting pump wavelength

    Tao, Rumao; Ma, Pengfei; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Pu; Liu, Zejin

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of pump wavelength on the modal instabilities (MI) in high-power linearly polarized Yb-doped fiber amplifiers. We built a novel semi-analytical model to determine the frequency coupling characteristics and power threshold of MI, which indicates promising MI suppression through pumping at an appropriate wavelength. By pumping at 915 nm, the threshold can be enhanced by a factor of 2.1 as compared to that pumped at 976 nm. Based on a high-power linearly polarized fiber amplifier platform, we studied the influence of pump wavelength experimentally. A maximal enhancement factor of 1.9 has been achieved when pumped at 915 nm, which agrees with the theoretical calculation and verified our theoretical model. Furthermore, we show that MI suppression by detuning the pump wavelength is weakened for fiber with a large core-to-cladding ratio. (paper)

  3. Photodisintegration of aligned deuterons at astrophysical energies using linearly polarized photons

    Shilpashree, S.P.; Sirsi, Swarnamala; Ramachandran, G.

    2013-01-01

    Following the model independent approach to deuteron photodisintegration with linearly polarized γ-rays, we show that the measurements of the tensor analyzing powers on aligned deuterons along with the differential cross-section involve five different linear combinations of the isovector E1 ν j ; j = 0, 1, 2 amplitudes interfering with the isoscalar M1 s and E2 s amplitudes. This is of current interest in view of the recent experimental finding [M. A. Blackston et al., Phys. Rev. C78 (2008) 034003] that the three E1 ν j amplitudes are distinct and also the reported experimental observation [B. D. Sawatzky, Ph.D. thesis, University of Virginia (2005)] on the front–back (polar angle) asymmetry in the differential cross-section. (author)

  4. Optical Field-Strength Polarization of Two-Mode Single-Photon States

    Linares, J.; Nistal, M. C.; Barral, D.; Moreno, V.

    2010-01-01

    We present a quantum analysis of two-mode single-photon states based on the probability distributions of the optical field strength (or position quadrature) in order to describe their quantum polarization characteristics, where polarization is understood as a significative confinement of the optical field-strength values on determined regions of…

  5. Optical polarization based logic functions (XOR or XNOR) with nonlinear Gallium nitride nanoslab.

    Bovino, F A; Larciprete, M C; Giardina, M; Belardini, A; Centini, M; Sibilia, C; Bertolotti, M; Passaseo, A; Tasco, V

    2009-10-26

    We present a scheme of XOR/XNOR logic gate, based on non phase-matched noncollinear second harmonic generation from a medium of suitable crystalline symmetry, Gallium nitride. The polarization of the noncollinear generated beam is a function of the polarization of both pump beams, thus we experimentally investigated all possible polarization combinations, evidencing that only some of them are allowed and that the nonlinear interaction of optical signals behaves as a polarization based XOR. The experimental results show the peculiarity of the nonlinear optical response associated with noncollinear excitation, and are explained using the expression for the effective second order optical nonlinearity in noncollinear scheme.

  6. Optical parametric amplification of arbitrarily polarized light in periodically poled LiNbO3.

    Shao, Guang-hao; Song, Xiao-shi; Xu, Fei; Lu, Yan-qing

    2012-08-13

    Optical parametric amplification (OPA) of arbitrarily polarized light is proposed in a multi-section periodically poled Lithium Niobate (PPLN). External electric field is applied on selected sections to induce the polarization rotation of involved lights, thus the quasi-phase matched optical parametric processes exhibit polarization insensitivity under suitable voltage. In addition to the amplified signal wave, an idler wave with the same polarization is generated simultaneously. As an example, a ~10 times OPA showing polarization independency is simulated. Applications of this technology are also discussed.

  7. Production of polarized negative deuterium ion beam with dual optical pumping in KEK

    Kinsho, M.; Ikegami, K.; Takagi, A. [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Mori, Y.

    1997-02-01

    To obtain highly nuclear-spin vector polarized negative deuterium ion beam, a dual optically pumped polarized negative deuterium ion source has been developed at KEK. It is possible to select a pure nuclear-spin state with this scheme, and negative deuterium ion beam with 100% nuclear-spin vector polarization can be produced in principle. We have obtained about 70% of nuclear-spin vector polarized negative deuterium ion beam so far. This result may open up a new possibilities for the optically pumped polarized ion source. (author)

  8. 77 GHz MEMS antennas on high-resistivity silicon for linear and circular polarization

    Sallam, M. O.

    2011-07-01

    Two new MEMS antennas operating at 77 GHz are presented in this paper. The first antenna is linearly polarized. It possesses a vertical silicon wall that carries a dipole on top of it. The wall is located on top of silicon substrate covered with a ground plane. The other side of the substrate carries a microstrip feeding network in the form of U-turn that causes 180 phase shift. This phase-shifter feeds the arms of the dipole antenna via two vertical Through-Silicon Vias (TSVs) that go through the entire wafer. The second antenna is circularly polarized and formed using two linearly polarized antennas spatially rotated with respect to each other by 90 and excited with 90 phase shift. Both antennas are fabricated using novel process flow on a single high-resistivity silicon wafer via bulk micromachining. Only three processing steps are required to fabricate these antennas. The proposed antennas have appealing characteristics, such as high polarization purity, high gain, and high radiation efficiency. © 2011 IEEE.

  9. Great circle solution to polarization-based quantum communication (QC) in optical fiber

    Nordholt, Jane Elizabeth; Peterson, Charles Glen; Newell, Raymond Thorson; Hughes, Richard John

    2016-03-15

    Birefringence in optical fibers is compensated by applying polarization modulation at a receiver. Polarization modulation is applied so that a transmitted optical signal has states of polarization (SOPs) that are equally spaced on the Poincare sphere. Fiber birefringence encountered in propagation between a transmitter and a receiver rotates the great circle on the Poincare sphere that represents the polarization bases used for modulation. By adjusting received polarizations, polarization components of the received optical signal can be directed to corresponding detectors for decoding, regardless of the magnitude and orientation of the fiber birefringence. A transmitter can be configured to transmit in conjugate polarization bases whose SOPs can be represented as equidistant points on a great circle so that the received SOPs are mapped to equidistant points on a great circle and routed to corresponding detectors.

  10. Scanning differential polarization microscope: Its use to image linear and circular differential scattering

    Mickols, W.; Maestre, M.F.

    1988-01-01

    A differential polarization microscope that couples the sensitivity of single-beam measurement of circular dichroism and circular differential scattering with the simultaneous measurement of linear dichroism and linear differential scattering has been developed. The microscope uses a scanning microscope stage and single-point illumination to give the very shallow depth of field found in confocal microscopy. This microscope can operate in the confocal mode as well as in the near confocal condition that can allow one to program the coherence and spatial resolution of the microscope. This microscope has been used to study the change in the structure of chromatin during the development of sperm in Drosophila

  11. An analysis of the electromagnetic field in multi-polar linear induction system

    Chervenkova, Todorka; Chervenkov, Atanas

    2002-01-01

    In this paper a new method for determination of the electromagnetic field vectors in a multi-polar linear induction system (LIS) is described. The analysis of the electromagnetic field has been done by four dimensional electromagnetic potentials in conjunction with theory of the magnetic loops . The electromagnetic field vectors are determined in the Minkovski's space as elements of the Maxwell's tensor. The results obtained are compared with those got from the analysis made by the finite elements method (FEM).With the method represented in this paper one can determine the electromagnetic field vectors in the multi-polar linear induction system using four-dimensional potential. A priority of this method is the obtaining of analytical results for the electromagnetic field vectors. These results are also valid for linear media. The dependencies are valid also at high speeds of movement. The results of the investigated linear induction system are comparable to those got by the finite elements method. The investigations may be continued in the determination of other characteristics such as drag force, levitation force, etc. The method proposed in this paper for an analysis of linear induction system can be used for optimization calculations. (Author)

  12. Polarization Control with Plasmonic Antenna Tips: A Universal Approach to Optical Nanocrystallography and Vector-Field Imaging

    Park, Kyoung-Duck; Raschke, Markus B.

    2018-05-01

    Controlling the propagation and polarization vectors in linear and nonlinear optical spectroscopy enables to probe the anisotropy of optical responses providing structural symmetry selective contrast in optical imaging. Here we present a novel tilted antenna-tip approach to control the optical vector-field by breaking the axial symmetry of the nano-probe in tip-enhanced near-field microscopy. This gives rise to a localized plasmonic antenna effect with significantly enhanced optical field vectors with control of both \\textit{in-plane} and \\textit{out-of-plane} components. We use the resulting vector-field specificity in the symmetry selective nonlinear optical response of second-harmonic generation (SHG) for a generalized approach to optical nano-crystallography and -imaging. In tip-enhanced SHG imaging of monolayer MoS$_2$ films and single-crystalline ferroelectric YMnO$_3$, we reveal nano-crystallographic details of domain boundaries and domain topology with enhanced sensitivity and nanoscale spatial resolution. The approach is applicable to any anisotropic linear and nonlinear optical response, and provides for optical nano-crystallographic imaging of molecular or quantum materials.

  13. Accuracy requirements of optical linear algebra processors in adaptive optics imaging systems

    Downie, John D.; Goodman, Joseph W.

    1989-10-01

    The accuracy requirements of optical processors in adaptive optics systems are determined by estimating the required accuracy in a general optical linear algebra processor (OLAP) that results in a smaller average residual aberration than that achieved with a conventional electronic digital processor with some specific computation speed. Special attention is given to an error analysis of a general OLAP with regard to the residual aberration that is created in an adaptive mirror system by the inaccuracies of the processor, and to the effect of computational speed of an electronic processor on the correction. Results are presented on the ability of an OLAP to compete with a digital processor in various situations.

  14. Integrated all optical transmodulator circuits with non-linear gain elements and tunable optical fibers

    Kuindersma, P.I.; Leijtens, X.J.M.; Zantvoort, van J.H.C.; Waardt, de H.

    2012-01-01

    We characterize integrated InP circuits for high speed ‘all-optical’ signal processing. Single chip circuits act as optical transistors. Transmodulation is performed by non-linear gain sections. Integrated tunable filters give signal equalization in time domain.

  15. Optical polarization maps of star-forming regions in Perseus, Taurus, and Ophiuchus

    Goodman, A.A.; Bastien, P.; Menard, F.; Myers, P.C.

    1990-01-01

    New optical linear polarization maps are presented of the star-forming regions near L1506 in Taurus, L1755 in Ophiuchus, and the complex of dark cloud which extends from L1448 in B5 in Perseus. The former two show a well-defined peak magnetic field direction in the plane of the sky with a finite dispersion about that peak which is smaller than would be expected for a random distribution of field distributions. The dispersion in the position angle of filamentary clouds within these complexes implies that clouds which appear elongated on the plane of the sky are not all associated with a pattern of polarization vectors particularly parallel or perpendicular to their geometry. Instead, clouds tend to be oriented at the angle formed by their axis and the mean direction of the local large-scale field. For the dark cloud complex, a bimodal distribution of the polarization vector angle is taken to result from at least two distributions of gas along the line of sight which appear as a complex in projection. 55 refs

  16. Centralized light-source optical access network based on polarization multiplexing.

    Grassi, Fulvio; Mora, José; Ortega, Beatriz; Capmany, José

    2010-03-01

    This paper presents and demonstrates a centralized light source optical access network based on optical polarization multiplexing technique. By using two optical sources emitting light orthogonally polarized in the Central Node for downstream and upstream operations, the Remote Node is kept source-free. EVM values below telecommunication standard requirements have been measured experimentally when bidirectional digital signals have been transmitted over 10 km of SMF employing subcarrier multiplexing technique in the electrical domain.

  17. Production of positive pions from polarized protons by linearly polarized photons in the energy region 300--420 MeV

    Get' man, V.A.; Gorbenko, V.G.; Grushin, V.F.; Derkach, A.Y.; Zhebrovskii, Y.V.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Kolesnikov, L.Y.; Luchanin, A.A.; Rubashkin, A.L.; Sanin, V.M.; Sorokin, P.V.; Sporov, E.A.; Telegin, Y.N.; Shalatskii, S.V.

    1980-10-01

    A technique for measurement of the polarization observables ..sigma.., P, and T for the reaction ..gamma..p..-->..n..pi../sup +/ in a doubly polarized experiment (polarized proton target + linearly polarized photon beam) is described. Measurements of the angular distributions of these observables in the range of pion emission angles 30--150/sup 0/ are presented for four photon energies from 300 to 420 MeV. Inclusion of the new experimental data in an energy-independent multipole analysis of photoproduction from protons permits a more reliable selection of solutions to be made.

  18. Regularized linearization for quantum nonlinear optical cavities: application to degenerate optical parametric oscillators.

    Navarrete-Benlloch, Carlos; Roldán, Eugenio; Chang, Yue; Shi, Tao

    2014-10-06

    Nonlinear optical cavities are crucial both in classical and quantum optics; in particular, nowadays optical parametric oscillators are one of the most versatile and tunable sources of coherent light, as well as the sources of the highest quality quantum-correlated light in the continuous variable regime. Being nonlinear systems, they can be driven through critical points in which a solution ceases to exist in favour of a new one, and it is close to these points where quantum correlations are the strongest. The simplest description of such systems consists in writing the quantum fields as the classical part plus some quantum fluctuations, linearizing then the dynamical equations with respect to the latter; however, such an approach breaks down close to critical points, where it provides unphysical predictions such as infinite photon numbers. On the other hand, techniques going beyond the simple linear description become too complicated especially regarding the evaluation of two-time correlators, which are of major importance to compute observables outside the cavity. In this article we provide a regularized linear description of nonlinear cavities, that is, a linearization procedure yielding physical results, taking the degenerate optical parametric oscillator as the guiding example. The method, which we call self-consistent linearization, is shown to be equivalent to a general Gaussian ansatz for the state of the system, and we compare its predictions with those obtained with available exact (or quasi-exact) methods. Apart from its operational value, we believe that our work is valuable also from a fundamental point of view, especially in connection to the question of how far linearized or Gaussian theories can be pushed to describe nonlinear dissipative systems which have access to non-Gaussian states.

  19. Linear and Non-Linear Optical Imaging of Cancer Cells with Silicon Nanoparticles

    Tolstik, Elen; Osminkina, Liubov A.; Akimov, Denis; Gongalsky, Maksim B.; Kudryavtsev, Andrew A.; Timoshenko, Victor Yu.; Heintzmann, Rainer; Sivakov, Vladimir; Popp, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    New approaches for visualisation of silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs) in cancer cells are realised by means of the linear and nonlinear optics in vitro. Aqueous colloidal solutions of SiNPs with sizes of about 10–40 nm obtained by ultrasound grinding of silicon nanowires were introduced into breast cancer cells (MCF-7 cell line). Further, the time-varying nanoparticles enclosed in cell structures were visualised by high-resolution structured illumination microscopy (HR-SIM) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Additionally, the nonlinear optical methods of two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) with infrared laser excitation were applied to study the localisation of SiNPs in cells. Advantages of the nonlinear methods, such as rapid imaging, which prevents cells from overheating and larger penetration depth compared to the single-photon excited HR-SIM, are discussed. The obtained results reveal new perspectives of the multimodal visualisation and precise detection of the uptake of biodegradable non-toxic SiNPs by cancer cells and they are discussed in view of future applications for the optical diagnostics of cancer tumours. PMID:27626408

  20. Modeling and parameterization of photoelectrons emitted in condensed matter by linearly polarized synchrotron radiation

    Jablonski, A.

    2018-01-01

    Growing availability of synchrotron facilities stimulates an interest in quantitative applications of hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (HAXPES) using linearly polarized radiation. An advantage of this approach is the possibility of continuous variation of radiation energy that makes it possible to control the sampling depth for a measurement. Quantitative applications are based on accurate and reliable theory relating the measured spectral features to needed characteristics of the surface region of solids. A major complication in the case of polarized radiation is an involved structure of the photoemission cross-section for hard X-rays. In the present work, details of the relevant formalism are described and algorithms implementing this formalism for different experimental configurations are proposed. The photoelectron signal intensity may be considerably affected by variation in the positioning of the polarization vector with respect to the surface plane. This information is critical for any quantitative application of HAXPES by polarized X-rays. Different quantitative applications based on photoelectrons with energies up to 10 keV are considered here: (i) determination of surface composition, (ii) estimation of sampling depth, and (iii) measurements of an overlayer thickness. Parameters facilitating these applications (mean escape depths, information depths, effective attenuation lengths) were calculated for a number of photoelectron lines in four elemental solids (Si, Cu, Ag and Au) in different experimental configurations and locations of the polarization vector. One of the considered configurations, with polarization vector located in a plane perpendicular to the surface, was recommended for quantitative applications of HAXPES. In this configurations, it was found that the considered parameters vary weakly in the range of photoelectron emission angles from normal emission to about 50° with respect to the surface normal. The averaged values of the mean

  1. Polarization-insensitive quantum-dot coupled quantum-well semiconductor optical amplifier

    Huang Lirong; Yu Yi; Tian Peng; Huang Dexiu

    2009-01-01

    The optical gain of a quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifier is usually seriously dependent on polarization; we propose a quantum-dot coupled tensile-strained quantum-well structure to obtain polarization insensitivity. The tensile-strained quantum well not only serves as a carrier injection layer of quantum dots but also offers gain to the transverse-magnetic mode. Based on the polarization-dependent coupled carrier rate-equation model, we study carrier competition among quantum well and quantum dots, and study the polarization dependence of the quantum-dot coupled quantum-well semiconductor optical amplifier. We also analyze polarization-dependent photon-mediated carrier distribution among quantum well and quantum dots. It is shown that polarization-insensitive gain can be realized by optimal design

  2. Optical-wireless-optical full link for polarization multiplexing quadrature amplitude/phase modulation signal transmission.

    Li, Xinying; Yu, Jianjun; Chi, Nan; Zhang, Junwen

    2013-11-15

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate an optical wireless integration system at the Q-band, in which up to 40 Gb/s polarization multiplexing multilevel quadrature amplitude/phase modulation (PM-QAM) signal can be first transmitted over 20 km single-mode fiber-28 (SMF-28), then delivered over a 2 m 2 × 2 multiple-input multiple-output wireless link, and finally transmitted over another 20 km SMF-28. The PM-QAM modulated wireless millimeter-wave (mm-wave) signal at 40 GHz is generated based on the remote heterodyning technique, and demodulated by the radio-frequency transparent photonic technique based on homodyne coherent detection and baseband digital signal processing. The classic constant modulus algorithm equalization is used at the receiver to realize polarization demultiplexing of the PM-QAM signal. For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, we realize the conversion of the PM-QAM modulated wireless mm-wave signal to the optical signal as well as 20 km fiber transmission of the converted optical signal.

  3. Extreme-Scale Alignments Of Quasar Optical Polarizations And Galactic Dust Contamination

    Pelgrims, Vincent

    2017-10-01

    Almost twenty years ago the optical polarization vectors from quasars were shown to be aligned over extreme-scales. That evidence was later confirmed and enhanced thanks to additional optical data obtained with the ESO instrument FORS2 mounted on the VLT, in Chile. These observations suggest either Galactic foreground contamination of the data or, more interestingly, a cosmological origin. Using 353-GHz polarization data from the Planck satellite, I recently showed that the main features of the extreme-scale alignments of the quasar optical polarization vectors are unaffected by the Galactic thermal dust. This confirms previous studies based on optical starlight polarization and discards the scenario of Galactic contamination. In this talk, I shall briefly review the extreme-scale quasar polarization alignments, discuss the main results submitted in A&A and motivate forthcoming projects at the frontier between Galactic and extragalactic astrop hysics.

  4. OBSERVATIONS OF LINEAR POLARIZATION IN A SOLAR CORONAL LOOP PROMINENCE SYSTEM OBSERVED NEAR 6173 Å

    Saint-Hilaire, Pascal; Martínez Oliveros, Juan-Carlos; Hudson, Hugh S.; Krucker, Säm; Bain, Hazel [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Schou, Jesper [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Couvidat, Sébastien, E-mail: shilaire@ssl.berkeley.edu [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2014-05-10

    White-light observations by the Solar Dynamics Observatory's Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager of a loop-prominence system occurring in the aftermath of an X-class flare on 2013 May 13 near the eastern solar limb show a linearly polarized component, reaching up to ∼20% at an altitude of ∼33 Mm, about the maximum amount expected if the emission were due solely to Thomson scattering of photospheric light by the coronal material. The mass associated with the polarized component was 8.2 × 10{sup 14} g. At 15 Mm altitude, the brightest part of the loop was 3(±0.5)% linearly polarized, only about 20% of that expected from pure Thomson scattering, indicating the presence of an additional unpolarized component at wavelengths near Fe I (617.33 nm). We estimate the free electron density of the white-light loop system to possibly be as high as 1.8 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup –3}.

  5. NONLINEAR REFLECTION PROCESS OF LINEARLY POLARIZED, BROADBAND ALFVÉN WAVES IN THE FAST SOLAR WIND

    Shoda, M.; Yokoyama, T., E-mail: shoda@eps.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2016-04-01

    Using one-dimensional numerical simulations, we study the elementary process of Alfvén wave reflection in a uniform medium, including nonlinear effects. In the linear regime, Alfvén wave reflection is triggered only by the inhomogeneity of the medium, whereas in the nonlinear regime, it can occur via nonlinear wave–wave interactions. Such nonlinear reflection (backscattering) is typified by decay instability. In most studies of decay instabilities, the initial condition has been a circularly polarized Alfvén wave. In this study we consider a linearly polarized Alfvén wave, which drives density fluctuations by its magnetic pressure force. For generality, we also assume a broadband wave with a red-noise spectrum. In the data analysis, we decompose the fluctuations into characteristic variables using local eigenvectors, thus revealing the behaviors of the individual modes. Different from the circular-polarization case, we find that the wave steepening produces a new energy channel from the parent Alfvén wave to the backscattered one. Such nonlinear reflection explains the observed increasing energy ratio of the sunward to the anti-sunward Alfvénic fluctuations in the solar wind with distance against the dynamical alignment effect.

  6. Linear versus circular polarization of head coils - comparison on phantom and in the clinic

    Schratter, M.; Kramer, J.; Prayer, L.; Wimberger, D.; Imhof, H.; Schmid, W.

    1990-01-01

    Two different head coils - one with linear polarization and the other with circular polarization - were compared under the same measurement conditions. Comparison was done on a phantom with waterfilled and gadolinium-filled pin-holes, as well as on anatomical MR images of 23 volunteers. In three volunteers the whole brain was examined while, in the remaining 20 volunteers the sella region or cerebellopontine angleregion was examined. Criteria for comparison were signal-to-noise ratio, background noise, and detail resolution (phantom), as well as subjective criteria - image sharpness, anatomical, contrast, and recognition of anatomical details -, evaluated on anatomical MR images by four radiologists independently of each other. The results show a significant improvement of signal-to-noise ratio, lower background noise and therefore marked improvement of images harpness, and moderate improvement in the recognition of anatomical details using the circular polarized head coil; as for as detail resolution and anatomical contrast were concerned, however, no significant difference was seen between the two coils. Major advantages of the circular, polarized head coil in clinical application are shorter measurement times (reduced number of acquisitions), as well as thinner slices without loss of signal-to-noise ratio. (orig.) [de

  7. IR OPTICS MEASUREMENT WITH LINEAR COUPLING'S ACTION-ANGLE PARAMETERIZATION

    LUO, Y.; BAI, M.; PILAT, R.; SATOGATA, T.; TRBOJEVIC, D.

    2005-01-01

    A parameterization of linear coupling in action-angle coordinates is convenient for analytical calculations and interpretation of turn-by-turn (TBT) beam position monitor (BPM) data. We demonstrate how to use this parameterization to extract the twiss and coupling parameters in interaction regions (IRs), using BPMs on each side of the long IR drift region. The example of TBT BPM analysis was acquired at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), using an AC dipole to excite a single eigenmode. Besides the full treatment, a fast estimate of beta*, the beta function at the interaction point (IP), is provided, along with the phase advance between these BPMs. We also calculate and measure the waist of the beta function and the local optics

  8. Linear optical quantum computing in a single spatial mode.

    Humphreys, Peter C; Metcalf, Benjamin J; Spring, Justin B; Moore, Merritt; Jin, Xian-Min; Barbieri, Marco; Kolthammer, W Steven; Walmsley, Ian A

    2013-10-11

    We present a scheme for linear optical quantum computing using time-bin-encoded qubits in a single spatial mode. We show methods for single-qubit operations and heralded controlled-phase (cphase) gates, providing a sufficient set of operations for universal quantum computing with the Knill-Laflamme-Milburn [Nature (London) 409, 46 (2001)] scheme. Our protocol is suited to currently available photonic devices and ideally allows arbitrary numbers of qubits to be encoded in the same spatial mode, demonstrating the potential for time-frequency modes to dramatically increase the quantum information capacity of fixed spatial resources. As a test of our scheme, we demonstrate the first entirely single spatial mode implementation of a two-qubit quantum gate and show its operation with an average fidelity of 0.84±0.07.

  9. Linear Optical Response of Silicon Nanotubes Under Axial Magnetic Field

    Chegel, Raad; Behzad, Somayeh

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the optical properties of silicon nanotubes (SiNTs) in the low energy region, E < 0.5 eV, and middle energy region, 1.8 eV < E < 2 eV. The dependence of optical matrix elements and linear susceptibility on radius and magnetic field, in terms of one-dimensional (1-d) wavevector and subband index, is calculated using the tight-binding approximation. It is found that, on increasing the nanotube diameter, the low-energy peaks show red-shift and their intensities are decreased. Also, we found that in the middle energy region all tubes have two distinct peaks, where the energy position of the second peak is approximately constant and independent of the nanotube diameter. Comparing the band structure of these tubes in different magnetic fields, several differences are clearly seen, such as splitting of degenerate bands, creation of additional band-edge states, and bandgap modification. It is found that applying the magnetic field leads to a phase transition in zigzag silicon hexagonal nanotubes (Si h-NTs), unlike in zigzag silicon gear-like nanotubes (Si g-NTs), which remain semiconducting in any magnetic field. We found that the axial magnetic field has two effects on the linear susceptibility spectrum, namely broadening and splitting. The axial magnetic field leads to the creation of a peak with energy less than 0.2 eV in metallic Si h-NTs, whereas in the absence of a magnetic field such a transition is not allowed.

  10. Optimal distribution of integration time for intensity measurements in degree of linear polarization polarimetry.

    Li, Xiaobo; Hu, Haofeng; Liu, Tiegen; Huang, Bingjing; Song, Zhanjie

    2016-04-04

    We consider the degree of linear polarization (DOLP) polarimetry system, which performs two intensity measurements at orthogonal polarization states to estimate DOLP. We show that if the total integration time of intensity measurements is fixed, the variance of the DOLP estimator depends on the distribution of integration time for two intensity measurements. Therefore, by optimizing the distribution of integration time, the variance of the DOLP estimator can be decreased. In this paper, we obtain the closed-form solution of the optimal distribution of integration time in an approximate way by employing Delta method and Lagrange multiplier method. According to the theoretical analyses and real-world experiments, it is shown that the variance of the DOLP estimator can be decreased for any value of DOLP. The method proposed in this paper can effectively decrease the measurement variance and thus statistically improve the measurement accuracy of the polarimetry system.

  11. A search for time variability and its possible regularities in linear polarization of Be stars

    Huang, L.; Guo, Z.H.; Hsu, J.C.; Huang, L.

    1989-01-01

    Linear polarization measurements are presented for 14 Be stars obtained at McDonald Observatory during four observing runs from June to November of 1983. Methods of observation and data reduction are described. Seven of eight program stars which were observed on six or more nights exhibited obvious polarimetric variations on time-scales of days or months. The incidence is estimated as 50% and may be as high as 93%. No connection can be found between polarimetric variability and rapid periodic light or spectroscopic variability for our stars. Ultra-rapid variability on time-scale of minutes was searched for with negative results. In all cases the position angles also show variations indicating that the axis of symmetry of the circumstellar envelope changes its orientation in space. For the Be binary CX Dra the variations in polarization seems to have a period which is just half of the orbital period

  12. Quantum pump effect induced by a linearly polarized microwave in a two-dimensional electron gas.

    Song, Juntao; Liu, Haiwen; Jiang, Hua

    2012-05-30

    A quantum pump effect is predicted in an ideal homogeneous two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) that is normally irradiated by linearly polarized microwaves (MW). Without considering effects from spin-orbital coupling or the magnetic field, it is found that a polarized MW can continuously pump electrons from the longitudinal to the transverse direction, or from the transverse to the longitudinal direction, in the central irradiated region. The large pump current is obtained for both the low frequency limit and the high frequency case. Its magnitude depends on sample properties such as the size of the radiated region, the power and frequency of the MW, etc. Through the calculated results, the pump current should be attributed to the dominant photon-assisted tunneling processes as well as the asymmetry of the electron density of states with respect to the Fermi energy.

  13. Stochastic theory of polarized light in nonlinear birefringent media: An application to optical rotation

    Tsuchida, Satoshi; Kuratsuji, Hiroshi

    2018-05-01

    A stochastic theory is developed for the light transmitting the optical media exhibiting linear and nonlinear birefringence. The starting point is the two-component nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE). On the basis of the ansatz of “soliton” solution for the NLSE, the evolution equation for the Stokes parameters is derived, which turns out to be the Langevin equation by taking account of randomness and dissipation inherent in the birefringent media. The Langevin equation is converted to the Fokker-Planck (FP) equation for the probability distribution by employing the technique of functional integral on the assumption of the Gaussian white noise for the random fluctuation. The specific application is considered for the optical rotation, which is described by the ellipticity (third component of the Stokes parameters) alone: (i) The asymptotic analysis is given for the functional integral, which leads to the transition rate on the Poincaré sphere. (ii) The FP equation is analyzed in the strong coupling approximation, by which the diffusive behavior is obtained for the linear and nonlinear birefringence. These would provide with a basis of statistical analysis for the polarization phenomena in nonlinear birefringent media.

  14. Optical Polarization of Light from a Sorghum Canopy Measured Under Both a Clear and an Overcast Sky

    Vanderbilt, Vern; Daughtry, Craig; Biehl, Larry; Dahlgren, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: We tested the hypothesis that the optical polarization of the light reflected by a sorghum canopy is due to a Fresnel-type redirection, by sorghum leaf surfaces, of light from an unpolarized light source, the sun or overcast sky, toward the measuring sensor. If it can be shown that the source of the polarization of the light scattered by the sorghum canopy is a first surface, Fresnel-type reflection, then removing this surface reflected light from measurements of canopy reflectance presumably would allow better insight into the biochemical processes such as photosynthesis and metabolism that occur in the interiors of sorghum canopy leaves. Methods: We constructed a tower 5.9m tall in the center of a homogenous sorghum field. We equipped two Barnes MMR radiometers with polarization analyzers on the number 1, 3 and 7 Landsat TM wavelength bands. Positioning the radiometers atop the tower, we collected radiance data in 44 view directions on two days, one day with an overcast sky and the other, clear and sunlit. From the radiance data we calculated the linear polarization of the reflected light for each radiometer wavelength channel and view direction. Results and Discussion: Our experimental results support our hypothesis, showing that the amplitude of the linearly polarized portion of the light reflected by the sorghum canopy varied dramatically with view azimuth direction under a point source, the sun, but the amplitude varied little with view azimuth direction under the hemispherical source, the overcast sky. Under the clear sky, the angle of polarization depended upon the angle of incidence of the sunlight on the leaf, while under the overcast sky the angle of polarization depended upon the zenith view angle. These results support a polarized radiation transport model of the canopy that is based upon a first surface, Fresnel reflection from leaves in the sorghum canopy.

  15. PolarTrack: Optical Outside-In Device Tracking that Exploits Display Polarization

    Rädle, Roman; Jetter, Hans-Christian; Fischer, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    PolarTrack is a novel camera-based approach to detecting and tracking mobile devices inside the capture volume. In PolarTrack, a polarization filter continuously rotates in front of an off-the-shelf color camera, which causes the displays of observed devices to periodically blink in the camera feed....... The periodic blinking results from the physical characteristics of current displays, which shine polarized light either through an LC overlay to produce images or through a polarizer to reduce light reflections on OLED displays. PolarTrack runs a simple detection algorithm on the camera feed to segment...... displays and track their locations and orientations, which makes PolarTrack particularly suitable as a tracking system for cross-device interaction with mobile devices. Our evaluation of PolarTrack's tracking quality and comparison with state-of-the-art camera-based multi-device tracking showed a better...

  16. Linear position sensitive neutron detector using fiber optic encoded scintillators

    Davidson, P.L.; Wroe, H.

    1983-01-01

    A linear position sensitive slow neutron detector with 3 mm resolution is described. It uses the fiber optic coding principle in which the resolution elements are separate pieces of lithium loaded glass scintillator each coupled by means of flexible polymer optical fibers to a unique combination of 3 photo multipliers (PM's) out of a bank of 12. A decoder circuit repsponds to a triple coincidence between PM outputs and generates a 12 bit work which identifies the scintillator element which stopped the incident neutron. Some details of the construction and decoding electronics are given together with test results obtained using a laboratory isotope neutron source and a monochomated, collimated neutron beam from a reactor. The count rate in the absence of neutron sources is 2 to 3 c min - 1 per element; the element to element variation in response to a uniform flux is a few percent for 95% of the elements; the resolution as measured by a 1 mm wide prode neutron beam is 3 mm; the relative long term stability is about 0.1% over 3 days and the detection efficiency measured by comparison with an end windowed, high pressure gas counter is about 65% at a neutron wavelength of 0.9A 0

  17. Polarization control of non-diffractive helical optical beams through subwavelength metallic apertures

    Lombard, E; Genet, C; Ebbesen, T W; Drezet, A

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate experimentally a simple method for preparing non-diffractive vectorial optical beams that can display wave-front helicity. This method is based on space-variant modifications of the polarization of an optical beam transmitted through subwavelength annular rings perforating opaque metal films. We show how the description of the optical properties of such structures must account for the vectorial character of the polarization and how, in turn, these properties can be controlled by straightforward sequences of preparation and analysis of polarization states.

  18. Experimental investigation of a four-qubit linear-optical quantum logic circuit.

    Stárek, R; Mičuda, M; Miková, M; Straka, I; Dušek, M; Ježek, M; Fiurášek, J

    2016-09-20

    We experimentally demonstrate and characterize a four-qubit linear-optical quantum logic circuit. Our robust and versatile scheme exploits encoding of two qubits into polarization and path degrees of single photons and involves two crossed inherently stable interferometers. This approach allows us to design a complex quantum logic circuit that combines a genuine four-qubit C(3)Z gate and several two-qubit and single-qubit gates. The C(3)Z gate introduces a sign flip if and only if all four qubits are in the computational state |1〉. We verify high-fidelity performance of this central four-qubit gate using Hofmann bounds on quantum gate fidelity and Monte Carlo fidelity sampling. We also experimentally demonstrate that the quantum logic circuit can generate genuine multipartite entanglement and we certify the entanglement with the use of suitably tailored entanglement witnesses.

  19. Environmental performance of an elliptical core polarization maintaining optical fiber for fiber optic gyro applications

    Martinelli, Vincent P.; Squires, Emily M.; Watkins, James J.

    1994-03-01

    Corning has introduced a new polarization-maintaining optical fiber to satisfy customer requirements for a range of commercial and military FOG applications. This fiber has an elliptical core, matched-clad design, and is intended for operation in the 780 to 850 nm wavelength region. The fiber has a beat length less than 1.5 mm, attenuation rate less than 10 dB/km, and a typical coiled h-parameter less than 1.5 X 10-4 m-1 in the designated operating wavelength range. It has a cladding diameter of 80 micrometers and a coating diameter of 185 micrometers . The coating is an acrylate system, similar to that used in telecommunications optical fibers. We report on the performance of this elliptical core fiber for a variety of environmental exposures representative of an automotive application.

  20. Spin transport at the international linear collider and its impact on the measurement of polarization

    Beckmann, Moritz

    2013-12-15

    At the planned International Linear Collider (ILC), the longitudinal beam polarization needs to be determined with an unprecedented precision. For that purpose, the beam delivery systems (BDS) are equipped with two laser Compton polarimeters each, which are foreseen to achieve a systematic uncertainty of {<=} 0.25 %. The polarimeters are located 1.6 km upstream and 150 m downstream of the e{sup +}e{sup -} interaction point (IP). The average luminosity-weighted longitudinal polarization P{sup lumi}{sub z}, which is the decisive quantity for the experiments, has to be determined from these measurements with the best possible precision. Therefore, a detailed understanding of the spin transport in the BDS is mandatory to estimate how precise the longitudinal polarization at the IP is known from the polarimeter measurements. The envisaged precision for the propagation of the measurement value is {<=} 0.1 %. This thesis scrutinizes the spin transport in view of the achievable precision. A detailed beamline simulation for the BDS has been developed, including the simulation of the beam-beam collisions at the IP. The following factors which might limit the achievable precision is investigated: a variation of the beam parameters, the beam alignment precision at the polarimeters and the IP, the bunch rotation at the IP, the detector magnets, the beam-beam collisions, the emission of synchrotron radiation and misalignments of the beamline elements. In absence of collisions, a precision of 0.085% on the propagation of the measured longitudinal polarization has been found achievable. This result however depends mainly on the presumed precisions for the parallel alignment of the beam at the polarimeters and for the alignment of polarization vector. In presence of collisions, the measurement at the downstream polarimeter depends strongly on the intensity of the collision and the size of the polarimeter laser spot. Therefore, a more detailed study of the laser-bunch interaction is

  1. Polarization-dependent optical characterization of poly(phenylquinoxaline) thin films

    Ksianzou, V.; Velagapudi, R. K.; Grimm, B.; Schrader, S.

    2006-09-01

    Linear optical properties of two types of poly(phenylquinoxaline) (PPQ) are studied by multiwavelength prism coupling technique and optical absorption spectroscopy. Surface roughness measurements are done using atomic force microscopy. PPQs form smooth films of high optical quality having refractive indices above 1.7 in the visible and near infrared spectral ranges. Enhanced birefringence of Δn ˜0.04 has been observed in both PPQ films prepared by spin coating. Sellmeier coefficients are derived for the wavelength range starting from 0.532to1.064μm for both TE and TM polarizations. Quantum chemical calculations both on the semiempirical and on the ab initio level are carried out in order to calculate the first-order molecular polarizability tensors of the polymer repeat units. From the obtained tensor elements, theoretical values for both the average refractive indices and the maximum expectable birefringence are calculated. Based on these values a more detailed interpretation of the experimental findings is carried out. The dispersion of refractive index is quantified by the value of Abbe's constant (νd). In our case the value νd≈11 indicates high dispersion in the visible spectral range. The imaginary part k of the complex refractive index n*=n-ik reaches values of k ⩽10-3 in the wavelength range from 0.5to1μm.

  2. Doubling transmission capacity in optical wireless system by antenna horizontal- and vertical-polarization multiplexing.

    Li, Xinying; Yu, Jianjun; Zhang, Junwen; Dong, Ze; Chi, Nan

    2013-06-15

    We experimentally demonstrate 2×56 Gb/s two-channel polarization-division-multiplexing quadrature-phase-shift-keying signal delivery over 80 km single-mode fiber-28 and 2 m Q-band (33-50 GHz) wireless link, adopting antenna horizontal- (H-) and vertical-polarization (V-polarization) multiplexing. At the wireless receiver, classic constant-modulus-algorithm equalization based on digital signal processing can realize polarization demultiplexing and remove the crosstalk at the same antenna polarization. By adopting antenna polarization multiplexing, the signal baud rate and performance requirements for optical and wireless devices can be reduced but at the cost of double antennas and devices, while wireless transmission capacity can also be increased but at the cost of stricter requirements for V-polarization. The isolation is only about 19 dB when V-polarization deviation approaches 10°, which will affect high-speed (>50 Gb/s) wireless delivery.

  3. Three-dimensional orientation-unlimited polarization encryption by a single optically configured vectorial beam.

    Li, Xiangping; Lan, Tzu-Hsiang; Tien, Chung-Hao; Gu, Min

    2012-01-01

    The interplay between light polarization and matter is the basis of many fundamental physical processes and applications. However, the electromagnetic wave nature of light in free space sets a fundamental limit on the three-dimensional polarization orientation of a light beam. Although a high numerical aperture objective can be used to bend the wavefront of a radially polarized beam to generate the longitudinal polarization state in the focal volume, the arbitrary three-dimensional polarization orientation of a beam has not been achieved yet. Here we present a novel technique for generating arbitrary three-dimensional polarization orientation by a single optically configured vectorial beam. As a consequence, by applying this technique to gold nanorods, orientation-unlimited polarization encryption with ultra-security is demonstrated. These results represent a new landmark of the orientation-unlimited three-dimensional polarization control of the light-matter interaction.

  4. Fast, High-Precision Optical Polarization Synthesizer for Ultracold-Atom Experiments

    Robens, Carsten; Brakhane, Stefan; Alt, Wolfgang; Meschede, Dieter; Zopes, Jonathan; Alberti, Andrea

    2018-03-01

    We present a technique for the precision synthesis of arbitrary polarization states of light with a high modulation bandwidth. Our approach consists of superimposing two laser light fields with the same wavelength, but with opposite circular polarizations, where the phase and the amplitude of each light field are individually controlled. We find that the polarization-synthesized beam reaches a degree of polarization of 99.99%, which is mainly limited by static spatial variations of the polarization state over the beam profile. We also find that the depolarization caused by temporal fluctuations of the polarization state is about 2 orders of magnitude smaller. In a recent work, Robens et al. [Low-Entropy States of Neutral Atoms in Polarization-Synthesized Optical Lattices, Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 065302 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.065302] demonstrated an application of the polarization synthesizer to create two independently controllable optical lattices which trap atoms depending on their internal spin state. We use ultracold atoms in polarization-synthesized optical lattices to give an independent, in situ demonstration of the performance of the polarization synthesizer.

  5. Metastability-exchange optical pumping of 3He for neutron polarizers

    Gentile, T.R.; Thompson, A.K.; Snow, W.M.

    1995-01-01

    Research is underway at NIST and IU to develop neutron polarizers that are based on polarized 3 He. Such polarizers rely on the strong spin dependence of the cross section for neutron capture by polarized 3 He. Two methods can produce the high density of polarized 3 He gas (10 19 -10 20 cm -3 ) required for an effective neutron polarizer: spin-exchange optical pumping, which is performed directly at high pressure (1-10 bar), and metastability-exchange optical pumping, in which the gas is polarized at low pressure (1 mbar) and then compressed. While we are pursuing both methods, progress in the metastable method will be discussed. The features of the metastable method are the high rate at which the gas can be polarized and the inherent separation of the optical pumping and target cells. In a landmark achievement, researchers at the Univ. of Mainz have developed a piston compressor that can fill a 130 cm 3 cell to a pressure of 7 bar of 45% polarized 3 He gas in 2 hours. We plan to develop a compressor and test it at the NIST Cold Neutron Research Facility. We have constructed a metastable-pumping apparatus at NIST and have obtained 76% polarization with a pumping rate of 1.2 x 10 18 atoms/sec in a 0.4 mbar, 270 cm 3 cell

  6. Impurity-related linear and nonlinear optical response in quantum-well wires with triangular cross section

    Duque, C.A., E-mail: cduque@fisica.udea.edu.co [Instituto de Física, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226, Medellín (Colombia); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Instituto de Física, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226, Medellín (Colombia); Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Ave. Universidad 1001, CP 62209, Cuernavaca, Morelos, México (Mexico); Kasapoglu, E.; Ungan, F.; Yesilgul, U. [Cumhuriyet University, Physics Department, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Sakiroglu, S. [Dokuz Eylül University, Physics Department, 35160 Buca, İzmir (Turkey); Sari, H. [Cumhuriyet University, Physics Department, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Sökmen, I. [Dokuz Eylül University, Physics Department, 35160 Buca, İzmir (Turkey)

    2013-11-15

    The 1s-like and 2p-like donor impurity energy states are studied in a semiconductor quantum wire of equilateral triangular cross section as functions of the impurity position and the geometrical size of the structure. Linear and nonlinear coefficients for the optical absorption and relative refractive index change associated with 1s→2p transitions are calculated for both the x-polarization and y-polarization of the incident light. The results show a mixed effect of redshift and blueshift depending on the location of the donor atom. Also, strong nonlinear contributions to the optical absorption coefficient are obtained for both polarizations in the on-center impurity case. -- Highlights: • The 1s- and 2p-like impurity states in triangular quantum-well wires. • Optical absorption and relative refractive index changes are calculated. • Redshift and blueshift in the optical structures depend on the donor position. • Strong nonlinear contributions to the absorption coefficient have been obtained.

  7. Estimates of Leaf Relative Water Content from Optical Polarization Measurements

    Dahlgren, R. P.; Vanderbilt, V. C.; Daughtry, C. S. T.

    2017-12-01

    Remotely sensing the water status of plant canopies remains a long term goal of remote sensing research. Existing approaches to remotely sensing canopy water status, such as the Crop Water Stress Index (CWSI) and the Equivalent Water Thickness (EWT), have limitations. The CWSI, based upon remotely sensing canopy radiant temperature in the thermal infrared spectral region, does not work well in humid regions, requires estimates of the vapor pressure deficit near the canopy during the remote sensing over-flight and, once stomata close, provides little information regarding the canopy water status. The EWT is based upon the physics of water-light interaction in the 900-2000nm spectral region, not plant physiology. Our goal, development of a remote sensing technique for estimating plant water status based upon measurements in the VIS/NIR spectral region, would potentially provide remote sensing access to plant dehydration physiology - to the cellular photochemistry and structural changes associated with water deficits in leaves. In this research, we used optical, crossed polarization filters to measure the VIS/NIR light reflected from the leaf interior, R, as well as the leaf transmittance, T, for 78 corn (Zea mays) and soybean (Glycine max) leaves having relative water contents (RWC) between 0.60 and 0.98. Our results show that as RWC decreases R increases while T decreases. Our results tie R and T changes in the VIS/NIR to leaf physiological changes - linking the light scattered out of the drying leaf interior to its relative water content and to changes in leaf cellular structure and pigments. Our results suggest remotely sensing the physiological water status of a single leaf - and perhaps of a plant canopy - might be possible in the future.

  8. The optical polarization of X-ray binaries

    Dolan, J.F.

    1977-01-01

    Polarimetric observations of close binaries may reveal the presence of a black-hole secondary. The Einstein photometric effect will introduce a characteristic, time-varying signature upon the interstellar polarization. For several reasons, it is concluded that the short time-scale variability in the polarization in HDE 226868 is caused by Rayleigh scattering from gas streams known to exist in the system. X Persei may have a variable polarization consistent with the predicted effectics and (Auth)

  9. Control of emitted light polarization in a 1310 nm dilute nitride spin-vertical cavity surface emitting laser subject to circularly polarized optical injection

    Alharthi, S. S., E-mail: ssmalh@essex.ac.uk; Hurtado, A.; Al Seyab, R. K.; Henning, I. D.; Adams, M. J. [School of Computer Science and Electronic Engineering, University of Essex, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester CO4 3SQ (United Kingdom); Korpijarvi, V.-M.; Guina, M. [Optoelectronics Research Centre (ORC), Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 692, FIN-33101 Tampere (Finland)

    2014-11-03

    We experimentally demonstrate the control of the light polarization emitted by a 1310 nm dilute nitride spin-Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) at room temperature. This is achieved by means of a combination of polarized optical pumping and polarized optical injection. Without external injection, the polarization of the optical pump controls that of the spin-VCSEL. However, the addition of the externally injected signal polarized with either left- (LCP) or right-circular polarization (RCP) is able to control the polarization of the spin-VCSEL switching it at will to left- or right-circular polarization. A numerical model has been developed showing a very high degree of agreement with the experimental findings.

  10. Unique heavy lepton signature at e{sup +}e{sup -} linear collider with polarized beams

    Moortgat-Pick, G. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Osland, P. [Univ. Bergen (Norway). Dept. of Physics and Technology; Pankov, A.A.; Tsytrinov, A.V. [Technical Univ. Gomel (Belarus). Abdus Salam ICTP Affliated Centre

    2013-03-15

    We explore the effects of neutrino and electron mixing with exotic heavy leptons in the process e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}W{sup +}W{sup -} within E{sub 6} models. We examine the possibility of uniquely distinguishing and identifying such effects of heavy neutral lepton exchange from Z-Z' mixing within the same class of models and also from analogous ones due to competitor models with anomalous trilinear gauge couplings (AGC) that can lead to very similar experimental signatures at the e{sup +}e{sup -} International Linear Collider (ILC) for {radical}(s)=350, 500 GeV and 1 TeV. Such clear identification of the model is possible by using a certain double polarization asymmetry. The availability of both beams being polarized plays a crucial role in identifying such exotic-lepton admixture. In addition, the sensitivity of the ILC for probing exotic-lepton admixture is substantially enhanced when the polarization of the produced W{sup {+-}} bosons is considered.

  11. Polarization contrast in reflection near-field optical microscopy with uncoated fibre tips

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Langbein, Wolfgang; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    1999-01-01

    Using cross-hatched, patterned semiconductor surfaces and round 20-nm-thick gold pads on semiconductor wafers, we investigate the imaging characteristics of a reflection near-field optical microscope with an uncoated fibre tip for different polarization configurations and light wavelengths....... Is is shown that cross-polarized detection allows one to effectively suppress far-field components in the detected signal and to realise imaging of optical contrast on the sub-wavelength scale. The sensitivity window of our microscope, i.e. the scale on which near-field optical images represent mainly optical...

  12. LIMITS ON OPTICAL POLARIZATION DURING THE PROMPT PHASE OF GRB 140430A

    Kopac, D.; Mundell, C. G.; Arnold, D. M.; Steele, I. A.; Kobayashi, S.; Lamb, G. P.; Smith, R. J.; Virgili, F. J. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool, L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Japelj, J.; Gomboc, A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana, Jadranska 19, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Guidorzi, C.; Dichiara, S. [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, University of Ferrara, via Saragat 1, I-44122, Ferrara (Italy); Harrison, R. M. [Department of Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel); Melandri, A. [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, via E. Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy); Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Gorosabel, J.; Sánchez-Ramírez, R.; Oates, S. R. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA-CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomia s/n, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Järvinen, A. [AIP—Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam, An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Jelínek, M., E-mail: drejc.kopac@fmf.uni-lj.si [ASU-CAS—Astronomical Institute of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Fričova 298, 251 65 Ondřejov (Czech Republic)

    2015-11-01

    Gamma-ray burst GRB 140430A was detected by the Swift satellite and observed promptly with the imaging polarimeter RINGO3 mounted on the Liverpool Telescope, with observations beginning while the prompt γ-ray emission was still ongoing. In this paper, we present densely sampled (10-s temporal resolution) early optical light curves (LCs) in 3 optical bands and limits to the degree of optical polarization. We compare optical, X-ray, and gamma-ray properties and present an analysis of the optical emission during a period of high-energy flaring. The complex optical LC cannot be explained merely with a combination of forward and reverse shock emission from a standard external shock, implying additional contribution of emission from internal shock dissipation. We estimate an upper limit for time averaged optical polarization during the prompt phase to be as low as P < 12% (1σ). This suggests that the optical flares and early afterglow emission in this GRB are not highly polarized. Alternatively, time averaging could mask the presence of otherwise polarized components of distinct origin at different polarization position angles.

  13. LIMITS ON OPTICAL POLARIZATION DURING THE PROMPT PHASE OF GRB 140430A

    Kopac, D.; Mundell, C. G.; Arnold, D. M.; Steele, I. A.; Kobayashi, S.; Lamb, G. P.; Smith, R. J.; Virgili, F. J.; Japelj, J.; Gomboc, A.; Guidorzi, C.; Dichiara, S.; Harrison, R. M.; Melandri, A.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Gorosabel, J.; Sánchez-Ramírez, R.; Oates, S. R.; Järvinen, A.; Jelínek, M.

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-ray burst GRB 140430A was detected by the Swift satellite and observed promptly with the imaging polarimeter RINGO3 mounted on the Liverpool Telescope, with observations beginning while the prompt γ-ray emission was still ongoing. In this paper, we present densely sampled (10-s temporal resolution) early optical light curves (LCs) in 3 optical bands and limits to the degree of optical polarization. We compare optical, X-ray, and gamma-ray properties and present an analysis of the optical emission during a period of high-energy flaring. The complex optical LC cannot be explained merely with a combination of forward and reverse shock emission from a standard external shock, implying additional contribution of emission from internal shock dissipation. We estimate an upper limit for time averaged optical polarization during the prompt phase to be as low as P < 12% (1σ). This suggests that the optical flares and early afterglow emission in this GRB are not highly polarized. Alternatively, time averaging could mask the presence of otherwise polarized components of distinct origin at different polarization position angles

  14. Distinguishing new physics scenarios at a linear collider with polarized beams

    Pankov, A.A.; Tsytrinov, A.V.; Paver, N.

    2006-01-01

    Numerous nonstandard dynamics dominated by very high mass exchanges are described at current and future accelerator energies by appropriate contactlike effective interactions among the standard model particles. Correspondingly, they can manifest themselves only through deviations of the cross sections from the standard model predictions. If one such deviation were observed, it would be important to definitely identify, to a given confidence level, the actual source among the various possible nonstandard interactions that, in principle, can explain it. Here we estimate the identification reach on different new physics effective interactions, obtainable from angular distributions of lepton pair production processes at the planned electron-positron International Linear Collider with polarized beams. For each nonstandard model, such an identification reach defines the range in the relevant heavy mass scale parameter where it can be unambiguously distinguished from the other nonstandard models as the source of corrections to the standard model cross sections, in case these are observed. The effective interactions for which we estimate the expected identification reach are the interactions based on gravity in large extra dimensions, in TeV -1 extra dimensions and the compositeness-inspired four-fermion contact interactions. The availability of both beams polarized at the International Linear Collider turns out, in many cases, to dramatically enhance the identification sensitivity

  15. Extreme-scale alignments of quasar optical polarizations and Galactic dust contamination

    Pelgrims, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Almost twenty years ago the optical polarization vectors from quasars were shown to be aligned over extreme-scales. That evidence was later confirmed and enhanced thanks to additional optical data obtained with the ESO instrument FORS2 mounted on the VLT, in Chile. These observations suggest either Galactic foreground contamination of the data or, more interestingly, a cosmological origin. Using 353-GHz polarization data from the Planck satellite, I recently showed that the main features of t...

  16. Extracting structural features of rat sciatic nerve using polarization-sensitive spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    Islam, M.S.; Oliveira, M.C.; Wang, Y.; Henry, F.P.; Randolph, M.A.; Park, B. H.; de Boer, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    We present spectral domain polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (SD PS-OCT) imaging of peripheral nerves. Structural and polarization-sensitive OCT imaging of uninjured rat sciatic nerves was evaluated both qualitatively and quantitatively. OCT and its functional extension, PS-OCT,

  17. A high field optical-pumping spin-exchange polarized deuterium source

    Coulter, K.P.; Holt, R.J.; Kinney, E.R.; Kowalczyk, R.S.; Poelker, M.; Potterveld, D.H.; Young, L.; Zeidman, B.; Toporkov, D.

    1992-01-01

    Recent results from a prototype high field optical-pumping spin-exchange polarized deuterium source are presented. Atomic polarization as high as 62% have been observed with an intensity of 6.3 x 10 17 atoms-sec -1 and 65% dissociation fraction

  18. Rydberg atoms in circular polarization: Classical stabilization in optical frequency fields

    Chism, Will; Reichl, L.E.

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the classical dynamics of the Rydberg atom in circularly polarized laser fields, restricted to the two-dimensional plane of polarization. We use a Poincare surface of section to study nonlinear resonance structures for optical frequency driving fields. We demonstrate the existence and morphology of these structures as the laser intensity transitions from moderate to intense

  19. Multiply charged negative ions of hydrogen in linearly polarized laser fields

    van Duijn, E.; Muller, H.G.

    1997-01-01

    Motivated by the prediction of the appearance of atomic multiply charged negative ions (AMCNI) of hydrogen, induced by a linearly polarized laser field, we present an analytical quantum mechanical treatment of the appearance and structure of AMCNI in a linearly polarized field, based on high-frequency Floquet theory (HFFT). For the simplest AMCNI of hydrogen, H 2- and H 3- , the values of α 0 at which the first bound state appears are α 0 =1.62x10 2 and α 0 =1.02x10 4 , where α 0 =I 1/2 /ω 2 is the amplitude of the oscillation of a free electron in the field with frequency ω and intensity I (unless stated otherwise, we use atomic units throughout this paper). Whereas in vacuum at least one of the electrons of an AMCNI autodetaches, an intense high-frequency field can change the character of the ion dramatically, such that bound states of AMCNI can appear. Due to the interaction with the field, the electrons of the AMCNI oscillate in phase along the polarization axis. This open-quotes quiverclose quotes motion enables the electrons to be spatially separated over distances of order α 0 , reducing the repulsive e-e interaction as α 0 increases. In other words, for α 0 large enough, the field enables a configuration in which the electrons, while widely separated, are bound to one proton. For the prediction of bound states of H N- with N>3, however, a relativistic description or low-frequency theory is required. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  20. Relations between broad-band linear polarization and Ca II H and K emission in late-type dwarf stars

    Huovelin, Juhani; Saar, Steven H.; Tuominen, Ilkka

    1988-01-01

    Broadband UBV linear polarization data acquired for a sample of late-type dwarfs are compared with contemporaneous measurements of Ca II H and K line core emission. A weighted average of the largest values of the polarization degree is shown to be the best parameter for chromospheric activity diagnosis. The average maximum polarization in the UV is found to increase from late-F to late-G stars. It is noted that polarization in the U band is considerably more sensitive to activity variations than that in the B or V bands. The results indicate that stellar magnetic fields and the resulting saturation in the Zeeman-sensitive absorption lines are the most probably source of linear polarization in late-type main-sequence stars.

  1. Quantum reconstruction of an intense polarization squeezed optical state

    Marquardt, Ch.; Heersink, J.; Dong, R.

    2007-01-01

    We perform a reconstruction of the polarization sector of the density matrix of an intense polarization squeezed beam starting from a complete set of Stokes measurements. By using an appropriate quasidistribution, we map this onto the Poincare space, providing a full quantum mechanical characteri...

  2. Polarization effects in silicon-clad optical waveguides

    Carson, R. F.; Batchman, T. E.

    1984-01-01

    By changing the thickness of a semiconductor cladding layer deposited on a planar dielectric waveguide, the TE or TM propagating modes may be selectively attenuated. This polarization effect is due to the periodic coupling between the lossless propagating modes of the dielectric slab waveguide and the lossy modes of the cladding layer. Experimental tests involving silicon claddings show high selectivity for either polarization.

  3. Optically stimulated luminescence from quartz measured using the linear modulation technique

    Bulur, E.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Murray, A.S.

    2000-01-01

    The optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) from heated natural quartz has been investigated using the linear modulation technique (LMT), in which the excitation light intensity is increased linearly during stimulation. In contrast to conventional stimulation, which usually produces a monotonical...

  4. Analysis of CMOS Compatible Cu-Based TM-Pass Optical Polarizer

    Ng, Tien Khee

    2012-02-10

    A transverse-magnetic-pass (TM-pass) optical polarizer based on Cu complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology platform is proposed and analyzed using the 2-D method-of-lines numerical model. In designing the optimum configuration for the polarizer, it was found that the metal-insulator-metal (MIM) polarizer structure is superior compared to the insulator-metal-insulator polarizer structure due to its higher polarization extinction ratio (PER) and low insertion loss. An optimized MIM TM-pass polarizer exhibits simulated long wavelength pass filter characteristics of > ?1.2 ?m, with fundamental TM 0 and TE 0 mode transmissivity of >70% and <5%, respectively, and with PER ?11.5 dB in the wavelength range of 1.2-1.6 ?m. The subwavelength and submicrometer features of this TM-polarizer are potentially suitable for compact and low power photonics integrated circuit implementation on silicon-based substrates. © 1989-2012 IEEE.

  5. thermally poled channel waveguides with polarization independent electro-optic effect

    Ren, Yitao; Marckmann, Carl Johan; Arentoft, Jesper

    2002-01-01

    We present a systematic investigation of the poling-induced electrooptic (EO) effect in germanium and nitrogen codoped channel waveguides. The channel waveguides show attractive properties: (1) almost polarization independent EO effect; (2) a flat frequency response with the modulation frequency up...... to 100 kHz; and (3) low linear loss and low polarization dependent loss, which demonstrate great technological potential...

  6. Optically Polarized Conduction-Band Electrons in Tungsten Observed by Spin-Polarized Photoemission

    Zürcher, P.; Meier, F.; Christensen, N. E.

    1979-01-01

    Along the (100) direction of tungsten, interband transitions induced by circularly polarized light of energy 1.5 eV......Along the (100) direction of tungsten, interband transitions induced by circularly polarized light of energy 1.5 eV...

  7. Prospects for a deuterium internal target, tensor polarized by optical pumping: spin exchange

    Green, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    The prospects for a tensor polarized deuterium target (approx. 10 15 atoms/cm 2 ) appropriate for nuclear physics studies in medium and high energy particle storage rings are discussed. Using the technique of electron spin exchange with an optically pumped sodium (or potassium) vapor, we hope to polarize deuterium at a rate approx. 10 17 atoms/sec. Predictions for the deuterium polarization for a particular target cell design will be presented leading to the identification of the required optical pumping power and cell wall depolarization probability to attain optimum performance. The technical obstacles to be surmounted in such a target design will also be discussed

  8. Optical field-strength polarization of two-mode single-photon states

    Linares, J; Nistal, M C; Barral, D; Moreno, V, E-mail: suso.linares.beiras@usc.e [Optics Area, Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Physics and School of Optics and Optometry, University of Santiago de Compostela, Campus Universitario Sur s/n, 15782-Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    We present a quantum analysis of two-mode single-photon states based on the probability distributions of the optical field strength (or position quadrature) in order to describe their quantum polarization characteristics, where polarization is understood as a significative confinement of the optical field-strength values on determined regions of the two-mode optical field-strength plane. We will show that the mentioned probability distributions along with the values of quantum Stokes parameters allow us to characterize the polarization of a two-mode single-photon state, in an analogous way to the classical case, and to distinguish conceptually between mixture and partially polarized quantum states; in this way, we propose a simple definition of the quantum polarization degree based on the recent concept of distance measure to an unpolarized distribution, which gives rise to a depolarization degree equivalent to an overlapping between the probability distribution of the quantum state and a non-polarized two-mode Gaussian distribution. The work is particularly intended to university physics teachers and graduate students as well as to physicists and specialists concerned with the issue of optical polarization.

  9. Optical field-strength polarization of two-mode single-photon states

    Linares, J; Nistal, M C; Barral, D; Moreno, V

    2010-01-01

    We present a quantum analysis of two-mode single-photon states based on the probability distributions of the optical field strength (or position quadrature) in order to describe their quantum polarization characteristics, where polarization is understood as a significative confinement of the optical field-strength values on determined regions of the two-mode optical field-strength plane. We will show that the mentioned probability distributions along with the values of quantum Stokes parameters allow us to characterize the polarization of a two-mode single-photon state, in an analogous way to the classical case, and to distinguish conceptually between mixture and partially polarized quantum states; in this way, we propose a simple definition of the quantum polarization degree based on the recent concept of distance measure to an unpolarized distribution, which gives rise to a depolarization degree equivalent to an overlapping between the probability distribution of the quantum state and a non-polarized two-mode Gaussian distribution. The work is particularly intended to university physics teachers and graduate students as well as to physicists and specialists concerned with the issue of optical polarization.

  10. Linear-regression convolutional neural network for fully automated coronary lumen segmentation in intravascular optical coherence tomography.

    Yong, Yan Ling; Tan, Li Kuo; McLaughlin, Robert A; Chee, Kok Han; Liew, Yih Miin

    2017-12-01

    Intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an optical imaging modality commonly used in the assessment of coronary artery diseases during percutaneous coronary intervention. Manual segmentation to assess luminal stenosis from OCT pullback scans is challenging and time consuming. We propose a linear-regression convolutional neural network to automatically perform vessel lumen segmentation, parameterized in terms of radial distances from the catheter centroid in polar space. Benchmarked against gold-standard manual segmentation, our proposed algorithm achieves average locational accuracy of the vessel wall of 22 microns, and 0.985 and 0.970 in Dice coefficient and Jaccard similarity index, respectively. The average absolute error of luminal area estimation is 1.38%. The processing rate is 40.6 ms per image, suggesting the potential to be incorporated into a clinical workflow and to provide quantitative assessment of vessel lumen in an intraoperative time frame. (2017) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  11. Linear and nonlinear optical properties of borate crystals as ...

    Unknown

    crystal series, with an accuracy acceptable for materials development/design, and answer the questions often ... Optical property; nonlinear optical crystals; first principles calculation. 1. ..... system, and is not in concept suitable to excitation pro-.

  12. Non-linear optical imaging – Introduction and pharmaceutical applications

    Fussell, A.L.; Isomaki, Antti; Strachan, Clare J.

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear optical imaging is an emerging technology with much potential in pharmaceutical analysis. The technique encompasses a range of optical phenomena, including coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), second harmonic generation (SHG), and twophoton excited fluorescence (TPEF). The

  13. Optical pumping and negative luminescence polarization in charged GaAs quantum dots

    Shabaev, Andrew; Stinaff, Eric A.; Bracker, Allan S.; Gammon, Daniel; Efros, Alexander L.; Korenev, Vladimir L.; Merkulov, Igor

    2009-01-01

    Optical pumping of electron spins and negative photoluminescence polarization are observed when interface quantum dots in a GaAs quantum well are excited nonresonantly by circularly polarized light. Both observations can be explained by the formation of long-lived dark excitons through hole spin relaxation in the GaAs quantum well prior to exciton capture. In this model, optical pumping of resident electron spins is caused by capture of dark excitons and recombination in charged quantum dots. Negative polarization results from accumulation of dark excitons in the quantum well and is enhanced by optical pumping. The dark exciton model describes the experimental results very well, including intensity and bias dependence of the photoluminescence polarization and the Hanle effect.

  14. Effect of a spiral phase on a vector optical field with hybrid polarization states

    Chen, Rui-Pin; Zhao, Tingyu; Zhong, Li-Xin; Chew, Khian-Hooi; Gu, Bing; Zhou, Guoquan

    2015-01-01

    The propagation dynamics of a vector field with inhomogeneous states of polarization (SoP) imposed a vortex is studied using the angular spectrum method. The evolution of SoP in the cross section of the field during propagation is analyzed numerically by the Stokes polarization parameters. The results indicate that SoP in the field cross section rotate along the propagation axis during propagation due to the existence of a vortex. In addition, the interaction between the phase singularity and the polarization singularity leads to the creation or annihilation of the optical field in the central region. In particular, the distributions of the transverse energy flow and both spin and orbital optical angular momentum fluxes in the cross section of the vortex vector optical field depend sensitively on both the vortex and polarization topology charges. (paper)

  15. Quantitative analysis of eyes and other optical systems in linear optics.

    Harris, William F; Evans, Tanya; van Gool, Radboud D

    2017-05-01

    To show that 14-dimensional spaces of augmented point P and angle Q characteristics, matrices obtained from the ray transference, are suitable for quantitative analysis although only the latter define an inner-product space and only on it can one define distances and angles. The paper examines the nature of the spaces and their relationships to other spaces including symmetric dioptric power space. The paper makes use of linear optics, a three-dimensional generalization of Gaussian optics. Symmetric 2 × 2 dioptric power matrices F define a three-dimensional inner-product space which provides a sound basis for quantitative analysis (calculation of changes, arithmetic means, etc.) of refractive errors and thin systems. For general systems the optical character is defined by the dimensionally-heterogeneous 4 × 4 symplectic matrix S, the transference, or if explicit allowance is made for heterocentricity, the 5 × 5 augmented symplectic matrix T. Ordinary quantitative analysis cannot be performed on them because matrices of neither of these types constitute vector spaces. Suitable transformations have been proposed but because the transforms are dimensionally heterogeneous the spaces are not naturally inner-product spaces. The paper obtains 14-dimensional spaces of augmented point P and angle Q characteristics. The 14-dimensional space defined by the augmented angle characteristics Q is dimensionally homogenous and an inner-product space. A 10-dimensional subspace of the space of augmented point characteristics P is also an inner-product space. The spaces are suitable for quantitative analysis of the optical character of eyes and many other systems. Distances and angles can be defined in the inner-product spaces. The optical systems may have multiple separated astigmatic and decentred refracting elements. © 2017 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2017 The College of Optometrists.

  16. Structures Of Magnetically-Supported Filaments And Their Appearance In The Linear Polarization

    Tomisaka, Kohji

    2017-10-01

    Dust thermal emissions observed with Herschel have revealed that interstellar molecular clouds consist of many filaments. Polarization observation of interstellar extinctions in the optical and near IR wavelengths shows that the dense filaments are extending perpendicular to the interstellar magnetic field. Magnetohydrostatic structures of such filaments are studied. It is well known that a hydrostatic filament without magnetic field has a maximum line mass of ¥lambda_max=2c_s^2/G (c_s:the isothermal sound speed and G: the gravitational constant). On the other hand, the magnetically-supported maximum line mass increases in proportion to the magnetic flux per unit length threading the filament (¥phi), as ¥lambda_max 2c_s^2/G + ¥phi/(2¥pi G^1/2). Comparison is made with 3D clouds. Stability of these magnetized filaments is studied using time-dependent 3D MHD simulations to discuss star formation in the filaments. Polarization pattern expected for the magnetically subcritical filaments is calculated. The distribution function of the angle between B-field and the axis of the filament, which is obtained with Planck Satellite, is compared with this mock observation.

  17. Fiber optics frequency comb enabled linear optical sampling with operation wavelength range extension.

    Liao, Ruolin; Wu, Zhichao; Fu, Songnian; Zhu, Shengnan; Yu, Zhe; Tang, Ming; Liu, Deming

    2018-02-01

    Although the linear optical sampling (LOS) technique is powerful enough to characterize various advanced modulation formats with high symbol rates, the central wavelength of a pulsed local oscillator (LO) needs to be carefully set according to that of the signal under test, due to the coherent mixing operation. Here, we experimentally demonstrate wideband LOS enabled by a fiber optics frequency comb (FOFC). Meanwhile, when the broadband FOFC acts as the pulsed LO, we propose a scheme to mitigate the enhanced sampling error arising in the non-ideal response of a balanced photodetector. Finally, precise characterizations of arbitrary 128 Gbps PDM-QPSK wavelength channels from 1550 to 1570 nm are successfully achieved, when a 101.3 MHz frequency spaced comb with a 3 dB spectral power ripple of 20 nm is used.

  18. Demonstration of feed-forward control for linear optics quantum computation

    Pittman, T.B.; Jacobs, B.C.; Franson, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    One of the main requirements in linear optics quantum computing is the ability to perform single-qubit operations that are controlled by classical information fed forward from the output of single-photon detectors. These operations correspond to predetermined combinations of phase corrections and bit flips that are applied to the postselected output modes of nondeterministic quantum logic devices. Corrections of this kind are required in order to obtain the correct logical output for certain detection events, and their use can increase the overall success probability of the devices. In this paper, we report on the experimental demonstration of the use of this type of feed-forward system to increase the probability of success of a simple nondeterministic quantum logic operation from approximately (1/4) to (1/2). This logic operation involves the use of one target qubit and one ancilla qubit which, in this experiment, are derived from a parametric down-conversion photon pair. Classical information describing the detection of the ancilla photon is fed forward in real time and used to alter the quantum state of the output photon. A fiber-optic delay line is used to store the output photon until a polarization-dependent phase shift can be applied using a high-speed Pockels cell

  19. Fields of an ultrashort tightly focused radially polarized laser pulse in a linear response plasma

    Salamin, Yousef I.

    2017-10-01

    Analytical expressions for the fields of a radially polarized, ultrashort, and tightly focused laser pulse propagating in a linear-response plasma are derived and discussed. The fields are obtained from solving the inhomogeneous wave equations for the vector and scalar potentials, linked by the Lorenz gauge, in a plasma background. First, the scalar potential is eliminated using the gauge condition, then the vector potential is synthesized from Fourier components of an initial uniform distribution of wavenumbers, and the inverse Fourier transformation is carried out term-by-term in a truncated series (finite sum). The zeroth-order term in, for example, the axial electric field component is shown to model a pulse much better than its widely used paraxial approximation counterpart. Some of the propagation characteristics of the fields are discussed and all fields are shown to have manifested the expected limits for propagation in a vacuum.

  20. Design of polarization encoded all-optical 4-valued MAX logic gate and its applications

    Chattopadhyay, Tanay; Nath Roy, Jitendra

    2013-07-01

    Quaternary maximum (QMAX) gate is one type of multi-valued logic gate. An all-optical scheme of polarization encoded quaternary (4-valued) MAX logic gate with the help of Terahertz Optical Asymmetric Demultiplexer (TOAD) based fiber interferometric switch is proposed and described. For the quaternary information processing in optics, the quaternary number (0, 1, 2, 3) can be represented by four discrete polarized states of light. Numerical simulation result confirming the described methods is given in this paper. Some applications of MAX gate in logical operation and memory device are also given.

  1. Analyzing power of AGATA triple clusters for gamma-ray linear polarization

    Bizzeti, P.G.; Sona, P.; Melon, B.; Bizzeti-Sona, A.M.; Perego, A. [Universita di Firenze, Dipartimento di Fisica, Firenze (Italy); INFN, Firenze (Italy); Michelagnoli, C.; Lunardi, S.; Mengoni, D.; Recchia, F. [INFN, Padova (Italy); Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica, Padova (Italy); Bazzacco, D.; Farnea, E.; Menegazzo, R.; Ur, C.A. [INFN, Padova (Italy); De Angelis, G.; Gottardo, A.; Napoli, D.R.; Sahin, E.; Valiente-Dobon, J.J. [Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, INFN, Padova (Italy); Gadea, A. [University of Valencia, IFIC, CSIC, Valencia (Spain); Nannini, A. [INFN, Firenze (Italy)

    2015-04-01

    We have investigated the ability of AGATA triple clusters to measure the linear polarization of gamma rays, exploiting the azimuthal-angle dependence of the Compton scattering differential cross section. To this aim, partially polarized gamma rays have been produced by Coulomb excitation of the first excited state of {sup 104}Pd and {sup 108}Pd, which decay to the ground state by emission of gamma rays of 555.8 keV and 433.9 keV, respectively. Pulse-shape analysis and gamma-ray tracking techniques have been used to determine the position and time sequence of the interaction points inside the germanium crystals. Anisotropies in the detection efficiency have been taken into account using 661.6 keV gammas from a {sup 137}Cs radioactive source. We obtain an average analyzing power of 0.451(34) at 433.9 keV and 0.484(24) at 555.8 keV. (orig.)

  2. Quasi-Linear Polarized Modes in Y-Rotated Piezoelectric GaPO4 Plates

    Cinzia Caliendo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The propagation of both surface and flexural acoustic plate modes along y-rotated x-propagation GaPO4 piezoelectric substrates was studied for several y-cut angles: the phase velocity and coupling coefficient dispersion curves were theoretically calculated for two different electroacoustic coupling configurations. The investigation of the acoustic field profile across the plate thickness revealed the presence of thin plate modes having polarization predominantly oriented along the propagation direction, and hence suitable for operation in liquid environment. These modes include the linearly polarized Anisimkin Jr. and the quasi longitudinal plate modes, AMs and QLs, showing a phase velocity close to that of the longitudinal bulk acoustic wave propagating in the same direction. The temperature coefficient of delay (TCD of these longitudinal modes was investigated in the −20 to 420 °C temperature range, in order to identify thermally stable or low TCD cuts. The power flow angle, i.e., the angle between the phase and group velocity vectors, was also estimated to evaluate the substrate anisotropy effect on the acoustic wave propagation. The GaPO4 intrinsic properties, such as its resistance to high temperature and its chemical inertness, make it especially attractive for the development of acoustic waves-based sensors for applications in harsh liquid environment.

  3. Distinguishing new physics scenarios at a linear collider with polarized beams

    Pankov, A.A.; Paver, N.; Tsytrinov, A.V.

    2005-12-01

    Numerous non-standard dynamics are described by contact-like effective interactions that can manifest themselves only through deviations of the cross sections from the Standard Model predictions. If one such deviation were observed, it should be important to definitely identify, to a given confidence level, the actual source among the possible non-standard interactions that in principle can explain it. We here estimate the 'identification' reach on different New Physics effective interactions obtainable from angular distributions of lepton pair production processes at the planned International Linear Collider with polarized beams. The models for which we discuss the range in the relevant high mass scales where they can be 'identified' as sources of corrections from the Standard Model predictions, are the interactions based on gravity in large and in TeV -1 extra dimensions and the compositeness-inspired four-fermion contact interactions. The availability of both beams polarized in many cases plays an essential role in enhancing the identification sensitivity. (author)

  4. Polarization ray tracing in anisotropic optically active media. II. Theory and physics

    McClain, S.C.; Hillman, L.W.; Chipman, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    Refraction, reflection, and amplitude relations are derived that apply to polarization ray tracing in anisotropic, optically active media such as quartz. The constitutive relations for quartz are discussed. The refractive indices and polarization states associated with the two modes of propagation are derived as a function of wave direction. A procedure for refracting at any uniaxial or optically active interface is derived that computes both the ray direction and the wave direction. A method for computing the optical path length is given, and Fresnel transmission and ref lection equations are derived from boundary conditions on the electromagnetic fields. These ray-tracing formulas apply to uniaxial, optically active media and therefore encompass uniaxial, non-optically active materials and isotropic, optically active materials

  5. Polarization encoded all-optical quaternary successor with the help of SOA assisted Sagnac switch

    Chattopadhyay, Tanay; Roy, Jitendra Nath

    2011-06-01

    The application of multi-valued (non-binary) signals can provide a considerable relief in transmission, storage and processing of large amount of information in digital signal processing. Optical multi-valued logical operation is an interesting challenge for future optical signal processing where we can expect much innovation. A novel all-optical quaternary successor (QSUC) circuit with the help of semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA)-assisted Sagnac switch is proposed and described. This circuit exploits the polarization properties of light. Different logical states are represented by different polarization state of light. Simulation result confirming described method is given in this paper. Proposed all-optical successor circuit can take an important and significant role in designing of all-optical quaternary universal inverter and modulo arithmetic unit (addition and multiplication).

  6. Exploring the top-Higgs FCNC couplings at polarized linear colliders with top spin observables

    Melić, Blaženka; Patra, Monalisa [Institut Ruđer Bošković, Theoretical Physics Division,Bijenička 54, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2017-01-11

    We study the nature of flavor changing neutral couplings of the top quark with the Higgs boson and the up/charm quark in the tt̄ production at linear colliders. There are previous bounds on such tqH couplings at both, linear and hadronic colliders, with the assumption that the top couples equally to the left and the right handed fermions. In this paper we examine chirality of the tqH coupling and construct different observables which will be sensitive to it. The kinematics of the emitted q from t→qH in tt̄ production is discussed and it was found that the polar angle distribution of q is sensitive to the chiral nature of tqH couplings. The observables in the context of top-antitop spin correlations, which are sensitive to new physics in the top decay are considered using different spin-quantization bases. It was found that in particular the off-diagonal basis can be useful to distinguish among the chiral tqH couplings. The sensitivity of the unpolarized ILC in probing the couplings at the 3σ level at √s = 500 GeV and L = 500 fb{sup −1} is also studied, resulting in predicted BR(t→qH)<1.19×10{sup −3}. This limit is further improved to BR(t→qH)<8.84×10{sup −4} with the inclusion of initial beam polarization of left handed electrons and right handed positrons.

  7. Polarization singularities of optical fields caused by structural dislocations in crystals

    Savaryn, V; Vasylkiv, Yu; Krupych, O; Skab, I; Vlokh, R

    2013-01-01

    We analyze polarization singularities of optical beams that propagate through crystals possessing structural dislocations. We show that screw dislocations of crystalline structure can lead to the appearance of purely screw-type dislocations of light wavefronts. This can happen only in crystals that belong to trigonal and cubic systems. These polarization singularities will give rise to optical vortices with the topological charge equal to ±1, whenever a crystal sample is placed between crossed circular polarizers. We have also found that edge dislocations present in the cubic and trigonal crystals, with the Burgers vector perpendicular to the three-fold symmetry axes, can impose mixed screw-edge dislocations in the wavefronts of optical beams and generate singly charged optical vortices. The results of our analysis can be applied for detecting and identifying dislocations of different types available in crystals. (paper)

  8. Polarization dependent dispersion and its impact on optical parametric process in high nonlinear microstructure fibre

    Xiao Li; Zhang Wei; Huang Yidong; Peng Jiangde

    2008-01-01

    High nonlinear microstructure fibre (HNMF) is preferred in nonlinear fibre optics, especially in the applications of optical parametric effects, due to its high optical nonlinear coefficient. However, polarization dependent dispersion will impact the nonlinear optical parametric process in HNMFs. In this paper, modulation instability (MI) method is used to measure the polarization dependent dispersion of a piece of commercial HNMF, including the group velocity dispersion, the dispersion slope, the fourth-order dispersion and group birefringence. It also experimentally demonstrates the impact of the polarization dependent dispersion on the continuous wave supercontinuum (SC) generation. On one axis MI sidebands with symmetric frequency detunings are generated, while on the other axis with larger MI frequency detuning, SC is generated by soliton self-frequency shift

  9. Linear electro-optical properties of tetragonal BaTiO 3

    Linear optical susceptibility and clamped linear electro-optical tensor coefficients of tetragonal BaTiO3 are calculated using a formalism based on bond charge theory. Calculated values are in close agreement with experimental data. The covalent Ti–O bonds constituting distorted TiO6 octahedral groups are found to be ...

  10. Apparatus and Method for Elimination of Polarization-Induced Fading in Fiber-optic Sensor System

    Chan, Hon Man (Inventor); Parker, Jr., Allen R. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The invention is an apparatus and method of eliminating polarization-induced fading in interferometric fiber-optic sensor system having a wavelength-swept laser optical signal. The interferometric return signal from the sensor arms are combined and provided to a multi-optical path detector assembly and ultimately to a data acquisition and processing unit by way of a switch that is time synchronized with the laser scan sweep cycle.

  11. Optical properties of polarization-dependent geometrical phase elements with partially polarized light

    Gorodetski, Y.; Biener, G.; Niv, A.; Kleiner, V.; Hasman, E.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text:The behavior of geometrical phase elements illuminated with partially polarized monochromatic beams is being theoretically as well as experimentally investigated. The element discussed in this paper is composed of wave plates with retardation and space-variant orientation angle. We found that a beam emerging from such an element comprises two polarization orders of right and left-handed circularly polarized states with conjugate geometrical phase modification. This phase equals twice the orientation angle of the space-variant wave plate comprising the element. Apart from the two polarization orders, the emerging beam coherence polarization matrix comprises a matrix termed as the vectorial interference matrix. This matrix contains the information concerning the correlation between the two orthogonal circularly polarized portions of the incident beam. In this paper we measure this correlation by a simple interference experiment. Furthermore, we found that the equivalent mutual intensity of the emerging beam is being modulated according to the geometrical phase induced by the element. Other interesting phenomena along propagation will be discussed theoretically and experimentally demonstrated. We demonstrate experimentally our analysis by using a spherical geometrical phase element, which is realized by use of space-variant sub wavelength grating and illuminated with a CO 2 laser radiation of 10.6μm wavelength

  12. Nuclear spin polarized H and D by means of spin-exchange optical pumping

    Stenger, Jörn; Grosshauser, Carsten; Kilian, Wolfgang; Nagengast, Wolfgang; Ranzenberger, Bernd; Rith, Klaus; Schmidt, Frank

    1998-01-01

    Optically pumped spin-exchange sources for polarized hydrogen and deuterium atoms have been demonstrated to yield high atomic flow and high electron spin polarization. For maximum nuclear polarization the source has to be operated in spin temperature equilibrium, which has already been demonstrated for hydrogen. In spin temperature equilibrium the nuclear spin polarization PI equals the electron spin polarization PS for hydrogen and is even larger than PS for deuterium. We discuss the general properties of spin temperature equilibrium for a sample of deuterium atoms. One result are the equations PI=4PS/(3+PS2) and Pzz=PSṡPI, where Pzz is the nuclear tensor polarization. Furthermore we demonstrate that the deuterium atoms from our source are in spin temperature equilibrium within the experimental accuracy.

  13. Intense source of spin-polarized electrons using laser-induced optical pumping

    Gray, L.G.; Giberson, K.W.; Cheng, C.; Keiffer, R.S.; Dunning, F.B.; Walters, G.K.

    1983-01-01

    A source of spin-polarized electrons based on a laser-pumped flowing helium afterglow is described. He(2 3 S) atoms contained in the afterglow are optically pumped using circularly polarized 1.08-μm (2 3 S→2 3 P) radiation provided by a NaF (F 2+ )( color-center laser. Spin angular momentum conservation in subsequent chemi-ionization reactions with CO 2 produces polarized electrons that are extracted from the afterglow. At low currents, < or approx. =1 μA, polarizations of approx.70%--80% are achieved. At higher currents the polarization decreases, falling to approx.40% at 50 μA. The spin polarization can be simply reversed (P→-P) and the source is suitable for use in the majority of low-energy spin-dependent scattering experiments proposed to date

  14. A study on linear and non-linear optical constants of Rhodamine B thin film deposited on FTO glass

    Yahia, I. S.; Jilani, Asim; Abutalib, M. M.; AlFaify, S.; Shkir, M.; Abdel-wahab, M. Sh.; Al-Ghamdi, Attieh A.; El-Naggar, A. M.

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this research was to fabricate/deposit the good quality thin film of Rhodamine B dye on fluorine doped tin oxide glass substrate by the low cost spin coating technique and study their linear and nonlinear optical parameters. The thickness of the thin film was measured about 300 nm with alpha step system. The transmittance of the fabricated thin film was found to be above 75% corresponding to the fluorine doped tin oxide layer. The structural analysis was performed with X-rays diffraction spectroscopy. Atomic force microscope showed the topographic image of deposited thin film. Linear optical constant like absorption coefficient, band gap, and extinction index was calculated. The dielectric constant was calculated to know the optical response of Rhodamine B dye over fluorine doped tin oxide substrate. The nonlinear optical constant like linear optical susceptibility χ(1), nonlinear optical susceptibility χ(3), nonlinear refractive index (n2) were calculated by spectroscopic method. This method has advantage over the experimental method like Z-Scan for organic dye base semiconductors for future advance optoelectronics applications like dye synthesis solar cell.

  15. A study on linear and non-linear optical constants of Rhodamine B thin film deposited on FTO glass

    Yahia, I.S. [Nano-Science & Semiconductor Labs, Physics Department, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy, Cairo (Egypt); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha (Saudi Arabia); Jilani, Asim, E-mail: asim.jilane@gmail.com [Centre of Nanotechnology, Physics Department-Faculty of Science-AL Faisaliah Campus, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80200, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Abutalib, M.M. [Centre of Nanotechnology, Physics Department-Faculty of Science-AL Faisaliah Campus, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80200, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); AlFaify, S. [Nano-Science & Semiconductor Labs, Physics Department, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy, Cairo (Egypt); Shkir, M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha (Saudi Arabia); Abdel-wahab, M.Sh.; Al-Ghamdi, Attieh A. [Centre of Nanotechnology, Physics Department-Faculty of Science-AL Faisaliah Campus, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80200, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); El-Naggar, A.M. [Exploitation of Renewable Energy Applications in Saudi Arabia, Physics & Astronomy Department, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O.Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this research was to fabricate/deposit the good quality thin film of Rhodamine B dye on fluorine doped tin oxide glass substrate by the low cost spin coating technique and study their linear and nonlinear optical parameters. The thickness of the thin film was measured about 300 nm with alpha step system. The transmittance of the fabricated thin film was found to be above 75% corresponding to the fluorine doped tin oxide layer. The structural analysis was performed with X-rays diffraction spectroscopy. Atomic force microscope showed the topographic image of deposited thin film. Linear optical constant like absorption coefficient, band gap, and extinction index was calculated. The dielectric constant was calculated to know the optical response of Rhodamine B dye over fluorine doped tin oxide substrate. The nonlinear optical constant like linear optical susceptibility χ{sup (1)}, nonlinear optical susceptibility χ{sup (3)}, nonlinear refractive index (n{sub 2}) were calculated by spectroscopic method. This method has advantage over the experimental method like Z-Scan for organic dye base semiconductors for future advance optoelectronics applications like dye synthesis solar cell.

  16. Magneto-optic current sensor with Faraday mirror for linear birefringence compensation

    Arroyo Breña, Javier; Rodriguez Horche, Paloma; Martín Minguez, Alfredo

    2012-01-01

    Fiber optic sensors have some advantages in subjects related with electrical current and magnetic field measurement. In spite of the optical fiber utilization advantages we have to take into account undesirable effects, which are present in real non-ideal optical fibers. In telecommunication and sensor application fields the presence of inherent and induced birefringence is crucial. The presence of birefringence may cause an undesirable change in the polarization state. In order to compensate...

  17. 15 W high OSNR kHz-linewidth linearly-polarized all-fiber single-frequency MOPA at 1.6 μm.

    Yang, Changsheng; Guan, Xianchao; Zhao, Qilai; Lin, Wei; Li, Can; Gan, Jiulin; Qian, Qi; Feng, Zhouming; Yang, Zhongmin; Xu, Shanhui

    2018-05-14

    A 1603 nm high optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) kHz-linewidth linearly-polarized all-fiber single-frequency master-oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) is demonstrated. To suppress the amplified spontaneous emission from Yb 3+ /Er 3+ ions with the customized filters and optimize the length of the double cladding active fiber, an over 15 W stable single-longitudinal-mode laser is achieved with an OSNR of >70 dB. A measured laser linewidth of 4.5 kHz and a polarization-extinction ratio of >23 dB are obtained at the full output power. This L-band high-power single-frequency MOPA is promising for high-resolution molecular spectroscopy and pumping of Tm 3+ -doped or Tm 3+ /Ho 3+ co-doped laser.

  18. Non-linear optical techniques and optical properties of condensed molecular systems

    Citroni, Margherita

    2013-06-01

    Structure, dynamics, and optical properties of molecular systems can be largely modified by the applied pressure, with remarkable consequences on their chemical stability. Several examples of selective reactions yielding technologically attractive products can be cited, which are particularly efficient when photochemical effects are exploited in conjunction with the structural conditions attained at high density. Non-linear optical techniques are a basic tool to unveil key aspects of the chemical reactivity and dynamic properties of molecules. Their application to high-pressure samples is experimentally challenging, mainly because of the small sample dimensions and of the non-linear effects generated in the anvil materials. In this talk I will present results on the electronic spectra of several aromatic crystals obtained through two-photon induced fluorescence and two-photon excitation profiles measured as a function of pressure (typically up to about 25 GPa), and discuss the relationship between the pressure-induced modifications of the electronic structure and the chemical reactivity at high pressure. I will also present the first successful pump-probe infrared measurement performed as a function of pressure on a condensed molecular system. The system under examination is liquid water, in a sapphire anvil cell, up to 1 GPa along isotherms at 298 and 363 K. These measurements give a new enlightening insight into the dynamical properties of low- and high-density water allowing a definition of the two structures.

  19. Polarized excitons and optical activity in single-wall carbon nanotubes

    Chang, Yao-Wen; Jin, Bih-Yaw

    2018-05-01

    The polarized excitons and optical activity of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are studied theoretically by π -electron Hamiltonian and helical-rotational symmetry. By taking advantage of the symmetrization, the single-particle energy and properties of a SWNT are characterized with the corresponding helical band structure. The dipole-moment matrix elements, magnetic-moment matrix elements, and the selection rules can also be derived. Based on different selection rules, the optical transitions can be assigned as the parallel-polarized, left-handed circularly-polarized, and right-handed circularly-polarized transitions, where the combination of the last two gives the cross-polarized transition. The absorption and circular dichroism (CD) spectra are simulated by exciton calculation. The calculated results are well comparable with the reported measurements. Built on the foundation, magnetic-field effects on the polarized excitons and optical activity of SWNTs are studied. Dark-bright exciton splitting and interband Faraday effect in the CD spectrum of SWNTs under an axial magnetic field are predicted. The Faraday rotation dispersion can be analyzed according to the selection rules of circular polarizations and the helical band structure.

  20. Development of polarized beam conversion system for the linear collider complex

    Viilleval'd, G.S.; Vsevolozhskaya, T.A.; Karasyuk, V.N.; Sil'vestrov, G.I.; Chernyakin, A.D.

    1983-01-01

    Results of development of the polarized beam conversion system for the 150 GeV linear collider aiming at the linear collider operation with a high repetition rate (approximately 10 Hz), are presented. It is shown, that the conversion can be realized by means of ondulator radiation. Structurally, the spiral ondulator is two identical solenoids, inserted in each other in such a way, that their winding turns are alternating in the direction along the axis and they are supplied by countercurrents. The main parameters of the ondulator are as follows : winding pitch -0.7 cm, the ondulator length 150 m. For generation a field of the intensity 5 kOe it has been suggested that solenoids should be supplied by sinusoidal pulse current of duration approximately 200 μs. It is shown, that the introduction of iron into solenoid increases the efficiency by a factor of 2.1 and 2.7 in the ondulator with iron only in interloop gaps and with the addition of iron locking magnetic counterflow

  1. Passive linear-optics 640 Gbit/s logic NOT gate

    Maram, Reza; Kong, Deming; Galili, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a 640 Gbit/s all-optical NOT gate for high-speed telecommunication on-off-keying (OOK) data signals. We employ linear optical signal processing based on spectral phase-only (all-pass) optical filtering to perform the target logic NOT operation....

  2. Detection of oral early cancerous lesion by using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography: mice model

    Lee, Hong-Yi; Chen, Ping-Hsien; Lee, Tzu-Han; Chang, Kuo-Wei; Kuo, Wen-Chuan

    2018-02-01

    Oral cancer is the 11th most common cancer worldwide, especially in a male adult. The median age of death in oral cancer was 55 years, 10-20 years earlier than other cancers. Presently, oral cancer is often found in late stage, because the lesion is often flat in early stage and is difficult to diagnose under traditional white light imaging. The only definitive method for determining cancer is an invasive biopsy and then using histology examination. How to detect precancerous lesions or early malignant lesions is an important issue for improving prognosis of oral cancer. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a new optical tool for diagnosing early malignant lesions in the skin or gastrointestinal tract recently. Here we report a new method for detecting precancerous or early malignant oral lesions by using swept source polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) with center-wavelength 1310 nm, bandwidth 110 nm and 100 kHz swept rate. We used all single-mode fiber design to detect the change of birefringence information in the epithelium structure. This system has an advantage that enables measurement of backscattered intensity and birefringence simultaneously with only one A-scan per transverse location. In preliminary result, we computed the slope of the every A-scan signal in tissue part using a linear-curve fitting in backscattered intensity and birefringence on the enface. In this research, we used an oral cancer mice model for observing the change of structure and birefringence properties in different stages of oral cancer mice. We presented the parametric enface imaging that can detect the early oral malignant lesions.

  3. Optically active Babinet planar metamaterial film for terahertz polarization manipulation

    Zalkovskij, Maksim; Malureanu, Radu; Kremers, C.

    2013-01-01

    A planar Babinet-inverted dimer metamaterial possessing strong optical activity is proposed and characterized. An original fabrication method to produce large area (up to several cm2) freely suspended flexible metallic membranes is implemented to fabricate the metamaterial. Its optical properties...

  4. Towards all-dielectric, polarization-independent optical cloaks

    Andkjær, Jacob Anders; Mortensen, N. Asger; Sigmund, Ole

    2012-01-01

    Fully enclosing, all-dielectric cloaks working for both E-z and H-z polarizations simultaneously are presented in this letter. The cloaks are effective for two antiparallel angles of incidence, and the layout of standard dielectric material in the cloak is determined by topology optimization. Sca...... effectively when distributing a material with lower permittivity than the background material....

  5. Circular polarization in the optical afterglow of GRB 121024A

    Wiersema, K.; Covino, S.; Toma, K.; van der Horst, A.J.; Varela, K.; Min, M.; Greiner, J.; Starling, R.L.C.; Tanvir, N.R.; Wijers, R.A.M.J.; Campana, S.; Curran, P.A.; Fan, Y.; Fynbo, J.P.U.; Gorosabel, J.; Gomboc, A.; Götz, D.; Hjorth, J.; Jin, Z.P.; Kobayashi, S.; Kouveliotou, C.; Mundell, C.; O’Brien, P.T.; Pian, E.; Rowlinson, A.; Russell, D.M.; Salvaterra, R.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Tagliaferri, G.; Vergani, S.D.; Elliott, J.; Fariña, C.; Hartoog, O.E.; Karjalainen, R.; Klose, S.; Knust, F.; Levan, A.J.; Schady, P.; Sudilovsky, V.; Willingale, R.

    2014-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are most probably powered by collimated relativistic outflows (jets) from accreting black holes at cosmological distances. Bright afterglows are produced when the outflow collides with the ambient medium. Afterglow polarization directly probes the magnetic properties of the

  6. Circular polarization in the optical afterglow of GRB 121024A

    Wiersema, K.; Covino, S.; Toma, K.

    2014-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are most probably powered by collimated relativistic outflows (jets) from accreting black holes at cosmological distances. Bright afterglows are produced when the outflow collides with the ambient medium. Afterglow polarization directly probes the magnetic properties of th...

  7. A fast method for linear waves based on geometrical optics

    Stolk, C.C.

    2009-01-01

    We develop a fast method for solving the one-dimensional wave equation based on geometrical optics. From geometrical optics (e.g., Fourier integral operator theory or WKB approximation) it is known that high-frequency waves split into forward and backward propagating parts, each propagating with the

  8. Polarization-preserving confocal microscope for optical experiments in a dilution refrigerator with high magnetic field.

    Sladkov, Maksym; Bakker, M P; Chaubal, A U; Reuter, D; Wieck, A D; van der Wal, C H

    2011-04-01

    We present the design and operation of a fiber-based cryogenic confocal microscope. It is designed as a compact cold-finger that fits inside the bore of a superconducting magnet, and which is a modular unit that can be easily swapped between use in a dilution refrigerator and other cryostats. We aimed at application in quantum optical experiments with electron spins in semiconductors and the design has been optimized for driving with and detection of optical fields with well-defined polarizations. This was implemented with optical access via a polarization maintaining fiber together with Voigt geometry at the cold finger, which circumvents Faraday rotations in the optical components in high magnetic fields. Our unit is versatile for use in experiments that measure photoluminescence, reflection, or transmission, as we demonstrate with a quantum optical experiment with an ensemble of donor-bound electrons in a thin GaAs film. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  9. Initial operating experience and recent development on the TRIUMF optically pumped polarized H- ion source

    Schmor, P.W.; Law, W.M.; Levy, C.D.P.; McDonald, M.

    1988-01-01

    A polarized H - ion source using optical pumping techniques has been developed at TRIUMF. This source was used to demonstrate (on an ion source test stand) the feasibility of producing 10- μA of ∼ 60% polarized H - ion beam in a dc mode suitable for injection into the TRIUMF cyclotron. The source has been installed in a 300 kV high voltage terminal connected to the cyclotron via a recently constructed beam transport line. A polarization of 80% is anticipated near the end of 1988 after the installation of a superconducting solenoid to the source. In this paper the authors describe the initial operating experience, recent developments, and the future plans for the TRIUMF optically pumped polarized ion source

  10. Fine structure and optical properties of biological polarizers in crustaceans and cephalopods

    Chiou, Tsyr-Huei; Caldwell, Roy L.; Hanlon, Roger T.; Cronin, Thomas W.

    2008-04-01

    The lighting of the underwater environment is constantly changing due to attenuation by water, scattering by suspended particles, as well as the refraction and reflection caused by the surface waves. These factors pose a great challenge for marine animals which communicate through visual signals, especially those based on color. To escape this problem, certain cephalopod mollusks and stomatopod crustaceans utilize the polarization properties of light. While the mechanisms behind the polarization vision of these two animal groups are similar, several distinctive types of polarizers (i.e. the structure producing the signal) have been found in these animals. To gain a better knowledge of how these polarizers function, we studied the relationships between fine structures and optical properties of four types of polarizers found in cephalopods and stomatopods. Although all the polarizers share a somewhat similar spectral range, around 450- 550 nm, the reflectance properties of the signals and the mechanisms used to produce them have dramatic differences. In cephalopods, stack-plates polarizers produce the polarization patterns found on the arms and around their eyes. In stomatopods, we have found one type of beam-splitting polarizer based on photonic structures and two absorptive polarizer types based on dichroic molecules. These stomatopod polarizers may be found on various appendages, and on the cuticle covering dorsal or lateral sides of the animal. Since the efficiencies of all these polarizer types are somewhat sensitive to the change of illumination and viewing angle, how these animals compensate with different behaviors or fine structural features of the polarizer also varies.

  11. Nuclear-optical methods for production of polarized photons with energies of a few hundred GeV

    Ispiryan, K.A.; Ispiryan, M.K.

    1985-01-01

    The absorption coefficients of linearly polarized photons passing through a crystal in parallel to its crystallographic planes are calculated. The methods of determination of the obtainable degree of polarization as well as of the intensity losses for the cases when non-polarized photon beams pass through various crystals in parallel to the planes (110) are described. The energy dependence of the thickness of the quarter-wave plate crystals transforming the linear polarization of the beam into circular one is obtained

  12. The use of charge extraction by linearly increasing voltage in polar organic light-emitting diodes

    Züfle, Simon; Altazin, Stéphane; Hofmann, Alexander; Jäger, Lars; Neukom, Martin T.; Schmidt, Tobias D.; Brütting, Wolfgang; Ruhstaller, Beat

    2017-05-01

    We demonstrate the application of the CELIV (charge carrier extraction by linearly increasing voltage) technique to bilayer organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) in order to selectively determine the hole mobility in N,N0-bis(1-naphthyl)-N,N0-diphenyl-1,10-biphenyl-4,40-diamine (α-NPD). In the CELIV technique, mobile charges in the active layer are extracted by applying a negative voltage ramp, leading to a peak superimposed to the measured displacement current whose temporal position is related to the charge carrier mobility. In fully operating devices, however, bipolar carrier transport and recombination complicate the analysis of CELIV transients as well as the assignment of the extracted mobility value to one charge carrier species. This has motivated a new approach of fabricating dedicated metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) devices, where the extraction current contains signatures of only one charge carrier type. In this work, we show that the MIS-CELIV concept can be employed in bilayer polar OLEDs as well, which are easy to fabricate using most common electron transport layers (ETLs), like Tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3). Due to the macroscopic polarization of the ETL, holes are already injected into the hole transport layer below the built-in voltage and accumulate at the internal interface with the ETL. This way, by a standard CELIV experiment only holes will be extracted, allowing us to determine their mobility. The approach can be established as a powerful way of selectively measuring charge mobilities in new materials in a standard device configuration.

  13. Nonlinear Fourier transform for dual-polarization optical communication system

    Gaiarin, Simone

    2018-01-01

    New services and applications are causing an exponential increase in the internet traffic. In a few years, the current fiber-optic communication system infrastructure will not be able to meet this demand because fiber nonlinearity dramatically limits the information transmission rate. Eigenvalue communication is considered an emerging paradigm in fiber-optic communications that could potentially overcome these limitations. It relies on a mathematical technique called “inverse scattering trans...

  14. Analysis of aerosol optical depth evaluation in polar regions and associated uncertainties

    P. Ortiz de Galisteo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Some available processing algorithms used to calculate the aerosol optical depth from radiometric measurements were tested. The aim was to evaluate the associated uncertainties in polar regions due to the data processing, in order to adjust the methodology of the calculation and illustrate the importance of these error sources. The measurements were obtained during a sun photometer campaign in Ny-Ålesund within the framework of the POLAR-AOD project.

  15. Investigation of Beam Emittance and Beam Transport Line Optics on Polarization

    Fiedler, Andrew [Northern Illinois U.; Syphers, Michael [Fermilab

    2017-10-06

    Effects of beam emittance, energy spread, optical parameters and magnet misalignment on beam polarization through particle transport systems are investigated. Particular emphasis will be placed on the beam lines being used at Fermilab for the development of the muon beam for the Muon g-2 experiment, including comparisons with the natural polarization resulting from pion decay, and comments on the development of systematic correlations among phase space variables.

  16. TE-TM dynamics in a semiconductor laser subject to polarization-rotated optical feedback

    Heil, T.; Uchida, A.; Davis, P.; Aida, T.

    2003-01-01

    We present a comprehensive experimental characterization of the dynamics of semiconductor lasers subject to polarization-rotated optical feedback. We find oscillatory instabilities appearing for large feedback levels and disappearing at large injection currents, which we classify in contrast to the well-known conventional optical-feedback-induced dynamics. In addition, we compare our experiments to theoretical results of a single-mode model assuming incoherence of the optical feedback, and we identify differences concerning the average power of the laser. Hence, we develop an alternative model accounting for both polarizations, where the emission of the dominant TE mode is injected with delay into the TM mode of the laser. Numerical simulations using this model show good qualitative agreement with our experimental results, correctly reproducing the parameter dependences of the dynamics. Finally, we discuss the application of polarization-rotated-feedback induced instabilities in chaotic carrier communication systems

  17. Optical wireless links with enhanced linearity and selectivity [Invited

    Green, Roger J.; Sweet, C.; Idrus, S.

    2005-10-01

    Optical wireless is an attractive medium as an alternative to optical fiber communications, and also to RF, because of its high bandwidth and relative ease of use, especially when it comes to deployment in new physical situations. We describe an optical wireless link approach that offers a performance that gives analog transmission with significantly reduced distortion levels and enhanced reception sensitivity by combining a novel hybrid detector-amplifier technique. Reduction of distortion by 40 dB and improvement in sensitivity of 20-30 dB is possible, using the techniques described.

  18. Development and demonstration of optical polarization controller; Hikari henpa seigyo sochi no kaihatsu to jissho

    Kurono, M. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-04-01

    If fiber transmission light can be controlled in a stabilized polarization state, realization of coherent optical communication is anticipated. In the case of adopting it to OPGW, however, it is necessary to compensate high speed polarization variation caused by lightning strike. But this was difficult in the conventional method. Accordingly, a high speed polarization control method was proposed which uses an electric effect of lithium niobate (LN) crystals. In the study, a polarization control unit was manufactured based on the method proposed and the performance was demonstrated. As a result of measuring output light with input light changed in every state of polarization, the object horizontal polarization component obtained a stabilized light intensity at {+-}0.1dB, and a light intensity of the component slipped out of the horizontal polarization was suppressed under -20dB. To cope with the polarization variation by lightning strike, it is necessary to make the control delay 10{mu}sec or below, and improvement in processing unit, etc. may make it possible since LN crystals respond below 1{mu}sec. High speed control of the infinitely continuing arbitrary polarization variation became possible. 14 refs., 19 figs.

  19. Optical Polarization as a Probe of the Local Interstellar Medium

    Tinbergen, J.

    1984-01-01

    The use of interstellar polarization as a tool for measuring interstellar dust is discussed. Problems resulting from dust and magnetic field configurations becoming mixed up are discussed, as is the availability of sufficiently bright stars to obtain the photons needed for precision measurements. It is proposed that: (1) on the scale of several hundred parsec, there is a preferential magnetic field direction, as evidenced by observations at the Galactic poles and selected longitudes in the Galactic plane; (2) the local (r 50 pc) region is devoid of dust, as evidenced by the mean square degree of polarization as a function of distance; and, less certainly, that (3) at a distance of less than 5 pc, there is a patch of dust which may be of interest in connection with cloud models.

  20. Optical refraction index and polarization profile of ferroelectric thin films

    Glinchuk, M. D.; Eliseev, E. A.; Deineka, Alexander; Jastrabík, Lubomír; Suchaneck, G.; Sandner, T.; Gerlach, G.; Hrabovský, Miroslav

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 38, 1-4 (2001), s. 101-110 ISSN 1058-4587 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A015; GA ČR GA202/00/1425 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : thin film * refraction index * polarization * film thickness Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.512, year: 2001

  1. Realization of preconditioned Lanczos and conjugate gradient algorithms on optical linear algebra processors.

    Ghosh, A

    1988-08-01

    Lanczos and conjugate gradient algorithms are important in computational linear algebra. In this paper, a parallel pipelined realization of these algorithms on a ring of optical linear algebra processors is described. The flow of data is designed to minimize the idle times of the optical multiprocessor and the redundancy of computations. The effects of optical round-off errors on the solutions obtained by the optical Lanczos and conjugate gradient algorithms are analyzed, and it is shown that optical preconditioning can improve the accuracy of these algorithms substantially. Algorithms for optical preconditioning and results of numerical experiments on solving linear systems of equations arising from partial differential equations are discussed. Since the Lanczos algorithm is used mostly with sparse matrices, a folded storage scheme to represent sparse matrices on spatial light modulators is also described.

  2. TITLE PAGE Linear and nonlinear optical properties of 4 ...

    57

    optical effects viz. reverse saturable absorption and self-defocusing of laser beam. ... Defect Analysis, Mechanical stability, UV-visible spectroscopy, Refractive index .... for geometry optimization in gas phase and in the solvent phase (ethanol).

  3. The production and extraction of polarized electrons from an optically pumped helium discharge

    Vandiver, R.J.; Schearer, L.D.; Gay, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    Polarized electrons are produced from interactions involving nearly 100% polarized helium 2 3 S 1 metastable atoms in a weak electrical discharge. The high metastable polarizations are obtained through the use of recently developed, high-power lasers tunable to the relevant helium transitions near 1083 nm and the development of a crossed beam pumping technique. The dominant interactions involving the 2 3 S 1 atoms and electrons are spin preserving; hence the electrons of the discharge attain a high polarization. The authors have extracted a well collimated electron beam with over 20 μA of current from the discharge. An optical polarimeter will be used to determine the polarization of the extracted electrons

  4. Operational experience with the TRIUMF optically pumped polarized H- ion source

    Schmor, P.W.; Buchmann, L.; Jayamanna, K.; Levy, C.D.P.; McDonald, M.; Ruegg, R.

    1991-05-01

    The initial goal of a polarized proton beam extracted from the TRIUMF cyclotron, having a current of 5 μA with 60% polarization, has been achieved with the development of the optically pumped polarized H - ion source. This beam is now being used to produce an intense secondary beam of polarized neutrons for the TRIUMF experimental program. Much of the recent development effort has addressed the reliability requirements for routine operation. This paper describes the results with emphasis on the laser stabilization subsystem, the modifications to the electron cyclotron resonance proton ion source (ECRIS), the sodium charge exchange cells and the development of a low energy polarimeter. Also discussed are the developments which should lead to a higher polarization. (Author) 7 refs

  5. Optical polarization position angle versus radio structure axis in Seyfert galaxies

    Antonucci, R R.J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA (USA)

    1983-05-12

    The hypothesis that there are two polarization classes of Seyfert galaxies, analogous to the perpendicular and parallel radio galaxy groups, is investigated by examining optical polarimetry data. In the sample considered it is shown that all the Seyfert 1 galaxies have roughly parallel polarization while all the Seyfert 2 galaxies have roughly perpendicular polarizations. These alignment effects can be interpreted as being due to thin and thick scattering disks, respectively, surrounding the continuum sources. This would represent a fundamental difference between the two types of Seyfert galaxies.

  6. Estimation of polarization distribution on gold nanorods system from hierarchical features of optical near-field

    Uchiyama, Kazuharu; Nishikawa, Naoki; Nakagomi, Ryo; Kobayashi, Kiyoshi; Hori, Hirokazu

    2018-02-01

    To design optoelectronic functionalities in nanometer scale based on interactions of electronic system with optical near-fields, it is essential to evaluate the relationship between optical near-fields and their sources. Several theoretical studies have been performed, so far, to analyze such complex relationship to design the interaction fields of several specific scales. In this study, we have performed detailed and high-precision measurements of optical near-field structures woven by a large number of independent polarizations generated in the gold nanorods array under laser light irradiation at the resonant frequency. We have accumulated the multi-layered data of optical near-field imaging at different heights above the planar surface with the resolution of several nm by a STM-assisted scanning near-field optical microscope. Based on these data, we have performed an inverse calculation to estimate the position, direction, and strength of the local polarization buried under the flat surface of the sample. As a result of the inverse operation, we have confirmed that the complexities in the nanometer scale optical near-fields could be reconstructed by combinations of induced polarization in each gold nanorod. We have demonstrated the hierarchical properties of optical near-fields based on spatial frequency expansion and superposition of dipole fields to provide insightful information for applications such for secure multi-layered information storage.

  7. Angular distributions as a probe of anomalous ZZH and γZH interactions at a linear collider with polarized beams

    Rindani, Saurabh D.; Sharma, Pankaj

    2009-01-01

    We examine the contribution of general Z*ZH and γ*ZH three-point interactions arising from new physics to the Higgs production process e + e - →HZ. From Lorentz covariance, each of these vertices may be written in terms of three (complex) form factors, whose real and imaginary parts together make six independent couplings. We take into account possible longitudinal or transverse beam polarization likely to be available at a linear collider. We show how partial cross sections and angular asymmetries in suitable combinations with appropriate beam polarizations can be used to disentangle various couplings from one another. A striking result is that using transverse polarization, one of the γZH couplings, not otherwise accessible, can be determined independently of all other couplings. Transverse polarization also helps in the independent determination of a combination of two other couplings, in contrast to a combination of four accessible with unpolarized or longitudinally polarized beams. We also obtain the sensitivity of the various observables in constraining the new-physics interactions at a linear collider operating at a center-of-mass energy of 500 GeV with longitudinal or transverse polarization.

  8. Polarizing Beam Splitter: A New Approach Based on Transformation Optics

    Mueller, Jonhatan; Wegener, Martin

    Standard optical elements (e.g. lenses, prisms) are mostly designed of piecewise homogeneous and isotropic dielectrics. However, in theory one has far more possibilities to influence electromagnetic waves, namely all the components of the permittivity and permeability tensors. In the past few years, on the one hand, new micro fabrication methods allowed for new freedom in controlling of the optical parameters using so called artificial metamaterials. On the other hand, the theory of transformation optics has given a somewhat intuitive approach for the design of such structures. The most popular feature of this kind is certainly optical cloaking (i.e. [1,2]). However, the full capabilities of other transformation optical devices are far from being fully explored. In my work, I focused on pure dielectric structures in a non-resonant and therefore non-lossy regime. Although the relative permittivity one can achieve this way is limited by the available natural dielectrics, a broad spectrum of features can be realized.

  9. Linear-regression convolutional neural network for fully automated coronary lumen segmentation in intravascular optical coherence tomography

    Yong, Yan Ling; Tan, Li Kuo; McLaughlin, Robert A.; Chee, Kok Han; Liew, Yih Miin

    2017-12-01

    Intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an optical imaging modality commonly used in the assessment of coronary artery diseases during percutaneous coronary intervention. Manual segmentation to assess luminal stenosis from OCT pullback scans is challenging and time consuming. We propose a linear-regression convolutional neural network to automatically perform vessel lumen segmentation, parameterized in terms of radial distances from the catheter centroid in polar space. Benchmarked against gold-standard manual segmentation, our proposed algorithm achieves average locational accuracy of the vessel wall of 22 microns, and 0.985 and 0.970 in Dice coefficient and Jaccard similarity index, respectively. The average absolute error of luminal area estimation is 1.38%. The processing rate is 40.6 ms per image, suggesting the potential to be incorporated into a clinical workflow and to provide quantitative assessment of vessel lumen in an intraoperative time frame.

  10. Neutron angular distribution in (γ, n reactions with linearly polarized γ-ray beam generated by laser Compton scattering

    K. Horikawa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In 1957, Agodi predicted that the neutron angular distribution in (γ, n reactions with a 100% linearly polarized γ-ray beam for dipole excitation should be anisotropic and universally described by the simple function of a+b⋅cos⁡(2ϕ at the polar angle θ=90°, where ϕ is the azimuthal angle. However, this prediction has not been experimentally confirmed in over half a century. We have verified experimentally this angular distribution in the (γ, n reaction for 197Au, 127I, and natural Cu targets using linearly polarized laser Compton scattering γ-rays. The result suggests that the (γ→, n reaction is a novel tool to study nuclear physics in the giant dipole resonance region.

  11. 112 Gbit/s single-polarization silicon coherent receiver with hybrid-integrated BiCMOS linear TIA

    Verbist, J.; Zhang, J.; Moeneclaey, B.; van Weerdenburg, J.; van Uden, R.; Okonkwo, C.; Yin, X.; Bauwelinck, J.; Roelkens, G.

    2015-01-01

    We report the design, fabrication and verification of a single-polarization silicon coherent receiver with a low-power linear TIA array. Error-free operation assuming FEC is shown at bitrates of 112 Gbit/s (28 Gbaud 16-QAM) and 56 Gbit/s (28 Gbaud QPSK).

  12. Experimental method for investigating γd→pn photodisintegration reaction on the linearly polarized photon beam of the Erevan synchrotron

    Agababyan, K.Sh.; Adamyan, F.V.; Ajrapetyan, A.V.

    1985-01-01

    The experimental method for measuring the asymmetry of the γd → pn photodisintegration reaction on the linearly polarized photon beam of the Erevan synchrotron is described. The results of Monte Carlo calculations, the calibration of apparatus, the procedure of measurements and experimental data processing are repored

  13. A Design Of Feeding Network For A Dual-Linear Polarization, Stacked, Probe-Fed Microstrip Patch Antenna Array

    Jaworski, G.; Krozer, Viktor

    2004-01-01

    Components of multilayer feed network are presented for application in broad-band dual-linear polarized stacked C-band antenna. Measurement results of wide band matching circuits and different types of power divider networks constituting parts of BFN demonstrate wideband operation. Suitable...

  14. Impact of polarized e- and e+ beams at a future linear collider and a Z-factory. Pt. I. Fundamentals in polarization and electroweak precision physics

    Moortgat-Pick, Gudrid

    2010-12-01

    The main goal of new physics searches at a future Linear Collider is the precise determination of the underlying new physics model. The physics potential of the ILC as well as the multi-TeV option collider CLIC have to be optimized with regard to expected results from the LHC. The exploitation of spin effects plays a crucial role in this regard. After a short status report of the Linear Collider design and physics requirements, this article explains fundamentals in polarization and provides an overview of the impact of these spin effects in electroweak precision physics. (orig.)

  15. Metasurface integrated high energy efficient and high linearly polarized InGaN/GaN light emitting diode.

    Wang, Miao; Xu, Fuyang; Lin, Yu; Cao, Bing; Chen, Linghua; Wang, Chinhua; Wang, Jianfeng; Xu, Ke

    2017-07-06

    We proposed and demonstrated an integrated high energy efficient and high linearly polarized InGaN/GaN green LED grown on (0001) oriented sapphire with combined metasurface polarizing converter and polarizer system. It is different from those conventional polarized light emissions generated with plasmonic metallic grating in which at least 50% high energy loss occurs inherently due to high reflection of the transverse electric (TE) component of an electric field. A reflecting metasurface, with a two dimensional elliptic metal cylinder array (EMCA) that functions as a half-wave plate, was integrated at the bottom of a LED such that the back-reflected TE component, that is otherwise lost by a dielectric/metal bi-layered wire grids (DMBiWG) polarizer on the top emitting surface of the LED, can be converted to desired transverse magnetic (TM) polarized emission after reflecting from the metasurface. This significantly enhances the polarized light emission efficiency. Experimental results show that extraction efficiency of the polarized emission can be increased by 40% on average in a wide angle of ±60° compared to that with the naked bottom of sapphire substrate, or 20% compared to reflecting Al film on the bottom of a sapphire substrate. An extinction ratio (ER) of average value 20 dB within an angle of ±60° can be simultaneously obtained directly from an InGaN/GaN LED. Our results show the possibility of simultaneously achieving a high degree of polarization and high polarization extraction efficiency at the integrated device level. This advances the field of GaN LED toward energy efficiency, multi-functional applications in illumination, display, medicine, and light manipulation.

  16. Effects of Linear-Polarized Near-Infrared Light Irradiation on Chronic Pain

    Dong Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the efficacy of linear-polarized near-infrared light irradiation (LPNIR on relieving chronic pain in conjunction with nerve block (NB or local block (LB, a 3-week prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled study was conducted to evaluate the pre- and post-therapy pain intensity. Visual analogue scales (VASs were measured in all patients before and 6 months after therapy visiting the pain clinic during the period of August 2007 to January 2008. A total of 52 patients with either shoulder periarthritis or myofascial pain syndrome or lateral epicondylitis were randomly assigned into two groups by drawing lots. Patients in Group I were treated with NB or LB plus LPNIR; Group II patients, for their part, were treated with the same procedures as in Group I, but not using LPNIR. In both groups, the pain intensity (VAS score decreased significantly immediately after therapy as compared to therapy. There was a significant difference between the test and control groups immediately after therapy (P<0.05, while no effect 6 months later. No side effects were observed. It is concluded that LPNIR is an effective and safe modality to treat various chronic pains, which has synergic effects with NB or LB.

  17. Continuous wave protocol for simultaneous polarization and optical detection of P1-center electron spin resonance

    Kamp, E. J.; Carvajal, B.; Samarth, N.

    2018-01-01

    The ready optical detection and manipulation of bright nitrogen vacancy center spins in diamond plays a key role in contemporary quantum information science and quantum metrology. Other optically dark defects such as substitutional nitrogen atoms (`P1 centers') could also become potentially useful in this context if they could be as easily optically detected and manipulated. We develop a relatively straightforward continuous wave protocol that takes advantage of the dipolar coupling between nitrogen vacancy and P1 centers in type 1b diamond to detect and polarize the dark P1 spins. By combining mutual spin flip transitions with radio frequency driving, we demonstrate the simultaneous optical polarization and detection of the electron spin resonance of the P1 center. This technique should be applicable to detecting and manipulating a broad range of dark spin populations that couple to the nitrogen vacancy center via dipolar fields, allowing for quantum metrology using these spin populations.

  18. Widely Linear Equalization for IQ Imbalance and Skew Compensation in Optical Coherent Receivers

    Porto da Silva, Edson; Zibar, Darko

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an alternative approach to design linear equalization algorithms for optical coherent receivers is introduced. Using widely linear complex analysis, a general analytical model it is shown, where In-phase/quadrature (IQ) imbalances and IQ skew at the coherent receiver front-end are ......In this paper, an alternative approach to design linear equalization algorithms for optical coherent receivers is introduced. Using widely linear complex analysis, a general analytical model it is shown, where In-phase/quadrature (IQ) imbalances and IQ skew at the coherent receiver front...

  19. Polarization-dependent tunneling of light in gradient optics

    Shvartsburg, A. B.; Kuzmiak, Vladimír; Petite, G.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 1 (2007), 016603.1-01663.11 ISSN 1539-3755 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC P11.001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : wave propagation * tunnelling Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.483, year: 2007

  20. Entanglement-based linear-optical qubit amplifier

    Meyer-Scott, E.; Bula, M.; Bartkiewicz, K.; Černoch, Antonín; Soubusta, Jan; Jennewein, T.; Lemr, Karel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 1 (2013), "012327-1"-"012327-7" ISSN 1050-2947 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0382 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : quantum physics * photonics qubits * qubit amplifier Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.991, year: 2013

  1. Experimental realization of linear-optical partial SWAP gates

    Černoch, Antonín; Soubusta, Jan; Bartůšková, L.; Dušek, M.; Fiurášek, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 18 (2008), 180501/1-180501/4 ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : two-qubit gates * Mach-Zehnder interferomeret * quantum information processing Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 7.180, year: 2008

  2. Resource-efficient linear-optical quantum router

    Lemr, K.; Bartkiewicz, K.; Černoch, A.; Soubusta, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 6 (2013), "062333-1"-"062333-7" ISSN 1050-2947 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : quantum router * signal qubit * quantum communications Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.991, year: 2013

  3. Enhanced linear photonic nanojet generated by core-shell optical microfibers

    Liu, Cheng-Yang; Yen, Tzu-Ping; Chen, Chien-Wen

    2017-05-01

    The generation of linear photonic nanojet using core-shell optical microfiber is demonstrated numerically and experimentally in the visible light region. The power flow patterns for the core-shell optical microfiber are calculated by using the finite-difference time-domain method. The focusing properties of linear photonic nanojet are evaluated in terms of length and width along propagation and transversal directions. In experiment, the silica optical fiber is etched chemically down to 6 μm diameter and coated with metallic thin film by using glancing angle deposition. We show that the linear photonic nanojet is enhanced clearly by metallic shell due to surface plasmon polaritons. The large-area superresolution imaging can be performed by using a core-shell optical microfiber in the far-field system. The potential applications of this core-shell optical microfiber include micro-fluidics and nano-structure measurements.

  4. Ultrabroadband optical chirp linearization for precision metrology applications.

    Roos, Peter A; Reibel, Randy R; Berg, Trenton; Kaylor, Brant; Barber, Zeb W; Babbitt, Wm Randall

    2009-12-01

    We demonstrate precise linearization of ultrabroadband laser frequency chirps via a fiber-based self-heterodyne technique to enable extremely high-resolution, frequency-modulated cw laser-radar (LADAR) and a wide range of other metrology applications. Our frequency chirps cover bandwidths up to nearly 5 THz with frequency errors as low as 170 kHz, relative to linearity. We show that this performance enables 31-mum transform-limited LADAR range resolution (FWHM) and 86 nm range precisions over a 1.5 m range baseline. Much longer range baselines are possible but are limited by atmospheric turbulence and fiber dispersion.

  5. A Transflective Nano-Wire Grid Polarizer Based Fiber-Optic Sensor

    Yan-Qing Lu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A transflective nano-wire grid polarizer is fabricated on a single mode fiber tip by focused ion beam machining. In contrast to conventional absorptive in-line polarizers, the wire grids reflect TE-mode, while transmitting TM-mode light so that no light power is discarded. A reflection contrast of 13.7 dB and a transmission contrast of 4.9 dB are achieved in the 1,550 nm telecom band using a 200-nm wire grid fiber polarizer. With the help of an optic circulator, the polarization states of both the transmissive and reflective lights in the fiber may be monitored simultaneously. A kind of robust fiber optic sensor is thus proposed that could withstand light power variations. To verify the idea, a fiber pressure sensor with the sensitivity of 0.24 rad/N is demonstrated. The corresponding stress-optic coefficient of the fiber is measured. In addition to pressure sensing, this technology could be applied in detecting any polarization state change induced by magnetic fields, electric currents and so on.

  6. Non-linear optical studies of adsorbates: Spectroscopy and dynamics

    Zhu, Xiangdong.

    1989-08-01

    In the first part of this thesis, we have established a systematic procedure to apply the surface optical second-harmonic generation (SHG) technique to study surface dynamics of adsorbates. In particular, we have developed a novel technique for studies of molecular surface diffusions. In this technique, the laser-induced desorption with two interfering laser beams is used to produce a monolayer grating of adsorbates. The monolayer grating is detected with diffractions of optical SHG. By monitoring the first-order second-harmonic diffraction, we can follow the time evolution of the grating modulation from which we are able to deduce the diffusion constant of the adsorbates on the surface. We have successfully applied this technique to investigate the surface diffusion of CO on Ni(111). The unique advantages of this novel technique will enable us to readily study anisotropy of a surface diffusion with variable grating orientation, and to investigate diffusion processes of a large dynamic range with variable grating spacings. In the second part of this work, we demonstrate that optical infrared-visible sum-frequency generation (SFG) from surfaces can be used as a viable surface vibrational spectroscopic technique. We have successfully recorded the first vibrational spectrum of a monolayer of adsorbates using optical infrared-visible SFG. The qualitative and quantitative correlation of optical SFG with infrared absorption and Raman scattering spectroscopies are examined and experimentally demonstrated. We have further investigated the possibility to use transient infrared-visible SFG to probe vibrational transients and ultrafast relaxations on surfaces. 146 refs

  7. Non-linear optical studies of adsorbates: Spectroscopy and dynamics

    Zhu, Xiangdong.

    1989-08-01

    In the first part of this thesis, we have established a systematic procedure to apply the surface optical second-harmonic generation (SHG) technique to study surface dynamics of adsorbates. In particular, we have developed a novel technique for studies of molecular surface diffusions. In this technique, the laser-induced desorption with two interfering laser beams is used to produce a monolayer grating of adsorbates. The monolayer grating is detected with diffractions of optical SHG. By monitoring the first-order second-harmonic diffraction, we can follow the time evolution of the grating modulation from which we are able to deduce the diffusion constant of the adsorbates on the surface. We have successfully applied this technique to investigate the surface diffusion of CO on Ni(111). The unique advantages of this novel technique will enable us to readily study anisotropy of a surface diffusion with variable grating orientation, and to investigate diffusion processes of a large dynamic range with variable grating spacings. In the second part of this work, we demonstrate that optical infrared-visible sum-frequency generation (SFG) from surfaces can be used as a viable surface vibrational spectroscopic technique. We have successfully recorded the first vibrational spectrum of a monolayer of adsorbates using optical infrared-visible SFG. The qualitative and quantitative correlation of optical SFG with infrared absorption and Raman scattering spectroscopies are examined and experimentally demonstrated. We have further investigated the possibility to use transient infrared-visible SFG to probe vibrational transients and ultrafast relaxations on surfaces. 146 refs.

  8. Effect of atomic noise on optical squeezing via polarization self-rotation in a thermal vapor cell

    Hsu, M.T.L.; Hetet, G.; Peng, A.

    2006-01-01

    The traversal of an elliptically polarized optical field through a thermal vapor cell can give rise to a rotation of its polarization axis. This process, known as polarization self-rotation (PSR), has been suggested as a mechanism for producing squeezed light at atomic transition wavelengths. We ...

  9. Resonance-inclined optical nuclear spin polarization of liquids in diamond structures

    Chen, Q.; Schwarz, I.; Jelezko, F.; Retzker, A.; Plenio, M. B.

    2016-02-01

    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) of molecules in a solution at room temperature has the potential to revolutionize nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging. The prevalent methods for achieving DNP in solutions are typically most effective in the regime of small interaction correlation times between the electron and nuclear spins, limiting the size of accessible molecules. To solve this limitation, we design a mechanism for DNP in the liquid phase that is applicable for large interaction correlation times. Importantly, while this mechanism makes use of a resonance condition similar to solid-state DNP, the polarization transfer is robust to a relatively large detuning from the resonance due to molecular motion. We combine this scheme with optically polarized nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center spins in nanodiamonds to design a setup that employs optical pumping and is therefore not limited by room temperature electron thermal polarization. We illustrate numerically the effectiveness of the model in a flow cell containing nanodiamonds immobilized in a hydrogel, polarizing flowing water molecules 4700-fold above thermal polarization in a magnetic field of 0.35 T, in volumes detectable by current NMR scanners.

  10. Precision polarization measurements of atoms in a far-off-resonance optical dipole trap

    Fang, F.; Vieira, D. J.; Zhao, X.

    2011-01-01

    Precision measurement of atomic and nuclear polarization is an essential step for beta-asymmetry measurement of radioactive atoms. In this paper, we report the polarization measurement of Rb atoms in an yttrium-aluminum-garnet (YAG) far-off-resonance optical dipole trap. We have prepared a cold cloud of polarized Rb atoms in the YAG dipole trap by optical pumping and achieved an initial nuclear polarization of up to 97.2(5)%. The initial atom distribution in different Zeeman levels is measured by using a combination of microwave excitation, laser pushing, and atomic retrap techniques. The nuclear-spin polarization is further purified to 99.2(2)% in 10 s and maintained above 99% because the two-body collision loss rate between atoms in mixed spin states is greater than the one-body trap loss rate. Systematic effects on the nuclear polarization, including the off-resonance Raman scattering, magnetic field gradient, and background gas collisions, are discussed.

  11. Polarization-insensitive optical gain characteristics of highly stacked InAs/GaAs quantum dots

    Kita, Takashi; Suwa, Masaya; Kaizu, Toshiyuki; Harada, Yukihiro

    2014-01-01

    The polarized optical gain characteristics of highly stacked InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) with a thin spacer layer fabricated on an n + -GaAs (001) substrate were studied in the sub-threshold gain region. Using a 4.0-nm-thick spacer layer, we realized an electronically coupled QD superlattice structure along the stacking direction, which enabled the enhancement of the optical gain of the [001] transverse-magnetic (TM) polarization component. We systematically studied the polarized electroluminescence properties of laser devices containing 30 and 40 stacked InAs/GaAs QDs. The net modal gain was analyzed using the Hakki-Paoli method. Owing to the in-plane shape anisotropy of QDs, the polarization sensitivity of the gain depends on the waveguide direction. The gain showing polarization isotropy between the TM and transverse-electric polarization components is high for the [110] waveguide structure, which occurs for higher amounts of stacked QDs. Conversely, the isotropy of the [−110] waveguide is easily achieved even if the stacking is relatively low, although the gain is small.

  12. Optically initialized robust valley-polarized holes in monolayer WSe2

    Hsu, Wei-Ting; Chen, Yen-Lun; Chen, Chiang-Hsiao; Liu, Pang-Shiuan; Hou, Tuo-Hung; Li, Lain-Jong; Chang, Wen-Hao

    2015-01-01

    a unique platform to develop such valleytronic devices, the anticipated long-lived valley pseudospin has not been observed yet. Here we demonstrate that robust valley-polarized holes in monolayer WSe2 can be initialized by optical pumping. Using time

  13. Optical reconfiguration and polarization control in semi-continuous gold films close to the percolation threshold

    Frydendahl, Christian; Repän, Taavi; Geisler, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    permanent morphological changes with a femtosecond (fs)-pulsed laser above a critical power. Optical transmission spectroscopy measurements show a correlation between the spectra of the morphologically modified films and the wavelength, polarization, and the intensity of the laser used for alteration...

  14. Parametric imaging of collagen structural changes in human osteoarthritic cartilage using optical polarization tractography

    Ravanfar, Mohammadreza; Pfeiffer, Ferris M.; Bozynski, Chantelle C.; Wang, Yuanbo; Yao, Gang

    2017-12-01

    Collagen degeneration is an important pathological feature of osteoarthritis. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PSOCT)-based optical polarization tractography (OPT) can be useful in imaging collagen structural changes in human osteoarthritic cartilage samples. OPT eliminated the banding artifacts in conventional PSOCT by calculating the depth-resolved local birefringence and fiber orientation. A close comparison between OPT and PSOCT showed that OPT provided improved visualization and characterization of the zonal structure in human cartilage. Experimental results obtained in this study also underlined the importance of knowing the collagen fiber orientation in conventional polarized light microscopy assessment. In addition, parametric OPT imaging was achieved by quantifying the surface roughness, birefringence, and fiber dispersion in the superficial zone of the cartilage. These quantitative parametric images provided complementary information on the structural changes in cartilage, which can be useful for a comprehensive evaluation of collagen damage in osteoarthritic cartilage.

  15. NONINVASIVE DIAGNOSIS OF URINARY BLADDER CANCER BY CROSS-POLARIZATION OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY: CLINICAL RESULTS

    O. S. Streltsova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The investigation examined the feasibility of cross-polarization optical cohe-rence tomography (CP OCT to detect early urinary bladder cancer (UBC. Studies were performed in 376 patients; 5290 images were obtained using an OCT 133-U optical coherence tomograph. To acquire and compare intrared-light scattering images in baseline and orthogonal polarizations is the basis of CP OCT; their analysis makes it possible to judge from the state of the epithelium/connective tissue system and to obtain information on changes in tissue depolarizing components, collagen in particular. The authors elaborated criteria as determinants of the nature of CP OCT changes in direct and orthogonal polarizations in health, inflammatory changes, and UBC at its early stage - urothelial dysplasia and carcinoma in situ in flat suspected areas.

  16. Circularly polarized infrared and visible sum-frequency-generation spectroscopy: Vibrational optical activity measurement

    Cheon, Sangheon; Cho, Minhaeng

    2005-01-01

    Vibrational optical activity spectroscopies utilizing either circularly polarized ir or circularly polarized visible beams were theoretically investigated by considering the infrared and visible sum-frequency-generation (IV-SFG) schemes. In addition to the purely electric dipole-allowed chiral component of the IV-SFG susceptibility, the polarizability-electric quadrupole hyperpolarizability term also contributes to the vibrationally resonant IV-SFG susceptibility. The circular-intensity-difference signal is shown to be determined by the interferences between the all-electric dipole-allowed chiral component and the polarizability-electric-dipole or electric-dipole-electric-quadrupole Raman optical activity tensor components. The circularly polarized SFG methods are shown to be potentially useful coherent spectroscopic tools for determining absolute configurations of chiral molecules in condensed phases

  17. Tests of a polarized source of hydrogen and deuterium based on spin-exchange optical pumping and a storage cell for polarized deuterium

    Holt, R.J.; Gilman, R.; Kinney, E.R.

    1988-01-01

    A novel laser-driven polarized source of hydrogen and deuterium which is based on the principle of spin-exchange optical pumping has been developed at Argonne. The advantages of this method over conventional polarized sources for internal target experiments is discussed. At present, the laser-driven polarized source delivers hydrogen 8 x 10 16 atoms/s with a polarization of 24% and deuterium at 6 x 10 16 atoms/s with a polarization of 25%. A passive storage cell for polarized deuterium was tested in the VEPP-3 electron storage ring. The storage cell was found to increase the target thickness by approximately a factor of three and no loss in polarization was observed. 10 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Linear optical response of finite systems using multishift linear system solvers

    Hübener, Hannes; Giustino, Feliciano [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-28

    We discuss the application of multishift linear system solvers to linear-response time-dependent density functional theory. Using this technique the complete frequency-dependent electronic density response of finite systems to an external perturbation can be calculated at the cost of a single solution of a linear system via conjugate gradients. We show that multishift time-dependent density functional theory yields excitation energies and oscillator strengths in perfect agreement with the standard diagonalization of the response matrix (Casida's method), while being computationally advantageous. We present test calculations for benzene, porphin, and chlorophyll molecules. We argue that multishift solvers may find broad applicability in the context of excited-state calculations within density-functional theory and beyond.

  19. A stable wavelength-tunable single frequency and single polarization linear cavity erbium-doped fiber laser

    Feng, T; Yan, F P; Li, Q; Peng, W J; Tan, S Y; Feng, S C; Wen, X D; Liu, P

    2013-01-01

    We report the configuration and operation of a wavelength-tunable single frequency and single polarization erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) with a stable and high optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) laser output. A narrow-band fiber Bragg grating (NBFBG), a FBG-based Fabry–Perot (FP) filter, a polarization controller (PC) and an unpumped erbium-doped fiber (EDF) as a saturable absorber (SA) are employed to realize stable single frequency lasing operation. An all-fiber polarizer (AFP) is introduced to suppress mode hopping and ensure the single polarization mode operation. By adjusting the length of the NBFBG using a stress adjustment module (SAM), four stable single frequency and single polarization laser outputs at wavelengths of 1544.946, 1545.038, 1545.118 and 1545.182 nm are obtained. At room temperature, performance with an OSNR of larger than 60 dB, power fluctuation of less than 0.04 dB, wavelength variation of less than 0.01 nm for about 5 h measurement, and degree of polarization (DOP) of close to 100% has been experimentally demonstrated for the fiber laser operating at these four wavelengths. (paper)

  20. Ultraviolet interstellar linear polarization. I - Applicability of current dust grain models

    Wolff, Michael J.; Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Meade, Marilyn R.

    1993-01-01

    UV spectropolarimetric observations yielding data on the wavelength-dependence of interstellar polarization along eight lines of sight facilitate the evaluation of dust grain models previously used to fit the extinction and polarization in the visible and IR. These models pertain to bare silicate/graphite grains, silicate cores with organic refractory mantles, silicate cores with amorphous carbon mantles, and composite grains. The eight lines-of-sight show three different interstellar polarization dependences.

  1. Linear and non-linear optical properties of amorphous Se and ...

    of signal transmission that requires high speeds and bit rates. [1]. Optical fibres .... mean coordination number (r) of binary glasses is the bond- .... ))(2mr)3/2) and P an integer ... that, Tauc's model that is based on the electronic transitions.

  2. Optical modeling and polarization calibration for CMB measurements with ACTPol and Advanced ACTPol

    Koopman, Brian; Austermann, Jason; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Coughlin, Kevin P.; Duff, Shannon M.; Gallardo, Patricio A.; Hasselfield, Matthew; Henderson, Shawn W.; Ho, Shuay-Pwu Patty; Hubmayr, Johannes; Irwin, Kent D.; Li, Dale; McMahon, Jeff; Nati, Federico; Niemack, Michael D.; Newburgh, Laura; Page, Lyman A.; Salatino, Maria; Schillaci, Alessandro; Schmitt, Benjamin L.; Simon, Sara M.; Vavagiakis, Eve M.; Ward, Jonathan T.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2016-07-01

    The Atacama Cosmology Telescope Polarimeter (ACTPol) is a polarization sensitive upgrade to the Atacama Cosmology Telescope, located at an elevation of 5190 m on Cerro Toco in Chile. ACTPol uses transition edge sensor bolometers coupled to orthomode transducers to measure both the temperature and polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). Calibration of the detector angles is a critical step in producing polarization maps of the CMB. Polarization angle offsets in the detector calibration can cause leakage in polarization from E to B modes and induce a spurious signal in the EB and TB cross correlations, which eliminates our ability to measure potential cosmological sources of EB and TB signals, such as cosmic birefringence. We calibrate the ACTPol detector angles by ray tracing the designed detector angle through the entire optical chain to determine the projection of each detector angle on the sky. The distribution of calibrated detector polarization angles are consistent with a global offset angle from zero when compared to the EB-nulling offset angle, the angle required to null the EB cross-correlation power spectrum. We present the optical modeling process. The detector angles can be cross checked through observations of known polarized sources, whether this be a galactic source or a laboratory reference standard. To cross check the ACTPol detector angles, we use a thin film polarization grid placed in front of the receiver of the telescope, between the receiver and the secondary reflector. Making use of a rapidly rotating half-wave plate (HWP) mount we spin the polarizing grid at a constant speed, polarizing and rotating the incoming atmospheric signal. The resulting sinusoidal signal is used to determine the detector angles. The optical modeling calibration was shown to be consistent with a global offset angle of zero when compared to EB nulling in the first ACTPol results and will continue to be a part of our calibration implementation. The first

  3. DeVelopment of the high-intensity polarized H- source with proton charge exchange on sodium optically oriented atoms

    Zelenskij, A.N.; Kokhanovskij, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    The results of experimental study on the source of polarized H - ions at polarized electron capture by proton from optically oriented sodium atoms are presented. Circular-polarized dye laser radiation with lamp pumping is used for polarization of highly dense sodium vapors in the pulsed mode. A facility for polarization measurement in the ion source is described. Dependence of the counting rate of metastables for the right and left circular radiation polarization in respect to wave length is presented. The results of measuring the degree of polarization under change of sodium density are revealed. The measurements have disclosed that obtaining of high polarization degree at 20-30% charge exchange effectiveness is possible but large radiation power is required. Use of a dense charge exchange target provides high effectiveness of hte whole polarization process. Yield of polarized H - ions can approach 10 μA/1 mA of the initial proton current

  4. Experimental implementation of optimal linear-optical controlled-unitary gates

    Lemr, K.; Bartkiewicz, K.; Černoch, Antonín; Dušek, M.; Soubusta, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 114, č. 15 (2015), "153602-1"-"153602-5" ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0382 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : two-qubit gates * optimal linear-optical controlled-unitary gates * quantum computing Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 7.645, year: 2015

  5. Deterministic linear-optics quantum computing based on a hybrid approach

    Lee, Seung-Woo; Jeong, Hyunseok

    2014-01-01

    We suggest a scheme for all-optical quantum computation using hybrid qubits. It enables one to efficiently perform universal linear-optical gate operations in a simple and near-deterministic way using hybrid entanglement as off-line resources

  6. Deterministic linear-optics quantum computing based on a hybrid approach

    Lee, Seung-Woo; Jeong, Hyunseok [Center for Macroscopic Quantum Control, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-04

    We suggest a scheme for all-optical quantum computation using hybrid qubits. It enables one to efficiently perform universal linear-optical gate operations in a simple and near-deterministic way using hybrid entanglement as off-line resources.

  7. Aggregation induced enhancement of linear and nonlinear optical emission from a hexaphenylene derivative

    Duan, Y.; Ju, C.G.; Yang, G.; Fron, E.; Coutino-Gonzalez, E.; Semin, S.V.; Fan, C.C.; Balok, R.S.; Cremers, J.; Tinnemans, P.T.; Feng, Y.Q.; Li, Y.L.; Hofkens, J.; Rowan, A.E.; Rasing, T.H.M.; Xu, J.L.

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of the phenomenon known as aggregation-induced emission (AIE) has opened the door to a variety of brilliant organic solid-state light-emitting materials. While AIE is well established in linear optics, the development of AIE luminogens (AIEgens) with highly efficient nonlinear optical

  8. The collagen structure of equine articular cartilage, characterized using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    Ugryumova, Nadya; Attenburrow, Don P; Winlove, C Peter; Matcher, Stephen J

    2005-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography and polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography images of equine articular cartilage are presented. Measurements were made on intact joint surfaces. Significant (e.g. x 2) variations in the intrinsic birefringence were found over spatial scales of a few millimetres, even on samples taken from young (18 month) animals that appeared visually homogeneous. A comparison of data obtained on a control tissue (equine flexor tendon) further suggests that significant variations in the orientation of the collagen fibres relative to the plane of the joint surface exist. Images of visually damaged cartilage tissue show characteristic features both in terms of the distribution of optical scatterers and of the birefringent components

  9. The collagen structure of equine articular cartilage, characterized using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    Ugryumova, Nadya; Attenburrow, Don P; Winlove, C Peter; Matcher, Stephen J [Biomedical Physics Group, School of Physics, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom)

    2005-08-07

    Optical coherence tomography and polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography images of equine articular cartilage are presented. Measurements were made on intact joint surfaces. Significant (e.g. x 2) variations in the intrinsic birefringence were found over spatial scales of a few millimetres, even on samples taken from young (18 month) animals that appeared visually homogeneous. A comparison of data obtained on a control tissue (equine flexor tendon) further suggests that significant variations in the orientation of the collagen fibres relative to the plane of the joint surface exist. Images of visually damaged cartilage tissue show characteristic features both in terms of the distribution of optical scatterers and of the birefringent components.

  10. Effect of linear polarized near-infrared light irradiation on flexibility of shoulder and ankle joints.

    Demura, S; Yamaji, S; Ikemoto, Y

    2002-12-01

    There is a possibility that heat stimulus by linear polarized near-infrared light irradiation (PL: Super Lizer HA-30, Tokyo Medical Laboratory) improves the range of joint motion, because the flexibility of soft-part tissues, such as a muscle or a tendon, is improved by increasing the muscle temperature. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of PL-irradiation on the ranges of shoulder and ankle motions. 30 healthy young adults (15 males: mean+/-SD, age 19.1+/-0.8 yrs, height 173.3+/-4.6 cm, body mass 68.5+/-8.0 kg and 15 females: mean+/-SD, age 19.2+/-0.7 yrs, height 162.3+/-4.5 cm, body mass 58.1+/-6.6 kg) participated in the experiment under PL-irradiation and no-irradiation (placebo) conditions. the angles of shoulder and ankle joint motions were measured twice, before and after the PL- and placebo-irradiations. The angle of a motion was defined as the angle connecting 3 points at linearity as follows: for the shoulder, the greater trochanter, acromion, and caput ulnare, and for the ankle, the knee joint, fassa of lateral malleolus and metacarpal bone. Each angle was measured when a subject extended or flexed maximally without support. The trial-to-trial reliability of each range of joint motion was very high. All parameters in PL-irradiation were significantly larger in postirradiation than pre-irradiation, and the value of postirradiation in PL-irradiation was significantly greater than that for placebo. The ranges of shoulder and ankle motions in placebo-irradiation were also significantly greater in postirradiation than pre-irradiation. Moreover, the change rate for each range of joint motion between pre- and postirradiations was significantly greater in PL-irradiation in both joints. In PL-irradiation, most subject's motions were greater in postirradiation than pre-irradiation, but not in the placebo-irradiation. The effect of PL-irradiation tended to be greater on subjects with a small range of a joint motion. It is considered from the

  11. Optically polarized atoms understanding light-atom interactions

    Auzinsh, Marcis; Rochester, Simon M

    2010-01-01

    This book is addressed at upper-level undergraduate and graduate students involved in research in atomic, molecular, and optical Physics. It will also be useful to researchers practising in this field. It gives an intuitive, yet sufficiently detailed and rigorous introduction to light-atom interactions with a particular emphasis on the symmetry aspects of the interaction, especially those associated with the angular momentum of atoms and light. The book will enable readers to carryout practical calculations on their own, and is richly illustrated with examples drawn from current research topic

  12. Measurement of picometre non-linearity in an optical grating encoder using x-ray interferometry

    Yacoot, Andrew; Cross, Nigel

    2003-01-01

    X-ray interferometry has been used to characterize the non-linearity in an optical encoder displacement measuring system. Traceable measurements of the non-linearity have been made and an estimation of the uncertainty associated with the measurements is given. Cyclic errors with a magnitude of up to 50 pm and periodicity of the encoder system (128 nm) have been recorded.

  13. Communication: Symmetrical quasi-classical analysis of linear optical spectroscopy

    Provazza, Justin; Coker, David F.

    2018-05-01

    The symmetrical quasi-classical approach for propagation of a many degree of freedom density matrix is explored in the context of computing linear spectra. Calculations on a simple two state model for which exact results are available suggest that the approach gives a qualitative description of peak positions, relative amplitudes, and line broadening. Short time details in the computed dipole autocorrelation function result in exaggerated tails in the spectrum.

  14. Ionic polarization

    Mahan, G.D.

    1992-01-01

    Ferroelectricity occurs in many different kinds of materials. Many of the technologically important solids, which are ferroelectric, can be classified as ionic. Any microscopic theory of ferroelectricity must contain a description of local polarization forces. We have collaborated in the development of a theory of ionic polarization which is quite successful. Its basic assumption is that the polarization is derived from the properties of the individual ions. We have applied this theory successfully to diverse subjects as linear and nonlinear optical response, phonon dispersion, and piezoelectricity. We have developed numerical methods using the local Density approximation to calculate the multipole polarizabilities of ions when subject to various fields. We have also developed methods of calculating the nonlinear hyperpolarizability, and showed that it can be used to explain light scattering experiments. This paper elaborates on this polarization theory

  15. Symmetry evaluation for an interferometric fiber optic gyro coil utilizing a bidirectional distributed polarization measurement system.

    Peng, Feng; Li, Chuang; Yang, Jun; Hou, Chengcheng; Zhang, Haoliang; Yu, Zhangjun; Yuan, Yonggui; Li, Hanyang; Yuan, Libo

    2017-07-10

    We propose a dual-channel measurement system for evaluating the optical path symmetry of an interferometric fiber optic gyro (IFOG) coil. Utilizing a bidirectional distributed polarization measurement system, the forward and backward transmission performances of an IFOG coil are characterized simultaneously by just a one-time measurement. The simple but practical configuration is composed of a bidirectional Mach-Zehnder interferometer and multichannel transmission devices connected to the IFOG coil under test. The static and dynamic temperature results of the IFOG coil reveal that its polarization-related symmetric properties can be effectively obtained with high accuracy. The optical path symmetry investigation is highly beneficial in monitoring and improving the winding technology of an IFOG coil and reducing the nonreciprocal effect of an IFOG.

  16. Integrated-optics heralded controlled-NOT gate for polarization-encoded qubits

    Zeuner, Jonas; Sharma, Aditya N.; Tillmann, Max; Heilmann, René; Gräfe, Markus; Moqanaki, Amir; Szameit, Alexander; Walther, Philip

    2018-03-01

    Recent progress in integrated-optics technology has made photonics a promising platform for quantum networks and quantum computation protocols. Integrated optical circuits are characterized by small device footprints and unrivalled intrinsic interferometric stability. Here, we take advantage of femtosecond-laser-written waveguides' ability to process polarization-encoded qubits and present an implementation of a heralded controlled-NOT gate on chip. We evaluate the gate performance in the computational basis and a superposition basis, showing that the gate can create polarization entanglement between two photons. Transmission through the integrated device is optimized using thermally expanded core fibers and adiabatically reduced mode-field diameters at the waveguide facets. This demonstration underlines the feasibility of integrated quantum gates for all-optical quantum networks and quantum repeaters.

  17. LOW-FREQUENCY OBSERVATIONS OF LINEARLY POLARIZED STRUCTURES IN THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM NEAR THE SOUTH GALACTIC POLE

    Lenc, E.; Gaensler, B. M.; Sun, X. H.; Sadler, E. M.; Callingham, J. R. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Willis, A. G. [National Research Council of Canada, Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 248, Penticton, BC (Canada); Barry, N.; Beardsley, A. P.; Carroll, P. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Bell, M. E.; Briggs, F. [ARC Centre of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO) (Australia); Bernardi, G. [Department of Physics and Electronics, Rhodes University, P.O. Box 94, Grahamstown 6140 (South Africa); Bowman, J. D. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Cappallo, R. J.; Corey, B. E. [MIT Haystack Observatory, Westford, MA 01886 (United States); Oliveira-Costa, A. de; Dillon, J. S. [MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Deshpande, A. A.; Dwarkanath, K. S. [Raman Research Institute, Bangalore 560080 (India); Emrich, D. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, Bentley, WA 6102 (Australia); and others

    2016-10-10

    We present deep polarimetric observations at 154 MHz with the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA), covering 625 deg{sup 2} centered on α = 0{sup h}and δ = −27°. The sensitivity available in our deep observations allows an in-band, frequency-dependent analysis of polarized structure for the first time at long wavelengths. Our analysis suggests that the polarized structures are dominated by intrinsic emission but may also have a foreground Faraday screen component. At these wavelengths, the compactness of the MWA baseline distribution provides excellent snapshot sensitivity to large-scale structure. The observations are sensitive to diffuse polarized emission at ∼54′ resolution with a sensitivity of 5.9 mJy beam{sup −1} and compact polarized sources at ∼2.′4 resolution with a sensitivity of 2.3 mJy beam{sup −1} for a subset (400 deg{sup 2}) of this field. The sensitivity allows the effect of ionospheric Faraday rotation to be spatially and temporally measured directly from the diffuse polarized background. Our observations reveal large-scale structures (∼1°–8° in extent) in linear polarization clearly detectable in ∼2 minute snapshots, which would remain undetectable by interferometers with minimum baseline lengths of >110 m at 154 MHz. The brightness temperature of these structures is on average 4 K in polarized intensity, peaking at 11 K. Rotation measure synthesis reveals that the structures have Faraday depths ranging from −2 to 10 rad m{sup −2} with a large fraction peaking at approximately +1 rad m{sup −2}. We estimate a distance of 51 ± 20 pc to the polarized emission based on measurements of the in-field pulsar J2330–2005. We detect four extragalactic linearly polarized point sources within the field in our compact source survey. Based on the known polarized source population at 1.4 GHz and non-detections at 154 MHz, we estimate an upper limit on the depolarization ratio of 0.08 from 1.4 GHz to 154 MHz.

  18. Conversion from non-orthogonally to orthogonally polarized optical single-sideband modulation using optically injected semiconductor lasers.

    Hung, Yu-Han; Tseng, Chin-Hao; Hwang, Sheng-Kwang

    2018-06-01

    This Letter investigates an optically injected semiconductor laser for conversion from non-orthogonally to orthogonally polarized optical single-sideband modulation. The underlying mechanism relies solely on nonlinear laser characteristics and, thus, only a typical semiconductor laser is required as the key conversion unit. This conversion can be achieved for a broadly tunable frequency range up to at least 65 GHz. After conversion, the microwave phase quality, including linewidth and phase noise, is mostly preserved, and simultaneous microwave amplification up to 23 dB is feasible.

  19. Nonlinear Optical Response of Polar Semiconductors in the Terahertz Range

    Roman, Eric; Yates, Jonathan; Veithen, Marek; Vanderbilt, David; Souza, Ivo

    2006-03-01

    Using the Berry-phase finite-field method, we compute from first-principles the recently measured infrared (IR) dispersion of the nonlinear susceptibility (2)circ in III-V zincblende semiconductors. At far-IR (terahertz) frequencies, in addition to the purely electronic response (2)circ∞, the total (2)circ depends on three other parameters, C1, C2, and C3, describing the contributions from ionic motion. They relate to the TO Raman polarizability and the second-order displacement-induced dielectric polarization and forces, respectively. Contrary to a widely-accepted model, but in agreement with the recent experiments on GaAs, ^1 we find that the contribution from mechanical anharmonicity dominates over electrical anharmonicity. By using Richardson extrapolation to evaluate the Berry's phase in k-space by finite differences, we are able to improve the convergence of the nonlinear susceptibility from the usual O[(δk)^2] to O[(δk)^4], dramatically reducing the computational cost. T. Dekorsy, V. A. Yakovlev, W. Seidel, M. Helm, and F. Keilmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 055508 (2003). C. Flytzanis, Phys. Rev. B 6, 1264 (1972). R. Umari and A. Pasquarello, Phys. Rev. B 68, 085114 (2003).

  20. Measurement of the linear polarization of the photons in the elementary processes of bremsstrahlung production

    Bleier, W.

    1983-01-01

    The polarization of the photons in the elementary processes of the electron-nucleus and electron-electron bremsstrahlung was measured. Electrons with an energy of 300 keV were scattered by copper, gold and carbon target. The polarization in the different processes was measured by using different coincidence methods. (BEF)