Sample records for linearity ranges 4-14

  1. Colored Range Searching in Linear Space

    Grossi, Roberto; Vind, Søren Juhl


    In colored range searching, we are given a set of n colored points in d ≥ 2 dimensions to store, and want to support orthogonal range queries taking colors into account. In the colored range counting problem, a query must report the number of distinct colors found in the query range, while...... an answer to the colored range reporting problem must report the distinct colors in the query range. We give the first linear space data structure for both problems in two dimensions (d = 2) with o(n) worst case query time. We also give the first data structure obtaining almost-linear space usage and o...

  2. Dual-range linearized transimpedance amplifier system

    Wessendorf, Kurt O.


    A transimpedance amplifier system is disclosed which simultaneously generates a low-gain output signal and a high-gain output signal from an input current signal using a single transimpedance amplifier having two different feedback loops with different amplification factors to generate two different output voltage signals. One of the feedback loops includes a resistor, and the other feedback loop includes another resistor in series with one or more diodes. The transimpedance amplifier system includes a signal linearizer to linearize one or both of the low- and high-gain output signals by scaling and adding the two output voltage signals from the transimpedance amplifier. The signal linearizer can be formed either as an analog device using one or two summing amplifiers, or alternately can be formed as a digital device using two analog-to-digital converters and a digital signal processor (e.g. a microprocessor or a computer).

  3. Mappings with closed range and finite dimensional linear spaces

    Iyahen, S.O.


    This paper looks at two settings, each of continuous linear mappings of linear topological spaces. In one setting, the domain space is fixed while the range space varies over a class of linear topological spaces. In the second setting, the range space is fixed while the domain space similarly varies. The interest is in when the requirement that the mappings have a closed range implies that the domain or range space is finite dimensional. Positive results are obtained for metrizable spaces. (author)

  4. Note: A high dynamic range, linear response transimpedance amplifier.

    Eckel, S; Sushkov, A O; Lamoreaux, S K


    We have built a high dynamic range (nine decade) transimpedance amplifier with a linear response. The amplifier uses junction-gate field effect transistors (JFETs) to switch between three different resistors in the feedback of a low input bias current operational amplifier. This allows for the creation of multiple outputs, each with a linear response and a different transimpedance gain. The overall bandwidth of the transimpedance amplifier is set by the bandwidth of the most sensitive range. For our application, we demonstrate a three-stage amplifier with transimpedance gains of approximately 10(9)Ω, 3 × 10(7)Ω, and 10(4)Ω with a bandwidth of 100 Hz.

  5. A Short-Range Distance Sensor with Exceptional Linearity

    Simmons, Steven; Youngquist, Robert


    A sensor has been demonstrated that can measure distance over a total range of about 300 microns to an accuracy of about 0.1 nm (resolution of about 0.01 nm). This represents an exceptionally large dynamic range of operation - over 1,000,000. The sensor is optical in nature, and requires the attachment of a mirror to the object whose distance is being measured. This work resulted from actively developing a white light interferometric system to be used to measure the depths of defects in the Space Shuttle Orbiter windows. The concept was then applied to measuring distance. The concept later expanded to include spectrometer calibration. In summary, broadband (i.e., white) light is launched into a Michelson interferometer, one mirror of which is fixed and one of which is attached to the object whose distance is to be measured. The light emerging from the interferometer has traveled one of two distances: either the distance to the fixed mirror and back, or the distance to the moving mirror and back. These two light beams mix and produce an interference pattern where some wavelengths interfere constructively and some destructively. Sending this light into a spectrometer allows this interference pattern to be analyzed, yielding the net distance difference between the two paths. The unique feature of this distance sensor is its ability to measure accurately distance over a dynamic range of more than one million, the ratio of its range (about 300 microns) to its accuracy (about 0.1 nanometer). Such a large linear operating range is rare and arises here because both amplitude and phase-matching algorithms contribute to the performance. The sensor is limited by the need to attach a mirror of some kind to the object being tracked, and by the fairly small total range, but the exceptional dynamic range should make it of interest.

  6. Linear response in the nonequilibrium zero range process

    Maes, Christian; Salazar, Alberto


    We explore a number of explicit response formulæ around the boundary driven zero range process to changes in the exit and entrance rates. In such a nonequilibrium regime kinetic (and not only thermodynamic) aspects make a difference in the response. Apart from a number of formal approaches, we illustrate a general decomposition of the linear response into entropic and frenetic contributions, the latter being realized from changes in the dynamical activity at the boundaries. In particular in this way one obtains nonlinear modifications to the Green–Kubo relation. We end by bringing some general remarks about the situation where that nonequilibrium response remains given by the (equilibrium) Kubo formula such as for the density profile in the boundary driven Lorentz gas

  7. Increasing Linear Dynamic Range of a CMOS Image Sensor

    Pain, Bedabrata


    A generic design and a corresponding operating sequence have been developed for increasing the linear-response dynamic range of a complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor. The design provides for linear calibrated dual-gain pixels that operate at high gain at a low signal level and at low gain at a signal level above a preset threshold. Unlike most prior designs for increasing dynamic range of an image sensor, this design does not entail any increase in noise (including fixed-pattern noise), decrease in responsivity or linearity, or degradation of photometric calibration. The figure is a simplified schematic diagram showing the circuit of one pixel and pertinent parts of its column readout circuitry. The conventional part of the pixel circuit includes a photodiode having a small capacitance, CD. The unconventional part includes an additional larger capacitance, CL, that can be connected to the photodiode via a transfer gate controlled in part by a latch. In the high-gain mode, the signal labeled TSR in the figure is held low through the latch, which also helps to adapt the gain on a pixel-by-pixel basis. Light must be coupled to the pixel through a microlens or by back illumination in order to obtain a high effective fill factor; this is necessary to ensure high quantum efficiency, a loss of which would minimize the efficacy of the dynamic- range-enhancement scheme. Once the level of illumination of the pixel exceeds the threshold, TSR is turned on, causing the transfer gate to conduct, thereby adding CL to the pixel capacitance. The added capacitance reduces the conversion gain, and increases the pixel electron-handling capacity, thereby providing an extension of the dynamic range. By use of an array of comparators also at the bottom of the column, photocharge voltages on sampling capacitors in each column are compared with a reference voltage to determine whether it is necessary to switch from the high-gain to the low-gain mode. Depending upon

  8. The Role of Data Range in Linear Regression

    da Silva, M. A. Salgueiro; Seixas, T. M.


    Measuring one physical quantity as a function of another often requires making some choices prior to the measurement process. Two of these choices are: the data range where measurements should focus and the number (n) of data points to acquire in the chosen data range. Here, we consider data range as the interval of variation of the independent…

  9. SiGe HBT linear-in-dB high dynamic range RF envelope detectors and wideband high linearity amplifiers

    Pan, Hsuan-yu


    This research work aims on exploiting SiGe HBT technologies in high dynamic range wideband RF linear-in- dB envelope detectors and linear amplifiers. First, an improved all-npn broadband highly linear SiGe HBT differential amplifier is presented based on a variation of Caprio's Quad. A broadband linear amplifier with 46dBm OIP₃ at 20MHz, 34dBm OIP₃ at 1GHz, 6dB noise figure and 10.3dBm P₁dB is demonstrated. Second, an improved exact dynamic model of a fast-settling linear-in-dB Automatic Gain...

  10. Design considerations of a linear generator for a range extender application

    Seo Un-Jae


    Full Text Available The free piston linear generator is a new range extender concept for the application in a full electric vehicle. The free piston engine driven linear generators can achieve high efficiency at part and full load which is suitable for the range extender application. This paper presents requirements for designing a linear generator deduced from a basic analysis of a free piston linear generator.

  11. Free piston linear generator in comparison to other range-extender technologies

    Virsik, Roman; Heron, Alex


    The free piston linear generator is a new range-extender technology. It converts chemical energy into electrical energy by means of a combustion process and linear generator. Thereby the technology aims to have better properties than other range extenders. Therefore this publication deals with the explanation of the concept and the characteristics of a free piston linear generator and a comparison to other technologies. In order to compare the range extender systems, fuel cells, micro gas tur...

  12. On the use of small integrating spheres to improve the linearity range of RASNIKS systems

    Alberdi, J.; Burgos, C.; Ferrando, A.; Molinero, A.; Schvachkin, V.; Figueroa, C.F.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Ruiz, A.; Vila, I.


    Rasniks elements will be used in the CMS alignment system. The large displacements of the different sub detectors expected in the CMS experiment demands large linearity response of this system. By the use of a small integrating sphere we have optimized the source definition such that a factor three improvement in the linearity range with respect to conventional Rasniks configurations is obtained. The response range reached coincides with the maximum one can get with the components used in the test

  13. Improvement of linear reactivity methods and application to long range fuel management

    Woehlke, R.A.; Quan, B.L.


    The original development of the linear reactivity theory assumes flat burnup, batch by batch. The validity of this assumption is explored using multicycle burnup data generated with a detailed 3-D SIMULATE model. The results show that the linear reactivity method can be improved by correcting for batchwise power sharing. The application of linear reactivity to long range fuel management is demonstrated in several examples. Correcting for batchwise power sharing improves the accuracy of the analysis. However, with regard to the sensitivity of fuel cost to changes in various parameters, the corrected and uncorrected linear reactivity theories give remarkably similar results

  14. Internal friction and linear expansion coefficient in zirconium and cobalt within the range of phase transitions

    Boyarskij, S.V.


    Experimental results are presented for internal friction and linear expansion coefficient at zirconium and cobalt in the temperature range from 440 K to the point of the phase transition of the first kind (1138 K for Zr and 706 for Co). Anomalous changes of the internal friction and linear expansion coefficient in the phase transition region are found. Theoretical considerations are given to explain the sharp decrease of the internal friction as temperature approaches the phase transition point

  15. Ultra-low-pressure sputtering to improve exchange bias and tune linear ranges in spin valves

    Tang, XiaoLi, E-mail:; Yu, You; Liu, Ru; Su, Hua; Zhang, HuaiWu; Zhong, ZhiYong; Jing, YuLan


    A series of CoFe/IrMn exchange bilayers was grown by DC-sputtering at different ultra-low argon pressures ranging from 0.008 to 0.1 Pa. This pressure range was one to two orders lower than the normal sputtering pressure. Results revealed that the exchange bias increased from 140 to 250 Oe in CoFe(10 nm)/IrMn (15 nm) bilayers of fixed thickness because of the improved crystalline structure and morphological uniformity of films. Since ferromagnetic /antiferromagnetic (FM/AF) bilayers are always used in linear magnetic sensors as detection layers, the varying exchange bias can successfully achieve tunable linear range in a crossed pinning spin valve. The linear range could be adjustable from −80 Oe – +80 Oe to −150 Oe – +150 Oe on the basis of giant magnetoresistance responses. Therefore, this method provides a simple method to tune the operating range of magnetic field sensors. - Highlights: • Increasing exchange bias was achieved in bilayer at ultra-low-pressure sputtering. • The low void density and smooth surface were achieved in low pressure. • Varying exchange bias achieved tunable linear range in spin valve.

  16. Linearity improvement on wide-range log signal of neutron measurement system for HANARO

    Kim, Young-Ki; Tuetken, Jeffrey S.


    This paper discusses engineering activities for improving the linearity characteristics of the Log Power signal from the neutron measurement system for HANARO. This neutron measurement system uses a fission chamber based detector which covers 10.3 decade-wide range from 10 -8 % full power(FP) up to 200%FP, The Log Power signal is designed to control the reactor at low power levels where most of the reactor physics tests are carried out. Therefore, the linearity characteristics of the Log Power signal is the major factor for accurate reactor power control. During the commissioning of the neutron measurement system, it was found that the linearity characteristics of the Log Power signal, especially near 10 -2 %FP, were not accurate enough for controlling the reactor during physics testing. Analysis of the system linearity data directly measured with reactor operating determined that the system was not operating per the design characteristics established from previous installations. The linearity data, which were taken as the reactor was increased in power, were sent to manufacturer's engineering group and a follow-up measures based on the analysis were then fed back to the field. Through step by step trouble-shooting activities, which included minor circuit modifications and alignment procedure changes, the linearity characteristics have been successfully improved and now exceed minimum performance requirements. This paper discusses the trouble-shooting techniques applied, the changes in the linearity characteristics, special circumstances in the HANARO application and the final resolution. (author)

  17. Flexible Ferroelectric Sensors with Ultrahigh Pressure Sensitivity and Linear Response over Exceptionally Broad Pressure Range.

    Lee, Youngoh; Park, Jonghwa; Cho, Soowon; Shin, Young-Eun; Lee, Hochan; Kim, Jinyoung; Myoung, Jinyoung; Cho, Seungse; Kang, Saewon; Baig, Chunggi; Ko, Hyunhyub


    Flexible pressure sensors with a high sensitivity over a broad linear range can simplify wearable sensing systems without additional signal processing for the linear output, enabling device miniaturization and low power consumption. Here, we demonstrate a flexible ferroelectric sensor with ultrahigh pressure sensitivity and linear response over an exceptionally broad pressure range based on the material and structural design of ferroelectric composites with a multilayer interlocked microdome geometry. Due to the stress concentration between interlocked microdome arrays and increased contact area in the multilayer design, the flexible ferroelectric sensors could perceive static/dynamic pressure with high sensitivity (47.7 kPa -1 , 1.3 Pa minimum detection). In addition, efficient stress distribution between stacked multilayers enables linear sensing over exceptionally broad pressure range (0.0013-353 kPa) with fast response time (20 ms) and high reliability over 5000 repetitive cycles even at an extremely high pressure of 272 kPa. Our sensor can be used to monitor diverse stimuli from a low to a high pressure range including weak gas flow, acoustic sound, wrist pulse pressure, respiration, and foot pressure with a single device.

  18. Application of range-test in multiple linear regression analysis in ...

    Application of range-test in multiple linear regression analysis in the presence of outliers is studied in this paper. First, the plot of the explanatory variables (i.e. Administration, Social/Commercial, Economic services and Transfer) on the dependent variable (i.e. GDP) was done to identify the statistical trend over the years.

  19. Novel birefringence interrogation for Sagnac loop interferometer sensor with unlimited linear measurement range.

    He, Haijun; Shao, Liyang; Qian, Heng; Zhang, Xinpu; Liang, Jiawei; Luo, Bin; Pan, Wei; Yan, Lianshan


    A novel demodulation method for Sagnac loop interferometer based sensor has been proposed and demonstrated, by unwrapping the phase changes with birefringence interrogation. A temperature sensor based on Sagnac loop interferometer has been used to verify the feasibility of the proposed method. Several tests with 40 °C temperature range have been accomplished with a great linearity of 0.9996 in full range. The proposed scheme is universal for all Sagnac loop interferometer based sensors and it has unlimited linear measurable range which overwhelming the conventional demodulation method with peak/dip tracing. Furthermore, the influence of the wavelength sampling interval and wavelength span on the demodulation error has been discussed in this work. The proposed interrogation method has a great significance for Sagnac loop interferometer sensor and it might greatly enhance the availability of this type of sensors in practical application.

  20. Improved measurement linearity and precision for AMCW time-of-flight range imaging cameras.

    Payne, Andrew D; Dorrington, Adrian A; Cree, Michael J; Carnegie, Dale A


    Time-of-flight range imaging systems utilizing the amplitude modulated continuous wave (AMCW) technique often suffer from measurement nonlinearity due to the presence of aliased harmonics within the amplitude modulation signals. Typically a calibration is performed to correct these errors. We demonstrate an alternative phase encoding approach that attenuates the harmonics during the sampling process, thereby improving measurement linearity in the raw measurements. This mitigates the need to measure the system's response or calibrate for environmental changes. In conjunction with improved linearity, we demonstrate that measurement precision can also be increased by reducing the duty cycle of the amplitude modulated illumination source (while maintaining overall illumination power).

  1. Full-range k-domain linearization in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography.

    Jeon, Mansik; Kim, Jeehyun; Jung, Unsang; Lee, Changho; Jung, Woonggyu; Boppart, Stephen A


    A full-bandwidth k-domain linearization method for spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) is demonstrated. The method uses information of the wavenumber-pixel-position provided by a translating-slit-based wavelength filter. For calibration purposes, the filter is placed either after a broadband source or at the end of the sample path, and the filtered spectrum with a narrowed line width (∼0.5 nm) is incident on a line-scan camera in the detection path. The wavelength-swept spectra are co-registered with the pixel positions according to their central wavelengths, which can be automatically measured with an optical spectrum analyzer. For imaging, the method does not require a filter or a software recalibration algorithm; it simply resamples the OCT signal from the detector array without employing rescaling or interpolation methods. The accuracy of k-linearization is maximized by increasing the k-linearization order, which is known to be a crucial parameter for maintaining a narrow point-spread function (PSF) width at increasing depths. The broadening effect is studied by changing the k-linearization order by undersampling to search for the optimal value. The system provides more position information, surpassing the optimum without compromising the imaging speed. The proposed full-range k-domain linearization method can be applied to SD-OCT systems to simplify their hardware/software, increase their speed, and improve the axial image resolution. The experimentally measured width of PSF in air has an FWHM of 8 μm at the edge of the axial measurement range. At an imaging depth of 2.5 mm, the sensitivity of the full-range calibration case drops less than 10 dB compared with the uncompensated case.

  2. A high linearity current mode multiplier/divider with a wide dynamic range

    Liao Pengfei; Luo Ping; Zhang Bo; Li Zhaoji


    A high linearity current mode multiplier/divider (CMM/D) with a wide dynamic range is presented. The proposed CMM/D is based on the voltage—current characteristic of the diode, thus wide dynamic range is achieved. In addition, high linearity is achieved because high accuracy current mirrors are adopted and the output current is insensitive to the temperature and device parameters of the fabrication process. Furthermore, no extra bias current for all input signals is required and thus power saving is realized. With proper selection of establishing the input terminal, the proposed circuit can perform as a multifunction circuit to be operated as a multiplier/divider, without changing its topology. The proposed circuit is implemented in a 0.25 μm BCD process and the chip area is 0.26 × 0.24 mm 2 . The simulation and measurement results show that the maximum static linearity error is ±1.8% and the total harmonic distortion is 0.4% while the input current ranges from 0 to 200 μA. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  3. Calculation of elastic-plastic strain ranges for fatigue analysis based on linear elastic stresses

    Sauer, G.


    Fatigue analysis requires that the maximum strain ranges be known. These strain ranges are generally computed from linear elastic analysis. The elastic strain ranges are enhanced by a factor K e to obtain the total elastic-plastic strain range. The reliability of the fatigue analysis depends on the quality of this factor. Formulae for calculating the K e factor are proposed. A beam is introduced as a computational model for determining the elastic-plastic strains. The beam is loaded by the elastic stresses of the real structure. The elastic-plastic strains of the beam are compared with the beam's elastic strains. This comparison furnishes explicit expressions for the K e factor. The K e factor is tested by means of seven examples. (orig.)

  4. Long-range correlation in synchronization and syncopation tapping: a linear phase correction model.

    Didier Delignières

    Full Text Available We propose in this paper a model for accounting for the increase in long-range correlations observed in asynchrony series in syncopation tapping, as compared with synchronization tapping. Our model is an extension of the linear phase correction model for synchronization tapping. We suppose that the timekeeper represents a fractal source in the system, and that a process of estimation of the half-period of the metronome, obeying a random-walk dynamics, combines with the linear phase correction process. Comparing experimental and simulated series, we show that our model allows accounting for the experimentally observed pattern of serial dependence. This model complete previous modeling solutions proposed for self-paced and synchronization tapping, for a unifying framework of event-based timing.

  5. A high sensitive 66 dB linear dynamic range receiver for 3-D laser radar

    Ma, Rui; Zheng, Hao; Zhu, Zhangming


    This study presents a CMOS receiver chip realized in 0.18 μm standard CMOS technology and intended for high precision 3-D laser radar. The chip includes an adjustable gain transimpedance pre-amplifier, a post-amplifier and two timing comparators. An additional feedback is employed in the regulated cascode transimpedance amplifier to decrease the input impedance, and a variable gain transimpedance amplifier controlled by digital switches and analog multiplexer is utilized to realize four gain modes, extending the input dynamic range. The measurement shows that the highest transimpedance of the channel is 50 k {{Ω }}, the uncompensated walk error is 1.44 ns in a wide linear dynamic range of 66 dB (1:2000), and the input referred noise current is 2.3 pA/\\sqrt{{Hz}} (rms), resulting in a very low detectable input current of 1 μA with SNR = 5.

  6. Design of a High Linearity Four-Quadrant Analog Multiplier in Wideband Frequency Range

    Abdul kareem Mokif Obais


    Full Text Available In this paper, a voltage mode four quadrant analog multiplier in the wideband frequency rangeis designed using a wideband operational amplifier (OPAMP and squaring circuits. The wideband OPAMP is designed using 10 identical NMOS transistorsand operated with supply voltages of ±12V. Two NMOS transistors and two wideband OPAMP are utilized in the design of the proposed squaring circuit. All the NMOS transistors are based on 0.35µm NMOStechnology. The multiplier has input and output voltage ranges of ±10 V, high range of linearity from -10 V to +10 V, and cutoff frequency of about 5 GHz. The proposed multiplier is designed on PSpice in Orcad 16.6

  7. High Dynamic Range RF Front End with Noise Cancellation and Linearization for WiMAX Receivers

    J.-M. Wu


    Full Text Available This research deals with verification of the high dynamic range for a heterodyne radio frequency (RF front end. A 2.6 GHz RF front end is designed and implemented in a hybrid microwave integrated circuit (HMIC for worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX receivers. The heterodyne RF front end consists of a low-noise amplifier (LNA with noise cancellation, an RF bandpass filter (BPF, a downconverter with linearization, and an intermediate frequency (IF BPF. A noise canceling technique used in the low-noise amplifier eliminates a thermal noise and then reduces the noise figure (NF of the RF front end by 0.9 dB. Use of a downconverter with diode linearizer also compensates for gain compression, which increases the input-referred third-order intercept point (IIP3 of the RF front end by 4.3 dB. The proposed method substantially increases the spurious-free dynamic range (DRf of the RF front end by 3.5 dB.

  8. Improved linearity using harmonic error rejection in a full-field range imaging system

    Payne, Andrew D.; Dorrington, Adrian A.; Cree, Michael J.; Carnegie, Dale A.


    Full field range imaging cameras are used to simultaneously measure the distance for every pixel in a given scene using an intensity modulated illumination source and a gain modulated receiver array. The light is reflected from an object in the scene, and the modulation envelope experiences a phase shift proportional to the target distance. Ideally the waveforms are sinusoidal, allowing the phase, and hence object range, to be determined from four measurements using an arctangent function. In practice these waveforms are often not perfectly sinusoidal, and in some cases square waveforms are instead used to simplify the electronic drive requirements. The waveforms therefore commonly contain odd harmonics which contribute a nonlinear error to the phase determination, and therefore an error in the range measurement. We have developed a unique sampling method to cancel the effect of these harmonics, with the results showing an order of magnitude improvement in the measurement linearity without the need for calibration or lookup tables, while the acquisition time remains unchanged. The technique can be applied to existing range imaging systems without having to change or modify the complex illumination or sensor systems, instead only requiring a change to the signal generation and timing electronics.

  9. Synthesis of dexamethasone-4-14C

    Rao, P.N.; Cessac, J.W.; Hill, K.A.


    The bismethylenedioxy (BMD) derivative of dexamethasone 2 was silylated with trimethylchlorosilane and imidazole in dimethylformamide to give the 11β-trimethylsilyloxy BMD derivative 3. The Δ 1 -double bond in 3 was hydrogenated over 5% palladium on carbon to give the Δ 4 -3-oxo steroid 4. Oxidation of 4 with potassium permanganate-sodium metaperiodate gave the seco-acid 5 which on subsequent treatment with acetic anhydride; sodium acetate and triethylamine gave the enol-lactone 6. The enol-lactone 6 was reacted with 14 C-methylmagnesium iodide to give an adduct 7a which on heating at reflux with lithium 2,6-di-t-butylphenoxide in dioxane gave the Δ 4 -3-oxo derivative 8. Compound 8 was heated at reflux with m-iodylbenzoic acid and diphenyl diselenide in toluene to give the Δsup(1,4)-3-oxo steroid 9. The protecting BMD and silyl groups were removed in a single step by reaction with aqueous trifluoroacetic acid containing 2N hydrochloric acid at room temperature to give dexamethasone-4- 14 C 10. (author)

  10. Comparison of linear intrascan and interscan dynamic ranges of Orbitrap and ion-mobility time-of-flight mass spectrometers.

    Kaufmann, Anton; Walker, Stephan


    The linear intrascan and interscan dynamic ranges of mass spectrometers are important in metabolome and residue analysis. A large linear dynamic range is mandatory if both low- and high-abundance ions have to be detected and quantitated in heavy matrix samples. These performance criteria, as provided by modern high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), were systematically investigated. The comparison included two generations of Orbitraps, and an ion mobility quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) system In addition, different scan modes, as provided by the utilized instruments, were investigated. Calibration curves of different compounds covering a concentration range of five orders of magnitude were measured to evaluate the linear interscan dynamic range. The linear intrascan dynamic range and the resulting mass accuracy were evaluated by repeating these measurements in the presence of a very intense background. Modern HRMS instruments can show linear dynamic ranges of five orders of magnitude. Often, however, the linear dynamic range is limited by the detection capability (sensitivity and selectivity) and by the electrospray ionization. Orbitraps, as opposed to TOF instruments, show a reduced intrascan dynamic range. This is due to the limited C-trap and Orbitrap capacity. The tested TOF instrument shows poorer mass accuracies than the Orbitraps. In contrast, hyphenation with an ion-mobility device seems not to affect the linear dynamic range. The linear dynamic range of modern HRMS instrumentation has been significantly improved. This also refers to the virtual absence of systematic mass shifts at high ion abundances. The intrascan dynamic range of the current Orbitrap technology may still be a limitation when analyzing complex matrix extracts. On the other hand, the linear dynamic range is not only limited by the detector technology, but can also be shortened by peripheral devices, where the ionization and transfer of ions take place. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley

  11. Linear response theory for long-range interacting systems in quasistationary states.

    Patelli, Aurelio; Gupta, Shamik; Nardini, Cesare; Ruffo, Stefano


    Long-range interacting systems, while relaxing to equilibrium, often get trapped in long-lived quasistationary states which have lifetimes that diverge with the system size. In this work, we address the question of how a long-range system in a quasistationary state (QSS) responds to an external perturbation. We consider a long-range system that evolves under deterministic Hamilton dynamics. The perturbation is taken to couple to the canonical coordinates of the individual constituents. Our study is based on analyzing the Vlasov equation for the single-particle phase-space distribution. The QSS represents a stable stationary solution of the Vlasov equation in the absence of the external perturbation. In the presence of small perturbation, we linearize the perturbed Vlasov equation about the QSS to obtain a formal expression for the response observed in a single-particle dynamical quantity. For a QSS that is homogeneous in the coordinate, we obtain an explicit formula for the response. We apply our analysis to a paradigmatic model, the Hamiltonian mean-field model, which involves particles moving on a circle under Hamiltonian dynamics. Our prediction for the response of three representative QSSs in this model (the water-bag QSS, the Fermi-Dirac QSS, and the Gaussian QSS) is found to be in good agreement with N-particle simulations for large N. We also show the long-time relaxation of the water-bag QSS to the Boltzmann-Gibbs equilibrium state. © 2012 American Physical Society

  12. Non-linear characteristics and long-range correlations in Asian stock markets

    Jiang, J.; Ma, K.; Cai, X.


    We test several non-linear characteristics of Asian stock markets, which indicates the failure of efficient market hypothesis and shows the essence of fractal of the financial markets. In addition, by using the method of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to investigate the long range correlation of the volatility in the stock markets, we find that the crossover phenomena exist in the results of DFA. Further, in the region of small volatility, the scaling behavior is more complicated; in the region of large volatility, the scaling exponent is close to 0.5, which suggests the market is more efficient. All these results may indicate the possibility of characteristic multifractal scaling behaviors of the financial markets.

  13. A Fourier Transform Spectrometer Based on an Electrothermal MEMS Mirror with Improved Linear Scan Range

    Wei Wang


    Full Text Available A Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS that incorporates a closed-loop controlled, electrothermally actuated microelectromechanical systems (MEMS micromirror is proposed and experimentally verified. The scan range and the tilting angle of the mirror plate are the two critical parameters for MEMS-based FTS. In this work, the MEMS mirror with a footprint of 4.3 mm × 3.1 mm is based on a modified lateral-shift-free (LSF bimorph actuator design with large piston and reduced tilting. Combined with a position-sensitive device (PSD for tilt angle sensing, the feedback controlled MEMS mirror generates a 430 µm stable linear piston scan with the mirror plate tilting angle less than ±0.002°. The usable piston scan range is increased to 78% of the MEMS mirror’s full scan capability, and a spectral resolution of 0.55 nm at 531.9 nm wavelength, has been achieved. It is a significant improvement compared to the prior work.

  14. 36 CFR 4.14 - Open container of alcoholic beverage.


    ... beverage. 4.14 Section 4.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.14 Open container of alcoholic beverage. (a) Each person within a..., can or other receptacle containing an alcoholic beverage that is open, or has been opened, or whose...

  15. Generating linear regression model to predict motor functions by use of laser range finder during TUG.

    Adachi, Daiki; Nishiguchi, Shu; Fukutani, Naoto; Hotta, Takayuki; Tashiro, Yuto; Morino, Saori; Shirooka, Hidehiko; Nozaki, Yuma; Hirata, Hinako; Yamaguchi, Moe; Yorozu, Ayanori; Takahashi, Masaki; Aoyama, Tomoki


    The purpose of this study was to investigate which spatial and temporal parameters of the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test are associated with motor function in elderly individuals. This study included 99 community-dwelling women aged 72.9 ± 6.3 years. Step length, step width, single support time, variability of the aforementioned parameters, gait velocity, cadence, reaction time from starting signal to first step, and minimum distance between the foot and a marker placed to 3 in front of the chair were measured using our analysis system. The 10-m walk test, five times sit-to-stand (FTSTS) test, and one-leg standing (OLS) test were used to assess motor function. Stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis was used to determine which TUG test parameters were associated with each motor function test. Finally, we calculated a predictive model for each motor function test using each regression coefficient. In stepwise linear regression analysis, step length and cadence were significantly associated with the 10-m walk test, FTSTS and OLS test. Reaction time was associated with the FTSTS test, and step width was associated with the OLS test. Each predictive model showed a strong correlation with the 10-m walk test and OLS test (P motor function test. Moreover, the TUG test time regarded as the lower extremity function and mobility has strong predictive ability in each motor function test. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Expanding the linear dynamic range for quantitative liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry utilizing natural isotopologue signals

    Liu, Hanghui; Lam, Lily; Yan, Lin; Chi, Bert; Dasgupta, Purnendu K.


    Highlights: • Less abundant isotopologue ions were utilized to decrease detector saturation. • A 25–50 fold increase in the upper limit of dynamic range was demonstrated. • Linear dynamic range was expanded without compromising mass resolution. - Abstract: The linear dynamic range (LDR) for quantitative liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry can be extended until ionization saturation is reached by using a number of target isotopologue ions in addition to the normally used target ion that provides the highest sensitivity. Less abundant isotopologue ions extend the LDR: the lower ion abundance decreases the probability of ion detector saturation. Effectively the sensitivity decreases and the upper limit of the LDR increases. We show in this paper that the technique is particularly powerful with a high resolution time of flight mass spectrometer because the data for all ions are automatically acquired, and we demonstrated this for four small organic molecules; the upper limits of LDRs increased by 25–50 times

  17. Fiber optics frequency comb enabled linear optical sampling with operation wavelength range extension.

    Liao, Ruolin; Wu, Zhichao; Fu, Songnian; Zhu, Shengnan; Yu, Zhe; Tang, Ming; Liu, Deming


    Although the linear optical sampling (LOS) technique is powerful enough to characterize various advanced modulation formats with high symbol rates, the central wavelength of a pulsed local oscillator (LO) needs to be carefully set according to that of the signal under test, due to the coherent mixing operation. Here, we experimentally demonstrate wideband LOS enabled by a fiber optics frequency comb (FOFC). Meanwhile, when the broadband FOFC acts as the pulsed LO, we propose a scheme to mitigate the enhanced sampling error arising in the non-ideal response of a balanced photodetector. Finally, precise characterizations of arbitrary 128 Gbps PDM-QPSK wavelength channels from 1550 to 1570 nm are successfully achieved, when a 101.3 MHz frequency spaced comb with a 3 dB spectral power ripple of 20 nm is used.

  18. Prediction of failures in linear systems with the use of tolerance ranges

    Gadzhiev, Ch.M.


    The problem of predicting the technical state of an object can be stated in a general case as that of predicting potential failures on the basis of a quantitative evaluation of the predicted parameters in relation to the set of tolerances on these parameters. The main stages in the prediction are collecting and preparing source data on the prehistory of the predicted phenomenon, forming a mathematical model of this phenomenon, working out the algorithm for the prediction, and adopting a solution from the prediction results. The final two stages of prediction are considered in this article. The prediction algorithm is proposed based on construction of the tolerance range for the signal of error between output coordinates of the system and its mathematical model. A solution regarding possible occurrence of failure in the system is formulated as a result of comparison of the tolerance range and the found confidence interval. 5 refs

  19. Dynamic Range Enhancement of High-Speed Electrical Signal Data via Non-Linear Compression

    Laun, Matthew C. (Inventor)


    Systems and methods for high-speed compression of dynamic electrical signal waveforms to extend the measuring capabilities of conventional measuring devices such as oscilloscopes and high-speed data acquisition systems are discussed. Transfer function components and algorithmic transfer functions can be used to accurately measure signals that are within the frequency bandwidth but beyond the voltage range and voltage resolution capabilities of the measuring device.

  20. A wideband large dynamic range and high linearity RF front-end for U-band mobile DTV

    Liu Rongjiang; Liu Shengyou; Guo Guiliang; Cheng Xu; Yan Yuepeng


    A wideband large dynamic range and high linearity U-band RF front-end for mobile DTV is introduced, and includes a noise-cancelling low-noise amplifier (LNA), an RF programmable gain amplifier (RFPGA) and a current communicating passive mixer. The noise/distortion cancelling structure and RC post-distortion compensation are employed to improve the linearity of the LNA. An RFPGA with five stages provides large dynamic range and fine gain resolution. A simple resistor voltage network in the passive mixer decreases the gate bias voltage of the mixing transistor, and optimum linearity and symmetrical mixing is obtained at the same time. The RF front-end is implemented in a 0.25 μm CMOS process. Tests show that it achieves an IIP3 (third-order intercept point) of −17 dBm, a conversion gain of 39 dB, and a noise figure of 5.8 dB. The RFPGA achieves a dynamic range of −36.2 to 23.5 dB with a resolution of 0.32 dB. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  1. Polarizable embedding with a multiconfiguration short-range density functional theory linear response method

    Hedegård, Erik D.; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard; Knecht, Stefan


    . To demonstrate the capabilities of PE-MC-srDFT, we also investigated the retinylidene Schiff base chromophore embedded in the channelrhodopsin protein. While using a much more compact reference wave function in terms of active space, our PE-MC-srDFT approach yields excitation energies comparable in quality......We present here the coupling of a polarizable embedding (PE) model to the recently developed multiconfiguration short-range density functional theory method (MC-srDFT), which can treat multiconfigurational systems with a simultaneous account for dynamical and static correlation effects. PE......-MC-srDFT is designed to combine efficient treatment of complicated electronic structures with inclusion of effects from the surrounding environment. The environmental effects encompass classical electrostatic interactions as well as polarization of both the quantum region and the environment. Using response theory...

  2. Designing double-gap linear accelerators for a wide mass range

    Lysenko, W.P.; Wadlinger, E.A.; Rusnak, B.; Krawczyk, F.; Saadatmand, K.; Wan, Z.


    For applications like ion implantation, rf linacs using double-gap structures with external resonators can be used because they are practical at low frequencies. However, since the two gaps associated with a given resonator cannot be individually phased, it is not obvious how to build a linac that can efficiently accelerate particles having different mass/charge ratios. This paper describes the beam dynamics of double-gap rf linacs and shows how to maximize the range of mass/charge ratios. The theory also tells one how to rescale a linac tune (i.e., reset the voltages and phases) so that a new particle, having a different mass or charge, will behave similarly to the original particle

  3. A Facile Approach to Preparing Molecularly Imprinted Chitosan for Detecting 2,4,6-Tribromophenol with a Widely Linear Range

    Limei Huang


    Full Text Available The environmental pollution of 2,4,6-tribromophenol (TBP has attracted attention. Based on an urgent need for the better provision of clean water, in situ determination of TBP is of great importance. Here, a facile and effective approach for detecting TBP is developed, based on coupling molecular imprinting technique with electrodeposition of chitosan (CS on the gold electrode. The TBP imprinting CS film was fabricated by using CS as functional material and TBP as template molecule. The experiments show that the morphologies and electrochemical properties of the imprinted film sensor was different from non-imprinted film electrode. The current of the imprinted film was linearly proportional to the TBP concentration, with a wide linear range of 1.0 × 10−7 mol•L−1 to 1.0 × 10−3 mol•L−1. By selecting drop-coating method as a reference for controlled trials with the same functional material, the results illustrated that the electrodeposition enjoyed a widely linear range advantage.

  4. High-resolution continuum source electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry: Linearization of the calibration curves within a broad concentration range

    Katskov, Dmitri, E-mail: [Tshwane University of Technology, Chemistry Department, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Hlongwane, Miranda [Tshwane University of Technology, Chemistry Department, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Heitmann, Uwe [German Aerospace Center, Rose-Luxemburg Str. 2, 10178 Berlin (Germany); Florek, Stefan [ISAS-Leibniz-Institut fuer Analytische Wissenschaften e.V., Albert-Einstein-Str. 9,12489 Berlin (Germany)


    The calculation algorithm suggested provides linearization of the calibration curves in high-resolution continuum source electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The algorithm is based on the modification of the function wavelength-integrated absorbance vs. concentration of analyte vapor in the absorption volume. According to the suggested approach, the absorption line is represented by a triangle for low and trapezium for high analyte vapor concentration in the absorption volume. The respective semi-empirical formulas include two linearization parameters, which depend on properties of the absorption line and characteristics of the atomizer and spectrometer. The parameters can be approximately evaluated from the theory and determined in practice from the original broad-range calibration curve. The parameters were found and the proposed calculation algorithm verified in the experiments on direct determination of Ag, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn and Pb in the solutions within a concentration ranges from 0.15 to 625 {mu}g{center_dot}L{sup -1} using tube, platform tube and filter furnace atomizers. The use of various atomizers, lines, elements and atomization temperatures made possible the simulation of various practical analytical conditions. It was found that the algorithm and optimal linearization parameters made it possible to obtain for each line and atomizer linear approximations of the calibration curves within 3-4 orders of magnitude with correlation coefficients close to 0.999. The algorithm makes possible to employ a single line for the direct element determination over a broad concentration range. The sources of errors and the possibility of a priori theoretical evaluation of the linearization parameters are discussed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New calculation algorithm for HR-CS ET AAS measurements was proposed and applied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The suggested formulas include two parameters to be determined experimentally. Black

  5. Muscle shear elastic modulus is linearly related to muscle torque over the entire range of isometric contraction intensity.

    Ateş, Filiz; Hug, François; Bouillard, Killian; Jubeau, Marc; Frappart, Thomas; Couade, Mathieu; Bercoff, Jeremy; Nordez, Antoine


    Muscle shear elastic modulus is linearly related to muscle torque during low-level contractions (torque over the entire range of isometric contraction and (ii) the influence of the size of the region of interest (ROI) used to average the shear modulus value. Ten healthy males performed two incremental isometric little finger abductions. The joint torque produced by Abductor Digiti Minimi was considered as an index of muscle torque and elastic modulus. A high coefficient of determination (R(2)) (range: 0.86-0.98) indicated that the relationship between elastic modulus and torque can be accurately modeled by a linear regression over the entire range (0% to 100% of MVC). The changes in shear elastic modulus as a function of torque were highly repeatable. Lower R(2) values (0.89±0.13 for 1/16 of ROI) and significantly increased absolute errors were observed when the shear elastic modulus was averaged over smaller ROI, half, 1/4 and 1/16 of the full ROI) than the full ROI (mean size: 1.18±0.24cm(2)). It suggests that the ROI should be as large as possible for accurate measurement of muscle shear modulus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Dynamic Range Enhanced Readout Technique with a Two-Step TDC for High Speed Linear CMOS Image Sensors

    Zhiyuan Gao


    Full Text Available This paper presents a dynamic range (DR enhanced readout technique with a two-step time-to-digital converter (TDC for high speed linear CMOS image sensors. A multi-capacitor and self-regulated capacitive trans-impedance amplifier (CTIA structure is employed to extend the dynamic range. The gain of the CTIA is auto adjusted by switching different capacitors to the integration node asynchronously according to the output voltage. A column-parallel ADC based on a two-step TDC is utilized to improve the conversion rate. The conversion is divided into coarse phase and fine phase. An error calibration scheme is also proposed to correct quantization errors caused by propagation delay skew within −Tclk~+Tclk. A linear CMOS image sensor pixel array is designed in the 0.13 μm CMOS process to verify this DR-enhanced high speed readout technique. The post simulation results indicate that the dynamic range of readout circuit is 99.02 dB and the ADC achieves 60.22 dB SNDR and 9.71 bit ENOB at a conversion rate of 2 MS/s after calibration, with 14.04 dB and 2.4 bit improvement, compared with SNDR and ENOB of that without calibration.

  7. Development of parallel-plate-based MEMS tunable capacitors with linearized capacitance–voltage response and extended tuning range

    Shavezipur, M; Nieva, P; Khajepour, A; Hashemi, S M


    This paper presents a design technique that can be used to linearize the capacitance–voltage (C–V) response and extend the tuning range of parallel-plate-based MEMS tunable capacitors beyond that of conventional designs. The proposed technique exploits the curvature of the capacitor's moving electrode which could be induced by either manipulating the stress gradients in the plate's material or using bi-layer structures. The change in curvature generates a nonlinear structural stiffness as the moving electrode undergoes out-of-plane deformation due to the actuation voltage. If the moving plate curvature is tailored such that the capacitance increment is proportional to the voltage increment, then a linear C–V response is obtained. The larger structural resistive force at higher bias voltage also delays the pull-in and increases the maximum tunability of the capacitor. Moreover, for capacitors containing an insulation layer between the two electrodes, the proposed technique completely eliminates the pull-in effect. The experimental data obtained from different capacitors fabricated using PolyMUMPs demonstrate the advantages of this design approach where highly linear C–V responses and tunabilities as high as 1050% were recorded. The design methodology introduced in this paper could be easily extended to for example, capacitive pressure and temperature sensors or infrared detectors to enhance their response characteristics.

  8. On the predictability of extreme events in records with linear and nonlinear long-range memory: Efficiency and noise robustness

    Bogachev, Mikhail I.; Bunde, Armin


    We study the predictability of extreme events in records with linear and nonlinear long-range memory in the presence of additive white noise using two different approaches: (i) the precursory pattern recognition technique (PRT) that exploits solely the information about short-term precursors, and (ii) the return interval approach (RIA) that exploits long-range memory incorporated in the elapsed time after the last extreme event. We find that the PRT always performs better when only linear memory is present. In the presence of nonlinear memory, both methods demonstrate comparable efficiency in the absence of white noise. When additional white noise is present in the record (which is the case in most observational records), the efficiency of the PRT decreases monotonously with increasing noise level. In contrast, the RIA shows an abrupt transition between a phase of low level noise where the prediction is as good as in the absence of noise, and a phase of high level noise where the prediction becomes poor. In the phase of low and intermediate noise the RIA predicts considerably better than the PRT, which explains our recent findings in physiological and financial records.

  9. Kinetics of oriented crystallization of polymers in the linear stress-orientation range in the series expansion approach

    L. Jarecki


    Full Text Available An analytical formula is derived for the oriented crystallization coefficient governing kinetics of oriented crystallization under uniaxial amorphous orientation in the entire temperature range. A series expansion approach is applied to the free energy of crystallization in the Hoffman-Lauritzen kinetic model of crystallization at accounting for the entropy of orientation of the amorphous chains. The series expansion coefficients are calculated for systems of Gaussian chains in linear stress-orientation range. Oriented crystallization rate functions are determined basing on the ‘proportional expansion’ approach proposed by Ziabicki in the steady-state limit. Crystallization kinetics controlled by separate predetermined and sporadic primary nucleation is considered, as well as the kinetics involving both nucleation mechanisms potentially present in oriented systems. The involvement of sporadic nucleation in the transformation kinetics is predicted to increase with increasing amorphous orientation. Example computations illustrate the dependence of the calculated functions on temperature and amorphous orientation, as well as qualitative agreement of the calculations with experimental results.

  10. Lifetime estimates of a fusion reactor first wall by linear damage summation and strain range partitioning methods

    Liu, K.C.; Grossbeck, M.L.


    A generalized model of a first wall made of 20% cold-worked steel was examined for neutron wall loadings ranging from 2 to 5 MW/m 2 . A spectrum of simplified on-off duty cycles was assumed with a 95% burn time. Independent evaluations of cyclic lifetimes were based on two methods: the method of linear damage summation currently being employed for use in ASME high-temperature design Code Case N-47 and that of strain range partitioning being studied for inclusion in the design code. An important point is that the latter method can incorporate a known decrease in ductility for materials subject to irradiation as a parameter, so low-cycle fatigue behavior can be estimated for irradiated material. Lifetimes predicted by the two methods agree reasonably well despite their diversity in concept. Lack of high-cycle fatigue data for the material tested at temperatures within the range of our interest precludes making conclusions on the accuracy of the predicted results, but such data are forthcoming. The analysis includes stress relaxation due to thermal and irradiation-induced creep. Reduced ductility values from irradiations that simulate the environment of the first wall of a fusion reactor were used to estimate the lifetime of the first wall under irradiation. These results indicate that 20% cold-worked type 316 stainless steel could be used as a first-wall material meeting a 8 to 10 MW-year/m 2 lifetime goal for a neutron wall loading of about 2 MW-year/m 2 and a maximum temperature of about 500 0 C

  11. Extending the Linear Modulation Range to the Full Base Speed Using a Single DC-Link Multilevel Inverter With Capacitor-Fed H-Bridges for IM Drives

    Rahul, Arun; Pramanick, Sumit; Kaarthik, R. Sudharshan


    In this paper, a new space vector pulse width modulation method to extend the linear modulation range of a cascaded five level inverter topology with a single dc supply is presented. Using this method, the inverter can be controlled linearly and the peak phase fundamental output voltage of the in......In this paper, a new space vector pulse width modulation method to extend the linear modulation range of a cascaded five level inverter topology with a single dc supply is presented. Using this method, the inverter can be controlled linearly and the peak phase fundamental output voltage...... of the inverter can be increased from 0.577 to 0.637Vdc without increasing the dc bus voltage and without exceeding the induction motor voltage rating. This new technique makes use of cascaded inverter pole voltage redundancy and property of the space vector structure for its operation. Using this, the induction...

  12. Presto 4.14 users guide.

    Spencer, Benjamin Whiting


    Presto is a three-dimensional transient dynamics code with a versatile element library, nonlinear material models, large deformation capabilities, and contact. It is built on the SIERRA Framework [1, 2]. SIERRA provides a data management framework in a parallel computing environment that allows the addition of capabilities in a modular fashion. Contact capabilities are parallel and scalable. The Presto 4.14 User's Guide provides information about the functionality in Presto and the command structure required to access this functionality in a user input file. This document is divided into chapters based primarily on functionality. For example, the command structure related to the use of various element types is grouped in one chapter; descriptions of material models are grouped in another chapter. The input and usage of Presto is similar to that of the code Adagio [3]. Adagio is a three-dimensional quasi-static code with a versatile element library, nonlinear material models, large deformation capabilities, and contact. Adagio, like Presto, is built on the SIERRA Framework [1]. Contact capabilities for Adagio are also parallel and scalable. A significant feature of Adagio is that it offers a multilevel, nonlinear iterative solver. Because of the similarities in input and usage between Presto and Adagio, the user's guides for the two codes are structured in the same manner and share common material. (Once you have mastered the input structure for one code, it will be easy to master the syntax structure for the other code.) To maintain the commonality between the two user's guides, we have used a variety of techniques. For example, references to Adagio may be found in the Presto user's guide and vice versa, and the chapter order across the two guides is the same. On the other hand, each of the two user's guides is expressly tailored to the features of the specific code and documents the particular functionality for that code. For example

  13. Adagio 4.14 users guide.

    Spencer, Benjamin Whiting


    This document is a user's guide for the code Adagio. Adagio is a three-dimensional, implicit solid mechanics code with a versatile element library, nonlinear material models, and capabilities for modeling large deformation and contact. Adagio is a parallel code, and its nonlinear solver and contact capabilities enable scalable solutions of large problems. It is built on the SIERRA Framework [1, 2]. SIERRA provides a data management framework in a parallel computing environment that allows the addition of capabilities in a modular fashion. The Adagio 4.14 User's Guide provides information about the functionality in Adagio and the command structure required to access this functionality in a user input file. This document is divided into chapters based primarily on functionality. For example, the command structure related to the use of various element types is grouped in one chapter; descriptions of material models are grouped in another chapter. The input and usage of Adagio is similar to that of the code Presto [3]. Presto, like Adagio, is a solid mechanics code built on the SIERRA Framework. The primary difference between the two codes is that Presto uses explicit time integration for transient dynamics analysis, whereas Adagio is an implicit code. Because of the similarities in input and usage between Adagio and Presto, the user's guides for the two codes are structured in the same manner and share common material. (Once you have mastered the input structure for one code, it will be easy to master the syntax structure for the other code.) To maintain the commonality between the two user's guides, we have used a variety of techniques. For example, references to Presto may be found in the Adagio user's guide and vice versa, and the chapter order across the two guides is the same. On the other hand, each of the two user's guides is expressly tailored to the features of the specific code and documents the particular functionality for that

  14. 17 CFR 4.14 - Exemption from registration as a commodity trading advisor.


    ... a commodity trading advisor. 4.14 Section 4.14 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS General Provisions, Definitions and Exemptions § 4.14 Exemption from registration as a commodity trading advisor. This section is...

  15. Linear interpolation method in ensemble Kohn-Sham and range-separated density-functional approximations for excited states

    Senjean, Bruno; Knecht, Stefan; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aa


    Gross-Oliveira-Kohn density-functional theory (GOK-DFT) for ensembles is, in principle, very attractive but has been hard to use in practice. A practical model based on GOK-DFT for the calculation of electronic excitation energies is discussed. The model relies on two modifications of GOK-DFT: use...... promising results have been obtained for both single (including charge transfer) and double excitations with spin-independent short-range local and semilocal functionals. Even at the Kohn-Sham ensemble DFT level, which is recovered when the range-separation parameter is set to 0, LIM performs better than...

  16. Molecular magnetism of a linear Fe(III)-Mn(II)-Fe(III) complex. Influence of long-range exchange interaction

    Lengen, M.; Chaudhuri, P.


    The magnetic properties of [L-Fe(III)-dmg 3 Mn(II)-Fe(III)-L] (ClO 4 ) 2 have been characterized by magnetic susceptibility, EPR, and Moessbauer studies. L represents 1,4,7-trimethyl-,1,4,7-triazacyclononane and dmg represents dimethylglyoxime. X-ray diffraction measurements yield that the arrangement of the three metal centers is strictly linear with atomic distances d Fe-Mn 0.35 nm and d Fe-Fe = 0.7 nm. Magnetic susceptibility measurements (3-295 K) were analyzed in the framework of the spin-Hamiltonian formalism considering Heisenberg exchange and Zeeman interaction: H = J Fe-Mn (S Fe1 + S Fe2 )S Mn + J Fe-Fe S Fe1 S Fe2 + gμ B S total B. The spins S Fe1 = S Fe2 = S Mn = 5/2 of the complex are antiferromagnetically coupled, yielding a total spin of S total = 5/2 with exchange coupling constants F Fe-Mn = 13.4 cm -1 and J Fe-Fe = 4.5 cm -1 . Magnetically split Moessbauer spectra were recorded at 1.5 K under various applied fields (20 mT, 170 mT, 4 T). The spin-Hamiltonian analysis of these spectra yields isotropic magnetic hyperfine coupling with A total /(g N μ N ) = -18.5 T. The corresponding local component A Fe is related to A total via spin-projection: A total = (6/7)A Fe . The resulting A Fe /(g N μ N ) -21.6 T is in agreement with standard values of ferric high-spin complexes. Spin-Hamiltonian parameters as obtained from Moessbauer studies and exchange coupling constants as derived from susceptibility measurements are corroborated by temperature-dependent EPR studies. (orig.)

  17. Some remarks on the time of flight and range of a projectile in a linear resisting medium

    S. M. Stewart


    Full Text Available In view of the recent work by Karkantzakos [Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Review 2 (2009 76–81], anumber of remarks highlighting the connection between the Lambert W function and the time of flight and range of a projectilemoving in a resisting medium where the retarding force acting on the projectile is proportional to its velocity are made.In particular, we show how each of these quantities can be expressed in closed form in terms of the Lambert W function andindicate how the analysis of the motion becomes greatly simplified by its introduction.

  18. Multibloc system electronic equipment: D.C. linear - logarithmic amplifier and periodmeter and wide range (pulses, fluctuations and direct current) measuring set

    Guerre, J.; Plaige, Y.; Vaux, C.


    The requirements which have led to the design of a specific equipment for reactor neutron control (Multibloc system) are briefly recalled. It is shown how, for reasons of saving the cost of installation, the development tended towards a multifunction performance from signals delivered by one detector. Two major achievments in accordance with the above trend are described: the D.C. linear - logarithmic amplifier and periodmeter, and the wide dynamics range measuring set [fr

  19. Creep-fatigue life prediction for different heats of Type 304 stainless steel by linear-damage rule, strain-range partitioning method, and damage-rate approach

    Maiya, P.S.


    The creep-fatigue life results for five different heats of Type 304 stainless steel at 593 0 C (1100 0 F), generated under push-pull conditions in the axial strain-control mode, are presented. The life predictions for the various heats based on the linear-damage rule, strain-range partitioning method, and damage-rate approach are discussed. The appropriate material properties required for computation of fatigue life are also included

  20. A Wide Linearity Range Method for the Determination of Lenalidomide in Plasma by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography: Application to Pharmacokinetic Studies.

    Guglieri-López, Beatriz; Pérez-Pitarch, Alejandro; Martinez-Gómez, Maria Amparo; Porta-Oltra, Begoña; Climente-Martí, Mónica; Merino-Sanjuán, Matilde


    A wide linearity range analytical method for the determination of lenalidomide in patients with multiple myeloma for pharmacokinetic studies is required. Plasma samples were ultrasonicated for protein precipitation. A solid-phase extraction was performed. The eluted samples were evaporated to dryness under vacuum, and the solid obtained was diluted and injected into the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system. Separation of lenalidomide was performed on an Xterra RP C18 (250 mm length × 4.6 mm i.d., 5 µm) using a mobile phase consisting of phosphate buffer/acetonitrile (85:15, v/v, pH 3.2) at a flow rate of 0.5 mL · min -1 The samples were monitored at a wavelength of 311 nm. A linear relationship with good correlation coefficient (r = 0.997, n = 9) was found between the peak area and lenalidomide concentrations in the range of 100 to 950 ng · mL -1 The limits of detection and quantitation were 28 and 100 ng · mL -1 , respectively. The intra- and interassay precisions were satisfactory, and the accuracy of the method was proved. In conclusion, the proposed method is suitable for the accurate quantification of lenalidomide in human plasma with a wide linear range, from 100 to 950 ng · mL -1 This is a valuable method for pharmacokinetic studies of lenalidomide in human subjects. © 2016 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  1. Study of deuteron photodisintegration with linearly polarized photons over the energy range E/sub el/ = 0. 4 to 0. 8 GeV

    Agababyan, K.S.; Adamyan, F.V.; Akopyan, G.G.; Vartapetyan, G.A.; Galumyan, P.I.; Grabskii, V.O.; Karapetyan, V.V.; Karapetyan, G.V.; Kordonskii, M.S.


    We describe the experimental methods and the results of measurements of the asymmetry of the cross section of the eld pn reaction induced by linearly polarized photons over the energy range E/sub el/ = 0.4 to 0.8 GeV and proton angles in the c.m. system theta* = 45 to 95. Experiments were conducted on a two-arm spectrometer installation. The results obtained do not agree either with calculations within the framework of phenomenological models, or with predictions of a partial-wave analysis that includes the contribution of dibaryon resonances.

  2. Lung tumors and radon inhalation in over 2000 rats: Approximate linearity across a wide range of doses and potentiation by tobacco smoke

    Gray, R.G.; Lafuma, J.; Parish, S.E.; Peto, R.; CEA Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses


    More than 2000 rats were exposed to cumulative doses of up to 28,000 WLMs of radon gas. More than 300 pulmonary tumors were induced by this exposure, most being nonfatal lesions detected only at autopsy of animals that had died of unrelated causes. Above 6000 WLMs rats suffered increasingly from life shortening due to radiation-induced nonneoplastic causes and so had less time in which to develop tumors. When adjusted for these competing causes of death, the hazard function for the excess risk of developing pulmonary tumors was approximately linearly related to dose throughout the range of doses studied. This suggests that some previously reported high-dose ''reductions'' in radiogenic tumor-induction rates may chiefly have involved the killing of rats rather than the killing of precursor cells. Rats exposed to radon and then to six months of inhalation of tobacco smoke had a four times greater age-specific prevalence of pulmonary tumors than rats exposed to an identical radon dose either alone or preceded by tobacco smoke inhalation. This suggests that tobacco smoke may accelerate the carcinogenic process by acting as a promoter of radiation-induced somatic damage. These data suggest that, for assessing human risk from exposure to radon, the linear model should be assumed, but that the WLM is not on its own an adequate index of carcinogenic insult. 7 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  3. Rational design of binder-free noble metal/metal oxide arrays with nanocauliflower structure for wide linear range nonenzymatic glucose detection

    Li, Zhenzhen


    One-dimensional nanocomposites of metal-oxide and noble metal were expected to present superior performance for nonenzymatic glucose detection due to its good conductivity and high catalytic activity inherited from noble metal and metal oxide respectively. As a proof of concept, we synthesized gold and copper oxide (Au/CuO) composite with unique one-dimensional nanocauliflowers structure. Due to the nature of the synthesis method, no any foreign binder was needed in keeping either Au or CuO in place. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt in combining metal oxide and noble metal in a binder-free style for fabricating nonenzymatic glucose sensor. The Au/CuO nanocauliflowers with large electrochemical active surface and high electrolyte contact area would promise a wide linear range and high sensitive detection of glucose with good stability and reproducibility due to its good electrical conductivity of Au and high electrocatalytic activity of CuO.

  4. X-ray diffraction measurement of the linear thermal expansion coefficients of WCoB in the range 300 to 973 K

    Petrov, K.; Will, G.


    High-temperature treatment of tungsten carbide-cobalt hard alloys in TiB 2 media leads to the formation of a surface diffusion coating which contains orthorhombic WCoB. The function of this compound in enhancing wear resistance of cutting tools, is discussed. The thermal expansion of WCoB is of primary interest, since the wear resistance of the coating reflects the degree of matching of the thermal expansion coefficients of the different phases. Preparation of the samples is described and experimental details of the X-ray diffraction measurements are given. The temperature dependence of the lattice parameters for the range 300 to 973 K, and the corresponding linear thermal expansion coefficients along the three principal crystallographic directions, are given. The results are discussed in terms of the bonding features of the solid. (U.K.)

  5. The Cu-MOF-199/single-walled carbon nanotubes modified electrode for simultaneous determination of hydroquinone and catechol with extended linear ranges and lower detection limits

    Zhou, Jian; Li, Xi; Yang, Linlin; Yan, Songlin; Wang, Mengmeng; Cheng, Dan; Chen, Qi; Dong, Yulin; Liu, Peng; Cai, Weiquan; Zhang, Chaocan


    A novel electrochemical sensor based on Cu-MOF-199 [Cu-MOF-199 = Cu 3 (BTC) 2 (BTC = 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylicacid)] and SWCNTs (single-walled carbon nanotubes) was fabricated for the simultaneous determination of hydroquinone (HQ) and catechol (CT). The modification procedure was carried out through casting SWCNTs on the bare glassy carbon electrode (GCE) and followed by the electrodeposition of Cu-MOF-199 on the SWCNTs modified electrode. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were performed to characterize the electrochemical performance and surface characteristics of the as-prepared sensor. The composite electrode exhibited an excellent electrocatalytic activity with increased electrochemical signals towards the oxidation of HQ and CT, owing to the synergistic effect of SWCNTs and Cu-MOF-199. Under the optimized condition, the linear response range were from 0.1 to 1453 μmol L −1 (R HQ  = 0.9999) for HQ and 0.1–1150 μmol L −1 (R CT  = 0.9990) for CT. The detection limits for HQ and CT were as low as 0.08 and 0.1 μmol L −1 , respectively. Moreover, the modified electrode presented the good reproducibility and the excellent anti-interference performance. The analytical performance of the developed sensor for the simultaneous detection of HQ and CT had been evaluated in practical samples with satisfying results. - Highlights: • Cu-MOF-199/SWCNTs/GCE was facilely fabricated by the electrodeposition on SWCNTs/GCE. • An electrochemical sensor for detecting HQ and CT was constructed based on this modified electrode. • The proposed electrochemical sensor showed an extended linear range and lower detection limits. • The proposed electrochemical sensor had an excellent stability and reproducibility.

  6. Internal dosimetry for [4-14C]-cholesterol in humans

    Marcato, Larissa A.; Mesquita, Carlos H. de; Cesar, Thais B.; Vinagre, Carmen G.C.


    This study proposes a biokinetic model for use in the assessment of the internal dose received by human subjects administered orally with [4- 14 C]-cholesterol. The proposed model includes three systemic pools representing the short-term (T1/2 = 1 d), intermediate-term (T1/2 = 16 d) and long-term (T1/2 = 78 d) physiological exchanges and two excretion pathways: urine and feces. This model used the ANACOMP software to estimate radiometric doses with MIRD techniques (Medical Internal Radiation Dose). To validate the model, the profile curve of excretion prediction by the model in the range of seven days was compared with those curves described in literature. No statistical difference was detected (P = 0.416). The estimated effective dose coefficient calculated for the reference man described on ICRP publication 23 was 3.39x10 -10 SvBq -1 . The organs that received the highest equivalent dose were the lower large intestine (2.459x10 -9 GyBq -1 ), upper large intestine (9.023x10 -10 GyBq -1 ) and small intestine (3.717x10 -10 GyBq -1 ). (author)

  7. Pixel multiplexing technique for real-time three-dimensional-imaging laser detection and ranging system using four linear-mode avalanche photodiodes

    Xu, Fan; Wang, Yuanqing, E-mail:; Li, Fenfang [School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China)


    The avalanche-photodiode-array (APD-array) laser detection and ranging (LADAR) system has been continually developed owing to its superiority of nonscanning, large field of view, high sensitivity, and high precision. However, how to achieve higher-efficient detection and better integration of the LADAR system for real-time three-dimensional (3D) imaging continues to be a problem. In this study, a novel LADAR system using four linear mode APDs (LmAPDs) is developed for high-efficient detection by adopting a modulation and multiplexing technique. Furthermore, an automatic control system for the array LADAR system is proposed and designed by applying the virtual instrumentation technique. The control system aims to achieve four functions: synchronization of laser emission and rotating platform, multi-channel synchronous data acquisition, real-time Ethernet upper monitoring, and real-time signal processing and 3D visualization. The structure and principle of the complete system are described in the paper. The experimental results demonstrate that the LADAR system is capable of achieving real-time 3D imaging on an omnidirectional rotating platform under the control of the virtual instrumentation system. The automatic imaging LADAR system utilized only 4 LmAPDs to achieve 256-pixel-per-frame detection with by employing 64-bit demodulator. Moreover, the lateral resolution is ∼15 cm and range accuracy is ∼4 cm root-mean-square error at a distance of ∼40 m.

  8. Modelling of plasma-antenna coupling and non-linear radio frequency wave-plasma-wall interactions in the magnetized plasma device under ion cyclotron range of frequencies

    Lu, LingFeng


    Ion Cyclotron Resonant Heating (ICRH) by waves in 30-80 MHz range is currently used in magnetic fusion plasmas. Excited by phased arrays of current straps at the plasma periphery, these waves exist under two polarizations. The Fast Wave tunnels through the tenuous plasma edge and propagates to its center where it is absorbed. The parasitically emitted Slow Wave only exists close to the launchers. How much power can be coupled to the center with 1 A current on the straps? How do the emitted radiofrequency (RF) near and far fields interact parasitically with the edge plasma via RF sheath rectification at plasma-wall interfaces? To address these two issues simultaneously, in realistic geometry over the size of ICRH antennas, this thesis upgraded and tested the Self-consistent Sheaths and Waves for ICH (SSWICH) code. SSWICH couples self-consistently RF wave propagation and Direct Current (DC) plasma biasing via non-linear RF and DC sheath boundary conditions (SBCs) at plasma/wall interfaces. Its upgrade is full wave and was implemented in two dimensions (toroidal/radial). New SBCs coupling the two polarizations were derived and implemented along shaped walls tilted with respect to the confinement magnetic field. Using this new tool in the absence of SBCs, we studied the impact of a density decaying continuously inside the antenna box and across the Lower Hybrid (LH) resonance. Up to the memory limits of our workstation, the RF fields below the LH resonance changed with the grid size. However the coupled power spectrum hardly evolved and was only weakly affected by the density inside the box. In presence of SBCs, SSWICH-FW simulations have identified the role of the fast wave on RF sheath excitation and reproduced some key experimental observations. SSWICH-FW was finally adapted to conduct the first electromagnetic and RF-sheath 2D simulations of the cylindrical magnetized plasma device ALINE. (author) [fr

  9. Nucleotide sequences of the genes encoding fructosebisphosphatase and phosphoribulokinase from Xanthobacter flavus H4-14

    Meijer, Wilhelmus; Enequist, H.G.; Terpstra, Peter; Dijkhuizen, L.

    The genes encoding fructosebisphosphatase and phosphoribulokinase present on a 2.5 kb SalI fragment from Xanthobacter flavus H4-14 were sequenced. Two large open reading frames (ORFs) were identified, preceded by plausible ribosome-binding sites. The ORFs were transcribed in the same direction and

  10. Linear and mass attenuation coefficient for CdTe compound of X-rays from 10 to 100 keV energy range in different phases

    Saim, A., E-mail:; Tebboune, A.; Berkok, H.; Belameiri, N.; Belbachir, A.H.


    The Full Potential Linear Muffin Tin Orbitals method within the density functional theory has been utilized to calculate structural and electronic properties of the CdTe compound. We have checked that the CdTe has two phase-transitions from zinc-blend to cinnabar and from cinnabar to rocksalt. We have found that the rigidity, the energy and the nature of the gap change according to the phase change, so we can predict that a CdTe detector may have different behaviors in different phase conditions. In order to investigate this behavior change, the linear and the mass attenuation coefficients of X-ray in rocksalt, zinc-blend and cinnabar structures are calculated from 10 keV to100 keV, using the XCOM data. We have found that when CdTe undergoes a phase transition from zinc-blend to cinnabar, its linear attenuation coefficient decreases down to a value of about 100 times smaller than its initial one, and when it undergoes a transition from cinnabar to rocksalt it increases up to a value about 90 times larger than its initial one.

  11. Metabolism of progesterone-4-14C in organ cultures of fetal adrenal glands in the human being

    Weber, S.


    1. In 72 hours of incubation in two subsequent cultures, progesterone-4- 14 C was converted into different corticosteroids and androgenes by using explants of the adrenal glands in organ cultures, which were taken from a male fetus with a crown-to-rump length of 8.5 cm. In the most cases the water-dilutable metabolites are steroidsulfates. 2. The following individual progesterone metabolites were found: 17α-hydroxyprogesterone-4- 14 C, 16α-hydroxyprogesterone-4- 14 C, corticosterone-4- 14 C, cortisole-4- 14 C, cortisone-4- 14 C, androstendione-4- 14 C, and 11β-hydroxyandrostendione-4- 14 C. 3. These steroides let appear possible the presence and efficacy of the following enzyme systems: 17α-hydroxylase, 16α-hydroxylase, 21-hydroxylase, 11β-hydroxylase, 11β-hydroxysteroide-dehydrogenase, and Csub(17-20) desmolase. 4. Calculations of our dates by the analogue computer, which are present by now, apparently seem to render possible the kinetic of the corticosteroide biosynthesis in the tissue of fetal adrenal glands by organ cultures, because under the present conditions incubations can be carried out for considerably longer periods than by cell fractions, cell homogenates, and organ sections. (orig.) [de

  12. Linear Colliders

    Alcaraz, J.


    After several years of study e''+ e''- linear colliders in the TeV range have emerged as the major and optimal high-energy physics projects for the post-LHC era. These notes summarize the present status form the main accelerator and detector features to their physics potential. The LHC era. These notes summarize the present status, from the main accelerator and detector features to their physics potential. The LHC is expected to provide first discoveries in the new energy domain, whereas an e''+ e''- linear collider in the 500 GeV-1 TeV will be able to complement it to an unprecedented level of precision in any possible areas: Higgs, signals beyond the SM and electroweak measurements. It is evident that the Linear Collider program will constitute a major step in the understanding of the nature of the new physics beyond the Standard Model. (Author) 22 refs

  13. Multiaxial fatigue criteria for AISI 304 and 2-1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel at 5380C with applications to strain-range partitioning and linear summation of creep and fatigue damage

    Blass, J.J.


    An improved multiaxial fatigue failure criterion was developed based on the results of combined axial-torsional strain cycling tests of AISI 304 and 2-1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel conducted at 538 0 C (1000 0 F). The formulation of this criterion involves the shear and normal components of inelastic strain range on the planes of maximum inelastic shear strain range. Optimum values of certain parameters contained in the formulation were obtained for each material by the method of least squares. The ability of this criterion to correlate the test results was compared with that of the usual (Mises) equivalent inelastic strain range criterion. An improved definition of equivalent inelastic strain range resulting from these considerations was used to generalize the theory of Strain Range Partitioning to multiaxial stress-strain conditions and was also applied to the linear summation of creep and fatigue damage

  14. A linear programming manual

    Tuey, R. C.


    Computer solutions of linear programming problems are outlined. Information covers vector spaces, convex sets, and matrix algebra elements for solving simultaneous linear equations. Dual problems, reduced cost analysis, ranges, and error analysis are illustrated.

  15. [Comparison of film-screen combinations with contrast detail diagram and interactive image analysis. 2: Linear assessment of grey scale ranges with interactive image analysis].

    Stamm, G; Eichbaum, G; Hagemann, G


    The following three screen-film combinations were compared: a) a combination of anticrossover film and UV-light emitting screens, b) a combination of blue-light emitting screens and film, and c) a conventional green fluorescing screen-film combination. Radiographs of a specially designed plexiglass phantom (0.2 x 0.2 x 0.12 m3) with bar patterns of lead and plaster and of air, respectively were obtained using the following parameters: 12 pulse generator, 0.6 mm focus size, 4.7 mm aluminum pre-filter, a grid with 40 lines/cm (12:1) and a focus-detector distance of 1.15 m. Image analysis was performed using an IBAS system and a Zeiss Kontron computer. Display conditions were the following: display distance 0.12 m, a vario film objective 35/70 (Zeiss), a video camera tube with a PbO photocathode, 625 lines (Siemens Heimann), an IBAS image matrix of 512 x 512 pixels with a resolution of 7 lines/mm, the projected matrix area was 5000 microns2. Grey scale ranges were measured on a line perpendicular to the grouped bar patterns. The difference between the maximum and minimum density value served as signal. The spatial resolution of the detector system was measured when the signal value was three times higher than the standard deviation of the means of multiple density measurements. The results showed considerable advantages of the two new screen-film combinations as compared to the conventional screen-film combination. The result was contradictory to the findings with pure visual assessment of thresholds (part I) that had found no differences. The authors concluded that (automatic) interactive image analysis algorithms serve as an objective measure and are specifically advantageous when small differences in image quality are to be evaluated.

  16. In vitro metabolism of testosterone-4-14C by canine salivary glands

    Mosadomi, A.; Ofner, P.


    Testosterone-4- 14 C (2430 pmol, 048 μM) was incubated aerobically in 67 mM phosphate buffer pH 7.4 with homogenates and minces of salivary glands from male dogs. Extracted radiosteroids were resolved by thin-layer chromatography on silica gel, removed and quantitated. Substantially higher NADsup(+)-dependent 17 β-hydroxy-C 19 -steroid oxidoreductase activity was found in submaxillary gland homogenates than in similar parotid-gland preparations. Preliminary evidence is presented that the enzyme activity per unit wet weight of the minced submaxillary gland is decreased in the 2-week male castrate, in the absence of any recognizable histologic changes in the gland. Testosterone metabolism by canine salivary glands is thus oxidative contrasting with the reductive 17 β-hydroxysteroid pathway characteristic of androgen-dependent organs such as the prostate, and is more extensive than in this accessory sex tissue. Our findings suggest that the canine salivary glands are not target organs for circulating male hormone. (author); LATING M

  17. MMSET deregulation affects cell cycle progression and adhesion regulons in t(4;14) myeloma plasma cells

    Brito, Jose L.R.; Walker, Brian; Jenner, Matthew; Dickens, Nicholas J.; Brown, Nicola J.M.; Ross, Fiona M.; Avramidou, Athanasia; Irving, Julie A.E.; Gonzalez, David; Davies, Faith E.; Morgan, Gareth J.


    Background The recurrent immunoglobulin translocation, t(4;14)(p16;q32) occurs in 15% of multiple myeloma patients and is associated with poor prognosis, through an unknown mechanism. The t(4;14) up-regulates fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) and multiple myeloma SET domain (MMSET) genes. The involvement of MMSET in the pathogenesis of t(4;14) multiple myeloma and the mechanism or genes deregulated by MMSET upregulation are still unclear. Design and Methods The expression of MMSET was analyzed using a novel antibody. The involvement of MMSET in t(4;14) myelomagenesis was assessed by small interfering RNA mediated knockdown combined with several biological assays. In addition, the differential gene expression of MMSET-induced knockdown was analyzed with expression microarrays. MMSET gene targets in primary patient material was analyzed by expression microarrays. Results We found that MMSET isoforms are expressed in multiple myeloma cell lines, being exclusively up-regulated in t(4;14)-positive cells. Suppression of MMSET expression affected cell proliferation by both decreasing cell viability and cell cycle progression of cells with the t(4;14) translocation. These findings were associated with reduced expression of genes involved in the regulation of cell cycle progression (e.g. CCND2, CCNG1, BRCA1, AURKA and CHEK1), apoptosis (CASP1, CASP4 and FOXO3A) and cell adhesion (ADAM9 and DSG2). Furthermore, we identified genes involved in the latter processes that were differentially expressed in t(4;14) multiple myeloma patient samples. Conclusions In conclusion, dysregulation of MMSET affects the expression of several genes involved in the regulation of cell cycle progression, cell adhesion and survival. PMID:19059936

  18. Internal dosimetry for [4-14C]-cholesterol in humans

    Marcato, Larissa Andreto


    The main objective of this work is to provide a biokinetic model in order to estimate the radiometric dose due to intake of [4- 14 C]-cholesterol. The model was validated comparing the values of fecal excretion and absorption described in literature with that predicted by the model. The proposed model achieved good concordance between the results (p = 0.416 for excretion and p = 0.423 for absorption). The coefficients of effective dose (SvBq -1 ), equivalent dose (SvBq -1 ) and absorbed dose (GyBq -1 ) in human organs and tissues were calculated using the MIRD methodology and the compartmental analysis software ANACOMP. The coefficients were estimated for four phantoms: adult with a body mass of 73.3 kg, 15 years old adolescent (56.9 kg), 10 years old child (33.2 kg) and five years old child (19.8 kg). The organ that received the highest absorbed dose for all phantoms was the lower large intestine (LLI). The allometry theory was used to interpolate the coefficient of absorbed dose in the lower large intestine (DLLI) for unknown body mass (m): DLLI (GyBq -1 )=161.26 m (kg) -1.025 . For the same administered activity, the effective dose coefficient (E) decreases as the body mass increases. On other words, for the same intake activity, individuals with low body mass are exposed to higher doses. The allometry theory was used to interpolate the coefficient effective dose (E) for unknown body mass (m): E(SvB -1 )= 171.1 m(kg) -1,021 . (author)

  19. Linear algebra

    Shilov, Georgi E


    Covers determinants, linear spaces, systems of linear equations, linear functions of a vector argument, coordinate transformations, the canonical form of the matrix of a linear operator, bilinear and quadratic forms, Euclidean spaces, unitary spaces, quadratic forms in Euclidean and unitary spaces, finite-dimensional space. Problems with hints and answers.

  20. Grammatical morphology is not a sensitive marker of language impairment in Icelandic in children aged 4-14 years.

    Thordardottir, Elin


    Grammatical morphology continues to be widely regarded as an area of extraordinary difficulty in children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). A main argument for this view is the purported high diagnostic accuracy of morphological errors for the identification of SLI. However, findings are inconsistent across age groups and across languages. Studies show morphological difficulty to be far less pronounced in more highly inflected languages and the diagnostic accuracy of morphology in such languages is largely unknown. This study examines the morphological use of Icelandic children with and without SLI in a cross-sectional sample of children ranging from preschool age to adolescence and assesses the usefulness of morphology as a clinical marker to identify SLI. Participants were 57 monolingual Icelandic-speaking children age 4-14 years; 31 with SLI and 26 with typical language development (TD). Spontaneous language samples were coded for correct and incorrect use of grammatical morphology. The diversity of use of grammatical morphemes was documented for each group at different age and MLU levels. Individual accuracy scores were plotted against age as well as MLU and diagnostic accuracy was calculated. MLU and morphological accuracy increased with age for both children with SLI and TD, with the two groups gradually approaching each other. Morphological diversity and sequence of acquisition was similar across TD and SLI groups compared based on age or MLU. Morphological accuracy was overall high, but was somewhat lower in the SLI group, in particular at ages below 12 years and MLU levels below 6.0. However, overlap between the groups was important in all age groups, involving a greater tendency for errors in both groups at young ages and scores close to or at ceiling at older ages. Sensitivity rates as well as likelihood ratios for each morpheme were all below the range considered acceptable for clinical application, whereas better specificity rates in some age

  1. Urinary excretion of androgen metabolites, comparison with excretion of radioactive metabolites after injection of [4-14C]testosterone

    Deslypere, J.P.; Sayed, A.; Vermeulen, A.; Wiers, P.W.


    The influence of age on the metabolic pattern of [4- 14 C]testosterone was studied in 20 young and 8 elderly males and compared to the metabolic pattern of endogenous androgens; the latter was also studied in 16 young and 8 elderly women. In both young and elderly males, androsterone and aetiocholanolone glucuronide represent 65% of [4- 14 C]testosterone metabolites: together with their suephoconjugates as well as with 5α- and 5β-androstane-3α, 17β-diol they represent even more than 75% of total urinary metabolites. The 5α/5β ratio of metabolites of [4- 14 C]testosterone was significantly (P 14 C]testosterone metabolites was generally higher than the ratio of metabolites of endogenous androgens, suggesting that the transformation of T to ring A saturated metabolites occurs at least partially in another compartment than the transformation of DHEA to these metabolites. For both [4- 14 C]testosterone and endogenous androgen metabolites we observed a statistically significant reduction of the 5α/5β ratio with age, a general phenomenon in both males and females. This reduction concern also 11-OH-androst-4-ene-3.17-dione metabolism. Neither sex hormone levels, nor specific binding seems to determine this age dependent shift; neither is there convincing evidence for latent hypothyroisism or liver dysfunction in the elderly. An age associated primary decrease of the 5α-reductase activity seems the most likely explanation. (author)

  2. 10 ps resolution, 160 ns full scale range and less than 1.5% differential non-linearity time-to-digital converter module for high performance timing measurements

    Markovic, B.; Tamborini, D.; Villa, F.; Tisa, S.; Tosi, A.; Zappa, F. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Elettronica e Informazione, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)


    We present a compact high performance time-to-digital converter (TDC) module that provides 10 ps timing resolution, 160 ns dynamic range and a differential non-linearity better than 1.5% LSB{sub rms}. The TDC can be operated either as a general-purpose time-interval measurement device, when receiving external START and STOP pulses, or in photon-timing mode, when employing the on-chip SPAD (single photon avalanche diode) detector for detecting photons and time-tagging them. The instrument precision is 15 ps{sub rms} (i.e., 36 ps{sub FWHM}) and in photon timing mode it is still better than 70 ps{sub FWHM}. The USB link to the remote PC allows the easy setting of measurement parameters, the fast download of acquired data, and their visualization and storing via an user-friendly software interface. The module proves to be the best candidate for a wide variety of applications such as: fluorescence lifetime imaging, time-of-flight ranging measurements, time-resolved positron emission tomography, single-molecule spectroscopy, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, diffuse optical tomography, optical time-domain reflectometry, quantum optics, etc.

  3. Linear gate



    A linear gate providing a variable gate duration from 0,40μsec to 4μsec was developed. The electronic circuity consists of a linear circuit and an enable circuit. The input signal can be either unipolar or bipolar. If the input signal is bipolar, the negative portion will be filtered. The operation of the linear gate is controlled by the application of a positive enable pulse. (author)

  4. Linear Accelerators

    Vretenar, M


    The main features of radio-frequency linear accelerators are introduced, reviewing the different types of accelerating structures and presenting the main characteristics aspects of linac beam dynamics

  5. Linearization Method and Linear Complexity

    Tanaka, Hidema

    We focus on the relationship between the linearization method and linear complexity and show that the linearization method is another effective technique for calculating linear complexity. We analyze its effectiveness by comparing with the logic circuit method. We compare the relevant conditions and necessary computational cost with those of the Berlekamp-Massey algorithm and the Games-Chan algorithm. The significant property of a linearization method is that it needs no output sequence from a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) because it calculates linear complexity using the algebraic expression of its algorithm. When a PRNG has n [bit] stages (registers or internal states), the necessary computational cost is smaller than O(2n). On the other hand, the Berlekamp-Massey algorithm needs O(N2) where N(≅2n) denotes period. Since existing methods calculate using the output sequence, an initial value of PRNG influences a resultant value of linear complexity. Therefore, a linear complexity is generally given as an estimate value. On the other hand, a linearization method calculates from an algorithm of PRNG, it can determine the lower bound of linear complexity.

  6. Analytic Morse/long-range potential energy surfaces and "adiabatic-hindered-rotor" treatment for a symmetric top-linear molecule dimer: A case study of CH3F-H2

    Zhang, Xiao-Long; Ma, Yong-Tao; Zhai, Yu; Li, Hui


    A first effective six-dimensional ab initio potential energy surface (PES) for CH3F-H2 which explicitly includes the intramolecular Q3 stretching normal mode of the CH3F monomer is presented. The electronic structure computations have been carried out at the explicitly correlated coupled cluster level of theory [CCSD(T)-F12a] with an augmented correlation-consistent triple zeta basis set. Five-dimensional analytical intermolecular PESs for ν3(CH3F) = 0 and 1 are then obtained by fitting the vibrationally averaged potentials to the Morse/Long-Range (MLR) potential function form. The MLR function form is applied to the nonlinear molecule-linear molecule case for the first time. These fits to 25 015 points have root-mean-square deviations of 0.74 cm-1 and 0.082 cm-1 for interaction energies less than 0.0 cm-1. Using the adiabatic hindered-rotor approximation, three-dimensional PESs for CH3F-paraH2 are generated from the 5D PESs over all possible orientations of the hydrogen monomer. The infrared and microwave spectra for CH3F-paraH2 dimer are predicted for the first time. These analytic PESs can be used for modeling the dynamical behavior in CH3F-(H2)N clusters, including the possible appearance of microscopic superfluidity.

  7. Linear algebra

    Said-Houari, Belkacem


    This self-contained, clearly written textbook on linear algebra is easily accessible for students. It begins with the simple linear equation and generalizes several notions from this equation for the system of linear equations and introduces the main ideas using matrices. It then offers a detailed chapter on determinants and introduces the main ideas with detailed proofs. The third chapter introduces the Euclidean spaces using very simple geometric ideas and discusses various major inequalities and identities. These ideas offer a solid basis for understanding general Hilbert spaces in functional analysis. The following two chapters address general vector spaces, including some rigorous proofs to all the main results, and linear transformation: areas that are ignored or are poorly explained in many textbooks. Chapter 6 introduces the idea of matrices using linear transformation, which is easier to understand than the usual theory of matrices approach. The final two chapters are more advanced, introducing t...

  8. Linear algebra

    Stoll, R R


    Linear Algebra is intended to be used as a text for a one-semester course in linear algebra at the undergraduate level. The treatment of the subject will be both useful to students of mathematics and those interested primarily in applications of the theory. The major prerequisite for mastering the material is the readiness of the student to reason abstractly. Specifically, this calls for an understanding of the fact that axioms are assumptions and that theorems are logical consequences of one or more axioms. Familiarity with calculus and linear differential equations is required for understand

  9. Effect of exercise on turnover and fate of 4-14C$-cholesterol administered intraperitoneally and orally to rats

    Fukuda, Nobuhiro; Tsuge, Yasuyuki; Sugano, Michihiro


    The fate of [4- 14 C]-cholesterol administered intraperitoneally or orally was compared in exercised (treadmill running for 14 days) and sedentary rats. Plasma triglyceride, phospholipid and cholesterol decreased in exercised rats and this reduction lasted at least for 10 days after exercise was terminated. When rats received [4- 14 C]-cholesterol intraperitoneally or orally, the turnover rate of serum cholesterol was considerably higher in exercised rats at the time shortly after the administration of the label. The radioactivity remaining in the liver was consistently lower in exercised rats, whereas that in extrahepatic tissues was the same between two groups. Excretion into feces of the label as total steroids was moderately enhanced by exercise. This effect was almost entirely ascribed to the increase in output of the label shortly after the administration. These results suggest that the mechanism responsible for cholesterol lowering effect of exercise is mainly attributable to the increase in turnover of cholesterol in the hepato-plasmic system. The moderate increase in fecal output of endogenous steroids may be the reflection of the increased turnover. (author)

  10. Linear programming

    Solow, Daniel


    This text covers the basic theory and computation for a first course in linear programming, including substantial material on mathematical proof techniques and sophisticated computation methods. Includes Appendix on using Excel. 1984 edition.

  11. Linear algebra

    Liesen, Jörg


    This self-contained textbook takes a matrix-oriented approach to linear algebra and presents a complete theory, including all details and proofs, culminating in the Jordan canonical form and its proof. Throughout the development, the applicability of the results is highlighted. Additionally, the book presents special topics from applied linear algebra including matrix functions, the singular value decomposition, the Kronecker product and linear matrix equations. The matrix-oriented approach to linear algebra leads to a better intuition and a deeper understanding of the abstract concepts, and therefore simplifies their use in real world applications. Some of these applications are presented in detailed examples. In several ‘MATLAB-Minutes’ students can comprehend the concepts and results using computational experiments. Necessary basics for the use of MATLAB are presented in a short introduction. Students can also actively work with the material and practice their mathematical skills in more than 300 exerc...

  12. Linear algebra

    Berberian, Sterling K


    Introductory treatment covers basic theory of vector spaces and linear maps - dimension, determinants, eigenvalues, and eigenvectors - plus more advanced topics such as the study of canonical forms for matrices. 1992 edition.

  13. Linear Models

    Searle, Shayle R


    This 1971 classic on linear models is once again available--as a Wiley Classics Library Edition. It features material that can be understood by any statistician who understands matrix algebra and basic statistical methods.


    Christofilos, N.C.; Polk, I.J.


    Improvements in linear particle accelerators are described. A drift tube system for a linear ion accelerator reduces gap capacity between adjacent drift tube ends. This is accomplished by reducing the ratio of the diameter of the drift tube to the diameter of the resonant cavity. Concentration of magnetic field intensity at the longitudinal midpoint of the external sunface of each drift tube is reduced by increasing the external drift tube diameter at the longitudinal center region.

  15. Linear regression

    Olive, David J


    This text covers both multiple linear regression and some experimental design models. The text uses the response plot to visualize the model and to detect outliers, does not assume that the error distribution has a known parametric distribution, develops prediction intervals that work when the error distribution is unknown, suggests bootstrap hypothesis tests that may be useful for inference after variable selection, and develops prediction regions and large sample theory for the multivariate linear regression model that has m response variables. A relationship between multivariate prediction regions and confidence regions provides a simple way to bootstrap confidence regions. These confidence regions often provide a practical method for testing hypotheses. There is also a chapter on generalized linear models and generalized additive models. There are many R functions to produce response and residual plots, to simulate prediction intervals and hypothesis tests, to detect outliers, and to choose response trans...

  16. Linear algebra

    Edwards, Harold M


    In his new undergraduate textbook, Harold M Edwards proposes a radically new and thoroughly algorithmic approach to linear algebra Originally inspired by the constructive philosophy of mathematics championed in the 19th century by Leopold Kronecker, the approach is well suited to students in the computer-dominated late 20th century Each proof is an algorithm described in English that can be translated into the computer language the class is using and put to work solving problems and generating new examples, making the study of linear algebra a truly interactive experience Designed for a one-semester course, this text adopts an algorithmic approach to linear algebra giving the student many examples to work through and copious exercises to test their skills and extend their knowledge of the subject Students at all levels will find much interactive instruction in this text while teachers will find stimulating examples and methods of approach to the subject

  17. Linearity in Process Languages

    Nygaard, Mikkel; Winskel, Glynn


    The meaning and mathematical consequences of linearity (managing without a presumed ability to copy) are studied for a path-based model of processes which is also a model of affine-linear logic. This connection yields an affine-linear language for processes, automatically respecting open......-map bisimulation, in which a range of process operations can be expressed. An operational semantics is provided for the tensor fragment of the language. Different ways to make assemblies of processes lead to different choices of exponential, some of which respect bisimulation....

  18. Linear programming

    Karloff, Howard


    To this reviewer’s knowledge, this is the first book accessible to the upper division undergraduate or beginning graduate student that surveys linear programming from the Simplex Method…via the Ellipsoid algorithm to Karmarkar’s algorithm. Moreover, its point of view is algorithmic and thus it provides both a history and a case history of work in complexity theory. The presentation is admirable; Karloff's style is informal (even humorous at times) without sacrificing anything necessary for understanding. Diagrams (including horizontal brackets that group terms) aid in providing clarity. The end-of-chapter notes are helpful...Recommended highly for acquisition, since it is not only a textbook, but can also be used for independent reading and study. —Choice Reviews The reader will be well served by reading the monograph from cover to cover. The author succeeds in providing a concise, readable, understandable introduction to modern linear programming. —Mathematics of Computing This is a textbook intend...

  19. Performance of MIDAS Over East African Longitude Sector: Case Study During 4-14 March 2012 Quiet to Disturbed Geomagnetic Conditions

    Giday, Nigussie M.; Katamzi-Joseph, Zama T.


    This study investigates the performance of a tomographic algorithm, Multi-Instrument and Data Analysis System (MIDAS), during an extended period of 4-14 March 2012, containing moderate and strong geomagnetic storms conditions, over an understudied and data scarce Eastern African longitude sector. Nonetheless, a relatively better distribution of Global Navigation Satellite Systems stations exists along a narrow longitude sector between 30°E and 44°E and latitude range of 30°S and 36°N that spans the equatorial, middle-, and low-latitude ionosphere. Then results are compared with independent global models such as International Reference Ionosphere 2012 (IRI-2012) and global ionosphere map (GIM). MIDAS performance was better than that of the IRI-2012 and GIM models in terms of capturing the diurnal trends as well as the short temporal total electron content (TEC) structures, with least root-mean-square errors (RMSEs). Overall, MIDAS results showed better agreement with the observation vertical TEC (VTEC) with computed maximum correlation coefficient (r) of 0.99 and minimum root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 2.91 TEC unit (1 TECU = 1,016 el m-2 over all the test stations and the validation days. Conversely, for the IRI-2012 and GIM TEC estimates, the corresponding maximum computed r values were 0.93 and 0.99, respectively, while the minimum RMSEs were 13.03 TECU and 6.52 TECU, respectively, for all the test stations and the validation days.

  20. Reduction of Linear Programming to Linear Approximation

    Vaserstein, Leonid N.


    It is well known that every Chebyshev linear approximation problem can be reduced to a linear program. In this paper we show that conversely every linear program can be reduced to a Chebyshev linear approximation problem.

  1. linear-quadratic-linear model

    Tanwiwat Jaikuna


    Full Text Available Purpose: To develop an in-house software program that is able to calculate and generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram by physical dose conversion using the linear-quadratic-linear (LQL model. Material and methods : The Isobio software was developed using MATLAB version 2014b to calculate and generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histograms. The physical dose from each voxel in treatment planning was extracted through Computational Environment for Radiotherapy Research (CERR, and the accuracy was verified by the differentiation between the dose volume histogram from CERR and the treatment planning system. An equivalent dose in 2 Gy fraction (EQD2 was calculated using biological effective dose (BED based on the LQL model. The software calculation and the manual calculation were compared for EQD2 verification with pair t-test statistical analysis using IBM SPSS Statistics version 22 (64-bit. Results: Two and three-dimensional biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram were displayed correctly by the Isobio software. Different physical doses were found between CERR and treatment planning system (TPS in Oncentra, with 3.33% in high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV determined by D90%, 0.56% in the bladder, 1.74% in the rectum when determined by D2cc, and less than 1% in Pinnacle. The difference in the EQD2 between the software calculation and the manual calculation was not significantly different with 0.00% at p-values 0.820, 0.095, and 0.593 for external beam radiation therapy (EBRT and 0.240, 0.320, and 0.849 for brachytherapy (BT in HR-CTV, bladder, and rectum, respectively. Conclusions : The Isobio software is a feasible tool to generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram for treatment plan evaluation in both EBRT and BT.

  2. Underwater Ranging

    S. P. Gaba


    The paper deals with underwater laser ranging system, its principle of operation and maximum depth capability. The sources of external noise and methods to improve signal-to-noise ratio are also discussed.

  3. Phase 2 study of dovitinib in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma with or without t(4;14) translocation

    C. Scheid (Christof); D. Reece (Donna); M. Beksaç (Meral); A. Spencer (Andrew); N. Callander (Natalie); P. Sonneveld (Pieter); G. Kalimi (Ghulam); C. Cai (Can); M. Shi (Michael); J.W. Scott (Jeffrey W.); A.K. Stewart (Keith)


    textabstractObjectives: Approximately 15% of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) exhibit a t(4;14) translocation, which often results in constitutive activation of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3). This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of

  4. The art of linear electronics

    Hood, John Linsley


    The Art of Linear Electronics presents the principal aspects of linear electronics and techniques in linear electronic circuit design. The book provides a wide range of information on the elucidation of the methods and techniques in the design of linear electronic circuits. The text discusses such topics as electronic component symbols and circuit drawing; passive and active semiconductor components; DC and low frequency amplifiers; and the basic effects of feedback. Subjects on frequency response modifying circuits and filters; audio amplifiers; low frequency oscillators and waveform generato

  5. Exhibition of the winning pictures from CERN Photowalk 2015 | 4 - 14 April | “Pas Perdus” area


    Twenty photos entered into the “CERN Photowalk 2015: Behind the scenes at the Laboratory” competition will be on display in the “Pas Perdus” area (Buildings 500 and 61) from 4 to 14 April.    The ISOLDE installation as seen by Andrew Hara, one of the photographers who took part in the CERN Photowalk 2015 competition. In September 2015, 19 photographers from all over the world visited CERN, cameras at the ready, to find out what goes on behind the scenes at the Laboratory. They had the opportunity to take photographs of daily life on the CERN site and of facilities including the Linac 4 linear accelerator, the main workshop and ISOLDE. A jury selected the best photos taken at CERN and the top three were entered into the world's biggest physics photography competition, the Global Physics Photowalk, in which eight laboratories participated. The winners of the Global Physics Photowalk can be seen here.

  6. Miniature linear cooler development

    Pruitt, G.R.


    An overview is presented of the status of a family of miniature linear coolers currently under development by Hughes Aircraft Co. for use in hand held, volume limited or power limited infrared applications. These coolers, representing the latest additions to the Hughes family of TOP trademark [twin-opposed piston] linear coolers, have been fabricated and tested in three different configurations. Each configuration is designed to utilize a common compressor assembly resulting in reduced manufacturing costs. The baseline compressor has been integrated with two different expander configurations and has been operated with two different levels of input power. These various configuration combinations offer a wide range of performance and interface characteristics which may be tailored to applications requiring limited power and size without significantly compromising cooler capacity or cooldown characteristics. Key cooler characteristics and test data are summarized for three combinations of cooler configurations which are representative of the versatility of this linear cooler design. Configurations reviewed include the shortened coldfinger [1.50 to 1.75 inches long], limited input power [less than 17 Watts] for low power availability applications; the shortened coldfinger with higher input power for lightweight, higher performance applications; and coldfingers compatible with DoD 0.4 Watt Common Module coolers for wider range retrofit capability. Typical weight of these miniature linear coolers is less than 500 grams for the compressor, expander and interconnecting transfer line. Cooling capacity at 80K at room ambient conditions ranges from 400 mW to greater than 550 mW. Steady state power requirements for maintaining a heat load of 150 mW at 80K has been shown to be less than 8 Watts. Ongoing reliability growth testing is summarized including a review of the latest test article results

  7. Linear Algebra and Smarandache Linear Algebra

    Vasantha, Kandasamy


    The present book, on Smarandache linear algebra, not only studies the Smarandache analogues of linear algebra and its applications, it also aims to bridge the need for new research topics pertaining to linear algebra, purely in the algebraic sense. We have introduced Smarandache semilinear algebra, Smarandache bilinear algebra and Smarandache anti-linear algebra and their fuzzy equivalents. Moreover, in this book, we have brought out the study of linear algebra and vector spaces over finite p...

  8. Comparison of screen-film combinations: results of a contrast detail study and interactive image quality analysis. Pt. 2. Linear assessment of grey scale ranges with interactive (automatic) image analysis

    Stamm, G.; Eichbaum, G.; Hagemann, G.


    The following three screen-film combinations were compared: (a) A combination of anticross-over film and UV-light emitting screens, (b) a combination of blue-light emitting screens and film, and (c) a conventional green fluorescing screen-film combination. Radiographs of a specially designed plexiglass phantom (0.2x0.2x0.12 m 3 ) with bar patterns of lead and plaster and of air, respectively were obtained using the following parameters: 12 pulse generator, 0.6 mm focus size, 4.7 mm aluminium prefilter, a grid with 40 lines/cm (12:1) and a focus-detector distance of 1.15 m. Image analysis was performed using an IBAS system and a Zeiss Kontron computer. Display conditions were the following: Display distance 0.12 m, a vario film objective 35/70 (Zeiss), a video camera tube with a Pb0 photocathode, 625 lines (Siemens Heimann), an IBAS image matrix of 512x512 pixels with a resolution of 7 lines/mm, the projected matrix area was 5000 μm 2 . Grey scale ranges were measured on a line perpendicular to the grouped bar patterns. The difference between the maximum and minimum density value served as signal. The spatial resolution of the detector system was measured when the signal value was three times higher than the standard deviation of the means of multiple density measurements. The results showed considerable advantages of the two new screen-film combinations as compared to the conventional screen-film combination. The result was contradictory to the findings with pure visual assessment of thresholds (part I) that had found no differences. The authors concluded that (automatic) interactive image analysis algorithms serve as an objective measure and are specifically advantageous when small differences in image quality are to be evaluated. (orig.) [de

  9. Extended linear chain compounds

    Linear chain substances span a large cross section of contemporary chemistry ranging from covalent polymers, to organic charge transfer com­ plexes to nonstoichiometric transition metal coordination complexes. Their commonality, which coalesced intense interest in the theoretical and exper­ imental solid state physics/chemistry communities, was based on the obser­ vation that these inorganic and organic polymeric substrates exhibit striking metal-like electrical and optical properties. Exploitation and extension of these systems has led to the systematic study of both the chemistry and physics of highly and poorly conducting linear chain substances. To gain a salient understanding of these complex materials rich in anomalous aniso­ tropic electrical, optical, magnetic, and mechanical properties, the conver­ gence of diverse skills and talents was required. The constructive blending of traditionally segregated disciplines such as synthetic and physical organic, inorganic, and polymer chemistry, crystallog...

  10. Conversion of pregnenolone 16-3H and progesterone-4-14C to radioactive testosterone by the 18-day embryonic mouse testis

    Pointis, Georges; Lombard, M.-N.; Guichard, Arlette; Cedard, Lise


    Fetal mice testes convert pregnenolone-16- 3 H and progesterone-4- 14 C to testosterone in organ culture. The 3 H/ 14 C ratio in progesterone and testosterone fractions isolated from culture media suggests the importance of the Δ 5- 3β hydroxysteroid pathway in the experimental conditions. LH decreases radioactive testosterone production and increases the activity of the Δ 4 -3-ketosteroid pathway [fr

  11. Functionalized linear and cyclic polyolefins

    Tuba, Robert; Grubbs, Robert H.


    This invention relates to methods and compositions for preparing linear and cyclic polyolefins. More particularly, the invention relates to methods and compositions for preparing functionalized linear and cyclic polyolefins via olefin metathesis reactions. Polymer products produced via the olefin metathesis reactions of the invention may be utilized for a wide range of materials applications. The invention has utility in the fields of polymer and materials chemistry and manufacture.

  12. Non-linear osmosis

    Diamond, Jared M.


    1. The relation between osmotic gradient and rate of osmotic water flow has been measured in rabbit gall-bladder by a gravimetric procedure and by a rapid method based on streaming potentials. Streaming potentials were directly proportional to gravimetrically measured water fluxes. 2. As in many other tissues, water flow was found to vary with gradient in a markedly non-linear fashion. There was no consistent relation between the water permeability and either the direction or the rate of water flow. 3. Water flow in response to a given gradient decreased at higher osmolarities. The resistance to water flow increased linearly with osmolarity over the range 186-825 m-osM. 4. The resistance to water flow was the same when the gall-bladder separated any two bathing solutions with the same average osmolarity, regardless of the magnitude of the gradient. In other words, the rate of water flow is given by the expression (Om — Os)/[Ro′ + ½k′ (Om + Os)], where Ro′ and k′ are constants and Om and Os are the bathing solution osmolarities. 5. Of the theories advanced to explain non-linear osmosis in other tissues, flow-induced membrane deformations, unstirred layers, asymmetrical series-membrane effects, and non-osmotic effects of solutes could not explain the results. However, experimental measurements of water permeability as a function of osmolarity permitted quantitative reconstruction of the observed water flow—osmotic gradient curves. Hence non-linear osmosis in rabbit gall-bladder is due to a decrease in water permeability with increasing osmolarity. 6. The results suggest that aqueous channels in the cell membrane behave as osmometers, shrinking in concentrated solutions of impermeant molecules and thereby increasing membrane resistance to water flow. A mathematical formulation of such a membrane structure is offered. PMID:5945254

  13. Linearly constrained minimax optimization

    Madsen, Kaj; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans


    We present an algorithm for nonlinear minimax optimization subject to linear equality and inequality constraints which requires first order partial derivatives. The algorithm is based on successive linear approximations to the functions defining the problem. The resulting linear subproblems...

  14. Linear feedback controls the essentials

    Haidekker, Mark A


    The design of control systems is at the very core of engineering. Feedback controls are ubiquitous, ranging from simple room thermostats to airplane engine control. Helping to make sense of this wide-ranging field, this book provides a new approach by keeping a tight focus on the essentials with a limited, yet consistent set of examples. Analysis and design methods are explained in terms of theory and practice. The book covers classical, linear feedback controls, and linear approximations are used when needed. In parallel, the book covers time-discrete (digital) control systems and juxtapos

  15. Foundations of linear and generalized linear models

    Agresti, Alan


    A valuable overview of the most important ideas and results in statistical analysis Written by a highly-experienced author, Foundations of Linear and Generalized Linear Models is a clear and comprehensive guide to the key concepts and results of linear statistical models. The book presents a broad, in-depth overview of the most commonly used statistical models by discussing the theory underlying the models, R software applications, and examples with crafted models to elucidate key ideas and promote practical model building. The book begins by illustrating the fundamentals of linear models,

  16. Towards the International Linear Collider

    Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo


    The broad physics potential of e+e- linear colliders was recognized by the high energy physics community right after the end of LEP in 2000. In 2007, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) now under construction at CERN will obtain its first collisions. The LHC, colliding protons with protons at 14 TeV, will discover a standard model Higgs boson over the full potential mass range, and should be sensitive to new physics into the several TeV range. The program for the Linear Collider (LC) will be set in the context of the discoveries made at the LHC. All the proposals for a Linear Collider will extend the discoveries and provide a wealth of measurements that are essential for giving deeper understanding of their meaning, and pointing the way to further evolution of particle physics in the future. For the mexican groups is the right time to join such an effort

  17. Linear shaped charge

    Peterson, David; Stofleth, Jerome H.; Saul, Venner W.


    Linear shaped charges are described herein. In a general embodiment, the linear shaped charge has an explosive with an elongated arrowhead-shaped profile. The linear shaped charge also has and an elongated v-shaped liner that is inset into a recess of the explosive. Another linear shaped charge includes an explosive that is shaped as a star-shaped prism. Liners are inset into crevices of the explosive, where the explosive acts as a tamper.

  18. Classifying Linear Canonical Relations

    Lorand, Jonathan


    In this Master's thesis, we consider the problem of classifying, up to conjugation by linear symplectomorphisms, linear canonical relations (lagrangian correspondences) from a finite-dimensional symplectic vector space to itself. We give an elementary introduction to the theory of linear canonical relations and present partial results toward the classification problem. This exposition should be accessible to undergraduate students with a basic familiarity with linear algebra.

  19. Linear-Algebra Programs

    Lawson, C. L.; Krogh, F. T.; Gold, S. S.; Kincaid, D. R.; Sullivan, J.; Williams, E.; Hanson, R. J.; Haskell, K.; Dongarra, J.; Moler, C. B.


    The Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS) library is a collection of 38 FORTRAN-callable routines for performing basic operations of numerical linear algebra. BLAS library is portable and efficient source of basic operations for designers of programs involving linear algebriac computations. BLAS library is supplied in portable FORTRAN and Assembler code versions for IBM 370, UNIVAC 1100 and CDC 6000 series computers.

  20. Topics in quaternion linear algebra

    Rodman, Leiba


    Quaternions are a number system that has become increasingly useful for representing the rotations of objects in three-dimensional space and has important applications in theoretical and applied mathematics, physics, computer science, and engineering. This is the first book to provide a systematic, accessible, and self-contained exposition of quaternion linear algebra. It features previously unpublished research results with complete proofs and many open problems at various levels, as well as more than 200 exercises to facilitate use by students and instructors. Applications presented in the book include numerical ranges, invariant semidefinite subspaces, differential equations with symmetries, and matrix equations. Designed for researchers and students across a variety of disciplines, the book can be read by anyone with a background in linear algebra, rudimentary complex analysis, and some multivariable calculus. Instructors will find it useful as a complementary text for undergraduate linear algebra courses...

  1. Non linear system become linear system

    Petre Bucur


    Full Text Available The present paper refers to the theory and the practice of the systems regarding non-linear systems and their applications. We aimed the integration of these systems to elaborate their response as well as to highlight some outstanding features.

  2. Linear motor coil assembly and linear motor


    An ironless linear motor (5) comprising a magnet track (53) and a coil assembly (50) operating in cooperation with said magnet track (53) and having a plurality of concentrated multi-turn coils (31 a-f, 41 a-d, 51 a-k), wherein the end windings (31E) of the coils (31 a-f, 41 a-e) are substantially

  3. Modelling Loudspeaker Non-Linearities

    Agerkvist, Finn T.


    This paper investigates different techniques for modelling the non-linear parameters of the electrodynamic loudspeaker. The methods are tested not only for their accuracy within the range of original data, but also for the ability to work reasonable outside that range, and it is demonstrated...... that polynomial expansions are rather poor at this, whereas an inverse polynomial expansion or localized fitting functions such as the gaussian are better suited for modelling the Bl-factor and compliance. For the inductance the sigmoid function is shown to give very good results. Finally the time varying...

  4. Linear collider: a preview

    Wiedemann, H.


    Since no linear colliders have been built yet it is difficult to know at what energy the linear cost scaling of linear colliders drops below the quadratic scaling of storage rings. There is, however, no doubt that a linear collider facility for a center of mass energy above say 500 GeV is significantly cheaper than an equivalent storage ring. In order to make the linear collider principle feasible at very high energies a number of problems have to be solved. There are two kinds of problems: one which is related to the feasibility of the principle and the other kind of problems is associated with minimizing the cost of constructing and operating such a facility. This lecture series describes the problems and possible solutions. Since the real test of a principle requires the construction of a prototype I will in the last chapter describe the SLC project at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center.

  5. Basic linear algebra

    Blyth, T S


    Basic Linear Algebra is a text for first year students leading from concrete examples to abstract theorems, via tutorial-type exercises. More exercises (of the kind a student may expect in examination papers) are grouped at the end of each section. The book covers the most important basics of any first course on linear algebra, explaining the algebra of matrices with applications to analytic geometry, systems of linear equations, difference equations and complex numbers. Linear equations are treated via Hermite normal forms which provides a successful and concrete explanation of the notion of linear independence. Another important highlight is the connection between linear mappings and matrices leading to the change of basis theorem which opens the door to the notion of similarity. This new and revised edition features additional exercises and coverage of Cramer's rule (omitted from the first edition). However, it is the new, extra chapter on computer assistance that will be of particular interest to readers:...

  6. Linear collider: a preview

    Wiedemann, H.


    Since no linear colliders have been built yet it is difficult to know at what energy the linear cost scaling of linear colliders drops below the quadratic scaling of storage rings. There is, however, no doubt that a linear collider facility for a center of mass energy above say 500 GeV is significantly cheaper than an equivalent storage ring. In order to make the linear collider principle feasible at very high energies a number of problems have to be solved. There are two kinds of problems: one which is related to the feasibility of the principle and the other kind of problems is associated with minimizing the cost of constructing and operating such a facility. This lecture series describes the problems and possible solutions. Since the real test of a principle requires the construction of a prototype I will in the last chapter describe the SLC project at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center

  7. Matrices and linear transformations

    Cullen, Charles G


    ""Comprehensive . . . an excellent introduction to the subject."" - Electronic Engineer's Design Magazine.This introductory textbook, aimed at sophomore- and junior-level undergraduates in mathematics, engineering, and the physical sciences, offers a smooth, in-depth treatment of linear algebra and matrix theory. The major objects of study are matrices over an arbitrary field. Contents include Matrices and Linear Systems; Vector Spaces; Determinants; Linear Transformations; Similarity: Part I and Part II; Polynomials and Polynomial Matrices; Matrix Analysis; and Numerical Methods. The first

  8. Efficient Non Linear Loudspeakers

    Petersen, Bo R.; Agerkvist, Finn T.


    Loudspeakers have traditionally been designed to be as linear as possible. However, as techniques for compensating non linearities are emerging, it becomes possible to use other design criteria. This paper present and examines a new idea for improving the efficiency of loudspeakers at high levels...... by changing the voice coil layout. This deliberate non-linear design has the benefit that a smaller amplifier can be used, which has the benefit of reducing system cost as well as reducing power consumption....

  9. Linear models with R

    Faraway, Julian J


    A Hands-On Way to Learning Data AnalysisPart of the core of statistics, linear models are used to make predictions and explain the relationship between the response and the predictors. Understanding linear models is crucial to a broader competence in the practice of statistics. Linear Models with R, Second Edition explains how to use linear models in physical science, engineering, social science, and business applications. The book incorporates several improvements that reflect how the world of R has greatly expanded since the publication of the first edition.New to the Second EditionReorganiz

  10. Linear integrated circuits

    Carr, Joseph


    The linear IC market is large and growing, as is the demand for well trained technicians and engineers who understand how these devices work and how to apply them. Linear Integrated Circuits provides in-depth coverage of the devices and their operation, but not at the expense of practical applications in which linear devices figure prominently. This book is written for a wide readership from FE and first degree students, to hobbyists and professionals.Chapter 1 offers a general introduction that will provide students with the foundations of linear IC technology. From chapter 2 onwa

  11. Fault tolerant linear actuator

    Tesar, Delbert


    In varying embodiments, the fault tolerant linear actuator of the present invention is a new and improved linear actuator with fault tolerance and positional control that may incorporate velocity summing, force summing, or a combination of the two. In one embodiment, the invention offers a velocity summing arrangement with a differential gear between two prime movers driving a cage, which then drives a linear spindle screw transmission. Other embodiments feature two prime movers driving separate linear spindle screw transmissions, one internal and one external, in a totally concentric and compact integrated module.

  12. Superconducting linear accelerator cryostat

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Elkonin, B.V.; Sokolowski, J.S.


    A large vertical cryostat for a superconducting linear accelerator using quarter wave resonators has been developed. The essential technical details, operational experience and performance are described. (author)

  13. Linearity enigmas in ecology

    Patten, B.C.


    Two issues concerning linearity or nonlinearity of natural systems are considered. Each is related to one of the two alternative defining properties of linear systems, superposition and decomposition. Superposition exists when a linear combination of inputs to a system results in the same linear combination of outputs that individually correspond to the original inputs. To demonstrate this property it is necessary that all initial states and inputs of the system which impinge on the output in question be included in the linear combination manipulation. As this is difficult or impossible to do with real systems of any complexity, nature appears nonlinear even though it may be linear. A linear system that displays nonlinear behavior for this reason is termed pseudononlinear. The decomposition property exists when the dynamic response of a system can be partitioned into an input-free portion due to state plus a state-free portion due to input. This is a characteristic of all linear systems, but not of nonlinear systems. Without the decomposition property, it is not possible to distinguish which portions of a system's behavior are due to innate characteristics (self) vs. outside conditions (environment), which is an important class of questions in biology and ecology. Some philosophical aspects of these findings are then considered. It is suggested that those ecologists who hold to the view that organisms and their environments are separate entities are in effect embracing a linear view of nature, even though their belief systems and mathematical models tend to be nonlinear. On the other hand, those who consider that organism-environment complex forms a single inseparable unit are implictly involved in non-linear thought, which may be in conflict with the linear modes and models that some of them use. The need to rectify these ambivalences on the part of both groups is indicated.

  14. Mössbauer spectra linearity improvement by sine velocity waveform followed by linearization process

    Kohout, Pavel; Frank, Tomas; Pechousek, Jiri; Kouril, Lukas


    This note reports the development of a new method for linearizing the Mössbauer spectra recorded with a sine drive velocity signal. Mössbauer spectra linearity is a critical parameter to determine Mössbauer spectrometer accuracy. Measuring spectra with a sine velocity axis and consecutive linearization increases the linearity of spectra in a wider frequency range of a drive signal, as generally harmonic movement is natural for velocity transducers. The obtained data demonstrate that linearized sine spectra have lower nonlinearity and line width parameters in comparison with those measured using a traditional triangle velocity signal.

  15. Linear colliders - prospects 1985

    Rees, J.


    We discuss the scaling laws of linear colliders and their consequences for accelerator design. We then report on the SLAC Linear Collider project and comment on experience gained on that project and its application to future colliders. 9 refs., 2 figs

  16. The SLAC linear collider

    Richter, B.


    A report is given on the goals and progress of the SLAC Linear Collider. The author discusses the status of the machine and the detectors and give an overview of the physics which can be done at this new facility. He also gives some ideas on how (and why) large linear colliders of the future should be built

  17. Linear Programming (LP)

    Rogner, H.H.


    The submitted sections on linear programming are extracted from 'Theorie und Technik der Planung' (1978) by W. Blaas and P. Henseler and reformulated for presentation at the Workshop. They consider a brief introduction to the theory of linear programming and to some essential aspects of the SIMPLEX solution algorithm for the purposes of economic planning processes. 1 fig

  18. Racetrack linear accelerators

    Rowe, C.H.; Wilton, M.S. de.


    An improved recirculating electron beam linear accelerator of the racetrack type is described. The system comprises a beam path of four straight legs with four Pretzel bending magnets at the end of each leg to direct the beam into the next leg of the beam path. At least one of the beam path legs includes a linear accelerator. (UK)

  19. Semidefinite linear complementarity problems

    Eckhardt, U.


    Semidefinite linear complementarity problems arise by discretization of variational inequalities describing e.g. elastic contact problems, free boundary value problems etc. In the present paper linear complementarity problems are introduced and the theory as well as the numerical treatment of them are described. In the special case of semidefinite linear complementarity problems a numerical method is presented which combines the advantages of elimination and iteration methods without suffering from their drawbacks. This new method has very attractive properties since it has a high degree of invariance with respect to the representation of the set of all feasible solutions of a linear complementarity problem by linear inequalities. By means of some practical applications the properties of the new method are demonstrated. (orig.) [de

  20. Linear algebra done right

    Axler, Sheldon


    This best-selling textbook for a second course in linear algebra is aimed at undergrad math majors and graduate students. The novel approach taken here banishes determinants to the end of the book. The text focuses on the central goal of linear algebra: understanding the structure of linear operators on finite-dimensional vector spaces. The author has taken unusual care to motivate concepts and to simplify proofs. A variety of interesting exercises in each chapter helps students understand and manipulate the objects of linear algebra. The third edition contains major improvements and revisions throughout the book. More than 300 new exercises have been added since the previous edition. Many new examples have been added to illustrate the key ideas of linear algebra. New topics covered in the book include product spaces, quotient spaces, and dual spaces. Beautiful new formatting creates pages with an unusually pleasant appearance in both print and electronic versions. No prerequisites are assumed other than the ...

  1. Handbook on linear motor application


    This book guides the application for Linear motor. It lists classification and speciality of Linear Motor, terms of linear-induction motor, principle of the Motor, types on one-side linear-induction motor, bilateral linear-induction motor, linear-DC Motor on basic of the motor, linear-DC Motor for moving-coil type, linear-DC motor for permanent-magnet moving type, linear-DC motor for electricity non-utility type, linear-pulse motor for variable motor, linear-pulse motor for permanent magneto type, linear-vibration actuator, linear-vibration actuator for moving-coil type, linear synchronous motor, linear electromagnetic motor, linear electromagnetic solenoid, technical organization and magnetic levitation and linear motor and sensor.

  2. Linearization Technologies for Broadband Radio-Over-Fiber Transmission Systems

    Xiupu Zhang


    Full Text Available Linearization technologies that can be used for linearizing RoF transmission are reviewed. Three main linearization methods, i.e. electrical analog linearization, optical linearization, and electrical digital linearization are presented and compared. Analog linearization can be achieved using analog predistortion circuits, and can be used for suppression of odd order nonlinear distortion components, such as third and fifth order. Optical linearization includes mixed-polarization, dual-wavelength, optical channelization and the others, implemented in optical domain, to suppress both even and odd order nonlinear distortion components, such as second and third order. Digital predistortion has been a widely used linearization method for RF power amplifiers. However, digital linearization that requires analog to digital converter is severely limited to hundreds of MHz bandwidth. Instead, analog and optical linearization provide broadband linearization with up to tens of GHz. Therefore, for broadband radio over fiber transmission that can be used for future broadband cloud radio access networks, analog and optical linearization are more appropriate than digital linearization. Generally speaking, both analog and optical linearization are able to improve spur-free dynamic range greater than 10 dB over tens of GHz. In order for current digital linearization to be used for broadband radio over fiber transmission, the reduced linearization complexity and increased linearization bandwidth are required. Moreover, some digital linearization methods in which the complexity can be reduced, such as Hammerstein type, may be more promising and require further investigation.

  3. Linear ubiquitination in immunity.

    Shimizu, Yutaka; Taraborrelli, Lucia; Walczak, Henning


    Linear ubiquitination is a post-translational protein modification recently discovered to be crucial for innate and adaptive immune signaling. The function of linear ubiquitin chains is regulated at multiple levels: generation, recognition, and removal. These chains are generated by the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC), the only known ubiquitin E3 capable of forming the linear ubiquitin linkage de novo. LUBAC is not only relevant for activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in various signaling pathways, but importantly, it also regulates cell death downstream of immune receptors capable of inducing this response. Recognition of the linear ubiquitin linkage is specifically mediated by certain ubiquitin receptors, which is crucial for translation into the intended signaling outputs. LUBAC deficiency results in attenuated gene activation and increased cell death, causing pathologic conditions in both, mice, and humans. Removal of ubiquitin chains is mediated by deubiquitinases (DUBs). Two of them, OTULIN and CYLD, are constitutively associated with LUBAC. Here, we review the current knowledge on linear ubiquitination in immune signaling pathways and the biochemical mechanisms as to how linear polyubiquitin exerts its functions distinctly from those of other ubiquitin linkage types. © 2015 The Authors. Immunological Reviews Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Linearizing W-algebras

    Krivonos, S.O.; Sorin, A.S.


    We show that the Zamolodchikov's and Polyakov-Bershadsky nonlinear algebras W 3 and W (2) 3 can be embedded as subalgebras into some linear algebras with finite set of currents. Using these linear algebras we find new field realizations of W (2) 3 and W 3 which could be a starting point for constructing new versions of W-string theories. We also reveal a number of hidden relationships between W 3 and W (2) 3 . We conjecture that similar linear algebras can exist for other W-algebra as well. (author). 10 refs

  5. Matrices and linear algebra

    Schneider, Hans


    Linear algebra is one of the central disciplines in mathematics. A student of pure mathematics must know linear algebra if he is to continue with modern algebra or functional analysis. Much of the mathematics now taught to engineers and physicists requires it.This well-known and highly regarded text makes the subject accessible to undergraduates with little mathematical experience. Written mainly for students in physics, engineering, economics, and other fields outside mathematics, the book gives the theory of matrices and applications to systems of linear equations, as well as many related t

  6. Elements of linear space

    Amir-Moez, A R; Sneddon, I N


    Elements of Linear Space is a detailed treatment of the elements of linear spaces, including real spaces with no more than three dimensions and complex n-dimensional spaces. The geometry of conic sections and quadric surfaces is considered, along with algebraic structures, especially vector spaces and transformations. Problems drawn from various branches of geometry are given.Comprised of 12 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to real Euclidean space, followed by a discussion on linear transformations and matrices. The addition and multiplication of transformations and matrices a

  7. Applied linear regression

    Weisberg, Sanford


    Praise for the Third Edition ""...this is an excellent book which could easily be used as a course text...""-International Statistical Institute The Fourth Edition of Applied Linear Regression provides a thorough update of the basic theory and methodology of linear regression modeling. Demonstrating the practical applications of linear regression analysis techniques, the Fourth Edition uses interesting, real-world exercises and examples. Stressing central concepts such as model building, understanding parameters, assessing fit and reliability, and drawing conclusions, the new edition illus

  8. Multivariate covariance generalized linear models

    Bonat, W. H.; Jørgensen, Bent


    are fitted by using an efficient Newton scoring algorithm based on quasi-likelihood and Pearson estimating functions, using only second-moment assumptions. This provides a unified approach to a wide variety of types of response variables and covariance structures, including multivariate extensions......We propose a general framework for non-normal multivariate data analysis called multivariate covariance generalized linear models, designed to handle multivariate response variables, along with a wide range of temporal and spatial correlation structures defined in terms of a covariance link...... function combined with a matrix linear predictor involving known matrices. The method is motivated by three data examples that are not easily handled by existing methods. The first example concerns multivariate count data, the second involves response variables of mixed types, combined with repeated...

  9. Efeito de doses de adubo 4-14-8 na competição entre tomateiro e Solanum americanum em convivência intra e interespecífica Effect of fertilizer 4-14-8 doses on competition between tomato and Solanum americanum under intra- and inter-specific coexistence

    B.P. Silva


    Full Text Available O tomateiro (Lycopersicum esculentum é uma das mais importantes hortaliças produzidas no mundo, porém sua produtividade pode ser reduzida em função da convivência com Solanum americanum (maria-pretinha. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar o efeito da adubação na relação de interferência intra e interespecífica entre plantas de tomateiro e S. americanum. Duas plantas em condições de convivência intra e interespecífica, por espécie, foram plantadas em vasos e adubadas com 13, 18 e 24 g de 4-14-8 por vaso, sendo avaliadas características de crescimento de ambas as espécies aos 90 dias após o transplante das plantas. A adubação com 4-14-8 estimulou o desenvolvimento da área foliar e da massa seca de caules, folhas e frutos de S. americanum, além da área foliar e da massa seca de folhas e frutos do tomateiro. A convivência interespecífica proporcionou maior altura de plantas de S. americanum, bem como menor altura e massa seca de folhas e frutos do tomateiro. Houve interação dos fatores adubação e convivência somente para o tomateiro, sendo a altura e a massa seca de folhas da cultura influenciadas negativamente quando submetidas às maiores doses de adubo e à competição com S. americanum.Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum is one of the leading vegetable crops grown worldwide, but its productivity may be reduced due to coexistence with Solanum americanum (black nightshade. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of fertilization on intra- and inter-specific interference between tomato and S. americanum plants. Two plants in intra- and inter-specific coexistence conditions of both species were planted in pots and fertilized with 13, 18 and 24 g of 4-14-8 per pot to evaluate the growth characteristics of both species at 90 days after transplanting. The 4-14-8 fertilization stimulated the development of the leaf area and dry mass of stems, leaves and fruit of S. americanum, consequently and equally influencing the leaf

  10. Linear system theory

    Callier, Frank M.; Desoer, Charles A.


    The aim of this book is to provide a systematic and rigorous access to the main topics of linear state-space system theory in both the continuous-time case and the discrete-time case; and the I/O description of linear systems. The main thrusts of the work are the analysis of system descriptions and derivations of their properties, LQ-optimal control, state feedback and state estimation, and MIMO unity-feedback systems.

  11. Multivariate generalized linear mixed models using R

    Berridge, Damon Mark


    Multivariate Generalized Linear Mixed Models Using R presents robust and methodologically sound models for analyzing large and complex data sets, enabling readers to answer increasingly complex research questions. The book applies the principles of modeling to longitudinal data from panel and related studies via the Sabre software package in R. A Unified Framework for a Broad Class of Models The authors first discuss members of the family of generalized linear models, gradually adding complexity to the modeling framework by incorporating random effects. After reviewing the generalized linear model notation, they illustrate a range of random effects models, including three-level, multivariate, endpoint, event history, and state dependence models. They estimate the multivariate generalized linear mixed models (MGLMMs) using either standard or adaptive Gaussian quadrature. The authors also compare two-level fixed and random effects linear models. The appendices contain additional information on quadrature, model...

  12. Further linear algebra

    Blyth, T S


    Most of the introductory courses on linear algebra develop the basic theory of finite­ dimensional vector spaces, and in so doing relate the notion of a linear mapping to that of a matrix. Generally speaking, such courses culminate in the diagonalisation of certain matrices and the application of this process to various situations. Such is the case, for example, in our previous SUMS volume Basic Linear Algebra. The present text is a continuation of that volume, and has the objective of introducing the reader to more advanced properties of vector spaces and linear mappings, and consequently of matrices. For readers who are not familiar with the contents of Basic Linear Algebra we provide an introductory chapter that consists of a compact summary of the prerequisites for the present volume. In order to consolidate the student's understanding we have included a large num­ ber of illustrative and worked examples, as well as many exercises that are strategi­ cally placed throughout the text. Solutions to the ex...

  13. Linear mass reflectron

    Mamyrin, B.A.; Shmikk, D.V.


    A description and operating principle of a linear mass reflectron with V-form trajectory of ion motion -a new non-magnetic time-of-flight mass spectrometer with high resolution are presented. The ion-optical system of the device consists of an ion source with ionization by electron shock, of accelerating gaps, reflector gaps, a drift space and ion detector. Ions move in the linear mass refraction along the trajectories parallel to the axis of the analyzer chamber. The results of investigations into the experimental device are given. With an ion drift length of 0.6 m the device resolution is 1200 with respect to the peak width at half-height. Small-sized mass spectrometric transducers with high resolution and sensitivity may be designed on the base of the linear mass reflectron principle

  14. Applied linear algebra

    Olver, Peter J


    This textbook develops the essential tools of linear algebra, with the goal of imparting technique alongside contextual understanding. Applications go hand-in-hand with theory, each reinforcing and explaining the other. This approach encourages students to develop not only the technical proficiency needed to go on to further study, but an appreciation for when, why, and how the tools of linear algebra can be used across modern applied mathematics. Providing an extensive treatment of essential topics such as Gaussian elimination, inner products and norms, and eigenvalues and singular values, this text can be used for an in-depth first course, or an application-driven second course in linear algebra. In this second edition, applications have been updated and expanded to include numerical methods, dynamical systems, data analysis, and signal processing, while the pedagogical flow of the core material has been improved. Throughout, the text emphasizes the conceptual connections between each application and the un...

  15. Theory of linear operations

    Banach, S


    This classic work by the late Stefan Banach has been translated into English so as to reach a yet wider audience. It contains the basics of the algebra of operators, concentrating on the study of linear operators, which corresponds to that of the linear forms a1x1 + a2x2 + ... + anxn of algebra.The book gathers results concerning linear operators defined in general spaces of a certain kind, principally in Banach spaces, examples of which are: the space of continuous functions, that of the pth-power-summable functions, Hilbert space, etc. The general theorems are interpreted in various mathematical areas, such as group theory, differential equations, integral equations, equations with infinitely many unknowns, functions of a real variable, summation methods and orthogonal series.A new fifty-page section (``Some Aspects of the Present Theory of Banach Spaces'''') complements this important monograph.

  16. Dimension of linear models

    Høskuldsson, Agnar


    Determination of the proper dimension of a given linear model is one of the most important tasks in the applied modeling work. We consider here eight criteria that can be used to determine the dimension of the model, or equivalently, the number of components to use in the model. Four of these cri......Determination of the proper dimension of a given linear model is one of the most important tasks in the applied modeling work. We consider here eight criteria that can be used to determine the dimension of the model, or equivalently, the number of components to use in the model. Four...... the basic problems in determining the dimension of linear models. Then each of the eight measures are treated. The results are illustrated by examples....

  17. Linear programming using Matlab

    Ploskas, Nikolaos


    This book offers a theoretical and computational presentation of a variety of linear programming algorithms and methods with an emphasis on the revised simplex method and its components. A theoretical background and mathematical formulation is included for each algorithm as well as comprehensive numerical examples and corresponding MATLAB® code. The MATLAB® implementations presented in this book  are sophisticated and allow users to find solutions to large-scale benchmark linear programs. Each algorithm is followed by a computational study on benchmark problems that analyze the computational behavior of the presented algorithms. As a solid companion to existing algorithmic-specific literature, this book will be useful to researchers, scientists, mathematical programmers, and students with a basic knowledge of linear algebra and calculus.  The clear presentation enables the reader to understand and utilize all components of simplex-type methods, such as presolve techniques, scaling techniques, pivoting ru...

  18. Linear Colliders TESLA



    The aim of the TESLA (TeV Superconducting Linear Accelerator) collaboration (at present 19 institutions from seven countries) is to establish the technology for a high energy electron-positron linear collider using superconducting radiofrequency cavities to accelerate its beams. Another basic goal is to demonstrate that such a collider can meet its performance goals in a cost effective manner. For this the TESLA collaboration is preparing a 500 MeV superconducting linear test accelerator at the DESY Laboratory in Hamburg. This TTF (TESLA Test Facility) consists of four cryomodules, each approximately 12 m long and containing eight 9-cell solid niobium cavities operating at a frequency of 1.3 GHz

  19. Experimental Approaches at Linear Colliders

    Jaros, John A


    Precision measurements have played a vital role in our understanding of elementary particle physics. Experiments performed using e + e - collisions have contributed an essential part. Recently, the precision measurements at LEP and SLC have probed the standard model at the quantum level and severely constrained the mass of the Higgs boson [1]. Coupled with the limits on the Higgs mass from direct searches [2], this enables the mass to be constrained to be in the range 115-205 GeV. Developments in accelerator R and D have matured to the point where one could contemplate construction of a linear collider with initial energy in the 500 GeV range and a credible upgrade path to ∼ 1 TeV. Now is therefore the correct time to critically evaluate the case for such a facility

  20. Perspectives on large Linear Colliders

    Richter, B.


    The accelerator community now generally agrees that the Linear Collider is the most cost-effective technology for reaching much higher energies in the center-of-mass than can be attained in the largest of the e + e - storage rings, LEP. Indeed, even as the first linear collider, the SLC at SLAC, is getting ready to begin operations groups, at SLAC, Novosibirsk, CERN and KEK are doing R and D and conceptual design studies on a next generation machine in the 1 TeV energy region. In this perspectives talk I do not want to restrict my comments to any particular design, and so I will talk about a high-energy machine as the NLC, which is shorthand for the Next Linear Collider, and taken to mean a machine with a center-of-mass energy someplace in the 0.5 to 2 TeV energy range with sufficient luminosity to carry out a meaningful experimental program. I want to discuss three main items with you. The first is the interrelation of energy and luminosity requirements. These two items impose severe constraints on the accelerator builder. Next, I will give an introduction to linear collider design, concentrating on what goes on at the collision point, for still another constraint comes here from the beam-beam interaction which further restricts the choices available to the accelerator builder.Then, I want to give my impressions of the state of the technology available for building these kinds of machines within the next decade

  1. Linear positivity and virtual probability

    Hartle, James B.


    We investigate the quantum theory of closed systems based on the linear positivity decoherence condition of Goldstein and Page. The objective of any quantum theory of a closed system, most generally the universe, is the prediction of probabilities for the individual members of sets of alternative coarse-grained histories of the system. Quantum interference between members of a set of alternative histories is an obstacle to assigning probabilities that are consistent with the rules of probability theory. A quantum theory of closed systems therefore requires two elements: (1) a condition specifying which sets of histories may be assigned probabilities and (2) a rule for those probabilities. The linear positivity condition of Goldstein and Page is the weakest of the general conditions proposed so far. Its general properties relating to exact probability sum rules, time neutrality, and conservation laws are explored. Its inconsistency with the usual notion of independent subsystems in quantum mechanics is reviewed. Its relation to the stronger condition of medium decoherence necessary for classicality is discussed. The linear positivity of histories in a number of simple model systems is investigated with the aim of exhibiting linearly positive sets of histories that are not decoherent. The utility of extending the notion of probability to include values outside the range of 0-1 is described. Alternatives with such virtual probabilities cannot be measured or recorded, but can be used in the intermediate steps of calculations of real probabilities. Extended probabilities give a simple and general way of formulating quantum theory. The various decoherence conditions are compared in terms of their utility for characterizing classicality and the role they might play in further generalizations of quantum mechanics

  2. Linearly Adjustable International Portfolios

    Fonseca, R. J.; Kuhn, D.; Rustem, B.


    We present an approach to multi-stage international portfolio optimization based on the imposition of a linear structure on the recourse decisions. Multiperiod decision problems are traditionally formulated as stochastic programs. Scenario tree based solutions however can become intractable as the number of stages increases. By restricting the space of decision policies to linear rules, we obtain a conservative tractable approximation to the original problem. Local asset prices and foreign exchange rates are modelled separately, which allows for a direct measure of their impact on the final portfolio value.

  3. Linearly Adjustable International Portfolios

    Fonseca, R. J.; Kuhn, D.; Rustem, B.


    We present an approach to multi-stage international portfolio optimization based on the imposition of a linear structure on the recourse decisions. Multiperiod decision problems are traditionally formulated as stochastic programs. Scenario tree based solutions however can become intractable as the number of stages increases. By restricting the space of decision policies to linear rules, we obtain a conservative tractable approximation to the original problem. Local asset prices and foreign exchange rates are modelled separately, which allows for a direct measure of their impact on the final portfolio value.

  4. Linear induction motor

    Barkman, W.E.; Adams, W.Q.; Berrier, B.R.


    A linear induction motor has been operated on a test bed with a feedback pulse resolution of 5 nm (0.2 μin). Slewing tests with this slide drive have shown positioning errors less than or equal to 33 nm (1.3 μin) at feedrates between 0 and 25.4 mm/min (0-1 ipm). A 0.86-m (34-in)-stroke linear motor is being investigated, using the SPACO machine as a test bed. Initial results were encouraging, and work is continuing to optimize the servosystem compensation

  5. Handbook of linear algebra

    Hogben, Leslie


    With a substantial amount of new material, the Handbook of Linear Algebra, Second Edition provides comprehensive coverage of linear algebra concepts, applications, and computational software packages in an easy-to-use format. It guides you from the very elementary aspects of the subject to the frontiers of current research. Along with revisions and updates throughout, the second edition of this bestseller includes 20 new chapters.New to the Second EditionSeparate chapters on Schur complements, additional types of canonical forms, tensors, matrix polynomials, matrix equations, special types of

  6. Linear Algebra Thoroughly Explained

    Vujičić, Milan


    Linear Algebra Thoroughly Explained provides a comprehensive introduction to the subject suitable for adoption as a self-contained text for courses at undergraduate and postgraduate level. The clear and comprehensive presentation of the basic theory is illustrated throughout with an abundance of worked examples. The book is written for teachers and students of linear algebra at all levels and across mathematics and the applied sciences, particularly physics and engineering. It will also be an invaluable addition to research libraries as a comprehensive resource book for the subject.

  7. Linearização de curvas de titulação para determinação da capacidade tamponante da fibra de alimentos em ampla faixa de pH - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i1.5384 Linearization of the titration curves for determination of buffering capacity of feed fiber in a wide pH range - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i1.5384

    João Ricardo Dittrich


    as EXP (1 pH-1, and the accumulated HCl in each interval. The transformation presented satisfactory fitting to linear regression for all materials evaluated, with r2 higher than 0.85 and standard error residual lower than 0.059. A positive correlation between TA and LB evaluated in the different ranges of pH was obtained. Unlike TA, the LB method makes it possible to obtain the BC as a single linear ratio, valuable for every pH interval from 8.0 to 2.0.

  8. The role of leucine in isoprenoid metabolism. Incorporation of [3-13C]leucine and of [2-3H,4-14C]-β,β-dimethyl-acrylic acid into phytosterols by tissue cultures of Andrographis paniculata

    Anastasis, P.; Freer, I.; Overton, K.; Rycroft, D.; Singh, S.B.


    [3- 13 C]Leucine is incorporated into phytosterols by tissue cultures of Andrographis paniculata by breakdown to acetyl-CoA and its subsequent incorporation via (3S)-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) and mevalonic acid; [2- 3 H,4- 14 C]-β,β-dimethylacrylic acid also is not incorporated intact. (author)

  9. America, Linearly Cyclical


    AND VICTIM- ~ vAP BLAMING 4. AMERICA, LINEARLY CYCUCAL AF IMT 1768, 19840901, V5 PREVIOUS EDITION WILL BE USED. C2C Jessica Adams Dr. Brissett...his desires, his failings, and his aspirations follow the same general trend throughout history and throughout cultures. The founding fathers sought

  10. Stanford's linear collider

    Southworth, B.


    The peak of the construction phase of the Stanford Linear Collider, SLC, to achieve 50 GeV electron-positron collisions has now been passed. The work remains on schedule to attempt colliding beams, initially at comparatively low luminosity, early in 1987. (orig./HSI).

  11. Dosimetry of linear sources

    Mafra Neto, F.


    The dose of gamma radiation from a linear source of cesium 137 is obtained, presenting two difficulties: oblique filtration of radiation when cross the platinum wall, in different directions, and dose connection due to the scattering by the material mean of propagation. (C.G.C.)

  12. Resistors Improve Ramp Linearity

    Kleinberg, L. L.


    Simple modification to bootstrap ramp generator gives more linear output over longer sweep times. New circuit adds just two resistors, one of which is adjustable. Modification cancels nonlinearities due to variations in load on charging capacitor and due to changes in charging current as the voltage across capacitor increases.

  13. LINEAR COLLIDERS: 1992 workshop

    Settles, Ron; Coignet, Guy


    As work on designs for future electron-positron linear colliders pushes ahead at major Laboratories throughout the world in a major international collaboration framework, the LC92 workshop held in Garmisch Partenkirchen this summer, attended by 200 machine and particle physicists, provided a timely focus

  14. Linear genetic programming

    Brameier, Markus


    Presents a variant of Genetic Programming that evolves imperative computer programs as linear sequences of instructions, in contrast to the more traditional functional expressions or syntax trees. This book serves as a reference for researchers, but also contains sufficient introduction for students and those who are new to the field

  15. On Solving Linear Recurrences

    Dobbs, David E.


    A direct method is given for solving first-order linear recurrences with constant coefficients. The limiting value of that solution is studied as "n to infinity." This classroom note could serve as enrichment material for the typical introductory course on discrete mathematics that follows a calculus course.

  16. Review of linear colliders

    Takeda, Seishi


    The status of R and D of future e + e - linear colliders proposed by the institutions throughout the world is described including the JLC, NLC, VLEPP, CLIC, DESY/THD and TESLA projects. The parameters and RF sources are discussed. (G.P.) 36 refs.; 1 tab

  17. Afrika Statistika ISSN 2316-090X Further properties of linear ...

    properties of linear prediction sufficiency and the BLUPs in the linear model with new observations. ...... a wide range of applications, for example, plant variety trials, animal breeding, selection ..... Linear Algebra Appl., 430, 2622–2641. DOI.

  18. Genetic evaluation of calf and heifer survival in Iranian Holstein cattle using linear and threshold models.

    Forutan, M; Ansari Mahyari, S; Sargolzaei, M


    Calf and heifer survival are important traits in dairy cattle affecting profitability. This study was carried out to estimate genetic parameters of survival traits in female calves at different age periods, until nearly the first calving. Records of 49,583 female calves born during 1998 and 2009 were considered in five age periods as days 1-30, 31-180, 181-365, 366-760 and full period (day 1-760). Genetic components were estimated based on linear and threshold sire models and linear animal models. The models included both fixed effects (month of birth, dam's parity number, calving ease and twin/single) and random effects (herd-year, genetic effect of sire or animal and residual). Rates of death were 2.21, 3.37, 1.97, 4.14 and 12.4% for the above periods, respectively. Heritability estimates were very low ranging from 0.48 to 3.04, 0.62 to 3.51 and 0.50 to 4.24% for linear sire model, animal model and threshold sire model, respectively. Rank correlations between random effects of sires obtained with linear and threshold sire models and with linear animal and sire models were 0.82-0.95 and 0.61-0.83, respectively. The estimated genetic correlations between the five different periods were moderate and only significant for 31-180 and 181-365 (r(g) = 0.59), 31-180 and 366-760 (r(g) = 0.52), and 181-365 and 366-760 (r(g) = 0.42). The low genetic correlations in current study would suggest that survival at different periods may be affected by the same genes with different expression or by different genes. Even though the additive genetic variations of survival traits were small, it might be possible to improve these traits by traditional or genomic selection. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Tonopah Test Range - Index

    Capabilities Test Operations Center Test Director Range Control Track Control Communications Tracking Radars Photos Header Facebook Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Tonopah Test Range Top TTR_TOC Tonopah is the testing range of choice for all national security missions. Tonopah Test Range (TTR) provides research and

  20. Development of heavy ion linear accelerators

    Bomko, V.A.; Khizhnyak, N.A.


    A review of the known heavy ion accelerators is given. It is stated that cyclic and linear accelerators are the most perspective ones in the energy range up to 10 MeV/nucleon according to universality in respect with the possibility of ion acceleration of the wide mass range. However, according to the accelerated beam intensity of the heavier ions the linear accelerators have considerable advantages over any other types of accelerators. The review of the known heavy ion linac structures permits to make the conclusion that a new modification of an accelerating structure of opposite pins excited on a H-wave is the most perspective one [ru

  1. Finite-dimensional linear algebra

    Gockenbach, Mark S


    Some Problems Posed on Vector SpacesLinear equationsBest approximationDiagonalizationSummaryFields and Vector SpacesFields Vector spaces Subspaces Linear combinations and spanning sets Linear independence Basis and dimension Properties of bases Polynomial interpolation and the Lagrange basis Continuous piecewise polynomial functionsLinear OperatorsLinear operatorsMore properties of linear operatorsIsomorphic vector spaces Linear operator equations Existence and uniqueness of solutions The fundamental theorem; inverse operatorsGaussian elimination Newton's method Linear ordinary differential eq

  2. Voltage linear transformation circuit design

    Sanchez, Lucas R. W.; Jin, Moon-Seob; Scott, R. Phillip; Luder, Ryan J.; Hart, Michael


    Many engineering projects require automated control of analog voltages over a specified range. We have developed a computer interface comprising custom hardware and MATLAB code to provide real-time control of a Thorlabs adaptive optics (AO) kit. The hardware interface includes an op amp cascade to linearly shift and scale a voltage range. With easy modifications, any linear transformation can be accommodated. In AO applications, the design is suitable to drive a range of different types of deformable and fast steering mirrors (FSM's). Our original motivation and application was to control an Optics in Motion (OIM) FSM which requires the customer to devise a unique interface to supply voltages to the mirror controller to set the mirror's angular deflection. The FSM is in an optical servo loop with a wave front sensor (WFS), which controls the dynamic behavior of the mirror's deflection. The code acquires wavefront data from the WFS and fits a plane, which is subsequently converted into its corresponding angular deflection. The FSM provides +/-3° optical angular deflection for a +/-10 V voltage swing. Voltages are applied to the mirror via a National Instruments digital-to-analog converter (DAC) followed by an op amp cascade circuit. This system has been integrated into our Thorlabs AO testbed which currently runs at 11 Hz, but with planned software upgrades, the system update rate is expected to improve to 500 Hz. To show that the FSM subsystem is ready for this speed, we conducted two different PID tuning runs at different step commands. Once 500 Hz is achieved, we plan to make the code and method for our interface solution freely available to the community.

  3. Linearity and Non-linearity of Photorefractive effect in Materials ...

    In this paper we have studied the Linearity and Non-linearity of Photorefractive effect in materials using the band transport model. For low light beam intensities the change in the refractive index is proportional to the electric field for linear optics while for non- linear optics the change in refractive index is directly proportional ...

  4. Linearly Refined Session Types

    Pedro Baltazar


    Full Text Available Session types capture precise protocol structure in concurrent programming, but do not specify properties of the exchanged values beyond their basic type. Refinement types are a form of dependent types that can address this limitation, combining types with logical formulae that may refer to program values and can constrain types using arbitrary predicates. We present a pi calculus with assume and assert operations, typed using a session discipline that incorporates refinement formulae written in a fragment of Multiplicative Linear Logic. Our original combination of session and refinement types, together with the well established benefits of linearity, allows very fine-grained specifications of communication protocols in which refinement formulae are treated as logical resources rather than persistent truths.

  5. Linear Water Waves

    Kuznetsov, N.; Maz'ya, V.; Vainberg, B.


    This book gives a self-contained and up-to-date account of mathematical results in the linear theory of water waves. The study of waves has many applications, including the prediction of behavior of floating bodies (ships, submarines, tension-leg platforms etc.), the calculation of wave-making resistance in naval architecture, and the description of wave patterns over bottom topography in geophysical hydrodynamics. The first section deals with time-harmonic waves. Three linear boundary value problems serve as the approximate mathematical models for these types of water waves. The next section uses a plethora of mathematical techniques in the investigation of these three problems. The techniques used in the book include integral equations based on Green's functions, various inequalities between the kinetic and potential energy and integral identities which are indispensable for proving the uniqueness theorems. The so-called inverse procedure is applied to constructing examples of non-uniqueness, usually referred to as 'trapped nodes.'

  6. The International Linear Collider

    List Benno


    Full Text Available The International Linear Collider (ILC is a proposed e+e− linear collider with a centre-of-mass energy of 200–500 GeV, based on superconducting RF cavities. The ILC would be an ideal machine for precision studies of a light Higgs boson and the top quark, and would have a discovery potential for new particles that is complementary to that of LHC. The clean experimental conditions would allow the operation of detectors with extremely good performance; two such detectors, ILD and SiD, are currently being designed. Both make use of novel concepts for tracking and calorimetry. The Japanese High Energy Physics community has recently recommended to build the ILC in Japan.

  7. The International Linear Collider

    List, Benno


    The International Linear Collider (ILC) is a proposed e+e- linear collider with a centre-of-mass energy of 200-500 GeV, based on superconducting RF cavities. The ILC would be an ideal machine for precision studies of a light Higgs boson and the top quark, and would have a discovery potential for new particles that is complementary to that of LHC. The clean experimental conditions would allow the operation of detectors with extremely good performance; two such detectors, ILD and SiD, are currently being designed. Both make use of novel concepts for tracking and calorimetry. The Japanese High Energy Physics community has recently recommended to build the ILC in Japan.

  8. Dimension of linear models

    Høskuldsson, Agnar


    Determination of the proper dimension of a given linear model is one of the most important tasks in the applied modeling work. We consider here eight criteria that can be used to determine the dimension of the model, or equivalently, the number of components to use in the model. Four...... the basic problems in determining the dimension of linear models. Then each of the eight measures are treated. The results are illustrated by examples....... of these criteria are widely used ones, while the remaining four are ones derived from the H-principle of mathematical modeling. Many examples from practice show that the criteria derived from the H-principle function better than the known and popular criteria for the number of components. We shall briefly review...

  9. Reciprocating linear motor

    Goldowsky, Michael P. (Inventor)


    A reciprocating linear motor is formed with a pair of ring-shaped permanent magnets having opposite radial polarizations, held axially apart by a nonmagnetic yoke, which serves as an axially displaceable armature assembly. A pair of annularly wound coils having axial lengths which differ from the axial lengths of the permanent magnets are serially coupled together in mutual opposition and positioned with an outer cylindrical core in axial symmetry about the armature assembly. One embodiment includes a second pair of annularly wound coils serially coupled together in mutual opposition and an inner cylindrical core positioned in axial symmetry inside the armature radially opposite to the first pair of coils. Application of a potential difference across a serial connection of the two pairs of coils creates a current flow perpendicular to the magnetic field created by the armature magnets, thereby causing limited linear displacement of the magnets relative to the coils.

  10. Duality in linearized gravity

    Henneaux, Marc; Teitelboim, Claudio


    We show that duality transformations of linearized gravity in four dimensions, i.e., rotations of the linearized Riemann tensor and its dual into each other, can be extended to the dynamical fields of the theory so as to be symmetries of the action and not just symmetries of the equations of motion. Our approach relies on the introduction of two superpotentials, one for the spatial components of the spin-2 field and the other for their canonically conjugate momenta. These superpotentials are two-index, symmetric tensors. They can be taken to be the basic dynamical fields and appear locally in the action. They are simply rotated into each other under duality. In terms of the superpotentials, the canonical generator of duality rotations is found to have a Chern-Simons-like structure, as in the Maxwell case

  11. The SLAC linear collider

    Phinney, N.


    The SLAC Linear Collider has begun a new era of operation with the SLD detector. During 1991 there was a first engineering run for the SLD in parallel with machine improvements to increase luminosity and reliability. For the 1992 run, a polarized electron source was added and more than 10,000 Zs with an average of 23% polarization have been logged by the SLD. This paper discusses the performance of the SLC in 1991 and 1992 and the technical advances that have produced higher luminosity. Emphasis will be placed on issues relevant to future linear colliders such as producing and maintaining high current, low emittance beams and focusing the beams to the micron scale for collisions. (Author) tab., 2 figs., 18 refs

  12. Linear waves and instabilities

    Bers, A.


    The electrodynamic equations for small-amplitude waves and their dispersion relation in a homogeneous plasma are outlined. For such waves, energy and momentum, and their flow and transformation, are described. Perturbation theory of waves is treated and applied to linear coupling of waves, and the resulting instabilities from such interactions between active and passive waves. Linear stability analysis in time and space is described where the time-asymptotic, time-space Green's function for an arbitrary dispersion relation is developed. The perturbation theory of waves is applied to nonlinear coupling, with particular emphasis on pump-driven interactions of waves. Details of the time--space evolution of instabilities due to coupling are given. (U.S.)

  13. Fundamentals of linear algebra

    Dash, Rajani Ballav


    FUNDAMENTALS OF LINEAR ALGEBRA is a comprehensive Text Book, which can be used by students and teachers of All Indian Universities. The Text has easy, understandable form and covers all topics of UGC Curriculum. There are lots of worked out examples which helps the students in solving the problems without anybody's help. The Problem sets have been designed keeping in view of the questions asked in different examinations.

  14. Linear network theory

    Sander, K F


    Linear Network Theory covers the significant algebraic aspect of network theory, with minimal reference to practical circuits. The book begins the presentation of network analysis with the exposition of networks containing resistances only, and follows it up with a discussion of networks involving inductance and capacity by way of the differential equations. Classification and description of certain networks, equivalent networks, filter circuits, and network functions are also covered. Electrical engineers, technicians, electronics engineers, electricians, and students learning the intricacies

  15. Non linear viscoelastic models

    Agerkvist, Finn T.


    Viscoelastic eects are often present in loudspeaker suspensions, this can be seen in the displacement transfer function which often shows a frequency dependent value below the resonance frequency. In this paper nonlinear versions of the standard linear solid model (SLS) are investigated....... The simulations show that the nonlinear version of the Maxwell SLS model can result in a time dependent small signal stiness while the Kelvin Voight version does not....

  16. Relativistic Linear Restoring Force

    Clark, D.; Franklin, J.; Mann, N.


    We consider two different forms for a relativistic version of a linear restoring force. The pair comes from taking Hooke's law to be the force appearing on the right-hand side of the relativistic expressions: d"p"/d"t" or d"p"/d["tau"]. Either formulation recovers Hooke's law in the non-relativistic limit. In addition to these two forces, we…

  17. Superconducting linear colliders



    The advantages of superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) for particle accelerators have been demonstrated by successful operation of systems in the TRISTAN and LEP electron-positron collider rings respectively at the Japanese KEK Laboratory and at CERN. If performance continues to improve and costs can be lowered, this would open an attractive option for a high luminosity TeV (1000 GeV) linear collider

  18. Perturbed asymptotically linear problems

    Bartolo, R.; Candela, A. M.; Salvatore, A.


    The aim of this paper is investigating the existence of solutions of some semilinear elliptic problems on open bounded domains when the nonlinearity is subcritical and asymptotically linear at infinity and there is a perturbation term which is just continuous. Also in the case when the problem has not a variational structure, suitable procedures and estimates allow us to prove that the number of distinct crtitical levels of the functional associated to the unperturbed problem is "stable" unde...

  19. Linear pneumatic actuator

    Avram Mihai


    Full Text Available The paper presents a linear pneumatic actuator with short working stroke. It consists of a pneumatic motor (a simple stroke cylinder or a membrane chamber, two 2/2 pneumatic distributors “all or nothing” electrically commanded for controlling the intake/outtake flow to/from the active chamber of the motor, a position transducer and a microcontroller. There is also presented the theoretical analysis (mathematical modelling and numerical simulation accomplished.

  20. Linear pneumatic actuator

    Avram Mihai; Niţu Constantin; Bucşan Constantin; Grămescu Bogdan


    The paper presents a linear pneumatic actuator with short working stroke. It consists of a pneumatic motor (a simple stroke cylinder or a membrane chamber), two 2/2 pneumatic distributors “all or nothing” electrically commanded for controlling the intake/outtake flow to/from the active chamber of the motor, a position transducer and a microcontroller. There is also presented the theoretical analysis (mathematical modelling and numerical simulation) accomplished.

  1. Linear MHD equilibria

    Scheffel, J.


    The linear Grad-Shafranov equation for a toroidal, axisymmetric plasma is solved analytically. Exact solutions are given in terms of confluent hyper-geometric functions. As an alternative, simple and accurate WKBJ solutions are presented. With parabolic pressure profiles, both hollow and peaked toroidal current density profiles are obtained. As an example the equilibrium of a z-pinch with a square-shaped cross section is derived.(author)

  2. Linear induction accelerator

    Buttram, M.T.; Ginn, J.W.


    A linear induction accelerator includes a plurality of adder cavities arranged in a series and provided in a structure which is evacuated so that a vacuum inductance is provided between each adder cavity and the structure. An energy storage system for the adder cavities includes a pulsed current source and a respective plurality of bipolar converting networks connected thereto. The bipolar high-voltage, high-repetition-rate square pulse train sets and resets the cavities. 4 figs.

  3. Linear algebraic groups

    Springer, T A


    "[The first] ten chapters...are an efficient, accessible, and self-contained introduction to affine algebraic groups over an algebraically closed field. The author includes exercises and the book is certainly usable by graduate students as a text or for self-study...the author [has a] student-friendly style… [The following] seven chapters... would also be a good introduction to rationality issues for algebraic groups. A number of results from the literature…appear for the first time in a text." –Mathematical Reviews (Review of the Second Edition) "This book is a completely new version of the first edition. The aim of the old book was to present the theory of linear algebraic groups over an algebraically closed field. Reading that book, many people entered the research field of linear algebraic groups. The present book has a wider scope. Its aim is to treat the theory of linear algebraic groups over arbitrary fields. Again, the author keeps the treatment of prerequisites self-contained. The material of t...

  4. Parametric Linear Dynamic Logic

    Peter Faymonville


    Full Text Available We introduce Parametric Linear Dynamic Logic (PLDL, which extends Linear Dynamic Logic (LDL by temporal operators equipped with parameters that bound their scope. LDL was proposed as an extension of Linear Temporal Logic (LTL that is able to express all ω-regular specifications while still maintaining many of LTL's desirable properties like an intuitive syntax and a translation into non-deterministic Büchi automata of exponential size. But LDL lacks capabilities to express timing constraints. By adding parameterized operators to LDL, we obtain a logic that is able to express all ω-regular properties and that subsumes parameterized extensions of LTL like Parametric LTL and PROMPT-LTL. Our main technical contribution is a translation of PLDL formulas into non-deterministic Büchi word automata of exponential size via alternating automata. This yields a PSPACE model checking algorithm and a realizability algorithm with doubly-exponential running time. Furthermore, we give tight upper and lower bounds on optimal parameter values for both problems. These results show that PLDL model checking and realizability are not harder than LTL model checking and realizability.

  5. Quantum linear Boltzmann equation

    Vacchini, Bassano; Hornberger, Klaus


    We review the quantum version of the linear Boltzmann equation, which describes in a non-perturbative fashion, by means of scattering theory, how the quantum motion of a single test particle is affected by collisions with an ideal background gas. A heuristic derivation of this Lindblad master equation is presented, based on the requirement of translation-covariance and on the relation to the classical linear Boltzmann equation. After analyzing its general symmetry properties and the associated relaxation dynamics, we discuss a quantum Monte Carlo method for its numerical solution. We then review important limiting forms of the quantum linear Boltzmann equation, such as the case of quantum Brownian motion and pure collisional decoherence, as well as the application to matter wave optics. Finally, we point to the incorporation of quantum degeneracies and self-interactions in the gas by relating the equation to the dynamic structure factor of the ambient medium, and we provide an extension of the equation to include internal degrees of freedom.

  6. The Stanford Linear Collider

    Emma, P.


    The Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) is the first and only high-energy e + e - linear collider in the world. Its most remarkable features are high intensity, submicron sized, polarized (e - ) beams at a single interaction point. The main challenges posed by these unique characteristics include machine-wide emittance preservation, consistent high intensity operation, polarized electron production and transport, and the achievement of a high degree of beam stability on all time scales. In addition to serving as an important machine for the study of Z 0 boson production and decay using polarized beams, the SLC is also an indispensable source of hands-on experience for future linear colliders. Each new year of operation has been highlighted with a marked improvement in performance. The most significant improvements for the 1994-95 run include new low impedance vacuum chambers for the damping rings, an upgrade to the optics and diagnostics of the final focus systems, and a higher degree of polarization from the electron source. As a result, the average luminosity has nearly doubled over the previous year with peaks approaching 10 30 cm -2 s -1 and an 80% electron polarization at the interaction point. These developments as well as the remaining identifiable performance limitations will be discussed

  7. Dynamic Planar Range Maxima Queries

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Tsakalidis, Konstantinos


    We consider the dynamic two-dimensional maxima query problem. Let P be a set of n points in the plane. A point is maximal if it is not dominated by any other point in P. We describe two data structures that support the reporting of the t maximal points that dominate a given query point, and allow...... for insertions and deletions of points in P. In the pointer machine model we present a linear space data structure with O(logn + t) worst case query time and O(logn) worst case update time. This is the first dynamic data structure for the planar maxima dominance query problem that achieves these bounds...... are integers in the range U = {0, …,2 w  − 1 }. We present a linear space data structure that supports 3-sided range maxima queries in O(logn/loglogn+t) worst case time and updates in O(logn/loglogn) worst case time. These are the first sublogarithmic worst case bounds for all operations in the RAM model....

  8. Decomposable log-linear models

    Eriksen, Poul Svante

    can be characterized by a structured set of conditional independencies between some variables given some other variables. We term the new model class decomposable log-linear models, which is illustrated to be a much richer class than decomposable graphical models.It covers a wide range of non...... The present paper considers discrete probability models with exact computational properties. In relation to contingency tables this means closed form expressions of the maksimum likelihood estimate and its distribution. The model class includes what is known as decomposable graphicalmodels, which......-hierarchical models, models with structural zeroes, models described by quasi independence and models for level merging. Also, they have a very natural interpretation as they may be formulated by a structured set of conditional independencies between two events given some other event. In relation to contingency...

  9. Small diameter symmetric networks from linear groups

    Campbell, Lowell; Carlsson, Gunnar E.; Dinneen, Michael J.; Faber, Vance; Fellows, Michael R.; Langston, Michael A.; Moore, James W.; Multihaupt, Andrew P.; Sexton, Harlan B.


    In this note is reported a collection of constructions of symmetric networks that provide the largest known values for the number of nodes that can be placed in a network of a given degree and diameter. Some of the constructions are in the range of current potential engineering significance. The constructions are Cayley graphs of linear groups obtained by experimental computation.

  10. Investigations into the influence of some synergists of 2,4-dioxo-hexahydro-1,3,5-triazine (DHT) on the formation of 14CO2 from [2,4-14C]DHT

    Byhan, O.; Schuster, G.


    Combined treatment with DHT and N-phenyl-N'-p-carboxyphenyl-thiourea reduced the formation of 14 CO 2 from [2,4- 14 C]DHT. Contrary to this, combined treatments with N-phenyl-N'-p-carboxyphenyl-urea, cyanoguanidine and, above all, guanidine carbonate increased the formation of 14 CO 2 from [2,4- 14 C]DHT. Thus, retardation of the breakdown of DHT and, beside this, maintenance of a high concentration of DHT, can only be the reason for the augmentation of the antiphytoviral activities of DHT by N-phenyl-N'-p-carboxyphenylthiourea, but not for that by the other 3 substances. An alternative hypothesis is discussed. (author)

  11. Simultaneous measurement of cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase activity by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography using both endogenous and exogenous [4-14C]cholesterol as substrate

    Hylemon, P.B.; Studer, E.J.; Pandak, W.M.; Heuman, D.M.; Vlahcevic, Z.R.; Chiang, J.Y.


    The HPLC-spectrophotometric method for measuring cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase activity was modified by using a C-18 reverse-phase column to separate 7 alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one and 4-cholesten-3-one and by adding 7 beta-hydroxycholesterol to each reaction mixture as an internal recovery standard. With this method, we were able to simultaneously measure cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase activity using endogenous cholesterol and exogenous [4- 14 C]cholesterol as substrate. Rat liver cytosol differentially stimulated (286%) the 7 alpha-hydroxylation of exogenous [4- 14 C]-cholesterol. In contrast, total cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase activity was stimulated only 35% by cytosol. This method should prove useful for studying mechanisms of cholesterol delivery to cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase

  12. Non linear microtearing modes

    Garbet, X.; Mourgues, F.; Samain, A.


    Among the various instabilities which could explain the anomalous electron heat transport observed in tokamaks during additional heating, a microtearing turbulence is a reasonable candidate since it affects directly the magnetic topology. This turbulence may be described in a proper frame rotating around the majors axis by a static potential vector. In strong non linear regimes, the flow of electrons along the stochastic field lines induces a current. The point is to know whether this current can sustain the turbulence. The mechanisms of this self-consistency, involving the combined effects of the thermal diamagnetism and of the electric drift are presented here

  13. RF linear accelerators

    Wangler, Thomas P


    Thomas P. Wangler received his B.S. degree in physics from Michigan State University, and his Ph.D. degree in physics and astronomy from the University of Wisconsin. After postdoctoral appointments at the University of Wisconsin and Brookhaven National Laboratory, he joined the staff of Argonne National Laboratory in 1966, working in the fields of experimental high-energy physics and accelerator physics. He joined the Accelerator Technology Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1979, where he specialized in high-current beam physics and linear accelerator design and technology. In 2007

  14. SLAC linear collider

    Richter, B.; Bell, R.A.; Brown, K.L.


    The SLAC LINEAR COLLIDER is designed to achieve an energy of 100 GeV in the electron-positron center-of-mass system by accelerating intense bunches of particles in the SLAC linac and transporting the electron and positron bunches in a special magnet system to a point where they are focused to a radius of about 2 microns and made to collide head on. The rationale for this new type of colliding beam system is discussed, the project is described, some of the novel accelerator physics issues involved are discussed, and some of the critical technical components are described

  15. Matlab linear algebra

    Lopez, Cesar


    MATLAB is a high-level language and environment for numerical computation, visualization, and programming. Using MATLAB, you can analyze data, develop algorithms, and create models and applications. The language, tools, and built-in math functions enable you to explore multiple approaches and reach a solution faster than with spreadsheets or traditional programming languages, such as C/C++ or Java. MATLAB Linear Algebra introduces you to the MATLAB language with practical hands-on instructions and results, allowing you to quickly achieve your goals. In addition to giving an introduction to

  16. Special set linear algebra and special set fuzzy linear algebra

    Kandasamy, W. B. Vasantha; Smarandache, Florentin; Ilanthenral, K.


    The authors in this book introduce the notion of special set linear algebra and special set fuzzy Linear algebra, which is an extension of the notion set linear algebra and set fuzzy linear algebra. These concepts are best suited in the application of multi expert models and cryptology. This book has five chapters. In chapter one the basic concepts about set linear algebra is given in order to make this book a self contained one. The notion of special set linear algebra and their fuzzy analog...

  17. Extending the linear model with R generalized linear, mixed effects and nonparametric regression models

    Faraway, Julian J


    Linear models are central to the practice of statistics and form the foundation of a vast range of statistical methodologies. Julian J. Faraway''s critically acclaimed Linear Models with R examined regression and analysis of variance, demonstrated the different methods available, and showed in which situations each one applies. Following in those footsteps, Extending the Linear Model with R surveys the techniques that grow from the regression model, presenting three extensions to that framework: generalized linear models (GLMs), mixed effect models, and nonparametric regression models. The author''s treatment is thoroughly modern and covers topics that include GLM diagnostics, generalized linear mixed models, trees, and even the use of neural networks in statistics. To demonstrate the interplay of theory and practice, throughout the book the author weaves the use of the R software environment to analyze the data of real examples, providing all of the R commands necessary to reproduce the analyses. All of the ...

  18. Competitive inhibition can linearize dose-response and generate a linear rectifier.

    Savir, Yonatan; Tu, Benjamin P; Springer, Michael


    Many biological responses require a dynamic range that is larger than standard bi-molecular interactions allow, yet the also ability to remain off at low input. Here we mathematically show that an enzyme reaction system involving a combination of competitive inhibition, conservation of the total level of substrate and inhibitor, and positive feedback can behave like a linear rectifier-that is, a network motif with an input-output relationship that is linearly sensitive to substrate above a threshold but unresponsive below the threshold. We propose that the evolutionarily conserved yeast SAGA histone acetylation complex may possess the proper physiological response characteristics and molecular interactions needed to perform as a linear rectifier, and we suggest potential experiments to test this hypothesis. One implication of this work is that linear responses and linear rectifiers might be easier to evolve or synthetically construct than is currently appreciated.

  19. Electrodynamic linear motor

    Munehiro, H


    When driving the carriage of a printer through a rotating motor, there are problems regarding the limited accuracy of the carriage position due to rotation or contraction and ageing of the cable. In order to solve the problem, a direct drive system was proposed, in which the printer carriage is driven by a linear motor. If one wants to keep the motor circuit of such a motor compact, then the magnetic flux density in the air gap must be reduced or the motor travel must be reduced. It is the purpose of this invention to create an electrodynamic linear motor, which on the one hand is compact and light and on the other hand has a relatively high constant force over a large travel. The invention is characterised by the fact that magnetic fields of alternating polarity are generated at equal intervals in the magnetic field, and that the coil arrangement has 2 adjacent coils, whose size corresponds to half the length of each magnetic pole. A logic circuit is provided to select one of the two coils and to determine the direction of the current depending on the signals of a magnetic field sensor on the coil arrangement.

  20. Linear wind generator

    Kozarov, A.; Petrov, O.; Antonov, J.; Sotirova, S.; Petrova, B.


    The purpose of the linear wind-power generator described in this article is to decrease the following disadvantages of the common wind-powered turbine: 1) large bending and twisting moments to the blades and the shaft, especially when strong winds and turbulence exist; 2) significant values of the natural oscillation period of the construction result in the possibility of occurrence of destroying resonance oscillations; 3) high velocity of the peripheral parts of the rotor creating a danger for birds; 4) difficulties, connected with the installation and the operation on the mountain ridges and passages where the wind energy potential is the largest. The working surfaces of the generator in questions driven by the wind are not connected with a joint shaft but each moves along a railway track with few oscillations. So the sizes of each component are small and their number can be rather large. The mechanical trajectory is not a circle but a closed outline in a vertical plain, which consists of two rectilinear sectors, one above the other, connected in their ends by semi-circumferences. The mechanical energy of each component turns into electrical on the principle of the linear electrical generator. A regulation is provided when the direction of the wind is perpendicular to the route. A possibility of effectiveness is shown through aiming of additional quantities of air to the movable components by static barriers

  1. Compressive laser ranging.

    Babbitt, Wm Randall; Barber, Zeb W; Renner, Christoffer


    Compressive sampling has been previously proposed as a technique for sampling radar returns and determining sparse range profiles with a reduced number of measurements compared to conventional techniques. By employing modulation on both transmission and reception, compressive sensing in ranging is extended to the direct measurement of range profiles without intermediate measurement of the return waveform. This compressive ranging approach enables the use of pseudorandom binary transmit waveforms and return modulation, along with low-bandwidth optical detectors to yield high-resolution ranging information. A proof-of-concept experiment is presented. With currently available compact, off-the-shelf electronics and photonics, such as high data rate binary pattern generators and high-bandwidth digital optical modulators, compressive laser ranging can readily achieve subcentimeter resolution in a compact, lightweight package.

  2. Linear Parametric Sensitivity Analysis of the Constraint Coefficient Matrix in Linear Programs

    Zuidwijk, Rob


    textabstractSensitivity analysis is used to quantify the impact of changes in the initial data of linear programs on the optimal value. In particular, parametric sensitivity analysis involves a perturbation analysis in which the effects of small changes of some or all of the initial data on an optimal solution are investigated, and the optimal solution is studied on a so-called critical range of the initial data, in which certain properties such as the optimal basis in linear programming are ...

  3. Mappings with closed range and compactness

    Iyahen, S.O.; Umweni, I.


    The motivation for this note is the result of E.O. Thorp that a normed linear space E is finite dimensional if and only if every continuous linear map for E into any normed linear space has a closed range. Here, a class of Hausdorff topological groups is introduced; called r-compactifiable topological groups, they include compact groups, locally compact Abelian groups and locally convex linear topological spaces. It is proved that a group in this class which is separable, complete metrizable or locally compact, is necessarily compact if its image by a continuous group homomorphism is necessarily closed. It is deduced then that a Hausdorff locally convex is zero if its image by a continuous additive map is necessarily closed. (author)

  4. Linearization of the Lorenz system

    Li, Chunbiao; Sprott, Julien Clinton; Thio, Wesley


    A partial and complete piecewise linearized version of the Lorenz system is proposed. The linearized versions have an independent total amplitude control parameter. Additional further linearization leads naturally to a piecewise linear version of the diffusionless Lorenz system. A chaotic circuit with a single amplitude controller is then implemented using a new switch element, producing a chaotic oscillation that agrees with the numerical calculation for the piecewise linear diffusionless Lorenz system. - Highlights: • A partial and complete piecewise linearized version of the Lorenz system are addressed. • The linearized versions have an independent total amplitude control parameter. • A piecewise linear version of the diffusionless Lorenz system is derived by further linearization. • A corresponding chaotic circuit without any multiplier is implemented for the chaotic oscillation

  5. Topics in computational linear optimization

    Hultberg, Tim Helge


    Linear optimization has been an active area of research ever since the pioneering work of G. Dantzig more than 50 years ago. This research has produced a long sequence of practical as well as theoretical improvements of the solution techniques avilable for solving linear optimization problems...... of high quality solvers and the use of algebraic modelling systems to handle the communication between the modeller and the solver. This dissertation features four topics in computational linear optimization: A) automatic reformulation of mixed 0/1 linear programs, B) direct solution of sparse unsymmetric...... systems of linear equations, C) reduction of linear programs and D) integration of algebraic modelling of linear optimization problems in C++. Each of these topics is treated in a separate paper included in this dissertation. The efficiency of solving mixed 0-1 linear programs by linear programming based...

  6. Linearization of the Lorenz system

    Li, Chunbiao, E-mail: [School of Electronic & Information Engineering, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Engineering Technology Research and Development Center of Jiangsu Circulation Modernization Sensor Network, Jiangsu Institute of Commerce, Nanjing 211168 (China); Sprott, Julien Clinton [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Thio, Wesley [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)


    A partial and complete piecewise linearized version of the Lorenz system is proposed. The linearized versions have an independent total amplitude control parameter. Additional further linearization leads naturally to a piecewise linear version of the diffusionless Lorenz system. A chaotic circuit with a single amplitude controller is then implemented using a new switch element, producing a chaotic oscillation that agrees with the numerical calculation for the piecewise linear diffusionless Lorenz system. - Highlights: • A partial and complete piecewise linearized version of the Lorenz system are addressed. • The linearized versions have an independent total amplitude control parameter. • A piecewise linear version of the diffusionless Lorenz system is derived by further linearization. • A corresponding chaotic circuit without any multiplier is implemented for the chaotic oscillation.

  7. Dryden Aeronautical Test Range

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Recently redesignated to honor Dr. Hugh L. Dryden, NASA's Dryden Aeronautical Test Range (DATR) supports aerospace flight research and technology integration, space...

  8. Compact Antenna Range

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Facility consists of a folded compact antenna range including a computer controlled three axis position table, parabolic reflector and RF sources for the measurement...

  9. On the linear programming bound for linear Lee codes.

    Astola, Helena; Tabus, Ioan


    Based on an invariance-type property of the Lee-compositions of a linear Lee code, additional equality constraints can be introduced to the linear programming problem of linear Lee codes. In this paper, we formulate this property in terms of an action of the multiplicative group of the field [Formula: see text] on the set of Lee-compositions. We show some useful properties of certain sums of Lee-numbers, which are the eigenvalues of the Lee association scheme, appearing in the linear programming problem of linear Lee codes. Using the additional equality constraints, we formulate the linear programming problem of linear Lee codes in a very compact form, leading to a fast execution, which allows to efficiently compute the bounds for large parameter values of the linear codes.

  10. Introduction to linear elasticity

    Gould, Phillip L


    Introduction to Linear Elasticity, 3rd Edition, provides an applications-oriented grounding in the tensor-based theory of elasticity for students in mechanical, civil, aeronautical, and biomedical engineering, as well as materials and earth science. The book is distinct from the traditional text aimed at graduate students in solid mechanics by introducing the subject at a level appropriate for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students. The author's presentation allows students to apply the basic notions of stress analysis and move on to advanced work in continuum mechanics, plasticity, plate and shell theory, composite materials, viscoelasticity and finite method analysis. This book also:  Emphasizes tensor-based approach while still distilling down to explicit notation Provides introduction to theory of plates, theory of shells, wave propagation, viscoelasticity and plasticity accessible to advanced undergraduate students Appropriate for courses following emerging trend of teaching solid mechan...

  11. Linear step drive

    Haniger, L.; Elger, R.; Kocandrle, L.; Zdebor, J.


    A linear step drive is described developed in Czechoslovak-Soviet cooperation and intended for driving WWER-1000 control rods. The functional principle is explained of the motor and the mechanical and electrical parts of the drive, power control, and the indicator of position are described. The motor has latches situated in the reactor at a distance of 3 m from magnetic armatures, it has a low structural height above the reactor cover, which suggests its suitability for seismic localities. Its magnetic circuits use counterpoles; the mechanical shocks at the completion of each step are damped using special design features. The position indicator is of a special design and evaluates motor position within ±1% of total travel. A drive diagram and the flow chart of both the control electronics and the position indicator are presented. (author) 4 figs

  12. Linear pulse amplifier

    Tjutju, R.L.


    Pulse amplifier is standard significant part of spectrometer. Apart from other type of amplification, it's a combination of amplification and pulse shaping. Because of its special purpose the device should fulfill the following : High resolution is desired to gain a high yield comparable to its actual state of condition. High signal to noise is desired to nhν resolution. High linearity to facilitate calibration. A good overload recovery, in order to the device will capable of analizing a low energy radiation which appear joinly on the high energy fields. Other expections of the device are its economical and practical use its extentive application. For that reason it's built on a standard NIM principle. Taking also into account the above mentioned considerations. High quality component parts are used throughout, while its availability in the domestic market is secured. (author)

  13. Linear Accelerator Laboratory


    This report covers the activity of the Linear Accelerator Laboratory during the period June 1974-June 1976. The activity of the Laboratory is essentially centered on high energy physics. The main activities were: experiments performed with the colliding rings (ACO), construction of the new colliding rings and beginning of the work at higher energy (DCI), bubble chamber experiments with the CERN PS neutrino beam, counter experiments with CERN's PS and setting-up of equipment for new experiments with CERN's SPS. During this period a project has also been prepared for an experiment with the new PETRA colliding ring at Hamburg. On the other hand, intense collaboration with the LURE Laboratory, using the electron synchrotron radiation emitted by ACO and DCI, has been developed [fr


    Van Atta, C.M.; Beringer, R.; Smith, L.


    A linear accelerator of heavy ions is described. The basic contributions of the invention consist of a method and apparatus for obtaining high energy particles of an element with an increased charge-to-mass ratio. The method comprises the steps of ionizing the atoms of an element, accelerating the resultant ions to an energy substantially equal to one Mev per nucleon, stripping orbital electrons from the accelerated ions by passing the ions through a curtain of elemental vapor disposed transversely of the path of the ions to provide a second charge-to-mass ratio, and finally accelerating the resultant stripped ions to a final energy of at least ten Mev per nucleon.

  15. Linear absorptive dielectrics

    Tip, A.


    Starting from Maxwell's equations for a linear, nonconducting, absorptive, and dispersive medium, characterized by the constitutive equations D(x,t)=ɛ1(x)E(x,t)+∫t-∞dsχ(x,t-s)E(x,s) and H(x,t)=B(x,t), a unitary time evolution and canonical formalism is obtained. Given the complex, coordinate, and frequency-dependent, electric permeability ɛ(x,ω), no further assumptions are made. The procedure leads to a proper definition of band gaps in the periodic case and a new continuity equation for energy flow. An S-matrix formalism for scattering from lossy objects is presented in full detail. A quantized version of the formalism is derived and applied to the generation of Čerenkov and transition radiation as well as atomic decay. The last case suggests a useful generalization of the density of states to the absorptive situation.

  16. Range Scheduling Aid (RSA)

    Logan, J. R.; Pulvermacher, M. K.


    Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: satellite control network; current and new approaches to range scheduling; MITRE tasking; RSA features; RSA display; constraint based analytic capability; RSA architecture; and RSA benefits.

  17. On Range of Skill

    Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre


    size (and doubly exponential in its depth). We also provide techniques that yield concrete bounds for unbalanced game trees and apply these to estimate the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe and Heads-Up Limit Texas Hold'em Poker. In particular, we show that the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe is more than...

  18. On the validity range of piston theory

    Meijer, M-C


    Full Text Available The basis of linear piston theory in unsteady potential flow is used in this work to develop a quantitative treatment of the validity range of piston theory. In the limit of steady flow, velocity perturbations from Donov’s series expansion...

  19. Linear versus non-linear structural information limit in high-resolution transmission electron microscopy

    Van Aert, S.; Chen, J.H.; Van Dyck, D.


    A widely used performance criterion in high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) is the information limit. It corresponds to the inverse of the maximum spatial object frequency that is linearly transmitted with sufficient intensity from the exit plane of the object to the image plane and is limited due to partial temporal coherence. In practice, the information limit is often measured from a diffractogram or from Young's fringes assuming a weak phase object scattering beyond the inverse of the information limit. However, for an aberration corrected electron microscope, with an information limit in the sub-angstrom range, weak phase objects are no longer applicable since they do not scatter sufficiently in this range. Therefore, one relies on more strongly scattering objects such as crystals of heavy atoms observed along a low index zone axis. In that case, dynamical scattering becomes important such that the non-linear and linear interaction may be equally important. The non-linear interaction may then set the experimental cut-off frequency observed in a diffractogram. The goal of this paper is to quantify both the linear and the non-linear information transfer in terms of closed form analytical expressions. Whereas the cut-off frequency set by the linear transfer can be directly related with the attainable resolution, information from the non-linear transfer can only be extracted using quantitative, model-based methods. In contrast to the historic definition of the information limit depending on microscope parameters only, the expressions derived in this paper explicitly incorporate their dependence on the structure parameters as well. In order to emphasize this dependence and to distinguish from the usual information limit, the expressions derived for the inverse cut-off frequencies will be referred to as the linear and non-linear structural information limit. The present findings confirm the well-known result that partial temporal coherence has

  20. Home range and travels

    Stickel, L.F.; King, John A.


    The concept of home range was expressed by Seton (1909) in the term 'home region,' which Burr (1940, 1943) clarified with a definition of home range and exemplified in a definitive study of Peromyscus in the field. Burt pointed out the ever-changing characteristics of home-range area and the consequent absence of boundaries in the usual sense--a finding verified by investigators thereafter. In the studies summarized in this paper, sizes of home ranges of Peromyscus varied within two magnitudes, approximately from 0.1 acre to ten acres, in 34 studies conducted in a variety of habitats from the seaside dunes of Florida to the Alaskan forests. Variation in sizes of home ranges was correlated with both environmental and physiological factors; with habitat it was conspicuous, both in the same and different regions. Food supply also was related to size of home range, both seasonally and in relation to habitat. Home ranges generally were smallest in winter and largest in spring, at the onset of the breeding season. Activity and size also were affected by changes in weather. Activity was least when temperatures were low and nights were bright. Effects of rainfall were variable. Sizes varied according to sex and age; young mice remained in the parents' range until they approached maturity, when they began to travel more widely. Adult males commonly had larger home ranges than females, although there were a number of exceptions. An inverse relationship between population density and size of home range was shown in several studies and probably is the usual relationship. A basic need for activity and exploration also appeared to influence size of home range. Behavior within the home range was discussed in terms of travel patterns, travels in relation to home sites and refuges, territory, and stability of size of home range. Travels within the home range consisted of repeated use of well-worn trails to sites of food, shelter, and refuge, plus more random exploratory travels

  1. Autonomous Target Ranging Techniques

    Jørgensen, Peter Siegbjørn; Jørgensen, John Leif; Denver, Troelz


    of this telescope, a fast determination of the range to and the motion of the detected targets are important. This is needed in order to prepare the future observation strategy for each target, i.e. when is the closest approach where imaging will be optimal. In order to quickly obtain such a determination two...... ranging strategies are presented. One is an improved laser ranger with an effective range with non-cooperative targets of at least 10,000 km, demonstrated in ground tests. The accuracy of the laser ranging will be approximately 1 m. The laser ranger may furthermore be used for trajectory determination...... of nano-gravity probes, which will perform direct mass measurements of selected targets. The other is triangulation from two spacecraft. For this method it is important to distinguish between detection and tracking range, which will be different for Bering since different instruments are used...

  2. Soliton microcomb range measurement

    Suh, Myoung-Gyun; Vahala, Kerry J.


    Laser-based range measurement systems are important in many application areas, including autonomous vehicles, robotics, manufacturing, formation flying of satellites, and basic science. Coherent laser ranging systems using dual-frequency combs provide an unprecedented combination of long range, high precision, and fast update rate. We report dual-comb distance measurement using chip-based soliton microcombs. A single pump laser was used to generate dual-frequency combs within a single microresonator as counterpropagating solitons. We demonstrated time-of-flight measurement with 200-nanometer precision at an averaging time of 500 milliseconds within a range ambiguity of 16 millimeters. Measurements at distances up to 25 meters with much lower precision were also performed. Our chip-based source is an important step toward miniature dual-comb laser ranging systems that are suitable for photonic integration.

  3. Progress on next generation linear colliders

    Ruth, R.D.


    In this paper, I focus on reviewing the issues and progress on a next generation linear collider with the general parameters of energy, luminosity, length, power, technology. The energy range is dictated by physics with a mass reach well beyond LEP, although somewhat short of SSC. The luminosity is that required to obtain 10 3 /minus/ 10 4 units of R 0 per year. The length is consistent with a site on Stanford land with collisions occurring on the SLAC site. The power was determined by economic considerations. Finally, the technology was limited by the desire to have a next generation linear collider before the next century. 25 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  4. A linear temperature-to-frequency converter

    Løvborg, Leif


    , and that the maximum value of the temperature-frequency coefficient beta in this point is-1/3 alpha, where a is the temperature coefficient of the thermistor at the corresponding temperature. Curves showing the range in which the converter is expected to be linear to within plusmn0.1 degC are given. A laboratory......-built converter having beta = 1.0% degC-1 at 25degC is found to be linear to within plusmn0. 1 degC from 10 to 40degC....

  5. Computer Program For Linear Algebra

    Krogh, F. T.; Hanson, R. J.


    Collection of routines provided for basic vector operations. Basic Linear Algebra Subprogram (BLAS) library is collection from FORTRAN-callable routines for employing standard techniques to perform basic operations of numerical linear algebra.

  6. Quaternion Linear Canonical Transform Application

    Bahri, Mawardi


    Quaternion linear canonical transform (QLCT) is a generalization of the classical linear canonical transfom (LCT) using quaternion algebra. The focus of this paper is to introduce an application of the QLCT to study of generalized swept-frequency filter

  7. Recursive Algorithm For Linear Regression

    Varanasi, S. V.


    Order of model determined easily. Linear-regression algorithhm includes recursive equations for coefficients of model of increased order. Algorithm eliminates duplicative calculations, facilitates search for minimum order of linear-regression model fitting set of data satisfactory.

  8. Dynamical systems and linear algebra

    Colonius, Fritz (Prof.)


    Dynamical systems and linear algebra / F. Colonius, W. Kliemann. - In: Handbook of linear algebra / ed. by Leslie Hogben. - Boca Raton : Chapman & Hall/CRC, 2007. - S. 56,1-56,22. - (Discrete mathematics and its applications)

  9. Linear spaces: history and theory

    Albrecht Beutelspracher


    Linear spaces belong to the most fundamental geometric and combinatorial structures. In this paper I would like to give an onerview about the theory of embedding finite linear spaces in finite projective planes.

  10. Linear versus non-linear supersymmetry, in general

    Ferrara, Sergio [Theoretical Physics Department, CERN,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); INFN - Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati,Via Enrico Fermi 40, I-00044 Frascati (Italy); Department of Physics and Astronomy, UniversityC.L.A.,Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Kallosh, Renata [SITP and Department of Physics, Stanford University,Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Proeyen, Antoine Van [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven,Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Wrase, Timm [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Technische Universität Wien,Wiedner Hauptstr. 8-10, A-1040 Vienna (Austria)


    We study superconformal and supergravity models with constrained superfields. The underlying version of such models with all unconstrained superfields and linearly realized supersymmetry is presented here, in addition to the physical multiplets there are Lagrange multiplier (LM) superfields. Once the equations of motion for the LM superfields are solved, some of the physical superfields become constrained. The linear supersymmetry of the original models becomes non-linearly realized, its exact form can be deduced from the original linear supersymmetry. Known examples of constrained superfields are shown to require the following LM’s: chiral superfields, linear superfields, general complex superfields, some of them are multiplets with a spin.

  11. Linear versus non-linear supersymmetry, in general

    Ferrara, Sergio; Kallosh, Renata; Proeyen, Antoine Van; Wrase, Timm


    We study superconformal and supergravity models with constrained superfields. The underlying version of such models with all unconstrained superfields and linearly realized supersymmetry is presented here, in addition to the physical multiplets there are Lagrange multiplier (LM) superfields. Once the equations of motion for the LM superfields are solved, some of the physical superfields become constrained. The linear supersymmetry of the original models becomes non-linearly realized, its exact form can be deduced from the original linear supersymmetry. Known examples of constrained superfields are shown to require the following LM’s: chiral superfields, linear superfields, general complex superfields, some of them are multiplets with a spin.

  12. Prediction ranges. Annual review

    Parker, J.C.; Tharp, W.H.; Spiro, P.S.; Keng, K.; Angastiniotis, M.; Hachey, L.T.


    Prediction ranges equip the planner with one more tool for improved assessment of the outcome of a course of action. One of their major uses is in financial evaluations, where corporate policy requires the performance of uncertainty analysis for large projects. This report gives an overview of the uses of prediction ranges, with examples; and risks and uncertainties in growth, inflation, and interest and exchange rates. Prediction ranges and standard deviations of 80% and 50% probability are given for various economic indicators in Ontario, Canada, and the USA, as well as for foreign exchange rates and Ontario Hydro interest rates. An explanatory note on probability is also included. 23 tabs.

  13. A primer on linear models

    Monahan, John F


    Preface Examples of the General Linear Model Introduction One-Sample Problem Simple Linear Regression Multiple Regression One-Way ANOVA First Discussion The Two-Way Nested Model Two-Way Crossed Model Analysis of Covariance Autoregression Discussion The Linear Least Squares Problem The Normal Equations The Geometry of Least Squares Reparameterization Gram-Schmidt Orthonormalization Estimability and Least Squares Estimators Assumptions for the Linear Mean Model Confounding, Identifiability, and Estimability Estimability and Least Squares Estimators F

  14. Templates for Linear Algebra Problems

    Bai, Z.; Day, D.; Demmel, J.; Dongarra, J.; Gu, M.; Ruhe, A.; Vorst, H.A. van der


    The increasing availability of advanced-architecture computers is having a very signicant eect on all spheres of scientic computation, including algorithm research and software development in numerical linear algebra. Linear algebra {in particular, the solution of linear systems of equations and

  15. Linearization of CIF through SOS

    Nadales Agut, D.E.; Reniers, M.A.; Luttik, B.; Valencia, F.


    Linearization is the procedure of rewriting a process term into a linear form, which consist only of basic operators of the process language. This procedure is interesting both from a theoretical and a practical point of view. In particular, a linearization algorithm is needed for the Compositional

  16. Linear Logic on Petri Nets

    Engberg, Uffe Henrik; Winskel, Glynn

    This article shows how individual Petri nets form models of Girard's intuitionistic linear logic. It explores questions of expressiveness and completeness of linear logic with respect to this interpretation. An aim is to use Petri nets to give an understanding of linear logic and give some apprai...

  17. Antenna Pattern Range (APR)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — TheAntenna Pattern Range (APR)features a non-metallic arch with a trolley to move the transmit antenna from the horizon to zenith. At the center of the ground plane,...

  18. Atlantic Test Range (ATR)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — ATR controls fully-instrumented and integrated test ranges that provide full-service support for cradle-to-grave testing. Airspace and surface target areas are used...

  19. EV range sensitivity analysis

    Ostafew, C. [Azure Dynamics Corp., Toronto, ON (Canada)


    This presentation included a sensitivity analysis of electric vehicle components on overall efficiency. The presentation provided an overview of drive cycles and discussed the major contributors to range in terms of rolling resistance; aerodynamic drag; motor efficiency; and vehicle mass. Drive cycles that were presented included: New York City Cycle (NYCC); urban dynamometer drive cycle; and US06. A summary of the findings were presented for each of the major contributors. Rolling resistance was found to have a balanced effect on each drive cycle and proportional to range. In terms of aerodynamic drive, there was a large effect on US06 range. A large effect was also found on NYCC range in terms of motor efficiency and vehicle mass. figs.

  20. Linear particle accelerator

    Richards, J.A.


    A linear particle accelerator which provides a pulsed beam of charged particles of uniform energy is described. The accelerator is in the form of an evacuated dielectric tube, inside of which a particle source is located at one end of the tube, with a target or window located at the other end of the dielectric tube. Along the length of the tube are externally located pairs of metal plates, each insulated from each other in an insulated housing. Each of the plates of a pair are connected to an electrical source of voltage of opposed polarity, with the polarity of the voltage of the plates oriented so that the plate of a pair, nearer to the particle source, is of the opposed polarity to the charge of the particle emitted by the source. Thus, a first plate about the tube located nearest the particle source, attracts a particle which as it passes through the tube past the first plate is then repelled by the reverse polarity of the second plate of the pair to continue moving towards the target

  1. Generalized Linear Covariance Analysis

    Carpenter, James R.; Markley, F. Landis


    This talk presents a comprehensive approach to filter modeling for generalized covariance analysis of both batch least-squares and sequential estimators. We review and extend in two directions the results of prior work that allowed for partitioning of the state space into solve-for'' and consider'' parameters, accounted for differences between the formal values and the true values of the measurement noise, process noise, and textita priori solve-for and consider covariances, and explicitly partitioned the errors into subspaces containing only the influence of the measurement noise, process noise, and solve-for and consider covariances. In this work, we explicitly add sensitivity analysis to this prior work, and relax an implicit assumption that the batch estimator's epoch time occurs prior to the definitive span. We also apply the method to an integrated orbit and attitude problem, in which gyro and accelerometer errors, though not estimated, influence the orbit determination performance. We illustrate our results using two graphical presentations, which we call the variance sandpile'' and the sensitivity mosaic,'' and we compare the linear covariance results to confidence intervals associated with ensemble statistics from a Monte Carlo analysis.

  2. Equipartitioning in linear accelerators

    Jameson, R.A.


    Emittance growth has long been a concern in linear accelerators, as has the idea that some kind of energy balance, or equipartitioning, between the degrees of freedom, would ameliorate the growth. M. Prome observed that the average transverse and longitudinal velocity spreads tend to equalize as current in the channel is increased, while the sum of the energy in the system stays nearly constant. However, only recently have we shown that an equipartitioning requirement on a bunched injected beam can indeed produce remarkably small emittance growth. The simple set of equations leading to this condition are outlined. At the same time, Hofmann has investigated collective instabilities in transported beams and has identified thresholds and regions in parameter space where instabilities occur. Evidence is presented that shows transport system boundaries to be quite accurate in computer simulations of accelerating systems. Discussed are preliminary results of efforts to design accelerators that avoid parameter regions where emittance is affected by the instabilities identified by Hofmann. These efforts suggest that other mechanisms are present. The complicated behavior of the RFQ linac in this framework also is shown

  3. Equipartitioning in linear accelerators

    Jameson, R.A.


    Emittance growth has long been a concern in linear accelerators, as has the idea that some kind of energy balance, or equipartitioning, between the degrees of freedom, would ameliorate the growth. M. Prome observed that the average transverse and longitudinal velocity spreads tend to equalize as current in the channel is increased, while the sum of the energy in the system stays nearly constant. However, only recently have we shown that an equipartitioning requirement on a bunched injected beam can indeed produce remarkably small emittance growth. The simple set of equations leading to this condition are outlined below. At the same time, Hofmann, using powerful analytical and computational methods, has investigated collective instabilities in transported beams and has identified thresholds and regions in parameter space where instabilities occur. This is an important generalization. Work that he will present at this conference shows that the results are essentially the same in r-z coordinates for transport systems, and evidence is presented that shows transport system boundaries to be quite accurate in computer simulations of accelerating systems also. Discussed are preliminary results of efforts to design accelerators that avoid parameter regions where emittance is affected by the instabilities identified by Hofmann. These efforts suggest that other mechanisms are present. The complicated behavior of the RFQ linac in this framework also is shown

  4. Linear induction accelerators

    Briggs, R.J.


    The development of linear induction accelerators has been motivated by applications requiring high-pulsed currents of charged particles at voltages exceeding the capability of single-stage, diode-type accelerators and at currents too high for rf accelerators. In principle, one can accelerate charged particles to arbitrarily high voltages using a multi-stage induction machine, but the 50-MeV, 10-kA Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) at LLNL is the highest voltage machine in existence at this time. The advent of magnetic pulse power systems makes sustained operation at high-repetition rates practical, and this capability for high-average power is very likely to open up many new applications of induction machines in the future. This paper surveys the US induction linac technology with primary emphasis on electron machines. A simplified description of how induction machines couple energy to the electron beam is given, to illustrate many of the general issues that bound the design space of induction linacs

  5. Berkeley Proton Linear Accelerator

    Alvarez, L. W.; Bradner, H.; Franck, J.; Gordon, H.; Gow, J. D.; Marshall, L. C.; Oppenheimer, F. F.; Panofsky, W. K. H.; Richman, C.; Woodyard, J. R.


    A linear accelerator, which increases the energy of protons from a 4 Mev Van de Graaff injector, to a final energy of 31.5 Mev, has been constructed. The accelerator consists of a cavity 40 feet long and 39 inches in diameter, excited at resonance in a longitudinal electric mode with a radio-frequency power of about 2.2 x 10{sup 6} watts peak at 202.5 mc. Acceleration is made possible by the introduction of 46 axial "drift tubes" into the cavity, which is designed such that the particles traverse the distance between the centers of successive tubes in one cycle of the r.f. power. The protons are longitudinally stable as in the synchrotron, and are stabilized transversely by the action of converging fields produced by focusing grids. The electrical cavity is constructed like an inverted airplane fuselage and is supported in a vacuum tank. Power is supplied by 9 high powered oscillators fed from a pulse generator of the artificial transmission line type.

  6. Hypocoercivity for linear kinetic equations conserving mass

    Dolbeault, Jean; Mouhot, Clé ment; Schmeiser, Christian


    We develop a new method for proving hypocoercivity for a large class of linear kinetic equations with only one conservation law. Local mass conservation is assumed at the level of the collision kernel, while transport involves a confining potential, so that the solution relaxes towards a unique equilibrium state. Our goal is to evaluate in an appropriately weighted $ L^2$ norm the exponential rate of convergence to the equilibrium. The method covers various models, ranging from diffusive kinetic equations like Vlasov-Fokker-Planck equations, to scattering models or models with time relaxation collision kernels corresponding to polytropic Gibbs equilibria, including the case of the linear Boltzmann model. In this last case and in the case of Vlasov-Fokker-Planck equations, any linear or superlinear growth of the potential is allowed. - See more at:

  7. Hypocoercivity for linear kinetic equations conserving mass

    Dolbeault, Jean


    We develop a new method for proving hypocoercivity for a large class of linear kinetic equations with only one conservation law. Local mass conservation is assumed at the level of the collision kernel, while transport involves a confining potential, so that the solution relaxes towards a unique equilibrium state. Our goal is to evaluate in an appropriately weighted $ L^2$ norm the exponential rate of convergence to the equilibrium. The method covers various models, ranging from diffusive kinetic equations like Vlasov-Fokker-Planck equations, to scattering models or models with time relaxation collision kernels corresponding to polytropic Gibbs equilibria, including the case of the linear Boltzmann model. In this last case and in the case of Vlasov-Fokker-Planck equations, any linear or superlinear growth of the potential is allowed. - See more at:

  8. Linear discriminant analysis for welding fault detection

    Li, X.; Simpson, S.W.


    This work presents a new method for real time welding fault detection in industry based on Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). A set of parameters was calculated from one second blocks of electrical data recorded during welding and based on control data from reference welds under good conditions, as well as faulty welds. Optimised linear combinations of the parameters were determined with LDA and tested with independent data. Short arc welds in overlap joints were studied with various power sources, shielding gases, wire diameters, and process geometries. Out-of-position faults were investigated. Application of LDA fault detection to a broad range of welding procedures was investigated using a similarity measure based on Principal Component Analysis. The measure determines which reference data are most similar to a given industrial procedure and the appropriate LDA weights are then employed. Overall, results show that Linear Discriminant Analysis gives an effective and consistent performance in real-time welding fault detection.

  9. Stress Induced in Periodontal Ligament under Orthodontic Loading (Part II): A Comparison of Linear Versus Non-Linear Fem Study.

    Hemanth, M; Deoli, Shilpi; Raghuveer, H P; Rani, M S; Hegde, Chatura; Vedavathi, B


    Simulation of periodontal ligament (PDL) using non-linear finite element method (FEM) analysis gives better insight into understanding of the biology of tooth movement. The stresses in the PDL were evaluated for intrusion and lingual root torque using non-linear properties. A three-dimensional (3D) FEM model of the maxillary incisors was generated using Solidworks modeling software. Stresses in the PDL were evaluated for intrusive and lingual root torque movements by 3D FEM using ANSYS software. These stresses were compared with linear and non-linear analyses. For intrusive and lingual root torque movements, distribution of stress over the PDL was within the range of optimal stress value as proposed by Lee, but was exceeding the force system given by Proffit as optimum forces for orthodontic tooth movement with linear properties. When same force load was applied in non-linear analysis, stresses were more compared to linear analysis and were beyond the optimal stress range as proposed by Lee for both intrusive and lingual root torque. To get the same stress as linear analysis, iterations were done using non-linear properties and the force level was reduced. This shows that the force level required for non-linear analysis is lesser than that of linear analysis.

  10. Ultrabroadband optical chirp linearization for precision metrology applications.

    Roos, Peter A; Reibel, Randy R; Berg, Trenton; Kaylor, Brant; Barber, Zeb W; Babbitt, Wm Randall


    We demonstrate precise linearization of ultrabroadband laser frequency chirps via a fiber-based self-heterodyne technique to enable extremely high-resolution, frequency-modulated cw laser-radar (LADAR) and a wide range of other metrology applications. Our frequency chirps cover bandwidths up to nearly 5 THz with frequency errors as low as 170 kHz, relative to linearity. We show that this performance enables 31-mum transform-limited LADAR range resolution (FWHM) and 86 nm range precisions over a 1.5 m range baseline. Much longer range baselines are possible but are limited by atmospheric turbulence and fiber dispersion.

  11. Random linear codes in steganography

    Kamil Kaczyński


    Full Text Available Syndrome coding using linear codes is a technique that allows improvement in the steganographic algorithms parameters. The use of random linear codes gives a great flexibility in choosing the parameters of the linear code. In parallel, it offers easy generation of parity check matrix. In this paper, the modification of LSB algorithm is presented. A random linear code [8, 2] was used as a base for algorithm modification. The implementation of the proposed algorithm, along with practical evaluation of algorithms’ parameters based on the test images was made.[b]Keywords:[/b] steganography, random linear codes, RLC, LSB

  12. Quad-copter UAV BLDC Motor Control: Linear v/s non-linear control maps

    Deep Parikh


    Full Text Available This paper presents some investigations and comparison of using linear versus non-linear static motor-control maps for the speed control of a BLDC (Brush Less Direct Current motors used in quad-copter UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. The motor-control map considered here is the inverse of the static map relating motor-speed output to motor-voltage input for a typical out-runner type Brushless DC Motors (BLDCM.  Traditionally, quad-copter BLDC motor speed control uses simple linear motor-control map defined by the motor-constant specification. However, practical BLDC motors show non-linear characteristic, particularly when operated across wide operating speed-range as is commonly required in quad-copter UAV flight operations. In this paper, our investigations to compare performance of linear versus non-linear motor-control maps are presented. The investigations cover simulation-based and experimental study of BLDC motor speed control systems for  quad-copter vehicle available. First the non-linear map relating rotor RPM to motor voltage for quad-copter BLDC motor is obtained experimentally using an optical speed encoder. The performance of the linear versus non-linear motor-control-maps for the speed control are studied. The investigations also cover study of time-responses for various standard test input-signals e.g. step, ramp and pulse inputs, applied as the reference speed-commands. Also, simple 2-degree of freedom test-bed is developed in our laboratory to help test the open-loop and closed-loop experimental investigations. The non-linear motor-control map is found to perform better in BLDC motor speed tracking control performance and thereby helping achieve better quad-copter roll-angle attitude control.

  13. Range Selection and Median

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Larsen, Kasper Green


    and several natural special cases thereof. The rst special case is known as range median, which arises when k is xed to b(j 􀀀 i + 1)=2c. The second case, denoted prex selection, arises when i is xed to 0. Finally, we also consider the bounded rank prex selection problem and the xed rank range......Range selection is the problem of preprocessing an input array A of n unique integers, such that given a query (i; j; k), one can report the k'th smallest integer in the subarray A[i];A[i+1]; : : : ;A[j]. In this paper we consider static data structures in the word-RAM for range selection...... selection problem. In the former, data structures must support prex selection queries under the assumption that k for some value n given at construction time, while in the latter, data structures must support range selection queries where k is xed beforehand for all queries. We prove cell probe lower bounds...

  14. Progress on $e^{+}e^{-}$ linear colliders

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit; Siemann, Peter


    Physics issues. The physics program will be reviewed for e+e- linear colliders in the TeV energy range. At these prospective facilities central issues of particle physics can be addressed, the problem of mass, unification and structure of space-time. In this context the two lectures will focus on analyses of the Higgs mechanism, supersymmetry and extra space dimensions. Moreover, high-precision studies of the top-quark and the gauge boson sector will be discussed. Combined with LHC results, a comprehensive picture can be developed of physics at the electroweak scale and beyond. Designs and technologies (R. Siemann - 29, 30, 31 May) The physics and technologies of high energy linear colliders will be reviewed. Fundamental concepts of linear colliders will be introduced. They will be discussed in: the context of the Stanford Linear Collider where many ideas changed and new ones were developed in response to operational experience. the requirements for future linear colliders. The different approaches for reac...

  15. Linear Algebraic Method for Non-Linear Map Analysis

    Yu, L.; Nash, B.


    We present a newly developed method to analyze some non-linear dynamics problems such as the Henon map using a matrix analysis method from linear algebra. Choosing the Henon map as an example, we analyze the spectral structure, the tune-amplitude dependence, the variation of tune and amplitude during the particle motion, etc., using the method of Jordan decomposition which is widely used in conventional linear algebra.

  16. A CMOS rail-to-rail linear VI-converter

    Vervoort, P.P.; Vervoort, P.P.; Wassenaar, R.F.


    A linear CMOS VI-converter operating in strong inversion with a common-mode input range from the negative to the positive supply rail is presented. The circuit consists of three linear VI-converters based on the difference of squares principle. Two of these perform the actual V to I conversion,

  17. Emittance control in linear colliders

    Ruth, R.D.


    In this paper, we discuss the generation and control of the emittance in a next-generation linear collider. The beams are extracted from a damping ring and compressed in length by the first bunch compressor. They are then accelerated in a preaccelerator linac up to an energy appropriate for injection into a high gradient linac. In many designs this pre-acceleration is followed by another bunch compression to reach a short bunch. After acceleration in the linac, the bunches are finally focused transversely to a small spot. The proposed vertical beam sizes at the interaction point are the order of a few nanometers while the horizontal sizes are about a factor of 100 larger. This cross-sectional area is about a factor of 10 4 smaller than the SLC. However, the main question is: what are the tolerances to achieve such a small size, and how do they compare to present techniques for alignment and stability? These tolerances are very design dependent. Alignment tolerances in the linac can vary from 1 μm to 100 μm depending upon the basic approach. In this paper we discuss techniques of emittance generation and control which move alignment tolerances to the 100 μm range

  18. Linear programming algorithms and applications

    Vajda, S


    This text is based on a course of about 16 hours lectures to students of mathematics, statistics, and/or operational research. It is intended to introduce readers to the very wide range of applicability of linear programming, covering problems of manage­ ment, administration, transportation and a number of other uses which are mentioned in their context. The emphasis is on numerical algorithms, which are illustrated by examples of such modest size that the solutions can be obtained using pen and paper. It is clear that these methods, if applied to larger problems, can also be carried out on automatic (electronic) computers. Commercially available computer packages are, in fact, mainly based on algorithms explained in this book. The author is convinced that the user of these algorithms ought to be knowledgeable about the underlying theory. Therefore this volume is not merely addressed to the practitioner, but also to the mathematician who is interested in relatively new developments in algebraic theory and in...

  19. An adjustable linear Halbach array

    Hilton, J.E., E-mail: [CSIRO Mathematics, Informatics and Statistics, Clayton South, VIC 3169 (Australia); McMurry, S.M. [School of Physics, Trinity College, Dublin (Ireland)


    The linear Halbach array is a well-known planar magnetic structure capable, in the idealized case, of generating a one-sided magnetic field. We show that such a field can be created from an array of uniformly magnetized rods, and rotating these rods in an alternating fashion can smoothly transfer the resultant magnetic field through the plane of the device. We examine an idealized model composed of infinite line dipoles and carry out computational simulations on a realizable device using a magnetic boundary element method. Such an arrangement can be used for an efficient latching device, or to produce a highly tunable field in the space above the device. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We model an adjustable 'one-sided' flux sheet made up of a series of dipolar magnetic field sources. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show that magnetic field can be switched from one side of sheet to other by a swap rotation of each of magnetic sources. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Investigations show that such an arrangement is practical and can easily be fabricated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The design has a wide range of potential applications.

  20. An adjustable linear Halbach array

    Hilton, J.E.; McMurry, S.M.


    The linear Halbach array is a well-known planar magnetic structure capable, in the idealized case, of generating a one-sided magnetic field. We show that such a field can be created from an array of uniformly magnetized rods, and rotating these rods in an alternating fashion can smoothly transfer the resultant magnetic field through the plane of the device. We examine an idealized model composed of infinite line dipoles and carry out computational simulations on a realizable device using a magnetic boundary element method. Such an arrangement can be used for an efficient latching device, or to produce a highly tunable field in the space above the device. - Highlights: ► We model an adjustable ‘one-sided’ flux sheet made up of a series of dipolar magnetic field sources. ► We show that magnetic field can be switched from one side of sheet to other by a swap rotation of each of magnetic sources. ► Investigations show that such an arrangement is practical and can easily be fabricated. ► The design has a wide range of potential applications.

  1. Online Sorted Range Reporting

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Fagerberg, Rolf; Greve, Mark


    is motivated by (and is a generalization of) a problem with applications in search engines: On a tree where leaves have associated rank values, report the highest ranked leaves in a given subtree. Finally, the problem studied generalizes the classic range minimum query (RMQ) problem on arrays....

  2. Substring Range Reporting

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li


    We revisit various string indexing problems with range reporting features, namely, position-restricted substring searching, indexing substrings with gaps, and indexing substrings with intervals. We obtain the following main results. We give efficient reductions for each of the above problems...

  3. Substring Range Reporting

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li


    We revisit various string indexing problems with range reporting features, namely, position-restricted substring searching, indexing substrings with gaps, and indexing substrings with intervals. We obtain the following main results. – We give efficient reductions for each of the above problems...

  4. Range-clustering queries

    Abrahamsen, M.; de Berg, M.T.; Buchin, K.A.; Mehr, M.; Mehrabi, A.D.


    In a geometric k -clustering problem the goal is to partition a set of points in R d into k subsets such that a certain cost function of the clustering is minimized. We present data structures for orthogonal range-clustering queries on a point set S : given a query box Q and an integer k>2 , compute

  5. Mechanistic investigation into the spontaneous linear assembly of gold nanospheres

    Yang, Miaoxin; Chen, Gang; Zhao, Yunfeng; Silber, Georg; Wang, Yong; Xing, Shuangxi; Han, Yu; Chen, Hongyu


    of the solution species under various experimental conditions permits new insights in the mechanism thereof. We provide evidence that the spontaneous linear aggregation in this system is a kinetically controlled process and hence the long-range charge repulsion

  6. Linear Programming and Network Flows

    Bazaraa, Mokhtar S; Sherali, Hanif D


    The authoritative guide to modeling and solving complex problems with linear programming-extensively revised, expanded, and updated The only book to treat both linear programming techniques and network flows under one cover, Linear Programming and Network Flows, Fourth Edition has been completely updated with the latest developments on the topic. This new edition continues to successfully emphasize modeling concepts, the design and analysis of algorithms, and implementation strategies for problems in a variety of fields, including industrial engineering, management science, operations research

  7. Extended Range Intercept Technology


    1988). Desert bighorn ewes with lambs show a stronger response than do groups of only rams, only ewes, or mixed groups of adults (Miller and Smith...1985). While all startle events may affect desert bighorns, those occurring during the lambing period (February-April) would represent the highest...35807 U.S. Army Pueblo Depot Activity SDSTE-PU-EE Pueblo, CO 81001-5000 U.S. Army White Sands Missile Range STEWS -EL-N White Sands, NM 88002-5076


    Parle Milind; Chaturvedi Dev


    No wonder that oranges are one of the most popular fruits in the world. Orange (citrus sinensis) is well known for its nutritional and medicinal properties throughout the world. From times immemorial, whole Orange plant including ripe and unripe fruits, juice, orange peels, leaves and flowers are used as a traditional medicine. Citrus sinensis belongs to the family Rutaceae. The fruit is a fleshy, indehiscent, berry that ranges widely in size from 4 cm to 12 cm. The major medicinal proper...

  9. LINEAR2007, Linear-Linear Interpolation of ENDF Format Cross-Sections


    1 - Description of program or function: LINEAR converts evaluated cross sections in the ENDF/B format into a tabular form that is subject to linear-linear interpolation in energy and cross section. The code also thins tables of cross sections already in that form. Codes used subsequently need thus to consider only linear-linear data. IAEA1311/15: This version include the updates up to January 30, 2007. Changes in ENDF/B-VII Format and procedures, as well as the evaluations themselves, make it impossible for versions of the ENDF/B pre-processing codes earlier than PREPRO 2007 (2007 Version) to accurately process current ENDF/B-VII evaluations. The present code can handle all existing ENDF/B-VI evaluations through release 8, which will be the last release of ENDF/B-VI. Modifications from previous versions: - Linear VERS. 2007-1 (JAN. 2007): checked against all ENDF/B-VII; increased page size from 60,000 to 600,000 points 2 - Method of solution: Each section of data is considered separately. Each section of File 3, 23, and 27 data consists of a table of cross section versus energy with any of five interpolation laws. LINEAR will replace each section with a new table of energy versus cross section data in which the interpolation law is always linear in energy and cross section. The histogram (constant cross section between two energies) interpolation law is converted to linear-linear by substituting two points for each initial point. The linear-linear is not altered. For the log-linear, linear-log and log- log laws, the cross section data are converted to linear by an interval halving algorithm. Each interval is divided in half until the value at the middle of the interval can be approximated by linear-linear interpolation to within a given accuracy. The LINEAR program uses a multipoint fractional error thinning algorithm to minimize the size of each cross section table

  10. Range Flight Safety Requirements

    Loftin, Charles E.; Hudson, Sandra M.


    The purpose of this NASA Technical Standard is to provide the technical requirements for the NPR 8715.5, Range Flight Safety Program, in regards to protection of the public, the NASA workforce, and property as it pertains to risk analysis, Flight Safety Systems (FSS), and range flight operations. This standard is approved for use by NASA Headquarters and NASA Centers, including Component Facilities and Technical and Service Support Centers, and may be cited in contract, program, and other Agency documents as a technical requirement. This standard may also apply to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory or to other contractors, grant recipients, or parties to agreements to the extent specified or referenced in their contracts, grants, or agreements, when these organizations conduct or participate in missions that involve range flight operations as defined by NPR 8715. In this standard, all mandatory actions (i.e., requirements) are denoted by statements containing the term “shall.”1.3 TailoringTailoring of this standard for application to a specific program or project shall be formally documented as part of program or project requirements and approved by the responsible Technical Authority in accordance with NPR 8715.3, NASA General Safety Program Requirements.

  11. Elementary linear programming with applications

    Kolman, Bernard


    Linear programming finds the least expensive way to meet given needs with available resources. Its results are used in every area of engineering and commerce: agriculture, oil refining, banking, and air transport. Authors Kolman and Beck present the basic notions of linear programming and illustrate how they are used to solve important common problems. The software on the included disk leads students step-by-step through the calculations. The Second Edition is completely revised and provides additional review material on linear algebra as well as complete coverage of elementary linear program

  12. Linearity and Non-linearity of Photorefractive effect in Materials ...

    Linearity and Non-linearity of Photorefractive effect in Materials using the Band transport ... For low light beam intensities the change in the refractive index is ... field is spatially phase shifted by /2 relative to the interference fringe pattern, which ...

  13. The linear programming bound for binary linear codes

    Brouwer, A.E.


    Combining Delsarte's (1973) linear programming bound with the information that certain weights cannot occur, new upper bounds for dmin (n,k), the maximum possible minimum distance of a binary linear code with given word length n and dimension k, are derived.

  14. Linear operator inequalities for strongly stable weakly regular linear systems

    Curtain, RF


    We consider the question of the existence of solutions to certain linear operator inequalities (Lur'e equations) for strongly stable, weakly regular linear systems with generating operators A, B, C, 0. These operator inequalities are related to the spectral factorization of an associated Popov

  15. Linear and non-linear optics of condensed matter

    McLean, T.P.


    Part I - Linear optics: 1. General introduction. 2. Frequency dependence of epsilon(ω, k vector). 3. Wave-vector dependence of epsilon(ω, k vector). 4. Tensor character of epsilon(ω, k vector). Part II - Non-linear optics: 5. Introduction. 6. A classical theory of non-linear response in one dimension. 7. The generalization to three dimensions. 8. General properties of the polarizability tensors. 9. The phase-matching condition. 10. Propagation in a non-linear dielectric. 11. Second harmonic generation. 12. Coupling of three waves. 13. Materials and their non-linearities. 14. Processes involving energy exchange with the medium. 15. Two-photon absorption. 16. Stimulated Raman effect. 17. Electro-optic effects. 18. Limitations of the approach presented here. (author)

  16. Advanced statistics: linear regression, part I: simple linear regression.

    Marill, Keith A


    Simple linear regression is a mathematical technique used to model the relationship between a single independent predictor variable and a single dependent outcome variable. In this, the first of a two-part series exploring concepts in linear regression analysis, the four fundamental assumptions and the mechanics of simple linear regression are reviewed. The most common technique used to derive the regression line, the method of least squares, is described. The reader will be acquainted with other important concepts in simple linear regression, including: variable transformations, dummy variables, relationship to inference testing, and leverage. Simplified clinical examples with small datasets and graphic models are used to illustrate the points. This will provide a foundation for the second article in this series: a discussion of multiple linear regression, in which there are multiple predictor variables.

  17. Non-linear finite element analysis in structural mechanics

    Rust, Wilhelm


    This monograph describes the numerical analysis of non-linearities in structural mechanics, i.e. large rotations, large strain (geometric non-linearities), non-linear material behaviour, in particular elasto-plasticity as well as time-dependent behaviour, and contact. Based on that, the book treats stability problems and limit-load analyses, as well as non-linear equations of a large number of variables. Moreover, the author presents a wide range of problem sets and their solutions. The target audience primarily comprises advanced undergraduate and graduate students of mechanical and civil engineering, but the book may also be beneficial for practising engineers in industry.

  18. Study of the linear momentum transfer distribution in the 40Ar+ 12 C system at 27,32,36,40,44 and 60 MeV/A. Is the reaction mechanism, at this energy range, really efficient for the nuclear matter heating

    Heuer, D.


    This work is devoted to the study of hot nuclei and especially to the difficulties encountered in reaching high excitation energies. It is first shown how data processing techniques can be considerably improved in order to handle more and more complex experimental data, then an analysis of the 40 Ar + 12 C reaction in reverse kinematics at incident energies ranging from 27 to 60 MeV/A is performed. Very phenomenological in a first step, this study then refers to partial fusion models and finally gives a comparison of the experimental data with the results of a code based on the Landau-Vlasov equations. This work enhances the inefficiency of the reaction mechanism to heat up nuclear matter [fr

  19. Long-range antigravity

    Macrae, K.I.; Riegert, R.J. (Maryland Univ., College Park (USA). Center for Theoretical Physics)


    We consider a theory in which fermionic matter interacts via long-range scalar, vector and tensor fields. In order not to be in conflict with experiment, the scalar and vector couplings for a given fermion must be equal, as is natural in a dimensionally reduced model. Assuming that the Sun is not approximately neutral with respect to these new scalar-vector charges, and if the couplings saturate the experimental bounds, then their strength can be comparable to that of gravity. Scalar-vector fields of this strength can compensate for a solar quadrupole moment contribution to Mercury's anomalous perihelion precession.

  20. Long-range antigravity

    Macrae, K.I.; Riegert, R.J.


    We consider a theory in which fermionic matter interacts via long-range scalar, vector and tensor fields. In order not to be in conflict with experiment, the scalar and vector couplings for a given fermion must be equal, as is natural in a dimensionally reduced model. Assuming that the Sun is not approximately neutral with respect to these new scalar-vector charges, and if the couplings saturate the experimental bounds, then their strength can be comparable to that of gravity. Scalar-vector fields of this strength can compensate for a solar quadrupole moment contribution to Mercury's anomalous perihelion precession. (orig.)

  1. Controllability analysis of decentralised linear controllers for polymeric fuel cells

    Serra, Maria; Aguado, Joaquin; Ansede, Xavier; Riera, Jordi [Institut de Robotica i Informatica Industrial, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya - Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, C. Llorens i Artigas 4, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)


    This work deals with the control of polymeric fuel cells. It includes a linear analysis of the system at different operating points, the comparison and selection of different control structures, and the validation of the controlled system by simulation. The work is based on a complex non linear model which has been linearised at several operating points. The linear analysis tools used are the Morari resiliency index, the condition number, and the relative gain array. These techniques are employed to compare the controllability of the system with different control structures and at different operating conditions. According to the results, the most promising control structures are selected and their performance with PI based diagonal controllers is evaluated through simulations with the complete non linear model. The range of operability of the examined control structures is compared. Conclusions indicate good performance of several diagonal linear controllers. However, very few have a wide operability range. (author)

  2. Enhancing Linearity of Voltage Controlled Oscillator Thermistor Signal Conditioning Circuit Using Linear Search

    Rana, K. P. S.; Kumar, Vineet; Prasad, Tapan


    Temperature to Frequency Converters (TFCs) are potential signal conditioning circuits (SCCs) usually employed in temperature measurements using thermistors. A NE/SE-566 based SCC has been recently used in several reported works as TFC. Application of NE/SE-566 based SCC requires a mechanism for finding the optimal values of SCC parameters yielding the optimal linearity and desired sensitivity performances. Two classical methods, namely, inflection point and three point have been employed for this task. In this work, the application of these two methods, on NE/SE-566 based SCC in TFC, is investigated in detail and the conditions for its effective usage are developed. Further, since these classical methods offer an approximate linearization of temperature and frequency relationship an application of a linear search based technique is proposed to further enhance the linearity. The implemented linear search method used results obtained from the above mentioned classical methods. The presented simulation studies, for three different industrial grade thermistors, revealed that the linearity enhancements of 21.7, 18.3 and 17.8% can be achieved over the inflection point method and 4.9, 4.7 and 4.7% over the three point method, for an input temperature range of 0-100 °C.

  3. Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow

    F. F. van Ogtrop; R. W. Vervoort; G. Z. Heller; D. M. Stasinopoulos; R. A. Rigby


    Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow in semi-arid Australia poses a number of major challenges. One of the challenges relates to modelling zero, skewed, non-stationary, and non-linear data. To address this, a statistical model to forecast streamflow up to 12 months ahead is applied to five semi-arid catchments in South Western Queensland. The model uses logistic regression through Generalised Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) to determine th...

  4. Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow

    F. F. van Ogtrop; R. W. Vervoort; G. Z. Heller; D. M. Stasinopoulos; R. A. Rigby


    Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow in semi-arid Australia poses a number of major challenges. One of the challenges relates to modelling zero, skewed, non-stationary, and non-linear data. To address this, a probabilistic statistical model to forecast streamflow 12 months ahead is applied to five semi-arid catchments in South Western Queensland. The model uses logistic regression through Generalised Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) to determine the probabil...

  5. Genetic parameters for racing records in trotters using linear and generalized linear models.

    Suontama, M; van der Werf, J H J; Juga, J; Ojala, M


    Heritability and repeatability and genetic and phenotypic correlations were estimated for trotting race records with linear and generalized linear models using 510,519 records on 17,792 Finnhorses and 513,161 records on 25,536 Standardbred trotters. Heritability and repeatability were estimated for single racing time and earnings traits with linear models, and logarithmic scale was used for racing time and fourth-root scale for earnings to correct for nonnormality. Generalized linear models with a gamma distribution were applied for single racing time and with a multinomial distribution for single earnings traits. In addition, genetic parameters for annual earnings were estimated with linear models on the observed and fourth-root scales. Racing success traits of single placings, winnings, breaking stride, and disqualifications were analyzed using generalized linear models with a binomial distribution. Estimates of heritability were greatest for racing time, which ranged from 0.32 to 0.34. Estimates of heritability were low for single earnings with all distributions, ranging from 0.01 to 0.09. Annual earnings were closer to normal distribution than single earnings. Heritability estimates were moderate for annual earnings on the fourth-root scale, 0.19 for Finnhorses and 0.27 for Standardbred trotters. Heritability estimates for binomial racing success variables ranged from 0.04 to 0.12, being greatest for winnings and least for breaking stride. Genetic correlations among racing traits were high, whereas phenotypic correlations were mainly low to moderate, except correlations between racing time and earnings were high. On the basis of a moderate heritability and moderate to high repeatability for racing time and annual earnings, selection of horses for these traits is effective when based on a few repeated records. Because of high genetic correlations, direct selection for racing time and annual earnings would also result in good genetic response in racing success.

  6. Para-mixed linear spaces

    Crasmareanu Mircea


    Full Text Available We consider the paracomplex version of the notion of mixed linear spaces introduced by M. Jurchescu in [4] by replacing the complex unit i with the paracomplex unit j, j2 = 1. The linear algebra of these spaces is studied with a special view towards their morphisms.

  7. Linear Algebra and Image Processing

    Allali, Mohamed


    We use the computing technology digital image processing (DIP) to enhance the teaching of linear algebra so as to make the course more visual and interesting. Certainly, this visual approach by using technology to link linear algebra to DIP is interesting and unexpected to both students as well as many faculty. (Contains 2 tables and 11 figures.)

  8. Efficient Searching with Linear Constraints

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars Allan; Erickson, Jeff


    We show how to preprocess a set S of points in d into an external memory data structure that efficiently supports linear-constraint queries. Each query is in the form of a linear constraint xd a0+∑d−1i=1 aixi; the data structure must report all the points of S that satisfy the constraint. This pr...

  9. Linear Motor With Air Slide

    Johnson, Bruce G.; Gerver, Michael J.; Hawkey, Timothy J.; Fenn, Ralph C.


    Improved linear actuator comprises air slide and linear electric motor. Unit exhibits low friction, low backlash, and more nearly even acceleration. Used in machinery in which positions, velocities, and accelerations must be carefully controlled and/or vibrations must be suppressed.

  10. Linear morphoea follows Blaschko's lines.

    Weibel, L; Harper, J I


    The aetiology of morphoea (or localized scleroderma) remains unknown. It has previously been suggested that lesions of linear morphoea may follow Blaschko's lines and thus reflect an embryological development. However, the distribution of linear morphoea has never been accurately evaluated. We aimed to identify common patterns of clinical presentation in children with linear morphoea and to establish whether linear morphoea follows the lines of Blaschko. A retrospective chart review of 65 children with linear morphoea was performed. According to clinical photographs the skin lesions of these patients were plotted on to standardized head and body charts. With the aid of Adobe Illustrator a final figure was produced including an overlay of all individual lesions which was used for comparison with the published lines of Blaschko. Thirty-four (53%) patients had the en coup de sabre subtype, 27 (41%) presented with linear morphoea on the trunk and/or limbs and four (6%) children had a combination of the two. In 55 (85%) children the skin lesions were confined to one side of the body, showing no preference for either left or right side. On comparing the overlays of all body and head lesions with the original lines of Blaschko there was an excellent correlation. Our data indicate that linear morphoea follows the lines of Blaschko. We hypothesize that in patients with linear morphoea susceptible cells are present in a mosaic state and that exposure to some trigger factor may result in the development of this condition.

  11. Dynamic Linear Models with R

    Campagnoli, Patrizia; Petris, Giovanni


    State space models have gained tremendous popularity in as disparate fields as engineering, economics, genetics and ecology. Introducing general state space models, this book focuses on dynamic linear models, emphasizing their Bayesian analysis. It illustrates the fundamental steps needed to use dynamic linear models in practice, using R package.

  12. Linear Programming across the Curriculum

    Yoder, S. Elizabeth; Kurz, M. Elizabeth


    Linear programming (LP) is taught in different departments across college campuses with engineering and management curricula. Modeling an LP problem is taught in every linear programming class. As faculty teaching in Engineering and Management departments, the depth to which teachers should expect students to master this particular type of…

  13. Introduction to RF linear accelerators

    Weiss, M.


    The basic features of RF linear accelerators are described. The concept of the 'loaded cavity', essential for the synchronism wave-particle, is introduced, and formulae describing the action of electromagnetic fields on the beam are given. The treatment of intense beams is mentioned, and various existing linear accelerators are presented as examples. (orig.)

  14. Spatial Processes in Linear Ordering

    von Hecker, Ulrich; Klauer, Karl Christoph; Wolf, Lukas; Fazilat-Pour, Masoud


    Memory performance in linear order reasoning tasks (A > B, B > C, C > D, etc.) shows quicker, and more accurate responses to queries on wider (AD) than narrower (AB) pairs on a hypothetical linear mental model (A -- B -- C -- D). While indicative of an analogue representation, research so far did not provide positive evidence for spatial…

  15. Linear methods in band theory

    Andersen, O. Krogh


    of Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker, linear-combination-of-atomic-orbitals, and cellular methods; the secular matrix is linear in energy, the overlap integrals factorize as potential parameters and structure constants, the latter are canonical in the sense that they neither depend on the energy nor the cell volume...

  16. Range Process Simulation Tool

    Phillips, Dave; Haas, William; Barth, Tim; Benjamin, Perakath; Graul, Michael; Bagatourova, Olga


    Range Process Simulation Tool (RPST) is a computer program that assists managers in rapidly predicting and quantitatively assessing the operational effects of proposed technological additions to, and/or upgrades of, complex facilities and engineering systems such as the Eastern Test Range. Originally designed for application to space transportation systems, RPST is also suitable for assessing effects of proposed changes in industrial facilities and large organizations. RPST follows a model-based approach that includes finite-capacity schedule analysis and discrete-event process simulation. A component-based, scalable, open architecture makes RPST easily and rapidly tailorable for diverse applications. Specific RPST functions include: (1) definition of analysis objectives and performance metrics; (2) selection of process templates from a processtemplate library; (3) configuration of process models for detailed simulation and schedule analysis; (4) design of operations- analysis experiments; (5) schedule and simulation-based process analysis; and (6) optimization of performance by use of genetic algorithms and simulated annealing. The main benefits afforded by RPST are provision of information that can be used to reduce costs of operation and maintenance, and the capability for affordable, accurate, and reliable prediction and exploration of the consequences of many alternative proposed decisions.

  17. Introduction to generalized linear models

    Dobson, Annette J


    Introduction Background Scope Notation Distributions Related to the Normal Distribution Quadratic Forms Estimation Model Fitting Introduction Examples Some Principles of Statistical Modeling Notation and Coding for Explanatory Variables Exponential Family and Generalized Linear Models Introduction Exponential Family of Distributions Properties of Distributions in the Exponential Family Generalized Linear Models Examples Estimation Introduction Example: Failure Times for Pressure Vessels Maximum Likelihood Estimation Poisson Regression Example Inference Introduction Sampling Distribution for Score Statistics Taylor Series Approximations Sampling Distribution for MLEs Log-Likelihood Ratio Statistic Sampling Distribution for the Deviance Hypothesis Testing Normal Linear Models Introduction Basic Results Multiple Linear Regression Analysis of Variance Analysis of Covariance General Linear Models Binary Variables and Logistic Regression Probability Distributions ...

  18. Acoustic emission linear pulse holography

    Collins, H.D.; Busse, L.J.; Lemon, D.K.


    This paper describes the emission linear pulse holography which produces a chronological linear holographic image of a flaw by utilizing the acoustic energy emitted during crack growth. A thirty two point sampling array is used to construct phase-only linear holograms of simulated acoustic emission sources on large metal plates. The concept behind the AE linear pulse holography is illustrated, and a block diagram of a data acquisition system to implement the concept is given. Array element spacing, synthetic frequency criteria, and lateral depth resolution are specified. A reference timing transducer positioned between the array and the inspection zone and which inititates the time-of-flight measurements is described. The results graphically illustrate the technique using a one-dimensional FFT computer algorithm (ie. linear backward wave) for an AE image reconstruction

  19. Linear and Generalized Linear Mixed Models and Their Applications

    Jiang, Jiming


    This book covers two major classes of mixed effects models, linear mixed models and generalized linear mixed models, and it presents an up-to-date account of theory and methods in analysis of these models as well as their applications in various fields. The book offers a systematic approach to inference about non-Gaussian linear mixed models. Furthermore, it has included recently developed methods, such as mixed model diagnostics, mixed model selection, and jackknife method in the context of mixed models. The book is aimed at students, researchers and other practitioners who are interested

  20. Calculation of projected ranges

    Biersack, J.P.


    The concept of multiple scattering is reconsidered for obtaining the directional spreading of ion motion as a function of energy loss. From this the mean projection of each pathlength element of the ion trajectory is derived which - upon summation or integration - leads to the desired mean projected range. In special cases, the calculation can be carried out analytically, otherwise a simple general algorithm is derived which is suitable even for the smallest programmable calculators. Necessary input for the present treatment consists only of generally accessable stopping power and straggling formulas. The procedure does not rely on scattering cross sections, e.g. power potential or f(t 1 sup(/) 2 ) approximations. The present approach lends itself easily to include electronic straggling or to treat composed target materials, or even to account for the so-called time integral. (orig.)

  1. Vertical Slot Convection: A linear study

    McAllister, A.; Steinolfson, R.; Tajima, T.


    The linear stability properties of fluid convection in a vertical slot were studied. We use a Fourier-Chebychev decomposition was used to set up the linear eigenvalue problems for the Vertical Slot Convection and Benard problems. The eigenvalues, neutral stability curves, and critical point values of the Grashof number, G, and the wavenumber were determined. Plots of the real and imaginary parts of the eigenvalues as functions of G and α are given for a wide range of the Prandtl number, Pr, and special note is made of the complex mode that becomes linearly unstable above Pr ∼ 12.5. A discussion comparing different special cases facilitates the physical understanding of the VSC equations, especially the interaction of the shear-flow and buoyancy induced physics. Making use of the real and imaginary eigenvalues and the phase properties of the eigenmodes, the eigenmodes were characterized. One finds that the mode structure becomes progressively simpler with increasing Pr, with the greatest complexity in the mid ranges where the terms in the heat equation are of roughly the same size

  2. ALPS: A Linear Program Solver

    Ferencz, Donald C.; Viterna, Larry A.


    ALPS is a computer program which can be used to solve general linear program (optimization) problems. ALPS was designed for those who have minimal linear programming (LP) knowledge and features a menu-driven scheme to guide the user through the process of creating and solving LP formulations. Once created, the problems can be edited and stored in standard DOS ASCII files to provide portability to various word processors or even other linear programming packages. Unlike many math-oriented LP solvers, ALPS contains an LP parser that reads through the LP formulation and reports several types of errors to the user. ALPS provides a large amount of solution data which is often useful in problem solving. In addition to pure linear programs, ALPS can solve for integer, mixed integer, and binary type problems. Pure linear programs are solved with the revised simplex method. Integer or mixed integer programs are solved initially with the revised simplex, and the completed using the branch-and-bound technique. Binary programs are solved with the method of implicit enumeration. This manual describes how to use ALPS to create, edit, and solve linear programming problems. Instructions for installing ALPS on a PC compatible computer are included in the appendices along with a general introduction to linear programming. A programmers guide is also included for assistance in modifying and maintaining the program.

  3. Linear and quasi-linear equations of parabolic type

    Ladyženskaja, O A; Ural′ceva, N N; Uralceva, N N


    Equations of parabolic type are encountered in many areas of mathematics and mathematical physics, and those encountered most frequently are linear and quasi-linear parabolic equations of the second order. In this volume, boundary value problems for such equations are studied from two points of view: solvability, unique or otherwise, and the effect of smoothness properties of the functions entering the initial and boundary conditions on the smoothness of the solutions.

  4. The Theory of Linear Prediction

    Vaidyanathan, PP


    Linear prediction theory has had a profound impact in the field of digital signal processing. Although the theory dates back to the early 1940s, its influence can still be seen in applications today. The theory is based on very elegant mathematics and leads to many beautiful insights into statistical signal processing. Although prediction is only a part of the more general topics of linear estimation, filtering, and smoothing, this book focuses on linear prediction. This has enabled detailed discussion of a number of issues that are normally not found in texts. For example, the theory of vecto

  5. Correlation and simple linear regression.

    Zou, Kelly H; Tuncali, Kemal; Silverman, Stuart G


    In this tutorial article, the concepts of correlation and regression are reviewed and demonstrated. The authors review and compare two correlation coefficients, the Pearson correlation coefficient and the Spearman rho, for measuring linear and nonlinear relationships between two continuous variables. In the case of measuring the linear relationship between a predictor and an outcome variable, simple linear regression analysis is conducted. These statistical concepts are illustrated by using a data set from published literature to assess a computed tomography-guided interventional technique. These statistical methods are important for exploring the relationships between variables and can be applied to many radiologic studies.

  6. Non-linear optical materials

    Saravanan, R


    Non-linear optical materials have widespread and promising applications, but the efforts to understand the local structure, electron density distribution and bonding is still lacking. The present work explores the structural details, the electron density distribution and the local bond length distribution of some non-linear optical materials. It also gives estimation of the optical band gap, the particle size, crystallite size, and the elemental composition from UV-Visible analysis, SEM, XRD and EDS of some non-linear optical materials respectively.

  7. Optimal control linear quadratic methods

    Anderson, Brian D O


    This augmented edition of a respected text teaches the reader how to use linear quadratic Gaussian methods effectively for the design of control systems. It explores linear optimal control theory from an engineering viewpoint, with step-by-step explanations that show clearly how to make practical use of the material.The three-part treatment begins with the basic theory of the linear regulator/tracker for time-invariant and time-varying systems. The Hamilton-Jacobi equation is introduced using the Principle of Optimality, and the infinite-time problem is considered. The second part outlines the

  8. Linear magnetic fusion: summary of Seattle workshop


    The linear-geometry magnetic confinement concept is among the oldest used in the study of high-temperature plasmas. However, it has generally been discounted as a suitable approach for demonstrating controlled thermonuclear fusion because rapid losses from the plasma column ends necessitate very long devices. Further, the losses and how to overcome them have not yet received parametric experimental study, nor do facilities exist with which such definitive experiments could be performed. Nonetheless, the important positive attribute, simplicity, together with the appearance of several ideas for reducing end losses have provided motivation for continued research on linear magnetic fusion (LMF). These motivations led to the LMF workshop, held in Seattle, March 9--11, 1977, which explored the potential of LMF as an alternate approach to fusion. A broad range of LMF aspects were addressed, including radial and axial losses, stability and equilibrium, heating, technology, and reactor considerations. The conclusions drawn at the workshop are summarized

  9. The linear rule of metal extraction

    Han Li; Yushuang Wang; Zhichun Chen; Shulan Meng


    On the basis of experimental results a linear rule for the solvent extraction of rare earths and yttrium over a definite range of acidity and metal ion concentration is found. Relations between the coefficients of the linear rule and initial acidity are presented for the extraction systems: HEH(EHP)-kerosene-HNO 3 -R(NO 3 ) 3 , HEH(EHP)-kerosene-HCl-RCl 3 , D2EHPA-n-heptane-HCl-RCl 3 , HEH(EHP)-n-heptane-HCl-RCl 3 , where R=La-Nd, Sm-Lu, Y; HEH(EHP)=momo(2-ethyl-hexyl)2-ethyl-hexyl phosphonate; D2EHPA=di(2-ethyl-hexyl) phosphoric acid. 3 refs.; 1 tab

  10. Linear algebra and group theory for physicists

    Rao, K N Srinivasa


    Professor Srinivasa Rao's text on Linear Algebra and Group Theory is directed to undergraduate and graduate students who wish to acquire a solid theoretical foundation in these mathematical topics which find extensive use in physics. Based on courses delivered during Professor Srinivasa Rao's long career at the University of Mysore, this text is remarkable for its clear exposition of the subject. Advanced students will find a range of topics such as the Representation theory of Linear Associative Algebras, a complete analysis of Dirac and Kemmer algebras, Representations of the Symmetric group via Young Tableaux, a systematic derivation of the Crystallographic point groups, a comprehensive and unified discussion of the Rotation and Lorentz groups and their representations, and an introduction to Dynkin diagrams in the classification of Lie groups. In addition, the first few chapters on Elementary Group Theory and Vector Spaces also provide useful instructional material even at an introductory level. An author...

  11. A New Linearization Technique Using Multi-sinh Doublet

    CEHAN, V.


    Full Text Available In this paper a new linearization technique using multi-sinh doublet, implemented with a second generation current conveyor is presented. This new linearization technique is compared with the one based on multi-tanh doublets with linearization series connected diodes on the branches. The comparative study of the two linearization techniques is carried out using both dynamic range analysis, expressed by linearity error and the THD value calculation of output current, and the noise behavior of the two analyzed doublets. For the multi-sinh linearization technique proposed in the paper a method which assures the increase of the dynamic range, keeping the transconductance value constant is presented. This is done by using two design parameters: the number of series connected diodes N, which specifies the desired linear operating range and the k emitters areas ratio of the input stage transistors, which establishes the transconductance value. In the paper is also shown that if the transconductances of the two analyzed doublets are identical, and for the same values of N and k parameters, respectively, the current consumption of the multi-sinh doublet is always smaller than for the multi-tanh doublet.

  12. Transition from linear to nonlinear sputtering of solid xenon

    Dutkiewicz, L.; Pedrys, R.; Schou, Jørgen


    Self-sputtering of solid xenon has been studied with molecular dynamics simulations as a model system for the transition from dominantly linear to strongly nonlinear effects. The simulation covered the projectile energy range from 20 to 750 eV. Within a relatively narrow range from 30 to 250 e...

  13. Cellular Automata Rules and Linear Numbers

    Nayak, Birendra Kumar; Sahoo, Sudhakar; Biswal, Sagarika


    In this paper, linear Cellular Automta (CA) rules are recursively generated using a binary tree rooted at "0". Some mathematical results on linear as well as non-linear CA rules are derived. Integers associated with linear CA rules are defined as linear numbers and the properties of these linear numbers are studied.

  14. Feedback systems for linear colliders

    Hendrickson, L; Himel, Thomas M; Minty, Michiko G; Phinney, N; Raimondi, Pantaleo; Raubenheimer, T O; Shoaee, H; Tenenbaum, P G


    Feedback systems are essential for stable operation of a linear collider, providing a cost-effective method for relaxing tight tolerances. In the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC), feedback controls beam parameters such as trajectory, energy, and intensity throughout the accelerator. A novel dithering optimization system which adjusts final focus parameters to maximize luminosity contributed to achieving record performance in the 1997-98 run. Performance limitations of the steering feedback have been investigated, and improvements have been made. For the Next Linear Collider (NLC), extensive feedback systems are planned as an intregal part of the design. Feedback requiremetns for JLC (the Japanese Linear Collider) are essentially identical to NLC; some of the TESLA requirements are similar but there are significant differences. For NLC, algorithms which incorporate improvements upon the SLC implementation are being prototyped. Specialized systems for the damping rings, rf and interaction point will operate at hi...

  15. An introduction to linear algebra

    Mirsky, L


    Rigorous, self-contained coverage of determinants, vectors, matrices and linear equations, quadratic forms, more. Elementary, easily readable account with numerous examples and problems at the end of each chapter.

  16. CLIC: developing a linear collider

    Laurent Guiraud


    Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is a CERN project to provide high-energy electron-positron collisions. Instead of conventional radio-frequency klystrons, CLIC will use a low-energy, high-intensity primary beam to produce acceleration.

  17. 1988 linear accelerator conference proceedings


    This report contains papers presented at the 1988 Linear Accelerator Conference. A few topics covered are beam dynamics; beam transport; superconducting components; free electron lasers; ion sources; and klystron research

  18. CERN balances linear collider studies

    ILC Newsline


    The forces behind the two most mature proposals for a next-generation collider, the International Linear Collider (ILC) and the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) study, have been steadily coming together, with scientists from both communities sharing ideas and information across the technology divide. In a support of cooperation between the two, CERN in Switzerland, where most CLIC research takes place, recently converted the project-specific position of CLIC Study Leader to the concept-based Linear Collider Study Leader.   The scientist who now holds this position, Steinar Stapnes, is charged with making the linear collider a viable option for CERN’s future, one that could include either CLIC or the ILC. The transition to more involve the ILC must be gradual, he said, and the redefinition of his post is a good start. Though not very much involved with superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) technology, where ILC researchers have made significant advances, CERN participates in many aspect...

  19. Linear Methods for Image Interpolation

    Pascal Getreuer


    We discuss linear methods for interpolation, including nearest neighbor, bilinear, bicubic, splines, and sinc interpolation. We focus on separable interpolation, so most of what is said applies to one-dimensional interpolation as well as N-dimensional separable interpolation.

  20. Ada Linear-Algebra Program

    Klumpp, A. R.; Lawson, C. L.


    Routines provided for common scalar, vector, matrix, and quaternion operations. Computer program extends Ada programming language to include linear-algebra capabilities similar to HAS/S programming language. Designed for such avionics applications as software for Space Station.

  1. Acoustic emission linear pulse holography

    Collins, H.D.; Busse, L.J.; Lemon, D.K.


    This device relates to the concept of and means for performing Acoustic Emission Linear Pulse Holography, which combines the advantages of linear holographic imaging and Acoustic Emission into a single non-destructive inspection system. This unique system produces a chronological, linear holographic image of a flaw by utilizing the acoustic energy emitted during crack growth. The innovation is the concept of utilizing the crack-generated acoustic emission energy to generate a chronological series of images of a growing crack by applying linear, pulse holographic processing to the acoustic emission data. The process is implemented by placing on a structure an array of piezoelectric sensors (typically 16 or 32 of them) near the defect location. A reference sensor is placed between the defect and the array.

  2. Measurement of linear attenuation coefficient of different materials

    Ali, M. M.


    In this research we study the linear attenuation coefficient from the materials concrete, brick, mixture concrete and iron. In the secondary standard dosimetry laboratory in Atomic Energy from different distance by use Cs-137 sours, chamber farmer 2675 A-600 cc-S/N 0511, and electrometer 2670 A-S/N 114. Found the value of linear attenuation coefficient of concert in the range 0.167 cm -1 , the brick in the range 0.063 -1 and mixture concrete and iron in the range 0.253cm -1 .(Author)

  3. Some new ternary linear codes

    Rumen Daskalov


    Full Text Available Let an $[n,k,d]_q$ code be a linear code of length $n$, dimension $k$ and minimum Hamming distance $d$ over $GF(q$. One of the most important problems in coding theory is to construct codes with optimal minimum distances. In this paper 22 new ternary linear codes are presented. Two of them are optimal. All new codes improve the respective lower bounds in [11].

  4. Explorative methods in linear models

    Høskuldsson, Agnar


    The author has developed the H-method of mathematical modeling that builds up the model by parts, where each part is optimized with respect to prediction. Besides providing with better predictions than traditional methods, these methods provide with graphic procedures for analyzing different feat...... features in data. These graphic methods extend the well-known methods and results of Principal Component Analysis to any linear model. Here the graphic procedures are applied to linear regression and Ridge Regression....

  5. Polarized Electrons for Linear Colliders

    Clendenin, J.


    Future electron-positron linear colliders require a highly polarized electron beam with a pulse structure that depends primarily on whether the acceleration utilizes warm or superconducting rf structures. The International Linear Collider (ILC) will use cold structures for the main linac. It is shown that a dc-biased polarized photoelectron source such as successfully used for the SLC can meet the charge requirements for the ILC micropulse with a polarization approaching 90%

  6. Long range trajectories

    Allen, P. W.; Jessup, E. A.; White, R. E. [Air Resources Field Research Office, Las Vegas, Nevada (United States)


    A single air molecule can have a trajectory that can be described with a line, but most meteorologists use single lines to represent the trajectories of air parcels. A single line trajectory has the disadvantage that it is a categorical description of position. Like categorized forecasts it provides no qualification, and no provision for dispersion in case the parcel contains two or more molecules which may take vastly different paths. Diffusion technology has amply demonstrated that an initial aerosol cloud or volume of gas in the atmosphere not only grows larger, but sometimes divides into puffs, each having a different path or swath. Yet, the average meteorologist, faced with the problem of predicting the future motion of a cloud, usually falls back on the line trajectory approach with the explanation that he had no better tool for long range application. In his more rational moments, he may use some arbitrary device to spread his cloud with distance. One such technique has been to separate the trajectory into two or more trajectories, spaced about the endpoint of the original trajectory after a short period of travel, repeating this every so often like a chain reaction. This has the obvious disadvantage of involving a large amount of labor without much assurance of improved accuracy. Another approach is to draw a circle about the trajectory endpoint, to represent either diffusion or error. The problem then is to know what radius to give the circle and also whether to call it diffusion or error. Meteorologists at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) are asked frequently to provide advice which involves trajectory technology, such as prediction of an aerosol cloud path, reconstruction of the motion of a volume of air, indication of the dilution, and the possible trajectory prediction error over great distances. Therefore, we set out, nearly three years ago, to provide some statistical knowledge about the status of our trajectory technology. This report contains some of the

  7. Simulation of a medical linear accelerator for teaching purposes.

    Anderson, Rhys; Lamey, Michael; MacPherson, Miller; Carlone, Marco


    Simulation software for medical linear accelerators that can be used in a teaching environment was developed. The components of linear accelerators were modeled to first order accuracy using analytical expressions taken from the literature. The expressions used constants that were empirically set such that realistic response could be expected. These expressions were programmed in a MATLAB environment with a graphical user interface in order to produce an environment similar to that of linear accelerator service mode. The program was evaluated in a systematic fashion, where parameters affecting the clinical properties of medical linear accelerator beams were adjusted independently, and the effects on beam energy and dose rate recorded. These results confirmed that beam tuning adjustments could be simulated in a simple environment. Further, adjustment of service parameters over a large range was possible, and this allows the demonstration of linear accelerator physics in an environment accessible to both medical physicists and linear accelerator service engineers. In conclusion, a software tool, named SIMAC, was developed to improve the teaching of linear accelerator physics in a simulated environment. SIMAC performed in a similar manner to medical linear accelerators. The authors hope that this tool will be valuable as a teaching tool for medical physicists and linear accelerator service engineers.

  8. A linear accelerator for simulated micrometeors.

    Slattery, J. C.; Becker, D. G.; Hamermesh, B.; Roy, N. L.


    Review of the theory, design parameters, and construction details of a linear accelerator designed to impart meteoric velocities to charged microparticles in the 1- to 10-micron diameter range. The described linac is of the Sloan Lawrence type and, in a significant departure from conventional accelerator practice, is adapted to single particle operation by employing a square wave driving voltage with the frequency automatically adjusted from 12.5 to 125 kHz according to the variable velocity of each injected particle. Any output velocity up to about 30 km/sec can easily be selected, with a repetition rate of approximately two particles per minute.

  9. Primordial black holes in linear and non-linear regimes

    Allahyari, Alireza; Abolhasani, Ali Akbar [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Firouzjaee, Javad T., E-mail:, E-mail: [School of Astronomy, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    We revisit the formation of primordial black holes (PBHs) in the radiation-dominated era for both linear and non-linear regimes, elaborating on the concept of an apparent horizon. Contrary to the expectation from vacuum models, we argue that in a cosmological setting a density fluctuation with a high density does not always collapse to a black hole. To this end, we first elaborate on the perturbation theory for spherically symmetric space times in the linear regime. Thereby, we introduce two gauges. This allows to introduce a well defined gauge-invariant quantity for the expansion of null geodesics. Using this quantity, we argue that PBHs do not form in the linear regime irrespective of the density of the background. Finally, we consider the formation of PBHs in non-linear regimes, adopting the spherical collapse picture. In this picture, over-densities are modeled by closed FRW models in the radiation-dominated era. The difference of our approach is that we start by finding an exact solution for a closed radiation-dominated universe. This yields exact results for turn-around time and radius. It is important that we take the initial conditions from the linear perturbation theory. Additionally, instead of using uniform Hubble gauge condition, both density and velocity perturbations are admitted in this approach. Thereby, the matching condition will impose an important constraint on the initial velocity perturbations δ {sup h} {sub 0} = −δ{sub 0}/2. This can be extended to higher orders. Using this constraint, we find that the apparent horizon of a PBH forms when δ > 3 at turn-around time. The corrections also appear from the third order. Moreover, a PBH forms when its apparent horizon is outside the sound horizon at the re-entry time. Applying this condition, we infer that the threshold value of the density perturbations at horizon re-entry should be larger than δ {sub th} > 0.7.

  10. Estimating monotonic rates from biological data using local linear regression.

    Olito, Colin; White, Craig R; Marshall, Dustin J; Barneche, Diego R


    Accessing many fundamental questions in biology begins with empirical estimation of simple monotonic rates of underlying biological processes. Across a variety of disciplines, ranging from physiology to biogeochemistry, these rates are routinely estimated from non-linear and noisy time series data using linear regression and ad hoc manual truncation of non-linearities. Here, we introduce the R package LoLinR, a flexible toolkit to implement local linear regression techniques to objectively and reproducibly estimate monotonic biological rates from non-linear time series data, and demonstrate possible applications using metabolic rate data. LoLinR provides methods to easily and reliably estimate monotonic rates from time series data in a way that is statistically robust, facilitates reproducible research and is applicable to a wide variety of research disciplines in the biological sciences. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. A Novel Final Focus Design for Future Linear Colliders

    Seryi, Andrei


    The length, complexity and cost of the present Final Focus designs for linear colliders grows very quickly with the beam energy. In this letter, a novel final focus system is presented and compared with the one proposed for NLC. This new design is simpler, shorter and cheaper, with comparable bandwidth, tolerances and tunability. Moreover, the length scales slower than linearly with energy allowing for a more flexible design which is applicable over a much larger energy range.

  12. Spectra of linear energy transfer along the range of 500 MeV carbon ions beam

    Spurný, František; Molokanov, A. G.


    Roč. 41, 5 (2006), s. 594-597 ISSN 1350-4487 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/04/0795 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : track etch detectors * chemical etching * LET spectrometry Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.915, year: 2006

  13. Optoelectronic device for the measurement of the absolute linear position in the micrometric displacement range

    Morlanes, Tomas; de la Pena, Jose L.; Sanchez-Brea, Luis M.; Alonso, Jose; Crespo, Daniel; Saez-Landete, Jose B.; Bernabeu, Eusebio


    In this work, an optoelectronic device that provides the absolute position of a measurement element with respect to a pattern scale upon switch-on is presented. That means that there is not a need to perform any kind of transversal displacement after the startup of the system. The optoelectronic device is based on the process of light propagation passing through a slit. A light source with a definite size guarantees the relation of distances between the different elements that constitute our system and allows getting a particular optical intensity profile that can be measured by an electronic post-processing device providing the absolute location of the system with a resolution of 1 micron. The accuracy of this measuring device is restricted to the same limitations of any incremental position optical encoder.

  14. The linear-non-linear frontier for the Goldstone Higgs

    Gavela, M.B.; Saa, S.; Kanshin, K.; Machado, P.A.N.


    The minimal SO(5)/SO(4) σ-model is used as a template for the ultraviolet completion of scenarios in which the Higgs particle is a low-energy remnant of some high-energy dynamics, enjoying a (pseudo) Nambu-Goldstone-boson ancestry. Varying the σ mass allows one to sweep from the perturbative regime to the customary non-linear implementations. The low-energy benchmark effective non-linear Lagrangian for bosons and fermions is obtained, determining as well the operator coefficients including linear corrections. At first order in the latter, three effective bosonic operators emerge which are independent of the explicit soft breaking assumed. The Higgs couplings to vector bosons and fermions turn out to be quite universal: the linear corrections are proportional to the explicit symmetry-breaking parameters. Furthermore, we define an effective Yukawa operator which allows a simple parametrization and comparison of different heavy-fermion ultraviolet completions. In addition, one particular fermionic completion is explored in detail, obtaining the corresponding leading low-energy fermionic operators. (orig.)

  15. Advanced statistics: linear regression, part II: multiple linear regression.

    Marill, Keith A


    The applications of simple linear regression in medical research are limited, because in most situations, there are multiple relevant predictor variables. Univariate statistical techniques such as simple linear regression use a single predictor variable, and they often may be mathematically correct but clinically misleading. Multiple linear regression is a mathematical technique used to model the relationship between multiple independent predictor variables and a single dependent outcome variable. It is used in medical research to model observational data, as well as in diagnostic and therapeutic studies in which the outcome is dependent on more than one factor. Although the technique generally is limited to data that can be expressed with a linear function, it benefits from a well-developed mathematical framework that yields unique solutions and exact confidence intervals for regression coefficients. Building on Part I of this series, this article acquaints the reader with some of the important concepts in multiple regression analysis. These include multicollinearity, interaction effects, and an expansion of the discussion of inference testing, leverage, and variable transformations to multivariate models. Examples from the first article in this series are expanded on using a primarily graphic, rather than mathematical, approach. The importance of the relationships among the predictor variables and the dependence of the multivariate model coefficients on the choice of these variables are stressed. Finally, concepts in regression model building are discussed.

  16. The linear-non-linear frontier for the Goldstone Higgs

    Gavela, M.B.; Saa, S. [IFT-UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Departamento de Fisica Teorica y Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Madrid (Spain); Kanshin, K. [Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia ' G. Galilei' , Padua (Italy); INFN, Padova (Italy); Machado, P.A.N. [IFT-UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Departamento de Fisica Teorica y Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Madrid (Spain); Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Theoretical Physics Department, Batavia, IL (United States)


    The minimal SO(5)/SO(4) σ-model is used as a template for the ultraviolet completion of scenarios in which the Higgs particle is a low-energy remnant of some high-energy dynamics, enjoying a (pseudo) Nambu-Goldstone-boson ancestry. Varying the σ mass allows one to sweep from the perturbative regime to the customary non-linear implementations. The low-energy benchmark effective non-linear Lagrangian for bosons and fermions is obtained, determining as well the operator coefficients including linear corrections. At first order in the latter, three effective bosonic operators emerge which are independent of the explicit soft breaking assumed. The Higgs couplings to vector bosons and fermions turn out to be quite universal: the linear corrections are proportional to the explicit symmetry-breaking parameters. Furthermore, we define an effective Yukawa operator which allows a simple parametrization and comparison of different heavy-fermion ultraviolet completions. In addition, one particular fermionic completion is explored in detail, obtaining the corresponding leading low-energy fermionic operators. (orig.)

  17. Linearization: Geometric, Complex, and Conditional

    Asghar Qadir


    Full Text Available Lie symmetry analysis provides a systematic method of obtaining exact solutions of nonlinear (systems of differential equations, whether partial or ordinary. Of special interest is the procedure that Lie developed to transform scalar nonlinear second-order ordinary differential equations to linear form. Not much work was done in this direction to start with, but recently there have been various developments. Here, first the original work of Lie (and the early developments on it, and then more recent developments based on geometry and complex analysis, apart from Lie’s own method of algebra (namely, Lie group theory, are reviewed. It is relevant to mention that much of the work is not linearization but uses the base of linearization.

  18. Window observers for linear systems

    Utkin Vadim


    Full Text Available Given a linear system x ˙ = A x + B u with output y = C x and a window function ω ( t , i.e., ∀ t , ω ( t ∈ {0,1 }, and assuming that the window function is Lebesgue measurable, we refer to the following observer, x ˆ = A x + B u + ω ( t L C ( x − x ˆ as a window observer. The stability issue is treated in this paper. It is proven that for linear time-invariant systems, the window observer can be stabilized by an appropriate design under a very mild condition on the window functions, albeit for linear time-varying system, some regularity of the window functions is required to achieve observer designs with the asymptotic stability. The corresponding design methods are developed. An example is included to illustrate the possible applications

  19. Linear Synchronous Motor Repeatability Tests

    Ward, C.R.


    A cart system using linear synchronous motors was being considered for the Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP). One of the applications in the PIP was the movement of a stack of furnace trays, filled with the waste form (pucks) from a stacking/unstacking station to several bottom loaded furnaces. A system was ordered to perform this function in the PIP Ceramic Prototype Test Facility (CPTF). This system was installed and started up in SRTC prior to being installed in the CPTF. The PIP was suspended and then canceled after the linear synchronous motor system was started up. This system was used to determine repeatability of a linear synchronous motor cart system for the Modern Pit Facility

  20. Linearly polarized photons at ELSA

    Eberhardt, Holger [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn (Germany)


    To investigate the nucleon resonance regime in meson photoproduction, double polarization experiments are currently performed at the electron accelerator ELSA in Bonn. The experiments make use of a polarized target and circularly or linearly polarized photon beams. Linearly polarized photons are produced by coherent bremsstrahlung from an accurately aligned diamond crystal. The orientation of the crystal with respect to the electron beam is measured using the Stonehenge-Technique. Both, the energy of maximum polarization and the plane of polarization, can be deliberately chosen for the experiment. The linearly polarized beam provides the basis for the measurement of azimuthal beam asymmetries, such as {sigma} (unpolarized target) and G (polarized target). These observables are extracted in various single and multiple meson photoproduction channels.

  1. Linear programming foundations and extensions

    Vanderbei, Robert J


    Linear Programming: Foundations and Extensions is an introduction to the field of optimization. The book emphasizes constrained optimization, beginning with a substantial treatment of linear programming, and proceeding to convex analysis, network flows, integer programming, quadratic programming, and convex optimization. The book is carefully written. Specific examples and concrete algorithms precede more abstract topics. Topics are clearly developed with a large number of numerical examples worked out in detail. Moreover, Linear Programming: Foundations and Extensions underscores the purpose of optimization: to solve practical problems on a computer. Accordingly, the book is coordinated with free efficient C programs that implement the major algorithms studied: -The two-phase simplex method; -The primal-dual simplex method; -The path-following interior-point method; -The homogeneous self-dual methods. In addition, there are online JAVA applets that illustrate various pivot rules and variants of the simplex m...

  2. Uniqueness theorems in linear elasticity

    Knops, Robin John


    The classical result for uniqueness in elasticity theory is due to Kirchhoff. It states that the standard mixed boundary value problem for a homogeneous isotropic linear elastic material in equilibrium and occupying a bounded three-dimensional region of space possesses at most one solution in the classical sense, provided the Lame and shear moduli, A and J1 respectively, obey the inequalities (3 A + 2 J1) > 0 and J1>O. In linear elastodynamics the analogous result, due to Neumann, is that the initial-mixed boundary value problem possesses at most one solution provided the elastic moduli satisfy the same set of inequalities as in Kirchhoffs theorem. Most standard textbooks on the linear theory of elasticity mention only these two classical criteria for uniqueness and neglect altogether the abundant literature which has appeared since the original publications of Kirchhoff. To remedy this deficiency it seems appropriate to attempt a coherent description ofthe various contributions made to the study of uniquenes...

  3. Bayes linear statistics, theory & methods

    Goldstein, Michael


    Bayesian methods combine information available from data with any prior information available from expert knowledge. The Bayes linear approach follows this path, offering a quantitative structure for expressing beliefs, and systematic methods for adjusting these beliefs, given observational data. The methodology differs from the full Bayesian methodology in that it establishes simpler approaches to belief specification and analysis based around expectation judgements. Bayes Linear Statistics presents an authoritative account of this approach, explaining the foundations, theory, methodology, and practicalities of this important field. The text provides a thorough coverage of Bayes linear analysis, from the development of the basic language to the collection of algebraic results needed for efficient implementation, with detailed practical examples. The book covers:The importance of partial prior specifications for complex problems where it is difficult to supply a meaningful full prior probability specification...

  4. Scalar-tensor linear inflation

    Artymowski, Michał [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Racioppi, Antonio, E-mail:, E-mail: [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Rävala 10, 10143 Tallinn (Estonia)


    We investigate two approaches to non-minimally coupled gravity theories which present linear inflation as attractor solution: a) the scalar-tensor theory approach, where we look for a scalar-tensor theory that would restore results of linear inflation in the strong coupling limit for a non-minimal coupling to gravity of the form of f (φ) R /2; b) the particle physics approach, where we motivate the form of the Jordan frame potential by loop corrections to the inflaton field. In both cases the Jordan frame potentials are modifications of the induced gravity inflationary scenario, but instead of the Starobinsky attractor they lead to linear inflation in the strong coupling limit.

  5. Linear canonical transforms theory and applications

    Kutay, M; Ozaktas, Haldun; Sheridan, John


    This book provides a clear and accessible introduction to the essential mathematical foundations of linear canonical transforms from a signals and systems perspective. Substantial attention is devoted to how these transforms relate to optical systems and wave propagation. There is extensive coverage of sampling theory and fast algorithms for numerically approximating the family of transforms. Chapters on topics ranging from digital holography to speckle metrology provide a window on the wide range of applications. This volume will serve as a reference for researchers in the fields of image and signal processing, wave propagation, optical information processing and holography, optical system design and modeling, and quantum optics. It will be of use to graduate students in physics and engineering, as well as for scientists in other areas seeking to learn more about this important yet relatively unfamiliar class of integral transformations.

  6. Linear and nonlinear piezoelectric shunting strategies for vibration mitigation

    Soltani P.


    Full Text Available This paper studies linear and nonlinear piezoelectric vibration absorbers that are designed based on the equal-peak method. A comparison between the performance of linear mechanical and electrical tuned vibration absorbers coupled to a linear oscillator is first performed. Nonlinearity is then introduced in the primary oscillator to which a new nonlinear electrical tuned vibration absorber is attached. Despite the frequency-energy dependence of nonlinear oscillations, we show that the nonlinear absorber is capable of effectively mitigating the vibrations of the nonlinear primary system in a large range of forcing amplitudes.

  7. Mathematical problems in non-linear Physics: some results


    The basic results presented in this report are the following: 1) Characterization of the range and Kernel of the variational derivative. 2) Determination of general conservation laws in linear evolution equations, as well as bounds for the number of polynomial conserved densities in non-linear evolution equations in two independent variables of even order. 3) Construction of the most general evolution equation which has a given family of conserved densities. 4) Regularity conditions for the validity of the Lie invariance method. 5) A simple class of perturbations in non-linear wave equations. 6) Soliton solutions in generalized KdV equations. (author)

  8. Permafrost Hazards and Linear Infrastructure

    Stanilovskaya, Julia; Sergeev, Dmitry


    The international experience of linear infrastructure planning, construction and exploitation in permafrost zone is being directly tied to the permafrost hazard assessment. That procedure should also consider the factors of climate impact and infrastructure protection. The current global climate change hotspots are currently polar and mountain areas. Temperature rise, precipitation and land ice conditions change, early springs occur more often. The big linear infrastructure objects cross the territories with different permafrost conditions which are sensitive to the changes in air temperature, hydrology, and snow accumulation which are connected to climatic dynamics. One of the most extensive linear structures built on permafrost worldwide are Trans Alaskan Pipeline (USA), Alaska Highway (Canada), Qinghai-Xizang Railway (China) and Eastern Siberia - Pacific Ocean Oil Pipeline (Russia). Those are currently being influenced by the regional climate change and permafrost impact which may act differently from place to place. Thermokarst is deemed to be the most dangerous process for linear engineering structures. Its formation and development depend on the linear structure type: road or pipeline, elevated or buried one. Zonal climate and geocryological conditions are also of the determining importance here. All the projects are of the different age and some of them were implemented under different climatic conditions. The effects of permafrost thawing have been recorded every year since then. The exploration and transportation companies from different countries maintain the linear infrastructure from permafrost degradation in different ways. The highways in Alaska are in a good condition due to governmental expenses on annual reconstructions. The Chara-China Railroad in Russia is under non-standard condition due to intensive permafrost response. Standards for engineering and construction should be reviewed and updated to account for permafrost hazards caused by the

  9. A Linear Electromagnetic Piston Pump

    Hogan, Paul H.

    Advancements in mobile hydraulics for human-scale applications have increased demand for a compact hydraulic power supply. Conventional designs couple a rotating electric motor to a hydraulic pump, which increases the package volume and requires several energy conversions. This thesis investigates the use of a free piston as the moving element in a linear motor to eliminate multiple energy conversions and decrease the overall package volume. A coupled model used a quasi-static magnetic equivalent circuit to calculate the motor inductance and the electromagnetic force acting on the piston. The force was an input to a time domain model to evaluate the mechanical and pressure dynamics. The magnetic circuit model was validated with finite element analysis and an experimental prototype linear motor. The coupled model was optimized using a multi-objective genetic algorithm to explore the parameter space and maximize power density and efficiency. An experimental prototype linear pump coupled pistons to an off-the-shelf linear motor to validate the mechanical and pressure dynamics models. The magnetic circuit force calculation agreed within 3% of finite element analysis, and within 8% of experimental data from the unoptimized prototype linear motor. The optimized motor geometry also had good agreement with FEA; at zero piston displacement, the magnetic circuit calculates optimized motor force within 10% of FEA in less than 1/1000 the computational time. This makes it well suited to genetic optimization algorithms. The mechanical model agrees very well with the experimental piston pump position data when tuned for additional unmodeled mechanical friction. Optimized results suggest that an improvement of 400% of the state of the art power density is attainable with as high as 85% net efficiency. This demonstrates that a linear electromagnetic piston pump has potential to serve as a more compact and efficient supply of fluid power for the human scale.

  10. Sparse Linear Identifiable Multivariate Modeling

    Henao, Ricardo; Winther, Ole


    and bench-marked on artificial and real biological data sets. SLIM is closest in spirit to LiNGAM (Shimizu et al., 2006), but differs substantially in inference, Bayesian network structure learning and model comparison. Experimentally, SLIM performs equally well or better than LiNGAM with comparable......In this paper we consider sparse and identifiable linear latent variable (factor) and linear Bayesian network models for parsimonious analysis of multivariate data. We propose a computationally efficient method for joint parameter and model inference, and model comparison. It consists of a fully...

  11. Quantized, piecewise linear filter network

    Sørensen, John Aasted


    A quantization based piecewise linear filter network is defined. A method for the training of this network based on local approximation in the input space is devised. The training is carried out by repeatedly alternating between vector quantization of the training set into quantization classes...... and equalization of the quantization classes linear filter mean square training errors. The equalization of the mean square training errors is carried out by adapting the boundaries between neighbor quantization classes such that the differences in mean square training errors are reduced...

  12. Correct Linearization of Einstein's Equations

    Rabounski D.


    Full Text Available Regularly Einstein's equations can be reduced to a wave form (linearly dependent from the second derivatives of the space metric in the absence of gravitation, the space rotation and Christoffel's symbols. As shown here, the origin of the problem is that one uses the general covariant theory of measurement. Here the wave form of Einstein's equations is obtained in the terms of Zelmanov's chronometric invariants (physically observable projections on the observer's time line and spatial section. The obtained equations depend on solely the second derivatives even if gravitation, the space rotation and Christoffel's symbols. The correct linearization proves: the Einstein equations are completely compatible with weak waves of the metric.

  13. Basic linear partial differential equations

    Treves, Francois


    Focusing on the archetypes of linear partial differential equations, this text for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students features most of the basic classical results. The methods, however, are decidedly nontraditional: in practically every instance, they tend toward a high level of abstraction. This approach recalls classical material to contemporary analysts in a language they can understand, as well as exploiting the field's wealth of examples as an introduction to modern theories.The four-part treatment covers the basic examples of linear partial differential equations and their

  14. Introduction to computational linear algebra

    Nassif, Nabil; Erhel, Jocelyne


    Introduction to Computational Linear Algebra introduces the reader with a background in basic mathematics and computer programming to the fundamentals of dense and sparse matrix computations with illustrating examples. The textbook is a synthesis of conceptual and practical topics in ""Matrix Computations."" The book's learning outcomes are twofold: to understand state-of-the-art computational tools to solve matrix computations problems (BLAS primitives, MATLAB® programming) as well as essential mathematical concepts needed to master the topics of numerical linear algebra. It is suitable for s

  15. Passive longitudinal phase space linearizer

    P. Craievich


    Full Text Available We report on the possibility to passively linearize the bunch compression process in electron linacs for the next generation x-ray free electron lasers. This can be done by using the monopole wakefields in a dielectric-lined waveguide. The optimum longitudinal voltage loss over the length of the bunch is calculated in order to compensate both the second-order rf time curvature and the second-order momentum compaction terms. Thus, the longitudinal phase space after the compression process is linearized up to a fourth-order term introduced by the convolution between the bunch and the monopole wake function.

  16. Generalized, Linear, and Mixed Models

    McCulloch, Charles E; Neuhaus, John M


    An accessible and self-contained introduction to statistical models-now in a modernized new editionGeneralized, Linear, and Mixed Models, Second Edition provides an up-to-date treatment of the essential techniques for developing and applying a wide variety of statistical models. The book presents thorough and unified coverage of the theory behind generalized, linear, and mixed models and highlights their similarities and differences in various construction, application, and computational aspects.A clear introduction to the basic ideas of fixed effects models, random effects models, and mixed m

  17. Emittance control in linear colliders

    Ruth, R.D.


    Before completing a realistic design of a next-generation linear collider, the authors must first learn the lessons taught by the first generation, the SLC. Given that, they must make designs fault tolerant by including correction and compensation in the basic design. They must also try to eliminate these faults by improved alignment and stability of components. When these two efforts cross, they have a realistic design. The techniques of generation and control of emittance reviewed here provide a foundation for a design which can obtain the necessary luminosity in a next-generation linear collider

  18. Linear contextual modal type theory

    Schack-Nielsen, Anders; Schürmann, Carsten

    Abstract. When one implements a logical framework based on linear type theory, for example the Celf system [?], one is immediately con- fronted with questions about their equational theory and how to deal with logic variables. In this paper, we propose linear contextual modal type theory that gives...... a mathematical account of the nature of logic variables. Our type theory is conservative over intuitionistic contextual modal type theory proposed by Nanevski, Pfenning, and Pientka. Our main contributions include a mechanically checked proof of soundness and a working implementation....

  19. Neutron-capture cross-section measurements of 74Ge and 76Ge in the energy region 0.4-14.8 MeV for neutrinoless double β decay applications

    Bhike, Megha; Tornow, Werner


    Fast neutron capture cross sections for the reactions 74Ge(n, γ)75Ge and 76Ge(n, γ)77Ge have been measured in the neutron energy region 0.4-14.8 MeV with the activation method. The results are important to identify backgrounds in the neutrinoless double- β decay experiments GERDA and MAJORANA, which use germanium as both source and detector. Isotopically enriched targets which consisted of 86% of 76Ge and 14% of 74Ge were irradiated with mono-energetic neutrons produced via 3H(p,n)3He, 2H(d,n)3He and 3H(d,n)4He reactions. The cross sections were determined relative to 197Au(n, γ)198Au, 115In(n,n')115mIn and 197Au(n,2n)196Au standard cross sections. The activities of the products were measured using high-resolution γ-ray spctroscopy. The present results are compared with the evaluated data from ENDF/B-VII.1 and TALYS.

  20. Linear concentration system; Sistema de concentracion lineal

    Gonzalez Lugo, J.I; Leon Rovira, N; Aguayo Tellez, H [Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)]. E-mails:;;


    Solar linear concentration technologies to generate high temperatures are limited to the ranges of 200 to 500 degrees Celsius. While its performance has been tested through prototypes and pilot plants around the world, there are still areas of opportunity that can be exploited to obtain a linear concentration that achieves temperatures above this range in order to have a better use of the available solar energy. Because of this: It is possible to develop a linear concentration system that can track the sun with minimal movement of the absorber-receiver while maintaining temperatures above 850 degrees Celsius sufficient for industrial processes that require that temperature. The methodology consists of a series of stages (conceptual design, simulation, evaluation, development concept, results and validation) through which concepts are generated that allow design and evaluation of solar concentrator configurations with the help of simulation software. We have designed a linear parabolic concentrating system which comprises a set of mirrors segments with different focal lengths that works within the range of 600 degrees Celsius; however, it is advancing in the development of a double concentration to reach 850 degrees Celsius. [Spanish] Las tecnologias de concentracion lineal solar para generar altas temperaturas se ven limitadas a los rangos de 200 a 500 grados centigrados. Si bien su funcionamiento ha sido probado a traves de prototipos y plantas piloto alrededor del mundo, aun existen areas de oportunidad que pueden ser aprovechadas para obtener un sistema de concentracion lineal que permita alcanzar temperaturas mayores a este rango para asi tener un mejor aprovechamiento de la energia solar disponible. Debido a esto: Es posible desarrollar un sistema de concentracion lineal capaz de seguir la trayectoria del Sol con minimo movimiento del absorbedor-recibidor al mismo tiempo que mantiene temperaturas superiores a los 850 grados centigrados suficientes para

  1. Electron Model of Linear-Field FFAG

    Koscielniak, Shane R


    A fixed-field alternating-gradient accelerator (FFAG) that employs only linear-field elements ushers in a new regime in accelerator design and dynamics. The linear-field machine has the ability to compact an unprecedented range in momenta within a small component aperture. With a tune variation which results from the natural chromaticity, the beam crosses many strong, uncorrec-table, betatron resonances during acceleration. Further, relativistic particles in this machine exhibit a quasi-parabolic time-of-flight that cannot be addressed with a fixed-frequency rf system. This leads to a new concept of bucketless acceleration within a rotation manifold. With a large energy jump per cell, there is possibly strong synchro-betatron coupling. A few-MeV electron model has been proposed to demonstrate the feasibility of these untested acceleration features and to investigate them at length under a wide range of operating conditions. This paper presents a lattice optimized for a 1.3 GHz rf, initial technology choices f...

  2. Physics with e+e- Linear Colliders

    Barklow, Timothy L


    We describe the physics potential of e + e - linear colliders in this report. These machines are planned to operate in the first phase at a center-of-mass energy of 500 GeV, before being scaled up to about 1 TeV. In the second phase of the operation, a final energy of about 2 TeV is expected. The machines will allow us to perform precision tests of the heavy particles in the Standard Model, the top quark and the electroweak bosons. They are ideal facilities for exploring the properties of Higgs particles, in particular in the intermediate mass range. New vector bosons and novel matter particles in extended gauge theories can be searched for and studied thoroughly. The machines provide unique opportunities for the discovery of particles in supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model, the spectrum of Higgs particles, the supersymmetric partners of the electroweak gauge and Higgs bosons, and of the matter particles. High precision analyses of their properties and interactions will allow for extrapolations to energy scales close to the Planck scale where gravity becomes significant. In alternative scenarios, like compositeness models, novel matter particles and interactions can be discovered and investigated in the energy range above the existing colliders up to the TeV scale. Whatever scenario is realized in Nature, the discovery potential of e + e - linear colliders and the high-precision with which the properties of particles and their interactions can be analyzed, define an exciting physics programme complementary to hadron machines

  3. LINTAB, Linear Interpolable Tables from any Continuous Variable Function


    1 - Description of program or function: LINTAB is designed to construct linearly interpolable tables from any function. The program will start from any function of a single continuous variable... FUNKY(X). By user input the function can be defined, (1) Over 1 to 100 X ranges. (2) Within each X range the function is defined by 0 to 50 constants. (3) At boundaries between X ranges the function may be continuous or discontinuous (depending on the constants used to define the function within each X range). 2 - Method of solution: LINTAB will construct a table of X and Y values where the tabulated (X,Y) pairs will be exactly equal to the function (Y=FUNKY(X)) and linear interpolation between the tabulated pairs will be within any user specified fractional uncertainty of the function for all values of X within the requested X range

  4. Vanilla Technicolor at Linear Colliders

    T. Frandsen, Mads; Jarvinen, Matti; Sannino, Francesco


    We analyze the reach of Linear Colliders (LC)s for models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We show that LCs can efficiently test the compositeness scale, identified with the mass of the new spin-one resonances, till the maximum energy in the center-of-mass of the colliding leptons. In ...

  5. Variational linear algebraic equations method

    Moiseiwitsch, B.L.


    A modification of the linear algebraic equations method is described which ensures a variational bound on the phaseshifts for potentials having a definite sign at all points. The method is illustrated by the elastic scattering of s-wave electrons by the static field of atomic hydrogen. (author)

  6. Feedback Systems for Linear Colliders


    Feedback systems are essential for stable operation of a linear collider, providing a cost-effective method for relaxing tight tolerances. In the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC), feedback controls beam parameters such as trajectory, energy, and intensity throughout the accelerator. A novel dithering optimization system which adjusts final focus parameters to maximize luminosity contributed to achieving record performance in the 1997-98 run. Performance limitations of the steering feedback have been investigated, and improvements have been made. For the Next Linear Collider (NLC), extensive feedback systems are planned as an integral part of the design. Feedback requirements for JLC (the Japanese Linear Collider) are essentially identical to NLC; some of the TESLA requirements are similar but there are significant differences. For NLC, algorithms which incorporate improvements upon the SLC implementation are being prototyped. Specialized systems for the damping rings, rf and interaction point will operate at high bandwidth and fast response. To correct for the motion of individual bunches within a train, both feedforward and feedback systems are planned. SLC experience has shown that feedback systems are an invaluable operational tool for decoupling systems, allowing precision tuning, and providing pulse-to-pulse diagnostics. Feedback systems for the NLC will incorporate the key SLC features and the benefits of advancing technologies

  7. Aspects of robust linear regression

    Davies, P.L.


    Section 1 of the paper contains a general discussion of robustness. In Section 2 the influence function of the Hampel-Rousseeuw least median of squares estimator is derived. Linearly invariant weak metrics are constructed in Section 3. It is shown in Section 4 that $S$-estimators satisfy an exact

  8. Periodic linear differential stochastic processes

    Kwakernaak, H.


    Periodic linear differential processes are defined and their properties are analyzed. Equivalent representations are discussed, and the solutions of related optimal estimation problems are given. An extension is presented of Kailath and Geesey’s [1] results concerning the innovations representation

  9. Linear colliders for photon collisions



    The enthusiasm of the first international workshop on photonphoton colliders and associated physics, held at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory from 28 March - 1 April, could have set a ball rolling. According to proponents of this physics, the particle physics one can study with a high energy linear collider is special and complements that of a hadron supercollider

  10. Saturation and linear transport equation

    Kutak, K.


    We show that the GBW saturation model provides an exact solution to the one dimensional linear transport equation. We also show that it is motivated by the BK equation considered in the saturated regime when the diffusion and the splitting term in the diffusive approximation are balanced by the nonlinear term. (orig.)

  11. Parameterized Linear Longitudinal Airship Model

    Kulczycki, Eric; Elfes, Alberto; Bayard, David; Quadrelli, Marco; Johnson, Joseph


    A parameterized linear mathematical model of the longitudinal dynamics of an airship is undergoing development. This model is intended to be used in designing control systems for future airships that would operate in the atmospheres of Earth and remote planets. Heretofore, the development of linearized models of the longitudinal dynamics of airships has been costly in that it has been necessary to perform extensive flight testing and to use system-identification techniques to construct models that fit the flight-test data. The present model is a generic one that can be relatively easily specialized to approximate the dynamics of specific airships at specific operating points, without need for further system identification, and with significantly less flight testing. The approach taken in the present development is to merge the linearized dynamical equations of an airship with techniques for estimation of aircraft stability derivatives, and to thereby make it possible to construct a linearized dynamical model of the longitudinal dynamics of a specific airship from geometric and aerodynamic data pertaining to that airship. (It is also planned to develop a model of the lateral dynamics by use of the same methods.) All of the aerodynamic data needed to construct the model of a specific airship can be obtained from wind-tunnel testing and computational fluid dynamics

  12. Linear Methods for Image Interpolation

    Pascal Getreuer


    Full Text Available We discuss linear methods for interpolation, including nearest neighbor, bilinear, bicubic, splines, and sinc interpolation. We focus on separable interpolation, so most of what is said applies to one-dimensional interpolation as well as N-dimensional separable interpolation.

  13. Directivity of basic linear arrays

    Bach, Henning


    For a linear uniform array ofnelements, an expression is derived for the directivity as a function of the spacing and the phase constants. The cases of isotropic elements, collinear short dipoles, and parallel short dipoles are included. The formula obtained is discussed in some detail and contour...

  14. Data Compression with Linear Algebra

    Etler, David


    A presentation on the applications of linear algebra to image compression. Covers entropy, the discrete cosine transform, thresholding, quantization, and examples of images compressed with DCT. Given in Spring 2015 at Ocean County College as part of the honors program.

  15. 175 Years of Linear Programming

    polynomial-time solvability of linear programming, that is, testing if a polyhedron Q E ~ ... Q is rational, i.e. all extreme points and rays of Q are ra- tional vectors or ..... rithrll terminates with an interior solution, a post-processing step is usually ...

  16. 175 Years of Linear Programming

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 10. 175 Years of Linear Programming - Max Flow = Min Cut. Vijay Chandru M R Rao. Series Article Volume 4 Issue 10 October 1999 pp 22-39. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  17. Linear collider systems and costs

    Loew, G.A.


    The purpose of this paper is to examine some of the systems and sub-systems involved in so-called ''conventional'' e + e - linear colliders and to study how their design affects the overall cost of these machines. There are presently a total of at least six 500 GeV c. of m. linear collider projects under study in the world. Aside from TESLA (superconducting linac at 1.3 GHz) and CLIC (two-beam accelerator with main linac at 30GHz), the other four proposed e + e - linear colliders can be considered ''conventional'' in that their main linacs use the proven technique of driving room temperature accelerator sections with pulsed klystrons and modulators. The centrally distinguishing feature between these projects is their main linac rf frequency: 3 GHz for the DESY machine, 11.424 GHz for the SLAC and JLC machines, and 14 GHz for the VLEPP machine. The other systems, namely the electron and positron sources, preaccelerators, compressors, damping rings and final foci, are fairly similar from project to project. Probably more than 80% of the cost of these linear colliders will be incurred in the two main linacs facing each other and it is therefore in their design and construction that major savings or extra costs may be found

  18. Linear accelerators of the future

    Loew, G.A.


    Some of the requirements imposed on future linear accelerators to be used in electron-positron colliders are reviewed, as well as some approaches presently being examined for meeting those requirements. RF sources for use in these linacs are described, as well as wakefields, single bunches, and multiple-bunch trains

  19. 175 Years of Linear Programming

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 5. 175 Years of Linear Programming - Pune's Gift. Vijay Chandru M R Rao. Series Article Volume 4 Issue 5 May ... Computer Science and Automation, IISc Bangalore 560012, India. Director, Indian Institute of Management, Bannerghatta Road, ...

  20. Spaces of Piecewise Linear Manifolds

    Gomez Lopez, Mauricio Esteban

    Abstract In this thesis we introduce Δ-set  ψPLd(RN) which we regard as the piecewise linear analogue of the space ψd(RN) of smooth d-dimensional submanifoldsin RN introduced by Galatius in [4]. Using ψPLd(RN) we define a bi-Δ-set Cd(RN)•,• ( whose geometric realization BCPLd(RN) = llCd(RN)•,•ll ......Abstract In this thesis we introduce Δ-set  ψPLd(RN) which we regard as the piecewise linear analogue of the space ψd(RN) of smooth d-dimensional submanifoldsin RN introduced by Galatius in [4]. Using ψPLd(RN) we define a bi-Δ-set Cd(RN)•,• ( whose geometric realization BCPLd(RN) = ll...... BCPLd (RN) ≅ ΩN–1lψPLd (RN)•l when N — d  ≥ 3. The proof of the main theorem relies on properties of ψPLd (RN) • which arise from the fact that this Δ-set can be obtained from a more general contravariant functor PL op → Sets defined on the category of finite dimensional polyhedraand piecewise linear...... maps, and on a fiberwise transversality result for piecewise linear submersions whose fibers are contained in R × (-1,1)N-1 ⊆ RN . For the proof of this transversality result we use a theorem of Hudson on extensions of piecewise linear isotopies which is why we need to include the condition N — d ≥ 3...

  1. Super-ranging. A new ranging strategy in European badgers.

    Aoibheann Gaughran

    Full Text Available We monitored the ranging of a wild European badger (Meles meles population over 7 years using GPS tracking collars. Badger range sizes varied seasonally and reached their maximum in June, July and August. We analysed the summer ranging behaviour, using 83 home range estimates from 48 individuals over 6974 collar-nights. We found that while most adult badgers (males and females remained within their own traditional social group boundaries, several male badgers (on average 22% regularly ranged beyond these traditional boundaries. These adult males frequently ranged throughout two (or more social group's traditional territories and had extremely large home ranges. We therefore refer to them as super-rangers. While ranging across traditional boundaries has been recorded over short periods of time for extraterritorial mating and foraging forays, or for pre-dispersal exploration, the animals in this study maintained their super-ranges from 2 to 36 months. This study represents the first time such long-term extra-territorial ranging has been described for European badgers. Holding a super-range may confer an advantage in access to breeding females, but could also affect local interaction networks. In Ireland & the UK, badgers act as a wildlife reservoir for bovine tuberculosis (TB. Super-ranging may facilitate the spread of disease by increasing both direct interactions between conspecifics, particularly across social groups, and indirect interactions with cattle in their shared environment. Understanding super-ranging behaviour may both improve our understanding of tuberculosis epidemiology and inform future control strategies.

  2. Implications of stress range for inelastic analysis

    Karabin, M.E.; Dhalla, A.K.


    The elastic stress range over a complete load cycle is routinely used to formulate simplified rules regarding the inelastic behavior of structures operating at elevated temperature. For example, a 300 series stainless steel structure operating at elevated temperature, in all probability, would satisfy the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code criteria if the linearized elastic stress range is less than three times the material yield strength. However, at higher elastic stress ranges it is difficult to judge, a priori, that a structural component would comply with inelastic Code criteria after a detailed inelastic analysis. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate that it is not the elastic stress range but the stress intensities at specific times during a thermal transient which provide a better insight into the inelastic response of the structure. The specific example of the CRBRP flued head design demonstrates that the temperature differential between various parts of the structure can be changed by modifying the insulation pattern and heat flow path in the structure, without significantly altering the elastic stress range over a complete load cycle. However, the modified design did reduce the stress intensity during steady state elevated temperature operation. This modified design satisfied the inelastic Code criteria whereas the initial design failed to comply with the strain accumulation criterion

  3. Linear fixed-field multipass arcs for recirculating linear accelerators

    V. S. Morozov


    Full Text Available Recirculating linear accelerators (RLA’s provide a compact and efficient way of accelerating particle beams to medium and high energies by reusing the same linac for multiple passes. In the conventional scheme, after each pass, the different energy beams coming out of the linac are separated and directed into appropriate arcs for recirculation, with each pass requiring a separate fixed-energy arc. In this paper we present a concept of an RLA return arc based on linear combined-function magnets, in which two and potentially more consecutive passes with very different energies are transported through the same string of magnets. By adjusting the dipole and quadrupole components of the constituting linear combined-function magnets, the arc is designed to be achromatic and to have zero initial and final reference orbit offsets for all transported beam energies. We demonstrate the concept by developing a design for a droplet-shaped return arc for a dogbone RLA capable of transporting two beam passes with momenta different by a factor of 2. We present the results of tracking simulations of the two passes and lay out the path to end-to-end design and simulation of a complete dogbone RLA.

  4. SIGMA1-2007, Doppler Broadening ENDF Format Linear-Linear. Interpolated Point Cross Section


    1 - Description of problem or function: SIGMA-1 Doppler broadens evaluated Cross sections given in the linear-linear interpolation form of the ENDF/B Format to one final temperature. The data is Doppler broadened, thinned, and output in the ENDF/B Format. IAEA0854/15: This version include the updates up to January 30, 2007. Changes in ENDF/B-VII Format and procedures, as well as the evaluations themselves, make it impossible for versions of the ENDF/B pre-processing codes earlier than PREPRO 2007 (2007 Version) to accurately process current ENDF/B-VII evaluations. The present code can handle all existing ENDF/B-VI evaluations through release 8, which will be the last release of ENDF/B-VI. 2 - Modifications from previous versions: Sigma-1 VERS. 2007-1 (Jan. 2007): checked against all ENDF/B-VII; increased page size from 60,000 to 360,000 energy points 3 - Method of solution: The energy grid is selected to ensure that the broadened data is linear-linear interpolable. SIGMA-1 starts from the free-atom Doppler broadening equations and adds the assumptions of linear data within the table and constant data outside the range of the table. If the Original data is not at zero Kelvin, the data is broadened by the effective temperature difference to the final temperature. If the data is already at a temperature higher than the final temperature, Doppler broadening is not performed. 4 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The input to SIGMA-1 must be data which vary linearly in energy and cross section between tabulated points. The LINEAR program provides such data. LINEAR uses only the ENDF/B BCD Format tape and copies all sections except File 3 as read. Since File 3 data are in identical Format for ENDF/B Versions I through VI, the program can be used with all these versions. - The present version Doppler broadens only to one final temperature

  5. Rock glaciers, Zailiysiky Range, Kungei Ranges, Tienshan, Kazakhstan, Version 1

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Zailiyskiy Alatau is the northernmost parallel latitudinal ranges of the Northern Tien Shan. The highest point of this range is the Talgar peak (4973 m a.s.l.)....

  6. Non-Linear Dynamics of Saturn's Rings

    Esposito, L. W.


    Non-linear processes can explain why Saturn's rings are so active and dynamic. Ring systems differ from simple linear systems in two significant ways: 1. They are systems of granular material: where particle-to-particle collisions dominate; thus a kinetic, not a fluid description needed. Stresses are strikingly inhomogeneous and fluctuations are large compared to equilibrium. 2. They are strongly forced by resonances: which drive a non-linear response, that push the system across thresholds that lead to persistent states. Some of this non-linearity is captured in a simple Predator-Prey Model: Periodic forcing from the moon causes streamline crowding; This damps the relative velocity. About a quarter phase later, the aggregates stir the system to higher relative velocity and the limit cycle repeats each orbit, with relative velocity ranging from nearly zero to a multiple of the orbit average. Summary of Halo Results: A predator-prey model for ring dynamics produces transient structures like `straw' that can explain the halo morphology and spectroscopy: Cyclic velocity changes cause perturbed regions to reach higher collision speeds at some orbital phases, which preferentially removes small regolith particles; surrounding particles diffuse back too slowly to erase the effect: this gives the halo morphology; this requires energetic collisions (v ≈ 10m/sec, with throw distances about 200km, implying objects of scale R ≈ 20km).Transform to Duffing Eqn : With the coordinate transformation, z = M2/3, the Predator-Prey equations can be combined to form a single second-order differential equation with harmonic resonance forcing.Ring dynamics and history implications: Moon-triggered clumping explains both small and large particles at resonances. We calculate the stationary size distribution using a cell-to-cell mapping procedure that converts the phase-plane trajectories to a Markov chain. Approximating it as an asymmetric random walk with reflecting boundaries

  7. Systems of Inhomogeneous Linear Equations

    Scherer, Philipp O. J.

    Many problems in physics and especially computational physics involve systems of linear equations which arise e.g. from linearization of a general nonlinear problem or from discretization of differential equations. If the dimension of the system is not too large standard methods like Gaussian elimination or QR decomposition are sufficient. Systems with a tridiagonal matrix are important for cubic spline interpolation and numerical second derivatives. They can be solved very efficiently with a specialized Gaussian elimination method. Practical applications often involve very large dimensions and require iterative methods. Convergence of Jacobi and Gauss-Seidel methods is slow and can be improved by relaxation or over-relaxation. An alternative for large systems is the method of conjugate gradients.

  8. Linear accelerator for radioisotope production

    Hansborough, L.D.; Hamm, R.W.; Stovall, J.E.


    A 200- to 500-μA source of 70- to 90-MeV protons would be a valuable asset to the nuclear medicine program. A linear accelerator (linac) can achieve this performance, and it can be extended to even higher energies and currents. Variable energy and current options are available. A 70-MeV linac is described, based on recent innovations in linear accelerator technology; it would be 27.3 m long and cost approx. $6 million. By operating the radio-frequency (rf) power system at a level necessary to produce a 500-μA beam current, the cost of power deposited in the radioisotope-production target is comparable with existing cyclotrons. If the rf-power system is operated at full power, the same accelerator is capable of producing an 1140-μA beam, and the cost per beam watt on the target is less than half that of comparable cyclotrons

  9. Linear regression in astronomy. II

    Feigelson, Eric D.; Babu, Gutti J.


    A wide variety of least-squares linear regression procedures used in observational astronomy, particularly investigations of the cosmic distance scale, are presented and discussed. The classes of linear models considered are (1) unweighted regression lines, with bootstrap and jackknife resampling; (2) regression solutions when measurement error, in one or both variables, dominates the scatter; (3) methods to apply a calibration line to new data; (4) truncated regression models, which apply to flux-limited data sets; and (5) censored regression models, which apply when nondetections are present. For the calibration problem we develop two new procedures: a formula for the intercept offset between two parallel data sets, which propagates slope errors from one regression to the other; and a generalization of the Working-Hotelling confidence bands to nonstandard least-squares lines. They can provide improved error analysis for Faber-Jackson, Tully-Fisher, and similar cosmic distance scale relations.

  10. Squares of Random Linear Codes

    Cascudo Pueyo, Ignacio; Cramer, Ronald; Mirandola, Diego


    a positive answer, for codes of dimension $k$ and length roughly $\\frac{1}{2}k^2$ or smaller. Moreover, the convergence speed is exponential if the difference $k(k+1)/2-n$ is at least linear in $k$. The proof uses random coding and combinatorial arguments, together with algebraic tools involving the precise......Given a linear code $C$, one can define the $d$-th power of $C$ as the span of all componentwise products of $d$ elements of $C$. A power of $C$ may quickly fill the whole space. Our purpose is to answer the following question: does the square of a code ``typically'' fill the whole space? We give...

  11. Linear inflation from quartic potential

    Kannike, Kristjan; Racioppi, Antonio [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics,Rävala 10, 10143 Tallinn (Estonia); Raidal, Martti [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics,Rävala 10, 10143 Tallinn (Estonia); Institute of Physics, University of Tartu,Tartu (Estonia)


    We show that if the inflaton has a non-minimal coupling to gravity and the Planck scale is dynamically generated, the results of Coleman-Weinberg inflation are confined in between two attractor solutions: quadratic inflation, which is ruled out by the recent measurements, and linear inflation which, instead, is in the experimental allowed region. The minimal scenario has only one free parameter — the inflaton’s non-minimal coupling to gravity — that determines all physical parameters such as the tensor-to-scalar ratio and the reheating temperature of the Universe. Should the more precise future measurements of inflationary parameters point towards linear inflation, further interest in scale-invariant scenarios would be motivated.

  12. Computational linear and commutative algebra

    Kreuzer, Martin


    This book combines, in a novel and general way, an extensive development of the theory of families of commuting matrices with applications to zero-dimensional commutative rings, primary decompositions and polynomial system solving. It integrates the Linear Algebra of the Third Millennium, developed exclusively here, with classical algorithmic and algebraic techniques. Even the experienced reader will be pleasantly surprised to discover new and unexpected aspects in a variety of subjects including eigenvalues and eigenspaces of linear maps, joint eigenspaces of commuting families of endomorphisms, multiplication maps of zero-dimensional affine algebras, computation of primary decompositions and maximal ideals, and solution of polynomial systems. This book completes a trilogy initiated by the uncharacteristically witty books Computational Commutative Algebra 1 and 2 by the same authors. The material treated here is not available in book form, and much of it is not available at all. The authors continue to prese...

  13. Perspectives on large linear colliders

    Richter, B.


    Three main items in the design of large linear colliders are presented. The first is the interrelation of energy and luminosity requirements. These two items impose severe constraints on the accelerator builder who must design a machine to meet the needs of experimentl high energy physics rather than designing a machine for its own sake. An introduction is also given for linear collider design, concentrating on what goes on at the collision point, for still another constraint comes here from the beam-beam interaction which further restricts the choices available to the accelerator builder. The author also gives his impressions of the state of the technology available for building these kinds of machines within the next decade. The paper concludes with a brief recommendation for how we can all get on with the work faster, and hope to realize these machines sooner by working together. 10 refs., 9 figs

  14. Forms and Linear Network Codes

    Hansen, Johan P.

    We present a general theory to obtain linear network codes utilizing forms and obtain explicit families of equidimensional vector spaces, in which any pair of distinct vector spaces intersect in the same small dimension. The theory is inspired by the methods of the author utilizing the osculating...... spaces of Veronese varieties. Linear network coding transmits information in terms of a basis of a vector space and the information is received as a basis of a possibly altered vector space. Ralf Koetter and Frank R. Kschischang introduced a metric on the set af vector spaces and showed that a minimal...... distance decoder for this metric achieves correct decoding if the dimension of the intersection of the transmitted and received vector space is sufficiently large. The vector spaces in our construction are equidistant in the above metric and the distance between any pair of vector spaces is large making...

  15. Linear gate with prescaled window

    Koch, J; Bissem, H H; Krause, H; Scobel, W [Hamburg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). 1. Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik


    An electronic circuit is described that combines the features of a linear gate, a single channel analyzer and a prescaler. It allows selection of a pulse height region between two adjustable thresholds and scales the intensity of the spectrum within this window down by a factor 2sup(N) (0<=N<=9), whereas the complementary part of the spectrum is transmitted without being affected.

  16. Stanford Linear Collider magnet positioning

    Wand, B.T.


    For the installation of the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) the positioning and alignment of the beam line components was performed in several individual steps. In the following the general procedures for each step are outlined. The calculation of ideal coordinates for the magnets in the entire SLC will be discussed in detail. Special emphasis was given to the mathematical algorithms and geometry used in the programs to calculate these ideal positions. 35 refs., 21 figs

  17. Order-constrained linear optimization.

    Tidwell, Joe W; Dougherty, Michael R; Chrabaszcz, Jeffrey S; Thomas, Rick P


    Despite the fact that data and theories in the social, behavioural, and health sciences are often represented on an ordinal scale, there has been relatively little emphasis on modelling ordinal properties. The most common analytic framework used in psychological science is the general linear model, whose variants include ANOVA, MANOVA, and ordinary linear regression. While these methods are designed to provide the best fit to the metric properties of the data, they are not designed to maximally model ordinal properties. In this paper, we develop an order-constrained linear least-squares (OCLO) optimization algorithm that maximizes the linear least-squares fit to the data conditional on maximizing the ordinal fit based on Kendall's τ. The algorithm builds on the maximum rank correlation estimator (Han, 1987, Journal of Econometrics, 35, 303) and the general monotone model (Dougherty & Thomas, 2012, Psychological Review, 119, 321). Analyses of simulated data indicate that when modelling data that adhere to the assumptions of ordinary least squares, OCLO shows minimal bias, little increase in variance, and almost no loss in out-of-sample predictive accuracy. In contrast, under conditions in which data include a small number of extreme scores (fat-tailed distributions), OCLO shows less bias and variance, and substantially better out-of-sample predictive accuracy, even when the outliers are removed. We show that the advantages of OCLO over ordinary least squares in predicting new observations hold across a variety of scenarios in which researchers must decide to retain or eliminate extreme scores when fitting data. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  18. Segmented rail linear induction motor

    Cowan, Jr., Maynard; Marder, Barry M.


    A segmented rail linear induction motor has a segmented rail consisting of a plurality of nonferrous electrically conductive segments aligned along a guideway. The motor further includes a carriage including at least one pair of opposed coils fastened to the carriage for moving the carriage. A power source applies an electric current to the coils to induce currents in the conductive surfaces to repel the coils from adjacent edges of the conductive surfaces.

  19. Linear polarization of BY Draconis

    Koch, R.H.; Pfeiffer, R.J.


    Linear polarization measurements are reported in four bandpasses for the flare star BY Dra. The red polarization is intrinsically variable at a confidence level greater than 99 percent. On a time scale of many months, the variability is not phase-locked to either a rotational or a Keplerian ephemeris. The observations of the three other bandpasses are useful principally to indicate a polarization spectrum rising toward shorter wavelengths

  20. Linear morphea with secondary mucinosis

    Khandpur Sujay


    Full Text Available Secondary mucin deposition in the skin is a common feature of lupus erythematosus and dermatomyositis. In scleroderma, it occurs uncommonly or in small amount. We describe a 7-year-old boy with progressive, linear, bound-down plaques involving the thighs, lower abdomen and back with no systemic involvement. Histopathology showed features of scleroderma with abundant mucin deposition in the reticular dermis. This report highlights excessive mucin deposition in lesions of morphea.

  1. Cast dielectric composite linear accelerator

    Sanders, David M [Livermore, CA; Sampayan, Stephen [Manteca, CA; Slenes, Kirk [Albuquerque, NM; Stoller, H M [Albuquerque, NM


    A linear accelerator having cast dielectric composite layers integrally formed with conductor electrodes in a solventless fabrication process, with the cast dielectric composite preferably having a nanoparticle filler in an organic polymer such as a thermosetting resin. By incorporating this cast dielectric composite the dielectric constant of critical insulating layers of the transmission lines of the accelerator are increased while simultaneously maintaining high dielectric strengths for the accelerator.

  2. Introduction to Microwave Linear [Accelerators

    Whittum, David H


    The elements of microwave linear accelerators are introduced starting with the principles of acceleration and accelerating structures. Considerations for microwave structure modeling and design are developed from an elementary point of view. Basic elements of microwave electronics are described for application to the accelerator circuit and instrumentation. Concepts of beam physics are explored together with examples of common beamline instruments. Charged particle optics and lattice diagnostics are introduced. Considerations for fixed-target and colliding-beam experimentation are summarized.

  3. Positive Quasi Linear Operator Formulation

    Berry, L.A.; Jaeger, E.F.


    Expressions for the RF quasi-linear operator are biquadratic sums over the Fourier modes (or FLR equivalent) that describe the RF electric field with a kernel that is a function of the two wave vectors, k-vector L and k-vector R , in the sum. As a result of either an implicit or explicit average over field lines or flux surfaces, this kernel only depends on one parallel wave vector, conventionally k R -vector. When k-vector is an independent component of the representation for E, the sums are demonstrably positive. However, except for closed field line systems, k-vector is dependent on the local direction of the equilibrium magnetic field, and, empirically, the absorbed energy and quasi-linear diffusion coefficients are observed to have negative features. We have formally introduced an independent k-vector sum by Fourier transforming the RF electric field (assuming straight field lines) using a field-line-length coordinate. The resulting expression is positive. We have modeled this approach by calculating the quasi linear operator for 'modes' with fixed k-vector. We form these modes by discretizing k-vector and then assigning all of the Fourier components with k-vectorthat fall within a given k-vector bin to that k-vector mode. Results will be shown as a function of the number of bins. Future work will involve implementing the expressions derived from the Fourier transform and evaluating the dependence on field line length


    Krogh, F. T.


    The Basic Linear Algebra Subprogram (BLAS) library is a collection of FORTRAN callable routines for employing standard techniques in performing the basic operations of numerical linear algebra. The BLAS library was developed to provide a portable and efficient source of basic operations for designers of programs involving linear algebraic computations. The subprograms available in the library cover the operations of dot product, multiplication of a scalar and a vector, vector plus a scalar times a vector, Givens transformation, modified Givens transformation, copy, swap, Euclidean norm, sum of magnitudes, and location of the largest magnitude element. Since these subprograms are to be used in an ANSI FORTRAN context, the cases of single precision, double precision, and complex data are provided for. All of the subprograms have been thoroughly tested and produce consistent results even when transported from machine to machine. BLAS contains Assembler versions and FORTRAN test code for any of the following compilers: Lahey F77L, Microsoft FORTRAN, or IBM Professional FORTRAN. It requires the Microsoft Macro Assembler and a math co-processor. The PC implementation allows individual arrays of over 64K. The BLAS library was developed in 1979. The PC version was made available in 1986 and updated in 1988.

  5. Test accelerator for linear collider

    Takeda, S.; Akai, K.; Akemoto, M.; Araki, S.; Hayano, H.; Hugo, T.; Ishihara, N.; Kawamoto, T.; Kimura, Y.; Kobayashi, H.; Kubo, T.; Kurokawa, S.; Matsumoto, H.; Mizuno, H.; Odagiri, J.; Otake, Y.; Sakai, H.; Shidara, T.; Shintake, T.; Suetake, M.; Takashima, T.; Takata, K.; Takeuchi, Y.; Urakawa, J.; Yamamoto, N.; Yokoya, K.; Yoshida, M.; Yoshioka, M.; Yamaoka, Y.


    KEK has proposed to build Test Accelerator Facility (TAF) capable of producing a 2.5 GeV electron beam for the purpose of stimulating R ampersand D for linear collider in TeV region. The TAF consists of a 1.5 GeV S-band linear accelerator, 1.5 GeV damping ring and 1.0 GeV X-band linear accelerator. The TAF project will be carried forward in three phases. Through Phase-I and Phase-II, the S-band and X-band linacs will be constructed, and in Phase-III, the damping ring will be completed. The construction of TAF Phase-I has started, and the 0.2 GeV S-band injector linac has been almost completed. The Phase-I linac is composed of a 240 keV electron gun, subharmonic bunchers, prebunchers and traveling buncher followed by high-gradient accelerating structures. The SLAC 5045 klystrons are driven at 450 kV in order to obtain the rf-power of 100 MW in a 1 μs pulse duration. The rf-power from a pair of klystrons are combined into an accelerating structure. The accelerating gradient up to 100 MeV/m will be obtained in a 0.6 m long structure. 5 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Orthogonal sparse linear discriminant analysis

    Liu, Zhonghua; Liu, Gang; Pu, Jiexin; Wang, Xiaohong; Wang, Haijun


    Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is a linear feature extraction approach, and it has received much attention. On the basis of LDA, researchers have done a lot of research work on it, and many variant versions of LDA were proposed. However, the inherent problem of LDA cannot be solved very well by the variant methods. The major disadvantages of the classical LDA are as follows. First, it is sensitive to outliers and noises. Second, only the global discriminant structure is preserved, while the local discriminant information is ignored. In this paper, we present a new orthogonal sparse linear discriminant analysis (OSLDA) algorithm. The k nearest neighbour graph is first constructed to preserve the locality discriminant information of sample points. Then, L2,1-norm constraint on the projection matrix is used to act as loss function, which can make the proposed method robust to outliers in data points. Extensive experiments have been performed on several standard public image databases, and the experiment results demonstrate the performance of the proposed OSLDA algorithm.

  7. Core seismic behaviour: linear and non-linear models

    Bernard, M.; Van Dorsselaere, M.; Gauvain, M.; Jenapierre-Gantenbein, M.


    The usual methodology for the core seismic behaviour analysis leads to a double complementary approach: to define a core model to be included in the reactor-block seismic response analysis, simple enough but representative of basic movements (diagrid or slab), to define a finer core model, with basic data issued from the first model. This paper presents the history of the different models of both kinds. The inert mass model (IMM) yielded a first rough diagrid movement. The direct linear model (DLM), without shocks and with sodium as an added mass, let to two different ones: DLM 1 with independent movements of the fuel and radial blanket subassemblies, and DLM 2 with a core combined movement. The non-linear (NLM) ''CORALIE'' uses the same basic modelization (Finite Element Beams) but accounts for shocks. It studies the response of a diameter on flats and takes into account the fluid coupling and the wrapper tube flexibility at the pad level. Damping consists of one modal part of 2% and one part due to shocks. Finally, ''CORALIE'' yields the time-history of the displacements and efforts on the supports, but damping (probably greater than 2%) and fluid-structures interaction are still to be precised. The validation experiments were performed on a RAPSODIE core mock-up on scale 1, in similitude of 1/3 as to SPX 1. The equivalent linear model (ELM) was developed for the SPX 1 reactor-block response analysis and a specified seismic level (SB or SM). It is composed of several oscillators fixed to the diagrid and yields the same maximum displacements and efforts than the NLM. The SPX 1 core seismic analysis with a diagrid input spectrum which corresponds to a 0,1 g group acceleration, has been carried out with these models: some aspects of these calculations are presented here

  8. Prospects for next-generation e+e- linear colliders

    Ruth, R.D.


    The purpose of this paper is to review progress in the US towards a next generation linear collider. During 1988, there were three workshops held on linear colliders: ''Physics of Linear Colliders,'' in Capri, Italy, June 14--18, 1988; Snowmass 88 (Linear Collider subsection) June 27--July 15, 1988; and SLAC International Workshop on Next Generation Linear Colliders, November 28--December 9, 1988. In this paper, I focus on reviewing the issues and progress on a next generation linear collider. The energy range is dictated by physics with a mass reach well beyond LEP, although somewhat short of SSC. The luminosity is that required to obtain 10 3 --10 4 units of R 0 per year. The length is consistent with a site on Stanford land with collision occurring on the SLAC site; the power was determined by economic considerations. Finally, the technology as limited by the desire to have a next generation linear collider by the next century. 37 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  9. A comparison between linear and toroidal Extrap systems

    Lehnert, B.


    The Extrap scheme consists of a Z-pinch immersed in an octupole field generated by currents in a set of external conductors. A comparison between linear and toroidal Extrap geometry is made in this paper. As compared to toroidal systems, linear geometry has the advantages of relative simplicity and of a current drive by means of electrodes. Linear devices are convenient for basic studies of Extrap, at moderately high pinch currents and plasma temperatures. Within the parameter ranges of experiments at high pinch currents and plasma temperatures, linear systems have on the other hand some substantial disadvantages, on account of the plasma interaction with the end regions. This results in a limitation of the energy confinement time, and leads in the case of an ohmically heated plasma to excessively high plasma densities and small pinch radii which also complicate the introduction of the external conductors. (author)

  10. Hydration thermodynamics beyond the linear response approximation.

    Raineri, Fernando O


    The solvation energetics associated with the transformation of a solute molecule at infinite dilution in water from an initial state A to a final state B is reconsidered. The two solute states have different potentials energies of interaction, [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], with the solvent environment. Throughout the A [Formula: see text] B transformation of the solute, the solvation system is described by a Hamiltonian [Formula: see text] that changes linearly with the coupling parameter ξ. By focusing on the characterization of the probability density [Formula: see text] that the dimensionless perturbational solute-solvent interaction energy [Formula: see text] has numerical value y when the coupling parameter is ξ, we derive a hierarchy of differential equation relations between the ξ-dependent cumulant functions of various orders in the expansion of the appropriate cumulant generating function. On the basis of this theoretical framework we then introduce an inherently nonlinear solvation model for which we are able to find analytical results for both [Formula: see text] and for the solvation thermodynamic functions. The solvation model is based on the premise that there is an upper or a lower bound (depending on the nature of the interactions considered) to the amplitude of the fluctuations of Y in the solution system at equilibrium. The results reveal essential differences in behavior for the model when compared with the linear response approximation to solvation, particularly with regards to the probability density [Formula: see text]. The analytical expressions for the solvation properties show, however, that the linear response behavior is recovered from the new model when the room for the thermal fluctuations in Y is not restricted by the existence of a nearby bound. We compare the predictions of the model with the results from molecular dynamics computer simulations for aqueous solvation, in which either (1) the solute

  11. A linear graph for digoxin radioimmunoassay

    Smith, S.E.; Richter, A.


    The determination of drug or hormone concentrations by radio-immunoassay involves interpolation of values for radioisotope counts within standard curves, a technique which requires some dexterity in curve drawing and which results in some inaccuracy in practice. Most of the procedures designed to overcome these difficulties are complex and time-consuming. In radioimmunoassays involving saturation of the antibody-binding sites a special case exists in that the bound radioactivity is directly proportional to the specific activity of the ligand in the system. Thus a graph of the ratio of radioactivity bound in the absence to that in the presence of added non-radioactive ligand is linear against the concentration of added ligand (Hales,C.N., and Randle, P.J., 1963, Biochem. J., vol. 88, 137). A description is given of a simple and convenient modification of their method, and its application to the routine clinical determination of digoxin using a commercial kit (Lanoxitest β digoxin radioimmunoassay kit, Wellcome Reagents Ltd.). Specially constructed graph paper, which yields linearity with standard solutions, was designed so that it could be used directly without data transmission. The specific activity function appears as the upper arithmetical horizontal scale; corresponding values of the concentration of non-radioactive ligand in the solution added were individually calculated and appear on the lower scale opposite the appropriate values of the upper scale. The linearity of the graphs obtained confirmed that binding of digoxin was approximately constant through the range of clinical concentrations tested (0.5 to 8ng/ml), although binding declined slightly at higher concentrations. (U.K.)

  12. An efficient linear power generator - Linear motor for oscillating piston machines; Effizienter Lineargenerator / Linearmotor fuer Kolbenmaschine - Schlussbericht

    Lindegger, M.


    When an oscillating piston interacts with an electrical generator or motor, it is obvious that the electrical machine should also have linear motion, eliminating the disadvantage of a crankshaft. This work has two parts: construction of an efficient linear generator for a Stirling engine with a free piston and a theoretical study of the efficiency of linear motors for driving compressors. The Stirling engine and the linear generator have a continuous power of 1.3 kW{sub el}. With thermal peak power the planned 1.5 kW{sub el} are attained. The Project 'Stirling Free Piston Generator' for cogeneration will continue. Smaller linear motors with permanent magnets function without electronic control from single-phase AC net. The theoretical study shows how linear motors can be led out by linking the electric vector diagram with the pressure-volume diagram of the compressor. At a power level exceeding a few kW, a three-phase system with power electronics is more suitable. The frequency of oscillation is variable and lower than 50 Hz. The efficiency of the simulated linear motors lies in the range of efficiency class EFF1 of standard motors. The very high efficiencies of rotating motors with permanent magnets are not attained. The combination of the linear motor with an optimised thermal process leads to advantages regarding the efficiency. If a heat pump with linear drive system can operate with hot lubricating oil the losses in the heat exchangers are reduced. The Competence Center for Thermal Machines at Lucerne University of Applied Sciences and Arts shows great interest to pursue the project of a linear heat pump for small temperature differences. (author)

  13. Linear collider applications of superconducting RF

    Rubin, D.L.


    The most promising technology for producing interactions of electrons and positrons in TeV energy range is the linear collider. In the linear collider each and every collision of charged particles depends on the production of the charges at rest and then the acceleration of those charges to full energy. The particles that exit the interaction region are discharded. A consequence of this mode of operation is that the luminosity of the machine is ultimately determined by the efficiency with which AC power can be converted into beam power. The consideration of superconducting cavities is motivated by the need for high efficiency. Thus, the high emittance around a beam collider and low emittance around beams are discussed first in the present report. Flat beams are then addressed focusing on the characteristics of the source, final focus, and beam stability. The beam stability, in particular, is discussed in detail in relation to the multiple bunch transverse stability, wake field induced energy spread, trapped modes, pulse width, duty cycle, RF power, and refrigerator power. (N.K.)

  14. Linear Prediction Using Refined Autocorrelation Function

    M. Shahidur Rahman


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new technique for improving the performance of linear prediction analysis by utilizing a refined version of the autocorrelation function. Problems in analyzing voiced speech using linear prediction occur often due to the harmonic structure of the excitation source, which causes the autocorrelation function to be an aliased version of that of the vocal tract impulse response. To estimate the vocal tract characteristics accurately, however, the effect of aliasing must be eliminated. In this paper, we employ homomorphic deconvolution technique in the autocorrelation domain to eliminate the aliasing effect occurred due to periodicity. The resulted autocorrelation function of the vocal tract impulse response is found to produce significant improvement in estimating formant frequencies. The accuracy of formant estimation is verified on synthetic vowels for a wide range of pitch frequencies typical for male and female speakers. The validity of the proposed method is also illustrated by inspecting the spectral envelopes of natural speech spoken by high-pitched female speaker. The synthesis filter obtained by the current method is guaranteed to be stable, which makes the method superior to many of its alternatives.

  15. Frequency scaling of linear super-colliders

    Mondelli, A.; Chernin, D.; Drobot, A.; Reiser, M.; Granatstein, V.


    The development of electron-positron linear colliders in the TeV energy range will be facilitated by the development of high-power rf sources at frequencies above 2856 MHz. Present S-band technology, represented by the SLC, would require a length in excess of 50 km per linac to accelerate particles to energies above 1 TeV. By raising the rf driving frequency, the rf breakdown limit is increased, thereby allowing the length of the accelerators to be reduced. Currently available rf power sources set the realizable gradient limit in an rf linac at frequencies above S-band. This paper presents a model for the frequency scaling of linear colliders, with luminosity scaled in proportion to the square of the center-of-mass energy. Since wakefield effects are the dominant deleterious effect, a separate single-bunch simulation model is described which calculates the evolution of the beam bunch with specified wakefields, including the effects of using programmed phase positioning and Landau damping. The results presented here have been obtained for a SLAC structure, scaled in proportion to wavelength

  16. Alignment of the stanford linear collider Arcs

    Pitthan, R.; Bell, B.; Friedsam, H.


    The alignment of the Arcs for the Stanford Linear Collider at SLAC has posed problems in accelerator survey and alignment not encountered before. These problems come less from the tight tolerances of 0.1 mm, although reaching such a tight statistically defined accuracy in a controlled manner is difficult enough, but from the absence of a common reference plane for the Arcs. Traditional circular accelerators, including HERA and LEP, have been designed in one plane referenced to local gravity. For the SLC Arcs no such single plane exists. Methods and concepts developed to solve these and other problems, connected with the unique design of SLC, range from the first use of satellites for accelerator alignment, use of electronic laser theodolites for placement of components, computer control of the manual adjustment process, complete automation of the data flow incorporating the most advanced concepts of geodesy, strict separation of survey and alignment, to linear principal component analysis for the final statistical smoothing of the mechanical components

  17. Slope Estimation in Noisy Piecewise Linear Functions.

    Ingle, Atul; Bucklew, James; Sethares, William; Varghese, Tomy


    This paper discusses the development of a slope estimation algorithm called MAPSlope for piecewise linear data that is corrupted by Gaussian noise. The number and locations of slope change points (also known as breakpoints) are assumed to be unknown a priori though it is assumed that the possible range of slope values lies within known bounds. A stochastic hidden Markov model that is general enough to encompass real world sources of piecewise linear data is used to model the transitions between slope values and the problem of slope estimation is addressed using a Bayesian maximum a posteriori approach. The set of possible slope values is discretized, enabling the design of a dynamic programming algorithm for posterior density maximization. Numerical simulations are used to justify choice of a reasonable number of quantization levels and also to analyze mean squared error performance of the proposed algorithm. An alternating maximization algorithm is proposed for estimation of unknown model parameters and a convergence result for the method is provided. Finally, results using data from political science, finance and medical imaging applications are presented to demonstrate the practical utility of this procedure.

  18. Linear stability analysis of heated parallel channels

    Nourbakhsh, H.P.; Isbin, H.S.


    An analyis is presented of thermal hydraulic stability of flow in parallel channels covering the range from inlet subcooling to exit superheat. The model is based on a one-dimensional drift velocity formulation of the two phase flow conservation equations. The system of equations is linearized by assuming small disturbances about the steady state. The dynamic response of the system to an inlet flow perturbation is derived yielding the characteristic equation which predicts the onset of instabilities. A specific application is carried out for homogeneous and regional uniformly heated systems. The particular case of equal characteristic frequencies of two-phase and single phase vapor region is studied in detail. The D-partition method and the Mikhailov stability criterion are used for determining the marginal stability boundary. Stability predictions from the present analysis are compared with the experimental data from the solar test facility. 8 references

  19. New nonlinear methods for linear transport calculations

    Adams, M.L.


    We present a new family of methods for the numerical solution of the linear transport equation. With these methods an iteration consists of an 'S N sweep' followed by an 'S 2 -like' calculation. We show, by analysis as well as numerical results, that iterative convergence is always rapid. We show that this rapid convergence does not depend on a consistent discretization of the S 2 -like equations - they can be discretized independently from the S N equations. We show further that independent discretizations can offer significant advantages over consistent ones. In particular, we find that in a wide range of problems, an accurate discretization of the S 2 -like equation can be combined with a crude discretization of the S N equations to produce an accurate S N answer. We demonstrate this by analysis as well as numerical results. (orig.)

  20. Nonlinear Modeling by Assembling Piecewise Linear Models

    Yao, Weigang; Liou, Meng-Sing


    To preserve nonlinearity of a full order system over a parameters range of interest, we propose a simple modeling approach by assembling a set of piecewise local solutions, including the first-order Taylor series terms expanded about some sampling states. The work by Rewienski and White inspired our use of piecewise linear local solutions. The assembly of these local approximations is accomplished by assigning nonlinear weights, through radial basis functions in this study. The efficacy of the proposed procedure is validated for a two-dimensional airfoil moving at different Mach numbers and pitching motions, under which the flow exhibits prominent nonlinear behaviors. All results confirm that our nonlinear model is accurate and stable for predicting not only aerodynamic forces but also detailed flowfields. Moreover, the model is robustness-accurate for inputs considerably different from the base trajectory in form and magnitude. This modeling preserves nonlinearity of the problems considered in a rather simple and accurate manner.

  1. Precise linear gating circuit on integrated microcircuits

    Butskii, V.V.; Vetokhin, S.S.; Reznikov, I.V.

    Precise linear gating circuit on four microcircuits is described. A basic flowsheet of the gating circuit is given. The gating circuit consists of two input differential cascades total load of which is two current followers possessing low input and high output resistances. Follower outlets are connected to high ohmic dynamic load formed with a current source which permits to get high amplification (>1000) at one cascade. Nonlinearity amounts to <0.1% in the range of input signal amplitudes of -10-+10 V. Front duration for an output signal with 10 V amplitude amounts to 100 ns. Attenuation of input signal with a closed gating circuit is 60 db. The gating circuits described is used in the device intended for processing of scintillation sensor signals.

  2. Thermal linear expansion coefficient of structural graphites

    Virgil'ev, Yu.S.


    The data now available on radiation induced changes of linear thermal expansion coefficients (CTE) for native structural carbon materials (SCM) irradiated with high fluences are summarized. For different types of native and foreign SCM dose dependences of CTE changes in the temperature range of 300...1600 K and at fluences up to (2...3)x10 22 n/cm 2 (E>0.18 meV) are compared. On the base of this comparison factors defined the CTE changes under neutron irradiation are revealed and the explanation of observed phenomena is offered. Large number of the factors revealed does not allowed to calculate CTE radiation induced changes. 39 refs.; 16 figs.; 5 tabs

  3. Determination of wave direction from linear and polygonal arrays

    Fernandes, A.A; Gouveia, A; Nagarajan, R.

    documentation of Borgman (1974) in case of linear arrays; and the second issue being the failure of Esteva (1976, 1977) to correctly determine wave directions over the design range 25 to 7 sec of his polygonal array. This paper presents requisite documentation...

  4. SLAC linear collider: the machine, the physics, and the future

    Richter, B.


    The SLAC linear collider, in which beams of electrons and positrons are accelerated simultaneously, is described. Specifications of the proposed system are given, with calculated preditions of performance. New areas of research made possible by energies in the TeV range are discussed

  5. Static and dynamic behaviour of antiferromagnetic linear chains

    Henkens, L.S.J.M.


    This thesis deals with an experimental study of the static and dynamic behaviour of s=1/2 heisenberg antiferromagnetic linear chains in the temperature range of 0,05K 4 , CuSeO 4 .5H 2 O, and CuBeF 4 .5H 2 O, all of which are isomorphic salts

  6. On spectral properties of linear combinations of idempotents

    Du, H.-K.; Deng, Ch-Y.; Mbekhta, M.; Müller, Vladimír


    Roč. 180, č. 3 (2007), s. 211-217 ISSN 0039-3223 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA201/06/0128 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : linear combinations of idempotents * closed range * complemented subspaces Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.568, year: 2007

  7. Quantum-dot-based integrated non-linear sources

    Bernard, Alice; Mariani, Silvia; Andronico, Alessio


    The authors report on the design and the preliminary characterisation of two active non-linear sources in the terahertz and near-infrared range. The former is associated to difference-frequency generation between whispering gallery modes of an AlGaAs microring resonator, whereas the latter...

  8. High-density ionization with an intense linear focus discharge

    Lee, T.N.


    Some experimental results obtained with a linear focus device are described. Measurements include plasma diagnostics made with fast photography, pinhole x-ray photography, and x-ray spectroscopy in the photon energy range of 6 to 35 0 keV. (MOW)

  9. A review of linear compressors for refrigeration

    Liang, Kun


    Linear compressor has no crank mechanism compared with conventional reciprocating compressor. This allows higher efficiency, oil-free operation, lower cost and smaller size when linear compressors are used for vapour compression refrigeration (VCR) system. Typically, a linear compressor consists of a linear motor (connected to a piston) and suspension springs, operated at resonant frequency. This paper presents a review of linear compressors for refrigeration system. Different designs and mod...

  10. A Trivial Linear Discriminant Function

    Shuichi Shinmura


    Full Text Available In this paper, we focus on the new model selection procedure of the discriminant analysis. Combining re-sampling technique with k-fold cross validation, we develop a k-fold cross validation for small sample method. By this breakthrough, we obtain the mean error rate in the validation samples (M2 and the 95\\% confidence interval (CI of discriminant coefficient. Moreover, we propose the model  selection  procedure  in  which  the model having a minimum M2 was  chosen  to  the  best  model.  We  apply  this  new  method and procedure to the pass/ fail determination of  exam  scores.  In  this  case,  we  fix  the constant =1 for seven linear discriminant  functions  (LDFs  and  several  good  results  were obtained as follows: 1 M2 of Fisher's LDF are over 4.6\\% worse than Revised IP-OLDF. 2 A soft-margin  SVM  for  penalty c=1  (SVM1  is  worse  than  another  mathematical  programming (MP based LDFs and logistic regression . 3 The 95\\% CI of the best discriminant coefficients was obtained. Seven LDFs except for Fisher's LDF are almost the same as a trivial LDF for the linear separable model. Furthermore, if we choose the median of the coefficient of seven LDFs except for Fisher's LDF,  those are almost the same as the trivial LDF for the linear separable model.

  11. ESPRIT And Uniform Linear Arrays

    Roy, R. H.; Goldburg, M.; Ottersten, B. E.; Swindlehurst, A. L.; Viberg, M.; Kailath, T.


    Abstract ¬â€?ESPRIT is a recently developed and patented technique for high-resolution estimation of signal parameters. It exploits an invariance structure designed into the sensor array to achieve a reduction in computational requirements of many orders of magnitude over previous techniques such as MUSIC, Burg's MEM, and Capon's ML, and in addition achieves performance improvement as measured by parameter estimate error variance. It is also manifestly more robust with respect to sensor errors (e.g. gain, phase, and location errors) than other methods as well. Whereas ESPRIT only requires that the sensor array possess a single invariance best visualized by considering two identical but other-wise arbitrary arrays of sensors displaced (but not rotated) with respect to each other, many arrays currently in use in various applications are uniform linear arrays of identical sensor elements. Phased array radars are commonplace in high-resolution direction finding systems, and uniform tapped delay lines (i.e., constant rate A/D converters) are the rule rather than the exception in digital signal processing systems. Such arrays possess many invariances, and are amenable to other types of analysis, which is one of the main reasons such structures are so prevalent. Recent developments in high-resolution algorithms of the signal/noise subspace genre including total least squares (TLS) ESPRIT applied to uniform linear arrays are summarized. ESPRIT is also shown to be a generalization of the root-MUSIC algorithm (applicable only to the case of uniform linear arrays of omni-directional sensors and unimodular cisoids). Comparisons with various estimator bounds, including CramerRao bounds, are presented.

  12. Linearized gyro-kinetic equation

    Catto, P.J.; Tsang, K.T.


    An ordering of the linearized Fokker-Planck equation is performed in which gyroradius corrections are retained to lowest order and the radial dependence appropriate for sheared magnetic fields is treated without resorting to a WKB technique. This description is shown to be necessary to obtain the proper radial dependence when the product of the poloidal wavenumber and the gyroradius is large (k rho much greater than 1). A like particle collision operator valid for arbitrary k rho also has been derived. In addition, neoclassical, drift, finite β (plasma pressure/magnetic pressure), and unperturbed toroidal electric field modifications are treated

  13. Matrix algebra for linear models

    Gruber, Marvin H J


    Matrix methods have evolved from a tool for expressing statistical problems to an indispensable part of the development, understanding, and use of various types of complex statistical analyses. This evolution has made matrix methods a vital part of statistical education. Traditionally, matrix methods are taught in courses on everything from regression analysis to stochastic processes, thus creating a fractured view of the topic. Matrix Algebra for Linear Models offers readers a unique, unified view of matrix analysis theory (where and when necessary), methods, and their applications. Written f

  14. Fast feedback for linear colliders

    Hendrickson, L.; Adolphsen, C.; Allison, S.; Gromme, T.; Grossberg, P.; Himel, T.; Krauter, K.; MacKenzie, R.; Minty, M.; Sass, R.


    A fast feedback system provides beam stabilization for the SLC. As the SLC is in some sense a prototype for future linear colliders, this system may be a prototype for future feedbacks. The SLC provides a good base of experience for feedback requirements and capabilities as well as a testing ground for performance characteristics. The feedback system controls a wide variety of machine parameters throughout the SLC and associated experiments, including regulation of beam position, angle, energy, intensity and timing parameters. The design and applications of the system are described, in addition to results of recent performance studies

  15. Cosmological perturbations beyond linear order

    CERN. Geneva


    Cosmological perturbation theory is the standard tool to understand the formation of the large scale structure in the Universe. However, its degree of applicability is limited by the growth of the amplitude of the matter perturbations with time. This problem can be tackled with by using N-body simulations or analytical techniques that go beyond the linear calculation. In my talk, I'll summarise some recent efforts in the latter that ameliorate the bad convergence of the standard perturbative expansion. The new techniques allow better analytical control on observables (as the matter power spectrum) over scales very relevant to understand the expansion history and formation of structure in the Universe.

  16. PIGMI linear-accelerator technology

    Boyd, T.J.; Crandall, K.R.; Hamm, R.W.


    A new linear-accelerator technology has been developed that makes pi-meson (pion) generation possible for cancer therapy in the setting of a major hospital center. This technology uses several new major inventions in particle accelerator science-such as a new accelerator system called the radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ), and permanent-magnet drift-tube focusing-to substantially reduce the size, cost, and complexity of a meson factory for this use. This paper describes this technology, discusses other possible uses for these new developments, and finally discusses possible costs for such installations

  17. Beam dynamics in linear colliders

    Ruth, R.D.


    In this paper, we discuss some basic beam dynamics issues related to obtaining and preserving the luminosity of a next generation linear collider. The beams are extracted from a damping ring and compressed in length by the first bunch compressor. They are then accelerated in a preaccelerator linac up to an energy appropriate for injection into a high gradient linac. In many designs this pre-acceleration is followed by another bunch compression to reach a short bunch. After acceleration in the linac, the bunches are finally focused transversely to a small spot. 27 refs., 1 fig

  18. Meromorphic functions and linear algebra

    Nevanlinna, Olavi


    This volume describes for the first time in monograph form important applications in numerical methods of linear algebra. The author presents new material and extended results from recent papers in a very readable style. The main goal of the book is to study the behavior of the resolvent of a matrix under the perturbation by low rank matrices. Whereas the eigenvalues (the poles of the resolvent) and the pseudospectra (the sets where the resolvent takes large values) can move dramatically under such perturbations, the growth of the resolvent as a matrix-valued meromorphic function remains essen

  19. Linear resonance acceleration of pellets

    Mills, R.G.


    A possible requirement for the acceleration of macroscopic pellets to velocities exceeding 10 4 meters per second implies the development of new apparatus. A satisfactory approach might be the linear resonance accelerator. Such apparatus would require the charging of pellets to very high values not yet demonstrated. The incompatibility of phase stability with radial stability in these machines may require abandoning phase stability and adopting feedback control of the accelerating voltage to accommodate statistical fluctuations in the charge to mass ratio of successive pellets

  20. Linear and Nonlinear Finite Elements.


    Metzler. Con/ ugte rapdent solution of a finite element elastic problem with high Poson rato without scaling and once with the global stiffness matrix K...nonzero c, that makes u(0) = 1. According to the linear, small deflection theory of the membrane the central displacement given to the membrane is not... theory is possible based on the approximations (l-y 2 )t = +y’ 2 +y𔃾 , (1-y𔃼)’ 1-y’ 2 - y" (6) that change eq. (5) to V𔃺) = , [yŖ(1 + y") - Qy𔃼


    Viterna, L. A.


    Linear programming is a widely-used engineering and management tool. Scheduling, resource allocation, and production planning are all well-known applications of linear programs (LP's). Most LP's are too large to be solved by hand, so over the decades many computer codes for solving LP's have been developed. ALPS, A Linear Program Solver, is a full-featured LP analysis program. ALPS can solve plain linear programs as well as more complicated mixed integer and pure integer programs. ALPS also contains an efficient solution technique for pure binary (0-1 integer) programs. One of the many weaknesses of LP solvers is the lack of interaction with the user. ALPS is a menu-driven program with no special commands or keywords to learn. In addition, ALPS contains a full-screen editor to enter and maintain the LP formulation. These formulations can be written to and read from plain ASCII files for portability. For those less experienced in LP formulation, ALPS contains a problem "parser" which checks the formulation for errors. ALPS creates fully formatted, readable reports that can be sent to a printer or output file. ALPS is written entirely in IBM's APL2/PC product, Version 1.01. The APL2 workspace containing all the ALPS code can be run on any APL2/PC system (AT or 386). On a 32-bit system, this configuration can take advantage of all extended memory. The user can also examine and modify the ALPS code. The APL2 workspace has also been "packed" to be run on any DOS system (without APL2) as a stand-alone "EXE" file, but has limited memory capacity on a 640K system. A numeric coprocessor (80X87) is optional but recommended. The standard distribution medium for ALPS is a 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskette. IBM, IBM PC and IBM APL2 are registered trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation. MS-DOS is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation.

  2. Gyrokinetic linearized Landau collision operator

    Madsen, Jens


    , which is important in multiple ion-species plasmas. Second, the equilibrium operator describes drag and diffusion of the magnetic field aligned component of the vorticity associated with the E×B drift. Therefore, a correct description of collisional effects in turbulent plasmas requires the equilibrium......The full gyrokinetic electrostatic linearized Landau collision operator is calculated including the equilibrium operator, which represents the effect of collisions between gyrokinetic Maxwellian particles. First, the equilibrium operator describes energy exchange between different plasma species...... operator, even for like-particle collisions....

  3. Controlling bistability by linear augmentation

    Sharma, Pooja Rani; Shrimali, Manish Dev; Prasad, Awadhesh; Feudel, Ulrike


    In many bistable oscillating systems only one of the attractors is desired to possessing certain system performance. We present a method to drive a bistable system to a desired target attractor by annihilating the other one. This shift from bistability to monostability is achieved by augmentation of the nonlinear oscillator with a linear control system. For a proper choice of the control function one of the attractors disappears at a critical coupling strength in an control-induced boundary crisis. This transition from bistability to monostability is demonstrated with two paradigmatic examples, the autonomous Chua oscillator and a neuronal system with a periodic input signal.

  4. Linear network error correction coding

    Guang, Xuan


    There are two main approaches in the theory of network error correction coding. In this SpringerBrief, the authors summarize some of the most important contributions following the classic approach, which represents messages by sequences?similar to algebraic coding,?and also briefly discuss the main results following the?other approach,?that uses the theory of rank metric codes for network error correction of representing messages by subspaces. This book starts by establishing the basic linear network error correction (LNEC) model and then characterizes two equivalent descriptions. Distances an

  5. Linear interaction of gravitational waves

    Ciubotariu, C.D.


    Starting with the linearized Einstein equations written in the same form as Maxwell equations, a damping term is found in the wave equation. The analogy with the propagation of the electromagnetic wave in ohmic media is obvious if we introduce an 'ohmic relation' for gravitational interaction. The possibility of the amplification of gravitational waves by a suitable choice of the velocity field of a dust ('dust with negative viscosity'), for example by the use of the free-electron laser principle, is indicated. (Author)

  6. Linear operators in Clifford algebras

    Laoues, M.


    We consider the real vector space structure of the algebra of linear endomorphisms of a finite-dimensional real Clifford algebra (2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8). A basis of that space is constructed in terms of the operators M eI,eJ defined by x→e I .x.e J , where the e I are the generators of the Clifford algebra and I is a multi-index (3, 7). In particular, it is shown that the family (M eI,eJ ) is exactly a basis in the even case. (orig.)

  7. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens.

    Chielo, Leonard Ikenna; Pike, Tom; Cooper, Jonathan


    In this study, the range use and behaviour of laying hens in commercial free-range flocks was explored. Six flocks were each visited on four separate days and data collected from their outdoor area (divided into zones based on distance from shed and available resources). These were: apron (0-10 m from shed normally without cover or other enrichments); enriched belt (10-50 m from shed where resources such as manmade cover, saplings and dust baths were provided); and outer range (beyond 50 m from shed with no cover and mainly grass pasture). Data collection consisted of counting the number of hens in each zone and recording behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distance (NND) of 20 birds per zone on each visit day. In addition, we used techniques derived from ecological surveys to establish four transects perpendicular to the shed, running through the apron, enriched belt and outer range. Number of hens in each 10 m × 10 m quadrat was recorded four times per day as was the temperature and relative humidity of the outer range. On average, 12.5% of hens were found outside. Of these, 5.4% were found in the apron; 4.3% in the enriched zone; and 2.8% were in the outer range. This pattern was supported by data from quadrats, where the density of hens sharply dropped with increasing distance from shed. Consequently, NND was greatest in the outer range, least in the apron and intermediate in the enriched belt. Hens sampled in outer range and enriched belts had better feather condition than those from the apron. Standing, ground pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded activities with standing and pecking most likely to occur in the apron, and walking and foraging more common in the outer range. Use of the outer range declined with lower temperatures and increasing relative humidity, though use of apron and enriched belt was not affected by variation in these measures. These data support previous findings that outer range areas tend to be

  8. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens

    Leonard Ikenna Chielo


    Full Text Available In this study, the range use and behaviour of laying hens in commercial free-range flocks was explored. Six flocks were each visited on four separate days and data collected from their outdoor area (divided into zones based on distance from shed and available resources. These were: apron (0–10 m from shed normally without cover or other enrichments; enriched belt (10–50 m from shed where resources such as manmade cover, saplings and dust baths were provided; and outer range (beyond 50 m from shed with no cover and mainly grass pasture. Data collection consisted of counting the number of hens in each zone and recording behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distance (NND of 20 birds per zone on each visit day. In addition, we used techniques derived from ecological surveys to establish four transects perpendicular to the shed, running through the apron, enriched belt and outer range. Number of hens in each 10 m × 10 m quadrat was recorded four times per day as was the temperature and relative humidity of the outer range. On average, 12.5% of hens were found outside. Of these, 5.4% were found in the apron; 4.3% in the enriched zone; and 2.8% were in the outer range. This pattern was supported by data from quadrats, where the density of hens sharply dropped with increasing distance from shed. Consequently, NND was greatest in the outer range, least in the apron and intermediate in the enriched belt. Hens sampled in outer range and enriched belts had better feather condition than those from the apron. Standing, ground pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded activities with standing and pecking most likely to occur in the apron, and walking and foraging more common in the outer range. Use of the outer range declined with lower temperatures and increasing relative humidity, though use of apron and enriched belt was not affected by variation in these measures. These data support previous findings that outer range

  9. Linear accelerator stereotactic radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia.

    Varela-Lema, Leonor; Lopez-Garcia, Marisa; Maceira-Rozas, Maria; Munoz-Garzon, Victor


    Stereotactic radiosurgery is accepted as an alternative for patients with refractory trigeminal neuralgia, but existing evidence is fundamentally based on the Gamma Knife, which is a specific device for intracranial neurosurgery, available in few facilities. Over the last decade it has been shown that the use of linear accelerators can achieve similar diagnostic accuracy and equivalent dose distribution. To assess the effectiveness and safety of linear-accelerator stereotactic radiosurgery for the treatment of patients with refractory trigeminal neuralgia. We carried out a systematic search of the literature in the main electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, ISI Web of Knowledge, Cochrane, Biomed Central, IBECS, IME, CRD) and reviewed grey literature. All original studies on the subject published in Spanish, French, English, and Portuguese were eligible for inclusion. The selection and critical assessment was carried out by 2 independent reviewers based on pre-defined criteria. In view of the impossibility of carrying out a pooled analysis, data were analyzed in a qualitative way. Eleven case series were included. In these, satisfactory pain relief (BIN I-IIIb or reduction in pain = 50) was achieved in 75% to 95.7% of the patients treated. The mean time to relief from pain ranged from 8.5 days to 3.8 months. The percentage of patients who presented with recurrences after one year of follow-up ranged from 5% to 28.8%. Facial swelling or hypoesthesia, mostly of a mild-moderate grade appeared in 7.5% - 51.9% of the patients. Complete anaesthesia dolorosa was registered in only study (5.3%). Cases of hearing loss (2.5%), brainstem edema (5.8%), and neurotrophic keratoplasty (3.5%) were also isolated. The results suggest that stereotactic radiosurgery with linear accelerators could constitute an effective and safe therapeutic alternative for drug-resistant trigeminal neuralgia. However, existing studies leave important doubts as to optimal treatment doses or the

  10. Convex variational problems linear, nearly linear and anisotropic growth conditions

    Bildhauer, Michael


    The author emphasizes a non-uniform ellipticity condition as the main approach to regularity theory for solutions of convex variational problems with different types of non-standard growth conditions. This volume first focuses on elliptic variational problems with linear growth conditions. Here the notion of a "solution" is not obvious and the point of view has to be changed several times in order to get some deeper insight. Then the smoothness properties of solutions to convex anisotropic variational problems with superlinear growth are studied. In spite of the fundamental differences, a non-uniform ellipticity condition serves as the main tool towards a unified view of the regularity theory for both kinds of problems.

  11. Dose linearity and monitor unit stability of a G4 type cyberknife robotic stereotactic radiosurgery system

    Sudahar, H.; Kurup, P.G.G.; Murali, V.; Velmurugan, J.


    Dose linearity studies on conventional linear accelerators show a linearity error at low monitor units (MUs). The purpose of this study was to establish the dose linearity and MU stability characteristics of a cyberknife (Accuracy Inc., USA) stereotactic radiosurgery system. Measurements were done at a depth of 5 cm in a stereotactic dose verification phantom with a source to surface distance of 75 cm in a Generation 4 (G4) type cyberknife system. All the 12 fixed-type collimators starting from 5 to 60 mm were used for the dose linearity study. The dose linearity was examined in small (1-10), medium (15-100) and large (125-1000) MU ranges. The MU stability test was performed with 60 mm collimator for 10 MU and 20 MU with different combinations. The maximum dose linearity error of -38.8% was observed for 1 MU with 5 mm collimator. Dose linearity error in the small MU range was considerably higher than in the medium and large MU ranges. The maximum error in the medium range was -2.4%. In the large MU range, the linearity error varied between -0.7% and 1.2%. The maximum deviation in the MU stability was -3.03%. (author)

  12. Quantum algorithm for linear regression

    Wang, Guoming


    We present a quantum algorithm for fitting a linear regression model to a given data set using the least-squares approach. Differently from previous algorithms which yield a quantum state encoding the optimal parameters, our algorithm outputs these numbers in the classical form. So by running it once, one completely determines the fitted model and then can use it to make predictions on new data at little cost. Moreover, our algorithm works in the standard oracle model, and can handle data sets with nonsparse design matrices. It runs in time poly( log2(N ) ,d ,κ ,1 /ɛ ) , where N is the size of the data set, d is the number of adjustable parameters, κ is the condition number of the design matrix, and ɛ is the desired precision in the output. We also show that the polynomial dependence on d and κ is necessary. Thus, our algorithm cannot be significantly improved. Furthermore, we also give a quantum algorithm that estimates the quality of the least-squares fit (without computing its parameters explicitly). This algorithm runs faster than the one for finding this fit, and can be used to check whether the given data set qualifies for linear regression in the first place.

  13. Linearity of holographic entanglement entropy

    Almheiri, Ahmed [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics,Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Dong, Xi [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Swingle, Brian [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics,Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)


    We consider the question of whether the leading contribution to the entanglement entropy in holographic CFTs is truly given by the expectation value of a linear operator as is suggested by the Ryu-Takayanagi formula. We investigate this property by computing the entanglement entropy, via the replica trick, in states dual to superpositions of macroscopically distinct geometries and find it consistent with evaluating the expectation value of the area operator within such states. However, we find that this fails once the number of semi-classical states in the superposition grows exponentially in the central charge of the CFT. Moreover, in certain such scenarios we find that the choice of surface on which to evaluate the area operator depends on the density matrix of the entire CFT. This nonlinearity is enforced in the bulk via the homology prescription of Ryu-Takayanagi. We thus conclude that the homology constraint is not a linear property in the CFT. We also discuss the existence of ‘entropy operators’ in general systems with a large number of degrees of freedom.

  14. Linear and Non-Linear Control Techniques Applied to Actively Lubricated Journal Bearings

    Nicoletti, Rodrigo; Santos, Ilmar


    The main objectives of actively lubricated bearings are the simultaneous reduction of wear and vibration between rotating and stationary machinery parts. For reducing wear and dissipating vibration energy until certain limits, one can count with the conventional hydrodynamic lubrication. For furt......The main objectives of actively lubricated bearings are the simultaneous reduction of wear and vibration between rotating and stationary machinery parts. For reducing wear and dissipating vibration energy until certain limits, one can count with the conventional hydrodynamic lubrication....... For further reduction of shaft vibrations one can count with the active lubrication action, which is based on injecting pressurised oil into the bearing gap through orifices machined in the bearing sliding surface. The design and efficiency of some linear (PD, PI and PID) and non-linear controllers, applied...... vibration reduction of unbalance response of a rigid rotor, where the PD and the non-linear P controllers show better performance for the frequency range of study (0 to 80 Hz). The feasibility of eliminating rotor-bearing instabilities (phenomena of whirl) by using active lubrication is also investigated...

  15. Updating Linear Schedules with Lowest Cost: a Linear Programming Model

    Biruk, Sławomir; Jaśkowski, Piotr; Czarnigowska, Agata


    Many civil engineering projects involve sets of tasks repeated in a predefined sequence in a number of work areas along a particular route. A useful graphical representation of schedules of such projects is time-distance diagrams that clearly show what process is conducted at a particular point of time and in particular location. With repetitive tasks, the quality of project performance is conditioned by the ability of the planner to optimize workflow by synchronizing the works and resources, which usually means that resources are planned to be continuously utilized. However, construction processes are prone to risks, and a fully synchronized schedule may expire if a disturbance (bad weather, machine failure etc.) affects even one task. In such cases, works need to be rescheduled, and another optimal schedule should be built for the changed circumstances. This typically means that, to meet the fixed completion date, durations of operations have to be reduced. A number of measures are possible to achieve such reduction: working overtime, employing more resources or relocating resources from less to more critical tasks, but they all come at a considerable cost and affect the whole project. The paper investigates the problem of selecting the measures that reduce durations of tasks of a linear project so that the cost of these measures is kept to the minimum and proposes an algorithm that could be applied to find optimal solutions as the need to reschedule arises. Considering that civil engineering projects, such as road building, usually involve less process types than construction projects, the complexity of scheduling problems is lower, and precise optimization algorithms can be applied. Therefore, the authors put forward a linear programming model of the problem and illustrate its principle of operation with an example.

  16. Improved Range Searching Lower Bounds

    Larsen, Kasper Green; Nguyen, Huy L.


    by constructing a hard input set and query set, and then invoking Chazelle and Rosenberg's [CGTA'96] general theorem on the complexity of navigation in the pointer machine. For the group model, we show that input sets and query sets that are hard for range reporting in the pointer machine (i.e. by Chazelle...... and Rosenberg's theorem), are also hard for dynamic range searching in the group model. This theorem allows us to reuse decades of research on range reporting lower bounds to immediately obtain a range of new group model lower bounds. Amongst others, this includes an improved lower bound for the fundamental...

  17. Short-range fundamental forces

    Antoniadis, I.; Baessler, S.; Buchner, M.; Fedorov, V.V.; Hoedl, S.; Nesvizhevsky, V.V.; Pignol, G.; Protasov, K.V.; Lambrecht, A.; Reynaud, S.; Sobolev, Y.


    We consider theoretical motivations to search for extra short-range fundamental forces as well as experiments constraining their parameters. The forces could be of two types: 1) spin-independent forces; 2) spin-dependent axion-like forces. Different experimental techniques are sensitive in respective ranges of characteristic distances. The techniques include measurements of gravity at short distances, searches for extra interactions on top of the Casimir force, precision atomic and neutron experiments. We focus on neutron constraints, thus the range of characteristic distances considered here corresponds to the range accessible for neutron experiments

  18. Development of a wide-range tritium-concentration detector

    Jun, F.; Zhe, L.; Shicheng, L.; Jiangfeng, S.; Deli, L. [China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang (China)


    According to the requirements of the tritium related systems of the TBM (Test Blanket Module) for monitoring the on-line tritium concentration, a wide-range tritium-concentration detector has been developed to measure the tritium concentration in the range of 10{sup 4} Bq/ml - 5*10{sup 8} Bq/ml. This detector is combined with a low-memory helium ionization chamber. The weak current signal collected in the ionization chamber is converted to the voltage signal by an I-V converter. The minimum weak current which the detector could be measured is 10{sup -14} A. The performance of the background current and the current response linearity of the prototype have been tested. The test result indicates that the linear response of the current signal of the prototype without connecting the ionization chamber is good. The linear correlation coefficient is R{sup 2} = 0.998.

  19. Development of a wide-range tritium-concentration detector

    Jun, F.; Zhe, L.; Shicheng, L.; Jiangfeng, S.; Deli, L.


    According to the requirements of the tritium related systems of the TBM (Test Blanket Module) for monitoring the on-line tritium concentration, a wide-range tritium-concentration detector has been developed to measure the tritium concentration in the range of 10 4 Bq/ml - 5*10 8 Bq/ml. This detector is combined with a low-memory helium ionization chamber. The weak current signal collected in the ionization chamber is converted to the voltage signal by an I-V converter. The minimum weak current which the detector could be measured is 10 -14 A. The performance of the background current and the current response linearity of the prototype have been tested. The test result indicates that the linear response of the current signal of the prototype without connecting the ionization chamber is good. The linear correlation coefficient is R 2 = 0.998

  20. Physics with linear colliders. e+e- linear colliders: Physics prospects

    Zerwas, P.M.


    This report describes the physics potential of e + e - linear colliders, expected in a first phase to operate in the energy range between 300 and 500 GeV. these machines will allow us to perform precision studies of the heavy particles in the Standard Model, the top quark and the electroweak bosons. They are ideal facilities for exploring the properties of Higgs particles in the intermediate mass range. New vector bosons and novel matter particles can be searched for and studied in detail. The machines provide unique opportunities for the investigation of supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model, the SUSY Higgs spectrum and the supersymmetric partners of electroweak gauge/Higgs bosons and non-colored matter particles. (orig.)

  1. Dynamic range majority data structures

    Elmasry, Amr Ahmed Abd Elmoneim; He, Meng; Munro, J. Ian


    Given a set P of n coloured points on the real line, we study the problem of answering range α-majority (or "heavy hitter") queries on P. More specifically, for a query range Q, we want to return each colour that is assigned to more than an α-fraction of the points contained in Q. We present a ne...

  2. Range Compressed Holographic Aperture Ladar


    entropy saturation behavior of the estimator is analytically described. Simultaneous range-compression and aperture synthesis is experimentally...4 2.1 Circular and Inverse -Circular HAL...2.3 Single Aperture, Multi-λ Imaging ...................................................................................... 14 2.4 Simultaneous Range

  3. Efficient processing of 3-sided range queries with probabilistic guarantees

    Kaporis, Alexis; Papadopoulos, Apostolos; Sioutas, Spyros


    This work studies the problem of 2-dimensional searching for the 3-sided range query of the form [a, b] x (-∞, c] in both main and external memory, by considering a variety of input distributions. A dynamic linear main memory solution is proposed, which answers 3-sided queries in O(log n + t) worst...

  4. Recoil range distribution measurement in 20Ne + 181Ta reaction

    Tripathi, R.; Sudarshan, K.; Goswami, A.; Guin, R.; Reddy, A.V.R.


    In order to investigate linear momentum transfer in various transfer channels in 20 Ne + 181 Ta, recoil range distribution measurements have been carried out at E lab = 180 MeV, populating significant number of l-waves above l crit

  5. Precise Range Determination Using Laser Ranging Data of LAGEOS

    Kwang-Ryul Kim


    Full Text Available Satellite laser ranging observation of LAGEOS ¥± has been performed using the SLR System at Sheshan Laser Ranging Station, Shanghai Observatory. And we obtained 1,838 observational points The observed range data is corrected by means of system delay correction using ground target observation, atmospheric refraction delay correction, offset correction, general relativistic correction and tide correction including solid tide, polar tide and ocean tide. As a result, the determined range delay mean value is 19.12m and the mean internal accuracy by means of polynomial fitting and least square method is ¡¾7cm. Corrected observational points are 1,340 and noise ratio to total observational points is 27.1%

  6. Answers to selected problems in multivariable calculus with linear algebra and series

    Trench, William F


    Answers to Selected Problems in Multivariable Calculus with Linear Algebra and Series contains the answers to selected problems in linear algebra, the calculus of several variables, and series. Topics covered range from vectors and vector spaces to linear matrices and analytic geometry, as well as differential calculus of real-valued functions. Theorems and definitions are included, most of which are followed by worked-out illustrative examples.The problems and corresponding solutions deal with linear equations and matrices, including determinants; vector spaces and linear transformations; eig

  7. Approximate Stream Function wavemaker theory for highly non-linear waves in wave flumes

    Zhang, H.W.; Schäffer, Hemming Andreas


    An approximate Stream Function wavemaker theory for highly non-linear regular waves in flumes is presented. This theory is based on an ad hoe unified wave-generation method that combines linear fully dispersive wavemaker theory and wave generation for non-linear shallow water waves. This is done...... by applying a dispersion correction to the paddle position obtained for non-linear long waves. The method is validated by a number of wave flume experiments while comparing with results of linear wavemaker theory, second-order wavemaker theory and Cnoidal wavemaker theory within its range of application....

  8. Foraging optimally for home ranges

    Mitchell, Michael S.; Powell, Roger A.


    Economic models predict behavior of animals based on the presumption that natural selection has shaped behaviors important to an animal's fitness to maximize benefits over costs. Economic analyses have shown that territories of animals are structured by trade-offs between benefits gained from resources and costs of defending them. Intuitively, home ranges should be similarly structured, but trade-offs are difficult to assess because there are no costs of defense, thus economic models of home-range behavior are rare. We present economic models that predict how home ranges can be efficient with respect to spatially distributed resources, discounted for travel costs, under 2 strategies of optimization, resource maximization and area minimization. We show how constraints such as competitors can influence structure of homes ranges through resource depression, ultimately structuring density of animals within a population and their distribution on a landscape. We present simulations based on these models to show how they can be generally predictive of home-range behavior and the mechanisms that structure the spatial distribution of animals. We also show how contiguous home ranges estimated statistically from location data can be misleading for animals that optimize home ranges on landscapes with patchily distributed resources. We conclude with a summary of how we applied our models to nonterritorial black bears (Ursus americanus) living in the mountains of North Carolina, where we found their home ranges were best predicted by an area-minimization strategy constrained by intraspecific competition within a social hierarchy. Economic models can provide strong inference about home-range behavior and the resources that structure home ranges by offering falsifiable, a priori hypotheses that can be tested with field observations.

  9. Quantum reflection in the linearly downward potential

    Chamnan, N.; Krunavakarn, B.


    In this work, the motion of a particle in one dimension under the influence of the linearly downward potential well is studied within the context of the non-relativistic quantum mechanics. The attention is paid on the paradoxical phenomenon of the reflection of a particle that is in contrast between classical and quantum physics. Classically, the reflection effect occurs only at a potential barrier. To demonstrate such counter-intuitive phenomenon, the Schrödinger equation is solved to obtain the reflection coefficient in the scattering state by considering an incident particle that is represented by a monochromatic plane wave having an energy E > 0, propagates freely from left to right, pass through the potential well. The continuity conditions at boundaries give the desired result that is expressed in terms of the Airy functions which depends on the incident energy E, the strength jV 0 j and the range L of the well. The value of the reflection coefficient R lies in the interval 0 < R < 1, and its behavior is the decreasing function with respect to the range L.

  10. Alignment Challenges for a Future Linear Collider

    Durand, H; Stern, G


    The preservation of ultra-low emittances in the main linac and Beam Delivery System area is one of the main challenges for linear colliders. This requires alignment tolerances never achieved before at that scale, down to the micrometre level. As a matter of fact, in the LHC, the goal for the smoothing of the components was to obtain a 1σ deviation with respect to a smooth curve of 0.15 mm over a 150 m long sliding window, while for the CLIC project for example, it corresponds to 10 μm over a sliding window of 200 m in the Beam Delivery System area. Two complementary strategies are being studied to fulfil these requirements: the development and validation of long range alignment systems over a few hundreds of metres and short range alignment systems over a few metres. The studies undertaken, with associated tests setups and the latest results will be detailed, as well as their application for the alignment of both CLIC and ILC colliders.

  11. Multicollinearity in hierarchical linear models.

    Yu, Han; Jiang, Shanhe; Land, Kenneth C


    This study investigates an ill-posed problem (multicollinearity) in Hierarchical Linear Models from both the data and the model perspectives. We propose an intuitive, effective approach to diagnosing the presence of multicollinearity and its remedies in this class of models. A simulation study demonstrates the impacts of multicollinearity on coefficient estimates, associated standard errors, and variance components at various levels of multicollinearity for finite sample sizes typical in social science studies. We further investigate the role multicollinearity plays at each level for estimation of coefficient parameters in terms of shrinkage. Based on these analyses, we recommend a top-down method for assessing multicollinearity in HLMs that first examines the contextual predictors (Level-2 in a two-level model) and then the individual predictors (Level-1) and uses the results for data collection, research problem redefinition, model re-specification, variable selection and estimation of a final model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Linear regression in astronomy. I

    Isobe, Takashi; Feigelson, Eric D.; Akritas, Michael G.; Babu, Gutti Jogesh


    Five methods for obtaining linear regression fits to bivariate data with unknown or insignificant measurement errors are discussed: ordinary least-squares (OLS) regression of Y on X, OLS regression of X on Y, the bisector of the two OLS lines, orthogonal regression, and 'reduced major-axis' regression. These methods have been used by various researchers in observational astronomy, most importantly in cosmic distance scale applications. Formulas for calculating the slope and intercept coefficients and their uncertainties are given for all the methods, including a new general form of the OLS variance estimates. The accuracy of the formulas was confirmed using numerical simulations. The applicability of the procedures is discussed with respect to their mathematical properties, the nature of the astronomical data under consideration, and the scientific purpose of the regression. It is found that, for problems needing symmetrical treatment of the variables, the OLS bisector performs significantly better than orthogonal or reduced major-axis regression.

  13. Computational aspects of linear control


    Many devices (we say dynamical systems or simply systems) behave like black boxes: they receive an input, this input is transformed following some laws (usually a differential equation) and an output is observed. The problem is to regulate the input in order to control the output, that is for obtaining a desired output. Such a mechanism, where the input is modified according to the output measured, is called feedback. The study and design of such automatic processes is called control theory. As we will see, the term system embraces any device and control theory has a wide variety of applications in the real world. Control theory is an interdisci­ plinary domain at the junction of differential and difference equations, system theory and statistics. Moreover, the solution of a control problem involves many topics of numerical analysis and leads to many interesting computational problems: linear algebra (QR, SVD, projections, Schur complement, structured matrices, localization of eigenvalues, computation of the...

  14. Nonabelian Gauged Linear Sigma Model

    Yongbin RUAN


    The gauged linear sigma model (GLSM for short) is a 2d quantum field theory introduced by Witten twenty years ago.Since then,it has been investigated extensively in physics by Hori and others.Recently,an algebro-geometric theory (for both abelian and nonabelian GLSMs) was developed by the author and his collaborators so that he can start to rigorously compute its invariants and check against physical predications.The abelian GLSM was relatively better understood and is the focus of current mathematical investigation.In this article,the author would like to look over the horizon and consider the nonabelian GLSM.The nonabelian case possesses some new features unavailable to the abelian GLSM.To aid the future mathematical development,the author surveys some of the key problems inspired by physics in the nonabelian GLSM.

  15. Dietary arginine and linear growth

    van Vught, Anneke J A H; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Arts, Ilja C W


    Child Intervention Study during 2001-2 (baseline), and at 3-year and 7-year follow-up, were used. Arginine intake was estimated via a 7 d precoded food diary at baseline and 3-year follow-up. Data were analysed in a multilevel structure in which children were embedded within schools. Random intercept......The amino acid arginine is a well-known growth hormone (GH) stimulator and GH is an important modulator of linear growth. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of dietary arginine on growth velocity in children between 7 and 13 years of age. Data from the Copenhagen School...... and slopes were defined to estimate the association between arginine intake and growth velocity, including the following covariates: sex; age; baseline height; energy intake; puberty stage at 7-year follow-up and intervention/control group. The association between arginine intake and growth velocity...

  16. An Ordering Linear Unification Algorithm



    In this paper,we present an ordering linear unification algorithm(OLU).A new idea on substituteion of the binding terms is introduced to the algorithm,which is able to overcome some drawbacks of other algorithms,e.g.,MM algorithm[1],RG1 and RG2 algorithms[2],Particularly,if we use the directed eyclie graphs,the algoritm needs not check the binding order,then the OLU algorithm can also be aplied to the infinite tree data struceture,and a higher efficiency can be expected.The paper focuses upon the discussion of OLU algorithm and a partial order structure with respect to the unification algorithm.This algorithm has been implemented in the GKD-PROLOG/VAX 780 interpreting system.Experimental results have shown that the algorithm is very simple and efficient.

  17. Non-linear Ultrasound Imaging

    Du, Yigang

    .3% relative to the measurement from a 1 inch diameter transducer. A preliminary study for harmonic imaging using synthetic aperture sequential beamforming (SASB) has been demonstrated. A wire phantom underwater measurement is made by an experimental synthetic aperture real-time ultrasound scanner (SARUS......) with a linear array transducer. The second harmonic imaging is obtained by a pulse inversion technique. The received data is beamformed by the SASB using a Beamformation Toolbox. In the measurements the lateral resolution at -6 dB is improved by 66% compared to the conventional imaging algorithm. There is also...... a 35% improvement for the lateral resolution at -6 dB compared with the sole harmonic imaging and a 46% improvement compared with merely using the SASB....

  18. Linear rotary optical delay lines

    Guerboukha, Hichem; Qu, Hang; Skorobogatiy, Maksim


    We present a semi-analytical solution for the design of a high-speed rotary optical delay line that use a combination of two rotating curvilinear reflectors. We demonstrate that it is possible to design an infinite variety of the optical delay lines featuring linear dependence of the optical delay on the rotation angle. This is achieved via shape optimization of the rotating reflector surfaces. Moreover, a convenient spatial separation of the incoming and outgoing beams is possible. For the sake of example, we present blades that fit into a circle of 10cm diameter. Finally, a prototype of a rotary delay line is fabricated using CNC machining, and its optical properties are characterized.

  19. Dark matter wants Linear Collider

    Matsumoto, S.; Asano, M.; Fujii, K.; Takubo, Y.; Honda, T.; Saito, T.; Yamamoto, H.; Humdi, R.S.; Ito, H.; Kanemura, S; Nabeshima, T.; Okada, N.; Suehara, T.


    One of the main purposes of physics at the International Linear Collider (ILC) is to study the property of dark matter such as its mass, spin, quantum numbers, and interactions with particles of the standard model. We discuss how the property can or cannot be investigated at the ILC using two typical cases of dark matter scenario: 1) most of new particles predicted in physics beyond the standard model are heavy and only dark matter is accessible at the ILC, and 2) not only dark matter but also other new particles are accessible at the ILC. We find that, as can be easily imagined, dark matter can be detected without any difficulties in the latter case. In the former case, it is still possible to detect dark matter when the mass of dark matter is less than a half mass of the Higgs boson.

  20. 28th Linear Accelerator Conference

    Facco, Alberto; McCausey, Amy; Schaa, Volker R W


    The 28th Linear Accelerator Conference, LINAC 16, to take place at the Kellogg Hotel and Conference Center in East Lansing, Michigan, on 25-30 September 2016. This conference is the main bi-yearly gathering for the world-wide community of linac specialists. It provides a unique opportunity to hear about the latest advances of projects and developments concerning hadron and lepton linacs, and their applications. In the tradition of previous LINAC conferences, plenary sessions including invited speakers are scheduled every day. Poster sessions will be held on Monday, Tuesday and Thursday afternoons. There will also be two special events on Sunday, 25 September 2016, namely a student poster session and an evening reception for registrants and their companions at the Kellogg Hotel and Conference Center. Participants are also warmly invited to join an outing to Lake Michigan and the beautiful surroundings on Wednesday afternoon, and to visit the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams on Friday afternoon, after the formal...