WorldWideScience

Sample records for linear viscoelastic functions

  1. Non linear viscoelastic models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2011-01-01

    Viscoelastic eects are often present in loudspeaker suspensions, this can be seen in the displacement transfer function which often shows a frequency dependent value below the resonance frequency. In this paper nonlinear versions of the standard linear solid model (SLS) are investigated....... The simulations show that the nonlinear version of the Maxwell SLS model can result in a time dependent small signal stiness while the Kelvin Voight version does not....

  2. Stress wave propagation in linear viscoelasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asada, Kazuo; Fukuoka, Hidekazu.

    1992-01-01

    Decreasing characteristics of both stress and stress gradient with propagation distance at a 2-dimensional linear viscoelasticity wavefront are derived by using our 3-dimensional theoretical equation for particle velocity discontinuities. By finite-element method code DYNA3D, stress at a noncurvature dilatation wavefront of linear viscoelasticity is shown to decrease exponentially. This result is in good accordance with our theory. By dynamic photoelasticity experiment, stress gradients of urethane rubber plates at 3 types of wavefronts are shown to decrease exponentially at a noncurvature wavefront and are shown to be a decreasing function of (1/√R) exp (α 1 2 /(2α 0 3 ξ)) at a curvature wavefront. These experiment results are in good accordance with our theory. (author)

  3. Linear viscoelastic characterization from filament stretching rheometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wingstrand, Sara Lindeblad; Alvarez, Nicolas J.; Hassager, Ole

    to measure both linear and nonlinear dynamics on a single apparatus. With a software modification to the FSR motor control, we show that linear viscoelasticity can be measured via small amplitude squeeze flow (SASF). Squeeze flow is a combination of both shear and extensional flow applied by axially......Traditionally, linear viscoelasticity is measured using small amplitude oscillatory shear flow. Due to experimental difficulties, shear flows are predominately confined to the linear and mildly nonlinear regime. On the other hand, extensional flows have proven more practical in measuring...... viscoelasticity well into the nonlinear regime. Therefore at present, complete rheological characterization of a material requires two apparatuses: a shear and an extensional rheometer. This work is focused on developing a linear viscoelastic protocol for the filament stretching rheometer (FSR) in order...

  4. A Thermodynamic Theory Of Solid Viscoelasticity. Part 1: Linear Viscoelasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Alan D.; Leonov, Arkady I.

    2002-01-01

    The present series of three consecutive papers develops a general theory for linear and finite solid viscoelasticity. Because the most important object for nonlinear studies are rubber-like materials, the general approach is specified in a form convenient for solving problems important for many industries that involve rubber-like materials. General linear and nonlinear theories for non-isothermal deformations of viscoelastic solids are developed based on the quasi-linear approach of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. In this, the first paper of the series, we analyze non-isothermal linear viscoelasticity, which is applicable in a range of small strains not only to all synthetic polymers and bio-polymers but also to some non-polymeric materials. Although the linear case seems to be well developed, there still are some reasons to implement a thermodynamic derivation of constitutive equations for solid-like, non-isothermal, linear viscoelasticity. The most important is the thermodynamic modeling of thermo-rheological complexity , i.e. different temperature dependences of relaxation parameters in various parts of relaxation spectrum. A special structure of interaction matrices is established for different physical mechanisms contributed to the normal relaxation modes. This structure seems to be in accord with observations, and creates a simple mathematical framework for both continuum and molecular theories of the thermo-rheological complex relaxation phenomena. Finally, a unified approach is briefly discussed that, in principle, allows combining both the long time (discrete) and short time (continuous) descriptions of relaxation behaviors for polymers in the rubbery and glassy regions.

  5. Algebraic Theory of Linear Viscoelastic Nematodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonov, Arkady I.

    2008-01-01

    This paper consists of two parts. The first one develops algebraic theory of linear anisotropic nematic 'N-operators' build up on the additive group of traceless second rank 3D tensors. These operators have been implicitly used in continual theories of nematic liquid crystals and weakly elastic nematic elastomers. It is shown that there exists a non-commutative, multiplicative group N 6 of N-operators build up on a manifold in 6D space of parameters. Positive N-operators, which in physical applications hold thermodynamic stability constraints, do not generally form a subgroup of group N 6 . A three-parametric, commutative transversal-isotropic subgroup S 3 subset of N 6 of positive symmetric nematic operators is also briefly discussed. The special case of singular, non-negative symmetric N-operators reveals the algebraic structure of nematic soft deformation modes. The second part of the paper develops a theory of linear viscoelastic nematodynamics applicable to liquid crystalline polymer. The viscous and elastic nematic components in theory are described by using the Leslie-Ericksen-Parodi (LEP) approach for viscous nematics and de Gennes free energy for weakly elastic nematic elastomers. The case of applied external magnetic field exemplifies the occurrence of non-symmetric stresses. In spite of multi-(10) parametric character of the theory, the use of nematic operators presents it in a transparent form. When the magnetic field is absent, the theory is simplified for symmetric case with six parameters, and takes an extremely simple, two-parametric form for viscoelastic nematodynamics with possible soft deformation modes. It is shown that the linear nematodynamics is always reducible to the LEP-like equations where the coefficients are changed for linear memory functionals whose parameters are calculated from original viscosities and moduli

  6. Linear viscoelastic properties of aging suspensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purnomo, E.H.; Purnomo, E.H; van den Ende, Henricus T.M.; Mellema, J.; Mugele, Friedrich Gunther

    2006-01-01

    We have examined the linear viscoelastic behavior of poly-N-isopropylacrylamide (PNIPAM) microgel suspensions in order to obtain insight in the aging processes in these densely packed suspensions at various temperatures below the volume transition temperature. The system is found to display a strong

  7. Local linear viscoelasticity of confined fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, J S; Daivis, P J; Todd, B D

    2007-04-14

    In this paper the authors propose a novel method to study the local linear viscoelasticity of fluids confined between two walls. The method is based on the linear constitutive equation and provides details about the real and imaginary parts of the local complex viscosity. They apply the method to a simple atomic fluid undergoing zero mean oscillatory flow using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The method shows that the viscoelastic properties of the fluid exhibit dramatic spatial changes near the wall-fluid boundary due to the high density in this region. It is also shown that the real part of the viscosity converges to the frequency dependent local shear viscosity sufficiently far away from the wall. This also provides valuable information about the transport properties in the fluid, in general. The viscosity is compared with predictions from the local average density model. The two methods disagree in that the local average density model predicts larger viscosity variations near the wall-fluid boundary than what is observed through the method presented here.

  8. Linear Viscoelasticity, Reptation, Chain Stretching and Constraint Release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Jesper; Schieber, Jay D.; Venerus, David C.

    2000-01-01

    A recently proposed self-consistent reptation model - alreadysuccessful at describing highly nonlinear shearing flows of manytypes using no adjustable parameters - is used here to interpretthe linear viscoelasticity of the same entangled polystyrenesolution. Using standard techniques, a relaxatio...

  9. Stability of non-linear constitutive formulations for viscoelastic fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Siginer, Dennis A

    2014-01-01

    Stability of Non-linear Constitutive Formulations for Viscoelastic Fluids provides a complete and up-to-date view of the field of constitutive equations for flowing viscoelastic fluids, in particular on their non-linear behavior, the stability of these constitutive equations that is their predictive power, and the impact of these constitutive equations on the dynamics of viscoelastic fluid flow in tubes. This book gives an overall view of the theories and attendant methodologies developed independently of thermodynamic considerations as well as those set within a thermodynamic framework to derive non-linear rheological constitutive equations for viscoelastic fluids. Developments in formulating Maxwell-like constitutive differential equations as well as single integral constitutive formulations are discussed in the light of Hadamard and dissipative type of instabilities.

  10. Modelling of Asphalt Concrete Stiffness in the Linear Viscoelastic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Grzegorz; Iwański, Marek

    2017-10-01

    Stiffness modulus is a fundamental parameter used in the modelling of the viscoelastic behaviour of bituminous mixtures. On the basis of the master curve in the linear viscoelasticity range, the mechanical properties of asphalt concrete at different loading times and temperatures can be predicted. This paper discusses the construction of master curves under rheological mathematical models i.e. the sigmoidal function model (MEPDG), the fractional model, and Bahia and co-workers’ model in comparison to the results from mechanistic rheological models i.e. the generalized Huet-Sayegh model, the generalized Maxwell model and the Burgers model. For the purposes of this analysis, the reference asphalt concrete mix (denoted as AC16W) intended for the binder coarse layer and for traffic category KR3 (5×105 controlled strain mode. The fixed strain level was set at 25με to guarantee that the stiffness modulus of the asphalt concrete would be tested in a linear viscoelasticity range. The master curve was formed using the time-temperature superposition principle (TTSP). The stiffness modulus of asphalt concrete was determined at temperatures 10°C, 20°C and 40°C and at loading times (frequency) of 0.1, 0.3, 1, 3, 10, 20 Hz. The model parameters were fitted to the rheological models using the original programs based on the nonlinear least squares sum method. All the rheological models under analysis were found to be capable of predicting changes in the stiffness modulus of the reference asphalt concrete to satisfactory accuracy. In the cases of the fractional model and the generalized Maxwell model, their accuracy depends on a number of elements in series. The best fit was registered for Bahia and co-workers model, generalized Maxwell model and fractional model. As for predicting the phase angle parameter, the largest discrepancies between experimental and modelled results were obtained using the fractional model. Except the Burgers model, the model matching quality was

  11. Crack Tip Parameters for Growing Cracks in Linear Viscoelastic Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune

    In this paper the problem of describing the asymptotic fields around a slowly growing crack in a linearly viscoelastic material is considered. It is shown that for plane mixed mode problems the asymptotic fields must be described by 6 parameters: 2 stress intensity factors and 4 deformation...... intensity factors. In the special case of a constant Poisson ratio only 2 deformation intensity factors are needed. Closed form solutions are given both for a slowly growing crack and for a crack that is suddenly arrested at a point at the crack extension path. Two examples are studied; a stress boundary...... value problem, and a displacement boundary value problem. The results show that the stress intensity factors and the displacement intensity factors do not depend explicitly upon the velocity of the crack tip....

  12. A Linear Viscoelastic Model Calibration of Sylgard 184.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Kevin Nicholas; Brown, Judith Alice

    2017-04-01

    We calibrate a linear thermoviscoelastic model for solid Sylgard 184 (90-10 formulation), a lightly cross-linked, highly flexible isotropic elastomer for use both in Sierra / Solid Mechanics via the Universal Polymer Model as well as in Sierra / Structural Dynamics (Salinas) for use as an isotropic viscoelastic material. Material inputs for the calibration in both codes are provided. The frequency domain master curve of oscillatory shear was obtained from a report from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). However, because the form of that data is different from the constitutive models in Sierra, we also present the mapping of the LANL data onto Sandia’s constitutive models. Finally, blind predictions of cyclic tension and compression out to moderate strains of 40 and 20% respectively are compared with Sandia’s legacy cure schedule material. Although the strain rate of the data is unknown, the linear thermoviscoelastic model accurately predicts the experiments out to moderate strains for the slower strain rates, which is consistent with the expectation that quasistatic test procedures were likely followed. This good agreement comes despite the different cure schedules between the Sandia and LANL data.

  13. Quasi-linear viscoelastic properties of the human medial patello-femoral ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criscenti, G; De Maria, C; Sebastiani, E; Tei, M; Placella, G; Speziali, A; Vozzi, G; Cerulli, G

    2015-12-16

    The evaluation of viscoelastic properties of human medial patello-femoral ligament is fundamental to understand its physiological function and contribution as stabilizer for the selection of the methods of repair and reconstruction and for the development of scaffolds with adequate mechanical properties. In this work, 12 human specimens were tested to evaluate the time- and history-dependent non linear viscoelastic properties of human medial patello-femoral ligament using the quasi-linear viscoelastic (QLV) theory formulated by Fung et al. (1972) and modified by Abramowitch and Woo (2004). The five constant of the QLV theory, used to describe the instantaneous elastic response and the reduced relaxation function on stress relaxation experiments, were successfully evaluated. It was found that the constant A was 1.21±0.96MPa and the dimensionless constant B was 26.03±4.16. The magnitude of viscous response, the constant C, was 0.11±0.02 and the initial and late relaxation time constants τ1 and τ2 were 6.32±1.76s and 903.47±504.73s respectively. The total stress relaxation was 32.7±4.7%. To validate our results, the obtained constants were used to evaluate peak stresses from a cyclic stress relaxation test on three different specimens. The theoretically predicted values fit the experimental ones demonstrating that the QLV theory could be used to evaluate the viscoelastic properties of the human medial patello-femoral ligament. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Exact asymptotic relations for the effective response of linear viscoelastic heterogeneous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallican, Valentin; Brenner, Renald; Suquet, Pierre

    2017-11-01

    This article addresses the asymptotic response of viscoelastic heterogeneous media in the frequency domain, at high and low frequencies, for different types of elementary linear viscoelastic constituents. By resorting to stationary principles for complex viscoelasticity and adopting a classification of the viscoelastic behaviours based on the nature of their asymptotic regimes, either elastic or viscous, four exact relations are obtained on the overall viscoelastic complex moduli in each case. Two relations are related to the asymptotic uncoupled heterogeneous problems, while the two remaining ones result from the viscoelastic coupling that manifests itself in the transient regime. These results also provide exact conditions on certain integrals in time of the effective relaxation spectrum. This general setting encompasses the results obtained in preceding studies on mixtures of Maxwell constituents [1,2]. xml:lang="fr"

  15. New non-linear model of groundwater recharge: Inclusion of memory, heterogeneity and visco-elasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spannenberg Jescica

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fractional differentiation has adequate use for investigating real world scenarios related to geological formations associated with elasticity, heterogeneity, viscoelasticity, and the memory effect. Since groundwater systems exist in these geological formations, modelling groundwater recharge as a real world scenario is a challenging task to do because existing recharge estimation methods are governed by linear equations which make use of constant field parameters. This is inadequate because in reality these parameters are a function of both space and time. This study therefore concentrates on modifying the recharge equation governing the EARTH model, by application of the Eton approach. Accordingly, this paper presents a modified equation which is non-linear, and accounts for parameters in a way that it is a function of both space and time. To be more specific, herein, recharge and drainage resistance which are parameters within the equation, became a function of both space and time. Additionally, the study entailed solving the non-linear equation using an iterative method as well as numerical solutions by means of the Crank-Nicolson scheme. The numerical solutions were used alongside the Riemann-Liouville, Caputo-Fabrizio, and Atangana-Baleanu derivatives, so that account was taken for elasticity, heterogeneity, viscoelasticity, and the memory effect. In essence, this paper presents a more adequate model for recharge estimation.

  16. The creep compliance, the relaxation modulus and the complex compliance of linear viscoelastic, homogeneous, isotropic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, P.K.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on a study to obtain the creep compliance, the relaxation modulus and the complex compliance derived from the concept of mechanical resistance for the constitutive equation of a class of linear viscoelastic, homogeneous, isotropic materials

  17. Micromechanics of transformation fields in ageing linear viscoelastic composites: effects of phase dissolution or precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honorio, Tulio

    2017-11-01

    Transformation fields, in an affine formulation characterizing mechanical behavior, describe a variety of physical phenomena regardless their origin. Different composites, notably geomaterials, present a viscoelastic behavior, which is, in some cases of industrial interest, ageing, i.e. it evolves independently with respect to time and loading time. Here, a general formulation of the micromechanics of prestressed or prestrained composites in Ageing Linear Viscoelasticity (ALV) is presented. Emphasis is put on the estimation of effective transformation fields in ALV. The result generalizes Ageing Linear Thermo- and Poro-Viscoelasticity and it can be used in approaches coping with a phase transformation. Additionally, the results are extended to the case of locally transforming materials due to non-coupled dissolution and/or precipitation of a given (elastic or viscoelastic) phase. The estimations of locally transforming composites can be made with respect to different morphologies. As an application, estimations of the coefficient of thermal expansion of a hydrating alite paste are presented.

  18. Aging linear viscoelasticity of matrix-inclusion composite materials featuring ellipsoidal inclusions

    OpenAIRE

    LAVERGNE, Francis; SAB, Karam; SANAHUJA, Julien; BORNERT, Michel; TOULEMONDE, Charles

    2016-01-01

    A multi-scale homogenization scheme is proposed to estimate the time-dependent strains of fiber-reinforced concrete. This material is modeled as an aging linear viscoelastic composite material featuring ellipsoidal inclusions embedded in a viscoelastic cementitious matrix characterized by a time-dependent Poisson's ratio. To this end, the homogenization scheme proposed in Lavergne et al. [1] is adapted to the case of a time-dependent Poisson's ratio and it is successfully validated on a non-a...

  19. LINEAR AND NONLINEAR VISCOELASTIC CHARACTERIZATION OF PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANES AND STRESS MODELING FOR FUEL CELL APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Patankar, Kshitish A

    2009-01-01

    In this dissertation, the effect of temperature and humidity on the viscoelastic and fracture properties of proton exchange membranes (PEM) used in fuel cell applications was studied. Understanding and accurately modeling the linear and nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive properties of a PEM are important for making hygrothermal stress predictions in the cyclic temperature and humidity environment of operating fuel cells. In this study, Nafion® NRE 211, Gore-Select® 57, and Ion Power® N111...

  20. The development and validation of a numerical integration method for non-linear viscoelastic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramo, Nicole L.; Puttlitz, Christian M.

    2018-01-01

    Compelling evidence that many biological soft tissues display both strain- and time-dependent behavior has led to the development of fully non-linear viscoelastic modeling techniques to represent the tissue’s mechanical response under dynamic conditions. Since the current stress state of a viscoelastic material is dependent on all previous loading events, numerical analyses are complicated by the requirement of computing and storing the stress at each step throughout the load history. This requirement quickly becomes computationally expensive, and in some cases intractable, for finite element models. Therefore, we have developed a strain-dependent numerical integration approach for capturing non-linear viscoelasticity that enables calculation of the current stress from a strain-dependent history state variable stored from the preceding time step only, which improves both fitting efficiency and computational tractability. This methodology was validated based on its ability to recover non-linear viscoelastic coefficients from simulated stress-relaxation (six strain levels) and dynamic cyclic (three frequencies) experimental stress-strain data. The model successfully fit each data set with average errors in recovered coefficients of 0.3% for stress-relaxation fits and 0.1% for cyclic. The results support the use of the presented methodology to develop linear or non-linear viscoelastic models from stress-relaxation or cyclic experimental data of biological soft tissues. PMID:29293558

  1. A new analytical method for estimating lumped parameter constants of linear viscoelastic models from strain rate tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, G.; Ahluwalia, A.

    2018-04-01

    We introduce a new function, the apparent elastic modulus strain-rate spectrum, E_{app} ( \\dot{ɛ} ), for the derivation of lumped parameter constants for Generalized Maxwell (GM) linear viscoelastic models from stress-strain data obtained at various compressive strain rates ( \\dot{ɛ}). The E_{app} ( \\dot{ɛ} ) function was derived using the tangent modulus function obtained from the GM model stress-strain response to a constant \\dot{ɛ} input. Material viscoelastic parameters can be rapidly derived by fitting experimental E_{app} data obtained at different strain rates to the E_{app} ( \\dot{ɛ} ) function. This single-curve fitting returns similar viscoelastic constants as the original epsilon dot method based on a multi-curve global fitting procedure with shared parameters. Its low computational cost permits quick and robust identification of viscoelastic constants even when a large number of strain rates or replicates per strain rate are considered. This method is particularly suited for the analysis of bulk compression and nano-indentation data of soft (bio)materials.

  2. Effective properties of linear viscoelastic heterogeneous media: Internal variables formulation and extension to ageing behaviours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricaud, J.M.; Masson, R.; Masson, R.

    2009-01-01

    The Laplace-Carson transform classically used for homogenization of linear viscoelastic heterogeneous media yields integral formulations of effective behaviours. These are far less convenient than internal variables formulations with respect to computational aspects as well as to theoretical extensions to closely related problems such as ageing viscoelasticity. Noticing that the collocation method is usually adopted to invert the Laplace-Carson transforms, we first remark that this approximation is equivalent to an internal variables formulation which is exact in some specific situations. This result is illustrated for a two-phase composite with phases obeying a compressible Maxwellian behaviour. Next, an incremental formulation allows to extend at each time step the previous general framework to ageing viscoelasticity. Finally, with the help of a creep test of a porous viscoelastic matrix reinforced with elastic inclusions, it is shown that the method yields accurate predictions (comparing to reference results provided by periodic cell finite element computations). (authors)

  3. Design and numerical implementation of a 3-D non-linear viscoelastic constitutive model for brain tissue during impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brands, D.W.A.; Peters, G.W.M.; Bovendeerd, P.H.M.

    2004-01-01

    Finite Element (FE) head models are often used to understand mechanical response of the head and its contents during impact loading in the head. CurrentFE models do not account for non-linear viscoelastic material behavior of brain tissue. We developed a new non-linear viscoelastic material model

  4. Asymptotic Green's function in homogeneous anisotropic viscoelastic media

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vavryčuk, Václav

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 463, č. 2086 (2007), s. 2689-2707 ISSN 1364-5021 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : anisotropy * attenuation * Green's function * viscoelasticity Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.523, year: 2007

  5. Earthquake Cycle Simulations with Rate-and-State Friction and Linear and Nonlinear Viscoelasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, K. L.; Dunham, E. M.

    2016-12-01

    We have implemented a parallel code that simultaneously models both rate-and-state friction on a strike-slip fault and off-fault viscoelastic deformation throughout the earthquake cycle in 2D. Because we allow fault slip to evolve with a rate-and-state friction law and do not impose the depth of the brittle-to-ductile transition, we are able to address: the physical processes limiting the depth of large ruptures (with hazard implications); the degree of strain localization with depth; the relative partitioning of fault slip and viscous deformation in the brittle-to-ductile transition zone; and the relative contributions of afterslip and viscous flow to postseismic surface deformation. The method uses a discretization that accommodates variable off-fault material properties, depth-dependent frictional properties, and linear and nonlinear viscoelastic rheologies. All phases of the earthquake cycle are modeled, allowing the model to spontaneously generate earthquakes, and to capture afterslip and postseismic viscous flow. We compare the effects of a linear Maxwell rheology, often used in geodetic models, with those of a nonlinear power law rheology, which laboratory data indicates more accurately represents the lower crust and upper mantle. The viscosity of the Maxwell rheology is set by power law rheological parameters with an assumed a geotherm and strain rate, producing a viscosity that exponentially decays with depth and is constant in time. In contrast, the power law rheology will evolve an effective viscosity that is a function of the temperature profile and the stress state, and therefore varies both spatially and temporally. We will also integrate the energy equation for the thermomechanical problem, capturing frictional heat generation on the fault and off-fault viscous shear heating, and allowing these in turn to alter the effective viscosity.

  6. Linear Viscoelasticity of Spherical SiO 2 Nanoparticle-Tethered Poly(butyl acrylate) Hybrids

    KAUST Repository

    Goel, Vivek; Pietrasik, Joanna; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof; Krishnamoorti, Ramanan

    2010-01-01

    The melt state linear viscoelastic properties of spherical silica nanoparticles with grafted poly(n-butyl acrylate) chains of varying molecular weight were probed using linear small amplitude dynamic oscillatory measurements and complementary linear stress relaxation measurements. While the pure silica-tethered-polymer hybrids with no added homopolymer exhibit solid-like response, addition of matched molecular weight free matrix homopolymer chains to this hybrid, at low concentrations of added homopolymer, maintains the solid-like response with a lowered modulus that can be factored into a silica concentration dependence and a molecular weight dependence. While the silica concentration dependence of the modulus is strong, the dependence on molecular weight is weak. On the other hand, increasing the amount of added homopolymer changes the viscoelastic response to that of a liquid with a relaxation time that scales exponentially with hybrid concentration. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  7. Linear Viscoelasticity of Spherical SiO 2 Nanoparticle-Tethered Poly(butyl acrylate) Hybrids

    KAUST Repository

    Goel, Vivek

    2010-12-01

    The melt state linear viscoelastic properties of spherical silica nanoparticles with grafted poly(n-butyl acrylate) chains of varying molecular weight were probed using linear small amplitude dynamic oscillatory measurements and complementary linear stress relaxation measurements. While the pure silica-tethered-polymer hybrids with no added homopolymer exhibit solid-like response, addition of matched molecular weight free matrix homopolymer chains to this hybrid, at low concentrations of added homopolymer, maintains the solid-like response with a lowered modulus that can be factored into a silica concentration dependence and a molecular weight dependence. While the silica concentration dependence of the modulus is strong, the dependence on molecular weight is weak. On the other hand, increasing the amount of added homopolymer changes the viscoelastic response to that of a liquid with a relaxation time that scales exponentially with hybrid concentration. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  8. How preservation time changes the linear viscoelastic properties of porcine liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wex, C; Stoll, A; Fröhlich, M; Arndt, S; Lippert, H

    2013-01-01

    The preservation time of a liver graft is one of the crucial factors for the success of a liver transplantation. Grafts are kept in a preservation solution to delay cell destruction and cellular edema and to maximize organ function after transplantation. However, longer preservation times are not always avoidable. In this paper we focus on the mechanical changes of porcine liver with increasing preservation time, in order to establish an indicator for the quality of a liver graft dependent on preservation time. A time interval of 26 h was covered and the rheological properties of liver tissue studied using a stress-controlled rheometer. For samples of 1 h preservation time 0.8% strain was found as the limit of linear viscoelasticity. With increasing preservation time a decrease in the complex shear modulus as an indicator for stiffness was observed for the frequency range from 0.1 to 10 Hz. A simple fractional derivative representation of the Kelvin Voigt model was applied to gain further information about the changes of the mechanical properties of liver with increasing preservation time. Within the small shear rate interval of 0.0001-0.01 s⁻¹ the liver showed Newtonian-like flow behavior.

  9. Linear oscillation of gas bubbles in a viscoelastic material under ultrasound irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamaguchi, Fumiya; Ando, Keita, E-mail: kando@mech.keio.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Keio University, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    Acoustically forced oscillation of spherical gas bubbles in a viscoelastic material is studied through comparisons between experiments and linear theory. An experimental setup has been designed to visualize bubble dynamics in gelatin gels using a high-speed camera. A spherical gas bubble is created by focusing an infrared laser pulse into (gas-supersaturated) gelatin gels. The bubble radius (up to 150 μm) under mechanical equilibrium is controlled by gradual mass transfer of gases across the bubble interface. The linearized bubble dynamics are studied from the observation of spherical bubble oscillation driven by low-intensity, planar ultrasound driven at 28 kHz. It follows from the experiment for an isolated bubble that the frequency response in its volumetric oscillation was shifted to the high frequency side and its peak was suppressed as the gelatin concentration increases. The measurement is fitted to the linearized Rayleigh–Plesset equation coupled with the Voigt constitutive equation that models the behavior of linear viscoelastic solids; the fitting yields good agreement by tuning unknown values of the viscosity and rigidity, indicating that more complex phenomena including shear thinning, stress relaxation, and retardation do not play an important role for the small-amplitude oscillations. Moreover, the cases for bubble-bubble and bubble-wall systems are studied. The observed interaction effect on the linearized dynamics can be explained as well by a set of the Rayleigh–Plesset equations coupled through acoustic radiation among these systems. This suggests that this experimental setup can be applied to validate the model of bubble dynamics with more complex configuration such as a cloud of bubbles in viscoelastic materials.

  10. Attenuation and Shock Waves in Linear Hereditary Viscoelastic Media; Strick-Mainardi, Jeffreys-Lomnitz-Strick and Andrade Creep Compliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanyga, Andrzej

    2014-09-01

    Dispersion, attenuation and wavefronts in a class of linear viscoelastic media proposed by Strick and Mainardi (Geophys J R Astr Soc 69:415-429, 1982) and a related class of models due to Lomnitz, Jeffreys and Strick are studied by a new method due to the author. Unlike the previously studied explicit models of relaxation modulus or creep compliance, these two classes support propagation of discontinuities. Due to an extension made by Strick, either of these two classes of models comprise both viscoelastic solids and fluids. We also discuss the Andrade viscoelastic media. The Andrade media do not support discontinuity waves and exhibit the pedestal effect.

  11. Propagation of the Stress Wave Through the Filled Joint with Linear Viscoelastic Deformation Behavior Using Time-Domain Recursive Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Hu, Zhiping; Zhang, Dan; Wang, Qiyao

    2017-12-01

    The dynamic behavior of filled joints is mostly controlled by the filled medium. In addition to nonlinear elastic behavior, viscoelastic behavior of filled joints is also of great significance. Here, a theoretical study of stress wave propagation through a filled rock joint with linear viscoelastic deformation behavior has been carried out using a modified time-domain recursive method (TDRM). A displacement discontinuity model was extended to form a displacement and stress discontinuity model, and the differential constitutive relationship of viscoelastic model was adopted to introduce the mass and viscoelastic behavior of filled medium. A standard linear solid model, which can be degenerated into the Kelvin and Maxwell models, was adopted in deriving this method. Transmission and reflection coefficients were adopted to verify this method. Besides, the effects of some parameters on wave propagation across a filled rock joint with linear viscoelastic deformation behavior were discussed. Then, a comparison of the time-history curves calculated by the present method with those by frequency-domain method (FDM) was performed. The results indicated that change tendencies of the transmission and reflection coefficients for these viscoelastic models versus incident angle were the same as each other but not frequency. The mass and viscosity coupling of filled medium did not fundamentally change wave propagation. The modified TDRM was found to be more efficient than the FDM.

  12. Non-linear analysis and the design of Pumpkin Balloons: stress, stability and viscoelasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, J. L.; Wakefield, D. S.

    Tensys have a long-established background in the shape generation and load analysis of architectural stressed membrane structures Founded upon their inTENS finite element analysis suite these activities have broadened to encompass lighter than air structures such as aerostats hybrid air-vehicles and stratospheric balloons Winzen Engineering couple many years of practical balloon design and fabrication experience with both academic and practical knowledge of the characterisation of the non-linear viscoelastic response of the polymeric films typically used for high-altitude scientific balloons Both companies have provided consulting services to the NASA Ultra Long Duration Balloon ULDB Program Early implementations of pumpkin balloons have shown problems of geometric instability characterised by improper deployment and these difficulties have been reproduced numerically using inTENS The solution lies in both the shapes of the membrane lobes and also the need to generate a biaxial stress field in order to mobilise in-plane shear stiffness Balloons undergo significant temperature and pressure variations in flight The different thermal characteristics between tendons and film can lead to significant meridional stress Fabrication tolerances can lead to significant local hoop stress concentrations particularly adjacent to the base and apex end fittings The non-linear viscoelastic response of the envelope film acts positively to help dissipate stress concentrations However creep over time may produce lobe geometry variations that may

  13. Investigating Linear and Nonlinear Viscoelastic behaviour and microstructures of Gelatine-Multiwalled carbon nanotubes composites

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Zhi

    2015-12-01

    We have investigated the linear and nonlinear rheology of various gelatine-multiwalled carbon nanotube (gel-MWNT) composites, namely physically-crosslinked-gelatine gel-MWNT composites, chemically-crosslinked-gelatine gel-MWNT composites, and chemically-physically-crosslinked-gelatine gel-MWNT composites. Further, the internal structures of these gel-MWNT composites were characterized by ultra-small angle neutron scattering and scanning electron microscopy. The adsorption of gelatine onto the surface of MWNT is also investigated to understand gelatine-assisted dispersion of MWNT during ultrasonication. For all gelatine gels, addition of MWNT increases their complex modulus. The dependence of storage modulus with frequency for gelatine-MWNT composites is similar to that of the corresponding neat gelatine matrix. However, by incorporating MWNT, the dependence of the loss modulus on frequency is reduced. The linear viscoelastic region is decreased approximately linearly with the increase of MWNT concentration. The pre-stress results demonstrate that the addition of MWNT does not change the strain-hardening behaviour of physically-crosslinked gelatine gel. However, the addition of MWNT can increase the strain-hardening behaviour of chemically-crosslinked gelatine gel, and chemically-physically crosslinked gelatine gel. Results from light microscopy, cryo-SEM, and USANS demonstrate the hierarchical structures of MWNT, including that tens-of-micron scale MWNT agglomerates are present. Furthermore, the adsorption curve of gelatine onto the surface of MWNT follows two-stage pseudo-saturation behaviour.

  14. Homogenization of linear viscoelastic three phase media: internal variable formulation versus full-field computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, V.; Barbie, L.; Masson, R.

    2011-01-01

    Homogenization of linear viscoelastic heterogeneous media is here extended from two phase inclusion-matrix media to three phase inclusion-matrix media. Each phase obeying to a compressible Maxwellian behaviour, this analytic method leads to an equivalent elastic homogenization problem in the Laplace-Carson space. For some particular microstructures, such as the Hashin composite sphere assemblage, an exact solution is obtained. The inversion of the Laplace-Carson transforms of the overall stress-strain behaviour gives in such cases an internal variable formulation. As expected, the number of these internal variables and their evolution laws are modified to take into account the third phase. Moreover, evolution laws of averaged stresses and strains per phase can still be derived for three phase media. Results of this model are compared to full fields computations of representative volume elements using finite element method, for various concentrations and sizes of inclusion. Relaxation and creep test cases are performed in order to compare predictions of the effective response. The internal variable formulation is shown to yield accurate prediction in both cases. (authors)

  15. A time-domain finite element model reduction method for viscoelastic linear and nonlinear systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Marcos Gonçalves de Lima

    Full Text Available AbstractMany authors have shown that the effective design of viscoelastic systems can be conveniently carried out by using modern mathematical models to represent the frequency- and temperature-dependent behavior of viscoelastic materials. However, in the quest for design procedures of real-word engineering structures, the large number of exact evaluations of the dynamic responses during iterative procedures, combined with the typically high dimensions of large finite element models, makes the numerical analysis very costly, sometimes unfeasible. It is especially true when the viscoelastic materials are used to reduce vibrations of nonlinear systems. As a matter of fact, which the resolution of the resulting nonlinear equations of motion with frequency- and temperature-dependent viscoelastic damping forces is an interesting, but hard-to-solve problem. Those difficulties motivate the present study, in which a time-domain condensation strategy of viscoelastic systems is addressed, where the viscoelastic behavior is modeled by using a four parameter fractional derivative model. After the discussion of various theoretical aspects, the exact and reduced time responses are calculated for a three-layer sandwich plate by considering nonlinear boundary conditions.

  16. Application of Linear Viscoelastic Properties in Semianalytical Finite Element Method with Recursive Time Integration to Analyze Asphalt Pavement Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, asphalt pavements are considered as linear elastic materials in finite element (FE method to save computational time for engineering design. However, asphalt mixture exhibits linear viscoelasticity at small strain and low temperature. Therefore, the results derived from the elastic analysis will inevitably lead to discrepancies from reality. Currently, several FE programs have already adopted viscoelasticity, but the high hardware demands and long execution times render them suitable primarily for research purposes. Semianalytical finite element method (SAFEM was proposed to solve the abovementioned problem. The SAFEM is a three-dimensional FE algorithm that only requires a two-dimensional mesh by incorporating the Fourier series in the third dimension, which can significantly reduce the computational time. This paper describes the development of SAFEM to capture the viscoelastic property of asphalt pavements by using a recursive formulation. The formulation is verified by comparison with the commercial FE software ABAQUS. An application example is presented for simulations of creep deformation of the asphalt pavement. The investigation shows that the SAFEM is an efficient tool for pavement engineers to fast and reliably predict asphalt pavement responses; furthermore, the SAFEM provides a flexible, robust platform for the future development in the numerical simulation of asphalt pavements.

  17. An anisotropic linear thermo-viscoelastic constitutive law - Elastic relaxation and thermal expansion creep in the time domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettermann, Heinz E.; DeSimone, Antonio

    2017-09-01

    A constitutive material law for linear thermo-viscoelasticity in the time domain is presented. The time-dependent relaxation formulation is given for full anisotropy, i.e., both the elastic and the viscous properties are anisotropic. Thereby, each element of the relaxation tensor is described by its own and independent Prony series expansion. Exceeding common viscoelasticity, time-dependent thermal expansion relaxation/creep is treated as inherent material behavior. The pertinent equations are derived and an incremental, implicit time integration scheme is presented. The developments are implemented into an implicit FEM software for orthotropic material symmetry under plane stress assumption. Even if this is a reduced problem, all essential features are present and allow for the entire verification and validation of the approach. Various simulations on isotropic and orthotropic problems are carried out to demonstrate the material behavior under investigation.

  18. Propagation of cracks and damage in non aging linear viscoelastic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, S.T.

    2010-01-01

    Most of France's energy is nuclear. The reactor building comprises a internal and external containment. The internal containment is prestressed to limit the flow of leakage in the internal-external space. The prestress decreases during time by the creep of concrete. It may propagate the cracks by the accidental internal pressure. So we define two research problems: propagation of macro-cracks in viscoelastic structure; effective behavior of micro-cracked viscoelastic material. Firstly, we develop a Burger viscoelastic model of concrete with two approaches: numerical and analytical. Then we solve the problem of single cracks in developing thermodynamically the concept of energy release rate. In the third part we develop a viscoelastic model to study the effective behavior of micro-cracked materials in the case without propagation. The problem of propagation of microcracks is then studied by a numerical approach based on the 'representative pattern morphology'. These studies are finally applied to solve the problems of crack propagation and damage of containment under accidental internal pressure. (authors)

  19. Viscoelastic and Functional Properties of Cod-Bone Gelatin in the Presence of Xylitol and Stevioside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linyu Nian

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The physical, rheological, structural and functional properties of cod bone gelatin (CBG with various concentrations (0, 2, 4, 6, 10, and 15% of low-calorie sweeteners [xylitol (X and stevioside (S] to form gels were investigated. The gel strength of CBGX increased with increased xylitol due presumably to hydrogen bonds between xylitol and gelatin, but with CBGS the highest gel strength occurred when S concentration was 4%. Viscosity of CBGS samples were higher than CBGX due to S's high molecular mass. The viscoelasticity (G′ and G′′, foaming capacity and fat binding capacity of CBGX were higher while foam stability was lower. The emulsion activity and emulsion stability of CBGX were a little lower than CBGS at the same concentration. The structure of X is linear making it easier to form a dense three-dimensional network structure, while the complex cyclic structure of S had more difficulty forming a network structure with cod bone gelatin. Therefore, X may be a better choice for sweetening gelatin gels.

  20. Functionalized linear and cyclic polyolefins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuba, Robert; Grubbs, Robert H.

    2018-02-13

    This invention relates to methods and compositions for preparing linear and cyclic polyolefins. More particularly, the invention relates to methods and compositions for preparing functionalized linear and cyclic polyolefins via olefin metathesis reactions. Polymer products produced via the olefin metathesis reactions of the invention may be utilized for a wide range of materials applications. The invention has utility in the fields of polymer and materials chemistry and manufacture.

  1. On the relevance of the micromechanics approach for predicting the linear viscoelastic behavior of semi-crystalline poly(ethylene)terephtalates (PET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diani, J.; Bedoui, F.; Regnier, G.

    2008-01-01

    The relevance of micromechanics modeling to the linear viscoelastic behavior of semi-crystalline polymers is studied. For this purpose, the linear viscoelastic behaviors of amorphous and semi-crystalline PETs are characterized. Then, two micromechanics modeling methods, which have been proven in a previous work to apply to the PET elastic behavior, are used to predict the viscoelastic behavior of three semi-crystalline PETs. The microstructures of the crystalline PETs are clearly defined using WAXS techniques. Since microstructures and mechanical properties of both constitutive phases (the crystalline and the amorphous) are defined, the simulations are run without adjustable parameters. Results show that the models are unable to reproduce the substantial decrease of viscosity induced by the increase of crystallinity. Unlike the real materials, for moderate crystallinity, both models show materials of viscosity nearly identical to the amorphous material

  2. Application of radial basis functions and sinc method for solving the forced vibration of fractional viscoelastic beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Permoon, M. R.; Haddadpour, H. [Sharif University of Tech, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rashidinia, J.; Parsa, A.; Salehi, R. [Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    In this paper, the forced vibrations of the fractional viscoelastic beam with the Kelvin-Voigt fractional order constitutive relationship is studied. The equation of motion is derived from Newton's second law and the Galerkin method is used to discretize the equation of motion in to a set of linear ordinary differential equations. For solving the discretized equations, the radial basis functions and Sinc quadrature rule are used. In order to show the effectiveness and accuracy of this method, some test problem are considered, and it is shown that the obtained results are in very good agreement with exact solution. In the following, the proposed numerical solution is applied to exploring the effects of fractional parameters on the response of the beam and finally some conclusions are outlined.

  3. Meromorphic functions and linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Nevanlinna, Olavi

    2003-01-01

    This volume describes for the first time in monograph form important applications in numerical methods of linear algebra. The author presents new material and extended results from recent papers in a very readable style. The main goal of the book is to study the behavior of the resolvent of a matrix under the perturbation by low rank matrices. Whereas the eigenvalues (the poles of the resolvent) and the pseudospectra (the sets where the resolvent takes large values) can move dramatically under such perturbations, the growth of the resolvent as a matrix-valued meromorphic function remains essen

  4. The role of nonlinear viscoelasticity on the functionality of laminating shortenings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macias-Rodriguez, Braulio A.; Peyronel, Fernanda; Marangoni, Alejandro G.

    2017-11-01

    The rheology of fats is essential for the development of homogeneous and continuous layered structures of doughs. Here, we define laminating shortenings in terms of rheological behavior displayed during linear-to-nonlinear shear deformations, investigated by large amplitude oscillatory shear rheology. Likewise, we associate the rheological behavior of the shortenings with structural length scales elucidated by ultra-small angle x-ray scattering and cryo-electron microscopy. Shortenings exhibited solid-like viscoelastic and viscoelastoplastic behaviors in the linear and nonlinear regimes respectively. In the nonlinear region, laminating shortenings dissipated more viscous energy (larger normalized dynamic viscosities) than a cake bakery shortening. The fat solid-like network of laminating shortening displayed a three-hierarchy structure and layered crystal aggregates, in comparison to two-hierarchy structure and spherical-like crystal aggregates of a cake shortening. We argue that the observed rheology, correlated to the structural network, is crucial for optimal laminating performance of shortenings.

  5. A Trivial Linear Discriminant Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichi Shinmura

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we focus on the new model selection procedure of the discriminant analysis. Combining re-sampling technique with k-fold cross validation, we develop a k-fold cross validation for small sample method. By this breakthrough, we obtain the mean error rate in the validation samples (M2 and the 95\\% confidence interval (CI of discriminant coefficient. Moreover, we propose the model  selection  procedure  in  which  the model having a minimum M2 was  chosen  to  the  best  model.  We  apply  this  new  method and procedure to the pass/ fail determination of  exam  scores.  In  this  case,  we  fix  the constant =1 for seven linear discriminant  functions  (LDFs  and  several  good  results  were obtained as follows: 1 M2 of Fisher's LDF are over 4.6\\% worse than Revised IP-OLDF. 2 A soft-margin  SVM  for  penalty c=1  (SVM1  is  worse  than  another  mathematical  programming (MP based LDFs and logistic regression . 3 The 95\\% CI of the best discriminant coefficients was obtained. Seven LDFs except for Fisher's LDF are almost the same as a trivial LDF for the linear separable model. Furthermore, if we choose the median of the coefficient of seven LDFs except for Fisher's LDF,  those are almost the same as the trivial LDF for the linear separable model.

  6. Linear Viscoelastic and Dielectric Relaxation Response of Unentangled UPy-Based Supramolecular Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabbir, Aamir; Javakhishvili, Irakli; Cerveny, Silvina

    2016-01-01

    Supramolecular polymers possess versatile mechanical properties and a unique ability to respond to external stimuli. Understanding the rich dynamics of such associative polymers is essential for tailoring user-defined properties in many products. Linear copolymers of 2-methoxyethyl acrylate (MEA)...

  7. Introducing Linear Functions: An Alternative Statistical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Caroline; Herbert, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of linear functions is the turning point where many students decide if mathematics is useful or not. This means the role of parameters and variables in linear functions could be considered to be "threshold concepts". There is recognition that linear functions can be taught in context through the exploration of linear…

  8. Synthesis and Linear Viscoelasticity of Polystyrene Stars with a Polyketone Core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polgar, L. M.; Lentzakis, H.; Collias, D.; Snijkers, F.; Lee, S.; Chang, T.; Sakellariou, G.; Wever, D. A. Z.; Toncelli, C.; Broekhuis, A. A.; Picchioni, F.; Gotsis, A. D.; Vlassopoulos, D.

    2015-01-01

    We report on a novel synthetic route to synthesize relatively large quantities of polystyrene (PS) star polymers with targeted arm functionality and molar mass and their theological properties in the molten state. The synthetic route involves grafting styrene monomers onto a modified (aliphatic,

  9. Viscoelastic effects in three-dimensional microphase separation of block copolymers : Dynamic mean-field density functional approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maurits, NM; Zvelindovsky, AV; Fraaije, JGEM

    1998-01-01

    In the present paper, we extend the dynamic mean-field density functional method which describes microphase separation phenomena in polymer liquids, to account for viscoelastic effects. The effect of simple steady shear on polymer orientation and elongation is taken into account by adapting the

  10. Vibration of functionally graded plate resting on viscoelastic elastic foundation subjected to moving loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duy Hien, Ta; Lam, Nguyen Ngoc

    2018-04-01

    The dynamics of plates subjected to a moving load must be considered by engineering mechanics and design structures. This paper deals with the dynamic responses of functionally graded (FG) rectangular plates resting on a viscoelastic foundation under moving loads. It is assumed that material properties of the plate vary continuously in the thickness direction according to the power-law. The governing equations are derived by using Hamilton’s principle, which considers the effect of the higher-order shear deformation in the plate. Transient responses of simply supported FG rectangular plates are employed by using state-space methods. Several examples are given for displacement and stresses in the plates with various structural parameters, and the effects of these parameters are discussed.

  11. SYNTHESIS OF VISCOELASTIC MATERIAL MODELS (SCHEMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Bogomolov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The principles of structural viscoelastic schemes construction for materials with linear viscoelastic properties in accordance with the given experimental data on creep tests are analyzed. It is shown that there can be only four types of materials with linear visco-elastic properties.

  12. Understanding Linear Functions and Their Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Pamela J.

    2015-01-01

    Linear functions are an important part of the middle school mathematics curriculum. Students in the middle grades gain fluency by working with linear functions in a variety of representations (NCTM 2001). Presented in this article is an activity that was used with five eighth-grade classes at three different schools. The activity contains 15 cards…

  13. Calibration of trapping force and response function of optical tweezers in viscoelastic media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Mario; Berg-Sørensen, Kirstine

    2007-01-01

    , 594) is not possible as the viscoelastic properties of the bio-active medium are a priori unknown. Here, we present an approach that neither requires explicit assumptions about the size of the trapped particle nor about the viscoelastic properties of the medium. Instead, the interaction between...... the medium and the trapped particle is described in a general manner, through velocity and acceleration memory. Our method is applicable to general, at least locally homogeneous, viscoelastic media. The procedure combines active and passive approaches by the application of Onsager's regression hypothesis...

  14. Viscoelastic assessment of anal canal function using acoustic reflectometry: a clinically useful technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Peter J; Klarskov, Niels; Telford, Karen J; Hosker, Gordon L; Lose, Gunnar; Kiff, Edward S

    2012-02-01

    Anal acoustic reflectometry is a new reproducible technique that allows a viscoelastic assessment of anal canal function. Five new variables reflecting anal canal function are measured: the opening and closing pressure, opening and closing elastance, and hysteresis. The aim of this study was to assess whether the parameters measured in anal acoustic reflectometry are clinically valid between continent and fecally incontinent subjects. This was an age- and sex-matched study of continent and incontinent women. The study was conducted at a university teaching hospital. One hundred women (50 with fecal incontinence and 50 with normal bowel control) were included in the study. Subjects were age matched to within 5 years. Parameters measured with anal acoustic reflectometry and manometry were compared between incontinent and continent groups using a paired t test. Diagnostic accuracy was assessed by the use of receiver operator characteristic curves. Four of the 5 anal acoustic reflectometry parameters at rest were significantly different between continent and incontinent women (eg, opening pressure in fecally incontinent subjects was 31.6 vs 51.5 cm H2O in continent subjects, p = 0.0001). Both anal acoustic reflectometry parameters of squeeze opening pressure and squeeze opening elastance were significantly reduced in the incontinent women compared with continent women (50 vs 99.1 cm H2O, p = 0.0001 and 1.48 vs 1.83 cm H2O/mm, p = 0.012). In terms of diagnostic accuracy, opening pressure at rest measured by reflectometry was significantly superior in discriminating between continent and incontinent women in comparison with resting pressure measured with manometry (p = 0.009). Anal acoustic reflectometry is a new, clinically valid technique in the assessment of continent and incontinent subjects. This technique, which assesses the response of the anal canal to distension and relaxation, provides a detailed viscoelastic assessment of anal canal function. This technique

  15. Software to compute elastostatic Green's functions for sources in 3D homogeneous elastic layers above a (visco)elastic halfspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, A. M.; Segall, P.

    2012-12-01

    We describe software, in development, to calculate elastostatic displacement Green's functions and their derivatives for point and polygonal dislocations in three-dimensional homogeneous elastic layers above an elastic or a viscoelastic halfspace. The steps to calculate a Green's function for a point source at depth zs are as follows. 1. A grid in wavenumber space is chosen. 2. A six-element complex rotated stress-displacement vector x is obtained at each grid point by solving a two-point boundary value problem (2P-BVP). If the halfspace is viscoelastic, the solution is inverse Laplace transformed. 3. For each receiver, x is propagated to the receiver depth zr (often zr = 0) and then, 4, inverse Fourier transformed, with the Fourier component corresponding to the receiver's horizontal position. 5. The six elements are linearly combined into displacements and their derivatives. The dominant work is in step 2. The grid is chosen to represent the wavenumber-space solution with as few points as possible. First, the wavenumber space is transformed to increase sampling density near 0 wavenumber. Second, a tensor-product grid of Chebyshev points of the first kind is constructed in each quadrant of the transformed wavenumber space. Moment-tensor-dependent symmetries further reduce work. The numerical solution of the 2P-BVP problem in step 2 involves solving a linear equation A x = b. Half of the elements of x are of geophysical interest; the subset depends on whether zr ≤ zs. Denote these \\hat x. As wavenumber k increases, \\hat x can become inaccurate in finite precision arithmetic for two reasons: 1. The condition number of A becomes too large. 2. The norm-wise relative error (NWRE) in \\hat x is large even though it is small in x. To address this problem, a number of researchers have used determinants to obtain x. This may be the best approach for 6-dimensional or smaller 2P-BVP, where the combinatorial increase in work is still moderate. But there is an alternative

  16. Modeling Asymmetric Flow of Viscoelastic Fluid in Symmetric Planar Sudden Expansion Geometry Based on User-Defined Function in FLUENT CFD Package

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Ying Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Through embedding an in-house subroutine into FLUENT code by utilizing the functionalization of user-defined function provided by the software, a new numerical simulation methodology on viscoelastic fluid flows has been established. In order to benchmark this methodology, numerical simulations under different viscoelastic fluid solution concentrations (with solvent viscosity ratio varied from 0.2 to 0.9, extensibility parameters (100≤L2≤500, Reynolds numbers (0.1 ≤ Re ≤ 100, and Weissenberg numbers (0 ≤ Wi ≤ 20 are conducted on unsteady laminar flows through a symmetric planar sudden expansion with expansion ratio of 1: 3 for viscoelastic fluid flows. The constitutive model used to describe the viscoelastic effect of viscoelastic fluid flow is FENE-P (finitely extensive nonlinear elastic-Peterlin model. The numerical simulation results show that the influences of elasticity, inertia, and concentration on the flow bifurcation characteristics are more significant than those of extensibility. The present simulation results including the critical Reynolds number for which the flow becomes asymmetric, vortex size, bifurcation diagram, velocity distribution, streamline, and pressure loss show good agreements with some published results. That means the newly established method based on FLUENT software platform for simulating peculiar flow behaviors of viscoelastic fluid is credible and suitable for the study of viscoelastic fluid flows.

  17. Elastic and Viscoelastic Stresses of Nonlinear Rotating Functionally Graded Solid and Annular Disks with Gradually Varying Thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allam M. N. M.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Analytical and numerical nonlinear solutions for rotating variable-thickness functionally graded solid and annular disks with viscoelastic orthotropic material properties are presented by using the method of successive approximations.Variable material properties such as Young’s moduli, density and thickness of the disk, are first introduced to obtain the governing equation. As a second step, the method of successive approximations is proposed to get the nonlinear solution of the problem. In the third step, the method of effective moduli is deduced to reduce the problem to the corresponding one of a homogeneous but anisotropic material. The results of viscoelastic stresses and radial displacement are obtained for annular and solid disks of different profiles and graphically illustrated. The calculated results are compared and the effects due to many parameters are discussed.

  18. Introducing linear functions: an alternative statistical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Caroline; Herbert, Sandra

    2015-12-01

    The introduction of linear functions is the turning point where many students decide if mathematics is useful or not. This means the role of parameters and variables in linear functions could be considered to be `threshold concepts'. There is recognition that linear functions can be taught in context through the exploration of linear modelling examples, but this has its limitations. Currently, statistical data is easily attainable, and graphics or computer algebra system (CAS) calculators are common in many classrooms. The use of this technology provides ease of access to different representations of linear functions as well as the ability to fit a least-squares line for real-life data. This means these calculators could support a possible alternative approach to the introduction of linear functions. This study compares the results of an end-of-topic test for two classes of Australian middle secondary students at a regional school to determine if such an alternative approach is feasible. In this study, test questions were grouped by concept and subjected to concept by concept analysis of the means of test results of the two classes. This analysis revealed that the students following the alternative approach demonstrated greater competence with non-standard questions.

  19. Asphalt Pavement Aging and Temperature Dependent Properties Using Functionally Graded Viscoelastic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Eshan V.

    2009-01-01

    Asphalt concrete pavements are inherently graded viscoelastic structures. Oxidative aging of asphalt binder and temperature cycling due to climatic conditions being the major cause of non-homogeneity. Current pavement analysis and simulation procedures dwell on the use of layered approach to account for these non-homogeneities. The conventional…

  20. Lagrangian viscoelastic flow computations using a generalized molecular stress function model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik K.

    2002-01-01

    A new finite element technique for the numerical simulation of 3D time-dependent flow of viscoelastic fluid is presented. The technique is based on a Lagrangian kinematics description of the fluid flow. It represents a further development of the 3D Lagrangian integral method (3D-LIM) from a Rivlin...

  1. A non-linear kinematic hardening function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottosen, N.S.

    1977-05-01

    Based on the classical theory of plasticity, and accepting the von Mises criterion as the initial yield criterion, a non-linear kinematic hardening function applicable both to Melan-Prager's and to Ziegler's hardening rule is proposed. This non-linear hardening function is determined by means of the uniaxial stress-strain curve, and any such curve is applicable. The proposed hardening function considers the problem of general reversed loading, and a smooth change in the behaviour from one plastic state to another nearlying plastic state is obtained. A review of both the kinematic hardening theory and the corresponding non-linear hardening assumptions is given, and it is shown that material behaviour is identical whether Melan-Prager's or Ziegler's hardening rule is applied, provided that the von Mises yield criterion is adopted. (author)

  2. Engineering viscoelasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Gutierrez-Lemini, Danton

    2014-01-01

    Engineering Viscoelasticity covers all aspects of the thermo- mechanical response of viscoelastic substances that a practitioner in the field of viscoelasticity would need to design experiments, interpret test data, develop stress-strain models, perform stress analyses, design structural components, and carry out research work. The material in each chapter is developed from the elementary to the advanced, providing the background in mathematics and mechanics that are central to understanding the subject matter being presented. The book examines how viscoelastic materials respond to the application of loads, and provides practical guidelines to use them in the design of commercial, military and industrial applications. This book also: ·         Facilitates conceptual understanding by progressing in each chapter from elementary to challenging material ·         Examines in detail both differential and integral constitutive equations, devoting full chapters to each type and using both forms in ...

  3. Viscoelastic behaviour and fracture toughness of linear-low-density polyethylene reinforced with synthetic boehmite alumina nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pedrazzoli

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the present study is to investigate how synthetic boehmite alumina (BA nanoparticles modify the viscoleastic and fracture behaviour of linear low-density polyethylene. Nanocomposites containing up to 8 wt% of untreated and octyl silane-functionalized BA nanoparticles, were prepared by melt compounding and hot pressing. The BA nanoparticles were finely and unformly dispersed within the matrix according to scanning electron microscopy inspection. The results of quasi-static tensile tests indicated that nanoparticles can provide a remarkable stiffening effect at a rather low filler content. Short term creep tests showed that creep stability was significatively improved by nanofiller incorporation. Concurrently, both storage and loss moduli were enhanced in all nanocomposites, showing better result for surface treated nanoparticles. The plane-stress fracture toughness, evaluated by the essential work of fracture approach, manifested a dramatic increase (up to 64% with the BA content, with no significant differences among the various types of BA nanoparticles.

  4. Linear scaling of density functional algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stechel, E.B.; Feibelman, P.J.; Williams, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    An efficient density functional algorithm (DFA) that scales linearly with system size will revolutionize electronic structure calculations. Density functional calculations are reliable and accurate in determining many condensed matter and molecular ground-state properties. However, because current DFA's, including methods related to that of Car and Parrinello, scale with the cube of the system size, density functional studies are not routinely applied to large systems. Linear scaling is achieved by constructing functions that are both localized and fully occupied, thereby eliminating the need to calculate global eigenfunctions. It is, however, widely believed that exponential localization requires the existence of an energy gap between the occupied and unoccupied states. Despite this, the authors demonstrate that linear scaling can still be achieved for metals. Using a linear scaling algorithm, they have explicitly constructed localized, almost fully occupied orbitals for the quintessential metallic system, jellium. The algorithm is readily generalizable to any system geometry and Hamiltonian. They will discuss the conceptual issues involved, convergence properties and scaling for their new algorithm

  5. A linear combination of modified Bessel functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shitzer, A.; Chato, J. C.

    1971-01-01

    A linear combination of modified Bessel functions is defined, discussed briefly, and tabulated. This combination was found to recur in the analysis of various heat transfer problems and in the analysis of the thermal behavior of living tissue when modeled by cylindrical shells.

  6. Thresholding projection estimators in functional linear models

    OpenAIRE

    Cardot, Hervé; Johannes, Jan

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of estimating the regression function in functional linear regression models by proposing a new type of projection estimators which combine dimension reduction and thresholding. The introduction of a threshold rule allows to get consistency under broad assumptions as well as minimax rates of convergence under additional regularity hypotheses. We also consider the particular case of Sobolev spaces generated by the trigonometric basis which permits to get easily mean squ...

  7. Diagnostics for Linear Models With Functional Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Hongquan; Shen, Qing

    2005-01-01

    Linear models where the response is a function and the predictors are vectors are useful in analyzing data from designed experiments and other situations with functional observations. Residual analysis and diagnostics are considered for such models. Studentized residuals are defined and their properties are studied. Chi-square quantile-quantile plots are proposed to check the assumption of Gaussian error process and outliers. Jackknife residuals and an associated test are proposed to det...

  8. Linear functional analysis for scientists and engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Limaye, Balmohan V

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a concise and meticulous introduction to functional analysis. Since the topic draws heavily on the interplay between the algebraic structure of a linear space and the distance structure of a metric space, functional analysis is increasingly gaining the attention of not only mathematicians but also scientists and engineers. The purpose of the text is to present the basic aspects of functional analysis to this varied audience, keeping in mind the considerations of applicability. A novelty of this book is the inclusion of a result by Zabreiko, which states that every countably subadditive seminorm on a Banach space is continuous. Several major theorems in functional analysis are easy consequences of this result. The entire book can be used as a textbook for an introductory course in functional analysis without having to make any specific selection from the topics presented here. Basic notions in the setting of a metric space are defined in terms of sequences. These include total boundedness, c...

  9. Computational Viscoelasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Marques, Severino P C

    2012-01-01

    This text is a guide how to solve problems in which viscoelasticity is present using existing commercial computational codes. The book gives information on codes’ structure and use, data preparation  and output interpretation and verification. The first part of the book introduces the reader to the subject, and to provide the models, equations and notation to be used in the computational applications. The second part shows the most important Computational techniques: Finite elements formulation, Boundary elements formulation, and presents the solutions of Viscoelastic problems with Abaqus.

  10. Linear Prediction Using Refined Autocorrelation Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shahidur Rahman

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new technique for improving the performance of linear prediction analysis by utilizing a refined version of the autocorrelation function. Problems in analyzing voiced speech using linear prediction occur often due to the harmonic structure of the excitation source, which causes the autocorrelation function to be an aliased version of that of the vocal tract impulse response. To estimate the vocal tract characteristics accurately, however, the effect of aliasing must be eliminated. In this paper, we employ homomorphic deconvolution technique in the autocorrelation domain to eliminate the aliasing effect occurred due to periodicity. The resulted autocorrelation function of the vocal tract impulse response is found to produce significant improvement in estimating formant frequencies. The accuracy of formant estimation is verified on synthetic vowels for a wide range of pitch frequencies typical for male and female speakers. The validity of the proposed method is also illustrated by inspecting the spectral envelopes of natural speech spoken by high-pitched female speaker. The synthesis filter obtained by the current method is guaranteed to be stable, which makes the method superior to many of its alternatives.

  11. Rotational partition functions for linear molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, R.S.

    1988-01-01

    An accurate closed-form expression for the rotational partition function of linear polyatomic molecules in 1 summation electronic states is derived, including the effect of nuclear spin (significant at very low temperatures) and of quartic and sextic centrifugal distortion terms (significant at moderate and high temperatures). The proper first-order quantum correction to the classical rigid-rotator partition function is shown to yield Q/sub r/ ≅β -1 exp(β/3), where βequivalenthcB/kT and B is the rotational constant in cm -1 ; for β≥0.2 additional power-series terms in β are necessary. Comparison between the results of this treatment and exact summations are made for HCN and C 2 H 2 at temperatures from 2 to 5000 K, including separate evaluation of the contributions of nuclear spin and centrifugal distortion

  12. Wave dispersion of carbon nanotubes conveying fluid supported on linear viscoelastic two-parameter foundation including thermal and small-scale effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sina, Nima; Moosavi, Hassan; Aghaei, Hosein; Afrand, Masoud; Wongwises, Somchai

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, for the first time, a nonlocal Timoshenko beam model is employed for studying the wave dispersion of a fluid-conveying single-walled carbon nanotube on Viscoelastic Pasternak foundation under high and low temperature change. In addition, the phase and group velocity for the nanotube are discussed, respectively. The influences of Winkler and Pasternak modulus, homogenous temperature change, steady flow velocity and damping factor of viscoelastic foundation on wave dispersion of carbon nanotubes are investigated. It was observed that the characteristic of the wave for carbon nanotubes conveying fluid is the normal dispersion. Moreover, implying viscoelastic foundation leads to increasing the wave frequencies.

  13. Surface loading of a viscoelastic earth-I. General theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromp, Jeroen; Mitrovica, Jerry X.

    1999-06-01

    We present a new normal-mode formalism for computing the response of an aspherical, self-gravitating, linear viscoelastic earth model to an arbitrary surface load. The formalism makes use of recent advances in the theory of the Earth's free oscillations, and is based upon an eigenfunction expansion methodology, rather than the tradi-tional Love-number approach to surface-loading problems. We introduce a surface-load representation theorem analogous to Betti's reciprocity relation in seismology. Taking advantage of this theorem and the biorthogonality of the viscoelastic modes, we determine the complete response to a surface load in the form of a Green's function. We also demonstrate that each viscoelastic mode has its own unique energy partitioning, which can be used to characterize it. In subsequent papers, we apply the theory to spherically symmetric and aspherical earth models.

  14. The visco-elastic multilayer program VEROAD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopman, P.C.

    1996-01-01

    The mathematical principles and derivation of a linear visco-elastic multilayer computer program are described. The mathematical derivation is based on Fourier Transformation. The program is called VEROAD, which is an acronym for Visco-Elastic ROad Analysis Delft. The program allows calculation of

  15. A logic circuit for solving linear function by digital method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Yonghe

    1986-01-01

    A mathematical method for determining the linear relation of physical quantity with rediation intensity is described. A logic circuit has been designed for solving linear function by digital method. Some applications and the circuit function are discussed

  16. Dynamical problem of micropolar viscoelasticity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging Solutions)

    gen (1964) and Tomar and Kumar (1999) discussed different types of problems in micropolar elastic medium. Eringen (1967) extended the theory of micropolar elasticity to obtain linear constitutive theory for micropolar material possessing inter- nal friction. A problem on micropolar viscoelastic waves has been discussed by ...

  17. Reduction of Linear Functional Systems using Fuhrmann's Equivalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S. Boudellioua

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Functional systems arise in the treatment of systems of partial differential equations, delay-differential equations, multidimensional equations, etc. The problem of reducing a linear functional system to a system containing fewer equations and unknowns was first studied by Serre. Finding an equivalent presentation of a linear functional system containing fewer equations and fewer unknowns can generally simplify both the study of the structural properties of the linear functional system and of different numerical analysis issues, and it can sometimes help in solving the linear functional system. In this paper, Fuhrmann's equivalence is used to present a constructive result on the reduction of under-determined linear functional systems to a single equation involving a single unknown. This equivalence transformation has been studied by a number of authors and has been shown to play an important role in the theory of linear functional systems.

  18. Slope Estimation in Noisy Piecewise Linear Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingle, Atul; Bucklew, James; Sethares, William; Varghese, Tomy

    2015-03-01

    This paper discusses the development of a slope estimation algorithm called MAPSlope for piecewise linear data that is corrupted by Gaussian noise. The number and locations of slope change points (also known as breakpoints) are assumed to be unknown a priori though it is assumed that the possible range of slope values lies within known bounds. A stochastic hidden Markov model that is general enough to encompass real world sources of piecewise linear data is used to model the transitions between slope values and the problem of slope estimation is addressed using a Bayesian maximum a posteriori approach. The set of possible slope values is discretized, enabling the design of a dynamic programming algorithm for posterior density maximization. Numerical simulations are used to justify choice of a reasonable number of quantization levels and also to analyze mean squared error performance of the proposed algorithm. An alternating maximization algorithm is proposed for estimation of unknown model parameters and a convergence result for the method is provided. Finally, results using data from political science, finance and medical imaging applications are presented to demonstrate the practical utility of this procedure.

  19. Viscoelastic Earthquake Cycle Simulation with Memory Variable Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirahara, K.; Ohtani, M.

    2017-12-01

    There have so far been no EQ (earthquake) cycle simulations, based on RSF (rate and state friction) laws, in viscoelastic media, except for Kato (2002), who simulated cycles on a 2-D vertical strike-slip fault, and showed nearly the same cycles as those in elastic cases. The viscoelasticity could, however, give more effects on large dip-slip EQ cycles. In a boundary element approach, stress is calculated using a hereditary integral of stress relaxation function and slip deficit rate, where we need the past slip rates, leading to huge computational costs. This is a cause for almost no simulations in viscoelastic media. We have investigated the memory variable method utilized in numerical computation of wave propagation in dissipative media (e.g., Moczo and Kristek, 2005). In this method, introducing memory variables satisfying 1st order differential equations, we need no hereditary integrals in stress calculation and the computational costs are the same order of those in elastic cases. Further, Hirahara et al. (2012) developed the iterative memory variable method, referring to Taylor et al. (1970), in EQ cycle simulations in linear viscoelastic media. In this presentation, first, we introduce our method in EQ cycle simulations and show the effect of the linear viscoelasticity on stick-slip cycles in a 1-DOF block-SLS (standard linear solid) model, where the elastic spring of the traditional block-spring model is replaced by SLS element and we pull, in a constant rate, the block obeying RSF law. In this model, the memory variable stands for the displacement of the dash-pot in SLS element. The use of smaller viscosity reduces the recurrence time to a minimum value. The smaller viscosity means the smaller relaxation time, which makes the stress recovery quicker, leading to the smaller recurrence time. Second, we show EQ cycles on a 2-D dip-slip fault with the dip angel of 20 degrees in an elastic layer with thickness of 40 km overriding a Maxwell viscoelastic half

  20. Basic methods of linear functional analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Pryce, John D

    2011-01-01

    Introduction to the themes of mathematical analysis, geared toward advanced undergraduate and graduate students. Topics include operators, function spaces, Hilbert spaces, and elementary Fourier analysis. Numerous exercises and worked examples.1973 edition.

  1. Linear measure functional differential equations with infinite delay

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, G. (Giselle Antunes); Slavík, A.

    2014-01-01

    We use the theory of generalized linear ordinary differential equations in Banach spaces to study linear measure functional differential equations with infinite delay. We obtain new results concerning the existence, uniqueness, and continuous dependence of solutions. Even for equations with a finite delay, our results are stronger than the existing ones. Finally, we present an application to functional differential equations with impulses.

  2. Parametric imaging of viscoelasticity using optical coherence elastography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesinghe, Philip; McLaughlin, Robert A.; Sampson, David D.; Kennedy, Brendan F.

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate imaging of soft tissue viscoelasticity using optical coherence elastography. Viscoelastic creep deformation is induced in tissue using step-like compressive loading and the resulting time-varying deformation is measured using phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography. From a series of co-located B-scans, we estimate the local strain rate as a function of time, and parameterize it using a four-parameter Kelvin-Voigt model of viscoelastic creep. The estimated viscoelastic strain and time constant are used to visualize viscoelastic creep in 2D, dual-parameter viscoelastograms. We demonstrate our technique on six silicone tissue-simulating phantoms spanning a range of viscoelastic parameters. As an example in soft tissue, we report viscoelastic contrast between muscle and connective tissue in fresh, ex vivo rat gastrocnemius muscle and mouse abdominal transection. Imaging viscoelastic creep deformation has the potential to provide complementary contrast to existing imaging modalities, and may provide greater insight into disease pathology.

  3. Relativistic viscoelastic fluid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuma, Masafumi; Sakatani, Yuho

    2011-01-01

    A detailed study is carried out for the relativistic theory of viscoelasticity which was recently constructed on the basis of Onsager's linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics. After rederiving the theory using a local argument with the entropy current, we show that this theory universally reduces to the standard relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics in the long time limit. Since effects of elasticity are taken into account, the dynamics at short time scales is modified from that given by the Navier-Stokes equations, so that acausal problems intrinsic to relativistic Navier-Stokes fluids are significantly remedied. We in particular show that the wave equations for the propagation of disturbance around a hydrostatic equilibrium in Minkowski space-time become symmetric hyperbolic for some range of parameters, so that the model is free of acausality problems. This observation suggests that the relativistic viscoelastic model with such parameters can be regarded as a causal completion of relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics. By adjusting parameters to various values, this theory can treat a wide variety of materials including elastic materials, Maxwell materials, Kelvin-Voigt materials, and (a nonlinearly generalized version of) simplified Israel-Stewart fluids, and thus we expect the theory to be the most universal description of single-component relativistic continuum materials. We also show that the presence of strains and the corresponding change in temperature are naturally unified through the Tolman law in a generally covariant description of continuum mechanics.

  4. Relativistic viscoelastic fluid mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuma, Masafumi; Sakatani, Yuho

    2011-08-01

    A detailed study is carried out for the relativistic theory of viscoelasticity which was recently constructed on the basis of Onsager's linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics. After rederiving the theory using a local argument with the entropy current, we show that this theory universally reduces to the standard relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics in the long time limit. Since effects of elasticity are taken into account, the dynamics at short time scales is modified from that given by the Navier-Stokes equations, so that acausal problems intrinsic to relativistic Navier-Stokes fluids are significantly remedied. We in particular show that the wave equations for the propagation of disturbance around a hydrostatic equilibrium in Minkowski space-time become symmetric hyperbolic for some range of parameters, so that the model is free of acausality problems. This observation suggests that the relativistic viscoelastic model with such parameters can be regarded as a causal completion of relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics. By adjusting parameters to various values, this theory can treat a wide variety of materials including elastic materials, Maxwell materials, Kelvin-Voigt materials, and (a nonlinearly generalized version of) simplified Israel-Stewart fluids, and thus we expect the theory to be the most universal description of single-component relativistic continuum materials. We also show that the presence of strains and the corresponding change in temperature are naturally unified through the Tolman law in a generally covariant description of continuum mechanics.

  5. Coefficient of restitution in fractional viscoelastic compliant impacts using fractional Chebyshev collocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabiri, Arman; Butcher, Eric A.; Nazari, Morad

    2017-02-01

    Compliant impacts can be modeled using linear viscoelastic constitutive models. While such impact models for realistic viscoelastic materials using integer order derivatives of force and displacement usually require a large number of parameters, compliant impact models obtained using fractional calculus, however, can be advantageous since such models use fewer parameters and successfully capture the hereditary property. In this paper, we introduce the fractional Chebyshev collocation (FCC) method as an approximation tool for numerical simulation of several linear fractional viscoelastic compliant impact models in which the overall coefficient of restitution for the impact is studied as a function of the fractional model parameters for the first time. Other relevant impact characteristics such as hysteresis curves, impact force gradient, penetration and separation depths are also studied.

  6. Vibration analysis of viscoelastic single-walled carbon nanotubes resting on a viscoelastic foundation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Da Peng; Lei, Yong Jun; Shen, Zhi Bin; Wang, Cheng Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Vibration responses were investigated for a viscoelastic Single-walled carbon nanotube (visco-SWCNT) resting on a viscoelastic foundation. Based on the nonlocal Euler-Bernoulli beam model, velocity-dependent external damping and Kelvin viscoelastic foundation model, the governing equations were derived. The Transfer function method (TFM) was then used to compute the natural frequencies for general boundary conditions and foundations. In particular, the exact analytical expressions of both complex natural frequencies and critical viscoelastic parameters were obtained for the Kelvin-Voigt visco-SWCNTs with full foundations and certain boundary conditions, and several physically intuitive special cases were discussed. Substantial nonlocal effects, the influence of geometric and physical parameters of the SWCNT and the viscoelastic foundation were observed for the natural frequencies of the supported SWCNTs. The study demonstrates the efficiency and robustness of the developed model for the vibration of the visco-SWCNT-viscoelastic foundation coupling system

  7. Viscoelastic Properties of Human Tracheal Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safshekan, Farzaneh; Tafazzoli-Shadpour, Mohammad; Abdouss, Majid; Shadmehr, Mohammad B

    2017-01-01

    The physiological performance of trachea is highly dependent on its mechanical behavior, and therefore, the mechanical properties of its components. Mechanical characterization of trachea is key to succeed in new treatments such as tissue engineering, which requires the utilization of scaffolds which are mechanically compatible with the native human trachea. In this study, after isolating human trachea samples from brain-dead cases and proper storage, we assessed the viscoelastic properties of tracheal cartilage, smooth muscle, and connective tissue based on stress relaxation tests (at 5% and 10% strains for cartilage and 20%, 30%, and 40% for smooth muscle and connective tissue). After investigation of viscoelastic linearity, constitutive models including Prony series for linear viscoelasticity and quasi-linear viscoelastic, modified superposition, and Schapery models for nonlinear viscoelasticity were fitted to the experimental data to find the best model for each tissue. We also investigated the effect of age on the viscoelastic behavior of tracheal tissues. Based on the results, all three tissues exhibited a (nonsignificant) decrease in relaxation rate with increasing the strain, indicating viscoelastic nonlinearity which was most evident for cartilage and with the least effect for connective tissue. The three-term Prony model was selected for describing the linear viscoelasticity. Among different models, the modified superposition model was best able to capture the relaxation behavior of the three tracheal components. We observed a general (but not significant) stiffening of tracheal cartilage and connective tissue with aging. No change in the stress relaxation percentage with aging was observed. The results of this study may be useful in the design and fabrication of tracheal tissue engineering scaffolds.

  8. Linear regression methods a ccording to objective functions

    OpenAIRE

    Yasemin Sisman; Sebahattin Bektas

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study is to explain the parameter estimation methods and the regression analysis. The simple linear regressionmethods grouped according to the objective function are introduced. The numerical solution is achieved for the simple linear regressionmethods according to objective function of Least Squares and theLeast Absolute Value adjustment methods. The success of the appliedmethods is analyzed using their objective function values.

  9. Thin viscoelastic disc subjected to radial non-stationary loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adámek V.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of non-stationary wave phenomena in isotropic viscoelastic solids using analytical approaches is the aim of this paper. Concretely, the problem of a thin homogeneous disc subjected to radial pressure load nonzero on the part of its rim is solved. The external excitation is described by the Heaviside function in time, so the nonstationary state of stress is induced in the disc. Dissipative material behaviour of solid studied is represented by the discrete material model of standard linear viscoelastic solid in the Zener configuration. After the derivation of motion equations final form, the method of integral transforms in combination with the Fourier method is used for finding the problem solution. The solving process results in the derivation of integral transforms of radial and circumferential displacement components. Finally, the type of derived functions singularities and possible methods for their inverse Laplace transform are mentioned.

  10. Variance Function Partially Linear Single-Index Models1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Heng; Liang, Hua; Carroll, Raymond J

    2015-01-01

    We consider heteroscedastic regression models where the mean function is a partially linear single index model and the variance function depends upon a generalized partially linear single index model. We do not insist that the variance function depend only upon the mean function, as happens in the classical generalized partially linear single index model. We develop efficient and practical estimation methods for the variance function and for the mean function. Asymptotic theory for the parametric and nonparametric parts of the model is developed. Simulations illustrate the results. An empirical example involving ozone levels is used to further illustrate the results, and is shown to be a case where the variance function does not depend upon the mean function.

  11. Use of linear discriminant function analysis in seed morphotype ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Use of linear discriminant function analysis in seed morphotype relationship study in 31 ... Data were collected on 100-seed weight, seed length and seed width. ... to the Mesoamerican gene pool, comprising the cultigroups Sieva-Big Lima, ...

  12. TRANSFER-FUNCTIONS OF A LINEARIZED MULTI-REGION REACTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, Thomas J.

    1963-09-15

    The development of the transfer functions for a linearized multi-region reactor is studied, and an illustration is made of application of the corresponding theory by a numerical illustrative example. (auth)

  13. Argument estimates of certain multivalent functions involving a linear operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nak Eun Cho

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to derive some argument properties of certain multivalent functions in the open unit disk involving a linear operator. We also investigate their integral preserving property in a sector.

  14. LINTAB, Linear Interpolable Tables from any Continuous Variable Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: LINTAB is designed to construct linearly interpolable tables from any function. The program will start from any function of a single continuous variable... FUNKY(X). By user input the function can be defined, (1) Over 1 to 100 X ranges. (2) Within each X range the function is defined by 0 to 50 constants. (3) At boundaries between X ranges the function may be continuous or discontinuous (depending on the constants used to define the function within each X range). 2 - Method of solution: LINTAB will construct a table of X and Y values where the tabulated (X,Y) pairs will be exactly equal to the function (Y=FUNKY(X)) and linear interpolation between the tabulated pairs will be within any user specified fractional uncertainty of the function for all values of X within the requested X range

  15. Linear density response function in the projector augmented wave method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Jun; Mortensen, Jens Jørgen; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    2011-01-01

    We present an implementation of the linear density response function within the projector-augmented wave method with applications to the linear optical and dielectric properties of both solids, surfaces, and interfaces. The response function is represented in plane waves while the single...... functions of Si, C, SiC, AlP, and GaAs compare well with previous calculations. While optical properties of semiconductors, in particular excitonic effects, are generally not well described by ALDA, we obtain excellent agreement with experiments for the surface loss function of graphene and the Mg(0001...

  16. Interior Point Method for Solving Fuzzy Number Linear Programming Problems Using Linear Ranking Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-hua Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, various methods have been developed for solving linear programming problems with fuzzy number, such as simplex method and dual simplex method. But their computational complexities are exponential, which is not satisfactory for solving large-scale fuzzy linear programming problems, especially in the engineering field. A new method which can solve large-scale fuzzy number linear programming problems is presented in this paper, which is named a revised interior point method. Its idea is similar to that of interior point method used for solving linear programming problems in crisp environment before, but its feasible direction and step size are chosen by using trapezoidal fuzzy numbers, linear ranking function, fuzzy vector, and their operations, and its end condition is involved in linear ranking function. Their correctness and rationality are proved. Moreover, choice of the initial interior point and some factors influencing the results of this method are also discussed and analyzed. The result of algorithm analysis and example study that shows proper safety factor parameter, accuracy parameter, and initial interior point of this method may reduce iterations and they can be selected easily according to the actual needs. Finally, the method proposed in this paper is an alternative method for solving fuzzy number linear programming problems.

  17. Generalized Fractional Derivative Anisotropic Viscoelastic Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry H. Hilton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Isotropic linear and nonlinear fractional derivative constitutive relations are formulated and examined in terms of many parameter generalized Kelvin models and are analytically extended to cover general anisotropic homogeneous or non-homogeneous as well as functionally graded viscoelastic material behavior. Equivalent integral constitutive relations, which are computationally more powerful, are derived from fractional differential ones and the associated anisotropic temperature-moisture-degree-of-cure shift functions and reduced times are established. Approximate Fourier transform inversions for fractional derivative relations are formulated and their accuracy is evaluated. The efficacy of integer and fractional derivative constitutive relations is compared and the preferential use of either characterization in analyzing isotropic and anisotropic real materials must be examined on a case-by-case basis. Approximate protocols for curve fitting analytical fractional derivative results to experimental data are formulated and evaluated.

  18. GPU-based Green's function simulations of shear waves generated by an applied acoustic radiation force in elastic and viscoelastic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yiqun; Urban, Matthew W; McGough, Robert J

    2018-05-15

    Shear wave calculations induced by an acoustic radiation force are very time-consuming on desktop computers, and high-performance graphics processing units (GPUs) achieve dramatic reductions in the computation time for these simulations. The acoustic radiation force is calculated using the fast near field method and the angular spectrum approach, and then the shear waves are calculated in parallel with Green's functions on a GPU. This combination enables rapid evaluation of shear waves for push beams with different spatial samplings and for apertures with different f/#. Relative to shear wave simulations that evaluate the same algorithm on an Intel i7 desktop computer, a high performance nVidia GPU reduces the time required for these calculations by a factor of 45 and 700 when applied to elastic and viscoelastic shear wave simulation models, respectively. These GPU-accelerated simulations also compared to measurements in different viscoelastic phantoms, and the results are similar. For parametric evaluations and for comparisons with measured shear wave data, shear wave simulations with the Green's function approach are ideally suited for high-performance GPUs.

  19. GPU-based Green’s function simulations of shear waves generated by an applied acoustic radiation force in elastic and viscoelastic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yiqun; Urban, Matthew W.; McGough, Robert J.

    2018-05-01

    Shear wave calculations induced by an acoustic radiation force are very time-consuming on desktop computers, and high-performance graphics processing units (GPUs) achieve dramatic reductions in the computation time for these simulations. The acoustic radiation force is calculated using the fast near field method and the angular spectrum approach, and then the shear waves are calculated in parallel with Green’s functions on a GPU. This combination enables rapid evaluation of shear waves for push beams with different spatial samplings and for apertures with different f/#. Relative to shear wave simulations that evaluate the same algorithm on an Intel i7 desktop computer, a high performance nVidia GPU reduces the time required for these calculations by a factor of 45 and 700 when applied to elastic and viscoelastic shear wave simulation models, respectively. These GPU-accelerated simulations also compared to measurements in different viscoelastic phantoms, and the results are similar. For parametric evaluations and for comparisons with measured shear wave data, shear wave simulations with the Green’s function approach are ideally suited for high-performance GPUs.

  20. Transiently chaotic neural networks with piecewise linear output functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, S.-S. [Department of Mathematics, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Shih, C.-W. [Department of Applied Mathematics, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 Ta-Hsueh Road, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: cwshih@math.nctu.edu.tw

    2009-01-30

    Admitting both transient chaotic phase and convergent phase, the transiently chaotic neural network (TCNN) provides superior performance than the classical networks in solving combinatorial optimization problems. We derive concrete parameter conditions for these two essential dynamic phases of the TCNN with piecewise linear output function. The confirmation for chaotic dynamics of the system results from a successful application of the Marotto theorem which was recently clarified. Numerical simulation on applying the TCNN with piecewise linear output function is carried out to find the optimal solution of a travelling salesman problem. It is demonstrated that the performance is even better than the previous TCNN model with logistic output function.

  1. Unstable volatility functions: the break preserving local linear estimator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casas, Isabel; Gijbels, Irene

    The objective of this paper is to introduce the break preserving local linear (BPLL) estimator for the estimation of unstable volatility functions. Breaks in the structure of the conditional mean and/or the volatility functions are common in Finance. Markov switching models (Hamilton, 1989......) and threshold models (Lin and Terasvirta, 1994) are amongst the most popular models to describe the behaviour of data with structural breaks. The local linear (LL) estimator is not consistent at points where the volatility function has a break and it may even report negative values for finite samples...

  2. Non-linear variation of the beta function with momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parzen, G.

    1983-07-01

    A theory is presented for computing the non-linear dependence of the β-functions on momentum. Results are found for the quadratic term. The results of the theory are compared with computed results. A procedure is proposed for computing the strengths of the sextupole correctors to correct the dependence of the β-function on momentum

  3. Linearization of non-commuting operators in the partition function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.

    1983-06-01

    A generalization of the Stratonovich-Hubbard scheme for evaluating the grand canonical partition function is given. The scheme involves linearization of products of non-commuting operators using the functional integral method. The non-commutivity of the operators leads to an additional term which can be absorbed in the single-particle Hamiltonian. (author)

  4. Some subclasses of multivalent functions involving a certain linear operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, H. M.; Patel, J.

    2005-10-01

    The authors investigate various inclusion and other properties of several subclasses of the class of normalized p-valent analytic functions in the open unit disk, which are defined here by means of a certain linear operator. Problems involving generalized neighborhoods of analytic functions in the class are investigated. Finally, some applications of fractional calculus operators are considered.

  5. Fully coupled heat conduction and deformation analyses of visco-elastic solids

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Kamran

    2012-04-21

    Visco-elastic materials are known for their capability of dissipating energy. This energy is converted into heat and thus changes the temperature of the materials. In addition to the dissipation effect, an external thermal stimulus can also alter the temperature in a viscoelastic body. The rate of stress relaxation (or the rate of creep) and the mechanical and physical properties of visco-elastic materials, such as polymers, vary with temperature. This study aims at understanding the effect of coupling between the thermal and mechanical response that is attributed to the dissipation of energy, heat conduction, and temperature-dependent material parameters on the overall response of visco-elastic solids. The non-linearly viscoelastic constitutive model proposed by Schapery (Further development of a thermodynamic constitutive theory: stress formulation, 1969,Mech. Time-Depend. Mater. 1:209-240, 1997) is used and modified to incorporate temperature- and stress-dependent material properties. This study also formulates a non-linear energy equation along with a dissipation function based on the Gibbs potential of Schapery (Mech. Time-Depend. Mater. 1:209-240, 1997). A numerical algorithm is formulated for analyzing a fully coupled thermo-visco-elastic response and implemented it in a general finite-element (FE) code. The non-linear stress- and temperature-dependent material parameters are found to have significant effects on the coupled thermo-visco-elastic response of polymers considered in this study. In order to obtain a realistic temperature field within the polymer visco-elastic bodies undergoing a non-uniform heat generation, the role of heat conduction cannot be ignored. © Springer Science+Business Media, B. V. 2012.

  6. The viscoelastic properties of the cervical mucus plug

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær Bastholm, Sara; Becher, Naja; Stubbe, Peter Reimer

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the viscoelastic properties of cervical mucus plugs (CMPs) shed during labor at term. Spontaneously shed cervical mucus plugs from healthy women in active labor, were tested. The viscoelastic properties of cervical mucus plugs were investigated...... with using frequency and stress sweep experiments within the linear viscoelastic region. Random-effects regression was used for statistical analysis. The CMPs are solid-like viscoelastic structures and the elastic modulus dominated the viscous modulus at all frequencies. These rheological characteristics...

  7. On the Abaqus FEA model of finite viscoelasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Ciambella, Jacopo; Destrade, Michel; Ogden, Ray W.

    2013-01-01

    Predictions of the QLV (Quasi-Linear Viscoelastic) constitutive law are compared with those of the ABAQUS viscoelastic model for two simple motions in order to highlight, in particular, their very different dissipation rates and certain shortcomings of the ABAQUS model.

  8. The Relationships between Weight Functions, Geometric Functions,and Compliance Functions in Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Rong [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Linear elastic fracture mechanics is widely used in industry because it established simple and explicit relationships between the permissible loading conditions and the critical crack size that is allowed in a structure. Stress intensity factors are the above-mentioned functional expressions that relate load with crack size through geometric functions or weight functions. Compliance functions are to determine the crack/flaw size in a structure when optical inspection is inconvenient. As a result, geometric functions, weight functions and compliance functions have been intensively studied to determine the stress intensity factor expressions for different geometries. However, the relations between these functions have received less attention. This work is therefore to investigate the intrinsic relationships between these functions. Theoretical derivation was carried out and the results were verified on single-edge cracked plate under tension and bending. It is found out that the geometric function is essentially the non-dimensional weight function at the loading point. The compliance function is composed of two parts: a varying part due to crack extension and a constant part from the intact structure if no crack exists. The derivative of the compliance function at any location is the product of the geometric function and the weight function at the evaluation point. Inversely, the compliance function can be acquired by the integration of the product of the geometric function and the weight function with respect to the crack size. The integral constant is just the unchanging compliance from the intact structure. Consequently, a special application of the relations is to obtain the compliance functions along a crack once the geometric function and weight functions are known. Any of the three special functions can be derived once the other two functions are known. These relations may greatly simplify the numerical process in obtaining either geometric functions, weight

  9. Functional linear models for association analysis of quantitative traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ruzong; Wang, Yifan; Mills, James L; Wilson, Alexander F; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E; Xiong, Momiao

    2013-11-01

    Functional linear models are developed in this paper for testing associations between quantitative traits and genetic variants, which can be rare variants or common variants or the combination of the two. By treating multiple genetic variants of an individual in a human population as a realization of a stochastic process, the genome of an individual in a chromosome region is a continuum of sequence data rather than discrete observations. The genome of an individual is viewed as a stochastic function that contains both linkage and linkage disequilibrium (LD) information of the genetic markers. By using techniques of functional data analysis, both fixed and mixed effect functional linear models are built to test the association between quantitative traits and genetic variants adjusting for covariates. After extensive simulation analysis, it is shown that the F-distributed tests of the proposed fixed effect functional linear models have higher power than that of sequence kernel association test (SKAT) and its optimal unified test (SKAT-O) for three scenarios in most cases: (1) the causal variants are all rare, (2) the causal variants are both rare and common, and (3) the causal variants are common. The superior performance of the fixed effect functional linear models is most likely due to its optimal utilization of both genetic linkage and LD information of multiple genetic variants in a genome and similarity among different individuals, while SKAT and SKAT-O only model the similarities and pairwise LD but do not model linkage and higher order LD information sufficiently. In addition, the proposed fixed effect models generate accurate type I error rates in simulation studies. We also show that the functional kernel score tests of the proposed mixed effect functional linear models are preferable in candidate gene analysis and small sample problems. The methods are applied to analyze three biochemical traits in data from the Trinity Students Study. © 2013 WILEY

  10. Influence of Structure and Composition on Dynamic Viscoelastic Property of Cartilaginous Tissue: Criteria for Classification between Hyaline Cartilage and Fibrocartilage Based on Mechanical Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Shogo; Tateishi, Tetsuya; Furukawa, Katsuko; Ushida, Takashi

    Recently, many types of methodologies have been developed to regenerate articular cartilage. It is important to assess whether the reconstructed cartilaginous tissue has the appropriate mechanical functions to qualify as hyaline (articular) cartilage. In some cases, the reconstructed tissue may become fibrocartilage and not hyaline cartilage. In this study, we determined the dynamic viscoelastic properties of these two types of cartilage by using compression and shear tests, respectively. Hyaline cartilage specimens were harvested from the articular surface of bovine knee joints and fibrocartilage specimens were harvested from the meniscus tissue of the same. The results of this study revealed that the compressive energy dissipation of hyaline cartilage showed a strong dependence on testing frequency at low frequencies, while that of fibrocartilage did not. Therefore, the compressive energy dissipation that is indicated by the loss tangent could become the criterion for the in vitro assessment of the mechanical function of regenerated cartilage.

  11. Linear circuit transfer functions an introduction to fast analytical techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Basso, Christophe P

    2016-01-01

    Linear Circuit Transfer Functions: An introduction to Fast Analytical Techniques teaches readers how to determine transfer functions of linear passive and active circuits by applying Fast Analytical Circuits Techniques. Building on their existing knowledge of classical loop/nodal analysis, the book improves and expands their skills to unveil transfer functions in a swift and efficient manner. Starting with simple examples, the author explains step-by-step how expressing circuits time constants in different configurations leads to writing transfer functions in a compact and insightful way. By learning how to organize numerators and denominators in the fastest possible way, readers will speed-up analysis and predict the frequency resp nse of simple to complex circuits. In some cases, they will be able to derive the final expression by inspection, without writing a line of algebra. Key features: * Emphasizes analysis through employing time constant-based methods discussed in other text books but not widely us...

  12. Optimal choice of basis functions in the linear regression analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khotinskij, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    Problem of optimal choice of basis functions in the linear regression analysis is investigated. Step algorithm with estimation of its efficiency, which holds true at finite number of measurements, is suggested. Conditions, providing the probability of correct choice close to 1 are formulated. Application of the step algorithm to analysis of decay curves is substantiated. 8 refs

  13. A new chaotic Hopfield network with piecewise linear activation function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng-Sheng, Zheng; Wan-Sheng, Tang; Jian-Xiong, Zhang

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new chaotic Hopfield network with a piecewise linear activation function. The dynamic of the network is studied by virtue of the bifurcation diagram, Lyapunov exponents spectrum and power spectrum. Numerical simulations show that the network displays chaotic behaviours for some well selected parameters

  14. On nonnegative solutions of second order linear functional differential equations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lomtatidze, Alexander; Vodstrčil, Petr

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 1 (2004), s. 59-88 ISSN 1512-0015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : second order linear functional differential equations * nonnegative solution * two-point boundary value problem Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  15. Geometrically non linear analysis of functionally graded material ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    when compared to the other engineering materials (Akhavan and Hamed, 2010). However, FGM plates under mechanical loading may undergo elastic instability. Hence, the non-linear behavior of functionally graded plates has to be understood for their optimum design. Reddy (2000) proposed the theoretical formulation ...

  16. The linear potential propagator via wave function expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassar, Antonio B.; Cattani, Mauro S.D.

    2002-01-01

    We evaluate the quantum propagator for the motion of a particle in a linear potential via a recently developed formalism [A.B. Nassar et al., Phys. Rev. E56, 1230, (1997)]. In this formalism, the propagator comes about as a type of expansion of the wave function over the space of the initial velocities. (author)

  17. A Hamiltonian functional for the linearized Einstein vacuum field equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosas-RodrIguez, R

    2005-01-01

    By considering the Einstein vacuum field equations linearized about the Minkowski metric, the evolution equations for the gauge-invariant quantities characterizing the gravitational field are written in a Hamiltonian form by using a conserved functional as Hamiltonian; this Hamiltonian is not the analog of the energy of the field. A Poisson bracket between functionals of the field, compatible with the constraints satisfied by the field variables, is obtained. The generator of spatial translations associated with such bracket is also obtained

  18. Sensitivity Analysis of Viscoelastic Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M.G. de Lima

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of control of sound and vibration of mechanical systems, the use of viscoelastic materials has been regarded as a convenient strategy in many types of industrial applications. Numerical models based on finite element discretization have been frequently used in the analysis and design of complex structural systems incorporating viscoelastic materials. Such models must account for the typical dependence of the viscoelastic characteristics on operational and environmental parameters, such as frequency and temperature. In many applications, including optimal design and model updating, sensitivity analysis based on numerical models is a very usefull tool. In this paper, the formulation of first-order sensitivity analysis of complex frequency response functions is developed for plates treated with passive constraining damping layers, considering geometrical characteristics, such as the thicknesses of the multi-layer components, as design variables. Also, the sensitivity of the frequency response functions with respect to temperature is introduced. As an example, response derivatives are calculated for a three-layer sandwich plate and the results obtained are compared with first-order finite-difference approximations.

  19. Generalized Functional Linear Models With Semiparametric Single-Index Interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yehua

    2010-06-01

    We introduce a new class of functional generalized linear models, where the response is a scalar and some of the covariates are functional. We assume that the response depends on multiple covariates, a finite number of latent features in the functional predictor, and interaction between the two. To achieve parsimony, the interaction between the multiple covariates and the functional predictor is modeled semiparametrically with a single-index structure. We propose a two step estimation procedure based on local estimating equations, and investigate two situations: (a) when the basis functions are pre-determined, e.g., Fourier or wavelet basis functions and the functional features of interest are known; and (b) when the basis functions are data driven, such as with functional principal components. Asymptotic properties are developed. Notably, we show that when the functional features are data driven, the parameter estimates have an increased asymptotic variance, due to the estimation error of the basis functions. Our methods are illustrated with a simulation study and applied to an empirical data set, where a previously unknown interaction is detected. Technical proofs of our theoretical results are provided in the online supplemental materials.

  20. Generalized Functional Linear Models With Semiparametric Single-Index Interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yehua; Wang, Naisyin; Carroll, Raymond J.

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a new class of functional generalized linear models, where the response is a scalar and some of the covariates are functional. We assume that the response depends on multiple covariates, a finite number of latent features in the functional predictor, and interaction between the two. To achieve parsimony, the interaction between the multiple covariates and the functional predictor is modeled semiparametrically with a single-index structure. We propose a two step estimation procedure based on local estimating equations, and investigate two situations: (a) when the basis functions are pre-determined, e.g., Fourier or wavelet basis functions and the functional features of interest are known; and (b) when the basis functions are data driven, such as with functional principal components. Asymptotic properties are developed. Notably, we show that when the functional features are data driven, the parameter estimates have an increased asymptotic variance, due to the estimation error of the basis functions. Our methods are illustrated with a simulation study and applied to an empirical data set, where a previously unknown interaction is detected. Technical proofs of our theoretical results are provided in the online supplemental materials.

  1. Discrete linear canonical transforms based on dilated Hermite functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Soo-Chang; Lai, Yun-Chiu

    2011-08-01

    Linear canonical transform (LCT) is very useful and powerful in signal processing and optics. In this paper, discrete LCT (DLCT) is proposed to approximate LCT by utilizing the discrete dilated Hermite functions. The Wigner distribution function is also used to investigate DLCT performances in the time-frequency domain. Compared with the existing digital computation of LCT, our proposed DLCT possess additivity and reversibility properties with no oversampling involved. In addition, the length of input/output signals will not be changed before and after the DLCT transformations, which is consistent with the time-frequency area-preserving nature of LCT; meanwhile, the proposed DLCT has very good approximation of continuous LCT.

  2. Impact load time histories for viscoelastic missiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoykovich, M.

    1977-01-01

    Generation of the impact load time history at the contact point between a viscoelastic missile and its targets is presented. In the past, in the case of aircraft striking containment shell structure, the impact load history was determined on the basis of actual measurements by subjecting a rigid wall to aircraft crash. The effects of elastic deformation of the target upon the impact load time history is formulated in this paper. The missile is idealized by a linear mass-spring-dashpot combination using viscoelastic models. These models can readily be processed taking into account the elastic as well as inelastic deformations of the missiles. The target is assumed to be either linearly elastic or rigid. In the case of the linearly elastic target, the normal mode theory is used to express the time-dependent displacements of the target which is simulated by lumped masses, elastic properties and dashpots in discrete parts. In the case of Maxwell viscoelastic model, the time-dependent displacements of the missile and the target are given in terms of the unknown impact load time history. This leads to an integral equation which may be solved by Laplace transformation. The normal mode theory is provided. Examples are given for bricks with viscoelastic materials as missiles against a rigid target. (Auth.)

  3. Influence of Chemical Extraction on Rheological Behavior, Viscoelastic Properties and Functional Characteristics of Natural Heteropolysaccharide/Protein Polymer from Durio zibethinus Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Mirhosseini

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the demand for a natural plant-based polymer with potential functions from plant sources has increased considerably. The main objective of the current study was to study the effect of chemical extraction conditions on the rheological and functional properties of the heteropolysaccharide/protein biopolymer from durian (Durio zibethinus seed. The efficiency of different extraction conditions was determined by assessing the extraction yield, protein content, solubility, rheological properties and viscoelastic behavior of the natural polymer from durian seed. The present study revealed that the soaking process had a more significant (p < 0.05 effect than the decolorizing process on the rheological and functional properties of the natural polymer. The considerable changes in the rheological and functional properties of the natural polymer could be due to the significant (p < 0.05 effect of the chemical extraction variables on the protein fraction present in the molecular structure of the natural polymer from durian seed. The natural polymer from durian seed had a more elastic (or gel like behavior compared to the viscous (liquid like behavior at low frequency. The present study revealed that the natural heteropolysaccharide/protein polymer from durian seed had a relatively low solubility ranging from 9.1% to 36.0%. This might be due to the presence of impurities, insoluble matter and large particles present in the chemical structure of the natural polymer from durian seed.

  4. Topology optimization of viscoelastic rectifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian Ejlebjærg; Szabo, Peter; Okkels, Fridolin

    2012-01-01

    An approach for the design of microfluidic viscoelastic rectifiers is presented based on a combination of a viscoelastic model and the method of topology optimization. This presumption free approach yields a material layout topologically different from experimentally realized rectifiers...

  5. Optimal Piecewise Linear Basis Functions in Two Dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks III, E D; Szoke, A

    2009-01-26

    We use a variational approach to optimize the center point coefficients associated with the piecewise linear basis functions introduced by Stone and Adams [1], for polygonal zones in two Cartesian dimensions. Our strategy provides optimal center point coefficients, as a function of the location of the center point, by minimizing the error induced when the basis function interpolation is used for the solution of the time independent diffusion equation within the polygonal zone. By using optimal center point coefficients, one expects to minimize the errors that occur when these basis functions are used to discretize diffusion equations, or transport equations in optically thick zones (where they approach the solution of the diffusion equation). Our optimal center point coefficients satisfy the requirements placed upon the basis functions for any location of the center point. We also find that the location of the center point can be optimized, but this requires numerical calculations. Curiously, the optimum center point location is independent of the values of the dependent variable on the corners only for quadrilaterals.

  6. The viscoelastic properties of the cervical mucus plug

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastholm, Sara K.; Becher, Naja; Stubbe, Peter Reimer

    2014-01-01

    labor. MethodsViscoelastic properties of CMPs were investigated with a dynamic oscillatory rheometer using frequency and stress sweep experiments within the linear viscoelastic region. Main outcome measuresThe rheological variables obtained were as follows: elastic modulus (G), viscous modulus (G......ObjectiveTo characterize the viscoelastic properties of cervical mucus plugs (CMPs) shed during labor at term. DesignExperimental research. SettingDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark. Population/SampleSpontaneously shed CMPs from 18 healthy women in active...

  7. Filtering Non-Linear Transfer Functions on Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitz, Eric; Nowrouzezahrai, Derek; Poulin, Pierre; Neyret, Fabrice

    2014-07-01

    Applying non-linear transfer functions and look-up tables to procedural functions (such as noise), surface attributes, or even surface geometry are common strategies used to enhance visual detail. Their simplicity and ability to mimic a wide range of realistic appearances have led to their adoption in many rendering problems. As with any textured or geometric detail, proper filtering is needed to reduce aliasing when viewed across a range of distances, but accurate and efficient transfer function filtering remains an open problem for several reasons: transfer functions are complex and non-linear, especially when mapped through procedural noise and/or geometry-dependent functions, and the effects of perspective and masking further complicate the filtering over a pixel's footprint. We accurately solve this problem by computing and sampling from specialized filtering distributions on the fly, yielding very fast performance. We investigate the case where the transfer function to filter is a color map applied to (macroscale) surface textures (like noise), as well as color maps applied according to (microscale) geometric details. We introduce a novel representation of a (potentially modulated) color map's distribution over pixel footprints using Gaussian statistics and, in the more complex case of high-resolution color mapped microsurface details, our filtering is view- and light-dependent, and capable of correctly handling masking and occlusion effects. Our approach can be generalized to filter other physical-based rendering quantities. We propose an application to shading with irradiance environment maps over large terrains. Our framework is also compatible with the case of transfer functions used to warp surface geometry, as long as the transformations can be represented with Gaussian statistics, leading to proper view- and light-dependent filtering results. Our results match ground truth and our solution is well suited to real-time applications, requires only a few

  8. Viscoelastic love-type surface waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, Roger D.

    2008-01-01

    The general theoretical solution for Love-Type surface waves in viscoelastic media provides theoreticalexpressions for the physical characteristics of the waves in elastic as well as anelastic media with arbitraryamounts of intrinsic damping. The general solution yields dispersion and absorption-coefficient curves for the waves as a function of frequency and theamount of intrinsic damping for any chosen viscoelastic model.Numerical results valid for a variety of viscoelastic models provide quantitative estimates of the physicalcharacteristics of the waves pertinent to models of Earth materials ranging from small amounts of damping in the Earth’s crust to moderate and large amounts of damping in soft soils and water-saturated sediments. Numerical results, presented herein, are valid for a wide range of solids and applications.

  9. Viscoelastic Surface Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, R. D.

    2007-12-01

    General theoretical solutions for Rayleigh- and Love-Type surface waves in viscoelastic media describe physical characteristics of the surface waves in elastic as well as anelastic media with arbitrary amounts of intrinsic absorption. In contrast to corresponding physical characteristics for Rayleigh waves in elastic media, Rayleigh- Type surface waves in anelastic media demonstrate; 1) tilt of the particle motion orbit that varies with depth, and 2) amplitude and volumetric strain distributions with superimposed sinusoidal variations that decay exponentially with depth. Each characteristic is dependent on the amount of intrinsic absorption and the chosen model of viscoelasticity. Distinguishing characteristics of anelastic Love-Type surface waves include: 1) dependencies of the wave speed and absorption coefficient on the chosen model and amount of intrinsic absorption and frequency, and 2) superimposed sinusoidal amplitude variations with an exponential decay with depth. Numerical results valid for a variety of viscoelastic models provide quantitative estimates of the physical characteristics of both types of viscoelastic surface waves appropriate for interpretations pertinent to models of earth materials ranging from low-loss in the crust to moderate- and high-loss in water-saturated soils.

  10. Experimental and Computational Investigation of Viscoelasticity of Native and Engineered Ligament and Tendon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, J.; Narayanan, H.; Garikipati, K.; Grosh, K.; Arruda, E. M.

    The important mechanisms by which soft collagenous tissues such as ligament and tendon respond to mechanical deformation include non-linear elasticity, viscoelasticity and poroelasticity. These contributions to the mechanical response are modulated by the content and morphology of structural proteins such as type I collagen and elastin, other molecules such as glycosaminoglycans, and fluid. Our ligament and tendon constructs, engineered from either primary cells or bone marrow stromal cells and their autogenous matricies, exhibit histological and mechanical characteristics of native tissues of different levels of maturity. In order to establish whether the constructs have optimal mechanical function for implantation and utility for regenerative medicine, constitutive relationships for the constructs and native tissues at different developmental levels must be established. A micromechanical model incorporating viscoelastic collagen and non-linear elastic elastin is used to describe the non-linear viscoelastic response of our homogeneous engineered constructs in vitro. This model is incorporated within a finite element framework to examine the heterogeneity of the mechanical responses of native ligament and tendon.

  11. Measurement of the viscoelastic compliance of the eustachian tube using a modified forced-response test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadiali, Samir N; Federspiel, William J; Swarts, J Douglas; Doyle, William J

    2002-01-01

    Eustachian tube compliance (ETC) was suggested to be an important determinate of function. Previous attempts to quantify ETC used summary measures that are not clearly related to the physical properties of the system. Here, we present a new method for measuring ETC that conforms more closely to the engineering definition of compliance. The forced response test was modified to include oscillations in applied flow after the forced tubal opening. Pressure and flow were recorded during the standard and modified test in 12 anesthetized cynomolgus monkeys. The resulting pressure-flow, hysteresis loops were compared with those predicted by a simple fluid-structure model of the Eustachian tube with linear-elastic or viscoelastic properties. The tubal compliance index (TCI) and a viscoelastic compliance (C(v)) were calculated from these data for each monkey. The behavior of a viscoelastic, but not a linear elastic model accurately reproduced the experimental data for the monkey. The TCI and C(v) were linearly related, but the shared variance in these measures was only 63%. This new method for measuring ETC captures all information contained in the traditional TCI, but also provides information regarding the contribution of wall viscosity to Eustachian tube mechanics.

  12. Viscoelastic characterization of soft biological materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayar, Vinod Timothy

    Progressive and irreversible retinal diseases are among the primary causes of blindness in the United States, attacking the cells in the eye that transform environmental light into neural signals for the optic pathway. Medical implants designed to restore visual function to afflicted patients can cause mechanical stress and ultimately damage to the host tissues. Research shows that an accurate understanding of the mechanical properties of the biological tissues can reduce damage and lead to designs with improved safety and efficacy. Prior studies on the mechanical properties of biological tissues show characterization of these materials can be affected by environmental, length-scale, time, mounting, stiffness, size, viscoelastic, and methodological conditions. Using porcine sclera tissue, the effects of environmental, time, and mounting conditions are evaluated when using nanoindentation. Quasi-static tests are used to measure reduced modulus during extended exposure to phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), as well as the chemical and mechanical analysis of mounting the sample to a solid substrate using cyanoacrylate. The less destructive nature of nanoindentation tests allows for variance of tests within a single sample to be compared to the variance between samples. The results indicate that the environmental, time, and mounting conditions can be controlled for using modified nanoindentation procedures for biological samples and are in line with averages modulus values from previous studies but with increased precision. By using the quasi-static and dynamic characterization capabilities of the nanoindentation setup, the additional stiffness and viscoelastic variables are measured. Different quasi-static control methods were evaluated along with maximum load parameters and produced no significant difference in reported reduced modulus values. Dynamic characterization tests varied frequency and quasi-static load, showing that the agar could be modeled as a linearly

  13. Viscoelastic fingering with a pulsed pressure signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corvera Poire, E; Rio, J A del

    2004-01-01

    We derive a generalized Darcy's law in the frequency domain for a linear viscoelastic fluid flowing in a Hele-Shaw cell. This leads to an analytic expression for the dynamic permeability that has maxima which are several orders of magnitude larger than the static permeability. We then follow an argument of de Gennes (1987 Europhys. Lett. 2 195) to obtain the smallest possible finger width when viscoelasticity is important. Using this and a conservation law, we obtain the lowest bound for the width of a single finger displacing a viscoelastic fluid. When the driving force consists of a constant pressure gradient plus an oscillatory signal, our results indicate that the finger width varies in time following the frequency of the incident signal. Also, the amplitude of the finger width in time depends on the value of the dynamic permeability at the imposed frequency. When the finger is driven with a frequency that maximizes the permeability, variations in the amplitude are also maximized. This gives results that are very different for Newtonian and viscoelastic fluids. For the former ones the amplitude of the oscillation decays with frequency. For the latter ones on the other hand, the amplitude has maxima at the same frequencies that maximize the dynamic permeability

  14. Viscoelastic creep of high-temperature concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiffer, P.A.; Marchertas, A.H.; Bazant, Z.P.

    1985-01-01

    Presented in this report is the analytical model for analysis of high temperature creep response of concrete. The creep law used is linear (viscoelastic), the temperature and moisture effects on the creep rate and also aging are included. Both constant and transient temperature as well as constant and transient moisture conditions are considered. Examples are presented to correlate experimental data with parameters of the analytical model by the use of a finite element scheme

  15. How linear features alter predator movement and the functional response.

    KAUST Repository

    McKenzie, Hannah W

    2012-01-18

    In areas of oil and gas exploration, seismic lines have been reported to alter the movement patterns of wolves (Canis lupus). We developed a mechanistic first passage time model, based on an anisotropic elliptic partial differential equation, and used this to explore how wolf movement responses to seismic lines influence the encounter rate of the wolves with their prey. The model was parametrized using 5 min GPS location data. These data showed that wolves travelled faster on seismic lines and had a higher probability of staying on a seismic line once they were on it. We simulated wolf movement on a range of seismic line densities and drew implications for the rate of predator-prey interactions as described by the functional response. The functional response exhibited a more than linear increase with respect to prey density (type III) as well as interactions with seismic line density. Encounter rates were significantly higher in landscapes with high seismic line density and were most pronounced at low prey densities. This suggests that prey at low population densities are at higher risk in environments with a high seismic line density unless they learn to avoid them.

  16. How linear features alter predator movement and the functional response.

    KAUST Repository

    McKenzie, Hannah W; Merrill, Evelyn H; Spiteri, Raymond J; Lewis, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    In areas of oil and gas exploration, seismic lines have been reported to alter the movement patterns of wolves (Canis lupus). We developed a mechanistic first passage time model, based on an anisotropic elliptic partial differential equation, and used this to explore how wolf movement responses to seismic lines influence the encounter rate of the wolves with their prey. The model was parametrized using 5 min GPS location data. These data showed that wolves travelled faster on seismic lines and had a higher probability of staying on a seismic line once they were on it. We simulated wolf movement on a range of seismic line densities and drew implications for the rate of predator-prey interactions as described by the functional response. The functional response exhibited a more than linear increase with respect to prey density (type III) as well as interactions with seismic line density. Encounter rates were significantly higher in landscapes with high seismic line density and were most pronounced at low prey densities. This suggests that prey at low population densities are at higher risk in environments with a high seismic line density unless they learn to avoid them.

  17. Linear and Non-Linear Dose-Response Functions Reveal a Hormetic Relationship Between Stress and Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Zoladz, Phillip R.; Diamond, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Over a century of behavioral research has shown that stress can enhance or impair learning and memory. In the present review, we have explored the complex effects of stress on cognition and propose that they are characterized by linear and non-linear dose-response functions, which together reveal a hormetic relationship between stress and learning. We suggest that stress initially enhances hippocampal function, resulting from amygdala-induced excitation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity, as ...

  18. NP-Hardness of optimizing the sum of Rational Linear Functions over an Asymptotic-Linear-Program

    OpenAIRE

    Chermakani, Deepak Ponvel

    2012-01-01

    We convert, within polynomial-time and sequential processing, an NP-Complete Problem into a real-variable problem of minimizing a sum of Rational Linear Functions constrained by an Asymptotic-Linear-Program. The coefficients and constants in the real-variable problem are 0, 1, -1, K, or -K, where K is the time parameter that tends to positive infinity. The number of variables, constraints, and rational linear functions in the objective, of the real-variable problem is bounded by a polynomial ...

  19. Viscoelasticity of biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasser, W.G.; Hatakeyama, H.

    1992-01-01

    Viscoelasticity of Biomaterials is divided into three sections. The first offers a materials design lesson on the architectural arrangement of biopolymers in collagen. Included also are reviews on solution properties of polysacchardies, chiral and liquid crystalline solution characteristics of cellulose derivatives, and viscoelastic properties of wood and wood fiber reinforced thermoplastics. The second section, Biogels and Gelation, discusses the molecular arrangements of highly hydrated biomaterials such as mucus, gums, skinlike tissue, and silk fibroin. The physical effects that result from the transition from a liquid to a solid state are the subject of the third section, which focuses on relaxation phenomena. Gel formation, the conformation of domain structures, and motional aspects of complex biomaterials are described in terms of recent experimental advances in various fields. A relevant chapter on the effects of ionizing radiation on connective tissue is abstracted separately

  20. Extension of the beam theory for polymer bio-transducers with low aspect ratios and viscoelastic characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Ping; Lin, I-Kuan; Zhang, Xin; Lu, Hongbing

    2010-01-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based micropillars (or microcantilevers) have been used as bio-transducers for measuring cellular forces on the order of pN to µN. The measurement accuracy of these sensitive devices depends on appropriate modeling to convert the micropillar deformations into the corresponding reaction forces. The traditional approach to calculating the reaction force is based on the Euler beam theory with consideration of a linear elastic slender beam for the micropillar. However, the low aspect ratio in geometry of PDMS micropillars does not satisfy the slender beam requirement. Consequently, the Timoshenko beam theory, appropriate for a beam with a low aspect ratio, should be used. In addition, the inherently time-dependent behavior in PDMS has to be considered for accurate force conversion. In this paper, the Timoshenko beam theory, along with the consideration of viscoelastic behavior of PDMS, was used to model the mechanical response of micropillars. The viscoelastic behavior of PDMS was characterized by stress relaxation nanoindentation using a circular flat punch. A correction procedure was developed to determine the load–displacement relationship with consideration of ramp loading. The relaxation function was extracted and described by a generalized Maxwell model. The bending of rectangular micropillars was performed by a wedge indenter tip. The viscoelastic Timoshenko beam formula was used to calculate the mechanical response of the micropillar, and the results were compared with measurement data. The calculated reaction forces agreed well with the experimental data at three different loading rates. A parametric study was conducted to evaluate the accuracy of the viscoelastic Timoshenko beam model by comparing the reaction forces calculated from the elastic Euler beam, elastic Timoshenko beam and viscoelastic Euler beam models at various aspect ratios and loading rates. The extension of modeling from the elastic Euler beam theory to the

  1. Viscoelasticity promotes collective swimming of sperm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Chih-Kuan; Harvey, Benedict B.; Fiore, Alyssa G.; Ardon, Florencia; Suarez, Susan S.; Wu, Mingming

    From flocking birds to swarming insects, interactions of organisms large and small lead to the emergence of collective dynamics. Here, we report striking collective swimming of bovine sperm, with sperm orienting in the same direction within each cluster, enabled by the viscoelasticity of the fluid. A long-chain polyacrylamide solution was used as a model viscoelastic fluid such that its rheology can be fine-tuned to mimic that of bovine cervical mucus. In viscoelastic fluid, sperm formed dynamic clusters, and the cluster size increased with elasticity of the polyacrylamide solution. In contrast, sperm swam randomly and individually in Newtonian fluids of similar viscosity. Analysis of the fluid motion surrounding individual swimming sperm indicated that sperm-fluid interaction is facilitated by the elastic component of the fluid. We note that almost all biological fluids (e.g. mucus and blood) are viscoelastic in nature, this finding highlights the importance of fluid elasticity in biological function. We will discuss what the orientation fluctuation within a cluster reveals about the interaction strength. Supported by NIH Grant 1R01HD070038.

  2. Quasistatic nonlinear viscoelasticity and gradient flows

    OpenAIRE

    Ball, John M.; Şengül, Yasemin

    2014-01-01

    We consider the equation of motion for one-dimensional nonlinear viscoelasticity of strain-rate type under the assumption that the stored-energy function is λ-convex, which allows for solid phase transformations. We formulate this problem as a gradient flow, leading to existence and uniqueness of solutions. By approximating general initial data by those in which the deformation gradient takes only finitely many values, we show that under suitable hypotheses on the stored-energy function the d...

  3. On the stabilization of viscoelastic laminated beams with interfacial slip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Muhammad I.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we consider a viscoelastic laminated beam model. This structure is given by two identical uniform layers on top of each other, taking into account that an adhesive of small thickness is bonding the two surfaces and produces an interfacial slip. We use viscoelastic damping with general assumptions on the relaxation function and establish explicit energy decay result from which we can recover the optimal exponential and polynomial rates. Our result generalizes the earlier related results in the literature.

  4. Estimation of piezoelastic and viscoelastic properties in laminated structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Araujo, A. L.; Soares, C. M. Mota; Herskovits, J.

    2009-01-01

    An inverse method for material parameter estimation of elastic, piezoelectric and viscoelastic laminated plate structures is presented. The method uses a gradient based optimization technique in order to solve the inverse problem, through minimization of an error functional which expresses...... the difference between experimental free vibration data and corresponding numerical data produced by a finite element model. The complex modulus approach is used to model the viscoelastic material behavior, assuming hysteretic type damping. Applications that illustrate the influence of adhesive material...

  5. Calculation of the exponential function of linear idempotent operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavoya-Aceves, O.; Luna, H.M.

    1989-01-01

    We give a method to calculate the exponential EXP[A r ] where A is a linear operator which satisfies the reaction A n =I, n is an integer and I is the identity operator. The method is generalised to operators such that A n +1=A and is applied to obtain some Lorentz transformations which generalise the notion of 'boost'. (Author)

  6. Simultaneous Optimization of Decisions Using a Linear Utility Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Hans J.

    1990-01-01

    An approach is presented to simultaneously optimize decision rules for combinations of elementary decisions through a framework derived from Bayesian decision theory. The developed linear utility model for selection-mastery decisions was applied to a sample of 43 first year medical students to illustrate the procedure. (SLD)

  7. Energia total de ruptura: um teste biomecânico para avaliação de material biológico com propriedade viscoelástica não linear Total energy of rupture: a biomechanical test to evaluate non-linear viscoelastic biological material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Chung Wu

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Apresentação do teste biomecânico Energia Total de Ruptura para o estudo da resistência intrínseca de material biológico com propriedade viscoelástica não-linear representado neste trabalho por segmento íntegro de cólon descendente de rato. Métodos: Implementação do teste biomecânico Energia Total de Ruptura e do Sistema de Aquisição e Análise de dados Biomecânicos - SABI 2.0. Para esse fim, foram utilizados conceitos físico-mecânicos, computacionais e biomecânicos e como corpos de teste, 15 espécimes de cólon descendente de ratos. Resultados: O teste biomecânico Energia Total de Ruptura permitiu o cálculo da energia total acumulada necessária para promover a ruptura dos corpos de prova durante os ensaios mecânicos. Por meio da automatização e gerenciamento da aquisição e análise dos dados capturados foi possível a geração de gráficos e relatórios descritivos e estatísticos. Conclusão: Fundamentado em conceitos físico-mecânicos, computacionais e biomecânicos, o teste Energia Total de Ruptura pôde proporcionar análise matemática do comportamento dos segmentos de cólon descendente de ratos durante os ensaios, demonstrando ser um possível método de medição da resistência intrínseca desse material biológico com propriedade viscoelástica não-linear.Purpose: Presentation of the Total Energy of Rupture biomechanical test to evaluate the intrinsic resistance of the rat’s left colon which presents a non-linear viscoelastic property. Methods: Implementation of Total Energy of Rupture test (ETR and the Biomechanical Data Acquisition and Analysis System (SABI 2.0 based on physic-mechanical, computational and biomechanical concepts. Fifteen specimens of Wistar adults rat’s left colon where considered for experiments. Results: Using the TER biomechanical test it was possible calculate the accumulated total energy necessary to promote the specimens rupture during the mechanical trial. It was

  8. Static viscoelasticity of biomass polyethylene composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyan Yang

    Full Text Available The biomass polyethylene composites filled with poplar wood flour, rice husk, cotton stalk or corn stalk were prepared by extrusion molding. The static viscoelasticity of composites was investigated by the dynamic thermal mechanical analyzer (DMA. Through the stress-strain scanning, it is found that the linear viscoelasticity interval of composites gradually decreases as the temperature rises, and the critical stress and strain values are 0.8 MPa and 0.03% respectively. The experiment shows that as the temperature rises, the creep compliance of biomass polyethylene composites is increased; under the constant temperature, the creep compliance decreases with the increase of content of biomass and calcium carbonate. The biomass and calcium carbonate used to prepare composites as filler can improve damping vibration attenuation and reduce stress deformation of composites. The stress relaxation modulus of composites is reduced and the relaxation rate increases at the higher temperature. The biomass and calcium carbonate used to prepare composites as filler not only can reduce costs, but also can increase stress relaxation modulus and improve the size thermostability of composites. The corn stalk is a good kind of biomass raw material for composites since it can improve the creep resistance property and the stress relaxation resistance property of composites more effectively than other three kinds of biomass (poplar wood flour, rice husk and cotton stalk. Keywords: Biomass, Composites, Calcium carbonate, Static viscoelasticity, Creep, Stress relaxation

  9. Local and linear chemical reactivity response functions at finite temperature in density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco-Pérez, Marco; Ayers, Paul W.; Gázquez, José L.; Vela, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    We explore the local and nonlocal response functions of the grand canonical potential density functional at nonzero temperature. In analogy to the zero-temperature treatment, local (e.g., the average electron density and the local softness) and nonlocal (e.g., the softness kernel) intrinsic response functions are defined as partial derivatives of the grand canonical potential with respect to its thermodynamic variables (i.e., the chemical potential of the electron reservoir and the external potential generated by the atomic nuclei). To define the local and nonlocal response functions of the electron density (e.g., the Fukui function, the linear density response function, and the dual descriptor), we differentiate with respect to the average electron number and the external potential. The well-known mathematical relationships between the intrinsic response functions and the electron-density responses are generalized to nonzero temperature, and we prove that in the zero-temperature limit, our results recover well-known identities from the density functional theory of chemical reactivity. Specific working equations and numerical results are provided for the 3-state ensemble model

  10. Diet models with linear goal programming: impact of achievement functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdessen, J C; de Vries, J H M

    2015-11-01

    Diet models based on goal programming (GP) are valuable tools in designing diets that comply with nutritional, palatability and cost constraints. Results derived from GP models are usually very sensitive to the type of achievement function that is chosen.This paper aims to provide a methodological insight into several achievement functions. It describes the extended GP (EGP) achievement function, which enables the decision maker to use either a MinSum achievement function (which minimizes the sum of the unwanted deviations) or a MinMax achievement function (which minimizes the largest unwanted deviation), or a compromise between both. An additional advantage of EGP models is that from one set of data and weights multiple solutions can be obtained. We use small numerical examples to illustrate the 'mechanics' of achievement functions. Then, the EGP achievement function is demonstrated on a diet problem with 144 foods, 19 nutrients and several types of palatability constraints, in which the nutritional constraints are modeled with fuzzy sets. Choice of achievement function affects the results of diet models. MinSum achievement functions can give rise to solutions that are sensitive to weight changes, and that pile all unwanted deviations on a limited number of nutritional constraints. MinMax achievement functions spread the unwanted deviations as evenly as possible, but may create many (small) deviations. EGP comprises both types of achievement functions, as well as compromises between them. It can thus, from one data set, find a range of solutions with various properties.

  11. Linear and non-linear dose-response functions reveal a hormetic relationship between stress and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Diamond, David M

    2008-10-16

    Over a century of behavioral research has shown that stress can enhance or impair learning and memory. In the present review, we have explored the complex effects of stress on cognition and propose that they are characterized by linear and non-linear dose-response functions, which together reveal a hormetic relationship between stress and learning. We suggest that stress initially enhances hippocampal function, resulting from amygdala-induced excitation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity, as well as the excitatory effects of several neuromodulators, including corticosteroids, norepinephrine, corticotropin-releasing hormone, acetylcholine and dopamine. We propose that this rapid activation of the amygdala-hippocampus brain memory system results in a linear dose-response relation between emotional strength and memory formation. More prolonged stress, however, leads to an inhibition of hippocampal function, which can be attributed to compensatory cellular responses that protect hippocampal neurons from excitotoxicity. This inhibition of hippocampal functioning in response to prolonged stress is potentially relevant to the well-described curvilinear dose-response relationship between arousal and memory. Our emphasis on the temporal features of stress-brain interactions addresses how stress can activate, as well as impair, hippocampal functioning to produce a hormetic relationship between stress and learning.

  12. Fuzzy optimization of primal-dual pair using piecewise linear membership functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Present paper improves the model of Bector and Chandra [Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 125 (2002 317-325] on duality in fuzzy linear programming by using non-linear membership functions. Numerical problem discussed by these authors has also been worked out through our non-linear model to demonstrate improved optimality of the results.

  13. Adaptive Linear and Normalized Combination of Radial Basis Function Networks for Function Approximation and Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfeng Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel adaptive linear and normalized combination (ALNC method that can be used to combine the component radial basis function networks (RBFNs to implement better function approximation and regression tasks. The optimization of the fusion weights is obtained by solving a constrained quadratic programming problem. According to the instantaneous errors generated by the component RBFNs, the ALNC is able to perform the selective ensemble of multiple leaners by adaptively adjusting the fusion weights from one instance to another. The results of the experiments on eight synthetic function approximation and six benchmark regression data sets show that the ALNC method can effectively help the ensemble system achieve a higher accuracy (measured in terms of mean-squared error and the better fidelity (characterized by normalized correlation coefficient of approximation, in relation to the popular simple average, weighted average, and the Bagging methods.

  14. Impact load time histories for viscoelastic missiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoykovich, M.

    1977-01-01

    Generation of the impact load time history at the contact point between a viscoelastic missile and its targets is presented. In the past, in the case of aircraft striking containment shell structure, the impact load time history was determined on the basis of actual measurements by subjecting a rigid wall to aircraft crash. The effects of elastic deformation of the target upon the impact load time history is formulated in this paper. The missile is idealized by a linear mass-spring-dashpot combination using viscoelastic models. These models can readily be processed taking into account the elastic as well as inelastic deformations of the missiles. The target is assumed to be either linearly elastic or rigid. In the case of the linearly elastic target, the normal mode theory is used to express the time-dependent displacements of the target which is simulated by lumped masses, elastic properties and dashpots in discrete parts. In the case of Maxwell viscoelastic model, the time-dependent displacements of the missile and the target are given in terms of the unknown impact load time history. This leads to an integral equation which may be solved by Laplace transformation. The normal mode theory is provided. The target structure may be composed of different materials with different components. Concrete and steel structural components have inherently different viscous friction damping properties. Hence, the equivalent modal damping depends on the degree of participation of these components in the modal response. An approximate rule for determining damping in any vibration mode by weighting the damping of each component according to the modal energy stored in each component is considered

  15. Linear supermultiplets and non-holomorphic gauge coupling functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binetruy, P.; Grimm, R.; Girardi, G.

    1991-04-01

    The general couplings of linear multiplets, including Chern-Simons forms, to chiral matter as well as to the standard supergravity-matter system are constructed. Insisting on a canonically normalised Einstein term in particular the appearance of non-holomorphic gauge couplings are discussed and duality transformations in full generality are performed. The implications of these structures for the effective description of sigma model anomalies are presented with and without coupling to supergravity, following recent proposals of Derendinger, Ferrara, Kounnas and Zwirner and of Cardoso and Ovrut. (author) 14 refs

  16. Effect of rotation on the onset of thermal convection in a viscoelastic fluid layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swamy, Mahantesh S [Department of Mathematics, Government College, Gulbarga 585 105 (India); Sidram, W, E-mail: mahantesh_swamy@yahoo.co.in [Department of Mathematics, Gulbarga University, Jnana Ganga, Gulbarga 585 106 (India)

    2013-02-15

    A rotating viscoelastic fluid layer heated from below is studied analytically using both linear and nonlinear stability analyses. The Oldroyd-B fluid model is employed to describe the rheological behaviour of the fluid. The Coriolis term is included in the momentum equation and the Oberbeck-Boussinesq approximation is invoked. The onset criterion for both stationary and oscillatory convection is derived as a function of Taylor number, Prandtl number and viscoelastic parameters. There is competition between the processes of rotation, viscous relaxation and thermal diffusion that causes the convection to set in through oscillatory rather than stationary modes. The rotation inhibits the onset of convection in both stationary and oscillatory modes. The stress relaxation parameter destabilizes the system towards the oscillatory mode, while the strain retardation parameter enhances the stability and this stabilization is reinforced by the rotation effect. The nonlinear theory is based on a truncated representation of the Fourier series method. The effect of rotation, viscoelastic parameters and also the Prandtl number on the transient heat transfer is presented graphically. (paper)

  17. Atomic theory of viscoelastic response and memory effects in metallic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Bingyu; Yang, Jie; Qiao, Jichao; Jiang, Minqiang; Dai, Lanhong; Wang, Yun-Jiang; Zaccone, Alessio

    2017-09-01

    An atomic-scale theory of the viscoelastic response of metallic glasses is derived from first principles, using a Zwanzig-Caldeira-Leggett system-bath Hamiltonian as a starting point within the framework of nonaffine linear response to mechanical deformation. This approach provides a generalized Langevin equation (GLE) as the average equation of motion for an atom or ion in the material, from which non-Markovian nonaffine viscoelastic moduli are extracted. These can be evaluated using the vibrational density of states (DOS) as input, where the boson peak plays a prominent role in the mechanics. To compare with experimental data for binary ZrCu alloys, a numerical DOS was obtained from simulations of this system, which also take electronic degrees of freedom into account via the embedded-atom method for the interatomic potential. It is shown that the viscoelastic α -relaxation, including the α -wing asymmetry in the loss modulus, can be very well described by the theory if the memory kernel (the non-Markovian friction) in the GLE is taken to be a stretched-exponential decaying function of time. This finding directly implies strong memory effects in the atomic-scale dynamics and suggests that the α -relaxation time is related to the characteristic time scale over which atoms retain memory of their previous collision history. This memory time grows dramatically below the glass transition.

  18. Viscoelastic behavior of discrete human collagen fibrils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, René; Hassenkam, Tue; Hansen, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Whole tendon and fibril bundles display viscoelastic behavior, but to the best of our knowledge this property has not been directly measured in single human tendon fibrils. In the present work an atomic force microscopy (AFM) approach was used for tensile testing of two human patellar tendon...... saline, cyclic testing was performed in the pre-yield region at different strain rates, and the elastic response was determined by a stepwise stress relaxation test. The elastic stress-strain response corresponded to a second-order polynomial fit, while the viscous response showed a linear dependence...

  19. Quantum tests for the linearity and permutation invariance of Boolean functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillery, Mark [Department of Physics, Hunter College of the City University of New York, 695 Park Avenue, New York, New York 10021 (United States); Andersson, Erika [SUPA, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-15

    The goal in function property testing is to determine whether a black-box Boolean function has a certain property or is {epsilon}-far from having that property. The performance of the algorithm is judged by how many calls need to be made to the black box in order to determine, with high probability, which of the two alternatives is the case. Here we present two quantum algorithms, the first to determine whether the function is linear and the second to determine whether it is symmetric (invariant under permutations of the arguments). Both require order {epsilon}{sup -2/3} calls to the oracle, which is better than known classical algorithms. In addition, in the case of linearity testing, if the function is linear, the quantum algorithm identifies which linear function it is. The linearity test combines the Bernstein-Vazirani algorithm and amplitude amplification, while the test to determine whether a function is symmetric uses projective measurements and amplitude amplification.

  20. Viscoelastic Properties of Dental Pulp Tissue and Ramifications on Biomaterial Development for Pulp Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erisken, Cevat; Kalyon, Dilhan M; Zhou, Jian; Kim, Sahng G; Mao, Jeremy J

    2015-10-01

    A critical step in biomaterial selection effort is the determination of material as well as the biological properties of the target tissue. Previously, the selection of biomaterials and carriers for dental pulp regeneration has been solely based on empirical experience. In this study, first, the linear viscoelastic material functions and compressive properties of miniature pig dental pulp were characterized using small-amplitude oscillatory shear and uniaxial compression at a constant rate. They were then compared with the properties of hydrogels (ie, agarose, alginate, and collagen) that are widely used in tissue regeneration. The comparisons of the linear viscoelastic material functions of the native pulp tissue with those of the 3 hydrogels revealed the gel-like behavior of the pulp tissue over a relatively large range of time scales (ie, over the frequency range of 0.1-100 rps). At the constant gelation agent concentration of 2%, the dynamic properties (ie, storage and loss moduli and the tanδ) of the collagen-based gel approached those of the native tissue. Under uniaxial compression, the peak normal stresses and compressive moduli of the agarose gel were similar to those of the native tissue, whereas alginate and collagen exhibited significantly lower compressive properties. The linear viscoelastic and uniaxial compressive properties of the dental pulp tissue reported here should enable the more appropriate selection of biogels for dental pulp regeneration via the better tailoring of gelation agents and their concentrations to better mimic the dynamic and compressive properties of native pulp tissue. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Partially linear varying coefficient models stratified by a functional covariate

    KAUST Repository

    Maity, Arnab; Huang, Jianhua Z.

    2012-01-01

    We consider the problem of estimation in semiparametric varying coefficient models where the covariate modifying the varying coefficients is functional and is modeled nonparametrically. We develop a kernel-based estimator of the nonparametric

  2. Functionalized linear poly(amidoamine)s are efficient vectors for intracellular protein delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coué, G.M.J.P.C.; Engbersen, Johannes F.J.

    2011-01-01

    An effective intracellular protein delivery system was developed based on functionalized linear poly(amidoamine)s (PAAs) that form self-assembled cationic nanocomplexes with oppositely charged proteins. Three differently functionalized PAAs were synthesized, two of these having repetitive disulfide

  3. Partially linear varying coefficient models stratified by a functional covariate

    KAUST Repository

    Maity, Arnab

    2012-10-01

    We consider the problem of estimation in semiparametric varying coefficient models where the covariate modifying the varying coefficients is functional and is modeled nonparametrically. We develop a kernel-based estimator of the nonparametric component and a profiling estimator of the parametric component of the model and derive their asymptotic properties. Specifically, we show the consistency of the nonparametric functional estimates and derive the asymptotic expansion of the estimates of the parametric component. We illustrate the performance of our methodology using a simulation study and a real data application.

  4. Linear measure functional differential equations with infinite delay

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Monteiro, Giselle Antunes; Slavík, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 287, 11-12 (2014), s. 1363-1382 ISSN 0025-584X Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : measure functional differential equations * generalized ordinary differential equations * Kurzweil-Stieltjes integral Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.683, year: 2014 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/mana.201300048/abstract

  5. Processes and Reasoning in Representations of Linear Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adu-Gyamfi, Kwaku; Bossé, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined student actions, interpretations, and language in respect to questions raised regarding tabular, graphical, and algebraic representations in the context of functions. The purpose was to investigate students' interpretations and specific ways of working within table, graph, and the algebraic on notions fundamental to a…

  6. Seismic Wave Propagation in Layered Viscoelastic Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, R. D.

    2008-12-01

    Advances in the general theory of wave propagation in layered viscoelastic media reveal new insights regarding seismic waves in the Earth. For example, the theory predicts: 1) P and S waves are predominantly inhomogeneous in a layered anelastic Earth with seismic travel times, particle-motion orbits, energy speeds, Q, and amplitude characteristics that vary with angle of incidence and hence, travel path through the layers, 2) two types of shear waves exist, one with linear and the other with elliptical particle motions each with different absorption coefficients, and 3) surface waves with amplitude and particle motion characteristics not predicted by elasticity, such as Rayleigh-Type waves with tilted elliptical particle motion orbits and Love-Type waves with superimposed sinusoidal amplitude dependencies that decay exponentially with depth. The general theory provides closed-form analytic solutions for body waves, reflection-refraction problems, response of multiple layers, and surface wave problems valid for any material with a viscoelastic response, including the infinite number of models, derivable from various configurations of springs and dashpots, such as elastic, Voight, Maxwell, and Standard Linear. The theory provides solutions independent of the amount of intrinsic absorption and explicit analytic expressions for physical characteristics of body waves in low-loss media such as the deep Earth. The results explain laboratory and seismic observations, such as travel-time and wide-angle reflection amplitude anomalies, not explained by elasticity or one dimensional Q models. They have important implications for some forward modeling and inverse problems. Theoretical advances and corresponding numerical results as recently compiled (Borcherdt, 2008, Viscoelastic Waves in Layered Media, Cambridge University Press) will be reviewed.

  7. Theory of viscoelasticity an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Christensen, R

    1982-01-01

    Theory of Viscoelasticity: An Introduction, Second Edition discusses the integral form of stress strain constitutive relations. The book presents the formulation of the boundary value problem and demonstrates the separation of variables condition.The text describes the mathematical framework to predict material behavior. It discusses the problems to which integral transform methods do not apply. Another topic of interest is the thermoviscoelastic stress analysis. The section that follows describes the heat conduction, glass transition criterion, viscoelastic Rayleigh waves, optimal str

  8. On MV-algebras of non-linear functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Di Nola

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the main results are:a study of the finitely generated MV-algebras of continuous functions from the n-th power of the unit real interval I to I;a study of Hopfian MV-algebras; anda category-theoretic study of the map sending an MV-algebra as above to the range of its generators (up to a suitable form of homeomorphism.

  9. On MV-algebras of non-linear functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Di Nola

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the main results are: a study of the finitely generated MV-algebras of continuous functions from the n-th power of the unit real interval I to I; a study of Hopfian MV-algebras; and a category-theoretic study of the map sending an MV-algebra as above to the range of its generators (up to a suitable form of homeomorphism.

  10. Approximate Stream Function wavemaker theory for highly non-linear waves in wave flumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, H.W.; Schäffer, Hemming Andreas

    2007-01-01

    An approximate Stream Function wavemaker theory for highly non-linear regular waves in flumes is presented. This theory is based on an ad hoe unified wave-generation method that combines linear fully dispersive wavemaker theory and wave generation for non-linear shallow water waves. This is done...... by applying a dispersion correction to the paddle position obtained for non-linear long waves. The method is validated by a number of wave flume experiments while comparing with results of linear wavemaker theory, second-order wavemaker theory and Cnoidal wavemaker theory within its range of application....

  11. A linear functional differential equation with distributions in the input

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Z. Tsalyuk

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the functional differential equation $$ dot x(t = int_a^t {d_s R(t,s, x(s} + F'(t, quad t in [a,b], $$ where $F'$ is a generalized derivative, and $R(t,cdot$ and $F$ are functions of bounded variation. A solution is defined by the difference $x - F$ being absolutely continuous and satisfying the inclusion $$ frac{d}{dt} (x(t - F(t in int_a^t {d_s R(t,s,x(s}. $$ Here, the integral in the right is the multivalued Stieltjes integral presented in cite{VTs1} (in this article we review and extend the results in cite{VTs1}. We show that the solution set for the initial-value problem is nonempty, compact, and convex. A solution $x$ is said to have memory if there exists the function $x$ such that $x(a = x(a$, $x(b = x(b$, $ x(t in [x(t-0,x(t+0]$ for $t in (a,b$, and $frac{d}{dt} (x(t - F(t = int_a^t {d_s R(t,s,{x}(s}$, where Lebesgue-Stieltjes integral is used. We show that such solutions form a nonempty, compact, and convex set. It is shown that solutions with memory obey the Cauchy-type formula $$ x(t in C(t,ax(a + int_a^t C(t,s, dF(s. $$

  12. Least-squares fit of a linear combination of functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niraj Upadhyay

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose that given a data-set $S=\\{(x_i,y_i/i=1,2,{\\dots}n\\}$ and real-valued functions $\\{f_\\alpha(x/\\alpha=1,2,{\\dots}m\\},$ the least-squares fit vector $A=\\{a_\\alpha\\}$ for $y=\\sum_\\alpha a_{\\alpha}f_\\alpha(x$ is $A = (F^TF^{-1}F^TY$ where $[F_{i\\alpha}]=[f_\\alpha(x_i].$ We test this formalism by deriving the algebraic expressions of the regression coefficients in $y = ax + b$ and in $y = ax^2 + bx + c.$ As a practical application, we successfully arrive at the coefficients in the semi-empirical mass formula of nuclear physics. The formalism is {\\it generic} - it has the potential of being applicable to any {\\it type} of $\\{x_i\\}$ as long as there exist appropriate $\\{f_\\alpha\\}.$ The method can be exploited with a CAS or an object-oriented language and is excellently suitable for parallel-processing.

  13. Differentiability of Palmer's linearization Theorem and converse result for density functions

    OpenAIRE

    Castañeda, Alvaro; Robledo, Gonzalo

    2014-01-01

    We study differentiability properties in a particular case of the Palmer's linearization Theorem, which states the existence of an homeomorphism $H$ between the solutions of a linear ODE system having exponential dichotomy and a quasilinear system. Indeed, if the linear system is uniformly asymptotically stable, sufficient conditions ensuring that $H$ is a $C^{2}$ preserving orientation diffeomorphism are given. As an application, we generalize a converse result of density functions for a non...

  14. Noise Reduction Evaluation of Multi-Layered Viscoelastic Infinite Cylinder under Acoustical Wave Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Mofakhami

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper sound transmission through the multilayered viscoelastic air filled cylinders subjected to the incident acoustic wave is studied using the technique of separation of variables on the basis of linear three dimensional theory of elasticity. The effect of interior acoustic medium on the mode maps (frequency vs geometry and noise reduction is investigated. The effects of internal absorption and external moving medium on noise reduction are also evaluated. The dynamic viscoelastic properties of the structure are rigorously taken into account with a power law technique that models the viscoelastic damping of the cylinder. A parametric study is also performed for the two layered infinite cylinders to obtain the effect of viscoelastic layer characteristics such as thickness, material type and frequency dependency of viscoelastic properties on the noise reduction. It is shown that using constant and frequency dependent viscoelastic material with high loss factor leads to the uniform noise reduction in the frequency domain. It is also shown that the noise reduction obtained for constant viscoelastic material property is subjected to some errors in the low frequency range with respect to those obtained for the frequency dependent viscoelastic material.

  15. Supporting Generative Thinking about Number Lines, the Cartesian Plane, and Graphs of Linear Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnest, Darrell Steven

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation explores fifth and eighth grade students' interpretations of three kinds of mathematical representations: number lines, the Cartesian plane, and graphs of linear functions. Two studies were conducted. In Study 1, I administered the paper-and-pencil Linear Representations Assessment (LRA) to examine students'…

  16. Estimation of Multiple Point Sources for Linear Fractional Order Systems Using Modulating Functions

    KAUST Repository

    Belkhatir, Zehor; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes an estimation algorithm for the characterization of multiple point inputs for linear fractional order systems. First, using polynomial modulating functions method and a suitable change of variables the problem of estimating

  17. A method for computing the stationary points of a function subject to linear equality constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uko, U.L.

    1989-09-01

    We give a new method for the numerical calculation of stationary points of a function when it is subject to equality constraints. An application to the solution of linear equations is given, together with a numerical example. (author). 5 refs

  18. Studies with Parabolic Parabolic Linear Parabolic (PPLP) momentum function in the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Solfaroli Camillocci, Matteo; Timko, Helga; Wenninger, Jorg; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2018-01-01

    Measurements performed with a Parabolic Parabolic Linear Parabolic (PPLP) momentum function in the LHC. Three attempts have been performed with a pilot bunch and one with nominal bunch (1.1x1011 p/bunch).

  19. Wigner weight functions and Weyl symbols of non-negative definite linear operators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, A.J.E.M.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper we present several necessary and, for radially symmetric functions, necessary and sufficient conditions for a function of two variables to be a Wigner weight function (Weyl symbol of a non-negative definite linear operator of L2(R)). These necessary conditions are in terms of spread

  20. Approximation of functions in two variables by some linear positive operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariola Skorupka

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available We introduce some linear positive operators of the Szasz-Mirakjan type in the weighted spaces of continuous functions in two variables. We study the degree of the approximation of functions by these operators. The similar results for functions in one variable are given in [5]. Some operators of the Szasz-Mirakjan type are examined also in [3], [4].

  1. Índices de capacidade de relações funcionais lineares e não-lineares Capability index for linear and non-linear functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edivaldo Antonio Bulba

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados métodos para determinação dos índices de capacidade tais como Cp e Cpk aplicados no "design for six sigma" (DFSS quando a característica de qualidade é não-observável e dada por Y = f(X1, X2, X3,....Xk, onde Xi são variáveis aleatórias com média e variância respectivamente iguais a miXi e sigma2Xi; f é uma função conhecida. A determinação é baseada na série de Taylor e o procedimento será ilustrado com exemplos práticos.Here we present methods to determine capabilit indices such as Cp and Cpk to be applied in "design for six sigma" (DFSS when the quality characteristic of interest Y is unobservable but given by Y = f(X1, X2, X3,....Xk, where Xi's are random variables with means and variance respectively equal to muXi and sigma2Xi; f is a known function. The determination is based on Taylor series and we illustrate the procedure with practical examples.

  2. Solving polynomial differential equations by transforming them to linear functional-differential equations

    OpenAIRE

    Nahay, John Michael

    2008-01-01

    We present a new approach to solving polynomial ordinary differential equations by transforming them to linear functional equations and then solving the linear functional equations. We will focus most of our attention upon the first-order Abel differential equation with two nonlinear terms in order to demonstrate in as much detail as possible the computations necessary for a complete solution. We mention in our section on further developments that the basic transformation idea can be generali...

  3. Non-linear shape functions over time in the space-time finite element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kacprzyk Zbigniew

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a generalisation of the space-time finite element method proposed by Kączkowski in his seminal of 1970’s and early 1980’s works. Kączkowski used linear shape functions in time. The recurrence formula obtained by Kączkowski was conditionally stable. In this paper, non-linear shape functions in time are proposed.

  4. Viscoelastic effect on acoustic band gaps in polymer-fluid composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merheb, B; Deymier, P A; Muralidharan, K; Bucay, J; Jain, M; Aloshyna-Lesuffleur, M; Mohanty, S; Berker, A; Greger, R W

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a theoretical analysis of the propagation of acoustic waves through elastic and viscoelastic two-dimensional phononic crystal structures. Numerical calculations of transmission spectra are conducted by extending the finite-difference-time-domain method to account for linear viscoelastic materials with time-dependent moduli. We study a phononic crystal constituted of a square array of cylindrical air inclusions in a solid viscoelastic matrix. The elastic properties of the solid are those of a silicone rubber. This system exhibits very wide band gaps in its transmission spectrum that extend to frequencies in the audible range of the spectrum. These gaps are characteristic of fluid matrix/air inclusion systems and result from the very large contrast between the longitudinal and transverse speeds of sound in rubber. By treating the matrix as a viscoelastic medium within the standard linear solid (SLS) model, we demonstrate that viscoelasticity impacts the transmission properties of the rubber/air phononic crystal not only by attenuating the transmitted acoustic waves but also by shifting the passing bands frequencies toward lower values. The ranges of frequencies exhibiting attenuation or frequency shift are determined by the value of the relaxation time in the SLS model. We show that viscoelasticity can be used to decrease the frequency of pass bands (and consequently stop bands) in viscoelastic/air phononic crystals

  5. Extensional rheometer based on viscoelastic catastrophes outline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method and a device for determining viscoelastic properties of a fluid. The invention resides inter alia in the generation of viscoelastic catastrophes in confined systems for use in the context of extensional rheology. The viscoelastic catastrophe is according ...... to the invention generated in a bistable fluid system, and the flow conditions for which the catastrophe occurs can be used as a fingerprint of the fluid's viscoelastic properties in extensional flow....

  6. Direct and inverse scattering for viscoelastic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammicht, E.; Corones, J.P.; Krueger, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    A time domain approach to direct and inverse scattering problems for one-dimensional viscoelastic media is presented. Such media can be characterized as having a constitutive relation between stress and strain which involves the past history of the strain through a memory function, the relaxation modulus. In the approach in this article, the relaxation modulus of a material is shown to be related to the reflection properties of the material. This relation provides a constructive algorithm for direct and inverse scattering problems. A numerical implementation of this algorithm is tested on several problems involving realistic relaxation moduli

  7. Interrogating the viscoelastic properties of tissue using viscoelastic response (VISR) ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selzo, Mallory Renee

    Affecting approximately 1 in 3,500 newborn males, Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is one of the most common lethal genetic disorders in humans. Boys with DMD suffer progressive loss of muscle strength and function, leading to wheelchair dependence, cardiac and respiratory compromise, and death during young adulthood. There are currently no treatments that can halt or reverse the disease progression, and translating prospective treatments into clinical trials has been delayed by inadequate outcome measures. Current outcome measures, such as functional and muscle strength assessments, lack sensitivity to individual muscles, require subjective effort of the child, and are impacted by normal childhood growth and development. The goal of this research is to develop Viscoelastic Response (VisR) ultrasound which can be used to delineate compositional changes in muscle associated with DMD. In VisR, acoustic radiation force (ARF) is used to produce small, localized displacements within the muscle. Using conventional ultrasound to track the motion, the displacement response of the tissue can be evaluated against a mechanical model. In order to develop signal processing techniques and assess mechanical models, finite element method simulations are used to model the response of a viscoelastic material to ARF excitations. Results are then presented demonstrating VisR differentiation of viscoelastic changes with progressive dystrophic degeneration in a dog model of DMD. Finally, clinical feasibility of VisR imaging is demonstrated in two boys with DMD.

  8. The spin polarized linear response from density functional theory: Theory and application to atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fias, Stijn, E-mail: sfias@vub.ac.be; Boisdenghien, Zino; De Proft, Frank; Geerlings, Paul [General Chemistry (ALGC), Vrije Universiteit Brussel (Free University Brussels – VUB), Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2014-11-14

    Within the context of spin polarized conceptual density functional theory, the spin polarized linear response functions are introduced both in the [N, N{sub s}] and [N{sub α}, N{sub β}] representations. The mathematical relations between the spin polarized linear response functions in both representations are examined and an analytical expression for the spin polarized linear response functions in the [N{sub α}, N{sub β}] representation is derived. The spin polarized linear response functions were calculated for all atoms up to and including argon. To simplify the plotting of our results, we integrated χ(r, r′) to a quantity χ(r, r{sup ′}), circumventing the θ and ϕ dependence. This allows us to plot and to investigate the periodicity throughout the first three rows in the periodic table within the two different representations. For the first time, χ{sub αβ}(r, r{sup ′}), χ{sub βα}(r, r{sup ′}), and χ{sub SS}(r, r{sup ′}) plots have been calculated and discussed. By integration of the spin polarized linear response functions, different components to the polarisability, α{sub αα}, α{sub αβ}, α{sub βα}, and α{sub ββ} have been calculated.

  9. Oracle Inequalities for Convex Loss Functions with Non-Linear Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caner, Mehmet; Kock, Anders Bredahl

    This paper consider penalized empirical loss minimization of convex loss functions with unknown non-linear target functions. Using the elastic net penalty we establish a finite sample oracle inequality which bounds the loss of our estimator from above with high probability. If the unknown target...... of the same order as that of the oracle. If the target is linear we give sufficient conditions for consistency of the estimated parameter vector. Next, we briefly discuss how a thresholded version of our estimator can be used to perform consistent variable selection. We give two examples of loss functions...

  10. Applications of Kalman filters based on non-linear functions to numerical weather predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Galanis

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the use of non-linear functions in classical Kalman filter algorithms on the improvement of regional weather forecasts. The main aim is the implementation of non linear polynomial mappings in a usual linear Kalman filter in order to simulate better non linear problems in numerical weather prediction. In addition, the optimal order of the polynomials applied for such a filter is identified. This work is based on observations and corresponding numerical weather predictions of two meteorological parameters characterized by essential differences in their evolution in time, namely, air temperature and wind speed. It is shown that in both cases, a polynomial of low order is adequate for eliminating any systematic error, while higher order functions lead to instabilities in the filtered results having, at the same time, trivial contribution to the sensitivity of the filter. It is further demonstrated that the filter is independent of the time period and the geographic location of application.

  11. Applications of Kalman filters based on non-linear functions to numerical weather predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Galanis

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the use of non-linear functions in classical Kalman filter algorithms on the improvement of regional weather forecasts. The main aim is the implementation of non linear polynomial mappings in a usual linear Kalman filter in order to simulate better non linear problems in numerical weather prediction. In addition, the optimal order of the polynomials applied for such a filter is identified. This work is based on observations and corresponding numerical weather predictions of two meteorological parameters characterized by essential differences in their evolution in time, namely, air temperature and wind speed. It is shown that in both cases, a polynomial of low order is adequate for eliminating any systematic error, while higher order functions lead to instabilities in the filtered results having, at the same time, trivial contribution to the sensitivity of the filter. It is further demonstrated that the filter is independent of the time period and the geographic location of application.

  12. Viscoelastic behaviour of pumpkin balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerngross, T.; Xu, Y.; Pellegrino, S.

    2008-11-01

    The lobes of the NASA ULDB pumpkin-shaped super-pressure balloons are made of a thin polymeric film that shows considerable time-dependent behaviour. A nonlinear viscoelastic model based on experimental measurements has been recently established for this film. This paper presents a simulation of the viscoelastic behaviour of ULDB balloons with the finite element software ABAQUS. First, the standard viscoelastic modelling capabilities available in ABAQUS are examined, but are found of limited accuracy even for the case of simple uniaxial creep tests on ULDB films. Then, a nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive model is implemented by means of a user-defined subroutine. This approach is verified by means of biaxial creep experiments on pressurized cylinders and is found to be accurate provided that the film anisotropy is also included in the model. A preliminary set of predictions for a single lobe of a ULDB is presented at the end of the paper. It indicates that time-dependent effects in a balloon structure can lead to significant stress redistribution and large increases in the transverse strains in the lobes.

  13. Viscoelastic behavior of rubbery materials

    CERN Document Server

    Roland, C M

    2011-01-01

    The gigantic size of polymer molecules makes them viscoelastic - their behavior changes depending on how fast and for how long the material is used. This book looks at the latest discoveries in the field from a fundamental molecular perspective, in order to guide the development of better and new applications for soft materials.

  14. Completeness, special functions and uncertainty principles over q-linear grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu, LuIs Daniel

    2006-01-01

    We derive completeness criteria for sequences of functions of the form f(xλ n ), where λ n is the nth zero of a suitably chosen entire function. Using these criteria, we construct complete nonorthogonal systems of Fourier-Bessel functions and their q-analogues, as well as other complete sets of q-special functions. We discuss connections with uncertainty principles over q-linear grids and the completeness of certain sets of q-Bessel functions is used to prove that, if a function f and its q-Hankel transform both vanish at the points {q -n } ∞ n=1 , 0 n } ∞ n=-∞

  15. Variable viscosity and thermal conductivity effects on MHD flow and heat transfer in viscoelastic fluid over a stretching sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, Ahmed M.

    2007-01-01

    The problem of flow and heat transfer of an electrically conducting viscoelastic fluid over a continuously stretching sheet in the presence of a uniform magnetic field is analyzed for the case of power-law variation in the sheet temperature. The fluid viscosity and thermal conductivity are assumed to vary as a function of temperature. The basic equations comprising the balance laws of mass, linear momentum, and energy modified to include the electromagnetic force effect, the viscous dissipation, internal heat generation or absorption and work due to deformation are solved numerically

  16. Electro-osmotic and pressure-driven flow of viscoelastic fluids in microchannels: Analytical and semi-analytical solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrás, L. L.; Afonso, A. M.; Alves, M. A.; Nóbrega, J. M.; Pinho, F. T.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we present a series of solutions for combined electro-osmotic and pressure-driven flows of viscoelastic fluids in microchannels. The solutions are semi-analytical, a feature made possible by the use of the Debye-Hückel approximation for the electrokinetic fields, thus restricted to cases with small electric double-layers, in which the distance between the microfluidic device walls is at least one order of magnitude larger than the electric double-layer thickness. To describe the complex fluid rheology, several viscoelastic differential constitutive models were used, namely, the simplified Phan-Thien-Tanner model with linear, quadratic or exponential kernel for the stress coefficient function, the Johnson-Segalman model, and the Giesekus model. The results obtained illustrate the effects of the Weissenberg number, the Johnson-Segalman slip parameter, the Giesekus mobility parameter, and the relative strengths of the electro-osmotic and pressure gradient-driven forcings on the dynamics of these viscoelastic flows.

  17. Post-seismic relaxation theory on laterally heterogeneous viscoelastic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollitz, F.F.

    2003-01-01

    Investigation was carried out into the problem of relaxation of a laterally heterogeneous viscoelastic Earth following an impulsive moment release event. The formal solution utilizes a semi-analytic solution for post-seismic deformation on a laterally homogeneous Earth constructed from viscoelastic normal modes, followed by application of mode coupling theory to derive the response on the aspherical Earth. The solution is constructed in the Laplace transform domain using the correspondence principle and is valid for any linear constitutive relationship between stress and strain. The specific implementation described in this paper is a semi-analytic discretization method which assumes isotropic elastic structure and a Maxwell constitutive relation. It accounts for viscoelastic-gravitational coupling under lateral variations in elastic parameters and viscosity. For a given viscoelastic structure and minimum wavelength scale, the computational effort involved with the numerical algorithm is proportional to the volume of the laterally heterogeneous region. Examples are presented of the calculation of post-seismic relaxation with a shallow, laterally heterogeneous volume following synthetic impulsive seismic events, and they illustrate the potentially large effect of regional 3-D heterogeneities on regional deformation patterns.

  18. Isomorphism and the #betta#-function of the non-linear sigma model in symmetric spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hikami, S.

    1983-01-01

    The renormalization group #betta#-function of the non-linear sigma model in symmetric spaces is discussed via the isomorphic relation and the reciprocal relation about a parameter α. The four-loop term is investigated and the symmetric properties of the #betta#-function are studied. The four-loop term in the #betta#-function is shown to be vanishing for the orthogonal Anderson localization problem. (orig.)

  19. Viscoelasticity of Brownian Carbon Nanotubes in PDMS Semidilute Regime

    OpenAIRE

    MARCEAU, Sandrine; DUBOIS, Philippe; FULCHIRON, René; CASSAGNAU, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present paper is to investigate the linear viscoelasticity of diluted suspension of MWNT spread in PDMS. Specifically, we focus our attention on both the CNT relaxation in semidilute conditions and the concept of percolation threshold for such system. Finally, the results, and mainly the concentration dependence of the zero-shear viscosity and mean relaxation time, will be discussed within the Doi−Edwards theory framework on molecular dynamic of rigid rods in a semi...

  20. Functional Thinking Ways in Relation to Linear Function Tables of Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanisli, Dilek

    2011-01-01

    One of the basic components of algebraic thinking is functional thinking. Functional thinking involves focusing on the relationship between two (or more) varying quantities and such thinking facilitates the studies on both algebra and the notion of function. The development of functional thinking of students should start in the early grades and it…

  1. Taming waveform inversion non-linearity through phase unwrapping of the model and objective functions

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2012-09-25

    Traveltime inversion focuses on the geometrical features of the waveform (traveltimes), which is generally smooth, and thus, tends to provide averaged (smoothed) information of the model. On other hand, general waveform inversion uses additional elements of the wavefield including amplitudes to extract higher resolution information, but this comes at the cost of introducing non-linearity to the inversion operator, complicating the convergence process. We use unwrapped phase-based objective functions in waveform inversion as a link between the two general types of inversions in a domain in which such contributions to the inversion process can be easily identified and controlled. The instantaneous traveltime is a measure of the average traveltime of the energy in a trace as a function of frequency. It unwraps the phase of wavefields yielding far less non-linearity in the objective function than that experienced with conventional wavefields, yet it still holds most of the critical wavefield information in its frequency dependency. However, it suffers from non-linearity introduced by the model (or reflectivity), as reflections from independent events in our model interact with each other. Unwrapping the phase of such a model can mitigate this non-linearity as well. Specifically, a simple modification to the inverted domain (or model), can reduce the effect of the model-induced non-linearity and, thus, make the inversion more convergent. Simple numerical examples demonstrate these assertions.

  2. Taming waveform inversion non-linearity through phase unwrapping of the model and objective functions

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali; Choi, Yun Seok

    2012-01-01

    Traveltime inversion focuses on the geometrical features of the waveform (traveltimes), which is generally smooth, and thus, tends to provide averaged (smoothed) information of the model. On other hand, general waveform inversion uses additional elements of the wavefield including amplitudes to extract higher resolution information, but this comes at the cost of introducing non-linearity to the inversion operator, complicating the convergence process. We use unwrapped phase-based objective functions in waveform inversion as a link between the two general types of inversions in a domain in which such contributions to the inversion process can be easily identified and controlled. The instantaneous traveltime is a measure of the average traveltime of the energy in a trace as a function of frequency. It unwraps the phase of wavefields yielding far less non-linearity in the objective function than that experienced with conventional wavefields, yet it still holds most of the critical wavefield information in its frequency dependency. However, it suffers from non-linearity introduced by the model (or reflectivity), as reflections from independent events in our model interact with each other. Unwrapping the phase of such a model can mitigate this non-linearity as well. Specifically, a simple modification to the inverted domain (or model), can reduce the effect of the model-induced non-linearity and, thus, make the inversion more convergent. Simple numerical examples demonstrate these assertions.

  3. Measurement of tissue viscoelasticity with ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. F.; Alizad, A.

    2017-02-01

    Tissue properties such as elasticity and viscosity have been shown to be related to such tissue conditions as contraction, edema, fibrosis, and fat content among others. Magnetic Resonance Elastography has shown outstanding ability to measure the elasticity and in some cases the viscosity of tissues, especially in the liver, providing the ability to stage fibrotic liver disease similarly to biopsy. We discuss ultrasound methods of measuring elasticity and viscosity in tissues. Many of these methods are becoming widely available in the extant ultrasound machines distributed throughout the world. Some of the methods to be discussed are in the developmental stage. The advantages of the ultrasound methods are that the imaging instruments are widely available and that many of the viscoelastic measurements can be made during a short addition to the normal ultrasound examination time. In addition, the measurements can be made by ultrasound repetitively and quickly allowing evaluation of dynamic physiologic function in circumstances such as muscle contraction or artery relaxation. Measurement of viscoelastic tissue mechanical properties will become a consistent part of clinical ultrasound examinations in our opinion.

  4. TIDALLY HEATED TERRESTRIAL EXOPLANETS: VISCOELASTIC RESPONSE MODELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, Wade G.; O'Connell, Richard J.; Sasselov, Dimitar D.

    2009-01-01

    Tidal friction in exoplanet systems, driven by orbits that allow for durable nonzero eccentricities at short heliocentric periods, can generate internal heating far in excess of the conditions observed in our own solar system. Secular perturbations or a notional 2:1 resonance between a hot Earth and hot Jupiter can be used as a baseline to consider the thermal evolution of convecting bodies subject to strong viscoelastic tidal heating. We compare results first from simple models using a fixed Quality factor and Love number, and then for three different viscoelastic rheologies: the Maxwell body, the Standard Anelastic Solid (SAS), and the Burgers body. The SAS and Burgers models are shown to alter the potential for extreme tidal heating by introducing the possibility of new equilibria and multiple response peaks. We find that tidal heating tends to exceed radionuclide heating at periods below 10-30 days, and exceed insolation only below 1-2 days. Extreme cases produce enough tidal heat to initiate global-scale partial melting, and an analysis of tidal limiting mechanisms such as advective cooling for earthlike planets is discussed. To explore long-term behaviors, we map equilibria points between convective heat loss and tidal heat input as functions of eccentricity. For the periods and magnitudes discussed, we show that tidal heating, if significant, is generally detrimental to the width of habitable zones.

  5. Viscoelastic-gravitational deformation by a rectangular thrust fault in a layered earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundle, J.B.

    1982-01-01

    Previous papers in this series have been concerned with developing the numerical techniques required for the evaluation of vertical displacements which are the result of thrust faulting in a layered, elastic-gravitational earth model. This paper extends these methods to the calculation of fully time-dependent vertical surface deformation from a rectangular, dipping thrust fault in an elastic-gravitational layer over a viscoelastic-gravitational half space. The elastic-gravitational solutions are used together with the correspondence principle of linear viscoelasticity to give the solution in the Laplace transform domain. The technique used here to invert the displacements into the time domain is the Prony series technique, wherein the transformed solution is fit to the transformed representation of a truncated series of decaying exponentials. Purely viscoelastic results obtained are checked against results found previously using a different inverse transform method, and agreement is excellent. A series of results are obtained for a rectangular, 30 0 dipping thrust fault in an elastic-gravitational layer over viscoelastic-gravitational half space. Time-dependent displacements are calculated out to 50 half space relaxation times tau/sub a/, or 100 Maxwell times 2tau/sub m/ = tau/sub a/. Significant effects due to gravity are shown to exist in the solutions as early as several tau/sub a/. The difference between the purely viscoelastic solution and the viscoelastic-gravitational solutions grows as time progresses. Typically, the solutions with gravity reach an equilibrium value after 10--20 relaxation times, when the purely viscoelastic solutions are still changing significantly. Additionally, the length scaling which was apparent in the purely viscoelastic problem breaks down in the viscoelastic-gravitational problem

  6. BFLCRM: A BAYESIAN FUNCTIONAL LINEAR COX REGRESSION MODEL FOR PREDICTING TIME TO CONVERSION TO ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunjee; Zhu, Hongtu; Kong, Dehan; Wang, Yalin; Giovanello, Kelly Sullivan; Ibrahim, Joseph G

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop a Bayesian functional linear Cox regression model (BFLCRM) with both functional and scalar covariates. This new development is motivated by establishing the likelihood of conversion to Alzheimer's disease (AD) in 346 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) enrolled in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative 1 (ADNI-1) and the early markers of conversion. These 346 MCI patients were followed over 48 months, with 161 MCI participants progressing to AD at 48 months. The functional linear Cox regression model was used to establish that functional covariates including hippocampus surface morphology and scalar covariates including brain MRI volumes, cognitive performance (ADAS-Cog), and APOE status can accurately predict time to onset of AD. Posterior computation proceeds via an efficient Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm. A simulation study is performed to evaluate the finite sample performance of BFLCRM.

  7. Sliding mode control-based linear functional observers for discrete-time stochastic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satnesh; Janardhanan, Sivaramakrishnan

    2017-11-01

    Sliding mode control (SMC) is one of the most popular techniques to stabilise linear discrete-time stochastic systems. However, application of SMC becomes difficult when the system states are not available for feedback. This paper presents a new approach to design a SMC-based functional observer for discrete-time stochastic systems. The functional observer is based on the Kronecker product approach. Existence conditions and stability analysis of the proposed observer are given. The control input is estimated by a novel linear functional observer. This approach leads to a non-switching type of control, thereby eliminating the fundamental cause of chatter. Furthermore, the functional observer is designed in such a way that the effect of process and measurement noise is minimised. Simulation example is given to illustrate and validate the proposed design method.

  8. A numerical method for reorientation of rotating tidally deformed viscoelastic bodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, H.; van der Wal, W.; Vermeersen, L.L.A.

    2017-01-01

    Existing approaches for simulating the true polar wander (TPW) of a viscoelastic body can be divided into three categories: (i) a linear dynamic approach which uses the linearized Liouville equation (e.g., Wu and Peltier (1984) and Mitrovica et al. (2005)); (ii) a nonlinear dynamic approach which

  9. Novel method of interpolation and extrapolation of functions by a linear initial value problem

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shatalov, M

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel method of function approximation using an initial value, linear, ordinary differential equation (ODE) is presented. The main advantage of this method is to obtain the approximation expressions in a closed form. This technique can be taught...

  10. Understanding Linear Function: A Comparison of Selected Textbooks from England and Shanghai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuqian; Barmby, Patrick; Bolden, David

    2017-01-01

    This study describes a comparison of how worked examples in selected textbooks from England and Shanghai presented possible learning trajectories towards understanding linear function. Six selected English textbooks and one Shanghai compulsory textbook were analysed with regards to the understanding required for pure mathematics knowledge in…

  11. Sparse non-linear denoising: Generalization performance and pattern reproducibility in functional MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Trine Julie; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2011-01-01

    We investigate sparse non-linear denoising of functional brain images by kernel Principal Component Analysis (kernel PCA). The main challenge is the mapping of denoised feature space points back into input space, also referred to as ”the pre-image problem”. Since the feature space mapping is typi...

  12. Case Studies Listening to Students Using Kinesthetic Movement While Learning to Graph Linear Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Melissa A.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative practitioner research study was to describe middle school algebra students' experiences of learning linear functions through kinesthetic movement. Participants were comprised of 8th grade algebra students. Practitioner research was used because I wanted to improve my teaching so students will have more success in…

  13. Linear hyperbolic functional-differential equations with essentially bounded right-hand side

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Domoshnitsky, A.; Lomtatidze, Alexander; Maghakyan, A.; Šremr, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 2011, - (2011), s. 242965 ISSN 1085-3375 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : linear functional-differential equation of hyperbolic type * Darboux problem * unique solvability Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.318, year: 2011 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ aaa /2011/242965/

  14. Non-commutative linear algebra and plurisubharmonic functions of quaternionic variables

    OpenAIRE

    Alesker, Semyon

    2003-01-01

    We recall known and establish new properties of the Dieudonn\\'e and Moore determinants of quaternionic matrices.Using these linear algebraic results we develop a basic theory of plurisubharmonic functions of quaternionic variables. Then we introduce and briefly discuss quaternionic Monge-Amp\\'ere equations.

  15. A Linear Programming Model to Optimize Various Objective Functions of a Foundation Type State Support Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzke, Orville R.

    The purpose of this study was to formulate a linear programming model to simulate a foundation type support program and to apply this model to a state support program for the public elementary and secondary school districts in the State of Iowa. The model was successful in producing optimal solutions to five objective functions proposed for…

  16. Interpolation of polytopic control Lyapunov functions for discrete–time linear systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.T.; Lazar, M.; Spinu, V.; Boje, E.; Xia, X.

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for interpolating two (or more) polytopic control Lyapunov functions (CLFs) for discrete--time linear systems subject to polytopic constraints, thereby combining different control objectives. The corresponding interpolated CLF is used for synthesis of a stabilizing

  17. Linear estimates of structure functions from deep inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering data. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anikeev, V.B.; Zhigunov, V.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper concerns the linear estimation of structure functions from muon(electron)-nucleon scattering. The expressions obtained for the structure functions estimate provide correct analysis of the random error and the bias The bias arises because of the finite number of experimental data and the finite resolution of experiment. The approach suggested may become useful for data handling from experiments at HERA. 9 refs

  18. SELECTION OF LINEAR DEMAND FUNCTION PARAMETERS FOR ENSURING THE CORRECT SUBSTITUTION EFFECT CALCULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Popov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the course of microeconomics it is convenient to use additive functions of requirements in educational purposes, in which the volume of requirements is set by the linear function of the price, revenue and other factors. But in arriving at the substitution effect there is a number of problems in which impossible answers come out. The formula adjustment concluded by the author, which will allow to avoid contradictions, is described in the article.

  19. Multi-point boundary value problems for linear functional-differential equations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Domoshnitsky, A.; Hakl, Robert; Půža, Bedřich

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 2 (2017), s. 193-206 ISSN 1072-947X Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : boundary value problems * linear functional- differential equations * functional- differential inequalities Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 0.290, year: 2016 https://www.degruyter.com/view/j/gmj.2017.24.issue-2/gmj-2016-0076/gmj-2016-0076.xml

  20. Multi-point boundary value problems for linear functional-differential equations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Domoshnitsky, A.; Hakl, Robert; Půža, Bedřich

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 2 (2017), s. 193-206 ISSN 1072-947X Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : boundary value problems * linear functional-differential equations * functional-differential inequalities Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 0.290, year: 2016 https://www.degruyter.com/view/j/gmj.2017.24.issue-2/gmj-2016-0076/gmj-2016-0076. xml

  1. Nonlinear viscoelastic properties of tissue assessed by ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkus, Ralph; Bercoff, Jeremy; Tanter, Mickaël; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; El-Khoury, Carl; Servois, Vincent; Tardivon, Anne; Fink, Mathias

    2006-11-01

    A technique to assess qualitatively the presence of higher-order viscoelastic parameters is presented. Low-frequency, monochromatic elastic waves are emitted into the material via an external vibrator. The resulting steady-state motion is detected in real time via an ultra fast ultrasound system using classical, one-dimensional (1-D) ultrasound speckle correlation for motion estimation. Total data acquisition lasts only for about 250 ms. The spectrum of the temporal displacement data at each image point is used for analysis. The presence of nonlinear effects is detected by inspection of the ratio of the second harmonics amplitude with respect to the total amplitude summed up to the second harmonic. Results from a polyacrylamide-based phantom indicate a linear response (i.e., the absence of higher harmonics) for this type of material at 65 Hz mechanical vibration frequency and about 100 microm amplitude. A lesion, artificially created by injection of glutaraldehyde into a beef specimen, shows the development of higher harmonics at the location of injection as a function of time. The presence of upper harmonics is clearly evident at the location of a malignant lesion within a mastectomy.

  2. Predicting recovery of cognitive function soon after stroke: differential modeling of logarithmic and linear regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Makoto; Sugimura, Yuko; Yamada, Sumio; Omori, Yoshitsugu; Miyamoto, Masaaki; Yamamoto, Jun-ichi

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive disorders in the acute stage of stroke are common and are important independent predictors of adverse outcome in the long term. Despite the impact of cognitive disorders on both patients and their families, it is still difficult to predict the extent or duration of cognitive impairments. The objective of the present study was, therefore, to provide data on predicting the recovery of cognitive function soon after stroke by differential modeling with logarithmic and linear regression. This study included two rounds of data collection comprising 57 stroke patients enrolled in the first round for the purpose of identifying the time course of cognitive recovery in the early-phase group data, and 43 stroke patients in the second round for the purpose of ensuring that the correlation of the early-phase group data applied to the prediction of each individual's degree of cognitive recovery. In the first round, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores were assessed 3 times during hospitalization, and the scores were regressed on the logarithm and linear of time. In the second round, calculations of MMSE scores were made for the first two scoring times after admission to tailor the structures of logarithmic and linear regression formulae to fit an individual's degree of functional recovery. The time course of early-phase recovery for cognitive functions resembled both logarithmic and linear functions. However, MMSE scores sampled at two baseline points based on logarithmic regression modeling could estimate prediction of cognitive recovery more accurately than could linear regression modeling (logarithmic modeling, R(2) = 0.676, PLogarithmic modeling based on MMSE scores could accurately predict the recovery of cognitive function soon after the occurrence of stroke. This logarithmic modeling with mathematical procedures is simple enough to be adopted in daily clinical practice.

  3. Implementation of viscoelastic Hopkinson bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govender R.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the properties of soft, viscoelastic materials at high strain rates are important in furthering our understanding of their role during blast or impact events. Testing these low impedance materials using a metallic split Hopkinson pressure bar setup results in poor signal to noise ratios due to impedance mismatching. These difficulties are overcome by using polymeric Hopkinson bars. Conventional Hopkinson bar analysis cannot be used on the polymeric bars due to the viscoelastic nature of the bar material. Implementing polymeric Hopkinson bars requires characterization of the viscoelastic properties of the material used. In this paper, 30 mm diameter Polymethyl Methacrylate bars are used as Hopkinson pressure bars. This testing technique is applied to polymeric foam called Divinycell H80 and H200. Although there is a large body of of literature containing compressive data, this rarely deals with strain rates above 250s−1 which becomes increasingly important when looking at the design of composite structures where energy absorption during impact events is high on the list of priorities. Testing of polymeric foams at high strain rates allows for the development of better constitutive models.

  4. Unsteady Solution of Non-Linear Differential Equations Using Walsh Function Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnoffo, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Walsh functions form an orthonormal basis set consisting of square waves. The discontinuous nature of square waves make the system well suited for representing functions with discontinuities. The product of any two Walsh functions is another Walsh function - a feature that can radically change an algorithm for solving non-linear partial differential equations (PDEs). The solution algorithm of non-linear differential equations using Walsh function series is unique in that integrals and derivatives may be computed using simple matrix multiplication of series representations of functions. Solutions to PDEs are derived as functions of wave component amplitude. Three sample problems are presented to illustrate the Walsh function series approach to solving unsteady PDEs. These include an advection equation, a Burgers equation, and a Riemann problem. The sample problems demonstrate the use of the Walsh function solution algorithms, exploiting Fast Walsh Transforms in multi-dimensions (O(Nlog(N))). Details of a Fast Walsh Reciprocal, defined here for the first time, enable inversion of aWalsh Symmetric Matrix in O(Nlog(N)) operations. Walsh functions have been derived using a fractal recursion algorithm and these fractal patterns are observed in the progression of pairs of wave number amplitudes in the solutions. These patterns are most easily observed in a remapping defined as a fractal fingerprint (FFP). A prolongation of existing solutions to the next highest order exploits these patterns. The algorithms presented here are considered a work in progress that provide new alternatives and new insights into the solution of non-linear PDEs.

  5. Floquet stability analysis of viscoelastic flow over a cylinder

    KAUST Repository

    Richter, David

    2011-06-01

    A Floquet linear stability analysis has been performed on a viscoelastic cylinder wake. The FENE-P model is used to represent the non-Newtonian fluid, and the analysis is done using a modified version of an existing nonlinear code to compute the linearized initial value problem governing the growth of small perturbations in the wake. By measuring instability growth rates over a wide range of disturbance spanwise wavenumbers α, the effects of viscoelasticity were identified and compared directly to Newtonian results.At a Reynolds number of 300, two unstable bands exist over the range 0. ≤ α≤ 10 for Newtonian flow. For the low α band, associated with the "mode A" wake instability, a monotonic reduction in growth rates is found for increasing polymer extensibility L. For the high α band, associated with the "mode B" instability, first a rise, then a significant decrease to a stable state is found for the instability growth rates as L is increased from L= 10 to L= 30. The mechanism behind this stabilization of both mode A and mode B instabilities is due to the change of the base flow, rather than a direct effect of viscoelasticity on the perturbation. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  6. Floquet stability analysis of viscoelastic flow over a cylinder

    KAUST Repository

    Richter, David; Shaqfeh, Eric S.G.; Iaccarino, Gianluca

    2011-01-01

    A Floquet linear stability analysis has been performed on a viscoelastic cylinder wake. The FENE-P model is used to represent the non-Newtonian fluid, and the analysis is done using a modified version of an existing nonlinear code to compute the linearized initial value problem governing the growth of small perturbations in the wake. By measuring instability growth rates over a wide range of disturbance spanwise wavenumbers α, the effects of viscoelasticity were identified and compared directly to Newtonian results.At a Reynolds number of 300, two unstable bands exist over the range 0. ≤ α≤ 10 for Newtonian flow. For the low α band, associated with the "mode A" wake instability, a monotonic reduction in growth rates is found for increasing polymer extensibility L. For the high α band, associated with the "mode B" instability, first a rise, then a significant decrease to a stable state is found for the instability growth rates as L is increased from L= 10 to L= 30. The mechanism behind this stabilization of both mode A and mode B instabilities is due to the change of the base flow, rather than a direct effect of viscoelasticity on the perturbation. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  7. Parameter-dependent PWQ Lyapunov function stability criteria for uncertain piecewise linear systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Hovd

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The calculation of piecewise quadratic (PWQ Lyapunov functions is addressed in view of stability analysis of uncertain piecewise linear dynamics. As main contribution, the linear matrix inequality (LMI approach proposed in (Johansson and Rantzer, 1998 for the stability analysis of PWL and PWA dynamics is extended to account for parametric uncertainty based on a improved relaxation technique. The results are applied for the analysis of a Phase Locked Loop (PLL benchmark and the ability to guarantee a stability region in the parameter space well beyond the state of the art is demonstrated.

  8. Numerical tackling for viscoelastic fluid flow in rotating frame considering homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najwa Maqsood

    Full Text Available This study provides a numerical treatment for rotating flow of viscoelastic (Maxwell fluid bounded by a linearly deforming elastic surface. Mass transfer analysis is carried out in the existence of homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions. By means of usual transformation, the governing equations are changed into global similarity equations which have been tackled by an expedient shooting approach. A contemporary numerical routine bvp4c of software MATLAB is also opted to develop numerical approximations. Both methods of solution are found in complete agreement in all the cases. Velocity and concentration profiles are computed and elucidated for certain range of viscoelastic fluid parameter. The solutions contain a rotation-strength parameter λ that has a considerable impact on the flow fields. For sufficiently large value of λ, the velocity fields are oscillatory decaying function of the non-dimensional vertical distance. Concentration distribution at the surface is found to decrease upon increasing the strengths of chemical reactions. A comparison of present computations is made with those of already published ones and such comparison appears convincing. Keywords: Maxwell fluid, Similarity solution, Numerical method, Chemical reaction, Stretching sheet

  9. Numerical tackling for viscoelastic fluid flow in rotating frame considering homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqsood, Najwa; Mustafa, M.; Khan, Junaid Ahmad

    This study provides a numerical treatment for rotating flow of viscoelastic (Maxwell) fluid bounded by a linearly deforming elastic surface. Mass transfer analysis is carried out in the existence of homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions. By means of usual transformation, the governing equations are changed into global similarity equations which have been tackled by an expedient shooting approach. A contemporary numerical routine bvp4c of software MATLAB is also opted to develop numerical approximations. Both methods of solution are found in complete agreement in all the cases. Velocity and concentration profiles are computed and elucidated for certain range of viscoelastic fluid parameter. The solutions contain a rotation-strength parameter λ that has a considerable impact on the flow fields. For sufficiently large value of λ , the velocity fields are oscillatory decaying function of the non-dimensional vertical distance. Concentration distribution at the surface is found to decrease upon increasing the strengths of chemical reactions. A comparison of present computations is made with those of already published ones and such comparison appears convincing.

  10. Ion-size dependent electroosmosis of viscoelastic fluids in microfluidic channels with interfacial slip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Siddhartha; Goswami, Prakash; Dhar, Jayabrata; Dasgupta, Sunando; Chakraborty, Suman

    2017-07-01

    We report a study on the ion-size dependent electroosmosis of viscoelastic fluids in microfluidic channels with interfacial slip. Here, we derive an analytical solution for the potential distribution in a parallel plate microchannel, where the effects of finite sized ionic species are taken into account by invoking the free energy formalism. Following this, a purely electroosmotic flow of a simplified Phan-Thien-Tanner (sPTT) fluid is considered. For the sPTT model, linear, quadratic, and exponential kernels are chosen for the stress coefficient function describing its viscoelastic nature across various ranges of Deborah number. The theoretical framework presented in our analysis has been successfully compared with experimental results available in the literature. We believe that the implications of the considered effects on the net volumetric throughput will not only provide a deeper theoretical insight to interpret the electrokinetic data in the presence of ionic species but also serve as a fundamental design tool for novel electrokinetically driven lab-on-a-chip biofluidic devices.

  11. Weighted functional linear regression models for gene-based association analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belonogova, Nadezhda M; Svishcheva, Gulnara R; Wilson, James F; Campbell, Harry; Axenovich, Tatiana I

    2018-01-01

    Functional linear regression models are effectively used in gene-based association analysis of complex traits. These models combine information about individual genetic variants, taking into account their positions and reducing the influence of noise and/or observation errors. To increase the power of methods, where several differently informative components are combined, weights are introduced to give the advantage to more informative components. Allele-specific weights have been introduced to collapsing and kernel-based approaches to gene-based association analysis. Here we have for the first time introduced weights to functional linear regression models adapted for both independent and family samples. Using data simulated on the basis of GAW17 genotypes and weights defined by allele frequencies via the beta distribution, we demonstrated that type I errors correspond to declared values and that increasing the weights of causal variants allows the power of functional linear models to be increased. We applied the new method to real data on blood pressure from the ORCADES sample. Five of the six known genes with P models. Moreover, we found an association between diastolic blood pressure and the VMP1 gene (P = 8.18×10-6), when we used a weighted functional model. For this gene, the unweighted functional and weighted kernel-based models had P = 0.004 and 0.006, respectively. The new method has been implemented in the program package FREGAT, which is freely available at https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/FREGAT/index.html.

  12. Orthogonality, Lommel integrals and cross product zeros of linear combinations of Bessel functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziener, Christian H; Kurz, Felix T; Buschle, Lukas R; Kampf, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The cylindrical Bessel differential equation and the spherical Bessel differential equation in the interval [Formula: see text] with Neumann boundary conditions are considered. The eigenfunctions are linear combinations of the Bessel function [Formula: see text] or linear combinations of the spherical Bessel functions [Formula: see text]. The orthogonality relations with analytical expressions for the normalization constant are given. Explicit expressions for the Lommel integrals in terms of Lommel functions are derived. The cross product zeros [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] are considered in the complex plane for real as well as complex values of the index [Formula: see text] and approximations for the exceptional zero [Formula: see text] are obtained. A numerical scheme based on the discretization of the two-dimensional and three-dimensional Laplace operator with Neumann boundary conditions is presented. Explicit representations of the radial part of the Laplace operator in form of a tridiagonal matrix allow the simple computation of the cross product zeros.

  13. Fluctuations of two-time quantities and non-linear response functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corberi, F; Lippiello, E; Sarracino, A; Zannetti, M

    2010-01-01

    We study the fluctuations of the autocorrelation and autoresponse functions and, in particular, their variances and covariance. In a first general part of the paper, we show the equivalence of the variance of the response function to the second-order susceptibility of a composite operator, and we derive an equilibrium fluctuation-dissipation theorem beyond linear order, relating it to the other variances. In a second part of the paper we apply the formalism in the study of non-disordered ferromagnets, in equilibrium or in the coarsening kinetics following a critical or sub-critical quench. We show numerically that the variances and the non-linear susceptibility obey scaling with respect to the coherence length ξ in equilibrium, and with respect to the growing length L(t) after a quench, similar to what is known for the autocorrelation and the autoresponse functions

  14. KEELE, Minimization of Nonlinear Function with Linear Constraints, Variable Metric Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westley, G.W.

    1975-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: KEELE is a linearly constrained nonlinear programming algorithm for locating a local minimum of a function of n variables with the variables subject to linear equality and/or inequality constraints. 2 - Method of solution: A variable metric procedure is used where the direction of search at each iteration is obtained by multiplying the negative of the gradient vector by a positive definite matrix which approximates the inverse of the matrix of second partial derivatives associated with the function. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Array dimensions limit the number of variables to 20 and the number of constraints to 50. These can be changed by the user

  15. Viscoelasticity and diffusional properties of colloidal model dispersions

    CERN Document Server

    Naegele, G

    2003-01-01

    We examine linear viscoelastic, and translational and rotational diffusion properties of colloidal model dispersions. Theoretical results are discussed, in comparison with experiments, for monodisperse suspensions of charged and neutral colloidal spheres, and for binary dispersions of differently sized tracer and host particles. The theoretical methods employed comprise a mode-coupling scheme for Brownian particles, and a rooted cluster expansion scheme of tracer diffusion with two- and three-body hydrodynamic interactions included. We analyse in particular the validity of various empirical generalized Stokes-Einstein-Debye (SED) relations between the (dynamic) shear viscosity and translational/rotational diffusion coefficients. Some of these generalized SED relations are basic to microrheological measurements aimed at characterizing the viscoelasticity of complex fluids on the basis of the diffusional properties of immersed tracer particles.

  16. Viscoelasticity and diffusional properties of colloidal model dispersions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naegele, Gerhard

    2003-01-01

    We examine linear viscoelastic, and translational and rotational diffusion properties of colloidal model dispersions. Theoretical results are discussed, in comparison with experiments, for monodisperse suspensions of charged and neutral colloidal spheres, and for binary dispersions of differently sized tracer and host particles. The theoretical methods employed comprise a mode-coupling scheme for Brownian particles, and a rooted cluster expansion scheme of tracer diffusion with two- and three-body hydrodynamic interactions included. We analyse in particular the validity of various empirical generalized Stokes-Einstein-Debye (SED) relations between the (dynamic) shear viscosity and translational/rotational diffusion coefficients. Some of these generalized SED relations are basic to microrheological measurements aimed at characterizing the viscoelasticity of complex fluids on the basis of the diffusional properties of immersed tracer particles

  17. Theoretical foundations of functional data analysis, with an introduction to linear operators

    CERN Document Server

    Hsing, Tailen

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical Foundations of Functional Data Analysis, with an Introduction to Linear Operators provides a uniquely broad compendium of the key mathematical concepts and results that are relevant for the theoretical development of functional data analysis (FDA).The self-contained treatment of selected topics of functional analysis and operator theory includes reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces, singular value decomposition of compact operators on Hilbert spaces and perturbation theory for both self-adjoint and non self-adjoint operators. The probabilistic foundation for FDA is described from the

  18. Functional models for commutative systems of linear operators and de Branges spaces on a Riemann surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolotarev, Vladimir A

    2009-01-01

    Functional models are constructed for commutative systems {A 1 ,A 2 } of bounded linear non-self-adjoint operators which do not contain dissipative operators (which means that ξ 1 A 1 +ξ 2 A 2 is not a dissipative operator for any ξ 1 , ξ 2 element of R). A significant role is played here by the de Branges transform and the function classes occurring in this context. Classes of commutative systems of operators {A 1 ,A 2 } for which such a construction is possible are distinguished. Realizations of functional models in special spaces of meromorphic functions on Riemann surfaces are found, which lead to reasonable analogues of de Branges spaces on these Riemann surfaces. It turns out that the functions E(p) and E-tilde(p) determining the order of growth in de Branges spaces on Riemann surfaces coincide with the well-known Baker-Akhiezer functions. Bibliography: 11 titles.

  19. Non-linear multivariable predictive control of an alcoholic fermentation process using functional link networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto da Cruz Meleiro

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work a MIMO non-linear predictive controller was developed for an extractive alcoholic fermentation process. The internal model of the controller was represented by two MISO Functional Link Networks (FLNs, identified using simulated data generated from a deterministic mathematical model whose kinetic parameters were determined experimentally. The FLN structure presents as advantages fast training and guaranteed convergence, since the estimation of the weights is a linear optimization problem. Besides, the elimination of non-significant weights generates parsimonious models, which allows for fast execution in an MPC-based algorithm. The proposed algorithm showed good potential in identification and control of non-linear processes.Neste trabalho um controlador preditivo não linear multivariável foi desenvolvido para um processo de fermentação alcoólica extrativa. O modelo interno do controlador foi representado por duas redes do tipo Functional Link (FLN, identificadas usando dados de simulação gerados a partir de um modelo validado experimentalmente. A estrutura FLN apresenta como vantagem o treinamento rápido e convergência garantida, já que a estimação dos seus pesos é um problema de otimização linear. Além disso, a eliminação de pesos não significativos gera modelos parsimoniosos, o que permite a rápida execução em algoritmos de controle preditivo baseado em modelo. Os resultados mostram que o algoritmo proposto tem grande potencial para identificação e controle de processos não lineares.

  20. Generating linear regression model to predict motor functions by use of laser range finder during TUG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Daiki; Nishiguchi, Shu; Fukutani, Naoto; Hotta, Takayuki; Tashiro, Yuto; Morino, Saori; Shirooka, Hidehiko; Nozaki, Yuma; Hirata, Hinako; Yamaguchi, Moe; Yorozu, Ayanori; Takahashi, Masaki; Aoyama, Tomoki

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate which spatial and temporal parameters of the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test are associated with motor function in elderly individuals. This study included 99 community-dwelling women aged 72.9 ± 6.3 years. Step length, step width, single support time, variability of the aforementioned parameters, gait velocity, cadence, reaction time from starting signal to first step, and minimum distance between the foot and a marker placed to 3 in front of the chair were measured using our analysis system. The 10-m walk test, five times sit-to-stand (FTSTS) test, and one-leg standing (OLS) test were used to assess motor function. Stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis was used to determine which TUG test parameters were associated with each motor function test. Finally, we calculated a predictive model for each motor function test using each regression coefficient. In stepwise linear regression analysis, step length and cadence were significantly associated with the 10-m walk test, FTSTS and OLS test. Reaction time was associated with the FTSTS test, and step width was associated with the OLS test. Each predictive model showed a strong correlation with the 10-m walk test and OLS test (P motor function test. Moreover, the TUG test time regarded as the lower extremity function and mobility has strong predictive ability in each motor function test. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. СREATION OF CORRELATION FUNCTIONS OF LINEAR CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS BASED ON THEIR FUNDAMENTAL MATRICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Vunder

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a method of creating correlation matrices and functions of the state vectors and outputs of the linear continuous systems functioning under the conditions of stochastic stationary, in a broad sense, effects. Fundamental matrices form the basis of the method. We have shown that for the linear continuous systems with single dimensional input and single dimensional output the correlation output function of such system can be found as the free movement of this system generated by its initial state. This state is constructed from the variance matrix of the state vector and the transposed output matrix. We have elucidated that when a continuous system belongs to a class of multi-dimensional input – multi-dimensional output systems, the following options are available for solving the problem of creation of the correlation function of a linear system. The first option is to partition the system into separate channels. Then the approach developed for systems with onedimensional input and one-dimensional output is applied to each of the separate channels. The second option is used to preserve the vector nature of the stochastic external influence. It consists in partition of output vector to scalar components by separating output matrix into separate rows with subsequent formation of the correlation function according to the scheme for single dimensional input and single dimensional output type systems. The third option is based on the scalarization of matrix correlation output function by applying the singular value decomposition to it. That gives the possibility to form scalar majorant and minorant of correlation output functions. We have established that a key component of a computational procedure of creating the correlation function of continuous linear system is a variance matrix of the system state vector. In the case of functioning under an exogenous stochastic effect like "white noise" the variance matrix is calculated by

  2. Generalized prolate spheroidal wave functions for optical finite fractional Fourier and linear canonical transforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Soo-Chang; Ding, Jian-Jiun

    2005-03-01

    Prolate spheroidal wave functions (PSWFs) are known to be useful for analyzing the properties of the finite-extension Fourier transform (fi-FT). We extend the theory of PSWFs for the finite-extension fractional Fourier transform, the finite-extension linear canonical transform, and the finite-extension offset linear canonical transform. These finite transforms are more flexible than the fi-FT and can model much more generalized optical systems. We also illustrate how to use the generalized prolate spheroidal functions we derive to analyze the energy-preservation ratio, the self-imaging phenomenon, and the resonance phenomenon of the finite-sized one-stage or multiple-stage optical systems.

  3. Model and Comparative Study for Flow of Viscoelastic Nanofluids with Cattaneo-Christov Double Diffusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasawar Hayat

    Full Text Available Here two classes of viscoelastic fluids have been analyzed in the presence of Cattaneo-Christov double diffusion expressions of heat and mass transfer. A linearly stretched sheet has been used to create the flow. Thermal and concentration diffusions are characterized firstly by introducing Cattaneo-Christov fluxes. Novel features regarding Brownian motion and thermophoresis are retained. The conversion of nonlinear partial differential system to nonlinear ordinary differential system has been taken into place by using suitable transformations. The resulting nonlinear systems have been solved via convergent approach. Graphs have been sketched in order to investigate how the velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are affected by distinct physical flow parameters. Numerical values of skin friction coefficient and heat and mass transfer rates at the wall are also computed and discussed. Our observations demonstrate that the temperature and concentration fields are decreasing functions of thermal and concentration relaxation parameters.

  4. Isotherms and thermodynamics by linear and non-linear regression analysis for the sorption of methylene blue onto activated carbon: Comparison of various error functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, K. Vasanth; Porkodi, K.; Rocha, F.

    2008-01-01

    A comparison of linear and non-linear regression method in selecting the optimum isotherm was made to the experimental equilibrium data of methylene blue sorption by activated carbon. The r 2 was used to select the best fit linear theoretical isotherm. In the case of non-linear regression method, six error functions, namely coefficient of determination (r 2 ), hybrid fractional error function (HYBRID), Marquardt's percent standard deviation (MPSD), average relative error (ARE), sum of the errors squared (ERRSQ) and sum of the absolute errors (EABS) were used to predict the parameters involved in the two and three parameter isotherms and also to predict the optimum isotherm. For two parameter isotherm, MPSD was found to be the best error function in minimizing the error distribution between the experimental equilibrium data and predicted isotherms. In the case of three parameter isotherm, r 2 was found to be the best error function to minimize the error distribution structure between experimental equilibrium data and theoretical isotherms. The present study showed that the size of the error function alone is not a deciding factor to choose the optimum isotherm. In addition to the size of error function, the theory behind the predicted isotherm should be verified with the help of experimental data while selecting the optimum isotherm. A coefficient of non-determination, K 2 was explained and was found to be very useful in identifying the best error function while selecting the optimum isotherm

  5. Non-Linear Back-propagation: Doing Back-Propagation withoutDerivatives of the Activation Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, John; Krogh, Anders Stærmose; Lautrup, Benny

    1997-01-01

    The conventional linear back-propagation algorithm is replaced by a non-linear version, which avoids the necessity for calculating the derivative of the activation function. This may be exploited in hardware realizations of neural processors. In this paper we derive the non-linear back...

  6. Nonparametric adaptive estimation of linear functionals for low frequency observed Lévy processes

    OpenAIRE

    Kappus, Johanna

    2012-01-01

    For a Lévy process X having finite variation on compact sets and finite first moments, µ( dx) = xv( dx) is a finite signed measure which completely describes the jump dynamics. We construct kernel estimators for linear functionals of µ and provide rates of convergence under regularity assumptions. Moreover, we consider adaptive estimation via model selection and propose a new strategy for the data driven choice of the smoothing parameter.

  7. Two-fluid static spherical configurations with linear mass function in the Einstein-Cartan theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallakhmetov, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    In the framework of the Einstein-Cartan theory, two-fluid static spherical configurations with linear mass function are considered. One of these modelling anisotropic matter distributions within star and the other fluid is a perfect fluid representing a source of torsion. It is shown that the solutions of the Einstein equations for anisotropic relativistic spheres in General Relativity may generate the solutions in the Einstein-Cartan theory. Some exact solutions are obtained

  8. Guaranteed and computable bounds of the limit load for variational problems with linear growth energy functionals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haslinger, Jaroslav; Repin, S.; Sysala, Stanislav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 5 (2016), s. 527-564 ISSN 0862-7940 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LQ1602 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : functionals with linear growth * limit load * truncation method * perfect plasticity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.618, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10492-016-0146-6

  9. Localization of periodic orbits of polynomial vector fields of even degree by linear functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starkov, Konstantin E. [CITEDI-IPN, Av. del Parque 1310, Mesa de Otay, Tijuana, BC (Mexico)] e-mail: konst@citedi.mx

    2005-08-01

    This paper is concerned with the localization problem of periodic orbits of polynomial vector fields of even degree by using linear functions. Conditions of the localization of all periodic orbits in sets of a simple structure are obtained. Our results are based on the solution of the conditional extremum problem and the application of homogeneous polynomial forms of even degrees. As examples, the Lanford system, the jerky system with one quadratic monomial and a quartically perturbed harmonic oscillator are considered.

  10. Localization of periodic orbits of polynomial vector fields of even degree by linear functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starkov, Konstantin E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the localization problem of periodic orbits of polynomial vector fields of even degree by using linear functions. Conditions of the localization of all periodic orbits in sets of a simple structure are obtained. Our results are based on the solution of the conditional extremum problem and the application of homogeneous polynomial forms of even degrees. As examples, the Lanford system, the jerky system with one quadratic monomial and a quartically perturbed harmonic oscillator are considered

  11. Fibonacci collocation method with a residual error Function to solve linear Volterra integro differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih Yalcinbas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new collocation method based on the Fibonacci polynomials is introduced to solve the high-order linear Volterra integro-differential equations under the conditions. Numerical examples are included to demonstrate the applicability and validity of the proposed method and comparisons are made with the existing results. In addition, an error estimation based on the residual functions is presented for this method. The approximate solutions are improved by using this error estimation.

  12. Dynamic assessment of nonlinear typical section aeroviscoelastic systems using fractional derivative-based viscoelastic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, T. P.; Marques, Flávio D.; Pereira, Daniel A.; Rade, Domingos A.

    2018-06-01

    Nonlinear aeroelastic systems are prone to the appearance of limit cycle oscillations, bifurcations, and chaos. Such problems are of increasing concern in aircraft design since there is the need to control nonlinear instabilities and improve safety margins, at the same time as aircraft are subjected to increasingly critical operational conditions. On the other hand, in spite of the fact that viscoelastic materials have already been successfully used for the attenuation of undesired vibrations in several types of mechanical systems, a small number of research works have addressed the feasibility of exploring the viscoelastic effect to improve the behavior of nonlinear aeroelastic systems. In this context, the objective of this work is to assess the influence of viscoelastic materials on the aeroelastic features of a three-degrees-of-freedom typical section with hardening structural nonlinearities. The equations of motion are derived accounting for the presence of viscoelastic materials introduced in the resilient elements associated to each degree-of-freedom. A constitutive law based on fractional derivatives is adopted, which allows the modeling of temperature-dependent viscoelastic behavior in time and frequency domains. The unsteady aerodynamic loading is calculated based on the classical linear potential theory for arbitrary airfoil motion. The aeroelastic behavior is investigated through time domain simulations, and subsequent frequency transformations, from which bifurcations are identified from diagrams of limit cycle oscillations amplitudes versus airspeed. The influence of the viscoelastic effect on the aeroelastic behavior, for different values of temperature, is also investigated. The numerical simulations show that viscoelastic damping can increase the flutter speed and reduce the amplitudes of limit cycle oscillations. These results prove the potential that viscoelastic materials have to increase aircraft components safety margins regarding aeroelastic

  13. Viscoelastic modes in chiral liquid crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    amit@fs.rri.local.net (Amit Kumar Agarwal)

    our studies on the viscoelastic modes of some chiral liquid crystals using dynamic light scattering. We discuss viscoelastic ... In the vicinity of the direct beam for a sample aligned in the Bragg mode and. 297 ... experimental investigations on these modes. Duke and Du ..... scattering volume is not true in practice. In an actual ...

  14. Numerical modeling of bubble dynamics in viscoelastic media with relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnez, M. T.; Johnsen, E.

    2015-06-01

    Cavitation occurs in a variety of non-Newtonian fluids and viscoelastic materials. The large-amplitude volumetric oscillations of cavitation bubbles give rise to high temperatures and pressures at collapse, as well as induce large and rapid deformation of the surroundings. In this work, we develop a comprehensive numerical framework for spherical bubble dynamics in isotropic media obeying a wide range of viscoelastic constitutive relationships. Our numerical approach solves the compressible Keller-Miksis equation with full thermal effects (inside and outside the bubble) when coupled to a highly generalized constitutive relationship (which allows Newtonian, Kelvin-Voigt, Zener, linear Maxwell, upper-convected Maxwell, Jeffreys, Oldroyd-B, Giesekus, and Phan-Thien-Tanner models). For the latter two models, partial differential equations (PDEs) must be solved in the surrounding medium; for the remaining models, we show that the PDEs can be reduced to ordinary differential equations. To solve the general constitutive PDEs, we present a Chebyshev spectral collocation method, which is robust even for violent collapse. Combining this numerical approach with theoretical analysis, we simulate bubble dynamics in various viscoelastic media to determine the impact of relaxation time, a constitutive parameter, on the associated physics. Relaxation time is found to increase bubble growth and permit rebounds driven purely by residual stresses in the surroundings. Different regimes of oscillations occur depending on the relaxation time.

  15. MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF PRESTRESSED VISCOELASTIC ADHESIVE AREAS UNDER COMBINING LOADINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Murat Enginsoy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, mechanical behaviors of adhesive tape VHB 4950 elastomeric material, which is an element of acrylic polymer group and which is in viscoelastic behavior, under different pre-stress conditions and complex forces of different geometric parameters created by combining loadings have been experimentally and numerically investigated. In experimental studies, loading-unloading cyclic tests, one of the different standardized tests for the mechanical characterization of viscoelastic material, have been applied which give the most suitable convergent optimization parameters for the finite element model. Different material models were also investigated by using the data obtained from loading-unloading test results in all numerical models. According to the experimental results, the most suitable material parameters were determined with the Abaqus Parallel Rheological Framework Model (PRF for 4 Yeoh Networks with Bergstrom-Boyce Flow model created in the Mcalibration software for finite element analysis. Subsequently, using these material parameters, finite element analysis was performed as three dimension non-linear viscoelastic with a commercial finite element software Abaqus. The finite element analysis results showed good correlation to the Force (N-Displacement (mm experimental data for maximum load-carrying capacity of structural specimens.

  16. Estimation of Multiple Point Sources for Linear Fractional Order Systems Using Modulating Functions

    KAUST Repository

    Belkhatir, Zehor

    2017-06-28

    This paper proposes an estimation algorithm for the characterization of multiple point inputs for linear fractional order systems. First, using polynomial modulating functions method and a suitable change of variables the problem of estimating the locations and the amplitudes of a multi-pointwise input is decoupled into two algebraic systems of equations. The first system is nonlinear and solves for the time locations iteratively, whereas the second system is linear and solves for the input’s amplitudes. Second, closed form formulas for both the time location and the amplitude are provided in the particular case of single point input. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate the performance of the proposed technique in both noise-free and noisy cases. The joint estimation of pointwise input and fractional differentiation orders is also presented. Furthermore, a discussion on the performance of the proposed algorithm is provided.

  17. Setting a generalized functional linear model (GFLM for the classification of different types of cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Flores

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to classify the DNA sequences of healthy and malignant cancer respectively. For this, supervised and unsupervised classification methods from a functional context are used; i.e. each strand of DNA is an observation. The observations are discretized, for that reason different ways to represent these observations with functions are evaluated. In addition, an exploratory study is done: estimating the mean and variance of each functional type of cancer. For the unsupervised classification method, hierarchical clustering with different measures of functional distance is used. On the other hand, for the supervised classification method, a functional generalized linear model is used. For this model the first and second derivatives are used which are included as discriminating variables. It has been verified that one of the advantages of working in the functional context is to obtain a model to correctly classify cancers by 100%. For the implementation of the methods it has been used the fda.usc R package that includes all the techniques of functional data analysis used in this work. In addition, some that have been developed in recent decades. For more details of these techniques can be consulted Ramsay, J. O. and Silverman (2005 and Ferraty et al. (2006.

  18. Linearized semiclassical initial value time correlation functions with maximum entropy analytic continuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Miller, William H

    2008-09-28

    The maximum entropy analytic continuation (MEAC) method is used to extend the range of accuracy of the linearized semiclassical initial value representation (LSC-IVR)/classical Wigner approximation for real time correlation functions. LSC-IVR provides a very effective "prior" for the MEAC procedure since it is very good for short times, exact for all time and temperature for harmonic potentials (even for correlation functions of nonlinear operators), and becomes exact in the classical high temperature limit. This combined MEAC+LSC/IVR approach is applied here to two highly nonlinear dynamical systems, a pure quartic potential in one dimensional and liquid para-hydrogen at two thermal state points (25 and 14 K under nearly zero external pressure). The former example shows the MEAC procedure to be a very significant enhancement of the LSC-IVR for correlation functions of both linear and nonlinear operators, and especially at low temperature where semiclassical approximations are least accurate. For liquid para-hydrogen, the LSC-IVR is seen already to be excellent at T=25 K, but the MEAC procedure produces a significant correction at the lower temperature (T=14 K). Comparisons are also made as to how the MEAC procedure is able to provide corrections for other trajectory-based dynamical approximations when used as priors.

  19. Estimation of Nonlinear Functions of State Vector for Linear Systems with Time-Delays and Uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il Young Song

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on estimation of a nonlinear function of state vector (NFS in discrete-time linear systems with time-delays and model uncertainties. The NFS represents a multivariate nonlinear function of state variables, which can indicate useful information of a target system for control. The optimal nonlinear estimator of an NFS (in mean square sense represents a function of the receding horizon estimate and its error covariance. The proposed receding horizon filter represents the standard Kalman filter with time-delays and special initial horizon conditions described by the Lyapunov-like equations. In general case to calculate an optimal estimator of an NFS we propose using the unscented transformation. Important class of polynomial NFS is considered in detail. In the case of polynomial NFS an optimal estimator has a closed-form computational procedure. The subsequent application of the proposed receding horizon filter and nonlinear estimator to a linear stochastic system with time-delays and uncertainties demonstrates their effectiveness.

  20. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Shilov, Georgi E

    1977-01-01

    Covers determinants, linear spaces, systems of linear equations, linear functions of a vector argument, coordinate transformations, the canonical form of the matrix of a linear operator, bilinear and quadratic forms, Euclidean spaces, unitary spaces, quadratic forms in Euclidean and unitary spaces, finite-dimensional space. Problems with hints and answers.

  1. Sequential double excitations from linear-response time-dependent density functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosquera, Martín A.; Ratner, Mark A.; Schatz, George C., E-mail: g-schatz@northwestern.edu [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Rd., Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Chen, Lin X. [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Rd., Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Ave., Lemont, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2016-05-28

    Traditional UV/vis and X-ray spectroscopies focus mainly on the study of excitations starting exclusively from electronic ground states. However there are many experiments where transitions from excited states, both absorption and emission, are probed. In this work we develop a formalism based on linear-response time-dependent density functional theory to investigate spectroscopic properties of excited states. We apply our model to study the excited-state absorption of a diplatinum(II) complex under X-rays, and transient vis/UV absorption of pyrene and azobenzene.

  2. Fall with linear drag and Wien's displacement law: approximate solution and Lambert function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vial, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    We present an approximate solution for the downward time of travel in the case of a mass falling with a linear drag force. We show how a quasi-analytical solution implying the Lambert function can be found. We also show that solving the previous problem is equivalent to the search for Wien's displacement law. These results can be of interest for undergraduate students, as they show that some transcendental equations found in physics may be solved without purely numerical methods. Moreover, as will be seen in the case of Wien's displacement law, solutions based on series expansion can be very accurate even with few terms. (paper)

  3. The solution of linear and nonlinear systems of Volterra functional equations using Adomian-Pade technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehghan, Mehdi; Shakourifar, Mohammad; Hamidi, Asgar

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to implement Adomian-Pade (Modified Adomian-Pade) technique, which is a combination of Adomian decomposition method (Modified Adomian decomposition method) and Pade approximation, for solving linear and nonlinear systems of Volterra functional equations. The results obtained by using Adomian-Pade (Modified Adomian-Pade) technique, are compared to those obtained by using Adomian decomposition method (Modified Adomian decomposition method) alone. The numerical results, demonstrate that ADM-PADE (MADM-PADE) technique, gives the approximate solution with faster convergence rate and higher accuracy than using the standard ADM (MADM).

  4. ONETEP: linear-scaling density-functional theory with plane-waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, P D; Mostof, A A; Skylaris, C-K; Payne, M C

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides a general overview of the methodology implemented in onetep (Order-N Electronic Total Energy Package), a parallel density-functional theory code for largescale first-principles quantum-mechanical calculations. The distinctive features of onetep are linear-scaling in both computational effort and resources, obtained by making well-controlled approximations which enable simulations to be performed with plane-wave accuracy. Titanium dioxide clusters of increasing size designed to mimic surfaces are studied to demonstrate the accuracy and scaling of onetep

  5. Minimization of Linear Functionals Defined on| Solutions of Large-Scale Discrete Ill-Posed Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elden, Lars; Hansen, Per Christian; Rojas, Marielba

    2003-01-01

    The minimization of linear functionals de ned on the solutions of discrete ill-posed problems arises, e.g., in the computation of con dence intervals for these solutions. In 1990, Elden proposed an algorithm for this minimization problem based on a parametric-programming reformulation involving...... the solution of a sequence of trust-region problems, and using matrix factorizations. In this paper, we describe MLFIP, a large-scale version of this algorithm where a limited-memory trust-region solver is used on the subproblems. We illustrate the use of our algorithm in connection with an inverse heat...

  6. The non-linear relationship between body size and function in parrotfishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokrantz, J.; Nyström, M.; Thyresson, M.; Johansson, C.

    2008-12-01

    Parrotfishes are a group of herbivores that play an important functional role in structuring benthic communities on coral reefs. Increasingly, these fish are being targeted by fishermen, and resultant declines in biomass and abundance may have severe consequences for the dynamics and regeneration of coral reefs. However, the impact of overfishing extends beyond declining fish stocks. It can also lead to demographic changes within species populations where mean body size is reduced. The effect of reduced mean body size on population dynamics is well described in literature but virtually no information exists on how this may influence important ecological functions. The study investigated how one important function, scraping (i.e., the capacity to remove algae and open up bare substratum for coral larval settlement), by three common species of parrotfishes ( Scarus niger, Chlorurus sordidus, and Chlorurus strongylocephalus) on coral reefs at Zanzibar (Tanzania) was influenced by the size of individual fishes. There was a non-linear relationship between body size and scraping function for all species examined, and impact through scraping was also found to increase markedly when fish reached a size of 15 20 cm. Thus, coral reefs which have a high abundance and biomass of parrotfish may nonetheless be functionally impaired if dominated by small-sized individuals. Reductions in mean body size within parrotfish populations could, therefore, have functional impacts on coral reefs that previously have been overlooked.

  7. Viscoelastic behavior of multiwalled carbon nanotubes into phenolic resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botelho, Edson Cocchieri; Costa, Michelle Leali; Braga, Carlos Isidoro, E-mail: ebotelho@feg.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Materiais e Tecnologia; Burkhart, Thomas [Institut fuer Verbundwerkstoffe GmbH, Kaiserslautern, (Germany); Lauke, Bernd [Leibniz-Institut fuer Polymerforschung, Dresden (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    Nanostructured polymer composites have opened up new perspectives for multi-functional materials. In particular, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have the potential applications in order to improve mechanical and electrical performance in composites with aerospace application. This study focuses on the viscoelastic evaluation of phenolic resin reinforced carbon nanotubes, processed by using two techniques: aqueous-surfactant solution and three roll calender (TRC) process. According to our results a relative small amount of CNTs in a phenolic resin matrix is capable of enhancing the viscoelastic properties significantly and to modify the thermal stability. Also has been observed that when is used TRC process, the incorporation and distribution of CNT into phenolic resin is more effective when compared with aqueous solution dispersion process. (author)

  8. Viscoelastic behaviour of stabilized polyethylenes irradiated with gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novakovic, Lj; Gal, O; Stannett, V T

    1987-01-01

    Two-cycle creep recovery penetration measurements at 150/sup 0/C are used to determine the viscoelastic parameters for irradiated low density and linear low density polyethylenes, pure and with 0.5% antioxidant. The amplitudes and the time factors of each cycle are calculated using the mechanical model expression. From the differences between the creep parameters of the first and the second cycle, the contribution of the nonelastic component is considered. The efficiency of radiation crosslinking of different systems is discussed on the base of the corresponding compliances.

  9. Calculation of dynamic stresses in viscoelastic sandwich beams using oma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelayo, F.; Aenlle, M. L.; Ismael, G.

    2017-01-01

    The mechanical response of sandwich elements with viscoelastic core is time and temperature dependent. Laminated glass is a sandwich element where the mechanical behavior of the glass layers is usually considered linear-elastic material whereas the core is made of an amorphous thermoplastic which...... data. In simple structures, analytical mode shapes can be used alternatively to the numerical ones. In this paper, the dynamic stresses on the glass layers of a laminated glass beam have estimated using the experimental acceleration responses measured at 7 points of the beam, and the experimental mode...

  10. Transient waves in visco-elastic media

    CERN Document Server

    Ricker, Norman

    1977-01-01

    Developments in Solid Earth Geophysics 10: Transient Waves in Visco-Elastic Media deals with the propagation of transient elastic disturbances in visco-elastic media. More specifically, it explores the visco-elastic behavior of a medium, whether gaseous, liquid, or solid, for very-small-amplitude disturbances. This volume provides a historical overview of the theory of the propagation of elastic waves in solid bodies, along with seismic prospecting and the nature of seismograms. It also discusses the seismic experiments, the behavior of waves propagated in accordance with the Stokes wave

  11. Anisotropy in the viscoelastic response of knee meniscus cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coluccino, Luca; Peres, Chiara; Gottardi, Riccardo; Bianchini, Paolo; Diaspro, Alberto; Ceseracciu, Luca

    2017-01-26

    The knee meniscus is instrumental to stability, shock absorption, load transmission and stress distribution within the knee joint. Such functions are mechanically demanding, and replacement constructs used in meniscus repair often fail because of a poor match with the surrounding tissue. This study focused on the native structure-mechanics relationships and on their anisotropic behavior in meniscus, to define the target biomechanical viscoelastic properties required by scaffolds upon loading. To show regional orientation of the collagen fibers and their viscoelastic behavior, bovine lateral menisci were characterized by second harmonic generation microscopy and through time-dependent mechanical tests. Furthermore, their dynamic viscoelastic response was analyzed over a wide range of frequencies. Multilevel characterization aims to expand the biomimetic approach from the structure itself, to include the mechanical characteristics that give the meniscus its peculiar properties, thus providing tools for the design of novel, effective scaffolds. An example of modeling of anisotropic open-cell porous material tailored to fulfill the measured requirements is presented, leading to a definition of additional parameters for a better understanding of the load transmission mechanism and for better scaffold functionality.

  12. On Lamb and Rayleigh wave convergence in viscoelastic tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenadic, Ivan Z; Urban, Matthew W; Aristizabal, Sara; Mitchell, Scott A; Humphrey, Tye C; Greenleaf, James F, E-mail: Nenadic.Ivan@mayo.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, 55905 (United States)

    2011-10-21

    Characterization of the viscoelastic material properties of soft tissue has become an important area of research over the last two decades. Our group has been investigating the feasibility of using a shear wave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry (SDUV) method to excite Lamb waves in organs with plate-like geometry to estimate the viscoelasticity of the medium of interest. The use of Lamb wave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry to quantify the mechanical properties of viscoelastic solids has previously been reported. Two organs, the heart wall and the spleen, can be readily modeled using plate-like geometries. The elasticity of these two organs is important because they change in pathological conditions. Diastolic dysfunction is the inability of the left ventricle (LV) of the heart to supply sufficient stroke volumes into the systemic circulation and is accompanied by the loss of compliance and stiffening of the LV myocardium. It has been shown that there is a correlation between high splenic stiffness in patients with chronic liver disease and strong correlation between spleen and liver stiffness. Here, we investigate the use of the SDUV method to quantify the viscoelasticity of the LV free-wall myocardium and spleen by exciting Rayleigh waves on the organ's surface and measuring the wave dispersion (change of wave velocity as a function of frequency) in the frequency range 40-500 Hz. An equation for Rayleigh wave dispersion due to cylindrical excitation was derived by modeling the excised myocardium and spleen with a homogenous Voigt material plate immersed in a nonviscous fluid. Boundary conditions and wave potential functions were solved for the surface wave velocity. Analytical and experimental convergence between the Lamb and Rayleigh waves is reported in a finite element model of a plate in a fluid of similar density, gelatin plate and excised porcine spleen and left-ventricular free-wall myocardium.

  13. Modeling electrically active viscoelastic membranes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitikantha Roy

    Full Text Available The membrane protein prestin is native to the cochlear outer hair cell that is crucial to the ear's amplification and frequency selectivity throughout the whole acoustic frequency range. The outer hair cell exhibits interrelated dimensional changes, force generation, and electric charge transfer. Cells transfected with prestin acquire unique active properties similar to those in the native cell that have also been useful in understanding the process. Here we propose a model describing the major electromechanical features of such active membranes. The model derived from thermodynamic principles is in the form of integral relationships between the history of voltage and membrane resultants as independent variables and the charge density and strains as dependent variables. The proposed model is applied to the analysis of an active force produced by the outer hair cell in response to a harmonic electric field. Our analysis reveals the mechanism of the outer hair cell active (isometric force having an almost constant amplitude and phase up to 80 kHz. We found that the frequency-invariance of the force is a result of interplay between the electrical filtering associated with prestin and power law viscoelasticity of the surrounding membrane. Paradoxically, the membrane viscoelasticity boosts the force balancing the electrical filtering effect. We also consider various modes of electromechanical coupling in membrane with prestin associated with mechanical perturbations in the cell. We consider pressure or strains applied step-wise or at a constant rate and compute the time course of the resulting electric charge. The results obtained here are important for the analysis of electromechanical properties of membranes, cells, and biological materials as well as for a better understanding of the mechanism of hearing and the role of the protein prestin in this mechanism.

  14. A time-dependent density functional theory investigation of plasmon resonances of linear Au atomic chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Dan-Dan; Zhang Hong

    2011-01-01

    We report theoretical studies on the plasmon resonances in linear Au atomic chains by using ab initio time-dependent density functional theory. The dipole responses are investigated each as a function of chain length. They converge into a single resonance in the longitudinal mode but split into two transverse modes. As the chain length increases, the longitudinal plasmon mode is redshifted in energy while the transverse modes shift in the opposite direction (blueshifts). In addition, the energy gap between the two transverse modes reduces with chain length increasing. We find that there are unique characteristics, different from those of other metallic chains. These characteristics are crucial to atomic-scale engineering of single-molecule sensing, optical spectroscopy, and so on. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  15. Pleiotropy analysis of quantitative traits at gene level by multivariate functional linear models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifan; Liu, Aiyi; Mills, James L; Boehnke, Michael; Wilson, Alexander F; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E; Xiong, Momiao; Wu, Colin O; Fan, Ruzong

    2015-05-01

    In genetics, pleiotropy describes the genetic effect of a single gene on multiple phenotypic traits. A common approach is to analyze the phenotypic traits separately using univariate analyses and combine the test results through multiple comparisons. This approach may lead to low power. Multivariate functional linear models are developed to connect genetic variant data to multiple quantitative traits adjusting for covariates for a unified analysis. Three types of approximate F-distribution tests based on Pillai-Bartlett trace, Hotelling-Lawley trace, and Wilks's Lambda are introduced to test for association between multiple quantitative traits and multiple genetic variants in one genetic region. The approximate F-distribution tests provide much more significant results than those of F-tests of univariate analysis and optimal sequence kernel association test (SKAT-O). Extensive simulations were performed to evaluate the false positive rates and power performance of the proposed models and tests. We show that the approximate F-distribution tests control the type I error rates very well. Overall, simultaneous analysis of multiple traits can increase power performance compared to an individual test of each trait. The proposed methods were applied to analyze (1) four lipid traits in eight European cohorts, and (2) three biochemical traits in the Trinity Students Study. The approximate F-distribution tests provide much more significant results than those of F-tests of univariate analysis and SKAT-O for the three biochemical traits. The approximate F-distribution tests of the proposed functional linear models are more sensitive than those of the traditional multivariate linear models that in turn are more sensitive than SKAT-O in the univariate case. The analysis of the four lipid traits and the three biochemical traits detects more association than SKAT-O in the univariate case. © 2015 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  16. Exact potential and scattering amplitudes from the tachyon non-linear β -function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coletti, E.; Forini, V.; Nardelli, G.; Orselli, M.; Grignani, G.

    2004-01-01

    We compute, on the disk, the non-linear tachyon β-function, β T , of the open bosonic string theory. β T is determined both in an expansion to the third power of the field and to all orders in derivatives and in an expansion to any power of the tachyon field in the leading order in derivatives. We construct the Witten-Shatashvili (WS) space-time effective action S and prove that it has a very simple universal form in terms of the renormalized tachyon field and β T . The expression for S is well suited to studying both processes that are far off-shell, such as tachyon condensation, and close to the mass-shell, such as perturbative on-shell amplitudes. We evaluate S in a small derivative expansion, providing the exact tachyon potential. The normalization of S is fixed by requiring that the field redefinition that maps S into the tachyon effective action derived from the cubic string field theory is regular on-shell. The normalization factor is in precise agreement with the one required for verifying all the conjectures on tachyon condensation. The coordinates in the space of couplings in which the tachyon β-function is non linear are the most appropriate to study RG fixed points that can be interpreted as solitons of S, i.e. D-branes. (author)

  17. Synthesizing Configurable Biochemical Implementation of Linear Systems from Their Transfer Function Specifications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Yin Chiu

    Full Text Available The ability to engineer synthetic systems in the biochemical context is constantly being improved and has a profound societal impact. Linear system design is one of the most pervasive methods applied in control tasks, and its biochemical realization has been proposed by Oishi and Klavins and advanced further in recent years. However, several technical issues remain unsolved. Specifically, the design process is not fully automated from specification at the transfer function level, systems once designed often lack dynamic adaptivity to environmental changes, matching rate constants of reactions is not always possible, and implementation may be approximative and greatly deviate from the specifications. Building upon the work of Oishi and Klavins, this paper overcomes these issues by introducing a design flow that transforms a transfer-function specification of a linear system into a set of chemical reactions, whose input-output response precisely conforms to the specification. This system is implementable using the DNA strand displacement technique. The underlying configurability is embedded into primitive components and template modules, and thus the entire system is adaptive. Simulation of DNA strand displacement implementation confirmed the feasibility and superiority of the proposed synthesis flow.

  18. Analytical solution for dynamic pressurization of viscoelastic fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemabadi, S.H.; Etemad, S.Gh.; Thibault, J.; Golkar Naranji, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    The flow of simplified Phan-Thien-Tanner model fluid between parallel plates is studied analytically for the case where the upper plate moves at constant velocity. Two forms of the stress coefficient, linear and exponential, are used in the constitutive equation. For the linear stress coefficient, the dimensionless pressure gradient, the velocity profile and the product of friction factor and Reynolds number are obtained for a wide range of flow rate, Deborah number and elongational parameter. The results indicate the strong effects of the viscoelastic parameter on the velocity profile, the extremum of the velocity, and the friction factor. A correlation for the maximum pressure rise in single screw extruders is proposed. For the exponential stress coefficient, only velocity profiles were obtained and compared with velocity profiles obtained with the linear stress coefficient

  19. Understanding viscoelasticity an introduction to rheology

    CERN Document Server

    Phan-Thien, Nhan

    2017-01-01

    This book presents an introduction to viscoelasticity, in particular, to the theories of dilute polymer solutions and dilute suspensions of rigid particles in viscous and incompressible fluids. These theories are important, not just because they apply to practical problems of industrial interest, but because they form a solid theoretical base upon which mathematical techniques can be built, from which more complex theories can be constructed, to better mimic material behaviour. The emphasis of this book is not on the voluminous current topical research, but on the necessary tools to understand viscoelasticity. This is a compact book for a first year graduate course in viscoelasticity and modelling of viscoelastic multiphase fluids. The Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) is introduced as a particle-based method, relevant in modelling of complex-structured fluids. All the basic ideas in DPD are reviewed. The third edition has been updated and expanded with new results in the meso-scale modelling, links between...

  20. Understanding Viscoelasticity An Introduction to Rheology

    CERN Document Server

    Phan-Thien, Nhan

    2013-01-01

    This book presents an introduction to viscoelasticity; in particular, to the theories of dilute polymer solutions and dilute suspensions of rigid particles in viscous and incompressible fluids. These theories are important, not just because they apply to practical problems of industrial interest, but because they form a solid theoretical base upon which mathematical techniques can be built, from which more complex theories can be constructed, to better mimic material behaviour. The emphasis is not on the voluminous current topical research, but on the necessary tools to understand viscoelasticity at a first year graduate level. The main aim is to provide a still compact book, sufficient at the level of first year graduate course for those who wish to understand viscoelasticity and to embark in modeling of viscoelastic multiphase fluids. To this end, a new chapter on Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) was introduced which is relevant to model complex-structured fluids. All the basic ideas in DPD are reviewed,...

  1. Viscoelastic model of tungsten 'fuzz' growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasheninnikov, S I

    2011-01-01

    A viscoelastic model of fuzz growth is presented. The model describes the main features of tungsten fuzz observed in experiments. It gives estimates of fuzz growth rate and temperature range close to experimental ones.

  2. Dynamics and Stability of Rolling Viscoelastic Tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, Trevor [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-04-30

    Current steady state rolling tire calculations often do not include treads because treads destroy the rotational symmetry of the tire. We describe two methodologies to compute time periodic solutions of a two-dimensional viscoelastic tire with treads: solving a minimization problem and solving a system of equations. We also expand on work by Oden and Lin on free spinning rolling elastic tires in which they disovered a hierachy of N-peak steady state standing wave solutions. In addition to discovering a two-dimensional hierarchy of standing wave solutions that includes their N-peak hiearchy, we consider the eects of viscoelasticity on the standing wave solutions. Finally, a commonplace model of viscoelasticity used in our numerical experiments led to non-physical elastic energy growth for large tire speeds. We show that a viscoelastic model of Govindjee and Reese remedies the problem.

  3. Gravitational Instability of Cylindrical Viscoelastic Medium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    similar to that of viscoelastic fluid where both properties work together. They also ... cylindrical gravitational waves provides a strong motivation in this regard. .... which represents the solenoidal character of the magnetic field and the total stress.

  4. Simulation of electron energy loss spectra of nanomaterials with linear-scaling density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tait, E W; Payne, M C; Ratcliff, L E; Haynes, P D; Hine, N D M

    2016-01-01

    Experimental techniques for electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) combine high energy resolution with high spatial resolution. They are therefore powerful tools for investigating the local electronic structure of complex systems such as nanostructures, interfaces and even individual defects. Interpretation of experimental electron energy loss spectra is often challenging and can require theoretical modelling of candidate structures, which themselves may be large and complex, beyond the capabilities of traditional cubic-scaling density functional theory. In this work, we present functionality to compute electron energy loss spectra within the onetep linear-scaling density functional theory code. We first demonstrate that simulated spectra agree with those computed using conventional plane wave pseudopotential methods to a high degree of precision. The ability of onetep to tackle large problems is then exploited to investigate convergence of spectra with respect to supercell size. Finally, we apply the novel functionality to a study of the electron energy loss spectra of defects on the (1 0 1) surface of an anatase slab and determine concentrations of defects which might be experimentally detectable. (paper)

  5. EXPALS, Least Square Fit of Linear Combination of Exponential Decay Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas Gardner, C.

    1980-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: This program fits by least squares a function which is a linear combination of real exponential decay functions. The function is y(k) = summation over j of a(j) * exp(-lambda(j) * k). Values of the independent variable (k) and the dependent variable y(k) are specified as input data. Weights may be specified as input information or set by the program (w(k) = 1/y(k)). 2 - Method of solution: The Prony-Householder iteration method is used. For unequally-spaced data, a number of interpolation options are provided. This revision includes an option to call a differential correction subroutine REFINE to improve the approximation to unequally-spaced data when equal-interval interpolation is faulty. If convergence is achieved, the probable errors in the computed parameters are calculated also. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Generally, it is desirable to have at least 10n observations where n equals the number of terms and to input k+n significant figures if k significant figures are expected

  6. VISCOELASTIC STRUCTURAL MODEL OF ASPHALT CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Bogomolov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The viscoelastic rheological model of asphalt concrete based on the generalized Kelvin model is offered. The mathematical model of asphalt concrete viscoelastic behavior that can be used for calculation of asphalt concrete upper layers of non-rigid pavements for strength and rutting has been developed. It has been proved that the structural model of Burgers does not fully meet all the requirements of the asphalt-concrete.

  7. Recent advances in elasticity, viscoelasticity and inelasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Rajagopal, KR

    1995-01-01

    This is a collection of papers dedicated to Prof T C Woo to mark his 70th birthday. The papers focus on recent advances in elasticity, viscoelasticity and inelasticity, which are related to Prof Woo's work. Prof Woo's recent work concentrates on the viscoelastic and viscoplastic response of metals and plastics when thermal effects are significant, and the papers here address open questions in these and related areas.

  8. Earthquake response of adjacent structures with viscoelastic and friction dampers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žigić Miodrag

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the seismic response of two adjacent structures connected with a dry friction damper. Each of them consists of a viscoelastic rod and a rigid block, which can slide without friction along the moving base. A simplified earthquake model is used for modeling the horizontal ground motion. Energy dissipation is taken by the presence of the friction damper, which is modeled by the set-valued Coulomb friction law. Deformation of viscoelastic rods during the relative motion of the blocks represents another way of energy dissipation. The constitutive equation of a viscoelastic body is described by the fractional Zener model, which includes fractional derivatives of stress and strain. The problem merges fractional derivatives as non-local operators and theory of set-valued functions as the non-smooth ones. Dynamical behaviour of the problem is governed by a pair of coupled multi-valued differential equations. The posed Cauchy problem is solved by use of the Grünwald-Letnikov numerical scheme. The behaviour of the system is analyzed for different values of system parameters.

  9. Identifying Mechanical Properties of Viscoelastic Materials in Time Domain Using the Fractional Zener Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Delowski Ciniello

    Full Text Available Abstract The present paper aims at presenting a methodology for characterizing viscoelastic materials in time domain, taking into account the fractional Zener constitutive model and the influence of temperature through Williams, Landel, and Ferry’s model. To that effect, a set of points obtained experimentally through uniaxial tensile tests with different constant strain rates is considered. The approach is based on the minimization of the quadratic relative distance between the experimental stress-strain curves and the corresponding ones given by the theoretical model. In order to avoid the local minima in the process of optimization, a hybrid technique based on genetic algorithms and non-linear programming techniques is used. The methodology is applied in the characterization of two different commercial viscoelastic materials. The results indicate that the proposed methodology is effective in identifying thermorheologically simple viscoelastic materials.

  10. Effect of viscoelastic and dielectric relaxing matrix on ferroelastic behaviour of 1-3 piezocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Jayendiran

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on evaluating the time-dependent non-linear ferroelastic behaviour of 1-3 piezocomposites under pure uni-axial compressive stress loading condition. An experimental setup is developed to study the influence of high-stress levels on the stress-strain and stress-polarization behaviour of 1-3 piezocomposites. The electro-elastic effective properties of 1-3 piezocomposites are measured experimentally based on IEEE standard and compared with the proposed numerical model using finite-element software ABAQUS. The time-dependent effective properties are evaluated using viscoelastic model and it is incorporated into a 3D micromechanical model to predict the viscoelastic behaviour of 1-3 piezocomposites under mechanical loading. The simulated results are compared with the viscoelastic behaviour of 1-3 piezocomposites obtained from experiments.

  11. Growth and decay of weak disturbances in visco-elastic arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaur, M.; Rai, S.K.

    1996-01-01

    In non-linear mathematical models of the arterial circulation, the visco-elasticity of the vessel walls has generally been neglected or only taken into account in a highly approximate manner. The object of the present paper is to provide a mathematical model for the propagation of weak disturbances in visco-elastic arteries. A differential equation governing the growth and decay of the waves has been obtained and solved analytically. It is observed that compressive pulses may grow into shock waves. A mathematical model which is based on geometrical and mechanical properties of arteries admits disturbances in the propagating pulses which are not observed in human beings under normal physiological conditions. It is also predicted that visco-elasticity delays the shock wave formation in the model. The shock wave may appear in periphery in the case of aortic insufficiency due to increased pressure at the root of aorta. The corresponding predictions are in much better agreement with in vivo measurements

  12. Viscoelastic response of a model endothelial glycocalyx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nijenhuis, Nadja; Spaan, Jos A E; Mizuno, Daisuke; Schmidt, Christoph F

    2009-01-01

    Many cells cover themselves with a multifunctional polymer coat, the pericellular matrix (PCM), to mediate mechanical interactions with the environment. A particular PCM, the endothelial glycocalyx (EG), is formed by vascular endothelial cells at their luminal side, forming a mechanical interface between the flowing blood and the endothelial cell layer. The glycosaminoglycan (GAG) hyaluronan (HA) is involved in the main functions of the EG, mechanotransduction of fluid shear stress and molecular sieving. HA, due to its length, is the only GAG in the EG or any other PCM able to form an entangled network. The mechanical functions of the EG are, however, impaired when any one of its components is removed. We here used microrheology to measure the effect of the EG constituents heparan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, whole blood plasma and albumin on the high-bandwidth mechanical properties of a HA solution. Furthermore, we probed the effect of the hyaldherin aggrecan, a constituent of the PCM of chondrocytes, and very similar to versican (present in the PCM of various cells, and possibly in the EG). We show that components directly interacting with HA (chondroitin sulfate and aggrecan) can increase the viscoelastic shear modulus of the polymer composite

  13. Rough viscoelastic sliding contact: Theory and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, G.; Putignano, C.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we show how the numerical theory introduced by the authors [Carbone and Putignano, J. Mech. Phys. Solids 61, 1822 (2013), 10.1016/j.jmps.2013.03.005] can be effectively employed to study the contact between viscoelastic rough solids. The huge numerical complexity is successfully faced up by employing the adaptive nonuniform mesh developed by the authors in Putignano et al. [J. Mech. Phys. Solids 60, 973 (2012), 10.1016/j.jmps.2012.01.006]. Results mark the importance of accounting for viscoelastic effects to correctly simulate the sliding rough contact. In detail, attention is, first, paid to evaluate the viscoelastic dissipation, i.e., the viscoelastic friction. Fixed the sliding speed and the normal load, friction is completely determined. Furthermore, since the methodology employed in the work allows to study contact between real materials, a comparison between experimental outcomes and numerical prediction in terms of viscoelastic friction is shown. The good agreement seems to validate—at least partially—the presented methodology. Finally, it is shown that viscoelasticity entails not only the dissipative effects previously outlined, but is also strictly related to the anisotropy of the contact solution. Indeed, a marked anisotropy is present in the contact region, which results stretched in the direction perpendicular to the sliding speed. In the paper, the anisotropy of the deformed surface and of the contact area is investigated and quantified.

  14. An Image-Based Finite Element Approach for Simulating Viscoelastic Response of Asphalt Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenke Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an image-based micromechanical modeling approach to predict the viscoelastic behavior of asphalt mixture. An improved image analysis technique based on the OTSU thresholding operation was employed to reduce the beam hardening effect in X-ray CT images. We developed a voxel-based 3D digital reconstruction model of asphalt mixture with the CT images after being processed. In this 3D model, the aggregate phase and air void were considered as elastic materials while the asphalt mastic phase was considered as linear viscoelastic material. The viscoelastic constitutive model of asphalt mastic was implemented in a finite element code using the ABAQUS user material subroutine (UMAT. An experimental procedure for determining the parameters of the viscoelastic constitutive model at a given temperature was proposed. To examine the capability of the model and the accuracy of the parameter, comparisons between the numerical predictions and the observed laboratory results of bending and compression tests were conducted. Finally, the verified digital sample of asphalt mixture was used to predict the asphalt mixture viscoelastic behavior under dynamic loading and creep-recovery loading. Simulation results showed that the presented image-based digital sample may be appropriate for predicting the mechanical behavior of asphalt mixture when all the mechanical properties for different phases became available.

  15. Improvement of CPU time of Linear Discriminant Function based on MNM criterion by IP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichi Shinmura

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Revised IP-OLDF (optimal linear discriminant function by integer programming is a linear discriminant function to minimize the number of misclassifications (NM of training samples by integer programming (IP. However, IP requires large computation (CPU time. In this paper, it is proposed how to reduce CPU time by using linear programming (LP. In the first phase, Revised LP-OLDF is applied to all cases, and all cases are categorized into two groups: those that are classified correctly or those that are not classified by support vectors (SVs. In the second phase, Revised IP-OLDF is applied to the misclassified cases by SVs. This method is called Revised IPLP-OLDF.In this research, it is evaluated whether NM of Revised IPLP-OLDF is good estimate of the minimum number of misclassifications (MNM by Revised IP-OLDF. Four kinds of the real data—Iris data, Swiss bank note data, student data, and CPD data—are used as training samples. Four kinds of 20,000 re-sampling cases generated from these data are used as the evaluation samples. There are a total of 149 models of all combinations of independent variables by these data. NMs and CPU times of the 149 models are compared with Revised IPLP-OLDF and Revised IP-OLDF. The following results are obtained: 1 Revised IPLP-OLDF significantly improves CPU time. 2 In the case of training samples, all 149 NMs of Revised IPLP-OLDF are equal to the MNM of Revised IP-OLDF. 3 In the case of evaluation samples, most NMs of Revised IPLP-OLDF are equal to NM of Revised IP-OLDF. 4 Generalization abilities of both discriminant functions are concluded to be high, because the difference between the error rates of training and evaluation samples are almost within 2%.   Therefore, Revised IPLP-OLDF is recommended for the analysis of big data instead of Revised IP-OLDF. Next, Revised IPLP-OLDF is compared with LDF and logistic regression by 100-fold cross validation using 100 re-sampling samples. Means of error rates of

  16. Technical report. The application of probability-generating functions to linear-quadratic radiation survival curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendal, W S

    2000-04-01

    To illustrate how probability-generating functions (PGFs) can be employed to derive a simple probabilistic model for clonogenic survival after exposure to ionizing irradiation. Both repairable and irreparable radiation damage to DNA were assumed to occur by independent (Poisson) processes, at intensities proportional to the irradiation dose. Also, repairable damage was assumed to be either repaired or further (lethally) injured according to a third (Bernoulli) process, with the probability of lethal conversion being directly proportional to dose. Using the algebra of PGFs, these three processes were combined to yield a composite PGF that described the distribution of lethal DNA lesions in irradiated cells. The composite PGF characterized a Poisson distribution with mean, chiD+betaD2, where D was dose and alpha and beta were radiobiological constants. This distribution yielded the conventional linear-quadratic survival equation. To test the composite model, the derived distribution was used to predict the frequencies of multiple chromosomal aberrations in irradiated human lymphocytes. The predictions agreed well with observation. This probabilistic model was consistent with single-hit mechanisms, but it was not consistent with binary misrepair mechanisms. A stochastic model for radiation survival has been constructed from elementary PGFs that exactly yields the linear-quadratic relationship. This approach can be used to investigate other simple probabilistic survival models.

  17. Pseudospectral modeling and dispersion analysis of Rayleigh waves in viscoelastic media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, K.; Luo, Y.; Xia, J.; Chen, C.

    2011-01-01

    Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) is one of the most widely used techniques in environmental and engineering geophysics to determine shear-wave velocities and dynamic properties, which is based on the elastic layered system theory. Wave propagation in the Earth, however, has been recognized as viscoelastic and the propagation of Rayleigh waves presents substantial differences in viscoelastic media as compared with elastic media. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out numerical simulation and dispersion analysis of Rayleigh waves in viscoelastic media to better understand Rayleigh-wave behaviors in the real world. We apply a pseudospectral method to the calculation of the spatial derivatives using a Chebyshev difference operator in the vertical direction and a Fourier difference operator in the horizontal direction based on the velocity-stress elastodynamic equations and relations of linear viscoelastic solids. This approach stretches the spatial discrete grid to have a minimum grid size near the free surface so that high accuracy and resolution are achieved at the free surface, which allows an effective incorporation of the free surface boundary conditions since the Chebyshev method is nonperiodic. We first use an elastic homogeneous half-space model to demonstrate the accuracy of the pseudospectral method comparing with the analytical solution, and verify the correctness of the numerical modeling results for a viscoelastic half-space comparing the phase velocities of Rayleigh wave between the theoretical values and the dispersive image generated by high-resolution linear Radon transform. We then simulate three types of two-layer models to analyze dispersive-energy characteristics for near-surface applications. Results demonstrate that the phase velocity of Rayleigh waves in viscoelastic media is relatively higher than in elastic media and the fundamental mode increases by 10-16% when the frequency is above 10. Hz due to the velocity dispersion of P

  18. Tidal bending of glaciers: a linear viscoelastic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Niels; Christensen, Erik Lintz; Mayer, Christoph

    2003-01-01

    In theoretical treatments of tidal bending of floating glaciers, the glacier is usually modelled as an elastic beam with uniform thickness, resting on an elastic foundation. With a few exceptions, values of the elastic (Young's) modulus E of ice derived from tidal deflection records of floating...

  19. Oscillatory squeeze flow for the study of linear viscoelastic behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wingstrand, Sara Lindeblad; Alvarez, Nicolas J.; Hassager, Ole

    2016-01-01

    of molten polymers and suspensions. The principal advantage of squeeze flow rheometer over rotational devices is the simplicity of the apparatus. It has no air bearing and is much less expensive and easier to use. Accuracy may be somewhat reduced, but for quality control purposes, it could be quite useful....... It might also find application as the central component of a high-throughput rheometer for evaluating experimental materials. The deformation is not simple shear, but equations have been derived to show that the oscillatory compressive (normal) force that is measured can serve as a basis for calculating...

  20. Solving the Fully Fuzzy Bilevel Linear Programming Problem through Deviation Degree Measures and a Ranking Function Method

    OpenAIRE

    Aihong Ren

    2016-01-01

    This paper is concerned with a class of fully fuzzy bilevel linear programming problems where all the coefficients and decision variables of both objective functions and the constraints are fuzzy numbers. A new approach based on deviation degree measures and a ranking function method is proposed to solve these problems. We first introduce concepts of the feasible region and the fuzzy optimal solution of a fully fuzzy bilevel linear programming problem. In order to obtain a fuzzy optimal solut...

  1. Effects of Wheat Flour Dough’s Viscoelastic Level by Adding Glucose Oxidase on its Dynamic Shear Properties whatever the Strain Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Didier Koffi Kouassi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the effects of wheat flour dough’s viscoelastic level by adding glucose oxidase (Gox on its rheological properties at dynamic shear strain mode to predict the final product quality. Dough does display a linear viscoelastic domain. Glucose oxidase (Gox was added to dough in order to enhance its viscoelasticity and to take into account the possible effects of this viscoelasticity on the results. Whatever the types of dough strain used G’ increased, tan δ decreased and led to less sticky dough. Wheat flour dough, an increase in G’ with extension may be associated to a strain-hardening phenomenon but the role of dough viscoelasticity is discussed.

  2. Simulations of nanocrystals under pressure: Combining electronic enthalpy and linear-scaling density-functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corsini, Niccolò R. C., E-mail: niccolo.corsini@imperial.ac.uk; Greco, Andrea; Haynes, Peter D. [Department of Physics and Department of Materials, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Hine, Nicholas D. M. [Department of Physics and Department of Materials, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Cavendish Laboratory, J. J. Thompson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Molteni, Carla [Department of Physics, King' s College London, Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-28

    We present an implementation in a linear-scaling density-functional theory code of an electronic enthalpy method, which has been found to be natural and efficient for the ab initio calculation of finite systems under hydrostatic pressure. Based on a definition of the system volume as that enclosed within an electronic density isosurface [M. Cococcioni, F. Mauri, G. Ceder, and N. Marzari, Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 145501 (2005)], it supports both geometry optimizations and molecular dynamics simulations. We introduce an approach for calibrating the parameters defining the volume in the context of geometry optimizations and discuss their significance. Results in good agreement with simulations using explicit solvents are obtained, validating our approach. Size-dependent pressure-induced structural transformations and variations in the energy gap of hydrogenated silicon nanocrystals are investigated, including one comparable in size to recent experiments. A detailed analysis of the polyamorphic transformations reveals three types of amorphous structures and their persistence on depressurization is assessed.

  3. A Hybrid Density Functional Theory/Molecular Mechanics Approach for Linear Response Properties in Heterogeneous Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinkevicius, Zilvinas; Li, Xin; Sandberg, Jaime A R; Mikkelsen, Kurt V; Ågren, Hans

    2014-03-11

    We introduce a density functional theory/molecular mechanical approach for computation of linear response properties of molecules in heterogeneous environments, such as metal surfaces or nanoparticles embedded in solvents. The heterogeneous embedding environment, consisting from metallic and nonmetallic parts, is described by combined force fields, where conventional force fields are used for the nonmetallic part and capacitance-polarization-based force fields are used for the metallic part. The presented approach enables studies of properties and spectra of systems embedded in or placed at arbitrary shaped metallic surfaces, clusters, or nanoparticles. The capability and performance of the proposed approach is illustrated by sample calculations of optical absorption spectra of thymidine absorbed on gold surfaces in an aqueous environment, where we study how different organizations of the gold surface and how the combined, nonadditive effect of the two environments is reflected in the optical absorption spectrum.

  4. Distribution functions for the linear region of the S-N curve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Christian; Waechter, Michael; Masendorf, Rainer; Esderts, Alfons [TU Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. for Plant Engineering and Fatigue Analysis

    2017-08-01

    This study establishes a database containing the results of fatigue tests from the linear region of the S-N curve using sources from the literature. Each set of test results originates from testing metallic components on a single load level. Eighty-nine test series with sample sizes of 14 ≤ n ≤ 500 are included in the database, resulting in a sum of 6,086 individual test results. The test series are tested in terms of the type of distribution function (log-normal or 2-parameter Weibull) using the Shapiro-Wilk test, the Anderson-Darling test and probability plots. The majority of the tested individual test results follows a log-normal distribution.

  5. Correlation function for density perturbations in an expanding universe. I. Linear theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClelland, J.; Silk, J.

    1977-01-01

    We derive analytic solutions for the evolution of linearized adiabatic spherically symmetric density perturbations and the two-point correlation function in two regimes of the early universe: the radiation-dominated regime prior to decoupling, and the matter-dominated regime after decoupling. The solutions are for an Einstein--de Sitter universe, and include pressure effects. In the radiation era, we find that individual spherically symmetric adiabatic density perturbations smaller than the Jeans length flow outward like water waves instead of oscillating as infinite plane waves. It seems likely that the only primordial structures on scales smaller than the maximum Jeans length which could survive are very regular waves such as infinite plane waves. However, structure does build up in the correlation function over distances comparable with the maximum Jeans length in the radiation regime, and could lead to the eventual formation of galaxy superclusters. This scale (approx.10 17 Ω -2 M/sub sun)/therefore provides a natural dimension for large-scale structure arising out of the early universe. A general technique is described for constructing solutions for the evolution of the two-point correlation function, and applied to study white noise and power-law initial conditions for primordial inhomogeneities

  6. On the Validity of the Streaming Model for the Redshift-Space Correlation Function in the Linear Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Karl B.

    1995-08-01

    The relation between the galaxy correlation functions in real-space and redshift-space is derived in the linear regime by an appropriate averaging of the joint probability distribution of density and velocity. The derivation recovers the familiar linear theory result on large scales but has the advantage of clearly revealing the dependence of the redshift distortions on the underlying peculiar velocity field; streaming motions give rise to distortions of θ(Ω0.6/b) while variations in the anisotropic velocity dispersion yield terms of order θ(Ω1.2/b2). This probabilistic derivation of the redshift-space correlation function is similar in spirit to the derivation of the commonly used "streaming" model, in which the distortions are given by a convolution of the real-space correlation function with a velocity distribution function. The streaming model is often used to model the redshift-space correlation function on small, highly nonlinear, scales. There have been claims in the literature, however, that the streaming model is not valid in the linear regime. Our analysis confirms this claim, but we show that the streaming model can be made consistent with linear theory provided that the model for the streaming has the functional form predicted by linear theory and that the velocity distribution is chosen to be a Gaussian with the correct linear theory dispersion.

  7. Earthquake sequence simulations of a fault in a viscoelastic material with a spectral boundary integral equation method: The effect of interseismic stress relaxation on a behavior of a rate-weakening patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Y.; Noda, H.

    2017-12-01

    Earthquake sequences involve many processes in a wide range of time scales, from quasistatic loading to dynamic rupture. At a depth of brittle-plastic transitional and deeper, rock behaves as a viscous fluid in a long timescale, but as an elastic material in a short timescale. Viscoelastic stress relaxation may be important in the interseismic periods at the depth, near the deeper limit of the seismogenic layer or the region of slow slip events (SSEs) [Namiki et al., 2014 and references therein]. In the present study, we implemented the viscoelastic effect (Maxwell material) in fully-dynamic earthquake sequence simulations using a spectral boundary integral equation method (SBIEM) [e.g., Lapusta et al., 2000]. SBIEM is efficient in calculation of convolutional terms for dynamic stress transfer, and the problem size is limited by the amount of memory available. Linear viscoelasticity could be implemented by convolution of slip rate history and Green's function, but this method requires additional memory and thus not suitable for the implementation to the present code. Instead, we integrated the evolution of "effective slip" distribution, which gives static stress distribution when convolved with static elastic Green's function. This method works only for simple viscoelastic property distributions, but such models are suitable for numerical experiments aiming basic understanding of the system behavior because of the virtue of SBIEM, the ability of fine on-fault spatial resolution and efficient computation utilizing the fast Fourier transformation. In the present study, we examined the effect of viscoelasticity on earthquake sequences of a fault with a rate-weakening patch. A series of simulations with various relaxation time tc revealed that as decreasing tc, recurrence intervals of earthquakes increases and seismicity ultimately disappears. As long as studied, this transition to aseismic behavior is NOT associated with SSEs. In a case where the rate-weakening patch

  8. Hydromagnetic Flow and Heat Transfer over a Porous Oscillating Stretching Surface in a Viscoelastic Fluid with Porous Medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sami Ullah; Ali, Nasir; Abbas, Zaheer

    2015-01-01

    An analysis is carried out to study the heat transfer in unsteady two-dimensional boundary layer flow of a magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) second grade fluid over a porous oscillating stretching surface embedded in porous medium. The flow is induced due to infinite elastic sheet which is stretched periodically. With the help of dimensionless variables, the governing flow equations are reduced to a system of non-linear partial differential equations. This system has been solved numerically using the finite difference scheme, in which a coordinate transformation is used to transform the semi-infinite physical space to a bounded computational domain. The influence of the involved parameters on the flow, the temperature distribution, the skin-friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number is shown and discussed in detail. The study reveals that an oscillatory sheet embedded in a fluid-saturated porous medium generates oscillatory motion in the fluid. The amplitude and phase of oscillations depends on the rheology of the fluid as well as on the other parameters coming through imposed boundary conditions, inclusion of body force term and permeability of the porous medium. It is found that amplitude of flow velocity increases with increasing viscoelastic and mass suction/injection parameters. However, it decreases with increasing the strength of the applied magnetic field. Moreover, the temperature of fluid is a decreasing function of viscoelastic parameter, mass suction/injection parameter and Prandtl number.

  9. Assessment of the setup dependence of detector response functions for mega-voltage linear accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Christopher; Simon, Tom; Simon, Bill; Dempsey, James F.; Kahler, Darren; Palta, Jatinder R.; Liu Chihray; Yan Guanghua [Sun Nuclear Inc., 425-A Pineda Court, Melbourne, Florida 32940 and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, P.O. Box 100385, Gainesville, Florida 32610-0385 (United States); NRE, 202 Nuclear Science Building, University of Florida, P.O. Box 118300, Gainesville, Florida 32611-8300 and Sun Nuclear Inc., 425-A Pineda Court, Melbourne, Florida 32940 (United States); Sun Nuclear Inc., 425-A Pineda Court, Melbourne, Florida 32940 (United States); ViewRay Inc., 2 Thermo Fisher Way, Oakwood Village, Ohio 44146 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, P.O. Box 100385, Gainesville, Florida 32610-0385 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Purpose: Accurate modeling of beam profiles is important for precise treatment planning dosimetry. Calculated beam profiles need to precisely replicate profiles measured during machine commissioning. Finite detector size introduces perturbations into the measured profiles, which, in turn, impact the resulting modeled profiles. The authors investigate a method for extracting the unperturbed beam profiles from those measured during linear accelerator commissioning. Methods: In-plane and cross-plane data were collected for an Elekta Synergy linac at 6 MV using ionization chambers of volume 0.01, 0.04, 0.13, and 0.65 cm{sup 3} and a diode of surface area 0.64 mm{sup 2}. The detectors were orientated with the stem perpendicular to the beam and pointing away from the gantry. Profiles were measured for a 10x10 cm{sup 2} field at depths ranging from 0.8 to 25.0 cm and SSDs from 90 to 110 cm. Shaping parameters of a Gaussian response function were obtained relative to the Edge detector. The Gaussian function was deconvolved from the measured ionization chamber data. The Edge detector profile was taken as an approximation to the true profile, to which deconvolved data were compared. Data were also collected with CC13 and Edge detectors for additional fields and energies on an Elekta Synergy, Varian Trilogy, and Siemens Oncor linear accelerator and response functions obtained. Response functions were compared as a function of depth, SSD, and detector scan direction. Variations in the shaping parameter were introduced and the effect on the resulting deconvolution profiles assessed. Results: Up to 10% setup dependence in the Gaussian shaping parameter occurred, for each detector for a particular plane. This translated to less than a {+-}0.7 mm variation in the 80%-20% penumbral width. For large volume ionization chambers such as the FC65 Farmer type, where the cavity length to diameter ratio is far from 1, the scan direction produced up to a 40% difference in the shaping

  10. Assessment of the setup dependence of detector response functions for mega-voltage linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, Christopher; Simon, Tom; Simon, Bill; Dempsey, James F.; Kahler, Darren; Palta, Jatinder R.; Liu Chihray; Yan Guanghua

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Accurate modeling of beam profiles is important for precise treatment planning dosimetry. Calculated beam profiles need to precisely replicate profiles measured during machine commissioning. Finite detector size introduces perturbations into the measured profiles, which, in turn, impact the resulting modeled profiles. The authors investigate a method for extracting the unperturbed beam profiles from those measured during linear accelerator commissioning. Methods: In-plane and cross-plane data were collected for an Elekta Synergy linac at 6 MV using ionization chambers of volume 0.01, 0.04, 0.13, and 0.65 cm 3 and a diode of surface area 0.64 mm 2 . The detectors were orientated with the stem perpendicular to the beam and pointing away from the gantry. Profiles were measured for a 10x10 cm 2 field at depths ranging from 0.8 to 25.0 cm and SSDs from 90 to 110 cm. Shaping parameters of a Gaussian response function were obtained relative to the Edge detector. The Gaussian function was deconvolved from the measured ionization chamber data. The Edge detector profile was taken as an approximation to the true profile, to which deconvolved data were compared. Data were also collected with CC13 and Edge detectors for additional fields and energies on an Elekta Synergy, Varian Trilogy, and Siemens Oncor linear accelerator and response functions obtained. Response functions were compared as a function of depth, SSD, and detector scan direction. Variations in the shaping parameter were introduced and the effect on the resulting deconvolution profiles assessed. Results: Up to 10% setup dependence in the Gaussian shaping parameter occurred, for each detector for a particular plane. This translated to less than a ±0.7 mm variation in the 80%-20% penumbral width. For large volume ionization chambers such as the FC65 Farmer type, where the cavity length to diameter ratio is far from 1, the scan direction produced up to a 40% difference in the shaping parameter between in

  11. Introduction to linear elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Gould, Phillip L

    2013-01-01

    Introduction to Linear Elasticity, 3rd Edition, provides an applications-oriented grounding in the tensor-based theory of elasticity for students in mechanical, civil, aeronautical, and biomedical engineering, as well as materials and earth science. The book is distinct from the traditional text aimed at graduate students in solid mechanics by introducing the subject at a level appropriate for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students. The author's presentation allows students to apply the basic notions of stress analysis and move on to advanced work in continuum mechanics, plasticity, plate and shell theory, composite materials, viscoelasticity and finite method analysis. This book also:  Emphasizes tensor-based approach while still distilling down to explicit notation Provides introduction to theory of plates, theory of shells, wave propagation, viscoelasticity and plasticity accessible to advanced undergraduate students Appropriate for courses following emerging trend of teaching solid mechan...

  12. EEG sensorimotor rhythms' variation and functional connectivity measures during motor imagery: linear relations and classification approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefano Filho, Carlos A; Attux, Romis; Castellano, Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    Hands motor imagery (MI) has been reported to alter synchronization patterns amongst neurons, yielding variations in the mu and beta bands' power spectral density (PSD) of the electroencephalography (EEG) signal. These alterations have been used in the field of brain-computer interfaces (BCI), in an attempt to assign distinct MI tasks to commands of such a system. Recent studies have highlighted that information may be missing if knowledge about brain functional connectivity is not considered. In this work, we modeled the brain as a graph in which each EEG electrode represents a node. Our goal was to understand if there exists any linear correlation between variations in the synchronization patterns-that is, variations in the PSD of mu and beta bands-induced by MI and alterations in the corresponding functional networks. Moreover, we (1) explored the feasibility of using functional connectivity parameters as features for a classifier in the context of an MI-BCI; (2) investigated three different types of feature selection (FS) techniques; and (3) compared our approach to a more traditional method using the signal PSD as classifier inputs. Ten healthy subjects participated in this study. We observed significant correlations ( p  < 0.05) with values ranging from 0.4 to 0.9 between PSD variations and functional network alterations for some electrodes, prominently in the beta band. The PSD method performed better for data classification, with mean accuracies of (90 ± 8)% and (87 ± 7)% for the mu and beta band, respectively, versus (83 ± 8)% and (83 ± 7)% for the same bands for the graph method. Moreover, the number of features for the graph method was considerably larger. However, results for both methods were relatively close, and even overlapped when the uncertainties of the accuracy rates were considered. Further investigation regarding a careful exploration of other graph metrics may provide better alternatives.

  13. Sheared Layers in the Continental Crust: Nonlinear and Linearized inversion for Ps receiver functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    Sheared Layers in the Continental Crust: Nonlinear and Linearized inversion for Ps receiver functions Jeffrey Park, Yale University The interpretation of seismic receiver functions (RFs) in terms of isotropic and anisotropic layered structure can be complex. The relationship between structure and body-wave scattering is nonlinear. The anisotropy can involve more parameters than the observations can readily constrain. Finally, reflectivity-predicted layer reverberations are often not prominent in data, so that nonlinear waveform inversion can search in vain to match ghost signals. Multiple-taper correlation (MTC) receiver functions have uncertainties in the frequency domain that follow Gaussian statistics [Park and Levin, 2016a], so grid-searches for the best-fitting collections of interfaces can be performed rapidly to minimize weighted misfit variance. Tests for layer-reverberations can be performed in the frequency domain without reflectivity calculations, allowing flexible modelling of weak, but nonzero, reverberations. Park and Levin [2016b] linearized the hybridization of P and S body waves in an anisotropic layer to predict first-order Ps conversion amplitudes at crust and mantle interfaces. In an anisotropic layer, the P wave acquires small SV and SH components. To ensure continuity of displacement and traction at the top and bottom boundaries of the layer, shear waves are generated. Assuming hexagonal symmetry with an arbitrary symmetry axis, theory confirms the empirical stacking trick of phase-shifting transverse RFs by 90 degrees in back-azimuth [Shiomi and Park, 2008; Schulte-Pelkum and Mahan, 2014] to enhance 2-lobed and 4-lobed harmonic variation. Ps scattering is generated by sharp interfaces, so that RFs resemble the first derivative of the model. MTC RFs in the frequency domain can be manipulated to obtain a first-order reconstruction of the layered anisotropy, under the above modeling constraints and neglecting reverberations. Examples from long

  14. Bivariate least squares linear regression: Towards a unified analytic formalism. I. Functional models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caimmi, R.

    2011-08-01

    Concerning bivariate least squares linear regression, the classical approach pursued for functional models in earlier attempts ( York, 1966, 1969) is reviewed using a new formalism in terms of deviation (matrix) traces which, for unweighted data, reduce to usual quantities leaving aside an unessential (but dimensional) multiplicative factor. Within the framework of classical error models, the dependent variable relates to the independent variable according to the usual additive model. The classes of linear models considered are regression lines in the general case of correlated errors in X and in Y for weighted data, and in the opposite limiting situations of (i) uncorrelated errors in X and in Y, and (ii) completely correlated errors in X and in Y. The special case of (C) generalized orthogonal regression is considered in detail together with well known subcases, namely: (Y) errors in X negligible (ideally null) with respect to errors in Y; (X) errors in Y negligible (ideally null) with respect to errors in X; (O) genuine orthogonal regression; (R) reduced major-axis regression. In the limit of unweighted data, the results determined for functional models are compared with their counterparts related to extreme structural models i.e. the instrumental scatter is negligible (ideally null) with respect to the intrinsic scatter ( Isobe et al., 1990; Feigelson and Babu, 1992). While regression line slope and intercept estimators for functional and structural models necessarily coincide, the contrary holds for related variance estimators even if the residuals obey a Gaussian distribution, with the exception of Y models. An example of astronomical application is considered, concerning the [O/H]-[Fe/H] empirical relations deduced from five samples related to different stars and/or different methods of oxygen abundance determination. For selected samples and assigned methods, different regression models yield consistent results within the errors (∓ σ) for both

  15. Acetate and phosphate anion adsorption linear sweep voltammograms simulated using density functional theory

    KAUST Repository

    Savizi, Iman Shahidi Pour

    2011-04-01

    Specific adsorption of anions to electrode surfaces may alter the rates of electrocatalytic reactions. Density functional theory (DFT) methods are used to predict the adsorption free energy of acetate and phosphate anions as a function of Pt(1 1 1) electrode potential. Four models of the electrode potential are used including a simple vacuum slab model, an applied electric field model with and without the inclusion of a solvating water bi-layer, and the double reference model. The linear sweep voltammogram (LSV) due to anion adsorption is simulated using the DFT results. The inclusion of solvation at the electrochemical interface is necessary for accurately predicting the adsorption peak position. The Langmuir model is sufficient for predicting the adsorption peak shape, indicating coverage effects are minor in altering the LSV for acetate and phosphate adsorption. Anion adsorption peak positions are determined for solution phase anion concentrations present in microbial fuel cells and microbial electrolysis cells and discussion is provided as to the impact of anion adsorption on oxygen reduction and hydrogen evolution reaction rates in these devices. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. On a finite moment perturbation of linear functionals and the inverse Szegö transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edinson Fuentes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Given a sequence of moments $\\{c_{n}\\}_{n\\in\\ze}$ associated with an Hermitian linear functional $\\mathcal{L}$ defined in the space of Laurent polynomials, we study a new functional $\\mathcal{L}_{\\Omega}$ which is a perturbation of $\\mathcal{L}$ in such a way that a finite number of moments are perturbed. Necessary and sufficient conditions are given for the regularity of $\\mathcal{L}_{\\Omega}$, and a connection formula between the corresponding families of orthogonal polynomials is obtained. On the other hand, assuming $\\mathcal{L}_{\\Omega}$ is positive definite, the perturbation is analyzed through the inverse Szegö transformation. Resumen. Dada una sucesión de momentos $\\{c_{n}\\}_{n\\in\\ze}$ asociada a un funcional lineal hermitiano $\\mathcal{L}$ definido en el espacio de los polinomios de Laurent, estudiamos un nuevo funcional $\\mathcal{L}_{\\Omega}$ que consiste en una perturbación de $\\mathcal{L}$ de tal forma que se perturba un número finito de momentos de la sucesión. Se encuentran condiciones necesarias y suficientes para la regularidad de $\\mathcal{L}_{\\Omega}$, y se obtiene una fórmula de conexión que relaciona las familias de polinomios ortogonales correspondientes. Por otro lado, suponiendo que $\\mathcal{L}_{\\Omega}$ es definido positivo, se analiza la perturbación mediante de la transformación inversa de Szegö.

  17. The correlation function for density perturbations in an expanding universe. I - Linear theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcclelland, J.; Silk, J.

    1977-01-01

    The evolution of the two-point correlation function for adiabatic density perturbations in the early universe is studied. Analytical solutions are obtained for the evolution of linearized spherically symmetric adiabatic density perturbations and the two-point correlation function for these perturbations in the radiation-dominated portion of the early universe. The results are then extended to the regime after decoupling. It is found that: (1) adiabatic spherically symmetric perturbations comparable in scale with the maximum Jeans length would survive the radiation-dominated regime; (2) irregular fluctuations are smoothed out up to the scale of the maximum Jeans length in the radiation era, but regular fluctuations might survive on smaller scales; (3) in general, the only surviving structures for irregularly shaped adiabatic density perturbations of arbitrary but finite scale in the radiation regime are the size of or larger than the maximum Jeans length in that regime; (4) infinite plane waves with a wavelength smaller than the maximum Jeans length but larger than the critical dissipative damping scale could survive the radiation regime; and (5) black holes would also survive the radiation regime and might accrete sufficient mass after decoupling to nucleate the formation of galaxies.

  18. A homogenization approach for the effective drained viscoelastic properties of 2D porous media and an application for cortical bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Sy-Tuan; Vu, Mai-Ba; Vu, Minh-Ngoc; To, Quy-Dong

    2018-02-01

    Closed-form solutions for the effective rheological properties of a 2D viscoelastic drained porous medium made of a Generalized Maxwell viscoelastic matrix and pore inclusions are developed and applied for cortical bone. The in-plane (transverse) effective viscoelastic bulk and shear moduli of the Generalized Maxwell rheology of the homogenized medium are expressed as functions of the porosity and the viscoelastic properties of the solid phase. When deriving these functions, the classical inverse Laplace-Carson transformation technique is avoided, due to its complexity, by considering the short and long term approximations. The approximated results are validated against exact solutions obtained from the inverse Laplace-Carson transform for a simple configuration when the later is available. An application for cortical bone with assumption of circular pore in the transverse plane shows that the proposed approximation fit very well with experimental data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Accurate evaluation of viscoelasticity of radial artery wall during flow-mediated dilation in ultrasound measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Yasumasa; Taki, Hirofumi; Kanai, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    In our previous study, the viscoelasticity of the radial artery wall was estimated to diagnose endothelial dysfunction using a high-frequency (22 MHz) ultrasound device. In the present study, we employed a commercial ultrasound device (7.5 MHz) and estimated the viscoelasticity using arterial pressure and diameter, both of which were measured at the same position. In a phantom experiment, the proposed method successfully estimated the elasticity and viscosity of the phantom with errors of 1.8 and 30.3%, respectively. In an in vivo measurement, the transient change in the viscoelasticity was measured for three healthy subjects during flow-mediated dilation (FMD). The proposed method revealed the softening of the arterial wall originating from the FMD reaction within 100 s after avascularization. These results indicate the high performance of the proposed method in evaluating vascular endothelial function just after avascularization, where the function is difficult to be estimated by a conventional FMD measurement.

  20. Summary goodness-of-fit statistics for binary generalized linear models with noncanonical link functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canary, Jana D; Blizzard, Leigh; Barry, Ronald P; Hosmer, David W; Quinn, Stephen J

    2016-05-01

    Generalized linear models (GLM) with a canonical logit link function are the primary modeling technique used to relate a binary outcome to predictor variables. However, noncanonical links can offer more flexibility, producing convenient analytical quantities (e.g., probit GLMs in toxicology) and desired measures of effect (e.g., relative risk from log GLMs). Many summary goodness-of-fit (GOF) statistics exist for logistic GLM. Their properties make the development of GOF statistics relatively straightforward, but it can be more difficult under noncanonical links. Although GOF tests for logistic GLM with continuous covariates (GLMCC) have been applied to GLMCCs with log links, we know of no GOF tests in the literature specifically developed for GLMCCs that can be applied regardless of link function chosen. We generalize the Tsiatis GOF statistic originally developed for logistic GLMCCs, (TG), so that it can be applied under any link function. Further, we show that the algebraically related Hosmer-Lemeshow (HL) and Pigeon-Heyse (J(2) ) statistics can be applied directly. In a simulation study, TG, HL, and J(2) were used to evaluate the fit of probit, log-log, complementary log-log, and log models, all calculated with a common grouping method. The TG statistic consistently maintained Type I error rates, while those of HL and J(2) were often lower than expected if terms with little influence were included. Generally, the statistics had similar power to detect an incorrect model. An exception occurred when a log GLMCC was incorrectly fit to data generated from a logistic GLMCC. In this case, TG had more power than HL or J(2) . © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/London School of Economics.

  1. 3D Viscoelastic Traction Force Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyjanova, Jennet; Hannen, Erin; Bar-Kochba, Eyal; Darling, Eric M.; Henann, David L.; Franck, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Native cell-material interactions occur on materials differing in their structural composition, chemistry, and physical compliance. While the last two decades have shown the importance of traction forces during cell-material interactions, they have been almost exclusively presented on purely elastic in-vitro materials. Yet, most bodily tissue materials exhibit some level of viscoelasticity, which could play an important role in how cells sense and transduce tractions. To expand the realm of cell traction measurements and to encompass all materials from elastic to viscoelastic, this paper presents a general, and comprehensive approach for quantifying 3D cell tractions in viscoelastic materials. This methodology includes the experimental characterization of the time-dependent material properties for any viscoelastic material with the subsequent mathematical implementation of the determined material model into a 3D traction force microscopy (3D TFM) framework. Utilizing this new 3D viscoelastic TFM (3D VTFM) approach, we quantify the influence of viscosity on the overall material traction calculations and quantify the error associated with omitting time-dependent material effects, as is the case for all other TFM formulations. We anticipate that the 3D VTFM technique will open up new avenues of cell-material investigations on even more physiologically relevant time-dependent materials including collagen and fibrin gels. PMID:25170569

  2. Calculation of viscoelastic properties of edible films: application of three models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHANDRA Prabir K.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The viscoelastic properties of edible films can provide information at the structural level of the biopolymers used. The objective of this work was to test three simple models of linear viscoelastic theory (Maxwell, Generalized Maxwell with two units in parallel, and Burgers using the results of stress relaxation tests in edible films of myofibrillar proteins of Nile Tilapia. The films were elaborated according to a casting technique and pre-conditioned at 58% relative humidity and 22ºC for 4 days. The testing sample (15mm x 118mm was submitted to tests of stress relaxation in an equipment of physical measurements, TA.XT2i. The deformation, imposed to the sample, was 1%, guaranteeing the permanency in the domain of the linear viscoelasticity. The models were fitted to experimental data (stress x time by nonlinear regression. The Generalized Maxwell model with two units in parallel and the Burgers model represented the relaxation curves of stress satisfactorily. The viscoelastic properties varied in a way that they were less dependent on the thickness of the films.

  3. Three-sphere swimmer in a nonlinear viscoelastic medium

    KAUST Repository

    Curtis, Mark P.; Gaffney, Eamonn A.

    2013-01-01

    are determined analytically in both a Newtonian Stokes fluid and a zero Reynolds number, nonlinear, Oldroyd-B viscoelastic fluid with Deborah numbers of order one (or less), highlighting the effects of viscoelasticity on the net displacement of swimmer

  4. Unique solvability of a non-linear non-local boundary-value problem for systems of non-linear functional differential equations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dilna, N.; Rontó, András

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 3 (2010), s. 327-338 ISSN 0139-9918 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA201/06/0254 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : non-linear boundary value-problem * functional differential equation * non-local condition * unique solvability * differential inequality Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.316, year: 2010 http://link.springer.com/article/10.2478%2Fs12175-010-0015-9

  5. Simulation of herbicide degradation in different soils by use of Pedo-transfer functions (PTF) and non-linear kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Götz, N; Richter, O

    1999-03-01

    The degradation behaviour of bentazone in 14 different soils was examined at constant temperature and moisture conditions. Two soils were examined at different temperatures. On the basis of these data the influence of soil properties and temperature on degradation was assessed and modelled. Pedo-transfer functions (PTF) in combination with a linear and a non-linear model were found suitable to describe the bentazone degradation in the laboratory as related to soil properties. The linear PTF can be combined with a rate related to the temperature to account for both soil property and temperature influence at the same time.

  6. Wavelet-based linear-response time-dependent density-functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Bhaarathi; Genovese, Luigi; Casida, Mark E.; Deutsch, Thierry; Burchak, Olga N.; Philouze, Christian; Balakirev, Maxim Y.

    2012-06-01

    Linear-response time-dependent (TD) density-functional theory (DFT) has been implemented in the pseudopotential wavelet-based electronic structure program BIGDFT and results are compared against those obtained with the all-electron Gaussian-type orbital program DEMON2K for the calculation of electronic absorption spectra of N2 using the TD local density approximation (LDA). The two programs give comparable excitation energies and absorption spectra once suitably extensive basis sets are used. Convergence of LDA density orbitals and orbital energies to the basis-set limit is significantly faster for BIGDFT than for DEMON2K. However the number of virtual orbitals used in TD-DFT calculations is a parameter in BIGDFT, while all virtual orbitals are included in TD-DFT calculations in DEMON2K. As a reality check, we report the X-ray crystal structure and the measured and calculated absorption spectrum (excitation energies and oscillator strengths) of the small organic molecule N-cyclohexyl-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)imidazo[1, 2-a]pyridin-3-amine.

  7. Time-dependent density functional theory of open quantum systems in the linear-response regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempel, David G; Watson, Mark A; Olivares-Amaya, Roberto; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2011-02-21

    Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) has recently been extended to describe many-body open quantum systems evolving under nonunitary dynamics according to a quantum master equation. In the master equation approach, electronic excitation spectra are broadened and shifted due to relaxation and dephasing of the electronic degrees of freedom by the surrounding environment. In this paper, we develop a formulation of TDDFT linear-response theory (LR-TDDFT) for many-body electronic systems evolving under a master equation, yielding broadened excitation spectra. This is done by mapping an interacting open quantum system onto a noninteracting open Kohn-Sham system yielding the correct nonequilibrium density evolution. A pseudoeigenvalue equation analogous to the Casida equations of the usual LR-TDDFT is derived for the Redfield master equation, yielding complex energies and Lamb shifts. As a simple demonstration, we calculate the spectrum of a C(2 +) atom including natural linewidths, by treating the electromagnetic field vacuum as a photon bath. The performance of an adiabatic exchange-correlation kernel is analyzed and a first-order frequency-dependent correction to the bare Kohn-Sham linewidth based on the Görling-Levy perturbation theory is calculated.

  8. Determination of a Differential Item Functioning Procedure Using the Hierarchical Generalized Linear Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülin Acar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to compare the result of the differential item functioning (DIF determining with hierarchical generalized linear model (HGLM technique and the results of the DIF determining with logistic regression (LR and item response theory–likelihood ratio (IRT-LR techniques on the test items. For this reason, first in this research, it is determined whether the students encounter DIF with HGLM, LR, and IRT-LR techniques according to socioeconomic status (SES, in the Turkish, Social Sciences, and Science subtest items of the Secondary School Institutions Examination. When inspecting the correlations among the techniques in terms of determining the items having DIF, it was discovered that there was significant correlation between the results of IRT-LR and LR techniques in all subtests; merely in Science subtest, the results of the correlation between HGLM and IRT-LR techniques were found significant. DIF applications can be made on test items with other DIF analysis techniques that were not taken to the scope of this research. The analysis results, which were determined by using the DIF techniques in different sample sizes, can be compared.

  9. Efficient block preconditioned eigensolvers for linear response time-dependent density functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vecharynski, Eugene [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Computational Research Division; Brabec, Jiri [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Computational Research Division; Shao, Meiyue [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Computational Research Division; Govind, Niranjan [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Environmental Molecular Sciences Lab.; Yang, Chao [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Computational Research Division

    2017-12-01

    We present two efficient iterative algorithms for solving the linear response eigen- value problem arising from the time dependent density functional theory. Although the matrix to be diagonalized is nonsymmetric, it has a special structure that can be exploited to save both memory and floating point operations. In particular, the nonsymmetric eigenvalue problem can be transformed into a product eigenvalue problem that is self-adjoint with respect to a K-inner product. This product eigenvalue problem can be solved efficiently by a modified Davidson algorithm and a modified locally optimal block preconditioned conjugate gradient (LOBPCG) algorithm that make use of the K-inner product. The solution of the product eigenvalue problem yields one component of the eigenvector associated with the original eigenvalue problem. However, the other component of the eigenvector can be easily recovered in a postprocessing procedure. Therefore, the algorithms we present here are more efficient than existing algorithms that try to approximate both components of the eigenvectors simultaneously. The efficiency of the new algorithms is demonstrated by numerical examples.

  10. Improved application of independent component analysis to functional magnetic resonance imaging study via linear projection techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Zhiying; Chen, Kewei; Wu, Xia; Reiman, Eric; Peng, Danling; Yao, Li

    2009-02-01

    Spatial Independent component analysis (sICA) has been widely used to analyze functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. The well accepted implicit assumption is the spatially statistical independency of intrinsic sources identified by sICA, making the sICA applications difficult for data in which there exist interdependent sources and confounding factors. This interdependency can arise, for instance, from fMRI studies investigating two tasks in a single session. In this study, we introduced a linear projection approach and considered its utilization as a tool to separate task-related components from two-task fMRI data. The robustness and feasibility of the method are substantiated through simulation on computer data and fMRI real rest data. Both simulated and real two-task fMRI experiments demonstrated that sICA in combination with the projection method succeeded in separating spatially dependent components and had better detection power than pure model-based method when estimating activation induced by each task as well as both tasks.

  11. Generalized functional linear models for gene-based case-control association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ruzong; Wang, Yifan; Mills, James L; Carter, Tonia C; Lobach, Iryna; Wilson, Alexander F; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E; Weeks, Daniel E; Xiong, Momiao

    2014-11-01

    By using functional data analysis techniques, we developed generalized functional linear models for testing association between a dichotomous trait and multiple genetic variants in a genetic region while adjusting for covariates. Both fixed and mixed effect models are developed and compared. Extensive simulations show that Rao's efficient score tests of the fixed effect models are very conservative since they generate lower type I errors than nominal levels, and global tests of the mixed effect models generate accurate type I errors. Furthermore, we found that the Rao's efficient score test statistics of the fixed effect models have higher power than the sequence kernel association test (SKAT) and its optimal unified version (SKAT-O) in most cases when the causal variants are both rare and common. When the causal variants are all rare (i.e., minor allele frequencies less than 0.03), the Rao's efficient score test statistics and the global tests have similar or slightly lower power than SKAT and SKAT-O. In practice, it is not known whether rare variants or common variants in a gene region are disease related. All we can assume is that a combination of rare and common variants influences disease susceptibility. Thus, the improved performance of our models when the causal variants are both rare and common shows that the proposed models can be very useful in dissecting complex traits. We compare the performance of our methods with SKAT and SKAT-O on real neural tube defects and Hirschsprung's disease datasets. The Rao's efficient score test statistics and the global tests are more sensitive than SKAT and SKAT-O in the real data analysis. Our methods can be used in either gene-disease genome-wide/exome-wide association studies or candidate gene analyses. © 2014 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  12. Nonlinear Viscoelastic Mechanism for Aftershock Triggering and Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakov, R.; Zhang, X.

    2016-12-01

    Aftershocks are ubiquitous in nature. They are the manifestation of relaxation phenomena observed in various physical systems. In one prominent example, they typically occur after large earthquakes. They also occur in other natural or experimental systems, for example, in solar flares, in fracture experiments on porous materials and acoustic emissions, after stock market crashes, in the volatility of stock prices returns, in internet traffic variability and e-mail spamming, to mention a few. The observed aftershock sequences usually obey several well defined non-trivial empirical laws in magnitude, temporal, and spatial domains. In many cases their characteristics follow scale-invariant distributions. The occurrence of aftershocks displays a prominent temporal behavior due to time-dependent mechanisms of stress and/or energy transfer. In this work, we consider a slider-block model to mimic the behavior of a seismogenic fault. In the model, we introduce a nonlinear viscoelastic coupling mechanism to capture the essential characteristics of crustal rheology and stress interaction between the blocks and the medium. For this purpose we employ nonlinear Kelvin-Voigt elements consisting of an elastic spring and a dashpot assembled in parallel to introduce viscoelastic coupling between the blocks and the driving plate. By mapping the model into a cellular automaton we derive the functional form of the stress transfer mechanism in the model. We show that the nonlinear viscoelasticity plays a critical role in triggering of aftershocks. It explains the functional form of the Omori-Utsu law and gives physical interpretation of its parameters. The proposed model also suggests that the power-law rheology of the fault gauge and underlying lower crust and upper mantle control the decay rate of aftershocks. To verify this, we analyze several prominent aftershock sequences to estimate their decay rates and correlate with the rheological properties of the underlying lower crust and

  13. Functions Represented as Linear Sequential Data: Relationships between Presentation and Student Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayalon, Michal; Watson, Anne; Lerman, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates students' ways of attending to linear sequential data in two tasks, and conjectures possible relationships between those ways and elements of the task design. Drawing on the substantial literature about such situations, we focus for this paper on linear rate of change, and on covariation and correspondence approaches to…

  14. Stationary responses of a Rayleigh viscoelastic system with zero barrier impacts under external random excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Deli; Xu, Wei; Zhao, Xiangrong

    2016-03-01

    This paper aims to deal with the stationary responses of a Rayleigh viscoelastic system with zero barrier impacts under external random excitation. First, the original stochastic viscoelastic system is converted to an equivalent stochastic system without viscoelastic terms by approximately adding the equivalent stiffness and damping. Relying on the means of non-smooth transformation of state variables, the above system is replaced by a new system without an impact term. Then, the stationary probability density functions of the system are observed analytically through stochastic averaging method. By considering the effects of the biquadratic nonlinear damping coefficient and the noise intensity on the system responses, the effectiveness of the theoretical method is tested by comparing the analytical results with those generated from Monte Carlo simulations. Additionally, it does deserve attention that some system parameters can induce the occurrence of stochastic P-bifurcation.

  15. Linear representation of algebras with non-associative operations which are satisfy in the balanced functional equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehsani, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Algebras with a pair of non-associative binary operations (f, g) which are satisfy in the balanced quadratic functional equations with four object variables considered. First, we obtain a linear representation for the operations, of this kind of binary algebras (A,f,g), over an abelian group (A, +) and then we generalize the linear representation of operations, to an algebra (A,F) with non-associative binary operations which are satisfy in the balanced quadratic functional equations with four object variables. (paper)

  16. The influence of time dependent flight and maneuver velocities and elastic or viscoelastic flexibilities on aerodynamic and stability derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochrane, Alexander P. [Aerospace Engineering Department, University of Glasgow, University Avenue, Glasgow, Lanarkshire (United Kingdom); Merrett, Craig G. [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, Carleton Univ., 1125 Col. By Dr., Ottawa, ON (Canada); Hilton, Harry H. [Aerospace Engineering Department in the College of Engineering and Private Sector Program Division at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 104 South Wright Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2014-12-10

    The advent of new structural concepts employing composites in primary load carrying aerospace structures in UAVs, MAVs, Boeing 787s, Airbus A380s, etc., necessitates the inclusion of flexibility as well as viscoelasticity in static structural and aero-viscoelastic analyses. Differences and similarities between aeroelasticity and aero-viscoelasticity have been investigated in [2]. An investigation is undertaken as to the dependence and sensitivity of aerodynamic and stability derivatives to elastic and viscoelastic structural flexibility and as to time dependent flight and maneuver velocities. Longitudinal, lateral and directional stabilities are investigated. It has been a well established fact that elastic lifting surfaces are subject to loss of control effectiveness and control reversal at certain flight speeds, which depend on aerodynamic, structural and material properties [5]. Such elastic analyses are extended to linear viscoelastic materials under quasi-static, dynamic, and sudden and gradual loading conditions. In elastic wings one of the critical static parameters is the velocity at which control reversal takes place (V{sub REV}{sup E}). Since elastic formulations constitute viscoelastic initial conditions, viscoelastic reversal may occur at speeds V{sub REV<}{sup ≧}V{sub REV}{sup E}, but furthermore does so in time at 0 < t{sub REV} ≤ ∞. The influence of the twin effects of viscoelastic and elastic materials and of variable flight velocities on longitudinal, lateral, directional and spin stabilities are also investigated. It has been a well established fact that elastic lifting surfaces are subject to loss of control effectiveness and control reversal at certain flight speeds, which depend on aerodynamic, structural and material properties [5]. Such elastic analyses are here extended to linear viscoelastic materials under quasi-static, dynamic, and sudden and gradual loading conditions. In elastic wings the critical parameter is the velocity at

  17. The influence of time dependent flight and maneuver velocities and elastic or viscoelastic flexibilities on aerodynamic and stability derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochrane, Alexander P.; Merrett, Craig G.; Hilton, Harry H.

    2014-01-01

    The advent of new structural concepts employing composites in primary load carrying aerospace structures in UAVs, MAVs, Boeing 787s, Airbus A380s, etc., necessitates the inclusion of flexibility as well as viscoelasticity in static structural and aero-viscoelastic analyses. Differences and similarities between aeroelasticity and aero-viscoelasticity have been investigated in [2]. An investigation is undertaken as to the dependence and sensitivity of aerodynamic and stability derivatives to elastic and viscoelastic structural flexibility and as to time dependent flight and maneuver velocities. Longitudinal, lateral and directional stabilities are investigated. It has been a well established fact that elastic lifting surfaces are subject to loss of control effectiveness and control reversal at certain flight speeds, which depend on aerodynamic, structural and material properties [5]. Such elastic analyses are extended to linear viscoelastic materials under quasi-static, dynamic, and sudden and gradual loading conditions. In elastic wings one of the critical static parameters is the velocity at which control reversal takes place (V REV E ). Since elastic formulations constitute viscoelastic initial conditions, viscoelastic reversal may occur at speeds V REV< ≧ V REV E , but furthermore does so in time at 0 < t REV ≤ ∞. The influence of the twin effects of viscoelastic and elastic materials and of variable flight velocities on longitudinal, lateral, directional and spin stabilities are also investigated. It has been a well established fact that elastic lifting surfaces are subject to loss of control effectiveness and control reversal at certain flight speeds, which depend on aerodynamic, structural and material properties [5]. Such elastic analyses are here extended to linear viscoelastic materials under quasi-static, dynamic, and sudden and gradual loading conditions. In elastic wings the critical parameter is the velocity at which control reversal takes place

  18. Wavelet-based linear-response time-dependent density-functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natarajan, Bhaarathi; Genovese, Luigi; Casida, Mark E.; Deutsch, Thierry; Burchak, Olga N.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We has been implemented LR-TD-DFT in the pseudopotential wavelet-based program. ► We have compared the results against all-electron Gaussian-type program. ► Orbital energies converges significantly faster for BigDFT than for DEMON2K. ► We report the X-ray crystal structure of the small organic molecule flugi6. ► Measured and calculated absorption spectrum of flugi6 is also reported. - Abstract: Linear-response time-dependent (TD) density-functional theory (DFT) has been implemented in the pseudopotential wavelet-based electronic structure program BIGDFT and results are compared against those obtained with the all-electron Gaussian-type orbital program DEMON2K for the calculation of electronic absorption spectra of N 2 using the TD local density approximation (LDA). The two programs give comparable excitation energies and absorption spectra once suitably extensive basis sets are used. Convergence of LDA density orbitals and orbital energies to the basis-set limit is significantly faster for BIGDFT than for DEMON2K. However the number of virtual orbitals used in TD-DFT calculations is a parameter in BIGDFT, while all virtual orbitals are included in TD-DFT calculations in DEMON2K. As a reality check, we report the X-ray crystal structure and the measured and calculated absorption spectrum (excitation energies and oscillator strengths) of the small organic molecule N-cyclohexyl-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)imidazo[1, 2-a]pyridin-3-amine.

  19. Analysis of perturbations of moments associated with orthogonality linear functionals through the Szegö transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edinson Fuentes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider perturbations to a sequence of moments associated with an orthogonality linear functional that is represented by a positive measure supported in [−1, 1]. In particular, given a perturbation to such a measure on the real line, we analyze the perturbation obtained on the corresponding measure on the unit circle, when both measures are related through the Szeg´´o transformation. A similar perturbation is analyzed through the inverse Szeg´´o transformation. In both cases, we show that the applied perturbation can be expressed in terms of the singular part of the measures, and also in terms of the corresponding sequences of moments. Resumen. En el presente trabajo, analizamos las perturbaciones a una sucesión de momentos asociada a un funcional lineal de ortogonalidad que se representa por una medida positiva con soporte en [−1, 1]. En particular, dada una cierta perturbación a dicha medida en la recta real, analizamos la perturbación obtenida en la correspondiente medida en la circunferencia unidad, cuando dichas medidas están relacionadas por la transformación de Szeg´´o. También se analiza una perturbación similar a través de la transformación inversa de Szeg´´o. En ambos casos, se muestra que la perturbación aplicada puede ser expresada en términos de la parte singular de las medidas, y también a través de las correspondientes sucesiones de momentos.

  20. Viscoelastic Pavement Modeling with a Spreadsheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levenberg, Eyal

    2016-01-01

    The aim herein was to equip civil engineers and students with an advanced pavement modeling tool that is both easy to use and highly adaptive. To achieve this, a mathematical solution for a layered viscoelastic half-space subjected to a moving load was developed and subsequently implemented...

  1. experimental viscoelastic characterization of corn cob composites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    sufficient to represent the viscoelastic behavior of the corn cob. The effect of moisture content and rates of loading on the mechanical model determined were investigated. 1. ..... F = applied force or residual force σ. = contact stress .... J. Agric. Engineering. Res. 7(4):. 300-315. Journal of the British Society for. Research in ...

  2. Viscoelastic behavior of discrete human collagen fibrils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Rene; Hassenkam, Tue; P, Hansen

    2010-01-01

    Whole tendon and fibril bundles display viscoelastic behavior, but to the best of our knowledge this property has not been directly measured in single human tendon fibrils. In the present work an atomic force microscopy (AFM) approach was used for tensile testing of two human patellar tendon fibr...

  3. On viscoelastic instability in polymeric filaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Hassager, Ole

    1999-01-01

    The 3D Lagrangian Integral Method is used to simulate the effects of surface tension on the viscoelastic end-plate instability, occuring in the rapid extension of some polymeric filaments between parallel plates. It is shovn that the surface tension delays the onset of the instability. Furthermore...

  4. Isolation of nanoscale exosomes using viscoelastic effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guoqing; Liu, Chao

    2017-11-01

    Exosomes, molecular cargos secreted by almost all mammalian cells, are considered as promising biomarkers to identify many diseases including cancers. However, the small size of exosomes (30-200 nm) poses serious challenges on their isolation from the complex media containing a variety of extracellular vesicles (EVs) of different sizes, especially in small sample volumes. Here we develop a viscoelasticity-based microfluidic system to directly separate exosomes from cell culture media or serum in a continuous, size-dependent, and label-free manner. Using a small amount of biocompatible polymer as the additive into the media to control the viscoelastic forces exerted on EVs, we are able to achieve a high separation purity (>90%) and recovery (>80%) of exosomes. The size cutoff in viscoelasticity-based microfluidics can be easily controlled using different PEO concentrations. Based on this size-dependent viscoelastic separation strategy, we envision the handling of diverse nanoscale objects, such as gold nanoparticles, DNA origami structures, and quantum dots. This work was supported financially by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11572334, 91543125).

  5. Seismic Analysis of a Viscoelastic Damping Isolator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Wun Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Seismic prevention issues are discussed much more seriously around the world after Fukushima earthquake, Japan, April 2011, especially for those countries which are near the earthquake zone. Approximately 1.8×1012 kilograms of explosive energy will be released from a magnitude 9 earthquake. It destroys most of the unprotected infrastructure within several tens of miles in diameter from the epicenter. People can feel the earthquake even if living hundreds of miles away. This study is a seismic simulation analysis for an innovated and improved design of viscoelastic damping isolator, which can be more effectively applied to earthquake prevention and damage reduction of high-rise buildings, roads, bridges, power generation facilities, and so forth, from earthquake disaster. Solidworks graphic software is used to draw the 3D geometric model of the viscoelastic isolator. The dynamic behavior of the viscoelastic isolator through shock impact of specific earthquake loading, recorded by a seismometer, is obtained via ANSYS finite element package. The amplitude of the isolator is quickly reduced by the viscoelastic material in the device and is shown in a time response diagram. The result of this analysis can be a crucial reference when improving the design of a seismic isolator.

  6. Changes in protein solubility, fermentative capacity, viscoelasticity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Frozen dough should be stored for fewer than 21 days; time in which the loaf volume of bread made from frozen dough was approximately 40.84% smaller than that of fresh bread dough formulation. Keywords: French type bread, frozen dough, protein solubility, baking quality, viscoelasticity. African Journal of Biotechnology ...

  7. DYNAMIC DEFORMATION THE VISCOELASTIC TWOCOMPONENT MEDIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Polenov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. In the article are scope harmonious warping of the two-component medium, one component which are represent viscoelastic medium, hereditary properties which are described by the kernel aftereffect Abel integral-differential ratio BoltzmannVolterr, while second – compressible liquid. Do a study one-dimensional case. Use motion equation of two-component medium at movement. Look determination system these equalization in the form of damped wave. Introduce dimensionless coefficient. Combined equations happen to homogeneous system with complex factor relatively waves amplitude in viscoelastic component and in fluid. As a result opening system determinant receive biquadratic equation. Elastic operator express through kernel aftereffect Abel for space Fourier. With the help transformation and symbol series biquadratic equation reduce to quadratic equation. Come to the conclusion that in two-component viscoelastic medium exist two mode sonic waves. As a result solution of quadratic equation be found description advance of waves sonic in viscoelastic two-component medium, which physical-mechanical properties represent complex parameter. Velocity determination advance of sonic waves, attenuation coefficient, mechanical loss tangent, depending on characteristic porous medium and circular frequency formulas receive. Graph dependences of description advance of waves sonic from the temperature logarithm and with the fractional parameter γ are constructed.

  8. Viscoelastic properties of cellular polypropylene ferroelectrets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gaal, M.; Bovtun, Viktor; Stark, W.; Erhard, A.; Yakymenko, Y.; Kreutzbruck, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 12 (2016), s. 1-12, č. článku 125101. ISSN 0021-8979 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-08389S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : ferroelectrets * viscoelastic properties * ultrasonic Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.068, year: 2016

  9. Experimental Viscoelastic Characterization of Corn Cob Composited ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nature of viscoelasticity in biomateria1s and the techniques for characterizing their rheological properties were reviewed. Relaxation tests were performed with cylindrical samples of corn cob composites which were initially subjected to radial compression. It was found that a Maxwell model composed of two simple ...

  10. Development of demand functions and their inclusion in linear programming forecasting models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlin, J.H.

    1976-05-01

    The purpose of the paper is to present a method for including demand directly within a linear programming model, and to use this method to analyze the effect of the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor upon the nuclear energy system

  11. Normal age-related viscoelastic properties of chondrons and chondrocytes isolated from rabbit knee

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Wang-ping; SUN Zhen-wei; LI Qi; LI Chun-jiang; WANG Li; CHEN Wei-yi; Jennifer Tickner; ZHENG Ming-hao; WEI Xiao-chun

    2012-01-01

    Background The mechanical microenvironment of the chondrocytes plays an important role in cartilage homeostasis and in the health of the joint.The pericellular matrix,cellular membrane of the chondrocytes,and their cytoskeletal structures are key elements in the mechanical environment.The aims of this study are to measure the viscoelastic properties of isolated chondrons and chondrocytes from rabbit knee cartilage using micropipette aspiration and to determine the effect of aging on these properties.Methods Three age groups of rabbit knees were evaluated:(1) young (2 months,n=10);(2) adult (8 months,n=10);and (3) old (31 months,n=10).Chondrocytes were isolated from the right knee cartilage and chondrons were isolated from left knees using enzymatic methods.Micropipette aspiration combined with a standard linear viscoelastic solid model was used to quantify changes in the viscoelastic properties of chondrons and chondrocytes within 2 hours of isolation.The morphology and structure of isolated chondrons were evaluated by optical microscope using hematoxylin and eosin staining and collagen-6 immunofluorescence staining.Results In response to an applied constant 0.3-0.4 kPa of negative pressure,all chondrocytes exhibited standard linear viscoelastic solid properties.Model predictions of the creep data showed that the average equilibrium modulus (E∞),instantaneous modulus (E0).and apparent viscosity (μ) of old chondrocytes was significantly lower than the young and adult chondrocytes (P<0.001);however,no difference was found between young and adult chondrocytes (P>0.05).The adult and old chondrons generally possessed a thicker pericellular matrix (PCM) with more enclosed cells.The young and adult chondrons exhibited the same viscoelastic creep behavior under a greater applied pressure (1.0-1.1kPa) without the deformation seen in the old chondrons.The viscoelastic properties (E∞,E0,and u) of young and adult chondrons were significantly greater than that observed

  12. Mechanochemical pattern formation in simple models of active viscoelastic fluids and solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Sergio; Radszuweit, Markus; Engel, Harald; Bär, Markus

    2017-11-01

    The cytoskeleton of the organism Physarum polycephalum is a prominent example of a complex active viscoelastic material wherein stresses induce flows along the organism as a result of the action of molecular motors and their regulation by calcium ions. Experiments in Physarum polycephalum have revealed a rich variety of mechanochemical patterns including standing, traveling and rotating waves that arise from instabilities of spatially homogeneous states without gradients in stresses and resulting flows. Herein, we investigate simple models where an active stress induced by molecular motors is coupled to a model describing the passive viscoelastic properties of the cellular material. Specifically, two models for viscoelastic fluids (Maxwell and Jeffrey model) and two models for viscoelastic solids (Kelvin-Voigt and Standard model) are investigated. Our focus is on the analysis of the conditions that cause destabilization of spatially homogeneous states and the related onset of mechano-chemical waves and patterns. We carry out linear stability analyses and numerical simulations in one spatial dimension for different models. In general, sufficiently strong activity leads to waves and patterns. The primary instability is stationary for all active fluids considered, whereas all active solids have an oscillatory primary instability. All instabilities found are of long-wavelength nature reflecting the conservation of the total calcium concentration in the models studied.

  13. Combining adhesive contact mechanics with a viscoelastic material model to probe local material properties by AFM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganser, Christian; Czibula, Caterina; Tscharnuter, Daniel; Schöberl, Thomas; Teichert, Christian; Hirn, Ulrich

    2017-12-20

    Viscoelastic properties are often measured using probe based techniques such as nanoindentation (NI) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Rarely, however, are these methods verified. In this article, we present a method that combines contact mechanics with a viscoelastic model (VEM) composed of springs and dashpots. We further show how to use this model to determine viscoelastic properties from creep curves recorded by a probe based technique. We focus on using the standard linear solid model and the generalized Maxwell model of order 2. The method operates in the range of 0.01 Hz to 1 Hz. Our approach is suitable for rough surfaces by providing a defined contact area using plastic pre-deformation of the material. The very same procedure is used to evaluate AFM based measurements as well as NI measurements performed on polymer samples made from poly(methyl methacrylate) and polycarbonate. The results of these measurements are then compared to those obtained by tensile creep tests also performed on the same samples. It is found that the tensile test results differ considerably from the results obtained by AFM and NI methods. The similarity between the AFM results and NI results suggests that the proposed method is capable of yielding results comparable to NI but with the advantage of the imaging possibilities of AFM. Furthermore, all three methods allowed a clear distinction between PC and PMMA by means of their respective viscoelastic properties.

  14. The effect of Moidal non-linear blending function for dual-energy CT on CT image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fan; Yang Li

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare the difference between linear blending and non-linear blending function for dual-energy CT, and to evaluate the effect on CT image quality. Methods: The model was made of a piece of fresh pork liver inserted with 5 syringes containing various concentrations of iodine solutions (16.3, 26.4, 48.7, 74.6 and 112.3 HU). Linear blending images were automatically reformatted after the model was scanned in the dual-energy mode. Non-linear blending images were reformatted using the software of optimal contrast in Syngo workstation. Images were divided into 3 groups, including linear blending group, non-linear blending group and 120 kV group. Contrast noise ratio (CNR) were measured and calculated respectively in the 3 groups and the different figure of merit (FOM) values between the groups were compared using one-way ANOVA. Twenty patients scanned in the dual-energy mode were randomly selected and the SNR of their liver, renal cortex, spleen, pancreas and abdominal aorta were measured. The independent sample t test was used to compare the difference of signal to noise ratio (SNR) between linear blending group and non linear blending group. Two readers' agreement score and single-blind method were used to investigate the conspicuity difference between linear blending group and non linear blending group. Results: With models of different CT values, the FOM values in non-linear blending group were 20.65± 8.18, 11.40±4.25, 1.60±0.82, 2.40±1.13, 45.49±17.86. In 74.6 HU and 112.3 HU models, the differences of the FOM values observed among the three groups were statistically significant (P<0.05), which were 0.30±0.06 and 14.43±4.59 for linear blending group, and 0.22±0.05 and 15.31±5.16 for 120 kV group. And non-linear blending group had a better FOM value. The SNR of renal cortex and abdominal aorta were 19.2±5.1 and 36.5±13.9 for non-linear blending group, while they were 12.4±3.8 and 22.6±7.0 for linear blending group. There were statistically

  15. Tissue viscoelasticity is related to tissue composition but may not fully predict the apparent-level viscoelasticity in human trabecular bone – An experimental and finite element study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ojanen, X.; Tanska, P.; Malo, M. K.H.

    2017-01-01

    Trabecular bone is viscoelastic under dynamic loading. However, it is unclear how tissue viscoelasticity controls viscoelasticity at the apparent-level. In this study, viscoelasticity of cylindrical human trabecular bone samples (n = 11, male, age 18–78 years) from 11 proximal femurs were charact......). These findings indicate that bone tissue viscoelasticity is affected by tissue composition but may not fully predict the macroscale viscoelasticity in human trabecular bone....

  16. Viscoelastic gravel-pack carrier fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nehmer, W.L.

    1988-01-01

    The ability of a fluid to flow adequately into the formation during gravel-pack treatments is critical to achieving a good pack. Recent studies have indicated ''fish-eyes'' and/or ''microgels'' present in many polymer gelled carrier fluids will plug pore throats, leading to impaired leakoff and causing formation damage. Intensive manipulation of the polymer gelled fluid using shear and filter devices will help remove the particles, but it adds to the cost of the treatment in terms of equipment and manpower. Excessive shear will degrade the polymer leading to poor gravel suspension, while too little shear will cause filtration problems. A gelled carried fluid using a viscoelastic surfactant system has been found to leak off very efficiently to the formation, and cause no formation damage, without the use of shear/filter devices. Viscoelastic surfactant-base gelled fluids develop viscosity because of the association of surfactant moloecules into large rod-shaped aggregates. There is no hydration of polymer involved, so fish-eyes and microgels will not be formed in the viscoelastic fluid. A surfactant-base system having a yield point allows the gravel carrying properties to be much better than fluids gelled with conventional polymer systems (hydroxyethylcellulose [HEC]). For example, a gravel carried fluid gelled with 80 lb HEC/1,000 gal has a viscosity of about 400 cp at 170 sec/sup -1/; a viscoelastic surfactant-base system having only one-half the viscosity still flows into cores about four times more efficiently than the HEC-base fluid. The rheology, leakoff, formation damage and mixing properties of a viscoelastic, surfactant-base, gravel-pack carrier fluid are discussed

  17. Drop dynamics on a stretched viscoelastic filament: An experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixinho, Jorge; Renoult, Marie-Charlotte; Crumeyrolle, Olivier; Mutabazi, Innocent

    2016-11-01

    Capillary pressure can destabilize a thin liquid filament during breakup into a succession of drops. Besides, the addition of a linear, high molecular weight, flexible and soluble polymer is enough to modify the morphology of this instability. In the time period preceding the breakup, the development of beads-on-a-string structures where drops are connected by thin threads is monitored. The drops dynamics involve drop formation, drop migration and drop coalescence. Experiments using a high-speed camera on stretched bridges of viscoelastic polymeric solutions were conducted for a range of viscosities and polymer concentrations. The rheological properties of the solutions are also quantified through conventional shear rheology and normal stress difference. The overall goal of this experimental investigation is to gain more insight into the formation and time evolution of the drops. The project BIOENGINE is co-financed by the European Union with the European regional development fund and by the Normandie Regional Council.

  18. Nature of the Schwinger term in spinor electrodynamics. [Dispersion formulation,dimensions,green functions,c-number,linear unitarity condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishijima, K; Sasaki, R [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    1975-06-01

    On the basis of the dispersion formulation of field theories the Schwinger term in spinor electrodynamics is shown to be a c-number. The essence of the proof consists in the dimensional argument and the characteristic features of the linear unitarity condition for a set of Green's functions involving the Schwinger term.

  19. Pancreatic beta cell function increases in a linear dose-response manner following exercise training in adults with prediabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malin, Steven K; Solomon, Thomas; Blaszczak, Alecia

    2013-01-01

    While some studies suggest that a linear dose-response relationship exists between exercise and insulin sensitivity, the exercise dose required to enhance pancreatic beta-cell function is unknown. Thirty-five older, obese adults with prediabetes underwent a progressive 12-week supervised exercise...

  20. The Effects of the Use of Microsoft Math Tool (Graphical Calculator) Instruction on Students' Performance in Linear Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissi, Philip Siaw; Opoku, Gyabaah; Boateng, Sampson Kwadwo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of Microsoft Math Tool (graphical calculator) on students' achievement in the linear function. The study employed Quasi-experimental research design (Pre-test Post-test two group designs). A total of ninety-eight (98) students were selected for the study from two different Senior High Schools…

  1. Substituting random forest for multiple linear regression improves binding affinity prediction of scoring functions: Cyscore as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongjian; Leung, Kwong-Sak; Wong, Man-Hon; Ballester, Pedro J

    2014-08-27

    State-of-the-art protein-ligand docking methods are generally limited by the traditionally low accuracy of their scoring functions, which are used to predict binding affinity and thus vital for discriminating between active and inactive compounds. Despite intensive research over the years, classical scoring functions have reached a plateau in their predictive performance. These assume a predetermined additive functional form for some sophisticated numerical features, and use standard multivariate linear regression (MLR) on experimental data to derive the coefficients. In this study we show that such a simple functional form is detrimental for the prediction performance of a scoring function, and replacing linear regression by machine learning techniques like random forest (RF) can improve prediction performance. We investigate the conditions of applying RF under various contexts and find that given sufficient training samples RF manages to comprehensively capture the non-linearity between structural features and measured binding affinities. Incorporating more structural features and training with more samples can both boost RF performance. In addition, we analyze the importance of structural features to binding affinity prediction using the RF variable importance tool. Lastly, we use Cyscore, a top performing empirical scoring function, as a baseline for comparison study. Machine-learning scoring functions are fundamentally different from classical scoring functions because the former circumvents the fixed functional form relating structural features with binding affinities. RF, but not MLR, can effectively exploit more structural features and more training samples, leading to higher prediction performance. The future availability of more X-ray crystal structures will further widen the performance gap between RF-based and MLR-based scoring functions. This further stresses the importance of substituting RF for MLR in scoring function development.

  2. On the viscoelastic characterization of the Jeffreys-Lomnitz law of creep

    OpenAIRE

    Mainardi, Francesco; Spada, Giorgio

    2011-01-01

    In 1958 Jeffreys proposed a power law of creep, generalizing the logarithmic law earlier introduced by Lomnitz, to broaden the geophysical applications to fluid-like materials including igneous rocks. This generalized law, however, can be applied also to solid-like viscoelastic materials. We revisit the Jeffreys-Lomnitz law of creep by allowing its power law exponent $\\alpha$, usually limited to the range [0,1] to all negative values. This is consistent with the linear theory of viscoelastici...

  3. Observational evidences of viscoelastic behaviour at low strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daminelli, Rosastella; Marcellini, Alberto; Tento, Alberto

    2014-05-01

    Theoretical formulations of inhomogeneous waves in low-loss media have been suggested by a number of researchers due to the important role played by anelasticity in changing the characteristics of seismic waves. The Homogeneous Isotropic Linear Viscoelastic Model (HILV) introduced by Borcherdt (2009) is particularly promising because of its mathematical simplicity and the handiness to test the model in real seismograms. We showed that the seismograms of the explosion of a 2nd World War bomb found in Milan recorded by a seismic station at 2 km epicentral distance, exhibit a clear elliptical prograde P wave particle motion (Marcellini and Tento, 2011) as predicted by HILV. We observed a similar P wave prograde elliptical motion analysing a ML 4.8 earthquake occurred on July 17, 2011 in the Po Valley at a 48 km epicentral distance from a seismic station located at Palazzo Te, Mantova (Daminelli et al., 2013). In both cases the stations were situated on the deep quaternary sediments of the Po Valley. Based on measured Vp and Vs and the amplitude of the recorded motion, the strain at the station sites was estimated to be 10-6, 10-7. In this paper we extend the analysis of the previously mentioned seismograms to check the feasibility of HILV application to other types of waves that are particularly relevant in fields such as the engineering seismology. We focus on the S waves (as it is well known HILV predicts the split of S in S type I and S type II) of the seismograms of the earthquake recorded in Mantova and on the Rayleigh waves of the explosion recorded in Milan. The results show that observational evidences of HILV are not as clear as for P waves, probably because of noise or superposition of converted waves. However, once established the validity of HILV by P waves (that is very simple), the whole seismograms can be interpreted following HILV, confirming the relevancy of anelasticity also at low strain. Borcherdt, R.D. (2009) 'Viscoelastic Waves in Layered Media

  4. Compact and accurate linear and nonlinear autoregressive moving average model parameter estimation using laguerre functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chon, K H; Cohen, R J; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1997-01-01

    A linear and nonlinear autoregressive moving average (ARMA) identification algorithm is developed for modeling time series data. The algorithm uses Laguerre expansion of kernals (LEK) to estimate Volterra-Wiener kernals. However, instead of estimating linear and nonlinear system dynamics via moving...... average models, as is the case for the Volterra-Wiener analysis, we propose an ARMA model-based approach. The proposed algorithm is essentially the same as LEK, but this algorithm is extended to include past values of the output as well. Thus, all of the advantages associated with using the Laguerre...

  5. A note on the relationship between the emittance, the beta function and the energy in a linear collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, J.

    1986-11-01

    Scaling laws for linear colliders are considered for the case of laterally round Gaussian beams and for the case that mutual pinching of the beams can be ignored. Based on these assumptions, the relationship is found between the interaction area, beta function, beam emittance, and energy for a linear collider in order to show the need for substantial improvements in the feasible values of accelerator parameters to reach a center of mass energy of 0.7 TeV. Pinch is then taken into account

  6. Confirmation of linear system theory prediction: Changes in Herrnstein's k as a function of changes in reinforcer magnitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, J J; Wood, H M

    1984-03-01

    Eight human subjects pressed a lever on a range of variable-interval schedules for 0.25 cent to 35.0 cent per reinforcement. Herrnstein's hyperbola described seven of the eight subjects' response-rate data well. For all subjects, the y-asymptote of the hyperbola increased with increasing reinforcer magnitude and its reciprocal was a linear function of the reciprocal of reinforcer magnitude. These results confirm predictions made by linear system theory; they contradict formal properties of Herrnstein's account and of six other mathematical accounts of single-alternative responding.

  7. Canonical-ensemble extended Lagrangian Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics for the linear scaling density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirakawa, Teruo; Suzuki, Teppei; Bowler, David R; Miyazaki, Tsuyoshi

    2017-10-11

    We discuss the development and implementation of a constant temperature (NVT) molecular dynamics scheme that combines the Nosé-Hoover chain thermostat with the extended Lagrangian Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics (BOMD) scheme, using a linear scaling density functional theory (DFT) approach. An integration scheme for this canonical-ensemble extended Lagrangian BOMD is developed and discussed in the context of the Liouville operator formulation. Linear scaling DFT canonical-ensemble extended Lagrangian BOMD simulations are tested on bulk silicon and silicon carbide systems to evaluate our integration scheme. The results show that the conserved quantity remains stable with no systematic drift even in the presence of the thermostat.

  8. Commentary on the statistical properties of noise and its implication on general linear models in functional near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppert, Theodore J

    2016-01-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a noninvasive neuroimaging technique that uses low levels of light to measure changes in cerebral blood oxygenation levels. In the majority of NIRS functional brain studies, analysis of this data is based on a statistical comparison of hemodynamic levels between a baseline and task or between multiple task conditions by means of a linear regression model: the so-called general linear model. Although these methods are similar to their implementation in other fields, particularly for functional magnetic resonance imaging, the specific application of these methods in fNIRS research differs in several key ways related to the sources of noise and artifacts unique to fNIRS. In this brief communication, we discuss the application of linear regression models in fNIRS and the modifications needed to generalize these models in order to deal with structured (colored) noise due to systemic physiology and noise heteroscedasticity due to motion artifacts. The objective of this work is to present an overview of these noise properties in the context of the linear model as it applies to fNIRS data. This work is aimed at explaining these mathematical issues to the general fNIRS experimental researcher but is not intended to be a complete mathematical treatment of these concepts.

  9. Solving the Fully Fuzzy Bilevel Linear Programming Problem through Deviation Degree Measures and a Ranking Function Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aihong Ren

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with a class of fully fuzzy bilevel linear programming problems where all the coefficients and decision variables of both objective functions and the constraints are fuzzy numbers. A new approach based on deviation degree measures and a ranking function method is proposed to solve these problems. We first introduce concepts of the feasible region and the fuzzy optimal solution of a fully fuzzy bilevel linear programming problem. In order to obtain a fuzzy optimal solution of the problem, we apply deviation degree measures to deal with the fuzzy constraints and use a ranking function method of fuzzy numbers to rank the upper and lower level fuzzy objective functions. Then the fully fuzzy bilevel linear programming problem can be transformed into a deterministic bilevel programming problem. Considering the overall balance between improving objective function values and decreasing allowed deviation degrees, the computational procedure for finding a fuzzy optimal solution is proposed. Finally, a numerical example is provided to illustrate the proposed approach. The results indicate that the proposed approach gives a better optimal solution in comparison with the existing method.

  10. A non-linear regression analysis program for describing electrophysiological data with multiple functions using Microsoft Excel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Angus M

    2006-04-01

    The objective of this present study was to demonstrate a method for fitting complex electrophysiological data with multiple functions using the SOLVER add-in of the ubiquitous spreadsheet Microsoft Excel. SOLVER minimizes the difference between the sum of the squares of the data to be fit and the function(s) describing the data using an iterative generalized reduced gradient method. While it is a straightforward procedure to fit data with linear functions, and we have previously demonstrated a method of non-linear regression analysis of experimental data based upon a single function, it is more complex to fit data with multiple functions, usually requiring specialized expensive computer software. In this paper we describe an easily understood program for fitting experimentally acquired data, in this case the stimulus-evoked compound action potential from the mouse optic nerve, with multiple Gaussian functions. The program is flexible and can be applied to describe data with a wide variety of user-input functions.

  11. On linearity of pan-integral and pan-integrable functions space

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ouyang, Y.; Li, J.; Mesiar, Radko

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 1 (2017), s. 307-318 ISSN 0888-613X Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : linearity * monotone measure * Pan-integrable space Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 2.845, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2017/E/mesiar-0477549.pdf

  12. On the rank 1 convexity of stored energy functions of physically linear stress-strain relations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šilhavý, Miroslav; Bertram, A.; Böhlke, T.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 3 (2007), s. 235-243 ISSN 0374-3535 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : generalized linear elastic law s * generalized strain measures * rank 1 convexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.743, year: 2007

  13. Acetate and phosphate anion adsorption linear sweep voltammograms simulated using density functional theory

    KAUST Repository

    Savizi, Iman Shahidi Pour; Janik, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    ) electrode potential. Four models of the electrode potential are used including a simple vacuum slab model, an applied electric field model with and without the inclusion of a solvating water bi-layer, and the double reference model. The linear sweep

  14. Viscoelasticity-based MR elastography of skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klatt, Dieter; Papazoglou, Sebastian; Sack, Ingolf; Braun, Juergen

    2010-01-01

    An in vivo multifrequency magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) protocol was developed for studying the viscoelastic properties of human skeletal muscle in different states of contraction. Low-frequency shear vibrations in the range of 25-62.5 Hz were synchronously induced into the femoral muscles of seven volunteers and measured in a cross-sectional view by encoding the fast-transverse shear wave component parallel to the muscle fibers. The so-called springpot model was used for deriving two viscoelastic constants, μ and α, from the dispersion functions of the complex shear modulus in relaxed and in loaded muscle. Representing the shear elasticity parallel to the muscle fibers, μ increased in all volunteers upon contraction from 2.68 ± 0.23 kPa to 3.87 ± 0.50 kPa. Also α varied with load, indicating a change in the geometry of the mechanical network of muscle from relaxation (α = 0.253 ± 0.009) to contraction (α = 0.270 ± 0.009). These results provide a reference for a future assessment of muscular dysfunction using rheological parameters.

  15. Viscoelasticity-based MR elastography of skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatt, Dieter; Papazoglou, Sebastian; Braun, Jürgen; Sack, Ingolf

    2010-11-01

    An in vivo multifrequency magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) protocol was developed for studying the viscoelastic properties of human skeletal muscle in different states of contraction. Low-frequency shear vibrations in the range of 25-62.5 Hz were synchronously induced into the femoral muscles of seven volunteers and measured in a cross-sectional view by encoding the fast-transverse shear wave component parallel to the muscle fibers. The so-called springpot model was used for deriving two viscoelastic constants, μ and α, from the dispersion functions of the complex shear modulus in relaxed and in loaded muscle. Representing the shear elasticity parallel to the muscle fibers, μ increased in all volunteers upon contraction from 2.68 ± 0.23 kPa to 3.87 ± 0.50 kPa. Also α varied with load, indicating a change in the geometry of the mechanical network of muscle from relaxation (α = 0.253 ± 0.009) to contraction (α = 0.270 ± 0.009). These results provide a reference for a future assessment of muscular dysfunction using rheological parameters.

  16. Viscoelasticity-based MR elastography of skeletal muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klatt, Dieter; Papazoglou, Sebastian; Sack, Ingolf [Department of Radiology, Charite-Universitaetsmedizin, Berlin (Germany); Braun, Juergen, E-mail: ingolf.sack@charite.d [Institute of Medical Informatics, Charite-Universitaetsmedizin, Berlin (Germany)

    2010-11-07

    An in vivo multifrequency magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) protocol was developed for studying the viscoelastic properties of human skeletal muscle in different states of contraction. Low-frequency shear vibrations in the range of 25-62.5 Hz were synchronously induced into the femoral muscles of seven volunteers and measured in a cross-sectional view by encoding the fast-transverse shear wave component parallel to the muscle fibers. The so-called springpot model was used for deriving two viscoelastic constants, {mu} and {alpha}, from the dispersion functions of the complex shear modulus in relaxed and in loaded muscle. Representing the shear elasticity parallel to the muscle fibers, {mu} increased in all volunteers upon contraction from 2.68 {+-} 0.23 kPa to 3.87 {+-} 0.50 kPa. Also {alpha} varied with load, indicating a change in the geometry of the mechanical network of muscle from relaxation ({alpha} = 0.253 {+-} 0.009) to contraction ({alpha} = 0.270 {+-} 0.009). These results provide a reference for a future assessment of muscular dysfunction using rheological parameters.

  17. Viscoelasticity, nonlinear shear start-up, and relaxation of entangled star polymers

    KAUST Repository

    Snijkers, Frank

    2013-07-23

    We report on a detailed rheological investigation of well-defined symmetric entangled polymer stars of low functionality with varying number of arms, molar mass of the arms, and solvent content. Emphasis is placed on the response of the stars in simple shear, during start-up, and for relaxation upon flow cessation. To reduce experimental artifacts associated with edge fracture (primarily) and wall slip, we employ a homemade cone-partitioned plate fixture which was successfully implemented in recent studies. Reliable data for these highly entangled stars could be obtained for Weissenberg numbers below 300. The appearance of a stress overshoot during start-up with a corresponding strain approaching a value of 2 suggests that in the investigated shear regime the stars orient but do not stretch. This is corroborated by the fact that the empirical Cox-Merx rule appears to be validated, within experimental error. On the other hand, the (shear) rate dependent steady shear viscosity data exhibit a slope smaller than the convective constraint release slope of -1 (for linear polymers) for the investigated range of rates. The broadness of the stress overshoot reflects the broad linear relaxation spectrum of the stars. The initial stress relaxation rate, reflecting the initial loss of entanglements due to the action of convective constraint release in steady shear flow, increases with Weissenberg number. More importantly, when compared against the relevant rates for comb polymers with relatively short arms, the latter are slower at larger Weissenberg numbers. At long times, the relaxation data are consistent with the linear viscoelastic data on these systems. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  18. A micro-macro constitutive model for finite-deformation viscoelasticity of elastomers with nonlinear viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianyou; Jiang, Liying; Khayat, Roger E.

    2018-01-01

    Elastomers are known to exhibit viscoelastic behavior under deformation, which is linked to the diffusion processes of the highly mobile and flexible polymer chains. Inspired by the theories of polymer dynamics, a micro-macro constitutive model is developed to study the viscoelastic behaviors and the relaxation process of elastomeric materials under large deformation, in which the material parameters all have a microscopic foundation or a microstructural justification. The proposed model incorporates the nonlinear material viscosity into the continuum finite-deformation viscoelasticity theories which represent the polymer networks of elastomers with an elastic ground network and a few viscous subnetworks. The developed modeling framework is capable of adopting most of strain energy density functions for hyperelastic materials and thermodynamics evolution laws of viscoelastic solids. The modeling capacity of the framework is outlined by comparing the simulation results with the experimental data of three commonly used elastomeric materials, namely, VHB4910, HNBR50 and carbon black (CB) filled elastomers. The comparison shows that the stress responses and some typical behaviors of filled and unfilled elastomers can be quantitatively predicted by the model with suitable strain energy density functions. Particularly, the strain-softening effect of elastomers could be explained by the deformation-dependent (nonlinear) viscosity of the polymer chains. The presented modeling framework is expected to be useful as a modeling platform for further study on the performance of different type of elastomeric materials.

  19. Comparison of multiple linear regression and artificial neural network in developing the objective functions of the orthopaedic screws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ching-Chi; Lin, Jinn; Chao, Ching-Kong

    2011-12-01

    Optimizing the orthopaedic screws can greatly improve their biomechanical performances. However, a methodical design optimization approach requires a long time to search the best design. Thus, the surrogate objective functions of the orthopaedic screws should be accurately developed. To our knowledge, there is no study to evaluate the strengths and limitations of the surrogate methods in developing the objective functions of the orthopaedic screws. Three-dimensional finite element models for both the tibial locking screws and the spinal pedicle screws were constructed and analyzed. Then, the learning data were prepared according to the arrangement of the Taguchi orthogonal array, and the verification data were selected with use of a randomized selection. Finally, the surrogate objective functions were developed by using either the multiple linear regression or the artificial neural network. The applicability and accuracy of those surrogate methods were evaluated and discussed. The multiple linear regression method could successfully construct the objective function of the tibial locking screws, but it failed to develop the objective function of the spinal pedicle screws. The artificial neural network method showed a greater capacity of prediction in developing the objective functions for the tibial locking screws and the spinal pedicle screws than the multiple linear regression method. The artificial neural network method may be a useful option for developing the objective functions of the orthopaedic screws with a greater structural complexity. The surrogate objective functions of the orthopaedic screws could effectively decrease the time and effort required for the design optimization process. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Natural excitation orbitals from linear response theories : Time-dependent density functional theory, time-dependent Hartree-Fock, and time-dependent natural orbital functional theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Meer, R.; Gritsenko, O. V.; Baerends, E. J.

    2017-01-01

    Straightforward interpretation of excitations is possible if they can be described as simple single orbital-to-orbital (or double, etc.) transitions. In linear response time-dependent density functional theory (LR-TDDFT), the (ground state) Kohn-Sham orbitals prove to be such an orbital basis. In

  1. Viscoelastic crustal deformation by magmatic intrusion: A case study in the Kutcharo caldera, eastern Hokkaido, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Tomokazu; Wright, Tim J.; Fukahata, Yukitoshi

    2018-01-01

    Geodetic signals observed at volcanoes, particularly their temporal patterns, have required us to make the correlation between the surface displacement and magmatic process at depth in terms of viscoelastic crustal rheology. Here we use a parallelized 3-D finite element model to examine the response of the linear Maxwell viscoelastic crust and mantle to the inflation of a sill in order to show the characteristics of a long-term volcano deformation. In the model, an oblate-spheroidal sill is instantaneously or gradually inflated in a two-layered medium that consists of an elastic layer underlain by a viscoelastic layer. Our numerical experiments show that syn-inflation surface uplift is followed by post-inflation surface subsidence as the viscoelastic substrate relaxes. For gradual inflation events, the magnitude of inflation-induced uplift is reduced by the relaxation, through which the volume of a magma inferred by matching the prediction of an elastic model with observed surface uplift could be underestimated. For a given crustal viscosity, sill depth is the principal factor controlling subsidence caused by viscoelastic relaxation. The subsidence rate is highest when the inflation occurs at the boundary between the elastic and the viscoelastic layers. The mantle viscosity has an insignificant impact unless the depth of the inflation is greater than a half the crustal thickness. We apply the viscoelastic model to the interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data in the Kutcharo caldera, eastern Hokkaido, Japan, where the surface has slowly subsided over a period of approximately three years following about a two-year period of inflation. The emplacement of a magmatic sill is constrained to occur at a depth of 4.5 km, which is significantly shallower than the geophysically imaged large-scale magma chamber. The geodetically detected deformation in the caldera reflects the small-scale emplacement of a magma that ascended from the deeper chamber, but not the

  2. Viscoelasticity of metallic, polymeric and oxide glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelletier, J.M. [GEMPPM, INSA Lyon, Bat. B. Pascal, 69621 Villeurbanne (France)]. E-mail: Jean-marc.Pelletier@insa-lyon.fr; Gauthier, C. [GEMPPM, INSA Lyon, Bat. B. Pascal, 69621 Villeurbanne (France); Munch, E. [GEMPPM, INSA Lyon, Bat. B. Pascal, 69621 Villeurbanne (France)

    2006-12-20

    Present work addresses on mechanical spectroscopy experiments performed on bulk metallic glasses (Zr-Ti-Cu-Ni-Be alloys, Mg-Y-Cu alloys), on oxide glasses (SiO{sub 2}-Na{sub 2}O-CaO) and on amorphous polymers (polyethylene terephtalate (PET), nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR), etc.). It appears that whatever the nature of the chemical bonding involved in the material, we observe strong relaxation effects in an intermediate temperature range, near the glass transition temperature. In addition, when crystallization occurs in the initially amorphous material, similar evolution is observed in all the materials. A method is proposed to properly separate elastic, viscoelastic and viscoplastic contributions to the deformation. Finally a physical model is given to describe these viscoelastic phenomena.

  3. Structure, viscoelasticity, and interfacial dynamics of a model polymeric bicontinuous microemulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickey, Robert J.; Gillard, Timothy M.; Irwin, Matthew T.; Lodge, Timothy P.; Bates, Frank S. (UMM)

    2016-01-01

    We have systematically studied the equilibrium structure and dynamics of a polymeric bicontinuous microemulsion (BμE) composed of poly(cyclohexylethylene) (PCHE), poly(ethylene) (PE), and a volumetrically symmetric PCHE–PE diblock copolymer, using dynamic mechanical spectroscopy, small angle X-ray and neutron scattering, and transmission electron microscopy. The BμE was investigated over an 80 °C temperature range, revealing a structural evolution and a rheological response not previously recognized in such systems. As the temperature is reduced below the point associated with the lamellar-disorder transition at compositions adjacent to the microemulsion channel, the interfacial area per chain of the BμE approaches that of the neat (undiluted) lamellar diblock copolymer. With increasing temperature, the diblock-rich interface swells through homopolymer infiltration. Time–temperature-superposed linear dynamic data obtained as a function of frequency show that the viscoelastic response of the BμE is strikingly similar to that of the fluctuating pure diblock copolymer in the disordered state, which we associate with membrane undulations and the breaking and reforming of interfaces. This work provides new insights into the structure and dynamics that characterize thermodynamically stable BμEs in the limits of relatively weak and strong segregation.

  4. Temperature dependence of viscoelasticity of crystalline cellulose with different molecular weights added to silicone elastomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugino, Naoto; Nakajima, Shinya; Kameda, Takao; Takei, Satoshi; Hanabata, Makoto

    2017-08-01

    Silicone elastomers ( polydimethylsiloxane _ PDMS) are widely used in the field of imprint lithography and microcontactprinting (μCP). When performing microcontactprinting, the mechanical properties of the PCMS as a base material have a great influence on the performance of the device. Cellulose nanofibers having features of high strength, high elasticity and low coefficient of linear expansion have attracted attention in recent years due to their characteristics. Therefore, three types of crystalline cellulose having different molecular weights were added to PDMS to prepare a composite material, and dynamic viscoelasticity was measured using a rheometer. The PDMS with the highest molecular weight crystalline cellulose added exhibited smaller storage modulus than PDMS with other molecular weight added in all temperature ranges. Furthermore, when comparing PDMS to which crystalline cellulose was added and PDMS which is not added, the storage modulus of PDMS to which cellulose was added in the low temperature region was higher than that of PDMS to which it was not added, but it was reversed in the high temperature region It was a result. When used in a low temperature range (less than 150 ° C.), it can be said that cellulose can function as a reinforcing material for PDMS.

  5. Continuum mechanics elasticity, plasticity, viscoelasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Dill, Ellis H

    2006-01-01

    FUNDAMENTALS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICSMaterial ModelsClassical Space-TimeMaterial BodiesStrainRate of StrainCurvilinear Coordinate SystemsConservation of MassBalance of MomentumBalance of EnergyConstitutive EquationsThermodynamic DissipationObjectivity: Invariance for Rigid MotionsColeman-Mizel ModelFluid MechanicsProblems for Chapter 1BibliographyNONLINEAR ELASTICITYThermoelasticityMaterial SymmetriesIsotropic MaterialsIncompressible MaterialsConjugate Measures of Stress and StrainSome Symmetry GroupsRate Formulations for Elastic MaterialsEnergy PrinciplesGeometry of Small DeformationsLinear ElasticitySpecial Constitutive Models for Isotropic MaterialsMechanical Restrictions on the Constitutive RelationsProblems for Chapter 2BibliographyLINEAR ELASTICITYBasic EquationsPlane StrainPlane StressProperties of SolutionsPotential EnergySpecial Matrix NotationThe Finite Element Method of SolutionGeneral Equations for an Assembly of ElementsFinite Element Analysis for Large DeformationsProblems for Chapter 3Bibliograph...

  6. Legendre-tau approximation for functional differential equations. II - The linear quadratic optimal control problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kazufumi; Teglas, Russell

    1987-01-01

    The numerical scheme based on the Legendre-tau approximation is proposed to approximate the feedback solution to the linear quadratic optimal control problem for hereditary differential systems. The convergence property is established using Trotter ideas. The method yields very good approximations at low orders and provides an approximation technique for computing closed-loop eigenvalues of the feedback system. A comparison with existing methods (based on averaging and spline approximations) is made.

  7. Legendre-tau approximation for functional differential equations. Part 2: The linear quadratic optimal control problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, K.; Teglas, R.

    1984-01-01

    The numerical scheme based on the Legendre-tau approximation is proposed to approximate the feedback solution to the linear quadratic optimal control problem for hereditary differential systems. The convergence property is established using Trotter ideas. The method yields very good approximations at low orders and provides an approximation technique for computing closed-loop eigenvalues of the feedback system. A comparison with existing methods (based on averaging and spline approximations) is made.

  8. Viscoelastic property identification from waveform reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leymarie, N.; Aristégui, C.; Audoin, B.; Baste, S.

    2002-05-01

    An inverse method is proposed for the determination of the viscoelastic properties of material plates from the plane-wave transmitted acoustic field. Innovations lie in a two-step inversion scheme based on the well-known maximum-likelihood principle with an analytic signal formulation. In addition, establishing the analytical formulations of the plate transmission coefficient we implement an efficient and slightly noise-sensitive process suited to both very thin plates and strongly dispersive media.

  9. VISCOELASTIC MODELS OF TIDALLY HEATED EXOMOONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobos, Vera [Konkoly Thege Miklos Astronomical Institute, Research Centre of Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1121 Konkoly Thege Miklós út 15-17, Budapest (Hungary); Turner, Edwin L., E-mail: dobos@konkoly.hu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 08544, 4 Ivy Lane, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Tidal heating of exomoons may play a key role in their habitability, since the elevated temperature can melt the ice on the body even without significant solar radiation. The possibility of life has been intensely studied on solar system moons such as Europa or Enceladus where the surface ice layer covers a tidally heated water ocean. Tidal forces may be even stronger in extrasolar systems, depending on the properties of the moon and its orbit. To study the tidally heated surface temperature of exomoons, we used a viscoelastic model for the first time. This model is more realistic than the widely used, so-called fixed Q models because it takes into account the temperature dependence of the tidal heat flux and the melting of the inner material. Using this model, we introduced the circumplanetary Tidal Temperate Zone (TTZ), which strongly depends on the orbital period of the moon and less on its radius. We compared the results with the fixed Q model and investigated the statistical volume of the TTZ using both models. We have found that the viscoelastic model predicts 2.8 times more exomoons in the TTZ with orbital periods between 0.1 and 3.5 days than the fixed Q model for plausible distributions of physical and orbital parameters. The viscoelastic model provides more promising results in terms of habitability because the inner melting of the body moderates the surface temperature, acting like a thermostat.

  10. VISCOELASTIC MODELS OF TIDALLY HEATED EXOMOONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobos, Vera; Turner, Edwin L.

    2015-01-01

    Tidal heating of exomoons may play a key role in their habitability, since the elevated temperature can melt the ice on the body even without significant solar radiation. The possibility of life has been intensely studied on solar system moons such as Europa or Enceladus where the surface ice layer covers a tidally heated water ocean. Tidal forces may be even stronger in extrasolar systems, depending on the properties of the moon and its orbit. To study the tidally heated surface temperature of exomoons, we used a viscoelastic model for the first time. This model is more realistic than the widely used, so-called fixed Q models because it takes into account the temperature dependence of the tidal heat flux and the melting of the inner material. Using this model, we introduced the circumplanetary Tidal Temperate Zone (TTZ), which strongly depends on the orbital period of the moon and less on its radius. We compared the results with the fixed Q model and investigated the statistical volume of the TTZ using both models. We have found that the viscoelastic model predicts 2.8 times more exomoons in the TTZ with orbital periods between 0.1 and 3.5 days than the fixed Q model for plausible distributions of physical and orbital parameters. The viscoelastic model provides more promising results in terms of habitability because the inner melting of the body moderates the surface temperature, acting like a thermostat

  11. Viscoelastic behaviour of cold recycled asphalt mixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizkova, Zuzana; Suda, Jan

    2017-09-01

    Behaviour of cold recycled mixes depends strongly on both the bituminous binder content (bituminous emulsion or foamed bitumen) and the hydraulic binder content (usually cement). In the case of cold recycled mixes rich in bitumen and with low hydraulic binder content, behaviour is close to the viscoelastic behaviour of traditional hot mix asphalt. With decreasing bituminous binder content together with increasing hydraulic binder content, mixes are characteristic with brittle behaviour, typical for concrete pavements or hydraulically bound layers. The behaviour of cold recycled mixes with low content of both types of binders is similar to behaviour of unbound materials. This paper is dedicated to analysing of the viscoelastic behaviour of the cold recycled mixes. Therefore, the tested mixes contained higher amount of the bituminous binder (both foamed bitumen and bituminous emulsion). The best way to characterize any viscoelastic material in a wide range of temperatures and frequencies is through the master curves. This paper includes interesting findings concerning the dependency of both parts of the complex modulus (elastic and viscous) on the testing frequency (which simulates the speed of heavy traffic passing) and on the testing temperature (which simulates the changing climate conditions a real pavement is subjected to).

  12. Viscoelastic response of hydrogel materials at finite strains

    OpenAIRE

    Skovly, Martin Johannessen

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogel materials are very soft materials consisting of polymer networks and solvent molecules. The materials may exhibit large volume changes depending on its external chemical and mechanical environment and have viscoelastic properties which is common for many polymeric materials. In order to model the material response with the finite element method, a hydrogel constitutive model have been combined with finite viscoelastic theory and the resulting viscoelastic hydrogel constitutive model ...

  13. Salt type and concentration affect the viscoelasticity of polyelectrolyte solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkoz, Emre; Perazzo, Antonio; Arnold, Craig B.; Stone, Howard A.

    2018-05-01

    The addition of small amounts of xanthan gum to water yields viscoelastic solutions. In this letter, we show that the viscoelasticity of aqueous xanthan gum solutions can be tuned by different types of salts. In particular, we find that the decrease in viscoelasticity not only depends, as is known, on the salt concentration, but also is affected by the counterion ionic radius and the valence of the salt.

  14. Viscoelastic characterization of carbon fiber-epoxy composites by creep and creep rupture tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farina, Luis Claudio

    2009-01-01

    One of the main requirements for the use of fiber-reinforced polymer matrix composites in structural applications is the evaluation of their behavior during service life. The warranties of the integrity of these structural components demand a study of the time dependent behavior of these materials due to viscoelastic response of the polymeric matrix and of the countless possibilities of design configurations. In the present study, creep and creep rupture test in stress were performed in specimens of unidirectional carbon fiber-reinforced epoxy composites with fibers orientations of 60 degree and 90 degree, at temperatures of 25 and 70 degree C. The aim is the viscoelastic characterization of the material through the creep curves to some levels of constant tension during periods of 1000 h, the attainment of the creep rupture envelope by the creep rupture curves and the determination of the transition of the linear for non-linear behavior through isochronous curves. In addition, comparisons of creep compliance curves with a viscoelastic behavior prediction model based on Schapery equation were also performed. For the test, a modification was verified in the behavior of the material, regarding the resistance, stiffness and deformation, demonstrating that these properties were affected for the time and tension level, especially in work temperature above the ambient. The prediction model was capable to represent the creep behavior, however the determination of the equations terms should be considered, besides the variation of these with the applied tension and the elapsed time of test. (author)

  15. Viscoelastic Characterization of Long-Eared Owl Flight Feather Shaft and the Damping Ability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-li Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Flight feather shaft of long-eared owl is characterized by a three-parameter model for linear viscoelastic solids to reveal its damping ability. Uniaxial tensile tests of the long-eared owl, pigeon, and golden eagle flight feather shaft specimens were carried out based on Instron 3345 single column material testing system, respectively, and viscoelastic response of their stress and strain was described by the standard linear solid model. Parameter fitting result obtained from the tensile tests shows that there is no significant difference in instantaneous elastic modulus for the three birds’ feather shafts, but the owl shaft has the highest viscosity, implying more obvious viscoelastic performance. Dynamic mechanical property was characterized based on the tensile testing results. Loss factor (tanδ of the owl flight feather shaft was calculated to be 1.609 ± 0.238, far greater than those of the pigeon (0.896 ± 0.082 and golden eagle (1.087 ± 0.074. It is concluded that the long-eared owl flight feather has more outstanding damping ability compared to the pigeon and golden eagle flight feather shaft. Consequently, the long-eared owl flight feathers can dissipate the vibration energy more effectively during the flying process based on the principle of damping mechanism, for the purpose of vibration attenuation and structure radiated noise reduction.

  16. Visco-instability of shear viscoelastic collisional dusty plasma systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavi-Gharavi, M.; Hajisharifi, K.; Mehidan, H.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, the stability of Newtonian and non-Newtonian viscoelastic collisional shear-velocity dusty plasmas is studied, using the framework of a generalized hydrodynamic (GH) model. Motivated by Banerjee et al.'s work (Banerjee et al., New J. Phys., vol. 12 (12), 2010, p. 123031), employing linear perturbation theory as well as the local approximation method in the inhomogeneous direction, the dispersion relations of the Fourier modes are obtained for Newtonian and non-Newtonian dusty plasma systems in the presence of a dust-neutral friction term. The analysis of the obtained dispersion relation in the non-Newtonian case shows that the inhomogeneous viscosity force depending on the velocity shear profile can be the genesis of a free energy source which leads the shear system to be unstable. Study of the dust-neutral friction effect on the instability of the considered systems using numerical analysis of the dispersion relation in the Newtonian case demonstrates that the maximum growth rate decreases considerably by increasing the collision frequency in the hydrodynamic regime, while this reduction can be neglected in the kinetic regime. Results show a more significant stabilization role of the dust-neutral friction term in the non-Newtonian cases, through decreasing the maximum growth rate at any fixed wavenumber and construction of the instable wavenumber region. The results of the present investigation will greatly contribute to study of the time evolution of viscoelastic laboratory environments with externally applied shear; where in these experiments the dust-neutral friction process can play a considerable role.

  17. One-Year Linear Trajectories of Symptoms, Physical Functioning, Cognitive Functioning, Emotional Well-being, and Spiritual Well-being Among Patients Receiving Dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mi-Kyung; Paul, Sudeshna; Ward, Sandra E; Gilet, Constance A; Hladik, Gerald A

    2018-01-25

    This study evaluated 1-year linear trajectories of patient-reported dimensions of quality of life among patients receiving dialysis. Longitudinal observational study. 227 patients recruited from 12 dialysis centers. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Participants completed an hour-long interview monthly for 12 months. Each interview included patient-reported outcome measures of overall symptoms (Edmonton Symptom Assessment System), physical functioning (Activities of Daily Living/Instrumental Activities of Daily Living), cognitive functioning (Patient's Assessment of Own Functioning Inventory), emotional well-being (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, State Anxiety Inventory, and Positive and Negative Affect Schedule), and spiritual well-being (Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being Scale). For each dimension, linear and generalized linear mixed-effects models were used. Linear trajectories of the 5 dimensions were jointly modeled as a multivariate outcome over time. Although dimension scores fluctuated greatly from month to month, overall symptoms, cognitive functioning, emotional well-being, and spiritual well-being improved over time. Older compared with younger participants reported higher scores across all dimensions (all Pspiritual well-being compared with their white counterparts (P<0.01). Clustering analysis of dimension scores revealed 2 distinctive clusters. Cluster 1 was characterized by better scores than those of cluster 2 in nearly all dimensions at baseline and by gradual improvement over time. Study was conducted in a single region of the United States and included mostly patients with high levels of function across the dimensions of quality of life studied. Multidimensional patient-reported quality of life varies widely from month to month regardless of whether overall trajectories improve or worsen over time. Additional research is needed to identify the best approaches to incorporate

  18. A Quasi-Dynamic Optimal Control Strategy for Non-Linear Multivariable Processes Based upon Non-Quadratic Objective Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens G. Balchen

    1984-10-01

    Full Text Available The problem of systematic derivation of a quasi-dynamic optimal control strategy for a non-linear dynamic process based upon a non-quadratic objective function is investigated. The wellknown LQG-control algorithm does not lead to an optimal solution when the process disturbances have non-zero mean. The relationships between the proposed control algorithm and LQG-control are presented. The problem of how to constrain process variables by means of 'penalty' - terms in the objective function is dealt with separately.

  19. Linear response calculation using the canonical-basis TDHFB with a schematic pairing functional

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebata, Shuichiro; Nakatsukasa, Takashi; Yabana, Kazuhiro

    2011-01-01

    A canonical-basis formulation of the time-dependent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (TDHFB) theory is obtained with an approximation that the pair potential is assumed to be diagonal in the time-dependent canonical basis. The canonical-basis formulation significantly reduces the computational cost. We apply the method to linear-response calculations for even-even nuclei. E1 strength distributions for proton-rich Mg isotopes are systematically calculated. The calculation suggests strong Landau damping of giant dipole resonance for drip-line nuclei.

  20. Sensitivity kernels for viscoelastic loading based on adjoint methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Attar, David; Tromp, Jeroen

    2014-01-01

    Observations of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) allow for inferences to be made about mantle viscosity, ice sheet history and other related parameters. Typically, this inverse problem can be formulated as minimizing the misfit between the given observations and a corresponding set of synthetic data. When the number of parameters is large, solution of such optimization problems can be computationally challenging. A practical, albeit non-ideal, solution is to use gradient-based optimization. Although the gradient of the misfit required in such methods could be calculated approximately using finite differences, the necessary computation time grows linearly with the number of model parameters, and so this is often infeasible. A far better approach is to apply the `adjoint method', which allows the exact gradient to be calculated from a single solution of the forward problem, along with one solution of the associated adjoint problem. As a first step towards applying the adjoint method to the GIA inverse problem, we consider its application to a simpler viscoelastic loading problem in which gravitationally self-consistent ocean loading is neglected. The earth model considered is non-rotating, self-gravitating, compressible, hydrostatically pre-stressed, laterally heterogeneous and possesses a Maxwell solid rheology. We determine adjoint equations and Fréchet kernels for this problem based on a Lagrange multiplier method. Given an objective functional J defined in terms of the surface deformation fields, we show that its first-order perturbation can be written δ J = int _{MS}K_{η }δ ln η dV +int _{t0}^{t1}int _{partial M}K_{dot{σ }} δ dot{σ } dS dt, where δ ln η = δη/η denotes relative viscosity variations in solid regions MS, dV is the volume element, δ dot{σ } is the perturbation to the time derivative of the surface load which is defined on the earth model's surface ∂M and for times [t0, t1] and dS is the surface element on ∂M. The `viscosity

  1. Viscoelastic material inversion using Sierra-SD and ROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Timothy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Aquino, Wilkins [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ridzal, Denis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kouri, Drew Philip [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Urbina, Angel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-11-01

    In this report we derive frequency-domain methods for inverse characterization of the constitutive parameters of viscoelastic materials. The inverse problem is cast in a PDE-constrained optimization framework with efficient computation of gradients and Hessian vector products through matrix free operations. The abstract optimization operators for first and second derivatives are derived from first principles. Various methods from the Rapid Optimization Library (ROL) are tested on the viscoelastic inversion problem. The methods described herein are applied to compute the viscoelastic bulk and shear moduli of a foam block model, which was recently used in experimental testing for viscoelastic property characterization.

  2. A finite element modeling of a multifunctional hybrid composite beam with viscoelastic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya; Inman, Daniel J.

    2013-04-01

    The multifunctional hybrid composite structure studied here consists of a ceramic outer layer capable of withstanding high temperatures, a functionally graded ceramic layer combining shape memory alloy (SMA) properties of NiTi together with Ti2AlC (called Graded Ceramic/Metal Composite, or GCMeC), and a high temperature sensor patch, followed by a polymer matrix composite laced with vascular cooling channels all held together with various epoxies. Due to the recoverable nature of SMA and adhesive properties of Ti2AlC, the damping behavior of the GCMeC is largely viscoelastic. This paper presents a finite element formulation for this multifunctional hybrid structure with embedded viscoelastic material. In order to implement the viscoelastic model into the finite element formulation, a second order three parameter Golla-Hughes-McTavish (GHM) method is used to describe the viscoelastic behavior. Considering the parameter identification, a strategy to estimate the fractional order of the time derivative and the relaxation time is outlined. The curve-fitting aspects of both GHM and ADF show good agreement with experimental data obtained from dynamic mechanics analysis. The performance of the finite element of the layered multifunctional beam is verified through experimental model analysis.

  3. THE INFLUENCE OF VISCOELASTICITY ON VELOCITY-DEPENDENT RESTITUTIONS IN THE OBLIQUE IMPACT OF SPHERES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Willert

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We analyse the oblique impact of linear-viscoelastic spheres by numerical models based on the Method of Dimensionality Reduction and the Boundary Element Method. Thereby we assume quasi-stationarity, the validity of the half-space hypothesis, short impact times and Amontons-Coulomb friction with a constant coefficient for both static and kinetic friction. As under these assumptions both methods are equivalent, their results differ only within the margin of a numerical error. The solution of the impact problem written in proper dimensionless variables will only depend on the two parameters necessary to describe the elastic problem and a sufficient set of variables to describe the influence of viscoelastic material behaviour; in the case of a standard solid this corresponds to two additional variables. The full solution of the impact problem is finally determined by comprehensive parameter studies and partly approximated by simple analytic expressions.

  4. Viscoelastic behaviour and static fatigue strength of glass/epoxy composites. Influence of hydrothermal ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chateauminois, Antoine

    1991-01-01

    As ageing strength of composites appears to be one of the main criteria of their durability, this research thesis addresses the hydrothermal ageing of unidirectional glass/epoxy composites used for load-bearing structures. After having presented the used materials (epoxy matrix, reinforcement, composite elaboration), the author present the experimental techniques: viscoelastic analysis, three-point bend static fatigue test, coupled gravimetry and calorimetry, and thermogravimetry. In the next parts, the author reports the study of water sorption processes (bibliographical study, experimental study of water sorption kinetics, experimental study of interfacial diffusion within the composite), the study of plasticizing phenomena (methodology of study of plasticizing phenomena, study of the modifications of the linear viscoelastic behaviour in the glass transition region and at room temperature, relationship between plasticizing and fatigue mechanical properties by fracture studies), and the study of irreversible degradation and damage mechanisms

  5. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Said-Houari, Belkacem

    2017-01-01

    This self-contained, clearly written textbook on linear algebra is easily accessible for students. It begins with the simple linear equation and generalizes several notions from this equation for the system of linear equations and introduces the main ideas using matrices. It then offers a detailed chapter on determinants and introduces the main ideas with detailed proofs. The third chapter introduces the Euclidean spaces using very simple geometric ideas and discusses various major inequalities and identities. These ideas offer a solid basis for understanding general Hilbert spaces in functional analysis. The following two chapters address general vector spaces, including some rigorous proofs to all the main results, and linear transformation: areas that are ignored or are poorly explained in many textbooks. Chapter 6 introduces the idea of matrices using linear transformation, which is easier to understand than the usual theory of matrices approach. The final two chapters are more advanced, introducing t...

  6. Nonlinear Viscoelastic Rheology and the Occurrence of Aftershocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakov, R.; Zhang, X.

    2017-12-01

    Aftershocks are ubiquitous in nature. They are the manifestation of relaxation phenomena observed in various physical systems. In one prominent example, they typically occur after large earthquakes. The observed aftershock sequences usually obey several well defined non-trivial empirical laws in magnitude, temporal, and spatial domains. In many cases their characteristics follow scale-invariant distributions. The occurrence of aftershocks displays a prominent temporal behavior due to time-dependent mechanisms of stress and/or energy transfer. There are compelling evidences that the lower continental crust and upper mantle are governed by various solid state creep mechanisms. Among those mechanisms a power-law viscous flow was suggested to explain the postseismic surface deformation after large earthquakes. In this work, we consider a slider-block model to mimic the behavior of a seismogenic fault. In the model, we introduce a nonlinear viscoelastic coupling mechanism to capture the essential characteristics of crustal rheology and stress interaction between the blocks and the medium. For this purpose we employ nonlinear Kelvin-Voigt elements consisting of an elastic spring and a dashpot assembled in parallel to introduce viscoelastic coupling between the blocks and the driving plate. By mapping the model into a cellular automaton we derive the functional form of the stress transfer mechanism in the model. We show that the nonlinear viscoelasticity plays a critical role in triggering of aftershocks. It explains the functional form of the Omori-Utsu law and gives physical interpretation of its parameters. The proposed model also suggests that the power-law rheology of the fault gauge and underlying lower crust and upper mantle controls the decay rate of aftershocks. To verify this, we analyze several prominent aftershock sequences to estimate their decay rates and correlate with the rheological properties of the underlying lower crust and mantle, which were estimated

  7. Non-linear corrections to the time-covariance function derived from a multi-state chemical master equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, M

    2012-08-01

    The time-covariance function captures the dynamics of biochemical fluctuations and contains important information about the underlying kinetic rate parameters. Intrinsic fluctuations in biochemical reaction networks are typically modelled using a master equation formalism. In general, the equation cannot be solved exactly and approximation methods are required. For small fluctuations close to equilibrium, a linearisation of the dynamics provides a very good description of the relaxation of the time-covariance function. As the number of molecules in the system decrease, deviations from the linear theory appear. Carrying out a systematic perturbation expansion of the master equation to capture these effects results in formidable algebra; however, symbolic mathematics packages considerably expedite the computation. The authors demonstrate that non-linear effects can reveal features of the underlying dynamics, such as reaction stoichiometry, not available in linearised theory. Furthermore, in models that exhibit noise-induced oscillations, non-linear corrections result in a shift in the base frequency along with the appearance of a secondary harmonic.

  8. Do Quercus ilex woodlands undergo abrupt non-linear functional changes in response to human disturbance along a climatic gradient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochet, Esther; García-Fayos, Patricio; José Molina, Maria; Moreno de las Heras, Mariano; Espigares, Tíscar; Nicolau, Jose Manuel; Monleon, Vicente

    2017-04-01

    Theoretical models predict that drylands are particularly prone to suffer critical transitions with abrupt non-linear changes in their structure and functions as a result of the existing complex interactions between climatic fluctuations and human disturbances. However, so far, few studies provide empirical data to validate these models. We aim at determining how holm oak (Quercus ilex) woodlands undergo changes in their functions in response to human disturbance along an aridity gradient (from semi-arid to sub-humid conditions), in eastern Spain. For that purpose, we used (a) remote-sensing estimations of precipitation-use-efficiency (PUE) from enhanced vegetation index (EVI) observations performed in 231x231 m plots of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS); (b) biological and chemical soil parameter determinations (extracellular soil enzyme activity, soil respiration, nutrient cycling processes) from soil sampled in the same plots; (c) vegetation parameter determinations (ratio of functional groups) from vegetation surveys performed in the same plots. We analyzed and compared the shape of the functional change (in terms of PUE and soil and vegetation parameters) in response to human disturbance intensity for our holm oak sites along the aridity gradient. Overall, our results evidenced important differences in the shape of the functional change in response to human disturbance between climatic conditions. Semi-arid areas experienced a more accelerated non-linear decrease with an increasing disturbance intensity than sub-humid ones. The proportion of functional groups (herbaceous vs. woody cover) played a relevant role in the shape of the functional response of the holm oak sites to human disturbance.

  9. The log-linear response function of the bounded number-line task is unrelated to the psychological representation of quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Dale J; Quinlan, Philip T

    2018-02-01

    The bounded number-line task has been used extensively to assess the numerical competence of both children and adults. One consistent finding has been that young children display a logarithmic response function, whereas older children and adults display a more linear response function. Traditionally, these log-linear functions have been interpreted as providing a transparent window onto the nature of the participants' psychological representations of quantity (termed here a direct response strategy). Here we show that the direct response strategy produces the log-linear response function regardless of whether the psychological representation of quantity is compressive or expansive. Simply put, the log-linear response function results from task constraints rather than from the psychological representation of quantities. We also demonstrate that a proportion/subtraction response strategy produces response patterns that almost perfectly correlate with the psychological representation of quantity. We therefore urge researchers not to interpret the log-linear response pattern in terms of numerical representation.

  10. Nucleon-nucleon scattering in the functional quantum theory of the non-linear spinor field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philipp, W.

    1975-01-01

    The nucleon-nucleon and nucleon-antinucleon scattering cross sections are calculated in the frame of the functional quantum field theory by means of two different approximation methods: averaging by integration of indefinite integrals and pulse averaging. The results for nucleon-nucleon scattering are compared with experimental data, with calculations using a modified functional scalar product and with results in first order perturbation theory (V-A-coupling). As for elastic nucleon-antinucleon scattering, the S matrix is investigated for crossing symmetry. Scattering of 'nucleons' of different mass results in different cross sections even in the lowest-order approximation. (BJ) [de

  11. Variational Iteration Method for Volterra Functional Integrodifferential Equations with Vanishing Linear Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Konuralp

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Application process of variational iteration method is presented in order to solve the Volterra functional integrodifferential equations which have multi terms and vanishing delays where the delay function θ(t vanishes inside the integral limits such that θ(t=qt for 0

  12. Viscoelastic stress modeling in cementitious materials using constant viscoelastic hydration modulus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansen, W.; Liu, Z.; Koenders, E.A.B.

    2014-01-01

    Viscoelastic stress modeling in ageing cementitious materials is of major importance in high performance concrete of low water cement ratio (e.g. w/c ~0.35) where crack resistance due to deformation restraint needs to be determined. Total stress analysis is complicated by the occurrence of internal

  13. An optimized transversely isotropic, hyper-poro-viscoelastic finite element model of the meniscus to evaluate mechanical degradation following traumatic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheatley, Benjamin B.; Fischenich, Kristine M.; Button, Keith D.; Haut, Roger C.; Haut Donahue, Tammy L.

    2015-01-01

    Inverse finite element (FE) analysis is an effective method to predict material behavior, evaluate mechanical properties, and study differences in biological tissue function. The meniscus plays a key role in load distribution within the knee joint and meniscal degradation is commonly associated with the onset of osteoarthritis. In the current study, a novel transversely isotropic hyper-poro-viscoelastic constitutive formulation was incorporated in a FE model to evaluate changes in meniscal material properties following tibiofemoral joint impact. A non-linear optimization scheme was used to fit the model output to indentation relaxation experimental data. This study is the first to investigate rate of relaxation in healthy versus impacted menisci. Stiffness was found to be decreased (p=0.003), while the rate of tissue relaxation increased (p=0.010) at twelve weeks post impact. Total amount of relaxation, however, did not change in the impacted tissue (p=0.513). PMID:25776872

  14. Synthesis of hydrazone functionalized epoxy polymers for non-linear optical device applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajendra K.

    A series of twelve, thermally crosslinkable, epoxy polymers bearing covalently attached NLO-active hydrazone chromophores were synthesized. The primary focus was on the synthesis of two series of NLO-active hydroxy functionalized hydrazone chromophores. The first series, called the monohydroxy series (Hydrazones I--VI) comprised of six monohydroxy functionalized hydrazones and the second series consisted of six dihydroxy functionalized hydrazones (Hydrazones VII--XII). These hydrazone chromophores were then grafted, via the hydroxy functionality, on to a commercial epoxy polymer to obtain twelve NLO-active soluble prepolymers. The grafting reaction yields multiple secondary hydroxyl sites due to opening of the epoxide rings and these hydroxyl groups were used for further crosslinking by formulating the prepolymers with a blocked polyisocyanate commercial crosslinker. This formulation was spin coated on glass slides to form 2--2.5 m m thick uniform, defect free, transparent films. The films were corona poled, above their Tg, to align the chromophores in a noncentrosymmetric fashion and simultaneously complete the thermal cure that results in a highly crosslinked network. Finally the thermal characteristics of the second order nonlinearity of the twelve polymers are compared to illustrate the key structure-property relationships underlying the performance of the films.

  15. Optimizing Linear Functions with Randomized Search Heuristics - The Robustness of Mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witt, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of randomized search heuristics on classes of functions is fundamental for the understanding of the underlying stochastic process and the development of suitable proof techniques. Recently, remarkable progress has been made in bounding the expected optimization time of the simple (1...

  16. Determination of linear optics functions from turn-by-turn data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexahin, Y; Gianfelice-Wendt, E, E-mail: alexahin@fnal.gov [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    A method for evaluation of coupled optics functions, detection of strong perturbing elements, determination of BPM calibration errors and tilts using turn-by-turn (TBT) data is presented as well as the new version of the Hamiltonian perturbation theory of betatron oscillations the method is based upon. An example of application of the considered method to the Tevatron is given.

  17. Bounds for the probability distribution function of the linear ACD process

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Marcelo

    2003-01-01

    Rio de Janeiro This paper derives both lower and upper bounds for the probability distribution function of stationary ACD(p, q) processes. For the purpose of illustration, I specialize the results to the main parent distributions in duration analysis. Simulations show that the lower bound is much tighter than the upper bound.

  18. On nonseparated three-point boundary value problems for linear functional differential equations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rontó, András; Rontó, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 2011, - (2011), s. 326052 ISSN 1085-3375 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : functional-differential equation * three-point boundary value problem * nonseparated boundary condition Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.318, year: 2011 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ aaa /2011/326052/

  19. An Analysis of Piecewise-Linear and Convex Value Functions for Active Perception POMDPs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Satsangi, Y.; Whiteson, S.; Spaan, M.T.J.

    2015-01-01

    In active perception tasks, an agent aims to select actions that reduce its uncertainty about a hidden state. While partially observable Markov decision processes (POMDPs) are a natural model for such problems, reward functions that directly penalize uncertainty in the agent's belief can remove the

  20. Equilibrium arrival times to queues with general service times and non-linear utility functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinbjerg, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    by a general utility function which is decreasing in the waiting time and service completion time of each customer. Applications of such queueing games range from people choosing when to arrive at a grand opening sale to travellers choosing when to line up at the gate when boarding an airplane. We develop...

  1. Interpolation problem for the solutions of linear elasticity equations based on monogenic functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigor'ev, Yuri; Gürlebeck, Klaus; Legatiuk, Dmitrii

    2017-11-01

    Interpolation is an important tool for many practical applications, and very often it is beneficial to interpolate not only with a simple basis system, but rather with solutions of a certain differential equation, e.g. elasticity equation. A typical example for such type of interpolation are collocation methods widely used in practice. It is known, that interpolation theory is fully developed in the framework of the classical complex analysis. However, in quaternionic analysis, which shows a lot of analogies to complex analysis, the situation is more complicated due to the non-commutative multiplication. Thus, a fundamental theorem of algebra is not available, and standard tools from linear algebra cannot be applied in the usual way. To overcome these problems, a special system of monogenic polynomials the so-called Pseudo Complex Polynomials, sharing some properties of complex powers, is used. In this paper, we present an approach to deal with the interpolation problem, where solutions of elasticity equations in three dimensions are used as an interpolation basis.

  2. Experimental Characterization of Innovative Viscoelastic Foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Viscardi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The evolutionary trend in the automotive industry has produced over time numerous performance and aesthetic innovations, however, the exponential development related to transportation technologies also introduced new requirements concerning the environmental impact [1]. The awareness of ecological issues has led to a reorganization of the evaluations and the vehicle design, currently aimed at reducing the problems that have emerged in empirical investigations and the parallel increase in environmental solutions. The vehicle renewal process involves targeted technical mutations both to observance of ecology as to the safety and comfort of the driver. New recyclable materials and more resistant have been developed in order to minimize the environmental impact of the vehicle even at the end of the operating life of its components, as well as solutions relating to the reduction of noise pollution generated as a response to the requirements of comfort. Modern research programs on a global scale have set themselves the objective of exploiting the potentiality of innovative technologies in the optimization of vehicles efficiency, the noise reduction and in the consequent reduction of fuel burn. One of the crucial topics in the greening of the new generation automotive sector is therefore the use and development of high vibro-acoustic performance materials. The goal of this research is properly focused on the analysis of viscoelastic materials appointed to increase the damping of the vibrations generated in a vehicle. The use of a viscoelastic material in this context is due to its high property to convert vibrational energy into heat, providing a significant dissipation of the vibrations. Trade-off analyses are performed in order define the stiffness and damping capacity of several viscoelastic foams with different thickness and density.

  3. Linearly constrained minimax optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kaj; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans

    1978-01-01

    We present an algorithm for nonlinear minimax optimization subject to linear equality and inequality constraints which requires first order partial derivatives. The algorithm is based on successive linear approximations to the functions defining the problem. The resulting linear subproblems...

  4. Rigidity percolation in dispersions with a structured viscoelastic matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilbrink, M.W.L.; Michels, M.A.J.; Vellinga, W.P.; Meijer, H.E.H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with rigidity percolation in composite materials consisting of a dispersion of mineral particles in a microstructured viscoelastic matrix. The viscoelastic matrix in this specific case is a hydrocarbon refinery residue. In a set of model random composites the mean interparticle

  5. Numerical simulations of viscoelastic flows with free surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comminal, Raphaël; Spangenberg, Jon; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2013-01-01

    We present a new methodology to simulate viscoelastic flows with free-surfaces. These simulations are motivated by the modelling of polymers manufacturing techniques, such as extrusion and injection moulding. One of the consequences of viscoelasticity is that polymeric materials have a “memory...

  6. Noise reduction of rotating machinery by viscoelastic bearing supports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tillema, H.G.

    2003-01-01

    The demand for silent rolling bearing applications, such as electric motors and gearboxes, has resulted in an investigation of viscoelastic bearing supports. By placing a thin viscoelastic layer between the bearing outer ring and the surrounding structure, vibrations of the shaft-bearing arrangement

  7. Linear and nonlinear Biot waves in a noncohesive granular medium slab: transfer function, self-action, second harmonic generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legland, J-B; Tournat, V; Dazel, O; Novak, A; Gusev, V

    2012-06-01

    Experimental results are reported on second harmonic generation and self-action in a noncohesive granular medium supporting wave energy propagation both in the solid frame and in the saturating fluid. The acoustic transfer function of the probed granular slab can be separated into two main frequency regions: a low frequency region where the wave propagation is controlled by the solid skeleton elastic properties, and a higher frequency region where the behavior is dominantly due to the air saturating the beads. Experimental results agree well with a recently developed nonlinear Biot wave model applied to granular media. The linear transfer function, second harmonic generation, and self-action effect are studied as a function of bead diameter, compaction step, excitation amplitude, and frequency. This parametric study allows one to isolate different propagation regimes involving a range of described and interpreted linear and nonlinear processes that are encountered in granular media experiments. In particular, a theoretical interpretation is proposed for the observed strong self-action effect.

  8. Transient vibration of thin viscoelastic orthotropic plates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soukup, J.; Valeš, František; Volek, J.; Skočilas, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 1 (2011), s. 98-107 ISSN 0567-7718. [International Conference on Dynamical Systems - Theory and Applications /10./. Lodz, 07.12.2009-10.12.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/07/0946 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : transient vibration thin plate * orthotropic * general viscoelastic standard solid Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 0.860, year: 2011 http://www.springerlink.com/content/hn67324178846n4r/

  9. Viscoelastic Analysis of Thermally Stiffening Polymer Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Andrew; Rende, Deniz; Senses, Erkan; Akcora, Pinar; Ozisik, Rahmi

    Poly(ethylene oxide), PEO, filled with silica nanoparticles coated with poly(methyl methacrylate), PMMA, was shown to present thermally stiffening behavior above the glass transition temperature of both PEO and PMMA. In the current study, the viscoelastic beahvior of this nanocomposite system is investigated via nanoindenation experiments to complement on going rheological studies. Results were compared to neat polymers, PEO and PMMA, to understand the effect of coated nanoparticles. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CMMI-1538730.

  10. Pearling Instabilities of a Viscoelastic Thread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deblais, A.; Velikov, K. P.; Bonn, D.

    2018-05-01

    Pearling instabilities of slender viscoelastic threads have received much attention, but remain incompletely understood. We study the instabilities in polymer solutions subject to uniaxial elongational flow. Two distinctly different instabilites are observed: beads on a string and blistering. The beads-on-a-string structure arises from a capillary instability whereas the blistering instability has a different origin: it is due to a coupling between stress and polymer concentration. By varying the temperature to change the solution properties we elucidate the interplay between flow and phase separation.

  11. Polarizable embedding with a multiconfiguration short-range density functional theory linear response method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegård, Erik D.; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard; Knecht, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    . To demonstrate the capabilities of PE-MC-srDFT, we also investigated the retinylidene Schiff base chromophore embedded in the channelrhodopsin protein. While using a much more compact reference wave function in terms of active space, our PE-MC-srDFT approach yields excitation energies comparable in quality......We present here the coupling of a polarizable embedding (PE) model to the recently developed multiconfiguration short-range density functional theory method (MC-srDFT), which can treat multiconfigurational systems with a simultaneous account for dynamical and static correlation effects. PE......-MC-srDFT is designed to combine efficient treatment of complicated electronic structures with inclusion of effects from the surrounding environment. The environmental effects encompass classical electrostatic interactions as well as polarization of both the quantum region and the environment. Using response theory...

  12. Functional connectivity in resting-state fMRI: Is linear correlation sufficient?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlinka, Jaroslav; Paluš, Milan; Vejmelka, Martin; Mantini, D.; Corbetta, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 3 (2011), s. 2218-2225 ISSN 1053-8119 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7E08027 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 200728 - BRAINSYNC Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : fMRI * functional connectivity * Gaussianity * nonlinearity * correlation * mutual information Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 5.895, year: 2011

  13. Application of the descriptive function on non-linear electromagnetic phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, H.T.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents the solution of the nonlinear plan wave equation in non-equilibrium dielectric medium. The descriptive function appears as a useful tool to describe the medium response when it is possible to consider intensive electromagnetic response. Despite it has been considered an ideal situation of a limitless nonlinear medium, the results constitute a solid basis to mold more complex processes, such as those which take place in the plasma physics

  14. Guaiacol hydrodeoxygenation mechanism on Pt(111): insights from density functional theory and linear free energy relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyungtae; Gu, Geun Ho; Mullen, Charles A; Boateng, Akwasi A; Vlachos, Dionisios G

    2015-01-01

    Density functional theory is used to study the adsorption of guaiacol and its initial hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) reactions on Pt(111). Previous Brønsted-Evans-Polanyi (BEP) correlations for small open-chain molecules are inadequate in estimating the reaction barriers of phenolic compounds except for the side group (methoxy) carbon-dehydrogenation. New BEP relations are established using a select group of phenolic compounds. These relations are applied to construct a potential-energy surface of guaiacol-HDO to catechol. Analysis shows that catechol is mainly produced via dehydrogenation of the methoxy functional group followed by the CHx (x<3) removal of the functional group and hydrogenation of the ring carbon, in contrast to a hypothesis of a direct demethylation path. Dehydroxylation and demethoxylation are slow, implying that phenol is likely produced from catechol but not through its direct dehydroxylation followed by aromatic carbon-ring hydrogenation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. A New Approach for Studying Nonlinear Dynamic Response of a Thin Plate with Internal Resonance in a Fractional Viscoelastic Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury A. Rossikhin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the previous analysis, the dynamic behaviour of a nonlinear plate embedded into a fractional derivative viscoelastic medium has been studied by the method of multiple time scales under the conditions of the internal resonances two-to-one and one-to-one, as well as the internal combinational resonances for the case when the linear parts of nonlinear equations of motion occur to be coupled. A new approach proposed in this paper allows one to uncouple the linear parts of equations of motion of the plate, while the same method, the method of multiple time scales, has been utilized for solving nonlinear equations. The influence of viscosity on the energy exchange mechanism between interacting nonlinear modes has been analyzed. It has been shown that for some internal resonances there exist such particular cases when it is possible to obtain two first integrals, namely, the energy integral and the stream function, which allows one to reduce the problem to the calculation of elliptic integrals. The new approach enables one to solve the problems of vibrations of thin bodies more efficiently.

  16. Application of viscoelastic, viscoplastic, and rate-and-state friction constitutive laws to the deformation of unconsolidated sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagin, Paul N.

    Laboratory experiments on dry, unconsolidated sands from the Wilmington field, CA, reveal significant viscous creep strain under a variety of loading conditions. In hydrostatic compression tests between 10 and 50 MPa of pressure, the creep strain exceeds the magnitude of the instantaneous strain and follows a power law function of time. Interestingly, the viscous effects only appear when loading a sample beyond its preconsolidation pressure. Cyclic loading tests (at quasi-static frequencies of 10-6 to 10 -2 Hz) show that the bulk modulus increases by a factor of two with increasing frequency while attenuation remains constant. I attempt to fit these observations using three classes of models: linear viscoelastic, viscoplastic, and rate-and-state friction models. For the linear viscoelastic modeling, I investigated two types of models; spring-dashpot (exponential) and power law models. I find that a combined power law-Maxwell solid creep model adequately fits all of the data. Extrapolating the power law-Maxwell creep model out to 30 years (to simulate the lifetime of a reservoir) predicts that the static bulk modulus is 25% of the dynamic modulus, in good agreement with field observations. Laboratory studies also reveal that a large portion of the deformation is permanent, suggesting that an elastic-plastic model is appropriate. However, because the viscous component of deformation is significant, an elastic-viscoplastic model is necessary. An appropriate model for unconsolidated sands is developed by incorporating Perzyna (power law) viscoplasticity theory into the modified Cambridge clay cap model. Hydrostatic compression tests conducted as a function of volumetric strain rate produced values for the required model parameters. As a result, by using an end cap model combined with power law viscoplasticity theory, changes in porosity in both the elastic and viscoplastic regimes can be predicted as a function of both stress path and strain rate. To test whether rate

  17. Action of the complex Monge-Ampère operator on piecewise-linear functions and exponential tropical varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazarnovskii, B Ya

    2014-01-01

    We consider exponential tropical varieties, which appear as analogues of algebraic tropical varieties when we pass from algebraic varieties to varieties given by zero sets of systems of exponential sums. We describe a construction of exponential tropical varieties arising from the action of the complex Monge-Ampère operator on piecewise-linear functions and show that every such variety can be obtained in this way. As an application, we deduce a criterion for the vanishing of the value of the mixed Monge-Ampère operator. This is an analogue and generalization of the criterion for the vanishing of the mixed volume of convex bodies

  18. An efficient method for minimizing a convex separable logarithmic function subject to a convex inequality constraint or linear equality constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of minimizing a convex separable logarithmic function over a region defined by a convex inequality constraint or linear equality constraint, and two-sided bounds on the variables (box constraints. Such problems are interesting from both theoretical and practical point of view because they arise in some mathematical programming problems as well as in various practical problems such as problems of production planning and scheduling, allocation of resources, decision making, facility location problems, and so forth. Polynomial algorithms are proposed for solving problems of this form and their convergence is proved. Some examples and results of numerical experiments are also presented.

  19. Effects of viscoelasticity in the high Reynolds number cylinder wake

    KAUST Repository

    Richter, David

    2012-01-16

    At Re = 3900, Newtonian flow past a circular cylinder exhibits a wake and detached shear layers which have transitioned to turbulence. It is the goal of the present study to investigate the effects which viscoelasticity has on this state and to identify the mechanisms responsible for wake stabilization. It is found through numerical simulations (employing the FENE-P rheological model) that viscoelasticity greatly reduces the amount of turbulence in the wake, reverting it back to a state which qualitatively appears similar to the Newtonian mode B instability which occurs at lower Re. By focusing on the separated shear layers, it is found that viscoelasticity suppresses the formation of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability which dominates for Newtonian flows, consistent with previous studies of viscoelastic free shear layers. Through this shear layer stabilization, the viscoelastic far wake is then subject to the same instability mechanisms which dominate for Newtonian flows, but at far lower Reynolds numbers. © Copyright Cambridge University Press 2012.

  20. Effects of viscoelasticity in the high Reynolds number cylinder wake

    KAUST Repository

    Richter, David; Iaccarino, Gianluca; Shaqfeh, Eric S. G.

    2012-01-01

    At Re = 3900, Newtonian flow past a circular cylinder exhibits a wake and detached shear layers which have transitioned to turbulence. It is the goal of the present study to investigate the effects which viscoelasticity has on this state and to identify the mechanisms responsible for wake stabilization. It is found through numerical simulations (employing the FENE-P rheological model) that viscoelasticity greatly reduces the amount of turbulence in the wake, reverting it back to a state which qualitatively appears similar to the Newtonian mode B instability which occurs at lower Re. By focusing on the separated shear layers, it is found that viscoelasticity suppresses the formation of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability which dominates for Newtonian flows, consistent with previous studies of viscoelastic free shear layers. Through this shear layer stabilization, the viscoelastic far wake is then subject to the same instability mechanisms which dominate for Newtonian flows, but at far lower Reynolds numbers. © Copyright Cambridge University Press 2012.

  1. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Liesen, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    This self-contained textbook takes a matrix-oriented approach to linear algebra and presents a complete theory, including all details and proofs, culminating in the Jordan canonical form and its proof. Throughout the development, the applicability of the results is highlighted. Additionally, the book presents special topics from applied linear algebra including matrix functions, the singular value decomposition, the Kronecker product and linear matrix equations. The matrix-oriented approach to linear algebra leads to a better intuition and a deeper understanding of the abstract concepts, and therefore simplifies their use in real world applications. Some of these applications are presented in detailed examples. In several ‘MATLAB-Minutes’ students can comprehend the concepts and results using computational experiments. Necessary basics for the use of MATLAB are presented in a short introduction. Students can also actively work with the material and practice their mathematical skills in more than 300 exerc...

  2. Influence of storage in the texture and viscoelasticity of buns of corn variety white Cariaco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José David Torres-González

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to determine the influence of storage time on the variation of texture and visco-elasticity of buns of corn of the white Cariaco variety. The samples were stored refrigerated at 15 °C during 15 days. Textural parameters were determined every two days, using a texture analyzer; viscoelastic properties were set by a test of relaxation and com-pression effort, adjusting the experimental data to the generalized Maxwell model. Also, to determine the model parameters described, an iterative process was performed by non-linear regression using least squares techniques damped by the Solver add-on in Excel 2013. The storage time influenced the texture profile of buns, and the increase of hardness from the eleventh day, which was attributed to moisture loss of the product during cooling. Chewiness was higher for longer storage time. Cohesiveness, adhesiveness and elasticity reported no significant differences with respect to storage time. Statistical differences were presented at initial and final relaxation speeds expressed in the Maxwell model. The experimental data were successfully fitted to the model (R2 > 0.95 which was statistically significant (p < 0.05 and the performance of the elastic module indicated that buns from the white Cariaco variety showed a characteristic behavior of a viscoelastic material, increasing its hardness during the days of storage.

  3. Brittle fracture in viscoelastic materials as a pattern-formation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, M.; Pilipenko, D.; Spatschek, R.; Brener, E. A.

    2011-04-01

    A continuum model of crack propagation in brittle viscoelastic materials is presented and discussed. Thereby, the phenomenon of fracture is understood as an elastically induced nonequilibrium interfacial pattern formation process. In this spirit, a full description of a propagating crack provides the determination of the entire time dependent shape of the crack surface, which is assumed to be extended over a finite and self-consistently selected length scale. The mechanism of crack propagation, that is, the motion of the crack surface, is then determined through linear nonequilibrium transport equations. Here we consider two different mechanisms, a first-order phase transformation and surface diffusion. We give scaling arguments showing that steady-state solutions with a self-consistently selected propagation velocity and crack shape can exist provided that elastodynamic or viscoelastic effects are taken into account, whereas static elasticity alone is not sufficient. In this respect, inertial effects as well as viscous damping are identified to be sufficient crack tip selection mechanisms. Exploring the arising description of brittle fracture numerically, we study steady-state crack propagation in the viscoelastic and inertia limit as well as in an intermediate regime, where both effects are important. The arising free boundary problems are solved by phase field methods and a sharp interface approach using a multipole expansion technique. Different types of loading, mode I, mode III fracture, as well as mixtures of them, are discussed.

  4. Ionic and viscoelastic mechanisms of a bucky-gel actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruusamäe, Karl; Sugino, Takushi; Asaka, Kinji

    2015-07-01

    Ionic electromechanically active polymers (IEAPs) are considered attractive candidates for soft, miniature, and lightweight actuators. The bucky-gel actuator is a carbonaceous subtype of IEAP that due to its structure (i.e. two highly porous electrodes sandwiching a thin ion-permeable electrolyte layer) and composition (i.e. being composed of soft porous polymer, carbon nanotubes, and ionic liquid) is very similar to an electric double-layer capacitor. In response to the voltage applied between the electrodes of a bucky-gel actuator, the laminar structure bends. The time domain behavior exhibits, however, a phenomenon called the back-relaxation, i.e., after some time the direction of bending is reversed even though voltage remains constant. In spite of the working mechanism of IEAP actuators being generally attributed to the transport of ions within the soft multilayer system, the specific details remain unclear. A so-called two-carrier model proposes that the bending and subsequent back-relaxation are caused by the relocation of two ionic species having different mobilities as they enter and exit the electrode layers. By adopting the two-carrier model for bucky-gel actuators, we see very good agreement between the mathematical representation and the experimental data of the electromechanical behavior. Furthermore, since the bucky-gel actuator is viscoelastic, we propose to use the time domain response of a blocking force as the key parameter related to the inner ionic mechanism. We also introduce a method to estimate the viscoelastic creep compliance function from the time domain responses for curvature and blocking force. This analysis includes four types of bucky-gel actuators of varying composition and structure.

  5. Effect of Longitudinal Magnetic Field on Vibration Characteristics of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in a Viscoelastic Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D. P.; Lei, Y.; Shen, Z. B.

    2017-12-01

    The effect of longitudinal magnetic field on vibration response of a sing-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) embedded in viscoelastic medium is investigated. Based on nonlocal Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, Maxwell's relations, and Kelvin viscoelastic foundation model, the governing equations of motion for vibration analysis are established. The complex natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes in closed form for the embedded SWCNT with arbitrary boundary conditions are obtained using transfer function method (TFM). The new analytical expressions for the complex natural frequencies are also derived for certain typical boundary conditions and Kelvin-Voigt model. Numerical results from the model are presented to show the effects of nonlocal parameter, viscoelastic parameter, boundary conditions, aspect ratio, and strength of the magnetic field on vibration characteristics for the embedded SWCNT in longitudinal magnetic field. The results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed methods for vibration analysis of embedded SWCNTs under magnetic field.

  6. Finite-time convergent recurrent neural network with a hard-limiting activation function for constrained optimization with piecewise-linear objective functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingshan; Wang, Jun

    2011-04-01

    This paper presents a one-layer recurrent neural network for solving a class of constrained nonsmooth optimization problems with piecewise-linear objective functions. The proposed neural network is guaranteed to be globally convergent in finite time to the optimal solutions under a mild condition on a derived lower bound of a single gain parameter in the model. The number of neurons in the neural network is the same as the number of decision variables of the optimization problem. Compared with existing neural networks for optimization, the proposed neural network has a couple of salient features such as finite-time convergence and a low model complexity. Specific models for two important special cases, namely, linear programming and nonsmooth optimization, are also presented. In addition, applications to the shortest path problem and constrained least absolute deviation problem are discussed with simulation results to demonstrate the effectiveness and characteristics of the proposed neural network.

  7. Viscoelasticity of Edam cheese during its ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Nedomová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Series of the indentation of the ball (10 mm in diameter by the constant speed into blocks of Edam cheese has been conducted. The indentation tests were performed at different speeds (1, 5, 10, 20 and 100 mm/min, and the corresponding force–displacement responses were fitted with an analytical solution to obtain the time-dependent constants and the instantaneous force–displacement response. The measurement has been performed for the cheeses of different stages of their maturity. The dependence of the indentation force on the penetration depth has been evaluated. This dependence can be fitted by a polynom. The indentation force decreases with cheese fat content. It increases with the loading rate. Its value also decreases with the time of the cheese ripening. The recently proposed method for the indenation of the ball into viscoelastic solids has been used for our data analysis. This procedure, which needs the use of the numeric methods, enables to obtain stress relaxation moduli, which describe the viscoelasticity of the tested materials. The obtained moduli describe the stage of the cheese maturity.

  8. Dynamics of magnetic nanoparticles in viscoelastic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remmer, Hilke, E-mail: h.remmer@tu-bs.de [Institute of Electrical Measurement and Fundamental Electrical Engineering, TU Braunschweig, Braunschweig (Germany); Roeben, Eric; Schmidt, Annette M. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Universität zu Köln, Köln (Germany); Schilling, Meinhard; Ludwig, Frank [Institute of Electrical Measurement and Fundamental Electrical Engineering, TU Braunschweig, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2017-04-01

    We compare different models for the description of the complex susceptibility of magnetic nanoparticles in an aqueous gelatin solution representing a model system for a Voigt-Kelvin scheme. The analysis of susceptibility spectra with the numerical model by Raikher et al. is compared with the analysis applying a phenomenological, modified Debye model. The fit of the models to the measured data allows one to extract the viscoelastic parameter dynamic viscosity η and shear modulus G. The experimental data were recorded on single-core thermally blocked CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles in an aqueous solution with 2.5 wt% gelatin. Whereas the dynamic viscosities obtained by fitting the model – extended by distributions of hydrodynamic diameters and viscosities – agree very well, the derived values for the shear modulus show the same temporal behavior during the gelation process, but vary approximately by a factor of two. To verify the values for viscosity and shear modulus obtained from nanorheology, macrorheological measurements are in progress. - Highlights: • Ac susceptibility spectra of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles in aqueous gelatin solution. • Analysis of spectra with different approaches of Voigt-Kelvin model. • Comparison of modified Debye model with numerical model. • Both models provide similar values for viscoelastic parameters.

  9. Polymer engineering science and viscoelasticity an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Brinson, Hal F

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a unified mechanics and materials perspective on polymers: both the mathematics of viscoelasticity theory as well as the physical mechanisms behind polymer deformation processes. Introductory material on fundamental mechanics is included to provide a continuous baseline for readers from all disciplines. Introductory material on the chemical and molecular basis of polymers is also included, which is essential to the understanding of the thermomechanical response. This self-contained text covers the viscoelastic characterization of polymers including constitutive modeling, experimental methods, thermal response, and stress and failure analysis. Example problems are provided within the text as well as at the end of each chapter.   New to this edition:   ·         One new chapter on the use of nano-material inclusions for structural polymer applications and applications such as fiber-reinforced polymers and adhesively bonded structures ·         Brings up-to-date polymer pro...

  10. Viscoelastic deformation of lipid bilayer vesicles†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shao-Hua; Sankhagowit, Shalene; Biswas, Roshni; Wu, Shuyang; Povinelli, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Lipid bilayers form the boundaries of the cell and its organelles. Many physiological processes, such as cell movement and division, involve bending and folding of the bilayer at high curvatures. Currently, bending of the bilayer is treated as an elastic deformation, such that its stress-strain response is independent of the rate at which bending strain is applied. We present here the first direct measurement of viscoelastic response in a lipid bilayer vesicle. We used a dual-beam optical trap (DBOT) to stretch 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs). Upon application of a step optical force, the vesicle membrane deforms in two regimes: a fast, instantaneous area increase, followed by a much slower stretching to an eventual plateau deformation. From measurements of dozens of GUVs, the average time constant of the slower stretching response was 0.225 ± 0.033 s (standard deviation, SD). Increasing the fluid viscosity did not affect the observed time constant. We performed a set of experiments to rule out heating by laser absorption as a cause of the transient behavior. Thus, we demonstrate here that the bending deformation of lipid bilayer membranes should be treated as viscoelastic. PMID:26268612

  11. Viscoelastic deformation of lipid bilayer vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shao-Hua; Sankhagowit, Shalene; Biswas, Roshni; Wu, Shuyang; Povinelli, Michelle L; Malmstadt, Noah

    2015-10-07

    Lipid bilayers form the boundaries of the cell and its organelles. Many physiological processes, such as cell movement and division, involve bending and folding of the bilayer at high curvatures. Currently, bending of the bilayer is treated as an elastic deformation, such that its stress-strain response is independent of the rate at which bending strain is applied. We present here the first direct measurement of viscoelastic response in a lipid bilayer vesicle. We used a dual-beam optical trap (DBOT) to stretch 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs). Upon application of a step optical force, the vesicle membrane deforms in two regimes: a fast, instantaneous area increase, followed by a much slower stretching to an eventual plateau deformation. From measurements of dozens of GUVs, the average time constant of the slower stretching response was 0.225 ± 0.033 s (standard deviation, SD). Increasing the fluid viscosity did not affect the observed time constant. We performed a set of experiments to rule out heating by laser absorption as a cause of the transient behavior. Thus, we demonstrate here that the bending deformation of lipid bilayer membranes should be treated as viscoelastic.

  12. Flashing subdiffusive ratchets in viscoelastic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharchenko, Vasyl; Goychuk, Igor

    2012-01-01

    We study subdiffusive ratchet transport in periodically and randomly flashing potentials. A central Brownian particle is elastically coupled to the surrounding auxiliary Brownian quasi-particles, which account for the influence of the viscoelastic environment. Similar to standard dynamical modeling of Brownian motion, the external force influences only the motion of the central particle, not affecting directly the environmental degrees of freedom. Just a handful of auxiliary Brownian particles suffices to model subdiffusion over many temporal decades. Time modulation of the potential violates the symmetry of thermal detailed balance and induces an anomalous subdiffusive current which exhibits a remarkably small dispersion at low temperatures, as well as a number of other surprising features such as saturation at low temperatures, and multiple inversions of the transport direction upon a change of the driving frequency in the non-adiabatic regime. It is shown that the subdiffusive current is finite at zero temperature for random flashing and can be finite for periodic flashing for a certain frequency window. Our study generalizes classical Brownian motors towards operating in sticky viscoelastic environments such as the cytosol of biological cells or dense polymer solutions. (paper)

  13. Viscoelastic Flow Modelling for Polymer Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    de, Shauvik; Padding, Johan; Peters, Frank; Kuipers, Hans; Multi-scale Modelling of Multi-phase Flows Team

    2015-11-01

    Polymer liquids are used in the oil industry to improve the volumetric sweep and displacement efficiency of oil from a reservoir. Surprisingly, it is not only the viscosity but also the elasticity of the displacing fluid that determine the displacement efficiency. The main aim of our work is to obtain a fundamental understanding of the effect of fluid elasticity, by developing an advanced computer simulation methodology for the flow of non-Newtonian fluids through porous media. We simulate a 3D unsteady viscoelastic flow through a converging diverging geometry of realistic pore dimension using computational fluid dynamics (CFD).The primitive variables velocity, pressure and extra stresses are used in the formulation of models. The viscoelastic stress part is formulated using a FENE-P type of constitutive equation, which can predict both shear and elongational stress properties during this flow. A Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) approach using Finite volume method (FVM) with staggered grid has been applied. A novel second order Immersed boundary method (IBM) has been incorporated to mimic porous media. The effect of rheological parameters on flow characteristics has also been studied. The simulations provide an insight into 3D flow asymmetry at higher Deborah numbers. Micro-Particle Image Velocimetry experiments are carried out to obtain further insights. These simulations present, for the first time, a detailed computational study of the effects of fluid elasticity on the imbibition of an oil phase.

  14. Van der Waals potentials between metal clusters and helium atoms obtained with density functional theory and linear response methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebrecht, M.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of van der Waals interactions in many diverse research fields such as, e. g., polymer science, nano--materials, structural biology, surface science and condensed matter physics created a high demand for efficient and accurate methods that can describe van der Waals interactions from first principles. These methods should be able to deal with large and complex systems to predict functions and properties of materials that are technologically and biologically relevant. Van der Waals interactions arise due to quantum mechanical correlation effects and finding appropriate models an numerical techniques to describe this type of interaction is still an ongoing challenge in electronic structure and condensed matter theory. This thesis introduces a new variational approach to obtain intermolecular interaction potentials between clusters and helium atoms by means of density functional theory and linear response methods. It scales almost linearly with the number of electrons and can therefore be applied to much larger systems than standard quantum chemistry techniques. The main focus of this work is the development of an ab-initio method to account for London dispersion forces, which are purely attractive and dominate the interaction of non--polar atoms and molecules at large distances. (author) [de

  15. A Stream Function Theory Based Calculation of Wave Kinematics for Very Steep Waves Using a Novel Non-linear Stretching Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroescu, Ionut Emanuel; Sørensen, Lasse; Frigaard, Peter Bak

    2016-01-01

    A non-linear stretching method was implemented for stream function theory to solve wave kinematics for physical conditions close to breaking waves in shallow waters, with wave heights limited by the water depth. The non-linear stretching method proves itself robust, efficient and fast, showing good...

  16. Viscoelasticity evaluation of rubber by surface reflection of supersonic wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omata, Nobuaki; Suga, Takahiro; Furusawa, Hirokazu; Urabe, Shinichi; Kondo, Takeru; Ni, Qing-Qing

    2006-12-22

    The main characteristic of rubber is a viscoelasticity. So it is important to research the characteristic of the viscoelasticity of the high frequency band for the friction between a rubber material and the hard one with roughness, for instance, the tire and the road. As for the measurement of the viscoelasticity of rubber, DMA (dynamic mechanical analysis) is general. However, some problems are pointed out to the measurement of the high frequency band by DMA. Then, we evaluated the viscoelasticity characteristic by the supersonic wave measurement. However, attenuation of rubber is large, and when the viscoelasticity is measured by the supersonic wave therefore, it is inconvenient and limited in a past method by means of bottom reflection. In this report, we tried the viscoelasticity evaluation by the method of using complex surface reflection coefficient and we compared with the friction coefficient under wide-range friction velocity. As a result, some relationships had been found for two properties. We report the result that character of viscoelasticity of rubber was comparable to friction coefficient.

  17. Lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals: From viscoelastic properties to living liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shuang

    Lyotropic chromonic liquid crystal (LCLC) represents a broad range of molecules, from organic dyes and drugs to DNA, that self-assemble into linear aggregates in water through face-to-face stacking. These linear aggregates of high aspect ratio are capable of orientational order, forming, for example nematic phase. Since the microscopic properties (such as length) of the chromonic aggregates are results of subtle balance between energy and entropy, the macroscopic viscoelastic properties of the nematic media are sensitive to change of external factors. In the first part of this thesis, by using dynamic light scattering and magnetic Frederiks transition techniques, we study the Frank elastic moduli and viscosity coefficients of LCLC disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) and sunset yellow (SSY) as functions of concentration c , temperature T and ionic contents. The elastic moduli of splay (K1) and bend (K3) are in the order of 10pN, about 10 times larger than the twist modulus (K2). The splay modulus K1 and the ratio K1/K3 both increase substantially as T decreases or c increases, which we attribute to the elongation of linear aggregates at lower T or higher c . The bend viscosity is comparable to that of thermotropic liquid crystals, while the splay and twist viscosities are several orders of magnitude larger, changing exponentially with T . Additional ionic additives into the system influence the viscoelastic properties of these systems in a dramatic and versatile way. For example, monovalent salt NaCl decreases bend modulus K3 and increases twist viscosity, while an elevated pH decreases all the parameters. We attribute these features to the ion-induced changes in length and flexibility of building units of LCLC, the chromonic aggregates, a property not found in conventional thermotropic and lyotropic liquid crystals form by covalently bound units of fixed length. The second part of the thesis studies a new active bio-mechanical hybrid system called living liquid crystal

  18. Jeans Instability of the Self-Gravitating Viscoelastic Ferromagnetic Cylinder with Axial Nonuniform Rotation and Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, Joginder Singh; Sharma, Rajni

    2017-12-01

    The effects of nonuniform rotation and magnetic field on the instability of a self gravitating infinitely extending axisymmetric cylinder of viscoelastic ferromagnetic medium have been studied using the Generalised Hydrodynamic (GH) model. The non-uniform magnetic field and rotation are acting along the axial direction of the cylinder and the propagation of the wave is considered along the radial direction, while the ferrofluid magnetization is taken collinear with the magnetic field. A general dispersion relation representing magnetization, magnetic permeability and viscoelastic relaxation time parameters is obtained using the normal mode analysis method in the linearized perturbation equation system. Jeans criteria which represent the onset of instability of self gravitating medium are obtained under the limits; when the medium behaves like a viscous liquid (strongly coupled limit) and a Newtonian liquid (weakly coupled limit). The effects of various parameters on the Jeans instability criteria and on the growth rate of self gravitating viscoelastic ferromagnetic medium have been discussed. It is found that the magnetic polarizability due to ferromagnetization of medium marginalizes the effect of non-uniform magnetic field on the Jeans instability, whereas the viscoelasticity of the medium has the usual stabilizing effect on the instability of the system. Further, it is found that the cylindrical geometry is more stable than the Cartesian one. The variation of growth rate against the wave number and radial distance has been depicted graphically.

  19. Structural characterization and viscoelastic constitutive modeling of skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Vincent R; Tang, Yizhe; Zhao, Shiteng; Yang, Wen; Meyers, Marc A

    2017-04-15

    A fascinating material, skin has a tensile response which exhibits an extended toe region of minimal stress up to nominal strains that, in some species, exceed 1, followed by significant stiffening until a roughly linear region. The large toe region has been attributed to its unique structure, consisting of a network of curved collagen fibers. Investigation of the structure of rabbit skin reveals that it consists of layers of wavy fibers, each one with a characteristic orientation. Additionally, the existence of two preferred layer orientations is suggested based on the results of small angle X-ray scattering. These observations are used to construct a viscoelastic model consisting of collagen in two orientations, which leads to an in-plane anisotropic response. The structure-based model presented incorporates the elastic straightening and stretching of fibrils, their rotation towards the tensile axis, and the viscous effects which occur in the matrix of the skin due to interfibrillar and interlamellar sliding. The model is shown to effectively capture key features which dictate the mechanical response of skin. Examination by transmission and scanning electron microscopy of rabbit dermis enabled the identification of the key elements in its structure. The organization of collagen fibrils into flat fibers was identified and incorporated into a constitutive model that reproduces the mechanical response of skin. This enhanced quantitative predictive capability can be used in the design of synthetic skin and skin-like structures. Copyright © 2017 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Molecular and vibrational structure of diphenylether and its 4,4' -dibromo derivative. Infrared linear dichroism spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Troels K; Karlsen, Eva; Spanget-Larsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    The title compounds were investigated by means of Linear Dichroism (LD) IR spectroscopy on samples partially aligned in uniaxially stretched low-density polyethylene and by density functional theory calculations. Satisfactory overall agreement between observed and calculated vibrational wavenumbers...

  1. Thermal convection of viscoelastic shear-thinning fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albaalbaki, Bashar; Khayat, Roger E; Ahmed, Zahir U

    2016-01-01

    The Rayleigh–Bénard convection for non-Newtonian fluids possessing both viscoelastic and shear-thinning behaviours is examined. The Phan-Thien–Tanner (PTT) constitutive equation is implemented to model the non-Newtonian character of the fluid. It is found that while the shear-thinning and viscoelastic effects could annihilate one another for the steady roll flow, presence of both behaviours restricts the roll stability limit significantly compared to the cases when the fluid is either inelastic shear-thinning or purely viscoelastic with constant viscosity. (paper)

  2. New exact solutions of the Tzitzéica-type equations in non-linear optics using the expa function method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, K.; Ayati, Z.; Ansari, R.

    2018-04-01

    One specific class of non-linear evolution equations, known as the Tzitzéica-type equations, has received great attention from a group of researchers involved in non-linear science. In this article, new exact solutions of the Tzitzéica-type equations arising in non-linear optics, including the Tzitzéica, Dodd-Bullough-Mikhailov and Tzitzéica-Dodd-Bullough equations, are obtained using the expa function method. The integration technique actually suggests a useful and reliable method to extract new exact solutions of a wide range of non-linear evolution equations.

  3. Vibration and Damping Analysis of Composite Fiber Reinforced Wind Blade with Viscoelastic Damping Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Hong Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Composite materials are increasingly used in wind blade because of their superior mechanical properties such as high strength-to-weight and stiffness-to-weight ratio. This paper presents vibration and damping analysis of fiberreinforced composite wind turbine blade with viscoelastic damping treatment. The finite element method based on full layerwise displacement theory was employed to analyze the damping, natural frequency, and modal loss factor of composite shell structure. The lamination angle was considered in mathematical modeling. The curved geometry, transverse shear, and normal strains were exactly considered in present layerwise shell model, which can depict the zig-zag in-plane and out-of-plane displacements. The frequency response functions of curved composite shell structure and wind blade were calculated. The results show that the damping ratio of viscoelastic layer is found to be very sensitive to determination of magnitude of composite structures. The frequency response functions with variety of thickness of damping layer were investigated. Moreover, the natural frequency, modal loss factor, and mode shapes of composite fiber reinforced wind blade with viscoelastic damping control were calculated.

  4. Confirmation of linear system theory prediction: Rate of change of Herrnstein's κ as a function of response-force requirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, J. J; Wood, Helena M.

    1985-01-01

    Four human subjects worked on all combinations of five variable-interval schedules and five reinforcer magnitudes (¢/reinforcer) in each of two phases of the experiment. In one phase the force requirement on the operandum was low (1 or 11 N) and in the other it was high (25 or 146 N). Estimates of Herrnstein's κ were obtained at each reinforcer magnitude. The results were: (1) response rate was more sensitive to changes in reinforcement rate at the high than at the low force requirement, (2) κ increased from the beginning to the end of the magnitude range for all subjects at both force requirements, (3) the reciprocal of κ was a linear function of the reciprocal of reinforcer magnitude for seven of the eight data sets, and (4) the rate of change of κ was greater at the high than at the low force requirement by an order of magnitude or more. The second and third findings confirm predictions made by linear system theory, and replicate the results of an earlier experiment (McDowell & Wood, 1984). The fourth finding confirms a further prediction of the theory and supports the theory's interpretation of conflicting data on the constancy of Herrnstein's κ. PMID:16812408

  5. Confirmation of linear system theory prediction: Rate of change of Herrnstein's kappa as a function of response-force requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, J J; Wood, H M

    1985-01-01

    Four human subjects worked on all combinations of five variable-interval schedules and five reinforcer magnitudes ( cent/reinforcer) in each of two phases of the experiment. In one phase the force requirement on the operandum was low (1 or 11 N) and in the other it was high (25 or 146 N). Estimates of Herrnstein's kappa were obtained at each reinforcer magnitude. The results were: (1) response rate was more sensitive to changes in reinforcement rate at the high than at the low force requirement, (2) kappa increased from the beginning to the end of the magnitude range for all subjects at both force requirements, (3) the reciprocal of kappa was a linear function of the reciprocal of reinforcer magnitude for seven of the eight data sets, and (4) the rate of change of kappa was greater at the high than at the low force requirement by an order of magnitude or more. The second and third findings confirm predictions made by linear system theory, and replicate the results of an earlier experiment (McDowell & Wood, 1984). The fourth finding confirms a further prediction of the theory and supports the theory's interpretation of conflicting data on the constancy of Herrnstein's kappa.

  6. Spectroscopic investigations using density functional theory on 2-methoxy- 4(phenyliminomethyl)phenol: A non linear optical material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijas, K. M.; Madan Kumar, S.; Byrappa, K.; Geethakrishnan, T.; Jeyaram, S.; Nagalakshmi, R.

    2018-03-01

    Single crystals of 2-methoxy-4(phenyliminomethyl)phenol were grown from ethanol by slow evaporation solution growth technique. Single crystal X-ray diffraction experiment reveals the crystallization in orthorhombic system having non-centrosymmetric space group C2221. Geometrical optimization by density functional theory method was carried out using Gaussian program and compared with experimental results. Detailed experimental and theoretical vibrational analyses were carried out and the results were correlated to find close agreement. Thermal analyses show the material is thermally stable with a melting point of 159 °C. Natural bond orbital analysis was carried out to explain charge transfer interactions through hydrogen bonding. Relatively smaller HOMO-LUMO band gap favors the non linear optical activity of the molecule. Natural population analysis and molecular electrostatic potential calculations visualize the charge distribution in an isolated molecule. Calculated first-order molecular hyperpolarizability and preliminary second harmonic generation test carried out using Kurtz-Perry technique establish 2-methoxy-4(phenyliminomethyl)phenol crystal as a good non linear optical material. Z-scan proposes the material for reverse saturable absorption.

  7. Comparison of x ray computed tomography number to proton relative linear stopping power conversion functions using a standard phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyers, M F

    2014-06-01

    Adequate evaluation of the results from multi-institutional trials involving light ion beam treatments requires consideration of the planning margins applied to both targets and organs at risk. A major uncertainty that affects the size of these margins is the conversion of x ray computed tomography numbers (XCTNs) to relative linear stopping powers (RLSPs). Various facilities engaged in multi-institutional clinical trials involving proton beams have been applying significantly different margins in their patient planning. This study was performed to determine the variance in the conversion functions used at proton facilities in the U.S.A. wishing to participate in National Cancer Institute sponsored clinical trials. A simplified method of determining the conversion function was developed using a standard phantom containing only water and aluminum. The new method was based on the premise that all scanners have their XCTNs for air and water calibrated daily to constant values but that the XCTNs for high density/high atomic number materials are variable with different scanning conditions. The standard phantom was taken to 10 different proton facilities and scanned with the local protocols resulting in 14 derived conversion functions which were compared to the conversion functions used at the local facilities. For tissues within ±300 XCTN of water, all facility functions produced converted RLSP values within ±6% of the values produced by the standard function and within 8% of the values from any other facility's function. For XCTNs corresponding to lung tissue, converted RLSP values differed by as great as ±8% from the standard and up to 16% from the values of other facilities. For XCTNs corresponding to low-density immobilization foam, the maximum to minimum values differed by as much as 40%. The new method greatly simplifies determination of the conversion function, reduces ambiguity, and in the future could promote standardization between facilities. Although it

  8. Aero-servo-viscoelasticity theory: Lifting surfaces, plates, velocity transients, flutter, and instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrett, Craig G.

    -partial differential equations. The spatial component of the governing equations is eliminated using a series expansion of basis functions and by applying Galerkin's method. The number of terms in the series expansion affects the convergence of the spatial component, and convergence is best determined by the von Koch rules that previously appeared for column buckling problems. After elimination of the spatial component, an ordinary integral-differential equation in time remains. The dynamic stability of elastic and viscoelastic problems is assessed using the determinant of the governing system of equations and the time component of the solution in the form exp (lambda t). The determinant is in terms of lambda where the values of lambda are the latent roots of the aero-servo-viscoelastic system. The real component of lambda dictates the stability of the system. If all the real components are negative, the system is stable. If at least one real component is zero and all others are negative, the system is neutrally stable. If one or more real components are positive, the system is unstable. In aero-servo-viscoelasticity, the neutrally stable condition is termed flutter. For an aero-servo-viscoelastic lifting surface, the unstable condition is historically termed torsional divergence. The more general aero-servo-viscoelastic theory has produced a number of important results, enumerated in the following list: 1. Subsonic panel flutter can occur before panel instability. This result overturned a long held assumption in aeroelasticity, and was produced by the novel application of the von Koch rules for convergence. Further, experimental results from the 1950s by the Air Force were retrieved to provide additional proof. 2. An expanded definition for flutter of a lifting surface. The legacy definition is that flutter is the first occurrence of simple harmonic motion of a structure, and the flight velocity at which this motion occurs is taken as the flutter speed. The expanded definition

  9. Linear regression

    CERN Document Server

    Olive, David J

    2017-01-01

    This text covers both multiple linear regression and some experimental design models. The text uses the response plot to visualize the model and to detect outliers, does not assume that the error distribution has a known parametric distribution, develops prediction intervals that work when the error distribution is unknown, suggests bootstrap hypothesis tests that may be useful for inference after variable selection, and develops prediction regions and large sample theory for the multivariate linear regression model that has m response variables. A relationship between multivariate prediction regions and confidence regions provides a simple way to bootstrap confidence regions. These confidence regions often provide a practical method for testing hypotheses. There is also a chapter on generalized linear models and generalized additive models. There are many R functions to produce response and residual plots, to simulate prediction intervals and hypothesis tests, to detect outliers, and to choose response trans...

  10. Water evaporation on highly viscoelastic polymer surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Gang; Severtson, Steven J

    2012-07-03

    Results are reported for a study on the evaporation of water droplets from a highly viscoelastic acrylic polymer surface. These are contrasted with those collected for the same measurements carried out on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). For PDMS, the evaporation process involves the expected multistep process including constant drop area, constant contact angle, and finally a combination of these steps until the liquid is gone. In contrast, water evaporation from the acrylic polymer shows a constant drop area mode throughout. Furthermore, during the evaporation process, the drop area actually expands on the acrylic polymer. The single mode evaporation process is consistent with formation of wetting structures, which cannot be propagated by the capillary forces. Expansion of the drop area is attributed to the influence of the drop capillary pressure. Furthermore, the rate of drop area expansion is shown to be dependent on the thickness of the polymer film.

  11. Evolution of Wigner function in laser process under the action of linear resonance force and its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao-ming, Lu

    2018-05-01

    The negativity of Wigner function (WF) is one of the important symbols of non-classical properties of light field. Therefore, it is of great significance to study the evolution of WF in dissipative process. The evolution formula of WF in laser process under the action of linear resonance force is given by virtue of thermo entangled state representation and the technique of integration within an ordered product of operator. As its application, the evolution of WF of thermal field and that of single-photon-added coherent state are discussed. The results show that the WF of thermal field maintains its original character. On the other hand, the negative region size and the depth of negativity of WF of single- photon-added coherent state decrease until it vanishes with dissipation. This shows that the non-classical property of single-photon-added coherent state is weakened, until it disappears with dissipation time increasing.

  12. Linearization and Control of Series-Series Compensated Inductive Power Transfer System Based on Extended Describing Function Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunwar Aditya

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The extended describing function (EDF is a well-known method for modelling resonant converters due to its high accuracy. However, it requires complex mathematical formulation effort. This paper presents a simplified non-linear mathematical model of series-series (SS compensated inductive power transfer (IPT system, considering zero-voltage switching in the inverter. This simplified mathematical model permits the user to derive the small-signal model using the EDF method, with less computational effort, while maintaining the accuracy of an actual physical model. The derived model has been verified using a frequency sweep method in PLECS. The small-signal model has been used to design the voltage loop controller for a SS compensated IPT system. The designed controller was implemented on a 3.6 kW experimental setup, to test its robustness.

  13. Multistability of neural networks with discontinuous non-monotonic piecewise linear activation functions and time-varying delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xiaobing; Zheng, Wei Xing

    2015-05-01

    This paper is concerned with the problem of coexistence and dynamical behaviors of multiple equilibrium points for neural networks with discontinuous non-monotonic piecewise linear activation functions and time-varying delays. The fixed point theorem and other analytical tools are used to develop certain sufficient conditions that ensure that the n-dimensional discontinuous neural networks with time-varying delays can have at least 5(n) equilibrium points, 3(n) of which are locally stable and the others are unstable. The importance of the derived results is that it reveals that the discontinuous neural networks can have greater storage capacity than the continuous ones. Moreover, different from the existing results on multistability of neural networks with discontinuous activation functions, the 3(n) locally stable equilibrium points obtained in this paper are located in not only saturated regions, but also unsaturated regions, due to the non-monotonic structure of discontinuous activation functions. A numerical simulation study is conducted to illustrate and support the derived theoretical results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Abnormal Functional Connectivity of Resting State Network Detection Based on Linear ICA Analysis in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xia-An; Zhao, Junxia; Xu, Qian; Sun, Qi; Wang, Zhigang

    2018-01-01

    Some functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) researches in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) patients have shown that ASD patients have significant impairment in brain response. However, few researchers have studied the functional structure changes of the eight resting state networks (RSNs) in ASD patients. Therefore, research on statistical differences of RSNs between 42 healthy controls (HC) and 50 ASD patients has been studied using linear independent component analysis (ICA) in this paper. Our researches showed that there was abnormal functional connectivity (FC) of RSNs in ASD patients. The RSNs with the decreased FC and increased FC in ASD patients included default mode network (DMN), central executive network (CEN), core network (CN), visual network (VN), self-referential network (SRN) compared to HC. The RSNs with the increased FC in ASD patients included auditory network (AN), somato-motor network (SMN). The dorsal attention network (DAN) in ASD patients showed the decreased FC. Our findings indicate that the abnormal FC in RSNs extensively exists in ASD patients. Our results have important contribution for the study of neuro-pathophysiological mechanisms in ASD patients.

  15. A new enhanced bat-inspired algorithm for finding linear supply function equilibrium of GENCOs in the competitive electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niknam, Taher; Sharifinia, Sajjad; Azizipanah-Abarghooee, Rasoul

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Present optimal bidding strategies of Generating Companies (GENCOs) in a network-constrained electricity market. • Present new enhanced bat-inspired algorithm. • Consider the bi level optimization problem. • Present a linear supply function model. - Abstract: This paper proposes a new enhanced bat-inspired algorithm to find out linear supply function equilibrium of Generating Companies (GENCOs) in a network-constrained electricity market where they have incomplete information about other rivals. The model enables a GENCO to link its bidding price with the bidding quantity of its product. In this regard, the social welfare maximization is applied to clearing the market and nodal pricing mechanism is utilized to calculate the GENCO’s profit. It is formulated as a bi level optimization problem, where the higher level problem maximizes GENCO’s payoff and the lower level problem solves the independent system operator’s market clearing problem based on the maximization of social welfare. Due to non-convexity nature of the proposed bi level optimization problem, the mathematical-based optimization approach is incapable to solve the problem and obtain the nearly global optima. In order to overcome the obstacle of the conventional approaches, this study suggests a new meta-heuristic Bat-inspired Algorithm (BA) to achieve the nearly global solution of the bi level optimization problem. In addition a novel self-adaptive learning mechanism is utilized on the original BA to improve the population diversity and global searching capability. Numerical examples are applied to three test systems in order to evaluate the performances of the presented framework

  16. Understanding Effect of Constraint Release Environment on End-to-End Vector Relaxation of Linear Polymer Chains

    KAUST Repository

    Shivokhin, Maksim E.; Read, Daniel J.; Kouloumasis, Dimitris; Kocen, Rok; Zhuge, Flanco; Bailly, Christian; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos; Likhtman, Alexei E.

    2017-01-01

    of a linear probe chain. For this purpose we first validate the ability of the model to consistently predict both the viscoelastic and dielectric response of monodisperse and binary mixtures of type A polymers, based on published experimental data. We

  17. The effect of breed and parity on curves of body condition during lactation estimated using a non-linear function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friggens, N C; Badsberg, J H

    2007-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to see if the body condition score curve during lactation could be described using a model amenable to biological interpretation, a non-linear function assuming exponential rates of change in body condition with time, and to quantify the effect of breed and parity on curves of body condition during lactation. Three breeds were represented: Danish Holstein (n = 112), Danish Red (n = 97) and Jerseys (n = 8). Cows entered the experiment at the start of first lactation and were studied during consecutive lactations (average number of lactations 2, minimum 1, maximum 3). They remained on the same dietary treatment throughout. Body condition was scored to the nearest half unit on the Danish scale (see Kristensen (1986); derived from the Lowman et al. (1976) system) from 1 to 5 on days: 2, 14, 28, 42, 56, 84, 112, 168, 224 after calving. Additionally, condition score was recorded on the day of drying off the cow, 35, 21, and 7 days before expected calving and finally on the day of calving. All condition scores were made by the trained personal on the research farm, where the same person made 92% of the scores. The temporal patterns in condition score were modelled as consisting of two underlying processes, one related to days from calving, referred to as lactation only, the other to days from (subsequent) conception, referred to as pregnancy. Both processes were assumed to be exponential functions of time. Each process was modelled separately using exponential functions, i.e. one model for lactation only and one for pregnancy, and then a combined model for both lactation only and pregnancy was fitted. The data set contained 467 lactation periods and 378 pregnancy periods. The temporal patterns in condition score of cows kept under stable and sufficient nutritional conditions were successfully described using a two component non-linear function. First lactation cows had shallower curves, they had greater condition scores at the nadir

  18. Viscoelasticity in Polymers: Phenomenological to Molecular Mathematical Modelling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Banks, H. T; Luke, N. S

    2006-01-01

    We report on two recent advances in the modelling of viscoelastic polymers: (i) a new constitutive model which combines the virtual stick-slip continuum "molecular-based" ideas of Johnson and Stacer with the Rouse bead chain ideas; (ii...

  19. Experimental characterisation of a novel viscoelastic rectifier design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian Ejlebjærg; Okkels, Fridolin; Szabo, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A planar microfluidic system with contractions and obstacles is characterized in terms of anisotropic flow resistance due to viscoelastic effects. The working mechanism is illustrated using streak photography, while the diodicity performance is quantified by pressure drop measurements. The point ...

  20. Stagnation point flow and heat transfer for a viscoelastic fluid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M REZA

    2017-11-09

    Nov 9, 2017 ... MS received 15 August 2016; revised 26 February 2017; accepted 15 March 2017; published online 9 ... surface has several engineering applications within, for ... viscoelastic fluids in several industrial manufacturing pro-.

  1. Large deflection of viscoelastic beams using fractional derivative model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahranini, Seyed Masoud Sotoodeh; Eghtesad, Mohammad; Ghavanloo, Esmaeal; Farid, Mehrdad

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with large deflection of viscoelastic beams using a fractional derivative model. For this purpose, a nonlinear finite element formulation of viscoelastic beams in conjunction with the fractional derivative constitutive equations has been developed. The four-parameter fractional derivative model has been used to describe the constitutive equations. The deflected configuration for a uniform beam with different boundary conditions and loads is presented. The effect of the order of fractional derivative on the large deflection of the cantilever viscoelastic beam, is investigated after 10, 100, and 1000 hours. The main contribution of this paper is finite element implementation for nonlinear analysis of viscoelastic fractional model using the storage of both strain and stress histories. The validity of the present analysis is confirmed by comparing the results with those found in the literature.

  2. Investigation of transient cavitating flow in viscoelastic pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keramat, A; Tijsseling, A S; Ahmadi, A

    2010-01-01

    A study on water hammer in viscoelastic pipes when the fluid pressure drops to liquid vapour pressure is performed. Two important concepts including column separation and the effects of retarded strains in the pipe wall on the fluid response have been investigated separately in recent works, but there is some curiosity as to how the results for pressure and discharge are when column separation occurs in a viscoelastic pipe. For pipes made of plastic such as polyethylene (PE) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC), viscoelasticity is a crucial mechanical property which changes the hydraulic and structural transient responses. Based on previous developments in the analysis of water hammer, a model which is capable of analysing column separation in viscoelastic pipes is presented and used for solving the selected case studies. For the column-separation modelling the Discrete Vapour Cavity Model (DVCM) is utilised and the viscoelasticity property of the pipe wall is modelled by Kelvin-Voigt elements. The effects of viscoelasticity play an important role in the column separation phenomenon because it changes the water hammer fundamental frequency and so affects the time of opening or collapse of the cavities. Verification of the implemented computer code is performed for the effects of viscoelasticity and column separation - separately and simultaneously - using experimental results from the literature. In the provided examples the focus is placed on the simultaneous effect of viscoelasticity and column separation on the hydraulic transient response. The final conclusions drawn are that if rectangular grids are utilised the DVCM gives acceptable predictions of the phenomenon and that the pipe wall material's retarded behaviour strongly dampens the pressure spikes caused by column separation.

  3. Modelling Viscoelasticity of Loudspeaker Suspensions using Retardation Spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Tobias; Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2010-01-01

    , the viscoelastic retardation spectrum, which provides a more fundamental description of the suspension viscoelasticity, is rst used to explain the accuracy of the empirical LOG creep model (Knudsen et al.). Then, two extensions to the LOG model are proposed which include the low and high frequency limit...... of the compliance, not accounted for in the original LOG model. The new creep models are veried by measurements on two 5.5 loudspeakers with different surrounds....

  4. Investigation of transient cavitating flow in viscoelastic pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keramat, A.; Tijsseling, A. S.; Ahmadi, A.

    2010-08-01

    A study on water hammer in viscoelastic pipes when the fluid pressure drops to liquid vapour pressure is performed. Two important concepts including column separation and the effects of retarded strains in the pipe wall on the fluid response have been investigated separately in recent works, but there is some curiosity as to how the results for pressure and discharge are when column separation occurs in a viscoelastic pipe. For pipes made of plastic such as polyethylene (PE) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC), viscoelasticity is a crucial mechanical property which changes the hydraulic and structural transient responses. Based on previous developments in the analysis of water hammer, a model which is capable of analysing column separation in viscoelastic pipes is presented and used for solving the selected case studies. For the column-separation modelling the Discrete Vapour Cavity Model (DVCM) is utilised and the viscoelasticity property of the pipe wall is modelled by Kelvin-Voigt elements. The effects of viscoelasticity play an important role in the column separation phenomenon because it changes the water hammer fundamental frequency and so affects the time of opening or collapse of the cavities. Verification of the implemented computer code is performed for the effects of viscoelasticity and column separation - separately and simultaneously - using experimental results from the literature. In the provided examples the focus is placed on the simultaneous effect of viscoelasticity and column separation on the hydraulic transient response. The final conclusions drawn are that if rectangular grids are utilised the DVCM gives acceptable predictions of the phenomenon and that the pipe wall material's retarded behaviour strongly dampens the pressure spikes caused by column separation.

  5. Modelling water hammer in viscoelastic pipelines: short brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanowicz, K.; Firkowski, M.; Zarzycki, Z.

    2016-10-01

    The model of water hammer in viscoelastic pipelines is analyzed. An appropriate mathematical model of water hammer in polymer pipelines is presented. An additional term has been added to continuity equation to describe the retarded deformation of the pipe wall. The mechanical behavior of viscoelastic material is described by generalized Kelvin-Voigt model. The comparison of numerical simulation and experimental data from well known papers is presented. Short discussion about obtained results are given.

  6. A variational constitutive framework for the nonlinear viscoelastic response of a dielectric elastomer

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Kamran

    2012-11-10

    We formulate a variational constitutive framework that accounts for nonlinear viscous behavior of electrically sensitive polymers, specifically Dielectric Elastomers (DEs), under large deformation. DEs are highly viscoelastic and their actuation response is greatly affected in dynamic applications. We used the generalized Maxwell model to represent the viscoelastic response of DE allowing the material to relax with multiple mechanisms. The constitutive updates at each load increment are obtained by minimizing an objective function formulated using the free energy and electrostatic energy of the elastomer, in addition to the viscous dissipation potential of the dashpots in each Maxwell branch. The model is then used to predict the electromechanical instability (EMI) of DE. The electro-elastic response of the DE is verified with available analytical solutions in the literature and then the material parameters are calibrated using experimental data. The model is integrated with finite element software to perform a variety of simulations on different types of electrically driven actuators under various electromechanical loadings. The electromechanical response of the DE and the critical conditions at which EMI occurs were found to be greatly affected by the viscoelasticity. Our model predicts that under a dead load EMI can be avoided if the DE operates at a high voltage rate. Subjected to constant, ramp and cyclic voltage, our model qualitatively predicts responses similar to the ones obtained from the analytical solutions and experimental data available in the literature. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  7. Application of the principal fractional meta-trigonometric functions for the solution of linear commensurate-order time-invariant fractional differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, C F; Hartley, T T; Malti, R

    2013-05-13

    A new and simplified method for the solution of linear constant coefficient fractional differential equations of any commensurate order is presented. The solutions are based on the R-function and on specialized Laplace transform pairs derived from the principal fractional meta-trigonometric functions. The new method simplifies the solution of such fractional differential equations and presents the solutions in the form of real functions as opposed to fractional complex exponential functions, and thus is directly applicable to real-world physics.

  8. Superstatistical generalised Langevin equation: non-Gaussian viscoelastic anomalous diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ślęzak, Jakub; Metzler, Ralf; Magdziarz, Marcin

    2018-02-01

    Recent advances in single particle tracking and supercomputing techniques demonstrate the emergence of normal or anomalous, viscoelastic diffusion in conjunction with non-Gaussian distributions in soft, biological, and active matter systems. We here formulate a stochastic model based on a generalised Langevin equation in which non-Gaussian shapes of the probability density function and normal or anomalous diffusion have a common origin, namely a random parametrisation of the stochastic force. We perform a detailed analysis demonstrating how various types of parameter distributions for the memory kernel result in exponential, power law, or power-log law tails of the memory functions. The studied system is also shown to exhibit a further unusual property: the velocity has a Gaussian one point probability density but non-Gaussian joint distributions. This behaviour is reflected in the relaxation from a Gaussian to a non-Gaussian distribution observed for the position variable. We show that our theoretical results are in excellent agreement with stochastic simulations.

  9. Unsteady Magnetized Flow and Heat Transfer of a Viscoelastic fluid over a Stretching Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sushil Kumar

    2017-12-01

    This paper is to study the flow of heated ferro-fluid over a stretching sheet under the influence of magnetic field. The fluid considered in the present investigation is a mixture of blood as well as fluid-dispersed magnetic nano particles and under this context blood is found to be the appropriate choice of viscoelastic, Walter's B fluid. The objective of the present work is to study the effect of various parameters found in the mathematical analysis. Taking into account the blood has zero electrical conductivity, magnetization effect has been considered in the governing equation of the present study with the use of ferro-fluid dynamics principle. By introducing appropriate non-dimensional variables into the governing equations of unsteady two-dimensional flow of viscoelastic fluid with heat transfer are converted to a set of ordinary differential equations with appropriate boundary conditions. Newton's linearization technique has been employed for the solution of non-linear ordinary differential equations. Important results found in the present investigation are the substantial influence of ferro-magnetic parameter, Prandlt number and the parameter associated with the thermal conductivity on the flow and heat transfer. It is observed that the presence of magnetic dipole essentially reduces the flow velocity in the vertical direction and that helps to damage the cancer cells in the tumor region.

  10. A viscoelastic-viscoplastic model for short-fibre reinforced polymers with complex fibre orientations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nciri M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an innovative approach for the modelling of viscous behaviour of short-fibre reinforced composites (SFRC with complex distributions of fibre orientations and for a wide range of strain rates. As an alternative to more complex homogenisation methods, the model is based on an additive decomposition of the state potential for the computation of composite’s macroscopic behaviour. Thus, the composite material is seen as the assembly of a matrix medium and several linear elastic fibre media. The division of short fibres into several families means that complex distributions of orientation or random orientation can be easily modelled. The matrix behaviour is strain-rate sensitive, i.e. viscoelastic and/or viscoplastic. Viscoelastic constitutive laws are based on a generalised linear Maxwell model and the modelling of the viscoplasticity is based on an overstress approach. The model is tested for the case of a polypropylene reinforced with short-glass fibres with distributed orientations and subjected to uniaxial tensile tests, in different loading directions and under different strain rates. Results demonstrate the efficiency of the model over a wide range of strain rates.

  11. Investigation of pitchfork bifurcation phenomena effects on heat transfer of viscoelastic flow inside a symmetric sudden expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbani-Zahiri, A.; Hassanzadeh, H.; Shahmardan, M. M.; Norouzi, M.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, the inertial and non-isothermal flows of the viscoelastic fluid through a planar channel with symmetric sudden expansion are numerically simulated. Effects of pitchfork bifurcation phenomena on the heat transfer rate are examined for the thermally developing and fully developed flow of the viscoelastic fluid inside the expanded part of the planar channel with an expansion ratio of 1:3. The rheological model of exponential Phan Thien-Tanner is used to include both the effects of shear-thinning and elasticity in fluid viscosity. The properties of fluids are temperature-dependent, and the viscous dissipation and heat stored by fluid elasticity are considered in the heat transfer equation. For coupling the governing equations, the PISO algorithm (Pressure Implicit with Splitting of Operator) is applied and the system of equations is linearized using the finite volume method on the collocated grids. The main purpose of this study is to examine the pitchfork bifurcation phenomena and its influences on the temperature distribution, the local and mean Nusselt numbers, and the first and second normal stress differences at different Reynolds, elasticity, and Brinkman numbers. The results show that by increasing the Brinkman number for the heated flow of the viscoelastic fluid inside the expanded part of the channel, the value of the mean Nusselt number is almost linearly decreased. Also, the maximum values of the local Nusselt number for the thermally developing flow and the local Nusselt number of the thermally fully developed flow are decremented by enhancing the Brinkman number.

  12. On the propagation of transient waves in a viscoelastic Bessel medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombaro, Ivano; Giusti, Andrea; Mainardi, Francesco

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we discuss the uniaxial propagation of transient waves within a semi-infinite viscoelastic Bessel medium. First, we provide the analytic expression for the response function of the material as we approach the wave front. To do so, we take profit of a revisited version of the so called Buchen-Mainardi algorithm. Secondly, we provide an analytic expression for the long-time behavior of the response function of the material. This result is obtained by means of the Tauberian theorems for the Laplace transform. Finally, we relate the obtained results to a peculiar model for fluid-filled elastic tubes.

  13. A guide to developing resource selection functions from telemetry data using generalized estimating equations and generalized linear mixed models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Koper

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Resource selection functions (RSF are often developed using satellite (ARGOS or Global Positioning System (GPS telemetry datasets, which provide a large amount of highly correlated data. We discuss and compare the use of generalized linear mixed-effects models (GLMM and generalized estimating equations (GEE for using this type of data to develop RSFs. GLMMs directly model differences among caribou, while GEEs depend on an adjustment of the standard error to compensate for correlation of data points within individuals. Empirical standard errors, rather than model-based standard errors, must be used with either GLMMs or GEEs when developing RSFs. There are several important differences between these approaches; in particular, GLMMs are best for producing parameter estimates that predict how management might influence individuals, while GEEs are best for predicting how management might influence populations. As the interpretation, value, and statistical significance of both types of parameter estimates differ, it is important that users select the appropriate analytical method. We also outline the use of k-fold cross validation to assess fit of these models. Both GLMMs and GEEs hold promise for developing RSFs as long as they are used appropriately.

  14. Electrostatic interactions in finite systems treated with periodic boundary conditions: application to linear-scaling density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hine, Nicholas D M; Dziedzic, Jacek; Haynes, Peter D; Skylaris, Chris-Kriton

    2011-11-28

    We present a comparison of methods for treating the electrostatic interactions of finite, isolated systems within periodic boundary conditions (PBCs), within density functional theory (DFT), with particular emphasis on linear-scaling (LS) DFT. Often, PBCs are not physically realistic but are an unavoidable consequence of the choice of basis set and the efficacy of using Fourier transforms to compute the Hartree potential. In such cases the effects of PBCs on the calculations need to be avoided, so that the results obtained represent the open rather than the periodic boundary. The very large systems encountered in LS-DFT make the demands of the supercell approximation for isolated systems more difficult to manage, and we show cases where the open boundary (infinite cell) result cannot be obtained from extrapolation of calculations from periodic cells of increasing size. We discuss, implement, and test three very different approaches for overcoming or circumventing the effects of PBCs: truncation of the Coulomb interaction combined with padding of the simulation cell, approaches based on the minimum image convention, and the explicit use of open boundary conditions (OBCs). We have implemented these approaches in the ONETEP LS-DFT program and applied them to a range of systems, including a polar nanorod and a protein. We compare their accuracy, complexity, and rate of convergence with simulation cell size. We demonstrate that corrective approaches within PBCs can achieve the OBC result more efficiently and accurately than pure OBC approaches.

  15. Investigations on the visco-elastic behaviour of a human healthy heel pad: in vivo compression tests and numerical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matteoli, Sara; Fontanella, Chiara G.; Carniel, Emanuele L.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the viscoelastic behaviour of the human heel pad by comparing the stress–relaxation curves obtained from a compression device used on an in vivo heel pad with those obtained from a threedimensional computer-based subject-specific heel pad model subjected...... numerical analyses were performed to interpret the mechanical response of heel tissues, with loading conditions and displacement rate in agreement with experimental tests. The heel tissues showed a non-linear, viscoelastic behaviour described by characteristic hysteretic curves, stress......–relaxation and viscous recovery phenomena. The reliability of the investigations was validated by the interpretation of the mechanical response of heel tissues under the application of three pistons with diameter of 15, 20 and 40 mm, at the same displacement rate of about 1.7 mm/s. The maximum and minimum relative...

  16. The mechanical problems on additive manufacturing of viscoelastic solids with integral conditions on a surface increasing in the growth process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parshin, D. A.; Manzhirov, A. V.

    2018-04-01

    Quasistatic mechanical problems on additive manufacturing aging viscoelastic solids are investigated. The processes of piecewise-continuous accretion of such solids are considered. The consideration is carried out in the framework of linear mechanics of growing solids. A theorem about commutativity of the integration over an arbitrary surface increasing in the solid growing process and the time-derived integral operator of viscoelasticity with a limit depending on the solid point is proved. This theorem provides an efficient way to construct on the basis of Saint-Venant principle solutions of nonclassical boundary-value problems for describing the mechanical behaviour of additively formed solids with integral satisfaction of boundary conditions on the surfaces expanding due to the additional material influx to the formed solid. The constructed solutions will retrace the evolution of the stress-strain state of the solids under consideration during and after the processes of their additive formation. An example of applying the proved theorem is given.

  17. Investigation of the effects of time periodic pressure and engpotential gradients on viscoelastic fluid flow in circular narrow confinements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Trieu; van der Meer, Devaraj; van den Berg, Albert

    2017-01-01

    -Boltzmann equation, together with the incompressible Cauchy momentum equation under no-slip boundary conditions for viscoelastic fluid in the case of a combination of time periodic pressure-driven and electro-osmotic flow. The resulting solutions allow us to predict the electrical current and solution flow rate...... conversion applications. We also found that time periodic electro-osmotic flow in many cases is much stronger enhanced than time periodic pressure-driven flow when comparing the flow profiles of oscillating PDF and EOF in micro-and nanochannels. The findings advance our understanding of time periodic......In this paper we present an in-depth analysis and analytical solution for time periodic hydrodynamic flow (driven by a time-dependent pressure gradient and electric field) of viscoelastic fluid through cylindrical micro-and nanochannels. Particularly, we solve the linearized Poisson...

  18. Framework for analyzing hyper-viscoelastic polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Akash; Siviour, Clive

    2017-06-01

    Hyper-viscoelastic polymers have multiple areas of application including aerospace, biomedicine, and automotive. Their mechanical responses are therefore extremely important to understand, particularly because they exhibit strong rate and temperature dependence, including a low temperature brittle transition. Relationships between the response at various strain rates and temperatures are investigated and a framework developed to predict response at rates where experiments are unfeasible. A master curve of the storage modulus's rate dependence at a reference temperature is constructed using a DMA test of the polymer. A frequency sweep spanning two decades and a temperature range from pre-glass transition to pre-melt is used. A fractional derivative model is fitted to the experimental data, and this model's parameters are used to derive stress-strain relationships at a desired strain rate. Finite element simulations with this constitutive model are used for verification with experimental data. This material is based upon work supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Air Force Materiel Command, USAF under Award No. FA9550-15-1-0448.

  19. Deformation of extreme viscoelastic metals and composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.C.; Ludwigson, M.; Lakes, R.S.

    2004-01-01

    The figure of merit for structural damping and damping layer applications is the product of stiffness E and damping tan δ. For most materials, even practical polymer damping layers, E tan δ is less than 0.6 GPa. We consider several methods to achieve high values of this figure of merit: high damping metals, metal matrix composites and composites containing constituents of negative stiffness. As for high damping metals, damping of polycrystalline zinc was determined and compared with InSn studied earlier. Damping of Zn is less dependent on frequency than that of InSn, so Zn is superior at high frequency. High damping and large stiffness anomalies are possible in viscoelastic composites with inclusions of negative stiffness. Negative stiffness entails a reversal of the usual directional relationship between force and displacement in deformed objects. An isolated object with negative stiffness is unstable, but an inclusion embedded in a composite matrix can be stabilized under some circumstances. Ferroelastic domains in the vicinity of a phase transition can exhibit a region of negative stiffness. Metal matrix composites containing vanadium dioxide were prepared and studied. The concentration of embedded particles was sensitive to the processing method

  20. The Multiple Correspondence Analysis Method and Brain Functional Connectivity: Its Application to the Study of the Non-linear Relationships of Motor Cortex and Basal Ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Sabate, Clara; Morales, Ingrid; Sanchez, Alberto; Rodriguez, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    The complexity of basal ganglia (BG) interactions is often condensed into simple models mainly based on animal data and that present BG in closed-loop cortico-subcortical circuits of excitatory/inhibitory pathways which analyze the incoming cortical data and return the processed information to the cortex. This study was aimed at identifying functional relationships in the BG motor-loop of 24 healthy-subjects who provided written, informed consent and whose BOLD-activity was recorded by MRI methods. The analysis of the functional interaction between these centers by correlation techniques and multiple linear regression showed non-linear relationships which cannot be suitably addressed with these methods. The multiple correspondence analysis (MCA), an unsupervised multivariable procedure which can identify non-linear interactions, was used to study the functional connectivity of BG when subjects were at rest. Linear methods showed different functional interactions expected according to current BG models. MCA showed additional functional interactions which were not evident when using lineal methods. Seven functional configurations of BG were identified with MCA, two involving the primary motor and somatosensory cortex, one involving the deepest BG (external-internal globus pallidum, subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigral), one with the input-output BG centers (putamen and motor thalamus), two linking the input-output centers with other BG (external pallidum and subthalamic nucleus), and one linking the external pallidum and the substantia nigral. The results provide evidence that the non-linear MCA and linear methods are complementary and should be best used in conjunction to more fully understand the nature of functional connectivity of brain centers.