Design of a nonlinear torsional vibration absorber
Tahir, Ammaar Bin
Tuned mass dampers (TMD) utilizing linear spring mechanisms to mitigate destructive vibrations are commonly used in practice. A TMD is usually tuned for a specific resonant frequency or an operating frequency of a system. Recently, nonlinear vibration absorbers attracted attention of researchers due to some potential advantages they possess over the TMDs. The nonlinear vibration absorber, or the nonlinear energy sink (NES), has an advantage of being effective over a broad range of excitation frequencies, which makes it more suitable for systems with several resonant frequencies, or for a system with varying excitation frequency. Vibration dissipation mechanism in an NES is passive and ensures that there is no energy backflow to the primary system. In this study, an experimental setup of a rotational system has been designed for validation of the concept of nonlinear torsional vibration absorber with geometrically induced cubic stiffness nonlinearity. Dimensions of the primary system have been optimized so as to get the first natural frequency of the system to be fairly low. This was done in order to excite the dynamic system for torsional vibration response by the available motor. Experiments have been performed to obtain the modal parameters of the system. Based on the obtained modal parameters, the design optimization of the nonlinear torsional vibration absorber was carried out using an equivalent 2-DOF modal model. The optimality criterion was chosen to be maximization of energy dissipation in the nonlinear absorber attached to the equivalent 2-DOF system. The optimized design parameters of the nonlinear absorber were tested on the original 5-DOF system numerically. A comparison was made between the performance of linear and nonlinear absorbers using the numerical models. The comparison showed the superiority of the nonlinear absorber over its linear counterpart for the given set of primary system parameters as the vibration energy dissipation in the former is
Adaptive Piezoelectric Absorber for Active Vibration Control
Sven Herold
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Passive vibration control solutions are often limited to working reliably at one design point. Especially applied to lightweight structures, which tend to have unwanted vibration, active vibration control approaches can outperform passive solutions. To generate dynamic forces in a narrow frequency band, passive single-degree-of-freedom oscillators are frequently used as vibration absorbers and neutralizers. In order to respond to changes in system properties and/or the frequency of excitation forces, in this work, adaptive vibration compensation by a tunable piezoelectric vibration absorber is investigated. A special design containing piezoelectric stack actuators is used to cover a large tuning range for the natural frequency of the adaptive vibration absorber, while also the utilization as an active dynamic inertial mass actuator for active control concepts is possible, which can help to implement a broadband vibration control system. An analytical model is set up to derive general design rules for the system. An absorber prototype is set up and validated experimentally for both use cases of an adaptive vibration absorber and inertial mass actuator. Finally, the adaptive vibration control system is installed and tested with a basic truss structure in the laboratory, using both the possibility to adjust the properties of the absorber and active control.
Linear and nonlinear piezoelectric shunting strategies for vibration mitigation
Soltani P.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper studies linear and nonlinear piezoelectric vibration absorbers that are designed based on the equal-peak method. A comparison between the performance of linear mechanical and electrical tuned vibration absorbers coupled to a linear oscillator is first performed. Nonlinearity is then introduced in the primary oscillator to which a new nonlinear electrical tuned vibration absorber is attached. Despite the frequency-energy dependence of nonlinear oscillations, we show that the nonlinear absorber is capable of effectively mitigating the vibrations of the nonlinear primary system in a large range of forcing amplitudes.
Actual behaviour of a ball vibration absorber
Pirner, Miroš
2002-01-01
Roč. 90, č. 8 (2002), s. 987-1005 ISSN 0167-6105 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GV103/96/K034 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : TV towers * wind-excited vibrations * vibration absorbers * pendulum absorber Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering Impact factor: 0.513, year: 2002 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167610502002155#
Novel active vibration absorber with magnetorheological fluid
Gerlach, T; Ehrlich, J; Boese, H [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Silicatforschung ISC, Neunerplatz 2, D-97082 Wuerzburg (Germany)], E-mail: thomas.gerlach@isc.fraunhofer.de
2009-02-01
Disturbing vibrations diminish the performance of technical high precision devices significantly. In search of a suitable solution for reducing these vibrations, a novel concept of active vibration reduction was developed which exploits the special properties of magnetorheological fluids. In order to evaluate the concept of such an active vibration absorber (AVA) a demonstrator was designed and manufactured. This demonstrator generates a force which counteracts the motion of the vibrating body. Since the counterforce is generated by a centrifugal exciter, the AVA provides the capability to compensate vibrations even in two dimensions. To control the strength of the force transmitted to the vibrating body, the exciter is based on a tunable MR coupling. The AVA was integrated in an appropriate testing device to investigate its performance. The recorded results show a significant reduction of the vibration amplitudes by an order of magnitude.
Megow, Joerg; Kulesza, Alexander; Qu Zhengwang; Ronneberg, Thomas; Bonacic-Koutecky, Vlasta; May, Volkhard
2010-01-01
Graphical abstract: Structure of a single Pheo (green: C-atoms, blue: N-atoms, red; O-atoms, light grey: H-atoms). - Abstract: Linear absorption spectra of a single Pheophorbid-a molecule (Pheo) dissolved in ethanol are calculated in a mixed quantum-classical approach. In this computational scheme the absorbance is mainly determined by the time-dependent fluctuations of the energy gap between the Pheo ground and excited electronic state. The actual magnitude of the energy gap is caused by the electrostatic solvent solute coupling as well as by contributions due to intra Pheo vibrations. For the latter a new approach is proposed which is based on precalculated potential energy surfaces (PES) described in a harmonic approximation. To get the respective nuclear equilibrium configurations and Hessian matrices of the two involved electronic states we carried out the necessary electronic structure calculations in a DFT-framework. Since the Pheo changes its spatial orientation in the course of a MD run, the nuclear equilibrium configurations change their spatial position, too. Introducing a particular averaging procedure, these configurations are determined from the actual MD trajectories. The usability of the approach is underlined by a perfect reproduction of experimental data. This also demonstrates that our proposed method is suitable for the description of more complex systems in future investigations.
A transformation technique to treat strong vibrating absorbers
Sahni, D.C.; Garis, N.S.; Pazsit, I.
1998-06-01
Calculation of the neutron noise, induced by small amplitude vibrations of a strong absorber, is a difficult task because the traditional linearization technique cannot be applied. Two methods, based on two different representations of the absorber, were developed earlier to solve the problem. In both methods the rod displacements are described by a Taylor expansion, such that the boundary condition needs only to be considered at the surface of a static rod. Only one of the methods is applicable in two dimensions. In this paper an alternative method is developed and used for the solution of the problem. The essence of the method is a variable transformation by which the moving boundary is transformed into a static one without Taylor expansion. The corresponding equations are solved in a linear manner and the solution is transformed back to the original parameter space. The method is equally applicable in one and two dimensions. The solutions are in complete agreement with those of the previous methods
Nonlinear convergence active vibration absorber for single and multiple frequency vibration control
Wang, Xi; Yang, Bintang; Guo, Shufeng; Zhao, Wenqiang
2017-12-01
This paper presents a nonlinear convergence algorithm for active dynamic undamped vibration absorber (ADUVA). The damping of absorber is ignored in this algorithm to strengthen the vibration suppressing effect and simplify the algorithm at the same time. The simulation and experimental results indicate that this nonlinear convergence ADUVA can help significantly suppress vibration caused by excitation of both single and multiple frequency. The proposed nonlinear algorithm is composed of equivalent dynamic modeling equations and frequency estimator. Both the single and multiple frequency ADUVA are mathematically imitated by the same mechanical structure with a mass body and a voice coil motor (VCM). The nonlinear convergence estimator is applied to simultaneously satisfy the requirements of fast convergence rate and small steady state frequency error, which are incompatible for linear convergence estimator. The convergence of the nonlinear algorithm is mathematically proofed, and its non-divergent characteristic is theoretically guaranteed. The vibration suppressing experiments demonstrate that the nonlinear ADUVA can accelerate the convergence rate of vibration suppressing and achieve more decrement of oscillation attenuation than the linear ADUVA.
LINEAR MODEL FOR NON ISOSCELES ABSORBERS.
BERG,J.S.
2003-05-12
Previous analyses have assumed that wedge absorbers are triangularly shaped with equal angles for the two faces. In this case, to linear order, the energy loss depends only on the position in the direction of the face tilt, and is independent of the incoming angle. One can instead construct an absorber with entrance and exit faces facing rather general directions. In this case, the energy loss can depend on both the position and the angle of the particle in question. This paper demonstrates that and computes the effect to linear order.
Multimodal tuned dynamic absorber for split Stirling linear cryocooler
Veprik, A.; Tuito, A.
2017-02-01
Forthcoming low size, weight, power and price split Stirling linear cryocoolers may rely on electro-dynamically driven single-piston compressors and pneumatically driven expanders interconnected by the configurable transfer line. For compactness, compressor and expander units may be placed in a side-by-side manner, thus producing tonal vibration export comprising force and moment components. In vibration sensitive applications, this may result in excessive angular line of sight jitter and translational defocusing affecting the image quality. The authors present Multimodal Tuned Dynamic Absorber (MTDA), having one translational and two tilting modes essentially tuned to the driving frequency. The dynamic reactions (force and moment) produced by such a MTDA are simultaneously counterbalancing force and moment vibration export produced by the cryocooler. The authors reveal the design details, the method of fine modal tuning and outcomes of numerical simulation on attainable performance.
Vibration control of ultrasonic cutting via dynamic absorber
Amer, Y.A. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig (Egypt)]. E-mail: yasser31270@yahoo.com
2007-08-15
Ultrasonic machining (USM) is one of the most effective non-conventional techniques. Its application especially to hard-to-machine material (HTM) is growing rapidly. The main operation condition of USM is at resonance where an exciter derives a tuned blade or a tool. In this paper, the coupling of two non-linear oscillators of the main system and absorber representing ultrasonic cutting process are investigated. This leads to a two-degree-of-freedom Duffing's oscillator in which such non-linear effects can be neutralized under certain dynamic conditions. The aim of this work is the control of the system behavior at principal parametric resonance condition where the system damage is probable. An approximate solution is derived up to the second order for the coupled system. A threshold value of linear damping has been obtained, where the system vibration can be reduced dramatically. The stability of the system is investigated applying both phase-plane and frequency response techniques. The effects of the different parameters of the absorber on system behavior are studied numerically. Comparison with the available published work is reported.
Frequency Tuning of Vibration Absorber Using Topology Optimization
Harel, Swapnil Subhash
A tuned mass absorber is a system for reducing the amplitude in one oscillator by coupling it to a second oscillator. If tuned correctly, the maximum amplitude of the first oscillator in response to a periodic driver will be lowered, and much of the vibration will be 'transferred' to the second oscillator. The tuned vibration absorber (TVA) has been utilized for vibration control purposes in many sectors of Civil/Automotive/Aerospace Engineering for many decades since its inception. Time and again we come across a situation in which a vibratory system is required to run near resonance. In the past, approaches have been made to design such auxiliary spring mass tuned absorbers for the safety of the structures. This research focuses on the development and optimization of continuously tuned mass absorbers as a substitute to the discretely tuned mass absorbers (spring- mass system). After conducting the study of structural behavior, the boundary condition and frequency to which the absorber is to be tuned are determined. The Modal analysis approach is used to determine mode shapes and frequencies. The absorber is designed and optimized using the topology optimization tool, which simultaneously designs, optimizes and tunes the absorber to the desired frequency. The tuned, optimized absorber, after post processing, is attached to the target structure. The number of the absorbers are increased to amplify bandwidth and thereby upgrade the safety of structure for a wide range of frequency. The frequency response analysis is carried out using various combinations of structure and number of absorber cell.
Practical design of a nonlinear tuned vibration absorber
Grappasonni, C.; Habib, G.; Detroux, T.
2014-01-01
The aim of the paper is to develop a new nonlinear tuned vibration absorber (NLTVA) capable of mitigating the vibrations of nonlinear systems which are known to exhibit frequency-energy-dependent oscillations. A nonlinear generalization of Den Hartog's equal-peak method is proposed to ensure equa...
Analysis and simulation of centrifugal pendulum vibration absorbers
Smith, Emma
2015-01-01
When environmental laws are constricted and downsizing of engines has become the reality of the vehicle industry, there needs to be a solution for the rise in torsion vibrations in the drivetrain. These increased levels of torsion vibrations are mostly due to excitations from the firing pulses, which in turn have become increased due to higher cylinder pressures. One of the solutions for further dampening the system is to add a centrifugal pendulum absorber to the flywheel, and predicting the...
Ultrasonic Linear Motor with Two Independent Vibrations
Muneishi, Takeshi; Tomikawa, Yoshiro
2004-09-01
We propose a new structure of an ultrasonic linear motor in order to solve the problems of high-power ultrasonic linear motors that drive the XY-stage for electron beam equipment and to expand the application fields of the motor. We pay special attention to the following three points: (1) the vibration in two directions of the ultrasonic linear motor should not influence mutually each other, (2) the vibration in two directions should be divided into the stage traveling direction and the pressing direction of the ultrasonic linear motor, and (3) the rigidity of the stage traveling direction of the ultrasonic linear motor should be increased. As a result, the supporting method of ultrasonic linear motors is simplified. The efficiency of the motor is improved and temperature rise is reduced. The stage position drift is also improved.
Optimum Design of a Nonlinear Vibration Absorber Coupled to a Resonant Oscillator: A Case Study
H. F. Abundis-Fong
2018-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the optimal design of a passive autoparametric cantilever beam vibration absorber for a linear mass-spring-damper system subject to harmonic external force. The design of the autoparametric vibration absorber is obtained by using an approximation of the nonlinear frequency response function, computed via the multiple scales method. Based on the solution given by the perturbation method mentioned above, a static optimization problem is formulated in order to determine the optimum parameters (mass and length of the nonlinear absorber which minimizes the steady state amplitude of the primary mass under resonant conditions; then, a PZT actuator is cemented to the base of the beam, so the nonlinear absorber is made active, thus enabling the possibility of controlling the effective stiffness associated with the passive absorber and, as a consequence, the implementation of an active vibration control scheme able to preserve, as possible, the autoparametric interaction as well as to compensate varying excitation frequencies and parametric uncertainty. Finally, some simulations and experimental results are included to validate and illustrate the dynamic performance of the overall system.
Impact self-excited vibrations of linear motor
Zhuravlev, V. Ph.
2010-08-01
Impact self-exciting vibration modes in a linear motor of a monorail car are studied. Existence and stability conditions of self-exciting vibrations are found. Ways of avoiding the vibrations are discussed.
Parameter optimization method for longitudinal vibration absorber of ship shaft system
LIU Jinlin
2017-05-01
Full Text Available The longitudinal vibration of the ship shaft system is the one of the most important factors of hull stern vibration, and it can be effectively minimized by installing a longitudinal vibration absorber. In this way, the vibration and noise of ships can be brought under control. However, the parameters of longitudinal vibration absorbers have a great influence on the vibration characteristics of the shaft system. As such, a certain shafting testing platform was studied as the object on which a finite model was built, and the relationship between longitudinal stiffness and longitudinal vibration in the shaft system was analyzed in a straight alignment state. Furthermore, a longitudinal damping model of the shaft system was built in which the parameters of the vibration absorber were non-dimensionalized, the weight of the vibration absorber was set as a constant, and an optimizing algorithm was used to calculate the optimized stiffness and damping coefficient of the vibration absorber. Finally, the longitudinal vibration frequency response of the shafting testing platform before and after optimizing the parameters of the longitudinal vibration absorber were compared, and the results indicated that the longitudinal vibration of the shafting testing platform was decreased effectively, which suggests that it could provide a theoretical foundation for the parameter optimization of longitudinal vibration absorbers.
Laser beam propagation in non-linearly absorbing media
Forbes, A
2006-08-01
Full Text Available Many analytical techniques exist to explore the propagation of certain laser beams in free space, or in a linearly absorbing medium. When the medium is nonlinearly absorbing the propagation must be described by an iterative process using the well...
On the perturbative calculation of the vibration noise by strong absorbers
Pazsit, I.; Karlsson, J.
1997-01-01
In two previous papers the neutron noise, induced by small vibrations of a strong absorber, was treated (Pazsit 1984, 1988). In these, two different rod models and corresponding different linearization procedures were used. The first, called the Feinberg-Galanin-Williams (FGW) model, uses a δ-function approximation of both the static and the vibrating rod. This model corresponds to preserving the static boundary condition (logarithmic derivative) at the surface of the moving rod. The second, a perturbative approach called the ε/d model, starts with a finite absorber and represents the vibration by two stationary absorbing layers with strengths fluctuating in opposite phase. It was found that these two models lead to differing results, indicating a contradiction. In this paper we show that the reason for this contradiction is that the previous results based on the ε/d model are in error. The error is due to the fact that the effect of the static rod was neglected in the Green's function. The correct ε/d result is calculated here in both one and two dimensions and is shown to be equivalent to the FGW results. This serves also as a confirmation of the two-dimensional FGW result which had earlier been derived only by heuristic arguments. (Author)
Evaluation of the Autoparametric Pendulum Vibration Absorber for a Duffing System
Benjamın Vazquez-Gonzalez
2008-01-01
Full Text Available In this work we study the frequency and dynamic response of a damped Duffing system attached to a parametrically excited pendulum vibration absorber. The multiple scales method is applied to get the autoparametric resonance conditions and the results are compared with a similar application of a pendulum absorber for a linear primary system. The approximate frequency analysis reveals that the nonlinear dynamics of the externally excited system are suppressed by the pendulum absorber and, under this condition, the primary Duffing system yields a time response almost equivalent to that obtained for a linear primary system, although the absorber frequency response is drastically modified and affected by the cubic stiffness, thus modifying the jumps defined by the fixed points. In the absorber frequency response can be appreciated a good absorption capability for certain ranges of nonlinear stiffness and the internal coupling is maintained by the existing damping between the pendulum and the primary system. Moreover, the stability of the coupled system is also affected by some extra fixed points introduced by the cubic stiffness, which is illustrated with several amplitude-force responses. Some numerical simulations of the approximate frequency responses and dynamic behavior are performed to show the steady-state and transient responses.
Sun, Shuaishuai; Yang, Jian; Li, Weihua; Alici, Gursel; Deng, Huaxia; Du, Haiping; Yan, Tianhong
2016-01-01
A new design of adaptive tuned vibration absorber was proposed in this study for vibration reduction. The innovation of the new absorber is the adoption of the eccentric mass on the top of the multilayered magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) structure so that this proposed absorber has two vibration modes: one in the torsional direction and the other in translational direction. This property enables the absorber to expand its effective bandwidth and to be more capable of reducing the vibrations especially dealing with those vibrations with multi-frequencies. The innovative MRE absorber was designed and tested on a horizontal vibration table. The test results illustrate that the MRE absorber realized double natural frequencies, both of which are controllable. Inertia’s influence on the dynamic behavior of the absorber is also investigated in order to guide the design of the innovative MRE absorber. Additionally, the experimentally obtained natural frequencies coincide with the theoretical data, which sufficiently verifies the feasibility of this new design. The last part in terms of the vibration absorption ability also proves that both of these two natural frequencies play a great role in absorbing vibration energy. (paper)
Sajid Rafique
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Over the past few years, remarkable developments in piezoelectric materials have motivated many researchers to work in the field of vibration energy harvesting by using piezoelectric beam like smart structures. This paper aimed to present the most recent application of a dual function piezoelectric device which can suppress vibration and harvest vibration energy simultaneously and a brief illustration of conventional mechanical and electrical TVAs (Tuned Vibration Absorber. It is shown that the proposed dual function device combines the benefits of conventional mechanical and electrical TVAs and reduces their relative disadvantages. Conversion of mechanical energy into electrical energy introduces damping and, hence, the optimal damping required by this TVA is generated by the energy harvesting effects. This paper presents the methodology of implementing the theory of 'electromechanical' TVAs to suppress the response of any real world structure. The work also illustrates the prospect of extensive applications of such novel "electromechanical" TVAs in defence and industry. The results show that the optimum degree of vibration suppression of an electronic box is achieved by this dual function TVA through suitable tuning of the attached electrical circuitry
Rafique, S.; Shah, S.
2014-01-01
Over the past few years, remarkable developments in piezoelectric materials have motivated many researchers to work in the field of vibration energy harvesting by using piezoelectric beam like smart structures. This paper aimed to present the most recent application of a dual function piezoelectric device which can suppress vibration and harvest vibration energy simultaneously and a brief illustration of conventional mechanical and electrical TVAs (Tuned Vibration Absorber). It is shown that the proposed dual function device combines the benefits of conventional mechanical and electrical TVAs and reduces their relative disadvantages. Conversion of mechanical energy into electrical energy introduces damping and, hence, the optimal damping required by this TVA is generated by the energy harvesting effects. This paper presents the methodology of implementing the theory of electromechanical TVAs to suppress the response of any real world structure. The work also illustrates the prospect of extensive applications of such novel electromechanical TVAs in defence and industry. The results show that the optimum degree of vibration suppression of an electronic box is achieved by this dual function TVA through suitable tuning of the attached electrical circuitry. (author)
MR Damper Controlled Vibration Absorber for Enhanced Mitigation of Harmonic Vibrations
Felix Weber
2016-12-01
Full Text Available This paper describes a semi-active vibration absorber (SVA concept based on a real-time controlled magnetorheological damper (MR-SVA for the enhanced mitigation of structural vibrations due to harmonic disturbing forces. The force of the MR damper is controlled in real-time to generate the frequency and damping controls according to the behaviour of the undamped vibration absorber for the actual frequency of vibration. As stiffness and damping emulations in semi-active actuators are coupled quantities the control is formulated to prioritize the frequency control by the controlled stiffness. The control algorithm is augmented by a stiffness correction method ensuring precise frequency control when the desired control force is constrained by the semi-active restriction and residual force of the MR damper. The force tracking task is solved by a model-based feed forward with feedback correction. The MR-SVA is numerically and experimentally validated for the primary structure with nominal eigenfrequency and when de-tuning of −10%, −5%, +5% and +10% is present. Both validations demonstrate that the MR-SVA improves the vibration reduction in the primary structure by up to 55% compared to the passive tuned mass damper (TMD. Furthermore, it is shown that the MR-SVA with only 80% of tuned mass leads to approximately the same enhanced performance while the associated increased relative motion amplitude of the tuned mass is more than compensated be the reduced dimensions of the mass. Therefore, the MR-SVA is an appropriate solution for the mitigation of tall buildings where the pendulum mass can be up to several thousands of metric tonnes and space for the pendulum damper is limited.
Marienfeld, P.M.; Karkosch, H.J. [ContiTech Vibration Control GmbH, Hannover (Germany); Bohn, C. [Technische Univ. Clausthal (Germany); Svaricek, F. [Univ. der Bundeswehr Muenchen (Germany); Knake-Langhorst, S. [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt, Braunschweig (Germany)
2008-07-01
In the automotive industry passive vibration absorbers are a well established method to reduce structural vibrations in automotive vehicles. Designing a vibration absorber consists of selecting its mechanical properties. Usually extensive tests are necessary with different absorbers in the vehicle and subjective as well as objective evaluation of the results. This requires hardware modifications between different tests. In this paper, an approach is proposed that can assist in the development of vibration absorbers. It is based on tuning an active vibration control system such that it reproduces the behavior of a specified vibration absorber. This behavior can then be changed electronically without modifying the hardware. Two different control approaches are compared. In the first approach, the apparent physical properties of a vibration absorber are directly modified through acceleration, velocity or displacement feedback. In the second approach, a desired dynamic mass transfer function for the vibration absorber is prescribed and an H2-norm optimal model matching problem is solved. Experimental results obtained with this approach are presented. (orig.)
Videometrics-based Detection of Vibration Linearity in MEMS Gyroscope
Yong Zhou
2011-05-01
Full Text Available MEMS gyroscope performs as a sort of sensor to detect angular velocity, with diverse applications in engineering including vehicle and intelligent traffic etc. A balanced vibration of driving module excited by electrostatic driving signal is the base MEMS gyroscope's performance. In order to analyze the linear property of vibration in MEMS Gyroscope, a method of computer vision measuring is applied with the help of high-speed vidicon to obtain video of linear vibration of driving module in gyroscope, under the driving voltage signal of inherent frequency and amplitude linearly increasing. By means of image processing, target identifying, and motion parameter extracting from the obtained video, vibration curve with time variation is acquired. And then, linearity of this vibration system can be analyzed by focusing on the amplitude value of vibration responding to the amplitude variation of driving voltage signal.
Optimal design of a magneto-rheological brake absorber for torsional vibration control
Nguyen, Q H; Choi, S B
2012-01-01
This research presents an optimal design of a magneto-rheological (MR) brake absorber for torsional vibration control of a rotating shaft. Firstly, the configuration of an MR brake absorber for torsional vibration control of a rotating shaft system is proposed. Then, the braking torque of the MR brake is derived based on the Bingham plastic model of the MR fluid. By assuming that the behaviour of the MR brake absorber is similar to that of a dry friction torsional damper, the optimal braking torque to control the torsional vibration is determined and validated by simulation. The optimal design problem of the MR brake absorber is then developed and a procedure to solve the optimal problem is proposed. Based on the proposed optimal design procedure, the optimal design of a specific rotating shaft system is performed. Vibration control performance of the shaft system employing the optimized MR brake absorber is then investigated through simulation and discussion on the results is given. (paper)
A New Vibration Absorber Design for Under-Chassis Device of a High-Speed Train
Yu Sun
2017-01-01
Full Text Available To realize the separation of vertical and lateral stiffness of the under-chassis device, a new type of vibration absorber is designed by using the negative stiffness of the disc spring in parallel with the rubber component. To solve its transmission characteristics, harmonic transfer method was used. A rigid-flexible coupling multibody dynamic model of a high-speed train with an elastic car body is established, and the vertical and lateral optimal stiffness of the under-chassis device are calculated. The Sperling index and acceleration PSD of the vehicle with the new vibration absorber and the vehicle with traditional rubber absorber are compared and analyzed. The results show that, with the new vibration absorber, vehicle’s running stability and vibration of the car body are more effective than the vehicle with the traditional rubber absorber.
Optimal design of a magneto-rheological brake absorber for torsional vibration control
Nguyen, Q. H.; Choi, S. B.
2012-02-01
This research presents an optimal design of a magneto-rheological (MR) brake absorber for torsional vibration control of a rotating shaft. Firstly, the configuration of an MR brake absorber for torsional vibration control of a rotating shaft system is proposed. Then, the braking torque of the MR brake is derived based on the Bingham plastic model of the MR fluid. By assuming that the behaviour of the MR brake absorber is similar to that of a dry friction torsional damper, the optimal braking torque to control the torsional vibration is determined and validated by simulation. The optimal design problem of the MR brake absorber is then developed and a procedure to solve the optimal problem is proposed. Based on the proposed optimal design procedure, the optimal design of a specific rotating shaft system is performed. Vibration control performance of the shaft system employing the optimized MR brake absorber is then investigated through simulation and discussion on the results is given.
Linear accelerator with x-ray absorbing insulators
Rose, P.H.
1975-01-01
Annular insulators for supporting successive annular electrodes in a linear accelerator have embedded x-ray absorbing shield structures extending around the accelerating path. The shield members are disposed to intercept x-ray radiation without disrupting the insulative effect of the insulator members. In preferred forms, the structure comprises a plurality of annular members of heavy metal disposed in an x-ray blocking array, spaced from each other by the insulating substance of the insulator member. (auth)
Optimal design of a beam-based dynamic vibration absorber using fixed-points theory
Hua, Yingyu; Wong, Waion; Cheng, Li
2018-05-01
The addition of a dynamic vibration absorber (DVA) to a vibrating structure could provide an economic solution for vibration suppressions if the absorber is properly designed and located onto the structure. A common design of the DVA is a sprung mass because of its simple structure and low cost. However, the vibration suppression performance of this kind of DVA is limited by the ratio between the absorber mass and the mass of the primary structure. In this paper, a beam-based DVA (beam DVA) is proposed and optimized for minimizing the resonant vibration of a general structure. The vibration suppression performance of the proposed beam DVA depends on the mass ratio, the flexural rigidity and length of the beam. In comparison with the traditional sprung mass DVA, the proposed beam DVA shows more flexibility in vibration control design because it has more design parameters. With proper design, the beam DVA's vibration suppression capability can outperform that of the traditional DVA under the same mass constraint. The general approach is illustrated using a benchmark cantilever beam as an example. The receptance theory is introduced to model the compound system consisting of the host beam and the attached beam-based DVA. The model is validated through comparisons with the results from Abaqus as well as the Transfer Matrix method (TMM) method. Fixed-points theory is then employed to derive the analytical expressions for the optimum tuning ratio and damping ratio of the proposed beam absorber. A design guideline is then presented to choose the parameters of the beam absorber. Comparisons are finally presented between the beam absorber and the traditional DVA in terms of the vibration suppression effect. It is shown that the proposed beam absorber can outperform the traditional DVA by following this proposed guideline.
Investigation of reactivity change and neutron noise due to random absorber vibrations. 2
Barthel, R.
1984-01-01
Perturbations of the neutron flux due to stochastically excited vibrations of absorbers have been investigated using a one-dimensional core model with N pointlike absorbers. Taking into account the flux depressions near the absorbers, pronounced peaks in the spectral power densities of the flux fluctuations have been found at multiples of the resonance frequencies in addition to the direct imaging of the resonances of absorber vibrations. Investigation of the space dependence of the corresponding transfer functions has shown that a localization is possible by means of the double frequency effect and that the dispersion of absorber vibrations can be determined by using the triple frequency effect. The conclusions of the paper are qualitatively compared with results of noise measurements at a pressurized water reactor. (author)
Lessons Learned on the Application of Vibration Absorbers for Enhanced Cannon Stabilization
Eric Kathe
2001-01-01
Full Text Available This paper will summarize the successful application of muzzle-end vibration absorbers to reduce cannon vibration. This technology constitutes a weapons stabilization approach that focuses on passive mechanical structural modification of the cannon, rather than relying upon an external control law to actively cancel vibrations. Challenges encountered during field testing, non-ideal behavior, and performance evaluation using digital signal processing will be highlighted.
A broadband frequency-tunable dynamic absorber for the vibration control of structures
Komatsuzaki, T; Inoue, T; Terashima, O
2016-01-01
A passive-type dynamic vibration absorber (DVA) is basically a mass-spring system that suppresses the vibration of a structure at a particular frequency. Since the natural frequency of the DVA is usually tuned to a frequency of particular excitation, the DVA is especially effective when the excitation frequency is close to the natural frequency of the structure. Fixing the physical properties of the DVA limits the application to a narrowband, harmonically excited vibration problem. A frequency-tunable DVA that can modulate its stiffness provides adaptability to the vibration control device against non-stationary disturbances. In this paper, we suggest a broadband frequency-tunable DVA whose natural frequency can be extended by 300% to the nominal value using the magnetorheological elastomers (MREs). The frequency adjustability of the proposed absorber is first shown. The real-time vibration control performance of the frequency-tunable absorber for an acoustically excited plate having multiple resonant peaks is then evaluated. Investigations show that the vibration of the structure can be effectively reduced with an improved performance by the DVA in comparison to the conventional passive- type absorber. (paper)
The Effect of a Vibration Absorber on the Damping Properties of Alpine Skis
Stefan Schwanitz
2018-02-01
Full Text Available Coupled bending-torsion vibrations at the shovel are a severe problem when running an alpine ski at high velocities on hard or icy slopes. Thus, a major goal for ski manufacturers is to dampen vibrations through a proper multi-material design and/or additional absorbers. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a particular vibration absorber on a commercial slalom ski through a series of laboratory tests as well as a subjective field evaluation. Therefore, two identical pairs of ski were used and the absorber was deactivated on one pair. Laboratory tests revealed reductions of 5% to 49% of bending vibrations on skis with activated absorber. Subjective evaluation by 6 subjects suggested minor differences in the mean of the evaluated criteria turnablity, edge grip, steering behavior and stability towards a better performance of the skis with activated absorber. Subjects were able to identify the absorber mode with a success rate of 61.1%.
Free vibration analysis of linear particle chain impact damper
Gharib, Mohamed; Ghani, Saud
2013-11-01
Impact dampers have gained much research interest over the past decades that resulted in several analytical and experimental studies being conducted in that area. The main emphasis of such research was on developing and enhancing these popular passive control devices with an objective of decreasing the three parameters of contact forces, accelerations, and noise levels. To that end, the authors of this paper have developed a novel impact damper, called the Linear Particle Chain (LPC) impact damper, which mainly consists of a linear chain of spherical balls of varying sizes. The LPC impact damper was designed utilizing the kinetic energy of the primary system through placing, in the chain arrangement, a small-sized ball between each two large-sized balls. The concept of the LPC impact damper revolves around causing the small-sized ball to collide multiple times with the larger ones upon exciting the primary system. This action is believed to lead to the dissipation of part of the kinetic energy at each collision with the large balls. This paper focuses on the outcome of studying the free vibration of a single degree freedom system that is equipped with the LPC impact damper. The proposed LPC impact damper is validated by means of comparing the responses of a single unit conventional impact damper with those resulting from the LPC impact damper. The results indicated that the latter is considerably more efficient than the former impact damper. In order to further investigate the LPC impact damper effective number of balls and efficient geometry when used in a specific available space in the primary system, a parametric study was conducted and its result is also explained herein. Single unit impact damper [14-16]. Multiunit impact damper [17,18]. Bean bag impact damper [19,20]. Particle/granular impact damper [21,23,22]. Resilient impact damper [24]. Buffered impact damper [25-27]. Multiunit impact damper consists of multiple masses instead of a single mass. This
Response of Non-Linear Shock Absorbers-Boundary Value Problem Analysis
Rahman, M. A.; Ahmed, U.; Uddin, M. S.
2013-08-01
A nonlinear boundary value problem of two degrees-of-freedom (DOF) untuned vibration damper systems using nonlinear springs and dampers has been numerically studied. As far as untuned damper is concerned, sixteen different combinations of linear and nonlinear springs and dampers have been comprehensively analyzed taking into account transient terms. For different cases, a comparative study is made for response versus time for different spring and damper types at three important frequency ratios: one at r = 1, one at r > 1 and one at r <1. The response of the system is changed because of the spring and damper nonlinearities; the change is different for different cases. Accordingly, an initially stable absorber may become unstable with time and vice versa. The analysis also shows that higher nonlinearity terms make the system more unstable. Numerical simulation includes transient vibrations. Although problems are much more complicated compared to those for a tuned absorber, a comparison of the results generated by the present numerical scheme with the exact one shows quite a reasonable agreement
A linear motor as seismic horizontal vibrator
Drijkoningen, G.; Veltman, A.; Hendrix, W.H.A.; Brouwer, J.; Hemstede, A.
2006-01-01
In this paper we propose to use the concept of linear synchronous motors to act as a seismic shear-wave vibratory source. We show that a linear motor, even with a design that is not focussed on application of seismic surveying, gives seismic records that are convincing and comparable with an
Eddy currents self-tuning dynamic vibration absorber for machine tool chatter suppression
Aguirre , Gorka; Gorostiaga , Mikel; Porchez , Thomas; Munoa , Jokin
2013-01-01
International audience; The current trend in machine tool design aims at stiffer machines with lowerinfluence of friction, leading to faster and more precise machines. However, this is atthe expense of reducing the machine damping, which is mainly produced by friction,and thus increasing the risk of suffering from a self-excited vibration named chatter,which limits the productivity of the process. Dynamic vibration absorbers (DVAs)offer a relatively simple and low cost solution to reduce chat...
Surface parameter characterization of surface vibrations in linear chains
Majlis, N.; Selzer, S.; Puszkarski, H.; Diep-The-Hung
1982-12-01
We consider the vibrations of a linear monatomic chain with a complex surface potential defined by the surface pinning parameter a=Aesup(-i psi). It is found that in the case of a semi-infinite chain a is connected with the surface vibration wave number k=s+it by the exact relations: s=psi, t=lnA. We also show that the solutions found can be regarded as approximate ones (in the limit L>>1) for surface vibrations of a finite chain consisting of L atoms. (author)
Hara, F.; Seto, K.
1987-01-01
The design value of damping for nuclear piping systems is a vital parameter in ensuring safety in nuclear plants during large earthquakes. Many experiments and on-site tests have been undertaken in nuclear-industry developed countries to determine rational design values. However damping value in nuclear piping systems is so strongly influenced by many piping parameters that it shows a tremendous dispersion in its experimental values. A new trend has recently appeared in designing nuclear pipings, where they attempt to use a device to absorb vibration energy induced by seismic excitation. A typical device is an energy absorbing device, made of a special material having a high capacity of plasticity, which is installed between the piping and the support. This paper deals with the basic study of application of dual vibration absorbers to nuclear piping systems to accomplish high damping value and reduce consequently seismic response at resonance frequencies of a piping system, showing their effectiveness from not only numerical calculation but also experimental evaluation of the vibration responses in a 3D model piping system equipped with dual two vibration absorbers
Kim, Sang-Myeong; Kim, Heungseob; Boo, Kwangsuck; Brennan, Michael J
2013-01-01
This paper describes an experimental study into the vibration control of a servo system comprising a servo motor and a flexible manipulator. Two modes of the system are controlled by using the servo motor and an accelerometer attached to the tip of the flexible manipulator. The control system is thus non-collocated. It consists of two electrical dynamic absorbers, each of which consists of a modal filter and, in case of an out-of-phase mode, a phase inverter. The experimental results show that each absorber acts as a mechanical dynamic vibration absorber attached to each mode and significantly reduces the settling time for the system response to a step input. (technical note)
A seismic vertical vibrator driven by linear synchronous motors
Noorlandt, R.P.; Drijkoningen, G.G.; Dams, J.; Jenneskens, R.
2015-01-01
A linear synchronous motor (LSM) is an electric motor that can produce large controllable forces and is therefore suitable as a driving engine for a seismic vibrator. This motor consists of two independent elements, a magnet track and a coil track, allowing practically unlimited motor displacements.
Design and fabrication of an energy-harvesting device using vibration absorber
Heidari, Hamidreza; Afifi, Arash
2017-05-01
Energy-harvesting devices collect energy that is being wasted and convert to the electrical energy. For this reason, this type of devices is considered as a convenient alternative to traditional batteries. In this paper, experimental examinations were performed to investigate the application of harvesting device for the reduction of the vibration amplitude in a vibration system and also increase the efficiency of energy-harvesting device. This study focuses on the energy-harvesting device as both producing electrical device and a vibration disabled absorber. In this regard, a motion-based energy-harvesting device is designed to produce electrical energy and also eliminate vibrations of a two joint-end beam which is located under the harmonic excitation force. Then, the governing equations of the forced motion on the main beam are derived and energy-harvesting system are simulated. In addition, the system designed by MATLAB simulation is explained and its results are expressed. Finally, a prototype of the system was made and the ability of the energy-harvesting device to absorb the original system vibrations, as well as parameters impact on the efficiency of energy harvesting is investigated. Experimental results show that the energy-harvesting device, in addition to producing electric current with a maximum value of 1.5V, reduces 94% of the original system vibrations.
Resonant passive–active vibration absorber with integrated force feedback control
Høgsberg, Jan; Brodersen, Mark L; Krenk, Steen
2016-01-01
A general format of a two-terminal vibration absorber is constructed by placing a passive unit in series with a hybrid unit, composed of an active actuator in parallel with a second passive element. The displacement of the active actuator is controlled by an integrated feedback control with the difference in force between the two passive elements as input. This format allows passive and active contributions to be combined arbitrarily within the hybrid unit, which results in a versatile absorber format with guaranteed closed-loop stability. This is demonstrated for resonant absorbers with inertia realized passively by a mechanical inerter or actively by the integrated force feedback. Accurate calibration formulae are presented for two particular absorber configurations and the performance is subsequently demonstrated with respect to both equal modal damping and effective response reduction. (technical note)
Experimental Studies on Dynamic Vibration Absorber using Shape Memory Alloy (NiTi) Springs
Kumar, V. Raj; Kumar, M. B. Bharathi Raj; Kumar, M. Senthil
2011-01-01
Shape memory alloy (SMA) springs have been used as actuators in many applications although their use in the vibration control area is very recent. Since shape memory alloys differ from conventional alloy materials in many ways, the traditional design approach for springs is not completely suitable for designing SMA springs. Some vibration control concepts utilizing unique characteristics of SMA's will be presented in this paper.A dynamic vibration absorber (DVA) using shape memory alloy (SMA) actuator is developed for attenuation of vibration in a cantilever beam. The design procedure of the DVA is presented. The system consists of a cantilever beam which is considered to generate the real-time vibration using shaker. A SMA spring is used with a mass attached to its end. The stiffness of the SMA spring is dynamically varied in such a way to attenuate the vibration. Both simulation and experimentation are carried out using PID controller. The experiments were carried out by interfacing the experimental setup with a computer using LabVIEW software, Data acquisition and control are implemented using a PCI data acquisition card. Standard PID controllers have been used to control the vibration of the beam. Experimental results are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the controllers designed and the usefulness of the proposed test platform by exciting the structure at resonance. In experimental setup, an accelerometer is used to measure the vibration which is fed to computer and correspondingly the SMA spring is actuated to change its stiffness to control the vibration. The results obtained illustrate that the developed DVA using SMA actuator is very effective in reducing structural response and have great potential to be an active vibration control medium.
Dynamical Behavior of a Pseudoelastic Vibration Absorber Using Shape Memory Alloys
Hugo De S. Oliveira
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The tuned vibration absorber (TVA provides vibration reduction of a primary system subjected to external excitation. The idea is to increase the number of system degrees of freedom connecting a secondary system to the primary system. This procedure promotes vibration reduction at its design forcing frequency but two new resonance peaks appear introducing critical behaviors that must be avoided. The use of shape memory alloys (SMAs can improve the performance of the classical TVA establishing an adaptive TVA (ATVA. This paper deals with the nonlinear dynamics of a passive pseudoelastic tuned vibration absorber with an SMA element. In this regard, a single degree of freedom elastic oscillator is used to represent the primary system, while an extra oscillator with an SMA element represents the secondary system. Temperature dependent behavior of the system allows one to change the system response avoiding undesirable responses. Nevertheless, hysteretic behavior introduces complex characteristics to the system dynamics. The influence of the hysteretic behavior due to stress-induced phase transformation is investigated. The ATVA performance is evaluated by analyzing primary system maximum vibration amplitudes for different forcing amplitudes and frequencies. Numerical simulations establish comparisons of the ATVA results with those obtained from the classical TVA. A parametric study is developed showing the best performance conditions and this information can be useful for design purposes.
Active-passive vibration absorber of beam-cart-seesaw system with piezoelectric transducers
Lin, J.; Huang, C. J.; Chang, Julian; Wang, S.-W.
2010-09-01
In contrast with fully controllable systems, a super articulated mechanical system (SAMS) is a controlled underactuated mechanical system in which the dimensions of the configuration space exceed the dimensions of the control input space. The objectives of the research are to develop a novel SAMS model which is called beam-cart-seesaw system, and renovate a novel approach for achieving a high performance active-passive piezoelectric vibration absorber for such system. The system consists of two mobile carts, which are coupled via rack and pinion mechanics to two parallel tracks mounted on pneumatic rodless cylinders. One cart carries an elastic beam, and the other cart acts as a counterbalance. One adjustable counterweight mass is also installed underneath the seesaw to serve as a passive damping mechanism to absorb impact and shock energy. The motion and control of a Bernoulli-Euler beam subjected to the modified cart/seesaw system are analyzed first. Moreover, gray relational grade is utilized to investigate the sensitivity of tuning the active proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller to achieve desired vibration suppression performance. Consequently, it is shown that the active-passive vibration absorber can not only provide passive damping, but can also enhance the active action authority. The proposed software/hardware platform can also be profitable for the standardization of laboratory equipment, as well as for the development of entertainment tools.
Application of Time-Delay Absorber to Suppress Vibration of a Dynamical System to Tuned Excitation.
El-Ganaini, W A A; El-Gohary, H A
2014-08-01
In this work, we present a comprehensive investigation of the time delay absorber effects on the control of a dynamical system represented by a cantilever beam subjected to tuned excitation forces. Cantilever beam is one of the most widely used system in too many engineering applications, such as mechanical and civil engineering. The main aim of this work is to control the vibration of the beam at simultaneous internal and combined resonance condition, as it is the worst resonance case. Control is conducted via time delay absorber to suppress chaotic vibrations. Time delays often appear in many control systems in the state, in the control input, or in the measurements. Time delay commonly exists in various engineering, biological, and economical systems because of the finite speed of the information processing. It is a source of performance degradation and instability. Multiple time scale perturbation method is applied to obtain a first order approximation for the nonlinear differential equations describing the system behavior. The different resonance cases are reported and studied numerically. The stability of the steady-state solution at the selected worst resonance case is investigated applying Runge-Kutta fourth order method and frequency response equations via Matlab 7.0 and Maple11. Time delay absorber is effective, but within a specified range of time delay. It is the critical factor in selecting such absorber. Time delay absorber is better than the ordinary one as from the effectiveness point of view. The effects of the different absorber parameters on the system behavior and stability are studied numerically. A comparison with the available published work showed a close agreement with some previously published work.
Qin, Yechen; He, Chenchen; Shao, Xinxin; Du, Haiping; Xiang, Changle; Dong, Mingming
2018-04-01
This paper presents a new approach for vibration mitigation based on a dynamic vibration absorbing structure (DVAS) for electric vehicles (EVs) that use in-wheel switched reluctance motors (SRMs). The proposed approach aims to alleviate the negative effects of vibration caused by the unbalanced electromagnetic force (UMEF) that arises from road excitations. The analytical model of SRMs is first formulated using Fourier series, and then a model of the coupled longitudinal-vertical dynamics is developed taking into consideration the external excitations consisting of the aerodynamic drag force and road unevenness. In addition, numerical simulations for a conventional SRM-suspension system and two novel DVASs are carried out for varying road levels specified by ISO standards and vehicle velocities. The results of the comparison reveal that a 35% improvement in ride comfort, 30% improvement of road handling, and 68% improvement in air gap between rotor and stator can be achieved by adopting the novel DVAS compared to the conventional SRM-suspension system. Finally, multi-body simulation (MBS) is performed using LMS Motion to validate the feasibility of the proposed DVAS. Analysis of the results shows that the proposed method can augment the effective application of SRMs in EVs.
Parametric study on a collocated PZT beam vibration absorber and power harvester
Huang, Shyh Chin [Mechanical Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, New Taipei (China); Tsai, Chao Yang [Mechanical Engineering Army Academy, R.O.C., Taoyuan (China); Liao, Hsiao Hui [LNG Construction and Project Division, CPC Corp., Taipei (China)
2016-11-15
The parametric effects of a PZT beam that is simultaneously used as a vibration absorber and a power harvester were investigated in this study. A cantilever beam paved with PZT layers and with added tip mass has been widely used as a harvester or sometimes as a Dynamic vibration absorber (DVA). However, the beam is rarely considered a collocated device. In this study, the first step was theoretical derivation of a distributed beam covered with bimorph PZT layers. Then, the beam was attached to a 1DOF vibratory main system. Two indicators for vibration absorption and power harvesting were defined. Numerical results demonstrated that the lumped mass ratio favored both of the abilities, but that the DVA mass ratio influenced these two abilities in exactly the opposite way. The conjunction of a harvester circuit into a DVA shifted its resonance frequency up to 5 % (an extreme case of open circuit R→∞). Simultaneous power harvesting diminished the absorption capability up to 35 % for each set of mass ratios. To achieve the maximum degree of power harvesting, a corresponding load resistance that somewhat increases with the lumped mass ratio is applied. Experimental results verified the existence of the best load resistance, but the measured harvested curve was lower than the theoretical calculation because of structure damping and deviations of PZT material properties.
Parametric study on a collocated PZT beam vibration absorber and power harvester
Huang, Shyh Chin; Tsai, Chao Yang; Liao, Hsiao Hui
2016-01-01
The parametric effects of a PZT beam that is simultaneously used as a vibration absorber and a power harvester were investigated in this study. A cantilever beam paved with PZT layers and with added tip mass has been widely used as a harvester or sometimes as a Dynamic vibration absorber (DVA). However, the beam is rarely considered a collocated device. In this study, the first step was theoretical derivation of a distributed beam covered with bimorph PZT layers. Then, the beam was attached to a 1DOF vibratory main system. Two indicators for vibration absorption and power harvesting were defined. Numerical results demonstrated that the lumped mass ratio favored both of the abilities, but that the DVA mass ratio influenced these two abilities in exactly the opposite way. The conjunction of a harvester circuit into a DVA shifted its resonance frequency up to 5 % (an extreme case of open circuit R→∞). Simultaneous power harvesting diminished the absorption capability up to 35 % for each set of mass ratios. To achieve the maximum degree of power harvesting, a corresponding load resistance that somewhat increases with the lumped mass ratio is applied. Experimental results verified the existence of the best load resistance, but the measured harvested curve was lower than the theoretical calculation because of structure damping and deviations of PZT material properties
Modelling and tuning for a time-delayed vibration absorber with friction
Zhang, Xiaoxu; Xu, Jian; Ji, Jinchen
2018-06-01
This paper presents an integrated analytical and experimental study to the modelling and tuning of a time-delayed vibration absorber (TDVA) with friction. In system modelling, this paper firstly applies the method of averaging to obtain the frequency response function (FRF), and then uses the derived FRF to evaluate the fitness of different friction models. After the determination of the system model, this paper employs the obtained FRF to evaluate the vibration absorption performance with respect to tunable parameters. A significant feature of the TDVA with friction is that its stability is dependent on the excitation parameters. To ensure the stability of the time-delayed control, this paper defines a sufficient condition for stability estimation. Experimental measurements show that the dynamic response of the TDVA with friction can be accurately predicted and the time-delayed control can be precisely achieved by using the modelling and tuning technique provided in this paper.
Bruner, Anne M.; Belvin, W. Keith; Horta, Lucas G.; Juang, Jer-Nan
1991-01-01
The development of control of large flexible structures technology must include practical demonstrations to aid in the understanding and characterization of controlled structures in space. To support this effort, a testbed facility has been developed to study practical implementation of new control technologies under realistic conditions. The paper discusses the design of a second order, acceleration feedback controller which acts as an active vibration absorber. This controller provides guaranteed stability margins for collocated sensor/actuator pairs in the absence of sensor/actuator dynamics and computational time delay. Experimental results in the presence of these factors are presented and discussed. The robustness of this design under model uncertainty is demonstrated.
Nambu, Yohsuke; Takashima, Toshihide; Inagaki, Akiya
2015-01-01
This paper examines the effects of connecting multiplexing shunt circuits composed of inductors and resistors to piezoelectric transducers so as to improve the robustness of a piezoelectric vibration absorber (PVA). PVAs are well known to be effective at suppressing the vibration of an adaptive structure; their weakness is low robustness to changes in the dynamic parameters of the system, including the main structure and the absorber. In the application to space structures, the temperature-dependency of capacitance of piezoelectric ceramics is the factor that causes performance reduction. To improve robustness to the temperature-dependency of the capacitance, this paper proposes a multiple-PVA system that is composed of distributed piezoelectric transducers and several shunt circuits. The optimization problems that determine both the frequencies and the damping ratios of the PVAs are multi-objective problems, which are solved using a real-coded genetic algorithm in this paper. A clamped aluminum beam with four groups of piezoelectric ceramics attached was considered in simulations and experiments. Numerical simulations revealed that the PVA systems designed using the proposed method had tolerance to changes in the capacitances. Furthermore, experiments using a thermostatic bath were conducted to reveal the effectiveness and robustness of the PVA systems. The maximum peaks of the transfer functions of the beam with the open circuit, the single-PVA system, the double-PVA system, and the quadruple-PVA system at 20 °C were 14.3 dB, −6.91 dB, −7.47 dB, and −8.51 dB, respectively. The experimental results also showed that the multiple-PVA system is more robust than a single PVA in a variable temperature environment from −10 °C to 50 °C. In conclusion, the use of multiple PVAs results in an effective, robust vibration control method for adaptive structures. (paper)
A tunable magneto-rheological fluid-filled beam-like vibration absorber
Hirunyapruk, C; Brennan, M J; Mace, B R; Li, W H
2010-01-01
Tuned vibration absorbers (TVAs) are often used to suppress unwanted vibrations. If the excitation frequency is time harmonic but the frequency changes with time, it is desirable to retune the TVA so that the natural frequency of the TVA always coincides with the excitation frequency. One way of achieving this is to adjust the stiffness of the TVA. The key challenge is to change the stiffness quickly in real time. In this paper a magneto-rheological (MR) fluid in its pre-yield state is used as the core of a three-layer beam-like TVA. The shear stiffness of the MR fluid is adjusted by varying the magnetic field to which it is exposed by changing the current supplied to the electromagnets. Hence the stiffness of the TVA can be varied. The vibration characteristics of the TVA as a function of the magnetic field strength are predicted using a finite element model together with an empirical model for the shear modulus of the MR fluid and a model for the magnetic field applied to the fluid. An MR fluid-filled TVA was manufactured and tested to validate the predictions. This TVA design allows the natural frequency to be changed by about 40%
Hildebrandt, Christina
2009-03-23
This work describes the development of new absorber coatings for different applications - para-bolic trough and linear Fresnel collectors - and operating conditions - absorber in vacuum or in air. The demand for higher efficiencies of solar thermal power plants using parabolic trough technology results in higher temperatures in the collectors and on the absorber tubes. As heat losses increase strongly with increasing temperatures, the need for a lower emissivity of the absorber coating at constant absorptivity arises. The linear Fresnel application envisions ab-sorber tubes stable in air at high temperatures of about 450 C, which are to date commercially not available. This work comprises the theoretical background, the modeling and the fabrication of absorber tubes including the technology transfer to a production-size inline sputter coater. In annealing tests and accompanying optical measurements, degradation processes have been observed and specified more precisely by material characterization techniques. The simulations provided the capability of different materials used as potential IR-reflector. The highest selectivity can be achieved by applying silver which consequently has been chosen for the application in absorber coatings of the parabolic trough technology. Thin silver films how-ever need to be stabilized when used at high temperatures. Appropriate barrier layers as well as process and layer parameters were identified. A high selectivity was achieved and stability of the absorber coating for 1200 h at 500 C in vacuum has been demonstrated. For the application in air, silver was also analyzed as a potential IR-reflector. Even though the stability could be increased considerably, it nevertheless proved to be insufficient. The main factors influencing stability in a positive way are the use of higher quality polishing, additional barrier layers and adequate process parameters. This knowledge was applied for developing coatings which are stable in air at
Vibration power generator for a linear MR damper
Sapiński, Bogdan
2010-01-01
The paper describes the structure and the results of numerical calculations and experimental tests of a newly developed vibration power generator for a linear magnetorheological (MR) damper. The generator consists of permanent magnets and coil with foil winding. The device produces electrical energy according to Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction. This energy is applied to vary the damping characteristics of the MR damper attached to the generator by the input current produced by the device. The objective of the numerical calculations was to determine the magnetic field distribution in the generator as well as the electric potential and current density in the generator's coil during the idle run and under the load applied to the MR damper control coil. The results of the calculations were used during the design and manufacturing stages of the device. The objective of the experimental tests carried out on a dynamic testing machine was to evaluate the generator's efficiency and to compare the experimental and predicted data. The experimental results demonstrate that the engineered device enables a change in the kinetic energy of the reciprocal motion of the MR damper which leads to variations in the damping characteristics. That is why the generator may be used to build up MR damper based vibration control systems which require no external power
Designing a hand rest tremor dynamic vibration absorber using H{sub 2} optimization method
Rahnavard, Mostafa; Dizaji, Ahmad F. [Tehran University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hashemi, Mojtaba [Amirkabir University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faramand, Farzam [Sharif University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2014-05-15
An optimal single DOF dynamic absorber is presented. A tremor has a random nature and then the system is subjected to a random excitation instead of a sinusoidal one; so the H{sub 2} optimization criterion is probably more desirable than the popular H{sub ∞} optimization method and was implemented in this research. The objective of H{sub 2} optimization criterion is to reduce the total vibration energy of the system for overall frequencies. An objective function, considering the elbow joint angle, θ {sub 2}, tremor suppression as the main goal, was selected. The optimization was done by minimization of this objective function. The optimal system, including the absorber, performance was analyzed in both time and frequency domains. Implementing the optimal absorber, the frequency response amplitude of θ{sub 2} was reduced by more than 98% and 80% at the first and second natural frequencies of the primary system, respectively. A reduction of more than 94% and 78%, was observed for the shoulder joint angle, θ{sub 1}. The objective function also decreased by more than 46%. Then, two types of random inputs were considered. For the first type, θ{sub 1} and θ {sub 2} revealed 60% and 39% reduction in their rms values, whereas for the second type, 33% and 50% decrease was observed.
Designing a hand rest tremor dynamic vibration absorber using H2 optimization method
Rahnavard, Mostafa; Dizaji, Ahmad F.; Hashemi, Mojtaba; Faramand, Farzam
2014-01-01
An optimal single DOF dynamic absorber is presented. A tremor has a random nature and then the system is subjected to a random excitation instead of a sinusoidal one; so the H 2 optimization criterion is probably more desirable than the popular H ∞ optimization method and was implemented in this research. The objective of H 2 optimization criterion is to reduce the total vibration energy of the system for overall frequencies. An objective function, considering the elbow joint angle, θ 2 , tremor suppression as the main goal, was selected. The optimization was done by minimization of this objective function. The optimal system, including the absorber, performance was analyzed in both time and frequency domains. Implementing the optimal absorber, the frequency response amplitude of θ 2 was reduced by more than 98% and 80% at the first and second natural frequencies of the primary system, respectively. A reduction of more than 94% and 78%, was observed for the shoulder joint angle, θ 1 . The objective function also decreased by more than 46%. Then, two types of random inputs were considered. For the first type, θ 1 and θ 2 revealed 60% and 39% reduction in their rms values, whereas for the second type, 33% and 50% decrease was observed.
Probing highly obscured, self-absorbed galaxy nuclei with vibrationally excited HCN
Aalto, S.; Martín, S.; Costagliola, F.; González-Alfonso, E.; Muller, S.; Sakamoto, K.; Fuller, G. A.; García-Burillo, S.; van der Werf, P.; Neri, R.; Spaans, M.; Combes, F.; Viti, S.; Mühle, S.; Armus, L.; Evans, A.; Sturm, E.; Cernicharo, J.; Henkel, C.; Greve, T. R.
2015-12-01
We present high resolution (0.̋4) IRAM PdBI and ALMA mm and submm observations of the (ultra) luminous infrared galaxies ((U)LIRGs) IRAS 17208-0014, Arp220, IC 860 and Zw049.057 that reveal intense line emission from vibrationally excited (ν2 = 1) J = 3-2 and 4-3 HCN. The emission is emerging from buried, compact (r 5 × 1013 L⊙ kpc-2. These nuclei are likely powered by accreting supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and/or hot (>200 K) extreme starbursts. Vibrational, ν2 = 1, lines of HCN are excited by intense 14 μm mid-infrared emission and are excellent probes of the dynamics, masses, and physical conditions of (U)LIRG nuclei when H2 column densities exceed 1024 cm-2. It is clear that these lines open up a new interesting avenue to gain access to the most obscured AGNs and starbursts. Vibrationally excited HCN acts as a proxy for the absorbed mid-infrared emission from the embedded nuclei, which allows for reconstruction of the intrinsic, hotter dust SED. In contrast, we show strong evidence that the ground vibrational state (ν = 0), J = 3-2and 4-3 rotational lines of HCN and HCO+ fail to probe the highly enshrouded, compact nuclear regions owing to strong self- and continuum absorption. The HCN and HCO+ line profiles are double-peaked because of the absorption and show evidence of non-circular motions - possibly in the form of in- or outflows. Detections of vibrationally excited HCN in external galaxies are so far limited to ULIRGs and early-type spiral LIRGs, and we discuss possible causes for this. We tentatively suggest that the peak of vibrationally excited HCN emission is connected to a rapid stage of nuclear growth, before the phase of strong feedback. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM Plateau de Bure and ALMA Interferometers. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany), and IGN (Spain). ALMA is a partnership of ESO (representing its member states), NSF (USA), and NINS (Japan), together with NRC (Canada) and NSC and ASIAA
Active vibration absorber for CSI evolutionary model: Design and experimental results
Bruner, Anne M.; Belvin, W. Keith; Horta, Lucas G.; Juang, Jer-Nan
1991-01-01
The development of control of large flexible structures technology must include practical demonstration to aid in the understanding and characterization of controlled structures in space. To support this effort, a testbed facility was developed to study practical implementation of new control technologies under realistic conditions. The design is discussed of a second order, acceleration feedback controller which acts as an active vibration absorber. This controller provides guaranteed stability margins for collocated sensor/actuator pairs in the absence of sensor/actuator dynamics and computational time delay. The primary performance objective considered is damping augmentation of the first nine structural modes. Comparison of experimental and predicted closed loop damping is presented, including test and simulation time histories for open and closed loop cases. Although the simulation and test results are not in full agreement, robustness of this design under model uncertainty is demonstrated. The basic advantage of this second order controller design is that the stability of the controller is model independent.
Analysis of Simplifications Applied in Vibration Damping Modelling for a Passive Car Shock Absorber
Łukasz Konieczny
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The paper presents results of research on hydraulic automotive shock absorbers. The considerations provided in the paper indicate certain flaws and simplifications resulting from the fact that damping characteristics are assumed as the function of input velocity only, which is the case of simulation studies. An important aspect taken into account when determining parameters of damping performed by car shock absorbers at a testing station is the permissible range of characteristics of a shock absorber of the same type. The aim of this study was to determine the damping characteristics entailing the stroke value. The stroke and rotary velocities were selected in a manner enabling that, for different combinations, the same maximum linear velocity can be obtained. Thus the influence of excitation parameters, such as the stroke value, on force versus displacement and force versus velocity diagrams was determined. The 3D characteristics presented as the damping surface in the stoke and the linear velocity function were determined. An analysis of the results addressed in the paper highlights the impact of such factors on the profile of closed loop graphs of damping forces and point-type damping characteristics.
A bi-annular-gap magnetorheological energy absorber for shock and vibration mitigation
Bai, Xian-Xu; Wereley, Norman M.; Choi, Young-Tai; Wang, Dai-Hua
2012-04-01
For semi-active shock and vibration mitigation systems using magnetorheological energy absorbers (MREAs), the minimization of the field-off damper force of the MREA at high speed is of particular significance because the damper force due to the viscous damping at high speed becomes too excessive and thus the controllable dynamic force range that is defined by the ratio of the field-on damper force to the field-off damper force is significantly reduced. In this paper, a bi-annular-gap MREA with an inner-set permanent magnet is proposed to decrease the field-off damper force at high speed while keeping appropriate dynamic force range for improving shock and vibration mitigation performance. In the bi-annular-gap MREA, two concentric annular gaps are configured in parallel so as to decrease the baseline damper force and both magnetic activation methods using the electromagnetic coil winding and the permanent magnet are used to keep holding appropriate magnetic intensity in these two concentric annular gaps in the consideration of failure of the electric power supply. An initial field-on damper force is produced by the magnetic field bias generated from the inner-set permanent magnet. The initial damper force of the MREA can be increased (or decreased) through applying positive (or negative) current to the electromagnetic coil winding inside the bi-annular-gap MREA. After establishing the analytical damper force model of the bi-annular-gap MREA using a Bingham-plastic nonlinear fluid model, the principle and magnetic properties of the MREA are analytically validated and analyzed via electromagnetic finite element analysis (FEA). The performance of the bi-annular-gap MREA is also theoretically compared with that of a traditional single-annular- gap MREA with the constraints of an identical volume by the performance matrix, such as the damper force, dynamic force range, and Bingham number with respect to different excitation velocities.
Design of Vibration Absorber using Spring and Rubber for Armored Vehicle 5.56 mm Caliber Rifle
Aditya Sukma Nugraha
2014-12-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a design of vibration absorber using spring and rubber for 5.56 mm caliber rifle armored vehicle. Such a rifle is used in a Remote-Controlled Weapon System (RCWS or a turret where it is fixed using a two degree of freedom pan-tilt mechanism. A half car lumped mass dynamic model of armored vehicles was derived. Numerical simulation was conducted using fourth order Runge Kutta method. Various types of vibration absorbers using spring and rubber with different configurations are installed in the elevation element. Vibration effects on horizontal direction, vertical direction and angular deviation of the elevation element was investigated. Three modes of fire were applied i.e. single fire, semi-automatic fire and automatic fire. From simulation results, it was concluded that the parallel configuration of damping rubber type 3, which has stiffness of 980,356.04 (N/m2 and damping coefficient of 107.37 (N.s/m, and Carbon steel spring whose stiffness coefficient is 5.547 x 106 (N/m2 provides the best vibration absorption.
Cazzulani, Gabriele; Resta, Ferruccio; Ripamonti, Francesco
2012-04-01
During the last years, more and more mechanical applications saw the introduction of active control strategies. In particular, the need of improving the performances and/or the system health is very often associated to vibration suppression. This goal can be achieved considering both passive and active solutions. In this sense, many active control strategies have been developed, such as the Independent Modal Space Control (IMSC) or the resonant controllers (PPF, IRC, . . .). In all these cases, in order to tune and optimize the control strategy, the knowledge of the system dynamic behaviour is very important and it can be achieved both considering a numerical model of the system or through an experimental identification process. Anyway, dealing with non-linear or time-varying systems, a tool able to online identify the system parameters becomes a key-point for the control logic synthesis. The aim of the present work is the definition of a real-time technique, based on ARMAX models, that estimates the system parameters starting from the measurements of piezoelectric sensors. These parameters are returned to the control logic, that automatically adapts itself to the system dynamics. The problem is numerically investigated considering a carbon-fiber plate model forced through a piezoelectric patch.
The effects of an inserted linear carbon chain on the vibration of a carbon nanotube
Hu, Z L; Guo, X M; Ru, C Q
2007-01-01
An elastic string-elastic shell model is developed to study the coupled vibration of a carbon nanowire made of a linear carbon chain (C-chain) inserted inside a carbon nanotube (CNT). It is shown that the vibration of the inserted C-chain is coupled with vibration of the CNT only for vibration modes with circumferential wavenumber n = 1. In other cases, such as axisymmetric modes (n = 0) or higher-order vibration modes with n≥2, total resultant van der Waals (vdW) force acting on the C-chain due to the innermost tube always vanishes, and therefore vibration of the CNT does not cause vibration of the inserted C-chain, although the existence of the C-chain does have an effect on the vibration of the CNT through the chain-CNT vdW forces acting on the innermost tube. The present model predicts that non-coaxial vibration between the C-chain and the innermost tube does not occur due to negligible bending rigidity of the C-chain. In addition, it is found that the C-chain has most significant effect on the lowest frequency associated with the radial vibration mode for circumferential wavenumber 2 (n = 2). In particular, the effect of the C-chain on the axisymmetric radial breathing frequencies (n = 0) predicted by the present model is found to be in reasonable agreement with known experimental and modeling results available in the literature. The present work offers systematic modeling results on the effects of an inserted C-chain on the vibration of CNTs
Po-Chien Chou
2011-05-01
Full Text Available Technological obstacles to the use of rotary-type swing arm actuators to actuate optical pickup modules in small-form-factor (SFF disk drives stem from a hinge’s skewed actuation, subsequently inducing off-axis aberrations and deteriorating optical quality. This work describes a dual-stage seesaw-swivel actuator for optical pickup actuation. A triple-layered bimorph bender made of piezoelectric materials (PZTs is connected to the suspension of the pickup head, while the tunable vibration absorber (TVA unit is mounted on the seesaw swing arm to offer a balanced force to reduce vibrations in a focusing direction. Both PZT and TVA are designed to satisfy stable focusing operation operational requirements and compensate for the tilt angle or deformation of a disc. Finally, simulation results verify the performance of the dual-stage seesaw-swivel actuator, along with experimental procedures and parametric design optimization confirming the effectiveness of the proposed system.
Linear response of vibrated granular systems to sudden changes in the vibration intensity
Brey, J. Javier; Prados, A.
2001-01-01
The short-term memory effects recently observed in vibration-induced compaction of granular materials are studied. It is shown that they can be explained by means of quite plausible hypothesis about the mesoscopic description of the evolution of the system. The existence of a critical time separating regimes of 'anomalous' and 'normal' responses is predicted. A simple model fitting into the general framework is analyzed in the detail. The relationship between this paper and previous studies is discussed
Montoya Andrade, Dan-El; Villa Jaén, Antonio de la; García Santana, Agustín
2014-01-01
Highlights: • We considered the linear generator copper losses in the proposed MPC strategy. • We maximized the power transferred to the generator side power converter. • The proposed MPC increases the useful average power injected into the grid. • The stress level of the PTO system can be reduced by the proposed MPC. - Abstract: The amount of energy that a wave energy converter can extract depends strongly on the control strategy applied to the power take-off system. It is well known that, ideally, the reactive control allows for maximum energy extraction from waves. However, the reactive control is intrinsically noncausal in practice and requires some kind of causal approach to be applied. Moreover, this strategy does not consider physical constraints and this could be a problem because the system could achieve unacceptable dynamic values. These, and other control techniques have focused on the wave energy extraction problem in order to maximize the energy absorbed by the power take-off device without considering the possible losses in intermediate devices. In this sense, a reactive control that considers the linear generator copper losses has been recently proposed to increase the useful power injected into the grid. Among the control techniques that have emerged recently, the model predictive control represents a promising strategy. This approach performs an optimization process on a time prediction horizon incorporating dynamic constraints associated with the physical features of the power take-off system. This paper proposes a model predictive control technique that considers the copper losses in the control optimization process of point absorbers with direct drive linear generators. This proposal makes the most of reactive control as it considers the copper losses, and it makes the most of the model predictive control, as it considers the system constraints. This means that the useful power transferred from the linear generator to the power
A U-shaped linear ultrasonic motor using longitudinal vibration transducers with double feet.
Liu, Yingxiang; Liu, Junkao; Chen, Weishan; Shi, Shengjun
2012-05-01
A U-shaped linear ultrasonic motor using longitudinal vibration transducers with double feet was proposed in this paper. The proposed motor contains a horizontal transducer and two vertical transducers. The horizontal transducer includes two exponential shape horns located at the leading ends, and each vertical transducer contains one exponential shape horn. The horns of the horizontal transducer and the vertical transducer intersect at the tip ends where the driving feet are located. Longitudinal vibrations are superimposed in the motor and generate elliptical motions at the driving feet. The two vibration modes of the motor are discussed, and the motion trajectories of driving feet are deduced. By adjusting the structural parameters, the resonance frequencies of two vibration modes were degenerated. A prototype motor was fabricated and measured. Typical output of the prototype is no-load speed of 854 mm/s and maximum thrust force of 40 N at a voltage of 200 V(rms).
Vibration Stabilization of a Mechanical Model of a X-Band Linear Collider Final Focus Magnet
Frisch, J; Decker, V; Hendrickson, L; Markiewicz, T W; Partridge, R; Seryi, Andrei
2004-01-01
The small beam sizes at the interaction point of a X-band linear collider require mechanical stabilization of the final focus magnets at the nanometer level. While passive systems provide adequate performance at many potential sites, active mechanical stabilization is useful if the natural or cultural ground vibration is higher than expected. A mechanical model of a room temperature linear collider final focus magnet has been constructed and actively stabilized with an accelerometer based system.
Vibration Stabilization of a Mechanical Model of a X-Band Linear Collider Final Focus Magnet
Frisch, Josef; Chang, Allison; Decker, Valentin; Doyle, Eric; Eriksson, Leif; Hendrickson, Linda; Himel, Thomas; Markiewicz, Thomas; Partridge, Richard; Seryi, Andrei; SLAC
2006-01-01
The small beam sizes at the interaction point of a X-band linear collider require mechanical stabilization of the final focus magnets at the nanometer level. While passive systems provide adequate performance at many potential sites, active mechanical stabilization is useful if the natural or cultural ground vibration is higher than expected. A mechanical model of a room temperature linear collider final focus magnet has been constructed and actively stabilized with an accelerometer based system
Numerical Modal Analysis of Vibrations in a Three-Phase Linear Switched Reluctance Actuator
José Salvado
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of vibrations produced by switched reluctance actuators, focusing on the linear configuration of this type of machines, aiming at its characterization regarding the structural vibrations. The complexity of the mechanical system and the number of parts used put serious restrictions on the effectiveness of analytical approaches. We build the 3D model of the actuator and use finite element method (FEM to find its natural frequencies. The focus is on frequencies within the range up to nearly 1.2 kHz which is considered relevant, based on preliminary simulations and experiments. Spectral analysis results of audio signals from experimental modal excitation are also shown and discussed. The obtained data support the characterization of the linear actuator regarding the excited modes, its vibration frequencies, and mode shapes, with high potential of excitation due to the regular operation regimes of the machine. The results reveal abundant modes and harmonics and the symmetry characteristics of the actuator, showing that the vibration modes can be excited for different configurations of the actuator. The identification of the most critical modes is of great significance for the actuator’s control strategies. This analysis also provides significant information to adopt solutions to reduce the vibrations at the design.
Non-linear vibrational modes in biomolecules: A periodic orbits description
Kampanarakis, Alexandros; Farantos, Stavros C.; Daskalakis, Vangelis; Varotsis, Constantinos
2012-01-01
Graphical abstract: Vibrational frequency shifts in Fe IV = O species of the active site of cytochrome c oxidase are attributed to changes in the surrounding Coulomb field. Periodic orbits analysis assists to find the most anharmonic modes in model biomolecules. Highlights: ► Periodic orbits are extended to multidimensional potentials of biomolecules. ► Highly anharmonic vibrational modes and center-saddle bifurcations are detected. ► Vibrational frequencies shifts in Oxoferryl species of CcO are observed. - Abstract: The vibrational harmonic normal modes of a molecule, which are valid at energies close to an equilibrium point (a minimum, maximum or saddle of the potential energy surface), are extended by periodic orbits to high energies where anharmonicity and coupling of the degrees of freedom are significant. In this way the assignment of the spectra, and thus the extraction of dynamics in highly excited molecules, can be obtained. New vibrational modes emanating from bifurcations of periodic orbits and long living localized trajectories signal the birth and localization of new quantum states. In this article we review and further study non-linear vibrational modes for model biomolecules such as alanine dipeptide and the active site in the oxoferryl oxidation state of the enzyme cytochrome c oxidase. We locate periodic orbits which exhibit high anhamonicity and lead to center-saddle bifurcations. These modes are associated to an isomerization process in alanine dipeptide and to frequency shifts in the oxoferryl observed by modifying the Coulomb field around the Imidazole–Fe IV = O species.
A concept of a wide aperture klystron with RF absorbing drift tubes for linear collider
Dolbilov, G.V.; Azorskij, N.I.; Fateev, A.A.
1997-01-01
This paper is devoted to a problem of optimal design of the electrodynamic structure of the X-band klystron for a linear collider. It is shown that optimal design should provide large aperture and a high power gain, about 80 dB. The most severe problem arising here is that of parasitic self-excitation of the klystron, which becomes more complicated at increasing aperture and power gain. Our investigations have shown that traditional methods for suppressing the self-excitation become ineffective at desired technical parameters of the klystron. A novel concept of a wide aperture klystron with distributed suppression of parasitic oscillations is presented. Results of experimental study of the wide-aperture relativistic klystron for VLEPP are presented. Investigations have been performed using the driving beam of the JINR LIA-3000 induction accelerator (E=1 MeV, I=250 A, τ=250 ns). To suppress self-excitation parasitic modes we have used technique of RF absorbing drift tubes. As a result, we have obtained design output parameters of the klystron and achieved level of 100 MW output power
Liu, Yingxiang; Chen, Weishan; Liu, Junkao; Shi, Shengjun
2013-04-01
To make full use of the vibrational energy of a longitudinal transducer, a rectangle-type linear ultrasonic motor with four driving feet is proposed in this paper. This new motor consists of four longitudinal vibration transducers which are arranged in a rectangle and form an enclosed construction. Lead zirconate titanate ceramics are embedded into the middle of the transducer and fastened by a wedge-caulking mechanism. Each transducer includes an exponentially shaped horn located on each end. The horns of the vertical transducers intersect at the base of the horizontal transducers' horns; the tip ends of the horizontal transducers' horns are used as the driving feet. Longitudinal vibrations are superimposed in the motor and generate elliptical movements at the tip ends of the horns. The working principle of the proposed motor is analyzed. The resonance frequencies of two working modes are tuned to be close to each other by adjusting the structural parameters. Transient analysis is developed to gain the vibration characteristics of the motor. A prototype motor is fabricated and measured. The vibration test results verify the feasibility of the proposed design. Typical output of the prototype is a no-load speed of 928 mm/s and maximum thrust force of 60 N at a voltage of 200 Vrms.
Development of non-linear vibration analysis code for CANDU fuelling machine
Murakami, Hajime; Hirai, Takeshi; Horikoshi, Kiyomi; Mizukoshi, Kaoru; Takenaka, Yasuo; Suzuki, Norio.
1988-01-01
This paper describes the development of a non-linear, dynamic analysis code for the CANDU 600 fuelling machine (F-M), which includes a number of non-linearities such as gap with or without Coulomb friction, special multi-linear spring connections, etc. The capabilities and features of the code and the mathematical treatment for the non-linearities are explained. The modeling and numerical methodology for the non-linearities employed in the code are verified experimentally. Finally, the simulation analyses for the full-scale F-M vibration testing are carried out, and the applicability of the code to such multi-degree of freedom systems as F-M is demonstrated. (author)
Optical measurement of the weak non-linearity in the eardrum vibration response to auditory stimuli
Aerts, Johan
The mammalian hearing organ consists of the external ear (auricle and ear canal) followed by the middle ear (eardrum and ossicles) and the inner ear (cochlea). Its function is to convert the incoming sound waves and convert them into nerve pulses which are processed in the final stage by the brain. The main task of the external and middle ear is to concentrate the incoming sound waves on a smaller surface to reduce the loss that would normally occur in transmission from air to inner ear fluid. In the past it has been shown that this is a linear process, thus without serious distortions, for sound waves going up to pressures of 130 dB SPL (˜90 Pa). However, at large pressure changes up to several kPa, the middle ear movement clearly shows non-linear behaviour. Thus, it is possible that some small non-linear distortions are also present in the middle ear vibration at lower sound pressures. In this thesis a sensitive measurement set-up is presented to detect this weak non-linear behaviour. Essentially, this set-up consists of a loud-speaker which excites the middle ear, and the resulting vibration is measured with an heterodyne vibrometer. The use of specially designed acoustic excitation signals (odd random phase multisines) enables the separation of the linear and non-linear response. The application of this technique on the middle ear demonstrates that there are already non-linear distortions present in the vibration of the middle ear at a sound pressure of 93 dB SPL. This non-linear component also grows strongly with increasing sound pressure. Knowledge of this non-linear component can contribute to the improvement of modern hearing aids, which operate at higher sound pressures where the non-linearities could distort the signal considerably. It is also important to know the contribution of middle ear non-linearity to otoacoustic emissions. This are non-linearities caused by the active feedback amplifier in the inner ear, and can be detected in the external and
El Aroudi, Abdelali
2014-05-01
Recently, nonlinearities have been shown to play an important role in increasing the extracted energy of vibration-based energy harvesting systems. In this paper, we study the dynamical behavior of a piecewise linear (PWL) spring-mass-damper system for vibration-based energy harvesting applications. First, we present a continuous time single degree of freedom PWL dynamical model of the system. Different configurations of the PWL model and their corresponding state-space regions are derived. Then, from this PWL model, extensive numerical simulations are carried out by computing time-domain waveforms, state-space trajectories and frequency responses under a deterministic harmonic excitation for different sets of system parameter values. Stability analysis is performed using Floquet theory combined with Filippov method, Poincaré map modeling and finite difference method (FDM). The Floquet multipliers are calculated using these three approaches and a good concordance is obtained among them. The performance of the system in terms of the harvested energy is studied by considering both purely harmonic excitation and a noisy vibrational source. A frequency-domain analysis shows that the harvested energy could be larger at low frequencies as compared to an equivalent linear system, in particular, for relatively low excitation intensities. This could be an advantage for potential use of this system in low frequency ambient vibrational-based energy harvesting applications. © 2014 World Scientific Publishing Company.
Manzoor, Ali; Rafique, Sajid; Usman Iftikhar, Muhammad; Mahmood Ul Hassan, Khalid; Nasir, Ali
2017-08-01
Piezoelectric vibration energy harvester (PVEH) consists of a cantilever bimorph with piezoelectric layers pasted on its top and bottom, which can harvest power from vibrations and feed to low power wireless sensor nodes through some power conditioning circuit. In this paper, a non-linear conditioning circuit, consisting of a full-bridge rectifier followed by a buck-boost converter, is employed to investigate the issues of electrical side of the energy harvesting system. An integrated mathematical model of complete electromechanical system has been developed. Previously, researchers have studied PVEH with sophisticated piezo-beam models but employed simplistic linear circuits, such as resistor, as electrical load. In contrast, other researchers have worked on more complex non-linear circuits but with over-simplified piezo-beam models. Such models neglect different aspects of the system which result from complex interactions of its electrical and mechanical subsystems. In this work, authors have integrated the distributed parameter-based model of piezo-beam presented in literature with a real world non-linear electrical load. Then, the developed integrated model is employed to analyse the stability of complete energy harvesting system. This work provides a more realistic and useful electromechanical model having realistic non-linear electrical load unlike the simplistic linear circuit elements employed by many researchers.
Stability Analysis of Periodic Orbits in a Class of Duffing-Like Piecewise Linear Vibrators
El Aroudi, A.
2014-09-01
In this paper, we study the dynamical behavior of a Duffing-like piecewise linear (PWL) springmass-damper system for vibration-based energy harvesting applications. First, we present a continuous time single degree of freedom PWL dynamical model of the system. From this PWL model, numerical simulations are carried out by computing frequency response and bifurcation diagram under a deterministic harmonic excitation for different sets of system parameter values. Stability analysis is performed using Floquet theory combined with Fillipov method.
Stability Analysis of Periodic Orbits in a Class of Duffing-Like Piecewise Linear Vibrators
El Aroudi, A.; Benadero, L.; Ouakad, H.; Younis, Mohammad I.
2014-01-01
In this paper, we study the dynamical behavior of a Duffing-like piecewise linear (PWL) springmass-damper system for vibration-based energy harvesting applications. First, we present a continuous time single degree of freedom PWL dynamical model of the system. From this PWL model, numerical simulations are carried out by computing frequency response and bifurcation diagram under a deterministic harmonic excitation for different sets of system parameter values. Stability analysis is performed using Floquet theory combined with Fillipov method.
Flutter and limit cycle oscillation suppression using linear and nonlinear tuned vibration absorbers
Verstraelen, Edouard; Kerschen, Gaëtan; Dimitriadis, Grigorios
2017-01-01
Aircraft are more than ever pushed to their limits for performance reasons. Consequently, they become increasingly nonlinear and they are more prone to undergo aeroelastic limit cycle oscillations. Structural nonlinearities affect aircraft such as the F-16, which can undergo store-induced limit cycle oscillations (LCOs). Furthermore, transonic buzz can lead to LCOs because of moving shock waves in transonic flight conditions on many aircraft. This study presents a numerical investigation o...
Symmetry Adaptation of the Rotation-Vibration Theory for Linear Molecules
Katy L. Chubb
2018-04-01
Full Text Available A numerical application of linear-molecule symmetry properties, described by the D ∞ h point group, is formulated in terms of lower-order symmetry groups D n h with finite n. Character tables and irreducible representation transformation matrices are presented for D n h groups with arbitrary n-values. These groups can subsequently be used in the construction of symmetry-adapted ro-vibrational basis functions for solving the Schrödinger equations of linear molecules. Their implementation into the symmetrisation procedure based on a set of “reduced” vibrational eigenvalue problems with simplified Hamiltonians is used as a practical example. It is shown how the solutions of these eigenvalue problems can also be extended to include the classification of basis-set functions using ℓ, the eigenvalue (in units of ℏ of the vibrational angular momentum operator L ^ z . This facilitates the symmetry adaptation of the basis set functions in terms of the irreducible representations of D n h . 12 C 2 H 2 is used as an example of a linear molecule of D ∞ h point group symmetry to illustrate the symmetrisation procedure of the variational nuclear motion program Theoretical ROVibrational Energies (TROVE.
Rotational and vibrational synthetic spectra of linear parent molecules in comets
Crovisier, J.
1987-01-01
We evaluate and model the excitation conditions of linear parent molecules in cometary atmospheres. The model is valid for most linear molecules without electronic angular momentum. It takes into account collisions and infrared excitation. The molecule rotational population distribution is computed as a function of distance to nucleus. The line intensities of the strongest parallel and perpendicular fundamental vibrational bands, as well as the pure rotational lines, can then be evaluated. This model is applied to several candidate parent molecules, for observing conditions corresponding to available or planned instruments, either ground-based or aboard aircrafts, satellites or space probes
Forced vibration of nonlinear system with symmetrical piecewise-linear characteristics
Watanabe, Takeshi
1983-01-01
It is fairly difficult to treat exactly the analysis of a vibrating system including some play because it is accompanied by a strong nonlinear phenomenon of collision. The author attempted the theoretical analysis by the exact solution using series solution and the approximate solution, treating the forced vibration of a system having some play as the forced vibration of a continuous system with nonlinear boundary condition or the colliding vibration of a continuum. In this report, the problem of such system with play is treated as a nonlinear system having the symmetrical, piecewise linear characteristics of one degree of freedom. That is, it is considered that at the time of collision due to play, the collided body causes the deformation accompanied by triangular hystersis elastically and plastically, and the spring characteristics of restitution force change piecewise by the collision. The exact solution using series solution and the approximate solution are performed, and the effectiveness of these theoretical solutions is confirmed by comparing with the solution using an analog computer. The relation between the accuracy of two analysis methods and nonlinear parameters is shown by the examples of numerical calculation. (Kako, I.)
Vibration Energy Harvesting on Vehicle Suspension Using Rotary and Linear Electromagnetic Generator
Arif Indro Sultoni
2013-04-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss comparation of vehicle vibration energy harvesting between rotary and linear electromagnetic generator. We construct the two model of energy harvester mechanism and then analyze both of energy absorbtion and vehicle comfortability. Furthermore, we analyze both of energy absorbtion and vehicle comfortability. Vehicle is modeled as quarter car. Rotarty generator harvests 2.5 x 10-4 Watt. The other hand, linear generator has viscous characteristic and capable to generates 90 Watts with 12 Volt power supply for 0.03 m amplitude of bumpy road input. Linear generator reduces oscillation with 1.2 sec settling time. It is more comfort than the angular which has 3 sec in settling time. With unnevenees road input, mean power of this generator is 64 Watt.
Advanced non-linear flow-induced vibration and fretting-wear analysis capabilities
Toorani, M.; Pan, L.; Li, R.; Idvorian, N. [Babcock and Wilcox Canada Ltd., Cambridge, Ontario (Canada); Vincent, B.
2009-07-01
Fretting wear is a potentially significant degradation mechanism in nuclear steam generators and other shell and tube heat transfer equipment as well. This paper presents an overview of the recently developed code FIVDYNA which is used for the non-linear flow-induced vibration and fretting wear analysis for operating steam generators (OTSG and RSG) and shell-and-tube heat exchangers. FIVDYNA is a non-linear time-history Flow-Induced Vibration (FIV) analysis computer program that has been developed by Babcock and Wilcox Canada to advance the understanding of tube vibration and tube to tube-support interaction. In addition to the dynamic fluid induced forces the program takes into account other tube static forces due to axial and lateral tube preload and thermal interaction loads. The program is capable of predicting the location where the fretting wear is most likely to occur and its magnitude taking into account the support geometry including gaps. FIVDYNA uses the general purpose finite element computer code ABAQUS as its solver. Using ABAQUS gives the user the flexibility to add additional forces to the tube ranging from tube preloads and the support offsets to thermal loads. The forces currently being modeled in FIVDYNA are the random turbulence, steady drag force, fluid-elastic forces, support offset and pre-strain force (axial loads). This program models the vibration of tubes and calculates the structural dynamic characteristics, and interaction forces between the tube and the tube supports. These interaction forces are then used to calculate the work rate at the support and eventually the predicted depth of wear scar on the tube. A very good agreement is found with experiments and also other computer codes. (author)
Study of vibrations and stabilization of linear collider final doublets at the sub-nanometer scale
Bolzon, B.
2007-11-01
CLIC is one of the current projects of high energy linear colliders. Vertical beam sizes of 0.7 nm at the time of the collision and fast ground motion of a few nanometers impose an active stabilization of the final doublets at a fifth of nanometer above 4 Hz. The majority of my work concerned vibrations and active stabilization study of cantilever and slim beams in order to be representative of the final doublets of CLIC. In a first part, measured performances of different types of vibration sensors associated to an appropriate instrumentation showed that accurate measurements of ground motion are possible from 0.1 Hz up to 2000 Hz on a quiet site. Also, electrochemical sensors answering a priori the specifications of CLIC can be incorporated in the active stabilization at a fifth of nanometer. In a second part, an experimental and numerical study of beam vibrations enabled to validate the efficiency of the numerical prediction incorporated then in the simulation of the active stabilization. Also, a study of the impact of ground motion and of acoustic noise on beam vibrations showed that an active stabilization is necessary at least up to 1000 Hz. In a third part, results on the active stabilization of a beam at its two first resonances are shown down to amplitudes of a tenth of nanometer above 4 Hz by using in parallel a commercial system performing passive and active stabilization of the clamping. The last part is related to a study of a support for the final doublets of a linear collider prototype in phase of finalization, the ATF2 prototype. This work showed that relative motion between this support and the ground is below imposed tolerances (6 nm above 0.1 Hz) with appropriate boundary conditions. (author)
Wahyu Rachma Efendy
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Getaran banyak terjadi pada mesin-mesin di industri. Salah satu solusi untuk mereduksi getaran berlebih adalah dengan menambahkan Dynamic Vibration Absorber (DVA. Prinsip kerja dari Dynamic Vibration Absorber adalah penambahan massa absorber dan pegas pada sistem utama. DVA akan mereduksi getaran sistem utama dengan menghasilkan getaran yang arahnya berlawanan dengan arah getar dari sistem utama. Berdasarkan penelitian yang dilakukan oleh Pachpute [1], penggunaan DVA telah terbukti dapat mereduksi getaran dari sistem utama yang dioperasikan di frekuensi natural secara signifikan. Dalam penelitian Tugas Akhir ini telah dirancang sebuah mekanisme alat vibration absorber dan energy harvesting metode Cantilever Piezoelectric Vibration Absorber (CPVA. Sistem utama yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah plat datar yang ditopang oleh empat pegas. Plat tersebut akan menerima gaya eksitasi dari pegas dibawahnya yang dihubungkan dengan massa eksentris pada motor DC. Koefisien pegas yang digunakan untuk menumpu plat datar memiliki nilai yang sama, yaitu sebesar 300 N/m. Sehingga eksitasi yang terjadi pada plat datar hanya ke arah translasi. Pada penelitian ini, dilakukan analisa dengan variasi amplitudo massa eksentris sebesar 0.025 m, 0.030 m, dan 0.035 m. Kecepatan putaran motor sebesar 20.61 rad/s (frekuensi natural, 22.05 rad/s (frekuensi panen, dan 25 rad/s (frekuensi lembah. Sedangkan variasi jumlah cantilever piezoelectric yang digunakan adalah 2600, 2800, dan 3000 buah. Dari simulasi yang telah dilakukan, daya bangkitan dan nilai persentase reduksi terbesar dari CPVA terjadi ketika sistem dioperasikan di frekuensi naturalnya, yaitu sebesar 3.52E-7 watt dan 20.36%. Selain itu, dari simulasi juga didapatkan karakteristik CPVA dengan memvariasikan jumlah piezoelectric, didapatkan rentang jumlah piezoelectric optimum adalah 1400 hingga 2400 buah. Pada rentang tersebut, daya bangkitan dan persentase reduksi perpindahan massa utama terbesar yang
Nonlinear discrete-time multirate adaptive control of non-linear vibrations of smart beams
Georgiou, Georgios; Foutsitzi, Georgia A.; Stavroulakis, Georgios E.
2018-06-01
The nonlinear adaptive digital control of a smart piezoelectric beam is considered. It is shown that in the case of a sampled-data context, a multirate control strategy provides an appropriate framework in order to achieve vibration regulation, ensuring the stability of the whole control system. Under parametric uncertainties in the model parameters (damping ratios, frequencies, levels of non linearities and cross coupling, control input parameters), the scheme is completed with an adaptation law deduced from hyperstability concepts. This results in the asymptotic satisfaction of the control objectives at the sampling instants. Simulation results are presented.
Stability Analysis of Periodic Orbits in a Class of Duffing-Like Piecewise Linear Vibrators
El Aroudi A.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we study the dynamical behavior of a Duffing-like piecewise linear (PWL springmass-damper system for vibration-based energy harvesting applications. First, we present a continuous time single degree of freedom PWL dynamical model of the system. From this PWL model, numerical simulations are carried out by computing frequency response and bifurcation diagram under a deterministic harmonic excitation for different sets of system parameter values. Stability analysis is performed using Floquet theory combined with Fillipov method.
Song Hee Chae
2017-09-01
Full Text Available We present an electromagnetic linear vibration energy harvester with an array of rectangular permanent magnets as a springless proof mass. Instead of supporting the magnet assembly with spring element, ferrofluid has been used as a lubricating material. When external vibration is applied laterally to the harvester, magnet assembly slides back and forth on the channel with reduced friction and wear due to ferrofluid, which significantly improves the long-term reliability of the device. Electric power is generated across an array of copper windings formed at the bottom of the aluminum housing. A proof-of-concept harvester has been fabricated and tested with a vibration exciter at various input frequencies and accelerations. For the device where 5 μL of ferrofluid was used for lubrication, maximum output power of 493 μW has been generated, which was 4.37% higher than that without ferrofluid. Long-term reliability improvement due to ferrofluid lubrication has also been verified. For the device with ferrofluid, 1.02% decrease of output power has been observed, in contrast to 59.73% decrease of output power without ferrofluid after 93,600 cycles.
Ravichandran, Ramamoorthy; Binukumar, John Pichy; Al Amri, Iqbal; Davis, Cheriyathmanjiyil Antony
2016-03-08
Diamond detectors (DD) are preferred in small field dosimetry of radiation beams because of small dose profile penumbras, better spatial resolution, and tissue-equivalent properties. We investigated a commercially available 'microdiamond' detector in realizing absorbed dose from first principles. A microdiamond detector, type TM 60019 with tandem electrometer is used to measure absorbed doses in water, nylon, and PMMA phantoms. With sensitive volume 0.004 mm3, radius 1.1mm, thickness 1 x10(-3) mm, the nominal response is 1 nC/Gy. It is assumed that the diamond detector could collect total electric charge (nC) developed during irradiation at 0 V bias. We found that dose rate effect is less than 0.7% for changing dose rate by 500 MU/min. The reproducibility in obtaining readings with diamond detector is found to be ± 0.17% (1 SD) (n = 11). The measured absorbed doses for 6 MV and 15 MV photons arrived at using mass energy absorption coefficients and stop-ping power ratios compared well with Nd, water calibrated ion chamber measured absorbed doses within 3% in water, PMMA, and nylon media. The calibration factor obtained for diamond detector confirmed response variation is due to sensitivity due to difference in manufacturing process. For electron beams, we had to apply ratio of electron densities of water to carbon. Our results qualify diamond dosimeter as a transfer standard, based on long-term stability and reproducibility. Based on micro-dimensions, we recommend these detectors for pretreatment dose verifications in small field irradiations like stereotactic treatments with image guidance.
Optimal linear generator with Halbach array for harvesting of vibration energy during human walking
Joonsoo Jun
2016-05-01
Full Text Available In IT business, the capacity of the battery in smartphone was drastically improved to digest various functions such as communication, Internet, e-banking, and entertainment. Although the capacity of the battery is improved, it still needs to be upgraded due to customer’s demands. In this article, we optimize the design of the linear generator with the Halbach array to improve the efficiency of harvesting vibration energy during human walking for the battery capacitance. We propose the optimal design of the tubular permanent magnet with the linear generator that uses a Halbach array. The approximate model is established using generic algorithm. Furthermore, we performed electromagnetic finite element analysis to predict the induced voltage.
Li Qi; Yan Feng-Ping; Peng Wan-Jing; Feng Su-Chun; Feng Ting; Tan Si-Yu; Liu Peng
2013-01-01
A simple approach for stable single polarization, single frequency, and linear cavity erbium doped fiber laser is proposed and demonstrated. A Fabry—Pérot filter, polarizer and saturable absorber are used together to ensure stable single frequency, single polarization operation. The optical signal-to-noise ratio of the laser is approximately 57 dB, and the Lorentz linewidth is 13.9 kHz. The polarization state of the laser with good stability is confirmed and the degree of polarization is >99%
Non-Linear Numerical Modeling and Experimental Testing of a Point Absorber Wave Energy Converter
Zurkinden, Andrew Stephen; Ferri, Francesco; Beatty, S.
2014-01-01
the calculation of the non-linear hydrostatic restoring moment by a cubic polynomial function fit to laboratory test results. Moreover, moments due to viscous drag are evaluated on the oscillating hemisphere considering the horizontal and vertical drag force components. The influence on the motions of this non.......e. H/λ≤0.02. For steep waves, H/λ≥0.04 however, the relative velocities between the body and the waves increase thus requiring inclusion of the non-linear hydrostatic restoring moment to effectively predict the dynamics of the wave energy converter. For operation of the device with a passively damping...
Suarez Antola, R.
2004-12-01
The presence of cracks, voids or fields of pores, and their growth under applied forces or environmental actions, can produce a meaningful lowering in the proper frequencies of normal modes of mechanical vibration in machines and structures. A quite general expression for the square of modes proper frequency as a functional of displacement field, density field and elastic moduli fields is used as a starting point. The effect of defects on frequency are modeled as equivalent changes in density and elastic moduli fields, introducing the concept of region of influence of each defect. This region of influence is derived from the relation between the stress field of flawed components in machines or structures, and the elastic energy released from a suitable reference state, due to the presence of significant defects in the above mentioned mechanical components. An approximate analytical expression is obtained, which relates the relative variation in the square of mode s proper frequency with position, size, shape and orientation of defects in mode displacement field. Some simple mathematical models of machine and structural elements with cracks or fields of pores are considered as examples. The connections between the relative lowering in the square of mode s proper frequency and the stress intensity factor of a defect are discussed : the concept of region of influence of a defect is used as a bridge between (low frequency and low amplitude) vibration dynamics and linear elastic fracture mechanics. Some limitations of the present approach are discussed as well as the possibility of applying the region of influence of defects to the damping of normal modes of vibration
Vibration suppression in ultrasonic machining described by non-linear differential equations
Kamel, M. M.; El-Ganaini, W. A. A.; Hamed, Y. S.
2009-01-01
Vibrations are usually undesired phenomena as they may cause damage or destruction of the system. However, sometimes they are desirable, as in ultrasonic machining (USM). In such case, the problem is a complicated one, as it is required to reduce the vibration of the machine head and have reasonable amplitude for the tool. In the present work, the coupling of two non-linear oscillators of the tool holder and tool representing ultrasonic cutting process is investigated. This leads to a two-degree-of-freedom system subjected to multi-external excitation force. The aim of this work is to control the tool holder behavior at simultaneous primary and internal resonance condition and have high amplitude for the tool. Multiple scale perturbation method is applied to obtain a solution up to the second order approximations. Other different resonance cases are reported and studied numerically. The stability of the system is investigated applying both phase-plane and frequency response techniques. The effects of the different parameters of the tool on the system behavior are studied numerically. Comparison with the available published work is reported
Rong, Bao; Rui, Xiaoting; Lu, Kun; Tao, Ling; Wang, Guoping; Ni, Xiaojun
2018-05-01
In this paper, an efficient method of dynamics modeling and vibration control design of a linear hybrid multibody system (MS) is studied based on the transfer matrix method. The natural vibration characteristics of a linear hybrid MS are solved by using low-order transfer equations. Then, by constructing the brand-new body dynamics equation, augmented operator and augmented eigenvector, the orthogonality of augmented eigenvector of a linear hybrid MS is satisfied, and its state space model expressed in each independent model space is obtained easily. According to this dynamics model, a robust independent modal space-fuzzy controller is designed for vibration control of a general MS, and the genetic optimization of some critical control parameters of fuzzy tuners is also presented. Two illustrative examples are performed, which results show that this method is computationally efficient and with perfect control performance.
Ye-qing Huang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Aiming at the existing problems of traditional water piston pump used in the naval ship, such as low efficiency, high noise, large vibration, and nonintelligent control, a new type of linear-motor-driven water piston pump is developed and its vibration characteristics are analyzed in this research. Based on the 3D model of the structure, the simulation analyses including static stress analysis, modal analysis, and harmonic response analysis are conducted. The simulation results reveal that the mode shape under low frequency stage is mainly associated with the eccentricity swing of the piston rod. The vibration experiment results show that the resonance frequency of linear-motor-driven water piston pump is concentrated upon 500 Hz and 800 Hz in the low frequency range. The dampers can change the resonance frequency of the system to a certain extent. The vibration under triangular motion curve is much better than that of S curve, which is consistent with the simulation conclusion. This research provides an effective method to detect the vibration characteristics and a reference for design and optimization of the linear-motor-driven water piston pump.
Esmaeilzadeh Khadem, S.; Rezaee, M.
2001-01-01
In this paper the large amplitude and non-linear vibration of a string is considered. The initial tension, lateral vibration amplitude, diameter and the modulus of elasticity of the string have main effects on its natural frequencies. Increasing the lateral vibration amplitude makes the assumption of constant initial tension invalid. In this case, therefore, it is impossible to use the classical equation of string with small amplitude transverse motion assumption. On the other hand, by increasing the string diameter, the bending moment effect will increase dramatically, and acts as an impressive restoring moment. Considering the effects of the bending moments, the nonlinear equation governing the large amplitude transverse vibration of a string is derived. The time dependent portion of the governing equation has the from of Duff ing equation is solved using the perturbation theory. The results of the analysis are shown in appropriate graphs, and the natural frequencies of the string due to the non-linear factors are compared with the natural frequencies of the linear vibration os a string without bending moment effects
Rahmouni, Adib N.
2004-01-01
In 1994, Berenger [Journal of Computational Physics 114 (1994) 185] proposed a new layer method: perfectly matched layer, PML, for electromagnetism. This new method is based on the truncation of the computational domain by a layer which absorbs waves regardless of their frequency and angle of incidence. Unfortunately, the technique proposed by Berenger (loc. cit.) leads to a system which has lost the most important properties of the original one: strong hyperbolicity and symmetry. We present in this paper an algebraic technique leading to well-known PML model [IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 44 (1996) 1630] for the linearized Euler equations, strongly well-posed, preserving the advantages of the initial method, and retaining symmetry. The technique proposed in this paper can be extended to various hyperbolic problems
Zurkinden, Andrew Stephen; Kramer, Morten; Sichani, Mahdi Teimouri
2012-01-01
systems into a central wave to wire model. The power production then depends on the control strategy which is applied to the device. The objective of this paper is to develop numerical methods for motion analysis of marine structures with a special emphasis on wave energy converters. Two different time...... domain models are applied to a point absorber system working in pitch mode only. The device is similar to the well-known Wavestar prototype located in the Danish North Sea. A laboratory model has been set up in order to validate the numerical simulations of the dynamics. Wave Excitation force...... interaction assumption and linearized equation of motion. The region over which the numerical model is valid will be presented in terms of non-dimensional parameters describing the different wave states....
Zarchi, Milad; Attaran, Behrooz
2017-11-01
This study develops a mathematical model to investigate the behaviour of adaptable shock absorber dynamics for the six-degree-of-freedom aircraft model in the taxiing phase. The purpose of this research is to design a proportional-integral-derivative technique for control of an active vibration absorber system using a hydraulic nonlinear actuator based on the bees algorithm. This optimization algorithm is inspired by the natural intelligent foraging behaviour of honey bees. The neighbourhood search strategy is used to find better solutions around the previous one. The parameters of the controller are adjusted by minimizing the aircraft's acceleration and impact force as the multi-objective function. The major advantages of this algorithm over other optimization algorithms are its simplicity, flexibility and robustness. The results of the numerical simulation indicate that the active suspension increases the comfort of the ride for passengers and the fatigue life of the structure. This is achieved by decreasing the impact force, displacement and acceleration significantly.
Linear stochastic evaluation of tyre vibration due to tyre/road excitation
Rustighi, E.; Elliott, S. J.; Finnveden, S.; Gulyás, K.; Mócsai, T.; Danti, M.
2008-03-01
Tyre/road interaction is recognised as the main source of interior and exterior noise for velocities over the 40 km/h. In this paper, a three-dimensional (3D) elemental approach has been adopted to predict the stochastic tyre vibration and hence the interior and exterior noise due to this kind of excitation. The road excitation has been modelled from the spectral density of a common road profile, supposing the road to be an isotropic surface. A linear Winkler bedding connects the 3D model of the tyre with the ground. The exterior noise has been evaluated by an elemental calculation of the radiation matrix of the tyre deformed by the static load on a concrete road. The noise inside the vehicle has also been calculated, using the transfer functions from the force transmitted to the hub and the noise inside the vehicle, which have been computed by a FEM model of a common car body. The simple formulation allows much quicker calculation than traditional nonlinear approaches, and appears to give results consistent with available measurements, although the effects of tyre rotation and of the nonlinearities in the contact model are yet to be quantified, and the method requires further experimental validation before practical application.
Theoretical study of molecular vibration and Application to linear triatomic molecules: case of OCS
Andrianavalomahefa, A.
2014-01-01
Our aim is to give a theoretical approach to the calculation of vibrational energy levels of polyatomic molecules. By using matrix calculation, we have to solve an eigenvalue equation that gives normal vibration frequencies of the system. A basis change introduces normal coordinates of vibration, which diagonalize the Hamiltonian. The harmonic approximation gives a rough evaluation of parameters which describe the system. Then, we introduce nonlinear terms to take into account the anharmonicity of interatomic bounds. Morse oscillator gives good approximation for diatomic molecules. We consider cubic and quartic potential terms for polyatomic molecules. We treat the problem both in classical and quantum approach. The results thus obtained are applied to study longitudinal vibration of carbonyl sulfide. [fr
Salvado, José; Espírito-Santo, António; Calado, Maria
2012-01-01
This paper proposes a distributed system for analysis and monitoring (DSAM) of vibrations and acoustic noise, which consists of an array of intelligent modules, sensor modules, communication bus and a host PC acting as data center. The main advantages of the DSAM are its modularity, scalability, and flexibility for use of different type of sensors/transducers, with analog or digital outputs, and for signals of different nature. Its final cost is also significantly lower than other available commercial solutions. The system is reconfigurable, can operate either with synchronous or asynchronous modes, with programmable sampling frequencies, 8-bit or 12-bit resolution and a memory buffer of 15 kbyte. It allows real-time data-acquisition for signals of different nature, in applications that require a large number of sensors, thus it is suited for monitoring of vibrations in Linear Switched Reluctance Actuators (LSRAs). The acquired data allows the full characterization of the LSRA in terms of its response to vibrations of structural origins, and the vibrations and acoustic noise emitted under normal operation. The DSAM can also be used for electrical machine condition monitoring, machine fault diagnosis, structural characterization and monitoring, among other applications.
Maria Calado
2012-06-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a distributed system for analysis and monitoring (DSAM of vibrations and acoustic noise, which consists of an array of intelligent modules, sensor modules, communication bus and a host PC acting as data center. The main advantages of the DSAM are its modularity, scalability, and flexibility for use of different type of sensors/transducers, with analog or digital outputs, and for signals of different nature. Its final cost is also significantly lower than other available commercial solutions. The system is reconfigurable, can operate either with synchronous or asynchronous modes, with programmable sampling frequencies, 8-bit or 12-bit resolution and a memory buffer of 15 kbyte. It allows real-time data-acquisition for signals of different nature, in applications that require a large number of sensors, thus it is suited for monitoring of vibrations in Linear Switched Reluctance Actuators (LSRAs. The acquired data allows the full characterization of the LSRA in terms of its response to vibrations of structural origins, and the vibrations and acoustic noise emitted under normal operation. The DSAM can also be used for electrical machine condition monitoring, machine fault diagnosis, structural characterization and monitoring, among other applications.
Flores-Martinez, Everardo; Malin, Martha J; DeWerd, Larry A
2016-11-01
The quantity of relevance for external beam radiotherapy is absorbed dose to water (ADW). An interferometer was built, characterized, and tested to measure ADW within the dose range of interest for external beam radiotherapy using the temperature dependence of the refractive index of water. The interferometer was used to measure radiation-induced phase shifts of a laser beam passing through a (10 × 10 × 10) cm 3 water-filled glass phantom, irradiated with a 6 MV photon beam from a medical linear accelerator. The field size was (7 × 7) cm 2 and the dose was measured at a depth of 5 cm in the water phantom. The intensity of the interference pattern was measured with a photodiode and was used to calculate the time-dependent phase shift curve. The system was thermally insulated to achieve temperature drifts of less than 1.5 mK/min. Data were acquired 60 s before and after the irradiation. The radiation-induced phase shifts were calculated by taking the difference in the pre- and post-irradiation drifts extrapolated to the midpoint of the irradiation. For 200, 300, and 400 monitor units, the measured doses were 1.6 ± 0.3, 2.6 ± 0.3, and 3.1 ± 0.3 Gy, respectively. Measurements agreed within the uncertainty with dose calculations performed with a treatment planning system. The estimated type-A, k = 1 uncertainty in the measured doses was 0.3 Gy which is an order of magnitude lower than previously published interferometer-based ADW measurements.
Gobrecht, Alexia; Bendoula, Ryad; Roger, Jean-Michel; Bellon-Maurel, Véronique
2015-01-01
Visible and Near Infrared (Vis-NIR) Spectroscopy is a powerful non destructive analytical method used to analyze major compounds in bulk materials and products and requiring no sample preparation. It is widely used in routine analysis and also in-line in industries, in-vivo with biomedical applications or in-field for agricultural and environmental applications. However, highly scattering samples subvert Beer-Lambert law's linear relationship between spectral absorbance and the concentrations. Instead of spectral pre-processing, which is commonly used by Vis-NIR spectroscopists to mitigate the scattering effect, we put forward an optical method, based on Polarized Light Spectroscopy to improve the absorbance signal measurement on highly scattering samples. This method selects part of the signal which is less impacted by scattering. The resulted signal is combined in the Absorption/Remission function defined in Dahm's Representative Layer Theory to compute an absorbance signal fulfilling Beer-Lambert's law, i.e. being linearly related to concentration of the chemicals composing the sample. The underpinning theories have been experimentally evaluated on scattering samples in liquid form and in powdered form. The method produced more accurate spectra and the Pearson's coefficient assessing the linearity between the absorbance spectra and the concentration of the added dye improved from 0.94 to 0.99 for liquid samples and 0.84-0.97 for powdered samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Eriksen, Troels K; Karlsen, Eva; Spanget-Larsen, Jens
2015-01-01
The title compounds were investigated by means of Linear Dichroism (LD) IR spectroscopy on samples partially aligned in uniaxially stretched low-density polyethylene and by density functional theory calculations. Satisfactory overall agreement between observed and calculated vibrational wavenumbers...
Rossikhin Yury A.
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Non-linear damped vibrations of a cylindrical shell embedded into a fractional derivative medium are investigated for the case of the combinational internal resonance, resulting in modal interaction, using two different numerical methods with further comparison of the results obtained. The damping properties of the surrounding medium are described by the fractional derivative Kelvin-Voigt model utilizing the Riemann-Liouville fractional derivatives. Within the first method, the generalized displacements of a coupled set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations of the second order are estimated using numerical solution of nonlinear multi-term fractional differential equations by the procedure based on the reduction of the problem to a system of fractional differential equations. According to the second method, the amplitudes and phases of nonlinear vibrations are estimated from the governing nonlinear differential equations describing amplitude-and-phase modulations for the case of the combinational internal resonance. A good agreement in results is declared.
Non-linear Vibration of Oscillation Systems using Frequency-Amplitude Formulation
Fereidoon, A.; Ghadimi, M.; Barari, Amin
2012-01-01
In this paper we study the periodic solutions of free vibration of mechanical systems with third and fifthorder nonlinearity for two examples using He’s Frequency Amplitude Formulation (HFAF).The effectiveness and convenience of the method is illustrated in these examples. It will be shown that t...... that the solutions obtained with current method have a fabulous conformity with those achieved from time marching solution. HFAF is easy with powerful concepts and the high accuracy, so it can be found widely applicable in vibrations, especially strong nonlinearity oscillatory problems....
Panjnoush M.
2009-12-01
Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: The objective of this study was to measure and compare the tissue absorbed dose in thyroid gland, salivary glands, eye and skin in maxillofacial imaging with panoramic, conventional linear tomography, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT and computed tomography (CT."nMaterials and Methods: Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD were implanted in 14 sites of RANDO phantom to measure average tissue absorbed dose in thyroid gland, parotid glands, submandibular glands, sublingual gland, lenses and buccal skin. The Promax (PLANMECA, Helsinki, Finland unit was selected for Panoramic, conventional linear tomography and cone beam computed tomography examinations and spiral Hispeed/Fxi (General Electric,USA was selected for CT examination. The average tissue absorbed doses were used for the calculation of the equivalent and effective doses in each organ."nResults: The average absorbed dose for Panoramic ranged from 0.038 mGY (Buccal skin to 0.308 mGY (submandibular gland, linear tomography ranged from 0.048 mGY (Lens to 0.510 mGY (submandibular gland,CBCT ranged from 0.322 mGY (thyroid glad to 1.144 mGY (Parotid gland and in CT ranged from 2.495 mGY (sublingual gland to 3.424 mGY (submandibular gland. Total effective dose in CBCT is 5 times greater than Panoramic and 4 times greater than linear tomography, and in CT, 30 and 22 times greater than Panoramic and linear tomography, respectively. Total effective dose in CT is 6 times greater than CBCT."nConclusion: For obtaining 3-dimensional (3D information in maxillofacial region, CBCT delivers the lower dose than CT, and should be preferred over a medical CT imaging. Furthermore, during maxillofacial imaging, salivary glands receive the highest dose of radiation.
Falvo, Cyril
2018-02-01
The theory of linear and non-linear infrared response of vibrational Holstein polarons in one-dimensional lattices is presented in order to identify the spectral signatures of self-trapping phenomena. Using a canonical transformation, the optical response is computed from the small polaron point of view which is valid in the anti-adiabatic limit. Two types of phonon baths are considered: optical phonons and acoustical phonons, and simple expressions are derived for the infrared response. It is shown that for the case of optical phonons, the linear response can directly probe the polaron density of states. The model is used to interpret the experimental spectrum of crystalline acetanilide in the C=O range. For the case of acoustical phonons, it is shown that two bound states can be observed in the two-dimensional infrared spectrum at low temperature. At high temperature, analysis of the time-dependence of the two-dimensional infrared spectrum indicates that bath mediated correlations slow down spectral diffusion. The model is used to interpret the experimental linear-spectroscopy of model α-helix and β-sheet polypeptides. This work shows that the Davydov Hamiltonian cannot explain the observations in the NH stretching range.
Vibrational spectroscopic and non-linear optical activity studies on nicotinanilide : A DFT approach
Premkumar, S.; Jawahar, A.; Mathavan, T.; Dhas, M. Kumara; Benial, A. Milton Franklin
2015-06-01
The molecular structure of nicotinanilide was optimized by the DFT/B3LYP method with cc-pVTZ basis set using Gaussian 09 program. The first order hyperpolarizability of the molecule was calculated, which exhibits the higher nonlinear optical activity. The natural bond orbital analysis confirms the presence of intramolecular charge transfer and the hydrogen bonding interaction, which leads to the higher nonlinear optical activity of the molecule. The Frontier molecular orbitals analysis of the molecule shows that the delocalization of electron density occurs within the molecule. The lower energy gap indicates that the hydrogen bond formation between the charged species. The vibrational frequencies were calculated and assigned on the basis of potential energy distribution calculation using the VEDA 4.0 program and the corresponding vibrational spectra were simulated. Hence, the nicotinanilide molecule can be a good candidate for second-order NLO material.
Huo, Linsheng; Qu, Chunxu; Li, Hongnan
2014-01-01
Passive liquid dampers have been used to effectively reduce the dynamic response of civil infrastructures subjected to earthquakes or strong winds. The design of liquid dampers for structural vibration control involves the determination of the optimal parameters. This paper presents an optimal design methodology for tuned liquid column dampers (TLCDs) based on the H∞ control theory. A practical structure, Dalian Xinghai Financial Business Building, is used to illustrate the feasibility of the...
G.M. Golenkov
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Purpose. The research of the influence of value and direction of current on the equivalent spring magnetic force based on coaxial-linear motor (CLM – MS. Methodology. We carried out investigation of the equivalent harshness of magnetic spring with determination of electromechanical propulsion performance characteristics by the methods of computer modeling and experimental research of physical model of CLM – MS. The modeling of magnetic spring of CLM – MS is carried out by the finite-element method. The challenge is met as an axisymmetric challenge in cylindrical co-ordinates in magnetostatic approach. The experimental investigattion of the propulsion performance characteristics of magnetic spring is carried out on the test bench. Results. After the computer modeling and the experimental investigation of the electromechanical propulsion performance characteristics of magnetic spring the expressions of equivalent stiffness coefficient depending on the current in winding are obtained. The results of computer modeling are confirmed experimentally. Originality. The determination of equivalent stiffness coefficient of magnetic spring of vibration exciter based on coaxial-linear motor. Practical value. The obtained determination of equivalent stiffness coefficient of magnetic spring may be used in process of designing of vibration machines with devices for change of natural oscillation frequency.
Jalkanen, Karl J.; Jürgensen, Vibeke Würtz; Degtyarenko, I.M.
2005-01-01
We here present a combined VA, VCD, Raman and ROA vibrational study of phenyloxirane. We have simulated the vibrational absorption (VA), also called IR, vibrational circular dichroism (VCD), Raman scattering and Raman optical activity (ROA) intensities utilizing the density functional theory (DFT...
Holliday, Ezekiel S. (Inventor)
2014-01-01
Vibrations at harmonic frequencies are reduced by injecting harmonic balancing signals into the armature of a linear motor/alternator coupled to a Stirling machine. The vibrations are sensed to provide a signal representing the mechanical vibrations. A harmonic balancing signal is generated for selected harmonics of the operating frequency by processing the sensed vibration signal with adaptive filter algorithms of adaptive filters for each harmonic. Reference inputs for each harmonic are applied to the adaptive filter algorithms at the frequency of the selected harmonic. The harmonic balancing signals for all of the harmonics are summed with a principal control signal. The harmonic balancing signals modify the principal electrical drive voltage and drive the motor/alternator with a drive voltage component in opposition to the vibration at each harmonic.
Cheon, Geum Seong; Kim, Chang Uk; Kim, Hoi Nam; Heo, Gyeong Hun; Song, Jin Ho; Hong, Joo Yeong; Jeong, Jae Yong
2010-01-01
Treating same region with different modalities there is a limit to evaluate the total absorbed dose of normal tissues. The reason is that it does not support to communication each modalities yet. In this article, it evaluates absorbed dose of the patients who had been treated same region by a tomotherapy and a linear accelerator. After reconstructing anatomic structure with a anthropomorphic phantom, administrate 45 Gy to a tumor in linac plan system as well as prescribe 15 Gy in tomotherapy plan system for make an ideal treatment plan. After the plan which made by tomoplan system transfers to the oncentra plan system for reproduce plan under the same condition and realize total treatment plan with summation 45 Gy linac treatment plan. To evaluate the absorbed dose of two different modalities, do a comparative study both a simple summation dose values and integration dose values. Then compare and analyze absorbed dose of normal tissues and a tumor with the patients who had been exposured radiation by above two different modalities. The result of compared data, in case of minimum dose, there are big different dose values in spleen (12.4%). On the other hand, in case of the maximum dose, it reports big different in a small bowel (10.2%) and a cord (5.8%) in head and neck cancer patients, there presents that oral (20.3%), right lens (7.7%) in minimum dose value. About maximum dose, it represents that spinal (22.5), brain stem (12%), optic chiasm (8.9%), Rt lens (11.5%), mandible (8.1%), pituitary gland (6.2%). In case of Rt abdominal cancer patients, there represents big different minimum dose as Lt kidney (20.3%), stomach (8.1%) about pelvic cancer patients, it reports there are big different in minimum dose as a bladder (15.2%) as well as big different value in maximum dose as a small bowel (5.6%), a bladder (5.5%) in addition, making treatment plan it is able us to get. In case of comparing both simple summation absorbed dose and integration absorbed dose, the
Ilana Pereira da Costa Cunha
2017-10-01
Full Text Available This is a feasibility study for the generation of wave energy by means of a transverse flux machine connected to a device for converting wave energy known as Point Absorber. The article contains literature review on the topic and analysis of data obtained by means of a prototype built in the laboratory. Based on the results, the study concludes that this use is feasible.
Wassef, W.A.
1982-01-01
Estimates and techniques that are valid to calculate the linear extrapolation distance for an infinitely long circular cylindrical absorbing region are reviewed. Two estimates, in particular, are put into consideration, that is the most probable and the value resulting from an approximate technique based on matching the integral transport equation inside the absorber with the diffusion approximation in the surrounding infinite scattering medium. Consequently, the effective diffusion parameters and the blackness of the cylinder are derived and subjected to comparative studies. A computer code is set up to calculate and compare the different parameters, which is useful in reactor analysis and serves to establish a beneficial estimates that are amenable to direct application to reactor design codes
Vortex-induced vibrations of a square cylinder under linear shear flow
Sun, Wenjuan; Zhou, Dai; Han, Zhaolong [School of Naval Architecture, Ocean and Civil Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Tu, Jiahuang, E-mail: tujiahuang1982@163.com, E-mail: han.arkey@gmail.com [College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, Hunan 411105 (China)
2017-04-15
This paper investigates the numerical vortex-induced vibration (VIV) of a square cylinder which is connected to a 2-DOF mass-spring system and is immersed in the planar shear flow by employing a characteristic-based split (CBS) finite element method (FEM). The reduced mass of the square cylinder is M {sub r} = 2, while the reduced velocity, U {sub r}, is changed from 3 to 12 with an increment of Δ U {sub r} = 1. The effects of some key parameters on the cylinder dynamic responses, vibrating frequencies, the flow patterns as well as the energy transferred between the fluid and cylinder are revealed. In this study, the key parameters are selected as follows: shear ratio ( k = 0, 0.05 and 0.1) and Reynolds numbers ( Re = 80 and 160). Numerical results demonstrate that the X – Y trajectories of the cylinder mainly appear as a symmetrical figure ‘8’ in uniform flow ( k = 0) and an unsymmetrical figure ‘8’ and ‘O’ in shear flows ( k = 0.05 and 0.1). The maximum oscillation amplitudes of the square cylinder in both the inline and transverse directions have distinct characteristics compared to that of a circular cylinder. Two kinds of flow patterns, ‘2S’ and ‘P + S’, are mainly observed under the shear flow. Also, the mean values of the energy of the cylinder system increase with the reduced velocity, while the root mean square (rms) of the energy reaches its peak value at reduced velocity U {sub r} = 5. (paper)
Andrade, Carolina D.; Yanez, Ciceron O.; Rodriguez, Luis; Belfield, Kevin D.
2010-01-01
The synthesis, structural, and photophysical characterization of a series of new fluorescent donor–acceptor and acceptor-acceptor molecules, based on the fluorenyl ring system, with two-photon absorbing properties is described. These new compounds exhibited large Stokes shifts, high fluorescent quantum yields, and, significantly, high two-photon absorption cross sections, making them well suited for two-photon fluorescence microscopy (2PFM) imaging. Confocal and two-photon fluorescence microscopy imaging of COS-7 and HCT 116 cells incubated with probe I showed endosomal selectivity, demonstrating the potential of this class of fluorescent probes in multiphoton fluorescence microscopy. PMID:20481596
Alignment and vibration issues in TeV linear collider design
Fischer, G.E.
1989-07-01
The next generation of linear colliders will require alignment accuracies and stabilities of component placement at least one, perhaps two, orders of magnitude better than can be achieved by the conventional methods and procedures in practice today. The magnitudes of these component-placement tolerances for current designs of various linear collider subsystems are tabulated. In the micron range, long-term ground motion is sufficiently rapid that on-line reference and mechanical correction systems are called for. Some recent experiences with the upgraded SLAC laser alignment systems and examples of some conceivable solutions for the future are described. The so called ''girder'' problem is discussed in the light of ambient and vibratory disturbances. The importance of the quality of the underlying geology is stressed. The necessity and limitations of public-beam-derived placement information are mentioned. 40 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab
Alighment and Vibration Issues in TeV Linear Collider Design
Fischer, G.E.; /SLAC
2005-08-12
The next generation of linear colliders will require alignment accuracies and stabilities of component placement at least one, perhaps two, orders of magnitude better than can be achieved by the conventional methods and procedures in practice today. The magnitudes of these component-placement tolerances for current designs of various linear collider subsystems are tabulated. In the micron range, long-term ground motion is sufficiently rapid that on-line reference and mechanical correction systems are called for. Some recent experiences with the upgraded SLAC laser alignment systems and examples of some conceivable solutions for the future are described. The so called ''girder'' problem is discussed in the light of ambient and vibratory disturbances. The importance of the quality of the underlying geology is stressed. The necessity and limitations of particle-beam-derived placement information are mentioned.
Asymptotical Behavior of the Solution of a SDOF Linear Fractionally Damped Vibration System
Z.H. Wang
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Fractional-order derivative has been shown an adequate tool to the study of so-called "anomalous" social and physical behaviors, in reflecting their non-local, frequency- and history-dependent properties, and it has been used to model practical systems in engineering successfully, including the famous Bagley-Torvik equation modeling forced motion of a rigid plate immersed in Newtonian fluid. The solutions of the initial value problems of linear fractional differential equations are usually expressed in terms of Mittag-Leffler functions or some other kind of power series. Such forms of solutions are not good for engineers not only in understanding the solutions but also in investigation. This paper proves that for the linear SDOF oscillator with a damping described by fractional-order derivative whose order is between 1 and 2, the solution of its initial value problem free of external excitation consists of two parts, the first one is the 'eigenfunction expansion' that is similar to the case without fractional-order derivative, and the second one is a definite integral that is independent of the eigenvalues (or characteristic roots. The integral disappears in the classical linear oscillator and it can be neglected from the solution when stationary solution is addressed. Moreover, the response of the fractionally damped oscillator under harmonic excitation is calculated in a similar way, and it is found that the fractional damping with order between 1 and 2 can be used to produce oscillation with large amplitude as well as to suppress oscillation, depending on the ratio of the excitation frequency and the natural frequency.
Faster Simulation Methods for the Non-Stationary Random Vibrations of Non-Linear MDOF Systems
Askar, A.; Köylüoglu, H. U.; Nielsen, Søren R. K.
subject to nonstationary Gaussian white noise excitation, as an alternative to conventional direct simulation methods. These alternative simulation procedures rely on an assumption of local Gaussianity during each time step. This assumption is tantamount to various linearizations of the equations....... Such a treatment offers higher rates of convergence, faster speed and higher accuracy. These procedures are compared to the direct Monte Carlo simulation procedure, which uses a fourth order Runge-Kutta scheme with the white noise process approximated by a broad band Ruiz-Penzien broken line process...
Faster Simulation Methods for the Nonstationary Random Vibrations of Non-linear MDOF Systems
Askar, A.; Köylüo, U.; Nielsen, Søren R.K.
1996-01-01
subject to nonstationary Gaussian white noise excitation, as an alternative to conventional direct simulation methods. These alternative simulation procedures rely on an assumption of local Gaussianity during each time step. This assumption is tantamount to various linearizations of the equations....... Such a treatment offers higher rates of convergence, faster speed and higher accuracy. These procedures are compared to the direct Monte Carlo simulation procedure, which uses a fourth order Runge-Kutta scheme with the white noise process approximated by a broad band Ruiz-Penzien broken line process...
Non-linear vibrations induced by fluidelastic forces in tube bundles
Langre, E. de; Hadj-Sadok, C.; Beaufils, B.
1992-01-01
We present in this paper computations of the response of a loosely supported tube to fluid elastic forces. Several models of forces are considered, including negative damping, coupling forces and Price and Paidoussis' model. Unidirectional and bidirectional motions are studied, special attention being paid to the evolution of dynamic parameters influencing wear and to the changes in the dynamic regimes. The influence of the coefficient of friction is also analysed. A corrective methodology is proposed for the use of the negative damping model in non-linear computations
Non-linear vibrating systems excited by a nonideal energy source with a large slope characteristic
González-Carbajal, Javier; Domínguez, Jaime
2017-11-01
This paper revisits the problem of an unbalanced motor attached to a fixed frame by means of a nonlinear spring and a linear damper. The excitation provided by the motor is, in general, nonideal, which means it is affected by the vibratory response. Since the system behaviour is highly dependent on the order of magnitude of the motor characteristic slope, the case of large slope is considered herein. Some Perturbation Methods are applied to the system of equations, which allows transforming the original 4D system into a much simpler 2D system. The fixed points of this reduced system and their stability are carefully studied. We find the existence of a Hopf bifurcation which, to the authors' knowledge, has not been addressed before in the literature. These analytical results are supported by numerical simulations. We also compare our approach and results with those published by other authors.
Review of Response and Damage of Linear and Nonlinear Systems under Multiaxial Vibration
Ed Habtour
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A review of past and recent developments in multiaxial excitation of linear and nonlinear structures is presented. The objective is to review some of the basic approaches used in the analytical and experimental methods for kinematic and dynamic analysis of flexible mechanical systems, and to identify future directions in this research area. In addition, comparison between uniaxial and multiaxial excitations and their impact on a structure’s life-cycles is provided. The importance of understanding failure mechanisms in complex structures has led to the development of a vast range of theoretical, numerical, and experimental techniques to address complex dynamical effects. Therefore, it is imperative to identify the failure mechanisms of structures through experimental and virtual failure assessment based on correctly identified dynamic loads. For that reason, techniques for mapping the dynamic loads to fatigue were provided. Future research areas in structural dynamics due to multiaxial excitation are identified as (i effect of dynamic couplings, (ii modal interaction, (iii modal identification and experimental methods for flexible structures, and (iv computational models for large deformation in response to multiaxial excitation.
A non-linear 3D printed electromagnetic vibration energy harvester
Constantinou, P; Roy, S
2015-01-01
This paper describes a novel electromagnetic energy harvester that exploits the low flexural modulus of ABS and comprises of a nonlinear mechanism to enhance the generated power and bandwidth. The device is printed using desktop additive manufacturing techniques (3D printing) that use thermoplastics. It has a ‘V’ spring topology and exhibits a softening spring non-linearity introduced through the magnetic arrangement, which introduces a monostable potential well. A model is presented and measurements correspond favourably. The produced prototype generates a peak power of approximately 2.5mW at a frame acceleration of 1g and has a power bandwidth of approximately 1.2→1.5Hz and 3.5→3.9Hz during up and down sweeps respectively. The device has a power density of 0.4mW/cm 3 at a frame acceleration of 1g and a density of 0.04mW/cm 3 from a generated power of 25μW at 0.1g. (paper)
Zurkinden, Andrew Stephen; Kramer, Morten; Sichani, Mahdi Teimouri
2012-01-01
and the response of the device for regular and irregular waves were measured. Good correspondence is found between the numerical and the physical model for relatively mild wave conditions. For higher waves the numerical model seems to underestimate the response of the device due to its linear fluidstructure......Currently, a number of wave energy converters are being analyzed by means of numerical models in order to predict the electrical power generation under given wave conditions. A common characteristic of this procedure is to integrate the loadings from the hydrodynamics, power take-off and mooring...... systems into a central wave to wire model. The power production then depends on the control strategy which is applied to the device. The objective of this paper is to develop numerical methods for motion analysis of marine structures with a special emphasis on wave energy converters. Two different time...
Lukasievicz, Gustavo V B; Astrath, Nelson G C; Malacarne, Luis C; Herculano, Leandro S; Zanuto, Vitor S; Baesso, Mauro L; Bialkowski, Stephen E
2013-10-01
A theoretical model for a time-resolved photothermal mirror technique using pulsed-laser excitation was developed for low absorption samples. Analytical solutions to the temperature and thermoelastic deformation equations are found for three characteristic pulse profiles and are compared to finite element analysis methods results for finite samples. An analytical expression for the intensity of the center of a continuous probe laser at the detector plane is derived using the Fresnel diffraction theory, which allows modeling of experimental results. Experiments are performed in optical glasses, and the models are fitted to the data. The parameters of the fit are in good agreement with previous literature data for absorption, thermal diffusion, and thermal expansion of the materials tested. The combined modeling and experimental techniques are shown to be useful for quantitative determination of the physical properties of low absorption homogeneous linear elastic material samples.
Theory of vibration protection
Karnovsky, Igor A
2016-01-01
This text is an advancement of the theory of vibration protection of mechanical systems with lumped and distributed parameters. The book offers various concepts and methods of solving vibration protection problems, discusses the advantages and disadvantages of different methods, and the fields of their effective applications. Fundamental approaches of vibration protection, which are considered in this book, are the passive, parametric and optimal active vibration protection. The passive vibration protection is based on vibration isolation, vibration damping and dynamic absorbers. Parametric vibration protection theory is based on the Shchipanov-Luzin invariance principle. Optimal active vibration protection theory is based on the Pontryagin principle and the Krein moment method. The book also contains special topics such as suppression of vibrations at the source of their occurrence and the harmful influence of vibrations on humans. Numerous examples, which illustrate the theoretical ideas of each chapter, ar...
Krysko, V. A.; Awrejcewicz, J.; Krylova, E. Yu; Papkova, I. V.; Krysko, A. V.
2018-06-01
Parametric non-linear vibrations of flexible cylindrical panels subjected to additive white noise are studied. The governing Marguerre equations are investigated using the finite difference method (FDM) of the second-order accuracy and the Runge-Kutta method. The considered mechanical structural member is treated as a system of many/infinite number of degrees of freedom (DoF). The dependence of chaotic vibrations on the number of DoFs is investigated. Reliability of results is guaranteed by comparing the results obtained using two qualitatively different methods to reduce the problem of PDEs (partial differential equations) to ODEs (ordinary differential equations), i.e. the Faedo-Galerkin method in higher approximations and the 4th and 6th order FDM. The Cauchy problem obtained by the FDM is eventually solved using the 4th-order Runge-Kutta methods. The numerical experiment yielded, for a certain set of parameters, the non-symmetric vibration modes/forms with and without white noise. In particular, it has been illustrated and discussed that action of white noise on chaotic vibrations implies quasi-periodicity, whereas the previously non-symmetric vibration modes are closer to symmetric ones.
Dinh, Thanh-Chung; Renger, Thomas
2015-01-01
A challenge for the theory of optical spectra of pigment-protein complexes is the equal strength of the pigment-pigment and the pigment-protein couplings. Treating both on an equal footing so far can only be managed by numerically costly approaches. Here, we exploit recent results on a normal mode analysis derived spectral density that revealed the dominance of the diagonal matrix elements of the exciton-vibrational coupling in the exciton state representation. We use a cumulant expansion technique that treats the diagonal parts exactly, includes an infinite summation of the off-diagonal parts in secular and Markov approximations, and provides a systematic perturbative way to include non-secular and non-Markov corrections. The theory is applied to a model dimer and to chlorophyll (Chl) a and Chl b homodimers of the reconstituted water-soluble chlorophyll-binding protein (WSCP) from cauliflower. The model calculations reveal that the non-secular/non-Markov effects redistribute oscillator strength from the strong to the weak exciton transition in absorbance and they diminish the rotational strength of the exciton transitions in circular dichroism. The magnitude of these corrections is in a few percent range of the overall signal, providing a quantitative explanation of the success of time-local convolution-less density matrix theory applied earlier. A close examination of the optical spectra of Chl a and Chl b homodimers in WSCP suggests that the opening angle between Q y transition dipole moments in Chl b homodimers is larger by about 9 ∘ than for Chl a homodimers for which a crystal structure of a related WSCP complex exists. It remains to be investigated whether this change is due to a different mutual geometry of the pigments or due to the different electronic structures of Chl a and Chl b
Dinh, Thanh-Chung; Renger, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.renger@jku.at [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Altenberger Str. 69, 4040 Linz (Austria)
2015-01-21
A challenge for the theory of optical spectra of pigment-protein complexes is the equal strength of the pigment-pigment and the pigment-protein couplings. Treating both on an equal footing so far can only be managed by numerically costly approaches. Here, we exploit recent results on a normal mode analysis derived spectral density that revealed the dominance of the diagonal matrix elements of the exciton-vibrational coupling in the exciton state representation. We use a cumulant expansion technique that treats the diagonal parts exactly, includes an infinite summation of the off-diagonal parts in secular and Markov approximations, and provides a systematic perturbative way to include non-secular and non-Markov corrections. The theory is applied to a model dimer and to chlorophyll (Chl) a and Chl b homodimers of the reconstituted water-soluble chlorophyll-binding protein (WSCP) from cauliflower. The model calculations reveal that the non-secular/non-Markov effects redistribute oscillator strength from the strong to the weak exciton transition in absorbance and they diminish the rotational strength of the exciton transitions in circular dichroism. The magnitude of these corrections is in a few percent range of the overall signal, providing a quantitative explanation of the success of time-local convolution-less density matrix theory applied earlier. A close examination of the optical spectra of Chl a and Chl b homodimers in WSCP suggests that the opening angle between Q{sub y} transition dipole moments in Chl b homodimers is larger by about 9{sup ∘} than for Chl a homodimers for which a crystal structure of a related WSCP complex exists. It remains to be investigated whether this change is due to a different mutual geometry of the pigments or due to the different electronic structures of Chl a and Chl b.
Li, Xintao; Zhang, Weiwei; Gao, Chuanqiang
2018-03-01
Wake-induced vibration (WIV) contains rich and complex phenomena due to the flow interference between cylinders. The aim of the present study is to gain physical insight into the intrinsic dynamics of WIV via linear stability analysis (LSA) of the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) system. A reduced-order-model-based linear dynamic model, combined with the direct computational fluid dynamics/computational structural dynamics simulation method, is adopted to investigate WIV in two identical tandem cylinders at low Re. The spacing ratio L/D, with L as the center-to-center distance and D as the diameter of cylinders, is selected as 2.0 to consider the effect of proximity flow interference. Results show that extensive WIV along with the vortex shedding could occur at subcritical Re conditions due to the instability of one coupled mode (i.e., coupled mode I, CM-I) of the FSI system. The eigenfrequency of CM-I transfers smoothly from close to the reduced natural frequency of structure to the eigenfrequency of uncoupled wake mode as the reduced velocity U* increases. Thus, CM-I characterizes as the structure mode (SM) at low U*, while it characterizes as the wake mode (WM) at large U*. Mode conversion of CM-I is the primary cause of the "frequency transition" phenomenon observed in WIV responses. Furthermore, LSA indicates that there exists a critical mass ratio mcr*, below which no upper instability boundary of CM-I exists (Uup p e r *→∞ ). The unbounded instability of CM-I ultimately leads to the "infinite WIV" phenomenon. The neutral stability boundaries for WIV in the (Re, U*) plane are determined through LSA. It is shown that the lowest Re possible for WIV regarding the present configuration is R el o w e s t≈34 . LSA accurately captures the dynamics of WIV at subcritical Re and reveals that it is essentially a fluid-elastic instability problem. This work lays a good foundation for the investigation of WIV at supercritical high Re and gives enlightenment to the
Dong, Jingtao; Lu, Rongsheng
2018-04-30
The simultaneous determination of t, n(λ), and κ(λ) of thin films can be a tough task for the high correlation of fit parameters. The strong assumptions about the type of dispersion relation are commonly used as a consequence to alleviate correlation concerns by reducing the free parameters before the nonlinear regression analysis. Here we present an angle-resolved spectral reflectometry for the simultaneous determination of weakly absorbing thin film parameters, where a reflectance interferogram is recorded in both angular and spectral domains in a single-shot measurement for the point of the sample being illuminated. The variations of the phase recovered from the interferogram as functions of t, n, and κ reveals that the unwrapped phase is monotonically related to t, n, and κ, thereby allowing the problem of correlation to be alleviated by multiple linear regression. After removing the 2π ambiguity of the unwrapped phase, the merit function based on the absolute unwrapped phase performs a 3D data cube with variables of t, n and κ at each wavelength. The unique solution of t, n, and κ can then be directly determined from the extremum of the 3D data cube at each wavelength with no need of dispersion relation. A sample of GaN thin film grown on a polished sapphire substrate is tested. The experimental data of t and [n(λ), κ(λ)] are confirmed by the scanning electron microscopy and the comparison with the results of other related works, respectively. The consistency of the results shows the proposed method provides a useful tool for the determination of the thickness and optical constants of weakly absorbing thin films.
Bolzon, B
2007-11-15
CLIC is one of the current projects of high energy linear colliders. Vertical beam sizes of 0.7 nm at the time of the collision and fast ground motion of a few nanometers impose an active stabilization of the final doublets at a fifth of nanometer above 4 Hz. The majority of my work concerned vibrations and active stabilization study of cantilever and slim beams in order to be representative of the final doublets of CLIC. In a first part, measured performances of different types of vibration sensors associated to an appropriate instrumentation showed that accurate measurements of ground motion are possible from 0.1 Hz up to 2000 Hz on a quiet site. Also, electrochemical sensors answering a priori the specifications of CLIC can be incorporated in the active stabilization at a fifth of nanometer. In a second part, an experimental and numerical study of beam vibrations enabled to validate the efficiency of the numerical prediction incorporated then in the simulation of the active stabilization. Also, a study of the impact of ground motion and of acoustic noise on beam vibrations showed that an active stabilization is necessary at least up to 1000 Hz. In a third part, results on the active stabilization of a beam at its two first resonances are shown down to amplitudes of a tenth of nanometer above 4 Hz by using in parallel a commercial system performing passive and active stabilization of the clamping. The last part is related to a study of a support for the final doublets of a linear collider prototype in phase of finalization, the ATF2 prototype. This work showed that relative motion between this support and the ground is below imposed tolerances (6 nm above 0.1 Hz) with appropriate boundary conditions. (author)
de Pontes B. R.
2012-07-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we deal with the research of a vibrating model of an energy harvester device, including the nonlinearities in the model of the piezoelectric coupling and the non-ideal excitation. We show, using numerical simulations, in the analysis of the dynamic responses, that the harvested power is influenced by non-linear vibrations of the structure. Chaotic behavior was also observed, causing of the loss of energy throughout the simulation time. Using a perturbation technique, we find an approximate analytical solution for the non-ideal system. Then, we apply both two control techniques, to keep the considered system, into a stable condition. Both the State Dependent Ricatti Equation (SDRE control as the feedback control by changing the energy of the oscillator, were efficient in controlling of the considered non-ideal system.
Housman, J.J.
1978-01-01
A shock absorber is described for use in a hostile environment at the end of a blind passage for absorbing impact loads. The shock absorber includes at least one element which occupies the passage and which is comprised of a porous brittle material which is substantially non-degradable in the hostile environment. A void volume is provided in the element to enable the element to absorb a predetermined level of energy upon being crushed due to impact loading
Chanda, S.
2004-01-01
The present study concerns with the effects of material orthotropy,curvature, shear ratio and circumferential modulus under the influence of a temperature distribution throughout the shell structure. Here analysis is restricted to the study of nonlinear vibration of a doubly curved shell structure considering the periodic response of a simple bending mode due to curtailment of pages. Solutions of the problems with suitable illustrations are also presented
A probabilistic approach for the computation of non-linear vibrations of tubes under cross-flow
Payen, Th.; Langre, E. de.
1996-01-01
For the predictive analysis of flow-induced vibration and wear of tube bundles, a probabilistic method is proposed taking into account the uncertainties of the physical parameters. Monte-Carlo simulations are performed to estimate the density probability function of wear work rate and a sensitivity analysis is done on physical parameters influencing wear on the case of loosely supported tube under cross-flow. (authors). 8 refs., 8 figs
Suresh Kumar, V R; Binoy, J; Dawn Dharma Roy, S; Marchewka, M K; Jayakumar, V S
2015-01-01
Bis(melaminium) sulphate dihydrate (BMSD), an interesting melaminium derivative for nonlinear optical activity, has been subjected to vibrational spectral analysis using FT IR and FT Raman spectra. The analysis has been aided by the Potential Energy Distribution (PED) of vibrational spectral bands, derived using density functional theory (DFT) at B3LYP/6-31G(d) level. The geometry is found to correlate well with the XRD structure and the band profiles for certain vibrations in the finger print region have been theoretically explained using Evans hole. The detailed Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis of the hydrogen bonding in BMSD has also been carried out to understand the correlation between the stabilization energy of hyperconjugation of the lone pair of donor with the σ(∗) orbital of hydrogen-acceptor bond and the strength of hydrogen bond. The theoretical calculation shows that BMSD has NLO efficiency, 2.66 times that of urea. The frontier molecular orbital analysis points to a charge transfer, which contributes to NLO activity, through N-H…O intermolecular hydrogen bonding between the melaminium ring and the sulphate. The molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) mapping has also been performed for the detailed analysis of the mutual interactions between melaminium ring and sulphate ion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
High-Temperature Vibration Damper
Clarke, Alan; Litwin, Joel; Krauss, Harold
1987-01-01
Device for damping vibrations functions at temperatures up to 400 degrees F. Dampens vibrational torque loads as high as 1,000 lb-in. but compact enough to be part of helicopter rotor hub. Rotary damper absorbs energy from vibrating rod, dissipating it in turbulent motion of viscous hydraulic fluid forced by moving vanes through small orifices.
Quetier, Monique.
1978-11-01
Absorbants play a very important part in the nuclear industry. They serve for the control, shut-down and neutron shielding of reactors and increase the capacity of spent fuel storage pools and of special transport containers. This paper surveys the usual absorbant materials, means of obtainment, their essential characteristics relating to their use and their behaviour under neutron irradiation [fr
El Arem, S.
2006-01-15
The aim of this work is to study the dynamic response of a cracked rotor to establish some possibilities for early on line crack detection. First, a review on experimental, numerical and analytical works on the dynamics of cracked rotors is given. Then, an original method of calculating the behavior of a cracked beam section in bending with shearing effects is presented. The nonlinear behavior relations are derived from a three-dimensional model taking into account the unilateral contact conditions on the crack's lips. Based on an energy formulation, this method could be applied to any geometry of crack. The exploration by different numerical integration methods of the vibratory response of some models of cracked rotors is presented in the third chapter of this thesis. The un-cracked parts of a rotor are represented by elements of bar or beam type, and the cracked section by a nonlinear spring taking into account the breathing mechanism of the cracks. At the end of this part, an original method of construction of a finite element of a cracked beam is presented. The final chapter is devoted to the analytical study of the system with 2 degrees of freedom. The breathing mechanism of the crack is taken into account by considering specific periodic variation of the global stiffness of the system. The differential equations system is solved using the harmonic balance method. The linear stability of the periodic solutions is studied by the Floquet theory. Some vibratory parameters are proposed as crack indicators. (author)
An electromagnetic inerter-based vibration suppression device
Gonzalez-Buelga, A; Clare, L R; Neild, S A; Jiang, J Z; Inman, D J
2015-01-01
This paper describes how an inerter-based device for structural vibration suppression can be realized using an electromagnetic transducer such as a linear motor. When the motor shaft moves, a difference of voltage is generated across the transducer coil. The voltage difference is proportional to the relative velocity between its two terminals. The electromagnetic transducer will exert a force proportional to current following the Lorentz principle if the circuit is closed around the transducer coil. If an electronic circuit consisting of a capacitor, an inductance and a resistance with the appropriate configuration is connected, the resulting force reflected back into the mechanical domain is equivalent to that achieved by a mechanical inerter-based device. The proposed configuration is easy to implement and very versatile, provided a high quality conversion system with negligible losses. With the use of electromagnetic devices, a new generation of vibration absorbers can be realized, for example in the electrical domain it would be relatively uncomplicated to synthesize multi-frequency or real time tunable vibration absorbers by adding electrical components in parallel. In addition by using resistance emulators in the electrical circuits, part of the absorbed vibration energy can be converted into usable power. Here an electromagnetic tuned inerter damper (E-TID) is tested experimentally using real time dynamic substructuring. A voltage compensation unit was developed in order to compensate for coil losses. This voltage compensation unit requires power, which is acquired through harvesting from the vibration energy using a resistance emulator. A power balance analysis was developed in order to ensure the device can be self sufficient. Promising experimental results, using this approach, have been obtained and are presented in this paper. The ultimate goal of this research is the development of autonomous electromagnetic vibration absorbers, able to harvest energy
Fuchs, H. V.; Möser, M.
Sound absorption indicates the transformation of sound energy into heat. It is, for instance, employed to design the acoustics in rooms. The noise emitted by machinery and plants shall be reduced before arriving at a workplace; auditoria such as lecture rooms or concert halls require a certain reverberation time. Such design goals are realised by installing absorbing components at the walls with well-defined absorption characteristics, which are adjusted for corresponding demands. Sound absorbers also play an important role in acoustic capsules, ducts and screens to avoid sound immission from noise intensive environments into the neighbourhood.
Nemeth, J.D.
1981-01-01
A shock absorber for the support of piping and components in a nuclear power plant is described. It combines a high degree of stiffness under sudden shocks, e.g. seismic disturbances, with the ability to allow for thermal expansion without resistance when so required. (JIW)
Fleming, David P.; Poplawski, J. V.
2002-01-01
Rolling-element bearing forces vary nonlinearly with bearing deflection. Thus an accurate rotordynamic transient analysis requires bearing forces to be determined at each step of the transient solution. Analyses have been carried out to show the effect of accurate bearing transient forces (accounting for non-linear speed and load dependent bearing stiffness) as compared to conventional use of average rolling-element bearing stiffness. Bearing forces were calculated by COBRA-AHS (Computer Optimized Ball and Roller Bearing Analysis - Advanced High Speed) and supplied to the rotordynamics code ARDS (Analysis of Rotor Dynamic Systems) for accurate simulation of rotor transient behavior. COBRA-AHS is a fast-running 5 degree-of-freedom computer code able to calculate high speed rolling-element bearing load-displacement data for radial and angular contact ball bearings and also for cylindrical and tapered roller beatings. Results show that use of nonlinear bearing characteristics is essential for accurate prediction of rotordynamic behavior.
Barjau, Ana, E-mail: ana.barjau@upc.edu; Batlle, Joaquim A., E-mail: agullo.batlle@upc.edu; Font-Llagunes, Josep M., E-mail: josep.m.font@upc.edu [Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Biomedical Engineering Research Centre (Spain)
2015-11-15
This article proposes a linear-by-part approach for elastoplastic 3D multiple-point smooth impacts in multibody systems with perfect constraints. The model is an extension of a previous version, restricted to the perfectly elastic case, able to account for the high sensitivity to initial conditions and for redundancy without assuming any particular collision sequence (Barjau et al., Multibody Syst. Dyn. 31:497–517, 2014). Energy losses associated with compression and expansion in percussive analysis is a matter as complex as the physical phenomena involved, at the nanoscale level, for different materials. Simplified models can be developed for specific purposes, which can retain the most relevant trends of internal damping and at the same time be suitable for a particular analytical approach of impact mechanics. In the context of this article, energy dissipation due to material deformation is introduced through a linear-by-part elastoplastic model consisting on two elementary sets of springs and dry-friction dampers. The first set accounts for inelastic behavior (energy loss without permanent indentation), whereas the second one introduces plasticity (that is, permanent indentation). In inelastic and plastic collisions, instantaneous unilateral constraints may appear, thus reducing the number of degrees of freedom (DOF) of the system. The calculation of the corresponding normal contact force at the constrained points is then necessary in order to detect whether the constraint holds or disappears (either because a new compression or an expansion phase starts, or because contact is lost). Different simulated application examples are presented and thoroughly discussed.
Terrill, Kasia; Nesbitt, David J
2010-08-01
Ab initio anharmonic transition frequencies are calculated for strongly coupled (i) asymmetric and (ii) symmetric proton stretching modes in the X-H(+)-X linear ionic hydrogen bonded complexes for OCHCO(+) and N(2)HN(2)(+). The optimized potential surface is calculated in these two coordinates for each molecular ion at CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVnZ (n = 2-4) levels and extrapolated to the complete-basis-set limit (CBS). Slices through both 2D surfaces reveal a relatively soft potential in the asymmetric proton stretching coordinate at near equilibrium geometries, which rapidly becomes a double minimum potential with increasing symmetric proton acceptor center of mass separation. Eigenvalues are obtained by solution of the 2D Schrödinger equation with potential/kinetic energy coupling explicity taken into account, converged in a distributed Gaussian basis set as a function of grid density. The asymmetric proton stretch fundamental frequency for N(2)HN(2)(+) is predicted at 848 cm(-1), with strong negative anharmonicity in the progression characteristic of a shallow "particle in a box" potential. The corresponding proton stretch fundamental for OCHCO(+) is anomalously low at 386 cm(-1), but with a strong alternation in the vibrational spacing due to the presence of a shallow D(infinityh) transition state barrier (Delta = 398 cm(-1)) between the two equivalent minimum geometries. Calculation of a 2D dipole moment surface and transition matrix elements reveals surprisingly strong combination and difference bands with appreciable intensity throughout the 300-1500 cm(-1) region. Corrected for zero point (DeltaZPE) and thermal vibrational excitation (DeltaE(vib)) at 300 K, the single and double dissociation energies in these complexes are in excellent agreement with thermochemical gas phase ion data.
Bravin, E; Sosa, A
2014-01-01
This report summarizes the results of a series of tests performed on the prototype HIE-ISOLDE diagnostic box (HIE-DB) regarding the vibrations and drifts in the transverse position of the scanning blade while moving in and out of beam path in the HIE-ISOLDE short box prototype. To monitor the transverse position of the blade, a series of 0.1 mm diameter holes were drilled on it and their positions were tracked with an optical system. The linear motion actuator was acquired from UHV design (model LSM38-150-SS), and it was adapted to be driven by a brushless EC motor from MAXON. The speed of the scanning blade during the tests was 10 mm/s. The transverse movement of the slit in the direction perpendicular to the movement was lower than 40 m, and is dominated by the displacement of the contact point of the applied force on the lead-screw. An offset on the slit position was observed while changing the direction of movement of the blade, its amplitude being of the order of 30 m. The amplitudes of the displacements...
Bravin, E; Sosa, A
2014-01-01
This report summarizes the results of a series of tests performed on the prototype HIE-ISOLDE diagnostic box (HIE-DB) regarding the vibrations and drifts in the transverse position of the scanning blade while moving inside or outside the box. To monitor the transverse position of the blade, a series of 0.1 mm diameter holes were drilled on it and their positions were tracked with an optical system. The linear motion actuator was acquired from UHV design (model LSM38-150-SS), is driven by a stepper motor and has all the guiding mechanisms outside vacuum. The maximum speed of the scanning blade during the tests was 2.5 mm/s. The transverse movement of the slit in the direction perpendicular to the movement was lower than 50 m, and is dominated by the displacement of the contact point of the applied force on the lead-screw. An offset on the slit position was observed while changing the direction of movement of the blade, its amplitude being of the order of 30 m. The amplitudes of the displacements of the transve...
Clabo, D.A. Jr.
1987-04-01
Inclusion of the anharmonicity normal mode vibrations (i.e., the third and fourth (and higher) derivatives of a molecular Born-Oppenheimer potential energy surface) is necessary in order to theoretically reproduce experimental fundamental vibrational frequencies of a molecule. Although ab initio determinations of harmonic vibrational frequencies may give errors of only a few percent by the inclusion of electron correlation within a large basis set for small molecules, in general, molecular fundamental vibrational frequencies are more often available from high resolution vibration-rotation spectra. Recently developed analytic third derivatives methods for self-consistent-field (SCF) wavefunctions have made it possible to examine with previously unavailable accuracy and computational efficiency the anharmonic force fields of small molecules.
Clabo, D.A. Jr.
1987-04-01
Inclusion of the anharmonicity normal mode vibrations [i.e., the third and fourth (and higher) derivatives of a molecular Born-Oppenheimer potential energy surface] is necessary in order to theoretically reproduce experimental fundamental vibrational frequencies of a molecule. Although ab initio determinations of harmonic vibrational frequencies may give errors of only a few percent by the inclusion of electron correlation within a large basis set for small molecules, in general, molecular fundamental vibrational frequencies are more often available from high resolution vibration-rotation spectra. Recently developed analytic third derivatives methods for self-consistent-field (SCF) wavefunctions have made it possible to examine with previously unavailable accuracy and computational efficiency the anharmonic force fields of small molecules
Absorber materials in CANDU PHWR's
Price, E.G.; Boss, C.R.; Novak, W.Z.; Fong, R.W.L.
1995-03-01
In a CANDU reactor the fuel channels are arranged on a square lattice in a calandria filled with heavy water moderator. This arrangement allows five types of tubular neutron absorber devices to be located in a relatively benign environment of low pressure, low temperature heavy water between neighbouring rows of columns of fuel channels. This paper will describe the roles of the devices and outline the design requirements of the absorber component from a reactor physics viewpoint. Nuclear heating and activation problems associated with the different absorbers will be briefly discussed. The design and manufacture of the devices will be also discussed. The control rod absorbers and shut off materials are cadmium and stainless steel. In the tubular arrangement, the cadmium is sandwiched between stainless steel tubes. This type of device has functioned well, but there is now concern over the availability and expense of cadmium which is used in two types of CANDU control devices. There are also concerns about the toxicity of cadmium during the fabrication of the absorbers. These concerns are prompting AECL to study alternatives. To minimize design changes, pure boron-10 alloyed in stainless steel is a favoured option. Work is underway to confirm the suitability of the boron-loaded steel and identify other encapsulated absorber materials for practical application. Because the reactivity devices or their guide tubes span the calandria vessel, the long slender components must be sufficiently rigid to resist operational vibration and also be seismically stable. Some of these components are made of Zircaloy to minimize neutron absorption. Slow irradiation growth and creep can reduce the spring tension, and periodic adjustments to the springs are required. Experience with the control absorber devices has generally been good. In one instance liquid zone controllers had a problem of vibration induced fretting but a designed back-fit resolved the problem. (author). 3 refs., 1
Vega, Jose M. de la; Guirado, Damian; Vilches, Manuel; Perdices, Jose I.; Lallena, Antonio M.
2008-01-01
Purpose. To present a novel methodology to model the intrinsic electron spectra of a linear accelerator and its situation with respect to the energy window. Methods. The spectra are obtained by fitting the variation of R 50 and the maximum dose rate measured in a water phantom with the bending magnet current. The obtained spectra are verified with a realistic Monte Carlo simulation of the accelerator. Results. The intrinsic spectra and their relative position with respect to the energy window of the bending magnet have been obtained for a Siemens Mevatron KDS and an ELEKTA SL20 accelerators. Conclusions. Using this method in the commissioning and scheduled revisions of the accelerator, the tuning of the current of the bending magnet could be done in such a way that both the quality of the beam and the dose rate would reach a better long-term stability
Souza, Anderson Sorgatti de
2017-01-01
Teletherapy, radiation therapy with linear accelerators, for cancer treatment has being used for years with good clinical results.Since the 90's the removal of the flattening filter, item placed at the gantry of the machine, has shown better results for the treatment of some cancers thus being extensively studied. Treatments with Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) and Stereotaxic Radiotherapy (SRT) were more efficient without the flattening filter. Varian Oncology released the TrueBeam in 2012, a accelerator capable of operating with or without the flattening filter. The aim of this work is to access homogeneity of the percentage depth dose (PDP) and beam quality index (TPR20/10), two important parameters used in patient dose calculations. The data used for analysis were obtained with the Israelita Albert Einstein Hospital (HIAE), Real Portugues Hospital (RHP) and 3 more institutions located in the United States. The statistical data analysis allowed to observe the parameters behaviors. In general, they were very homogeneous, with errors smaller than 1% confirming the conformance of the TrueBeam accelerators. (author)
GEOMETRICAL OPTIMIZATION OF VEHICLE SHOCK ABSORBERS WITH MR FLUID
ENGIN, Tahsin; PARLAK, Zekeriya; ŞAHIN, Ismail; ÇALLI, Ismail
2016-01-01
Magnetorheological (MR) shock absorber have received remarkable attention in the last decade due to being a potential technology to conduct semi-active control in structures and mechanical systems in order to effectively suppress vibration. To develop performance of MR shock absorbers, optimal design of the dampers should be considered. The present study deals with optimal geometrical modeling of a MR shock absorber. Optimal design of the present shock absorber was carried out by using Taguch...
Alekhin, S.A.; Denisenko, V.V.; Dzhalalov, M.G.; Kirichek, F.P.; Pitatel, Yu.A.; Prokopov, L.I.; Tikhonov, Yu.P.
1982-01-01
A vibration sieve is proposed which includes a vibration drive, a body and a screen installed on shock absorbers, a device for washing out the screen, and a subassembly for loading the material. To increase the operational reliability and effectiveness of the vibration sieve by improving the cleaning of the screen, the loading subassembly is equipped with a baffle with a lever which is hinged to it. The device for washing out the screen is made in the form of an electromagnet with a connecting rod, a switch and an eccentric, a friction ratchet mechanism and sprinkling systems. Here, the latter are interconnected, using a connecting rod, while the sprinkling system is installed on rollers under the screen. The electromagnetic switch is installed under the lever. The body is made with grooves for installing the sprinkling system. The vibration sieve is equipped with a switch which interacts with the connecting rod. The friction ratchet mechanism is equipped with a lug.
Enhancing vibration measurements by Mössbauer effect
Pasquevich, G. A.; Veiga, A.; Zélis, P. Mendoza; Martínez, N.; van Raap, M. Fernández; Sánchez, F. H.
2014-01-01
The measurement of the Mössbauer effect in a system excited with a periodic perturbation can provide information about it. For that purpose, the Mössbauer absorption of a source-absorber set which hyperfine parameters are well known, is measured at a constant relative velocity (i.e. at a defined spectral energy). The resulting Mössbauer absorption periodic signal provides information of the sample ac perturbation response. This approach has been used time ago to measure small tympanic vibrations (mechanical perturbations). In this work we present an extension of the vibration experiments, by measuring them at various absorber-source relative velocities within a constant-velocity strategy. As a demonstration test, the frequency response of a piezoelectric diaphragm in the 100 Hz-5 kHz range is obtained with a custom electronic counter. The experiments are performed using a 57Co( Rh) source and a 25-m-thick stainless-steel absorber fixed to a piezoelectric diaphragm. Phase shifts and amplitude vibrations with velocities in the range from 1.5 m/s to 20 mm/s are well characterized, extending the linearity limit well beyond the earlier suggested one of 1 mm/s.
Applications of equivalent linearization approaches to nonlinear piping systems
Park, Y.; Hofmayer, C.; Chokshi, N.
1997-01-01
The piping systems in nuclear power plants, even with conventional snubber supports, are highly complex nonlinear structures under severe earthquake loadings mainly due to various mechanical gaps in support structures. Some type of nonlinear analysis is necessary to accurately predict the piping responses under earthquake loadings. The application of equivalent linearization approaches (ELA) to seismic analyses of nonlinear piping systems is presented. Two types of ELA's are studied; i.e., one based on the response spectrum method and the other based on the linear random vibration theory. The test results of main steam and feedwater piping systems supported by snubbers and energy absorbers are used to evaluate the numerical accuracy and limitations
Nielsen, Søren R. K.
The present textbook has been written based on previous lecture notes for a course on stochastic vibration theory that is being given on the 9th semester at Aalborg University for M. Sc. students in structural engineering. The present 4th edition of this textbook on linear stochastic vibration th...... theory is unchanged in comparison to the 3rd edition. Only a few errors have been corrected.......The present textbook has been written based on previous lecture notes for a course on stochastic vibration theory that is being given on the 9th semester at Aalborg University for M. Sc. students in structural engineering. The present 4th edition of this textbook on linear stochastic vibration...
Insight into magnetorheological shock absorbers
Gołdasz, Janusz
2015-01-01
This book deals with magnetorheological fluid theory, modeling and applications of automotive magnetorheological dampers. On the theoretical side a review of MR fluid compositions and key factors affecting the characteristics of these fluids is followed by a description of existing applications in the area of vibration isolation and flow-mode shock absorbers in particular. As a majority of existing magnetorheological devices operates in a so-called flow mode a critical review is carried out in that regard. Specifically, the authors highlight common configurations of flow-mode magnetorheological shock absorbers, or so-called MR dampers that have been considered by the automotive industry for controlled chassis applications. The authors focus on single-tube dampers utilizing a piston assembly with one coil or multiple coils and at least one annular flow channel in the piston.
Contributions to the Study of Dynamic Absorbers, a Case Study
Monica Balcau
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Dynamic absorbers are used to reduce torsional vibrations. This paper studies the effect of a dynamic absorber attached to a mechanical system formed of three reduced masses which are acted on by one, two or three order x harmonics of a disruptive force.
Kaliski, S
2013-01-01
This book gives a comprehensive overview of wave phenomena in different media with interacting mechanical, electromagnetic and other fields. Equations describing wave propagation in linear and non-linear elastic media are followed by equations of rheological models, models with internal rotational degrees of freedom and non-local interactions. Equations for coupled fields: thermal, elastic, electromagnetic, piezoelectric, and magneto-spin with adequate boundary conditions are also included. Together with its companion volume Vibrations and Waves. Part A: Vibrations this work provides a wealth
Handbook on linear motor application
1988-10-01
This book guides the application for Linear motor. It lists classification and speciality of Linear Motor, terms of linear-induction motor, principle of the Motor, types on one-side linear-induction motor, bilateral linear-induction motor, linear-DC Motor on basic of the motor, linear-DC Motor for moving-coil type, linear-DC motor for permanent-magnet moving type, linear-DC motor for electricity non-utility type, linear-pulse motor for variable motor, linear-pulse motor for permanent magneto type, linear-vibration actuator, linear-vibration actuator for moving-coil type, linear synchronous motor, linear electromagnetic motor, linear electromagnetic solenoid, technical organization and magnetic levitation and linear motor and sensor.
Hansen, Bjarke Knud Vilster; Møller, Søren; Spanget-Larsen, Jens
2006-01-01
than 40 vibrational transitions. The observed IR wavenumbers, relative intensities, and polarization directions were generally well reproduced by the results of a harmonic analysis based on B3LYP/cc-pVTZ density functional theory (DFT). The combined experimental and theoretical results led to proposal...... of a nearly complete assignment of the IR active fundamentals of DPB, involving reassignment of a number of transitions. In addition, previously published Raman spectra of DPB were well predicted by the B3LYP/cc-pVTZ calculations....
Vibration control of a cluster of buildings through the Vibrating Barrier
Tombari, A.; Garcia Espinosa, M.; Alexander, N. A.; Cacciola, P.
2018-02-01
A novel device, called Vibrating Barrier (ViBa), that aims to reduce the vibrations of adjacent structures subjected to ground motion waves has been recently proposed. The ViBa is a structure buried in the soil and detached from surrounding buildings that is able to absorb a significant portion of the dynamic energy arising from the ground motion. The working principle exploits the dynamic interaction among vibrating structures due to the propagation of waves through the soil, namely the structure-soil-structure interaction. In this paper the efficiency of the ViBa is investigated to control the vibrations of a cluster of buildings. To this aim, a discrete model of structures-site interaction involving multiple buildings and the ViBa is developed where the effects of the soil on the structures, i.e. the soil-structure interaction (SSI), the structure-soil-structure interaction (SSSI) as well as the ViBa-soil-structures interaction are taken into account by means of linear elastic springs. Closed-form solutions are derived to design the ViBa in the case of harmonic excitation from the analysis of the discrete model. Advanced finite element numerical simulations are performed in order to assess the efficiency of the ViBa for protecting more than a single building. Parametric studies are also conducted to identify beneficial/adverse effects in the use of the proposed vibration control strategy to protect cluster of buildings. Finally, experimental shake table tests are performed to a prototype of a cluster of two buildings protected by the ViBa device for validating the proposed numerical models.
Chunyu Zhao
2009-01-01
Full Text Available The paper focuses on the quantitative analysis of the coupling dynamic characteristics of two non-identical exciters in a non-resonant vibrating system. The load torque of each motor consists of three items, including the torque of sine effect of phase angles, that of coupling sine effect and that of coupling cosine effect. The torque of frequency capture results from the torque of coupling cosine effect, which is equal to the product of the coupling kinetic energy, the coefficient of coupling cosine effect, and the sine of phase difference of two exciters. The motions of the system excited by two exciters in the same direction make phase difference close to π and that in opposite directions makes phase difference close to 0. Numerical results show that synchronous operation is stable when the dimensionless relative moments of inertia of two exciters are greater than zero and four times of their product is greater than the square of their coefficient of coupling cosine effect. The stability of the synchronous operation is only dependent on the structural parameters of the system, such as the mass ratios of two exciters to the vibrating system, and the ratio of the distance between an exciter and the centroid of the system to the equivalent radius of the system about its centroid.
Alekhin, S.A.; Chernov, V.S.; Denisenko, V.V.; Gorodnyanskiy, I.F.; Prokopov, L.I.; Tikhonov, Yu.P.
1983-01-01
The vibration mixer is proposed which contains a housing, vibration drive with rod installed in the upper part of the mixing mechanism made in the form of a hollow shaft with blades. In order to improve intensity of mixing and dispersion of the mud, the shaft with the blades is arranged on the rod of the vibrator and is equipped with a cam coupling whose drive disc is attached to the vibration rod. The rod is made helical, while the drive disc of the cam coupling is attached to the helical surface of the rod. In addition, the vibration mixer is equipped with perforated discs installed on the ends of the rods.
Kojima, Naoki; Matsushita, Kazuo.
1992-01-01
Small pieces of shock absorbers are filled in a space of a shock absorbing vessel which is divided into a plurality of sections by partitioning members. These sections function to prevent excess deformation or replacement of the fillers upon occurrence of falling accident. Since the shock absorbing small pieces in the shock absorbing vessel are filled irregularly, shock absorbing characteristics such as compression strength is not varied depending on the direction, but they exhibit excellent shock absorbing performance. They surely absorb shocks exerted on a transportation vessel upon falling or the like. If existing artificial fillers such as pole rings made of metal or ceramic and cut pieces such as alumium extrusion molding products are used as the shock absorbing pieces, they have excellent fire-proofness and cold resistance since the small pieces are inflammable and do not contain water. (T.M.)
Vijayakumar, T.; Hubert Joe, I. [Centre for Molecular and Biophysics Research, Department of Physics, Mar Ivanios College, Thiruvananthapuram 695 015, Kerala (India); Reghunadhan Nair, C.P. [Polymers and Special Chemicals Division, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Thiruvananthapuram 695 022, Kerala (India); Jayakumar, V.S. [Centre for Molecular and Biophysics Research, Department of Physics, Mar Ivanios College, Thiruvananthapuram 695 015, Kerala (India)], E-mail: vsjk@vsnl.net
2008-01-22
A comprehensive investigation on the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) of an efficient {pi}-conjugated potential push-pull NLO chromophore, 4-[N,N-dimethylamino]-4'-nitro stilbene (DANS), from a strong electron-donor group (dimethylamino-N(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}) to a strong electron-acceptor group (nitro-NO{sub 2}) through the {pi}-conjugated bridge (trans-stilbene) has been carried out from their vibrational spectra. The NIR FT-Raman and FT-IR spectra supported by the density functional theory (DFT) quantum chemical computations have been employed to analyze the effects of intramolecular charge transfer on the geometries and the vibrational modes contributing to the linear electro-optic effect of the organic NLO material. It has been observed that the changes in the endocyclic and exocyclic angles result from the charge-transfer interaction of the phenyl ring and the amino group in the electron-donor side of the NLO chromophore. The strongest vibrational modes contributing to the electro-optic effect have been identified and examined from the concurrent IR and Raman activation of {nu}(C=C/C-C) mode, ring C=C stretching modes, in-plane deformation modes, nitro modes and the umbrella mode of methyl groups. Furthermore, the splitting of the vinyl stretching modes and the electronic effects such as hyperconjugation and backdonation on the methyl hydrogen atoms causing the decrease of stretching frequencies and infrared intensities have also been analyzed in detail. The effect of frontier orbitals transition of electron density transfer and the influence of planarity between the phenyl rings of the stilbene moiety on the first hyperpolarizability have also been discussed.
Nonlinear modeling of magnetorheological energy absorbers under impact conditions
Mao, Min; Hu, Wei; Choi, Young-Tai; Wereley, Norman M.; Browne, Alan L.; Ulicny, John; Johnson, Nancy
2013-11-01
Magnetorheological energy absorbers (MREAs) provide adaptive vibration and shock mitigation capabilities to accommodate varying payloads, vibration spectra, and shock pulses, as well as other environmental factors. A key performance metric is the dynamic range, which is defined as the ratio of the force at maximum field to the force in the absence of field. The off-state force is typically assumed to increase linearly with speed, but at the higher shaft speeds occurring in impact events, the off-state damping exhibits nonlinear velocity squared damping effects. To improve understanding of MREA behavior under high-speed impact conditions, this study focuses on nonlinear MREA models that can more accurately predict MREA dynamic behavior for nominal impact speeds of up to 6 m s-1. Three models were examined in this study. First, a nonlinear Bingham-plastic (BP) model incorporating Darcy friction and fluid inertia (Unsteady-BP) was formulated where the force is proportional to the velocity. Second, a Bingham-plastic model incorporating minor loss factors and fluid inertia (Unsteady-BPM) to better account for high-speed behavior was formulated. Third, a hydromechanical (HM) analysis was developed to account for fluid compressibility and inertia as well as minor loss factors. These models were validated using drop test data obtained using the drop tower facility at GM R&D Center for nominal drop speeds of up to 6 m s-1.
Nonlinear modeling of magnetorheological energy absorbers under impact conditions
Mao, Min; Hu, Wei; Choi, Young-Tai; Wereley, Norman M; Browne, Alan L; Ulicny, John; Johnson, Nancy
2013-01-01
Magnetorheological energy absorbers (MREAs) provide adaptive vibration and shock mitigation capabilities to accommodate varying payloads, vibration spectra, and shock pulses, as well as other environmental factors. A key performance metric is the dynamic range, which is defined as the ratio of the force at maximum field to the force in the absence of field. The off-state force is typically assumed to increase linearly with speed, but at the higher shaft speeds occurring in impact events, the off-state damping exhibits nonlinear velocity squared damping effects. To improve understanding of MREA behavior under high-speed impact conditions, this study focuses on nonlinear MREA models that can more accurately predict MREA dynamic behavior for nominal impact speeds of up to 6 m s −1 . Three models were examined in this study. First, a nonlinear Bingham-plastic (BP) model incorporating Darcy friction and fluid inertia (Unsteady-BP) was formulated where the force is proportional to the velocity. Second, a Bingham-plastic model incorporating minor loss factors and fluid inertia (Unsteady-BPM) to better account for high-speed behavior was formulated. Third, a hydromechanical (HM) analysis was developed to account for fluid compressibility and inertia as well as minor loss factors. These models were validated using drop test data obtained using the drop tower facility at GM R and D Center for nominal drop speeds of up to 6 m s −1 . (paper)
Chunyu Zhao
2009-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper an analytical approach is proposed to study the feature of frequency capture of two non-identical coupled exciters in a non-resonant vibrating system. The electromagnetic torque of an induction motor in the quasi-steady-state operation is derived. With the introduction of two perturbation small parameters to average angular velocity of two exciters and their phase difference, we deduce the Equation of Frequency Capture by averaging two motion equations of two exciters over their average period. It converts the synchronization problem of two exciters into that of existence and stability of zero solution for the Equation of Frequency Capture. The conditions of implementing frequency capture and that of stabilizing synchronous operation of two motors have been derived. The concept of torque of frequency capture is proposed to physically explain the peculiarity of self-synchronization of the two exciters. An interesting conclusion is reached that the moments of inertia of the two exciters in the Equation of Frequency Capture reduce and there is a coupling moment of inertia between the two exciters. The reduction of moments of inertia and the coupling moment of inertia have an effect on the stability of synchronous operation.
Nielsen, Søren R. K.
The present textbook has been written based on previous lecture notes for a course on stochastic vibration theory that is being given on the 9th semester at Aalborg University for M. Sc. students in structural engineering. The present 2nd edition of this textbook on linear stochastic vibration th...... theory is basically unchanged in comparison to the 1st edition. Only section 4.2 on single input - single output systems and chapter 6 on offshore structures have been modified in order to enhance the clearness....
Sørensen, Herman
1997-01-01
Methods for calculating natural frequencies for ship hulls and for plates and panels.Evaluation of the risk for inconvenient vibrations on board......Methods for calculating natural frequencies for ship hulls and for plates and panels.Evaluation of the risk for inconvenient vibrations on board...
Tribology Aspect of Rubber Shock Absorbers Development
M. Banić
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Rubber is a very flexible material with many desirable properties Which enable its broad use in engineering practice. Rubber or rubber-metal springs are widely used as anti-vibration or anti-shock components in technical systems. Rubber-metal springs are usually realized as a bonded assembly, however especially in shock absorbers, it is possible to realize free contacts between rubber and metal parts. In previous research it authors was observed that friction between rubber and metal in such case have a significant influence on the damping characteristics of shock absorber. This paper analyzes the development process of rubber or rubber-metal shock absorbers realized free contacts between the constitutive parts, starting from the design, construction, testing and operation, with special emphasis on the development of rubber-metal springs for the buffing and draw gear of railway vehicles.
Methods for absorbing neutrons
Guillen, Donna P [Idaho Falls, ID; Longhurst, Glen R [Idaho Falls, ID; Porter, Douglas L [Idaho Falls, ID; Parry, James R [Idaho Falls, ID
2012-07-24
A conduction cooled neutron absorber may include a metal matrix composite that comprises a metal having a thermal neutron cross-section of at least about 50 barns and a metal having a thermal conductivity of at least about 1 W/cmK. Apparatus for providing a neutron flux having a high fast-to-thermal neutron ratio may include a source of neutrons that produces fast neutrons and thermal neutrons. A neutron absorber positioned adjacent the neutron source absorbs at least some of the thermal neutrons so that a region adjacent the neutron absorber has a fast-to-thermal neutron ratio of at least about 15. A coolant in thermal contact with the neutron absorber removes heat from the neutron absorber.
Employing Theories Far beyond Their Limits - Linear Dichroism Theory.
Mayerhöfer, Thomas G
2018-05-15
Using linear polarized light, it is possible in case of ordered structures, such as stretched polymers or single crystals, to determine the orientation of the transition moments of electronic and vibrational transitions. This not only helps to resolve overlapping bands, but also assigning the symmetry species of the transitions and to elucidate the structure. To perform spectral evaluation quantitatively, a sometimes "Linear Dichroism Theory" called approach is very often used. This approach links the relative orientation of the transition moment and polarization direction to the quantity absorbance. This linkage is highly questionable for several reasons. First of all, absorbance is a quantity that is by its definition not compatible with Maxwell's equations. Furthermore, absorbance seems not to be the quantity which is generally compatible with linear dichroism theory. In addition, linear dichroism theory disregards that it is not only the angle between transition moment and polarization direction, but also the angle between sample surface and transition moment, that influences band shape and intensity. Accordingly, the often invoked "magic angle" has never existed and the orientation distribution influences spectra to a much higher degree than if linear dichroism theory would hold strictly. A last point that is completely ignored by linear dichroism theory is the fact that partially oriented or randomly-oriented samples usually consist of ordered domains. It is their size relative to the wavelength of light that can also greatly influence a spectrum. All these findings can help to elucidate orientation to a much higher degree by optical methods than currently thought possible by the users of linear dichroism theory. Hence, it is the goal of this contribution to point out these shortcomings of linear dichroism theory to its users to stimulate efforts to overcome the long-lasting stagnation of this important field. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGa
Semiconductor saturable absorbers for ultrafast terahertz signals
Hoffmann, Matthias C.; Turchinovich, Dmitry
2010-01-01
states, due to conduction band onparabolicity and scattering into satellite valleys in strong THz fields. Saturable absorber parameters, such as linear and nonsaturable transmission, and saturation fluence, are extracted by fits to a classic saturable absorber model. Further, we observe THz pulse......We demonstrate saturable absorber behavior of n-type semiconductors GaAs, GaP, and Ge in the terahertz THz frequency range at room temperature using nonlinear THz spectroscopy. The saturation mechanism is based on a decrease in electron conductivity of semiconductors at high electron momentum...
Thatcher, G.; Davidson, D. F.
1984-01-01
A hydraulic shock absorber of the dash pot kind for use with electrically conducting liquid such as sodium, has magnet means for electro magnetically braking a stream of liquid discharged from the cylinder. The shock absorber finds use in a liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor for arresting control rods
Passive and Active Vibration Control of Renewable Energy Structures
Zhang, Zili
The present thesis deals with fundamental researches on passive and active vibration control of renewable energy structures, and provides useful models for practical applications. Effective and robust vibration control methods have been explored for mitigating the lightly damped edgewise blade...... solutions for wave energy point absorbers, in order to maximize the mean absorbed power and to deliver more smooth power to the grid. A novel suboptimal causal control law has been established for controlling the motion of the point absorber, and a new type of point absorber has also been proposed...
Vibration-damping structure for reactor building
Kuno, Toshio; Iba, Chikara; Tanaka, Hideki; Kageyama, Mitsuru
1998-01-01
In a damping structure of a reactor building, an inner concrete body and a reactor container are connected by way of a vibration absorbing member. As the vibration absorbing member, springs or dampers are used. The inner concrete body and the reactor container each having weight and inherent frequency different from each other are opposed displaceably by way of the vibration absorbing member thereby enabling to reduce seismic input and reduce shearing force at least at leg portions. Accordingly, seismic loads are reduced to increase the grounding rate of the base thereby enabling to satisfy an allowable value. Therefore, it is not necessary to strengthen the inner concrete body and the reactor container excessively, the amount of reinforcing rods can be reduced, and the amount of a portion of the base buried to the ground can be reduced thereby enabling to constitute the reactor building easily. (N.H.)
Takeya, Kouichi; Sasaki, Eiichi; Kobayashi, Yusuke
2016-01-01
A bridge vibration energy harvester has been proposed in this paper using a tuned dual-mass damper system, named hereafter Tuned Mass Generator (TMG). A linear electromagnetic transducer has been applied to harvest and make use of the unused reserve of energy the aforementioned damper system absorbs. The benefits of using dual-mass systems over single-mass systems for power generation have been clarified according to the theory of vibrations. TMG parameters have been determined considering multi-domain parameters, and TMG has been tuned using a newly proposed parameter design method. Theoretical analysis results have shown that for effective energy harvesting, it is essential that TMG has robustness against uncertainties in bridge vibrations and tuning errors, and the proposed parameter design method for TMG has demonstrated this feature.
Morrison, Ann; Knudsen, L.; Andersen, Hans Jørgen
2012-01-01
In this paper we describe a field study conducted with a wearable vibration belt where we test to determine the vibration intensity sensitivity ranges on a large diverse group of participants with evenly distributed ages and...
Pazsit, I.; Glockler, O.
1983-01-01
Based on the theory of neutron noise arising from the vibration of a localized absorber, the possibility of rod vibration diagnostics is investigated. It is found that noise source characteristics, namely rod position and vibration trajectory and spectra, can be unfolded from measured neutron noise signals. For the localization process, the first and more difficult part of the diagnostics, a procedure is suggested whose novelty is that it is applicable in case of arbitrary vibration trajectories. Applicability of the method is investigated in numerical experiments where effects of background noise are also accounted for
Practical application of equivalent linearization approaches to nonlinear piping systems
Park, Y.J.; Hofmayer, C.H.
1995-01-01
The use of mechanical energy absorbers as an alternative to conventional hydraulic and mechanical snubbers for piping supports has attracted a wide interest among researchers and practitioners in the nuclear industry. The basic design concept of energy absorbers (EA) is to dissipate the vibration energy of piping systems through nonlinear hysteretic actions of EA exclamation point s under design seismic loads. Therefore, some type of nonlinear analysis needs to be performed in the seismic design of piping systems with EA supports. The equivalent linearization approach (ELA) can be a practical analysis tool for this purpose, particularly when the response approach (RSA) is also incorporated in the analysis formulations. In this paper, the following ELA/RSA methods are presented and compared to each other regarding their practice and numerical accuracy: Response approach using the square root of sum of squares (SRSS) approximation (denoted RS in this paper). Classical ELA based on modal combinations and linear random vibration theory (denoted CELA in this paper). Stochastic ELA based on direct solution of response covariance matrix (denoted SELA in this paper). New algorithms to convert response spectra to the equivalent power spectral density (PSD) functions are presented for both the above CELA and SELA methods. The numerical accuracy of the three EL are studied through a parametric error analysis. Finally, the practicality of the presented analysis is demonstrated in two application examples for piping systems with EA supports
A Vibration Control Method for the Flexible Arm Based on Energy Migration
Yushu Bian
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A vibration control method based on energy migration is proposed to decrease vibration response of the flexible arm undergoing rigid motion. A type of vibration absorber is suggested and gives rise to the inertial coupling between the modes of the flexible arm and the absorber. By analyzing 1 : 2 internal resonance, it is proved that the internal resonance can be successfully created and the exchange of vibration energy is existent. Due to the inertial coupling, the damping enhancement effect is revealed. Via the inertial coupling, vibration energy of the flexible arm can be dissipated by not only the damping of the vibration absorber but also its own enhanced damping, thereby effectively decreasing vibration. Through numerical simulations and analyses, it is proven that this method is feasible in controlling nonlinear vibration of the flexible arm undergoing rigid motion.
PWR burnable absorber evaluation
Cacciapouti, R.J.; Weader, R.J.; Malone, J.P.
1995-01-01
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relative neurotic efficiency and fuel cycle cost benefits of PWR burnable absorbers. Establishment of reference low-leakage equilibrium in-core fuel management plans for 12-, 18- and 24-month cycles. Review of the fuel management impact of the integral fuel burnable absorber (IFBA), erbium and gadolinium. Calculation of the U 3 O 8 , UF 6 , SWU, fuel fabrication, and burnable absorber requirements for the defined fuel management plans. Estimation of fuel cycle costs of each fuel management plan at spot market and long-term market fuel prices. Estimation of the comparative savings of the different burnable absorbers in dollar equivalent per kgU of fabricated fuel. (author)
Washington University St Louis — TOMS_AI_G is an aerosol related dataset derived from the Total Ozone Monitoring Satellite (TOMS) Sensor. The TOMS aerosol index arises from absorbing aerosols such...
Multi-mode vibration control of piping system
Minowa, Takeshi; Seto, Kazuto; Iiyama, Fumiya; Sodeyama, Hiroshi
1999-01-01
In this paper, dual dynamic absorbers are applied to the piping system in order to control the multiple vibration modes. ANSYS, which is one of the software based on FEM(finite element method), is used for the design of dual dynamic absorbers as well as for the determination of their optimum installing positions. The dual dynamic absorbers designed optimally for controlling the first three vibration modes perform just like a houde damper in higher frequency and have an effect on controlling higher modes. To use this advantage, three dual dynamic absorbers are installed in positions where they influence higher modes, and not only the first three modes of the piping system but also the extensive modes are controlled. Practical experimental study has also been carried out and it is shown that a dual dynamic absorber is suitable for controlling the vibration of the piping system. (author)
Identification and reduction of piping-vibrations in plants
Kerkhof, K. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). MPA
2012-07-01
Safe operation, availability and lifetime assessment of piping systems are of utmost concern for plant operators. The use of tuned mass dampers is a rather new approach for reducing vibrations to avoid high cycle fatigue in a large chemical piping system. The investigated piping system is supported by a tall structure fixed at the base. As a result, the steel building stiffness decreases with height. Furthermore large piping-elbow forces act at the top of the building, which lead to large vibration amplitudes. Since both piping system and supporting structure exhibited these large vibration amplitudes, dampers or shock absorbers placed between them would prove ineffective. Therefore, special vibration absorbers were developed for such piping systems. The paper presents the design process, starting with an extensive system investigation up to the passive multi-axial vibration absorber design parameters. This includes: Laboratory tests with a mock-up pipe system, where the first design ideas for new passive vibration absorbers were investigated. Vibration measurements were carried out to investigate the current state of the vibration behaviour. The piping system was inspected; strain gauges were used to identify stress concentrations at welds and other notches due to ovalization. Finite element calculations were performed, first as a combined beam and shell model for the pipe without the support structure. A detailed model for the combined steel construction and pipe system was created. Model-updating was done to fit the calculated model to the experimental modal analysis data. Loading assumptions describing excitation forces from the mass flow were checked. Harmonic frequency analysis was performed. On the basis of these calculations design parameters for the passive vibration absorber were determined. Finally, a solution for the design of two passive vibration absorbers will be presented.
Identification and reduction of piping-vibrations in plants
Kerkhof, K.
2012-01-01
Safe operation, availability and lifetime assessment of piping systems are of utmost concern for plant operators. The use of tuned mass dampers is a rather new approach for reducing vibrations to avoid high cycle fatigue in a large chemical piping system. The investigated piping system is supported by a tall structure fixed at the base. As a result, the steel building stiffness decreases with height. Furthermore large piping-elbow forces act at the top of the building, which lead to large vibration amplitudes. Since both piping system and supporting structure exhibited these large vibration amplitudes, dampers or shock absorbers placed between them would prove ineffective. Therefore, special vibration absorbers were developed for such piping systems. The paper presents the design process, starting with an extensive system investigation up to the passive multi-axial vibration absorber design parameters. This includes: Laboratory tests with a mock-up pipe system, where the first design ideas for new passive vibration absorbers were investigated. Vibration measurements were carried out to investigate the current state of the vibration behaviour. The piping system was inspected; strain gauges were used to identify stress concentrations at welds and other notches due to ovalization. Finite element calculations were performed, first as a combined beam and shell model for the pipe without the support structure. A detailed model for the combined steel construction and pipe system was created. Model-updating was done to fit the calculated model to the experimental modal analysis data. Loading assumptions describing excitation forces from the mass flow were checked. Harmonic frequency analysis was performed. On the basis of these calculations design parameters for the passive vibration absorber were determined. Finally, a solution for the design of two passive vibration absorbers will be presented.
Energy-harvesting shock absorber with a mechanical motion rectifier
Li, Zhongjie; Zuo, Lei; Kuang, Jian; Luhrs, George
2013-02-01
Energy-harvesting shock absorbers are able to recover the energy otherwise dissipated in the suspension vibration while simultaneously suppressing the vibration induced by road roughness. They can work as a controllable damper as well as an energy generator. An innovative design of regenerative shock absorbers is proposed in this paper, with the advantage of significantly improving the energy harvesting efficiency and reducing the impact forces caused by oscillation. The key component is a unique motion mechanism, which we called ‘mechanical motion rectifier (MMR)’, to convert the oscillatory vibration into unidirectional rotation of the generator. An implementation of a MMR-based harvester with high compactness is introduced and prototyped. A dynamic model is created to analyze the general properties of the motion rectifier by making an analogy between mechanical systems and electrical circuits. The model is capable of analyzing electrical and mechanical components at the same time. Both simulation and experiments are carried out to verify the modeling and the advantages. The prototype achieved over 60% efficiency at high frequency, much better than conventional regenerative shock absorbers in oscillatory motion. Furthermore, road tests are done to demonstrate the feasibility of the MMR shock absorber, in which more than 15 Watts of electricity is harvested while driving at 15 mph on a smooth paved road. The MMR-based design can also be used for other applications of vibration energy harvesting, such as from tall buildings or long bridges.
Energy-harvesting shock absorber with a mechanical motion rectifier
Li, Zhongjie; Zuo, Lei; Kuang, Jian; Luhrs, George
2013-01-01
Energy-harvesting shock absorbers are able to recover the energy otherwise dissipated in the suspension vibration while simultaneously suppressing the vibration induced by road roughness. They can work as a controllable damper as well as an energy generator. An innovative design of regenerative shock absorbers is proposed in this paper, with the advantage of significantly improving the energy harvesting efficiency and reducing the impact forces caused by oscillation. The key component is a unique motion mechanism, which we called ‘mechanical motion rectifier (MMR)’, to convert the oscillatory vibration into unidirectional rotation of the generator. An implementation of a MMR-based harvester with high compactness is introduced and prototyped. A dynamic model is created to analyze the general properties of the motion rectifier by making an analogy between mechanical systems and electrical circuits. The model is capable of analyzing electrical and mechanical components at the same time. Both simulation and experiments are carried out to verify the modeling and the advantages. The prototype achieved over 60% efficiency at high frequency, much better than conventional regenerative shock absorbers in oscillatory motion. Furthermore, road tests are done to demonstrate the feasibility of the MMR shock absorber, in which more than 15 Watts of electricity is harvested while driving at 15 mph on a smooth paved road. The MMR-based design can also be used for other applications of vibration energy harvesting, such as from tall buildings or long bridges. (paper)
Perfetto, Sara; Rohlfing, Jens; Infante, Francesco; Mayer, Dirk; Herold, Sven
2016-01-01
Piezoelectric transducers can be used to harvest electrical energy from structural vibrations in order to power continuously operating condition monitoring systems local to where they operate. However, excessive vibrations can compromise the safe operation of mechanical systems. Therefore, absorbers are commonly used to control vibrations. With an integrated device, the mechanical energy that otherwise would be dissipated can be converted via piezoelectric transducers. Vibration absorbers are...
Phosphate vibrations as reporters of DNA hydration
Corcelli, Steven
The asymmetric phosphate stretch vibrational frequency is extraordinarily sensitive to its local solvent environment. Using density functional theory calculations on the model compound dimethyl phosphate, the asymmetric phosphate stretch vibrational frequency was found to shift linearly with the magnitude of an electric field along the symmetry axis of the PO2 moiety (i.e. the asymmetric phosphate stretch is an excellent linear vibrational Stark effect probe). With this linear relationship established, asymmetric phosphate stretch vibrational frequencies were computed during the course of a molecular dynamics simulation of fully hydrated DNA. Moreover, contributions to shifts in the frequencies from subpopulations of water molecules (e.g. backbone, minor groove, major groove, etc.) were calculated to reveal how phosphate vibrations report the onset of DNA hydration in experiments that vary the relative humidity of non-condensing (dry) DNA samples.
2009-01-01
Ed Witten is one of the leading scientists in the field of string theory, the theory that describes elementary particles as vibrating strings. This week he leaves CERN after having spent a few months here on sabbatical. His wish is that the LHC will unveil supersymmetry.
Umesh P. Agarwal; Rajai Atalla
2010-01-01
Vibrational spectroscopy is an important tool in modern chemistry. In the past two decades, thanks to significant improvements in instrumentation and the development of new interpretive tools, it has become increasingly important for studies of lignin. This chapter presents the three important instrumental methods-Raman spectroscopy, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, and...
Naum, R.G.; Owens, D.P.; Dooher, G.I.
1979-01-01
A neutron absorbing article, in flat plate form and suitable for use in a storage rack for spent fuel, includes boron carbide particles, diluent particles and a solid, irreversibly cured phenolic polymer cured to a continuous matrix binding the boron carbide and diluent particles. The total conent of boron carbide and diluent particles is a major proportion of the article and the content of cured phenolic polymer present is a minor proportion. By regulation of the ratio of boron carbide particles to diluent particles, normally within the range of 1:9 and 9:1 and preferably within the range of 1:5 to 5:1, the neutron absorbing activity of the product may be controlled, which facilitates the manufacture of articles of particular absorbing activities best suitable for specific applications
Radford, K.C.; Carlson, W.G.
1983-01-01
A neutron-absorber body for use in burnable poison rods in a nuclear reactor. The body is composed of a matrix of Al 2 O 3 containing B 4 C, the neutron absorber. Areas of high density polycrystalline Al 2 O 3 particles are predominantly encircled by pores in some of which there are B 4 C particles. This body is produced by initially spray drying a slurry of A1 2 O 3 powder to which a binder has been added. The powder of agglomerated spheres of the A1 2 O 3 with the binder are dry mixed with B 4 C powder. The mixed powder is formed into a green body by isostatic pressure and the green body is sintered. The sintered body is processed to form the neutron-absorber body. In this case the B 4 C particles are separate from the spheres resulting from the spray drying instead of being embedded in the sphere
Use of nonlinear asymmetrical shock absorber to improve comfort on passenger vehicles
Silveira, M.; Pontes, B. R.; Balthazar, J. M.
2014-03-01
In this study the behaviour of two different types of shock absorbers, symmetrical (linear) and asymmetrical (nonlinear) is compared for use on passenger vehicles. The analyses use different standard road inputs and include variation of the severity parameter, the asymmetry ratio and the velocity of the vehicle. Performance indices and acceleration values are used to assess the efficacy of the asymmetrical systems. The comparisons show that the asymmetrical system, with nonlinear characteristics, tends to have a smoother and more progressive performance, both for vertical and angular movements. The half-car front asymmetrical system was introduced, and the simulation results show that the use of the asymmetrical system only at the front of the vehicle can further diminish the angular oscillations. As lower levels of acceleration are essential for improved ride comfort, the use of asymmetrical systems for vibrations and impact absorption can be a more advantageous choice for passenger vehicles.
Performance of Closely Spaced Point Absorbers with Constrained Floater Motion
De Backer, G.; Vantorre, M.; Beels, C.
2009-01-01
The performance of a wave energy converter array of twelve heaving point absorbers has been assessed numerically in a frequency domain model. Each point absorber is assumed to have its own linear power take-off. The impact of slamming, stroke and force restrictions on the power absorption...
Vrillon, Bernard.
1973-01-01
The mechanical shock absorber described is made of a constant thickness plate pierced with circular holes regularly distributed in such a manner that for all the directions along which the strain is applied during the shock, the same section of the substance forming the plate is achieved. The shock absorber is made in a metal standing up to extensive deformation before breaking, selected from a group comprising mild steels and austenitic stainless steels. This apparatus is used for handling pots of fast neutron reactor fuel elements [fr
Naum, R.G.; Owens, D.P.; Dooker, G.I.
1981-01-01
A neutron-absorbing article suitable for use in spent fuel racks is described. It comprises boron carbide particles, diluent particles, and a phenolic polymer cured to a continuous matrix. The diluent may be silicon carbide, graphite, amorphous carbon, alumina, or silica. The combined boron carbide-diluent phase contains no more than 2 percent B 2 O 3 , and the neutron-absorbing article contains from 20 to 40 percent phenol resin. The ratio of boron carbide to diluent particles is in the range 1:9 to 9:1
Determination of Absorbed Dose Using a Dosimetric Film
Scarlat, F.; Scarisoreanu, A.; Oane, M.; Badita, E.; Mitru, E.
2009-01-01
This paper presents the absorbed dose measurements by means of the irradiated dosimetric reference films. The dose distributions were made by MULTIDATA film densitometer using RTD-4 software, in INFLPR Linear Accelerator Department
Harris, T. D.; Williams, A. M.
1983-10-01
The application of low absorption measurements to dilute solute determination requires specific instrumental characteristics. The use of laser intracavity absorption and thermal lens calorimetry to measure concentration is shown. The specific operating parameters that determine sensitivity are delineated along with the limits different measurement strategies impose. Finally areas of improvement in components that would result in improve sensitivity, accuracy, and reliability are discussed. During the past decade, a large number of methods have been developed for measuring the light absorbed by transparent materials. These include measurements on gases, liquids, and solids. The activity has been prompted by a variety of applications and a similar variety of disciplines. In Table 1 some representative examples of these methods is shown along with their published detection limits.1 It is clear that extraordinarily small absorbances can be measured. Most of the methods can be conveniently divided into two groups. These groups are those that measure the transmission of the sample and those that measure the light absorbed by the sample. The light absorbed methods are calorimetric in character. The advantages and disadvantages of each method varies depending on the principal application for which they were developed. The most prevalent motivation has been to characterize the bulk optical properties of transparent materials. Two examples are the development of extremely transparent glasses for use as fiber optic materials and the development of substrates for high power laser operation.
Optical vibration measurement of mechatronics devices
Yanabe, Shigeo
1993-09-01
An optical vibration measuring system which enables to detect both linear and angular displacement of 25 nm and 5 prad was developed. The system is mainly composed of a He-Ne laser, a displacement detecting photo-diode and lenses, and has linear and angular displacement magnification mechanism using two different principles of optical lever. The system was applied to measure vibrational characteristics of magnetic head slider of hard disk drives and to measure stator teeth driving velocities of ultrasonic motor.
Lattice Vibrations in Chlorobenzenes:
Reynolds, P. A.; Kjems, Jørgen; White, J. W.
1974-01-01
Lattice vibrational dispersion curves for the ``intermolecular'' modes in the triclinic, one molecule per unit cell β phase of p‐C6D4Cl2 and p‐C6H4Cl2 have been obtained by inelastic neutron scattering. The deuterated sample was investigated at 295 and at 90°K and a linear extrapolation to 0°K...... was applied in order to correct for anharmonic effects. Calculations based on the atom‐atom model for van der Waals' interaction and on general potential parameters for the aromatic compounds agree reasonably well with the experimental observations. There is no substantial improvement in fit obtained either...
Neutron absorbed dose in a pacemaker CMOS
Borja H, C. G.; Guzman G, K. A.; Valero L, C.; Banuelos F, A.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R.; Paredes G, L.
2012-01-01
The neutron spectrum and the absorbed dose in a Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS), has been estimated using Monte Carlo methods. Eventually a person with a pacemaker becomes an oncology patient that must be treated in a linear accelerator. Pacemaker has integrated circuits as CMOS that are sensitive to intense and pulsed radiation fields. Above 7 MV therapeutic beam is contaminated with photoneutrons that could damage the CMOS. Here, the neutron spectrum and the absorbed dose in a CMOS cell was calculated, also the spectra were calculated in two point-like detectors in the room. Neutron spectrum in the CMOS cell shows a small peak between 0.1 to 1 MeV and a larger peak in the thermal region, joined by epithermal neutrons, same features were observed in the point-like detectors. The absorbed dose in the CMOS was 1.522 x 10 -17 Gy per neutron emitted by the source. (Author)
Neutron absorbed dose in a pacemaker CMOS
Borja H, C. G.; Guzman G, K. A.; Valero L, C.; Banuelos F, A.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Paredes G, L., E-mail: fermineutron@yahoo.com [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)
2012-06-15
The neutron spectrum and the absorbed dose in a Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS), has been estimated using Monte Carlo methods. Eventually a person with a pacemaker becomes an oncology patient that must be treated in a linear accelerator. Pacemaker has integrated circuits as CMOS that are sensitive to intense and pulsed radiation fields. Above 7 MV therapeutic beam is contaminated with photoneutrons that could damage the CMOS. Here, the neutron spectrum and the absorbed dose in a CMOS cell was calculated, also the spectra were calculated in two point-like detectors in the room. Neutron spectrum in the CMOS cell shows a small peak between 0.1 to 1 MeV and a larger peak in the thermal region, joined by epithermal neutrons, same features were observed in the point-like detectors. The absorbed dose in the CMOS was 1.522 x 10{sup -17} Gy per neutron emitted by the source. (Author)
Adamiec, Radek
2012-01-01
Bakalářská práce obsahuje přehled používaných tlumičů osobních automobilů, závodních automobilů a motocyklů. Jsou zde popsány systémy t lumením, konstrukce tlumičů a vidlic používaných u motocyklů. Dále je zde přehled prvků používaných u podvozků automobilů. This bachelor´s thesis contains the survey of the shock absorbers of passenger cars, racing cars and motorcycles. Are described damping systems, the design used shock absorbers and forks for motorcycles. Then there is the list of the e...
Bricmont, R.J.; Hamilton, P.A.; Ming Long Ting, R.
1981-01-01
Reactors, fuel processing plants etc incorporate pipes and conduits for fluids under high pressure. Fractures, particularly adjacent to conduit elbows, produce a jet of liquid which whips the broken conduit at an extremely high velocity. An enormous impact load would be applied to any stationary object in the conduit's path. The design of cellular, corrugated metal impact pads to absorb the kinetic energy of the high velocity conduits is given. (U.K.)
Absorbable and biodegradable polymers
Shalaby, Shalaby W
2003-01-01
INTRODUCTION NOTES: Absorbable/Biodegradable Polymers: Technology Evolution. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATIONOF NEW SYSTEMS: Segmented Copolyesters with Prolonged Strength Retention Profiles. Polyaxial Crystalline Fiber-Forming Copolyester. Polyethylene Glycol-Based Copolyesters. Cyanoacrylate-Based Systems as Tissue Adhesives. Chitosan-Based Systems. Hyaluronic Acid-Based Systems. DEVELOPMENTS IN PREPARATIVE, PROCESSING, AND EVALUATION METHODS: New Approaches to the Synthesis of Crystalline. Fiber-Forming Aliphatic Copolyesters. Advances in Morphological Development to Tailor the Performance of Me
Johnson, Bruce G.; Gerver, Michael J.; Hawkey, Timothy J.; Fenn, Ralph C.
1993-01-01
Improved linear actuator comprises air slide and linear electric motor. Unit exhibits low friction, low backlash, and more nearly even acceleration. Used in machinery in which positions, velocities, and accelerations must be carefully controlled and/or vibrations must be suppressed.
Radford, K.C.; Carlson, W.G.
1985-01-01
This patent deals with the fabrication of pellets for neutron absorber rods. Such a pellet includes a matrix of a refractory material which may be aluminum or zirconium oxide, and a burnable poison distributed throughout the matrix. The neutron absorber material may consist of one or more elements or compounds of the metals boron, gadolinium, samarium, cadmium, europium, hafnium, dysprosium and indium. The method of fabricating pellets of these materials outlined in this patent is designed to produce pores or voids in the pellets that can be used to take up the expansion of the burnable poison and to absorb the helium gas generated. In the practice of this invention a slurry of Al 2 O 3 is produced. A hard binder is added and the slurry and binder are spray dried. This powder is mixed with dry B 4 C powder, forming a homogeneous mixture. This mixture is pressed into green tubes which are then sintered. During sintering the binder volatilizes leaving a ceramic with nearly spherical high-density regions of
Structural Design Optimization On Thermally Induced Vibration
Gu, Yuanxian; Chen, Biaosong; Zhang, Hongwu; Zhao, Guozhong
2002-01-01
The numerical method of design optimization for structural thermally induced vibration is originally studied in this paper and implemented in application software JIFEX. The direct and adjoint methods of sensitivity analysis for thermal induced vibration coupled with both linear and nonlinear transient heat conduction is firstly proposed. Based on the finite element method, the structural linear dynamics is treated simultaneously with coupled linear and nonlinear transient heat structural linear dynamics is treated simultaneously with coupled linear and nonlinear transient heat conduction. In the thermal analysis model, the nonlinear heat conduction considered is result from the radiation and temperature-dependent materials. The sensitivity analysis of transient linear and nonlinear heat conduction is performed with the precise time integration method. And then, the sensitivity analysis of structural transient dynamics is performed by the Newmark method. Both the direct method and the adjoint method are employed to derive the sensitivity equations of thermal vibration, and there are two adjoint vectors of structure and heat conduction respectively. The coupling effect of heat conduction on thermal vibration in the sensitivity analysis is particularly investigated. With coupling sensitivity analysis, the optimization model is constructed and solved by the sequential linear programming or sequential quadratic programming algorithm. The methods proposed have been implemented in the application software JIFEX of structural design optimization, and numerical examples are given to illustrate the methods and usage of structural design optimization on thermally induced vibration
Shock absorber in Ignalina NPP
Bulavas, A.; Muralis, J.
1996-09-01
Theoretical calculation and experimental analysis of models of shock absorber in Ignalina NPP is presented. The results obtained from the investigation with model of shock absorber coincide with the theoretical calculation. (author). 2 figs., 3 refs
Absorber for terahertz radiation management
Biallas, George Herman; Apeldoorn, Cornelis; Williams, Gwyn P.; Benson, Stephen V.; Shinn, Michelle D.; Heckman, John D.
2015-12-08
A method and apparatus for minimizing the degradation of power in a free electron laser (FEL) generating terahertz (THz) radiation. The method includes inserting an absorber ring in the FEL beam path for absorbing any irregular THz radiation and thus minimizes the degradation of downstream optics and the resulting degradation of the FEL output power. The absorber ring includes an upstream side, a downstream side, and a plurality of wedges spaced radially around the absorber ring. The wedges form a scallop-like feature on the innermost edges of the absorber ring that acts as an apodizer, stopping diffractive focusing of the THz radiation that is not intercepted by the absorber. Spacing between the scallop-like features and the shape of the features approximates the Bartlett apodization function. The absorber ring provides a smooth intensity distribution, rather than one that is peaked on-center, thereby eliminating minor distortion downstream of the absorber.
Corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coatings
Choi, Jor-Shan [El Cerrito, CA; Farmer, Joseph C [Tracy, CA; Lee, Chuck K [Hayward, CA; Walker, Jeffrey [Gaithersburg, MD; Russell, Paige [Las Vegas, NV; Kirkwood, Jon [Saint Leonard, MD; Yang, Nancy [Lafayette, CA; Champagne, Victor [Oxford, PA
2012-05-29
A method of forming a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising the steps of spray or deposition or sputtering or welding processing to form a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material. Also a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material.
Feynman Integrals with Absorbing Boundaries
Marchewka, A.; Schuss, Z.
1997-01-01
We propose a formulation of an absorbing boundary for a quantum particle. The formulation is based on a Feynman-type integral over trajectories that are confined to the non-absorbing region. Trajectories that reach the absorbing wall are discounted from the population of the surviving trajectories with a certain weighting factor. Under the assumption that absorbed trajectories do not interfere with the surviving trajectories, we obtain a time dependent absorption law. Two examples are worked ...
Solar radiation absorbing material
Googin, John M.; Schmitt, Charles R.; Schreyer, James M.; Whitehead, Harlan D.
1977-01-01
Solar energy absorbing means in solar collectors are provided by a solar selective carbon surface. A solar selective carbon surface is a microporous carbon surface having pores within the range of 0.2 to 2 micrometers. Such a surface is provided in a microporous carbon article by controlling the pore size. A thermally conductive substrate is provided with a solar selective surface by adhering an array of carbon particles in a suitable binder to the substrate, a majority of said particles having diameters within the range of about 0.2-10 microns.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ground vibration tests or modal surveys are routinely conducted to support flutter analysis for subsonic and supersonic vehicles. However, vibration testing...
Vibrational lifetimes of protein amide modes
Peterson, K.A.; Rella, C.A.
1995-01-01
Measurement of the lifetimes of vibrational modes in proteins has been achieved with a single frequency infrared pump-probe technique using the Stanford Picosecond Free-electron Laser, These are the first direct measurements of vibrational dynamics in the polyamide structure of proteins. In this study, modes associated with the protein backbone are investigated. Results for the amide I band, which consists mainly of the stretching motion of the carbonyl unit of the amide linkage, show that relaxation from the first vibrational excited level (v=1) to the vibrational ground state (v=0) occurs within 1.5 picoseconds with apparent first order kinetics. Comparison of lifetimes for myoglobin and azurin, which have differing secondary structures, show a small but significant difference. The lifetime for the amide I band of myoglobin is 300 femtoseconds shorter than for azurin. Further measurements are in progress on other backbone vibrational modes and on the temperature dependence of the lifetimes. Comparison of vibrational dynamics for proteins with differing secondary structure and for different vibrational modes within a protein will lead to a greater understanding of energy transfer and dissipation in biological systems. In addition, these results have relevance to tissue ablation studies which have been conducted with pulsed infrared lasers. Vibrational lifetimes are necessary for calculating the rate at which the energy from absorbed infrared photons is converted to equilibrium thermal energy within the irradiated volume. The very fast vibrational lifetimes measured here indicate that mechanisms which involve direct vibrational up-pumping of the amide modes with consecutive laser pulses, leading to bond breakage or weakening, are not valid
On generalized fractional vibration equation
Dai, Hongzhe; Zheng, Zhibao; Wang, Wei
2017-01-01
Highlights: • The paper presents a generalized fractional vibration equation for arbitrary viscoelastically damped system. • Some classical vibration equations can be derived from the developed equation. • The analytic solution of developed equation is derived under some special cases. • The generalized equation is particularly useful for developing new fractional equivalent linearization method. - Abstract: In this paper, a generalized fractional vibration equation with multi-terms of fractional dissipation is developed to describe the dynamical response of an arbitrary viscoelastically damped system. It is shown that many classical equations of motion, e.g., the Bagley–Torvik equation, can be derived from the developed equation. The Laplace transform is utilized to solve the generalized equation and the analytic solution under some special cases is derived. Example demonstrates the generalized transfer function of an arbitrary viscoelastic system.
Ruggedizing Printed Circuit Boards Using a Wideband Dynamic Absorber
V.C. Ho
2003-01-01
Full Text Available The existing approaches to ruggedizing inherently fragile and sensitive critical components of electronic equipment such as printed circuit boards (PCB for use in hostile industrial and military environment are either insufficient or expensive. This paper addresses a novel approach towards ruggedizing commercial-off-the-shelf PCBs using a miniature wideband dynamic absorber. The optimisation technique used relies on the experimentally measured vibration spectra and complex receptance of the original PCB.
Arindam Chakraborty
2006-03-01
Full Text Available In order to settle the issue of equivalence or non-equivalence of the two lone pairsof electrons on oxygen atom in water molecule, a quantum chemical study of the dipolecorrelation of the electronic structure of the molecule as a function of conformationsgenerated following the normal modes of vibrations between the two extremeconformations, C2v (Ã¢ÂˆÂ HOH at 90o and DÃ¢ÂˆÂh (Ã¢ÂˆÂ HOH at 180o, including the equilibrium one,has been performed. The study invokes quantum mechanical partitioning of moleculardipoles into bond moment and lone pair moment and localization of delocalized canonicalmolecular orbitals, CMOÃ¢Â€Â™s into localized molecular orbitals, LMOÃ¢Â€Â™s. An earlier suggestion,on the basis of photoelectron spectroscopy, that one lone pair is in p-type and the other is ins-type orbital of O atom of water molecule at its equilibrium shape, and also the qualitativeÃ¢Â€ÂœSquirrel EarsÃ¢Â€Â structure are brought under serious scrutiny. A large number ofconformations are generated and the charge density matrix, dipole moment of eachconformation is computed in terms of the generated canonical molecular orbitals, CMOÃ¢Â€Â™sand then SinanoÃ„ÂŸluÃ¢Â€Â™s localization method is invoked to localize the CMOÃ¢Â€Â™s of eachconformation and the quantum mechanical hybridizations of all the bonds and lone pairs onO center are evaluated in terms of the localized molecular orbitals. Computed datademonstrate that the electronic structures i.e. two bond pairs and two lone pairs and itshybridization status of all conformations of water molecule are straightforward in terms ofthe LMOÃ¢Â€Â™s. It is further revealed that the pattern of orbital hybridization changescontinuously as a function of evolution of molecular shape. The close analysis of thegenerated LMOÃ¢Â€Â™s reveals that one lone pair is accommodated in a pure p orbital and anotherlone pair is in a hybrid
Metamaterial electromagnetic wave absorbers.
Watts, Claire M; Liu, Xianliang; Padilla, Willie J
2012-06-19
The advent of negative index materials has spawned extensive research into metamaterials over the past decade. Metamaterials are attractive not only for their exotic electromagnetic properties, but also their promise for applications. A particular branch-the metamaterial perfect absorber (MPA)-has garnered interest due to the fact that it can achieve unity absorptivity of electromagnetic waves. Since its first experimental demonstration in 2008, the MPA has progressed significantly with designs shown across the electromagnetic spectrum, from microwave to optical. In this Progress Report we give an overview of the field and discuss a selection of examples and related applications. The ability of the MPA to exhibit extreme performance flexibility will be discussed and the theory underlying their operation and limitations will be established. Insight is given into what we can expect from this rapidly expanding field and future challenges will be addressed. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Heterogeneous neutron absorbers development
Boccaccini, Aldo; Agueda, Horacio; Russo, Diego; Perez, Edmundo
1987-01-01
The use of solid burnable absorber materials in power light water reactors has increased in the last years, specially due to improvements attained in costs of generated electricity. The present work summarizes the basic studies made on an alumina-gadolinia system, where alumina is the inert matrix and gadolinia acts as burnable poison, and describes the fabrication method of pellets with that material. High density compacts were obtained in the range of concentrations used by cold pressing and sintering at 1600 deg C in inert (Ar) atmosphere. Finally, the results of the irradiation experiences made at RA-6 reactor, located at the Bariloche Atomic Center, are given where variations on negative reactivity caused by introduction of burnable poison rods were measured. The results obtained from these experiences are in good agreement with those coming from calculation codes. (Author)
Evaluation of vibration and vibration fatigue life for small bore pipe in nuclear power plants
Wang Zhaoxi; Xue Fei; Gong Mingxiang; Ti Wenxin; Lin Lei; Liu Peng
2011-01-01
The assessment method of the steady state vibration and vibration fatigue life of the small bore pipe in the supporting system of the nuclear power plants is proposed according to the ASME-OM3 and EDF evaluation methods. The GGR supporting pipe system vibration is evaluated with this method. The evaluation process includes the filtration of inborn sensitivity, visual inspection, vibration tests, allowable vibration effective velocity calculation and vibration stress calculation. With the allowable vibration effective velocity calculated and the vibration velocity calculated according to the acceleration data tested, the filtrations are performed. The vibration stress at the welding coat is calculated with the spectrum method and compared with the allowable value. The response of the stress is calculated with the transient dynamic method, with which the fatigue life is evaluated with the Miners linear accumulation model. The vibration stress calculated with the spectrum method exceeds the allowable value, while the fatigue life calculated from the transient dynamic method is larger than the designed life with a big safety margin. (authors)
Yushu Bian
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Due to the presence of system flexibility, impact can excite severe large amplitude vibration responses of the flexible robotic manipulator. This impact vibration exhibits characteristics of remarkable nonlinearity and strong energy. The main goal of this study is to put forward an energy-based control method to absorb and attenuate large amplitude impact vibration of the flexible robotic manipulator. The method takes advantage of internal resonance and is implemented through a vibration absorber based on the transfer and dissipation of energy. The addition of the vibration absorber to the flexible arm generates a coupling effect between vibration modes of the system. By means of analysis on 2:1 internal resonance, the exchange of energy is proven to be existent. The impact vibrational energy can be transferred from the arm to the absorber and dissipated through the damping of the absorber. The results of numerical simulations are promising and preliminarily verify that the method is feasible and can be used to combat large amplitude impact vibration of the flexible manipulator undergoing rigid motion.
14th International Conference on Acoustics and Vibration of Mechanical Structures
Marinca, Vasile
2018-01-01
This book is a collection of papers presented at Acoustics and Vibration of Mechanical Structures 2017 – AVMS 2017 – highlighting the current trends and state-of-the-art developments in the field. It covers a broad range of topics, such as noise and vibration control, noise and vibration generation and propagation, the effects of noise and vibration, condition monitoring and vibration testing, modeling, prediction and simulation of noise and vibration, environmental and occupational noise and vibration, noise and vibration attenuators, as well as biomechanics and bioacoustics. The book also presents analytical, numerical and experimental techniques for evaluating linear and non-linear noise and vibration problems (including strong nonlinearity). It is primarily intended for academics, researchers and professionals, as well as PhD students in various fields of the acoustics and vibration of mechanical structures.
Preview control of vehicle suspension system featuring MR shock absorber
Seong, M S; Choi, S B [Smart Structures and Systems Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, M W [Precision Manufacturing and Inspection Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, H G [Department of Automotive Engineering, Daeduk College, Daejeon, 305-715 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: seungbok@inha.ac.kr
2009-02-01
This paper presents control performance evaluation of optimal preview control algorithm for vehicle suspension featuring MR shock absorber. The optimal preview control algorithm has several advantages such as high control performance over that which is best for a non-preview system. In order to achieve this goal, a commercial MR shock absorber, Delphi MganerideTM, which is applicable to high class passenger vehicle, is adopted and its field-dependent damping force and dynamic responses are experimentally evaluated. Then the governing equation of motion for the full-vehicle model is established and integrated with the MR shock absorber. Subsequently, optimal controller with preview control algorithm is formulated and implemented for vibration suppression of the car body. Control performance of the preview controller is evaluated for the full-vehicle model under random road condition. In addition, the control performances depending on preview distances are evaluated.
Preview control of vehicle suspension system featuring MR shock absorber
Seong, M S; Choi, S B; Cho, M W; Lee, H G
2009-01-01
This paper presents control performance evaluation of optimal preview control algorithm for vehicle suspension featuring MR shock absorber. The optimal preview control algorithm has several advantages such as high control performance over that which is best for a non-preview system. In order to achieve this goal, a commercial MR shock absorber, Delphi MganerideTM, which is applicable to high class passenger vehicle, is adopted and its field-dependent damping force and dynamic responses are experimentally evaluated. Then the governing equation of motion for the full-vehicle model is established and integrated with the MR shock absorber. Subsequently, optimal controller with preview control algorithm is formulated and implemented for vibration suppression of the car body. Control performance of the preview controller is evaluated for the full-vehicle model under random road condition. In addition, the control performances depending on preview distances are evaluated.
Mechanical vibration where do we stand?
Schneider, Wilhelm; Elishakoff, Isaac
2007-01-01
Written by the worldâs leading researchers on various topics of linear, nonlinear, and stochastic mechanical vibrations, this work gives an authoritative overview of the classic yet still very modern subject of mechanical vibrations. It poses the question: What are the most important contributions made in the past decade The reader will be able to gain a critical and authoritative overview of the subject from various complementary perspectives.
Kwak, Mun Gyu; Na, Sung Su; Baek, Gwang Hyeon; Song, Chul Gi; Han, Sang Bo
2001-09-01
This book deals with vibration of machine which gives descriptions of free vibration using SDOF system, forced vibration using SDOF system, vibration of multi-degree of freedom system like introduction and normal form, distribution system such as introduction, free vibration of bar and practice problem, approximate solution like lumped approximations and Raleigh's quotient, engineering by intuition and experience, real problem and experimental method such as technology of signal, fourier transform analysis, frequency analysis and sensor and actuator.
Simulation of fuel rods vibration in power reactors by vibration of tape coated with cadmium
Holland, L.
1982-01-01
The circulation of cooling water in light water power reactor makes a vibration in internal components. The monitoring of those vibrations is necessary aiming to the safety use of reactors. Aiming at study those vibrations a neutron absorber, type vibratory tape was introduced in the core of a research reactor type Pulstar, operating at 80 W of power. The induced power variations were measured with an ionization chamber put besides the reactor core. The detector signal was recorded and analysed in a PDP-11 computer. The analysis of the results show that the power density of the detector signal, and thus, the power reactor, increase in the O-25 Hz range with an increase in the pulse height vibration. (E.G.) [pt
Vibrational and Thermal Properties of Oxyanionic Crystals
Korabel'nikov, D. V.
2018-03-01
The vibrational and thermal properties of dolomite and alkali chlorates and perchlorates were studied in the gradient approximation of density functional theory using the method of a linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO). Long-wave vibration frequencies, IR and Raman spectra, and mode Gruneisen parameters were calculated. Equation-of-state parameters, thermodynamic potentials, entropy, heat capacity, and thermal expansion coefficient were also determined. The thermal expansion coefficient of dolomite was established to be much lower than for chlorates and perchlorates. The temperature dependence of the heat capacity at T > 200 K was shown to be generally governed by intramolecular vibrations.
Reflection measurements of microwave absorbers
Baker, Dirk E.; van der Neut, Cornelis A.
1988-12-01
A swept-frequency interferometer is described for making rapid, real-time assessments of localized inhomogeneities in planar microwave absorber panels. An aperture-matched exponential horn is used to reduce residual reflections in the system to about -37 dB. This residual reflection is adequate for making comparative measurements on planar absorber panels whose reflectivities usually fall in the -15 to -25 dB range. Reflectivity measurements on a variety of planar absorber panels show that multilayer Jaumann absorbers have the greatest inhomogeneity, while honeycomb absorbers generally have excellent homogeneity within a sheet and from sheet to sheet. The test setup is also used to measure the center frequencies of resonant absorbers. With directional couplers and aperture-matched exponential horns, the technique can be easily applied in the standard 2 to 40 GHz waveguide bands.
Aperiodic-metamaterial-based absorber
Quanlong Yang
2017-09-01
Full Text Available The periodic-metamaterial-based perfect absorber has been studied broadly. Conversely, if the unit cell in the metamaterial-based absorber is arranged aperiodically (aperiodic-metamaterial-based absorber, how does it perform? Inspired by this, here we present a systematic study of the aperiodic-metamaterial-based absorber. By investigating the response of metamaterial absorbers based on periodic, Fibonacci, Thue-Morse, and quasicrystal lattices, we found that aperiodic-metamaterial-based absorbers could display similar absorption behaviors as the periodic one in one hand. However, their absorption behaviors show different tendency depending on the thicknesses of the spacer. Further studies on the angle and polarization dependence of the absorption behavior are also presented.
Enhanced vibration diagnostics using vibration signature analysis
Ahmed, S.; Shehzad, K.; Zahoor, Y.; Mahmood, A.; Bibi, A.
2001-01-01
Symptoms will appear in equipment, as well as in human beings. when 'suffering from sickness. Symptoms of abnormality in equipment are vibration, noise, deformation, temperature, pressure, electric current, crack, wearing, leakage etc. these are called modes of failure. If the mode of failure is vibration then the vibration signature analysis can be effectively used in order to diagnose the machinery problems. Much valuable information is contained within these vibration 'Spectra' or 'Signatures' but is only of use if the analyst can unlock its 'Secrets'. This paper documents a vibration problem in the motor of a centrifugal pump (Type ETA). It focuses mainly on the roll of modern vibration monitoring system in problem analysis. The problem experienced was the motor unstability and noise due to high vibration. Using enhanced vibration signature data, the problem was analyzed. which suggested that the rotor eccentricity was the cause of excessive noise and vibration in the motor. In conclusion, advanced electronic monitoring and diagnostic systems provide powerful information for machine's condition assessment and problem analysis. Appropriate interpretation and use of this information is important for accurate and effective vibration analysis. (author)
Fault Detection for Automotive Shock Absorber
Hernandez-Alcantara, Diana; Morales-Menendez, Ruben; Amezquita-Brooks, Luis
2015-11-01
Fault detection for automotive semi-active shock absorbers is a challenge due to the non-linear dynamics and the strong influence of the disturbances such as the road profile. First obstacle for this task, is the modeling of the fault, which has been shown to be of multiplicative nature. Many of the most widespread fault detection schemes consider additive faults. Two model-based fault algorithms for semiactive shock absorber are compared: an observer-based approach and a parameter identification approach. The performance of these schemes is validated and compared using a commercial vehicle model that was experimentally validated. Early results shows that a parameter identification approach is more accurate, whereas an observer-based approach is less sensible to parametric uncertainty.
Quantum Monte Carlo for vibrating molecules
Brown, W.R.; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA
1996-08-01
Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) has successfully computed the total electronic energies of atoms and molecules. The main goal of this work is to use correlation function quantum Monte Carlo (CFQMC) to compute the vibrational state energies of molecules given a potential energy surface (PES). In CFQMC, an ensemble of random walkers simulate the diffusion and branching processes of the imaginary-time time dependent Schroedinger equation in order to evaluate the matrix elements. The program QMCVIB was written to perform multi-state VMC and CFQMC calculations and employed for several calculations of the H 2 O and C 3 vibrational states, using 7 PES's, 3 trial wavefunction forms, two methods of non-linear basis function parameter optimization, and on both serial and parallel computers. In order to construct accurate trial wavefunctions different wavefunctions forms were required for H 2 O and C 3 . In order to construct accurate trial wavefunctions for C 3 , the non-linear parameters were optimized with respect to the sum of the energies of several low-lying vibrational states. In order to stabilize the statistical error estimates for C 3 the Monte Carlo data was collected into blocks. Accurate vibrational state energies were computed using both serial and parallel QMCVIB programs. Comparison of vibrational state energies computed from the three C 3 PES's suggested that a non-linear equilibrium geometry PES is the most accurate and that discrete potential representations may be used to conveniently determine vibrational state energies
Structural determination of some uranyl compounds by vibrational spectroscopy
Rodriguez S, A.; Martinez Q, E.
1990-07-01
The vibrational spectra of different uranyl compounds has been studied and of it spectral information has been used the fundamental asymmetric vibrational frequency, to determine the length and constant bond force U=O by means of the combination of the concept of absorbed energy and the mathematical expression of Badger modified by Jones. It is intended a factor that simplifies the mathematical treatment and the results are compared with the values obtained for other methods. (Author)
Kasai, Shigeo.
1991-01-01
The present invention concerns a neutron absorbing element of a neutron shielding member used for an LMFBR type reactor. The inside of a fuel can sealed at both of the upper and the lower ends thereof with plugs is partitioned into an upper and a lower chambers by an intermediate plug. A discharging hole is disposed at the upper end plug, which is in communication with the outside. A communication tube is disposed at the intermediate end plug and it is in communication with the lower chamber containing B 4 C pellets. A cylindrical support member having three porous plugs connected in series is disposed at the lower surface of the discharging hole provided at the upper end plug. Further, the end of the discharging hole is sealed with high temperature solder and He atmosphere is present at the inside of the fuel can. With such a constitution, the supporting differential pressure of the porous plugs can be made greater while discharging He gases generated from B 4 C to the outside. Further, the porous plugs can be surely wetted by coolants. Accordingly, it is possible to increase life time and shorten the size. (I.N.)
Vibration analysis of reactor assembly internals for Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor
Chellapandi, P.; Jalaldeen, S.; Srinivasan, R.; Chetal, S.C.; Bhoje, S.B.
2003-01-01
Vibration analysis of the reactor assembly components of 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is presented. The vibration response of primary pump as well as dynamic forces developed at its supports are predicted numerically. The stiffness properties of hydrostatic bearing are determined by formulating and solving governing fluid and structural mechanics equations. The dynamic forces exerted by pump are used as input data for the dynamic response of reactor assembly components, mainly inner vessel, thermal baffle and control plug. Dynamic response of reactor assembly components is also predicted for the pressure fluctuations caused by sodium free level oscillations. Thermal baffle (weir shell) which is subjected to fluid forces developed at the associated sodium free levels is analysed by formulating and solving a set of non-linear equations for fluids, structures and fluid structure interaction (FSI). The control rod drive mechanism is analysed for response under flow induced forces on the parts subjected to cross flow in the zone just above the core top, taking into account FSI between sheaths of control and safety rod and absorber pin bundle. Based on the analysis results, it is concluded that the reactor assembly internals are free from any risk of mechanical as well as flow induced vibrations. (author)
[Occupational standing vibration rate and vibrational diseases].
Karnaukh, N G; Vyshchipan, V F; Haumenko, B S
2003-12-01
Occupational standing vibration rate is proposed in evaluating a degree of impairment of an organism activity. It will allow more widely to introduce specification of quality and quantity in assessment of the development of vibrational disease. According out-patient and inpatient obtained data we have established criterial values of functional changes in accordance with accumulated occupational standing vibration rate. The nomogram was worked out for defining a risk of the development of vibrational disease in mine workers. This nomogram more objectively can help in diagnostics of the disease.
Burnable absorber coated nuclear fuel
Chubb, W.; Radford, K.C.; Parks, B.H.
1984-01-01
A nuclear fuel body which is at least partially covered by a burnable neutron absorber layer is provided with a hydrophobic overcoat generally covering the burnable absorber layer and bonded directly to it. In a method for providing a UO 2 fuel pellet with a zirconium diboride burnable poison layer, the fuel body is provided with an intermediate niobium layer. (author)
Leaf absorbance and photosynthesis
Schurer, Kees
1994-01-01
The absorption spectrum of a leaf is often thought to contain some clues to the photosynthetic action spectrum of chlorophyll. Of course, absorption of photons is needed for photosynthesis, but the reverse, photosynthesis when there is absorption, is not necessarily true. As a check on the existence of absorption limits we measured spectra for a few different leaves. Two techniques for measuring absorption have been used, viz. the separate determination of the diffuse reflectance and the diffuse transmittance with the leaf at a port of an integrating sphere and the direct determination of the non-absorbed fraction with the leaf in the sphere. In a cross-check both methods yielded the same results for the absorption spectrum. The spectrum of a Fuchsia leaf, covering the short-wave region from 350 to 2500 nm, shows a high absorption in UV, blue and red, the well known dip in the green and a steep fall-off at 700 nm. Absorption drops to virtually zero in the near infrared, with subsequent absorptions, corresponding to the water absorption bands. In more detailed spectra, taken at 5 nm intervals with a 5 nm bandwidth, differences in chlorophyll content show in the different depths of the dip around 550 nm and in a small shift of the absorption edge at 700 nm. Spectra for Geranium (Pelargonium zonale) and Hibiscus (with a higher chlorophyll content) show that the upper limit for photosynthesis can not be much above 700 nm. No evidence, however, is to be seen of a lower limit for photosynthesis and, in fact, some experiments down to 300 nm still did not show a decrease of the absorption although it is well recognized that no photosynthesis results with 300 nm wavelengths.
Chang Chin Li, Lee Keat Teong, Subhash Bhatia and Abdul Rahman Mohamed
2012-08-01
Full Text Available An active absorbent for flue gas desulfurization was prepared from coal bottom ash, calcium oxide (CaO and calcium sulfate by hydro-thermal process. The absorbent was examined for its micro-structural properties. The experiments conducted were based on Design Of Experiments (DOE according to 23 factorial design. The effect of various absorbent preparation variables such as ratio of CaO to bottom ash (A, hydration temperature (B and hydration period (C towards the BET (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface area of the absorbent were studied. At a CaO to bottom ash ratio = 2, hydration temperature = 200 ?C and hydration period = 10 hrs, absorbent with a surface area of 90.1 m2/g was obtained. Based on the analysis of the factorial design, it was concluded that factor A and C as well as the interaction of factors ABC and BC are the significant factors that effect the BET surface area of the absorbent. A linear mathematical model that describes the relation between the independent variables and interaction between variables towards the BET specific surface area of the absorbent was also developed. Analysis of variance (ANOVA showed that the model was significant at 1% level.Key Words: Absorbent, Bottom Ash, Design Of Experiments, Desulfurization, Surface Area.
Visible light broadband perfect absorbers
Jia, X. L.; Meng, Q. X.; Yuan, C. X.; Zhou, Z. X.; Wang, X. O., E-mail: wxo@hit.edu.cn [School of Science, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)
2016-03-15
The visible light broadband perfect absorbers based on the silver (Ag) nano elliptical disks and holes array are studied using finite difference time domain simulations. The semiconducting indium silicon dioxide thin film is introduced as the space layer in this sandwiched structure. Utilizing the asymmetrical geometry of the structures, polarization sensitivity for transverse electric wave (TE)/transverse magnetic wave (TM) and left circular polarization wave (LCP)/right circular polarization wave (RCP) of the broadband absorption are gained. The absorbers with Ag nano disks and holes array show several peaks absorbance of 100% by numerical simulation. These simple and flexible perfect absorbers are particularly desirable for various potential applications including the solar energy absorber.
Vibrational entropies in metallic alloys
Ozolins, Vidvuds; Asta, Mark; Wolverton, Christopher
2000-03-01
Recently, it has been recognized that vibrational entropy can have significant effects on the phase stability of metallic alloys. Using density functional linear response calculations and molecular dynamics simulations we study three representative cases: (i) phase diagram of Al-rich Al-Sc alloys, (ii) stability of precipitate phases in CuAl_2, and (iii) phonon dynamics in bcc Zr. We find large vibrational entropy effects in all cases. In the Al-Sc system, vibrations increase the solid solubility of Sc in Al by decreasing the stability of the L12 (Al_3Sc) phase. This leads to a nearly ten-fold increase in the solid solubility of Sc in Al at T=800 K. In the Cu-Al system, our calculations predict that the tetragonal Laves phase of CuAl2 has 0.35 kB/atom higher vibrational entropy than the cubic CaF_2-type phase (the latter is predicted to be the T=0 K ground state of CuAl_2). This entropy difference causes a structural transformation in CuAl2 precipitates from the fluorite to the tetragonal Laves phase around T=500 K. Finally, we analyze the highly unusual dynamics of anharmonically stabilized bcc Zr, finding large diffuse-scattering intensity streaks between the bcc Bragg peaks.
Absorbing rods for nuclear fast neutron reactor absorbing assembly
Aji, M.; Ballagny, A.; Haze, R.
1986-01-01
The invention proposes a neutron absorber rod for neutron absorber assembly of a fast neutron reactor. The assembly comprises a bundle of vertical rods, each one comprising a stack of pellets made of a neutron absorber material contained in a long metallic casing with a certain radial play with regard to this casing; this casing includes traps for splinters from the pellets which may appear during reactor operation, at the level of contact between adjacent pellets. The present invention prevents the casing from rupture involved by the disintegration of the pellets producing pieces of boron carbide of high hardness [fr
Beecher, L. C.; Williams, F. T.
1970-01-01
Gas-driven vibration exciter produces a sinusoidal excitation function controllable in frequency and in amplitude. It allows direct vibration testing of components under normal loads, removing the possibility of component damage due to high static pressure.
Experimental investigation of torsional vibration isolation using Magneto Rheological Elastomer
Praveen Shenoy K
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Rotating systems suffer from lateral and torsional vibrations which have detrimental effect on the roto-dynamic performance. Many available technologies such as vibration isolators and vibration absorbers deal with the torsional vibrations to a certain extent, however passive isolators and absorbers find less application when the input conditions are dynamic. The present work discusses use of a smart material called as Magneto Rheological Elastomer (MRE, whose properties can be changed based on magnetic field input, as a potential isolator for torsional vibrations under dynamic loading conditions. Carbonyl Iron Particles (CIP of average size 5 μm were mixed with RTV Silicone rubber to form the MRE. The effect of magnetic field on the system parameters was comprehended under impulse loading conditions using a custom built in-house system. Series arrangement of accelerometers were used to differentiate between the torsional and the bending modes of vibration of the system. Impact hammer tests were carried out on the torsional system to study its response, in the presence and absence of magnetic field. The tests revealed a shift in torsional frequency in the presence of magnetic field which elucidates the ability of MRE to work as a potential vibration isolator for torsional systems.
Shilov, Georgi E
1977-01-01
Covers determinants, linear spaces, systems of linear equations, linear functions of a vector argument, coordinate transformations, the canonical form of the matrix of a linear operator, bilinear and quadratic forms, Euclidean spaces, unitary spaces, quadratic forms in Euclidean and unitary spaces, finite-dimensional space. Problems with hints and answers.
Souza, Anderson Sorgatti de
2017-11-01
Teletherapy, radiation therapy with linear accelerators, for cancer treatment has being used for years with good clinical results.Since the 90's the removal of the flattening filter, item placed at the gantry of the machine, has shown better results for the treatment of some cancers thus being extensively studied. Treatments with Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) and Stereotaxic Radiotherapy (SRT) were more efficient without the flattening filter. Varian Oncology released the TrueBeam in 2012, a accelerator capable of operating with or without the flattening filter. The aim of this work is to access homogeneity of the percentage depth dose (PDP) and beam quality index (TPR20/10), two important parameters used in patient dose calculations. The data used for analysis were obtained with the Israelita Albert Einstein Hospital (HIAE), Real Portugues Hospital (RHP) and 3 more institutions located in the United States. The statistical data analysis allowed to observe the parameters behaviors. In general, they were very homogeneous, with errors smaller than 1% confirming the conformance of the TrueBeam accelerators. (author)
Optimal design of MR shock absorber and application to vehicle suspension
Nguyen, Quoc-Hung; Choi, Seung-Bok
2009-01-01
This paper presents an optimal design of a magnetorheological (MR) shock absorber based on finite element analysis. The MR shock absorber is constrained in a specific volume and the optimization problem identifies geometric dimensions of the shock absorber that minimize a multi-objective function. The objective function is proposed by considering the damping force, dynamic range and the inductive time constant of the shock absorber. After describing the configuration of the MR shock absorber, a quasi-static modeling of the shock absorber is performed based on the Bingham model of an MR fluid. The initial geometric dimensions of the shock absorber are then determined based on the assumption of constant magnetic flux density throughout the magnetic circuit. The objective function of the optimization problem is derived based on the solution of the initial shock absorber. An optimization procedure using a golden-section algorithm and a local quadratic fitting technique is constructed via a commercial finite element method parametric design language. Using the developed optimization tool, optimal solutions of the MR shock absorber, which is constrained in a specific cylindrical volume defined by its radius and height, are determined. Subsequently, a quarter-car suspension model with the optimized MR shock absorber is formulated and the vibration control performance of the suspension is evaluated under bump and sinusoidal road conditions
We make music by causing strings, membranes, or air columns to vibrate. Engineers design safe structures by control- ling vibrations. I will describe to you a very simple vibrating system and the mathematics needed to analyse it. The ideas were born in the work of Joseph-Louis Lagrange (1736–1813), and I begin by quot-.
Photoelectron antibunching and absorber theory
Pegg, D.T.
1980-01-01
The recently detected photoelectron antibunching effect is considered to be evidence for the quantised electromagnetic field, i.e. for the existence of photons. Direct-action quantum absorber theory, on the other hand, has been developed on the basis that the quantised field is illusory, with quantisation being required only for atoms. In this paper it is shown that photoelectron antibunching is readily explicable in terms of absorber theory and in fact is directly attributable to the quantum nature of the emitting and detecting atoms alone. The physical nature of the reduction of the wavepacket associated with the detection process is briefly discussed in terms of absorber theory. (author)
Liquid metal reactor absorber technology
Pitner, A.L.
1990-10-01
The selection of boron carbide as the reference liquid metal reactor absorber material is supported by results presented for irradiation performance, reactivity worth compatibility, and benign failure consequences. Scram response requirements are met easily with current control rod configurations. The trend in absorber design development is toward larger sized pins with fewer pins per bundle, providing economic savings and improved hydraulic characteristics. Very long-life absorber designs appear to be attainable with the application of vented pin and sodium-bonded concepts. 3 refs., 3 figs
Fabrication of nano piezoelectric based vibration accelerometer for mechanical sensing
Murugan, S.; Prasad, M. V. N.; Jayakumar, K.
2016-05-01
An electromechanical sensor unit has been fabricated using nano PZT embedded in PVDF polymer. Such a polymer nano composite has been used as vibration sensor element and sensitivity, detection of mechanical vibration, and linearity measurements have been investigated. It is found from its performance, that this nano composite sensor is suitable for mechanical sensing applications.
Large amplitude forced vibration analysis of cross-beam system ...
Large amplitude forced vibration behaviour of cross-beam system under harmonic excitation is studied, incorporating the effect of geometric non-linearity. The forced vibration analysis is carried out in an indirect way, in which the dynamic system is assumed to satisfy the force equilibrium condition at peak load value, thus ...
A Miniature Coupled Bistable Vibration Energy Harvester
Zhu, D; Arthur, D C; Beeby, S P
2014-01-01
This paper reports the design and test of a miniature coupled bistable vibration energy harvester. Operation of a bistable structure largely depends on vibration amplitude rather than frequency, which makes it very promising for wideband vibration energy harvesting applications. A coupled bistable structure consists of a pair of mobile magnets that create two potential wells and thus the bistable phenomenon. It requires lower excitation to trigger bistable operation compared to conventional bistable structures. Based on previous research, this work focused on miniaturisation of the coupled bistable structure for energy harvesting application. The proposed bistable energy harvester is a combination of a Duffing's nonlinear structure and a linear assisting resonator. Experimental results show that the output spectrum of the miniature coupled bistable vibration energy harvester was the superposition of several spectra. It had a higher maximum output power and a much greater bandwidth compared to simply the Duffing's structure without the assisting resonator
THE THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS OF VIBRATION DAMPERS BY ROLLING FRICTION
L. M. Bondarenko
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Purpose. There are some unresolved issues in vibration damping – the lack of engineering calculations for the vibration dampers by rolling friction; the absence of evidence of their application appropriateness. Considering this fact, the authors suggest to prove that the dampers based on rolling friction, are similar in rate of oscillation damping by hydraulic shock absorbers. At the same time, they are easier for the hydraulic design, and easily amenable to manual adjustment, both in automatic and manual mode. Methodology. Fixed techniques of practice in order to determine amplitudes of the oscillations of a shock absorber led to a predetermined result and will apply this theory in the calculation of other vibration dampers. Findings. Analysis of the formulas and graphs leads to the following conclusions and recommendations: 1 the nature of the oscillation damping at vibration dampers by rolling friction is close to their decay in the viscous resistance; 2 when conducting the necessary experiments the shock absorber rolling can be recommended as alternatives to hydraulic ones. The research results of this task will help implement the new trend in reduction of dynamic loads in vehicles. Originality. With the help of theoretical curves to determine the coefficients of rolling friction the dependences for determining the amplitudes of the oscillations in the vertical movement of cargo were obtained. At the same time, the previously proposed analytical dependence for determining the coefficient of rolling friction contains only conventional mechanical constants of the contacting bodies and there geometrical dimensions. Practical value. Due to the existing well-known disadvantages of hydraulic shock absorbers it would be logical to apply shock absorbers that are technologically convenient in manufacturing and easy to adjust the damping rate. The proposed theory can be used in the design of shock absorbers rolling as an alternative to the hydraulic
Vibrational spectroscopy of proteins
Schwaighofer, A.
2013-01-01
Two important steps for the development of a biosensor are the immobilization of the biological component (e.g. protein) on a surface and the enhancement of the signal to improve the sensitivity of detection. To address these subjects, the present work describes Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) investigations of several proteins bound to the surface of an attenuated total reflection (ATR) crystal. Furthermore, new nanostructured surfaces for signal enhancement were developed for use in FTIR microscopy. The mitochondrial redox-protein cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) was incorporated into a protein-tethered bilayer lipid membrane (ptBLM) on an ATR crystal featuring a roughened two-layer gold surface for signal enhancement. Electrochemical excitation by periodic potential pulses at different modulation frequencies was followed by time-resolved FTIR spectroscopy. Phase sensitive detection was used for deconvolution of the IR spectra into vibrational components. A model based on protonation-dependent chemical reaction kinetics could be fitted to the time evolution of IR bands attributed to several different redox centers of the CcO. Further investigations involved the odorant binding protein 14 (OBP14) of the honey bee (Apis mellifera), which was studied using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and circular dichroism. OBP14 was found to be thermally stable up to 45 °C, thus permitting the potential application of this protein for the fabrication of biosensors. Thermal denaturation measurements showed that odorant binding increases the thermal stability of the OBP-odorant complex. In another project, plasmonic nanostructures were fabricated that enhance the absorbance in FTIR microscopy measurements. The nanostructures are composed of an array of round-shaped insulator and gold discs on top of a continuous gold layer. Enhancement factors of up to ⁓125 could be observed with self-assembled monolayers of dodecanethiol molecules immobilized on the gold surface (author) [de
Response of APS storage ring basemat to ambient vibration
Jendrzejczyk, J.A.; Wambsganss, M.W.; Smith, R.K.
1992-08-01
The storage ring of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) facility at Argonne is very sensitive to vibration. Large vibration amplitudes would result in degraded machine performance. Because the storage ring assembly is supported on the storage ring basemat, the dynamics of the basemat are critical to successful operation. Before construction began, a survey of site ground vibration indicated that the site was acceptable from a vibration standpoint. When construction of the linear accelerator (Linac) floor slab and shielding walls was completed, dynamic-response measurements were conducted. The slab/wall system showed attenuation of soilborne vibrations in the horizontal directions, but an amplification (approximately a factor of 1.5) of vertical vibration at a frequency of 7.7 Hz. Vibration response of the slab/wall system at all other frequencies showed attenuation of soilborne vibrations. Dynamic-response measurements were also conducted on an incomplete section of the storage ring basemat. Although this section was not prototypical, results were similar to those of the Linac floor in the horizontal direction, showing large damping and attenuation of horizontal soilborne vibrations. While the basemat followed the soil vibration in the vertical direction, no large amplification was observed. However, measured vertical amplitudes on the basemat were a function of location, indicating a modal response. A series of vibration response measurements was conducted on a completed section of the storage ring basemat/tunnel adjacent and to the west of the Early Assembly Area (EAA) on May 21, 1992, and is the subject of this report
Free vibration analysis of elastically supported Timoshenko columns ...
, concen- trated mass ... linear equations of motion for transverse vibrations of a simply supported beam carrying con- centrated ... a cantilever Timoshenko beam with a rigid tip mass. Ferreira .... Figure 3. Free body diagram of elastic support.
Vibration of hydraulic machinery
Wu, Yulin; Liu, Shuhong; Dou, Hua-Shu; Qian, Zhongdong
2013-01-01
Vibration of Hydraulic Machinery deals with the vibration problem which has significant influence on the safety and reliable operation of hydraulic machinery. It provides new achievements and the latest developments in these areas, even in the basic areas of this subject. The present book covers the fundamentals of mechanical vibration and rotordynamics as well as their main numerical models and analysis methods for the vibration prediction. The mechanical and hydraulic excitations to the vibration are analyzed, and the pressure fluctuations induced by the unsteady turbulent flow is predicted in order to obtain the unsteady loads. This book also discusses the loads, constraint conditions and the elastic and damping characters of the mechanical system, the structure dynamic analysis, the rotor dynamic analysis and the system instability of hydraulic machines, including the illustration of monitoring system for the instability and the vibration in hydraulic units. All the problems are necessary for vibration pr...
Hewitt, Sue; Dong, Ren G; Welcome, Daniel E; McDowell, Thomas W
2015-03-01
For exposure to hand-transmitted vibration (HTV), personal protective equipment is sold in the form of anti-vibration (AV) gloves, but it remains unclear how much these gloves actually reduce vibration exposure or prevent the development of hand-arm vibration syndrome in the workplace. This commentary describes some of the issues that surround the classification of AV gloves, the assessment of their effectiveness and their applicability in the workplace. The available information shows that AV gloves are unreliable as devices for controlling HTV exposures. Other means of vibration control, such as using alternative production techniques, low-vibration machinery, routine preventative maintenance regimes, and controlling exposure durations are far more likely to deliver effective vibration reductions and should be implemented. Furthermore, AV gloves may introduce some adverse effects such as increasing grip force and reducing manual dexterity. Therefore, one should balance the benefits of AV gloves and their potential adverse effects if their use is considered. © Crown copyright 2014.
Dynamical study of a laser with a saturable absorber
Dignowity, D; RamIrez, R [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, Loma del Bosque 115, Col. Lomas del Campestre, 37150, Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico)
2005-01-01
The study of a laser including a saturable absorber is presented. The non-linear system describing the complex dynamics of the laser is presented. The laser is shown to operate in several regimes depending on the parameters used. It is also shown how the control of the laser is possible depending on the operating regime parameters.
Analysis of the vibration of the vehicle body with the elimination of the influence of tires
Łukasz KONIECZNY
2015-09-01
Full Text Available The article presented the results of vibration measurements of selected elements of the vehicle during the test vibration carried out on a bench with a harmonic kinematic extortion. The results of research carried out for the car when replacing tire and wheels steel tripod eliminating the influence of elasticity and damping tires. The tests were performed at various values of the shock absorber fluid filling (from 100% to 50% of the shock absorber fluid. For registered vibration acceleration STFT analysis was performed.
Lambda-matrices and vibrating systems
Lancaster, Peter
2002-01-01
Features aspects and solutions of problems of linear vibrating systems with a finite number of degrees of freedom. Starts with development of necessary tools in matrix theory, followed by numerical procedures for relevant matrix formulations and relevant theory of differential equations. Minimum of mathematical abstraction; assumes a familiarity with matrix theory, elementary calculus. 1966 edition.
Proceedings of second international conference on vibration engineering and technology of machinery
2002-12-01
This volume of proceedings of the conference on vibration engineering cover a wide range of fields spanning diagnostics and condition monitoring, dynamics of rotors, dynamics of structures, computational methods, vehicle dynamics, vibration control, fluid-structure interaction, random and non-linear vibration. Many of these topics are also important to nuclear industry. The papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately
Effect on the vibration of the suspension system
L. Dahil
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In order to determine the damping effect of shock absorbs in vehicles, different vehicles acceleration values were measured while they were passing over speed bumps at different speeds. The vehicles’ vibration magnitudes caused by road roughness were analyzed. In this study the measurements were conducted with two different vehicles, multiple drivers and at different speeds. The vibration valves were determined with a HVM 100 device, in different field conditions and at 20 - 40 and 60 km/h by transferring the results to the system. According to the results of statistical analysis damping effect of the shock absorbers in the vehicles changed in different speed ranges and field conditions and it was seen that driver’s performance was significantly affected due to the vibration.
METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF ROTATION CENTER IN VIBRATING OBJECT
I. P. Kauryha
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Linear piezoelectric gauges, eddy current transducers and other control and measuring devices have been widely applied for vibration diagnostics of objects in industry. Methods based on such gauges and used for measuring angular and linear vibrations do not provide the possibility to assess a rotation center or point angle of an object. Parasitic oscillations may occur during rotor rotation and in some cases the oscillations are caused by dis-balance. The known methods for measuring angular and linear vibrations make it possible to detect the phenomenon and they do not provide information for balancing of the given object. For this very reason the paper describes a method for obtaining instantaneous rotation center in the vibrating object. It allows to improve informational content of the measurements owing to obtaining additional data on position of object rotation center. The obtained data can be used for balancing of a control object. Essence of the given method is shown by an example of piezoelectric gauges of linear vibrations. Two three-axial gauges are fixed to the investigated object. Then gauge output signals are recalculated in angular vibrations of the object (for this purpose it is necessary to know a distance between gauges. Further projection positions of the object rotation center are determined on three orthogonal planes. Instantaneous rotation center is calculated according to the position of one of the gauges. The proposed method permits to obtain data on linear and angular vibrations and rotation center position of the vibrating object using one system of linear gauge. Possibilities of object diagnostics are expanded due to increase in number of determined parameters pertaining to object moving. The method also makes it possible to reduce material and time expenses for measurement of an angular vibration component.
Vibration diagnostics instrumentation for ILC
Bertolini, A.
2007-06-15
The future e{sup -}e{sup +} 500 GeV International Linear Collider will rely on unprecedented nanometer scale particle beam size at the interaction point, in order to achieve the design luminosity. Tight tolerances on static and dynamic alignment of the accelerator cavities and optical components are demanded to transport and focus the high energy electron and positron beams with reasonable position jitter and low emittance. A brief review of techniques and devices evaluated and developed so far for the vibration diagnostics of the machine is presented in this paper. (orig.)
Vibration diagnostics instrumentation for ILC
Bertolini, A.
2007-06-01
The future e - e + 500 GeV International Linear Collider will rely on unprecedented nanometer scale particle beam size at the interaction point, in order to achieve the design luminosity. Tight tolerances on static and dynamic alignment of the accelerator cavities and optical components are demanded to transport and focus the high energy electron and positron beams with reasonable position jitter and low emittance. A brief review of techniques and devices evaluated and developed so far for the vibration diagnostics of the machine is presented in this paper. (orig.)
Integration of regenerative shock absorber into vehicle electric system
Zhang, Chongxiao; Li, Peng; Xing, Shaoxu; Kim, Junyoung; Yu, Liangyao; Zuo, Lei
2014-03-01
Regenerative/Energy harvesting shock absorbers have a great potential to increase fuel efficiency and provide suspension damping simultaneously. In recent years there's intensive work on this topic, but most researches focus on electricity extraction from vibration and harvesting efficiency improvement. The integration of electricity generated from regenerative shock absorbers into vehicle electric system, which is very important to realize the fuel efficiency benefit, has not been investigated. This paper is to study and demonstrate the integration of regenerative shock absorber with vehicle alternator, battery and in-vehicle electrical load together. In the presented system, the shock absorber is excited by a shaker and it converts kinetic energy into electricity. The harvested electricity flows into a DC/DC converter which realizes two functions: controlling the shock absorber's damping and regulating the output voltage. The damping is tuned by controlling shock absorber's output current, which is also the input current of DC/DC converter. By adjusting the duty cycles of switches in the converter, its input impedance together with input current can be adjusted according to dynamic damping requirements. An automotive lead-acid battery is charged by the DC/DC converter's output. To simulate the working condition of combustion engine, an AC motor is used to drive a truck alternator, which also charges the battery. Power resistors are used as battery's electrical load to simulate in-vehicle electrical devices. Experimental results show that the proposed integration strategy can effectively utilize the harvested electricity and power consumption of the AC motor is decreased accordingly. This proves the combustion engine's load reduction and fuel efficiency improvement.
Additive manufacturing of RF absorbers
Mills, Matthew S.
The ability of additive manufacturing techniques to fabricate integrated electromagnetic absorbers tuned for specific radio frequency bands within structural composites allows for unique combinations of mechanical and electromagnetic properties. These composites and films can be used for RF shielding of sensitive electromagnetic components through in-plane and out-of-plane RF absorption. Structural composites are a common building block of many commercial platforms. These platforms may be placed in situations in which there is a need for embedded RF absorbing properties along with structural properties. Instead of adding radar absorbing treatments to the external surface of existing structures, which adds increased size, weight and cost; it could prove to be advantageous to integrate the microwave absorbing properties directly into the composite during the fabrication process. In this thesis, a method based on additive manufacturing techniques of composites structures with prescribed electromagnetic loss, within the frequency range 1 to 26GHz, is presented. This method utilizes screen printing and nScrypt micro dispensing to pattern a carbon based ink onto low loss substrates. The materials chosen for this study will be presented, and the fabrication technique that these materials went through to create RF absorbing structures will be described. The calibration methods used, the modeling of the RF structures, and the applications in which this technology can be utilized will also be presented.
Salvi, Jonathan; Giaralis, Agathoklis
2016-01-01
A novel dynamic vibration absorber (DVA) configuration is introduced for simultaneous vibration suppression and energy harvesting from oscillations typically exhibited by large-scale low-frequency engineering structures and structural components. The proposed configuration, termed energy harvesting-enabled tuned mass-damper-inerter (EH-TMDI) comprises a mass grounded via an in-series electromagnetic motor (energy harvester)-inerter layout, and attached to the primary structure through linear spring and damper in parallel connection. The governing equations of motion are derived and solved in the frequency domain, for the case of harmonically-excited primary structures, here modelled as damped single-degree- of-freedom (SDOF) systems. Comprehensive parametric analyses proved that by varying the mass amplification property of the grounded inerter, and by adjusting the stiffness and the damping coefficients using simple optimum tuning formulae, enhanced vibration suppression (in terms of primary structure peak displacement) and energy harvesting (in terms of relative velocity at the terminals of the energy harvester) may be achieved concurrently and at nearresonance frequencies, for a fixed attached mass. Hence, the proposed EH-TMDI allows for relaxing the trade-off between vibration control and energy harvesting purposes, and renders a dual-objective optimisation a practically-feasible, reliable task. (paper)
Bandshapes in vibrational spectroscopy
Dijkman, F.G.
1978-01-01
A detailed account is given of the development of modern bandshape theories since 1965. An investigation into the relative contributions of statistical irreversible relaxation processes is described, for a series of molecules in which gradually the length of one molecular axis is increased. An investigation into the theoretical and experimental investigation of the broadening brought about by the effect of fluctuating intermolecular potentials on the vibrational frequency is also described. The effect of an intermolecular perturbative potential on anharmonic and Morse oscillators is discussed and the results are presented of a computation on the broadening of the vibrational band of some diatomic molecules in a rigid lattice type solvent. The broadening of the OH-stretching vibration in a number of aliphatic alcohols, the vibrational bandshapes of the acetylenic C-H stretching vibration and of the symmetric methyl stretching vibration are investigated. (Auth./ C.F.)
Becnel, Andrew; Hu, Wei; Hiemenz, Gregory J.; Wereley, Norman M.
2010-04-01
A magnetorheological shock absorber (MRSA) prototype is designed, fabricated and tested to integrate semiactive shock and vibration mitigation technology into the existing Expeditionary Fighting Vehicle (EFV) forward seating positions. Utilizing Bingham-Plastic (BP) constitutive fluid relationships and a steady state fluid flow model, the MR valve parameters are determined using magnetic circuit analysis, and subsequently validated via electromagnetic finite element analysis (FEA). Low speed (up to 0.9 m/s) simulations of normal vibration mode operation are conducted on the MRSA prototype using single frequency sinusoidal displacements by a servohydraulic testing machine. The high speed (up to 2.2 m/s) design procedure is verified by using a rail-guided drop test stand to impact a known payload mass onto the damper shaft. A refined hydromechanical model of the MRSA under both cyclic and impact loadings is developed and validated using the measured test data. This ratedependent, mechanisms-based model predicts the time response of the MRSA under both loading conditions. The hydromechanical analysis marks a significant improvement over previous linear models. Key design considerations for the MRSA to accommodate both vibration and shock spectra using a single MR device are presented.
Transfer vibration through spine
Benyovszky, Adam
2012-01-01
Transfer Vibration through Spine Abstract In the bachelor project we deal with the topic of Transfer Vibration through Spine. The problem of TVS is trying to be solved by the critical review method. We analyse some diagnostic methods and methods of treatment based on this principle. Close attention is paid to the method of Transfer Vibration through Spine that is being currently solved by The Research Institute of Thermomechanics in The Czech Academy of Sciences in cooperation with Faculty of...
Adaptive inertial shock-absorber
Faraj, Rami; Holnicki-Szulc, Jan; Knap, Lech; Seńko, Jarosław
2016-01-01
This paper introduces and discusses a new concept of impact absorption by means of impact energy management and storage in dedicated rotating inertial discs. The effectiveness of the concept is demonstrated in a selected case-study involving spinning management, a recently developed novel impact-absorber. A specific control technique performed on this device is demonstrated to be the main source of significant improvement in the overall efficiency of impact damping process. The influence of various parameters on the performance of the shock-absorber is investigated. Design and manufacturing challenges and directions of further research are formulated. (paper)
Power Absorption by Closely Spaced Point Absorbers in Constrained Conditions
De Backer, G.; Vantorre, M.; Beels, C.
2010-01-01
The performance of an array of closely spaced point absorbers is numerically assessed in a frequency domain model Each point absorber is restricted to the heave mode and is assumed to have its own linear power take-off (PTO) system Unidirectional irregular incident waves are considered......, representing the wave climate at Westhinder on the Belgian Continental Shelf The impact of slamming, stroke and force restrictions on the power absorption is evaluated and optimal PTO parameters are determined For multiple bodies optimal control parameters (CP) are not only dependent on the incoming waves...
Granular metamaterials for vibration mitigation
Gantzounis, G.; Serra-Garcia, M.; Homma, K.; Mendoza, J. M.; Daraio, C.
2013-09-01
Acoustic metamaterials that allow low-frequency band gaps are interesting for many practical engineering applications, where vibration control and sound insulation are necessary. In most prior studies, the mechanical response of these structures has been described using linear continuum approximations. In this work, we experimentally and theoretically address the formation of low-frequency band gaps in locally resonant granular crystals, where the dynamics of the system is governed by discrete equations. We investigate the quasi-linear behavior of such structures. The analysis shows that a stopband can be introduced at about one octave lower frequency than in materials without local resonances. Broadband and multi-frequency stopband characteristics can also be achieved by strategically tailoring the non-uniform local resonance parameters.
Suwono.
1978-01-01
A linear gate providing a variable gate duration from 0,40μsec to 4μsec was developed. The electronic circuity consists of a linear circuit and an enable circuit. The input signal can be either unipolar or bipolar. If the input signal is bipolar, the negative portion will be filtered. The operation of the linear gate is controlled by the application of a positive enable pulse. (author)
Lambda-matrices and vibrating systems
Lancaster, Peter; Stark, M; Kahane, J P
1966-01-01
Lambda-Matrices and Vibrating Systems presents aspects and solutions to problems concerned with linear vibrating systems with a finite degrees of freedom and the theory of matrices. The book discusses some parts of the theory of matrices that will account for the solutions of the problems. The text starts with an outline of matrix theory, and some theorems are proved. The Jordan canonical form is also applied to understand the structure of square matrices. Classical theorems are discussed further by applying the Jordan canonical form, the Rayleigh quotient, and simple matrix pencils with late
Vretenar, M
2014-01-01
The main features of radio-frequency linear accelerators are introduced, reviewing the different types of accelerating structures and presenting the main characteristics aspects of linac beam dynamics
Linearization Method and Linear Complexity
Tanaka, Hidema
We focus on the relationship between the linearization method and linear complexity and show that the linearization method is another effective technique for calculating linear complexity. We analyze its effectiveness by comparing with the logic circuit method. We compare the relevant conditions and necessary computational cost with those of the Berlekamp-Massey algorithm and the Games-Chan algorithm. The significant property of a linearization method is that it needs no output sequence from a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) because it calculates linear complexity using the algebraic expression of its algorithm. When a PRNG has n [bit] stages (registers or internal states), the necessary computational cost is smaller than O(2n). On the other hand, the Berlekamp-Massey algorithm needs O(N2) where N(≅2n) denotes period. Since existing methods calculate using the output sequence, an initial value of PRNG influences a resultant value of linear complexity. Therefore, a linear complexity is generally given as an estimate value. On the other hand, a linearization method calculates from an algorithm of PRNG, it can determine the lower bound of linear complexity.
Mechanical vibration and shock analysis, sinusoidal vibration
Lalanne, Christian
2014-01-01
Everything engineers need to know about mechanical vibration and shock...in one authoritative reference work! This fully updated and revised 3rd edition addresses the entire field of mechanical vibration and shock as one of the most important types of load and stress applied to structures, machines and components in the real world. Examples include everything from the regular and predictable loads applied to turbines, motors or helicopters by the spinning of their constituent parts to the ability of buildings to withstand damage from wind loads or explosions, and the need for cars to m
Hydroelastic Vibrations of Ships
Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Folsø, Rasmus
2002-01-01
A formula for the necessary hull girder bending stiffness required to avoid serious springing vibrations is derived. The expression takes into account the zero crossing period of the waves, the ship speed and main dimensions. For whipping vibrations the probability of exceedance for the combined...
Surface vibrational spectroscopy
Erskine, J.L.
1984-01-01
A brief review of recent studies which combine measurements of surface vibrational energies with lattice dynamical calculations is presented. These results suggest that surface vibrational spectroscopy offers interesting prospects for use as a molecular-level probe of surface geometry, adsorbate bond distances and molecular orientations
Gearbox vibration diagnostic analyzer
1992-01-01
This report describes the Gearbox Vibration Diagnostic Analyzer installed in the NASA Lewis Research Center's 500 HP Helicopter Transmission Test Stand to monitor gearbox testing. The vibration of the gearbox is analyzed using diagnostic algorithms to calculate a parameter indicating damaged components.
Said-Houari, Belkacem
2017-01-01
This self-contained, clearly written textbook on linear algebra is easily accessible for students. It begins with the simple linear equation and generalizes several notions from this equation for the system of linear equations and introduces the main ideas using matrices. It then offers a detailed chapter on determinants and introduces the main ideas with detailed proofs. The third chapter introduces the Euclidean spaces using very simple geometric ideas and discusses various major inequalities and identities. These ideas offer a solid basis for understanding general Hilbert spaces in functional analysis. The following two chapters address general vector spaces, including some rigorous proofs to all the main results, and linear transformation: areas that are ignored or are poorly explained in many textbooks. Chapter 6 introduces the idea of matrices using linear transformation, which is easier to understand than the usual theory of matrices approach. The final two chapters are more advanced, introducing t...
Handbook Of Noise And Vibration
1995-12-01
This book is about noise and vibration. The first chapter has explanations of noise such as basic of sound, influence of noise, assessment of noise, measurement of prevention of noise and technology, case of noise measurement and soundproof. The second chapter describes vibration with outline, theory of vibration, interpretation of vibration, measurement for reduction of vibration, case of design of protection against vibration. It deals with related regulation and method of measurement.
Maeda, N.
1988-01-01
During the magnetic particle examination, magnetic particles near defects are deposited by an absorbing force of magnetic fields acting on the magnetic particles. Therefore, a quantitative determination of this absorbing force is a theoretical and experimental basis for solving various problems associated with magnetic particle examinations. The absorbing force is formulated based on a magnetic dipole model, and a measuring method of the absorbing force using magnetic fields formed around linear current is proposed. Measurements according to this method produced appropriate results, verifying the validation of the concept and the measuring method
Vibration insensitive interferometry
Millerd, James; Brock, Neal; Hayes, John; Kimbrough, Brad; North-Morris, Michael; Wyant, James C.
2017-11-01
The largest limitation of phase-shifting interferometry for optical testing is the sensitivity to the environment, both vibration and air turbulence. An interferometer using temporal phase-shifting is very sensitive to vibration because the various phase shifted frames of interferometric data are taken at different times and vibration causes the phase shifts between the data frames to be different from what is desired. Vibration effects can be reduced by taking all the phase shifted frames simultaneously and turbulence effects can be reduced by averaging many measurements. There are several techniques for simultaneously obtaining several phase-shifted interferograms and this paper will discuss two such techniques: 1) Simultaneous phase-shifting interferometry on a single detector array (PhaseCam) and 2) Micropolarizer phase-shifting array. The application of these techniques for the testing of large optical components, measurement of vibrational modes, the phasing of segmented optical components, and the measurement of deformations of large diffuse structures is described.
Vibrations of rotating machinery
Matsushita, Osami; Kanki, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Masao; Keogh, Patrick
2017-01-01
This book opens with an explanation of the vibrations of a single degree-of-freedom (dof) system for all beginners. Subsequently, vibration analysis of multi-dof systems is explained by modal analysis. Mode synthesis modeling is then introduced for system reduction, which aids understanding in a simplified manner of how complicated rotors behave. Rotor balancing techniques are offered for rigid and flexible rotors through several examples. Consideration of gyroscopic influences on the rotordynamics is then provided and vibration evaluation of a rotor-bearing system is emphasized in terms of forward and backward whirl rotor motions through eigenvalue (natural frequency and damping ratio) analysis. In addition to these rotordynamics concerning rotating shaft vibration measured in a stationary reference frame, blade vibrations are analyzed with Coriolis forces expressed in a rotating reference frame. Other phenomena that may be assessed in stationary and rotating reference frames include stability characteristic...
An international intercomparison of absorbed dose measurements for radiation therapy
Taiman Kadni; Noriah Mod Ali
2002-01-01
Dose intercomparison on an international basis has become an important component of quality assurance measurement i.e. to check the performance of absorbed dose measurements in radiation therapy. The absorbed dose to water measurements for radiation therapy at the SSDL, MINT have been regularly compared through international intercomparison programmes organised by the IAEA Dosimetry Laboratory, Seibersdorf, Austria such as IAEA/WHO TLD postal dose quality audits and the Intercomparison of therapy level ionisation chamber calibration factors in terms of air kerma and absorbed dose to water calibration factors. The results of these intercomparison in terms of percentage deviations for Cobalt 60 gamma radiation and megavoltage x-ray from medical linear accelerators participated by the SSDL-MINT during the year 1985-2001 are within the acceptance limit. (Author)
Use of the local-global concept in detecting component vibration in reactors
Al-Ammar, M.A.
1981-01-01
The local-global concept, based on the detector adjoint function, was used to develop the response of a detector to an absorber vibrating in one dimension. A one-dimensional two-group diffusion code was developed to calculate the frequency dependent detector response as a function of detector and absorber positions for the coupled-core UTR-10 reactor. Results from this code indicated the best possible detector and absorber locations, where more detailed calculations were made using a two-group, three-dimensional diffusion code with finite detector and absorber volumes. An experiment was then designed, for the chosen positions, using a vibrating cadmium absorber with a detector on each side. The assembly was placed in the vertical central stringer of the reactor. Investigations were carried out for vibrations in two flux gradients and experimental data were analyzed in the frequency domain using a microcomputer-based data acquisition system. The experimental investigation showed the validity of the local-global concept. A normalized outputs cross power spectral density was developed that correctly predicted the different flux tilts in the two flux gradients. It was also shown that the frequency response of the local component had a wide plateau region. Monitoring the behavior of the normalized cross power spectral density was thought to be a promising indicator for the detection and localization of malfunctioning vibrating components. It might also be used to detect flux irregularities in the vicinity of a vibrating component
Radiation sterilization of absorbent cotton and of absorbent gauze
Hosobuchi, Kazunari; Oka, Mitsuru; Kaneko, Akira; Ishiwata, Hiroshi.
1986-01-01
The bioburden of absorbent cotton and of absorbent gauze and their physical and chemical characteristics after irradiation are investigated. The survey conducted on contaminants of 1890 cotton samples from 53 lots and 805 gauze samples from 56 lots showed maximum numbers of microbes per g of the cotton and gauze were 859 (an average of 21.4) and 777 (an average of 42.2), respectively. Isolation and microbiological and biochemical tests of representative microbes indicated that all of them, except one, were bacilli. The sterilization dose at 10 -6 of sterlity assurance level was found to be 2.0 Mrad when irradiated the spores loaded on paper strips and examined populations having graded D values from 0.10 to 0.28 Mrad. The sterilization dose would be about 1.5 Mrad if subjected the average numbers of contaminants observed in this study to irradiation. No significant differences were found between the irradiated samples and control up to 2 Mrad in tensile strength, change of color, absorbency, sedimentation rate, soluble substances, and pH of solutions used for immersion and other tests conventionally used. These results indicate that these products can be sterilized by irradiation. (author)
Guo, Sijing; Liu, Yilun; Xu, Lin; Guo, Xuexun; Zuo, Lei
2016-07-01
Traditional shock absorbers provide favourable ride comfort and road handling by dissipating the suspension vibration energy into heat waste. In order to harvest this dissipated energy and improve the vehicle fuel efficiency, many energy-harvesting shock absorbers (EHSAs) have been proposed in recent years. Among them, two types of EHSAs have attracted much attention. One is a traditional EHSA which converts the oscillatory vibration into bidirectional rotation using rack-pinion, ball-screw or other mechanisms. The other EHSA is equipped with a mechanical motion rectifier (MMR) that transforms the bidirectional vibration into unidirectional rotation. Hereinafter, they are referred to as NonMMR-EHSA and MMR-EHSA, respectively. This paper compares their performances with the corresponding traditional shock absorber by using closed-form analysis and numerical simulations on various types of vehicles, including passenger cars, buses and trucks. Results suggest that MMR-EHSA provides better ride performances than NonMMR-EHSA, and that MMR-EHSA is able to improve both the ride comfort and road handling simultaneously over the traditional shock absorber when installed on light-damped, heavy-duty vehicles. Additionally, the optimal parameters of MMR-EHSA are obtained for ride comfort. The optimal solutions ('Pareto-optimal solutions') are also obtained by considering the trade-off between ride comfort and road handling.
Mechanical vibration to electrical energy converter
Kellogg, Rick Allen [Tijeras, NM; Brotz, Jay Kristoffer [Albuquerque, NM
2009-03-03
Electromechanical devices that generate an electrical signal in response to an external source of mechanical vibrations can operate as a sensor of vibrations and as an energy harvester for converting mechanical vibration to electrical energy. The devices incorporate a magnet that is movable through a gap in a ferromagnetic circuit, wherein a coil is wound around a portion of the ferromagnetic circuit. A flexible coupling is used to attach the magnet to a frame for providing alignment of the magnet as it moves or oscillates through the gap in the ferromagnetic circuit. The motion of the magnet can be constrained to occur within a substantially linear range of magnetostatic force that develops due to the motion of the magnet. The devices can have ferromagnetic circuits with multiple arms, an array of magnets having alternating polarity and, encompass micro-electromechanical (MEM) devices.
Stoll, R R
1968-01-01
Linear Algebra is intended to be used as a text for a one-semester course in linear algebra at the undergraduate level. The treatment of the subject will be both useful to students of mathematics and those interested primarily in applications of the theory. The major prerequisite for mastering the material is the readiness of the student to reason abstractly. Specifically, this calls for an understanding of the fact that axioms are assumptions and that theorems are logical consequences of one or more axioms. Familiarity with calculus and linear differential equations is required for understand
Issues in vibration energy harvesting
Zhang, Hui; Corr, Lawrence R.; Ma, Tianwei
2018-05-01
In this study, fundamental issues related to bandwidth and nonlinear resonance in vibrational energy harvesting devices are investigated. The results show that using bandwidth as a criterion to measure device performance can be misleading. For a linear device, an enlarged bandwidth is achieved at the cost of sacrificing device performance near resonance, and thus widening the bandwidth may offer benefits only when the natural frequency of the linear device cannot match the dominant excitation frequency. For a nonlinear device, since the principle of superposition does not apply, the ''broadband" performance improvements achieved for single-frequency excitations may not be achievable for multi-frequency excitations. It is also shown that a large-amplitude response based on the traditional ''nonlinear resonance" does not always result in the optimal performance for a nonlinear device because of the negative work done by the excitation, which indicates energy is returned back to the excitation. Such undesired negative work is eliminated at global resonance, a generalized resonant condition for both linear and nonlinear systems. While the linear resonance is a special case of global resonance for a single-frequency excitation, the maximum potential of nonlinear energy harvesting can be reached for multi-frequency excitations by using global resonance to simultaneously harvest energy distributed over multiple frequencies.
Lee, Hyun; Kim, Yeon Whan [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center; Kim, Tae Ryong; Park, Jin Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Daeduk (Korea, Republic of)
1996-08-01
The main steam piping of nuclear power plant which runs between steam generator and high pressure turbine has been experienced to have a severe effect on the safe operation of the plant due to the vibration induced by the steam flowing inside the piping. The imposed cyclic loads by the vibration could result in the degradation of the related structures such as connection parts between main instruments, valves, pipe supports and building. The objective of the study is to reduce the vibration level of Wolsung nuclear power plant unit 1 main steam pipeline by analyzing vibration characteristics of the piping, identifying sources of the vibration and developing a vibration reduction method .The location of the maximum vibration is piping between the main steam header and steam chest .The stress level was found to be within the allowable limit .The main vibration frequency was found to be 4{approx}6 Hz which is the same as the natural frequency from model test .A vibration reduction method using pipe supports of energy absorbing type(WEAR)is selected .The measured vibration level after WEAR installation was reduced about 36{approx}77% in displacement unit (author). 36 refs., 188 figs.
Digital Alloy Absorber for Photodetectors
Hill, Cory J. (Inventor); Ting, David Z. (Inventor); Gunapala, Sarath D. (Inventor)
2016-01-01
In order to increase the spectral response range and improve the mobility of the photo-generated carriers (e.g. in an nBn photodetector), a digital alloy absorber may be employed by embedding one (or fraction thereof) to several monolayers of a semiconductor material (insert layers) periodically into a different host semiconductor material of the absorber layer. The semiconductor material of the insert layer and the host semiconductor materials may have lattice constants that are substantially mismatched. For example, this may performed by periodically embedding monolayers of InSb into an InAsSb host as the absorption region to extend the cutoff wavelength of InAsSb photodetectors, such as InAsSb based nBn devices. The described technique allows for simultaneous control of alloy composition and net strain, which are both key parameters for the photodetector operation.
Control of base-excited dynamical systems through piezoelectric energy harvesting absorber
Abdelmoula, H.; Dai, H. L.; Abdelkefi, A.; Wang, L.
2017-09-01
The spring-mass absorber usually offers a good control to dynamical systems under direct base excitations for a specific value of the excitation frequency. As the vibrational energy of a primary dynamical system is transferred to the absorber, it gets dissipated. In this study, this energy is no longer dissipated but converted to available electrical power by designing efficient energy harvesters. A novel design of a piezoelectric beam installed inside an elastically-mounted dynamical system undergoing base excitations is considered. A design is carried out in order to determine the properties and dimensions of the energy harvester with the constraint of simultaneously decreasing the oscillating amplitudes of the primary dynamical system and increasing the harvested power of the energy harvesting absorber. An analytical model for the coupled system is constructed using Euler-Lagrange principle and Galerkin discretization. Different strategies for controlling the primary structure displacement and enhancing the harvested power as functions of the electrical load resistance and thickness of the beam substrate are performed. The linear polynomial approximation of the system’s key parameters as a function of the beam’s substrate thickness is first carried out. Then, the gradient method is applied to determine the adequate values of the electrical load resistance and thickness of the substrate under the constraints of minimizing the amplitudes of the primary structure or maximizing the levels of the harvested power. After that, an iterative strategy is considered in order to simultaneously minimize the amplitudes of the primary structure and maximize the levels of the harvested power as functions of the thickness of the substrate and electrical load resistance. In addition to harmonic excitations, the coupled system subjected to a white noise is explored. Through this analysis, the load resistance and thickness of the substrate of the piezoelectric energy harvester
Solow, Daniel
2014-01-01
This text covers the basic theory and computation for a first course in linear programming, including substantial material on mathematical proof techniques and sophisticated computation methods. Includes Appendix on using Excel. 1984 edition.
Liesen, Jörg
2015-01-01
This self-contained textbook takes a matrix-oriented approach to linear algebra and presents a complete theory, including all details and proofs, culminating in the Jordan canonical form and its proof. Throughout the development, the applicability of the results is highlighted. Additionally, the book presents special topics from applied linear algebra including matrix functions, the singular value decomposition, the Kronecker product and linear matrix equations. The matrix-oriented approach to linear algebra leads to a better intuition and a deeper understanding of the abstract concepts, and therefore simplifies their use in real world applications. Some of these applications are presented in detailed examples. In several ‘MATLAB-Minutes’ students can comprehend the concepts and results using computational experiments. Necessary basics for the use of MATLAB are presented in a short introduction. Students can also actively work with the material and practice their mathematical skills in more than 300 exerc...
Berberian, Sterling K
2014-01-01
Introductory treatment covers basic theory of vector spaces and linear maps - dimension, determinants, eigenvalues, and eigenvectors - plus more advanced topics such as the study of canonical forms for matrices. 1992 edition.
Searle, Shayle R
2012-01-01
This 1971 classic on linear models is once again available--as a Wiley Classics Library Edition. It features material that can be understood by any statistician who understands matrix algebra and basic statistical methods.
Acoustic Properties of Absorbent Asphalts
Trematerra, Amelia; Lombardi, Ilaria
2017-08-01
Road traffic is one of the greater cause of noise pollution in urban centers; a prolonged exposure to this source of noise disturbs populations subjected to it. In this paper is reported a study on the absorbent coefficients of asphalt. The acoustic measurements are carried out with a impedance tube (tube of Kundt). The sample are measured in three conditions: with dry material (traditional), “wet” asphalt and “dirty” asphalt.
Christofilos, N.C.; Polk, I.J.
1959-02-17
Improvements in linear particle accelerators are described. A drift tube system for a linear ion accelerator reduces gap capacity between adjacent drift tube ends. This is accomplished by reducing the ratio of the diameter of the drift tube to the diameter of the resonant cavity. Concentration of magnetic field intensity at the longitudinal midpoint of the external sunface of each drift tube is reduced by increasing the external drift tube diameter at the longitudinal center region.
Vibration behavior of the artificial barrier system
Mikoshiba, Tadashi; Ogawa, Nobuyuki; Nakamura, Izuru
2000-01-01
This study aims at production of a mimic specimen of artificial barrier, experimental elucidation of influence of seismic motion due to a vibration experiment on the artificial barrier system, and establishment of an evaluating method on its long-term behavior. The study has been carried out under a cooperative study of the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention and the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute. In 1998 fiscal year, an artificial barrier specimen initiated by crosscut road was produced, and their random wave and actual seismic wave vibrations were carried out to acquire their fundamental data. As a result of the both vibrations, it was found that in a Case 2 specimen of which buffer material was swelled by poured water, the material was integrated with a mimic over-pack to vibrate under judgement of eigen-frequency, maximum acceleration ratio, and so forth on the test results. And, in a Case 1 specimen, it was thought that the mimic over-pack showed an extreme non-linear performance (soft spring) because of reducing eigen-frequency with increase of its vibration level. (G.K.)
Vibration behavior of the artificial barrier system
Mikoshiba, Tadashi; Ogawa, Nobuyuki; Nakamura, Izuru [National Research Inst. for Earth sceince and Disaster Prevention (Japan)
2000-02-01
This study aims at production of a mimic specimen of artificial barrier, experimental elucidation of influence of seismic motion due to a vibration experiment on the artificial barrier system, and establishment of an evaluating method on its long-term behavior. The study has been carried out under a cooperative study of the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention and the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute. In 1998 fiscal year, an artificial barrier specimen initiated by crosscut road was produced, and their random wave and actual seismic wave vibrations were carried out to acquire their fundamental data. As a result of the both vibrations, it was found that in a Case 2 specimen of which buffer material was swelled by poured water, the material was integrated with a mimic over-pack to vibrate under judgement of eigen-frequency, maximum acceleration ratio, and so forth on the test results. And, in a Case 1 specimen, it was thought that the mimic over-pack showed an extreme non-linear performance (soft spring) because of reducing eigen-frequency with increase of its vibration level. (G.K.)
On the Optimization of Point Absorber Buoys
Linnea Sjökvist
2014-05-01
Full Text Available A point absorbing wave energy converter (WEC is a complicated dynamical system. A semi-submerged buoy drives a power take-off device (PTO, which acts as a linear or non-linear damper of the WEC system. The buoy motion depends on the buoy geometry and dimensions, the mass of the moving parts of the system and on the damping force from the generator. The electromagnetic damping in the generator depends on both the generator specifications, the connected load and the buoy velocity. In this paper a velocity ratio has been used to study how the geometric parameters buoy draft and radius, assuming constant generator damping coefficient, affects the motion and the energy absorption of a WEC. It have been concluded that an optimal buoy geometry can be identified for a specific generator damping. The simulated WEC performance have been compared with experimental values from two WECs with similar generators but different buoys. Conclusions have been drawn about their behaviour.
Silicon micromachined vibrating gyroscopes
Voss, Ralf
1997-09-01
This work gives an overview of silicon micromachined vibrating gyroscopes. Market perspectives and fields of application are pointed out. The advantage of using silicon micromachining is discussed and estimations of the desired performance, especially for automobiles are given. The general principle of vibrating gyroscopes is explained. Vibrating silicon gyroscopes can be divided into seven classes. for each class the characteristic principle is presented and examples are given. Finally a specific sensor, based on a tuning fork for automotive applications with a sensitivity of 250(mu) V/degrees is described in detail.
System Detects Vibrational Instabilities
Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.
1990-01-01
Sustained vibrations at two critical frequencies trigger diagnostic response or shutdown. Vibration-analyzing electronic system detects instabilities of combustion in rocket engine. Controls pulse-mode firing of engine and identifies vibrations above threshold amplitude at 5.9 and/or 12kHz. Adapted to other detection and/or control schemes involving simultaneous real-time detection of signals above or below preset amplitudes at two or more specified frequencies. Potential applications include rotating machinery and encoders and decoders in security systems.
Lanzani, Guglielmo; De Silvestri, Sandro
2007-01-01
Vibrational spectroscopy is a powerful investigation tool for a wide class of materials covering diverse areas in physics, chemistry and biology. The continuous development in the laser field regarding ultrashort pulse generation has led to the possibility of producing light pulses that can follow vibrational motion coupled to the electronic transitions in molecules and solids in real time. Aimed at researchers and graduate students using vibrational spectroscopy, this book provides both introductory chapters as well as more advanced contents reporting on recent progress. It also provides a good starting point for scientists seeking a sound introduction to ultrafast optics and spectroscopic techniques.
A method for regulating strong nonlinear vibration energy of the flexible arm
Yushu Bian
2015-07-01
Full Text Available For an oscillating system, large amplitude indicates strong vibration energy. In this article, modal interaction is used as a useful means to regulate strong nonlinear vibration energy of the flexible arm undergoing rigid motion. A method is put forward to migrate and dissipate vibration energy based on modal interaction. By means of multiple-scale perturbation analysis, it is proven that internal resonance can be successfully established between modes of the flexible arm and the vibration absorber. Through examples and analyses, it is verified that this control method is effective in regulating strong vibration energy and can be used to suppress strong nonlinear vibration of the flexible arm undergoing rigid motion.
Transmission of gamma-quanta through vibrating target
A. Ya. Dzyublik
2015-10-01
Full Text Available The transmission of the Mossbauer γ-quanta through a vibrating absorber is analyzed in the framework of the quantum theory. For this aim the photons are described by the Bialynicki - Birula’s wave function. We calculated time dependence of the wave packets, which describe the transmitted γ-photons. It is shown that the squared modulus of their wave function determines the detection rate of γ-photons in full analogy with particles having a mass. The effect of anomalous transmission of Mossbauer radiation, caused by high-frequency periodic swings of the absorber, and the corresponding suppression of reactions is studied.
Numerical Modeling of a Wave Energy Point Absorber
Hernandez, Lorenzo Banos; Frigaard, Peter; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning
2009-01-01
The present study deals with numerical modelling of the Wave Star Energy WSE device. Hereby, linear potential theory is applied via a BEM code on the wave hydrodynamics exciting the floaters. Time and frequency domain solutions of the floater response are determined for regular and irregular seas....... Furthermore, these results are used to estimate the power and the energy absorbed by a single oscillating floater. Finally, a latching control strategy is analysed in open-loop configuration for energy maximization....
PREFACE: Vibrations at surfaces Vibrations at surfaces
Rahman, Talat S.
2011-12-01
This special issue is dedicated to the phenomenon of vibrations at surfaces—a topic that was indispensible a couple of decades ago, since it was one of the few phenomena capable of revealing the nature of binding at solid surfaces. For clean surfaces, the frequencies of modes with characteristic displacement patterns revealed how surface geometry, as well as the nature of binding between atoms in the surface layers, could be different from that in the bulk solid. Dispersion of the surface phonons provided further measures of interatomic interactions. For chemisorbed molecules on surfaces, frequencies and dispersion of the vibrational modes were also critical for determining adsorption sites. In other words, vibrations at surfaces served as a reliable means of extracting information about surface structure, chemisorption and overlayer formation. Experimental techniques, such as electron energy loss spectroscopy and helium-atom-surface scattering, coupled with infra-red spectroscopy, were continually refined and their resolutions enhanced to capture subtleties in the dynamics of atoms and molecules at surfaces. Theoretical methods, whether based on empirical and semi-empirical interatomic potential or on ab initio electronic structure calculations, helped decipher experimental observations and provide deeper insights into the nature of the bond between atoms and molecules in regions of reduced symmetry, as encountered on solid surfaces. Vibrations at surfaces were thus an integral part of the set of phenomena that characterized surface science. Dedicated workshops and conferences were held to explore the variety of interesting and puzzling features revealed in experimental and theoretical investigations of surface vibrational modes and their dispersion. One such conference, Vibrations at Surfaces, first organized by Harald Ibach in Juelich in 1980, continues to this day. The 13th International Conference on Vibrations at Surfaces was held at the University of
An ultra-broadband multilayered graphene absorber
Amin, Muhammad; Farhat, Mohamed; Bagci, Hakan
2013-01-01
An ultra-broadband multilayered graphene absorber operating at terahertz (THz) frequencies is proposed. The absorber design makes use of three mechanisms: (i) The graphene layers are asymmetrically patterned to support higher order surface plasmon
Oshio, M.; Nakano, R.; Niihara, Y.; Yano, K.; Takeda, T. [Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan)
1995-12-20
A PC cable-stayed bridge under extension construction having long span length may have long-cycle vibration generated because of wind. The vibration puts workers working on main girders into a state of seasick causing the workability to drop. Therefore, with an objective to reduce vibration occurring on the main girders during construction, discussions were given on application of an active type vertical vibration absorbing device. The vibration absorbing device is an active system that a weight is driven vertically by a hydraulic actuator. The device was developed with a target that damping ratio when a maximum extension is 120 m becomes three times that when no vibration is absorbed for a 5-span continuous PC cable-stayed bridge with a length of 675 m, a central span of 260 m, and a width of 11 m. A cage housing the weight is connected with the actuator at its top by using pins, and the weight is supported being suspended from the top of the actuator. Vibration is absorbed by utilizing reactive force generated when the weight is driven vertically by the hydraulic actuator. The hydraulic actuator contains a gas spring that supports the dead weight of the weight. Experiments have verified the effectiveness of the vertical vibration absorbing device. 4 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.
Improved Laser Vibration Radar
Hilaire, Pierre
1998-01-01
.... This thesis reconfigured an existing CO2 laboratory laser radar system that is capable of measuring the frequencies of vibration of a simulated target into a more compact and rugged form for field testing...
NIF Ambient Vibration Measurements
Noble, C.R.; Hoehler, M.S.; S.C. Sommer
1999-01-01
LLNL has an ongoing research and development project that includes developing data acquisition systems with remote wireless communication for monitoring the vibrations of large civil engineering structures. In order to establish the capability of performing remote sensing over an extended period of time, the researchers needed to apply this technology to a real structure. The construction of the National Ignition Facility provided an opportunity to test the data acquisition system on a large structure to monitor whether the facility is remaining within the strict ambient vibration guidelines. This document will briefly discuss the NIF ambient vibration requirements and summarize the vibration measurements performed during the Spring and Summer of 1999. In addition, a brief description of the sensors and the data acquisition systems will be provided in Appendix B
Vibration energy absorption in the whole-body system of a tractor operator.
Szczepaniak, Jan; Tanaś, Wojciech; Kromulski, Jacek
2014-01-01
Many people are exposed to whole-body vibration (WBV) in their occupational lives, especially drivers of vehicles such as tractor and trucks. The main categories of effects from WBV are perception degraded comfort interference with activities-impaired health and occurrence of motion sickness. Absorbed power is defined as the power dissipated in a mechanical system as a result of an applied force. The vibration-induced injuries or disorders in a substructure of the human system are primarily associated with the vibration power absorption distributed in that substructure. The vibration power absorbed by the exposed body is a measure that combines both the vibration hazard and the biodynamic response of the body. The article presents measurement method for determining vibration power dissipated in the human whole body system called Vibration Energy Absorption (VEA). The vibration power is calculated from the real part of the force-velocity cross-spectrum. The absorbed power in the frequency domain can be obtained from the cross-spectrum of the force and velocity. In the context of the vibration energy transferred to a seated human body, the real component reflects the energy dissipated in the biological structure per unit of time, whereas the imaginary component reflects the energy stored/released by the system. The seated human is modeled as a series/parallel 4-DOF dynamic models. After introduction of the excitation, the response in particular segments of the model can be analyzed. As an example, the vibration power dissipated in an operator has been determined as a function of the agricultural combination operating speed 1.39 - 4.16 ms(-1).
Vibration energy absorption in the whole-body system of a tractor operator
Jan Szczepaniak
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Many people are exposed to whole-body vibration (WBV in their occupational lives, especially drivers of vehicles such as tractor and trucks. The main categories of effects from WBV are perception degraded comfort interference with activities-impaired health and occurrence of motion sickness. Absorbed power is defined as the power dissipated in a mechanical system as a result of an applied force. The vibration-induced injuries or disorders in a substructure of the human system are primarily associated with the vibration power absorption distributed in that substructure. The vibration power absorbed by the exposed body is a measure that combines both the vibration hazard and the biodynamic response of the body. The article presents measurement method for determining vibration power dissipated in the human whole body system called Vibration Energy Absorption (VEA. The vibration power is calculated from the real part of the force-velocity cross-spectrum. The absorbed power in the frequency domain can be obtained from the cross-spectrum of the force and velocity. In the context of the vibration energy transferred to a seated human body, the real component reflects the energy dissipated in the biological structure per unit of time, whereas the imaginary component reflects the energy stored/released by the system. The seated human is modeled as a series/parallel 4-DOF dynamic models. After introduction of the excitation, the response in particular segments of the model can be analyzed. As an example, the vibration power dissipated in an operator has been determined as a function of the agricultural combination operating speed 1.39 – 4.16 ms[sup] -1 [/sup].
Olive, David J
2017-01-01
This text covers both multiple linear regression and some experimental design models. The text uses the response plot to visualize the model and to detect outliers, does not assume that the error distribution has a known parametric distribution, develops prediction intervals that work when the error distribution is unknown, suggests bootstrap hypothesis tests that may be useful for inference after variable selection, and develops prediction regions and large sample theory for the multivariate linear regression model that has m response variables. A relationship between multivariate prediction regions and confidence regions provides a simple way to bootstrap confidence regions. These confidence regions often provide a practical method for testing hypotheses. There is also a chapter on generalized linear models and generalized additive models. There are many R functions to produce response and residual plots, to simulate prediction intervals and hypothesis tests, to detect outliers, and to choose response trans...
Alcaraz, J.
2001-01-01
After several years of study e''+ e''- linear colliders in the TeV range have emerged as the major and optimal high-energy physics projects for the post-LHC era. These notes summarize the present status form the main accelerator and detector features to their physics potential. The LHC era. These notes summarize the present status, from the main accelerator and detector features to their physics potential. The LHC is expected to provide first discoveries in the new energy domain, whereas an e''+ e''- linear collider in the 500 GeV-1 TeV will be able to complement it to an unprecedented level of precision in any possible areas: Higgs, signals beyond the SM and electroweak measurements. It is evident that the Linear Collider program will constitute a major step in the understanding of the nature of the new physics beyond the Standard Model. (Author) 22 refs
Edwards, Harold M
1995-01-01
In his new undergraduate textbook, Harold M Edwards proposes a radically new and thoroughly algorithmic approach to linear algebra Originally inspired by the constructive philosophy of mathematics championed in the 19th century by Leopold Kronecker, the approach is well suited to students in the computer-dominated late 20th century Each proof is an algorithm described in English that can be translated into the computer language the class is using and put to work solving problems and generating new examples, making the study of linear algebra a truly interactive experience Designed for a one-semester course, this text adopts an algorithmic approach to linear algebra giving the student many examples to work through and copious exercises to test their skills and extend their knowledge of the subject Students at all levels will find much interactive instruction in this text while teachers will find stimulating examples and methods of approach to the subject
Vibration-free stirling cryocooler for high definition microscopy
Riabzev, S. V.; Veprik, A. M.; Vilenchik, H. S.; Pundak, N.; Castiel, E.
2009-12-01
The normal operation of high definition Scanning Electronic and Helium Ion microscope tools often relies on maintaining particular components at cryogenic temperatures. This has traditionally been accomplished by using liquid coolants such as liquid Nitrogen. This inherently limits the useful temperature range to above 77 K, produces various operational hazards and typically involves elevated ownership costs, inconvenient logistics and maintenance. Mechanical coolers, over-performing the above traditional method and capable of delivering required (even below 77 K) cooling to the above cooled components, have been well-known elsewhere for many years, but their typical drawbacks, such as high purchasing cost, cooler size, low reliability and high power consumption have so far prevented their wide-spreading. Additional critical drawback is inevitable degradation of imagery performance originated from the wideband vibration export as typical for the operation of the mechanical cooler incorporating numerous movable components. Recent advances in the development of reliable, compact, reasonably priced and dynamically quiet linear cryogenic coolers gave rise to so-called "dry cooling" technologies aimed at eventually replacing the traditional use of outdated liquid Nitrogen cooling facilities. Although much improved these newer cryogenic coolers still produce relatively high vibration export which makes them incompatible with modern high definition microscopy tools. This has motivated further research activity towards developing a vibration free closed-cycle mechanical cryocooler. The authors have successfully adapted the standard low vibration Stirling cryogenic refrigerator (Ricor model K535-LV) delivering 5 W@40 K heat lift for use in vibration-sensitive high definition microscopy. This has been achieved by using passive mechanical counterbalancing of the main portion of the low frequency vibration export in combination with an active feed-forward multi
Physical model study of neutron noise induced by vibration of reactor internals
Liu Jinhui; Gu Fangyu
1999-01-01
The author presents a physical model of neutron noise induced by reactor internals vibration in frequency domain. Based on system control theory, the reactor dynamic equations are coupled with random vibration equation, and non-linear terms are also taken into accounted while treating the random vibration. Experiments carried out on a zero-power reactor show that the model can be used to describe dynamic character of neutron noise induced by internals' vibration. The model establishes a method to help to determine internals'vibration features, and to diagnosis anomalies through neutron noise
Structural Stability and Vibration
Wiggers, Sine Leergaard; Pedersen, Pauli
This book offers an integrated introduction to the topic of stability and vibration. Strikingly, it describes stability as a function of boundary conditions and eigenfrequency as a function of both boundary conditions and column force. Based on a post graduate course held by the author at the Uni...... and their derivation, thus stimulating them to write interactive and dynamic programs to analyze instability and vibrational modes....
Philip J. Reid
2009-09-21
The conference focuses on using vibrational spectroscopy to probe structure and dynamics of molecules in gases, liquids, and interfaces. The goal is to bring together a collection of researchers who share common interests and who will gain from discussing work at the forefront of several connected areas. The intent is to emphasize the insights and understanding that studies of vibrations provide about a variety of systems.
Vortex induced vibrations in gapped restrainted pipes
Veloso, P. de A.A.; Loula, A.F.D.
1984-01-01
The vortex induced vibration problem of gapped restrained piping is solved numerically. The model proposed by Skop-Griffin is used to describe the pipe-fluid interaction. The variational formulation is obtained modeling the gapped restraints as non-linear elastic springs. The regularized problem is solved using a finite element discretization for the spatial domain. In the time domain a finite difference discretization is used for the lift coefficient equatin and a Newmark discretization for the equation of motion. (Author) [pt
Horizontal vibrations of piles in a centrifuge
Bourdin, B.
1987-01-01
The aim of the thesis is the study of soil dynamics for important structures like nuclear power plants, offshore platforms, dams etc. Experimental results of horizontal vibrations on a pile partially anchored in a soil scale model put into a centrifuge are presented. Mechanical similitude conditions from equilibrium equations or rheologic laws are described. After a description of testing equipment (centrifuge, electrodynamic excitator) experimental results are interpreted with a model. Non-linearities on frequency response curves are characterized [fr
Neutron absorbed dose in a pacemaker CMOS
Borja H, C. G.; Guzman G, K. A.; Valero L, C. Y.; Banuelos F, A.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Paredes G, L., E-mail: candy_borja@hotmail.com [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)
2011-11-15
The absorbed dose due to neutrons by a Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) has been estimated using Monte Carlo methods. Eventually a person with a pacemaker becomes a patient that must be treated by radiotherapy with a linear accelerator; the pacemaker has integrated circuits as CMOS that are sensitive to intense and pulsed radiation fields. When the Linac is working in Bremsstrahlung mode an undesirable neutron field is produced due to photoneutron reactions; these neutrons could damage the CMOS putting the patient at risk during the radiotherapy treatment. In order to estimate the neutron dose in the CMOS a Monte Carlo calculation was carried out where a full radiotherapy vault room was modeled with a W-made spherical shell in whose center was located the source term of photoneutrons produced by a Linac head operating in Bremsstrahlung mode at 18 MV. In the calculations a phantom made of tissue equivalent was modeled while a beam of photoneutrons was applied on the phantom prostatic region using a field of 10 x 10 cm{sup 2}. During simulation neutrons were isotropically transported from the Linac head to the phantom chest, here a 1 {theta} x 1 cm{sup 2} cylinder made of polystyrene was modeled as the CMOS, where the neutron spectrum and the absorbed dose were estimated. Main damages to CMOS are by protons produced during neutron collisions protective cover made of H-rich materials, here the neutron spectrum that reach the CMOS was calculated showing a small peak around 0.1 MeV and a larger peak in the thermal region, both connected through epithermal neutrons. (Author)
Acceleration/vibration combined environment activities. Interim report
Shuman, R.L.
1980-01-01
The combining of two environments, i.e., linear acceleration and vibration, for use in laboratory testing to determine the damage to some mechanical devices when simultaneously subjected to these two environments, is discussed. The use of a Genisco centrifuge with an Unholtz-Dickie vibration machine mounted on it is described. Initial efforts at operating a shaker on the centrifuge have not been completely successful, so modifications to the system are being made
Feedforward Control of Gear Mesh Vibration Using Piezoelectric Actuators
Gerald T. Montague
1994-01-01
Full Text Available This article presents a novel means for suppressing gear mesh related vibrations. The key components in this approach are piezoelectric actuators and a high-frequency, analog feed forward controller. Test results are presented and show up to a 70% reduction in gear mesh acceleration and vibration control up to 4500 Hz. The principle of the approach is explained by an analysis of a harmonically excited, general linear vibratory system.
Perceptual Space of Superimposed Dual-Frequency Vibrations in the Hands.
Hwang, Inwook; Seo, Jeongil; Choi, Seungmoon
2017-01-01
The use of distinguishable complex vibrations that have multiple spectral components can improve the transfer of information by vibrotactile interfaces. We investigated the qualitative characteristics of dual-frequency vibrations as the simplest complex vibrations compared to single-frequency vibrations. Two psychophysical experiments were conducted to elucidate the perceptual characteristics of these vibrations by measuring the perceptual distances among single-frequency and dual-frequency vibrations. The perceptual distances of dual-frequency vibrations between their two frequency components along their relative intensity ratio were measured in Experiment I. The estimated perceptual spaces for three frequency conditions showed non-linear perceptual differences between the dual-frequency and single-frequency vibrations. A perceptual space was estimated from the measured perceptual distances among ten dual-frequency compositions and five single-frequency vibrations in Experiment II. The effect of the component frequency and the frequency ratio was revealed in the perceptual space. In a percept of dual-frequency vibration, the lower frequency component showed a dominant effect. Additionally, the perceptual difference among single-frequency and dual-frequency vibrations were increased with a low relative difference between two frequencies of a dual-frequency vibration. These results are expected to provide a fundamental understanding about the perception of complex vibrations to enrich the transfer of information using vibrotactile stimuli.
Study on vibration behaviors of engineered barrier system
Mikoshiba, Tadashi; Ogawa, Nobuyuki; Minowa, Chikahiro [National Research Inst. for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)
1999-02-01
Small engineered barrier model was mode and tested by vibrating with the random wave and the real earthquake wave. The wave observed at Kamaishi (N-S, N-W), Iwate Prefecture, in September 6, 1993, and Kobe (N-S) etc. were used as the real earthquake waves. The trial overpack showed non-linear characteristics (soft spring) by vibrating with the random wave. The pressure and acceleration of trial overpack and constraint container increased with increasing the vibration level of the real earthquake wave. The trial overpack moved the maximum 1.7 mm of displacement and 16 mm subsidence. The results showed both waves rocked the trialpack. (S.Y.)
Innovation in Active Vibration Control Strategy of Intelligent Structures
A. Moutsopoulou
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Large amplitudes and attenuating vibration periods result in fatigue, instability, and poor structural performance. In light of past approaches in this field, this paper intends to discuss some innovative approaches in vibration control of intelligent structures, particularly in the case of structures with embedded piezoelectric materials. Control strategies are presented, such as the linear quadratic control theory, as well as more advanced theories, such as robust control theory. The paper presents sufficiently a recognizable advance in knowledge of active vibration control in intelligent structures.
Structural dynamics and vibration 1995. PD-Volume 70
Ovunc, B.A.; Esat, I.I.; Sabir, A.B.; Karadag, V.
1995-01-01
The themes of this symposium focused on: dynamic responses to temperature cycles and wind excitation; the influence of the hydraulic feedback on stability; structural reliability; vibratory stress relief; fault detection by signal processing; dynamic contact in mechanisms; vibration of thick flexible mechanisms; higher order mechanisms in flexible mechanisms; natural circular frequencies by finite element method; elastic buckling, stability, and vibration of linear and nonlinear structures; buckling of stiffened plates and rings; mixed variable optimization; vibration optimization; and optimization in a constrained space. Separate abstracts were prepared for 20 papers in this book
Influence of Drive Level on the Fundamental Vibrator Signal
Noorlandt, R.P.; Drijkoningen, G.G.; Faber, C.A.M.
2013-01-01
In this abstract we show the influence of vibrator drive level on the signal it produces. For that purpose a field survey was carried out using an INOVA's AHV-IV vehicle with a modified 266kN (60.000 lbf) vibrator. A single linear sweep was repeated at 10 different drive levels ranging from 5 to 90% at two locations. Each drive level was repeated 10 times and each run was repeated twice per location. In total 400 sweeps were carried out. From this data set we conclude that; the vibrator signa...
Piezooptic effect of absorbing environment
Ю. А. Рудяк
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Application of piezooptic effect of absorbing environment for the definition of the parameter of stress deformation state was examined. The analysis of dielectric permeability tensor of imaginary parts was done. It is shown that changes in the real part dielectric permeability tensor mainly the indicator of fracture was fixed by means of mechanics interference methods and the changes in the imaginary part (α – real rate of absorption can be measured by means of analysis of light absorption and thus stress deformation state can be determined
Energy absorbers as pipe supports
Khlafallah, M.Z.; Lee, H.M.
1985-01-01
With the exception of springs, pipe supports currently in use are designed with the intent of maintaining their rigidity under load. Energy dissipation mechanisms in these pipe supports result in system damping on the order presented by Code Case N-411 of ASME Section III code. Examples of these energy dissipation mechanisms are fluids and gaps in snubbers, gaps in frame supports, and friction in springs and frame supports. If energy absorbing supports designed in accordance with Code Case N-420 are used, higher additional damping will result
Linear and Non-Linear Control Techniques Applied to Actively Lubricated Journal Bearings
Nicoletti, Rodrigo; Santos, Ilmar
2003-01-01
The main objectives of actively lubricated bearings are the simultaneous reduction of wear and vibration between rotating and stationary machinery parts. For reducing wear and dissipating vibration energy until certain limits, one can count with the conventional hydrodynamic lubrication. For furt......The main objectives of actively lubricated bearings are the simultaneous reduction of wear and vibration between rotating and stationary machinery parts. For reducing wear and dissipating vibration energy until certain limits, one can count with the conventional hydrodynamic lubrication....... For further reduction of shaft vibrations one can count with the active lubrication action, which is based on injecting pressurised oil into the bearing gap through orifices machined in the bearing sliding surface. The design and efficiency of some linear (PD, PI and PID) and non-linear controllers, applied...... vibration reduction of unbalance response of a rigid rotor, where the PD and the non-linear P controllers show better performance for the frequency range of study (0 to 80 Hz). The feasibility of eliminating rotor-bearing instabilities (phenomena of whirl) by using active lubrication is also investigated...
水野, 毅; 高崎, 正也
2003-01-01
A new vibration isolation system using negative stiffness realized by active control technique is proposed in this paper. The serial connection of a normal spring and a suspension system with negative stiffness enables the isolation system to have low stiffness for vibration from the ground and high (theoretically infinite) stiffness against direct disturbance acting on the isolation table. A control method of realizing negative stiffness with a linear actuator is presented in an analytical f...
Oikawa, K.; Kibe, H.; Ohashi, W. (SE Corp., Tokyo (Japan))
1993-09-30
Cable-stayed bridges are being constructed increasingly and their maximum effective span length is becoming longer to the extent that it is about to reach the limit, thereby diagonal members which, by nature, tend to vibrate become much longer, hence problems concerning vibration have drawn attention. In this article, regarding vibration insulating rubber for absorbing vibrations to be set at an anchorage of diagonal members, a new mechanism has been invented and its analysis as well as demonstration experiment have been conducted. This mechanism is based on the concept that the vibration insulating rubber has been set beforehand at the time of installing the diagonal members, adheres to the diagonal members immediately after the diagonal members are stretched, but its adherence is released simply when tension adjustment is needed, and the spring constant of the rubber can be calculated simply within the range of practical use. The results obtained from the above analysis and demonstration experiment are as follows; it is necessary to set vibration insulating rubber in the vicinity of the anchorage of diagonal members in order to absorb vibrations of the members and the method to make its setting simple and secure has been confirmed. Also the calculation method of spring constant of vibration insulating rubber necessary for estimating the secondary bending stress of diagonal member has been confirmed, thereby designing of vibration insulating rubber has become easy. 8 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.
The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 14, Number 11
1982-11-01
Fonrulation to Study the Frequency De- peandat Properties of Absorbing Materialls Key Words: Active vibration contro, Oscilltors V.K. Varadan and V.V...Key Words: Bearings, Rolling contact bearings, Simulation, manipulative labor significantly, when compared to the Computr programs application of the...refs Shock in a Hyperelastic Medium S. Pluchino Key Words: Cavities, Fluid-filled containers, Seismic excita- Seminario Matematico , Universita di
Vibration energy absorption in the whole-body system of a tractor operator
Jan Szczepaniak; Wojciech Tanaś; Jacek Kromulski
2014-01-01
Many people are exposed to whole-body vibration (WBV) in their occupational lives, especially drivers of vehicles such as tractor and trucks. The main categories of effects from WBV are perception degraded comfort interference with activities-impaired health and occurrence of motion sickness. Absorbed power is defined as the power dissipated in a mechanical system as a result of an applied force. The vibration-induced injuries or disorders in a substructure of the human system are primari...
Multivariate Analysis of Ladle Vibration
Yenus, Jaefer; Brooks, Geoffrey; Dunn, Michelle
2016-08-01
The homogeneity of composition and uniformity of temperature of the steel melt before it is transferred to the tundish are crucial in making high-quality steel product. The homogenization process is performed by stirring the melt using inert gas in ladles. Continuous monitoring of this process is important to make sure the action of stirring is constant throughout the ladle. Currently, the stirring process is monitored by process operators who largely rely on visual and acoustic phenomena from the ladle. However, due to lack of measurable signals, the accuracy and suitability of this manual monitoring are problematic. The actual flow of argon gas to the ladle may not be same as the flow gage reading due to leakage along the gas line components. As a result, the actual degree of stirring may not be correctly known. Various researchers have used one-dimensional vibration, and sound and image signals measured from the ladle to predict the degree of stirring inside. They developed online sensors which are indeed to monitor the online stirring phenomena. In this investigation, triaxial vibration signals have been measured from a cold water model which is a model of an industrial ladle. Three flow rate ranges and varying bath heights were used to collect vibration signals. The Fast Fourier Transform was applied to the dataset before it has been analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS). PCA was used to unveil the structure in the experimental data. PLS was mainly applied to predict the stirring from the vibration response. It was found that for each flow rate range considered in this study, the informative signals reside in different frequency ranges. The first latent variables in these frequency ranges explain more than 95 pct of the variation in the stirring process for the entire single layer and the double layer data collected from the cold model. PLS analysis in these identified frequency ranges demonstrated that the latent
Numerical investigation of two control rod models for vibration noise in two dimensions
Pazsit, I.; Garis, N.S.
1995-01-01
In two previous publications it was investigated how the spatial structure of neutron noise, induced by the vibration of localized absorbers, depends on (a) the strength of the rod (i.e. an investigation of the applicability of the weak absorber approximation), and (b) the way the vibrating absorbers are modelled. A quantitative analysis of both items was performed in 1-D. In 2-D, however, only analytical formulae were given. The purpose of this paper is to present a quantitative analysis of the above two problems in 2-D. The results show that the domain of applicability of the weak absorber approximation is smaller in 2-D than in the 1-D case. On the other hand, the choice of the rod model plays a much less significant role in 2-D. (author)
Innovative energy absorbing devices based on composite tubes
Tiwari, Chandrashekhar
Analytical and experimental study of innovative load limiting and energy absorbing devices are presented here. The devices are based on composite tubes and can be categorized in to two groups based upon the energy absorbing mechanisms exhibited by them, namely: foam crushing and foam fracturing. The device based on foam crushing as the energy absorbing mechanism is composed of light weight elastic-plastic foam filling inside an angle ply composite tube. The tube is tailored to have a high Poisson’s ratio (>20). Upon being loaded the device experiences large transverse contraction resulting in rapid decrease in diameter. At a certain axial load the foam core begins to crush and energy is dissipated. This device is termed as crush tube device. The device based upon foam shear fracture as the energy absorbing mechanism involves an elastic-plastic core foam in annulus of two concentric extension-twist coupled composite tubes with opposite angles of fibers. The core foam is bonded to the inner and outer tube walls. Upon being loaded axially, the tubes twist in opposite directions and fracture the core foam in out of plane shear and thus dissipate the energy stored. The device is termed as sandwich core device (SCD). The devices exhibit variations in force-displacement characteristics with changes in design and material parameters, resulting in wide range of energy absorption capabilities. A flexible matrix composite system was selected, which was composed of high stiffness carbon fibers as reinforcements in relatively low stiffness polyurethane matrix, based upon large strain to failure capabilities and large beneficial elastic couplings. Linear and non-linear analytical models were developed encapsulating large deformation theory of the laminated composite shells (using non-linear strain energy formulation) to the fracture mechanics of core foam and elastic-plastic deformation theory of the foam filling. The non-linear model is capable of including material and
Multi-channel coherent perfect absorbers
Bai, Ping
2016-05-18
The absorption efficiency of a coherent perfect absorber usually depends on the phase coherence of the incident waves on the surfaces. Here, we present a scheme to create a multi-channel coherent perfect absorber in which the constraint of phase coherence is loosened. The scheme has a multi-layer structure such that incident waves in different channels with different angular momenta can be simultaneously and perfectly absorbed. This absorber is robust in achieving high absorption efficiency even if the incident waves become "incoherent" and possess "random" wave fronts. Our work demonstrates a unique approach to designing highly efficient metamaterial absorbers. © CopyrightEPLA, 2016.
Multi-channel coherent perfect absorbers
Bai, Ping; Wu, Ying; Lai, Yun
2016-01-01
The absorption efficiency of a coherent perfect absorber usually depends on the phase coherence of the incident waves on the surfaces. Here, we present a scheme to create a multi-channel coherent perfect absorber in which the constraint of phase coherence is loosened. The scheme has a multi-layer structure such that incident waves in different channels with different angular momenta can be simultaneously and perfectly absorbed. This absorber is robust in achieving high absorption efficiency even if the incident waves become "incoherent" and possess "random" wave fronts. Our work demonstrates a unique approach to designing highly efficient metamaterial absorbers. © CopyrightEPLA, 2016.
Karloff, Howard
1991-01-01
To this reviewer’s knowledge, this is the first book accessible to the upper division undergraduate or beginning graduate student that surveys linear programming from the Simplex Method…via the Ellipsoid algorithm to Karmarkar’s algorithm. Moreover, its point of view is algorithmic and thus it provides both a history and a case history of work in complexity theory. The presentation is admirable; Karloff's style is informal (even humorous at times) without sacrificing anything necessary for understanding. Diagrams (including horizontal brackets that group terms) aid in providing clarity. The end-of-chapter notes are helpful...Recommended highly for acquisition, since it is not only a textbook, but can also be used for independent reading and study. —Choice Reviews The reader will be well served by reading the monograph from cover to cover. The author succeeds in providing a concise, readable, understandable introduction to modern linear programming. —Mathematics of Computing This is a textbook intend...
Tadokoro, M.
1996-03-08
There are many grain boundaries in spherical hydrogen absorbing alloy particles prepared by rapid solidification methods such as centrifugal spraying method and gas atomizing method, and heterogeneous strains are produced at boundaries. When hydrogen absorbing alloy with large heterogeneous strain is used for preparing electrodes, many cracks are produced in hydrogen absorbing alloy to cause pulverization in the charge and discharge cycles. This invention relates to heat treatment of hydrogen absorbing alloys having spherical shape, cannon ball shape, and egg-like shape prepared by rapid solidification method in moving conditions. By this heat treatment, mutual sintering of hydrogen absorbing alloy particles can be prevented. The methods for moving hydrogen absorbing alloy are vibration or rotation of the heat treatment container in which hydrogen absorbing alloy is held and agitation of hydrogen absorbing alloy powder. Furthermore, mutual sintering of hydrogen absorbing alloy is restricted to reduce homogeneous strain by heat treatment in the range from 700{degree}C to 1,100{degree}C. 3 figs., 6 tabs.
Vibration transducer calibration techniques
Brinkley, D. J.
1980-09-01
Techniques for the calibration of vibration transducers used in the Aeronautical Quality Assurance Directorate of the British Ministry of Defence are presented. Following a review of the types of measurements necessary in the calibration of vibration transducers, the performance requirements of vibration transducers, which can be used to measure acceleration, velocity or vibration amplitude, are discussed, with particular attention given to the piezoelectric accelerometer. Techniques for the accurate measurement of sinusoidal vibration amplitude in reference-grade transducers are then considered, including the use of a position sensitive photocell and the use of a Michelson laser interferometer. Means of comparing the output of working-grade accelerometers with that of previously calibrated reference-grade devices are then outlined, with attention given to a method employing a capacitance bridge technique and a method to be used at temperatures between -50 and 200 C. Automatic calibration procedures developed to speed up the calibration process are outlined, and future possible extensions of system software are indicated.
Quantification of Mycosphaerella fijiensis in vitro growth by absorbance readings
Mileidy Cruz-Martín
2013-10-01
Full Text Available The slow growth of Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet in synthetic and semi-synthetic media as well as the characteristics of their colonies makes the use of traditional methods for evaluating the fungal growth are inadequate and impractical. Therefore, it requires a method to quantify growth in small volumes of substance and in short periods of time. The aim of this study was to quantify the M. fijiensis growth, through absorbance readings on the time, of mycelial suspensions obtained from cultures in liquid medium. Mycelial dry weight of the pathogen grown in liquid culture in flasks of 250 ml capacity and the absorbance in 96 well plates was compared. Similar procedure was used to evaluate the effect of bacterial culture filtrates with in vitro antifungal activity against M. fijiensis. A linear relationship between absorbance at 595 nm of fungal growth in liquid culture medium with respect to the dry mass was found. Absorbance readings using 96-well plates were possible to quantify the M. fijiensis mycelial suspensions growth in liquid culture. Also, there may be applied to assess the growth inhibition of the pathogen for bacterial culture filtrates with results at 48 h incubation. Key words: antifungal activity assay, biomass, DO595
Selective wave-transmitting electromagnetic absorber through composite metasurface
Sun, Zhiwei; Zhao, Junming; Zhu, Bo; Jiang, Tian; Feng, Yijun
2017-11-01
Selective wave-transmitting absorbers which have one or more narrow transmission bands inside a wide absorption band are often demanded in wireless communication and radome applications for reducing the coupling between different systems, improving anti-jamming capability, and reducing antennas' radar cross section. Here we propose a feasible method that utilizing composite of two metasurfaces with different polarization dependent characteristics, one works as electromagnetic polarization rotator and the other as a wideband polarization dependent electromagnetic wave absorber. The polarization rotator produces a cross polarization output in the wave-transmitting band, while preserves the polarization of the incidence outside the band. The metasurface absorber works for certain linear polarization with a much wider absorption band covering the wave-transmitting frequency. When combining these two metasurfaces properly, the whole structure behaves as a wideband absorber with a certain frequency transmission window. The proposal may be applied in radome designs to reduce the radar cross section of antenna or improving the electromagnetic compatibility in communication devices.
Oxalate: Effect on calcium absorbability
Heaney, R.P.; Weaver, C.M.
1989-01-01
Absorption of calcium from intrinsically labeled Ca oxalate was measured in 18 normal women and compared with absorption of Ca from milk in these same subjects, both when the test substances were ingested in separate meals and when ingested together. Fractional Ca absorption from oxalate averaged 0.100 +/- 0.043 when ingested alone and 0.140 +/- 0.063 when ingested together with milk. Absorption was, as expected, substantially lower than absorption from milk (0.358 +/- 0.113). Nevertheless Ca oxalate absorbability in these women was higher than we had previously found for spinach Ca. When milk and Ca oxalate were ingested together, there was no interference of oxalate in milk Ca absorption and no evidence of tracer exchange between the two labeled Ca species
Recovering Intrinsic Fragmental Vibrations Using the Generalized Subsystem Vibrational Analysis.
Tao, Yunwen; Tian, Chuan; Verma, Niraj; Zou, Wenli; Wang, Chao; Cremer, Dieter; Kraka, Elfi
2018-05-08
Normal vibrational modes are generally delocalized over the molecular system, which makes it difficult to assign certain vibrations to specific fragments or functional groups. We introduce a new approach, the Generalized Subsystem Vibrational Analysis (GSVA), to extract the intrinsic fragmental vibrations of any fragment/subsystem from the whole system via the evaluation of the corresponding effective Hessian matrix. The retention of the curvature information with regard to the potential energy surface for the effective Hessian matrix endows our approach with a concrete physical basis and enables the normal vibrational modes of different molecular systems to be legitimately comparable. Furthermore, the intrinsic fragmental vibrations act as a new link between the Konkoli-Cremer local vibrational modes and the normal vibrational modes.
Nokes, L D; Thorne, G C
1988-01-01
Measurements of various mechanical properties of skeletal material using vibration techniques have been reported. The purposes of such investigations include the monitoring of pathogenic disorders such as osteoporosis, the rate and extent of fracture healing, and the status of internal fixations. Early investigations pioneered the application of conventional vibration measurement equipment to biological systems. The more recent advent of the microcomputer has made available to research groups more sophisticated techniques for data acquisition and analysis. The economical advantages of such equipment has led to the development of portable research instrumentation which lends itself to use in a clinical environment. This review article reports on the developments and progression of the various vibrational techniques and theories as applied to musculoskeletal systems.
Linear algebra a first course with applications
Knop, Larry E
2008-01-01
Linear Algebra: A First Course with Applications explores the fundamental ideas of linear algebra, including vector spaces, subspaces, basis, span, linear independence, linear transformation, eigenvalues, and eigenvectors, as well as a variety of applications, from inventories to graphics to Google's PageRank. Unlike other texts on the subject, this classroom-tested book gives students enough time to absorb the material by focusing on vector spaces early on and using computational sections as numerical interludes. It offers introductions to Maple™, MATLAB®, and TI-83 Plus for calculating matri
Failure modes and natural control time for distributed vibrating systems
Reid, R.M.
1994-01-01
The eigenstructure of the Gram matrix of frequency exponentials is used to study linear vibrating systems of hyperbolic type with distributed control. Using control norm as a practical measure of controllability and the vibrating string as a prototype, it is demonstrated that hyperbolic systems have a natural control time, even when only finitely many modes are excited. For shorter control times there are identifiable control failure modes which can be steered to zero only with very high cost in control norm. Both natural control time and the associated failure modes are constructed for linear fluids, strings, and beams, making note of the essential algorithms and Mathematica code, and displaying results graphically
Vibrational spectra of aminoacetonitrile
Bak, B.; Hansen, E.L.; Nicolaisen, F.M.; Nielsen, O.F.
1975-01-01
The preparation of pure, stable aminoacetonitrile(1-amino, 1'-cyanomethane)CH 2 NH 2 CN (1) is described. The Raman spectrum, now complete, and a novel infrared spectrum extending over the 50-3600 cm -1 region are reported. A tentative normal vibration analysis is presented and supported by Raman and infrared data from the spectra of CH 2 NHDCN (2) and CH 2 ND 2 CN (3). The predominance of the trans rotamer may be attributed to intramolecular hydrogen bonding but this is too unimportant to influence the vibrational frequencies of gaseous 1, 2, and 3. However, large gas/liquid frequency shifts occur. (author)
Robust tracking control for linear vibrating mechanical systems
Francisco Beltrán-Carbajal
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Se propone un enfoque de control novedoso para seguimiento por realimentación de la salida para sistemas mecánicos vibratorios del tipo masa-resorte-amortiguador lineales sub-actuados. La metodología de diseño de control que se presenta considera robustez con respecto de dinámicas no modeladas y fuerzas externas. El esquema de control propuesto solamente requiere mediciones de la variable de la salida de posición. Se utiliza compensación integral del error de seguimiento de manera apropiada para evitar la estimación en tiempo real de las perturbaciones. Resultado analíticos y numéricos muestran la efectividad del esquema de control activo de vibración para atenuación de vibraciones resonantes y caóticas afectando la respuesta de la variable de salida.
Heterogeneous Dynamics of Coupled Vibrations
Cringus, Dan; Jansen, Thomas I. C.; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.; Schoenlein, RW; Corkum, P; DeSilvestri, S; Nelson, KA; Riedle, E
2009-01-01
Frequency-dependent dynamics of coupled stretch vibrations of a water molecule are revealed by 2D IR correlation spectroscopy. These are caused by non-Gaussian fluctuations of the environment around the individual OH stretch vibrations.
Hansson, J E; Eklund, L; Kihlberg, S; Ostergren, C E
1987-03-01
The main objective of the study was to find efficient hand tools which caused only minor vibration loading. Vibration measurements were carried out under standardised working conditions. The time during which car body repairers in seven companies were exposed to vibration was determined. Chisel hammers, impact wrenches, sanders and saws were the types of tools which generated the highest vibration accelerations. The average daily exposure at the different garages ranged from 22 to 70 min. The risk of vibration injury is currently rated as high. The difference between the highest and lowest levels of vibration was considerable in most tool categories. Therefore the choice of tool has a major impact on the magnitude of vibration exposure. The importance of choosing the right tools and working methods is discussed and a counselling service on vibration is proposed.
An omnidirectional electromagnetic absorber made of metamaterials
Cheng Qiang; Cui Tiejun; Jiang Weixiang; Cai Bengeng
2010-01-01
In a recent theoretical work by Narimanov and Kildishev (2009 Appl. Phys. Lett. 95 041106) an optical omnidirectional light absorber based on metamaterials was proposed, in which theoretical analysis and numerical simulations showed that all optical waves hitting the absorber are trapped and absorbed. Here we report the first experimental demonstration of an omnidirectional electromagnetic absorber in the microwave frequency. The proposed device is composed of non-resonant and resonant metamaterial structures, which can trap and absorb electromagnetic waves coming from all directions spirally inwards without any reflections due to the local control of electromagnetic fields. It is shown that the absorption rate can reach 99 per cent in the microwave frequency. The all-directional full absorption property makes the device behave like an 'electromagnetic black body', and the wave trapping and absorbing properties simulate, to some extent, an 'electromagnetic black hole.' We expect that such a device could be used as a thermal emitting source and to harvest electromagnetic waves.
Reduction of Linear Programming to Linear Approximation
Vaserstein, Leonid N.
2006-01-01
It is well known that every Chebyshev linear approximation problem can be reduced to a linear program. In this paper we show that conversely every linear program can be reduced to a Chebyshev linear approximation problem.
Comments on liquid hydrogen absorbers for MICE
Green, Michael A.
2003-01-01
This report describes the heat transfer problems associated with a liquid hydrogen absorber for the MICE experiment. This report describes a technique for modeling heat transfer from the outside world, to the absorber case and in its vacuum vessel, to the hydrogen and then into helium gas at 14 K. Also presented are the equation for free convection cooling of the liquid hydrogen in the absorber
Absorbed dose by a CMOS in radiotherapy
Borja H, C. G.; Valero L, C. Y.; Guzman G, K. A.; Banuelos F, A.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R.; Paredes G, L. C.
2011-10-01
Absorbed dose by a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) circuit as part of a pacemaker, has been estimated using Monte Carlo calculations. For a cancer patient who is a pacemaker carrier, scattered radiation could damage pacemaker CMOS circuits affecting patient's health. Absorbed dose in CMOS circuit due to scattered photons is too small and therefore is not the cause of failures in pacemakers, but neutron calculations shown an absorbed dose that could cause damage in CMOS due to neutron-hydrogen interactions. (Author)
Multiband Negative Permittivity Metamaterials and Absorbers
Yiran Tian
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Design and characteristics of multiband negative permittivity metamaterial and its absorber configuration are presented in this paper. The proposed multiband metamaterial is composed of a novel multibranch resonator which can possess four electric resonance frequencies. It is shown that, by controlling the length of the main branches of such resonator, the resonant frequencies and corresponding absorbing bands of metamaterial absorber can be shifted in a large frequency band.
Shock Absorbers Multi-Modeling and Suspension Optimization
LUPU Ciprian
2013-05-01
Full Text Available The standard dampers used by more 90% of vehicles have damping coefficients constant along stroke, so they can’t solve simultaneous all of them, situation solving practically using a relative dampingcoefficient able to made compromise between them. This paper design and simulation testing multi-models of two types of Damp (DSA and VZN. To compare the two types of suspension they are simulated in various road and load conditions. Analysis of simulation results is presente a new VZN shock absorber. This is an invention of the Institute of Mechanics of the Romanian Academy, and patented at European and U.S. [1], [2]. This is Called VZN shock absorber, iscoming from Variable Zeta Necessary acronym, for well moving in all road and load Conditions, Where zeta Represents the relative damping, Which is Adjusted automatically, stepwise, According to the piston positions [3,4,5]. Suspension systems are used in all air and ground transportation to protect that building transportation and cargo transported around against shocks and vibrations induced in the systemfrom the road Modifying damping coefficients (Zeta function piston position, being correlated with vehicle load and road unevenness.
Preparation of super absorbent by irradiation polymerization
Hua Fengjun; Tan Chunhong; Qian Mengping
1995-01-01
A kind of absorbent is prepared by gamma-rays irradiated by reversed-phase suspension polymerization. Drying particles have 1400 (g/g) absorbency in de-ionic water. Effects of reactive conditions, e.g.: dose-rate, dose, monomer concentration, degree of monomer neutralization and crosslinking agents on absorbency in de-ionic water are discussed. The cause of absorbing de-ionic water by polymer is related to its network structure and ionic equilibrium in particle. Accordingly, a suit reactive condition is chosen for preparation of hydro gel spheres
Absorber rod drive for nuclear reactors
Acher, H.
1985-01-01
The invention concerns a further addition to the invention of DE 33 42 830 A1. The free contact of the hollow piston with the nut due to hydraulic pressure is replaced by a hydraulic or spring attachment. The pressure system required to produce the hydraulic pressure is therefore omitted, and the electrical power required for driving the pump or the mass flow is also omitted. The absorber rod slotted along its longitudinal axis is replaced by an absorber rod, in the longitudinal axis of which a hollow piston is connected together with the absorber rod. This makes the absorber rod more stable, and assembly is simplified. (orig./HP) [de
TPX/TFTR Neutral Beam energy absorbers
Dahlgren, F.; Wright, K.; Kamperschroer, J.; Grisham, L.; Lontai, L.; Peters, C.; VonHalle, A.
1993-01-01
The present beam energy absorbing surfaces on the TFTR Neutral Beams such as Ion Dumps, Calorimeters, beam defining apertures, and scrapers, are simple water cooled copper plates which wee designed to absorb (via their thermal inertia) the incident beam power for two seconds with a five minute coal down interval between pulses. These components are not capable of absorbing the anticipated beam power loading for 1000 second TPX pulses and will have to be replaced with an actively cooled design. While several actively cooled energy absorbing designs were considered,, the hypervapotron elements currently being used on the JET beamlines were chosen due to their lower cooling water demands and reliable performance on JET
Structural Stability and Vibration
Wiggers, Sine Leergaard; Pedersen, Pauli
at the University of Southern Denmark, it reports on fundamental formulas and makes uses of graphical representation to promote understanding. Thanks to the emphasis put on analytical methods and numerical results, the book is meant to make students and engineers familiar with all fundamental equations...... and their derivation, thus stimulating them to write interactive and dynamic programs to analyze instability and vibrational modes....
Vibrational Spectroscopy and Astrobiology
Chaban, Galina M.; Kwak, D. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Role of vibrational spectroscopy in solving problems related to astrobiology will be discussed. Vibrational (infrared) spectroscopy is a very sensitive tool for identifying molecules. Theoretical approach used in this work is based on direct computation of anharmonic vibrational frequencies and intensities from electronic structure codes. One of the applications of this computational technique is possible identification of biological building blocks (amino acids, small peptides, DNA bases) in the interstellar medium (ISM). Identifying small biological molecules in the ISM is very important from the point of view of origin of life. Hybrid (quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics) theoretical techniques will be discussed that may allow to obtain accurate vibrational spectra of biomolecular building blocks and to create a database of spectroscopic signatures that can assist observations of these molecules in space. Another application of the direct computational spectroscopy technique is to help to design and analyze experimental observations of ice surfaces of one of the Jupiter's moons, Europa, that possibly contains hydrated salts. The presence of hydrated salts on the surface can be an indication of a subsurface ocean and the possible existence of life forms inhabiting such an ocean.
The vibrating string problem is the source of much mathe- matics and physics. ... ing this science [mechanics],and the art of solving the problems pertaining to it, to .... used tools for finding maxima and minima of functions of several variables.
Richards, D.J.W.
1977-01-01
The heat exchangers of various types are common items of plant in the generation and transmission of electricity. The amount of attention given to the flow-induced vibrations of heat exchangers by designers is usually related to the operational history of similar items of plant. Consequently, if a particular design procedure yields items of plant which behave in a satisfactory manner during their operational life, there is little incentive to improve or refine the design procedure. On the other hand, failures of heat exchangers clearly indicate deficiencies in the design procedures or in the data available to the designer. When such failures are attributable to flow-induced vibrations, the identification of the mechanisms involved is a prime importance. Ideally, basic research work provides the background understanding and the techniques necessary to be able to identify the important mechanisms. In practice, the investigation of a flow-induced vibration problem may identify the presence of mechanisms but may not be able to quantify their effects adequately. In these circumstances the need for additional work is established and the objectives of the research programme emerge. The purpose of this paper is to outline the background to the current research programme at C.E.R.L. on heat exchanger vibration
Jönsson, Jeppe; Hansen, Lars Pilegaard
1994-01-01
work has been done on the measurement of the exact load functions and related reponse analysis. A recent work using a spectral description has been performed by Per-Erik Erikson and includes a good literature survey. Bachmann and Ammann give a good overview of vibrations caused by human activity. Other...
Richards, D J.W. [CERL, CEGB, Leatherhead, Surrey (United Kingdom)
1977-12-01
The heat exchangers of various types are common items of plant in the generation and transmission of electricity. The amount of attention given to the flow-induced vibrations of heat exchangers by designers is usually related to the operational history of similar items of plant. Consequently, if a particular design procedure yields items of plant which behave in a satisfactory manner during their operational life, there is little incentive to improve or refine the design procedure. On the other hand, failures of heat exchangers clearly indicate deficiencies in the design procedures or in the data available to the designer. When such failures are attributable to flow-induced vibrations, the identification of the mechanisms involved is a prime importance. Ideally, basic research work provides the background understanding and the techniques necessary to be able to identify the important mechanisms. In practice, the investigation of a flow-induced vibration problem may identify the presence of mechanisms but may not be able to quantify their effects adequately. In these circumstances the need for additional work is established and the objectives of the research programme emerge. The purpose of this paper is to outline the background to the current research programme at C.E.R.L. on heat exchanger vibration.
General principles of vibrational spectroscopies
Weckhuysen, B.M.; Schoonheydt, R.A.
2000-01-01
Atoms in molecules and solids do not remain in fixed relative positions, but vibrate about some mean position. This vibrational motion is quantized and at room temperature, most of the molecules in a given sample are in their lowest vibrational state. Absorption of electromagnetic radiation with
Dynamics and vibrations progress in nonlinear analysis
Kachapi, Seyed Habibollah Hashemi
2014-01-01
Dynamical and vibratory systems are basically an application of mathematics and applied sciences to the solution of real world problems. Before being able to solve real world problems, it is necessary to carefully study dynamical and vibratory systems and solve all available problems in case of linear and nonlinear equations using analytical and numerical methods. It is of great importance to study nonlinearity in dynamics and vibration; because almost all applied processes act nonlinearly, and on the other hand, nonlinear analysis of complex systems is one of the most important and complicated tasks, especially in engineering and applied sciences problems. There are probably a handful of books on nonlinear dynamics and vibrations analysis. Some of these books are written at a fundamental level that may not meet ambitious engineering program requirements. Others are specialized in certain fields of oscillatory systems, including modeling and simulations. In this book, we attempt to strike a balance between th...
Resonant vibration control of wind turbine blades
Svendsen, Martin Nymann; Krenk, Steen; Høgsberg, Jan Becker
2010-01-01
. The efficiency of the resonant controller is demonstrated for a representative turbine blade exposed to turbulent wind loading. It is found that the present explicit tuning procedure yields close to optimal tuning, with very limited modal spill-over and effective reduction of the vibration amplitudes.......The paper deals with introduction of damping to specific vibration modes of wind turbine blades, using a resonant controller with acceleration feedback. The wind turbine blade is represented by three-dimensional, two-node finite elements in a local, rotating frame of reference. The element...... formulation accounts for arbitrary mass density distributions, general elastic crosssection properties and geometric stiffness effects due to internal stresses. A compact, linear formulation for aerodynamic forces with associated stiffness and damping terms is established and added to the structural model...
Monitoring machining conditions by analyzing cutting force vibration
Piao, Chun Guang; Kim, Ju Wan; Kim, Jin Oh; Shin, Yoan [Soongsl University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2015-09-15
This paper deals with an experimental technique for monitoring machining conditions by analyzing cutting-force vibration measured at a milling machine. This technique is based on the relationship of the cutting-force vibrations with the feed rate and cutting depth as reported earlier. The measurement system consists of dynamic force transducers and a signal amplifier. The analysis system includes an oscilloscope and a computer with a LabVIEW program. Experiments were carried out at various feed rates and cutting depths, while the rotating speed was kept constant. The magnitude of the cutting force vibration component corresponding to the number of cutting edges multiplied by the frequency of rotation was linearly correlated with the machining conditions. When one condition of machining is known, another condition can be identified by analyzing the cutting-force vibration.
Monitoring machining conditions by analyzing cutting force vibration
Piao, Chun Guang; Kim, Ju Wan; Kim, Jin Oh; Shin, Yoan
2015-01-01
This paper deals with an experimental technique for monitoring machining conditions by analyzing cutting-force vibration measured at a milling machine. This technique is based on the relationship of the cutting-force vibrations with the feed rate and cutting depth as reported earlier. The measurement system consists of dynamic force transducers and a signal amplifier. The analysis system includes an oscilloscope and a computer with a LabVIEW program. Experiments were carried out at various feed rates and cutting depths, while the rotating speed was kept constant. The magnitude of the cutting force vibration component corresponding to the number of cutting edges multiplied by the frequency of rotation was linearly correlated with the machining conditions. When one condition of machining is known, another condition can be identified by analyzing the cutting-force vibration
Study on vibration behaviors of engineered barrier system
Mikoshiba, Tadashi; Ogawa, Nobuyuki; Minowa, Chikahiro
1998-01-01
High-level radioactive wastes have been buried underground by packing into a strong sealed container made from carbon steel (over-pack) with buffer material (bentonite). The engineered barrier system constructed with an overpack and buffer materials must be resistant to earthquakes as well as invasion of groundwater for a long period. Therefore, seismic evaluation of barrier system for earthquakes is indispensable especially in Japan to keep its structural safety. Here, the effects of earthquake vibration on the engineered barrier systems were investigated experimentally. Random-wave vibration and practical seismic wave one were loaded for the systems and fundamental data were obtained. For the former vibration the response characteristics of both engineered barrier models constructed with overpack and bentonite were non-linear. For the latter one, the stress in bentonite was increased in proportion to the vibration level. (M.N.)
Gaseous carbon dioxide absorbing column
Harashina, Heihachi.
1994-01-01
The absorbing column of the present invention comprises a cyclone to which CO 2 gas and Ca(OH) 2 are blown to form CaCO 3 , a water supply means connected to an upper portion of the cyclone for forming a thin water membrane on the inner wall thereof, and a water processing means connected to a lower portion of the cyclone for draining water incorporating CaCO 3 . If a mixed fluid of CO 2 gas and Ca(OH) 2 is blown in a state where a flowing water membrane is formed on the inner wall of the cyclone, formation of CaCO 3 is promoted also in the inside of the cyclone in addition to the formation of CaCO 3 in the course of blowing. Then, formed CaCO 3 is discharged from the lower portion of the cyclone together with downwardly flowing water. With such procedures, solid contents such as CaCO 3 separated at the inner circumferential wall are sent into the thin water membrane, adsorbed and captured, and the solid contents are successively washed out, so that a phenomenon that the solid contents deposit and grow on the inner wall of the cyclone can be prevented effectively. (T.M.)
Radiation absorbed doses in cephalography
Eliasson, S.; Julin, P.; Richter, S.; Stenstroem, B.
1984-01-01
Radiation absorbed doses to different organs in the head and neck region in lateral (LAT) and postero-anterior (PA) cephalography were investigated. The doses were measured by thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD) on a tissue equivalent phantom head. Lanthanide screens in speed group 4 were used at 90 and 85 k Vp. A near-focus aluminium dodger was used and the radiation beam was collimated strictly to the face. The maximum entrance dose from LAT was 0.25 mGy and 0.42 mGy from a PA exposure. The doses to the salivary glands ranged between 0.2 and 0.02 mGy at LAT and between 0.15 and 0.04 mGy at PA exposures. The average thyroid gland dose without any shielding was 0.11 mGy (LAT) and 0.06 mGy (PA). When a dodger was used the dose was reduced to 0.07 mGy (LAT). If the thyroid gland was sheilded off, the dose was further reduced to 0.01 mGy and if the thyroid region was collimated out of the primary radiation field the dose was reduced to only 0.005 mGy. (authors)
Perfetto, S; Rohlfing, J; Infante, F; Mayer, D; Herold, S
2016-01-01
Piezoelectric transducers can be used to harvest electrical energy from structural vibrations in order to power continuously operating condition monitoring systems local to where they operate. However, excessive vibrations can compromise the safe operation of mechanical systems. Therefore, absorbers are commonly used to control vibrations. With an integrated device, the mechanical energy that otherwise would be dissipated can be converted via piezoelectric transducers. Vibration absorbers are designed to have high damping factors. Hence, the integration of transducers would lead to a low energy conversion. Efficient energy harvesters usually have low damping capabilities; therefore, they are not effective for vibration suppression. Thus, the design of an integrated device needs to consider the two conflicting requirements on the damping. This study focuses on the development of a laboratory test rig with a host structure and a vibration absorber with tunable damping via an active relative velocity feedback. A voice coil actuator is used for this purpose. To overcome the passive damping effects of the back electromagnetic force a novel voltage feedback control is proposed, which has been validated both in simulation and experimentally. The aim of this study is to have a test rig ready for the introduction of piezo-transducers and available for future experimental evaluations of the damping effect on the effectiveness of vibration reduction and energy harvesting efficiency. (paper)
Perfetto, S.; Rohlfing, J.; Infante, F.; Mayer, D.; Herold, S.
2016-09-01
Piezoelectric transducers can be used to harvest electrical energy from structural vibrations in order to power continuously operating condition monitoring systems local to where they operate. However, excessive vibrations can compromise the safe operation of mechanical systems. Therefore, absorbers are commonly used to control vibrations. With an integrated device, the mechanical energy that otherwise would be dissipated can be converted via piezoelectric transducers. Vibration absorbers are designed to have high damping factors. Hence, the integration of transducers would lead to a low energy conversion. Efficient energy harvesters usually have low damping capabilities; therefore, they are not effective for vibration suppression. Thus, the design of an integrated device needs to consider the two conflicting requirements on the damping. This study focuses on the development of a laboratory test rig with a host structure and a vibration absorber with tunable damping via an active relative velocity feedback. A voice coil actuator is used for this purpose. To overcome the passive damping effects of the back electromagnetic force a novel voltage feedback control is proposed, which has been validated both in simulation and experimentally. The aim of this study is to have a test rig ready for the introduction of piezo-transducers and available for future experimental evaluations of the damping effect on the effectiveness of vibration reduction and energy harvesting efficiency.
The effects of vibration-reducing gloves on finger vibration
Welcome, Daniel E.; Dong, Ren G.; Xu, Xueyan S.; Warren, Christopher; McDowell, Thomas W.
2015-01-01
Vibration-reducing (VR) gloves have been used to reduce the hand-transmitted vibration exposures from machines and powered hand tools but their effectiveness remains unclear, especially for finger protection. The objectives of this study are to determine whether VR gloves can attenuate the vibration transmitted to the fingers and to enhance the understanding of the mechanisms of how these gloves work. Seven adult male subjects participated in the experiment. The fixed factors evaluated include hand force (four levels), glove condition (gel-filled, air bladder, no gloves), and location of the finger vibration measurement. A 3-D laser vibrometer was used to measure the vibrations on the fingers with and without wearing a glove on a 3-D hand-arm vibration test system. This study finds that the effect of VR gloves on the finger vibration depends on not only the gloves but also their influence on the distribution of the finger contact stiffness and the grip effort. As a result, the gloves increase the vibration in the fingertip area but marginally reduce the vibration in the proximal area at some frequencies below 100 Hz. On average, the gloves reduce the vibration of the entire fingers by less than 3% at frequencies below 80 Hz but increase at frequencies from 80 to 400 Hz. At higher frequencies, the gel-filled glove is more effective at reducing the finger vibration than the air bladder-filled glove. The implications of these findings are discussed. Relevance to industry Prolonged, intensive exposure to hand-transmitted vibration can cause hand-arm vibration syndrome. Vibration-reducing gloves have been used as an alternative approach to reduce the vibration exposure. However, their effectiveness for reducing finger-transmitted vibrations remains unclear. This study enhanced the understanding of the glove effects on finger vibration and provided useful information on the effectiveness of typical VR gloves at reducing the vibration transmitted to the fingers. The new
How exciton-vibrational coherences control charge separation in the photosystem II reaction center
Novoderezhkin, V.I.; Romero Mesa, E.; van Grondelle, R.
2015-01-01
In photosynthesis absorbed sun light produces collective excitations (excitons) that form a coherent superposition of electronic and vibrational states of the individual pigments. Two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectroscopy allows a visualization of how these coherences are involved in the primary
Non-linear dynamics of wind turbine wings
Larsen, Jesper Winther; Nielsen, Søren R.K.
2006-01-01
The paper deals with the formulation of non-linear vibrations of a wind turbine wing described in a wing fixed moving coordinate system. The considered structural model is a Bernoulli-Euler beam with due consideration to axial twist. The theory includes geometrical non-linearities induced...
Advances in nonlinear vibration analysis of structures. Part-I. Beams
Unknown
element analysis of nonlinear beams under static and dynamic loads. ... linearization, substitution of inplane boundary conditions at element level rather .... Modelling the nonlinear vibration problems using finite elements, albeit with a couple.
Tanwiwat Jaikuna
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Purpose: To develop an in-house software program that is able to calculate and generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram by physical dose conversion using the linear-quadratic-linear (LQL model. Material and methods : The Isobio software was developed using MATLAB version 2014b to calculate and generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histograms. The physical dose from each voxel in treatment planning was extracted through Computational Environment for Radiotherapy Research (CERR, and the accuracy was verified by the differentiation between the dose volume histogram from CERR and the treatment planning system. An equivalent dose in 2 Gy fraction (EQD2 was calculated using biological effective dose (BED based on the LQL model. The software calculation and the manual calculation were compared for EQD2 verification with pair t-test statistical analysis using IBM SPSS Statistics version 22 (64-bit. Results: Two and three-dimensional biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram were displayed correctly by the Isobio software. Different physical doses were found between CERR and treatment planning system (TPS in Oncentra, with 3.33% in high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV determined by D90%, 0.56% in the bladder, 1.74% in the rectum when determined by D2cc, and less than 1% in Pinnacle. The difference in the EQD2 between the software calculation and the manual calculation was not significantly different with 0.00% at p-values 0.820, 0.095, and 0.593 for external beam radiation therapy (EBRT and 0.240, 0.320, and 0.849 for brachytherapy (BT in HR-CTV, bladder, and rectum, respectively. Conclusions : The Isobio software is a feasible tool to generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram for treatment plan evaluation in both EBRT and BT.
Absorbing Property of Multi-layered Short Carbon Fiber Absorbing Coating
Liu, Zhaohui; Tao, Rui; Ban, Guodong; Luo, Ping
2018-01-01
The radar absorbing coating was prepared with short carbon fiber asabsorbent and waterborne polyurethane (WPU) as matrix resin. The coating’s absorbing property was tested with vectornetwork analyzer, using aramid honeycomb as air layer which was matched withcarbon fiber coating. The results demonstrate that the single-layered carbonfiber absorbing coating presented relatively poor absorbing property when thelayer was thin, and the performance was slightly improved after the matched airlayer ...
Absorber element for fast breeder reactor
Verset, L.
1987-01-01
This absorber element is characterized by a new head which avoids an accident disconnection of the mobil absorber. This head is made by a superior piece which can take shore up an adjusting ring on an adjusting bearing on the inferior piece. The intermediate piece is catched at the superior piece by a link of chain [fr
Analysis of absorbing times of quantum walks
Yamasaki, Tomohiro; Kobayashi, Hirotada; Imai, Hiroshi
2003-01-01
Quantum walks are expected to provide useful algorithmic tools for quantum computation. This paper introduces absorbing probability and time of quantum walks and gives both numerical simulation results and theoretical analyses on Hadamard walks on the line and symmetric walks on the hypercube from the viewpoint of absorbing probability and time
Absorber transmissivities in 57Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy
Ballet, O.
1985-01-01
Some useful relations are derived for the polarization dependent optical index of 57 Fe Moessbauer absorbers. Real rotation matrices are extensively used and, besides wave-direction dependence, their properties simplify also the treatment of texture and f-anisotropy. The derivation of absorber transmissivities from the optical index is discussed with a special emphasis on line overlapping. (Auth.)
Liquid absorber experiments in ZED-2
McDonnell, F.N.
1975-07-01
A set of liquid absorber experiments was performed in ZED-2 to provide data with which to test the adequacy of calculational methods for zone controller and refuelling studies associated with advanced reactor concepts. The absorber consisted of a full length aluminum tube, containing either i)H 2 O, ii)H 2 O + boron (2.5 mg/ml) or iii)H 2 O + boron (8.0 mg/ml). The tube was suspended vertically at interstitial or in-channel locations. A U-tube absorber was also simulated using two absorber tubes with appropriate spacers. Experiments were carried out at two different square lattice pitches, 22.86 and 27.94 cm. Measurements were made of the reactivity effects of the absorbers and, in some cases, of the detailed flux distribution near the perturbation. The results from one calculational method, the source-sink approach, were compared with the data from selected experiments. (author)
Development of non-linear TWB parts
Lee, J.; Yoon, C.S.; Lim, J.D. [Hyundai Motor Company and Kia Motors Corp. (Korea). Advanced Technology Center; Park, H.C. [Hyundai Hysco (Korea). Technical Research Lab.
2005-07-01
New manufacturing methods have applied for automotive parts to reduce total weight of car, resulting in improvement of fuel efficiency. TWB technique is applied to auto body parts, especially door inner, side inner and outer panel, and center floor panel to accomplish this goal. We applied non-linear (circular welded) TWB to shock absorber housing (to reduce total weight of shock absorber housing assembly). Welding line and shape of blank were determined by FEM analysis. High formability steel sheet and 440MPa grade high strength steel sheet were laser welded and press formed to final shock absorber housing (S/ABS HSG) panel and assembled with other sub parts. As a result, more than 10% of total weight of shock absorber housing assembly could be reduced compared with the mass of same part manufactured by conventional method. Also circular welding technique made it possible to design optimum welding line of TWB part. This paper is about result of FEM analysis and development procedure of non-linear TWB part (shock absorber housing assembly). (orig.)
Feng, H.; Zheng, Y.; Ding, S.
2007-01-01
Infrared multiphoton vibrational excitation of the linear triatomic molecule has been studied using the quadratic anharmonic Lie-algebra model, unitary transformations, and Magnus approximation. An explicit Lie-algebra expression for the vibrational transition probability is obtained by using a Lie-algebra approach. This explicit Lie-algebra expressions for time-evolution operator and vibrational transition probabilities make the computation clearer and easier. The infrared multiphoton vibrational excitation of the DCN linear tri-atomic molecule is discussed as an example
Fiber optic vibration sensor using bifurcated plastic optical fiber
Abdullah, M.; Bidin, N.; Yasin, M.
2016-11-01
An extrinsic fiber optic vibration sensor is demonstrated for a fiber optic displacement sensor based on a bundled multimode fiber to measure a vibration frequency ranging from 100 until 3000 Hz. The front slope has a sensitivity of 0.1938mV/mm and linearity of 99.7% within a measurement range between 0.15-3.00 mm. By placing the diaphragm of the concave load-speaker within the linear range from the probe, the frequency of the vibration can be measured with error percentage of less than 1.54%. The graph of input against output frequency for low, medium and high frequency range show very high linearity up to 99%. Slope for low, medium, and high frequency range are calculated as 1.0026, 0.9934, and 1.0007 respectively. Simplicity, long term stability, low power consumption, wide dynamic and frequency ranges, noise reduction, ruggedness, linearity and light weight make it promising alternative to other well-establish methods for vibration frequency measurement.
The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 13. Number 2
1981-02-01
Volin - USCrocker, Ray W. Herrick Laboratories, School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Dynamic Qualification Testing of F-16...between thear teeth. Natural frequencies, Mode shape, Damping coefficients, Mathematical models The rotor model is designed to find vibration frequencies...linear models which best reproduce the measured re- Key Words: Buildings, Nuclear power plants, Selamic excite- sponse of the structures a determined from
Chen, S.S.
1975-06-01
Several mathematical models have been proposed for calculating fuel rod responses in axial flows based on a single rod consideration. The spacing between fuel rods in liquid metal fast breeder reactors is small; hence fuel rods will interact with one another due to fluid coupling. The objective of this paper is to study the coupled vibration of fuel bundles. To account for the fluid coupling, a computer code, AMASS, is developed to calculate added mass coefficients for a group of circular cylinders based on the potential flow theory. The equations of motion for rod bundles are then derived including hydrodynamic forces, drag forces, fluid pressure, gravity effect, axial tension, and damping. Based on the equations, a method of analysis is presented to study the free and forced vibrations of rod bundles. Finally, the method is applied to a typical LMFBR fuel bundle consisting of seven rods
OPTIMAL AUTOMOBILE MUFFLER VIBRATION AND NOISE ANALYSIS
Sujit Kumar Jha
2013-06-01
Full Text Available The muffler is the main part of the Automobile Exhaust System, consisting of fibrous and porous materials to absorb noise and vibrations. The exhaust gas mass coming from the engine can produce resonance, which may be the source of fatigue failure in the exhaust pipe due to the presence of continuous resonance. The modes on the muffler should be located away from the engine’s operating frequencies in order to minimise the resonance. The objective of this paper is to determine the frequencies that appear at the modes, which have the more adverse effect during the operation of the automobile. An impact test has been conducted by applying the force using a hard head hammer, and data generated have been used for plotting a graph of the transfer functions using MATLAB. Six points have been selected, namely 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, and 11 on the muffler for the impact test. The collected data from theses six points have been analysed for the addition of damping. Results suggests that increasing the mass increases the damping and lowers the modes of the transfer function. Further research will identify higher strength materials that can withstand the higher gas temperatures as well as the corrosion and erosion by the gas emitted from the engine. muffler, noise, vibration,modal analysis,
16 x 16 Vantage+ Fuel Assembly Flow Vibrational Testing
Chambers, Martin; Kurincic, Bojan
2014-01-01
Nuklearna Elektrarna Krsko (NEK) has experienced leaking fuel after increasing the cycle duration to 18 months. The leaking fuel mechanism has predominantly been consistent over multiple cycles and is typically observed in highly irradiated Fuel Assemblies (FA) after around 4 years of continuous operation that were located at the core periphery (baffle). The cause of the leaking fuel is due to Grid-To-Rod-Fretting (GRTF) and occasional debris fretting. NEK utilises a 16x16 Vantage+ FA design with all Inconel structural mixing vane grids (8 in total), Zirlo thimbles, Integral Fuel Burnable Absorber (IFBA) rods with enriched ZrB2, enriched Annular Blanket, Debris Filter Bottom Nozzle (DFBN), Removable Top Nozzle (RTN) and Zirlo fuel cladding material with a high burnup capability of 60 GWD/MTU. Numerous design and operational changes are thought to have reduced the original 16x16 FA design margin to fretting resistance of either vibration or its wear work rate, such as significant power uprate (spring force loss, rod creep down...), operational cycle duration increase from 12 to 18 months (increasing residence time as well as lead FA and fuel rod burnup values), Reactor Coolant System flow increase (increased vibration), removal of Thimble Plugs (increased bypass flow, increased vibration) and Zirc-4 to Zirlo cladding change (decreasing wear work rate). The fuel rod to grid spring as well as dimple contact areas are relatively smaller than other FA designs that exhibit good in-reactor fretting performance. A FA design change project to address the small rod to dimple / spring contact area and utilise fuel cladding oxide coating is currently being pursued with the fuel supplier. The FA vibrational properties are very important to the in-reactor FA performance and reliability. The 16x16 Vantage+ vibrational testing was performed with a full size FA in the Fuel Assembly Compatibility Testing (FACTS) loop that is able to provide full flow rates at elevated temperature
Katarina Anthony
2015-01-01
In preparation for the civil engineering work on the HL-LHC, vibration measurements were carried out at the LHC’s Point 1 last month. These measurements will help evaluate how civil engineering work could impact the beam, and will provide crucial details about the site’s geological make-up before construction begins. A seismic truck at Point 1 generated wave-like vibrations measured by EN/MME. From carrying out R&D to produce state-of-the-art magnets to developing innovative, robust materials capable of withstanding beam impact, the HL-LHC is a multi-faceted project involving many groups and teams across CERN’s departments. It was in this framework that the project management mandated CERN's Mechanical and Materials Engineering (EN/MME) group to measure the propagation of vibrations around Point 1. Their question: can civil engineering work for the HL-LHC – the bulk of which is scheduled for LS2 – begin while the LHC is running? Alth...
Vibrational stability of graphene
Yangfan Hu
2013-05-01
Full Text Available The mechanical stability of graphene as temperature rises is analyzed based on three different self-consistent phonon (SCP models. Compared with three-dimensional (3-D materials, the critical temperature Ti at which instability occurs for graphene is much closer to its melting temperature Tm obtained from Monte Carlo simulation (Ti ≃ 2Tm, K. V. Zakharchenko, A. Fasolino, J. H. Los, and M. I. Katsnelson, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 23, 202202. This suggests that thermal vibration plays a significant role in melting of graphene while melting for 3-D materials is often dominated by topologic defects. This peculiar property of graphene derives from its high structural anisotropy, which is characterized by the vibrational anisotropic coefficient (VAC, defined upon its Lindermann ratios in different directions. For any carbon based material with a graphene-like structure, the VAC value must be smaller than 5.4 to maintain its stability. It is also found that the high VAC value of graphene is responsible for its negative thermal expansion coefficient at low temperature range. We believe that the VAC can be regarded as a new criterion concerning the vibrational stability of any low-dimensional (low-D materials.
Method of absorbing UF6 from gaseous mixtures in alkamine absorbents
Lafferty, R.H.; Smiley, S.H.; Radimer, K.J.
1976-01-01
A method is described for recovering UF 6 from gaseous mixtures by absorption in a liquid. The liquid absorbent must have a relatively low viscosity and at least one component of the absorbent is an alkamine having less than 3 carbon atoms bonded to the amino nitrogen, less than 2 of the carbon atoms other than those bonded to the amino nitrogen are free of the hydroxy radical and precipitate the absorbed uranium from the absorbent. At least one component of the absorbent is chosen from the group consisting of ethanolamine, diethanolamine, and 3-methyl-3-amino-propane-diol-1,2
UV dissociation of vibrationally excited UF6
Alexandre, M.; Clerc, M.; Gagnon, R.; Gilbert, M.; Isnard, P.; Nectoux, P.; Rigny, P.; Weulersse, J.M.
1983-01-01
Before application of laser photodissociation of UF 6 to the separation of uranium isotopes becomes practical, isotopic selectivity should be optimized. We present here results on the cross sections involved in the irradiation of UF 6 simultaneously with infrared and ultraviolet lasers, as a function of wavelengths, fluence and temperature (at 293 K and 105 K, in an adiabatic expansion). The experiment uses a Nd 3+ YAG pumped lithium niobate optical parametric oscillator as a tunable 16 μ light source. Energies of the order of 1 mJ can be obtained with linewidths smaller than 0.1 cm - . The UV source used is based on ND 3+ YAG pumped dye laser and various frequency mixing schemes. At low temperature the frequency variation of the absorbed infrared energy per molecule depends markedly on the IR fluence phisub(IR) with a maximum value varying as phisub(IR)sup(-1/2) and a frequency extension far beyond the low level absorption spectrum. The absorbed vibrational energy leads to a change in the UV cross section comparable with the effect of a rise in temperature. Using this a model is put forward to express the isotopic selectivity 235 U/ 238 U as a function of UV wavelength and IR irradiation conditions. Experimental results agree with this model, and yield to maximum selectivity close to two [fr
Vibration measurements by pulsed digital holographic endoscopy
Schedin, Staffan; Pedrini, Giancarlo; Perez-Lopez, Carlos; Mendoza Santoyo, Fernando
2005-02-01
Digital holographic interferometry in combination with a flexible fiber endoscope allows high precision measurements of deformations on hidden objects surfaces, inside cavities and objects with small access apertures. A digital holographic endoscopy system is described with a frequency-doubled, twin oscillator Q-switched pulsed Nd:YAG laser as light source. A sequence of digital hologram pairs are recorded with a maximum repetition rate of 260 ms. Each digital hologram is captured at separate video frames of a CCD-camera. The time separation between the laser pulses from each cavity can be set in the range from 50 to 500 μs. The digital holograms are transferred to a PC via a frame grabber and evaluated quantitatively by the Fourier transform method. The resulting phase fringe pattern has the information needed to evaluate quantitatively the amount of the deformation. Experimental results of vibration measurements of hidden mechanical and biological object surfaces are presented. The quality of the results obtained by mechanical object surfaces is usually higher than for biological surfaces. This can be explained easily by the fact that a biological surface is much more complex than a mechanical surface in the sense that some parts of the surface may reflect the light well whereas other parts may absorb the light. Also, biological surfaces are translucent, which means that part of the light may enter inside the sample where it may be absorbed or reflected.
On the definition of absorbed dose
Grusell, Erik
2015-01-01
Purpose: The quantity absorbed dose is used extensively in all areas concerning the interaction of ionizing radiation with biological organisms, as well as with matter in general. The most recent and authoritative definition of absorbed dose is given by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) in ICRU Report 85. However, that definition is incomplete. The purpose of the present work is to give a rigorous definition of absorbed dose. Methods: Absorbed dose is defined in terms of the random variable specific energy imparted. A random variable is a mathematical function, and it cannot be defined without specifying its domain of definition which is a probability space. This is not done in report 85 by the ICRU, mentioned above. Results: In the present work a definition of a suitable probability space is given, so that a rigorous definition of absorbed dose is possible. This necessarily includes the specification of the experiment which the probability space describes. In this case this is an irradiation, which is specified by the initial particles released and by the material objects which can interact with the radiation. Some consequences are discussed. Specific energy imparted is defined for a volume, and the definition of absorbed dose as a point function involves the specific energy imparted for a small mass contained in a volume surrounding the point. A possible more precise definition of this volume is suggested and discussed. Conclusions: The importance of absorbed dose motivates a proper definition, and one is given in the present work. No rigorous definition has been presented before. - Highlights: • A stringent definition of absorbed dose is given. • This requires the definition of an irradiation and a suitable probability space. • A stringent definition is important for an understanding of the concept absorbed dose
Radioactive iodine absorbing properties of tetrathiafulvalene
Ito, Tomiyasu; Nakamura, Asao (Ajinomoto Co. Inc., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan). Central Research Labs.); Nogawa, Norio; Oohashi, Kunio; Morikawa, Naotake
1989-05-01
For the purpose of searching some effective absorbents of gaseous radioactive iodine, 16 substances considered as having an affinity for iodine were investigated with regular iodine and /sup 125/I. In a preliminary survey, only tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) was found to have satisfactory absorbing properties comparable to activated charcoal. A further detailed comparison of the properties between TTF and activated charcoal led us to the conclusion that the former has more preferable properties as absorbent of radioactive iodine than the latter in all points studied. The results are summarized as follows: (1) The absorption of iodine on TTF in atmosphere was about twice as much as that on activated charcoal. Desorption of iodine from saturatedly absorbed iodine on TTF was practically negligible except trace amount of initial desorption, while that on activated charcoal was considerable (3%/50h) even in the air at room temperature. (2) Absorbed amount of iodine on activated charcoal decreased with increasing gaseous iodine concentration, air flow rate, on humidity of flowing-air. On the other hand, those factors scarcely affected that on TTF. Under an air flow rate of 1m/s, activated charcoal absorbs only 80% of iodine, while TTF absorbs more than 99%. (3) In flowing-air saturated with water vapor, iodine absorbed on activated charcoal was gradually liberated although by small amount (0.08%/100h), while that on TTF was much more stable for a long period (0.004%/100h). As a conclusion, TTF is considered to be useful as a quite effective radioactive iodine absorbent, especially in the case where protection from radioactive iodine should be serious, though it is expensive now. (author).
Estimation of Absorbed Dose in Occlusal Radiography
Yoo, Young Ah; Choi, Karp Shick; Lee, Sang Han
1990-01-01
The purpose of this study was to estimate absorbed dose of each important anatomic site of phantom (RT-210 Head and Neck Section R, Humanoid Systems Co., U.S.A.) head in occlusal radiography. X-radiation dosimetry at 12 anatomic sites in maxillary anterior topography, maxillary posterior topography, mandibular anterior cross-section, mandibular posterior cross-section, mandibular anterior topographic, mandibular posterior topographic occlusal projection was performed with calcium sulfate thermoluminescent dosimeters under 70 Kvp and 15 mA, 1/4 second (8 inch cone ) and 1 second (16 inch cone) exposure time. The results obtained were as follows: Skin surface produced highest absorbed dose ranged between 3264 mrad and 4073 mrad but there was little difference between projections. In maxillary anterior topographic occlusal radiography, eyeballs, maxillary sinuses, and pituitary gland sites produced higher absorbed doses than those of other sites. In maxillary posterior topographic occlusal radiography, exposed eyeball site and exposed maxillary sinus site produced high absorbed doses. In mandibular anterior cross-sectional occlusal radiography, all sites were produced relatively low absorbed dose except eyeball sites. In Mandibular posterior cross-sectional occlusal radiography, exposed eyeball site and exposed maxillary sinus site were produced relatively higher absorbed doses than other sites. In mandibular anterior topographic occlusal radiography, maxillary sinuses, submandibular glands, and thyroid gland sites produced high absorbed doses than other sites. In mandibular posterior topographic occlusal radiography, submandibular gland site of the exposed side produced high absorbed dose than other sites and eyeball site of the opposite side produced relatively high absorbed dose.
Radioactive iodine absorbing properties of tetrathiafulvalene
Ito, Tomiyasu; Nakamura, Asao; Nogawa, Norio; Oohashi, Kunio; Morikawa, Naotake.
1989-01-01
For the purpose of searching some effective absorbents of gaseous radioactive iodine, 16 substances considered as having an affinity for iodine were investigated with regular iodine and 125 I. In a preliminary survey, only tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) was found to have satisfactory absorbing properties comparable to activated charcoal. A further detailed comparison of the properties between TTF and activated charcoal led us to the conclusion that the former has more preferable properties as absorbent of radioactive iodine than the latter in all points studied. The results are summarized as follows: (1) The absorption of iodine on TTF in atmosphere was about twice as much as that on activated charcoal. Desorption of iodine from saturatedly absorbed iodine on TTF was practically negligible except trace amount of initial desorption, while that on activated charcoal was considerable (3%/50h) even in the air at room temperature. (2) Absorbed amount of iodine on activated charcoal decreased with increasing gaseous iodine concentration, air flow rate, on humidity of flowing-air. On the other hand, those factors scarcely affected that on TTF. Under an air flow rate of 1m/s, activated charcoal absorbs only 80% of iodine, while TTF absorbs more than 99%. (3) In flowing-air saturated with water vapor, iodine absorbed on activated charcoal was gradually liberated although by small amount (0.08%/100h), while that on TTF was much more stable for a long period (0.004%/100h). As a conclusion, TTF is considered to be useful as a quite effective radioactive iodine absorbent, especially in the case where protection from radioactive iodine should be serious, though it is expensive now. (author)
Prototype observation and influencing factors of environmental vibration induced by flood discharge
Xin Wang
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Due to a wide range of field vibration problems caused by flood discharge at the Xiangjiaba Hydropower Station, vibration characteristics and influencing factors were investigated based on prototype observation. The results indicate that field vibrations caused by flood discharge have distinctive characteristics of constancy, low frequency, small amplitude, and randomness with impact, which significantly differ from the common high-frequency vibration characteristics. Field vibrations have a main frequency of about 0.5–3.0 Hz and the characteristics of long propagation distance and large-scale impact. The vibration of a stilling basin slab runs mainly in the vertical direction. The vibration response of the guide wall perpendicular to the flow is significantly stronger than it is in other directions and decreases linearly downstream along the guide wall. The vibration response of the underground turbine floor is mainly caused by the load of unit operation. Urban environmental vibration has particular distribution characteristics and change patterns, and is greatly affected by discharge, scheduling modes, and geological conditions. Along with the increase of the height of residential buildings, vibration responses show a significant amplification effect. The horizontal and vertical vibrations of the 7th floor are, respectively, about 6 times and 1.5 times stronger than the corresponding vibrations of the 1st floor. The vibration of a large-scale chemical plant presents the combined action of flood discharge and working machines. Meanwhile, it is very difficult to reduce the low-frequency environmental vibrations. Optimization of the discharge scheduling mode is one of the effective measures of reducing the flow impact loads at present. Choosing reasonable dam sites is crucial.
Absorbed dose by a CMOS in radiotherapy
Borja H, C. G.; Valero L, C. Y.; Guzman G, K. A.; Banuelos F, A.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Paredes G, L. C., E-mail: candy_borja@hotmail.com [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)
2011-10-15
Absorbed dose by a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) circuit as part of a pacemaker, has been estimated using Monte Carlo calculations. For a cancer patient who is a pacemaker carrier, scattered radiation could damage pacemaker CMOS circuits affecting patient's health. Absorbed dose in CMOS circuit due to scattered photons is too small and therefore is not the cause of failures in pacemakers, but neutron calculations shown an absorbed dose that could cause damage in CMOS due to neutron-hydrogen interactions. (Author)
Energy Absorbing Effectiveness – Different Approaches
Kotełko Maria
2018-03-01
Full Text Available In the paper the study of different crashworthiness indicators used to evaluate energy absorbing effectiveness of thin-walled energy absorbers is presented. Several different indicators are used to assess an effectiveness of two types of absorbing structures, namely thin-walled prismatic column with flaws and thin-walled prismatic frustum (hollow or foam filled in both cases subjected to axial compressive impact load. The indicators are calculated for different materials and different geometrical parameters. The problem of selection of the most appropriate and general indicators is discussed.
Graphene and Graphene Metamaterials for Terahertz Absorbers
Andryieuski, Andrei; Pizzocchero, Filippo; Booth, Tim
2013-01-01
Graphene, due to the possibility to tune its conductivity, is the promising material for a range of the terahertz (THz) applications, such as tunable reflectors, absorbers, modulators, filters and polarization converters. Subwavelength structuring of graphene in order to form metamaterials allows...... for even more control over the THz waves. In this poster presentation I will show an elegant way to describe the graphene metamaterials and the design of graphene based absorbers. I will also present our recent experimental results on the graphene absorbers characterization....
Rodriguez S, A.; Martinez Q, E
1990-07-15
The vibrational spectra of different uranyl compounds has been studied and of it spectral information has been used the fundamental asymmetric vibrational frequency, to determine the length and constant bond force U=O by means of the combination of the concept of absorbed energy and the mathematical expression of Badger modified by Jones. It is intended a factor that simplifies the mathematical treatment and the results are compared with the values obtained for other methods. (Author)
Active Control of Parametric Vibrations in Coupled Rotor-Blade Systems
Christensen, Rene Hardam; Santos, Ilmar
2003-01-01
of modes. The designed control scheme is applied to a coupled rotor-blade system and dynamic responses are numerically evaluated. Such responses show that the vibrations are efficiently reduced. Frequency response diagrams demonstrate that both basis and parametric vibration modes are significantly...... the model becomes periodic-variant. In order to reduce basis as well as parametric vibrations by means of active control in such systems a time-variant control strategy has to be adopted. This paper presents a methodology for designing an active controller to reduce vibrations in a coupled rotor......-blade system. The main aim is to control blade as well as hub vibrations in such a system by means of active control with focus on reducing the parametric vibration. A periodic state feedback controller is designed by transforming the system into a linear time-invariant form. Using this a controller...
Random vibrations theory and practice
Wirsching, Paul H; Ortiz, Keith
1995-01-01
Random Vibrations: Theory and Practice covers the theory and analysis of mechanical and structural systems undergoing random oscillations due to any number of phenomena— from engine noise, turbulent flow, and acoustic noise to wind, ocean waves, earthquakes, and rough pavement. For systems operating in such environments, a random vibration analysis is essential to the safety and reliability of the system. By far the most comprehensive text available on random vibrations, Random Vibrations: Theory and Practice is designed for readers who are new to the subject as well as those who are familiar with the fundamentals and wish to study a particular topic or use the text as an authoritative reference. It is divided into three major sections: fundamental background, random vibration development and applications to design, and random signal analysis. Introductory chapters cover topics in probability, statistics, and random processes that prepare the reader for the development of the theory of random vibrations a...
VIBRATION ISOLATION SYSTEM PROBABILITY ANALYSIS
Smirnov Vladimir Alexandrovich
2012-10-01
Full Text Available The article deals with the probability analysis for a vibration isolation system of high-precision equipment, which is extremely sensitive to low-frequency oscillations even of submicron amplitude. The external sources of low-frequency vibrations may include the natural city background or internal low-frequency sources inside buildings (pedestrian activity, HVAC. Taking Gauss distribution into account, the author estimates the probability of the relative displacement of the isolated mass being still lower than the vibration criteria. This problem is being solved in the three dimensional space, evolved by the system parameters, including damping and natural frequency. According to this probability distribution, the chance of exceeding the vibration criteria for a vibration isolation system is evaluated. Optimal system parameters - damping and natural frequency - are being developed, thus the possibility of exceeding vibration criteria VC-E and VC-D is assumed to be less than 0.04.
Generalized pin factor methodology for LWR reload cores with discrete burnable absorbers
Hah, C.J.; Hideki Matsumoto; Toshikazu Ida; Lee, C.; Chao, Y.A.
2005-01-01
Discrete burnable absorbers are used to suppress excess reactivity as well as peak pin power in an assembly. After the burn-out of absorption material, discrete burnable absorbers are usually removed from assembly guide tubes for the next cycle. For that case, the pin factors with discrete burnable absorbers cannot be used since the assembly configuration is physically changed. The pin factors without discrete burnable absorbers also have noticeable deviation from the actual case because they do not take into account the history effect due to the residence of discrete burnable absorbers for the previous cycle. In this paper, the generalized pin factor (GPF) method is developed to accurately predict pin powers by considering the history effect. The method uses a second-order polynomial function to approximate the history effect which builds up during the residence of burnable absorber material and employs a linear approximation to simulate the decay of the history effect after discrete burnable absorbers are removed. The verification results from Westinghouse Vantage- 5H assemblies with WABAs showed that pin power errors were significantly reduced by using the GPF. (authors)
Axis vibration detection device for reactor recycling pump
Ide, Katsuki.
1995-01-01
The present invention provides a device for detecting, in a contactless manner, vibrations of a recycling pump shaft disposed in a reactor pressure vessel of a BWR type reactor. Namely, the vibration detector comprises an eddy current type displacement gauge having a sensing portion at one end of a linear tube type metal holder. It also comprises a rotational member made of an electroconductive material rotating integrally with a rotational pump shaft. The vibration detector is inserted into an attaching hole passing through a pump casing at a position where the sensing portion faces the outer circumference of the rotational member. The attaching hole is closed by a holder of the oscillation detector and a metal cap integrated to one end of the holder. A high pressure hermetic seal connector is disposed at a position outer side of the attaching hole of the vibration detector for electrically connecting the inside and the outside thereof. The device of the present invention can directly detect the vibration of the pump shaft. As a result, an abnormality, if should occur, in the recycling pump can be found in an early stage. Since the vibration detector is covered with a metal and shielded by the high pressure hermetic seal connector, it can sufficiently ensure pressure resistance. (I.S.)
Nonlinear saturation controller for vibration supersession of a nonlinear composite beam
Hamed, Y. S. [Menofia University, Menouf (Egypt); Amer, Y. A. [Zagazig University, Zagazig (Egypt)
2014-08-15
In this paper, a study for nonlinear saturation controller (NSC) is presented that used to suppress the vibration amplitude of a structural dynamic model simulating nonlinear composite beam at simultaneous sub-harmonic and internal resonance excitation. The absorber exploits the saturation phenomenon that is known to occur in dynamical systems with quadratic non-linearities of the feedback gain and a two-to-one internal resonance. The analytical solution for the system and the nonlinear saturation controller are obtained using method of multiple time scales perturbation up to the second order approximation. All possible resonance cases were extracted at this approximation order and studied numerically. The stability of the system at the worst resonance case (Ω = 2ω{sub s} and ω{sub s} =2ω{sub C}) is investigated using both frequency response equations and phase-plane trajectories. The effects of different parameters on the system and the controller are studied numerically. The effect of some types of controller on the system is investigated numerically. The simulation results are achieved using Matlab and Maple programs.
Vibration damping method and apparatus
Redmond, James M.; Barney, Patrick S.; Parker, Gordon G.; Smith, David A.
1999-01-01
The present invention provides vibration damping method and apparatus that can damp vibration in more than one direction without requiring disassembly, that can accommodate varying tool dimensions without requiring re-tuning, and that does not interfere with tool tip operations and cooling. The present invention provides active dampening by generating bending moments internal to a structure such as a boring bar to dampen vibration thereof.
Atomic beams probe surface vibrations
Robinson, A.L.
1982-01-01
In the last two years, surface scientist have begun trying to obtain the vibrational frequencies of surface atoms in both insulating and metallic crystals from beams of helium atoms. It is the inelastic scattering that researchers use to probe surface vibrations. Inelastic atomic beam scattering has only been used to obtain vibrational frequency spectra from clean surfaces. Several experiments using helium beams are cited. (SC)
Shuai Wang
2017-04-01
Full Text Available Vibration isolators with quasi-zero stiffness (QZS perform well for low- or ultra-low-frequency vibration isolation. This paper proposes a novel dual-parallelogram passive rocking vibration isolator with QZS that could effectively attenuate in-plane disturbances with low-frequency vibration. First, a kinematic model of the proposed vibration isolator was established and four linear spring configuration schemes were developed to implement the QZS. Next, an optimal scheme with good high-static-low-dynamic stiffness (HSLDS performance was obtained through comparison and analysis, and used as a focus for the QZS model. Subsequently, a dynamic model-based Lagrangian equation that considered the spring stiffness and damping and the influence of the payload gravity center on the vibration isolation system was developed, and an average approach was used to analyze the vibration transmissibility. Finally, the prototype and test system were constructed. A comparison of the simulation and experimental results showed that this novel passive rocking vibration isolator could bolster a heavy payload. Experimentally, the vibration amplitude decreased by 53% and 86% under harmonic disturbances of 0.08 Hz and 0.35 Hz, respectively, suggesting the great practical applicability of this presented vibration isolator.
Spacesuit Evaporator-Absorber-Radiator (SEAR)
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary goal is to build and test a rigid Lithium Chloride Absorber Radiator (LCAR) coupon based on honeycomb geometry that would be applicable for EVA and...
Full-flow absorbers. Every centimetre counts
Berner, Joachim
2012-07-01
New absorbers with a maximised area for heat exchange with the thermal medium are significantly more efficient than the presently typical designs. Both the industry and researchers are working to revive an old idea. (orig.)
Quantitative neutron radiography using neutron absorbing honeycomb
Tamaki, Masayoshi; Oda, Masahiro; Takahashi, Kenji; Ohkubo, Kohei; Tasaka, Kanji; Tsuruno, Akira; Matsubayashi, Masahito.
1993-01-01
This investigation concerns quantitative neutron radiography and computed tomography by using a neutron absorbing honeycomb collimator. By setting the neutron absorbing honeycomb collimator between object and imaging system, neutrons scattered in the object were absorbed by the honeycomb material and eliminated before coming to the imaging system, but the neutrons which were transmitted the object without interaction could reach the imaging system. The image by purely transmitted neutrons gives the quantitative information. Two honeycombs were prepared with coating of boron nitride and gadolinium oxide and evaluated for the quantitative application. The relation between the neutron total cross section and the attenuation coefficient confirmed that they were in a fairly good agreement. Application to quantitative computed tomography was also successfully conducted. The new neutron radiography method using the neutron-absorbing honeycomb collimator for the elimination of the scattered neutrons improved remarkably the quantitativeness of the neutron radiography and computed tomography. (author)
An ultra-broadband multilayered graphene absorber
Amin, Muhammad
2013-01-01
An ultra-broadband multilayered graphene absorber operating at terahertz (THz) frequencies is proposed. The absorber design makes use of three mechanisms: (i) The graphene layers are asymmetrically patterned to support higher order surface plasmon modes that destructively interfere with the dipolar mode and generate electromagnetically induced absorption. (ii) The patterned graphene layers biased at different gate voltages backedup with dielectric substrates are stacked on top of each other. The resulting absorber is polarization dependent but has an ultra-broadband of operation. (iii) Graphene\\'s damping factor is increased by lowering its electron mobility to 1000cm 2=Vs. Indeed, numerical experiments demonstrate that with only three layers, bandwidth of 90% absorption can be extended upto 7THz, which is drastically larger than only few THz of bandwidth that can be achieved with existing metallic/graphene absorbers. © 2013 Optical Society of America.
Phase Space Exchange in Thick Wedge Absorbers
Neuffer, David [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
2017-01-01
The problem of phase space exchange in wedge absorbers with ionization cooling is discussed. The wedge absorber exchanges transverse and longitudinal phase space by introducing a position-dependent energy loss. In this paper we note that the wedges used with ionization cooling are relatively thick, so that single wedges cause relatively large changes in beam phase space. Calculation methods adapted to such “thick wedge” cases are presented, and beam phase-space transformations through such wedges are discussed.
Semiconductor saturable absorbers for ultrafast THz signals
Hoffmann, Matthias C.; Turchinovich, Dmitry
We demonstrate saturable absorber behavior of n-type semiconductors in the THz frequency range using nonlinear THz spectroscopy. Further, we observe THz pulse shortening and increase of the group refractive index at high field strengths.......We demonstrate saturable absorber behavior of n-type semiconductors in the THz frequency range using nonlinear THz spectroscopy. Further, we observe THz pulse shortening and increase of the group refractive index at high field strengths....
A Wedge Absorber Experiment at MICE
Neuffer, David [Fermilab; Mohayai, Tanaz [IIT, Chicago; Rogers, Chris [Rutherford; Snopok, Pavel [IIT, Chicago; Summers, Don [Mississippi U.
2017-05-01
Emittance exchange mediated by wedge absorbers is required for longitudinal ionization cooling and for final transverse emittance minimization for a muon collider. A wedge absorber within the MICE beam line could serve as a demonstration of the type of emittance exchange needed for 6-D cooling, including the configurations needed for muon colliders, as well as configurations for low-energy muon sources. Parameters for this test are explored in simulation and possible experimental configurations with simulated results are presented.
Digital analysis of vibrations
Bohnstedt, H.J.; Walter, G.
1982-01-01
Vibrational measurements, e.g. on turbomachinery, can be evaluated rapidly and economically with the aid of a combination of the following instruments: a desk-top computer, a two-channel vector filter and a FFT spectral analyzer. This equipment combination is available within the Allianz Centre for Technology and has also been used for mobile, on-site investigations during the last year. It enables calculation and display of time functions, kinetic shaft orbits, displacement diagrams. Bode plots, polar-coordinate plots, cascade diagrams and histograms. (orig.) [de
Turbine blade vibration dampening
Cornelius, C.C.; Pytanowski, G.P.; Vendituoli, J.S.
1997-07-08
The present turbine wheel assembly increases component life and turbine engine longevity. The combination of the strap and the opening combined with the preestablished area of the outer surface of the opening and the preestablished area of the outer circumferential surface of the strap and the friction between the strap and the opening increases the life and longevity of the turbine wheel assembly. Furthermore, the mass ``M`` or combined mass ``CM`` of the strap or straps and the centrifugal force assist in controlling vibrations and damping characteristics. 5 figs.
Vibration control, machine diagnostics
1990-01-01
Changing vibrations announce damage in the form of wear or cracks on components of, e.g., engine rotors, pumps, power plant turbo sets, rounding-up tools, or marine diesel engines. Therefore, machine diagnostics use frequency analyses, system tests, trend analyses as well as expert systems to localize or estimate the causes of these damages and malfunctions. Data acquisistion, including not only sensors, but also reliable and redundant data processing systems and analyzing systems, play an important role. The lectures pertaining to the data base are covered in detail. (DG) [de
Performance of an absorbing concentrating solar collectors
Imadojemu, H.
1990-01-01
This paper reports on a comparison of the efficiency of an absorbing fluid parabolic trough concentrating solar collector and a traditional concentrating collector that was made. In the absorbing fluid collector, black liquid flows through a glass tube absorber while the same black liquid flows through a selective black coated copper tube absorber while the same black fluid flows through a selective black coated copper tube absorber in the traditional collector. After a careful study of the properties of available black liquids, a mixture of water and black ink was chosen as the black absorbing medium or transfer fluid. In the black liquid glass collector there is a slightly improved efficiency based on beam radiation as a result of the direct absorption process and an increase in the effective transmittance absorptance. At worst the efficiency of this collector equals that of the traditional concentrating collector when the efficiency is based on total radiation. The collector's reflecting surfaces were made of aluminum sheet, parabolic line focus and with cylindrical receivers. The ease of manufacture and reduced cost per unit energy collected, in addition to the clean and pollution free mode of energy conversion, makes it very attractive
Recent development of the passive vibration control method
Ishida, Yukio
2012-05-01
This paper introduces new passive vibration suppression methods developed recently in our laboratory. First, two methods used to suppress steady-state resonances are explained. One is the improvement of the efficiency of a ball balancer. A simple method to eliminate the influence of friction of balls and to improve its efficiency is introduced. The other is an effective method that utilizes the discontinuous spring characteristics. Secondly, a method to eliminate unstable ranges in rotor systems is explained. Unstable ranges in an asymmetrical shaft, and in a hollow rotor partially filled with liquid, are eliminated by the discontinuous spring characteristics. Thirdly, a method to suppress self-excited oscillations is explained. Self-excited oscillations due to internal damping and rubbing are discussed. Finally, the methods of using a pendulum or roller type absorbers to suppress torsional vibrations are explained.
How exciton-vibrational coherences control charge separation in the photosystem II reaction center.
Novoderezhkin, Vladimir I; Romero, Elisabet; van Grondelle, Rienk
2015-12-14
In photosynthesis absorbed sun light produces collective excitations (excitons) that form a coherent superposition of electronic and vibrational states of the individual pigments. Two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectroscopy allows a visualization of how these coherences are involved in the primary processes of energy and charge transfer. Based on quantitative modeling we identify the exciton-vibrational coherences observed in 2D photon echo of the photosystem II reaction center (PSII-RC). We find that the vibrations resonant with the exciton splittings can modify the delocalization of the exciton states and produce additional states, thus promoting directed energy transfer and allowing a switch between the two charge separation pathways. We conclude that the coincidence of the frequencies of the most intense vibrations with the splittings within the manifold of exciton and charge-transfer states in the PSII-RC is not occurring by chance, but reflects a fundamental principle of how energy conversion in photosynthesis was optimized.
Broadband piezoelectric vibration energy harvesting using a nonlinear energy sink
Xiong, Liuyang; Tang, Lihua; Liu, Kefu; Mace, Brian R.
2018-05-01
A piezoelectric vibration energy harvester (PVEH) is capable of converting waste or undesirable ambient vibration energy into useful electric energy. However, conventional PVEHs typically work in a narrow frequency range, leading to low efficiency in practical application. This work proposes a PVEH based on the principle of the nonlinear energy sink (NES) to achieve broadband energy harvesting. An alternating current circuit with a resistive load is first considered in the analysis of the dynamic properties and electric performance of the NES-based PEVH. Then, a standard rectifying direct current (DC) interface circuit is developed to evaluate the DC power from the PVEH. To gain insight into the NES mechanism involved, approximate analysis of the proposed PVEH systems under harmonic excitation is sought using the mixed multi-scale and harmonic balance method and the Newton–Raphson harmonic balance method. In addition, an equivalent circuit model (ECM) of the electromechanical system is derived and circuit simulations are conducted to explore and validate the energy harvesting and vibration absorption performance of the proposed NES-based PVEH. The response is also compared with that obtained by direct numerical integration of the equations of motion. Finally, the optimal resistance to obtain the maximum DC power is determined based on the Newton–Raphson harmonic balance method and validated by the ECM. In general, the NES-based PVEH can absorb the vibration from the primary structure and collect electric energy within a broad frequency range effectively.
Statistical techniques for the identification of reactor component structural vibrations
Kemeny, L.G.
1975-01-01
The identification, on-line and in near real-time, of the vibration frequencies, modes and amplitudes of selected key reactor structural components and the visual monitoring of these phenomena by nuclear power plant operating staff will serve to further the safety and control philosophy of nuclear systems and lead to design optimisation. The School of Nuclear Engineering has developed a data acquisition system for vibration detection and identification. The system is interfaced with the HIFAR research reactor of the Australian Atomic Energy Commission. The reactor serves to simulate noise and vibrational phenomena which might be pertinent in power reactor situations. The data acquisition system consists of a small computer interfaced with a digital correlator and a Fourier transform unit. An incremental tape recorder is utilised as a backing store and as a means of communication with other computers. A small analogue computer and an analogue statistical analyzer can be used in the pre and post computational analysis of signals which are received from neutron and gamma detectors, thermocouples, accelerometers, hydrophones and strain gauges. Investigations carried out to date include a study of the role of local and global pressure fields due to turbulence in coolant flow and pump impeller induced perturbations on (a) control absorbers, (B) fuel element and (c) coolant external circuit and core tank structure component vibrations. (Auth.)
Off-axis Modal Active Vibration Control Of Rotational Vibrations
Babakhani, B.; de Vries, Theodorus J.A.; van Amerongen, J.
Collocated active vibration control is an effective and robustly stable way of adding damping to the performance limiting vibrations of a plant. Besides the physical parameters of the Active Damping Unit (ADU) containing the collocated actuator and sensor, its location with respect to the
Linear Algebra and Smarandache Linear Algebra
Vasantha, Kandasamy
2003-01-01
The present book, on Smarandache linear algebra, not only studies the Smarandache analogues of linear algebra and its applications, it also aims to bridge the need for new research topics pertaining to linear algebra, purely in the algebraic sense. We have introduced Smarandache semilinear algebra, Smarandache bilinear algebra and Smarandache anti-linear algebra and their fuzzy equivalents. Moreover, in this book, we have brought out the study of linear algebra and vector spaces over finite p...
Damping Estimation of Friction Systems in Random Vibrations
Friis, Tobias; Katsanos, Evangelos; Amador, Sandro
Friction is one of the most efficient and economical mechanisms to reduce vibrations in structural mechanics. However, the estimation of the equivalent linear damping of the friction damped systems in experimental modal analysis and operational modal analysis can be adversely affected by several...... assumptions regarding the definition of the linear damping and the identification methods or may be lacking a meaningful interpretation of the damping. Along these lines, this project focuses on assessing the potential to estimate efficiently the equivalent linear damping of friction systems in random...
Vibrational spectra of ordered perovskites
Corsmit, A.F.; Hoefdraad, H.E.; Blasse, G.
1972-01-01
The vibrational spectra of the molecular M6+O6 (M = Mo, Te, W) group in ordered perovskites of the type Ba2M2+M6+O6 are reported. These groups have symmetry Oh, whereas their site symmetry is also Oh. An assignment of the internal vibrations is presented.
Vibrations and Stability: Solved Problems
Thomsen, Jon Juel
Worked out solutions for exercise problems in J. J. Thomsen 'Vibrations and Stability: Advanced Theory, Analysis, and Tools', Springer, Berlin - Heidelberg, 2003.......Worked out solutions for exercise problems in J. J. Thomsen 'Vibrations and Stability: Advanced Theory, Analysis, and Tools', Springer, Berlin - Heidelberg, 2003....
P. Rozhkov
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The change of acceleration of the vehicle sprung mass while changing the coefficient of resistance of the adaptive pendant shock absorber has been analyzed. Presentation of disturbing influence is taken as a harmonic function containing the initial phase. Solution of the system of differential equations is carried out taking into account the initial conditions. The mathematical modeling of the impact of the vehicle sprung mass vibrations at various moments of time of forming the actuating signal on the change of the coefficient of resistance allowed to formulate requirements to the system of adaptive suspension control.
Tiwari, Vivek; Jonas, David M.
2018-02-01
Vibrational-electronic resonance in photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes invalidates Förster's adiabatic framework for interpreting spectra and energy transfer, thus complicating determination of how the surrounding protein affects pigment properties. This paper considers the combined effects of vibrational-electronic resonance and inhomogeneous variations in the electronic excitation energies of pigments at different sites on absorption, emission, circular dichroism, and hole-burning spectra for a non-degenerate homodimer. The non-degenerate homodimer has identical pigments in different sites that generate differences in electronic energies, with parameters loosely based on bacteriochlorophyll a pigments in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson antenna protein. To explain the intensity borrowing, the excited state vibrational-electronic eigenvectors are discussed in terms of the vibrational basis localized on the individual pigments, as well as the correlated/anti-correlated vibrational basis delocalized over both pigments. Compared to those in the isolated pigment, vibrational satellites for the correlated vibration have the same frequency and precisely a factor of 2 intensity reduction through vibrational delocalization in both absorption and emission. Vibrational satellites for anti-correlated vibrations have their relaxed emission intensity reduced by over a factor 2 through vibrational and excitonic delocalization. In absorption, anti-correlated vibrational satellites borrow excitonic intensity but can be broadened away by the combination of vibronic resonance and site inhomogeneity; in parallel, their vibronically resonant excitonic partners are also broadened away. These considerations are consistent with photosynthetic antenna hole-burning spectra, where sharp vibrational and excitonic satellites are absent. Vibrational-excitonic resonance barely alters the inhomogeneously broadened linear absorption, emission, and circular dichroism spectra from those for a
Method of absorbance correction in a spectroscopic heating value sensor
Saveliev, Alexei; Jangale, Vilas Vyankatrao; Zelepouga, Sergeui; Pratapas, John
2013-09-17
A method and apparatus for absorbance correction in a spectroscopic heating value sensor in which a reference light intensity measurement is made on a non-absorbing reference fluid, a light intensity measurement is made on a sample fluid, and a measured light absorbance of the sample fluid is determined. A corrective light intensity measurement at a non-absorbing wavelength of the sample fluid is made on the sample fluid from which an absorbance correction factor is determined. The absorbance correction factor is then applied to the measured light absorbance of the sample fluid to arrive at a true or accurate absorbance for the sample fluid.
Low Cost Digital Vibration Meter.
Payne, W Vance; Geist, Jon
2007-01-01
This report describes the development of a low cost, digital Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) vibration meter that reports an approximation to the RMS acceleration of the vibration to which the vibration meter is subjected. The major mechanical element of this vibration meter is a cantilever beam, which is on the order of 500 µm in length, with a piezoresistor deposited at its base. Vibration of the device in the plane perpendicular to the cantilever beam causes it to bend, which produces a measurable change in the resistance of a piezoresistor. These changes in resistance along with a unique signal-processing scheme are used to determine an approximation to the RMS acceleration sensed by the device.
Ormel, F.T.; Eecen, P.J.; Herman, S.A.
2003-10-01
The partners in the WISE project investigate whether application of the SODAR (sonic detection and ranging) measurement technique in wind energy experimental work is feasible as a replacement for cup anemometers, wind direction sensors and tall meteorological masts. In Work Package 2 of the WISE project extensive controlled experiments with the SODAR are performed. For example SODAR measurements are compared with measurements from nearby masts and different brands of SODARs are compared. Part of the work package is the measurement of vibration and noise on an offshore SODAR system. The results of these measurements are presented in this report. ECN performed measurements at an offshore location to investigate the influence of noise and vibrations on the performance of a MiniSODAR measurement system. The aim of the measurements is to quantify the effect of these external noise and vibrations disturbances on the MiniSODAR's performance. Measurements on an identical SODAR system onshore are carried out to compare the disturbances of offshore and onshore external conditions. The effect of background noise on SODAR operation has clearly been established in literature. Therefore, measurements have been performed only to establish the absolute sound pressure levels. This is done at the Measuring Platform Noordwijk (MPN) located in the North Sea, nine kilometres out of the coast at Noordwijk, The Netherlands, and at two locations onshore. At the MPN-platform, the SODAR has been moved from the middle deck to the upper deck to diminish the influence of the diesel generator needed for the electric powering of the island. Although the absolute sound pressure level became higher at the new location, this level became lower at the most important frequencies inside the SODAR, due to the use of absorbing foam. With regards to the sound pressure level the move improved the situation. The sound pressure levels measured offshore were 6 to 15 dB higher than for the two locations
Vibration of mechanically-assembled 3D microstructures formed by compressive buckling
Wang, Heling; Ning, Xin; Li, Haibo; Luan, Haiwen; Xue, Yeguang; Yu, Xinge; Fan, Zhichao; Li, Luming; Rogers, John A.; Zhang, Yihui; Huang, Yonggang
2018-03-01
Micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) that rely on structural vibrations have many important applications, ranging from oscillators and actuators, to energy harvesters and vehicles for measurement of mechanical properties. Conventional MEMS, however, mostly utilize two-dimensional (2D) vibrational modes, thereby imposing certain limitations that are not present in 3D designs (e.g., multi-directional energy harvesting). 3D vibrational micro-platforms assembled through the techniques of controlled compressive buckling are promising because of their complex 3D architectures and the ability to tune their vibrational behavior (e.g., natural frequencies and modes) by reversibly changing their dimensions by deforming their soft, elastomeric substrates. A clear understanding of such strain-dependent vibration behavior is essential for their practical applications. Here, we present a study on the linear and nonlinear vibration of such 3D mesostructures through analytical modeling, finite element analysis (FEA) and experiment. An analytical solution is obtained for the vibration mode and linear natural frequency of a buckled ribbon, indicating a mode change as the static deflection amplitude increases. The model also yields a scaling law for linear natural frequency that can be extended to general, complex 3D geometries, as validated by FEA and experiment. In the regime of nonlinear vibration, FEA suggests that an increase of amplitude of external loading represents an effective means to enhance the bandwidth. The results also uncover a reduced nonlinearity of vibration as the static deflection amplitude of the 3D structures increases. The developed analytical model can be used in the development of new 3D vibrational micro-platforms, for example, to enable simultaneous measurement of diverse mechanical properties (density, modulus, viscosity etc.) of thin films and biomaterials.
Linearization of the bradford protein assay.
Ernst, Orna; Zor, Tsaffrir
2010-04-12
Determination of microgram quantities of protein in the Bradford Coomassie brilliant blue assay is accomplished by measurement of absorbance at 590 nm. This most common assay enables rapid and simple protein quantification in cell lysates, cellular fractions, or recombinant protein samples, for the purpose of normalization of biochemical measurements. However, an intrinsic nonlinearity compromises the sensitivity and accuracy of this method. It is shown that under standard assay conditions, the ratio of the absorbance measurements at 590 nm and 450 nm is strictly linear with protein concentration. This simple procedure increases the accuracy and improves the sensitivity of the assay about 10-fold, permitting quantification down to 50 ng of bovine serum albumin. Furthermore, the interference commonly introduced by detergents that are used to create the cell lysates is greatly reduced by the new protocol. A linear equation developed on the basis of mass action and Beer's law perfectly fits the experimental data.
A mechanical analysis of woodpecker drumming and its application to shock-absorbing systems
Yoon, Sang-Hee; Park, Sungmin
2011-01-01
A woodpecker is known to drum the hard woody surface of a tree at a rate of 18 to 22 times per second with a deceleration of 1200 g, yet with no sign of blackout or brain damage. As a model in nature, a woodpecker is studied to find clues to develop a shock-absorbing system for micromachined devices. Its advanced shock-absorbing mechanism, which cannot be explained merely by allometric scaling, is analyzed in terms of endoskeletal structures. In this analysis, the head structures (beak, hyoid, spongy bone, and skull bone with cerebrospinal fluid) of the golden-fronted woodpecker, Melanerpes aurifrons, are explored with x-ray computed tomography images, and their shock-absorbing mechanism is analyzed with a mechanical vibration model and an empirical method. Based on these analyses, a new shock-absorbing system is designed to protect commercial micromachined devices from unwanted high-g and high-frequency mechanical excitations. The new shock-absorbing system consists of close-packed microglasses within two metal enclosures and a viscoelastic layer fastened by steel bolts, which are biologically inspired from a spongy bone contained within a skull bone encompassed with the hyoid of a woodpecker. In the experimental characterizations using a 60 mm smoothbore air-gun, this bio-inspired shock-absorbing system shows a failure rate of 0.7% for the commercial micromachined devices at 60 000 g, whereas a conventional hard-resin method yields a failure rate of 26.4%, thus verifying remarkable improvement in the g-force tolerance of the commercial micromachined devices.
Warm Absorber Diagnostics of AGN Dynamics
Kallman, Timothy
Warm absorbers and related phenomena are observable manifestations of outflows or winds from active galactic nuclei (AGN) that have great potential value. Understanding AGN outflows is important for explaining the mass budgets of the central accreting black hole, and also for understanding feedback and the apparent co-evolution of black holes and their host galaxies. In the X-ray band warm absorbers are observed as photoelectric absorption and resonance line scattering features in the 0.5-10 keV energy band; the UV band also shows resonance line absorption. Warm absorbers are common in low luminosity AGN and they have been extensively studied observationally. They may play an important role in AGN feedback, regulating the net accretion onto the black hole and providing mechanical energy to the surroundings. However, fundamental properties of the warm absorbers are not known: What is the mechanism which drives the outflow?; what is the gas density in the flow and the geometrical distribution of the outflow?; what is the explanation for the apparent relation between warm absorbers and the surprising quasi-relativistic 'ultrafast outflows' (UFOs)? We propose a focused set of model calculations that are aimed at synthesizing observable properties of warm absorber flows and associated quantities. These will be used to explore various scenarios for warm absorber dynamics in order to answer the questions in the previous paragraph. The guiding principle will be to examine as wide a range as possible of warm absorber driving mechanisms, geometry and other properties, but with as careful consideration as possible to physical consistency. We will build on our previous work, which was a systematic campaign for testing important class of scenarios for driving the outflows. We have developed a set of tools that are unique and well suited for dynamical calculations including radiation in this context. We also have state-of-the-art tools for generating synthetic spectra, which are
João C. O. Marra
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Vibratory phenomena have always surrounded human life. The need for more knowledge and domain of such phenomena increases more and more, especially in the modern society where the human-machine integration becomes closer day after day. In that context, this work deals with the development and practical implementation of a hybrid (passive-active/adaptive vibration control system over a metallic beam excited by a broadband signal and under variable temperature, between 5 and 35°C. Since temperature variations affect directly and considerably the performance of the passive control system, composed of a viscoelastic dynamic vibration neutralizer (also called a viscoelastic dynamic vibration absorber, the associative strategy of using an active-adaptive vibration control system (based on a feedforward approach with the use of the FXLMS algorithm working together with the passive one has shown to be a good option to compensate the neutralizer loss of performance and generally maintain the extended overall level of vibration control. As an additional gain, the association of both vibration control systems (passive and active-adaptive has improved the attenuation of vibration levels. Some key steps matured over years of research on this experimental setup are presented in this paper.
Identifying the perfect absorption of metamaterial absorbers
Duan, G.; Schalch, J.; Zhao, X.; Zhang, J.; Averitt, R. D.; Zhang, X.
2018-01-01
We present a detailed analysis of the conditions that result in unity absorption in metamaterial absorbers to guide the design and optimization of this important class of functional electromagnetic composites. Multilayer absorbers consisting of a metamaterial layer, dielectric spacer, and ground plane are specifically considered. Using interference theory, the dielectric spacer thickness and resonant frequency for unity absorption can be numerically determined from the functional dependence of the relative phase shift of the total reflection. Further, using transmission line theory in combination with interference theory we obtain analytical expressions for the unity absorption resonance frequency and corresponding spacer layer thickness in terms of the bare resonant frequency of the metamaterial layer and metallic and dielectric losses within the absorber structure. These simple expressions reveal a redshift of the unity absorption frequency with increasing loss that, in turn, necessitates an increase in the thickness of the dielectric spacer. The results of our analysis are experimentally confirmed by performing reflection-based terahertz time-domain spectroscopy on fabricated absorber structures covering a range of dielectric spacer thicknesses with careful control of the loss accomplished through water absorption in a semiporous polyimide dielectric spacer. Our findings can be widely applied to guide the design and optimization of the metamaterial absorbers and sensors.
Robust structural design against self-excited vibrations
Spelsberg-Korspeter, Gottfried
2013-01-01
This book studies methods for a robust design of rotors against self-excited vibrations. The occurrence of self-excited vibrations in engineering applications if often unwanted and in many cases difficult to model. Thinking of complex systems such as machines with many components and mechanical contacts, it is important to have guidelines for design so that the functionality is robust against small imperfections. This book discusses the question on how to design a structure such that unwanted self-excited vibrations do not occur. It shows theoretically and practically that the old design rule to avoid multiple eigenvalues points toward the right direction and have optimized structures accordingly. This extends results for the well-known flutter problem in which equations of motion with constant coefficients occur to the case of a linear conservative system with arbitrary time periodic perturbations.
Two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy of vibrational polaritons.
Xiang, Bo; Ribeiro, Raphael F; Dunkelberger, Adam D; Wang, Jiaxi; Li, Yingmin; Simpkins, Blake S; Owrutsky, Jeffrey C; Yuen-Zhou, Joel; Xiong, Wei
2018-04-19
We report experimental 2D infrared (2D IR) spectra of coherent light-matter excitations--molecular vibrational polaritons. The application of advanced 2D IR spectroscopy to vibrational polaritons challenges and advances our understanding in both fields. First, the 2D IR spectra of polaritons differ drastically from free uncoupled excitations and a new interpretation is needed. Second, 2D IR uniquely resolves excitation of hybrid light-matter polaritons and unexpected dark states in a state-selective manner, revealing otherwise hidden interactions between them. Moreover, 2D IR signals highlight the impact of molecular anharmonicities which are applicable to virtually all molecular systems. A quantum-mechanical model is developed which incorporates both nuclear and electrical anharmonicities and provides the basis for interpreting this class of 2D IR spectra. This work lays the foundation for investigating phenomena of nonlinear photonics and chemistry of molecular vibrational polaritons which cannot be probed with traditional linear spectroscopy.
Narrow bandwidth detection of vibration signature using fiber lasers
Moore, Sean; Soh, Daniel B.S.
2018-05-08
The various technologies presented herein relate to extracting a portion of each pulse in a series of pulses reflected from a target to facilitate determination of a Doppler-shifted frequency for each pulse and, subsequently, a vibration frequency for the series of pulses. Each pulse can have a square-wave configuration, whereby each pulse can be time-gated to facilitate discarding the leading edge and the trailing edge (and associated non-linear effects) of each pulse and accordingly, capture of the central portion of the pulse from which the Doppler-shifted frequency, and ultimately, the vibration frequency of the target can be determined. Determination of the vibration velocity facilitates identification of the target being in a state of motion. The plurality of pulses can be formed from a laser beam (e.g., a continuous wave), the laser beam having a narrow bandwidth.
Flow induced vibration studies on PFBR control plug components
Prakash, V., E-mail: prakash@igcar.gov.in [Fast Reactor Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu (India); Kumar, P. Anup; Anandaraj, M.; Thirumalai, M.; Anandbabu, C.; Rajan, K.K. [Fast Reactor Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu (India)
2012-09-15
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Flow induced vibration studies on Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor control plug model carried out. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Velocity similitude was followed for the study. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Frequencies and amplitude of vibrations of various control plug components measured. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overall values of vibration are well within permissible limits. - Abstract: The construction of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR), a 500 MWe liquid sodium cooled reactor, is in progress at Kalpakkam in India. Control plug (CP) is located right above the core subassemblies in the hot pool. Control plug is an important component as many of the critical reactor parameters are sensed and controlled by the components housed in the control plug assembly. In PFBR primary circuit, components are basically thin walled, slender shells with diameter to thickness ratio ranging from 100 to 650. These components are prone to flow induced vibrations. The existence of free liquid (sodium) surfaces, which is the source of sloshing phenomenon and the operation of primary sodium pump in the primary pool are other potential sources of vibration of reactor components. Control plug is a hollow cylindrical shell structure and provides passages and support for 12 absorber rod drive mechanisms (ARDM) which consists of 9 control and safety rods and 3 diverse safety rods, 210 thermo wells to measure the sodium temperature at the exit of various fuel subassemblies, three failed fuel localization modules (FFLM) and acoustic detectors. It consists of a core cover plate (CCP), which forms the bottom end, two intermediate supports plate, i.e. lower stay plate (LSP) and upper stay plate (USP) and an outer shell. The CCP is located at a distance of 1.3 m from the core top. With such a gap, there will be long free hanging length of the thermocouple sleeves, Delayed neutron detector (DND) sampling tubes and ARDM shroud tubes and hence they are
Entropy for Mechanically Vibrating Systems
Tufano, Dante
The research contained within this thesis deals with the subject of entropy as defined for and applied to mechanically vibrating systems. This work begins with an overview of entropy as it is understood in the fields of classical thermodynamics, information theory, statistical mechanics, and statistical vibroacoustics. Khinchin's definition of entropy, which is the primary definition used for the work contained in this thesis, is introduced in the context of vibroacoustic systems. The main goal of this research is to to establish a mathematical framework for the application of Khinchin's entropy in the field of statistical vibroacoustics by examining the entropy context of mechanically vibrating systems. The introduction of this thesis provides an overview of statistical energy analysis (SEA), a modeling approach to vibroacoustics that motivates this work on entropy. The objective of this thesis is given, and followed by a discussion of the intellectual merit of this work as well as a literature review of relevant material. Following the introduction, an entropy analysis of systems of coupled oscillators is performed utilizing Khinchin's definition of entropy. This analysis develops upon the mathematical theory relating to mixing entropy, which is generated by the coupling of vibroacoustic systems. The mixing entropy is shown to provide insight into the qualitative behavior of such systems. Additionally, it is shown that the entropy inequality property of Khinchin's entropy can be reduced to an equality using the mixing entropy concept. This equality can be interpreted as a facet of the second law of thermodynamics for vibroacoustic systems. Following this analysis, an investigation of continuous systems is performed using Khinchin's entropy. It is shown that entropy analyses using Khinchin's entropy are valid for continuous systems that can be decomposed into a finite number of modes. The results are shown to be analogous to those obtained for simple oscillators
Thermally Resilient, Broadband Optical Absorber from UV to IR Derived from Carbon Nanostructures
Kaul, Anupama B.; Coles, James B.
2012-01-01
Optical absorber coatings have been developed from carbon-based paints, metal blacks, or glassy carbon. However, such materials are not truly black and have poor absorption characteristics at longer wavelengths. The blackness of such coatings is important to increase the accuracy of calibration targets used in radiometric imaging spectrometers since blackbody cavities are prohibitively large in size. Such coatings are also useful potentially for thermal detectors, where a broadband absorber is desired. Au-black has been a commonly used broadband optical absorber, but it is very fragile and can easily be damaged by heat and mechanical vibration. An optically efficient, thermally rugged absorber could also be beneficial for thermal solar cell applications for energy harnessing, particularly in the 350-2,500 nm spectral window. It has been demonstrated that arrays of vertically oriented carbon nanotubes (CNTs), specifically multi-walled-carbon- nanotubes (MWCNTs), are an exceptional optical absorber over a broad range of wavelengths well into the infrared (IR). The reflectance of such arrays is 100x lower compared to conventional black materials, such as Au black in the spectral window of 350-2,500 nm. Total hemispherical measurements revealed a reflectance of approximately equal to 1.7% at lambda approximately equal to 1 micrometer, and at longer wavelengths into the infrared (IR), the specular reflectance was approximately equal to 2.4% at lambda approximately equal to 7 micrometers. The previously synthesized CNTs for optical absorber applications were formed using water-assisted thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD), which yields CNT lengths in excess of 100's of microns. Vertical alignment, deemed to be a critical feature in enabling the high optical absorption from CNT arrays, occurs primarily via the crowding effect with thermal CVD synthesized CNTs, which is generally not effective in aligning CNTs with lengths less than 10 m. Here it has been shown that the
Vibration measurement with nonlinear converter in the presence of noise
Mozuras, Almantas
2017-10-01
Conventional vibration measurement methods use the linear properties of physical converters. These methods are strongly influenced by nonlinear distortions, because ideal linear converters are not available. Practically, any converter can be considered as a linear one, when an output signal is very small. However, the influence of noise increases significantly and signal-to-noise ratio decreases at lower signals. When the output signal is increasing, the nonlinear distortions are also augmenting. If the wide spectrum vibration is measured, conventional methods face a harmonic distortion as well as intermodulation effects. Purpose of this research is to develop a measurement method of wide spectrum vibration by using a converter described by a nonlinear function of type f(x), where x =x(t) denotes the dependence of coordinate x on time t due to the vibration. Parameter x(t) describing the vibration is expressed as Fourier series. The spectral components of the converter output f(x(t)) are determined by using Fourier transform. The obtained system of nonlinear equations is solved using the least squares technique that permits to find x(t) in the presence of noise. This method allows one to carry out the absolute or relative vibration measurements. High resistance to noise is typical for the absolute vibration measurement, but it is necessary to know the Taylor expansion coefficients of the function f(x). If the Taylor expansion is not known, the relative measurement of vibration parameters is also possible, but with lower resistance to noise. This method allows one to eliminate the influence of nonlinear distortions to the measurement results, and consequently to eliminate harmonic distortion and intermodulation effects. The use of nonlinear properties of the converter for measurement gives some advantages related to an increased frequency range of the output signal (consequently increasing the number of equations) that allows one to decrease the noise influence on
Lutz, H.D.; Willich, P.
1977-01-01
The FIR absorption spectra of pyrite type compounds RuS 2 , RuSsub(2-x)Sesub(x), RuSe 2 , RuTe 2 , OsS 2 , OsSe 2 , and PtP 2 as well as loellingite type phosphides FeP 2 , RuP 2 , and OsP 2 are reported. For RuS 2 , RuSe 2 , RuTe 2 , OsS 2 , and PtP 2 all of the five infrared allowed modes (k = 0) are observed. As a first result of a numerical normal coordinate treatment vibration forms of pyrite structure are communicated. The spectra show that lattice forces of corresponding sulfides, tellurides, and phosphides are about the same strength, but increase strongly by substitution of iron by ruthenium and especially of ruthenium by osmium. The lattice constants of the RuSsub(2-x)Sesub(x) solid solution obey Vegard's rule. (author)
Robust energy-absorbing compensators for the ACTEX II test article
Blaurock, Carl A.; Miller, David W.; Nye, Ted
1995-05-01
The paper addresses the problem of satellite solar panel vibration. A multi-layer vibration control scheme is investigated using a flight test article. Key issues in the active control portion are presented in the paper. The paper discusses the primary control design drivers, which are the time variations in modal frequencies due to configuration and thermal changes. A local control design approach is investigated, but found to be unworkable due to sensor/actuator non-collocation. An alternate design process uses linear robust control techniques, by describing the modal shifts as uncertainties. Multiple modal design, alpha- shifted multiple model, and a feedthrough compensation scheme are examined. Ground and simulation tests demonstrate that the resulting controllers provide significant vibration reduction in the presence of expected system variations.
DYNAMICS OF VIBRATION FEEDERS WITH A NONLINEAR ELASTIC CHARACTERISTIC
V. I. Dyrda
2017-04-01
Full Text Available Purpose. Subject to the smooth and efficient operation of each production line, is the use of vehicles transporting high specification. It worked well in practice for transporting construction machines, which are used during the vibration. The use of vibration machines requires optimization of their operation modes. In the form of elastic link in them are increasingly using rubber-metallic elements, which are characterized by nonlinear damping properties. So it is necessary to search for new, more modern, methods of calculation of dynamic characteristics of the vibration machines on the properties of rubber as a cushioning material. Methodology. The dynamics of vibration machine that is as elastic rubber block units and buffer shock absorbers limiting the amplitude of the vibrations of the working body. The method of determining amplitude-frequency characteristics of the vibrating feeder is based on the principle of Voltaire, who in the calculations of the damping properties of the dampers will allow for elastic-hereditary properties of rubber. When adjusting the basic dynamic stiffness of the elastic ties and vibratory buffers, using the principle of heredity rubber properties, determine the dependence of the amplitude of the working body of the machine vibrations. This method is called integro-operator using the fractional-exponential kernels of relaxation. Findings. Using the derived formula for determining the amplitude of the resonance curve is constructed one-mass nonlinear system. It is established that the use of the proposed method of calculation will provide a sufficiently complete description of the damping parameters of rubber-metallic elements and at the same time be an effective means of calculating the amplitude-frequency characteristics of nonlinear vibration systems. Originality. The authors improved method of determining damping characteristics of rubber-metallic elements and the amplitude-frequency characteristics of nonlinear
List, Nanna Holmgaard; Beerepoot, Maarten; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard
2015-01-01
for the quantum region, covering (multiconfigurational) self-consistent-field and Kohn–Sham density functional theory. As the first application of the implementation, we consider the internal vibrational Stark effect of the C=O group of acetophenone in different solvents and derive its vibrational linear Stark...
Rogers, Keir K.; Bird, Simeon; Peiris, Hiranya V.; Pontzen, Andrew; Font-Ribera, Andreu; Leistedt, Boris
2018-05-01
Correlations measured in three dimensions in the Lyman-alpha forest are contaminated by the presence of the damping wings of high column density (HCD) absorbing systems of neutral hydrogen (H I; having column densities N(H I) > 1.6 × 10^{17} atoms cm^{-2}), which extend significantly beyond the redshift-space location of the absorber. We measure this effect as a function of the column density of the HCD absorbers and redshift by measuring three-dimensional (3D) flux power spectra in cosmological hydrodynamical simulations from the Illustris project. Survey pipelines exclude regions containing the largest damping wings. We find that, even after this procedure, there is a scale-dependent correction to the 3D Lyman-alpha forest flux power spectrum from residual contamination. We model this residual using a simple physical model of the HCD absorbers as linearly biased tracers of the matter density distribution, convolved with their Voigt profiles and integrated over the column density distribution function. We recommend the use of this model over existing models used in data analysis, which approximate the damping wings as top-hats and so miss shape information in the extended wings. The simple `linear Voigt model' is statistically consistent with our simulation results for a mock residual contamination up to small scales (|k| account for the effect of the highest column density absorbers on the smallest scales (e.g. |k| > 0.4 h Mpc^{-1} for small damped Lyman-alpha absorbers; HCD absorbers with N(H I) ˜ 10^{21} atoms cm^{-2}). However, these systems are in any case preferentially removed from survey data. Our model is appropriate for an accurate analysis of the baryon acoustic oscillations feature. It is additionally essential for reconstructing the full shape of the 3D flux power spectrum.
Quantum walk with one variable absorbing boundary
Wang, Feiran; Zhang, Pei; Wang, Yunlong; Liu, Ruifeng; Gao, Hong; Li, Fuli
2017-01-01
Quantum walks constitute a promising ingredient in the research on quantum algorithms; consequently, exploring different types of quantum walks is of great significance for quantum information and quantum computation. In this study, we investigate the progress of quantum walks with a variable absorbing boundary and provide an analytical solution for the escape probability (the probability of a walker that is not absorbed by the boundary). We simulate the behavior of escape probability under different conditions, including the reflection coefficient, boundary location, and initial state. Moreover, it is also meaningful to extend our research to the situation of continuous-time and high-dimensional quantum walks. - Highlights: • A novel scheme about quantum walk with variable boundary is proposed. • The analytical results of the survival probability from the absorbing boundary. • The behavior of survival probability under different boundary conditions. • The influence of different initial coin states on the survival probability.
A wideband absorber for television studios
Baird, M. D. M.
The acoustic treatment in BBC television has taken various forms to date, all of which have been relatively expensive, some of which provide inadequate absorption. An investigation has been conducted into the possibilities of producing a new type of wideband absorber which would be more economic, also taking installation time into account, than earlier designs. This Report describes the absorption coefficient measurements made on various combinations of materials, from which a wideband sound absorber has been developed. The absorber works efficiently between 50 Hz and 10 kHz, is simple and easy to construct using readily available materials, and is fire resistant. The design lends itself, if necessary, to on-site fine tuning, and savings in the region of 50 percent can be achieved in terms of cost and space with respect to previous designs.
Ferrite HOM Absorber for the RHIC ERL
Hahn,H.; Choi, E.M.; Hammons, L.
2008-10-01
A superconducting Energy Recovery Linac is under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory to serve as test bed for RHIC upgrades. The damping of higher-order modes in the superconducting five-cell cavity for the Energy-Recovery linac at RHIC is performed exclusively by two ferrite absorbers. The ferrite properties have been measured in ferrite-loaded pill box cavities resulting in the permeability values given by a first-order Debye model for the tiled absorber structure and an equivalent permeability value for computer simulations with solid ring dampers. Measured and simulated results for the higher-order modes in the prototype copper cavity are discussed. First room-temperature measurements of the finished niobium cavity are presented which confirm the effective damping of higher-order modes in the ERL. by the ferrite absorbers.
Aluminum alloy excellent in neutron absorbing performance
Iida, Tetsuya; Tamamura, Tadao; Morimoto, Hiroyuki; Ouchi, Ken-ichiro.
1987-01-01
Purpose: To obtain structural materials made of aluminum alloys having favorable neutron absorbing performance and excellent in the performance as structural materials such as processability and strength. Constitution: Powder of Gd 2 O 3 as a gadolinium compound or metal gadolinium is uniformly mixed with the powder of aluminum or aluminum alloy. The amount of the gadolinium compound added is set to 0.1 - 30 % by weight. No sufficient neutron absorbing performance can be obtained if it is less than 0.1 % by weight, whereas the processability and mechanical property of the alloy are degraded if it exceeds 30 % by weight. Further, the grain size is set to less about 50 μm. Further, since the neutron absorbing performance varies greatly if the aluminum powder size exceeds 100 μm, the diameter is set to less than about 100 μm. These mixtures are molded in a hot press. This enables to obtain aimed structural materials. (Takahashi, M.)
The Influence of Tractor-Seat Height above the Ground on Lateral Vibrations
Jaime Gomez-Gil
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Farmers experience whole-body vibrations when they drive tractors. Among the various factors that influence the vibrations to which the driver is exposed are terrain roughness, tractor speed, tire type and pressure, rear axle width, and tractor seat height above the ground. In this paper the influence of tractor seat height above the ground on the lateral vibrations to which the tractor driver is exposed is studied by means of a geometrical and an experimental analysis. Both analyses show that: (i lateral vibrations experienced by a tractor driver increase linearly with tractor-seat height above the ground; (ii lateral vibrations to which the tractor driver is exposed can equal or exceed vertical vibrations; (iii in medium-size tractors, a feasible 30 cm reduction in the height of the tractor seat, which represents only 15% of its current height, will reduce the lateral vibrations by around 20%; and (iv vertical vibrations are scarcely influenced by tractor-seat height above the ground. The results suggest that manufacturers could increase the comfort of tractors by lowering tractor-seat height above the ground, which will reduce lateral vibrations.
Valdirene Aparecida da Silva
2009-06-01
Full Text Available Radar Absorbing Materials (RAM are compounds that absorb incidental electromagnetic radiation in tuned frequencies and dissipate it as heat. Its preparation involves the adequate processing of polymeric matrices filled with compounds that act as radar absorbing centers in the microwave range. This work shows the electromagnetic evaluation of RAM based on CoTi and La doped Ca hexaferrite. Vibrating Sample Magnetization analyses show that ion substitution promoted low values for the parameters of saturation magnetization (123.65 Am2/kg and coercive field (0.07 T indicating ferrite softening. RAM samples obtained using different hexaferrite concentrations (40-80 per cent, w/w show variations in complex permeability and permittivity parameters and also in the performance of incidental radiation attenuation. Microwave attenuation values between 40 and 98 per cent were obtained.