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Sample records for linear stress-strain relationship

  1. Analysis of stress-strain relationships in silicon ribbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, O. W., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    An analysis of stress-strain relationships in silicon ribbon is presented. A model to present entire process, dynamical Transit Analysis is developed. It is found that knowledge of past-strain history is significant in modeling activities.

  2. Stress-Strain Relationship of Synthetic Fiber Reinforced Concrete Columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosidawani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many empirical confinement models for normal and high strength concrete have been developed. Nevertheless, reported studies in the term of confinement of fiber reinforced concrete are limited. Whereas, the use of fiber reinforced concrete in structural elements has become the subject of the research and has indicated positive experiences. Since the stress-strain relationship of concrete in compression is required for analysis of structural members, the study of the stress-strain relationship for synthetic fiber reinforced concrete is substantial. The aim of the study is to examine the capabilities of the various models available in the literature to predict the actual experimental behavior of synthetic fiber reinforced high-strength concrete columns. The experimental data used are the results of the circular column specimens with the spiral spacing and the volume fraction of synthetic fiber as the test variables. The axial stress-strain curves from the tests are then compared with the various models of confinement from the literature. The performance index of each model is measured by using the coefficient of variation (COV concept of stress and strain behavior parameter. Among the confinement models, Cusson model shows the closest valid value of the coefficient of variation.

  3. Effect of nonlinear stress-strain relationship on bending strength of isotropic graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Taketoshi; Oku, Tatsuo

    1978-05-01

    Four-point bending tests were made on rectangular isotropic 7477PT graphite specimens of different sizes to observe the relation between load and outermost fiber strain. Analytical methods, allowing for nonlinear stress-strain relationships different between tension and compression, were developed for calculating the fiber stress distribution in a beam and the failure probability based on the Weibull statistical theory for bending fracture. With increase of the stress, the stress-strain curves for tension deviate from the linearity and also from those for compression. The true bending strengths of the rectangular bars are 10 -- 20 percent lower than elastic bending strengths. Revised Weibull theory gives failure probability distributions agreeing with measured ones, compared with the theory based on elastic behavior. (auth.)

  4. Combined-load stress-strain relationship for advanced fiber composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sullivan, T. L.

    1975-01-01

    It was demonstrated experimentally that only one test specimen is required to determine the combined-load stress-strain relationships of a given fiber composite system. These relationships were determined using a thin angle-plied laminate tube and subjecting it to a number of combined-loading conditions. The measured data obtained are compared with theoretical predictions. Some important considerations associated with such a test are identified, and the significance of combined-load stress-strain relationships in certain practical designs are discussed.

  5. The stress-strain relationship for multilayers of the high Tc superconducting oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidaka, H.; Yamamura, H.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports the calculation of the stress-strain relationship for multilayers of the high Tc superconducting oxides. The elucidation of this relationship is expected quite helpful for the preparation of high-quality multilayers of these materials. This calculation is possible to do in the same way of Timoshenko's bi-metal treatment. The authors did computation of the residual stress and strain, and the state of stress and strain for these multilayers has been acquired in detail by this calculation

  6. An effective uniaxial tensile stress-strain relationship for prestressed concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitnuyanondh, L.; Rizkalla, S.; Murray, D.W.; MacGregor, J.G.

    1979-02-01

    This report evaluates the direct tensile strength and an equivalent uniaxial tensile stress-strain relationship for prestressed concrete using data from specimens tested at the University of Alberta which represent segments from the wall of a containment vessel. The stress-strain relationship, when used in conjunction with the BOSOR5 program, enables prediction of the response of prestressed concrete under any biaxial combination of compressive and/or tensile stresses. Comparisons between the experimental and analytical (BOSOR5) load-strain response of the wall segments are also presented. It is concluded that the BOSOR5 program is able to predict satisfactorily the response of the wall segments and multi-layered shell structures. (author)

  7. Stress-strain relationship of high-strength steel (HSS) reinforcing bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggraini, Retno; Tavio, Raka, I. Gede Putu; Agustiar

    2018-05-01

    The introduction of High-Strength Steel (HSS) reinforcing bars in reinforced concrete members has gained much attention in recent years and led to many advantages such as construction timesaving. It is also more economical since it can reduce the amount of reinforcing steel bars used in concrete members which in turn alleviates the congestion of reinforcement. Up to present, the building codes, e.g. American Concrete Institute (ACI) 318M-14 and Standard National Indonesia (SNI) 2847:2013, still restrict the use of higher-strength steel reinforcing bars for concrete design up to Grade 420 MPa due to the possible suspected brittle behavior of concrete members. This paper evaluates the characteristics of stress-strain relationships of HSS bars if they are comparable to the characteristics of those of Grade 420 MPa. To achieve the objective of the study, a series of steel bars from various grades (420, 550, 650, and 700 MPa) was selected. Tensile tests of these steel samples were conducted under displacement-controlled mode to capture the complete stress-strain curves and particularly the post-yield response of the steel bars. The results indicate that all the steel bars tested had the actual yield strengths greater than the corresponding specified values. The stress-strain curves of HSS reinforcing bars (Grade 550, 650, and 700 MPa) performed slightly different characteristics with those of Grade 420 MPa.

  8. Modeling Stress Strain Relationships and Predicting Failure Probabilities For Graphite Core Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffy, Stephen [Cleveland State Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2013-09-09

    This project will implement inelastic constitutive models that will yield the requisite stress-strain information necessary for graphite component design. Accurate knowledge of stress states (both elastic and inelastic) is required to assess how close a nuclear core component is to failure. Strain states are needed to assess deformations in order to ascertain serviceability issues relating to failure, e.g., whether too much shrinkage has taken place for the core to function properly. Failure probabilities, as opposed to safety factors, are required in order to capture the bariability in failure strength in tensile regimes. The current stress state is used to predict the probability of failure. Stochastic failure models will be developed that can accommodate possible material anisotropy. This work will also model material damage (i.e., degradation of mechanical properties) due to radiation exposure. The team will design tools for components fabricated from nuclear graphite. These tools must readily interact with finite element software--in particular, COMSOL, the software algorithm currently being utilized by the Idaho National Laboratory. For the eleastic response of graphite, the team will adopt anisotropic stress-strain relationships available in COMSO. Data from the literature will be utilized to characterize the appropriate elastic material constants.

  9. Modeling Stress Strain Relationships and Predicting Failure Probabilities For Graphite Core Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This project will implement inelastic constitutive models that will yield the requisite stress-strain information necessary for graphite component design. Accurate knowledge of stress states (both elastic and inelastic) is required to assess how close a nuclear core component is to failure. Strain states are needed to assess deformations in order to ascertain serviceability issues relating to failure, e.g., whether too much shrinkage has taken place for the core to function properly. Failure probabilities, as opposed to safety factors, are required in order to capture the bariability in failure strength in tensile regimes. The current stress state is used to predict the probability of failure. Stochastic failure models will be developed that can accommodate possible material anisotropy. This work will also model material damage (i.e., degradation of mechanical properties) due to radiation exposure. The team will design tools for components fabricated from nuclear graphite. These tools must readily interact with finite element software--in particular, COMSOL, the software algorithm currently being utilized by the Idaho National Laboratory. For the eleastic response of graphite, the team will adopt anisotropic stress-strain relationships available in COMSO. Data from the literature will be utilized to characterize the appropriate elastic material constants.

  10. Relationship between fatigue life in the creep-fatigue region and stress-strain response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkovits, A.; Nadiv, S.

    1988-01-01

    On the basis of mechanical tests and metallographic studies, strainrange partitioned lives were predicted by introducing stress-strain materials parameters into the Universal Slopes Equation. This was the result of correlating fatigue damage mechanisms and deformation mechanisms operating at elevated temperatures on the basis of observed mechanical and microstructural behavior. Correlation between high temperature fatigue and stress strain properties for nickel base superalloys and stainless steel substantiated the method. Parameters which must be evaluated for PP- and CC- life are the maximum stress achievable under entirely plastic and creep conditions respectively and corresponding inelastic strains, and the two more pairs of stress strain parameters must be ascertained.

  11. NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF THE STRESS-STRAIN STATE OF A ROPE STRAND WITH LINEAR CONTACT UNDER TENSION AND TORSION LOADING CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenij Kalentev

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a numerical analysis of the stress-strain state of a rope strand with linear contact under tension and torsion loading conditions. Calculations are done using the ANSYS software package. Different approaches to calculation of the stress-strain state of ropes are reviewed, and their advantages and deficiencies are considered. The analysis of the obtained results leads us to the conclusion that the proposed method can be used in engineering calculations.

  12. Apparent stress-strain relationships in experimental equipment where magnetorheological fluids operate under compression mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazlan, S A; Ekreem, N B; Olabi, A G

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation of two different magnetorheological (MR) fluids, namely, water-based and hydrocarbon-based MR fluids in compression mode under various applied currents. Finite element method magnetics was used to predict the magnetic field distribution inside the MR fluids generated by a coil. A test rig was constructed where the MR fluid was sandwiched between two flat surfaces. During the compression, the upper surface was moved towards the lower surface in a vertical direction. Stress-strain relationships were obtained for arrangements of equipment where each type of fluid was involved, using compression test equipment. The apparent compressive stress was found to be increased with the increase in magnetic field strength. In addition, the apparent compressive stress of the water-based MR fluid showed a response to the compressive strain of greater magnitude. However, during the compression process, the hydrocarbon-based MR fluid appeared to show a unique behaviour where an abrupt pressure drop was discovered in a region where the apparent compressive stress would be expected to increase steadily. The conclusion is drawn that the apparent compressive stress of MR fluids is influenced strongly by the nature of the carrier fluid and by the magnitude of the applied current

  13. On the rank 1 convexity of stored energy functions of physically linear stress-strain relations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šilhavý, Miroslav; Bertram, A.; Böhlke, T.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 3 (2007), s. 235-243 ISSN 0374-3535 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : generalized linear elastic law s * generalized strain measures * rank 1 convexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.743, year: 2007

  14. THE STRESS-STRAIN STATE OF ELASTIC HALF-SPACE FROM RUNNING LINEAR LOAD ACTING ON THE LIMITED AND UNLIMITED EXTENT OVER ITS SURFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Badalakha

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the result of solving the problem of stress-strain state of an elastic half-space because of the load action that uniformly distributed over the line, with the use of untraditional linear dependence of deformations on stressed state that is different from the generalized Hooke’s law.

  15. First-principles studies on the pressure dependences of the stress-strain relationship and elastic stability of semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S Q; Ye, H Q; Yip, S

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the stress-strain relationship and elastic stability of zinc-blende GaP, GaN, InP and BN lattices under hydrostatic pressure by first-principles calculation. A simple and direct ab initio implementation for studying the mechanical properties of cubic crystals is developed. The four phases' full-set stress-strain coefficients in wide pressure ranges are theoretically calculated. The fundamental mechanism of elastic stability and the origin of phase transformation under hydrostatic pressure are explored. We found that the abilities for most of these lattices are enhanced to sustain axial strain but weaken to shear strain under higher pressure. The conditions of lattice stability are analysed using both the thermodynamic work-energy criterion and the elastic-stiffness criteria. We show that the lattice collapse of the perfect crystals is caused by the disappearance of their bulk moduli under volume dilation. Lattice defects are considered to be the main reason causing phase transformation under pressure. The correlation between the phonon softening and the variation of elastic coefficients is studied. The pressure dependence of the Kleinman internal strain parameter and its relationship to elastic stability is also explored

  16. An experimental study on the stress-strain relationship of concrete -about steel fiber concrete-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Wha Jung; Kwon, Young Hwan; Lee, Sang Jae; Jun, Myoung Hoon

    1990-01-01

    The factors adopted in this experiment are volume fraction and the diameter and aspect ratio of fiber. The levels of factors are determined by existing studies. The effects of the diameter and mixing volume fraction and the aspect ratio for maximum strength, strain and tangent modulus are analysed based on the linear multiple regression and we obtained regression equations.(Author)

  17. Studies on Stress-Strain Relationships of Polymeric Materials Used in Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Sadhan C.; Freed, Alan

    2002-01-01

    A two-year research plan was undertaken in association with Polymers Branch, NASA Glenn Research Center, to carry out experimental and modeling work relating stress and strain behavior of polymeric materials, especially elastomers and vulcanized rubber. An experimental system based on MTS (Mechanical Testing and Simulation) A/T-4 test facility environment has been developed for a broader range of polymeric materials in addition to a design of laser compatible temperature control chamber for online measurements of various strains. Necessary material processing has been accomplished including rubber compounding and thermoplastic elastomer processing via injection molding. A broad suite of testing methodologies has been identified to reveal the complex non-linear mechanical behaviors of rubbery materials when subjected to complex modes of deformation. This suite of tests required the conceptualization, design and development of new specimen geometries, test fixtures, and test systems including development of a new laser based technique to measure large multi-axial deformations. Test data has been generated for some of these new fixtures and has revealed some complex coupling effects generated during multi-axial deformations. In addition, fundamental research has been conducted concerning the foundation principles of rubber thermodynamics and resulting theories of rubber elasticity. Studies have been completed on morphological properties of several thermoplastic elastomers. Finally, a series of steps have been identified to further advance the goals of NASA's ongoing effort.

  18. Stress-strain relationship and XRD line broadening in [0001] textured hexagonal polycrystalline materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Ryouichi

    2011-01-01

    Stress analysis with X-ray diffraction (XRD) for hexagonal polycrystalline materials in the Laue classes 6/mmm and 6/m has been studied on the basis of the crystal symmetry of the constituent crystallites which was proposed by R. Yokoyama and J. Harada ['Re-evaluation of formulae for X-ray stress analysis in polycrystalline specimens with fibre texture', Journal of Applied Crystallography, Vol.42, pp.185-191 (2009)]. The relationship between the stress and strain observable by XRD in a hexagonal polycrystalline material with [0001] fibre texture was formulated in terms of the elastic compliance defined for its single crystal. As a result, it was shown that the average strains obtained in the crystallites for both symmetries of 6/mmm and 6/m are different from each other under the triaxial or biaxial stress field. Then, it turned out that the line width of XRD changes depending on the measurement direction. (author)

  19. The relationships among work stress, strain and self-reported errors in UK community pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S J; O'Connor, E M; Jacobs, S; Hassell, K; Ashcroft, D M

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the UK community pharmacy profession including new contractual frameworks, expansion of services, and increasing levels of workload have prompted concerns about rising levels of workplace stress and overload. This has implications for pharmacist health and well-being and the occurrence of errors that pose a risk to patient safety. Despite these concerns being voiced in the profession, few studies have explored work stress in the community pharmacy context. To investigate work-related stress among UK community pharmacists and to explore its relationships with pharmacists' psychological and physical well-being, and the occurrence of self-reported dispensing errors and detection of prescribing errors. A cross-sectional postal survey of a random sample of practicing community pharmacists (n = 903) used ASSET (A Shortened Stress Evaluation Tool) and questions relating to self-reported involvement in errors. Stress data were compared to general working population norms, and regressed on well-being and self-reported errors. Analysis of the data revealed that pharmacists reported significantly higher levels of workplace stressors than the general working population, with concerns about work-life balance, the nature of the job, and work relationships being the most influential on health and well-being. Despite this, pharmacists were not found to report worse health than the general working population. Self-reported error involvement was linked to both high dispensing volume and being troubled by perceived overload (dispensing errors), and resources and communication (detection of prescribing errors). This study contributes to the literature by benchmarking community pharmacists' health and well-being, and investigating sources of stress using a quantitative approach. A further important contribution to the literature is the identification of a quantitative link between high workload and self-reported dispensing errors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  20. Analysis of stress-strain relationship in materials containing voids by means of plastic finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraishi, Haruki; Tabuchi, Masaaki

    2000-01-01

    Applying the finite element method in two dimensions, an analysis is performed to derive the stress-strain relationship of material containing voids in matrix, and which is subjected to large deformation. The conditions assumed for the analysis are applicability of continuum body mechanics, Mises yield criterion, J2 flow theory, power work-hardening, plane stress in two-dimensional system and uniform cyclically recurring void distribution. Taking as example a case of material presenting 0.3 work-hardening, it is indicated from the analysis that: With voids arrayed in square lattice, total elongation would be little affected by change in void size; With a void spacing in lattice of 10 μ m, a uniform elongation 12-14% should be obtained in a wide range of void sizes from 0.01 to 8.0 μm; Tensile strength should start to lower at a void areal fraction of around 1%; A sharply lowered uniform elongation of a level far below 1% should be presented by material of low work-hardening exponent. The severe decline of ductility seen with 316 stainless steel upon neutron irradiation at temperatures around 600 K is interpreted as resulting from a combination of low work-hardening and the presence of voids in matrix. (author)

  1. On generalization uniaxial stress-strain relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahay, C.; Dubey, R.N.

    1980-01-01

    Different forms of constitutive relations have been advanced for elastic, plastic and elastic-plastic behaviour of materials. It is shown that the various forms of the stress-strain relationship are specialized forms of generalization of a single stress-strain relation. For example, it is shown how the laws of elastic deformation, and the incremental and total deformation relationship for plastic behaviour are derivable from the Ramberg-Osgood relation. (orig.)

  2. Neutron diffraction investigation of hysteresis reduction and increase in linearity in the stress-strain response of superelastic NiTi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathod, C.R.; Clausen, B.; Bourke, M.A.M.; Vaidyanathan, R.

    2006-01-01

    In situ neutron diffraction measurements during loading have been performed on plastically deformed superelastic NiTi samples. The measurements observed retained B19 ' phase in the unloaded state as a result of the plastic deformation in otherwise completely B2 phase samples. A reversible stress-induced B2-B19 ' transformation on application and removal of stress occurred in the presence of this retained B19 ' phase. The amount and orientation of this retained B19 ' phase changed with cycling. Such direct atomic scale observations in the bulk are used here for the first time to qualitatively elucidate the macroscopic stress-strain response in plastically deformed superelastic NiTi

  3. Spaghetti Bridges: Modeling Linear Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroon, Cindy D.

    2016-01-01

    Mathematics and science are natural partners. One of many examples of this partnership occurs when scientific observations are made, thus providing data that can be used for mathematical modeling. Developing mathematical relationships elucidates such scientific principles. This activity describes a data-collection activity in which students employ…

  4. A model for the stress-strain behavior of toughened polystyrene. Part 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjoerdsma, S.D.; Heikens, D.

    1982-01-01

    The general stress-strain relationship derived in an earlier paper is applied to analyse experimental stress-strain curves of polystyrene-polyethylene blends. It is concluded from the stress and temperature dependence of the rates of craze initiation and craze growth that these rates can be

  5. Atlas of stress-strain curves

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    The Atlas of Stress-Strain Curves, Second Edition is substantially bigger in page dimensions, number of pages, and total number of curves than the previous edition. It contains over 1,400 curves, almost three times as many as in the 1987 edition. The curves are normalized in appearance to aid making comparisons among materials. All diagrams include metric (SI) units, and many also include U.S. customary units. All curves are captioned in a consistent format with valuable information including (as available) standard designation, the primary source of the curve, mechanical properties (including hardening exponent and strength coefficient), condition of sample, strain rate, test temperature, and alloy composition. Curve types include monotonic and cyclic stress-strain, isochronous stress-strain, and tangent modulus. Curves are logically arranged and indexed for fast retrieval of information. The book also includes an introduction that provides background information on methods of stress-strain determination, on...

  6. BILAM: a composite laminate failure-analysis code using bilinear stress-strain approximations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, P.V. Jr.; Dasgupta, A.; Chun, Y.W.

    1980-10-01

    The BILAM code which uses constant strain laminate analysis to generate in-plane load/deformation or stress/strain history of composite laminates to the point of laminate failure is described. The program uses bilinear stress-strain curves to model layer stress-strain behavior. Composite laminates are used for flywheels. The use of this computer code will help to develop data on the behavior of fiber composite materials which can be used by flywheel designers. In this program the stress-strain curves are modelled by assuming linear response in axial tension while using bilinear approximations (2 linear segments) for stress-strain response to axial compressive, transverse tensile, transverse compressive and axial shear loadings. It should be noted that the program attempts to empirically simulate the effects of the phenomena which cause nonlinear stress-strain behavior, instead of mathematically modelling the micromechanics involved. This code, therefore, performs a bilinear laminate analysis, and, in conjunction with several user-defined failure interaction criteria, is designed to provide sequential information on all layer failures up to and including the first fiber failure. The modus operandi is described. Code BILAM can be used to: predict the load-deformation/stress-strain behavior of a composite laminate subjected to a given combination of in-plane loads, and make analytical predictions of laminate strength.

  7. Multiaxial Stress-Strain Modeling and Effect of Additional Hardening due to Nonproportional Loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashed, G.; Ghajar, R.; Farrahi, G.

    2007-01-01

    Most engineering components are subjected to multiaxial rather than uniaxial cyclic loading, which causes multiaxial fatigue. The pre-requisite to predict the fatigue life of such components is to determine the multiaxial stress strain relationship. In this paper the multiaxial cyclic stress-strain model under proportional loading is derived using the modified power law stress-strain relationship. The equivalent strain amplitude consisted of the normal strain excursion and maximum shear strain amplitude is used in the proportional model to include the additional hardening effect due to nonproportional loading. Therefore a new multiaxial cyclic stress-strain relationship is devised for out of phase nonproportional loading. The model is applied to the nonproportional loading case and the results are compared with the other researchers' experimental data published in the literature, which are in a reasonable agreement with the experimental data. The relationship presented here is convenient for the engineering applications

  8. Linear relationships between cherry tomato traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Giacomini Sari

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to identify the linear relationship between cherry tomato yield components. Two uniformity trials, without treatments, were conducted on Lilli cherry tomato plants in a plastic greenhouse during the 2014 spring/summer season, with the plants in two stems. Variables observed for each plant were mean fruit length, mean fruit width, mean fruit weight, number of bunches, number of fruits per bunch, total number of fruits, and total fruit weight; a Pearson's correlation matrix was used to estimate the relationship between the variables. Path analysis was then performed considering total fruit weight as the main variable and the remaining variables as explanatory. Due to the severe multicollinearity, the variable 'number of fruits per bunch' was eliminated. Pearson's correlation coefficients were significant between explanatory and main variables. Mean fruit weight has a low cause-and-effect relationship with the total weight of fruits produced. A low cause-and-effect relationship was also observed between number of fruits and number of bunches. Cherry tomato productivity is directly related to the number of fruits per plant.

  9. Representative Stress-Strain Curve by Spherical Indentation on Elastic-Plastic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Chang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Tensile stress-strain curve of metallic materials can be determined by the representative stress-strain curve from the spherical indentation. Tabor empirically determined the stress constraint factor (stress CF, ψ, and strain constraint factor (strain CF, β, but the choice of value for ψ and β is still under discussion. In this study, a new insight into the relationship between constraint factors of stress and strain is analytically described based on the formation of Tabor’s equation. Experiment tests were performed to evaluate these constraint factors. From the results, representative stress-strain curves using a proposed strain constraint factor can fit better with nominal stress-strain curve than those using Tabor’s constraint factors.

  10. Measurement of stress-strain behaviour of human hair fibres using optical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J; Kwon, H J

    2013-06-01

    Many studies have presented stress-strain relationship of human hair, but most of them have been based on an engineering stress-strain curve, which is not a true representation of stress-strain behaviour. In this study, a more accurate 'true' stress-strain curve of human hair was determined by applying optical techniques to the images of the hair deformed under tension. This was achieved by applying digital image cross-correlation (DIC) to 10× magnified images of hair fibres taken under increasing tension to estimate the strain increments. True strain was calculated by summation of the strain increments according to the theoretical definition of 'true' strain. The variation in diameter with the increase in longitudinal elongation was also measured from the 40× magnified images to estimate the Poisson's ratio and true stress. By combining the true strain and the true stress, a true stress-strain curve could be determined, which demonstrated much higher stress values than the conventional engineering stress-strain curve at the same degree of deformation. Four regions were identified in the true stress-strain relationship and empirical constitutive equations were proposed for each region. Theoretical analysis on the necking condition using the constitutive equations provided the insight into the failure mechanism of human hair. This analysis indicated that local thinning caused by necking does not occur in the hair fibres, but, rather, relatively uniform deformation takes place until final failure (fracture) eventually occurs. © 2012 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  11. Investigation of isochronous stress-strain formulations for elevated temperature structural design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Gyeong Hoi; Kim, Jong Bum

    2012-01-01

    For elevated temperature design evaluations by the ASME-NH rules, the most important material data is the isochronous stress-strain curves, which can provide design creep information. The main purpose of this paper is to investigate appropriate formulations to be able to generate the isochronous stress-strain curves and implement it to the computer program which is coded the ASME-NH design evaluation procedures. To do this, formulations by the strain-time relationship are investigated in detail and the sensitivity studies for rapid initial transient creep contributions, slower and longer transient creep contribution, and secondary creep contributions are carried out for type 316 austenitic stainless steel. From the results of this study, it is found that the strain-time relationship formulations can well describe the isochronous stress-strain curves with the transient creep contributions

  12. Game Theory and its Relationship with Linear Programming Models ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Game Theory and its Relationship with Linear Programming Models. ... This paper shows that game theory and linear programming problem are closely related subjects since any computing method devised for ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  13. Staff turnover in hotels : exploring the quadratic and linear relationships.

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsin, A.; Lengler, J.F.B.; Aguzzoli, R.L.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess whether the relationship between intention to leave the job and its antecedents is quadratic or linear. To explore those relationships a theoretical model (see Fig. 1) and eight hypotheses are proposed. Each linear hypothesis is followed by an alternative quadratic hypothesis. The alternative hypotheses propose that the relationship between the four antecedent constructs and intention to leave the job might not be linear, as the existing literature suggests....

  14. Return-Volatility Relationship: Insights from Linear and Non-Linear Quantile Regression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.E. Allen (David); A.K. Singh (Abhay); R.J. Powell (Robert); M.J. McAleer (Michael); J. Taylor (James); L. Thomas (Lyn)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe purpose of this paper is to examine the asymmetric relationship between price and implied volatility and the associated extreme quantile dependence using linear and non linear quantile regression approach. Our goal in this paper is to demonstrate that the relationship between the

  15. Correction of the post -- necking true stress -- strain data using instrumented nanoindentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero Fonseca, Ivan Dario

    The study of large plastic deformations has been the focus of numerous studies particularly in the metal forming processes and fracture mechanics fields. A good understanding of the plastic flow properties of metallic alloys and the true stresses and true strains induced during plastic deformation is crucial to optimize the aforementioned processes, and to predict ductile failure in fracture mechanics analyzes. Knowledge of stresses and strains is extracted from the true stress-strain curve of the material from the uniaxial tensile test. In addition, stress triaxiality is manifested by the neck developed during the last stage of a tensile test performed on a ductile material. This necking phenomenon is the factor responsible for deviating from uniaxial state into a triaxial one, then, providing an inaccurate description of the material's behavior after the onset of necking. The research of this dissertation is aimed at the development of a correction method for the nonuniform plastic deformation (post-necking) portion of the true stress-strain curve. The correction proposed is based on the well-known relationship between hardness and flow (yield) stress, except that instrumented nanoindentation hardness is utilized rather than conventional macro or micro hardness. Three metals with different combinations of strain hardening behavior and crystal structure were subjected to quasi-static tensile tests: power-law strain hardening low carbon G10180 steel (BCC) and electrolytic tough pitch copper C11000 (FCC), and linear strain hardening austenitic stainless steel S30400 (FCC). Nanoindentation hardness values, measured on the broken tensile specimen, were converted into flow stress values by means of the constraint factor C from Tabor's, the representative plastic strainepsilonr and the post-test true plastic strains measured. Micro Vickers hardness testing was carried out on the sample as well. The constraint factors were 5.5, 4.5 and 4.5 and the representative plastic

  16. A comparative study on the elastic modulus of polyvinyl alcohol sponge using different stress-strain definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Alireza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi; Alizadeh, Mansour; Razaghi, Reza

    2014-10-01

    There have been different stress-strain definitions to measure the elastic modulus of spongy materials, especially polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) sponge. However, there is no agreement as to which stress-strain definition should be implemented. This study was aimed to show how different results are given by the various definitions of stress-strain used, and to recommend a specific definition when testing spongy materials. A fabricated PVA sponge was subjected to a series of tensile tests in order to measure its mechanical properties. Three stress definitions (second Piola-Kichhoff stress, engineering stress, and true stress) and four strain definitions (Almansi-Hamel strain, Green-St. Venant strain, engineering strain, and true strain) were used to determine the elastic modulus. The results revealed that the Almansi-Hamel strain definition exhibited the highest non-linear stress-strain relation and, as a result, may overestimate the elastic modulus at different stress definitions (second Piola-Kichhoff stress, engineering stress, and true stress). The Green-St. Venant strain definition failed to address the non-linear stress-strain relation using different definitions of stress and invoked an underestimation of the elastic modulus values. Engineering stress and strain definitions were only valid for small strains and displacements, which make them impractical when analyzing spongy materials. The results showed that the effect of varying the stress definition on the maximum stress measurements was significant but not when calculating the elastic modulus. It is important to consider which stress-strain definition is employed when characterizing the mechanical properties of spongy materials. Although the true stress-true strain definition exhibits a non-linear relation, we favor it in spongy materials mechanics as it gives more accurate measurements of the material's response using the instantaneous values.

  17. On linear relationship between shock velocity and particle velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dandache, H.

    1986-11-01

    We attempt to derive the linear relationship between shock velocity U s and particle velocity U p from thermodynamic considerations, taking into account an ideal gas equation of state and a Mie-Grueneisen equation of state for solids. 23 refs

  18. Methods for predicting isochronous stress-strain curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyoshige, Masanori; Shimizu, Shigeki; Satoh, Keisuke.

    1976-01-01

    Isochronous stress-strain curves show the relation between stress and total strain at a certain temperature with time as a parameter, and they are drawn up from the creep test results at various stress levels at a definite temperature. The concept regarding the isochronous stress-strain curves was proposed by McVetty in 1930s, and has been used for the design of aero-engines. Recently the high temperature characteristics of materials are shown as the isochronous stress-strain curves in the design guide for the nuclear energy equipments and structures used in high temperature creep region. It is prescribed that these curves are used as the criteria for determining design stress intensity or the data for analyzing the superposed effects of creep and fatigue. In case of the isochronous stress-strain curves used for the design of nuclear energy equipments with very long service life, it is impractical to determine the curves directly from the results of long time creep test, accordingly the method of predicting long time stress-strain curves from short time creep test results must be established. The method proposed by the authors, for which the creep constitution equations taking the first and second creep stages into account are used, and the method using Larson-Miller parameter were studied, and it was found that both methods were reliable for the prediction. (Kako, I.)

  19. Analysis of stress-strain behavior in Bi2223 composite tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugano, M.; Osamura, K.; Nyilas, A.

    2004-01-01

    Tensile test was carried out for Bi2223/Ag/Ag alloy composite tapes at RT, 77 and 7 K. Two yielding points are observed in the stress-strain curves. From the stress-strain behavior of the components and critical current (I c ) as a function of tensile strain, it was found that the microscopic reason for these yieldings is attributed to yielding of Ag alloy and fracture of Bi2223, respectively. The strain at the second yielding has temperature dependence and it becomes larger with decreasing measured temperature. From the thermo-mechanical analysis, it can be explained by temperature dependence of compressive residual strain of Bi2223. Reversible recovery of I c was found during loading-unloading test. The relationship between the reversible strain limit and the intrinsic strain of Bi2223 was discussed

  20. The mechanical behaviour of NBR/FEF under compressive cyclic stress strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, W. E.; El-Eraki, M. H. I.; El-Lawindy, A. M. Y.; Hassan, H. H.

    2006-06-01

    Acrylonitrile butadiene rubber compounds filled with different concentrations of fast extrusion furnace (FEF) carbon black were experimentally investigated. The stress-strain curves of the composites were studied, which suggest good filler-matrix adhesion. The large reinforcement effect of the filler followed the Guth model for non-spherical particles. The effect of FEF carbon black on the cyclic fatigue and hysteresis was also examined. The loading and unloading stress-strain relationships for any cycle were described by applying Ogden's model for rubber samples. The dissipation energy that indicates the vibration damping capacity for all samples was determined. A simple model was proposed, to investigate the relation between maximum stress and the number of cyclic fatigue.

  1. The mechanical behaviour of NBR/FEF under compressive cyclic stress-strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoud, W E [Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt); El-Eraki, M H I [Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt); El-Lawindy, A M Y [Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt); Hassan, H H [Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt)

    2006-06-07

    Acrylonitrile butadiene rubber compounds filled with different concentrations of fast extrusion furnace (FEF) carbon black were experimentally investigated. The stress-strain curves of the composites were studied, which suggest good filler-matrix adhesion. The large reinforcement effect of the filler followed the Guth model for non-spherical particles. The effect of FEF carbon black on the cyclic fatigue and hysteresis was also examined. The loading and unloading stress-strain relationships for any cycle were described by applying Ogden's model for rubber samples. The dissipation energy that indicates the vibration damping capacity for all samples was determined. A simple model was proposed, to investigate the relation between maximum stress and the number of cyclic fatigue.

  2. The mechanical behaviour of NBR/FEF under compressive cyclic stress-strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, W E; El-Eraki, M H I; El-Lawindy, A M Y; Hassan, H H

    2006-01-01

    Acrylonitrile butadiene rubber compounds filled with different concentrations of fast extrusion furnace (FEF) carbon black were experimentally investigated. The stress-strain curves of the composites were studied, which suggest good filler-matrix adhesion. The large reinforcement effect of the filler followed the Guth model for non-spherical particles. The effect of FEF carbon black on the cyclic fatigue and hysteresis was also examined. The loading and unloading stress-strain relationships for any cycle were described by applying Ogden's model for rubber samples. The dissipation energy that indicates the vibration damping capacity for all samples was determined. A simple model was proposed, to investigate the relation between maximum stress and the number of cyclic fatigue

  3. Linear Equating for the NEAT Design: Parameter Substitution Models and Chained Linear Relationship Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael T.; Mroch, Andrew A.; Suh, Youngsuk; Ripkey, Douglas R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes five linear equating models for the "nonequivalent groups with anchor test" (NEAT) design with internal anchors (i.e., the anchor test is part of the full test). The analysis employs a two-dimensional framework. The first dimension contrasts two general approaches to developing the equating relationship. Under a "parameter…

  4. An experimental study on the mechanical properties of rat brain tissue using different stress-strain definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Alireza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi

    2014-07-01

    There are different stress-strain definitions to measure the mechanical properties of the brain tissue. However, there is no agreement as to which stress-strain definition should be employed to measure the mechanical properties of the brain tissue at both the longitudinal and circumferential directions. It is worth knowing that an optimize stress-strain definition of the brain tissue at different loading directions may have implications for neuronavigation and surgery simulation through haptic devices. This study is aimed to conduct a comparative study on different results are given by the various definitions of stress-strain and to recommend a specific definition when testing brain tissues. Prepared cylindrical samples are excised from the parietal lobes of rats' brains and experimentally tested by applying load on both the longitudinal and circumferential directions. Three stress definitions (second Piola-Kichhoff stress, engineering stress, and true stress) and four strain definitions (Almansi-Hamel strain, Green-St. Venant strain, engineering strain, and true strain) are used to determine the elastic modulus, maximum stress and strain. The highest non-linear stress-strain relation is observed for the Almansi-Hamel strain definition and it may overestimate the elastic modulus at different stress definitions at both the longitudinal and circumferential directions. The Green-St. Venant strain definition fails to address the non-linear stress-strain relation using different definitions of stress and triggers an underestimation of the elastic modulus. The results suggest the application of the true stress-true strain definition for characterization of the brain tissues mechanics since it gives more accurate measurements of the tissue's response using the instantaneous values.

  5. Probabilistic analysis of structures involving random stress-strain behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millwater, H. R.; Thacker, B. H.; Harren, S. V.

    1991-01-01

    The present methodology for analysis of structures with random stress strain behavior characterizes the uniaxial stress-strain curve in terms of (1) elastic modulus, (2) engineering stress at initial yield, (3) initial plastic-hardening slope, (4) engineering stress at point of ultimate load, and (5) engineering strain at point of ultimate load. The methodology is incorporated into the Numerical Evaluation of Stochastic Structures Under Stress code for probabilistic structural analysis. The illustrative problem of a thick cylinder under internal pressure, where both the internal pressure and the stress-strain curve are random, is addressed by means of the code. The response value is the cumulative distribution function of the equivalent plastic strain at the inner radius.

  6. A NURBS approximation of experimental stress-strain curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorov, Timofey V.; Morrev, Pavel G.

    2016-01-01

    A compact universal representation of monotonic experimental stress-strain curves of metals and alloys is proposed. It is based on the nonuniform rational Bezier splines (NURBS) of second order and may be used in a computer library of materials. Only six parameters per curve are needed; this is equivalent to a specification of only three points in a stress-strain plane. NURBS-functions of higher order prove to be surplus. Explicit expressions for both yield stress and hardening modulus are given. Two types of curves are considered: at a finite interval of strain and at infinite one. A broad class of metals and alloys of various chemical compositions subjected to various types of preliminary thermo-mechanical working is selected from a comprehensive data base in order to test the methodology proposed. The results demonstrate excellent correspondence to the experimental data. Keywords: work hardening, stress-strain curve, spline approximation, nonuniform rational B-spline, NURBS.

  7. Stress strain modelling of casting processes in the framework of the control volume method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hattel, Jesper; Andersen, Søren; Thorborg, Jesper

    1998-01-01

    Realistic computer simulations of casting processes call for the solution of both thermal, fluid-flow and stress/strain related problems. The multitude of the influencing parameters, and their non-linear, transient and temperature dependent nature, make the calculations complex. Therefore the nee......, the present model is based on the mainly decoupled representation of the thermal, mechanical and microstructural processes. Examples of industrial applications, such as predicting residual deformations in castings and stress levels in die casting dies, are presented...... for fast, flexible, multidimensional numerical methods is obvious. The basis of the deformation and stress/strain calculation is a transient heat transfer analysis including solidification. This paper presents an approach where the stress/strain and the heat transfer analysis uses the same computational...... domain, which is highly convenient. The basis of the method is the control volume finite difference approach on structured meshes. The basic assumptions of the method are shortly reviewed and discussed. As for other methods which aim at application oriented analysis of casting deformations and stresses...

  8. The Cyclic Stress-Strain Curve of Polycrystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole Bøcker; Rasmussen, K. V.; Winter, A. T.

    1982-01-01

    The internal stresses implied by the Sachs model are estimated for individual PSBs at low plastic strain amplitudes and for homogeneously sheared grains at higher plastic strain amplitudes. The analysis shows that the Sachs model can account semi-quantitatively for experimentally measured cyclic...... stress-strain curves for copper. A similar approximative analysis of the Taylor model cannot account for the data. An interesting feature of the Sachs model is that, although it is assumed that the flow condition is entirely controlled by the PSBs. the predicted cyclic stress-strain curve displays...

  9. Ultrasound elastography of the lower uterine segment in women with a previous cesarean section: Comparison of in-/ex-vivo elastography versus tensile-stress-strain-rupture analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seliger, Gregor; Chaoui, Katharina; Lautenschläger, Christine; Jenderka, Klaus-Vitold; Kunze, Christian; Hiller, Grit Gesine Ruth; Tchirikov, Michael

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess, if the biomechanical properties of the lower uterine segment (LUS) in women with a previous cesarean section (CS) can be determined by ultrasound (US) elastography. The first aim was to establish an ex-vivo LUS tensile-stress-strain-rupture(break point) analysis with the possibility of simultaneously using US elastography. The second aim was to investigate the relationship between measurement results of LUS stiffness using US elastography in-/ex-vivo with results of tensile-stress-strain-rupture analysis, and to compare different US elastography LUS-stiffness-measurement methods ex-vivo. An explorative experimental, in-/ex-vivo US study of women with previous CS was conducted. LUS elasticity was measured by point Shear Wave Elastography (pSWE) and bidimensional Shear-Wave-Elastography (2D-SWE) first in-vivo during preoperative examination within 24 h before repeat CS (including resection of the thinnest part of the LUS = uterine scar area during CS), second within 1 h after operation during the ex-vivo experiment, followed by tensile-stress-strain-rupture analysis. Pearson's correlation coefficient and scatter plots, Bland-Altman plots and paired T-tests, were used. Thirty three women were included in the study; elastography measurements n = 1412. The feasibility of ex-vivo assessment of LUS by quantitative US elastography using pSWE and 2D-SWE to detect stiffness of LUS was demonstrated. The strongest correlation with tensile-stress-strain analysis was found in the US elastography examination carried out with 2D-SWE (0.78, p break point - as a surrogate marker for the risk of rupture of the LUS after CS - is linearly dependent on the thickness of the LUS in the scar area (Coefficient of correlation: 0.79, p even at less stroke/strain than would be expected by their thickness. This study confirms that US elastography can help in determining viscoelastic properties of the LUS in women with a previous CS. The

  10. Structure/property relationships in non-linear optical materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, J M [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France); [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom); Howard, J A.K. [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom); McIntyre, G J [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    The application of neutrons to the study of structure/property relationships in organic non-linear optical materials (NLOs) is described. In particular, charge-transfer effects and intermolecular interactions are investigated. Charge-transfer effects are studied by charge-density analysis and an example of one such investigation is given. The study of intermolecular interactions concentrates on the effects of hydrogen-bonding and an example is given of two structurally similar molecules with very disparate NLO properties, as a result of different types of hydrogen-bonding. (author). 3 refs.

  11. Relationship between linear type and fertility traits in Nguni cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zindove, T J; Chimonyo, M; Nephawe, K A

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the dimensionality of seven linear traits (body condition score, body stature, body length, heart girth, navel height, body depth and flank circumference) in Nguni cows using factor analysis and indicate the relationship between the extracted latent variables and calving interval (CI) and age at first calving (AFC). The traits were measured between December 2012 and November 2013 on 1559 Nguni cows kept under thornveld, succulent karoo, grassland and bushveld vegetation types. Low partial correlations (-0.04 to 0.51), high Kaiser statistic for measure of sampling adequacy scores and significance of the Bartlett sphericity test (P1. Factor 1 included body condition score, body depth, flank circumference and heart girth and represented body capacity of cows. Factor 2 included body length, body stature and navel height and represented frame size of cows. CI and AFC decreased linearly with increase of factor 1. There was a quadratic increase in AFC as factor 2 increased (Pbody capacity and the other to the frame size of the cows. Small-framed cows with large body capacities have shorter CI and AFC.

  12. Approximate analytical relationships for linear optimal aeroelastic flight control laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Ayman Hamdy

    1998-09-01

    This dissertation introduces new methods to uncover functional relationships between design parameters of a contemporary control design technique and the resulting closed-loop properties. Three new methods are developed for generating such relationships through analytical expressions: the Direct Eigen-Based Technique, the Order of Magnitude Technique, and the Cost Function Imbedding Technique. Efforts concentrated on the linear-quadratic state-feedback control-design technique applied to an aeroelastic flight control task. For this specific application, simple and accurate analytical expressions for the closed-loop eigenvalues and zeros in terms of basic parameters such as stability and control derivatives, structural vibration damping and natural frequency, and cost function weights are generated. These expressions explicitly indicate how the weights augment the short period and aeroelastic modes, as well as the closed-loop zeros, and by what physical mechanism. The analytical expressions are used to address topics such as damping, nonminimum phase behavior, stability, and performance with robustness considerations, and design modifications. This type of knowledge is invaluable to the flight control designer and would be more difficult to formulate when obtained from numerical-based sensitivity analysis.

  13. Probabilistic molecular dynamics evaluation of the stress-strain behavior of polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stowe, J.Q.; Predecki, P.K.; Laz, P.J.; Burks, B.M.; Kumosa, M.

    2009-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to utilize molecular dynamics to predict the mechanical behavior of polyethylene. In particular, stress-strain relationships, the Young's modulus and Poisson ratio were predicted for low-density polyethylene at several molecular weights and polymer configurations with the number of united CH 2 atoms ranging between 500 and 5000. Probabilistic Monte Carlo methods were also used to identify the extent of uncertainty in mechanical property predictions. In general, asymptotic behavior was observed for stress and the Young's modulus as the molecular weight of the models increased. At the same time, significant variability, of the order of 1000% of the mean, in the stress-strain relationships and the Young's modulus predictions was observed, especially for low molecular weight models. The variability in the Young's modulus predictions ranged from 17.9 to 3.2 GPa for the models ranging from 100 to 5000 CH 2 atom models. However, it was also found that the mean value of the Young's modulus approached a physically possible value of 194 MPa for the 5000 atom model. Poisson ratio predictions also resulted in significant variability, from 200% to 425% of the mean, and ranged from 0.75 to 1.30. The mean value of the Poisson ratios calculated in this study ranged from 0.32 to 0.44 for the 100 to 5000 atom models, respectively.

  14. Undirected learning styles and academic risk: Analysis of the impact of stress, strain and coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimatian, Stephen; Lloyd, Sara; Berger, Jeffrey; Steiner, Lorraine; McKay, Robert; Schwengal, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    Learning style inventories used in conjunction with a measure of academic achievement consistently show an association of meaning directed learning patterns with academic success, but have failed to show a clear association of undirected learning styles with academic failure. Using survey methods with anesthesia residents, this study questioned whether additional assessment of factors related to stress, strain, and coping help to better define the association between undirected learning styles and academic risk. Pearson chi squared tests. 296 subjects were enrolled from eight institutions with 142 (48%) completing the study. American Board of Anesthesiologists In Training Examinations (ITE) percentiles (ITE%) were used as a measure of academic achievement. The Vermunt Inventory of Learning Styles (ILS) was used to identify four learning patterns and 20 strategies, and the Osipow Stress Inventory-Revised (OSI-R) was used as a measure of six scales of occupational stress, four of personal strain, and four coping resources. Two learning patterns had significant relationship with ITE scores. As seen in previous studies, Meaning Directed Learning was beneficial for academic achievement while Undirected Learning was the least beneficial. Higher scores on Meaning Directed Learning correlated positively with higher ITE scores while higher Undirected and lower Meaning Directed patterns related negatively to ITE%. OSI-R measures of stress, strain and coping indicated that residents with Undirected learning patterns had higher scores on three scales related to stress, and 4 related to strain, while displaying lower scores on two scales related to coping. Residents with higher Meaning Directed patterns scored lower on two scales of stress and two scales of strain, with higher scores on two scales for coping resources. Low Meaning Directed and high Undirected learning patterns correlated with lower ITE percentiles, higher scores for stress and strain, and lower coping resources

  15. Stress strain flow curves for Cu-OFP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandstroem, Rolf; Hallgren, Josefin

    2009-04-01

    Stress strain curves of oxygen free copper alloyed with phosphorus Cu-OFP have been determined in compression and tension. The compression tests were performed at room temperature for strain rates between 10 -5 and 10 -3 1/s. The tests in tension covered the temperature range 20 to 175 deg C for strain rates between 10 -7 and 5x10 -3 1/s. The results in compression and tension were close for similar strain rates. A model for stress strain curves has been formulated using basic dislocation mechanisms. The model has been set up in such a way that fitting of parameters to the curves is avoided. By using a fundamental creep model as a basis a direct relation to creep data has been established. The maximum engineering flow stress in tension is related to the creep stress giving the same strain rate. The model reproduces the measured flow curves as function of temperature and strain rate in the investigated interval. The model is suitable to use in finite-element computations of structures in Cu-OFP

  16. Elasto-plastic stress/strain at notches, comparison of test and approximative computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beste, A.; Seeger, T.

    1979-01-01

    The lifetime of cyclically loaded components is decisively determined by the value of the local load in the notch root. The determination of the elasto-plastic notch-stress and-strain is therefore an important element of recent methods of lifetime determination. These local loads are normally calculated with the help of approximation formulas. Yet there are no details about their accuracy. The basic construction of the approximation formulas is presented, along with some particulars. The use of approximations within the fully plastic range and for material laws which show a non-linear stress-strain (sigma-epsilon-)-behaviour from the beginning is explained. The use of approximation for cyclic loads is particularly discussed. Finally, the approximations are evaluated in terms of their exactness. The test results are compared with the results of the approximation calculations. (orig.) 891 RW/orig. 892 RKD [de

  17. Mimicking biological stress-strain behaviour with synthetic elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatankhah-Varnosfaderani, Mohammad; Daniel, William F. M.; Everhart, Matthew H.; Pandya, Ashish A.; Liang, Heyi; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof; Dobrynin, Andrey V.; Sheiko, Sergei S.

    2017-09-01

    Despite the versatility of synthetic chemistry, certain combinations of mechanical softness, strength, and toughness can be difficult to achieve in a single material. These combinations are, however, commonplace in biological tissues, and are therefore needed for applications such as medical implants, tissue engineering, soft robotics, and wearable electronics. Present materials synthesis strategies are predominantly Edisonian, involving the empirical mixing of assorted monomers, crosslinking schemes, and occluded swelling agents, but this approach yields limited property control. Here we present a general strategy for mimicking the mechanical behaviour of biological materials by precisely encoding their stress-strain curves in solvent-free brush- and comb-like polymer networks (elastomers). The code consists of three independent architectural parameters—network strand length, side-chain length and grafting density. Using prototypical poly(dimethylsiloxane) elastomers, we illustrate how this parametric triplet enables the replication of the strain-stiffening characteristics of jellyfish, lung, and arterial tissues.

  18. Soil Stress-Strain Behavior: Measurement, Modeling and Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ling, Hoe I; Leshchinsky, Dov; Koseki, Junichi; A Collection of Papers of the Geotechnical Symposium in Rome

    2007-01-01

    This book is an outgrowth of the proceedings for the Geotechnical Symposium in Roma, which was held on March 16 and 17, 2006 in Rome, Italy. The Symposium was organized to celebrate the 60th birthday of Prof. Tatsuoka as well as honoring his research achievement. The publications are focused on the recent developments in the stress-strain behavior of geomaterials, with an emphasis on laboratory measurements, soil constitutive modeling and behavior of soil structures (such as reinforced soils, piles and slopes). The latest advancement in the field, such as the rate effect and dynamic behavior of both clay and sand, behavior of modified soils and soil mixtures, and soil liquefaction are addressed. A special keynote paper by Prof. Tatsuoka is included with three other keynote papers (presented by Prof. Lo Presti, Prof. Di Benedetto, and Prof. Shibuya).

  19. Stress-strain response of plastic waste mixed soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, G L Sivakumar; Chouksey, Sandeep Kumar

    2011-03-01

    Recycling plastic waste from water bottles has become one of the major challenges worldwide. The present study provides an approach for the use plastic waste as reinforcement material in soil. The experimental results in the form of stress-strain-pore water pressure response are presented. Based on experimental test results, it is observed that the strength of soil is improved and compressibility reduced significantly with addition of a small percentage of plastic waste to the soil. The use of the improvement in strength and compressibility response due to inclusion of plastic waste can be advantageously used in bearing capacity improvement and settlement reduction in the design of shallow foundations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Genetic relationships between calving interval and linear type traits in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic correlations between first calving interval (CI) and linear type traits in South African Holstein and Jersey cattle were estimated to assess the possibility of using type information as selection criteria for CI. All linear type traits routinely evaluated under the National Genetic Evaluation Programme (18 for Jersey and 17 ...

  1. Measurement of stress strain and vibrational properties of tendons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revel, Gian Marco; Scalise, Alessandro; Scalise, Lorenzo

    2003-08-01

    The authors present a new non-intrusive experimental procedure based on laser techniques for the measurement of mechanical properties of tendons. The procedure is based on the measurement of the first resonance frequency of the tendon by laser Doppler vibrometry during in vitro tensile experiments, with the final aim of establishing a measurement procedure to perform the mechanical characterization of tendons by extracting parameters such as the resonance frequency, also achievable during in vivo investigation. The experimental procedure is reported, taking into account the need to simulate the physiological conditions of the Achilles tendon, and the measurement technique used for the non-invasive determination of tendon cross-sectional area during tensile vibration tests at different load levels is described. The test procedure is based on a tensile machine, which measures longitudinal tendons undergoing controlled load conditions. Cross-sectional area is measured using a new non-contact procedure for the measurement of tendon perimeter (repeatability of 99% and accuracy of 2%). For each loading condition, vibration resonance frequency and damping, cross-sectional area and tensile force are measured, allowing thus a mechanical characterization of the tendon. Tendon stress-strain curves are reported. Stress-strain curves have been correlated to the first vibration resonance frequency and damping of the tendon measured using a single-point laser Doppler vibrometer. Moreover, experimental results have been compared with a theoretical model of a vibrating cord showing discrepancies. In vitro tests are reported, demonstrating the validity of the method for the comparison of different aged rabbit tendons.

  2. The role of creep in stress strain curves for copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandström, Rolf; Hallgren, Josefin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A dislocation based model takes into account both dynamic and static recovery. ► Tests at constant load and at constant strain rate modelled without fitting parameters. ► The model can describe primary and secondary creep of Cu-OFP from 75 to 250 °C. ► The temperature and strain rate dependence of stress strain curves can be modelled. ► Intended for the slow strain rates in canisters for storage of nuclear waste. - Abstract: A model for plastic deformation in pure copper taking work hardening, dynamic recovery and static recovery into account, has been formulated using basic dislocation mechanisms. The model is intended to be used in finite-element computations of the long term behaviour of structures in Cu-OFP for storage of nuclear waste. The relation between the strain rate and the maximum flow stress in the model has been demonstrated to correspond to strain rate versus stress in creep tests for oxygen free copper alloyed with phosphorus Cu-OFP. A further development of the model can also represent the primary and secondary stage of creep curves. The model is compared to stress strain curves in compression and tension for Cu-OFP. The compression tests were performed at room temperature for strain rates between 5 × 10 −5 and 5 × 10 −3 s −1 . The tests in tension covered the temperature range 20–175 °C for strain rates between 1 × 10 −7 and 1 × 10 −4 s −1 . Consequently, it is demonstrated that the model can represent mechanical test data that have been generated both at constant load and at constant strain rate without the use of any fitting parameters.

  3. Linear and Non-Linear Dose-Response Functions Reveal a Hormetic Relationship Between Stress and Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Zoladz, Phillip R.; Diamond, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Over a century of behavioral research has shown that stress can enhance or impair learning and memory. In the present review, we have explored the complex effects of stress on cognition and propose that they are characterized by linear and non-linear dose-response functions, which together reveal a hormetic relationship between stress and learning. We suggest that stress initially enhances hippocampal function, resulting from amygdala-induced excitation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity, as ...

  4. Relationship between pelvic and linear body measurements in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine pelvic height, width and area and to estimate correlations between these measurements and other external linear body parameters, i.e. body height, shoulder height, chest depth, front quarter width, hindquarter width, rump length and rump slope in Dorper ewes. A total of 332 young ...

  5. Modeling of stress-strain diagram on the basis of magnetic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorkunov, Eh.S.; Fedotov, V.P.; Bukhvalov, A.B.; Veselov, I.N.

    1997-01-01

    The model of a stress-strain diagram with taking into account the strain hardening and the growth of metal damageing is proposed. The model is applied to calculate a stress-strain curve for continuous cast 45 steel using the results of magnetic properties measuring. The latter permits predicting the durability of construction elements with the use of nondestructive magnetic testing

  6. Analysis of Mechanical Stresses/Strains in Superconducting Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Matthew; Chen, Jingping; Zhai, Yuhu

    2016-10-01

    The optimization of superconducting magnet performance and development of high-field superconducting magnets will greatly impact the next generation of fusion devices. A successful magnet development, however, relies deeply on the understanding of superconducting materials. Among the numerous factors that impact a superconductor's performance, mechanical stress is the most important because of the extreme operation temperature and large electromagnetic forces. In this study, mechanical theory is used to calculate the stresses/strains in typical superconducting strands, which consist of a stabilizer, a barrier, a matrix and superconducting filaments. Both thermal loads and mechanical loads are included in the analysis to simulate operation conditions. Because this model simulates the typical architecture of major superconducting materials, such as Nb3Sn, MgB2, Bi-2212 etc., it provides a good overall picture for us to understand the behavior of these superconductors in terms of thermal and mechanical loads. This work was supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Workforce Development for Teachers and Scientists (WDTS) under the Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internship (SULI) program.

  7. Stress/strain/time properties of highly compacted bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.

    1983-05-01

    In this paper, a recently developed creep theory based on statistical mechanics has been used to analyze a number of experimental creep curves, the conclusion being that the creep behavior of dense MX-80 bentonite is in agreement with the physical model, and that the average bond strength is within the hydrogen bond region. The latter conclusion thus indicates that interparticle displacements leading to macroscopic creep takes place in interparticle and intraparticle water lattices. These findings were taken as a justification to apply the creep theory to a prediction of the settlement over a one million year period. It gave an estimated settlement of 1 cm at maximum, which is of no practical significance. The thixotropic and viscous properties of highly compacted bentonite present certain difficulties in the determination and evaluation of the stress/strain/time parameters that are required for ordinary elastic and elasto-plastic analyses. Still, these parameters could be sufficiently well identified to allow for a preliminary estimation of the stresses induced in the metal canisters by slight rock displacements. The analysis, suggests that a 1 cm rapid shear perpendicular to the axes of the canisters can take place without harming them. (author)

  8. Re-examining the risk–return relationship in Europe: Linear or non-linear trade-off?

    OpenAIRE

    Salvador, Enrique; Floros, Christos; Arago, Vicent

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the risk–return trade-off in Europe using recent data from 11 European stock markets. After relaxing the linear assumptions in the risk–return relationship by introducing a new approach that considers the current state of the market, we obtain significant evidence for a positive risk–return trade-off for low volatility states. However, this finding is reduced or even non-significant during periods of high volatility. Maintaining the linear assumption over the risk–return t...

  9. Non-linear assessment and deficiency of linear relationship for healthcare industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, N.; Abdullah, M. M. A. B.; Razak, R. C.

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents the development of the non-linear service satisfaction model that assumes patients are not necessarily satisfied or dissatisfied with good or poor service delivery. With that, compliment and compliant assessment is considered, simultaneously. Non-linear service satisfaction instrument called Kano-Q and Kano-SS is developed based on Kano model and Theory of Quality Attributes (TQA) to define the unexpected, hidden and unspoken patient satisfaction and dissatisfaction into service quality attribute. A new Kano-Q and Kano-SS algorithm for quality attribute assessment is developed based satisfaction impact theories and found instrumentally fit the reliability and validity test. The results were also validated based on standard Kano model procedure before Kano model and Quality Function Deployment (QFD) is integrated for patient attribute and service attribute prioritization. An algorithm of Kano-QFD matrix operation is developed to compose the prioritized complaint and compliment indexes. Finally, the results of prioritized service attributes are mapped to service delivery category to determine the most prioritized service delivery that need to be improved at the first place by healthcare service provider.

  10. Linear and non-linear dose-response functions reveal a hormetic relationship between stress and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Diamond, David M

    2008-10-16

    Over a century of behavioral research has shown that stress can enhance or impair learning and memory. In the present review, we have explored the complex effects of stress on cognition and propose that they are characterized by linear and non-linear dose-response functions, which together reveal a hormetic relationship between stress and learning. We suggest that stress initially enhances hippocampal function, resulting from amygdala-induced excitation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity, as well as the excitatory effects of several neuromodulators, including corticosteroids, norepinephrine, corticotropin-releasing hormone, acetylcholine and dopamine. We propose that this rapid activation of the amygdala-hippocampus brain memory system results in a linear dose-response relation between emotional strength and memory formation. More prolonged stress, however, leads to an inhibition of hippocampal function, which can be attributed to compensatory cellular responses that protect hippocampal neurons from excitotoxicity. This inhibition of hippocampal functioning in response to prolonged stress is potentially relevant to the well-described curvilinear dose-response relationship between arousal and memory. Our emphasis on the temporal features of stress-brain interactions addresses how stress can activate, as well as impair, hippocampal functioning to produce a hormetic relationship between stress and learning.

  11. Functions Represented as Linear Sequential Data: Relationships between Presentation and Student Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayalon, Michal; Watson, Anne; Lerman, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates students' ways of attending to linear sequential data in two tasks, and conjectures possible relationships between those ways and elements of the task design. Drawing on the substantial literature about such situations, we focus for this paper on linear rate of change, and on covariation and correspondence approaches to…

  12. Construction of long-term isochronous stress-strain curves by a modeling of short-term creep curves for a Grade 9Cr-1Mo steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Woo-Gon; Yin, Song-Nan; Koo, Gyeong-Hoi

    2009-01-01

    This study dealt with the construction of long-term isochronous stress-strain curves (ISSC) by a modeling of short-term creep curves for a Grade 9Cr-1Mo steel (G91) which is a candidate material for structural applications in the next generation nuclear reactors as well as in fusion reactors. To do this, tensile material data used in the inelastic constitutive equations was obtained by tensile tests at 550degC. Creep curves were obtained by a series of creep tests with different stress levels of 300MPa to 220MPa at an identical controlled temperature of 550degC. On the basis of these experimental data, the creep curves were characterized by Garofalo's creep model. Three parameters of P 1 , P 2 and P 3 in Garofalo's model were properly optimized by a nonlinear least square fitting (NLSF) analysis. The stress dependency of the three parameters was found to be a linear relationship. But, the P 3 parameter representing the steady state creep rate exhibited a two slope behavior with different stress exponents at a transient stress of about 250 MPa. The long-term creep curves of the G91 steel was modeled by Garofalo's model with only a few short-term creep data. Using the modeled creep curves, the long-term isochronous curves up to 10 5 hours were successfully constructed. (author)

  13. Study on elastic-plastic deformation analysis using a cyclic stress-strain curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igari, Toshihide; Setoguchi, Katsuya; Yamauchi, Masafumi

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the elastic-plastic deformation analysis using a cyclic stress-strain curve with an intention to apply this method for predicting the low-cycle fatigue life. Uniaxial plastic cycling tests were performed on 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel to investigate the correspondence between the cyclic stress-strain curve and the hysteresis loop, and also to determine what mathematical model should be used for analysis of deformation at stress reversal. Furthermore, a cyclic in-plane bending test was performed on a flat plate to clarify the validity of the cyclic stress-strain curve-based theoretical analysis. The results obtained are as follows: (1) The cyclic stress-strain curve corresponds nearly to the ascending curve of hysteresis loop scaled by a factor of 1/2 for both stress and strain. Therefore, the cyclic stress-strain curve can be determined from the shape of hysteresis loop, for simplicity. (2) To perform the elastic-plastic deformation analysis using the cyclic stress-strain curve is both practical and effective for predicting the cyclic elastic-plastic deformation of structures at the stage of advanced cycles. And Masing model can serve as a suitable mathematical model for such a deformation analysis. (author)

  14. Acquirement of true stress-strain curve using true fracture strain obtained by tensile test and FE analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyoung Yoon; Kim, Tae Hyung; Lee, Hyung Yil

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we predict a true fracture strain using load-displacement curves from tensile test and Finite Element Analysis (FEA), and suggest a method for acquiring true Stress-Strain (SS) curves by predicted fracture strain. We first derived the true SS curve up to necking point from load-displacement curve. As the beginning, the posterior necking part of true SS curve is linearly extrapolated with the slope at necking point. The whole SS curve is then adopted for FE simulation of tensile test. The Bridgman factor or suitable plate correction factors are applied to pre and post FEA. In the load-true strain curve from FEA, the true fracture strain is determined as the matching point to test fracture load. The determined true strain is validated by comparing with test fracture strain. Finally, we complete the true SS curve by combining the prior necking part and linear part, the latter of which connects necking and predicted fracture points.

  15. Acquirement of true stress-strain curve using true fracture strain obtained by tensile test and FE analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyoung Yoon; Kim, Tae Hyung; Lee, Hyung Yil [Sogang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-01

    In this work, we predict a true fracture strain using load-displacement curves from tensile test and Finite Element Analysis (FEA), and suggest a method for acquiring true Stress-Strain (SS) curves by predicted fracture strain. We first derived the true SS curve up to necking point from load-displacement curve. As the beginning, the posterior necking part of true SS curve is linearly extrapolated with the slope at necking point. The whole SS curve is then adopted for FE simulation of tensile test. The Bridgman factor or suitable plate correction factors are applied to pre and post FEA. In the load-true strain curve from FEA, the true fracture strain is determined as the matching point to test fracture load. The determined true strain is validated by comparing with test fracture strain. Finally, we complete the true SS curve by combining the prior necking part and linear part, the latter of which connects necking and predicted fracture points.

  16. Acquirement of True Stress-strain Curve Using True Fracture Strain Obtained by Tensile Test and FE Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyoung Yoon; Lee, Hyung Yil [Sogang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Hyung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    In this work, we predict a true fracture strain using load-displacement curves from tensile test and finite element analysis (FEA), and suggest a method for acquiring true stress-strain (SS) curves by predicted fracture strain. We first derived the true SS curve up to necking point from load-displacement curve. As the beginning, the posterior necking part of true SS curve is linearly extrapolated with the slope at necking point. The whole SS curve is then adopted for FE simulation of tensile test. The Bridgman factor or suitable plate correction factors are applied to pre and post FEA. In the load-true strain curve from FEA, the true fracture strain is determined as the matching point to test fracture load. The determined true strain is validated by comparing with test fracture strain. Finally, we complete the true SS curve by combining the prior necking part and linear part, the latter of which connects necking and predicted fracture points.

  17. Investigating Years 7 to 12 students' knowledge of linear relationships through different contexts and representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkie, Karina J.; Ayalon, Michal

    2018-02-01

    A foundational component of developing algebraic thinking for meaningful calculus learning is the idea of "function" that focuses on the relationship between varying quantities. Students have demonstrated widespread difficulties in learning calculus, particularly interpreting and modeling dynamic events, when they have a poor understanding of relationships between variables. Yet, there are differing views on how to develop students' functional thinking over time. In the Australian curriculum context, linear relationships are introduced to lower secondary students with content that reflects a hybrid of traditional and reform algebra pedagogy. This article discusses an investigation into Australian secondary students' understanding of linear functional relationships from Years 7 to 12 (approximately 12 to 18 years old; n = 215) in their approaches to three tasks (finding rate of change, pattern generalisation and interpretation of gradient) involving four different representations (table, geometric growing pattern, equation and graph). From the findings, it appears that these students' knowledge of linear functions remains context-specific rather than becoming connected over time.

  18. Developing the multiple stress-strain creep recovery (MS-SCR) test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnasri, Mahmoud; Airey, Gordon; Thom, Nick

    2018-04-01

    While most published work from Europe has been concerned with evaluating binders' resistance to rutting based on their stiffness (deformation resistance), work originating in the US has mainly been concerned with ranking binders based on their recoverability in a multiple stress form. This paper details the design of a new modified multiple stress-strain creep recovery (MS-SCR) test. The test is designed to evaluate binders' rutting resistance based on two rutting resistance mechanisms: stiffness and recoverability. A preliminary investigation is presented in this paper followed by details of the design of the new modified test. A 40/60 penetration grade bitumen and bitumen-filler mastics prepared with three filler concentrations (35%, 50%, and 65% filler content by mass of mastic) were tested. In addition, two polymer modified bitumens (PMBs) using the same base bitumen type were examined for validation. Two parameters are introduced to characterise the short and long recovery in the new test. In terms of stiffness, the test allows the behaviour of binders at different stress levels and loading cycles to be studied and produces a new parameter that can quantify the degree of modification. Finally, a relationship between nonlinearity and normal force in the test was investigated.

  19. Simulation of tensile stress-strain properties of irradiated type 316 SS by heavily cold-worked material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muto, Yasushi; Jitsukawa, Shiro; Hishinuma, Akimichi

    1995-07-01

    Type 316 stainless steel is one of the most promising candidate materials to be used for the structural parts of plasma facing components in the nuclear fusion reactor. The neutron irradiation make the material brittle and reduces its uniform elongation to almost zero at heavy doses. In order to apply such a material of reduced ductility to structural components, the structural integrity should be examined and assured by the fracture mechanics. The procedure requires a formulated stress-strain relationship. However, the available irradiated tensile test data are very limited at present, so that the cold-worked material was used as a simulated material in this study. Property changes of 316 SS, that is, a reduction of uniform elongation and an enhancement of yield stress are seemingly very similar for both the irradiated 316 SS and the cold-worked one. The specimens made of annealed 316 SS, 20% (or 15%) cold worked one and 40% cold worked one were prepared. After the formulation of stress strain behavior, the equation for the cold-worked 316 SS was fitted to the data on irradiated material under the assumption that the yield stress is the same for both materials. In addition, the upper limit for the plastic strain was introduced using the data on the irradiated material. (author)

  20. Stress strain tensors with their application to x-ray stress measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurita, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes in detail the method of obtaining the formulas of stress-strain tensor that express the directional dependence of stress-strain, that is, how these values change in response to coordinate transformation, and clarifies the preconditions for supporting both formulas. The two conversion formulas are both the second order of tensor, and the formula of strain tensor not only does not use the relational expression of stress and strain at all, but also is obtained completely independently of the formula of stress tensor. Except for the condition that the strain is very small (elastic deformation) in the conversion formula of strain, both formulas unconditionally come into effect. In other words, both formulas hold true even in the isotropic elastic body or anisotropic elastic body. It was shown that the conversion formula of strain can be derived from the conversion formula of stress using the formula of Hooke for isotropic elastic body. From these three-dimensional expressions, the two-dimensional stress-strain coordinate conversion formula that is used for Mohr's stress-strain circle was derived. It was shown that these formulas hold true for three-dimensional stress condition with stress-strain components in the three-axial direction that are not plane stress nor plane strain condition. In addition, as an application case of this theory, two-dimensional and three-dimensional X-ray stress measurements that are effective for residual stress measurement were shown. (A.O.)

  1. Competition Experiments as a Means of Evaluating Linear Free Energy Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Richard J.; Vedernikov, Andrei; Viswanathan, Rajesh

    2004-01-01

    The use of competition experiments as a means of evaluating linear free energy relationship in the undergraduate teaching laboratory is reported. The use of competition experiments proved to be a reliable method for the construction of Hammett plots with good correlation providing great flexibility with regard to the compounds and reactions that…

  2. Under which climate and soil conditions the plant productivity-precipitation relationship is linear or nonlinear?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jian-Sheng; Pei, Jiu-Ying; Fang, Chao

    2018-03-01

    Understanding under which climate and soil conditions the plant productivity-precipitation relationship is linear or nonlinear is useful for accurately predicting the response of ecosystem function to global environmental change. Using long-term (2000-2016) net primary productivity (NPP)-precipitation datasets derived from satellite observations, we identify >5600pixels in the North Hemisphere landmass that fit either linear or nonlinear temporal NPP-precipitation relationships. Differences in climate (precipitation, radiation, ratio of actual to potential evapotranspiration, temperature) and soil factors (nitrogen, phosphorous, organic carbon, field capacity) between the linear and nonlinear types are evaluated. Our analysis shows that both linear and nonlinear types exhibit similar interannual precipitation variabilities and occurrences of extreme precipitation. Permutational multivariate analysis of variance suggests that linear and nonlinear types differ significantly regarding to radiation, ratio of actual to potential evapotranspiration, and soil factors. The nonlinear type possesses lower radiation and/or less soil nutrients than the linear type, thereby suggesting that nonlinear type features higher degree of limitation from resources other than precipitation. This study suggests several factors limiting the responses of plant productivity to changes in precipitation, thus causing nonlinear NPP-precipitation pattern. Precipitation manipulation and modeling experiments should combine with changes in other climate and soil factors to better predict the response of plant productivity under future climate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Numerical Evaluation of Size Effect on the Stress-Strain Behaviour of Geotextile-Reinforced Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseinpour, I.; Mirmoradi, S.H.; Barari, Amin

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of sample size on the stress-strain behavior and strength characteristics of geotextile reinforced sand using the finite element numerical analysis. The effect of sample size was investigated by studying the effects of varying the number of geotextile layers, the con......This paper studies the effect of sample size on the stress-strain behavior and strength characteristics of geotextile reinforced sand using the finite element numerical analysis. The effect of sample size was investigated by studying the effects of varying the number of geotextile layers...... on the mechanical behavior of reinforced sand decreases with an increase in the sample size....

  4. Summary report - development of laboratory tests and the stress- strain behaviour of Olkiluoto mica gneiss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakala, M.; Heikkilae, E. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Lab. of Rock Engineering

    1997-05-01

    This work summarizes the project aimed at developing and qualifying a suitable combination of laboratory tests to establish a statistically reliable stress-strain behaviour of the main rock types at Posiva Oy`s detailed investigation sites for disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The work includes literature study of stress-strain behaviour of brittle rock, development and qualification of laboratory tests, suggested test procedures and interpretation methods and finally testing of Olkiluoto mica gneiss. The Olkiluoto study includes over 130 loading tests. Besides the commonly used laboratory tests, direct tensile tests, damage controlled tests and acoustic emission measurements were also carried out. (orig.) (54 refs.).

  5. Summary report - development of laboratory tests and the stress- strain behaviour of Olkiluoto mica gneiss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakala, M.; Heikkilae, E.

    1997-05-01

    This work summarizes the project aimed at developing and qualifying a suitable combination of laboratory tests to establish a statistically reliable stress-strain behaviour of the main rock types at Posiva Oy's detailed investigation sites for disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The work includes literature study of stress-strain behaviour of brittle rock, development and qualification of laboratory tests, suggested test procedures and interpretation methods and finally testing of Olkiluoto mica gneiss. The Olkiluoto study includes over 130 loading tests. Besides the commonly used laboratory tests, direct tensile tests, damage controlled tests and acoustic emission measurements were also carried out. (orig.) (54 refs.)

  6. Reconciling the Log-Linear and Non-Log-Linear Nature of the TSH-Free T4 Relationship: Intra-Individual Analysis of a Large Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothacker, Karen M; Brown, Suzanne J; Hadlow, Narelle C; Wardrop, Robert; Walsh, John P

    2016-03-01

    The TSH-T4 relationship was thought to be inverse log-linear, but recent cross-sectional studies report a complex, nonlinear relationship; large, intra-individual studies are lacking. Our objective was to analyze the TSH-free T4 relationship within individuals. We analyzed data from 13 379 patients, each with six or more TSH/free T4 measurements and at least a 5-fold difference between individual median TSH and minimum or maximum TSH. Linear and nonlinear regression models of log TSH on free T4 were fitted to data from individuals and goodness of fit compared by likelihood ratio testing. Comparing all models, the linear model achieved best fit in 31% of individuals, followed by quartic (27%), cubic (15%), null (12%), and quadratic (11%) models. After eliminating least favored models (with individuals reassigned to best fitting, available models), the linear model fit best in 42% of participants, quartic in 43%, and null model in 15%. As the number of observations per individual increased, so did the proportion of individuals in whom the linear model achieved best fit, to 66% in those with more than 20 observations. When linear models were applied to all individuals and averaged according to individual median free T4 values, variations in slope and intercept indicated a nonlinear log TSH-free T4 relationship across the population. The log TSH-free T4 relationship appears linear in some individuals and nonlinear in others, but is predominantly linear in those with the largest number of observations. A log-linear relationship within individuals can be reconciled with a non-log-linear relationship in a population.

  7. The Non-Linear Relationship Between Fiscal Deficits And Inflation: Evidence From Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Nurudeen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Although, there is abundant research on the fiscal deficit-inflation relationship, little has been done to investigate the non-linear association between them, particularly in Africa. This study employs fixed-effects and GMM estimators to examine the non-linear relationship between deficits and inflation from 1999 to 2011 in 51 African economies, which are further grouped into high-inflation/low-income countries and moderate-inflation/middle-income countries. The results indicate that the deficit-inflation relationship is non-linear for the whole sample and sub-groups. For the whole sample, a percentage point increase in deficit results in a 0.25 percentage point increase in inflation rate, while the relationship becomes quantitatively greater once deficits reach 23% of GDP. The subsamples report different relationships. Although our results cannot be used as the base for generalization, we identify importance of grouping African countries according to their levels of inflation and/or income, rather than treating them as a homogeneous entity.

  8. The Relationship between Economic Growth and Money Laundering – a Linear Regression Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rece

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study provides an overview of the relationship between economic growth and money laundering modeled by a least squares function. The report analyzes statistically data collected from USA, Russia, Romania and other eleven European countries, rendering a linear regression model. The study illustrates that 23.7% of the total variance in the regressand (level of money laundering is “explained” by the linear regression model. In our opinion, this model will provide critical auxiliary judgment and decision support for anti-money laundering service systems.

  9. The study of the stress - strain state of the tank with bottom water drainage during operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchipkova, Yu V.; Tokarev, V. V.

    2018-04-01

    Bottom drainage from tank is a current problem in modern tank usage. This article proposes the use of the bottom drainage system from the tank with the shape of the sloped cone to the centre of it. Changing the bottom design alters the stress - strain state to be analyzed in the Ansys. The analysis concluded that the proposed drainage system should be applied.

  10. On the derivative of the stress-strain relation in a no-tension material

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Padovani, C.; Šilhavý, Miroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 7 (2017), s. 1606-1618 ISSN 1081-2865 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : no-tension material * stress-strain relation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 2.953, year: 2016 http:// journals .sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1081286515571786

  11. Transmission of linear regression patterns between time series: from relationship in time series to complex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiangyun; An, Haizhong; Fang, Wei; Huang, Xuan; Li, Huajiao; Zhong, Weiqiong; Ding, Yinghui

    2014-07-01

    The linear regression parameters between two time series can be different under different lengths of observation period. If we study the whole period by the sliding window of a short period, the change of the linear regression parameters is a process of dynamic transmission over time. We tackle fundamental research that presents a simple and efficient computational scheme: a linear regression patterns transmission algorithm, which transforms linear regression patterns into directed and weighted networks. The linear regression patterns (nodes) are defined by the combination of intervals of the linear regression parameters and the results of the significance testing under different sizes of the sliding window. The transmissions between adjacent patterns are defined as edges, and the weights of the edges are the frequency of the transmissions. The major patterns, the distance, and the medium in the process of the transmission can be captured. The statistical results of weighted out-degree and betweenness centrality are mapped on timelines, which shows the features of the distribution of the results. Many measurements in different areas that involve two related time series variables could take advantage of this algorithm to characterize the dynamic relationships between the time series from a new perspective.

  12. Elevated temperature stress strain behavior of beryllium powder product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abeln, S.P.; Field, R.; Mataya, M.C.

    1995-01-01

    Several grades of beryllium powder product were tested under isothermal conditions in compression over a temperature range of room temperature to 1000 C and a strain rate range from 0.001 s -1 to 1 s -1 . Samples were compressed to a total strain of 1 (64% reduction in height). It is shown that all the grades are strain rate sensitive and that strain rate sensitivity increases with temperature. Yield points were exhibited by some grades up to a temperature of 500 C, and appeared to be primarily dependent on prior thermal history which determined the availability of mobile dislocations. Serrated flow in the form of stress drops was seen in all the materials tested and was most pronounced at 500 C. The appearance and magnitude of the stress drops were dependent on accumulated strain, strain rate, sample orientation, and composition. The flow stress and shape of the flow curves differed significantly from grade to grade due to variations in alloy content, the size and distribution of BeO particles, aging precipitates, and grain size. The ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) was determined for each grade of material and shown to be dependent on composition and thermal treatment. Structure/property relationships are discussed using processing history, microscopy (light and transmission), and property data

  13. Linear proportional relationship between N(OH) and N(CH) in the diffuse interstellar medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seung Yeong; Kwak, Kyujin

    2018-04-01

    It has been known that there is a linearly proportional relationship between the column densities of CH and OH measured toward bright UV-emitting stars, although there are four outliers in this relationship among the total 24 measured targets. By using the Simbad database, we investigate reasonable configurations of diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) which could explain the observed relationship. We first identify the locations of 24 targets on the celestial sphere getting the distances to them and then count the number of molecular clouds, nebulae, and peculiar stars toward the targets which could contribute to the production of OH and CH. We present the results of our search by testing three hypothetical configurations of diffuse ISM which may explain the observed relationship.

  14. Numerical analysis oriented biaxial stress-strain relation and failure criterion of plain concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, J.

    1975-01-01

    A biaxial stress-strain relation and failure criterion is proposed, which is applicable to structural analysis methods. The formulation of material behavior of plain concrete in biaxial stress-state was developed. A nonlinear elastic, anisotropic stress-strain relation was derived with two moduli of elasticity, E 1 , E 2 and Poisson's ratios, ν 1 , ν 2 , which depend on the prevailing biaxial stress state. The stress-strain relation is valid in the whole biaxial stress field, that means with a smooth transition between the domains of tension/tension, tension/compression and compression/compression. The stress-dependent moduli E 1 , E 2 and the Poisson's ratios ν 1 , ν 2 are approximated by polynomials, trigonometrical and exponential functions. A failure criterion was defined by approximating the test results of the biaxial ultimate concrete strength with a 7th degree polynomial, which is also valid in the whole biaxial stress domain. The definition of the state of failure is given as a function of stresses as well as strains. Initial parameters of the formulation of the biaxial material behavior are the uniaxial cylindrical strength of concrete and the initial values of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio. A simple expansion of this formulation makes it applicable not only to normal but also to light-weight concrete. Comparison of numerically calculated stress-strain curves up to the ultimate biaxial stresses which indicate the failure criteria with those obtained from tests show a very good agreement. It is shown, that the biaxial stress-strain relation can be extended for use in cases of triaxial tension/tension/compression stress state. Numerical examples of analysis of concrete slabs show the importance of incorporation of a realistic material behavior for better safety estimations

  15. Positivity and job burnout in emergency personnel: examining linear and curvilinear relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basińska Beata Aleksandra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine whether the relationship between the ratio of job-related positive to negative emotions (positivity ratio and job burnout is best described as linear or curvilinear. Participants were 89 police officers (12% women and 86 firefighters. The positivity ratio was evaluated using the Job-related Affective Wellbeing Scale (Van Katwyk, Fox, Spector, & Kelloway, 2000. Exhaustion and disengagement, two components of job burnout, were measured using the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (Demerouti, Mostert, & Bakker, 2010. The results of regression analysis revealed that curvilinear relationships between the positivity ratio and two components of job burnout appeared to better fit the data than linear relationships. The relationship between the positivity ratio and exhaustion was curvilinear with a curve point at around 2.1. A similar curvilinear relationship, but with a lower curve point, i.e., around 1.8, was observed for disengagement. It seems that beyond certain values there may be hidden costs of maintaining positive emotions at work. Also, the unequal curve points for subscales suggest that different dimensions of work-related functioning are variously prone to such costs.

  16. Water pollution and income relationships: A seemingly unrelated partially linear analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Mahesh; Paudel, Krishna P.

    2016-10-01

    We used a seemingly unrelated partially linear model (SUPLM) to address a potential correlation between pollutants (nitrogen, phosphorous, dissolved oxygen and mercury) in an environmental Kuznets curve study. Simulation studies show that the SUPLM performs well to address potential correlation among pollutants. We find that the relationship between income and pollution follows an inverted U-shaped curve for nitrogen and dissolved oxygen and a cubic shaped curve for mercury. Model specification tests suggest that a SUPLM is better specified compared to a parametric model to study the income-pollution relationship. Results suggest a need to continually assess policy effectiveness of pollution reduction as income increases.

  17. Threat Appeals: The Fear-Persuasion Relationship is Linear and Curvilinear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillard, James Price; Li, Ruobing; Huang, Yan

    2017-11-01

    Drive theory may be seen as the first scientific theory of health and risk communication. However, its prediction of a curvilinear association between fear and persuasion is generally held to be incorrect. A close rereading of Hovland et al. reveals that within- and between-persons processes were conflated. Using a message that advocated obtaining a screening for colonoscopy, this study (N = 259) tested both forms of the inverted-U hypothesis. In the between-persons data, analyses revealed a linear effect that was consistent with earlier investigations. However, the data showed an inverted-U relationship in within-persons data. Hence, the relationship between fear and persuasion is linear or curvilinear depending on the level of analysis.

  18. Mathematical Model of Stress-Strain State of Curved Tube of Non-Circular Cross-Section with Account of Technological Wall Thickness Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirogov, S. P.; Ustinov, N. N.; Smolin, N. I.

    2018-05-01

    A mathematical model of the stress-strain state of a curved tube of a non-circular cross-section is presented, taking into account the technological wall thickness variation. On the basis of the semi-membrane shell theory, a system of linear differential equations describing the deformation of a tube under the effect of pressure is obtained. To solve the boundary value problem, the method of shooting is applied. The adequacy of the proposed mathematical model is verified by comparison with the experimental data and the results of the calculation of tubes by the energy method.

  19. A Non-linear "Inflation-Relative Prices Variability" Relationship: Evidence from Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Mª Ángeles Caraballo Pou; Carlos Dabús; Diego Caramuta

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents evidence on a non-linear "inflation-relative prices variability" relationship in three Latin American countries with very high inflation experiences: Argentina, Brazil and Peru. More precisely, and in contrast to results found in previous literature for similar countries, we find a non-concave relation at higher inflation regimes, i.e. when inflation rate surpasses certain threshold. This non-concavity is mainly explained by the unexpected component of inflation, which sug...

  20. Tests of the linearity assumption in the dose-effect relationship for radiation-induced cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, A.F.; Cohen, B.L.

    1978-01-01

    The validity of the BEIR linear extrapolation to low doses of the dose-effect relationship for radiation induced cancer is tested by use of natural radiation making use of selectivity on type of cancer, sex, age group, geographic area, and time period. For lung cancer, a linear interpolation between zero dose-zero effect and the data from radon-induced cancers in miners over-estimates the total number of observed lung cancers in many countries in the early years of this century; the discrepancy is substantially increased if the 30-44 year age range and/or if only females are considered, and by the fact that many other causes of lung cancer are shown to have been important at that time. The degree to which changes of diagnostic efficiency with time can influence the analysis is considered at some length. It is concluded that the linear relationship substantially over-estimates effects of low radiation doses. A similar analysis is applied to leukemia induced by natural radiation, applying selectivity by age, sex, natural background level, and date, and considering other causes. It is concluded that effects substantially larger than those obtained from linear extrapolation are excluded. The use of the selectivities mentioned above is justified by the fact that the incidence of cancer or leukemia is an upper limit on the rate at which it is caused by radiation effects; in determining upper limits it is justifiable to select situations which minimize it. (author)

  1. Tests of the linearity assumption in the dose-effect relationship for radiation-induced cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, A.F.; Cohen, B.L.

    1980-01-01

    The validity of the BEIR linear extrapolation to low doses of the dose-effect relationship for radiation induced cancer is tested by use of natural radiation making use of selectivity on type of cancer, smoking habits, sex, age group, geographic area and/or time period. For lung cancer, a linear interpolation between zero dose-zero effect and the data from radon-induced cancers in miners implies that the majority of all lung cancers among non-smokers are due to radon; since lung cancers in miners are mostly small-cell undifferentiated (SCU), a rather rare type in general, linearity over predicts the frequency of SCU lung cancers among non smokers by a factor of 10, and among non-smoking females age 25-44 by a factor of 24. Similarly, linearity predicts that the majority of all lung cancers early in this century were due to radon even after due consideration is given to cases missed by poor diagnostic efficiency (this matter is considered in some detail). For the 30-40 age range, linearity over predicts the total lung cancer rate at that time by a factor of 3-6; for SCU lung cancer, the over-prediction is by at least a factor of 10. Other causes of lung cancer are considered which further enhance the degree to which the linearity assumption over-estimates the effects of low level radiation. A similar analysis is applied to leukemia induced by natural radiation. It is concluded that the upper limit for this is not higher than estimates from the linearity hypothesis. (author)

  2. A Simple Piece of Apparatus to Aid the Understanding of the Relationship between Angular Velocity and Linear Velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsal, Yasin

    2011-01-01

    One of the subjects that is confusing and difficult for students to fully comprehend is the concept of angular velocity and linear velocity. It is the relationship between linear and angular velocity that students find difficult; most students understand linear motion in isolation. In this article, we detail the design, construction and…

  3. On the linearity of the dose-effect relationship of DNA double strand breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadwick, K.H.; Leenhouts, H.P.

    1994-01-01

    Most radiation biologists believe that DNA double-strand breaks are induced linearly with radiation dose for all types of radiation. Since 1985, with the advent of elution and gel electrophoresis techniques which permit the measurement of DNA double-strand breaks induced in mammalian cells at doses having radiobiological relevance, the true nature of the dose-effect relationship has been brought into some doubt. Many investigators measured curvilinear dose-effect relationships and a few found good correlations between the induction of the DNA double-strand breaks and cell survival. We approach the problem pragmatically by assuming that the induction of DNA double-strand breaks by 125 I Auger electron emitters incorporated into the DNA of the cells is a linear function of the number of 125 I decays, and by comparing the dose-effect relationship for sparsely ionizing radiation against this standard. The conclusion drawn that the curvilinear dose-effect relationships and the correlations with survival are real. (Author)

  4. The relationship between crude oil spot and futures prices: Cointegration, linear and nonlinear causality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekiros, Stelios D.; Diks, Cees G.H.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigates the linear and nonlinear causal linkages between daily spot and futures prices for maturities of one, two, three and four months of West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil. The data cover two periods October 1991-October 1999 and November 1999-October 2007, with the latter being significantly more turbulent. Apart from the conventional linear Granger test we apply a new nonparametric test for nonlinear causality by Diks and Panchenko after controlling for cointegration. In addition to the traditional pairwise analysis, we test for causality while correcting for the effects of the other variables. To check if any of the observed causality is strictly nonlinear in nature, we also examine the nonlinear causal relationships of VECM filtered residuals. Finally, we investigate the hypothesis of nonlinear non-causality after controlling for conditional heteroskedasticity in the data using a GARCH-BEKK model. Whilst the linear causal relationships disappear after VECM cointegration filtering, nonlinear causal linkages in some cases persist even after GARCH filtering in both periods. This indicates that spot and futures returns may exhibit asymmetric GARCH effects and/or statistically significant higher order conditional moments. Moreover, the results imply that if nonlinear effects are accounted for, neither market leads or lags the other consistently, videlicet the pattern of leads and lags changes over time. (author)

  5. Prediction of thermal and mechanical stress-strain responses of TMC's subjected to complex TMF histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. S.; Mirdamadi, M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental and analytical evaluation of cross-plied laminates of Ti-15V-3Cr-3Al-3Sn (Ti-15-3) matrix reinforced with continuous silicon-carbide fibers (SCS-6) subjected to a complex TMF loading profile. Thermomechanical fatigue test techniques were developed to conduct a simulation of a generic hypersonic flight profile. A micromechanical analysis was used. The analysis predicts the stress-strain response of the laminate and of the constituents in each ply during thermal and mechanical cycling by using only constituent properties as input. The fiber was modeled as elastic with transverse orthotropic and temperature-dependent properties. The matrix was modeled using a thermoviscoplastic constitutive relation. The fiber transverse modulus was reduced in the analysis to simulate the fiber-matrix interface failures. Excellent correlation was found between measured and predicted laminate stress-strain response due to generic hypersonic flight profile when fiber debonding was modeled.

  6. The study of stress-strain state of stabilized layered soil foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolov Mikhail V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein presented are the results of modeling and analysis of stress-strain state of layered inhomogeneous foundation soil when it is stabilised by injection to different depths. Produced qualitative and quantitative analysis of the components of the field of isolines of stresses, strains, stress concentration and the difference between the strain at the boundary of different elastic horizontal layers. Recommendations are given for the location of stabilised zones in relation to the border of different elastic layers. In particular, it found that stabilization of soil within the weak layer is inappropriate, since it practically provides no increase in the stability of the soil foundation, and when performing stabilisation of soil foundations, it is recommended to place the lower border of the stabilisation zone below the border of a stronger layer, at this the distribution of stresses and strains occurs more evenly, and load-bearing capacity of this layer is used to the maximum.

  7. Stress-strain curve of concretes with recycled concrete aggregates: analysis of the NBR 8522 methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. GUJEL

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This work analyses the methodology "A" (item A.4 employed by the Brazilian Standard ABNT 8522 (ABNT, 2008 for determining the stress-strain behavior of cylindrical specimens of concrete, presenting considerations about possible enhancements aiming it use for concretes with recycled aggregates with automatic test equipment. The methodology specified by the Brazilian Standard presents methodological issues that brings distortions in obtaining the stress-strain curve, as the use of a very limited number of sampling points and by inducing micro cracks and fluency in the elastic behavior of the material due to the use of steady stress levels in the test. The use of a base stress of 0.5 MPa is too low for modern high load test machines designed do high strength concrete test. The work presents a discussion over these subjects, and a proposal of a modified test procedure to avoid such situations.

  8. Stress-Strain Law for Confined Concrete with Hardening or Softening Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Colajanni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a new general stress-strain law for concrete confined by steel, fiber reinforced polymer (FRP, or fiber reinforced cementitious matrix (FRCM, obtained by a suitable modification of the well-known Sargin’s curve for steel confined concrete. The proposed law is able to reproduce stress-strain curve of any shape, having both hardening or softening behavior, by using a single closed-form simple algebraic expression with constant coefficients. The coefficients are defined on the basis of the stress and the tangent modulus of the confined concrete in three characteristic points of the curve, thus being related to physical meaningful parameters. It will be shown that if the values of the parameters of the law are deduced from experimental tests, the model is able to accurately reproduce the experimental curve. If they are evaluated on the basis of an analysis-oriented model, the proposed model provides a handy equivalent design model.

  9. Biaxial failure criteria and stress-strain response for concrete of containment structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S. K.; Woo, S. K.; Song, Y. C.; Kweon, Y. K.; Cho, C. H.

    2001-01-01

    Biaxial failure criteria and stress-strain response for plain concrete of containment structure on nuclear power plants are studied under uniaxial and biaxial stress(compression-compression, compression-tension, and tension-tension combined stress). The concrete specimens of a square plate type are used for uniaxial and biaxial loading. The experimental data indicate that the strength of concrete under biaxial compression, f 2 /f 1 =-1/-1, is 17 percent larger than under uniaxial compression and the poisson's ratio of concrete is 0.1745. On the base of the results, a biaxial failure envelope for plain concrete that the uniaxial strength is 5660 psi are provided, and the biaxial failure behaviors for three biaxial loading areas are plotted respectively. And, various analytical equations having the reliability are proposed for representations of the biaxial failure criteria and stress-strain response curves of concrete

  10. In situ subsoil stress-strain behaviour in relation to soil precompression stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, T; Arvidsson, J; Schjønning, Per

    2012-01-01

    is assumed to be elastic and reversible as long as [sigma] work examined soil stress-strain behavior as measured in situ during wheeling experiments and related it to the stress-strain behavior and [sigma]pc measured on soil cores in uniaxial compression tests in the laboratory. The data......Soil compaction negatively influences many important soil functions, including crop growth. Compaction occurs when the applied stress, [sigma], overcomes the soil strength. Soil strength in relation to compaction is typically expressed by the soil precompression stress, [sigma]pc. Deformation...... analyzed were from a large number of wheeling experiments carried out in Sweden and Denmark on soils with a wide range of texture. Contradicting the concept of precompression stress, we observed residual strain, [Latin Small Letter Open E]res, at [sigma

  11. Stress, strain, and structural dynamics an interactive handbook of formulas, solutions, and Matlab toolboxes

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Bingen

    2005-01-01

    Stress, Strain, and Structural Dynamics is a comprehensive and definitive reference to statics and dynamics of solids and structures, including mechanics of materials, structural mechanics, elasticity, rigid-body dynamics, vibrations, structural dynamics, and structural controls. This text integrates the development of fundamental theories, formulas and mathematical models with user-friendly interactive computer programs, written in the powerful and popular MATLAB. This unique merger of technical referencing and interactive computing allows instant solution of a variety of engineering problems

  12. Simulation of Stress-Strain State of Shovel Rotary Support Kingpin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoreshok, A. A.; Buyankin, P. V.; Vorobiev, A. V.; Dronov, A. A.

    2016-04-01

    The article presents the sequence of computational simulation of stress-strain state of shovel’s rotary support. Computation results are analyzed, the kingpin is specified as the most loaded element, maximum stress zones are identified. Kingpin design modification such as enhancement of fillet curvature radius to 25 mm and displacement of eyebolt holes on the diameter of 165 mm are proposed, thus diminishing impact of stress concentrators and improving reliability of the rotary support.

  13. Measurement of the uniaxial mechanical properties of rat skin using different stress-strain definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, A; Navidbakhsh, M

    2015-05-01

    The mechanical properties of skin tissue may vary according to the anatomical locations of a body. There are different stress-strain definitions to measure the mechanical properties of skin tissue. However, there is no agreement as to which stress-strain definition should be implemented to measure the mechanical properties of skin at different anatomical locations. Three stress definitions (second Piola-Kichhoff stress, engineering stress, and true stress) and four strain definitions (Almansi-Hamel strain, Green-St. Venant strain, engineering strain, and true strain) are employed to determine the mechanical properties of skin tissue at back and abdomen locations of a rat body. The back and abdomen skins of eight rats are excised and subjected to a series of tensile tests. The elastic modulus, maximum stress, and strain of skin tissues are measured using three stress definitions and four strain definitions. The results show that the effect of varying the stress definition on the maximum stress measurements of the back skin is significant but not when calculating the elastic modulus and maximum strain. No significant effects are observed on the elastic modulus, maximum stress, and strain measurements of abdomen skin by varying the stress definition. In the true stress-strain diagram, the maximum stress (20%), and elastic modulus (35%) of back skin are significantly higher than that of abdomen skin. The true stress-strain definition is favored to measure the mechanical properties of skin tissue since it gives more accurate measurements of the skin's response using the instantaneous values. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Determination of Stress-Strain Characteristics of Railhead Steel using Image Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bandula-Heva; T.; Dhanasekar; M.

    2011-01-01

    True stress-strain curve of railhead steel is required to investigate the behaviour of railhead under wheel loading through elasto-plastic Finite Element (FE) analysis. To reduce the rate of wear, the railhead material is hardened through annealing and quenching. The Australian standard rail sections are not fully hardened and hence suffer from non-uniform distribution of the material property; usage of average properties in the FE modelling can potentially induce error in the predic...

  15. Formation of stress/strain cycles for analytical assessment of fatigue crack initiation and growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashkinov, A.V.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses standard techniques for setting up cycles of stresses, strains and stress intensity factors (SIF) for use in analysing the fatigue characteristics of crack-free components or the fatigue crack growth if crack-like flaws are present. A number of improved techniques are proposed. An enhanced procedure for analytical description of true metal stress-strain curves, covering plastic effects, is presented. This procedure involves standard physical and mechanical properties of the metal in question, such as ultimate stress, yield stress and elasticity modulus. It is emphasized that the currently practiced rain-flow method of design cycle formation, which is effective for an actual (truly known) cyclic loading history, is not suitable for a projected (anticipated) history, as it leaves out of account possible variations in the sequence of operating conditions. Improved techniques for establishing design stress/strain and SIF cycles are described, which make allowance for the most unfavourable sequence of events in the projected loading history. The paper points to a basic difference in the methods of design cycle formation, employed in assessment of the current condition of a component (with the actual history accounted for) and in estimation of the residual lifetime or life extension (for a projected history). (authors)

  16. Computer modeling of the stress-strain state of welded construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurguzhin, Marat; Danenova, Gulmira; Akhmetzhanov, Talgat

    2017-11-01

    At the present time the maintenance of the welded construction serviceability over normative service life is provided by the maintenance system on the basis of the guiding documents according to the concept of "fail safe". However, technology factors relating to welding such as high residual stresses and significant plastic strains are not considered in the guiding documents. The design procedure of the stressed-strained state of welded constructions is suggested in the paper. The procedure investigates welded constructions during welding and the external load using the program ANSYS. In this paper, the model of influence of the residual stress strain state on the factor of stress intensity is proposed. The calculation method of the residual stressed-strained state (SSS) taking into account the phase transition is developed by the authors. Melting and hardening of a plate material during heating and cooling is considered. The thermomechanical problem of heating a plate by a stationary heat source is solved. The setup of the heating spot center on distance (190 mm) from the crack top in a direction of its propagation leads to the fact that the value of total factor of stress intensity will considerably decrease under action of the specified residual compressing stresses. It can lower the speed of the crack propagation to zero. The suggested method of survivability maintenance can be applied during operation with the purpose of increasing the service life of metal constructions up to running repair of technological machines.

  17. Limitations of Hollomon and Ludwigson stress-strain relations in assessing the strain hardening parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, K G

    2006-01-01

    It is shown that the deviation from the ideal Hollomon relation in describing the stress-strain behaviour is characteristic of all materials at low strains. The Ludwigson relation describing the deviation from the Hollomon relation at low strains is critically analysed and it is shown that the deviation at low strains is a consequence of some unknown 'plastic strain equivalent' present in the material. Stress strain curves obeying an ideal Hollomon relation as well as that of a structurally modified (prior cold worked) material were simulated and compared. The results show that the yield strength and the flow strength of a material at constant strain rate and temperature are dictated by the magnitude of the 'plastic strain equivalent' term. It is shown that this component need not necessarily mean a prior plastic strain present in the material due to prior cold work alone and that prior cold work strain will add to this. If this component is identified, the stress-strain behaviour can be adequately described by the Swift relation. It is shown that in both formalisms, the strain hardening index is a function of the yield strength of the material

  18. Linear solvation energy relationships: "rule of thumb" for estimation of variable values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, James P.; Passino-Reader, Dora R.

    1991-01-01

    For the linear solvation energy relationship (LSER), values are listed for each of the variables (Vi/100, π*, &betam, αm) for fundamental organic structures and functional groups. We give the guidelines to estimate LSER variable values quickly for a vast array of possible organic compounds such as those found in the environment. The difficulty in generating these variables has greatly discouraged the application of this quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) method. This paper present the first compilation of molecular functional group values together with a utilitarian set of the LSER variable estimation rules. The availability of these variable values and rules should facilitate widespread application of LSER for hazard evaluation of environmental contaminants.

  19. Linear free energy relationship applied to trivalent cations with lanthanum and actinium oxide and hydroxide structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragavan, Anpalaki J.

    2006-01-01

    Linear free energy relationships for trivalent cations with crystalline M 2 O 3 and, M(OH) 3 phases of lanthanides and actinides were developed from known thermodynamic properties of the aqueous trivalent cations, modifying the Sverjensky and Molling equation. The linear free energy relationship for trivalent cations is as ΔG f,MvX 0 =a MvX ΔG n,M 3+ 0 +b MvX +β MvX r M 3+ , where the coefficients a MvX , b MvX , and β MvX characterize a particular structural family of MvX, r M 3+ is the ionic radius of M 3+ cation, ΔG f,MvX 0 is the standard Gibbs free energy of formation of MvX and ΔG n,M 3+ 0 is the standard non-solvation free energy of the cation. The coefficients for the oxide family are: a MvX =0.2705, b MvX =-1984.75 (kJ/mol), and β MvX =197.24 (kJ/molnm). The coefficients for the hydroxide family are: a MvX =0.1587, b MvX =-1474.09 (kJ/mol), and β MvX =791.70 (kJ/molnm).

  20. The Relationship between Residential Electricity Consumption and Income: A Piecewise Linear Model with Panel Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanan Liu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available There are many uncertainties and risks in residential electricity consumption associated with economic development. Knowledge of the relationship between residential electricity consumption and its key determinant—income—is important to the sustainable development of the electric power industry. Using panel data from 30 provinces for the 1995–2012 period, this study investigates how residential electricity consumption changes as incomes increase in China. Previous studies typically used linear or quadratic double-logarithmic models imposing ex ante restrictions on the indistinct relationship between residential electricity consumption and income. Contrary to those models, we employed a reduced piecewise linear model that is self-adaptive and highly flexible and circumvents the problem of “prior restrictions”. Robust tests of different segment specifications and regression methods are performed to ensure the validity of the research. The results provide strong evidence that the income elasticity was approximately one, and it remained stable throughout the estimation period. The income threshold at which residential electricity consumption automatically remains stable or slows has not been reached. To ensure the sustainable development of the electric power industry, introducing higher energy efficiency standards for electrical appliances and improving income levels are vital. Government should also emphasize electricity conservation in the industrial sector rather than in residential sector.

  1. A linear solvation energy relationship model of organic chemical partitioning to dissolved organic carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipka, Undine; Di Toro, Dominic M

    2011-09-01

    Predicting the association of contaminants with both particulate and dissolved organic matter is critical in determining the fate and bioavailability of chemicals in environmental risk assessment. To date, the association of a contaminant to particulate organic matter is considered in many multimedia transport models, but the effect of dissolved organic matter is typically ignored due to a lack of either reliable models or experimental data. The partition coefficient to dissolved organic carbon (K(DOC)) may be used to estimate the fraction of a contaminant that is associated with dissolved organic matter. Models relating K(DOC) to the octanol-water partition coefficient (K(OW)) have not been successful for many types of dissolved organic carbon in the environment. Instead, linear solvation energy relationships are proposed to model the association of chemicals with dissolved organic matter. However, more chemically diverse K(DOC) data are needed to produce a more robust model. For humic acid dissolved organic carbon, the linear solvation energy relationship predicts log K(DOC) with a root mean square error of 0.43. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  2. STRESS-STRAIN STATE OF ROCKFILL DAM DOUBLE-LAYER FACE MADE OF REINFORCED CONCRETE AND SOIL-CEMENT CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sainov Mikhail Petrovich

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available There was studied the stress-strain state of 215 m high rockfill dam where the seepage-control element is presented by a reinforced concrete face of soil-cement concrete placed on the under-face zone. Calculations were carried out for two possible variants of deformability of rock outline taking into account the non-linearity of its deformative properties. It was obtained that the reinforced concrete face and the soil-cement concrete under-face zone work jointly as a single construction - a double-layer face. As the face assembly resting on rock is made with a sliding joint the scheme of its static operation is similar to the that of the beam operation on the elastic foundation. At that, the upstream surface of the double-layer face is in the compressed zone and lower one is in the tensile zone. This protects the face against cracking on the upstream surface but threatens with structural failure of soil-cement concrete. In order to avoid appearance of cracks in soil-cement concrete part due to tension it is necessary to achieve proper compaction of rockfill and arrange transverse joints in the double-layer face.

  3. On the Relationship Between Confidence Sets and Exchangeable Weights in Multiple Linear Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pek, Jolynn; Chalmers, R Philip; Monette, Georges

    2016-01-01

    When statistical models are employed to provide a parsimonious description of empirical relationships, the extent to which strong conclusions can be drawn rests on quantifying the uncertainty in parameter estimates. In multiple linear regression (MLR), regression weights carry two kinds of uncertainty represented by confidence sets (CSs) and exchangeable weights (EWs). Confidence sets quantify uncertainty in estimation whereas the set of EWs quantify uncertainty in the substantive interpretation of regression weights. As CSs and EWs share certain commonalities, we clarify the relationship between these two kinds of uncertainty about regression weights. We introduce a general framework describing how CSs and the set of EWs for regression weights are estimated from the likelihood-based and Wald-type approach, and establish the analytical relationship between CSs and sets of EWs. With empirical examples on posttraumatic growth of caregivers (Cadell et al., 2014; Schneider, Steele, Cadell & Hemsworth, 2011) and on graduate grade point average (Kuncel, Hezlett & Ones, 2001), we illustrate the usefulness of CSs and EWs for drawing strong scientific conclusions. We discuss the importance of considering both CSs and EWs as part of the scientific process, and provide an Online Appendix with R code for estimating Wald-type CSs and EWs for k regression weights.

  4. A Single-Expression Formula for Inverting Strain-Life and Stress-Strain Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, S. S.; Muralidharan, U.

    1981-01-01

    Starting with the basic fatigue lift formula, an inversion formula is derived. The inversion formula is valid over the entire life range of engineering interest for all materials examined. Conformity between the two equations is extremely close, suitable for all engineering problems. The approach used to invert the life relation is also suitable for the inversion of other formulas involving the sum of two power-law terms.

  5. Investigation of Stress-Strain-Time Relationships of Concrete Filled Steel Tube Columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutlu Seçer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, time dependent creep and shrinkage behaviors of concrete filled steel box section columns are investigated by using various methods. Time dependent behavior is examined by using effective modulus method, age-adjusted effective modulus method, creep rate method and Dischinger method. Shrinkage and creep strains are modeled using ACI 209 specification. In the study, in order to investigate time dependent behavior numerically, a concrete filled steel box section column is selected in a twenty story building and the time dependent stress decrease in concrete and stress increase in steel box section and the changes in strain components are calculated. Stress – time, strain – time and strain components – time graphics are shown and the advantages and the disadvantages of the numerical methods in modeling the time dependent behavior are revealed respectively.

  6. Cyclic stress-strain behavior of polymeric nonwoven structures for the use as artificial leaflet material for transcatheter heart valve prostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbeiter Daniela

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Xenogenic leaflet material, bovine and porcine pericardium, is widely used for the fabrication of surgically implanted and transcatheter heart valve prostheses. As a biological material, long term durability of pericardium is limited due to calcification, degeneration and homogeneity. Therefore, polymeric materials represent a promising approach for a next generation of artificial heart valve leaflets with improved durability. Within the current study we analyzed the mechanical performance of polymeric structures based on elastomeric materials. Polymeric cast films were prepared and nonwovens were manufactured in an electrospinning process. Analysis of cyclic stress-strain behavior was performed, using a universal testing machine. The uniaxial cyclic tensile experiments of the elastomeric samples yielded a non-linear elastic response due to viscoelastic behavior with hysteresis. Equilibrium of stress-strain curves was found after a specific number of cycles, for cast films and nonwovens, respectively. In conclusion, preconditioning was found obligatory for the evaluation of the mechanical performance of polymeric materials for the use as artificial leaflet material for heart valve prostheses.

  7. Linear relationship between peak and season-long abundances in insects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenia S Onufrieva

    Full Text Available An accurate quantitative relationship between key characteristics of an insect population, such as season-long and peak abundances, can be very useful in pest management programs. To the best of our knowledge, no such relationship has yet been established. Here we establish a predictive linear relationship between insect catch Mpw during the week of peak abundance, the length of seasonal flight period, F (number of weeks and season-long cumulative catch (abundance A = 0.41MpwF. The derivation of the equation is based on several general assumptions and does not involve fitting to experimental data, which implies generality of the result. A quantitative criterion for the validity of the model is presented. The equation was tested using extensive data collected on captures of male gypsy moths Lymantria dispar (L. (Lepidoptera: Erebidae in pheromone-baited traps during 15 years. The model was also tested using trap catch data for two species of mosquitoes, Culex pipiens (L. (Diptera: Culicidae and Aedes albopictus (Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae, in Gravid and BG-sentinel mosquito traps, respectively. The simple, parameter-free equation approximates experimental data points with relative error of 13% and R2 = 0.997, across all of the species tested. For gypsy moth, we also related season-long and weekly trap catches to the daily trap catches during peak flight. We describe several usage scenarios, in which the derived relationships are employed to help link results of small-scale field studies to the operational pest management programs.

  8. The relationships among iron supplement use, Hb concentration and linear growth in young children: Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Shimels Hussien; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2017-11-01

    Growth faltering and anaemia remain unacceptably high among infants and young children in Ethiopia. In this study, we investigated the relationships among Fe supplement use (ISU), Hb concentration and linear growth, hypothesising positive relationships between ISU and Hb, ISU and linear growth and Hb and linear growth. We used a nationally representative data of 2400 children aged 6-24 months from the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) 2011, conducted following a stratified, two-stage cluster sampling. We examined the links by Pearson's correlation, bivariate and multivariate linear regression analyses and reported adjusted estimates. We found that ISU was not significantly associated with either Hb (β=1·09; 95 % CI -2·73, 5·01, P=0·567) or linear growth (β=0·07; 95 % CI -0·06, 0·21, P=0·217). We found a positive, however, weak, correlation between Hb and linear growth (r 0·09; 95 % CI 0·06, 0·11, PHb predicted linear growth independent of a variety dietary and non-dietary factors (β=0·08; 95 % CI 0·04, 0·11, PHb; age, birth type, size at birth, sex, breast-feeding duration, dietary diversity and deworming were independently associated with linear growth, indicating that Hb and linear growth are multifactorial with both nutritional and non-nutritional factors implicated. Further studies, with better design and exposure assessment, are warranted on the relation of ISU with Hb or linear growth.

  9. Substance use disorder counselors' job performance and turnover after 1 year: linear or curvilinear relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laschober, Tanja C; de Tormes Eby, Lillian Turner

    2013-07-01

    The main goals of the current study were to investigate whether there are linear or curvilinear relationships between substance use disorder counselors' job performance and actual turnover after 1 year utilizing four indicators of job performance and three turnover statuses (voluntary, involuntary, and no turnover as the reference group). Using longitudinal data from 440 matched counselor-clinical supervisor dyads, results indicate that overall, counselors with lower job performance are more likely to turn over voluntarily and involuntarily than not to turn over. Further, one of the job performance measures shows a significant curvilinear effect. We conclude that the negative consequences often assumed to be "caused" by counselor turnover may be overstated because those who leave both voluntarily and involuntarily demonstrate generally lower performance than those who remain employed at their treatment program.

  10. Solvent effects in ionic liquids: empirical linear energy-density relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerda-Monje, A; Aizman, A; Tapia, R A; Chiappe, C; Contreras, R

    2012-07-28

    Multiparameter linear energy-density relationships to model solvent effects in room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) are introduced and tested. The model incorporates two solvent dependent and two specific solute-solvent parameters represented by a set of electronic indexes derived from the conceptual density functional theory. The specific solute-solvent interactions are described in terms of the electronic chemical potential for proton migration between the anion or cation and the transition state structure of a specific reaction. These indexes provide a quantitative estimation of the hydrogen bond (HB) acceptor basicity and the hydrogen bond donor acidity of the ionic solvent, respectively. A sound quantitative scale of HB strength is thereby obtained. The solvent dependent contributions are described by the global electrophilicity of the cation and nucleophilicity of the anion forming the ionic liquid. The model is illustrated for the kinetics of cycloaddition of cyclopentadiene towards acrolein. In general, cation HB acidity outweighs the remaining parameters for this reaction.

  11. Substance Use Disorder Counselors’ Job Performance and Turnover after 1 Year: Linear or Curvilinear Relationship?1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laschober, Tanja C.; de Tormes Eby, Lillian Turner

    2013-01-01

    The main goals of the current study were to investigate whether there are linear or curvilinear relationships between substance use disorder counselors’ job performance and actual turnover after 1 year utilizing four indicators of job performance and three turnover statuses (voluntary, involuntary, and no turnover as the reference group). Using longitudinal data from 440 matched counselor-clinical supervisor dyads, results indicate that overall, counselors with lower job performance are more likely to turn over voluntarily and involuntarily than not to turn over. Further, one of the job performance measures shows a significant curvilinear effect. We conclude that the negative consequences often assumed to be “caused” by counselor turnover may be overstated because those who leave both voluntarily and involuntarily demonstrate generally lower performance than those who remain employed at their treatment program. PMID:22527711

  12. On the cyclic stress-strain behavior and low cycle fatigue of aerospace materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbach, J.

    1972-01-01

    The elastic-plastic deformation behavior under cyclic stress of a number of different engineering materials was experimentally investigated with the aid of high-precision methods of measuring, some of which had been newly developed. Experiments made with a variety of steels, the titanium alloy Ti-A16-V4, a cobalt (tungsten) alloy, the high-temperature material Nimonic 90 and Dural (A1-Cu) are reported. The theory given in an attempt to explain these experiments is aimed at finding general formulas for the cyclic stress-strain behavior materials.

  13. Main results of BN-600 reactor stress-strain state investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panov, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    The development of BN-600 fast reactor plant needed the solution of a series of complex engineering problems including ones for confirming integrity of the most vital structural components. The particular attention was given to the main vessel since reactor availability end safe operation of the plant as a whole depend on vessel strength end integrity. The present report deals with the main results of theoretical and experimental investigations of the stress-strain state of BN-600 reactor vessel carried out during design, start-up and initial bringing the reactor to power

  14. Stress-strain properties of railway steel at strain rates of upto 105 per second

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashmi, M.S.J.; Islam, M.N.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents the stress-strain characteristics of railway steel at strain rates of up to 10 5 /s at room temperature determined by a new technique. In determining the results, account has been taken of the strain-rate variation, the total strain and the strain rate history. The effect of friction, material inertia and temperature rise is also assessed and an empirical constitutive equation describing the strain-rate and strain sensitive flow stress for this type of steel is proposed. (orig.)

  15. Spall damage of a mild carbon steel: Effects of peak stress, strain rate and pulse duration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, C.; Li, B.; Huang, J.Y.; Ma, H.H.; Zhu, M.H.; Zhu, J.; Luo, S.N.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate spall damage of a mild carbon steel under high strain-rate loading, regarding the effects of peak stress, strain rate, and pulse duration on spall strength and damage, as well as related microstructure features, using gas gun plate impact, laser velocimetry, and electron backscatter diffraction analysis. Our experiments demonstrate strong dependences of spall strength on peak stress and strain rate, and its weak dependence on pulse duration. We establish numerical relations between damage and peak stress or pulse duration. Brittle and ductile spall fracture modes are observed at different loading conditions. Damage nucleates at grain boundaries and triple junctions, either as transgranular cleavage cracks or voids.

  16. Spall damage of a mild carbon steel: Effects of peak stress, strain rate and pulse duration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, C. [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); The Peac Institute of Multiscale Sciences, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Li, B.; Huang, J.Y. [The Peac Institute of Multiscale Sciences, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); CAS Key Laboratory of Mechanical Behavior and Design of Materials, Department of Modern Mechanics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Ma, H.H. [CAS Key Laboratory of Mechanical Behavior and Design of Materials, Department of Modern Mechanics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Zhu, M.H. [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Zhu, J., E-mail: zhujun01@163.com [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); Luo, S.N., E-mail: sluo@pims.ac.cn [The Peac Institute of Multiscale Sciences, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China)

    2016-04-13

    We investigate spall damage of a mild carbon steel under high strain-rate loading, regarding the effects of peak stress, strain rate, and pulse duration on spall strength and damage, as well as related microstructure features, using gas gun plate impact, laser velocimetry, and electron backscatter diffraction analysis. Our experiments demonstrate strong dependences of spall strength on peak stress and strain rate, and its weak dependence on pulse duration. We establish numerical relations between damage and peak stress or pulse duration. Brittle and ductile spall fracture modes are observed at different loading conditions. Damage nucleates at grain boundaries and triple junctions, either as transgranular cleavage cracks or voids.

  17. Determination of stress-strain state of the wooden church log walls with software package

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chulkova Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The restoration of architectural monuments is going on all over the world today. The main aim of restoration is the renewal of stable functioning of building constructions in normal state. In this article, we have tried to figure out with special software the bearing capacity of log cabins of the Church of Transfiguration on Kizhi island. As shown in research results, determination of stress-strain stage with software package is necessary for the bearing capacity computation as well as field tests.

  18. Lead-lag relationships between stock and market risk within linear response theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borysov, Stanislav; Balatsky, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    We study historical correlations and lead-lag relationships between individual stock risks (standard deviation of daily stock returns) and market risk (standard deviation of daily returns of a market-representative portfolio) in the US stock market. We consider the cross-correlation functions averaged over stocks, using historical stock prices from the Standard & Poor's 500 index for 1994-2013. The observed historical dynamics suggests that the dependence between the risks was almost linear during the US stock market downturn of 2002 and after the US housing bubble in 2007, remaining at that level until 2013. Moreover, the averaged cross-correlation function often had an asymmetric shape with respect to zero lag in the periods of high correlation. We develop the analysis by the application of the linear response formalism to study underlying causal relations. The calculated response functions suggest the presence of characteristic regimes near financial crashes, when individual stock risks affect market risk and vice versa. This work was supported by VR 621-2012-2983.

  19. Non-Linear Dose Response Relationships in Biology, Toxicology, and Medicine (June 8-10, 2004). Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calabrese, Edward J.

    2004-01-01

    The conference attracts approximately 500 scientists researching in the area of non-linear low dose effects. These scientists represent a wide range of biological/medical fields and technical disciplines. Observations that biphasic dose responses are frequently reported in each of these areas but that the recognition of similar dose response relationships across disciplines is very rarely appreciated and exploited. By bringing scientist of such diverse backgrounds together who are working on the common area of non-linear dose response relationships this will enhance our understanding of the occurrence, origin, mechanism, significance and practical applications of such dose response relationships

  20. A biological basis for the linear non-threshold dose-response relationship for low-level carcinogen exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    This chapter examines low-level dose-response relationships in terms of the two-stage mouse tumorigenesis model. Analyzes the feasibility of the linear non-threshold dose-response model which was first adopted for use in the assessment of cancer risks from ionizing radiation and more recently from chemical carcinogens. Finds that both the interaction of B(a)P with epidermal DNA of the mouse skin and the dose-response relationship for the initiation stage of mouse skin tumorigenesis showed a linear non-threshold dose-response relationship. Concludes that low level exposure to environmental carcinogens has a linear non-threshold dose-response relationship with the carcinogen acting as an initiator and the promoting action being supplied by the factors that are responsible for the background cancer rate in the target tissue

  1. Superelastic stress-strain behavior in ferrogels with different types of magneto-elastic coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Peet; Löwen, Hartmut; Menzel, Andreas M.

    Colloidal magnetic particles embedded in an elastic polymer matrix constitute a smart material called ferrogel. It responds to an applied external magnetic field by changes in elastic properties, which can be exploited for various applications like dampers, vibration absorbers, or actuators. Under appropriate conditions, the stress-strain behavior of a ferrogel can display a fascinating feature: superelasticity, the capability to reversibly deform by a huge amount while barely altering the applied load. In a previous work, using numerical simulations, we investigated this behavior assuming that the magnetic moments carried by the embedded particles can freely reorient to minimize their magnetic interaction energy. Here, we extend the analysis to ferrogels where restoring torques by the surrounding matrix hinder rotations towards a magnetically favored configuration. For example, the particles can be chemically cross-linked into the polymer matrix and the magnetic moments can be fixed to the particle axes. We demonstrate that these systems still feature a superelastic regime. As before, the nonlinear stress-strain behavior can be reversibly tailored during operation by external magnetic fields. Yet, the different coupling of the magnetic moments causes different types of response to external stimuli. For instance, an external magnetic field applied parallel to the stretching axis hardly affects the superelastic regime but stiffens the system beyond it. Other smart materials featuring superelasticity, e.g. metallic shape-memory alloys, have already found widespread applications. Our soft polymer systems offer many additional advantages like a typically higher deformability and enhanced biocompatibility combined with high tunability.

  2. Modeling of the stress-strain state of the ground mass contaminated with peracetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levenko Anna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available None of the methods described previously provides a solution to the problem that deals with the SSS evaluation of the ground mass which is under the influence of chemically active substances and, in particular, under the influence of peracetic acid. The stress-strain state of the ground mass contaminated with peracetic acid was estimated. Stresses occurring in the ground mass in the natural state were determined after the entry of acid into it and after the chemical fixation of it with sodium silicate. All the parameters of the stress-strain state of the ground mass were obtained under a number of physical and mechanical conditions. It was determined that following the work on the silicatization of the ground mass contaminated with peracetic acid the quantity of strain decreased by 26.11 to 48.9%. The comparison of the results of stress calculations indicates the stress reduction in the ground mass in 1.8 – 2.6 times after its fixing.

  3. STRESS - STRAIN CURVE ANALYSIS OF WOVEN FABRICS MAD E FROM COMBED YARNS TYPE WOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VÎLCU Adrian

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the tensile behavior of woven fabrics made from 45%Wool + 55% PES used for garments. Analysis of fabric behavior during wearing has shown that these are submitted to simple and repeated uni-axial or bi-axial tensile strains. The level of these strains is often within the elastic limit, rarely going over yielding. Therefore the designer must be able to evaluate the mechanical behavior of such fabrics in order to control the fabric behavior in the garment. This evaluation is carried out based on the tensile testing, using certain indexes specific to the stress-strain curve. The paper considers an experimental matrix based on woven fabrics of different yarn counts, different or equal yarn count for warp and weft systems and different structures. The fabrics were tested using a testing machine and the results were then compared in order to determine the fabrics’ tensile behavior and the factors of influence that affect it.From the point of view of tensile testing, the woven materials having twill weave are preferable because this type of structure is characterized by higher durability and better yarn stability in the fabric. In practice, the woven material must exhibit an optimum behavior to repeated strains, flexions and abrasions during wearing process. The analysis of fabrics tensile properties studied by investigation of stress-strain diagrams reveals that the main factors influencing the tensile strength are: yarns fineness, technological density of those two systems of yarns and the weaving type.

  4. Comparing Machine Learning Classifiers and Linear/Logistic Regression to Explore the Relationship between Hand Dimensions and Demographic Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel-Hurtado, Oscar; Guest, Richard; Stevenage, Sarah V; Neil, Greg J; Black, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between physiological measurements from human subjects and their demographic data is important within both the biometric and forensic domains. In this paper we explore the relationship between measurements of the human hand and a range of demographic features. We assess the ability of linear regression and machine learning classifiers to predict demographics from hand features, thereby providing evidence on both the strength of relationship and the key features underpinning this relationship. Our results show that we are able to predict sex, height, weight and foot size accurately within various data-range bin sizes, with machine learning classification algorithms out-performing linear regression in most situations. In addition, we identify the features used to provide these relationships applicable across multiple applications.

  5. The Relationships between Weight Functions, Geometric Functions,and Compliance Functions in Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Rong [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Linear elastic fracture mechanics is widely used in industry because it established simple and explicit relationships between the permissible loading conditions and the critical crack size that is allowed in a structure. Stress intensity factors are the above-mentioned functional expressions that relate load with crack size through geometric functions or weight functions. Compliance functions are to determine the crack/flaw size in a structure when optical inspection is inconvenient. As a result, geometric functions, weight functions and compliance functions have been intensively studied to determine the stress intensity factor expressions for different geometries. However, the relations between these functions have received less attention. This work is therefore to investigate the intrinsic relationships between these functions. Theoretical derivation was carried out and the results were verified on single-edge cracked plate under tension and bending. It is found out that the geometric function is essentially the non-dimensional weight function at the loading point. The compliance function is composed of two parts: a varying part due to crack extension and a constant part from the intact structure if no crack exists. The derivative of the compliance function at any location is the product of the geometric function and the weight function at the evaluation point. Inversely, the compliance function can be acquired by the integration of the product of the geometric function and the weight function with respect to the crack size. The integral constant is just the unchanging compliance from the intact structure. Consequently, a special application of the relations is to obtain the compliance functions along a crack once the geometric function and weight functions are known. Any of the three special functions can be derived once the other two functions are known. These relations may greatly simplify the numerical process in obtaining either geometric functions, weight

  6. Non-linear relationship between oxygen uptake and power output in the Astrand nomogram-old data revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, J A; Szkutnik, Z; Majerczak, J; Duda, K; Pedersen, P K

    2007-06-01

    For the last decade there have been considerable discussion concerning the linearity / non-linearity of the oxygen uptake (V(O2)) - power output (W) relationship with strong experimental evidence of non-linearity provided mainly by breath-by-breath measurements. In this study, we attempted to answer the question whether the V(O2) - W relationship in the Astrand nomogram, as presented in the Textbook of Work Physiology, P.-O. Astrand et al. (2003), page 281, based on the Douglas bag method, is indeed linear, as stated by the authors before, or if a change point in V(O2), described by Zoladz et al. (1998) Eur J Appl Physiol 78: 369-377, can possibly be detected in those data. The V(O2) - W data were taken from the Astrand nomogram referenced above and from the Table 9.5 on page 282 in the same reference and tested for the presence of the change point in V(O2), using our two-phase model (see the reference above). In the first phase, a linear V(O2) - W relationship was assumed, whereas in the second one (above the so-called change point) an additional increase in V(O2) above the values expected from the linear model was allowed. It was found that in the data taken from the Astrand nomogram (data for men), as well as in the data taken from the Table 9.5, statistically significant change points in V(O2) were present at the power output of 150 W. The documentation of the presence of a change point in the V(O2) - W relationship in the Astrand data provides further evidence for the existence of a non-linearity in the V(O2) - W relationship in incremental exercise tests of humans, also in V(O2) data based upon the Douglas bag method.

  7. The non-linear relationship between body size and function in parrotfishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokrantz, J.; Nyström, M.; Thyresson, M.; Johansson, C.

    2008-12-01

    Parrotfishes are a group of herbivores that play an important functional role in structuring benthic communities on coral reefs. Increasingly, these fish are being targeted by fishermen, and resultant declines in biomass and abundance may have severe consequences for the dynamics and regeneration of coral reefs. However, the impact of overfishing extends beyond declining fish stocks. It can also lead to demographic changes within species populations where mean body size is reduced. The effect of reduced mean body size on population dynamics is well described in literature but virtually no information exists on how this may influence important ecological functions. The study investigated how one important function, scraping (i.e., the capacity to remove algae and open up bare substratum for coral larval settlement), by three common species of parrotfishes ( Scarus niger, Chlorurus sordidus, and Chlorurus strongylocephalus) on coral reefs at Zanzibar (Tanzania) was influenced by the size of individual fishes. There was a non-linear relationship between body size and scraping function for all species examined, and impact through scraping was also found to increase markedly when fish reached a size of 15 20 cm. Thus, coral reefs which have a high abundance and biomass of parrotfish may nonetheless be functionally impaired if dominated by small-sized individuals. Reductions in mean body size within parrotfish populations could, therefore, have functional impacts on coral reefs that previously have been overlooked.

  8. Development of linear free energy relationships for aqueous phase radical-involved chemical reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakata, Daisuke; Mezyk, Stephen P; Jones, Jace W; Daws, Brittany R; Crittenden, John C

    2014-12-02

    Aqueous phase advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) produce hydroxyl radicals (HO•) which can completely oxidize electron rich organic compounds. The proper design and operation of AOPs require that we predict the formation and fate of the byproducts and their associated toxicity. Accordingly, there is a need to develop a first-principles kinetic model that can predict the dominant reaction pathways that potentially produce toxic byproducts. We have published some of our efforts on predicting the elementary reaction pathways and the HO• rate constants. Here we develop linear free energy relationships (LFERs) that predict the rate constants for aqueous phase radical reactions. The LFERs relate experimentally obtained kinetic rate constants to quantum mechanically calculated aqueous phase free energies of activation. The LFERs have been applied to 101 reactions, including (1) HO• addition to 15 aromatic compounds; (2) addition of molecular oxygen to 65 carbon-centered aliphatic and cyclohexadienyl radicals; (3) disproportionation of 10 peroxyl radicals, and (4) unimolecular decay of nine peroxyl radicals. The LFERs correlations predict the rate constants within a factor of 2 from the experimental values for HO• reactions and molecular oxygen addition, and a factor of 5 for peroxyl radical reactions. The LFERs and the elementary reaction pathways will enable us to predict the formation and initial fate of the byproducts in AOPs. Furthermore, our methodology can be applied to other environmental processes in which aqueous phase radical-involved reactions occur.

  9. The risk of low doses of ionising radiation and the linear no threshold relationship debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubiana, M.; Masse, R.; Vathaire, F. de; Averbeck, D.; Aurengo, A.

    2007-01-01

    The ICRP and the B.E.I.R. VII reports recommend a linear no threshold (L.N.T.) relationship for the estimation of cancer excess risk induced by ionising radiations (IR), but the 2005 report of Medicine and Science French Academies concludes that it leads to overestimate of risk for low and very low doses. The bases of L.N.T. are challenged by recent biological and animal experimental studies which show that the defence against IR involves the cell microenvironment and the immunologic system. The defence mechanisms against low doses are different and comparatively more effective than for high doses. Cell death is predominant against low doses. DNA repairing is activated against high doses, in order to preserve tissue functions. These mechanisms provide for multicellular organisms an effective and low cost defence system. The differences between low and high doses defence mechanisms are obvious for alpha emitters which show several greys threshold effects. These differences result in an impairment of epidemiological studies which, for statistical power purpose, amalgamate high and low doses exposure data, since it would imply that cancer IR induction and defence mechanisms are similar in both cases. Low IR dose risk estimates should rely on specific epidemiological studies restricted to low dose exposures and taking precisely into account potential confounding factors. The preliminary synthesis of cohort studies for which low dose data (< 100 mSv) were available show no significant risk excess, neither for solid cancer nor for leukemias. (authors)

  10. STRESS-STRAIN STATE IN EMBEDMENT OF REINFORCEMENT IN CASE OF REPEATED LOADINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirsayapov Ilshat Talgatovich

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The author offer transforming the diagram of ideal elastic-plastic deformations for the description of the stress-strain state of embedment of reinforcement behind a critical inclined crack at repeatedly repeating loadings. The endurance limit of the adhesion between concrete and reinforcement and its corresponding displacements in case of repeated loadings are accepted as the main indicators. This adhesion law is the most appropriate for the description of physical and mechanical phenomena in the contact zone in case of cyclic loading, because it simply and reliably describes the adhesion mechanism and the nature of the deformation, and greatly simplifies the endurance calculations compared to the standard adhesion law. On the basis of this diagram the author obtained the equations for the description of the distribution of pressures and displacements after cyclic loading with account for the development of deformations of cyclic creep of the concrete under the studs of reinforcement.

  11. The effect of hydrogen on the multiaxial stress-strain behavior of titanium tubing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentz, C.W.; Hecker, S.S.; Koss, D.A.; Stout, M.G.

    1983-01-01

    The influence of internal hydrogen on the multiaxial stress-strain behavior of commercially pure titanium has been studied. Thin-walled specimens containing either 20 or 1070 ppm hydrogen were tested at constant stress ratios in combined tension and internal pressure. Hydrogen lowers the yield strength but has no significant effect on strain hardening behavior at strains epsilon greater than or equal to 0.02. Thus, hydrogen embrittlement under plain strain or equibiaxial loading is not a consequence of changes of flow behavior. The yielding behavior is described well by Hill's quadratic yield criterion. As measured mechanically and pole figure analysis, the plastic anisotropy changes with deformation in a manner which depends on stress state. A strain dependent, texture-induced strengthening effect in equibiaxial tension an enhanced strain hardening rate

  12. Stress-strain state analysis and optimization of rod system under periodic pulse load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grebenyuk Grigory

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the problem of analysis and optimization of rod systems subjected to combined static and periodic pulse load. As a result of the study the analysis method was developed based on traditional approach to solving homogeneous matrix equations of state and a special algorithm for developing a particular solution. The influence of pulse parameters variations on stress-strain state of a rod system was analyzed. Algorithms for rod systems optimization were developed basing on strength recalculation and statement and solution of optimization problem as a problem of nonlinear mathematical programming. Recommendations are developed for efficient organization of process for optimization of rod systems under static and periodic pulse load.

  13. Study of the stress-strain state of compressed concrete elements with composite reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondarenko Yurii

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency analysis of the application of glass composite reinforcement in compressed concrete elements as a load-carrying component has been performed. The results of experimental studies of the deformation-strength characteristics of this reinforcement on compression and compressed concrete cylinders reinforced by this reinforcement are presented. The results of tests and mechanisms of sample destruction have been analyzed. The numerical analysis of the stress-strain state has been performed for axial compression of concrete elements with glasscomposite reinforcement. The influence of the reinforcement percentage on the stressed state of a concrete compressed element with the noted reinforcement is estimated. On the basis of the obtained results, it is established that the glass-composite reinforcement has positive effect on the strength of the compressed concrete elements. That is, when calculating the load-bearing capacity of such structures, the function of composite reinforcement on compression should not be neglected.

  14. Evaluation of stress-strain for characterization of the rheological behavior of alginate and carrageenan gels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.J. Mammarella

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The stress-strain of samples deformed until failure and the relaxation response after 50% deformation of the initial height under constant stress were obtained. Uniaxial compression and stress-relaxation tests enabled satisfactory differentiation of the mechanical resistance of gels with different alginate and carrageenan concentrations. Higher values for initial force at the beginning of the relaxation test were associated with higher calcium uptake by the gels. An increment of failure stress during the uniaxial compression tests for higher concentration of calcium in the gel structure was also observed. The maximum amount of cation uptake was higher than the theoretical value for saturation of all the carboxylic groups available in alginate molecules due to structural rearrangements. Stress-relaxation tests indicated that the residual stress of the gel increased with kappa-carrageenan concentration.

  15. Experimental determination of the stress/strain situation in a sheared tunnel model with canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.

    1978-03-01

    A previous report concerned a technical matter which could be of great importance as regards the mechanical strength of canisters embedded in a bentonite/quartz buffer mass, i.e. the effect of a differential movement triggered by a critical deviatoric stress condition. Even if this is extremely unlikeley to occur it was considered to be of importance to verify the theoretical expressions for the maximum bending moment and maximum shear force. A special reason was to test the hypothesis that the contact pressure would soon reach a high value and then stay fairly constant when the displacement increased. The theoretical approach requires that the stress/strain properties of the fill are thoroghly investigated and described in therms of a mathematical model. Experience shows that this may be a tedions and difficult task. (L.E.)

  16. Micromechanical modelling of the cyclic stress-strain behaviour of nickel polycrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steckmeyer, A.; Sauzay, M.; Weidner, A.; Hieckmann, E.

    2012-01-01

    A crystalline elasto-plasticity model is proposed to describe the cyclic behaviour of face-centred cubic crystals. It is based on many experimental observations correlating the observed dislocation structures with the orientations of corresponding crystals. The model distinguishes between two families of crystals. The first family gathers crystals for which the tension-compression loading axis is located in the centre of the standard stereo-graphic triangle. These crystals, in which bundle and/or slip band dislocation structures are usually observed, are subjected to single slip deformation. The second family gathers crystals in which labyrinths or wall dislocation structures develop. These crystals are subjected to multiple slip deformation. Crystalline plasticity parameters are adjusted using only the single crystal cyclic stress strain curves measured for one orientation of each of the two families. The relevance of the model is evaluated through finite elements calculations of the uniaxial cyclic deformation of texture-free nickel polycrystals at room temperature. The macroscopic predictions are in reasonable agreement with experimental data concerning both the cyclic stress-strain curve and the hysteresis loops provided either large grain sizes or intermediate to high plastic strains are considered. By construction, the modelling is unable to predict grain size effect observed at low plastic strain. The distributions of the mean grain plastic strains become narrower as the macroscopic plastic strain amplitude increases, which appears consistent with the large scattering in high-cycle fatigue lifetimes usually observed. On the contrary, the distributions of mean grain axial stresses get broader, in agreement with neutron and X-ray diffraction measurement values published in the literature. The influence of the material parameters is then discussed. Finally, the cumulative probability curves of the number of cycles to fatigue microcrack nucleation are deduced

  17. Fertility Differentials and Educational Attainment in Portugal: A Non-Linear Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago de Oliveira, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis analysis of the Portuguese case shows a non-linear relationship betweenthe number of children and education in recent years. Using the data from tenyears before this hypothesis was confirmed, and we can see that the generaldecline in Portuguese fertility within the last decade was due to the fertilitydecrease of the less educated people, although partly attenuated by the fertilityincrease of the upper social groups. The reasons for a non-linear relationshipare discussed within the context of female employment rates and salarydifferentials by educational attainment. The main hypothesis is that differencesin fertility are related to an ‘education-work’ effect amongst those in the lesseducated groups and to an ‘education-income’ effect amongst the moreeducated.RésuméL’analyse de cas de la situation au Portugal démontre une relation non linéaireentre le nombre d’enfants et le niveau de scolarité au cours des dernièresannées. Les données recueillies pendant les dix dernières années ont étéétudiées avant de confirmer cette hypothèse ; nous avons pu voir que le déclingénéral dans le taux de fécondité au Portugal pendant la dernière décade étaitcausé par un déclin de fécondité chez les personnes moins éduquées ; ceci a étépartiellement atténué par une hausse dans le taux de fécondité dans les classessupérieures. Les raisons de cette relation non linéaire sont discutées dans lecontexte des taux d’emploi des femmes et les différentiels de salaire selon lesniveaux de scolarité. L’hypothèse majeure est que les différences dans les tauxde fécondité sont reliés à un effet « scolarité-travail » parmi les groupes moinséduqués et à un effet « scolarité-salaire » parmi les classes mieux éduqués.

  18. Evaluation of fracture toughness of vessel materials using small-size specimens and full stress-strain curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebedev, A A; Chausov, N G [Akademyiya Nauk Ukrayini, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1994-12-31

    Physically substantiated dependences between crack resistance characteristics determined by the parameters of descending sections of full stress-strain curves and stressed state rigidity at crack initiation moment, have been experimentally obtained. The possibility of crack resistance reliable estimation based on full stress-strain obtained using small-size specimens with different concentrators, has thus been experimentally substantiated. Results obtained by the method and actual temperature dependence of irradiated steel 15X2NMFA crack resistance characteristics, agreed well. 2 refs., 7 figs.

  19. Coupled stress-strain and electrical resistivity measurements on copper based shape memory single crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez Cezar Henrique

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, electrical resistivity (ER measurements have been done during some thermomechanical tests in copper based shape memory alloys (SMA's. In this work, single crystals of Cu-based SMA's have been studied at different temperatures to analyse the relationship between stress (s and ER changes as a function of the strain (e. A good consistency between ER change values is observed in different experiments: thermal martensitic transformation, stress induced martensitic transformation and stress induced reorientation of martensite variants. During stress induced martensitic transformation (superelastic behaviour and stress induced reorientation of martensite variants, a linear relationship is obtained between ER and strain as well as the absence of hys teresis. In conclusion, the present results show a direct evidence of martensite electrical resistivity anisotropy.

  20. Linear solvation energy relationships for toxicity of selected organic chemicals to Daphnia pulex and Daphnia magna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passino, Dora R.M.; Hickey, James P.; Frank, Anthony M.

    1988-01-01

    In the Laurentian Great Lakes, more than 300 contaminants have been identified in fish, other biota, water, and sediment. Current hazard assessment of these chemicals by the National Fisheries Research Center-Great Lakes is based on their toxicity, occurrence in the environment, and source. Although scientists at the Center have tested over 70 chemicals with the crustacean Daphnia pulex, the number of experimental data needed to screen the huge array of chemicals in the Great Lakes exceeds the practical capabilities of conducting bioassays. This limitation can be partly circumvented, however, by using mathematical models based on quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) to provide rapid, inexpensive estimates of toxicity. Many properties of chemicals, including toxicity, bioaccumulation and water solubility are well correlated and can be predicted by equations of the generalized linear solvation energy relationships (LSER). The equation we used to model solute toxicity is Toxicity = constant + mVI/100 + s (π* + dδ) + bβm + aαm where VI = intrinsic (Van der Waals) molar volume; π* = molecular dipolarity/polarizability; δ = polarizability 'correction term'; βm = solute hydrogen bond acceptor basicity; and αm = solute hydrogen bond donor acidity. The subscript m designates solute monomer values for α and β. We applied the LSER model to 48-h acute toxicity data (measured as immobilization) for six classes of chemicals detected in Great Lakes fish. The following regression was obtained for Daphnia pulex (concentration = μM): log EC50 = 4.86 - 4.35 VI/100; N = 38, r2 = 0.867, sd = 0.403 We also used the LSER modeling approach to analyze to a large published data set of 24-h acute toxicity for Daphnia magna; the following regression resulted, for eight classes of compounds (concentration = mM): log EC50 = 3.88 - 4.52 VI/100 - 1.62 π* + 1.66 βm - 0.916 αm; N = 62, r2 = 0.859, sd = 0.375 In addition we developed computer software that identifies

  1. Modeling bioaccumulation in humans using poly-parameter linear free energy relationships (PPLFERS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Undeman, Emma, E-mail: emma.undeman@itm.su.se; Czub, Gertje; McLachlan, Michael S.

    2011-04-01

    Chemical partition coefficients between environmental media and biological tissues are a key component of bioaccumulation models. The single-parameter linear free energy relationships (spLFERs) commonly used for predicting partitioning are often derived using apolar chemicals and may not accurately capture polar chemicals. In this study, a poly-parameter LFER (ppLFER) based model of organic chemical bioaccumulation in humans is presented. Chemical partitioning was described by an air-body partition coefficient that was a volume weighted average of ppLFER based partition coefficients for the major organs and tissues constituting the human body. This model was compared to a spLFER model treating the body as a mixture of lipid ({approx} octanol) and water. Although model agreement was good for hydrophobic chemicals (average difference 15% for log K{sub OW} > 4 and log K{sub OA} > 8), the ppLFER model predicted {approx} 90% lower body burdens for hydrophilic chemicals (log K{sub OW} < 0). This was mainly due to lower predictions of muscle and adipose tissue sorption capacity for these chemicals. A comparison of the predicted muscle and adipose tissue sorption capacities of hydrophilic chemicals with measurements indicated that the ppLFER and spLFER models' uncertainties were similar. Consequently, little benefit from the implementation of ppLFERs in this model was identified. - Research Highlights: {yields}Implementation of ppLFERs resulted in on average 90% lower predicted body burdens. {yields}Uncertainties in spLFER and ppLFER predictions were similar. {yields}The benefit from implementation of ppLFERs in bioaccumulation models was limited.

  2. The Non-Linear Relationship between BMI and Health Care Costs and the Resulting Cost Fraction Attributable to Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxy, Michael; Stark, Renée; Peters, Annette; Hauner, Hans; Holle, Rolf; Teuner, Christina M

    2017-08-30

    This study aims to analyse the non-linear relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI) and direct health care costs, and to quantify the resulting cost fraction attributable to obesity in Germany. Five cross-sectional surveys of cohort studies in southern Germany were pooled, resulting in data of 6757 individuals (31-96 years old). Self-reported information on health care utilisation was used to estimate direct health care costs for the year 2011. The relationship between measured BMI and annual costs was analysed using generalised additive models, and the cost fraction attributable to obesity was calculated. We found a non-linear association of BMI and health care costs with a continuously increasing slope for increasing BMI without any clear threshold. Under the consideration of the non-linear BMI-cost relationship, a shift in the BMI distribution so that the BMI of each individual is lowered by one point is associated with a 2.1% reduction of mean direct costs in the population. If obesity was eliminated, and the BMI of all obese individuals were lowered to 29.9 kg/m², this would reduce the mean direct costs by 4.0% in the population. Results show a non-linear relationship between BMI and health care costs, with very high costs for a few individuals with high BMI. This indicates that population-based interventions in combination with selective measures for very obese individuals might be the preferred strategy.

  3. Possible factors determining the non-linearity in the VO2-power output relationship in humans: theoretical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniewski, Bernard; Zoladz, Jerzy A

    2003-08-01

    At low power output exercise (below lactate threshold), the oxygen uptake increases linearly with power output, but at high power output exercise (above lactate threshold) some additional oxygen consumption causes a non-linearity in the overall VO(2) (oxygen uptake rate)-power output relationship. The functional significance of this phenomenon for human exercise tolerance is very important, but the mechanisms underlying it remain unknown. In the present work, a computer model of oxidative phosphorylation in intact skeletal muscle developed previously is used to examine the background of this relationship in different modes of exercise. Our simulations demonstrate that the non-linearity in the VO(2)-power output relationship and the difference in the magnitude of this non-linearity between incremental exercise mode and square-wave exercise mode (constant power output exercise) can be generated by introducing into the model some hypothetical factor F (group of associated factors) that accumulate(s) in time during exercise. The performed computer simulations, based on this assumption, give proper time courses of changes in VO(2) and [PCr] after an onset of work of different intensities, including the slow component in VO(2), well matching the experimental results. Moreover, if it is assumed that the exercise terminates because of fatigue when the amount/intensity of F exceed some threshold value, the model allows the generation of a proper shape of the well-known power-duration curve. This fact suggests that the phenomenon of the non-linearity of the VO(2)-power output relationship and the magnitude of this non-linearity in different modes of exercise is determined by some factor(s) responsible for muscle fatigue.

  4. Untangling the causal relationship between tax burden distribution and economic growth in 23 OECD countries: Fresh evidence from linear and non-linear Granger causality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Saafi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to investigate the linear and nonlinear causality between a set of alternative tax burden ratios and economic growth in 23 OECD countries. To that end, the linear causality approach of Toda– Yamamoto (1995 and the nonparametric causality method of Kyrtsou and Labys (2006 are applied to annual data spanning from 1970 to 2014. Results obtained from the nonlinear causality test tend to reject the neutrality hypothesis for the tax structure–growth relationship in 19 of the 23 OECD countries. In the majority of the countries under investigation, the evidence is in line with the growth hypothesis where causality running from economic growth to tax burden ratios was detected in Australia, Denmark, Finland, Japan, New Zealand, and Norway. The opposite causality running from tax structure to economic growth was found in Germany, Netherlands, Portugal, and Sweden. In contrast, the neutrality hypothesis was supported in Austria, Italy, Luxembourg, and the USA, whereas the feedback hypothesis was supported in Turkey and the UK. Additional robustness checks show that when the signs of variations are taken into account, there is an asymmetric causality running from positive tax burden shocks to positive per capita GDP shocks for Belgium, France, and Turkey. Overall, our findings suggest that policy implications of the tax structure-economic growth relationships should be interpreted with caution, taking into account the test-dependent and country-specific results.

  5. Modelling long term rockslide displacements with non-linear time-dependent relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Caro, Mattia; Volpi, Giorgio; Castellanza, Riccardo; Crosta, Giovanni; Agliardi, Federico

    2015-04-01

    Rockslides undergoing rapid changes in behaviour pose major risks in alpine areas, and require careful characterization and monitoring both for civil protection and mitigation activities. In particular, these instabilities can undergo very slow movement with occasional and intermittent acceleration/deceleration stages of motion potentially leading to collapse. Therefore, the analysis of such instabilities remains a challenging issue. Rockslide displacements are strongly conditioned by hydrologic factors as suggested by correlations with groundwater fluctuations, snowmelt, with a frequently observed delay between perturbation and system reaction. The aim of this work is the simulation of the complex time-dependent behaviour of two case studies for which also a 2D transient hydrogeological simulation has been performed: Vajont rockslide (1960 to 1963) and the recent Mt. de La Saxe rockslide (2009 to 2012). Non-linear time-dependent constitutive relationships have been used to describe long-term creep deformation. Analyses have been performed using a "rheological-mechanical" approach that fits idealized models (e.g. viscoelastic, viscoplastic, elasto-viscoplastic, Burgers, nonlinear visco-plastic) to the experimental behaviour of specific materials by means of numerical constants. Bidimensional simulations were carried out using the finite difference code FLAC. Displacements time-series, available for the two landslides, show two superimposed deformation mechanisms: a creep process, leading to movements under "steady state" conditions (e.g. constant groundwater level), and a "dynamic" process, leading to an increase in displacement rate due to changes of external loads (e.g. groundwater level). For both cases sliding mass is considered as an elasto-plastic body subject to its self-weight, inertial and seepage forces varying with time according to water table fluctuation (due to snowmelt or changing in reservoir level) and derived from the previous hydrogeological

  6. A comparative study on the uniaxial mechanical properties of the umbilical vein and umbilical artery using different stress-strain definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Alireza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi

    2014-12-01

    The umbilical cord is part of the fetus and generally includes one umbilical vein (UV) and two umbilical arteries (UAs). As the saphenous vein and UV are the most commonly used veins for the coronary artery disease treatment as a coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), understating the mechanical properties of UV has a key asset in its performance for CABG. However, there is not only a lack of knowledge on the mechanical properties of UV and UA but there is no agreement as to which stress-strain definition should be implemented to measure their mechanical properties. In this study, the UV and UA samples were removed after caesarean from eight individuals and subjected to a series of tensile testing. Three stress definitions (second Piola-Kichhoff stress, engineering stress, and true stress) and four strain definitions (Almansi-Hamel strain, Green-St. Venant strain, engineering strain, and true strain) were employed to determine the linear mechanical properties of UVs and UAs. The nonlinear mechanical behavior of UV/UA was computationally investigated using hyperelastic material models, such as Ogden and Mooney-Rivlin. The results showed that the effect of varying the stress definition on the maximum stress measurements of the UV/UA is significant but not when calculating the elastic modulus. In the true stress-strain diagram, the maximum strain of UV was 92 % higher, while the elastic modulus and maximum stress were 162 and 42 % lower than that of UA. The Mooney-Rivlin material model was designated to represent the nonlinear mechanical behavior of the UV and UA under uniaxial loading.

  7. A note on the relationship between the emittance, the beta function and the energy in a linear collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, J.

    1986-11-01

    Scaling laws for linear colliders are considered for the case of laterally round Gaussian beams and for the case that mutual pinching of the beams can be ignored. Based on these assumptions, the relationship is found between the interaction area, beta function, beam emittance, and energy for a linear collider in order to show the need for substantial improvements in the feasible values of accelerator parameters to reach a center of mass energy of 0.7 TeV. Pinch is then taken into account

  8. Flow stress asymmetry and cyclic stress--strain response in a BCC Ti--V alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koss, D.A.; Wojcik, C.C.

    1976-01-01

    The cyclic stress-strain response of relatively stable bcc β-phase Ti--40 percent V alloy single crystals was studied. Flow stress asymmetry found in the alloy is attributed to the fact that screw dislocations, when gliding on a (211) plane, are more mobile in the twinning direction than in the antitwinning direction. Thus the flow stress of the crystal is greater when it is sheared in the antitwinning direction than in the twinning direction (the latter case results when crystals of the 100 orientation are stressed in tension and those of the 110 orientation are stressed in compression). Such behavior can be a result of the core of a screw dislocation being asymmetric under stress which causes the flow stress asymmetry observed. It should be noted that screw dislocations dominate the low temperature deformation structure of Ti-40V, which strongly suggests deformation is controlled by screw dislocation motion. The observation in Mo that the microyield stress is independent of crystal orientation could be a result of edge dislocation motion controlling microyield in that instance and this observation would not be inconsistent with screw dislocation motion controlling the macroscopic (epsilon/sub p/ greater than 0.05 percent) deformation measured here

  9. Stress-Strain Relation of Tire Rubber Consist of Entangled Polymers, Fillers and Crosslink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagita, Katsumi; Bito, Y.; Minagawa, Y.; Omiya, M.; Morita, H.; Doi, M.; Takano, H.

    2009-03-01

    We presented a preliminary result of large scale coarse-grained Molecular Dynamics simulation of filled polymer melts with Sulfur-crosslink under an uni-axial deformation by using the Kremer-Grest Model. The size of simulation box under periodic boundary conditions (PBC) is set to about 66nm to consider length of entangled polymer chains, size and structure of fillers, and non-uniform distribution of crosslink. We put 640 polymer chains of 1024 particles and 32 fillers into the PBC box. Each filler consists of 1280 particles of the C1280 fullerene structure. A repulsive force from the center of the filler is applied to the particles. Here, the particles of the fillers are chosen to be the same as the particles of the polymers and the diameter of the filler is about 15nm. The distribution of the fillers used in this simulation is provided by the result of 2d pattern RMC analysis for 2D-USAXS experiments at SPring-8. Sulfur crosslink are randomly distributed in the system. It is found that stress-strain curves estimated by applying a certain uni-axial deformation to the system in simulations are in good agreement with those in experiments. It is successful to show difference on the S-S curve between existence / absence of fillers and qualitative dependence of attractive force between polymer and filler.

  10. Spherical Nanoindentation Stress-Strain Measurements of BOR-60 14YWT-NFA1 Irradiated Tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, Jordan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Carvajal Nunez, Ursula [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Krumwiede, David [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Saleh, Tarik A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hosemann, Peter [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Nelson, Andrew Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Maloy, Stuart Andrew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mara, Nathan Allan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-28

    Spherical nanoindentation stress-strain protocols were applied to characterize unirradiated and fast neutron irradiated nanostructured ferritic alloy (NFA) 14YWT and compared against Berkovich nanohardness and available tensile data. The predicted uniaxial yield strength from spherical, 100 and 5 micron radii, indentation yield strength measurements was 1100-1400 MPa which compares well with the predictions from Berkovich nanohardness, 1200 MPa, and available tensile data, ~1100 MPa. However, spherical indentation measurements predict an increase in the uniaxial yield strength of ~1 GPa while Berkovich nanohardness measurements predict an increase of only ~250 MPa. No tensile data exists on the irradiated condition. It is believed the difference in the predicted uniaxial yield strength between spherical and Berkovich nanoindentation are due to a low number of tests on the irradiated sample combined with the significant heterogeneity in the microstructure, the differences in sensitivity to sample preparation on the irradiated sample between the two indentation protocols , and/or in how strain localizes under the indenter with the possibility of dislocation channeling under Berkovich hardness indents leading to strain softening. Nanoindentation capabilities to test neutron irradiated samples in a radiological area were realized.

  11. Design of Stress-Strain Measuring System for Bulldozing Plate Based on Virtual Instrument Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, S C; Li, J Q; Zhang, R

    2006-01-01

    Soil is a kind of discrete, multiphase compound that is composed of soil particles, liquid and air. When soil is disturbed by bulldozing plate, the mechanical behavior of the soil will become very complex. Based on the law of action and reaction, the dynamic mechanical behavior of disturbed soil was indirectly analyzed by measuring and studying the forces on the bulldozing plate by soil currently, so a stress-strain virtual measuring system for bulldozing plate, which was designed by the graphical programming language DASYLab, was used to measure the horizontal force Fz acting on the bulldozing plate. In addition, during the course of design, the experimental complexities and the interferential factors influencing on signal logging were analyzed when bulldozing plate worked, so the anti-jamming methods of hardware and software technology were adopted correlatively. In the end, the horizontal force Fz was analyzed with Error Theory, the result shown that the quantificational analysis of Fz were identical to the qualitative results of soil well, and the error of the whole test system is under 5 percent, so the tress-strain virtual measuring system was stable and credible

  12. Fatigue Life Prediction of High Modulus Asphalt Concrete Based on the Local Stress-Strain Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulian Zheng

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Previously published studies have proposed fatigue life prediction models for dense graded asphalt pavement based on flexural fatigue test. This study focused on the fatigue life prediction of High Modulus Asphalt Concrete (HMAC pavement using the local strain-stress method and direct tension fatigue test. First, the direct tension fatigue test at various strain levels was conducted on HMAC prism samples cut from plate specimens. Afterwards, their true stress-strain loop curves were obtained and modified to develop the strain-fatigue life equation. Then the nominal strain of HMAC course determined using finite element method was converted into local strain using the Neuber method. Finally, based on the established fatigue equation and converted local strain, a method to predict the pavement fatigue crack initiation life was proposed and the fatigue life of a typical HMAC overlay pavement which runs a risk of bottom-up cracking was predicted and validated. Results show that the proposed method was able to produce satisfactory crack initiation life.

  13. On stress/strain shielding and the material stiffness paradigm for dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korabi, Raoof; Shemtov-Yona, Keren; Rittel, Daniel

    2017-10-01

    Stress shielding considerations suggest that the dental implant material's compliance should be matched to that of the host bone. However, this belief has not been confirmed from a general perspective, either clinically or numerically. To characterize the influence of the implant stiffness on its functionality using the failure envelope concept that examines all possible combinations of mechanical load and application angle for selected stress, strain and displacement-based bone failure criteria. Those criteria represent bone yielding, remodeling, and implant primary stability, respectively MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed numerical simulations to generate failure envelopes for all possible loading configurations of dental implants, with stiffness ranging from very low (polymer) to extremely high, through that of bone, titanium, and ceramics. Irrespective of the failure criterion, stiffer implants allow for improved implant functionality. The latter reduces with increasing compliance, while the trabecular bone experiences higher strains, albeit of an overall small level. Micromotions remain quite small irrespective of the implant's stiffness. The current paradigm favoring reduced implant material's stiffness out of concern for stress or strain shielding, or even excessive micromotions, is not supported by the present calculations, that point exactly to the opposite. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Anisotropy effect of the clay soil masses on the stress-strain state of transport tunnels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushkov Boris Semenovich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the kinds of clay soil mass anisotropy in the form of the spatial heterogeneity of properties of thawed and frozen soils, ambiguity of the frost heaving values and shrinkage in different directions. The questions of anisotropy of the clay soil properties at the positive temperatures are reported. The dependence of the heterogeneity of the physical and mechanical properties of frozen soils from the cryogenic texture, natural arrangement, different types of stratification and interbedding is considered. Indexes of the strength and strain anisotropy are noted. The accounting possibilities of the basic numerical indexes of heaving phenomena from the standpoint of anisotropy of the properties and processes inherent in the freezing through soil are analyzed by substitution in the heaving strain formula. The unevenness of thawed soil shrinkage in vertical and horizontal directions is noted during the freezing of the top layer. The unevenness of shrinkage in different directions is connected with kind of stress and cryogenic texture. Anisotropy of the frost heaving process is considered in the context of one-dimensional and non-one-dimensional problem depending on the amount of the freezing fronts and their direction. There is summarized the effect of anisotropy appearances on the stress-strain state of the transport tunnel. One can conclude that the resulting non-uniformity of heaving and shrinkage in conjunction with anisotropic properties of frozen soils, is a significant component in the complex of power factors determining the optimal design solution of a transport tunnel.

  15. Study of stress-strain state of pipeline under permafrost conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasenko, A. A.; Redutinskiy, M. N.; Chepur, P. V.; Gruchenkova, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, the dependences of the stress-strain state and subsidence of pipelines on the dimensions of the subsidence zone are obtained for the sizes of pipes that have become most widespread during the construction of main oil pipelines (530x10, 820x12, 1020x12, 1020x14, 1020x16, 1220x14, 1220x16, 1220x18 mm). True values of stresses in the pipeline wall, as well as the exact location of maximum stresses for the interval of subsidence zones from 5 to 60 meters, are determined. For this purpose, the authors developed a finite element model of the pipeline that takes into account the actual interaction of the pipeline with the subgrade and allows calculating the SSS of the structure for a variable subsidence zone. Based on the obtained dependences for the underground laying of oil pipelines in permafrost areas, it is proposed to artificially limit the zone of possible subsidence by separation supports from the soil with higher building properties and physical-mechanical parameters. This technical solution would significantly reduce costs when constructing new oil pipelines in permafrost areas.

  16. Numerical simulation of stress-strain state of electrophoretic shell molds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sviridov, A. V.; Odinokov, V. I.; Dmitriev, E. A.; Evstigneev, A. I.; Bashkov, O. V.

    2017-10-01

    In the foundry engineering, castings obtained in one-piece non-gas-generating high-refractory electrophoretic shell molds (ShM) by investment patterns (IP) have an increased rejects percentage associated with low deformation resistance and crack resistance of the SM at different stages of their formation and manufacturing. Crack resistance of the ShM based on IP depends mainly on their stress-strain state (SSS) at various stages of mold forming. SSS decrease significantly improves their crack resistance and decreases their rejects percentage of castings occurring due to clogging and surface defects. In addition, the known methods of decreasing the SSS are still poorly understood. Thus, current research trends are to determine SSS at each stage of ShM forming and develop the ways to decrease it. Theoretical predicting of crack formation in multiple-layer axisymmetric shell molds is given in the work [1], and SSS of multiple-layer axisymmetric shell molds is given in the work [2]. Monolayer electrophoretic ShM had a lack of concern in this field, thus it became an argument for the present workMathematical Model of ShM SSS

  17. Multilinear stress-strain and failure calibrations for Ti-6Al-4V.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corona, Edmundo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2018-02-01

    This memo concerns calibration of an elastic-plastic J2 material model for Ti-6Al-4V (grade 5) alloy based on tensile uniaxial stress-strain data obtained in the laboratory. In addition, tension tests on notched specimens provided data to calibrate two ductile failure models: Johnson-Cook and Wellman's tearing parameter. The tests were conducted by Kim Haulen- beek and Dave Johnson (1528) in the Structural Mechanics Laboratory (SML) during late March and early April, 2017. The SML EWP number was 4162. The stock material was a TIMETALR® 6-4 Titanium billet with 9 in. by 9 in. square section and length of 137 in. The product description indicates that it was a forging delivered in annealed condition (2 hours @ 1300oF, AC at the mill). The tensile mechanical properties reported in the material certi cation are given in Table 1, where σo represents the 0.2% strain offset yield stress, σu the ultimate stress, εf the elongation at failure and R.A. the reduction in area.

  18. Linear and non-linear quantitative structure-activity relationship models on indole substitution patterns as inhibitors of HIV-1 attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirouei, Mahyar; Ghasemi, Ghasem; Abdolmaleki, Parviz; Tavakoli, Abdolreza; Shariati, Shahab

    2012-06-01

    The antiviral drugs that inhibit human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) entry to the target cells are already in different phases of clinical trials. They prevent viral entry and have a highly specific mechanism of action with a low toxicity profile. Few QSAR studies have been performed on this group of inhibitors. This study was performed to develop a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model of the biological activity of indole glyoxamide derivatives as inhibitors of the interaction between HIV glycoprotein gp120 and host cell CD4 receptors. Forty different indole glyoxamide derivatives were selected as a sample set and geometrically optimized using Gaussian 98W. Different combinations of multiple linear regression (MLR), genetic algorithms (GA) and artificial neural networks (ANN) were then utilized to construct the QSAR models. These models were also utilized to select the most efficient subsets of descriptors in a cross-validation procedure for non-linear log (1/EC50) prediction. The results that were obtained using GA-ANN were compared with MLR-MLR and MLR-ANN models. A high predictive ability was observed for the MLR, MLR-ANN and GA-ANN models, with root mean sum square errors (RMSE) of 0.99, 0.91 and 0.67, respectively (N = 40). In summary, machine learning methods were highly effective in designing QSAR models when compared to statistical method.

  19. Determination of parameters for a stress-strain constitutive equation considering time-dependent behavior of Toki granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Toru; Seno, Yasuhiro; Nakama, Shigeo; Okubo, Seisuke

    2008-01-01

    Toki granite was tested to obtain parameters for the constitutive equation. The testing method was uniaxial compressive loading at the moderate a constant strain rate that is decreased after yielding to obtain the complete stress-strain curve. In addition, two kinds of the strain rate were alternately switched to obtain the parameter n from one specimen. The n represents the strength time-dependence in the constitutive equation. The second parameter m can be obtained by fitting the experimental stress-strain curve to the calculated curve. The m accounts for the behavior after yielding. According to the results, Toki granite has n=52 and m=60, showing relatively weak time-dependence of creep failure. (author)

  20. The Stress-Strain State of Recent Structures in the Northeastern Sector of the Russian Arctic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaeva, L. P.; Imaev, V. S.; Mel'nikova, V. I.

    2018-03-01

    Complex research to determine the stress-strain state of the Earth's crust and the types of seismotectonic destruction for the northeastern sector of the Russian Arctic was conducted. The principles of regional ranking of neotectonic structures were developed according to the activity of geodynamic processes, and argumentation for their class differentiation is presented. The structural-tectonic position, the parameters of the deep structure, the system of active faults, and the tectonic stress fields, calculated on the basis of both tectonophysical analysis of discontinuous and folded late Cenozoic deformations and seismological data, were analyzed. This complex of investigations made it possible to determine the directions of the main axes of deformations of the stress-strain state of the Earth's crust and to reveal the regularity in the change of tectonic regimes.

  1. Experimental determination of the micro-scale strength and stress-strain relation of an epoxy resin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zike, Sanita; Sørensen, Bent F.; Mikkelsen, Lars Pilgaard

    2016-01-01

    An approach is developed for determining the stress-strain law and a failure stress appropriate for micro-mechanical models of polymer materials. Double cantilever beam test specimens, made of an epoxy polymer with notches having finite root radius, were subjected to pure bending moments in an en......An approach is developed for determining the stress-strain law and a failure stress appropriate for micro-mechanical models of polymer materials. Double cantilever beam test specimens, made of an epoxy polymer with notches having finite root radius, were subjected to pure bending moments......-scale (5–6%). The hardening exponent of a power law hardening material was obtained by the use of the J-integral, estimating the strain energy density around the notch. The hardening exponent was found to be within the range of 5–6 and the corresponding micro-scale failure stress was in the range of 220...

  2. An improved Armstrong-Frederick-Type Plasticity Model for Stable Cyclic Stress-Strain Responses Considering Nonproportional Hardening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Zhang, Zhong-ping; Li, Chun-wang

    2018-03-01

    This paper modified an Armstrong-Frederick-type plasticity model for investigating the stable cyclic deformation behavior of metallic materials with different sensitivity to nonproportional loadings. In the modified model, the nonproportionality factor and nonproportional cyclic hardening coefficient coupled with the Jiang-Sehitoglu incremental plasticity model were used to estimate the stable stress-strain responses of the two materials (1045HR steel and 304 stainless steel) under various tension-torsion strain paths. A new equation was proposed to calculate the nonproportionality factor on the basis of the minimum normal strain range. Procedures to determine the minimum normal strain range were presented for general multiaxial loadings. Then, the modified model requires only the cyclic strain hardening exponent and cyclic strength coefficient to determine the material constants. It is convenient for predicting the stable stress-strain responses of materials in engineering application. Comparisons showed that the modified model can reflect the effect of nonproportional cyclic hardening well.

  3. Stress-strain effects on powder-in-tube MgB2 tapes and wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katagiri, Kazumune; Takaya, Ryuya; Kasaba, Koichi; Tachikawa, Kyoji; Yamada, Yutaka; Shimura, Satoshi; Koshizuka, Naoki; Watanabe, Kazuo

    2005-01-01

    The effects of stress-strain on the critical current, I c , of ex situ powder-in-tube (PIT)-processed Ni-sheathed MgB 2 tapes and round wires as well as in situ PIT-processed Cu-sheathed wires at 4.2 K in a magnetic field up to 5 T have been studied. The effect of In powder addition on the Ni-sheathed MgB 2 wire was not so clear compared with that in the tape, in which the irreversible strain, ε irr , for the I c degradation onset increases significantly by the addition. This is attributed to the difference in the microstructure of the core associated with cold workings. A peak and gradual degradation behaviour of I c with strain beyond ε irr was found in the wire, whereas no evident peak and a steep degradation behaviour was found in the tape. As a possible reason, the difference in the triaxial residual stress state at 4.2 K due to the difference in geometry of the cross-section is suspected. The transverse compression tests revealed that I c of the wire did not degrade up to 270 MPa. Again, the effect of In addition was minimal. The Young's modulus of MgB 2 , 31-41 GPa, at room temperature was estimated by a tensile test of Cu sheath wire using a high-accuracy extensometer and the law of mixtures. The tensile strain dependence of I c in the Cu sheath wire was similar to that in the Ni-sheathed wire, ε irr being 0.4%. However, the stress corresponding to ε irr , 50 MPa, was about 1/10 of that for the Ni-sheath wire and the irreversible transverse compressive stress, 150 MPa, was also lower. The effect of bending strain on the I c in Cu-sheathed wire was compared with that of the tensile strain

  4. Comparison between the Norton - and Mukherjee constitutive equations in the determination of stress - strain analysis of a material under creep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevilacqua, L.; Feijoo, R.A.; Freire, J.L.; Miranda, P.E.V. de; Monteiro, E.; Silveira, T.L. da; Taroco, E.

    1981-06-01

    The Norton and Mukherjee constitutive equations are used to approximate the experimental results of creep in AISI 304 steel. Both equations are applied to the stress-strain analysis of a rotating disk with a concentric circular hole. From the design point of view it is shown that the stresses obtained with both equations are equivalents, which is not true for the velocities. (Author) [pt

  5. Stress overshoot in stress-strain curves of Zr65Al10Ni10Cu15 metallic glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Y.; Shibata, T.; Inoue, A.; Masumoto, T.

    1997-01-01

    The essential features of the stress overshoot in the stress-strain curves of Zr 65 Al 10 Ni 10 Cu 15 (at.%) metallic glass that has a wide supercooled liquid region were revealed. The stress overshoot was dependent on temperature, strain rate, and stress relaxation. During the stretch, a change in strain rate gave rise to stress overshoot or undershoot which was sensitive to the variable quantities in the strain rate. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  6. Micromechanical Model for Deformation in Solids with Universal Predictions for Stress-Strain Curves and Slip Avalanches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahmen, Karin A.; Ben-Zion, Yehuda; Uhl, Jonathan T.

    2009-01-01

    A basic micromechanical model for deformation of solids with only one tuning parameter (weakening ε) is introduced. The model can reproduce observed stress-strain curves, acoustic emissions and related power spectra, event statistics, and geometrical properties of slip, with a continuous phase transition from brittle to ductile behavior. Exact universal predictions are extracted using mean field theory and renormalization group tools. The results agree with recent experimental observations and simulations of related models for dislocation dynamics, material damage, and earthquake statistics.

  7. Cyclic stress-strain behaviour under thermomechanical fatigue conditions - Modeling by means of an enhanced multi-component model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christ, H J [Institut fuer Werkstofftechnik, Universitaet Siegen, D-57068 Siegen (Germany); Bauer, V, E-mail: hans-juergen.christ@uni-siegen.d [Wieland Werke AG, Graf-Arco Str. 36, D-89072 Ulm (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The cyclic stress-strain behaviour of metals and alloys in cyclic saturation can reasonably be described by means of simple multi-component models, such as the model based on a parallel arrangement of elastic-perfectly plastic elements, which was originally proposed by Masing already in 1923. This model concept was applied to thermomechanical fatigue loading of two metallic engineering materials which were found to be rather oppositional with respect to cyclic plastic deformation. One material is an austenitic stainless steel of type AISI304L which shows dynamic strain aging (DSA) and serves as an example for a rather ductile alloy. A dislocation arrangement was found after TMF testing deviating characteristically from the corresponding isothermal microstructures. The second material is a third-generation near-gamma TiAl alloy which is characterized by a very pronounced ductile-to-brittle transition (DBT) within the temperature range of TMF cycling. Isothermal fatigue testing at temperatures below the DBT temperature leads to cyclic hardening, while cyclic softening was found to occur above DBT. The combined effect under TMF leads to a continuously developing mean stress. The experimental observations regarding isothermal and non-isothermal stress-strain behaviour and the correlation to the underlying microstructural processes was used to further develop the TMF multi-composite model in order to accurately predict the TMF stress-strain response by taking the alloy-specific features into account.

  8. Mathematical Modeling in Systems for Operational Evaluation of the Stress-Strain State of the Arch-Gravity Dam at the Sayano-Shushenskaya Hydroelectric Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellendir, E. N.; Gordon, L. A., E-mail: lev-gordon@mail.ru; Khrapkov, A. A.; Skvortsova, A. E., E-mail: SkvortsovaAE@vniig.ru [B. E. Vedeneev All-Russia Research Institute of Hydraulic Engineering (VNIIG) (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    Current studies of the stress-strain state of the dam at the Sayano-Shushenskaya Hydroelectric Power Plant at VNIIG based on mathematical modeling including full scale and experimental data are described. Applications and programs intended for automatic operational evaluation of the stress-strain state of the dam for optimizing control of the upper race level in the course of the annual filling-drawdown cycle and during seismic events are examined. Improvements in systems for monitoring the stress-strain state of concrete dams are proposed.

  9. Validity of a Commercial Linear Encoder to Estimate Bench Press 1 RM from the Force-Velocity Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosquet, Laurent; Porta-Benache, Jeremy; Blais, Jérôme

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the validity and accuracy of a commercial linear encoder (Musclelab, Ergotest, Norway) to estimate Bench press 1 repetition maximum (1RM) from the force - velocity relationship. Twenty seven physical education students and teachers (5 women and 22 men) with a heterogeneous history of strength training participated in this study. They performed a 1 RM test and a force - velocity test using a Bench press lifting task in a random order. Mean 1 RM was 61.8 ± 15.3 kg (range: 34 to 100 kg), while 1 RM estimated by the Musclelab's software from the force-velocity relationship was 56.4 ± 14.0 kg (range: 33 to 91 kg). Actual and estimated 1 RM were very highly correlated (r = 0.93, pvelocity relationship was a good measure for monitoring training induced adaptations, but also that it was not accurate enough to prescribe training intensities. Additional studies are required to determine whether accuracy is affected by age, sex or initial level. Key pointsSome commercial devices allow to estimate 1 RM from the force-velocity relationship.These estimations are valid. However, their accuracy is not high enough to be of practical help for training intensity prescription.Day-to-day reliability of force and velocity measured by the linear encoder has been shown to be very high, but the specific reliability of 1 RM estimated from the force-velocity relationship has to be determined before concluding to the usefulness of this approach in the monitoring of training induced adaptations.

  10. Non-linear relationship between O2 uptake and power output at high intensities of exercise in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, J A; Rademaker, A C; Sargeant, A J

    1995-01-01

    1. A slow component to pulmonary oxygen uptake (VO2) is reported during prolonged high power exercise performed at constant power output at, or above, approximately 60% of the maximal oxygen uptake. The magnitude of the slow component is reported to be associated with the intensity of exercise and to be largely accounted for by an increased VO2 across the exercising legs. 2. On the assumption that the control mechanism responsible for the increased VO2 is intensity dependent we hypothesized that it should also be apparent in multi-stage incremental exercise tests with the result that the VO2-power output relationship would be curvilinear. 3. We further hypothesized that the change in the VO2-power output relationship could be related to the hierarchical recruitment of different muscle fibre types with a lower mechanical efficiency. 4. Six subjects each performed five incremental exercise tests, at pedalling rates of 40, 60, 80, 100 and 120 rev min-1, over which range we expected to vary the proportional contribution of different fibre types to the power output. Pulmonary VO2 was determined continuously and arterialized capillary blood was sampled and analysed for blood lactate concentration ([lactate]b). 5. Below the level at which a sustained increase in [lactate]b was observed pulmonary VO2 showed a linear relationship with power output; at high power outputs, however, there was an additional increase in VO2 above that expected from the extrapolation of that linear relationship, leading to a positive curvilinear VO2-power output relationship. 6. No systematic effect on the magnitude or onset of the 'extra' VO2 was found in relation to pedalling rate, which suggests that it is not related to the pattern of motor unit recruitment in any simple way. PMID:8568657

  11. Validity of a Commercial Linear Encoder to Estimate Bench Press 1 RM from the Force-Velocity Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosquet, Laurent; Porta-Benache, Jeremy; Blais, Jérôme

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the validity and accuracy of a commercial linear encoder (Musclelab, Ergotest, Norway) to estimate Bench press 1 repetition maximum (1RM) from the force - velocity relationship. Twenty seven physical education students and teachers (5 women and 22 men) with a heterogeneous history of strength training participated in this study. They performed a 1 RM test and a force - velocity test using a Bench press lifting task in a random order. Mean 1 RM was 61.8 ± 15.3 kg (range: 34 to 100 kg), while 1 RM estimated by the Musclelab’s software from the force-velocity relationship was 56.4 ± 14.0 kg (range: 33 to 91 kg). Actual and estimated 1 RM were very highly correlated (r = 0.93, p<0.001) but largely different (Bias: 5.4 ± 5.7 kg, p < 0.001, ES = 1.37). The 95% limits of agreement were ±11.2 kg, which represented ±18% of actual 1 RM. It was concluded that 1 RM estimated from the force-velocity relationship was a good measure for monitoring training induced adaptations, but also that it was not accurate enough to prescribe training intensities. Additional studies are required to determine whether accuracy is affected by age, sex or initial level. Key points Some commercial devices allow to estimate 1 RM from the force-velocity relationship. These estimations are valid. However, their accuracy is not high enough to be of practical help for training intensity prescription. Day-to-day reliability of force and velocity measured by the linear encoder has been shown to be very high, but the specific reliability of 1 RM estimated from the force-velocity relationship has to be determined before concluding to the usefulness of this approach in the monitoring of training induced adaptations. PMID:24149641

  12. Genome-scale regression analysis reveals a linear relationship for promoters and enhancers after combinatorial drug treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Rapakoulia, Trisevgeni

    2017-08-09

    Motivation: Drug combination therapy for treatment of cancers and other multifactorial diseases has the potential of increasing the therapeutic effect, while reducing the likelihood of drug resistance. In order to reduce time and cost spent in comprehensive screens, methods are needed which can model additive effects of possible drug combinations. Results: We here show that the transcriptional response to combinatorial drug treatment at promoters, as measured by single molecule CAGE technology, is accurately described by a linear combination of the responses of the individual drugs at a genome wide scale. We also find that the same linear relationship holds for transcription at enhancer elements. We conclude that the described approach is promising for eliciting the transcriptional response to multidrug treatment at promoters and enhancers in an unbiased genome wide way, which may minimize the need for exhaustive combinatorial screens.

  13. Cytogenetic effect of low dose gamma-radiation in Hordeum vulgare seedlings: non-linear dose-effect relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geras'kin, Stanislav A; Oudalova, Alla A; Kim, Jin Kyu; Dikarev, Vladimir G; Dikareva, Nina S

    2007-03-01

    The induction of chromosome aberrations in Hordeum vulgare germinated seeds was studied after ionizing irradiation with doses in the range of 10-1,000 mGy. The relationship between the frequency of aberrant cells and the absorbed dose was found to be nonlinear. A dose-independent plateau in the dose range from about 50 to 500 mGy was observed, where the level of cytogenetic damage was significantly different from the spontaneous level. The comparison of the goodness of the experimental data fitting with mathematical models of different complexity, using the most common quantitative criteria, demonstrated the advantage of a piecewise linear model over linear and polynomial models in approximating the frequency of cytogenetical disturbances. The results of the study support the hypothesis of indirect mechanisms of mutagenesis induced by low doses. Fundamental and applied implications of these findings are discussed.

  14. Non-linear quantitative structure-activity relationship for adenine derivatives as competitive inhibitors of adenosine deaminase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadat Hayatshahi, Sayyed Hamed; Abdolmaleki, Parviz; Safarian, Shahrokh; Khajeh, Khosro

    2005-01-01

    Logistic regression and artificial neural networks have been developed as two non-linear models to establish quantitative structure-activity relationships between structural descriptors and biochemical activity of adenosine based competitive inhibitors, toward adenosine deaminase. The training set included 24 compounds with known k i values. The models were trained to solve two-class problems. Unlike the previous work in which multiple linear regression was used, the highest of positive charge on the molecules was recognized to be in close relation with their inhibition activity, while the electric charge on atom N1 of adenosine was found to be a poor descriptor. Consequently, the previously developed equation was improved and the newly formed one could predict the class of 91.66% of compounds correctly. Also optimized 2-3-1 and 3-4-1 neural networks could increase this rate to 95.83%

  15. A New Theory of Non-Linear Thermo-Elastic Constitutive Equation of Isotropic Hyperelastic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Liao, Yufei

    2018-03-01

    Considering the influence of temperature and strain variables on materials. According to the relationship of conjugate stress-strain, a complete and irreducible non-linear constitutive equation of isotropic hyperelastic materials is derived and the constitutive equations of 16 types of isotropic hyperelastic materials are given we study the transformation methods and routes of 16 kinds of constitutive equations and the study proves that transformation of two forms of constitutive equation. As an example of application, the non-linear thermo-elastic constitutive equation of isotropic hyperelastic materials is combined with the natural vulcanized rubber experimental data in the existing literature base on MATLAB, The results show that the fitting accuracy is satisfactory.

  16. Re-examining the Non-Linear Moisture-Precipitation Relationship over the Tropical Oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushley, S S; Kim, D; Bretherton, C S; Ahn, M-S

    2018-01-28

    Bretherton et al. (2004) used the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) version 5 product to derive an exponential curve that describes the relationship between precipitation and column relative humidity (CRH) over the tropical oceans. The curve, which features a precipitation pickup at a CRH of about 0.75 and a rapid increase of precipitation with CRH after the pickup, has been widely used in the studies of the tropical atmosphere. This study re-examines the moisture-precipitation relationship by using the version 7 SSM/I data, in which several biases in the previous version are corrected, and evaluates the relationship in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) models. In the revised exponential curve derived using the updated satellite data, the precipitation pick-up occurs at a higher CRH (~0.8), and precipitation increases more slowly with CRH than in the previous curve. In most CMIP5 models, the precipitation pickup is too early due to the common model bias of overestimated (underestimated) precipitation in the dry (wet) regime.

  17. Solvatochromism and linear solvation energy relationship of the kinase inhibitor SKF86002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Muhammad; Van Dongen, Madeline; Wang, Feng; Clayton, Andrew H. A.

    2017-01-01

    We studied the spectroscopic characteristics of SKF86002, an anti-inflammatory and tyrosine kinase inhibitor drug candidate. Two conformers SKF86002A and SKF86002B are separated by energy barriers of 19.68 kJ·mol- 1 and 6.65 kJ·mol- 1 due to H-bonds, and produce the three major UV-Vis absorption bands at 325 nm, 260 nm and 210 nm in cyclohexane solutions. This environment-sensitive fluorophore exhibited emission in the 400-500 nm range with a marked response to changes in environment polarity. By using twenty-two solvents for the solvatochromism study, it was noticed that solvent polarity, represented by dielectric constant, was well correlated with the emission wavelength maxima of SKF86002. Thus, the SKF86002 fluorescence peak red shifted in aprotic solvents from 397.5 nm in cyclohexane to 436 nm in DMSO. While the emission maximum in hydrogen donating solvents ranged from 420 nm in t-butanol to 446 nm in N-methylformamide. Employing Lippert-Mataga, Bakhshiev and Kawski models, we found that one linear correlation provided a satisfactory description of polarity effect of 18 solvents on the spectral changes of SKF86002 with R2 values 0.78, 0.80 and 0.80, respectively. Additionally, the multicomponent linear regression analysis of Kamlet-Taft (R2 = 0.94) revealed that solvent acidity, basicity and polarity accounted for 31%, 24% and 45% of solvent effects on SKF86002 emission, respectively. While Catalán correlation (R2 = 0.92) revealed that solvatochromic change of SKF86002 emission was attributed to changes in solvent dipolarity (71%), solvent polarity (12%), solvent acidity (11%) and solvent basicity (6%). Plot of Reichardt transition energies and emission energies of SKF86002 in 18 solvents showed also a linear correlation with R2 = 0.90. The dipole moment difference between excited and ground state was calculated to be 3.4-3.5 debye.

  18. Solvatochromism and linear solvation energy relationship of the kinase inhibitor SKF86002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Muhammad; Van Dongen, Madeline; Wang, Feng; Clayton, Andrew H A

    2017-01-05

    We studied the spectroscopic characteristics of SKF86002, an anti-inflammatory and tyrosine kinase inhibitor drug candidate. Two conformers SKF86002A and SKF86002B are separated by energy barriers of 19.68kJ·mol(-1) and 6.65kJ·mol(-1) due to H-bonds, and produce the three major UV-Vis absorption bands at 325nm, 260nm and 210nm in cyclohexane solutions. This environment-sensitive fluorophore exhibited emission in the 400-500nm range with a marked response to changes in environment polarity. By using twenty-two solvents for the solvatochromism study, it was noticed that solvent polarity, represented by dielectric constant, was well correlated with the emission wavelength maxima of SKF86002. Thus, the SKF86002 fluorescence peak red shifted in aprotic solvents from 397.5nm in cyclohexane to 436nm in DMSO. While the emission maximum in hydrogen donating solvents ranged from 420nm in t-butanol to 446nm in N-methylformamide. Employing Lippert-Mataga, Bakhshiev and Kawski models, we found that one linear correlation provided a satisfactory description of polarity effect of 18 solvents on the spectral changes of SKF86002 with R(2) values 0.78, 0.80 and 0.80, respectively. Additionally, the multicomponent linear regression analysis of Kamlet-Taft (R(2)=0.94) revealed that solvent acidity, basicity and polarity accounted for 31%, 24% and 45% of solvent effects on SKF86002 emission, respectively. While Catalán correlation (R(2)=0.92) revealed that solvatochromic change of SKF86002 emission was attributed to changes in solvent dipolarity (71%), solvent polarity (12%), solvent acidity (11%) and solvent basicity (6%). Plot of Reichardt transition energies and emission energies of SKF86002 in 18 solvents showed also a linear correlation with R(2)=0.90. The dipole moment difference between excited and ground state was calculated to be 3.4-3.5debye. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Validity of a Commercial Linear Encoder to Estimate Bench Press 1 RM from the Force-Velocity Relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Bosquet, Laurent; Porta-Benache, Jeremy; Blais, Jérôme

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the validity and accuracy of a commercial linear encoder (Musclelab, Ergotest, Norway) to estimate Bench press 1 repetition maximum (1RM) from the force - velocity relationship. Twenty seven physical education students and teachers (5 women and 22 men) with a heterogeneous history of strength training participated in this study. They performed a 1 RM test and a force - velocity test using a Bench press lifting task in a random order. Mean 1 RM was 61.8 ± 15...

  20. Study geomorphology, past and present, linear trench, tectonics relationship between Pyrenees and Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemot, J. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 images obviously show up some large linear features trending N 80 E or N 30 E common to both Alps and Pyrenees. One of them, the Ligurian Fault, had been previously forecast by Laubscher in an interpretation of the Alps by the plate tectonic theory, but it extends westward farthest from the Alps, cutting the Pyrenees axis. These lineaments have been interpreted as reflections of deep seated wrench faults in the surficial part of the sedimentary series. A large set of such lineaments is perceptible in western Europe, such as the Guadalquivir Fault in southern Spain, Ligurian Fault, Insubrian Fault, Northern-Jura Fault, Metz Fault. Perhaps these may be interpreted as transform faults of the mid-Atlantic ridge or of a paleo-rift seated in the Rhine-Rhone graben.

  1. Observations of hydrotectonic stress/strain events at a basement high at the Nicoya outer rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryon, M. D.; Brown, K. M.

    2005-12-01

    instruments. A few indicate downflow while the others show upflow. This sort of response would be expected during a stress event causing regions of compression and dilation. These results suggest that ridge flank basement highs may be good sites to monitor stress/strain events as well as basement hydrology.

  2. Effect on stress-strain relations brought by surface carburization of 316 stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, K [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries, Tokyo (Japan)

    1977-07-01

    The effect of sodium. environment on austenitic stainless steels used as structural materials in Liquid Metal Cooled Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBRs) has long been the subject of extensive studies in many countries. Recent developments tending toward stricter control of the oxygen content permitted to be present in the circulating sodium have come to allay the apprehensions formerly held on the possibility of general corrosion affecting the mechanical properties of structural materials expected to be used In LMFBR plants. Grain boundary corrosion and depletion of elements from the structure surface also have come to be considered to provide little cause of fear in this regard, though some uncertainty is still left concerning the influence that these phenomena might exert toward the end of plant life. What still remains essentially to be clarified relates to carbon mass transfer. Decarburization and/or carburization are phenomena that cannot be disregarded even in the primary heat transfer system of LMFBRs, on account of the temperature dependence of carbon activity in steels, which could cause the carbon to leak out from structural material into the circulating sodium in the higher temperature zones of a circuit, to deposit itself on the channel walls in the lower temperature parts. Recent reports on loop experiments point toward the possibility of carboneous matter leaching into flowing sodium and into the cover gas to produce significant carburization phenomena. Carburization, in particular, can bring about loss of ductility and deterioration of fatigue properties, and hence serious consideration of this aspect is called for in the design of components incorporating thin stainless steel plates. To represent the stress-strain behavior at 550 deg. C of 316 stainless steel affected by surface carburization, an empirical formula was adopted. It was proposed by Voce for relating true stress to true plastic strain: {sigma} = Aexp(C {epsilon}{sub p} ) + B, where {sigma

  3. Effect on stress-strain relations brought by surface carburization of 316 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, K.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of sodium. environment on austenitic stainless steels used as structural materials in Liquid Metal Cooled Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBRs) has long been the subject of extensive studies in many countries. Recent developments tending toward stricter control of the oxygen content permitted to be present in the circulating sodium have come to allay the apprehensions formerly held on the possibility of general corrosion affecting the mechanical properties of structural materials expected to be used In LMFBR plants. Grain boundary corrosion and depletion of elements from the structure surface also have come to be considered to provide little cause of fear in this regard, though some uncertainty is still left concerning the influence that these phenomena might exert toward the end of plant life. What still remains essentially to be clarified relates to carbon mass transfer. Decarburization and/or carburization are phenomena that cannot be disregarded even in the primary heat transfer system of LMFBRs, on account of the temperature dependence of carbon activity in steels, which could cause the carbon to leak out from structural material into the circulating sodium in the higher temperature zones of a circuit, to deposit itself on the channel walls in the lower temperature parts. Recent reports on loop experiments point toward the possibility of carboneous matter leaching into flowing sodium and into the cover gas to produce significant carburization phenomena. Carburization, in particular, can bring about loss of ductility and deterioration of fatigue properties, and hence serious consideration of this aspect is called for in the design of components incorporating thin stainless steel plates. To represent the stress-strain behavior at 550 deg. C of 316 stainless steel affected by surface carburization, an empirical formula was adopted. It was proposed by Voce for relating true stress to true plastic strain: σ = Aexp(C ε p ) + B, where σ is the true stress, and

  4. PROCESS FEATURES OF FLUCTUATIONS PROPAGATION AT STRESS-STRAIN WORK OF THE RAILWAY TRACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Bondarenko

    2015-12-01

    reliability of trains as part of security checkpoints in the area of rolling stock gauge because of its technical state. Therefore, for examining issues of reliable performance elements of the permanent way and substructures of the railway track are proposed its stress-strain work. It gives the possibility to consider a dynamic process, localized both in time and space.

  5. Body mass index and motor coordination: Non-linear relationships in children 6-10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, V P; Malina, R M; Maia, J A R; Rodrigues, L P

    2018-05-01

    Given the concern for health-related consequences of an elevated body mass index (BMI; obesity), the potential consequences of a low BMI in children are often overlooked. The purpose was to evaluate the relationship between the BMI across its entire spectrum and motor coordination (MC) in children 6-10 years. Height, weight, and MC (Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder, KTK test battery) were measured in 1,912 boys and 1,826 girls of 6-10 years of age. BMI (kg/m 2 ) was calculated. KTK scores for each of the four tests were also converted to a motor quotient (MQ). One-way ANOVA was used to test differences in the BMI, individual test items, and MQ among boys and girls within age groups. Sex-specific quadratic regressions of individual KTK items and the MQ on the BMI were calculated. Girls and boys were also classified into four weight status groups using International Obesity Task Force criteria: thin, normal, overweight, and obese. Differences in specific test items and MQ between weight status groups were evaluated by age group in each sex. Thirty-one percent of the sample was overweight or obese, whereas 5% was thin. On average, normal weight children had the highest MQ in both sexes across the age range with few exceptions. Overweight/obese children had a lower MQ than normal weight and thin children. The quadratic regression lines generally presented an inverted parabolic relationship between the BMI and MC and suggested a decrease in MC with an increase in the BMI. In general, BMI shows a curvilinear, inverted parabolic relationship with MC in children 6-10 years. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. 陷落柱填隙物全应力-应变过程的渗流特性研究%Research on permeability characteristics of karst collapse column fillings in complete stress-strain process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张勃阳; 白海波; 张凯

    2016-01-01

    -seepage relationship of fillings is divided into pressure elastic segment, damage and creep stage, and the permeability presents the change rule of decrease-increase-decrease in complete stress-strain process; 2) The peak value of permeability decreases with the increasing confining pressure, and the ratio of the permeability in the complete stress-strain process has a exponential function relation with the confining pressure difference in complete stress-strain process; 3) The initial permeability and porosity of fillings decreases with the increase of initial moisture content, and the ratio of permeability and porosity have a power function relationship. The difference between peak and initial permeability decreases with the increasing initial moisture content in complete stress-strain process.

  7. Best linear unbiased prediction of genomic breeding values using a trait-specific marker-derived relationship matrix.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Zhang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available With the availability of high density whole-genome single nucleotide polymorphism chips, genomic selection has become a promising method to estimate genetic merit with potentially high accuracy for animal, plant and aquaculture species of economic importance. With markers covering the entire genome, genetic merit of genotyped individuals can be predicted directly within the framework of mixed model equations, by using a matrix of relationships among individuals that is derived from the markers. Here we extend that approach by deriving a marker-based relationship matrix specifically for the trait of interest.In the framework of mixed model equations, a new best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP method including a trait-specific relationship matrix (TA was presented and termed TABLUP. The TA matrix was constructed on the basis of marker genotypes and their weights in relation to the trait of interest. A simulation study with 1,000 individuals as the training population and five successive generations as candidate population was carried out to validate the proposed method. The proposed TABLUP method outperformed the ridge regression BLUP (RRBLUP and BLUP with realized relationship matrix (GBLUP. It performed slightly worse than BayesB with an accuracy of 0.79 in the standard scenario.The proposed TABLUP method is an improvement of the RRBLUP and GBLUP method. It might be equivalent to the BayesB method but it has additional benefits like the calculation of accuracies for individual breeding values. The results also showed that the TA-matrix performs better in predicting ability than the classical numerator relationship matrix and the realized relationship matrix which are derived solely from pedigree or markers without regard to the trait. This is because the TA-matrix not only accounts for the Mendelian sampling term, but also puts the greater emphasis on those markers that explain more of the genetic variance in the trait.

  8. Relationships between the structure of wheat gluten and ACE inhibitory activity of hydrolysate: stepwise multiple linear regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanyan; Ma, Haile; Wang, Bei; Qu, Wenjuan; Wali, Asif; Zhou, Cunshan

    2016-08-01

    Ultrasound pretreatment of wheat gluten (WG) before enzymolysis can improve the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of the hydrolysates by alerting the structure of substrate proteins. Establishment of a relationship between the structure of WG and ACE inhibitory activity of the hydrolysates to judge the end point of the ultrasonic pretreatment is vital. The results of stepwise multiple linear regression (MLR) showed that the contents of free sulfhydryl, α-helix, disulfide bond, surface hydrophobicity and random coil were significantly correlated to ACE Inhibitory activity of the hydrolysate, with the standard partial regression coefficients were 3.729, -0.676, -0.252, 0.022 and 0.156, respectively. The R(2) of this model was 0.970. External validation showed that the stepwise MLR model could well predict the ACE inhibitory activity of hydrolysate based on the content of free sulfhydryl, α-helix, disulfide bond, surface hydrophobicity and random coil of WG before hydrolysis. A stepwise multiple linear regression model describing the quantitative relationships between the structure of WG and the ACE Inhibitory activity of the hydrolysates was established. This model can be used to predict the endpoint of the ultrasonic pretreatment. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Linear energy relationships for the octahedral preference of Mg, Ca and transition metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontikis, George; Borden, James; Martínek, Václav; Florián, Jan

    2009-04-16

    The geometry, atomic charges, force constants, and relative energies of the symmetric and distorted M(2+)(H(2)O)(4)(F(-))(2), M(3+)(H(2)O)(4)(F(-))(2), M(2+)(H(2)O)(3)(F(-))(2), and M(3+)(H(2)O)(3)(F(-))(2) metal complexes, M = Mg, Ca, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn, Cr, V, were calculated by using the B3LYP/TZVP density functional method in both gas phase and aqueous solution, modeled using the polarized continuum model. The deformation energy associated with moving one water ligand 12 degrees from the initial "octahedral" arrangement, in which all O-M-O, O-M-F, and F-M-F angles are either 90 degrees or 180 degrees, was calculated to examine the angular ligand flexibility. For all M(2+)(H(2)O)(4)(F(-))(2) complexes, this distortion increased the energy of the complex in proportion to the electrostatic potential-derived (ESP) charge of the metal, and in proportion to D(-10), where D is the distance from the distorted ligand to its closest neighbor. The octahedral stability was further examined by calculating the energies for the removal of a water ligand from the octahedral complex to form a square-pyramidal or trigonal-bipyramidal complex. The octahedral preference, defined as the negative of the corresponding binding energy of the ligand, was found to linearly correlate with the ESP charge of the metal in both the gas phase and aqueous solution. The obtained results indicate that quantum-mechanical covalent effects are of secondary importance for both the flexibility and the octahedral preference of M(2+)(H(2)O)(4)(F(-))(2) and M(3+)(H(2)O)(4)(F(-))(2) complexes. This conclusion and supporting data are important for the development of consistent molecular mechanical force fields of the studied metal ions.

  10. Mining routinely collected acute data to reveal non-linear relationships between nurse staffing levels and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, Alison; Cook, Rob; Jones, Sarahjane; Smith, Judith; Gough, Malcolm; Maxwell, Elaine; Punshon, Geoffrey; Radford, Mark

    2016-12-16

    Nursing is a safety critical activity but not easily quantified. This makes the building of predictive staffing models a challenge. The aim of this study was to determine if relationships between registered and non-registered nurse staffing levels and clinical outcomes could be discovered through the mining of routinely collected clinical data. The secondary aim was to examine the feasibility and develop the use of 'big data' techniques commonly used in industry for this area of healthcare and examine future uses. The data were obtained from 1 large acute National Health Service hospital trust in England. Routinely collected physiological, signs and symptom data from a clinical database were extracted, imported and mined alongside a bespoke staffing and outcomes database using Mathmatica V.10. The physiological data consisted of 120 million patient entries over 6 years, the bespoke database consisted of 9 years of daily data on staffing levels and safety factors such as falls. To discover patterns in these data or non-linear relationships that would contribute to modelling. To examine feasibility of this technique in this field. After mining, 40 correlations (pdata (such as the presence or absence of nausea) and staffing factors. Several inter-related factors demonstrated step changes where registered nurse availability appeared to relate to physiological parameters or outcomes such as falls and the management of symptoms. Data extraction proved challenging as some commercial databases were not built for extraction of the massive data sets they contain. The relationship between staffing and outcomes appears to exist. It appears to be non-linear but calculable and a data-driven model appears possible. These findings could be used to build an initial mathematical model for acute staffing which could be further tested. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Solvent Effects on Oxygen-17 Chemical Shifts in Amides. Quantitative Linear Solvation Shift Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, Ernesto; Fabián, Jesús San; Gerothanassis, Ioannis P.; Esteban, Angel L.; Abboud, José-Luis M.; Contreras, Ruben H.; de Kowalewski, Dora G.

    1997-01-01

    A multiple-linear-regression analysis (MLRA) has been carried out using the Kamlet-Abboud-Taft (KAT) solvatochromic parameters in order to elucidate and quantify the solvent effects on the17O chemical shifts ofN-methylformamide (NMF),N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF),N-methylacetamide (NMA), andN,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA). The chemical shifts of the four molecules show the same dependence (in ppm) on the solvent polarity-polarizability, i.e., -22π*. The influence of the solvent hydrogen-bond-donor (HBD) acidities is slightly larger for the acetamides NMA and DMA, i.e., -48α, than for the formamides NMF and DMF, i.e., -42α. The influence of the solvent hydrogen-bond-acceptor (HBA) basicities is negligible for the nonprotic molecules DMF and DMA but significant for the protic molecules NMF and NMA, i.e., -9β. The effect of substituting the N-H hydrogen by a methyl group amounts to -5.9 ppm in NMF and 5.4 ppm in NMA. The effect of substituting the O=C-H hydrogen amounts to 5.5 ppm in NMF and 16.8 ppm in DMF. The model of specific hydration sites of amides by I. P. Gerothanassis and C. Vakka [J. Org. Chem.59,2341 (1994)] is settled in a more quantitative basis and the model by M. I. Burgar, T. E. St. Amour, and D. Fiat [J. Phys. Chem.85,502 (1981)] is critically evaluated.17O hydration shifts have been calculated for formamide (FOR) by the ab initio LORG method at the 6-31G* level. For a formamide surrounded by the four in-plane molecules of water in the first hydration shell, the calculated17O shift change due to the four hydrogen bonds, -83.2 ppm, is smaller than the empirical hydration shift, -100 ppm. The17O shift change from each out-of-plane water molecule hydrogen-bonded to the amide oxygen is -18.0 ppm. These LORG results support the conclusion that no more than four water molecules are hydrogen-bonded to the amide oxygen in formamide.

  12. Random cyclic stress-strain responses of a stainless steel pipe-weld metal. II. A modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Y.X.; Wang, J.N.

    2000-01-01

    For pt.I see ibid., vol.199, p.303-14, 2000. This paper pays special attention to an issue that there is a significant scatter of the stress-strain responses of a nuclear engineering material, 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel pipe-weld metal. Efforts are made to reveal the random fatigue damage character by fracture surface observations and to model the random responses by introducing probability-based stress-strain curves of Ramberg-Osgood relation and its modified form. Results reveal that the fatigue damage is subjected to, 3-D interacting and involved microcracks. The three stages, namely microstructural short cracks (MSC), physical short cracks (PSC) and long cracks (LC) subdivided by Miller and de los Rios, can give a good characterization of the damage process. Both micro- and macro-behaviour of the material have the character of three stages. The 3-D effects are strong in the MSC stage, tend to a gradual decrease in the PSC stage, and then show saturation after going to the LC stage. Intrinsic causes of the random behaviour are the difference and evolution of the microstructural conditions ahead of the dominant crack tips. The 'effectively short fatigue crack criterion' introduced by Zhao et al. in observing the material surface short crack behaviour could facilitate an understanding of the mechanism of interaction and evolution. Based on the previous obtained appropriate assumed distribution, normal model, for the cyclic stress amplitude, the probability-based curves are approximated by the mean value and standard deviation cyclic stress-strain curves. Then, fatigue analysis at arbitrarily given reliability can be conveniently made according to the normal distribution function. To estimate these curves, a maximum likelihood method is developed. The analysis reveals that the curves could give a good modeling of the random responses of material. (orig.)

  13. Relationships between each part of the spinal curves and upright posture using Multiple stepwise linear regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulet, Sebastien; Boudot, Elsa; Houel, Nicolas

    2016-05-03

    Back pain is a common reason for consultation in primary healthcare clinical practice, and has effects on daily activities and posture. Relationships between the whole spine and upright posture, however, remain unknown. The aim of this study was to identify the relationship between each spinal curve and centre of pressure position as well as velocity for healthy subjects. Twenty-one male subjects performed quiet stance in natural position. Each upright posture was then recorded using an optoelectronics system (Vicon Nexus) synchronized with two force plates. At each moment, polynomial interpolations of markers attached on the spine segment were used to compute cervical lordosis, thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis angle curves. Mean of centre of pressure position and velocity was then computed. Multiple stepwise linear regression analysis showed that the position and velocity of centre of pressure associated with each part of the spinal curves were defined as best predictors of the lumbar lordosis angle (R(2)=0.45; p=1.65*10-10) and the thoracic kyphosis angle (R(2)=0.54; p=4.89*10-13) of healthy subjects in quiet stance. This study showed the relationships between each of cervical, thoracic, lumbar curvatures, and centre of pressure's fluctuation during free quiet standing using non-invasive full spinal curve exploration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. VALIDITY OF A COMMERCIAL LINEAR ENCODER TO ESTIMATE BENCH PRESS 1 RM FROM THE FORCE-VELOCITY RELATIONSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Bosquet

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the validity and accuracy of a commercial linear encoder (Musclelab, Ergotest, Norway to estimate Bench press 1 repetition maximum (1RM from the force - velocity relationship. Twenty seven physical education students and teachers (5 women and 22 men with a heterogeneous history of strength training participated in this study. They performed a 1 RM test and a force - velocity test using a Bench press lifting task in a random order. Mean 1 RM was 61.8 ± 15.3 kg (range: 34 to 100 kg, while 1 RM estimated by the Musclelab's software from the force-velocity relationship was 56.4 ± 14.0 kg (range: 33 to 91 kg. Actual and estimated 1 RM were very highly correlated (r = 0.93, p<0.001 but largely different (Bias: 5.4 ± 5.7 kg, p < 0.001, ES = 1.37. The 95% limits of agreement were ±11.2 kg, which represented ±18% of actual 1 RM. It was concluded that 1 RM estimated from the force-velocity relationship was a good measure for monitoring training induced adaptations, but also that it was not accurate enough to prescribe training intensities. Additional studies are required to determine whether accuracy is affected by age, sex or initial level.

  15. Assessment of stress-strain data suitable for finite-element elastic--plastic analysis of shipping containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rack, H.J.; Knorovsky, G.A.

    1978-09-01

    Stress-strain data which describes the influence of strain rate and temperature on the mechanical response of materials presently being used for light water reactor fuel shipping containers have been assembled. Selection of data has been limited to that which is suitable for use in finite-element elastic--plastic analysis of shipping containers (e.g., they must include complete material history profiles). Based on this information, recommendations have been made for further work which is required to complete the necessary data base

  16. Stress-Strain state of structural elements of LWR fuel rods modeling in the MSC.MARC and ANSYS software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, A.; Kuznetsov, V.; Krupkin, A.; Kashirin, B.; Medvedev, A.; Novikov, V.

    2009-01-01

    The results of stress-strain state in the fuel rod spring fixing lock coils modeling are presented in this paper. The solution of this problem was realized in finite-element software MSC.MARC and ANSIS. The solution was obtained in the three-dimensional setting, taking into account multicontact interaction and all physical and geometric nonlinearities. The finite-element models were verified on analytical parities and experimental data. Results of verification have proved a correctness of the accepted finite-element models

  17. Linear and nonlinear relationships between biodegradation potential and molecular descriptors/fragments for organic pollutants and a theoretical interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Jia; Qin, Weichao; Zhang, Xujia; Wen, Yang; Su, Limin; Zhao, Yuanhui

    2013-01-01

    Prediction of the biodegradability of organic pollutants is an ecologically desirable and economically feasible tool for estimating the environmental fate of chemicals. In this paper, linear and nonlinear relationships between biological oxygen demand (BOD) and molecular descriptors/fragments have been investigated for 1130 organic chemicals. Significant relationships have been observed between the simple molecular descriptors and %BOD for some homologous compounds, but not for the whole set of compounds. Electronic parameters, such as E HOMO and E LUMO , are the dominant factors affecting the biodegradability for some homologous chemicals. However, other descriptors, such as molecular weight, acid dissociation constant and polarity still have a significant impact on the biodegradation. The best global model for %BOD prediction is that developed from a chain-based fragmentation scheme. At the same time, the theoretical relationship between %BOD and molecular descriptors/fragments has been investigated, based on a first-order kinetic process. The %BOD is nonlinearly, rather than linearly, related to the descriptors. The coefficients of determination can be significantly improved by using nonlinear models for the homologous compounds and the whole data set. After analysing 1130 ready and not ready biodegradable compounds using 23 simple descriptors and various fragmentation schemes, it was revealed that biodegradation could be well predicted from a chain-based fragmentation scheme, a decision tree and a %BOD model. The models were capable of separating NRB and RB with an overall accuracy of 87.2%, 83.0% and 82.5%, respectively. The best classification model developed was a chain-based model but it used 155 fragments. The simplest model was a decision tree which only used 10 structural fragments. The effect of structures on the biodegradation has been analysed and the biodegradation pathway and mechanisms have been discussed based on activating and inactivating

  18. Establishing linear solvation energy relationships between VOCs and monolayer-protected gold nanoclusters using quartz crystal microbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chi-Lin; Lu, Chia-Jung

    2009-08-15

    Linear solvation energy relationships (LSERs) have been recognized as a useful model for investigating the chemical forces behind the partition coefficients between vapor molecules and absorbents. This study is the first to determine the solvation properties of monolayer-protected gold nanoclusters (MPCs) with different surface ligands. The ratio of partition coefficients/MPC density (K/rho) of 18 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for four different MPCs obtained through quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) experiments were used for the LSER model calculations. LSER modeling results indicate that all MPC surfaces showed a statistically significant (pattraction, 4-methoxythiophenol-capped MPCs can also interact with polar organics (s=1.04). Showing a unique preference for the hydrogen bond basicity of vapors (b=1.11), 2-benzothiazolethiol-capped MPCs provide evidence of an intra-molecular, proton-shift mechanism on surface of nano-gold.

  19. Linear relationship between in distribution of thallium-201 and blood flow in ischemic and nonischemic myocardium during exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, A.P.; Morris, K.G.; Murdock, R.; Bruno, F.P.; Cobb, F.R.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the myocardial distribution of thallium-201 and regional myocrdial blood flow during ischemia and the physiologic stress of exercise. Studies were carried out in six dogs with chronically implanted catheters in the atrium and aorta and a snare on the circumflex coronary artery distal to the first marginal branch. Regional myocardial blood flow was measured during quiet, resting conditions using 7 to 10 ] of radioisotope-labeled microspheres. Each dog was then exercised on a treadmill at speeds of 5 to 9 mph at a 5/sup o/ incline. (After 1 minute of exercise the cirumflex coronary artery was occluded and thallium-201 and a second label of microspheres were injected. Exercise was continued for 5 minutes. The dogs were then sacrificed and the left ventricle was sectioned into approximately 80 1-2-g samples to compare thallium-201 activity and regional myocardial blood flow. The maximum increase in blood flow ranged from 3.3 to 7.2 times resting control values. Each dog had myocardial samples in which blood flow was markedly reduced, to less than 0.10 ml/min/g. In each dog there was a close linear relationship between thallium-201 distribution and direct measurements of regional myocardial blood flow. Linear regression analyses demonstrated a correlation coefficient of 0.98 or greater in each dog. These data indicate that during the physiologic stress of exercise, the myocardial distribution of thallium activity is linearly related to regional myocardial blood flow in both the ischemic and nonischemic regions

  20. Experimental Study of Stress-Strain Behaviour of Open-Cell Aluminium Foam Sandwich Panel for Automotive Structural Part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Asmawiyah Ibrahim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Because of high stiffness and strength to weight ratio, aluminium foam sandwich (AFS has huge advantage in automotive industries in order to reduce the vehicle’s weight which consequently will reduce the fuel consumption. While reducing the weight, AFS must also maintain high strength and durability compared to other competitive materials used which perform same functionalities. AFS had been proved its suitability for industrial application by previous researchers such as in aerospace, automotive and architecture. However, there is still a gap need to be filled in order to expand the use of the AFS in another application. In this paper, the tensile strength of AFS panel made of from aluminium skin sheets and open-cell aluminium foam core with various thickness is investigated. Design of experiment was developed according to JUMP (JMP statistical software and experimental work was done using universal testing machine. The stress-strain behavior was analysed. The result shows that the effect of skin to core ratio is significant on the stress-strain behavior.

  1. Tensile Stress-Strain Results for 304L and 316L Stainless-Steel Plate at Temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R. K. Blandford; D. K. Morton; S. D. Snow; T. E. Rahl

    2007-01-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is conducting moderate strain rate (10 to 200 per second) research on stainless steel materials in support of the Department of Energy's (DOE) National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP). For this research, strain rate effects are characterized by comparison to quasi-static tensile test results. Considerable tensile testing has been conducted resulting in the generation of a large amount of basic material data expressed as engineering and true stress-strain curves. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of quasi-static tensile testing of 304/304L and 316/316L stainless steels in order to add to the existing data pool for these materials and make the data more readily available to other researchers, engineers, and interested parties. Standard tensile testing of round specimens in accordance with ASTM procedure A 370-03a were conducted on 304L and 316L stainless-steel plate materials at temperatures ranging from -20 F to 600 F. Two plate thicknesses, eight material heats, and both base and weld metal were tested. Material yield strength, Young's modulus, ultimate strength, ultimate strain, failure strength and failure strain were determined, engineering and true stress-strain curves to failure were developed, and comparisons to ASME Code minimums were made. The procedures used during testing and the typical results obtained are described in this paper

  2. Quantitative structure-retention relationship studies using immobilized artificial membrane chromatography I: amended linear solvation energy relationships with the introduction of a molecular electronic factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Sun, Jin; Cui, Shengmiao; He, Zhonggui

    2006-11-03

    Linear solvation energy relationships (LSERs) amended by the introduction of a molecular electronic factor were employed to establish quantitative structure-retention relationships using immobilized artificial membrane (IAM) chromatography, in particular ionizable solutes. The chromatographic indices, log k(IAM), were determined by HPLC on an IAM.PC.DD2 column for 53 structurally diverse compounds, including neutral, acidic and basic compounds. Unlike neutral compounds, the IAM chromatographic retention of ionizable compounds was affected by their molecular charge state. When the mean net charge per molecule (delta) was introduced into the amended LSER as the sixth variable, the LSER regression coefficient was significantly improved for the test set including ionizable solutes. The delta coefficients of acidic and basic compounds were quite different indicating that the molecular electronic factor had a markedly different impact on the retention of acidic and basic compounds on IAM column. Ionization of acidic compounds containing a carboxylic group tended to impair their retention on IAM, while the ionization of basic compounds did not have such a marked effect. In addition, the extra-interaction with the polar head of phospholipids might cause a certain change in the retention of basic compounds. A comparison of calculated and experimental retention indices suggested that the semi-empirical LSER amended by the addition of a molecular electronic factor was able to reproduce adequately the experimental retention factors of the structurally diverse solutes investigated.

  3. Linear and nonlinear causal relationship between energy consumption and economic growth in China: New evidence based on wavelet analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The energy-growth nexus has important policy implications for economic development. The results from many past studies that investigated the causality direction of this nexus can lead to misleading policy guidance. Using data on China from 1953 to 2013, this study shows that an application of causality test on the time series of energy consumption and national output has masked a lot of information. The Toda-Yamamoto test with bootstrapped critical values and the newly proposed non-linear causality test reveal no causal relationship. However, a further application of these tests using series in different time-frequency domain obtained from wavelet decomposition indicates that while energy consumption Granger causes economic growth in the short run, the reverse is true in the medium term. A bidirectional causal relationship is found for the long run. This approach has proven to be superior in unveiling information on the energy-growth nexus that are useful for policy planning over different time horizons. PMID:29782534

  4. The Relationship between Handedness and Mathematics Is Non-linear and Is Moderated by Gender, Age, and Type of Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Giovanni; Signorelli, Michela; Barsuola, Giulia; Bolognese, Martina; Gobet, Fernand

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between handedness and mathematical ability is still highly controversial. While some researchers have claimed that left-handers are gifted in mathematics and strong right-handers perform the worst in mathematical tasks, others have more recently proposed that mixed-handers are the most disadvantaged group. However, the studies in the field differ with regard to the ages and the gender of the participants, and the type of mathematical ability assessed. To disentangle these discrepancies, we conducted five studies in several Italian schools (total participants: N = 2,314), involving students of different ages (six to seventeen) and a range of mathematical tasks (e.g., arithmetic and reasoning). The results show that (a) linear and quadratic functions are insufficient for capturing the link between handedness and mathematical ability; (b) the percentage of variance in mathematics scores explained by handedness was larger than in previous studies (between 3 and 10% vs. 1%), and (c) the effect of handedness on mathematical ability depended on age, type of mathematical tasks, and gender. In accordance with previous research, handedness does represent a correlate of achievement in mathematics, but the shape of this relationship is more complicated than has been argued so far. PMID:28649210

  5. Effects of strain rate, mixing ratio, and stress-strain definition on the mechanical behavior of the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) material as related to its biological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanafer, Khalil; Duprey, Ambroise; Schlicht, Marty; Berguer, Ramon

    2009-04-01

    Tensile tests on Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) materials were conducted to illustrate the effects of mixing ratio, definition of the stress-strain curve, and the strain rate on the elastic modulus and stress-strain curve. PDMS specimens were prepared according to the ASTM standards for elastic materials. Our results indicate that the physiological elastic modulus depends strongly on the definition of the stress-strain curve, mixing ratio, and the strain rate. For various mixing ratios and strain rates, true stress-strain definition results in higher stress and elastic modulus compared with engineering stress-strain and true stress-engineering strain definitions. The elastic modulus increases as the mixing ratio increases up-to 9:1 ratio after which the elastic modulus begins to decrease even as the mixing ratio continues to increase. The results presented in this study will be helpful to assist the design of in vitro experiments to mimic blood flow in arteries and to understand the complex interaction between blood flow and the walls of arteries using PDMS elastomer.

  6. Frequency Response of Synthetic Vocal Fold Models with Linear and Nonlinear Material Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Stephanie M.; Thomson, Scott L.; Dromey, Christopher; Smith, Simeon

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to create synthetic vocal fold models with nonlinear stress-strain properties and to investigate the effect of linear versus nonlinear material properties on fundamental frequency (F[subscript 0]) during anterior-posterior stretching. Method: Three materially linear and 3 materially nonlinear models were…

  7. Relationship between rice yield and climate variables in southwest Nigeria using multiple linear regression and support vector machine analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntunde, Philip G.; Lischeid, Gunnar; Dietrich, Ottfried

    2018-03-01

    This study examines the variations of climate variables and rice yield and quantifies the relationships among them using multiple linear regression, principal component analysis, and support vector machine (SVM) analysis in southwest Nigeria. The climate and yield data used was for a period of 36 years between 1980 and 2015. Similar to the observed decrease ( P 1 and explained 83.1% of the total variance of predictor variables. The SVM regression function using the scores of the first principal component explained about 75% of the variance in rice yield data and linear regression about 64%. SVM regression between annual solar radiation values and yield explained 67% of the variance. Only the first component of the principal component analysis (PCA) exhibited a clear long-term trend and sometimes short-term variance similar to that of rice yield. Short-term fluctuations of the scores of the PC1 are closely coupled to those of rice yield during the 1986-1993 and the 2006-2013 periods thereby revealing the inter-annual sensitivity of rice production to climate variability. Solar radiation stands out as the climate variable of highest influence on rice yield, and the influence was especially strong during monsoon and post-monsoon periods, which correspond to the vegetative, booting, flowering, and grain filling stages in the study area. The outcome is expected to provide more in-depth regional-specific climate-rice linkage for screening of better cultivars that can positively respond to future climate fluctuations as well as providing information that may help optimized planting dates for improved radiation use efficiency in the study area.

  8. Non-Linear Relationships between Aflatoxin B1 Levels and the Biological Response of Monkey Kidney Vero Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendel Friedman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin-producing fungi contaminate food and feed during pre-harvest, storage and processing periods. Once consumed, aflatoxins (AFs accumulate in tissues, causing illnesses in animals and humans. Most human exposure to AF seems to be a result of consumption of contaminated plant and animal products. The policy of blending and dilution of grain containing higher levels of aflatoxins with uncontaminated grains for use in animal feed implicitly assumes that the deleterious effects of low levels of the toxins are linearly correlated to concentration. This assumption may not be justified, since it involves extrapolation of these nontoxic levels in feed, which are not of further concern. To develop a better understanding of the significance of low dose effects, in the present study, we developed quantitative methods for the detection of biologically active aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 in Vero cells by two independent assays: the green fluorescent protein (GFP assay, as a measure of protein synthesis by the cells, and the microculture tetrazolium (MTT assay, as a measure of cell viability. The results demonstrate a non-linear dose-response relationship at the cellular level. AFB1 at low concentrations has an opposite biological effect to higher doses that inhibit protein synthesis. Additional studies showed that heat does not affect the stability of AFB1 in milk and that the Vero cell model can be used to determine the presence of bioactive AFB1 in spiked beef, lamb and turkey meat. The implication of the results for the cumulative effects of low amounts of AFB1 in numerous foods is discussed.

  9. Relationship between rice yield and climate variables in southwest Nigeria using multiple linear regression and support vector machine analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntunde, Philip G; Lischeid, Gunnar; Dietrich, Ottfried

    2018-03-01

    This study examines the variations of climate variables and rice yield and quantifies the relationships among them using multiple linear regression, principal component analysis, and support vector machine (SVM) analysis in southwest Nigeria. The climate and yield data used was for a period of 36 years between 1980 and 2015. Similar to the observed decrease (P  1 and explained 83.1% of the total variance of predictor variables. The SVM regression function using the scores of the first principal component explained about 75% of the variance in rice yield data and linear regression about 64%. SVM regression between annual solar radiation values and yield explained 67% of the variance. Only the first component of the principal component analysis (PCA) exhibited a clear long-term trend and sometimes short-term variance similar to that of rice yield. Short-term fluctuations of the scores of the PC1 are closely coupled to those of rice yield during the 1986-1993 and the 2006-2013 periods thereby revealing the inter-annual sensitivity of rice production to climate variability. Solar radiation stands out as the climate variable of highest influence on rice yield, and the influence was especially strong during monsoon and post-monsoon periods, which correspond to the vegetative, booting, flowering, and grain filling stages in the study area. The outcome is expected to provide more in-depth regional-specific climate-rice linkage for screening of better cultivars that can positively respond to future climate fluctuations as well as providing information that may help optimized planting dates for improved radiation use efficiency in the study area.

  10. Application of a linear free energy relationship to crystalline solids of MO2 and M(OH)4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Huifang; Barton, L.L.

    1999-01-01

    In this letter, a linear free energy relationship developed by Sverjensky and Molling is used to predict the Gibbs free energies of formation of crystalline phases of M 4+ O 2 and M 4+ (OH) 4 from the known thermodynamic properties of aqueous tetravalent cations (M 4+ ). The modified Sverjensky and Molling equation for tetravalent cations is expressed as ΔG 0 f,M v X = a M v X ΔG 0 n,M 4+ + b M v X + β M v X r M 4+ , where the coefficients a M v X , b M v X and β M v X characterize a particular structural family of M v X, r M 4+ is the ionic radius of M 4+ cation, ΔG 0 f,M v X is the standard Gibbs free energy of formation of M v X, and ΔG 0 n,M 4+ is the standard non-solvation energy of cation M 4+ . By fitting the equation to the existing thermodynamic data, the coefficients in the equation for the MO 2 family minerals are estimated to be: a M v X = 0.670, β M v X = 32 (kcal/mol A), and b = -430.02 (kcal/mol). The constrained relationship can be used to predict the standard Gibbs free energies of formation of crystalline phases and fictive phases (i.e., phases which are thermodynamically unstable and do not occur at standard conditions) within the isostructural families of M 4+ O 2 and M 4+ (OH) 4 if the standard Gibbs free energies of formation of the tetravalent cations are known. (orig.)

  11. The Parkinsonian Subthalamic Network: Measures of Power, Linear, and Non-linear Synchronization and their Relationship to L-DOPA Treatment and OFF State Motor Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Timothy; Farmer, Simon; Berthouze, Luc; Jha, Ashwani; Beudel, Martijn; Foltynie, Thomas; Limousin, Patricia; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Brown, Peter; Litvak, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigated the dopaminergic modulation of neuronal interactions occurring in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) during Parkinson's disease (PD). We utilized linear measures of local and long range synchrony such as power and coherence, as well as Detrended Fluctuation Analysis for Phase Synchrony (DFA-PS)- a recently developed non-linear method that computes the extent of long tailed autocorrelations present in the phase interactions between two coupled signals. Through analysis of local field potentials (LFPs) taken from the STN we seek to determine changes in the neurodynamics that may underpin the pathophysiology of PD in a group of 12 patients who had undergone surgery for deep brain stimulation. We demonstrate up modulation of alpha-theta (5-12 Hz) band power in response to L-DOPA treatment, whilst low beta band power (15-20 Hz) band-power is suppressed. We also find evidence for significant local connectivity within the region surrounding STN although there was evidence for its modulation via administration of L-DOPA. Further to this we present evidence for a positive correlation between the phase ordering of bilateral STN interactions and the severity of bradykinetic and rigidity symptoms in PD. Although, the ability of non-linear measures to predict clinical state did not exceed standard measures such as beta power, these measures may help identify the connections which play a role in pathological dynamics.

  12. Stress-strain behavior under static loading in Gd123 high-temperature superconductors at 77 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Hiroyuki; Murakami, Akira; Teshima, Hidekazu; Morita, Mitsuru

    2013-10-01

    Mechanical properties of melt-growth GdBa2Cu3Ox (Gd123) superconducting samples with 10 wt.% Ag2O and 0.5 wt.% Pt were evaluated at 77 K through flexural tests for specimens cut from the samples in order to estimate the mechanical properties of the Gd123 material without metal substrates, buffer layers or stabilization layers. We discuss the mechanical properties; the Young's modulus and flexural strength with stress-strain behavior at 77 K. The results show that the flexural strength and fracture strain of Gd123 at 77 K are approximately 100 MPa and 0.1%, respectively, and that the origin of the fracture is defects such as pores, impurities and non-superconducting compounds. We also show that the Young's modulus of Gd123 is estimated to be 160-165 GPa.

  13. A THM stress-strain framework for modelling the performance of argillaceous materials in deep repositories for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laloui, L.; Francois, B.

    2007-01-01

    In the scenarios for deep, geological nuclear-waste repositories, clayey soils will be hydrated, heated, cooled and dried. The numerical modelling of these mechanical processes is a key issue. Performance assessment of deep repositories for heat-generating radioactive waste would benefit from improvements in mechanical stress-strain constitutive modelling of the coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical behaviour. The presented framework allows progress in understanding the most involved phenomena relevant to nuclear-waste repositories and their coupled nature. It could be used both in the design and in the performance assessment of repositories. It may be applied to disposal in clay formations and to hard-rock repositories where artificially compacted clay is to be used as buffer and backfill. Such a constitutive framework may help in understanding some unexplained or controversial behaviours and in defining experimental programmes to answer key questions. (author)

  14. THE CALCULATION OF STRESS-STRAIN STATE OF THREE-LAYER BEAM TAKING INTO ACCOUNT EDGE EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh. M. Muselemov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The work is dedicated to the calculation of the stress-strain state (SSS of the three-layer beam (TLB subject to boundary effects.In this paper, a system of differential equations of equilibrium of the threelayer beam. To solve these equations, it is necessary to know the 12 boundary conditions, co-which depend on support conditions and loading of sandwich beams under study. This system of equations is solved by the application package of mathematical modeling "Maple 5.4." The solution of this system we obtain expressions for determining de-formations and stress all components (bearing layers and filler, a three-layer beam anywhere under specified conditions of fastening the ends of the beam and its loading. 

  15. Investigation of s stressed-strained state and optimization of the T-15 facility electromagnetic system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaulina, I.G.; Gusev, S.V.; Monoszon, N.A.; Sivkova, G.N.; Spirchenko, Yu.V.; Chvartatskij, R.V.; Churakov, G.F.

    1982-01-01

    The results of investigation of a stressed-strained state (SSS) of superconducting coils of toroidal field (TFSC) of the T-15 facility are presented. The TFSC SSS dependence on the forces acting in the coil plane is reduced to solving the plane problem of the elasticity theory. The problem is solved by the finite element method according to a specially developed program. The TFSC SSS dependence on the action of tilting forces is studied by the structural mechanics method. A refined rod theory taking into account shear strain of the rod cross-section in the direction perpendicular to its axis is used. A comparative analysis of different versions of the TFSC design is carried out. A TFSC design optimized over the SSS is chosen. It is used in constructing the electromagnetic system of the T-15 facility

  16. Theoretical Conversions of Different Hardness and Tensile Strength for Ductile Materials Based on Stress-Strain Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Cai, Li-Xun

    2018-04-01

    Based on the power-law stress-strain relation and equivalent energy principle, theoretical equations for converting between Brinell hardness (HB), Rockwell hardness (HR), and Vickers hardness (HV) were established. Combining the pre-existing relation between the tensile strength ( σ b ) and Hollomon parameters ( K, N), theoretical conversions between hardness (HB/HR/HV) and tensile strength ( σ b ) were obtained as well. In addition, to confirm the pre-existing σ b -( K, N) relation, a large number of uniaxial tensile tests were conducted in various ductile materials. Finally, to verify the theoretical conversions, plenty of statistical data listed in ASTM and ISO standards were adopted to test the robustness of the converting equations with various hardness and tensile strength. The results show that both hardness conversions and hardness-strength conversions calculated from the theoretical equations accord well with the standard data.

  17. EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL STUDIES OF THE STRESS-STRAIN STATE OF WOOD-CONCRETE AND WOOD-GYPSUM MASONRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Likhacheva Svetlana Yur'evna

    2012-12-01

    The findings of the prototype testing include identification of the two areas of deformations: areas of elastic deformations and areas of intensive development of deformations. The first area of partial elastic deformations is characterized by the linear stress function, while the second area demonstrates that this relationship is nonlinear. Permanent deformations appear as of the startup of the loading process and disproportionate stress is demonstrated throughout the deformation process. However, in the first area (partial elastic deformations residual deformations are so small that this area is considered as the area of "the area of incomplete elasticity".

  18. Relationship between linear velocity and tangential push force while turning to change the direction of the manual wheelchair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Seonhong; Lin, Yen-Sheng; Hogaboom, Nathan S; Wang, Lin-Hwa; Koontz, Alicia M

    2017-08-28

    Wheelchair propulsion is a major cause of upper limb pain and injuries for manual wheelchair users with spinal cord injuries (SCIs). Few studies have investigated wheelchair turning biomechanics on natural ground surfaces. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between tangential push force and linear velocity of the wheelchair during the turning portions of propulsion. Using an instrumented handrim, velocity and push force data were recorded for 25 subjects while they propel their own wheelchairs on a concrete floor along a figure-eight-shaped course at a maximum velocity. The braking force (1.03 N) of the inside wheel while turning was the largest of all other push forces (p<0.05). Larger changes in squared velocity while turning were significantly correlated with higher propulsive and braking forces used at the pre-turning, turning, and post-turning phases (p<0.05). Subjects with less change of velocity while turning needed less braking force to maneuver themselves successfully and safely around the turns. Considering the magnitude and direction of tangential force applied to the wheel, it seems that there are higher risks of injury and instability for upper limb joints when braking the inside wheel to turn. The results provide insight into wheelchair setup and mobility skills training for wheelchair users.

  19. Evaluating the environmental fate of pharmaceuticals using a level III model based on poly-parameter linear free energy relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zukowska, Barbara; Breivik, Knut; Wania, Frank

    2006-01-01

    We recently proposed how to expand the applicability of multimedia models towards polar organic chemicals by expressing environmental phase partitioning with the help of poly-parameter linear free energy relationships (PP-LFERs). Here we elaborate on this approach by applying it to three pharmaceutical substances. A PP-LFER-based version of a Level III fugacity model calculates overall persistence, concentrations and intermedia fluxes of polar and non-polar organic chemicals between air, water, soil and sediments at steady-state. Illustrative modeling results for the pharmaceuticals within a defined coastal region are presented and discussed. The model results are highly sensitive to the degradation rate in water and the equilibrium partitioning between organic carbon and water, suggesting that an accurate description of this particular partitioning equilibrium is essential in order to obtain reliable predictions of environmental fate. The PP-LFER based modeling approach furthermore illustrates that the greatest mobility in aqueous phases may be experienced by pharmaceuticals that combines a small molecular size with strong H-acceptor properties

  20. Evaluating the environmental fate of pharmaceuticals using a level III model based on poly-parameter linear free energy relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zukowska, Barbara [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Chemical Faculty, Gdansk University of Technology, 11/12 G. Narutowicza St., 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Breivik, Knut [NILU- Norwegian Institute for Air Research, P.O. Box 100, NO-2027 Kjeller (Norway)]. E-mail: knut.breivik@nilu.no; Wania, Frank [Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto at Scarborough, 1265 Military Trail, Scarborough, Ontario, M1C 1A4 (Canada)

    2006-04-15

    We recently proposed how to expand the applicability of multimedia models towards polar organic chemicals by expressing environmental phase partitioning with the help of poly-parameter linear free energy relationships (PP-LFERs). Here we elaborate on this approach by applying it to three pharmaceutical substances. A PP-LFER-based version of a Level III fugacity model calculates overall persistence, concentrations and intermedia fluxes of polar and non-polar organic chemicals between air, water, soil and sediments at steady-state. Illustrative modeling results for the pharmaceuticals within a defined coastal region are presented and discussed. The model results are highly sensitive to the degradation rate in water and the equilibrium partitioning between organic carbon and water, suggesting that an accurate description of this particular partitioning equilibrium is essential in order to obtain reliable predictions of environmental fate. The PP-LFER based modeling approach furthermore illustrates that the greatest mobility in aqueous phases may be experienced by pharmaceuticals that combines a small molecular size with strong H-acceptor properties.

  1. Determination of polyparameter linear free energy relationship (pp-LFER) substance descriptors for established and alternative flame retardants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenzel, Angelika; Goss, Kai-Uwe; Endo, Satoshi

    2013-02-05

    Polyparameter linear free energy relationships (pp-LFERs) can predict partition coefficients for a multitude of environmental and biological phases with high accuracy. In this work, the pp-LFER substance descriptors of 40 established and alternative flame retardants (e.g., polybrominated diphenyl ethers, hexabromocyclododecane, bromobenzenes, trialkyl phosphates) were determined experimentally. In total, 251 data for gas-chromatographic (GC) retention times and liquid/liquid partition coefficients (K) were measured and used to calibrate the pp-LFER substance descriptors. Substance descriptors were validated through a comparison between predicted and experimental log K for the systems octanol/water (K(ow)), water/air (K(wa)), organic carbon/water (K(oc)) and liposome/water (K(lipw)), revealing a high reliability of pp-LFER predictions based on our descriptors. For instance, the difference between predicted and experimental log K(ow) was <0.3 log units for 17 out of 21 compounds for which experimental values were available. Moreover, we found an indication that the H-bond acceptor value (B) depends on the solvent for some compounds. Thus, for predicting environmentally relevant partition coefficients it is important to determine B values using measurements in aqueous systems. The pp-LFER descriptors calibrated in this study can be used to predict partition coefficients for which experimental data are unavailable, and the predicted values can serve as references for further experimental measurements.

  2. Linear free energy relationships between aqueous phase hydroxyl radical reaction rate constants and free energy of activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakata, Daisuke; Crittenden, John

    2011-04-15

    The hydroxyl radical (HO(•)) is a strong oxidant that reacts with electron-rich sites on organic compounds and initiates complex radical chain reactions in aqueous phase advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). Computer based kinetic modeling requires a reaction pathway generator and predictions of associated reaction rate constants. Previously, we reported a reaction pathway generator that can enumerate the most important elementary reactions for aliphatic compounds. For the reaction rate constant predictor, we develop linear free energy relationships (LFERs) between aqueous phase literature-reported HO(•) reaction rate constants and theoretically calculated free energies of activation for H-atom abstraction from a C-H bond and HO(•) addition to alkenes. The theoretical method uses ab initio quantum mechanical calculations, Gaussian 1-3, for gas phase reactions and a solvation method, COSMO-RS theory, to estimate the impact of water. Theoretically calculated free energies of activation are found to be within approximately ±3 kcal/mol of experimental values. Considering errors that arise from quantum mechanical calculations and experiments, this should be within the acceptable errors. The established LFERs are used to predict the HO(•) reaction rate constants within a factor of 5 from the experimental values. This approach may be applied to other reaction mechanisms to establish a library of rate constant predictions for kinetic modeling of AOPs.

  3. Development of polyparameter linear free energy relationship models for octanol-air partition coefficients of diverse chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiaochen; Fu, Zhiqiang; Li, Xuehua; Chen, Jingwen

    2017-03-22

    The octanol-air partition coefficient (K OA ) is a key parameter describing the partition behavior of organic chemicals between air and environmental organic phases. As the experimental determination of K OA is costly, time-consuming and sometimes limited by the availability of authentic chemical standards for the compounds to be determined, it becomes necessary to develop credible predictive models for K OA . In this study, a polyparameter linear free energy relationship (pp-LFER) model for predicting K OA at 298.15 K and a novel model incorporating pp-LFERs with temperature (pp-LFER-T model) were developed from 795 log K OA values for 367 chemicals at different temperatures (263.15-323.15 K), and were evaluated with the OECD guidelines on QSAR model validation and applicability domain description. Statistical results show that both models are well-fitted, robust and have good predictive capabilities. Particularly, the pp-LFER model shows a strong predictive ability for polyfluoroalkyl substances and organosilicon compounds, and the pp-LFER-T model maintains a high predictive accuracy within a wide temperature range (263.15-323.15 K).

  4. 2D Quantitative Structure-Property Relationship Study of Mycotoxins by Multiple Linear Regression and Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Shiri

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, support vector machines (SVMs and multiple linear regression (MLR techniques were used for quantitative structure–property relationship (QSPR studies of retention time (tR in standardized liquid chromatography–UV–mass spectrometry of 67 mycotoxins (aflatoxins, trichothecenes, roquefortines and ochratoxins based on molecular descriptors calculated from the optimized 3D structures. By applying missing value, zero and multicollinearity tests with a cutoff value of 0.95, and genetic algorithm method of variable selection, the most relevant descriptors were selected to build QSPR models. MLRand SVMs methods were employed to build QSPR models. The robustness of the QSPR models was characterized by the statistical validation and applicability domain (AD. The prediction results from the MLR and SVM models are in good agreement with the experimental values. The correlation and predictability measure by r2 and q2 are 0.931 and 0.932, repectively, for SVM and 0.923 and 0.915, respectively, for MLR. The applicability domain of the model was investigated using William’s plot. The effects of different descriptors on the retention times are described.

  5. Stress/strain characteristics of Cu alloy sheath in situ processed MgB2 superconducting wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katagiri, Kazumune; Kasaba, Koichi; Shoji, Yoshitaka

    2005-01-01

    The mechanical properties of copper and copper alloy (Cu-Zr, Cu-Be and Cu-Cr) sheath in situ PIT-processed MgB 2 superconducting wires were studied at room temperature (RT) and 4.2 K. The effects of stress-strain on the critical current (I c ) of the wires have also been studied at 4.2 K and in magnetic fields up to 5 T. It has been clarified that alloying the Cu sheath significantly increases the yield and flow stresses of the wires at both RT and 4.2 K. The 0.5% flow stresses of the Cu alloy sheath wire were 147-237 MPa, whereas that of Cu was 55 MPa. At RT, serration corresponding to multiple cracking was observed around a strain of 0.4% and the stress-strain curves saturated beyond that point. The strain dependence of I c prior to the critical strain (ε irr ) was different depending on the magnetic field; being almost constant at 2 T and increasing with strain at 5 T. The I c decreased beyond ε irr , which is much larger for Cu alloy sheath wires as compared to Cu sheath wire. This is due to the difference in the residual compressive strain in the MgB 2 core during cooling from the heat-treatment temperature to 4.2 K, which is determined through relaxation by yielding in the sheath materials. The transverse compression tests revealed that the I c of the Cu alloy sheath wire did not degrade up to 314 MPa, which is also higher than that of Cu sheath wire. (author)

  6. Stress-strain effects in alumina-Cu reinforced Nb3Sn wires fabricated by the tube process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murase, Satoru; Nakayama, Shigeo; Masegi, Tamaki; Koyanagi, Kei; Nomura, Shunji; Shiga, Noriyuki; Kobayashi, Norio; Watanabe, Kazuo.

    1997-01-01

    In order to fabricate a large-bore, high-field magnet which achieves a low coil weight and volume, a high strength compound superconducting wire is required. For those demands we have developed the reinforced Nb 3 Sn wire using alumina dispersion strengthened copper (alumina-Cu) as a reinforcement material and the tube process of the Nb 3 Sn wire fabrication. The ductility study of the composites which consisted of the reinforcement, Nb tube, Cu, and Cu clad Sn brought a 1 km long alumina-Cu reinforced Nb 3 Sn wire successfully. Using fabricated wires measurements and evaluations of critical current density as parameters of magnetic field, tensile stress, tensile strain, and transverse compressive stress, and those of stress-strain curves at 4.2 K were performed. They showed superior performance such as high 0.3% proof stress (240 MPa at 0.3% strain) and high maximum tolerance stress (320 MPa) which were two times as large as those of conventional Cu matrix Nb 3 Sn wire. The strain sensitivity parameters were obtained for the reinforced Nb 3 Sn wire and the Cu matrix one using the scaling law. Residual stress of the component materials caused by cooling down to 4.2 K from heat-treatment temperature was calculated using equivalent Young's modulus, equivalent yield strength, thermal expansion coefficient and other mechanical parameters. Calculated stress-strain curves at 4.2 K for the reinforced Nb 3 Sn wire and the Cu matrix one based on calculation of residual stress, had good agreement with the experimental values. (author)

  7. MODEL SIMULATION OF GEOMETRY AND STRESS-STRAIN VARIATION OF BATAN FUEL PIN PROTOTYPE DURING IRRADIATION TEST IN RSG-GAS REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwardi Suwardi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available MODEL SIMULATION OF GEOMETRY AND STRESS-STRAIN VARIATION OF BATAN FUEL PIN PROTOTYPE DURING IRRADIATION TEST IN RSG-GAS REACTOR*. The first short fuel pin containing natural UO2 pellet in Zry4 cladding has been prepared at the CNFT (Center for Nuclear Fuel Technology then a ramp test will be performed. The present work is part of designing first irradiation experiments in the PRTF (Power Ramp Test Facility of RSG-GAS 30 MW reactor. The thermal mechanic of the pin during irradiation has simulated. The geometry variation of pellet and cladding is modeled by taking into account different phenomena such as thermal expansion, densification, swelling by fission product, thermal creep and radiation growth. The cladding variation is modeled by thermal expansion, thermal and irradiation creeps. The material properties are modeled by MATPRO and standard numerical parameter of TRANSURANUS code. Results of irradiation simulation with 9 kW/m LHR indicates that pellet-clad contacts onset from 0.090 mm initial gaps after 806 d, when pellet radius expansion attain 0.015 mm while inner cladding creep-down 0.075 mm. A newer computation data show that the maximum measured LHR of n-UO2 pin in the PRTF 12.4 kW/m. The next simulation will be done with a higher LHR, up to ~ 25 kW/m. MODEL SIMULASI VARIASI GEOMETRI DAN STRESS-STRAIN DARI PROTOTIP BAHAN BAKAR PIN BATAN SELAMA UJI IRADIASI DI REAKTOR RSG-GAS. Pusat Teknologi Bahan Bakar Nuklir (PTBBN telah menyiapkan tangkai (pin bahan bakar pendek perdana yang berisi pelet UO2 alam dalam kelongsong paduan zircaloy untuk dilakukan uji iradiasi daya naik. Penelitian ini merupakan bagian dari perancangan percobaan iradiasi pertama di PRTF (Power Ramp Test Fasility yang terpasang di reaktor serbaguna RSG-GAS berdaya 30 MW. Telah dilakukan pemodelan dan simulasi kinerja termal mekanikal pin selama iradiasi. Variasi geometri pelet dan kelongsong selama pengujian dimodelkan dengan memperhatikan fenomena ekspansi termal

  8. Linearization Method and Linear Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hidema

    We focus on the relationship between the linearization method and linear complexity and show that the linearization method is another effective technique for calculating linear complexity. We analyze its effectiveness by comparing with the logic circuit method. We compare the relevant conditions and necessary computational cost with those of the Berlekamp-Massey algorithm and the Games-Chan algorithm. The significant property of a linearization method is that it needs no output sequence from a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) because it calculates linear complexity using the algebraic expression of its algorithm. When a PRNG has n [bit] stages (registers or internal states), the necessary computational cost is smaller than O(2n). On the other hand, the Berlekamp-Massey algorithm needs O(N2) where N(≅2n) denotes period. Since existing methods calculate using the output sequence, an initial value of PRNG influences a resultant value of linear complexity. Therefore, a linear complexity is generally given as an estimate value. On the other hand, a linearization method calculates from an algorithm of PRNG, it can determine the lower bound of linear complexity.

  9. Real time relationship between individual finger force and grip exertion on distal phalanges in linear force following tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shi-Jian; Shu, Ge; Gong, Yan

    2018-05-01

    Individual finger force (FF) in a grip task is a vital concern in rehabilitation engineering and precise control of manipulators because disorders in any of the fingers will affect the stability or accuracy of the grip force (GF). To understand the functions of each finger in a dynamic grip exertion task, a GF following experiment with four individual fingers without thumb was designed. This study obtained four individual FFs from the distal phalanges with a cylindrical handle in dynamic GF following tasks. Ten healthy male subjects with similar hand sizes participated in the four-finger linear GF following tasks at different submaximal voluntary contraction (SMVC) levels. The total GF, individual FF, finger force contribution, and following error were subsequently calculated and analyzed. The statistics indicated the following: 1) the accuracy and stability of GF at low %MVC were significantly higher than those at high SMVC; 2) at low SMVC, the ability of the fingers to increase the GF was better than the ability to reduce it, but it was contrary at high SMVC; 3) when the target wave (TW) was changing, all four fingers strongly participated in the force exertion, but the participation of the little finger decreased significantly when TW remained stable; 4) the index finger and ring finger had a complementary relationship and played a vital role in the adjustment and control of GF. The middle finger and little finger had a minor influence on the force control and adjustment. In conclusion, each of the fingers had different functions in a GF following task. These findings can be used in the assessment of finger injury rehabilitation and for algorithms of precise control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Analytical solution for stress, strain and plastic instability of pressurized pipes with volumetric flaws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, Sérgio B.; Netto, Theodoro A.

    2012-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of internally pressurized pipes with volumetric flaws is analyzed. The two possible modes of circumferentially straining the pipe wall are identified and associated to hypothesized geometries. The radial deformation that takes place by bending the pipe wall is studied by means of axisymmetric flaws and the membrane strain developed by unequal hoop deformation is analyzed with the help of narrow axial flaws. Linear elastic shell solutions for stress and strain are developed, the plastic behavior is studied and the maximum hoop stress at the flaw is related to the undamaged pipe hoop stress by means of stress concentration factors. The stress concentration factors are employed to obtain equations predicting the pressure at which the pipe fails by plastic instability for both types of flaw. These analytical solutions are validated by comparison with burst tests on 3″ diameter pipes and finite element simulations. Forty-one burst tests were carried out and two materials with very dissimilar plastic behavior, carbon steel and austenitic stainless steel, were used in the experiments. Both the analytical and the numerical predictions showed good correlation with the experimentally observed burst pressures. - Highlights: ► An analytical model for the burst of a pipe with a volumetric flaw is developed. ► Deformation, strain and stress are modeled in the elastic and plastic domains. ► The model is comprehensively validated by experiments and numerical simulations. ► The burst pressure model’s accuracy is equivalent to finite element simulations.

  11. Development of the ultra-microhardness technique for evaluating stress-strain properties of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, K.; Shinohara, K.; Kinoshita, C.; Yamada, M.; Arai, M.

    1994-01-01

    A method is proposed for evaluating the strain-hardening exponent (n) and the 0.2% yield stress (σ 0.2 ) for fcc metals solely through the ultra-microhardness technique. To this end, ultra-microhardness (H um ) and Vickers hardness (H v ) measurements together with tensile tests were carried out for Ni and Al with various n and σ 0.2 . The value of H v is proportional to H um at the load P, and the proportional constant depends on P but scarcely on metals. The ratio of H um (P)/H um 0 (P) is scaled solely by n as a linear function independent of the specific metal, where H um 0 (P) is the value of H um (P) of specimens which show no strain-hardening. Based on the results and Cahoon's relation which relates H v , σ 0.2 and n, the values of n and σ 0.2 are evaluated solely through the ultra-microhardness technique. The proposed equation can be explained in terms of a constitutive equation for polycrystalline metals. ((orig.))

  12. LINEAR SOLVATION ENERGY RELATIONSHIPS FOR CHARACTERIZATION OF MLC SYSTEMS WITH SODIUM DODECYL SULPHATE MOBILE PHASES MODIFIED BY ALIPHATIC ALCOHOLS OR CARBOXYLIC ACIDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markov, Vadym V.; Boichenko, Alexander P.; Loginova, Lidia P.

    2012-01-01

    The Linear Solvation Energy Relationships (LSER) have been successfully used for the modeling of partition and retention of the set of test compounds in different systems. The properties of micellar chromatographic systems with the mobile phases on the basis of sodium dodecylsulphate modified (ODS)

  13. Non-Linear Relationship between Economic Growth and CO₂ Emissions in China: An Empirical Study Based on Panel Smooth Transition Regression Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng-Xin; Hao, Peng; Yao, Pei-Yi

    2017-12-13

    The non-linear relationship between provincial economic growth and carbon emissions is investigated by using panel smooth transition regression (PSTR) models. The research indicates that, on the condition of separately taking Gross Domestic Product per capita (GDPpc), energy structure (Es), and urbanisation level (Ul) as transition variables, three models all reject the null hypothesis of a linear relationship, i.e., a non-linear relationship exists. The results show that the three models all contain only one transition function but different numbers of location parameters. The model taking GDPpc as the transition variable has two location parameters, while the other two models separately considering Es and Ul as the transition variables both contain one location parameter. The three models applied in the study all favourably describe the non-linear relationship between economic growth and CO₂ emissions in China. It also can be seen that the conversion rate of the influence of Ul on per capita CO₂ emissions is significantly higher than those of GDPpc and Es on per capita CO₂ emissions.

  14. Comparing Linear Relationships between E-Book Usage and University Student and Faculty Populations: The Differences between E-Reference and E-Monograph Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamothe, Alain R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the results from a quantitative study examining the strength of linear relationships between Laurentian University students and faculty members and the J. N. Desmarais Library's reference and monograph e-book collections. The number of full-text items accessed, searches performed, and undergraduate, graduate, and faculty…

  15. Characterization of the Mechanical Stress-Strain Performance of Aerospace Alloy Materials Using Frequency-Domain Photoacoustic Ultrasound and Photothermal Methods: An FEM Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Huiting; Mandelis, Andreas; Liu, Lixian

    2018-04-01

    Determining and keeping track of a material's mechanical performance is very important for safety in the aerospace industry. The mechanical strength of alloy materials is precisely quantified in terms of its stress-strain relation. It has been proven that frequency-domain photothermoacoustic (FD-PTA) techniques are effective methods for characterizing the stress-strain relation of metallic alloys. PTA methodologies include photothermal (PT) diffusion and laser thermoelastic photoacoustic ultrasound (PAUS) generation which must be separately discussed because the relevant frequency ranges and signal detection principles are widely different. In this paper, a detailed theoretical analysis of the connection between thermoelastic parameters and stress/strain tensor is presented with respect to FD-PTA nondestructive testing. Based on the theoretical model, a finite element method (FEM) was further implemented to simulate the PT and PAUS signals at very different frequency ranges as an important analysis tool of experimental data. The change in the stress-strain relation has an impact on both thermal and elastic properties, verified by FEM and results/signals from both PT and PAUS experiments.

  16. Analytical solution for stress, strain and plastic instability of pressurized pipes with volumetric flaws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Sergio B., E-mail: sbcunha@petrobras.com.br [PETROBRAS/TRANSPETRO, Av. Pres. Vargas 328 - 7th floor, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20091-060 (Brazil); Netto, Theodoro A., E-mail: tanetto@lts.coppe.ufrj.br [COPPE, Federal University ot Rio de Janeiro, Ocean Engineering Department, PO BOX 68508, Rio de Janeiro - RJ (Brazil)

    2012-01-15

    The mechanical behavior of internally pressurized pipes with volumetric flaws is analyzed. The two possible modes of circumferentially straining the pipe wall are identified and associated to hypothesized geometries. The radial deformation that takes place by bending the pipe wall is studied by means of axisymmetric flaws and the membrane strain developed by unequal hoop deformation is analyzed with the help of narrow axial flaws. Linear elastic shell solutions for stress and strain are developed, the plastic behavior is studied and the maximum hoop stress at the flaw is related to the undamaged pipe hoop stress by means of stress concentration factors. The stress concentration factors are employed to obtain equations predicting the pressure at which the pipe fails by plastic instability for both types of flaw. These analytical solutions are validated by comparison with burst tests on 3 Double-Prime diameter pipes and finite element simulations. Forty-one burst tests were carried out and two materials with very dissimilar plastic behavior, carbon steel and austenitic stainless steel, were used in the experiments. Both the analytical and the numerical predictions showed good correlation with the experimentally observed burst pressures. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An analytical model for the burst of a pipe with a volumetric flaw is developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Deformation, strain and stress are modeled in the elastic and plastic domains. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The model is comprehensively validated by experiments and numerical simulations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The burst pressure model's accuracy is equivalent to finite element simulations.

  17. Relationship Between the Parameters of the Linear and Nonlinear Wave Generation Stages in a Magnetospheric Cyclotron Maser in the Backward-Wave Oscillator Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demekhov, A. G.

    2017-03-01

    By using numerical simulations we generalize certain relationships between the parameters of quasimonochromatic whistler-mode waves generated at the linear and nonlinear stages of the cyclotron instability in the backward-wave oscillator regime. One of these relationships is between the wave amplitude at the nonlinear stage and the linear growth rate of the cyclotron instability. It was obtained analytically by V.Yu.Trakhtengerts (1984) for a uniform medium under the assumption of constant frequency and amplitude of the generated wave. We show that a similar relationship also holds for the signals generated in a nonuniform magnetic field and having a discrete structure in the form of short wave packets (elements) with fast frequency drift inside each element. We also generalize the formula for the linear growth rate of absolute cyclotron instability in a nonuniform medium and analyze the relationship between the frequency drift rate in the discrete elements and the wave amplitude. These relationships are important for analyzing the links between the parameters of chorus emissions in the Earth's and planetary magnetospheres and the characteristics of the energetic charged particles generating these signals.

  18. Casting and stress-strain simulations of a cast ductile iron component using microstructure based mechanical behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olofsson, Jakob; Svensson, Ingvar L

    2012-01-01

    The industrial demand for increased component performance with concurrent reductions in component weight, development times and verifications using physical prototypes drives the need to use the full potential of casting and Finite Element Method (FEM) simulations to correctly predict the mechanical behavior of cast components in service. The mechanical behavior of the component is determined by the casting process, and factors as component geometry and casting process parameters are known to affect solidification and microstructure formation throughout the component and cause local variations in mechanical behavior as well as residual stresses. Though residual stresses are known to be an important factor in the mechanical behavior of the component, the importance of local mechanical behavior is not well established and the material is typically considered homogeneous throughout the component. This paper deals with the influence of solidification and solid state transformation on microstructure formation and the effect of local microstructure variations on the mechanical behavior of the cast component in service. The current work aims to investigate the coupling between simulation of solidification, microstructure and local variations in mechanical behavior and stress-strain simulation. This is done by performing several simulations of a ductile iron component using a recently developed simulation strategy, a closed chain of simulations for cast components, able to predict and describe the local variations in not only elastic but also plastic behavior throughout the component by using microstructural parameters determined by simulations of microstructural evolution in the component during the casting process. In addition the residual stresses are considered. The results show that the FEM simulation results are significantly affected by including microstructure based mechanical behavior. When the applied load is low and the component is subjected to stress levels

  19. Prediction of stress-strain state of municipal solid waste with application of soft soil creep model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofrikhter Vadim Grigor'evich

    Full Text Available The deformation of municipal solid waste is a complex process caused by the nature of MSW, the properties of which differ from the properties of common soils. The mass of municipal solid waste shows the mixed behaviour partially similar to granular soils, and partially - to cohesive. So, one of mechanical characteristics of MSW is the cohesion typical to cohesive soils, but at the same time the filtration coefficient of MSW has an order of 1 m/day that is characteristic for granular soils. It has been established that MSW massif can be simulated like the soil reinforced by randomly oriented fibers. Today a significant amount of the verified and well proved software products are available for numerical modelling of soils. The majority of them use finite element method (FEM. The soft soil creep model (SSC-model seems to be the most suitable for modelling of municipal solid waste, as it allows estimating the development of settlements in time with separation of primary and secondary consolidation. Unlike the soft soil, one of the factors of secondary consolidation of MSW is biological degradation, the influence of which is possible to consider at the definition of the modified parameters essential for soft soil model. Application of soft soil creep model allows carrying out the calculation of stress-strain state of waste from the beginning of landfill filling up to any moment of time both during the period of operation and in postclosure period. The comparative calculation presented in the paper is executed in Plaxis software using the soft-soil creep model in contrast to the calculation using the composite model of MSW. All the characteristics for SSC-model were derived from the composite model. The comparative results demonstrate the advantage of SSC-model for prediction of the development of MSW stress-strain state. As far as after the completion of the biodegradation processes MSW behaviour is similar to cohesion-like soils, the demonstrated

  20. The Mine Working's Roof Stress-strain State Research in the Perspective of Development of New Coal Deposits of Kuzbass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyuk, Svetlana; Bedarev, Nikolay; Lyubimov, Oleg; Shaikhislamov, Arthur

    2017-11-01

    The present now normative and information base is regulating of the Kuzbass coal seams treatment but is not considering of the mining-geological and mining-engineering conditions for new coal deposits. The analysis of works for the research of the rock pressure manifestation shows that in many cases numerous results require of the practical confirmation in mine conditions directly, and also confirmation by the physical models. This work reflects one of the stages of research on changing the stress-strain state of the massif with the formation of unloading zones, increased rock pressure, and recovery. As an example, the results of the information analysis obtained by means of contour and depth benchmarks on the ventilation drift in the course of the 34 seam treatment at the "Tagaryshskaya" mine are presented. The differences of the analyzed results from the results obtained in the conditions of other mines are established. The values of the drift's roof stratification on the contour and at the distance from the contour of 1.0 to 4.0 m are given. The revealed maximums of the rock pressure and pressure changes in the hydraulic supports of the complex used for movement are presented. Recommendations on the choice of the anchor's length taking into account the roof stratification size are given. The further research stages on models from equivalent materials at various geometric scales are proposed.

  1. Random cyclic stress-strain responses of a stainless steel pipe-weld metal. I. A statistical investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Y.X.; Wang, J.N.

    2000-01-01

    For pt.II see ibid., vol.199, p.315-26, 2000. This paper pays a special attention to the issue that there is a significant scatter of the stress-strain responses of a nuclear engineering material, 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel pipe-weld metal. Statistical investigation is made to the cyclic stress amplitudes of this material. Three considerations are given. They consist of the total fit, the consistency with fatigue physics and the safety in practice of the seven commonly used statistical distributions, namely Weibull (two- and three-parameter), normal, lognormal, extreme minimum value, extreme maximum value and exponential. Results reveal that the data follow meanwhile the seven distributions but the local effects of the distributions yield a significant difference. Any of the normal, lognormal, extreme minimum value and extreme maximum value distributions might be an appropriate assumed distribution for characterizing the data. The normal and extreme minimum models are excellent. Other distributions do not fit the data as they violate two or three of the mentioned considerations. (orig.)

  2. An Experimental Study of Mortars with Recycled Ceramic Aggregates: Deduction and Prediction of the Stress-Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Guadalupe Cabrera-Covarrubias

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The difficult current environmental situation, caused by construction industry residues containing ceramic materials, could be improved by using these materials as recycled aggregates in mortars, with their processing causing a reduction in their use in landfill, contributing to recycling and also minimizing the consumption of virgin materials. Although some research is currently being carried out into recycled mortars, little is known about their stress-strain (σ-ε; therefore, this work will provide the experimental results obtained from recycled mortars with recycled ceramic aggregates (with contents of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 50% and 100%, such as the density and compression strength, as well as the σ-ε curves representative of their behavior. The values obtained from the analytical process of the results in order to finally obtain, through numerical analysis, the equations to predict their behavior (related to their recycled content are those of: σ (elastic ranges and failure maximum, ε (elastic ranges and failure maximum, and Resilience and Toughness. At the end of the investigation, it is established that mortars with recycled ceramic aggregate contents of up to 20% could be assimilated just like mortars with the usual aggregates, and the obtained prediction equations could be used in cases of similar applications.

  3. Algorithm for study on the stressed-strained state of thermonuclear device vacuum chambers under dynamic loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuravleva, A.M.; Litvinov, V.B.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of dynamic analysis of stressed-strained state of vacuum chambers is vital for large thermonuclear devices during the stall of the plasma-filament apd other tpansitional operation regimes when loading for a chamber are nonstationary. To plot a mathematical model the design of the vacuum chamber is discreted on the basis of the method of final elements. To approximate vacuum shell, a plate triangular element with 3 joint points and 5 parameters in the joint is used. It is obtained due to the unity of the bemded element and the element for the flat problem. To investigate nonstationary oscillations of vacuum chambers discreted on the basis of the method of final elements, it is suggested to use the numeric conversion of the Japlace transformation. On the basis of the algorithm suggested a program of numerical function conversion is developed. Test calculations have shown a good stability of the algorithm when selecting the values of transformation parameter in the range of lower intrinsic system frequencies. The advantage of the above method is in the fact that the time-structure shift function is found instantly in the form of the series for the whole time interval and does not require temporary steps, which bring about large expenses of counting time and error accumulation

  4. Model-based methodology to develop the isochronous stress-strain curves for modified 9Cr steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Woo Gon; Yin, Song Nan; Kim, Sung Ho; Lee, Chan Bock; Jung, Ik Hee

    2008-01-01

    Since high temperature materials are designed with a target life based on a specified amount of allowable strain and stress, their Isochronous Stress-Strain Curves (ISSC) are needed to avoid an excessive deformation during an intended service life. In this paper, a model-based methodology to develop the isochronous curves for a G91 steel is described. Creep strain-time curves were reviewed for typical high-temperature materials, and Garofalo's model which conforms well to the primary and secondary creep stages was proper for the G91 steel. Procedures to obtain an instantaneous elastic-plastic strain, ε i were given in detail. Also, to accurately determine the P 1 , P 2 and P 3 parameters in the Garofalo's model, a Nonlinear Least Square Fitting (NLSF) method was adopted and useful. The long-term creep curves for the G91 steel can be modeled by the Garofalo's model, and the long-term ISSCs can be developed using the modeled creep curves

  5. The Multiple Correspondence Analysis Method and Brain Functional Connectivity: Its Application to the Study of the Non-linear Relationships of Motor Cortex and Basal Ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Sabate, Clara; Morales, Ingrid; Sanchez, Alberto; Rodriguez, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    The complexity of basal ganglia (BG) interactions is often condensed into simple models mainly based on animal data and that present BG in closed-loop cortico-subcortical circuits of excitatory/inhibitory pathways which analyze the incoming cortical data and return the processed information to the cortex. This study was aimed at identifying functional relationships in the BG motor-loop of 24 healthy-subjects who provided written, informed consent and whose BOLD-activity was recorded by MRI methods. The analysis of the functional interaction between these centers by correlation techniques and multiple linear regression showed non-linear relationships which cannot be suitably addressed with these methods. The multiple correspondence analysis (MCA), an unsupervised multivariable procedure which can identify non-linear interactions, was used to study the functional connectivity of BG when subjects were at rest. Linear methods showed different functional interactions expected according to current BG models. MCA showed additional functional interactions which were not evident when using lineal methods. Seven functional configurations of BG were identified with MCA, two involving the primary motor and somatosensory cortex, one involving the deepest BG (external-internal globus pallidum, subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigral), one with the input-output BG centers (putamen and motor thalamus), two linking the input-output centers with other BG (external pallidum and subthalamic nucleus), and one linking the external pallidum and the substantia nigral. The results provide evidence that the non-linear MCA and linear methods are complementary and should be best used in conjunction to more fully understand the nature of functional connectivity of brain centers.

  6. Reliability of the Load-Velocity Relationship Obtained Through Linear and Polynomial Regression Models to Predict the One-Repetition Maximum Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestaña-Melero, Francisco Luis; Haff, G Gregory; Rojas, Francisco Javier; Pérez-Castilla, Alejandro; García-Ramos, Amador

    2017-12-18

    This study aimed to compare the between-session reliability of the load-velocity relationship between (1) linear vs. polynomial regression models, (2) concentric-only vs. eccentric-concentric bench press variants, as well as (3) the within-participants vs. the between-participants variability of the velocity attained at each percentage of the one-repetition maximum (%1RM). The load-velocity relationship of 30 men (age: 21.2±3.8 y; height: 1.78±0.07 m, body mass: 72.3±7.3 kg; bench press 1RM: 78.8±13.2 kg) were evaluated by means of linear and polynomial regression models in the concentric-only and eccentric-concentric bench press variants in a Smith Machine. Two sessions were performed with each bench press variant. The main findings were: (1) first-order-polynomials (CV: 4.39%-4.70%) provided the load-velocity relationship with higher reliability than second-order-polynomials (CV: 4.68%-5.04%); (2) the reliability of the load-velocity relationship did not differ between the concentric-only and eccentric-concentric bench press variants; (3) the within-participants variability of the velocity attained at each %1RM was markedly lower than the between-participants variability. Taken together, these results highlight that, regardless of the bench press variant considered, the individual determination of the load-velocity relationship by a linear regression model could be recommended to monitor and prescribe the relative load in the Smith machine bench press exercise.

  7. Modeling the Monotonic and Cyclic Tensile Stress-Strain Behavior of 2D and 2.5D Woven C/SiC Ceramic-Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L. B.

    2018-05-01

    The deformation of 2D and 2.5 C/SiC woven ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs) in monotonic and cyclic loadings has been investigated. Statistical matrix multicracking and fiber failure models and the fracture mechanics interface debonding approach are used to determine the spacing of matrix cracks, the debonded length of interface, and the fraction of broken fibers. The effects of fiber volume fraction and fiber Weibull modulus on the damage evolution in the composites and on their tensile stress-strain curves are analyzed. When matrix multicracking and fiber/matrix interface debonding occur, the fiber slippage relative to the matrix in the debonded interface region of the 0° warp yarns is the main reason for the emergance of stress-strain hysteresis loops for 2D and 2.5D woven CMCs. A model of these loops is developed, and histeresis loops for the composites in cyclic loadings/unloadings are predicted.

  8. New Equating Methods and Their Relationships with Levine Observed Score Linear Equating under the Kernel Equating Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haiwen; Holland, Paul

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a new curvilinear equating for the nonequivalent groups with anchor test (NEAT) design under the assumption of the classical test theory model, that we name curvilinear Levine observed score equating. In fact, by applying both the kernel equating framework and the mean preserving linear transformation of…

  9. Influence of the representation models of the stress-strain law on the LMFBR structures in an HCDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daneri, A.; Toselli, G.; Trombetti, T.; Blanchet, Y.; Louvet, J.; Obry, P.

    1981-08-01

    Most of analysis involved in mechanical calculations related to explosive accidents in fast breeder reactors are now aware of the inadequacy of certain rough stress-strain laws to representing the correct behaviour of vessel materials. Indeed stress waves along the vessel walls deform the material at a high strain rate with multiaxial loading or reverse loading. Recently different questions have been under investigation in France in this direction and the present study, performed in the frame of the agreement CNEN-CEA, is an example of the way how two very important factors (strain rate and strain hardening) may be taken into account in the constitutive equations of materials subject to dynamic deformations. Several parametric calculations have been carried out with the hydrodynamic structural codes ASTARTE-3/4 and SIRIUS, which are the Lagrangian validated code now available at the CNEN and CEA-Cadarache computing centres. Analysis was performed by comparing two reference calculations relating to the MARA 01 and COVA IT7 explosive tests with experimental data and with other calculations in which different values of the initial hardening and of the strain rates of the tank shell material were introduced. In general both codes give similar results; improvements of predicted axial and hoop strains and of impulses in water have been reached in certain cases but it is difficult to find a general trend and there is no ideal constitutive model: indeed the strain rate is not constant in time, in place and in direction and some parts of the vessels are uniaxially loaded while others are multiaxially loaded

  10. Influence of the representation models of the stress-strain law on the LMFBR structures in an HCDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daneri, A.; Toselli, G.; Trombetti, T.; Blanche, Y.; Louvet, J.; Obry, P.

    1982-01-01

    Most of analysis involved in mechanical calculations related to explosive accidents in fast breeder reactor are now aware of the inadequacy of certain roug stress-strain laws to representing the correct behaviour of vessel materials. Indeed stress waves along the vessel walls deform the material at high strain rate with multiaxial loading or reverse loading. Recently different questions have been under investigation in France in this direction and the present study, performed in the frame of the agreement CNEN-CEA, is an example of the way how two very important factors (strain rate and strain hardening) may be taken into account in the consecutive equations of materials subject to dynamic deformations. Several parametric calculations have been carried out with the hydrodynamic structural codes ASTARTE 3/4 and SIRIUS, which are the Lagrangian validated codes now available at the CNEN and CEA Cadarache Computing Centres.Analysis was performed by comparing two reference calculations relating to the MARA 01 and COVA IT7 explosive tests with experimental data and with other calculations in which different values of the initial hardening and of the strain rates of the tank shell material were introduced. In general both codes give similar results; improvements of predicted axial and hoop strain and of impulses in water have been reached in certain cases but it is difficult to find a general trend and there is no ideal constitutive model: indeed the strain rate is not constant in time, in place and in direction and some parts of the vessels are uniaxially loaded while others are multiaxially loaded

  11. A deep learning approach to estimate chemically-treated collagenous tissue nonlinear anisotropic stress-strain responses from microscopy images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Liang; Liu, Minliang; Sun, Wei

    2017-11-01

    Biological collagenous tissues comprised of networks of collagen fibers are suitable for a broad spectrum of medical applications owing to their attractive mechanical properties. In this study, we developed a noninvasive approach to estimate collagenous tissue elastic properties directly from microscopy images using Machine Learning (ML) techniques. Glutaraldehyde-treated bovine pericardium (GLBP) tissue, widely used in the fabrication of bioprosthetic heart valves and vascular patches, was chosen to develop a representative application. A Deep Learning model was designed and trained to process second harmonic generation (SHG) images of collagen networks in GLBP tissue samples, and directly predict the tissue elastic mechanical properties. The trained model is capable of identifying the overall tissue stiffness with a classification accuracy of 84%, and predicting the nonlinear anisotropic stress-strain curves with average regression errors of 0.021 and 0.031. Thus, this study demonstrates the feasibility and great potential of using the Deep Learning approach for fast and noninvasive assessment of collagenous tissue elastic properties from microstructural images. In this study, we developed, to our best knowledge, the first Deep Learning-based approach to estimate the elastic properties of collagenous tissues directly from noninvasive second harmonic generation images. The success of this study holds promise for the use of Machine Learning techniques to noninvasively and efficiently estimate the mechanical properties of many structure-based biological materials, and it also enables many potential applications such as serving as a quality control tool to select tissue for the manufacturing of medical devices (e.g. bioprosthetic heart valves). Copyright © 2017 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of Temperature Reversion on Hot Ductility and Flow Stress-Strain Curves of C-Mn Continuously Cast Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhihua; Li, Wei; Long, Mujun; Gui, Lintao; Chen, Dengfu; Huang, Yunwei; Vitos, Levente

    2015-08-01

    The influence of temperature reversion in secondary cooling and its reversion rate on hot ductility and flow stress-strain curve of C-Mn steel has been investigated. Tensile specimens were cooled at various regimes. One cooling regime involved cooling at a constant rate of 100 °C min-1 to the test temperature, while the others involved temperature reversion processes at three different reversion rates before deformation. After hot tensile test, the evolution of mechanical properties of steel was analyzed at various scales by means of microstructure observation, ab initio prediction, and thermodynamic calculation. Results indicated that the temperature reversion in secondary cooling led to hot ductility trough occurring at higher temperature with greater depth. With increasing temperature reversion rate, the low temperature end of ductility trough extended toward lower temperature, leading to wider hot ductility trough with slightly reducing depth. Microstructure examinations indicated that the intergranular fracture related to the thin film-like ferrite and (Fe,Mn)S particles did not changed with varying cooling regimes; however, the Widmanstatten ferrite surrounding austenite grains resulted from the temperature reversion process seriously deteriorated the ductility. In addition, after the temperature reversion in secondary cooling, the peak stress on the flow curve slightly declined and the peak of strain to peak stress occurred at higher temperature. With increasing temperature reversion rate, the strain to peak stress slightly increased, while the peak stress showed little variation. The evolution of plastic modulus and strain to peak stress of austenite with varying temperature was in line with the theoretical prediction on Fe.

  13. THE EVALUATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP LEVEL BETWEEN HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGERS AND LINEAR MANAGERS REGARDING PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT IN THE ORGANIZATIONS FROM THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BÎRCĂ ALIC

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This scientific approach refers to the relationship between the managers of human resources and linear managers on personnel management within the organization. In this context it is shown the importance of cooperation between the human resources managers and the linear managers on achieving the organizational performance.It is shown the degree of involvement of both the division of human resources and the linear and functional managers and in solving the problems of employees, but also in the implementation of different methods and procedure for the human resources. Also, in the case of the line and the functional managers, is important awareness of the need for their involvement in the activities related to the human resources management. Also, there are shown the possible risks that might face the organization in the case of a mismanagement of human resources management from the linear managers. In order to assess the level of networking of human resources managers with the linear managers and the functional organisations of the Republic of Moldova has been applied the sociological method-questionnaire, being used Likert scale.

  14. APPLICATION OF COMPUTER SIMULATION IN THE EVALUATION OF THE STRESS-STRAIN STATE OF LOAD-BEARING STRUCTURES OF BUILDINGS MASONRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy I. Bedov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies on the analysis of the stress-strain state of the structures of bearing walls of high-hollow pottery. The way of modeling masonry finite element method. The experimental study of masonry structures produced in the Republic of Bashkortostan high-hollow pottery, set the nature of their work load, the mechanism of destruction. The results of the comparative evaluation of the calculations in the software package and the traditional “manual” calculation.

  15. Analysis of stress- strain distribution of dowel and glue line in L-type furniture joint by means of finite element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mossayeb dalvand

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study 3D stress-strain distribution of dowel and glue line on L-type joints made of plywood doweled was investigated. Members of joints made of 11-ply hardwood plywood (Hornbeam, Beech and Alder that were 19 mm in thickness. In this study effect of beech dowels in three levels diameters (6, 8 and 10 mm and penetration of depth (9, 13 and 17 mm on bending moment capacity of L-type joints under compression loading was investigated as experimental test, then stress-strain distribution of wood dowel and glue line in specimens were simulated by means of ANSYS 15 software with finite element method (FEM.Results have shown that bending moment resistance increased with increasing dowel diameter from 6 to 8 mm, but downward trend was observed with increasing 8 to 10 mm in dowel diameter. Bending moment resistance increased with increasing penetration depth. Also, result obtained of simulation by means of ANSYS software have shown that stress-strain in dowel and glue line increased with increasing diameter of dowel and Increasing stress in joints made of diameter dowel 10 mm due to fracture in joints and decrease in resistance once. According to results obtained of model analysis, the ultimate stress of dowel and glue line occurred in the area that joints were contacted.

  16. Linear regression

    CERN Document Server

    Olive, David J

    2017-01-01

    This text covers both multiple linear regression and some experimental design models. The text uses the response plot to visualize the model and to detect outliers, does not assume that the error distribution has a known parametric distribution, develops prediction intervals that work when the error distribution is unknown, suggests bootstrap hypothesis tests that may be useful for inference after variable selection, and develops prediction regions and large sample theory for the multivariate linear regression model that has m response variables. A relationship between multivariate prediction regions and confidence regions provides a simple way to bootstrap confidence regions. These confidence regions often provide a practical method for testing hypotheses. There is also a chapter on generalized linear models and generalized additive models. There are many R functions to produce response and residual plots, to simulate prediction intervals and hypothesis tests, to detect outliers, and to choose response trans...

  17. The Relationship between a Linear Combination of Intelligence, Musical Background, Rhythm Ability and Tapping Ability to Typewriting Speed and Accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fante, Cheryl H.

    This study was conducted in an attempt to identify any predictor or combination of predictors of a beginning typewriting student's success. Variables of intelligence, rhythmic ability, musical background, and tapping ability were combined to study their relationship to typewriting speed and accuracy. A sample of 109 high school students was…

  18. Study on a linear relationship between limited pressure difference and coil current of on/off valve and its influential factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junzhi; Lv, Chen; Yue, Xiaowei; Li, Yutong; Yuan, Ye

    2014-01-01

    On/off solenoid valves with PWM control are widely used in all types of vehicle electro-hydraulic control systems respecting to their desirable properties of reliable, low cost and fast acting. However, it can hardly achieve a linear hydraulic modulation by using on/off valves mainly due to the nonlinear behaviors of valve dynamics and fluid, which affects the control accuracy significantly. In this paper, a linear relationship between limited pressure difference and coil current of an on/off valve in its critical closed state is proposed and illustrated, which has a great potential to be applied to improve hydraulic control performance. The hydraulic braking system of case study is modeled. The linear correspondence between limited pressure difference and coil current of the inlet valve is simulated and further verified experimentally. Based on validated simulation models, the impacts of key parameters are researched. The limited pressure difference affected by environmental temperatures is experimentally studied, and the amended linear relation is given according to the test data. © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. An analysis of the relationship between the linear hammer speed and the thrower applied forces during the hammer throw for male and female throwers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice, Sara M; Ness, Kevin F; Rosemond, Doug

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the cable force and linear hammer speed in the hammer throw and to identify how the magnitude and direction of the cable force affects the fluctuations in linear hammer speed. Five male (height: 1.88 +/- 0.06 m; body mass: 106.23 +/- 4.83 kg) and five female (height: 1.69 +/- 0.05 m; body mass: 101.60 +/- 20.92 kg) throwers participated and were required to perform 10 throws each. The hammer's linear velocity and the cable force and its tangential component were calculated via hammer head positional data. As expected, a strong correlation was observed between decreases in the linear hammer speed and decreases in the cable force (normalised for hammer weight). A strong correlation was also found to exist between the angle by which the cable force lags the radius of rotation at its maximum (when tangential force is at its most negative) and the size of the decreases in hammer speed. These findings indicate that the most effective way to minimise the effect of the negative tangential force is to reduce the size of the lag angle.

  20. Constant post-irradiation repopulation rates and linear relationship between cellular blood response and number of transplanted bone marrow cells in inbread mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, B.H.

    1977-01-01

    Graded doses of syngeneic bone marrow cells were transplanted into lethally irradiated mice. Repopulation curves of peripheral blood granulocytes and platelets were apparently exponential and parallel after doses larger than 5 x 10 5 cells. The blood platelet sub(d) was reduced from 111 h to 53-57 h, and granulocyte Tsub(d) from 57 to 40 h in transplanted groups. The mean blood cell counts were reproducible to be used as a biological assay of the amount of bone marrow cells transplanted. Linear relationship between increment of blood cells up to day 16 and number of bone marrow cells transplanted on day 1 was demonstrated (1,200 granulocytes and 14,300 platelets/μl blood per 10 5 bone marrow cells). The linearity suggested a mean Tsub(d) < 22.5 h of proliferating bone marrow cells, and allowed a rough estimation of mouse bone marrow stem cell radiosensitivity (Dsub(o) 76 rad). (author)

  1. Recent results on the linearity of the dose-response relationship for radiation-induced mutations in human cells by low dose levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traut, H.

    1987-01-01

    Five studies made by various authors in the last years are discussed, which are significant in that the response of human cells to low-dose irradiation is determined directly and not by extrapolation, and which also provide information on the mutagenic effects of low radiation doses. The results of these studies do not indicate any other than a linear response for induction of mutations by low-dose irradiation, nor are there any reasons observable for assuming the existence of a threshold dose. It is very likely therefore that cancer initiation at the low dose level also is characterized by a linear relationship. Although threshold dose levels cannot generally be excluded, and maybe are only too low to be detected by experiment, there is no plausible biophysical argument for assuming the existence of such microdose threshold. (orig./MG) [de

  2. Linear mixed-effects models to describe length-weight relationships for yellow croaker (Larimichthys Polyactis) along the north coast of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qiuyun; Jiao, Yan; Ren, Yiping

    2017-01-01

    In this study, length-weight relationships and relative condition factors were analyzed for Yellow Croaker (Larimichthys polyactis) along the north coast of China. Data covered six regions from north to south: Yellow River Estuary, Coastal Waters of Northern Shandong, Jiaozhou Bay, Coastal Waters of Qingdao, Haizhou Bay, and South Yellow Sea. In total 3,275 individuals were collected during six years (2008, 2011-2015). One generalized linear model, two simply linear models and nine linear mixed effect models that applied the effects from regions and/or years to coefficient a and/or the exponent b were studied and compared. Among these twelve models, the linear mixed effect model with random effects from both regions and years fit the data best, with lowest Akaike information criterion value and mean absolute error. In this model, the estimated a was 0.0192, with 95% confidence interval 0.0178~0.0308, and the estimated exponent b was 2.917 with 95% confidence interval 2.731~2.945. Estimates for a and b with the random effects in intercept and coefficient from Region and Year, ranged from 0.013 to 0.023 and from 2.835 to 3.017, respectively. Both regions and years had effects on parameters a and b, while the effects from years were shown to be much larger than those from regions. Except for Coastal Waters of Northern Shandong, a decreased from north to south. Condition factors relative to reference years of 1960, 1986, 2005, 2007, 2008~2009 and 2010 revealed that the body shape of Yellow Croaker became thinner in recent years. Furthermore relative condition factors varied among months, years, regions and length. The values of a and relative condition factors decreased, when the environmental pollution became worse, therefore, length-weight relationships could be an indicator for the environment quality. Results from this study provided basic description of current condition of Yellow Croaker along the north coast of China.

  3. Use of linear free energy relationship to predict Gibbs free energies of formation of pyrochlore phases (CaMTi2O7)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, H.; Wang, Y.

    1999-01-01

    In this letter, a linear free energy relationship is used to predict the Gibbs free energies of formation of crystalline phases of pyrochlore and zirconolite families with stoichiometry of MCaTi 2 O 7 (or, CaMTi 2 O 7 ,) from the known thermodynamic properties of aqueous tetravalent cations (M 4+ ). The linear free energy relationship for tetravalent cations is expressed as ΔG f,M v X 0 =a M v X ΔG n,M 4+ 0 +b M v X +β M v X r M 4+ , where the coefficients a M v X , b M v X , and β M v X characterize a particular structural family of M v X, r M 4+ is the ionic radius of M 4+ cation, ΔG f,M v X 0 is the standard Gibbs free energy of formation of M v X, and ΔG n,M 4+ 0 is the standard non-solvation energy of cation M 4+ . The coefficients for the structural family of zirconolite with the stoichiometry of M 4+ CaTi 2 O 7 are estimated to be: a M v X =0.5717, b M v X =-4284.67 (kJ/mol), and β M v X =27.2 (kJ/mol nm). The coefficients for the structural family of pyrochlore with the stoichiometry of M 4+ CaTi 2 O 7 are estimated to be: a M v X =0.5717, b M v X =-4174.25 (kJ/mol), and β M v X =13.4 (kJ/mol nm). Using the linear free energy relationship, the Gibbs free energies of formation of various zirconolite and pyrochlore phases are calculated. (orig.)

  4. Genomic predictions across Nordic Holstein and Nordic Red using the genomic best linear unbiased prediction model with different genomic relationship matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L; Lund, M S; Wang, Y; Su, G

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated genomic predictions across Nordic Holstein and Nordic Red using various genomic relationship matrices. Different sources of information, such as consistencies of linkage disequilibrium (LD) phase and marker effects, were used to construct the genomic relationship matrices (G-matrices) across these two breeds. Single-trait genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) model and two-trait GBLUP model were used for single-breed and two-breed genomic predictions. The data included 5215 Nordic Holstein bulls and 4361 Nordic Red bulls, which was composed of three populations: Danish Red, Swedish Red and Finnish Ayrshire. The bulls were genotyped with 50 000 SNP chip. Using the two-breed predictions with a joint Nordic Holstein and Nordic Red reference population, accuracies increased slightly for all traits in Nordic Red, but only for some traits in Nordic Holstein. Among the three subpopulations of Nordic Red, accuracies increased more for Danish Red than for Swedish Red and Finnish Ayrshire. This is because closer genetic relationships exist between Danish Red and Nordic Holstein. Among Danish Red, individuals with higher genomic relationship coefficients with Nordic Holstein showed more increased accuracies in the two-breed predictions. Weighting the two-breed G-matrices by LD phase consistencies, marker effects or both did not further improve accuracies of the two-breed predictions. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. A non-linear kinematic hardening function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottosen, N.S.

    1977-05-01

    Based on the classical theory of plasticity, and accepting the von Mises criterion as the initial yield criterion, a non-linear kinematic hardening function applicable both to Melan-Prager's and to Ziegler's hardening rule is proposed. This non-linear hardening function is determined by means of the uniaxial stress-strain curve, and any such curve is applicable. The proposed hardening function considers the problem of general reversed loading, and a smooth change in the behaviour from one plastic state to another nearlying plastic state is obtained. A review of both the kinematic hardening theory and the corresponding non-linear hardening assumptions is given, and it is shown that material behaviour is identical whether Melan-Prager's or Ziegler's hardening rule is applied, provided that the von Mises yield criterion is adopted. (author)

  6. A linear relationship between wave power and erosion determines salt-marsh resilience to violent storms and hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Nicoletta; Ganju, Neil K.; Fagherazzi, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Salt marsh losses have been documented worldwide because of land use change, wave erosion, and sea-level rise. It is still unclear how resistant salt marshes are to extreme storms and whether they can survive multiple events without collapsing. Based on a large dataset of salt marsh lateral erosion rates collected around the world, here, we determine the general response of salt marsh boundaries to wave action under normal and extreme weather conditions. As wave energy increases, salt marsh response to wind waves remains linear, and there is not a critical threshold in wave energy above which salt marsh erosion drastically accelerates. We apply our general formulation for salt marsh erosion to historical wave climates at eight salt marsh locations affected by hurricanes in the United States. Based on the analysis of two decades of data, we find that violent storms and hurricanes contribute less than 1% to long-term salt marsh erosion rates. In contrast, moderate storms with a return period of 2.5 mo are those causing the most salt marsh deterioration. Therefore, salt marshes seem more susceptible to variations in mean wave energy rather than changes in the extremes. The intrinsic resistance of salt marshes to violent storms and their predictable erosion rates during moderate events should be taken into account by coastal managers in restoration projects and risk management plans.

  7. A linear relationship between wave power and erosion determines salt-marsh resilience to violent storms and hurricanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Nicoletta; Ganju, Neil K; Fagherazzi, Sergio

    2016-01-05

    Salt marsh losses have been documented worldwide because of land use change, wave erosion, and sea-level rise. It is still unclear how resistant salt marshes are to extreme storms and whether they can survive multiple events without collapsing. Based on a large dataset of salt marsh lateral erosion rates collected around the world, here, we determine the general response of salt marsh boundaries to wave action under normal and extreme weather conditions. As wave energy increases, salt marsh response to wind waves remains linear, and there is not a critical threshold in wave energy above which salt marsh erosion drastically accelerates. We apply our general formulation for salt marsh erosion to historical wave climates at eight salt marsh locations affected by hurricanes in the United States. Based on the analysis of two decades of data, we find that violent storms and hurricanes contribute less than 1% to long-term salt marsh erosion rates. In contrast, moderate storms with a return period of 2.5 mo are those causing the most salt marsh deterioration. Therefore, salt marshes seem more susceptible to variations in mean wave energy rather than changes in the extremes. The intrinsic resistance of salt marshes to violent storms and their predictable erosion rates during moderate events should be taken into account by coastal managers in restoration projects and risk management plans.

  8. Prolificacy and Its Relationship with Age, Body Weight, Parity, Previous Litter Size and Body Linear Type Traits in Meat-type Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avijit Haldar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Data on age and body weight at breeding, parity, previous litter size, days open and some descriptive body linear traits from 389 meat-type, prolific Black Bengal goats in Tripura State of India, were collected for 3 and 1/2 years (2007 to 2010 and analyzed using logistic regression model. The objectives of the study were i to evaluate the effect of age and body weight at breeding, parity, previous litter size and days open on litter size of does; and ii to investigate if body linear type traits influenced litter size in meat-type, prolific goats. The incidence of 68.39% multiple births with a prolificacy rate of 175.07% was recorded. Higher age (>2.69 year, higher parity order (>2.31, more body weight at breeding (>20.5 kg and larger previous litter size (>1.65 showed an increase likelihood of multiple litter size when compared to single litter size. There was a strong, positive relationship between litter size and various body linear type traits like neck length (>22.78 cm, body length (>54.86 cm, withers height (>48.85 cm, croup height (>50.67 cm, distance between tuber coxae bones (>11.38 cm and distance between tuber ischii bones (>4.56 cm for discriminating the goats bearing multiple fetuses from those bearing a single fetus.

  9. Studies on the retention mechanism of solutes in hydrophilic interaction chromatography using stoichiometric displacement theory I. The linear relationship of lgk' vs. lg[H2O].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Yang, Fan; Tian, Yang; Liu, Jiawei; Shen, Jiwei; Bai, Quan

    2018-01-01

    A stoichiometric displacement model for retention (SDM-R) of small solutes and proteins based on hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) was presented. A linear equation that related the logarithm of the capacity factor of the solute to the logarithm of the concentration of water in the mobile phase was derived. The stoichiometric displacement parameters, Z (the number of water molecules required to displace a solute from ligands) and lgI (containing a number of constants that relate to the affinity of solute to the ligands) could be obtained from the slope and the intercept of the linear plots of lgk' vs. lg[H 2 O]. The retention behaviors and retention mechanism of 15 kinds of small solutes and 6 kinds of proteins on 5 kinds HILIC columns with different ligands were investigated with SDM-R in typical range of water concentration in mobile phase. A good linear relationship between lgk' and lg[H 2 O] demonstrated that the most rational retention mechanism of solute in HILIC was a stoichiometric displacement process between solute and solvent molecules with water as displacing agents, which was not only valid for small solutes, but also could be used to explain the retention mechanism of biopolymers in HILIC. Comparing with the partition and adsorption models in HILIC, SDM-R was superior to them. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Non-linearity of dose-effect relationship at low level exposure on the example of cytogenetic effects in plant cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudalova, A.A.; Geras'kin, S.A.; Dikarev, V.G.; Dikareva, N.S.; Chernonog, E.V.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. There has been an increasing concern in the current scientific society and among the public about the need to protect the environment in order to maintain the ecosystem sustainability and future well-being of man. The linear non-threshold (LNT) hypothesis as the most officially acknowledged concept of biological effect of radiation fails to explain many facts on effects at low level exposures (LLE) accumulated lately. Available information on the dose-effect relationship at low doses is scarce and incomplete for non-human species despite the fact that, under conditions of increased radiation exposure, some biota species occur at a risk of higher impact than humans because of differences in ecological niches occupied. Dose-effect relationships for cytogenetic damage in the range of LLE are studied in a series os experiments with plant (Hordeum vulgare L.) meristem cells. Dose-effect dependences obtained show an obvious non-linear behavior in the LLE region. A piecewise linear model (PLM) for dose-cytogenetic effect relationship that considers an existence of dose-independent part at LLE ('plateau') is developed and specified on the data obtained. An advantage of the PLM over linear model in approximating the frequency of cytogenetic disturbances is demonstrated. From an empirical probability distribution analysis, it is shown that the increase in cytogenetic damage level is tightly connected with changes in a process of absorbed energy distribution between target volumes in terms of fraction of cells experienced a radiation hit event. An appropriateness of the LNT hypothesis to the description of cytogenetic disturbances yield in plant meristem cells in the LLE region is discussed. The results support a conclusion about indirect mechanism of mutagenesis induced by low doses. New data obtained concern a perception of fundamental mechanisms governing cell response to LLE. These findings are of general biological interest, since

  11. Axial and transverse stress-strain characterization of the EU dipole high current density Nb{sub 3}Sn strand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nijhuis, A; Ilyin, Y; Abbas, W [Faculty of Science and Technology, Low Temperature Division, University of Twente, PO Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)], E-mail: a.nijhuis@tnw.utwente.nl

    2008-06-15

    We have measured the critical current (I{sub c}) of a high current density Nb{sub 3}Sn strand subjected to spatial periodic bending, periodic contact stress and uniaxial strain. The strand is destined for the cable-in-conduit conductors (CICC) of the European dipole (EDIPO) 12.5 T superconducting magnet test facility. The spatial periodic bending was applied on the strand, using the bending wavelengths from 5 to 10 mm with a peak bending strain of 1.5%, a periodic contact stress with a periodicity of 4.7 mm and a stress level exceeding 250 MPa. For the uniaxial strain characterization, the voltage-current characteristics were measured with an applied axial strain from -0.9% to +0.3%, with a magnetic field from 6 to 14 T, temperature from 4.2 to 10 K and currents up to almost 900 A. In addition the axial stiffness was determined by a tensile axial stress-strain test. The characterization of the strand is essential for understanding the behaviour of the strand under mainly axial thermal stress variation during cool down and transverse electromagnetic forces during charging, which is essential for the design of the CICC for the dipole magnet. The strand appears to be fully reversible in the compressive regime during the axial strain testing, while in the tensile regime, the behaviour is already irreversibly degraded when reaching the maximum in the critical current versus strain characteristic. The degradation is accentuated by an immediate decrease of the n value by a factor of 2. The parameters for the improved deviatoric strain description are derived from the I{sub c} data, giving the accuracy of the scaling with a standard deviation of 4 A, which is by far within the expected deviation for the large scale strand production of such a high J{sub c} strand. The I{sub c} versus the applied bending strain follows the low resistivity limit, indicative of full interfilament current transfer, while a strong decrease is observed at a peak bending strain of {approx}0

  12. Endurance training decreases the non-linearity in the oxygen uptake-power output relationship in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majerczak, Joanna; Korostynski, Michal; Nieckarz, Zenon; Szkutnik, Zbigniew; Duda, Krzysztof; Zoladz, Jerzy A

    2012-03-01

    In this study, we hypothesized that 5 weeks of cycling endurance training can decrease the magnitude of the non-proportional increase in oxygen uptake (V(O(2))) to power output relationship (V(O(2)) 'excess') at exercise intensities exceeding the lactate threshold (LT). Ten untrained, physically active men performed a bout of incremental cycling exercise until exhaustion before and after training. The mitochondrial DNA copy number, myosin heavy chain composition and content of uncoupling protein 3 and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPases (SERCAs) were analysed in muscle biopsies taken from vastus lateralis before and after training. The training resulted in an enhancement of the power-generating capabilities at maximal oxygen uptake (V(O(2)max)) by ∼7% (P = 0.002) despite there being no changes in V(O(2)max) (P = 0.49). This effect was due to a considerable reduction in the magnitude of the V(O(2)) 'excess' (P 0.05) were found after training. We conclude that the training-induced increase in power-generating capabilities at V(O(2)max) was due to attenuation of the V(O(2)) 'excess' above the LT. This adaptive response seems to be related to the improvement of muscle metabolic stability, as judged by a lowering of plasma ammonia concentration. The enhancement of muscle metabolic stability after training could be caused by a decrease in ATP usage at a given power output owing to downregulation of SERCA2 pumps.

  13. Relationship between linear and nonlinear dynamics of heart rate and impairment of lung function in COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazzuco A

    2015-08-01

    capacity/total lung capacity ratio, and residual volume/total lung capacity ratio. Significant and moderate associations were also observed between LF/HF ratio versus total gas volume (%, r=0.53; LF/HF ratio versus residual volume, %, r=0.52; and HF versus total gas volume (%, r=-0.53 (P<0.05. Linear regression analysis revealed that ΔRRi supine-M-RSA was independently related to DLCO (r=-0.77, r2=0.43, P<0.05. Conclusion: Responses of HRV indices were more prominent during M-RSA in moderate to severe COPD. Moreover, greater lung function impairment was related to poorer heart rate dynamics. Finally, impaired lung diffusion capacity was related to an altered parasympathetic response in these patients. Keywords: lung diffusion capacity, static lung volumes, rest hyperinflation, COPD, heart rate variability, cardiac autonomic nervous system

  14. An update on modeling dose-response relationships: Accounting for correlated data structure and heterogeneous error variance in linear and nonlinear mixed models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, M A D; Bello, N M; Dritz, S S; Tokach, M D; DeRouchey, J M; Woodworth, J C; Goodband, R D

    2016-05-01

    Advanced methods for dose-response assessments are used to estimate the minimum concentrations of a nutrient that maximizes a given outcome of interest, thereby determining nutritional requirements for optimal performance. Contrary to standard modeling assumptions, experimental data often present a design structure that includes correlations between observations (i.e., blocking, nesting, etc.) as well as heterogeneity of error variances; either can mislead inference if disregarded. Our objective is to demonstrate practical implementation of linear and nonlinear mixed models for dose-response relationships accounting for correlated data structure and heterogeneous error variances. To illustrate, we modeled data from a randomized complete block design study to evaluate the standardized ileal digestible (SID) Trp:Lys ratio dose-response on G:F of nursery pigs. A base linear mixed model was fitted to explore the functional form of G:F relative to Trp:Lys ratios and assess model assumptions. Next, we fitted 3 competing dose-response mixed models to G:F, namely a quadratic polynomial (QP) model, a broken-line linear (BLL) ascending model, and a broken-line quadratic (BLQ) ascending model, all of which included heteroskedastic specifications, as dictated by the base model. The GLIMMIX procedure of SAS (version 9.4) was used to fit the base and QP models and the NLMIXED procedure was used to fit the BLL and BLQ models. We further illustrated the use of a grid search of initial parameter values to facilitate convergence and parameter estimation in nonlinear mixed models. Fit between competing dose-response models was compared using a maximum likelihood-based Bayesian information criterion (BIC). The QP, BLL, and BLQ models fitted on G:F of nursery pigs yielded BIC values of 353.7, 343.4, and 345.2, respectively, thus indicating a better fit of the BLL model. The BLL breakpoint estimate of the SID Trp:Lys ratio was 16.5% (95% confidence interval [16.1, 17.0]). Problems with

  15. Back-propagation neural network-based approximate analysis of true stress-strain behaviors of high-strength metallic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doh, Jaeh Yeok; Lee, Jong Soo; Lee, Seung Uk

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a Back-propagation neural network (BPN) is employed to conduct an approximation of a true stress-strain curve using the load-displacement experimental data of DP590, a high-strength material used in automobile bodies and chassis. The optimized interconnection weights are obtained with hidden layers and output layers of the BPN through intelligent learning and training of the experimental data; by using these weights, a mathematical model of the material's behavior is suggested through this feed-forward neural network. Generally, the material properties from the tensile test cannot be acquired until the fracture regions, since it is difficult to measure the cross-section area of a specimen after diffusion necking. For this reason, the plastic properties of the true stress-strain are extrapolated using the weighted-average method after diffusion necking. The accuracies of BPN-based meta-models for predicting material properties are validated in terms of the Root mean square error (RMSE). By applying the approximate material properties, the reliable finite element solution can be obtained to realize the different shapes of the finite element models. Furthermore, the sensitivity analysis of the approximate meta-model is performed using the first-order approximate derivatives of the BPN and is compared with the results of the finite difference method. In addition, we predict the tension velocity's effect on the material property through a first-order sensitivity analysis.

  16. Stress-strain time-dependent behavior of A356.0 aluminum alloy subjected to cyclic thermal and mechanical loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrahi, G. H.; Ghodrati, M.; Azadi, M.; Rezvani Rad, M.

    2014-08-01

    This article presents the cyclic behavior of the A356.0 aluminum alloy under low-cycle fatigue (or isothermal) and thermo-mechanical fatigue loadings. Since the thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF) test is time consuming and has high costs in comparison to low-cycle fatigue (LCF) tests, the purpose of this research is to use LCF test results to predict the TMF behavior of the material. A time-independent model, considering the combined nonlinear isotropic/kinematic hardening law, was used to predict the TMF behavior of the material. Material constants of this model were calibrated based on room-temperature and high-temperature low-cycle fatigue tests. The nonlinear isotropic/kinematic hardening law could accurately estimate the stress-strain hysteresis loop for the LCF condition; however, for the out-of-phase TMF, the condition could not predict properly the stress value due to the strain rate effect. Therefore, a two-layer visco-plastic model and also the Johnson-Cook law were applied to improve the estimation of the stress-strain hysteresis loop. Related finite element results based on the two-layer visco-plastic model demonstrated a good agreement with experimental TMF data of the A356.0 alloy.

  17. A linear solvation energy relationship study for the reactivity of 2-substituted cyclohex-1-enecarboxylic and 2-substituted benzoic acids with diazodiphenylmethane in aprotic and protic solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JASMINA B. NIKOLIC

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The rate constants for the reaction of 2-substituted cyclohex-1-enylcarboxylic acids and the corresponding 2-substituted benzoic acids with diazodiphenyl methane were determined in various aprotic solvents at 30 ºC. In order to explain the kinetic results through solvent effects, the second order rate constants of the reaction of the examined acids were correlated using the Kamlet–Taft solvatechromic equation. The correlations of the kinetic data were carried out by means of multiple linear regression analysis and the solvent effects on the reaction rates were analyzed in terms of the contributions of the initial and transition state. The signs of the equation coefficients support the proposed reaction mechanism. The quantitative relationship between the molecular structure and the chemical reactivity is discussed, as well as the effect of geometry on the reactivity of the examined molecules.

  18. Linear solvation energy relationships (LSER): 'rules of thumb' for Vi/100, π*, Βm, and αm estimation and use in aquatic toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, James P.

    1996-01-01

    This chapter provides a listing of the increasing variety of organic moieties and heteroatom group for which Linear Solvation Energy Relationship (LSER) values are available, and the LSER variable estimation rules. The listings include values for typical nitrogen-, sulfur- and phosphorus-containing moieties, and general organosilicon and organotin groups. The contributions by an ion pair situation to the LSER values are also offered in Table 1, allowing estimation of parameters for salts and zwitterions. The guidelines permit quick estimation of values for the four primary LSER variables Vi/100, π*, Βm, and αm by summing the contribtuions from its components. The use of guidelines and Table 1 significantly simplifies computation of values for the LSER variables for most possible organic comppounds in the environment, including the larger compounds of environmental and biological interest.

  19. Surveys of radon levels in homes in the United States: A test of the linear-no-threshold dose-response relationship for radiation carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.L.

    1987-01-01

    The University of Pittsburgh Radon Project for large scale measurements of radon concentrations in homes is described. Its principal research is to test the linear-no threshold dose-response relationship for radiation carcinogenesis by determining average radon levels in the 25 U.S. counties (within certain population ranges) with highest and lowest lung cancer rates. The theory predicts that the former should have about 3 times higher average radon levels than the latter, under the assumption that any correlation between exposure to radon and exposure to other causes of lung cancer is weak. The validity of this assumption is tested with data on average radon level vs replies to items on questionnaires; there is little correlation between radon levels in houses and smoking habits, educational attainment, or economic status of the occupants, or with urban vs rural environs which is an indicator of exposure to air pollution

  20. Non-linear relationship between maternal work hours and child body weight: Evidence from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianghong; Akaliyski, Plamen; Schäfer, Jakob; Kendall, Garth; Oddy, Wendy H; Stanley, Fiona; Strazdins, Lyndall

    2017-08-01

    Using longitudinal data from the Western Australia Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study and both random-effects and fixed-effects models, this study examined the connection between maternal work hours and child overweight or obesity. Following children in two-parent families from early childhood to early adolescence, multivariate analyses revealed a non-linear and developmentally dynamic relationship. Among preschool children (ages 2 to 5), we found lower likelihood of child overweight and obesity when mothers worked 24 h or less per week, compared to when mothers worked 35 or more hours. This effect was stronger in low-to-medium income families. For older children (ages 8 to 14), compared to working 35-40 h a week, working shorter hours (1-24, 25-34) or longer hours (41 or more) was both associated with increases in child overweight and obesity. These non-linear effects were more pronounced in low-to-medium income families, particularly when fathers also worked long hours. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A note on the relationships between multiple imputation, maximum likelihood and fully Bayesian methods for missing responses in linear regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qingxia; Ibrahim, Joseph G

    2014-07-01

    Multiple Imputation, Maximum Likelihood and Fully Bayesian methods are the three most commonly used model-based approaches in missing data problems. Although it is easy to show that when the responses are missing at random (MAR), the complete case analysis is unbiased and efficient, the aforementioned methods are still commonly used in practice for this setting. To examine the performance of and relationships between these three methods in this setting, we derive and investigate small sample and asymptotic expressions of the estimates and standard errors, and fully examine how these estimates are related for the three approaches in the linear regression model when the responses are MAR. We show that when the responses are MAR in the linear model, the estimates of the regression coefficients using these three methods are asymptotically equivalent to the complete case estimates under general conditions. One simulation and a real data set from a liver cancer clinical trial are given to compare the properties of these methods when the responses are MAR.

  2. Non-Linearity of dose-effect relationship on the example of cytogenetic effects in plant cells at low level exposure to ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudalova, Alla; Geras'kin, Stanislav; Dikarev, Vladimir; Dikareva, Nina; Chernonog, Elena; Copplestone, David; Evseeva, Tatyana

    2006-01-01

    Over several decades, modelling the effects of ionizing radiation on biological system has relied on the target principle [Timofeeff-Ressovsky et al., 1935], which assumes that cell damage or modification to genes appear as a direct consequence of the exposure of biological macromolecules to charged particles. Furthermore, it is assumed that there is no threshold for the induction of biological damage and that the effects observed are proportional to the energy absorbed. Following this principle, the average number of hits per target should increase linearly with dose, and the yield of mutations per unit of dose is assumed to be the same at both low and high doses (linearity of response). This principle has served as the scientific background for the linear no-threshold (LNT) concept that forms the basis for the radiological protection for the public and the environment [ICRP, 1990]. It follows from the LNT that there is an additional risk for human health from exposure to any radiation level, even below natural background. Since the mid 50's, however, the scientific basis for the LNT concept has been challenged as experimental data have shown that, at low doses, there was a non linear relationship in the dose response. Luchnik and Timofeeff-Ressovsky were the first who showed a non-linear response to a low dose exposure [Luchnik, 1957; Timofeeff-Ressovsky and Luchnik, 1960]. Since then, many data have been accumulated which contradict the LNT model at low doses and dose rates. However, the hit-effect paradigm has become such a strong and indissoluble fact that it has persisted even under the growing pressure of scientific evidence for phenomena at low dose exposure that can not be successfully accounted for by the LNT concept. In recent years, additional information on non-targeted effects of radiation has been accumulated following the first reports of an adaptive response in human lymphocytes [Olivieri et al., 1984] as well as bystander mutagenic effect of alpha

  3. Non-Linearity of dose-effect relationship on the example of cytogenetic effects in plant cells at low level exposure to ionising radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oudalova, Alla; Geras' kin, Stanislav; Dikarev, Vladimir; Dikareva, Nina; Chernonog, Elena [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, RIARAE, 249032 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Copplestone, David [Environment Agency, Millbank Tower, 25th. Floor, 21/24 Millbank, London, SW1P 4XL (United Kingdom); Evseeva, Tatyana [Institute of Biology, Kommunisticheskaya st., 28 Syktyvkar 167610, Komi Republic (Russian Federation)

    2006-07-01

    Over several decades, modelling the effects of ionizing radiation on biological system has relied on the target principle [Timofeeff-Ressovsky et al., 1935], which assumes that cell damage or modification to genes appear as a direct consequence of the exposure of biological macromolecules to charged particles. Furthermore, it is assumed that there is no threshold for the induction of biological damage and that the effects observed are proportional to the energy absorbed. Following this principle, the average number of hits per target should increase linearly with dose, and the yield of mutations per unit of dose is assumed to be the same at both low and high doses (linearity of response). This principle has served as the scientific background for the linear no-threshold (LNT) concept that forms the basis for the radiological protection for the public and the environment [ICRP, 1990]. It follows from the LNT that there is an additional risk for human health from exposure to any radiation level, even below natural background. Since the mid 50's, however, the scientific basis for the LNT concept has been challenged as experimental data have shown that, at low doses, there was a non linear relationship in the dose response. Luchnik and Timofeeff-Ressovsky were the first who showed a non-linear response to a low dose exposure [Luchnik, 1957; Timofeeff-Ressovsky and Luchnik, 1960]. Since then, many data have been accumulated which contradict the LNT model at low doses and dose rates. However, the hit-effect paradigm has become such a strong and indissoluble fact that it has persisted even under the growing pressure of scientific evidence for phenomena at low dose exposure that can not be successfully accounted for by the LNT concept. In recent years, additional information on non-targeted effects of radiation has been accumulated following the first reports of an adaptive response in human lymphocytes [Olivieri et al., 1984] as well as bystander mutagenic effect of

  4. MODELLING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LAND SURFACE TEMPERATURE AND LANDSCAPE PATTERNS OF LAND USE LAND COVER CLASSIFICATION USING MULTI LINEAR REGRESSION MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Bernales

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The threat of the ailments related to urbanization like heat stress is very prevalent. There are a lot of things that can be done to lessen the effect of urbanization to the surface temperature of the area like using green roofs or planting trees in the area. So land use really matters in both increasing and decreasing surface temperature. It is known that there is a relationship between land use land cover (LULC and land surface temperature (LST. Quantifying this relationship in terms of a mathematical model is very important so as to provide a way to predict LST based on the LULC alone. This study aims to examine the relationship between LST and LULC as well as to create a model that can predict LST using class-level spatial metrics from LULC. LST was derived from a Landsat 8 image and LULC classification was derived from LiDAR and Orthophoto datasets. Class-level spatial metrics were created in FRAGSTATS with the LULC and LST as inputs and these metrics were analysed using a statistical framework. Multi linear regression was done to create models that would predict LST for each class and it was found that the spatial metric “Effective mesh size” was a top predictor for LST in 6 out of 7 classes. The model created can still be refined by adding a temporal aspect by analysing the LST of another farming period (for rural areas and looking for common predictors between LSTs of these two different farming periods.

  5. Mathematical modeling of stress-strain state of the system HPP building - soil base with account for the phased construction of the building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orekhov Vyacheslav Valentinovich

    Full Text Available The interaction process of a power plant building with the soil base is studied basing on mathematical modeling of the construction process of Kambarata-2 HPP, taking into account the excavation of foundation pit, the concreting schedule of the building construction, the HPP units putting into operation and territory planning. Mathematical modeling of stress-strain state of the system “power plant - soil base” in the process of construction was performed by using the computer program “Zemlya” (the Earth, which implements the method of finite elements. Such a behavior of soil was described using elastoplastic soil model, the parameters of which were determined from the results of the triaxial tests. As shown by the results of the research, the continuous change of settlement, slope, deflection and torsion of the bottom plate and accordingly change of stressed-strained state of power plant are noted during the construction process. The installed HPP construction schedule, starting from the construction of the first block and the adjacent mounting platform, is leading to the formation of initial roll of bottom plate to the path of the mounting pad. In the process of further construction of powerhouse, up to the 29th phase of construction (out of 40, a steady increase in its subsidence (maximum values of about 4.5 cm is noted. Filling of foundation pit hollows and territorial planning of the construction area lead to drastic situation. In this case, as a territory planning points exceeded the relief, the plastic deformation in the soil evolves, resulting in significant subsidence of the bottom plate under the first block (up to 7.4 cm. As a result, the additional subsidence of the soil of bottom plate edges lead to the large vertical movement in relation to its central part and it is bent around the X axis, resulting in a large horizontal tensile stress values of Sz (up to 2.17 MPa in the constructive elements of the upper part of the

  6. Influence of uneven settlements of the curved glulam frames’ bearings on the cornice node’s stress-strain state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Денис Віталійович Михайловський

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Comparison analysis of the cornice node’s stress of three-hinged curved glulam frames that caused by uneven settlements of bearings are shown in the article. Three-dimensional finite elements model of the building using LIRA-SAPR 2013 was developed for research. Settlements were determined by the stratified method and by calculations of the system “substructures – foundations – constructions” using physically non-linear soil massive

  7. Stress-strain relation of bentonite at undrained shear. Laboratory tests to investigate the influence of material composition and test technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dueck, Ann; Boergesson, Lennart; Johannesson, Lars-Erik (Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    This report describes a laboratory study conducted to update the material model of the buffer material used in the analyses of the effect of a rock shear through a deposition hole. The study considers some new conditions and is especially focused on the reference case with MX-80Ca developed for SR-Site (MX-80 ion exchanged to Ca). The material model is based on relations between density, swelling pressure, shear strength and rate of strain. The reference model is described by Boergesson et al. (2010). The laboratory study is focused on undrained stress-strain-strength properties, which have been studied mainly by conducting triaxial tests and unconfined compression tests. The test results are compared to the earlier measurements and models which show that the new results fit very well into the general picture and models. For the new conditions suitable values of constants included in the model are proposed

  8. Stress-strain relation of bentonite at undrained shear. Laboratory tests to investigate the influence of material composition and test technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dueck, Ann; Boergesson, Lennart; Johannesson, Lars-Erik

    2010-12-01

    This report describes a laboratory study conducted to update the material model of the buffer material used in the analyses of the effect of a rock shear through a deposition hole. The study considers some new conditions and is especially focused on the reference case with MX-80Ca developed for SR-Site (MX-80 ion exchanged to Ca). The material model is based on relations between density, swelling pressure, shear strength and rate of strain. The reference model is described by Boergesson et al. (2010). The laboratory study is focused on undrained stress-strain-strength properties, which have been studied mainly by conducting triaxial tests and unconfined compression tests. The test results are compared to the earlier measurements and models which show that the new results fit very well into the general picture and models. For the new conditions suitable values of constants included in the model are proposed

  9. Analysis of the effects of non-supine sleeping positions on the stress, strain, deformation and intraocular pressure of the human eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Peter A.

    This thesis presents analytical models, finite element models and experimental data to investigate the response of the human eye to loads that can be experienced when in a non-supine sleeping position. The hypothesis being investigated is that non-supine sleeping positions can lead to stress, strain and deformation of the eye as well as changes in intraocular pressure (IOP) that may exacerbate vision loss in individuals who have glaucoma. To investigate the quasi-static changes in stress and internal pressure, a Fluid-Structure Interaction simulation was performed on an axisymmetrical model of an eye. Common Aerospace Engineering methods for analyzing pressure vessels and hyperelastic structural walls are applied to developing a suitable model. The quasi-static pressure increase was used in an iterative code to analyze changes in IOP over time.

  10. Numerical study of the stress-strain state of reinforced plate on an elastic foundation by the Bubnov-Galerkin method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beskopylny, Alexey; Kadomtseva, Elena; Strelnikov, Grigory

    2017-10-01

    The stress-strain state of a rectangular slab resting on an elastic foundation is considered. The slab material is isotropic. The slab has stiffening ribs that directed parallel to both sides of the plate. Solving equations are obtained for determining the deflection for various mechanical and geometric characteristics of the stiffening ribs which are parallel to different sides of the plate, having different rigidity for bending and torsion. The calculation scheme assumes an orthotropic slab having different cylindrical stiffness in two mutually perpendicular directions parallel to the reinforcing ribs. An elastic foundation is adopted by Winkler model. To determine the deflection the Bubnov-Galerkin method is used. The deflection is taken in the form of an expansion in a series with unknown coefficients by special polynomials, which are a combination of Legendre polynomials.

  11. Effects of mean strain on the random cyclic stress-strain relations of 0Cr18Ni10Ti pipe steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yongxiang; Yang Bing

    2005-01-01

    Experimental study is performed for the effects of the mean strain on the random cyclic stress-strain relations of the new nuclear material, 0Cr18Ni10Ti pipe steel. From saving the size of specimens, an improved maximum likelihood fatigue test method is proposed to operate the present strain-controlled fatigue tests. Six straining ratios, -1, -0.52, -0.22, 0.029, 0.18, and 0.48, respectively, are applied to study the effects. Fatigue test has been carried out on totally 104 specimens. The test results reveal that the material exhibits a Masing behaviour and the saturation hysteresis loops under the six ratios hold an entirely relaxation effect of mean stress. There is no effectively method for the description of the mean straining effects under this case. Previous Zhao's random stress-strain relations are therefore applied to characterizing effectively the scattering test data under the six ratios on a basis of Ramberg-Osgood equation. Then the effects of the ratios are analyzed respectively on the average stress amplitudes, the standard deviations of the stress amplitudes, and the stress amplitudes under different survival probabilities and confidences. The results reveal that the ratios act a relatively decreasing effect to the stress amplitudes under higher survival probabilities and confidences. The strongest effect appears at the ratio of 0.029, and a weaker effect acts as the distance increase of the ratio from the zero. In addition, it is indicated that the effects from the sense of average fatigue lives might result in a wrong conclusion. The effects can be appropriately assessed from a probabilistic sense to take into account the scattering regularity of test data and the size of sampling. (author)

  12. Variations of fracture toughness and stress-strain curve of cold worked stainless steel and their influence on failure strength of cracked pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaya, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    In order to assess failure probability of cracked components, it is important to know the variations of the material properties and their influence on the failure load assessment. In this study, variations of the fracture toughness and stress-strain curve were investigated for cold worked stainless steel. The variations of the 0.2% proof and ultimate strengths obtained using 8 specimens of 20% cold worked stainless steel (CW20) were 77 MPa and 81 MPa, respectively. The respective variations were decreased to 13 and 21 MPa for 40% cold worked material (CW40). Namely, the variation in the tensile strength was decreased by hardening. The COVs (coefficients of variation) of fracture toughness were 7.3% and 16.7% for CW20 and CW40, respectively. Namely, the variation in the fracture toughness was increased by hardening. Then, in order to investigate the influence of the variations in the material properties on failure load of a cracked pipe, flaw assessments were performed for a cracked pipe subjected to a global bending load. Using the obtained material properties led to variation in the failure load. The variation in the failure load of the cracked pipe caused by the variation in the stress-strain curve was less than 1.5% for the COV. The variation in the failure load caused by fracture toughness variation was relatively large for CW40, although it was less than 2.0% for the maximum case. It was concluded that the hardening induced by cold working does not cause significant variation in the failure load of cracked stainless steel pipe. (author)

  13. Non-linear Relationship between BOLD Activation and Amplitude of Beta Oscillations in the Supplementary Motor Area during Rhythmic Finger Tapping and Internal Timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gompf, Florian; Pflug, Anja; Laufs, Helmut; Kell, Christian A.

    2017-01-01

    Functional imaging studies using BOLD contrasts have consistently reported activation of the supplementary motor area (SMA) both during motor and internal timing tasks. Opposing findings, however, have been shown for the modulation of beta oscillations in the SMA. While movement suppresses beta oscillations in the SMA, motor and non-motor tasks that rely on internal timing increase the amplitude of beta oscillations in the SMA. These independent observations suggest that the relationship between beta oscillations and BOLD activation is more complex than previously thought. Here we set out to investigate this rapport by examining beta oscillations in the SMA during movement with varying degrees of internal timing demands. In a simultaneous EEG-fMRI experiment, 20 healthy right-handed subjects performed an auditory-paced finger-tapping task. Internal timing was operationalized by including conditions with taps on every fourth auditory beat, which necessitates generation of a slow internal rhythm, while tapping to every auditory beat reflected simple auditory-motor synchronization. In the SMA, BOLD activity increased and power in both the low and the high beta band decreased expectedly during each condition compared to baseline. Internal timing was associated with a reduced desynchronization of low beta oscillations compared to conditions without internal timing demands. In parallel with this relative beta power increase, internal timing activated the SMA more strongly in terms of BOLD. This documents a task-dependent non-linear relationship between BOLD and beta-oscillations in the SMA. We discuss different roles of beta synchronization and desynchronization in active processing within the same cortical region. PMID:29249950

  14. Non-linear Relationship between BOLD Activation and Amplitude of Beta Oscillations in the Supplementary Motor Area during Rhythmic Finger Tapping and Internal Timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gompf, Florian; Pflug, Anja; Laufs, Helmut; Kell, Christian A

    2017-01-01

    Functional imaging studies using BOLD contrasts have consistently reported activation of the supplementary motor area (SMA) both during motor and internal timing tasks. Opposing findings, however, have been shown for the modulation of beta oscillations in the SMA. While movement suppresses beta oscillations in the SMA, motor and non-motor tasks that rely on internal timing increase the amplitude of beta oscillations in the SMA. These independent observations suggest that the relationship between beta oscillations and BOLD activation is more complex than previously thought. Here we set out to investigate this rapport by examining beta oscillations in the SMA during movement with varying degrees of internal timing demands. In a simultaneous EEG-fMRI experiment, 20 healthy right-handed subjects performed an auditory-paced finger-tapping task. Internal timing was operationalized by including conditions with taps on every fourth auditory beat, which necessitates generation of a slow internal rhythm, while tapping to every auditory beat reflected simple auditory-motor synchronization. In the SMA, BOLD activity increased and power in both the low and the high beta band decreased expectedly during each condition compared to baseline. Internal timing was associated with a reduced desynchronization of low beta oscillations compared to conditions without internal timing demands. In parallel with this relative beta power increase, internal timing activated the SMA more strongly in terms of BOLD. This documents a task-dependent non-linear relationship between BOLD and beta-oscillations in the SMA. We discuss different roles of beta synchronization and desynchronization in active processing within the same cortical region.

  15. Characterizing the relationship between temperature and mortality in tropical and subtropical cities: a distributed lag non-linear model analysis in Hue, Viet Nam, 2009-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Tran Ngoc; Seposo, Xerxes T; Duc, Nguyen Huu Chau; Thang, Tran Binh; An, Do Dang; Hang, Lai Thi Minh; Long, Tran Thanh; Loan, Bui Thi Hong; Honda, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between temperature and mortality has been found to be U-, V-, or J-shaped in developed temperate countries; however, in developing tropical/subtropical cities, it remains unclear. Our goal was to investigate the relationship between temperature and mortality in Hue, a subtropical city in Viet Nam. We collected daily mortality data from the Vietnamese A6 mortality reporting system for 6,214 deceased persons between 2009 and 2013. A distributed lag non-linear model was used to examine the temperature effects on all-cause and cause-specific mortality by assuming negative binomial distribution for count data. We developed an objective-oriented model selection with four steps following the Akaike information criterion (AIC) rule (i.e. a smaller AIC value indicates a better model). High temperature-related mortality was more strongly associated with short lags, whereas low temperature-related mortality was more strongly associated with long lags. The low temperatures increased risk in all-category mortality compared to high temperatures. We observed elevated temperature-mortality risk in vulnerable groups: elderly people (high temperature effect, relative risk [RR]=1.42, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.11-1.83; low temperature effect, RR=2.0, 95% CI=1.13-3.52), females (low temperature effect, RR=2.19, 95% CI=1.14-4.21), people with respiratory disease (high temperature effect, RR=2.45, 95% CI=0.91-6.63), and those with cardiovascular disease (high temperature effect, RR=1.6, 95% CI=1.15-2.22; low temperature effect, RR=1.99, 95% CI=0.92-4.28). In Hue, the temperature significantly increased the risk of mortality, especially in vulnerable groups (i.e. elderly, female, people with respiratory and cardiovascular diseases). These findings may provide a foundation for developing adequate policies to address the effects of temperature on health in Hue City.

  16. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Shilov, Georgi E

    1977-01-01

    Covers determinants, linear spaces, systems of linear equations, linear functions of a vector argument, coordinate transformations, the canonical form of the matrix of a linear operator, bilinear and quadratic forms, Euclidean spaces, unitary spaces, quadratic forms in Euclidean and unitary spaces, finite-dimensional space. Problems with hints and answers.

  17. Characterization of volatile organic compound adsorption on multiwall carbon nanotubes under different levels of relative humidity using linear solvation energy relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Mei-syue; Wu, Siang Chen; Shih, Yang-hsin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • LSER equations successfully predicted VOC sorption on MCNT at different humidity. • The five parameters in LSER could be narrowed down to three ones. • Main interaction is dispersion and partly dipolarity as well as hydrogen-bonds. • With increasing RH, it changes to cavity formation and hydrogen-bond basicity. • This approach can facilitate the VOC control design and the fate prediction. - Abstract: Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have been used as an adsorbent for evaluating the gas/solid partitioning of selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In this study, 15 VOCs were probed to determine their gas/solid partitioning coefficient (Log K d ) using inverse gas chromatography at different relative humidity (RH) levels. Interactions between MWCNTs and VOCs were analyzed by regressing the observed Log K d with the linear solvation energy relationship (LSER). The results demonstrate that the MWCNT carbonyl and carboxyl groups provide high adsorption capacity for the VOCs (Log K d 3.72–5.24 g/kg/g/L) because of the π-/n-electron pair interactions and hydrogen-bond acidity. The increasing RH gradually decreased the Log K d and shifted the interactions to dipolarity/polarizability, hydrogen-bond basicity, and cavity formation. The derived LSER equations provided adequate fits of Log K d , which is useful for VOC-removal processes and fate prediction of VOC contaminants by MWCNT adsorption in the environment.

  18. Quantitative structure-property relationship study of n-octanol-water partition coefficients of some of diverse drugs using multiple linear regression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghasemi, Jahanbakhsh; Saaidpour, Saadi

    2007-01-01

    A quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) study was performed to develop models those relate the structures of 150 drug organic compounds to their n-octanol-water partition coefficients (log P o/w ). Molecular descriptors derived solely from 3D structures of the molecular drugs. A genetic algorithm was also applied as a variable selection tool in QSPR analysis. The models were constructed using 110 molecules as training set, and predictive ability tested using 40 compounds. Modeling of log P o/w of these compounds as a function of the theoretically derived descriptors was established by multiple linear regression (MLR). Four descriptors for these compounds molecular volume (MV) (geometrical), hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) (constitutional), hydrogen bond forming ability (HB) (electronic) and polar surface area (PSA) (electrostatic) are taken as inputs for the model. The use of descriptors calculated only from molecular structure eliminates the need for experimental determination of properties for use in the correlation and allows for the estimation of log P o/w for molecules not yet synthesized. Application of the developed model to a testing set of 40 drug organic compounds demonstrates that the model is reliable with good predictive accuracy and simple formulation. The prediction results are in good agreement with the experimental value. The root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and square correlation coefficient (R 2 ) for MLR model were 0.22 and 0.99 for the prediction set log P o/w

  19. A non-linear relationship between the cumulative exposure to occupational stressors and nurses' burnout and the potentially emotion regulation factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ji-Wei; Lin, Ping-Zhen; Zhang, Hui-Hui; Li, Jia-Huan; Cao, Feng-Lin

    2017-10-08

    Stressful situations can increase the likelihood of nurses experiencing negative emotions, especially burnout. To explore the association of cumulative exposure to occupational stressors and emotion regulation strategies with nurses' burnout. Participants were 602 nurses from three general hospitals in Jinan, China. Social demographic characteristics, occupational stress, burnout, and emotion regulation strategies (cognitive reappraisal, expressive suppression, and rumination), were assessed. Nearly 70% of nurses reported that they were burnt out. Those with a moderate level and high level of stressors were 3.203 times and 26.444 times more likely to have burnout, respectively (x 2 trend = 62.732). Logistic regression revealed that nurses had higher cognitive reappraisal score (odds ratios (OR) = 0.941), scored lower for burnout. Those who had higher expressive suppression score (OR = 1.054), higher rumination score (OR = 1.037), and a higher level of stressors (OR = 2.779-18.259) scored higher for burnout. The results of sensitivity analysis were similar. A non-linear relationship exists between the cumulative exposure to occupational stressors and nurses' burnout. Those who less frequently use cognitive reappraisal, more frequently use rumination and expressive suppression, and have a high level of stressors may be more likely to experience burnout.

  20. Characterization of volatile organic compound adsorption on multiwall carbon nanotubes under different levels of relative humidity using linear solvation energy relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Mei-syue; Wu, Siang Chen; Shih, Yang-hsin, E-mail: yhs@ntu.edu.tw

    2016-09-05

    Highlights: • LSER equations successfully predicted VOC sorption on MCNT at different humidity. • The five parameters in LSER could be narrowed down to three ones. • Main interaction is dispersion and partly dipolarity as well as hydrogen-bonds. • With increasing RH, it changes to cavity formation and hydrogen-bond basicity. • This approach can facilitate the VOC control design and the fate prediction. - Abstract: Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have been used as an adsorbent for evaluating the gas/solid partitioning of selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In this study, 15 VOCs were probed to determine their gas/solid partitioning coefficient (Log K{sub d}) using inverse gas chromatography at different relative humidity (RH) levels. Interactions between MWCNTs and VOCs were analyzed by regressing the observed Log K{sub d} with the linear solvation energy relationship (LSER). The results demonstrate that the MWCNT carbonyl and carboxyl groups provide high adsorption capacity for the VOCs (Log K{sub d} 3.72–5.24 g/kg/g/L) because of the π-/n-electron pair interactions and hydrogen-bond acidity. The increasing RH gradually decreased the Log K{sub d} and shifted the interactions to dipolarity/polarizability, hydrogen-bond basicity, and cavity formation. The derived LSER equations provided adequate fits of Log K{sub d}, which is useful for VOC-removal processes and fate prediction of VOC contaminants by MWCNT adsorption in the environment.

  1. Relationship between metallothioneins and metals in a natural population of the clam Ruditapes decussatus from Sfax coast: a non-linear model using Box-Cox transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza-Chaffai, A; Amiard, J C; Cosson, R P

    1999-06-01

    Cadmium, copper and zinc were determined concomitantly with metallothionein-like proteins (MTLPs) in the subcellular fractions of Ruditapes decussatus digestive gland. This study covered 4 months and aimed to evaluate the effect of metal pollution and other factors such as sex, size and reproductive state on MTLP levels. Copper concentrations did not vary with month, however Cd and Zn concentrations showed high levels during August. Organisms showing low cadmium concentrations presented the highest cadmium percentages in the soluble fraction (SF) containing MTLPs. However for high cadmium concentrations, the insoluble fraction (IF) was implicated in cadmium association. MTLP levels varied according to the month, the sex and the size of the organisms. A non-linear model based on the Box-Cox transformation, was proposed to describe a positive and a significant relationship between MTLPs and the studied metals. A model including sex and size showed that these two factors affected MTLP levels, but were less important than metals. Males of R. decussatus showed higher significant correlations between MTLP levels and cadmium than females. Moreover, the effect of size and reproductive state on MTLP levels was less perceptible in males than in females. As a result, MTLPs in males of R. decussatus could be proposed as suitable biomarker for detecting metal contamination.

  2. Non-linear calculation of PCRV using dynamic relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnellenbach, G.

    1979-01-01

    A brief review is presented of a numerical method called the dynamic relaxation method for stress analysis of the concrete in prestressed concrete pressure vessels. By this method the three-dimensional elliptic differential equations of the continuum are changed into the four-dimensional hyperbolic differential equations known as wave equations. The boundary value problem of the static system is changed into an initial and boundary value problem for which a solution exists if the physical system is defined at time t=0. The effect of non-linear stress-strain behaviour of the material as well as creep and cracking are considered

  3. Characterization of the flexural behavior of a reactive graphitic nanofibers reinforced epoxy using a non-linear damage model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jana, Soumen [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58105 (United States); Zhong Weihong [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58105 (United States)]. E-mail: Katie.zhong@ndsu.edu; Gan, Yong X. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Albert Nerken School of Engineering, Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art, 51 Astor Place, New York City, NY 10003 (United States)

    2007-02-15

    In our previous work, a nano-epoxy was developed based on the preparation of reactive graphitic nanofibers (r-GNFs). The objective of this work is to study the effect of the r-GNFs in an epoxy resin on the mechanical properties of the resulting nano-epoxy composites. Three-point bending tests were carried out for the pure epoxy and nano-epoxy materials with 0.15, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5 wt% r-GNFs to obtain the flexural behaviors. The nano-epoxy composite containing 0.3 wt% of r-GNFs showed the best flexural properties including highest flexural strength, modules and ductility values among all the tested materials. Non-linear fracture mechanics (NLFM) was applied to analyze the phenomena occurred during the bending tests. A non-linear damage model was used to interpret the flexural stress-strain relationships of the tested materials, which showed agreement with the testing results. The fracture surfaces of the nano-epoxy composites were examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the morphological features on the SEM images also reveals that the nano-epoxy composites are tougher than the pure epoxy resin.

  4. The healing stages of an intramedullary implanted tibia: A stress strain comparative analysis of the calcification process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filardi, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Aims The extended usage of unreamed tibial nailing resulted in reports of an increased rate of complications, especially for the distal portion of the tibia. Unreamed nailing favours biology at the expense of the achievable mechanical stability, it is therefore of interest to define the limits of the clinical indications for this method. Extra-articular fractures of the distal tibial metaphysis, meta-diaphyseal junction, and adjacent diaphysis are distinct in their management from impaction derived ‘‘pilon’’ type fractures and mid-diaphyseal fractures. The goals of this work were to gain a thorough understanding of the load-sharing mechanism between unreamed nail and bones in a fractured tibia. With this purpose a complete model of the human leg was realised, simulating a mid-diaphyseal fracture, classified as A2 type 1, according to the AO classification. The analysis of the entire chain allows to have a complete picture of the stress distribution and of the most stressed bones and soft tissues, but, more importantly can overcome problems connected with boundary conditions imposed at single bony components. Methods Model consists of six bony structures: pelvis, femur, patella, fibula, tibia, and a simplified lump of the feet, configured in a standing up position. Their articular cartilage layers, were simulated by 3D membranes of opportune stiffness connecting the different segments. Moreover an unreamed intra-medullary nail Expert Tibial Nail (DePuy Synthes®) stabilized the fractured tibia. A load of 700 N has been applied at the top of pelvis and a part the feet, at the tip, was rigidly fixed. Five different contact interfaces have been imposed at the different bony surfaces in contact. Results Three different conditions were analysed: the initially healthy tibia, the A2 type 1 fractured tibia with the Expert tibial nail implanted, and the follow up stage after complete healing of tibia. Non-linear finite element analysis of the models were performed

  5. Experimental and theoretical studies into the stress-strain state of the purlin supported by sandwich panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilov Aleksandr Ivanovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the co-authors analyze the findings of the experimental and theoretical studies into the real behaviour of a thin-walled cold-formed purlin as part of the roof structure made of sandwich panels. The roof structure fragment was tested; displacements and stresses, that the purlin was exposed to, were identified in respect of each loading increment. NASTRAN software was employed to perform the numerical analysis of the roof structure, pre-exposed to experimental tests, in the geometrically and physically non-linear setting. The finite element model, generated as a result (the numerical analysis pattern, is sufficiently well-set, given the proposed grid of elements, and it ensures reasonably trustworthy results. The diagrams describing the stress/displacement to the load ratio and obtained numerically are consistent with those generated experimentally. The gap between the critical loading values reaches 4%. Analytical and experimental findings demonstrate their close conformity, and this fact may justify the application of the numerical model, generated within the framework of this research project, in the course of any further research actions. The co-authors have identified that the exhaustion of the bearing capacity occurs due to the loss of the buckling resistance as a result of the lateral torsional buckling.

  6. Mathematical description for the stress-strain behavior of annealed 21/4 Cr--1 Mo steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klueh, R.L.; Hebble, T.L.

    1976-01-01

    We have conducted a detailed series of tensile tests on one heat of annealed 2 1 / 4 Cr-1 Mo steel over the range 25 to 593 0 C (75 to 1100 0 F) and at nominal strain rates of 0.4, 0.04, 0.004, and 0.0004/min. To determine an empirical relationship to represent the flow behavior, we fitted the true-stress true-strain data from these tests to several proposed models. The models fit were those proposed by Holloman, Ludwik, Ludwigson, and Voce. From a comparison of the standard error of estimate, the Voce equation was concluded to be the best mathematical description of the data under most test conditions and the best single representation over the wide range of test conditions

  7. Life Stress, Strain, and Deviance Across Schools: Testing the Contextual Version of General Strain Theory in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinwu; Liu, Jianhong; Wang, Xin; Zou, Anquan

    2017-08-01

    General Strain Theory delineates different types of strain and intervening processes from strain to deviance and crime. In addition to explaining individual strain-crime relationship, a contextualized version of general strain theory, which is called the Macro General Strain Theory, has been used to analyze how aggregate variables influence aggregate and individual deviance and crime. Using a sample of 1,852 students (Level 1) nested in 52 schools (Level 2), the current study tests the Macro General Strain Theory using Chinese data. The results revealed that aggregate life stress and strain have influences on aggregate and individual deviance, and reinforce the individual stress-deviance association. The current study contributes by providing the first Macro General Strain Theory test based on Chinese data and offering empirical evidence for the multilevel intervening processes from strain to deviance. Limitations and future research directions are discussed.

  8. Linear models with R

    CERN Document Server

    Faraway, Julian J

    2014-01-01

    A Hands-On Way to Learning Data AnalysisPart of the core of statistics, linear models are used to make predictions and explain the relationship between the response and the predictors. Understanding linear models is crucial to a broader competence in the practice of statistics. Linear Models with R, Second Edition explains how to use linear models in physical science, engineering, social science, and business applications. The book incorporates several improvements that reflect how the world of R has greatly expanded since the publication of the first edition.New to the Second EditionReorganiz

  9. Investigation of Relationship Between Hydrologic Processes of Precipitation, Evaporation and Stream Flow Using Linear Time Series Models (Case study: Western Basins of Lake Urmia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Moravej

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Studying the hydrological cycle, especially in large scales such as water catchments, is difficult and complicated despite the fact that the numbers of hydrological components are limited. This complexity rises from complex interactions between hydrological components and environment. Recognition, determination and modeling of all interactive processes are needed to address this issue, but it's not feasible for dealing with practical engineering problems. So, it is more convenient to consider hydrological components as stochastic phenomenon, and use stochastic models for modeling them. Stochastic simulation of time series models related to water resources, particularly hydrologic time series, have been widely used in recent decades in order to solve issues pertaining planning and management of water resource systems. In this study time series models fitted to the precipitation, evaporation and stream flow series separately and the relationships between stream flow and precipitation processes are investigated. In fact, the three mentioned processes should be modeled in parallel to each other in order to acquire a comprehensive vision of hydrological conditions in the region. Moreover, the relationship between the hydrologic processes has been mostly studied with respect to their trends. It is desirable to investigate the relationship between trends of hydrological processes and climate change, while the relationship of the models has not been taken into consideration. The main objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between hydrological processes and their effects on each other and the selected models. Material and Method: In the current study, the four sub-basins of Lake Urmia Basin namely Zolachay (A, Nazloochay (B, Shahrchay (C and Barandoozchay (D were considered. Precipitation, evaporation and stream flow time series were modeled by linear time series. Fundamental assumptions of time series analysis namely

  10. Genetic parameters of linear conformation type traits and their relationship with milk yield throughout lactation in mixed-breed dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, A; Mucha, S; Mrode, R; Coffey, M; Conington, J

    2016-07-01

    Conformation traits are of interest to many dairy goat breeders not only as descriptive traits in their own right, but also because of their influence on production, longevity, and profitability. If these traits are to be considered for inclusion in future dairy goat breeding programs, relationships between them and production traits such as milk yield must be considered. With the increased use of regression models to estimate genetic parameters, an opportunity now exists to investigate correlations between conformation traits and milk yield throughout lactation in more detail. The aims of this study were therefore to (1) estimate genetic parameters for conformation traits in a population of crossbred dairy goats, (2) estimate correlations between all conformation traits, and (3) assess the relationship between conformation traits and milk yield throughout lactation. No information on milk composition was available. Data were collected from goats based on 2 commercial goat farms during August and September in 2013 and 2014. Ten conformation traits, relating to udder, teat, leg, and feet characteristics, were scored on a linear scale (1-9). The overall data set comprised data available for 4,229 goats, all in their first lactation. The population of goats used in the study was created using random crossings between 3 breeds: British Alpine, Saanen, and Toggenburg. In each generation, the best performing animals were selected for breeding, leading to the formation of a synthetic breed. The pedigree file used in the analyses contained sire and dam information for a total of 30,139 individuals. The models fitted relevant fixed and random effects. Heritability estimates for the conformation traits were low to moderate, ranging from 0.02 to 0.38. A range of positive and negative phenotypic and genetic correlations between the traits were observed, with the highest correlations found between udder depth and udder attachment (0.78), teat angle and teat placement (0

  11. Characterizing the relationship between temperature and mortality in tropical and subtropical cities: a distributed lag non-linear model analysis in Hue, Viet Nam, 2009–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Tran Ngoc; Seposo, Xerxes T.; Duc, Nguyen Huu Chau; Thang, Tran Binh; An, Do Dang; Hang, Lai Thi Minh; Long, Tran Thanh; Loan, Bui Thi Hong; Honda, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    Background The relationship between temperature and mortality has been found to be U-, V-, or J-shaped in developed temperate countries; however, in developing tropical/subtropical cities, it remains unclear. Objectives Our goal was to investigate the relationship between temperature and mortality in Hue, a subtropical city in Viet Nam. Design We collected daily mortality data from the Vietnamese A6 mortality reporting system for 6,214 deceased persons between 2009 and 2013. A distributed lag non-linear model was used to examine the temperature effects on all-cause and cause-specific mortality by assuming negative binomial distribution for count data. We developed an objective-oriented model selection with four steps following the Akaike information criterion (AIC) rule (i.e. a smaller AIC value indicates a better model). Results High temperature-related mortality was more strongly associated with short lags, whereas low temperature-related mortality was more strongly associated with long lags. The low temperatures increased risk in all-category mortality compared to high temperatures. We observed elevated temperature-mortality risk in vulnerable groups: elderly people (high temperature effect, relative risk [RR]=1.42, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.11–1.83; low temperature effect, RR=2.0, 95% CI=1.13–3.52), females (low temperature effect, RR=2.19, 95% CI=1.14–4.21), people with respiratory disease (high temperature effect, RR=2.45, 95% CI=0.91–6.63), and those with cardiovascular disease (high temperature effect, RR=1.6, 95% CI=1.15–2.22; low temperature effect, RR=1.99, 95% CI=0.92–4.28). Conclusions In Hue, the temperature significantly increased the risk of mortality, especially in vulnerable groups (i.e. elderly, female, people with respiratory and cardiovascular diseases). These findings may provide a foundation for developing adequate policies to address the effects of temperature on health in Hue City. PMID:26781954

  12. Characterizing the relationship between temperature and mortality in tropical and subtropical cities: a distributed lag non-linear model analysis in Hue, Viet Nam, 2009–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Ngoc Dang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The relationship between temperature and mortality has been found to be U-, V-, or J-shaped in developed temperate countries; however, in developing tropical/subtropical cities, it remains unclear. Objectives: Our goal was to investigate the relationship between temperature and mortality in Hue, a subtropical city in Viet Nam. Design: We collected daily mortality data from the Vietnamese A6 mortality reporting system for 6,214 deceased persons between 2009 and 2013. A distributed lag non-linear model was used to examine the temperature effects on all-cause and cause-specific mortality by assuming negative binomial distribution for count data. We developed an objective-oriented model selection with four steps following the Akaike information criterion (AIC rule (i.e. a smaller AIC value indicates a better model. Results: High temperature-related mortality was more strongly associated with short lags, whereas low temperature-related mortality was more strongly associated with long lags. The low temperatures increased risk in all-category mortality compared to high temperatures. We observed elevated temperature-mortality risk in vulnerable groups: elderly people (high temperature effect, relative risk [RR]=1.42, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.11–1.83; low temperature effect, RR=2.0, 95% CI=1.13–3.52, females (low temperature effect, RR=2.19, 95% CI=1.14–4.21, people with respiratory disease (high temperature effect, RR=2.45, 95% CI=0.91–6.63, and those with cardiovascular disease (high temperature effect, RR=1.6, 95% CI=1.15–2.22; low temperature effect, RR=1.99, 95% CI=0.92–4.28. Conclusions: In Hue, the temperature significantly increased the risk of mortality, especially in vulnerable groups (i.e. elderly, female, people with respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. These findings may provide a foundation for developing adequate policies to address the effects of temperature on health in Hue City.

  13. Organic Carbon/Water and Dissolved Organic Carbon/Water Partitioning of Cyclic Volatile Methylsiloxanes: Measurements and Polyparameter Linear Free Energy Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagopoulos, Dimitri; Jahnke, Annika; Kierkegaard, Amelie; MacLeod, Matthew

    2015-10-20

    The sorption of cyclic volatile methyl siloxanes (cVMS) to organic matter has a strong influence on their fate in the aquatic environment. We report new measurements of the partition ratios between freshwater sediment organic carbon and water (KOC) and between Aldrich humic acid dissolved organic carbon and water (KDOC) for three cVMS, and for three polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) that were used as reference chemicals. Our measurements were made using a purge-and-trap method that employs benchmark chemicals to calibrate mass transfer at the air/water interface in a fugacity-based multimedia model. The measured log KOC of octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5), and dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6) were 5.06, 6.12, and 7.07, and log KDOC were 5.05, 6.13, and 6.79. To our knowledge, our measurements for KOC of D6 and KDOC of D4 and D6 are the first reported. Polyparameter linear free energy relationships (PP-LFERs) derived from training sets of empirical data that did not include cVMS generally did not predict our measured partition ratios of cVMS accurately (root-mean-squared-error (RMSE) for logKOC 0.76 and for logKDOC 0.73). We constructed new PP-LFERs that accurately describe partition ratios for the cVMS as well as for other chemicals by including our new measurements in the existing training sets (logKOC RMSEcVMS: 0.09, logKDOC RMSEcVMS: 0.12). The PP-LFERs we have developed here should be further evaluated and perhaps recalibrated when experimental data for other siloxanes become available.

  14. Tensile stress-strain and work hardening behaviour of P9 steel for wrapper application in sodium cooled fast reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, J.; Choudhary, B. K.; Isaac Samuel, E.; Mathew, M. D.; Jayakumar, T.

    2012-01-01

    Tensile flow behaviour of P9 steel with different silicon content has been examined in the framework of Hollomon, Ludwik, Swift, Ludwigson and Voce relationships for a wide temperature range (300-873 K) at a strain rate of 1.3 × 10 -3 s -1. Ludwigson equation described true stress ( σ)-true plastic strain ( ɛ) data most accurately in the range 300-723 K. At high temperatures (773-873 K), Ludwigson equation reduces to Hollomon equation. The variations of instantaneous work hardening rate ( θ = dσ/ dɛ) and θσ with stress indicated two-stage work hardening behaviour. True stress-true plastic strain, flow parameters, θ vs. σ and θσ vs. σ with respect to temperature exhibited three distinct temperature regimes and displayed anomalous behaviour due to dynamic strain ageing at intermediate temperatures. Rapid decrease in flow stress and flow parameters, and rapid shift in θ- σ and θσ- σ towards lower stresses with increase in temperature indicated dominance of dynamic recovery at high temperatures.

  15. Determination of the stress-strain curve in specimens of Scots pine for numerical simulation of defect free beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baño, V.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to develop a twodimensional numerical model to simulate the response of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. defect free timber members in order to predict the behaviour of these members when subjected to external forces. For this purpose, data of the mechanical properties of Scots pine were obtained by performing experimental tests on specimens. We determined the stresses and deformations of timber beams in the elastic-plastic and plastic phases. In addition, we developed a finite element software that considered the orthotropic nature of timber, the non-linearity of the compression-reduction branch and the differing moduli of elasticity in tension and compression for Scots pine beams free from defects. The software developed simulates an experimental four point bending test according to UNE-EN 408 Standard.

    El objetivo de este trabajo es el desarrollo de un modelo numérico bidimensional de piezas de madera de Pinus sylvestris L. libre de defectos que prediga su comportamiento frente a solicitaciones externas. Para su desarrollo, fue necesario realizar ensayos experimentales sobre probetas de pequeño tamaño con el fin de obtener los datos de las propiedades mecánicas para el Pinus sylvestris L. de procedencia española. A partir de los datos experimentales obtenidos, se desarrolla un programa de elementos finitos que considera la ortotropía de la madera, la no linealidad de la rama compresión-acortamiento y los distintos módulos de elasticidad a tracción y a compresión para vigas libres de defectos. El programa simula el ensayo experimental de flexión en cuatro puntos según la Norma UNE-EN 408 y aborda la determinación de las tensiones y deformaciones de las vigas de madera en las tres fases de comportamiento: elástica, elastoplástica y plástica.

  16. Entrepreneurship Education: Non-Linearity in the Satisfaction – Continuation Relationship = Podjetniško izobraževanje: nelineranost v razmerju med zadovoljstvom in nadaljevanjem izobraževanja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boštjan Antoncic

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose one possible explanation of the interrelationships between education continuation or avoidance, satisfaction level, and experience (entrepreneurial maturity of potential and practicing entrepreneurs. By using the cusp catastrophe model we propose that relationship between education satisfaction and continuation tends to be linear for less experienced entrepreneurs (pre-entrepreneurs, whereas for more experienced entrepreneurs the relationship is proposed to be positive but non-linear (s-shaped. Data were collected with a structured questionnaire from 122 participants in management and entrepreneurship education and training programs. The proposed model was tested with linear and non-linear regression equations. The relationship between satisfaction and continuation (loyalty was found to be positive for all entrepreneurial and nonentrepreneurial groups. The appropriate functional form for the satisfaction-continuation relationship discovered for non-entrepreneurs and people that are only thinking about entrepreneurship (maybe-entrepreneurs is close to linear and less steep than for more entrepreneurial groups. By contrast, prospective entrepreneurs (people in the process of pre-start up and practicing entrepreneurs tend to be more sensitive to their education satisfaction in their future education continuation decisions. The appropriate functional form for these entrepreneurial groups tends to be cubical, which is close to the s-shaped function proposed in the cusp model. The study provided evidence that the relationships between entrepreneurial maturity, education satisfaction and education continuation may be modeled as a cusp catastrophe model. The proposed model can be helpful for education and for training providers (and marketers in explaining and predicting of education loyalty or the switching behavior of entrepreneurs.

  17. Effect of initial longitudinal stresses on the linearity of the shape rolled products after accelerated cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shetulov, D.I.

    1991-01-01

    Consideration is given to results of investigation into effect of initial longitudinal stresses on the linearity of the shaped rolled products after accelerated cooling. Particular attention is placed on the influence of an initial stresses state of material on qualiti of heat-treated rolled products. Effect of stresses state of worked material residual bending is studed by the use of computerized simulation.Theoretical analysis of stress-strain state of shape hot-rolled products during accelerated cooling after finishing stand of rolls is developed. A residual stress-strain state of material does not affected by rolling stresses when using a rautine cooling device with rigid centering of the product under rolling. It is expected that the effect of initial stresses could be significant in the absence of a limitator for bending deformation of shaped product longitudinal axis

  18. A Modified Johnson-Cook Model for Sheet Metal Forming at Elevated Temperatures and Its Application for Cooled Stress-Strain Curve and Spring-Back Prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duc-Toan, Nguyen; Tien-Long, Banh; Young-Suk, Kim; Dong-Won, Jung

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a modified Johnson-Cook (J-C) model and an innovated method to determine (J-C) material parameters are proposed to predict more correctly stress-strain curve for tensile tests in elevated temperatures. A MATLAB tool is used to determine material parameters by fitting a curve to follow Ludwick's hardening law at various elevated temperatures. Those hardening law parameters are then utilized to determine modified (J-C) model material parameters. The modified (J-C) model shows the better prediction compared to the conventional one. As the first verification, an FEM tensile test simulation based on the isotropic hardening model for boron sheet steel at elevated temperatures was carried out via a user-material subroutine, using an explicit finite element code, and compared with the measurements. The temperature decrease of all elements due to the air cooling process was then calculated when considering the modified (J-C) model and coded to VUMAT subroutine for tensile test simulation of cooling process. The modified (J-C) model showed the good agreement between the simulation results and the corresponding experiments. The second investigation was applied for V-bending spring-back prediction of magnesium alloy sheets at elevated temperatures. Here, the combination of proposed J-C model with modified hardening law considering the unusual plastic behaviour for magnesium alloy sheet was adopted for FEM simulation of V-bending spring-back prediction and shown the good comparability with corresponding experiments.

  19. Life prediction of l6 steel using strain-life curve and cyclic stress-strain curve by means of low cycle fatigue testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamdar, Sanket; Ukhande, Manoj; Date, Prashant; Lomate, Dattaprasad; Takale, Shyam; Singh, RKP

    2017-05-01

    L6 Steel is used as die material in closed die hot forging process. This material is having some unique properties. These properties are due to its composition. Strain softening is the noticeable property of this material. Due to this in spite of cracking at high stress this material gets plastically deformed and encounters loss in time as well as money. Studies of these properties are necessary to nurture this material at fullest extent. In this paper, numerous experiments have been carried on L6 material to evaluate cyclic Stress - strain behavior as swell as strain-life behavior of the material. Low cycle fatigue test is carried out on MTS fatigue test machine at fully reverse loading condition R=-1. Also strain softening effect on forging metal forming process is explained in detail. The failed samples during low cycle fatigue test further investigated metallurgically on scanning electron microscopy. Based on this study, life estimation of hot forging die is carried out and it’s correlation with actual shop floor data is found out. This work also concludes about effect of pre-treatments like nitro-carburizing and surface coating on L6 steel material, to enhance its fatigue life to certain extent.

  20. Simple quasi-analytical holonomic homogenization model for the non-linear analysis of in-plane loaded masonry panels: Part 1, meso-scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, G.; Bertolesi, E.

    2017-07-01

    A simple quasi analytical holonomic homogenization approach for the non-linear analysis of masonry walls in-plane loaded is presented. The elementary cell (REV) is discretized with 24 triangular elastic constant stress elements (bricks) and non-linear interfaces (mortar). A holonomic behavior with softening is assumed for mortar. It is shown how the mechanical problem in the unit cell is characterized by very few displacement variables and how homogenized stress-strain behavior can be evaluated semi-analytically.

  1. Effects of oxygen on intrinsic radiation sensitivity: A test of the relationship between aerobic and hypoxic linear-quadratic (LQ) model parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, David J.; Stewart, Robert D.; Semenenko, Vladimir A.

    2006-01-01

    The poor treatment prognosis for tumors with high levels of hypoxia is usually attributed to the decreased sensitivity of hypoxic cells to ionizing radiation. Mechanistic considerations suggest that linear quadratic (LQ) survival model radiosensitivity parameters for hypoxic (H) and aerobic (A) cells are related by α H =α A /oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) and (α/β) H =OER(α/β) A . The OER parameter may be interpreted as the ratio of the dose to the hypoxic cells to the dose to the aerobic cells required to produce the same number of DSBs per cell. The validity of these expressions is tested against survival data for mammalian cells irradiated in vitro with low- and high-LET radiation. Estimates of hypoxic and aerobic radiosensitivity parameters are derived from independent and simultaneous least-squares fits to the survival data. An external bootstrap procedure is used to test whether independent fits to the survival data give significantly better predictions than simultaneous fits to the aerobic and hypoxic data. For low-LET radiation, estimates of the OER derived from the in vitro data are between 2.3 and 3.3 for extreme levels of hypoxia. The estimated range for the OER is similar to the oxygen enhancement ratios reported in the literature for the initial yield of DSBs. The half-time for sublethal damage repair was found to be independent of oxygen concentration. Analysis of patient survival data for cervix cancer suggests an average OER less than or equal to 1.5, which corresponds to a pO 2 of 5 mm Hg (0.66%) in the in vitro experiments. Because the OER derived from the cervix cancer data is averaged over cells at all oxygen levels, cells irradiated in vivo under extreme levels of hypoxia (<0.5 mm Hg) may have an OER substantially higher than 1.5. The reported analyses of in vitro data, as well as mechanistic considerations, provide strong support for the expressions relating hypoxic and aerobic radiosensitivity parameters. The formulas are also useful

  2. Linear gate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwono.

    1978-01-01

    A linear gate providing a variable gate duration from 0,40μsec to 4μsec was developed. The electronic circuity consists of a linear circuit and an enable circuit. The input signal can be either unipolar or bipolar. If the input signal is bipolar, the negative portion will be filtered. The operation of the linear gate is controlled by the application of a positive enable pulse. (author)

  3. Linear Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vretenar, M

    2014-01-01

    The main features of radio-frequency linear accelerators are introduced, reviewing the different types of accelerating structures and presenting the main characteristics aspects of linac beam dynamics

  4. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Said-Houari, Belkacem

    2017-01-01

    This self-contained, clearly written textbook on linear algebra is easily accessible for students. It begins with the simple linear equation and generalizes several notions from this equation for the system of linear equations and introduces the main ideas using matrices. It then offers a detailed chapter on determinants and introduces the main ideas with detailed proofs. The third chapter introduces the Euclidean spaces using very simple geometric ideas and discusses various major inequalities and identities. These ideas offer a solid basis for understanding general Hilbert spaces in functional analysis. The following two chapters address general vector spaces, including some rigorous proofs to all the main results, and linear transformation: areas that are ignored or are poorly explained in many textbooks. Chapter 6 introduces the idea of matrices using linear transformation, which is easier to understand than the usual theory of matrices approach. The final two chapters are more advanced, introducing t...

  5. Linearizing W-algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivonos, S.O.; Sorin, A.S.

    1994-06-01

    We show that the Zamolodchikov's and Polyakov-Bershadsky nonlinear algebras W 3 and W (2) 3 can be embedded as subalgebras into some linear algebras with finite set of currents. Using these linear algebras we find new field realizations of W (2) 3 and W 3 which could be a starting point for constructing new versions of W-string theories. We also reveal a number of hidden relationships between W 3 and W (2) 3 . We conjecture that similar linear algebras can exist for other W-algebra as well. (author). 10 refs

  6. A Constitutive Relationship for Gravelly Soil Considering Fine Particle Suffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuning; Chen, Yulong

    2017-10-23

    Suffusion erosion may occur in sandy gravel dam foundations that use suspended cutoff walls. This erosion causes a loss of fine particles, degrades the soil strength and deformation moduli, and adversely impacts the cutoff walls of the dam foundation, as well as the overlying dam body. A comprehensive evaluation of these effects requires models that quantitatively describe the effects of fine particle losses on the stress-strain relationships of sandy gravels. In this work, we propose an experimental scheme for studying these types of models, and then perform triaxial and confined compression tests to determine the effects of particle losses on the stress-strain relationships. Considering the Duncan-Chang E-B model, quantitative expressions describing the relationship between the parameters of the model and the particle losses were derived. The results show that particle losses did not alter the qualitative stress-strain characteristics of the soils; however, the soil strength and deformation moduli were degraded. By establishing the relationship between the parameters of the model and the losses, the same model can then be used to describe the relationship between sandy gravels and erosion levels that vary in both time and space.

  7. A Constitutive Relationship for Gravelly Soil Considering Fine Particle Suffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuning Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Suffusion erosion may occur in sandy gravel dam foundations that use suspended cutoff walls. This erosion causes a loss of fine particles, degrades the soil strength and deformation moduli, and adversely impacts the cutoff walls of the dam foundation, as well as the overlying dam body. A comprehensive evaluation of these effects requires models that quantitatively describe the effects of fine particle losses on the stress-strain relationships of sandy gravels. In this work, we propose an experimental scheme for studying these types of models, and then perform triaxial and confined compression tests to determine the effects of particle losses on the stress-strain relationships. Considering the Duncan-Chang E-B model, quantitative expressions describing the relationship between the parameters of the model and the particle losses were derived. The results show that particle losses did not alter the qualitative stress-strain characteristics of the soils; however, the soil strength and deformation moduli were degraded. By establishing the relationship between the parameters of the model and the losses, the same model can then be used to describe the relationship between sandy gravels and erosion levels that vary in both time and space.

  8. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Stoll, R R

    1968-01-01

    Linear Algebra is intended to be used as a text for a one-semester course in linear algebra at the undergraduate level. The treatment of the subject will be both useful to students of mathematics and those interested primarily in applications of the theory. The major prerequisite for mastering the material is the readiness of the student to reason abstractly. Specifically, this calls for an understanding of the fact that axioms are assumptions and that theorems are logical consequences of one or more axioms. Familiarity with calculus and linear differential equations is required for understand

  9. Analyses of genetic relationships between linear type traits, fat-to-protein ratio, milk production traits, and somatic cell count in first-parity Czech Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zink, V; Zavadilová, L; Lassen, Jan

    2014-01-01

    . The number of animals for each linear type trait was 59 454, except for locomotion, for which 53 424 animals were recorded. The numbers of animals with records of milk production data were 43 992 for milk yield, fat percentage, protein percentage, and fat-to-protein percentage ratio and 43 978 for fat yield...... and protein yield. In total, 27 098 somatic cell score records were available. The strongest positive genetic correlation between production traits and linear type traits was estimated between udder width and fat yield (0.51 ± 0.04), while the strongest negative correlation estimated was between body......Genetic and phenotypic correlations between production traits, selected linear type traits, and somatic cell score were estimated. The results could be useful for breeding programs involving Czech Holstein dairy cows or other populations. A series of bivariate analyses was applied whereby (co...

  10. Linear programming

    CERN Document Server

    Solow, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This text covers the basic theory and computation for a first course in linear programming, including substantial material on mathematical proof techniques and sophisticated computation methods. Includes Appendix on using Excel. 1984 edition.

  11. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Liesen, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    This self-contained textbook takes a matrix-oriented approach to linear algebra and presents a complete theory, including all details and proofs, culminating in the Jordan canonical form and its proof. Throughout the development, the applicability of the results is highlighted. Additionally, the book presents special topics from applied linear algebra including matrix functions, the singular value decomposition, the Kronecker product and linear matrix equations. The matrix-oriented approach to linear algebra leads to a better intuition and a deeper understanding of the abstract concepts, and therefore simplifies their use in real world applications. Some of these applications are presented in detailed examples. In several ‘MATLAB-Minutes’ students can comprehend the concepts and results using computational experiments. Necessary basics for the use of MATLAB are presented in a short introduction. Students can also actively work with the material and practice their mathematical skills in more than 300 exerc...

  12. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Berberian, Sterling K

    2014-01-01

    Introductory treatment covers basic theory of vector spaces and linear maps - dimension, determinants, eigenvalues, and eigenvectors - plus more advanced topics such as the study of canonical forms for matrices. 1992 edition.

  13. Linear Models

    CERN Document Server

    Searle, Shayle R

    2012-01-01

    This 1971 classic on linear models is once again available--as a Wiley Classics Library Edition. It features material that can be understood by any statistician who understands matrix algebra and basic statistical methods.

  14. LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofilos, N.C.; Polk, I.J.

    1959-02-17

    Improvements in linear particle accelerators are described. A drift tube system for a linear ion accelerator reduces gap capacity between adjacent drift tube ends. This is accomplished by reducing the ratio of the diameter of the drift tube to the diameter of the resonant cavity. Concentration of magnetic field intensity at the longitudinal midpoint of the external sunface of each drift tube is reduced by increasing the external drift tube diameter at the longitudinal center region.

  15. Linear Colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaraz, J.

    2001-01-01

    After several years of study e''+ e''- linear colliders in the TeV range have emerged as the major and optimal high-energy physics projects for the post-LHC era. These notes summarize the present status form the main accelerator and detector features to their physics potential. The LHC era. These notes summarize the present status, from the main accelerator and detector features to their physics potential. The LHC is expected to provide first discoveries in the new energy domain, whereas an e''+ e''- linear collider in the 500 GeV-1 TeV will be able to complement it to an unprecedented level of precision in any possible areas: Higgs, signals beyond the SM and electroweak measurements. It is evident that the Linear Collider program will constitute a major step in the understanding of the nature of the new physics beyond the Standard Model. (Author) 22 refs

  16. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Edwards, Harold M

    1995-01-01

    In his new undergraduate textbook, Harold M Edwards proposes a radically new and thoroughly algorithmic approach to linear algebra Originally inspired by the constructive philosophy of mathematics championed in the 19th century by Leopold Kronecker, the approach is well suited to students in the computer-dominated late 20th century Each proof is an algorithm described in English that can be translated into the computer language the class is using and put to work solving problems and generating new examples, making the study of linear algebra a truly interactive experience Designed for a one-semester course, this text adopts an algorithmic approach to linear algebra giving the student many examples to work through and copious exercises to test their skills and extend their knowledge of the subject Students at all levels will find much interactive instruction in this text while teachers will find stimulating examples and methods of approach to the subject

  17. Identifying factors related to Achilles tendon stress, strain, and stiffness before and after 6 months of growth in youth 10-14 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Jennifer M; Hawkins, David A

    2012-09-21

    The purposes of this study were (1) determine if youth peak Achilles tendon (AT) strain, peak AT stress, and AT stiffness, measured during an isometric plantar flexion, differed after six months (mos) of growth, and (2) determine if sex, physical activity level (Physical Activity Questionnaire (PAQ-C)), and/or growth rate (GR) were related to these properties. AT stress, strain, and stiffness were quantified in 20 boys (13.47±0.81 years) and 22 girls (11.18±0.82 years) at 2 times (0 and 6 mos). GR (change in height in 6 mos) was not significantly different between boys and girls (3.5±1.4 and 3.4±1.1cm/6 mos respectively). Peak AT strain and stiffness (mean 3.8±0.4% and 128.9±153.6N/mm, respectively) did not differ between testing sessions or sex. Peak AT stress (22.1±2.4 and 24.0±2.1MPa at 0 and 6 mos, respectively) did not differ between sex and increased significantly at 6 mos due to a significant decrease in AT cross-sectional area (40.6±1.3 and 38.1±1.6mm(2) at 0 and 6 mos, respectively) with no significant difference in peak AT force (882.3±93.9 and 900.3± 65.5N at 0 and 6 mos, respectively). Peak AT stress was significantly greater in subjects with greater PAQ-C scores (9.1% increase with 1 unit increase in PAQ-C score) and smaller in subjects with faster GRs (13.8% decrease with 1cm/6 mos increase in GR). These results indicate that of the AT mechanical properties quantified, none differed between sex, and only peak AT stress significantly differed after 6 months and was related to GR and physical activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Correlation and simple linear regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Kelly H; Tuncali, Kemal; Silverman, Stuart G

    2003-06-01

    In this tutorial article, the concepts of correlation and regression are reviewed and demonstrated. The authors review and compare two correlation coefficients, the Pearson correlation coefficient and the Spearman rho, for measuring linear and nonlinear relationships between two continuous variables. In the case of measuring the linear relationship between a predictor and an outcome variable, simple linear regression analysis is conducted. These statistical concepts are illustrated by using a data set from published literature to assess a computed tomography-guided interventional technique. These statistical methods are important for exploring the relationships between variables and can be applied to many radiologic studies.

  19. Linear programming

    CERN Document Server

    Karloff, Howard

    1991-01-01

    To this reviewer’s knowledge, this is the first book accessible to the upper division undergraduate or beginning graduate student that surveys linear programming from the Simplex Method…via the Ellipsoid algorithm to Karmarkar’s algorithm. Moreover, its point of view is algorithmic and thus it provides both a history and a case history of work in complexity theory. The presentation is admirable; Karloff's style is informal (even humorous at times) without sacrificing anything necessary for understanding. Diagrams (including horizontal brackets that group terms) aid in providing clarity. The end-of-chapter notes are helpful...Recommended highly for acquisition, since it is not only a textbook, but can also be used for independent reading and study. —Choice Reviews The reader will be well served by reading the monograph from cover to cover. The author succeeds in providing a concise, readable, understandable introduction to modern linear programming. —Mathematics of Computing This is a textbook intend...

  20. Heterosis Is a Systemic Property Emerging From Non-linear Genotype-Phenotype Relationships: Evidence From in Vitro Genetics and Computer Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie B. Fiévet

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Heterosis, the superiority of hybrids over their parents for quantitative traits, represents a crucial issue in plant and animal breeding as well as evolutionary biology. Heterosis has given rise to countless genetic, genomic and molecular studies, but has rarely been investigated from the point of view of systems biology. We hypothesized that heterosis is an emergent property of living systems resulting from frequent concave relationships between genotypic variables and phenotypes, or between different phenotypic levels. We chose the enzyme-flux relationship as a model of the concave genotype-phenotype (GP relationship, and showed that heterosis can be easily created in the laboratory. First, we reconstituted in vitro the upper part of glycolysis. We simulated genetic variability of enzyme activity by varying enzyme concentrations in test tubes. Mixing the content of “parental” tubes resulted in “hybrids,” whose fluxes were compared to the parental fluxes. Frequent heterotic fluxes were observed, under conditions that were determined analytically and confirmed by computer simulation. Second, to test this model in a more realistic situation, we modeled the glycolysis/fermentation network in yeast by considering one input flux, glucose, and two output fluxes, glycerol and acetaldehyde. We simulated genetic variability by randomly drawing parental enzyme concentrations under various conditions, and computed the parental and hybrid fluxes using a system of differential equations. Again we found that a majority of hybrids exhibited positive heterosis for metabolic fluxes. Cases of negative heterosis were due to local convexity between certain enzyme concentrations and fluxes. In both approaches, heterosis was maximized when the parents were phenotypically close and when the distributions of parental enzyme concentrations were contrasted and constrained. These conclusions are not restricted to metabolic systems: they only depend on the

  1. The linear relationship between the Vulnerable Elders Survey-13 score and mortality in an Asian population of community-dwelling older persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jye; Lin, Wender; Chang, Ling-Hui

    2018-01-01

    The Vulnerable Elders Survey-13 (VES-13) has been used as a screening tool to identify vulnerable community-dwelling older persons for more in-depth assessment and targeted interventions. Although many studies supported its use in different populations, few have addressed Asian populations. The optimal scaling system for the VES-13 in predicting health outcomes also has not been adequately tested. This study (1) assesses the applicability of the VES-13 to predict the mortality of community-dwelling older persons in Taiwan, (2) identifies the best scaling system for the VES-13 in predicting mortality using generalized additive models (GAMs), and (3) determines whether including covariates, such as socio-demographic factors and common geriatric syndromes, improves model fitting. This retrospective longitudinal cohort study analyzed the data of 2184 community-dwelling persons 65 years old or older from the 2003 wave of the national-wide Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging. Cox proportional hazards models and Generalized Additive Models (GAMs) were used. The VES-13 significantly predicted the mortality of Taiwan's community-dwelling elders. A one-point increase in the VES-13 score raised the risk of death by 26% (hazard ratio, 1.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.21-1.32). The hazard ratio of death increased linearly with each additional VES-13 score point, suggesting that using a continuous scale is appropriate. Inclusion of socio-demographic factors and geriatric syndromes improved the model-fitting. The VES-13 is appropriate for an Asian population. VES-13 scores linearly predict the mortality of this population. Adjusting the weighting of the physical activity items may improve the performance of the VES-13. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Multiple linear regression approach for the analysis of the relationships between joints mobility and regional pressure-based parameters in the normal-arched foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravaggi, Paolo; Leardini, Alberto; Giacomozzi, Claudia

    2016-10-03

    Plantar load can be considered as a measure of the foot ability to transmit forces at the foot/ground, or foot/footwear interface during ambulatory activities via the lower limb kinematic chain. While morphological and functional measures have been shown to be correlated with plantar load, no exhaustive data are currently available on the possible relationships between range of motion of foot joints and plantar load regional parameters. Joints' kinematics from a validated multi-segmental foot model were recorded together with plantar pressure parameters in 21 normal-arched healthy subjects during three barefoot walking trials. Plantar pressure maps were divided into six anatomically-based regions of interest associated to corresponding foot segments. A stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed to determine the relationships between pressure-based parameters, joints range of motion and normalized walking speed (speed/subject height). Sagittal- and frontal-plane joint motion were those most correlated to plantar load. Foot joints' range of motion and normalized walking speed explained between 6% and 43% of the model variance (adjusted R 2 ) for pressure-based parameters. In general, those joints' presenting lower mobility during stance were associated to lower vertical force at forefoot and to larger mean and peak pressure at hindfoot and forefoot. Normalized walking speed was always positively correlated to mean and peak pressure at hindfoot and forefoot. While a large variance in plantar pressure data is still not accounted for by the present models, this study provides statistical corroboration of the close relationship between joint mobility and plantar pressure during stance in the normal healthy foot. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Non linear relationship between change in awareness in municipal solid waste management and domestic wastewater management - A case of the Jodipan and Ksatrian village, Malang, East Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakiyya, Nida Maisa; Sarli, Prasanti Widyasih; Soewondo, Prayatni

    2017-11-01

    In developing countries the awareness on the importance of sanitation facilities, whether it is for municipal solid waste or domestic wastewater treatment, is still very low. Jodipan and Ksatrian Village, in Malang, East Java, are two slum areas that have recently been improved visually by using simple colorful paints. The visual improvement was expected to increase the resident's awareness on the importance of keeping the area clean; adjacent to the project, a new municipal waste management system was also put in place, changing the president's behaviour towards municipal solid waste. This study focuses on the relationship between community awareness in municipal solid waste management and domestic wastewater management. The result is expected to be an input for the government to enhance wastewater infrastructure program and its sustainability, related to its awareness on municipal solid waste. A descriptive model through questionnaire to 48 households of Jodipan sub district in Kampung Warna-warni and 69 households of Ksatrian sub district in Kampung 3D by random sampling, with an error of 0.1, was used to conduct this research. A nonlinear relationship between the change in awareness in municipal solid waste management (MSW) and domestic wastewater management was observed, with only 0.1312 of determination coefficient. Weak Spearman correlation coefficient number was found, ranging from 0.284 to 0.39, indicating another parameter turned into a role on affecting the awareness of wastewater. Further study about another parameter (eg. social and economic parameter) intervension on sanitation awareness could be investigated.

  4. Four-dimensional Hooke's law can encompass linear elasticity and inertia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoci, S.; Mihich, L.

    1999-01-01

    The question is examined whether the formally straightforward extension of Hooke's time-honoured stress-strain relation to the four dimensions of special and of general relativity can make physical sense. The four-dimensional Hooke law is found able to account for the inertia of matter; in the flat-space, slow-motion approximation the field equations for the displacement four-vector field ξ i can encompass both linear elasticity and inertia. In this limit one just recovers the equations of motion of the classical theory of elasticity

  5. A linear relationship between crystal size and fragment binding time observed crystallographically: implications for fragment library screening using acoustic droplet ejection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystal Cole

    Full Text Available High throughput screening technologies such as acoustic droplet ejection (ADE greatly increase the rate at which X-ray diffraction data can be acquired from crystals. One promising high throughput screening application of ADE is to rapidly combine protein crystals with fragment libraries. In this approach, each fragment soaks into a protein crystal either directly on data collection media or on a moving conveyor belt which then delivers the crystals to the X-ray beam. By simultaneously handling multiple crystals combined with fragment specimens, these techniques relax the automounter duty-cycle bottleneck that currently prevents optimal exploitation of third generation synchrotrons. Two factors limit the speed and scope of projects that are suitable for fragment screening using techniques such as ADE. Firstly, in applications where the high throughput screening apparatus is located inside the X-ray station (such as the conveyor belt system described above, the speed of data acquisition is limited by the time required for each fragment to soak into its protein crystal. Secondly, in applications where crystals are combined with fragments directly on data acquisition media (including both of the ADE methods described above, the maximum time that fragments have to soak into crystals is limited by evaporative dehydration of the protein crystals during the fragment soak. Here we demonstrate that both of these problems can be minimized by using small crystals, because the soak time required for a fragment hit to attain high occupancy depends approximately linearly on crystal size.

  6. Experimental Effects and Individual Differences in Linear Mixed Models: Estimating the Relationship between Spatial, Object, and Attraction Effects in Visual Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliegl, Reinhold; Wei, Ping; Dambacher, Michael; Yan, Ming; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2011-01-01

    Linear mixed models (LMMs) provide a still underused methodological perspective on combining experimental and individual-differences research. Here we illustrate this approach with two-rectangle cueing in visual attention (Egly et al., 1994). We replicated previous experimental cue-validity effects relating to a spatial shift of attention within an object (spatial effect), to attention switch between objects (object effect), and to the attraction of attention toward the display centroid (attraction effect), also taking into account the design-inherent imbalance of valid and other trials. We simultaneously estimated variance/covariance components of subject-related random effects for these spatial, object, and attraction effects in addition to their mean reaction times (RTs). The spatial effect showed a strong positive correlation with mean RT and a strong negative correlation with the attraction effect. The analysis of individual differences suggests that slow subjects engage attention more strongly at the cued location than fast subjects. We compare this joint LMM analysis of experimental effects and associated subject-related variances and correlations with two frequently used alternative statistical procedures. PMID:21833292

  7. Making sense of enthalpy of vaporization trends for ionic liquids: new experimental and simulation data show a simple linear relationship and help reconcile previous data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verevkin, Sergey P; Zaitsau, Dzmitry H; Emel'yanenko, Vladimir N; Yermalayeu, Andrei V; Schick, Christoph; Liu, Hongjun; Maginn, Edward J; Bulut, Safak; Krossing, Ingo; Kalb, Roland

    2013-05-30

    Vaporization enthalpy of an ionic liquid (IL) is a key physical property for applications of ILs as thermofluids and also is useful in developing liquid state theories and validating intermolecular potential functions used in molecular modeling of these liquids. Compilation of the data for a homologous series of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethane-sulfonyl)imide ([C(n)mim][NTf2]) ILs has revealed an embarrassing disarray of literature results. New experimental data, based on the concurring results from quartz crystal microbalance, thermogravimetric analyses, and molecular dynamics simulation have revealed a clear linear dependence of IL vaporization enthalpies on the chain length of the alkyl group on the cation. Ambiguity of the procedure for extrapolation of vaporization enthalpies to the reference temperature 298 K was found to be a major source of the discrepancies among previous data sets. Two simple methods for temperature adjustment of vaporization enthalpies have been suggested. Resulting vaporization enthalpies obey group additivity, although the values of the additivity parameters for ILs are different from those for molecular compounds.

  8. Reduction of Linear Programming to Linear Approximation

    OpenAIRE

    Vaserstein, Leonid N.

    2006-01-01

    It is well known that every Chebyshev linear approximation problem can be reduced to a linear program. In this paper we show that conversely every linear program can be reduced to a Chebyshev linear approximation problem.

  9. Advanced statistics: linear regression, part I: simple linear regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marill, Keith A

    2004-01-01

    Simple linear regression is a mathematical technique used to model the relationship between a single independent predictor variable and a single dependent outcome variable. In this, the first of a two-part series exploring concepts in linear regression analysis, the four fundamental assumptions and the mechanics of simple linear regression are reviewed. The most common technique used to derive the regression line, the method of least squares, is described. The reader will be acquainted with other important concepts in simple linear regression, including: variable transformations, dummy variables, relationship to inference testing, and leverage. Simplified clinical examples with small datasets and graphic models are used to illustrate the points. This will provide a foundation for the second article in this series: a discussion of multiple linear regression, in which there are multiple predictor variables.

  10. Optimization of the time series NDVI-rainfall relationship using linear mixed-effects modeling for the anti-desertification area in the Beijing and Tianjin sandstorm source region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Sun, Tao; Fu, Anmin; Xu, Hao; Wang, Xinjie

    2018-05-01

    Degradation in drylands is a critically important global issue that threatens ecosystem and environmental in many ways. Researchers have tried to use remote sensing data and meteorological data to perform residual trend analysis and identify human-induced vegetation changes. However, complex interactions between vegetation and climate, soil units and topography have not yet been considered. Data used in the study included annual accumulated Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 250 m normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from 2002 to 2013, accumulated rainfall from September to August, digital elevation model (DEM) and soil units. This paper presents linear mixed-effect (LME) modeling methods for the NDVI-rainfall relationship. We developed linear mixed-effects models that considered the random effects of sample points nested in soil units for nested two-level modeling and single-level modeling of soil units and sample points, respectively. Additionally, three functions, including the exponential function (exp), the power function (power), and the constant plus power function (CPP), were tested to remove heterogeneity, and an additional three correlation structures, including the first-order autoregressive structure [AR(1)], a combination of first-order autoregressive and moving average structures [ARMA(1,1)] and the compound symmetry structure (CS), were used to address the spatiotemporal correlations. It was concluded that the nested two-level model considering both heteroscedasticity with (CPP) and spatiotemporal correlation with [ARMA(1,1)] showed the best performance (AMR = 0.1881, RMSE = 0.2576, adj- R 2 = 0.9593). Variations between soil units and sample points that may have an effect on the NDVI-rainfall relationship should be included in model structures, and linear mixed-effects modeling achieves this in an effective and accurate way.

  11. Relationship between neighbourhood socioeconomic position and neighbourhood public green space availability: An environmental inequality analysis in a large German city applying generalized linear models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüle, Steffen Andreas; Gabriel, Katharina M A; Bolte, Gabriele

    2017-06-01

    The environmental justice framework states that besides environmental burdens also resources may be social unequally distributed both on the individual and on the neighbourhood level. This ecological study investigated whether neighbourhood socioeconomic position (SEP) was associated with neighbourhood public green space availability in a large German city with more than 1 million inhabitants. Two different measures were defined for green space availability. Firstly, percentage of green space within neighbourhoods was calculated with the additional consideration of various buffers around the boundaries. Secondly, percentage of green space was calculated based on various radii around the neighbourhood centroid. An index of neighbourhood SEP was calculated with principal component analysis. Log-gamma regression from the group of generalized linear models was applied in order to consider the non-normal distribution of the response variable. All models were adjusted for population density. Low neighbourhood SEP was associated with decreasing neighbourhood green space availability including 200m up to 1000m buffers around the neighbourhood boundaries. Low neighbourhood SEP was also associated with decreasing green space availability based on catchment areas measured from neighbourhood centroids with different radii (1000m up to 3000 m). With an increasing radius the strength of the associations decreased. Social unequally distributed green space may amplify environmental health inequalities in an urban context. Thus, the identification of vulnerable neighbourhoods and population groups plays an important role for epidemiological research and healthy city planning. As a methodical aspect, log-gamma regression offers an adequate parametric modelling strategy for positively distributed environmental variables. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Use of linear free energy relationship to predict Gibbs free energies of formation of zirconolite phases (MZrTi2O7 and MHfTi2O7)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, H.

    1999-01-01

    In this letter, the Sverjensky-Molling equation derived from a linear free energy relationship is used to calculate the Gibbs free energies of formation of zirconolite crystalline phases (MZrTi 2 O 7 and MHfTi 2 O 7 ) from the known thermodynamic properties of the corresponding aqueous divalent cations (M 2+ ). Sverjensky-Molling equation is expressed as ΔG 0 f,M v X =a M v X ΔG 0 n,M 2+ +b M v X +β M v X r M 2+ , where the coefficients a M v X , b M v X , and β M v X characterize a particular structural family of M v X, r M 2+ is the ionic radius of M 2+ cation, ΔG f,M v X 0 is the standard Gibbs free energy of formation of M v X, and ΔG 0 n,M 2+ is the standard non-solvation energy of cation M 2+ . This relationship can be used to predict the Gibbs free energies of formation of various fictive phases (such as BaZrTi 2 O 7 , SrZrTi 2 O 7 , PbZrTi 2 O 7 , etc.) that may form solid solution with CaZrTi 2 O 7 in actual Synroc-based nuclear waste forms. Based on obtained linear free energy relationships, it is predicted that large cations (e.g., Ba and Ra) prefer to be in perovskite structure, and small cations (e.g., Ca, Zn, and Cd) prefer to be in zirconolite structure. (orig.)

  13. linear-quadratic-linear model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanwiwat Jaikuna

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To develop an in-house software program that is able to calculate and generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram by physical dose conversion using the linear-quadratic-linear (LQL model. Material and methods : The Isobio software was developed using MATLAB version 2014b to calculate and generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histograms. The physical dose from each voxel in treatment planning was extracted through Computational Environment for Radiotherapy Research (CERR, and the accuracy was verified by the differentiation between the dose volume histogram from CERR and the treatment planning system. An equivalent dose in 2 Gy fraction (EQD2 was calculated using biological effective dose (BED based on the LQL model. The software calculation and the manual calculation were compared for EQD2 verification with pair t-test statistical analysis using IBM SPSS Statistics version 22 (64-bit. Results: Two and three-dimensional biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram were displayed correctly by the Isobio software. Different physical doses were found between CERR and treatment planning system (TPS in Oncentra, with 3.33% in high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV determined by D90%, 0.56% in the bladder, 1.74% in the rectum when determined by D2cc, and less than 1% in Pinnacle. The difference in the EQD2 between the software calculation and the manual calculation was not significantly different with 0.00% at p-values 0.820, 0.095, and 0.593 for external beam radiation therapy (EBRT and 0.240, 0.320, and 0.849 for brachytherapy (BT in HR-CTV, bladder, and rectum, respectively. Conclusions : The Isobio software is a feasible tool to generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram for treatment plan evaluation in both EBRT and BT.

  14. Distributed lags time series analysis versus linear correlation analysis (Pearson's r) in identifying the relationship between antipseudomonal antibiotic consumption and the susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates in a single Intensive Care Unit of a tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdeljić, Viktorija; Francetić, Igor; Bošnjak, Zrinka; Budimir, Ana; Kalenić, Smilja; Bielen, Luka; Makar-Aušperger, Ksenija; Likić, Robert

    2011-05-01

    The relationship between antibiotic consumption and selection of resistant strains has been studied mainly by employing conventional statistical methods. A time delay in effect must be anticipated and this has rarely been taken into account in previous studies. Therefore, distributed lags time series analysis and simple linear correlation were compared in their ability to evaluate this relationship. Data on monthly antibiotic consumption for ciprofloxacin, piperacillin/tazobactam, carbapenems and cefepime as well as Pseudomonas aeruginosa susceptibility were retrospectively collected for the period April 2006 to July 2007. Using distributed lags analysis, a significant temporal relationship was identified between ciprofloxacin, meropenem and cefepime consumption and the resistance rates of P. aeruginosa isolates to these antibiotics. This effect was lagged for ciprofloxacin and cefepime [1 month (R=0.827, P=0.039) and 2 months (R=0.962, P=0.001), respectively] and was simultaneous for meropenem (lag 0, R=0.876, P=0.002). Furthermore, a significant concomitant effect of meropenem consumption on the appearance of multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa strains (resistant to three or more representatives of classes of antibiotics) was identified (lag 0, R=0.992, PPearson's correlation coefficient. Correlation coefficient analysis was not able to identify relationships between antibiotic consumption and bacterial resistance when the effect was delayed. These results indicate that the use of diverse statistical methods can yield significantly different results, thus leading to the introduction of possibly inappropriate infection control measures. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  15. The development of a non-linear autoregressive model with exogenous input (NARX) to model climate-water clarity relationships: reconstructing a historical water clarity index for the coastal waters of the southeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cameron C.; Sheridan, Scott C.; Barnes, Brian B.; Hu, Chuanmin; Pirhalla, Douglas E.; Ransibrahmanakul, Varis; Shein, Karsten

    2017-10-01

    The coastal waters of the southeastern USA contain important protected habitats and natural resources that are vulnerable to climate variability and singular weather events. Water clarity, strongly affected by atmospheric events, is linked to substantial environmental impacts throughout the region. To assess this relationship over the long-term, this study uses an artificial neural network-based time series modeling technique known as non-linear autoregressive models with exogenous input (NARX models) to explore the relationship between climate and a water clarity index (KDI) in this area and to reconstruct this index over a 66-year period. Results show that synoptic-scale circulation patterns, weather types, and precipitation all play roles in impacting water clarity to varying degrees in each region of the larger domain. In particular, turbid water is associated with transitional weather and cyclonic circulation in much of the study region. Overall, NARX model performance also varies—regionally, seasonally and interannually—with wintertime estimates of KDI along the West Florida Shelf correlating to the actual KDI at r > 0.70. Periods of extreme (high) KDI in this area coincide with notable El Niño events. An upward trend in extreme KDI events from 1948 to 2013 is also present across much of the Florida Gulf coast.

  16. THE STRESS-STRAIN STATE OF AN INFINITELY LONG ELASTIC ARRAYS OF DIFFERENT WIDTHS AND LIMITED THICKNESS ON THE HARD GROUND WHEN THEY HAVE FLAT DEFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Badalakha

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of solving several problems of a flat deformation of elastic infinitely long massifs of different width and limited thickness. Various cases of conditions at the massif/base contact. The relationships between stressed and strained states previously suggested by the author, which differ from the generalized Hooke’s law, are used in the solutions.

  17. Linear free energy relationships in glass corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrajano, T.A. Jr.; Bates, J.K.; Bohlke, J.K.

    1988-01-01

    Various theoretical models that have been proposed to correlate glass durability to their composition for a wide variety of silicate, borosilicate, and aluminosilicate glasses are examined. Comparisons are made between the predictions of these models and those of an empirical formulation extracted from existing data in the present work. The empirical approach provides independent confirmation of the relative accuracy of the silica release rate predictions of the different theoretical models in static leaching systems. Extension of the empirical approach used in this work are discussed. 23 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  18. Integrodifferential relations in linear elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Kostin, Georgy V

    2012-01-01

    This work treats the elasticity of deformed bodies, including the resulting interior stresses and displacements.It also takes into account that some of constitutive relations can be considered in a weak form. To discuss this problem properly, the method of integrodifferential relations is used, and an advanced numerical technique for stress-strain analysis is presented and evaluated using various discretization techniques. The methods presented in this book are of importance for almost all elasticity problems in materials science and mechanical engineering.

  19. Linear Algebra and Smarandache Linear Algebra

    OpenAIRE

    Vasantha, Kandasamy

    2003-01-01

    The present book, on Smarandache linear algebra, not only studies the Smarandache analogues of linear algebra and its applications, it also aims to bridge the need for new research topics pertaining to linear algebra, purely in the algebraic sense. We have introduced Smarandache semilinear algebra, Smarandache bilinear algebra and Smarandache anti-linear algebra and their fuzzy equivalents. Moreover, in this book, we have brought out the study of linear algebra and vector spaces over finite p...

  20. Chemical composition of the essential oils of Citrus sinensis cv. valencia and a quantitative structure-retention relationship study for the prediction of retention indices by multiple linear regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larijani Kambiz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the volatile fraction obtained by head-space solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME, single drop microextraction (SDME and the essential oil obtained by cold-press from the peels of C. sinensis cv. valencia were analyzed employing gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The main components were limonene (61.34 %, 68.27 %, 90.50 %, myrcene (17.55 %, 12.35 %, 2.50 %, sabinene (6.50 %, 7.62 %, 0.5 % and α-pinene (0 %, 6.65 %, 1.4 % respectively obtained by HS-SPME, SDME and cold-press. Then a quantitative structure-retention relationship (QSRR study for the prediction of retention indices (RI of the compounds was developed by application of structural descriptors and the multiple linear regression (MLR method. Principal components analysis was used to select the training set. A simple model with low standard errors and high correlation coefficients was obtained. The results illustrated that linear techniques such as MLR combined with a successful variable selection procedure are capable of generating an efficient QSRR model for prediction of the retention indices of different compounds. This model, with high statistical significance (R2 train = 0.983, R2 test = 0.970, Q2 LOO = 0.962, Q2 LGO = 0.936, REP(% = 3.00, could be used adequately for the prediction and description of the retention indices of the volatile compounds.

  1. A numerical study of stress/strain response to oil development in reservoir rocks-a case study in Xingshugang area of Daqing Anticline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zian; Ma Teng; Yi Jin; Zhu Jiangjian; Lin Ge; Zhang Lu; Zhu Yan; Sun Yaliang; Zhu Jun

    2010-01-01

    Formation pressure and the underground stress field will be disturbed by high pressure injection and production activities during oilfield development. Such disturbance will induce the deformation of formation rock, sometimes causing formation to slip. As a result, production wells and/or injection wells will encounter sanding, casing deformation, or even casing shear problems. This article introduced a simulation study on formation pressure and the underground stress field variation during injection and production activities in the Xingshugang area of the Daqing Anticline, Songliao Basin, China. The relationships of injection pressure to formation pressure, underground stress field variation, and strain variation were investigated in this paper.

  2. 本土化人格特质与工作绩效的关系:线性与非线性%The Relationships between Indigenous Personality Traits and Job Performance: Linear and Nonlinear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张珊珊; 周明洁; 陈爽; 张建新

    2012-01-01

    Chinese personality traits have unique differences from other cultures due to China's special geography and collectivist cultural background. Therefore, the philosophy of localization was accepted and advocated by more and more Chinese psychologists. Meanwhile, the nonlinear relationships between personality traits and job performance have been found in some studies. These results transformed the traditional top - down strategy into double strategies for the applications of personality tests in the psychology of personnel management. However, there was no research to combine the linear and nonlinear models to examine the relationships between indigenous personality traits and job performance in the Chinese work setting. In the current study, we explored the linear and/or nonlinear reationships between indigenous personality traits and job performance. The participants were 182 service employees from several service industries in Beijing, and the immediate supervisors of the respondents provided ratings of their job performance and returned independently to the interviewers. The ratings of job performance were self - compiled based on job analysis and in - depth interview. Confirmatory factor analysis found that the one - factor performance model had a better fit (χ2 = 27.79, df = 8, CFI = . 95, NF1 = . 93, RMSEA = . 07), and the coefficient alpha was . 85. Meanwhile, the nine subscales from CPAI -2 were selected to assess the indigenous personality traits: face (FAC), family orientation (FAM), defensiveness (DEF), graciousness vs. meanness (G_M), veraciousness vs. slickness (V_S), traditionalism vs. modernity (T_M), renqing (REN), harmony (HAR) and thrift vs. extravagance (T_E). The mean Cronbach's coefficient for the entire set of personality scales was . 70 in the representative normal sample in Chinese mainland and Hong Kong. The data were analyzed with SPSS 15.0, and the main statistical methods were correlation analysis and hierarchical polynomial regression

  3. Normalized Rotational Multiple Yield Surface Framework (NRMYSF) stress-strain curve prediction method based on small strain triaxial test data on undisturbed Auckland residual clay soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, M. J. Md; Ibrahim, A.; Rahman, A. S. A.

    2018-04-01

    Small strain triaxial test measurement is considered to be significantly accurate compared to the external strain measurement using conventional method due to systematic errors normally associated with the test. Three submersible miniature linear variable differential transducer (LVDT) mounted on yokes which clamped directly onto the soil sample at equally 120° from the others. The device setup using 0.4 N resolution load cell and 16 bit AD converter was capable of consistently resolving displacement of less than 1µm and measuring axial strains ranging from less than 0.001% to 2.5%. Further analysis of small strain local measurement data was performed using new Normalized Multiple Yield Surface Framework (NRMYSF) method and compared with existing Rotational Multiple Yield Surface Framework (RMYSF) prediction method. The prediction of shear strength based on combined intrinsic curvilinear shear strength envelope using small strain triaxial test data confirmed the significant improvement and reliability of the measurement and analysis methods. Moreover, the NRMYSF method shows an excellent data prediction and significant improvement toward more reliable prediction of soil strength that can reduce the cost and time of experimental laboratory test.

  4. Linear free energy relationships in heterogeneous catalysis--13. The dehydration of aliphatic alcohols over silica-alumina. [N-butyl alcohol, sec. -butyl or isopropyl alcohol, tert. -butyl alcolol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Take, J; Matsumoto, T; Yoneda, Y

    1978-01-01

    The dehydration of n-butyl alcohol at 120/sup 0/-166/sup 0/C, sec.-butyl or isopropyl alcohol at 100/sup 0/-145/sup 0/C, and tert.-butyl alcohol at 54/sup 0/-80/sup 0/C, over silica/alumina catalyst was zero order in alcohol at 0.01-0.1 atm, and the activation energies were 35.3, 31.7, 32.0, and 29.9 kcal/mol, respectively. The zero-order rate constants were mainly affected by the activation energies since the preexponential factors varied little except for tert.-butyl alcohol. A linear relationship was found between the activation energy or the logarithm of the zero-order rate constant and the heterolytic bond dissociation energy for the carbon-oxygen bond in alcohols D(R/sup +/OH/sup -/). The activation energy increased and the rate constant decreased with increasing D(R/sup +/OH/sup -/). The results indicate that dehydration is E1 over this catalyst, but a similar correlation was observed based on published data for dehydration over alumina, which follows an E2 mechanism, indicating that heterolytic cleavage of the C-O bond is rate-determining in both mechanisms.

  5. Non-Linear Behaviour Of Gelatin Networks Reveals A Hierarchical Structure

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Zhi; Hemar, Yacine; Hilliou, loic; Gilbert, Elliot P.; McGillivray, Duncan James; Williams, Martin A. K.; Chaieb, Saharoui

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the strain hardening behaviour of various gelatin networks - namely physically-crosslinked gelatin gel, chemically-crosslinked gelatin gels, and a hybrid gels made of a combination of the former two - under large shear deformations using the pre-stress, strain ramp, and large amplitude oscillation shear protocols. Further, the internal structures of physically-crosslinked gelatin gel and chemically-crosslinked gelatin gels were characterized by small angle neutron scattering (SANS) to enable their internal structures to be correlated with their nonlinear rheology. The Kratky plots of SANS data demonstrate the presence of small cross-linked aggregates within the chemically-crosslinked network, whereas in the physically-crosslinked gels a relatively homogeneous structure is observed. Through model fitting to the scattering data, we were able to obtain structural parameters, such as correlation length (ξ), cross-sectional polymer chain radius (Rc), and the fractal dimension (df) of the gel networks. The fractal dimension df obtained from the SANS data of the physically-crosslinked and chemically crosslinked gels is 1.31 and 1.53, respectively. These values are in excellent agreement with the ones obtained from a generalized non-linear elastic theory we used to fit our stress-strain curves. The chemical crosslinking that generates coils and aggregates hinders the free stretching of the triple helices bundles in the physically-crosslinked gels.

  6. Non-Linear Behaviour Of Gelatin Networks Reveals A Hierarchical Structure

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Zhi

    2015-12-14

    We investigate the strain hardening behaviour of various gelatin networks - namely physically-crosslinked gelatin gel, chemically-crosslinked gelatin gels, and a hybrid gels made of a combination of the former two - under large shear deformations using the pre-stress, strain ramp, and large amplitude oscillation shear protocols. Further, the internal structures of physically-crosslinked gelatin gel and chemically-crosslinked gelatin gels were characterized by small angle neutron scattering (SANS) to enable their internal structures to be correlated with their nonlinear rheology. The Kratky plots of SANS data demonstrate the presence of small cross-linked aggregates within the chemically-crosslinked network, whereas in the physically-crosslinked gels a relatively homogeneous structure is observed. Through model fitting to the scattering data, we were able to obtain structural parameters, such as correlation length (ξ), cross-sectional polymer chain radius (Rc), and the fractal dimension (df) of the gel networks. The fractal dimension df obtained from the SANS data of the physically-crosslinked and chemically crosslinked gels is 1.31 and 1.53, respectively. These values are in excellent agreement with the ones obtained from a generalized non-linear elastic theory we used to fit our stress-strain curves. The chemical crosslinking that generates coils and aggregates hinders the free stretching of the triple helices bundles in the physically-crosslinked gels.

  7. Ascent, descent, nullity, defect, and related notions for linear relations in linear spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandovici, Adrian; de Snoo, Henk; Winkler, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    For a linear relation in a linear space the concepts of ascent, descent, nullity, and defect are introduced and studied. It is shown that the results of A.E. Taylor and M.A. Kaashoek concerning the relationship between ascent, descent, nullity, and defect for the case of linear operators remain

  8. Linearly constrained minimax optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kaj; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans

    1978-01-01

    We present an algorithm for nonlinear minimax optimization subject to linear equality and inequality constraints which requires first order partial derivatives. The algorithm is based on successive linear approximations to the functions defining the problem. The resulting linear subproblems...

  9. What can dissaving tell us about catastrophic costs? Linear and logistic regression analysis of the relationship between patient costs and financial coping strategies adopted by tuberculosis patients in Bangladesh, Tanzania and Bangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Jason; Lönnroth, Knut; Laokri, Samia; Squire, Stephen Bertel

    2015-10-22

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major global public health problem which affects poorest individuals the worst. A high proportion of patients incur 'catastrophic costs' which have been shown to result in severe financial hardship and adverse health outcomes. Data on catastrophic cost incidence is not routinely collected, and current definitions of this indicator involve several practical and conceptual barriers to doing so. We analysed data from TB programmes in India (Bangalore), Bangladesh and Tanzania to determine whether dissaving (the sale of assets or uptake of loans) is a useful indicator of financial hardship. Data were obtained from prior studies of TB patient costs in Bangladesh (N = 96), Tanzania (N = 94) and Bangalore (N = 891). These data were analysed using logistic and linear multivariate regression to determine the association between costs (absolute and relative to income) and both the presence of dissaving and the amounts dissaved. After adjusting for covariates such as age, sex and rural/urban location, we found a significant positive association between the occurrence of dissaving and total costs incurred in Tanzania and Bangalore. We further found that, for patients in Bangalore an increase in dissaving of $10 USD was associated with an increase in the cost-income ratio of 0.10 (p costs of $7 USD (p costs that does not require usage of complex patient cost questionnaires. It also offers an informative indicator of financial hardship in its own right, and could therefore play an important role as an indicator to monitor and evaluate the impact of financial protection and service delivery interventions in reducing hardship and facilitating universal health coverage. Further research is required to understand the patterns and types of dissaving that have the strongest relationship with financial hardship and clinical outcomes in order to move toward evidence-based policy making.

  10. Foundations of linear and generalized linear models

    CERN Document Server

    Agresti, Alan

    2015-01-01

    A valuable overview of the most important ideas and results in statistical analysis Written by a highly-experienced author, Foundations of Linear and Generalized Linear Models is a clear and comprehensive guide to the key concepts and results of linear statistical models. The book presents a broad, in-depth overview of the most commonly used statistical models by discussing the theory underlying the models, R software applications, and examples with crafted models to elucidate key ideas and promote practical model building. The book begins by illustrating the fundamentals of linear models,

  11. Multiple dislocation pile-ups in small grains at small strains: implications for the Hall-Petch relationship and backstress screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schouwenaars, R; Jacobo, V H; Ortiz, A

    2014-01-01

    A classic explanation for the Hall-Petch relationship is given by the stress field of a single dislocation pile-up perpendicular to the grain boundary. Similarly, the gradual compensation of the stress fields of pile-ups on both sides of the boundary has been invoked to explain the transitory effects observed in the stress- strain curves of ultrafine grained polycrystals. This paper studies the effects of introducing deviations of the highly simplified geometry mentioned above, using the proper mathematical approximations of linear elastic dislocation theory. Multiple pile-ups invalidate the conclusions drawn from the single pile-up model. Pile-ups in multiple grains are assessed by a highly idealised model of an infinite array of periodical pile-ups. In the latter case, screening is always perfect. By considering the Peach-Köhler force between dislocations mutually disoriented grains, the magnitude of the fluctuations around such ideal case can be estimated. However, using sound probabilistic arguments to calculate the free path for dislocation slip in fine-grained polycrystals, it is found that the amount of dislocations that can be stored in the pile- ups is generally too small to explain the strong grain size effects observed experimentally

  12. Advanced statistics: linear regression, part II: multiple linear regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marill, Keith A

    2004-01-01

    The applications of simple linear regression in medical research are limited, because in most situations, there are multiple relevant predictor variables. Univariate statistical techniques such as simple linear regression use a single predictor variable, and they often may be mathematically correct but clinically misleading. Multiple linear regression is a mathematical technique used to model the relationship between multiple independent predictor variables and a single dependent outcome variable. It is used in medical research to model observational data, as well as in diagnostic and therapeutic studies in which the outcome is dependent on more than one factor. Although the technique generally is limited to data that can be expressed with a linear function, it benefits from a well-developed mathematical framework that yields unique solutions and exact confidence intervals for regression coefficients. Building on Part I of this series, this article acquaints the reader with some of the important concepts in multiple regression analysis. These include multicollinearity, interaction effects, and an expansion of the discussion of inference testing, leverage, and variable transformations to multivariate models. Examples from the first article in this series are expanded on using a primarily graphic, rather than mathematical, approach. The importance of the relationships among the predictor variables and the dependence of the multivariate model coefficients on the choice of these variables are stressed. Finally, concepts in regression model building are discussed.

  13. PNNL Stress/Strain Correlation for Zircaloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geelhood, Kenneth J.; Beyer, Carl E.; Luscher, Walter G.

    2008-07-18

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked with incorporating cladding mechanical property data into the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) fuel codes, FRAPCON-31 and FRAPTRAN2, by the NRC Office of Nuclear Reactor Research. The objective of that task was to create a mechanical model that can calculate true stress, true strain, and the possible failure of the fuel rod cladding based on uniaxial test data.

  14. Military Wives: Stress, Strain and Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    to 45 be confused with the previously mentioned concept of coping as a process ( cognitive aspect of coping). Social support has been hypothesized to...breast. Knowing that one of the signs of breast cancer is a lump on the breast, the woman perceives this situation as a stressful situation ( cognitive ... aspect of coping). She can take direct action after she’s determined the threat by immediately calling for an appointment with her physician or cope

  15. Linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) and lamellar zirconium phosphate (Zr P) composites: morphology and mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Daniela F.; Mandes, Luis C.; Lino, Adan S.

    2011-01-01

    Composites of linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) and zirconium phosphate (ZrP) were prepared by extrusion in the molten state, containing 2 (w%) of the lamellar filler. The filler was previously synthesized by direct precipitation method and characterized. After processing, the composite and the pure virgin polymer were molded by compression in order to obtain films of 1 mm thick which were characterized by X-ray diffraction at high angle (WAXD), stress-strain mechanical analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The WAXD and SEM analysis showed that there was no intercalation of LLDPE in zirconium phosphate, possibly due to the fact that the layers do not have spacing enough to allow the intercalation of polymer chains in the galleries of the filler and thus allow the exfoliation. (author)

  16. FEAST: a two-dimensional non-linear finite element code for calculating stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tayal, M.

    1986-06-01

    The computer code FEAST calculates stresses, strains, and displacements. The code is two-dimensional. That is, either plane or axisymmetric calculations can be done. The code models elastic, plastic, creep, and thermal strains and stresses. Cracking can also be simulated. The finite element method is used to solve equations describing the following fundamental laws of mechanics: equilibrium; compatibility; constitutive relations; yield criterion; and flow rule. FEAST combines several unique features that permit large time-steps in even severely non-linear situations. The features include a special formulation for permitting many finite elements to simultaneously cross the boundary from elastic to plastic behaviour; accomodation of large drops in yield-strength due to changes in local temperature and a three-step predictor-corrector method for plastic analyses. These features reduce computing costs. Comparisons against twenty analytical solutions and against experimental measurements show that predictions of FEAST are generally accurate to ± 5%

  17. A linear programming manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuey, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    Computer solutions of linear programming problems are outlined. Information covers vector spaces, convex sets, and matrix algebra elements for solving simultaneous linear equations. Dual problems, reduced cost analysis, ranges, and error analysis are illustrated.

  18. Linear shaped charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, David; Stofleth, Jerome H.; Saul, Venner W.

    2017-07-11

    Linear shaped charges are described herein. In a general embodiment, the linear shaped charge has an explosive with an elongated arrowhead-shaped profile. The linear shaped charge also has and an elongated v-shaped liner that is inset into a recess of the explosive. Another linear shaped charge includes an explosive that is shaped as a star-shaped prism. Liners are inset into crevices of the explosive, where the explosive acts as a tamper.

  19. Classifying Linear Canonical Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Lorand, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    In this Master's thesis, we consider the problem of classifying, up to conjugation by linear symplectomorphisms, linear canonical relations (lagrangian correspondences) from a finite-dimensional symplectic vector space to itself. We give an elementary introduction to the theory of linear canonical relations and present partial results toward the classification problem. This exposition should be accessible to undergraduate students with a basic familiarity with linear algebra.

  20. Linear-Algebra Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, C. L.; Krogh, F. T.; Gold, S. S.; Kincaid, D. R.; Sullivan, J.; Williams, E.; Hanson, R. J.; Haskell, K.; Dongarra, J.; Moler, C. B.

    1982-01-01

    The Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS) library is a collection of 38 FORTRAN-callable routines for performing basic operations of numerical linear algebra. BLAS library is portable and efficient source of basic operations for designers of programs involving linear algebriac computations. BLAS library is supplied in portable FORTRAN and Assembler code versions for IBM 370, UNIVAC 1100 and CDC 6000 series computers.

  1. The development and validation of a numerical integration method for non-linear viscoelastic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramo, Nicole L.; Puttlitz, Christian M.

    2018-01-01

    Compelling evidence that many biological soft tissues display both strain- and time-dependent behavior has led to the development of fully non-linear viscoelastic modeling techniques to represent the tissue’s mechanical response under dynamic conditions. Since the current stress state of a viscoelastic material is dependent on all previous loading events, numerical analyses are complicated by the requirement of computing and storing the stress at each step throughout the load history. This requirement quickly becomes computationally expensive, and in some cases intractable, for finite element models. Therefore, we have developed a strain-dependent numerical integration approach for capturing non-linear viscoelasticity that enables calculation of the current stress from a strain-dependent history state variable stored from the preceding time step only, which improves both fitting efficiency and computational tractability. This methodology was validated based on its ability to recover non-linear viscoelastic coefficients from simulated stress-relaxation (six strain levels) and dynamic cyclic (three frequencies) experimental stress-strain data. The model successfully fit each data set with average errors in recovered coefficients of 0.3% for stress-relaxation fits and 0.1% for cyclic. The results support the use of the presented methodology to develop linear or non-linear viscoelastic models from stress-relaxation or cyclic experimental data of biological soft tissues. PMID:29293558

  2. A new analytical method for estimating lumped parameter constants of linear viscoelastic models from strain rate tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, G.; Ahluwalia, A.

    2018-04-01

    We introduce a new function, the apparent elastic modulus strain-rate spectrum, E_{app} ( \\dot{ɛ} ), for the derivation of lumped parameter constants for Generalized Maxwell (GM) linear viscoelastic models from stress-strain data obtained at various compressive strain rates ( \\dot{ɛ}). The E_{app} ( \\dot{ɛ} ) function was derived using the tangent modulus function obtained from the GM model stress-strain response to a constant \\dot{ɛ} input. Material viscoelastic parameters can be rapidly derived by fitting experimental E_{app} data obtained at different strain rates to the E_{app} ( \\dot{ɛ} ) function. This single-curve fitting returns similar viscoelastic constants as the original epsilon dot method based on a multi-curve global fitting procedure with shared parameters. Its low computational cost permits quick and robust identification of viscoelastic constants even when a large number of strain rates or replicates per strain rate are considered. This method is particularly suited for the analysis of bulk compression and nano-indentation data of soft (bio)materials.

  3. Evolution Is Linear: Debunking Life's Little Joke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenner, Ronald A

    2018-01-01

    Linear depictions of the evolutionary process are ubiquitous in popular culture, but linear evolutionary imagery is strongly rejected by scientists who argue that evolution branches. This point is frequently illustrated by saying that we didn't evolve from monkeys, but that we are related to them as collateral relatives. Yet, we did evolve from monkeys, but our monkey ancestors are extinct, not extant. Influential voices, such as the late Stephen Jay Gould, have misled audiences for decades by falsely portraying the linear and branching aspects of evolution to be in conflict, and by failing to distinguish between the legitimate linearity of evolutionary descent, and the branching relationships among collateral relatives that result when lineages of ancestors diverge. The purpose of this article is to correct the widespread misplaced rejection of linear evolutionary imagery, and to re-emphasize the basic truth that the evolutionary process is fundamentally linear. © 2017 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Non linear system become linear system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre Bucur

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper refers to the theory and the practice of the systems regarding non-linear systems and their applications. We aimed the integration of these systems to elaborate their response as well as to highlight some outstanding features.

  5. Linear motor coil assembly and linear motor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    An ironless linear motor (5) comprising a magnet track (53) and a coil assembly (50) operating in cooperation with said magnet track (53) and having a plurality of concentrated multi-turn coils (31 a-f, 41 a-d, 51 a-k), wherein the end windings (31E) of the coils (31 a-f, 41 a-e) are substantially

  6. Quantification of Internal Stress-Strain Fields in Human Tendon: Unraveling the Mechanisms that Underlie Regional Tendon Adaptations and Mal-Adaptations to Mechanical Loading and the Effectiveness of Therapeutic Eccentric Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maganaris, Constantinos N.; Chatzistergos, Panagiotis; Reeves, Neil D.; Narici, Marco V.

    2017-01-01

    of the stress created by the exercise and is not only reliant upon the type of muscle contraction performed. To better understand the micromechanical behavior and regional adaptability/mal-adaptability of tendon tissue it is important to estimate its internal stress-strain fields. Recent relevant advancements in numerical techniques related to tendon loading are discussed. PMID:28293194

  7. Linear collider: a preview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedemann, H.

    1981-11-01

    Since no linear colliders have been built yet it is difficult to know at what energy the linear cost scaling of linear colliders drops below the quadratic scaling of storage rings. There is, however, no doubt that a linear collider facility for a center of mass energy above say 500 GeV is significantly cheaper than an equivalent storage ring. In order to make the linear collider principle feasible at very high energies a number of problems have to be solved. There are two kinds of problems: one which is related to the feasibility of the principle and the other kind of problems is associated with minimizing the cost of constructing and operating such a facility. This lecture series describes the problems and possible solutions. Since the real test of a principle requires the construction of a prototype I will in the last chapter describe the SLC project at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center.

  8. Basic linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Blyth, T S

    2002-01-01

    Basic Linear Algebra is a text for first year students leading from concrete examples to abstract theorems, via tutorial-type exercises. More exercises (of the kind a student may expect in examination papers) are grouped at the end of each section. The book covers the most important basics of any first course on linear algebra, explaining the algebra of matrices with applications to analytic geometry, systems of linear equations, difference equations and complex numbers. Linear equations are treated via Hermite normal forms which provides a successful and concrete explanation of the notion of linear independence. Another important highlight is the connection between linear mappings and matrices leading to the change of basis theorem which opens the door to the notion of similarity. This new and revised edition features additional exercises and coverage of Cramer's rule (omitted from the first edition). However, it is the new, extra chapter on computer assistance that will be of particular interest to readers:...

  9. Linear collider: a preview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedemann, H.

    1981-11-01

    Since no linear colliders have been built yet it is difficult to know at what energy the linear cost scaling of linear colliders drops below the quadratic scaling of storage rings. There is, however, no doubt that a linear collider facility for a center of mass energy above say 500 GeV is significantly cheaper than an equivalent storage ring. In order to make the linear collider principle feasible at very high energies a number of problems have to be solved. There are two kinds of problems: one which is related to the feasibility of the principle and the other kind of problems is associated with minimizing the cost of constructing and operating such a facility. This lecture series describes the problems and possible solutions. Since the real test of a principle requires the construction of a prototype I will in the last chapter describe the SLC project at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center

  10. Matrices and linear transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Cullen, Charles G

    1990-01-01

    ""Comprehensive . . . an excellent introduction to the subject."" - Electronic Engineer's Design Magazine.This introductory textbook, aimed at sophomore- and junior-level undergraduates in mathematics, engineering, and the physical sciences, offers a smooth, in-depth treatment of linear algebra and matrix theory. The major objects of study are matrices over an arbitrary field. Contents include Matrices and Linear Systems; Vector Spaces; Determinants; Linear Transformations; Similarity: Part I and Part II; Polynomials and Polynomial Matrices; Matrix Analysis; and Numerical Methods. The first

  11. Efficient Non Linear Loudspeakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bo R.; Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2006-01-01

    Loudspeakers have traditionally been designed to be as linear as possible. However, as techniques for compensating non linearities are emerging, it becomes possible to use other design criteria. This paper present and examines a new idea for improving the efficiency of loudspeakers at high levels...... by changing the voice coil layout. This deliberate non-linear design has the benefit that a smaller amplifier can be used, which has the benefit of reducing system cost as well as reducing power consumption....

  12. Linear integrated circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Carr, Joseph

    1996-01-01

    The linear IC market is large and growing, as is the demand for well trained technicians and engineers who understand how these devices work and how to apply them. Linear Integrated Circuits provides in-depth coverage of the devices and their operation, but not at the expense of practical applications in which linear devices figure prominently. This book is written for a wide readership from FE and first degree students, to hobbyists and professionals.Chapter 1 offers a general introduction that will provide students with the foundations of linear IC technology. From chapter 2 onwa

  13. Fault tolerant linear actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesar, Delbert

    2004-09-14

    In varying embodiments, the fault tolerant linear actuator of the present invention is a new and improved linear actuator with fault tolerance and positional control that may incorporate velocity summing, force summing, or a combination of the two. In one embodiment, the invention offers a velocity summing arrangement with a differential gear between two prime movers driving a cage, which then drives a linear spindle screw transmission. Other embodiments feature two prime movers driving separate linear spindle screw transmissions, one internal and one external, in a totally concentric and compact integrated module.

  14. Superconducting linear accelerator cryostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Elkonin, B.V.; Sokolowski, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    A large vertical cryostat for a superconducting linear accelerator using quarter wave resonators has been developed. The essential technical details, operational experience and performance are described. (author)

  15. Linearity enigmas in ecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patten, B.C.

    1983-04-01

    Two issues concerning linearity or nonlinearity of natural systems are considered. Each is related to one of the two alternative defining properties of linear systems, superposition and decomposition. Superposition exists when a linear combination of inputs to a system results in the same linear combination of outputs that individually correspond to the original inputs. To demonstrate this property it is necessary that all initial states and inputs of the system which impinge on the output in question be included in the linear combination manipulation. As this is difficult or impossible to do with real systems of any complexity, nature appears nonlinear even though it may be linear. A linear system that displays nonlinear behavior for this reason is termed pseudononlinear. The decomposition property exists when the dynamic response of a system can be partitioned into an input-free portion due to state plus a state-free portion due to input. This is a characteristic of all linear systems, but not of nonlinear systems. Without the decomposition property, it is not possible to distinguish which portions of a system's behavior are due to innate characteristics (self) vs. outside conditions (environment), which is an important class of questions in biology and ecology. Some philosophical aspects of these findings are then considered. It is suggested that those ecologists who hold to the view that organisms and their environments are separate entities are in effect embracing a linear view of nature, even though their belief systems and mathematical models tend to be nonlinear. On the other hand, those who consider that organism-environment complex forms a single inseparable unit are implictly involved in non-linear thought, which may be in conflict with the linear modes and models that some of them use. The need to rectify these ambivalences on the part of both groups is indicated.

  16. Linear causal modeling with structural equations

    CERN Document Server

    Mulaik, Stanley A

    2009-01-01

    Emphasizing causation as a functional relationship between variables that describe objects, Linear Causal Modeling with Structural Equations integrates a general philosophical theory of causation with structural equation modeling (SEM) that concerns the special case of linear causal relations. In addition to describing how the functional relation concept may be generalized to treat probabilistic causation, the book reviews historical treatments of causation and explores recent developments in experimental psychology on studies of the perception of causation. It looks at how to perceive causal

  17. Linear colliders - prospects 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, J.

    1985-06-01

    We discuss the scaling laws of linear colliders and their consequences for accelerator design. We then report on the SLAC Linear Collider project and comment on experience gained on that project and its application to future colliders. 9 refs., 2 figs

  18. The SLAC linear collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.

    1985-01-01

    A report is given on the goals and progress of the SLAC Linear Collider. The author discusses the status of the machine and the detectors and give an overview of the physics which can be done at this new facility. He also gives some ideas on how (and why) large linear colliders of the future should be built

  19. Linear Programming (LP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogner, H.H.

    1989-01-01

    The submitted sections on linear programming are extracted from 'Theorie und Technik der Planung' (1978) by W. Blaas and P. Henseler and reformulated for presentation at the Workshop. They consider a brief introduction to the theory of linear programming and to some essential aspects of the SIMPLEX solution algorithm for the purposes of economic planning processes. 1 fig

  20. Racetrack linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, C.H.; Wilton, M.S. de.

    1979-01-01

    An improved recirculating electron beam linear accelerator of the racetrack type is described. The system comprises a beam path of four straight legs with four Pretzel bending magnets at the end of each leg to direct the beam into the next leg of the beam path. At least one of the beam path legs includes a linear accelerator. (UK)

  1. Semidefinite linear complementarity problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckhardt, U.

    1978-04-01

    Semidefinite linear complementarity problems arise by discretization of variational inequalities describing e.g. elastic contact problems, free boundary value problems etc. In the present paper linear complementarity problems are introduced and the theory as well as the numerical treatment of them are described. In the special case of semidefinite linear complementarity problems a numerical method is presented which combines the advantages of elimination and iteration methods without suffering from their drawbacks. This new method has very attractive properties since it has a high degree of invariance with respect to the representation of the set of all feasible solutions of a linear complementarity problem by linear inequalities. By means of some practical applications the properties of the new method are demonstrated. (orig.) [de

  2. Linear algebra done right

    CERN Document Server

    Axler, Sheldon

    2015-01-01

    This best-selling textbook for a second course in linear algebra is aimed at undergrad math majors and graduate students. The novel approach taken here banishes determinants to the end of the book. The text focuses on the central goal of linear algebra: understanding the structure of linear operators on finite-dimensional vector spaces. The author has taken unusual care to motivate concepts and to simplify proofs. A variety of interesting exercises in each chapter helps students understand and manipulate the objects of linear algebra. The third edition contains major improvements and revisions throughout the book. More than 300 new exercises have been added since the previous edition. Many new examples have been added to illustrate the key ideas of linear algebra. New topics covered in the book include product spaces, quotient spaces, and dual spaces. Beautiful new formatting creates pages with an unusually pleasant appearance in both print and electronic versions. No prerequisites are assumed other than the ...

  3. Handbook on linear motor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-10-01

    This book guides the application for Linear motor. It lists classification and speciality of Linear Motor, terms of linear-induction motor, principle of the Motor, types on one-side linear-induction motor, bilateral linear-induction motor, linear-DC Motor on basic of the motor, linear-DC Motor for moving-coil type, linear-DC motor for permanent-magnet moving type, linear-DC motor for electricity non-utility type, linear-pulse motor for variable motor, linear-pulse motor for permanent magneto type, linear-vibration actuator, linear-vibration actuator for moving-coil type, linear synchronous motor, linear electromagnetic motor, linear electromagnetic solenoid, technical organization and magnetic levitation and linear motor and sensor.

  4. Linear ubiquitination in immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yutaka; Taraborrelli, Lucia; Walczak, Henning

    2015-07-01

    Linear ubiquitination is a post-translational protein modification recently discovered to be crucial for innate and adaptive immune signaling. The function of linear ubiquitin chains is regulated at multiple levels: generation, recognition, and removal. These chains are generated by the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC), the only known ubiquitin E3 capable of forming the linear ubiquitin linkage de novo. LUBAC is not only relevant for activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in various signaling pathways, but importantly, it also regulates cell death downstream of immune receptors capable of inducing this response. Recognition of the linear ubiquitin linkage is specifically mediated by certain ubiquitin receptors, which is crucial for translation into the intended signaling outputs. LUBAC deficiency results in attenuated gene activation and increased cell death, causing pathologic conditions in both, mice, and humans. Removal of ubiquitin chains is mediated by deubiquitinases (DUBs). Two of them, OTULIN and CYLD, are constitutively associated with LUBAC. Here, we review the current knowledge on linear ubiquitination in immune signaling pathways and the biochemical mechanisms as to how linear polyubiquitin exerts its functions distinctly from those of other ubiquitin linkage types. © 2015 The Authors. Immunological Reviews Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Matrices and linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Hans

    1989-01-01

    Linear algebra is one of the central disciplines in mathematics. A student of pure mathematics must know linear algebra if he is to continue with modern algebra or functional analysis. Much of the mathematics now taught to engineers and physicists requires it.This well-known and highly regarded text makes the subject accessible to undergraduates with little mathematical experience. Written mainly for students in physics, engineering, economics, and other fields outside mathematics, the book gives the theory of matrices and applications to systems of linear equations, as well as many related t

  6. Linearity in Process Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Mikkel; Winskel, Glynn

    2002-01-01

    The meaning and mathematical consequences of linearity (managing without a presumed ability to copy) are studied for a path-based model of processes which is also a model of affine-linear logic. This connection yields an affine-linear language for processes, automatically respecting open......-map bisimulation, in which a range of process operations can be expressed. An operational semantics is provided for the tensor fragment of the language. Different ways to make assemblies of processes lead to different choices of exponential, some of which respect bisimulation....

  7. Elements of linear space

    CERN Document Server

    Amir-Moez, A R; Sneddon, I N

    1962-01-01

    Elements of Linear Space is a detailed treatment of the elements of linear spaces, including real spaces with no more than three dimensions and complex n-dimensional spaces. The geometry of conic sections and quadric surfaces is considered, along with algebraic structures, especially vector spaces and transformations. Problems drawn from various branches of geometry are given.Comprised of 12 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to real Euclidean space, followed by a discussion on linear transformations and matrices. The addition and multiplication of transformations and matrices a

  8. Applied linear regression

    CERN Document Server

    Weisberg, Sanford

    2013-01-01

    Praise for the Third Edition ""...this is an excellent book which could easily be used as a course text...""-International Statistical Institute The Fourth Edition of Applied Linear Regression provides a thorough update of the basic theory and methodology of linear regression modeling. Demonstrating the practical applications of linear regression analysis techniques, the Fourth Edition uses interesting, real-world exercises and examples. Stressing central concepts such as model building, understanding parameters, assessing fit and reliability, and drawing conclusions, the new edition illus

  9. Linear system theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callier, Frank M.; Desoer, Charles A.

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this book is to provide a systematic and rigorous access to the main topics of linear state-space system theory in both the continuous-time case and the discrete-time case; and the I/O description of linear systems. The main thrusts of the work are the analysis of system descriptions and derivations of their properties, LQ-optimal control, state feedback and state estimation, and MIMO unity-feedback systems.

  10. Tried and True: Springing into Linear Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    In eighth grade, students usually learn about forces in science class and linear relationships in math class, crucial topics that form the foundation for further study in science and engineering. An activity that links these two fundamental concepts involves measuring the distance a spring stretches as a function of how much weight is suspended…

  11. Dual exponential polynomials and linear differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhi-Tao; Gundersen, Gary G.; Heittokangas, Janne

    2018-01-01

    We study linear differential equations with exponential polynomial coefficients, where exactly one coefficient is of order greater than all the others. The main result shows that a nontrivial exponential polynomial solution of such an equation has a certain dual relationship with the maximum order coefficient. Several examples illustrate our results and exhibit possibilities that can occur.

  12. Uso da regressão linear para estimativa da relação entre a condutividade elétrica e a composição iônica da água de irrigação Use of linear regression to estimate the relationship between electrical conductivity and ionic composition of irrigation water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio M. Ribeiro

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Vários estudos vêm sendo realizados ultimamente, com o propósito de se avaliar a qualidade de água de irrigação na região semi-árida do Nordeste brasileiro. Em alguns desses estudos, os autores têm ajustado diversas características químicas, como cálcio, magnésio, sódio e cloreto e soma de cátions, em função da condutividade elétrica (CE através de equações empíricas; porém atenção deve ser dada às variações temporal e espacial dessas variáveis. Objetivou-se, com o presente trabalho, avaliar a influência da fonte, da época e do tipo de solo sobre a condutividade elétrica, em função dos íons da água de irrigação, utilizando-se a regressão linear. Foi utilizado um banco de dados composto por 562 análises, oriundas de 55 propriedades rurais. As determinações químicas feitas nas amostras de águas, foram: pH, CE, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Cl-, HCO3-, CO3(2- e SO4(2-. A partir de janeiro de 1988 realizaram-se amostragens nas propriedades, até 411 dias. O banco de dados foi dividido em 14 épocas de amostragem, três fontes (poço, rio e açude e para 10 solos. Para se comparar as equações ajustadas, empregou-se o teste de identidade de modelo, cujos resultados mostraram que as equações lineares ajustadas com a condutividade elétrica em função dos teores de cálcio, magnésio, potássio, sódio, cloreto, bicarbonato, carbonato e sulfato variaram significativamente com a época de amostragem, a fonte de água e com o tipo de solo.Several studies have been accomplished lately to evaluate irrigation water quality in the semi-arid region of the Northeast Brazil. In some of these studies, the authors have adjusted some chemical characteristics such as calcium, magnesium, sodium, chloride and sum of cations as a function of electrical conductivity (EC through empirical equations, however attention should be given to temporal and spatial variations. In this paper, the influence of water source, time of sampling

  13. Further linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Blyth, T S

    2002-01-01

    Most of the introductory courses on linear algebra develop the basic theory of finite­ dimensional vector spaces, and in so doing relate the notion of a linear mapping to that of a matrix. Generally speaking, such courses culminate in the diagonalisation of certain matrices and the application of this process to various situations. Such is the case, for example, in our previous SUMS volume Basic Linear Algebra. The present text is a continuation of that volume, and has the objective of introducing the reader to more advanced properties of vector spaces and linear mappings, and consequently of matrices. For readers who are not familiar with the contents of Basic Linear Algebra we provide an introductory chapter that consists of a compact summary of the prerequisites for the present volume. In order to consolidate the student's understanding we have included a large num­ ber of illustrative and worked examples, as well as many exercises that are strategi­ cally placed throughout the text. Solutions to the ex...

  14. Linear mass reflectron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamyrin, B.A.; Shmikk, D.V.

    1979-01-01

    A description and operating principle of a linear mass reflectron with V-form trajectory of ion motion -a new non-magnetic time-of-flight mass spectrometer with high resolution are presented. The ion-optical system of the device consists of an ion source with ionization by electron shock, of accelerating gaps, reflector gaps, a drift space and ion detector. Ions move in the linear mass refraction along the trajectories parallel to the axis of the analyzer chamber. The results of investigations into the experimental device are given. With an ion drift length of 0.6 m the device resolution is 1200 with respect to the peak width at half-height. Small-sized mass spectrometric transducers with high resolution and sensitivity may be designed on the base of the linear mass reflectron principle

  15. Applied linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Olver, Peter J

    2018-01-01

    This textbook develops the essential tools of linear algebra, with the goal of imparting technique alongside contextual understanding. Applications go hand-in-hand with theory, each reinforcing and explaining the other. This approach encourages students to develop not only the technical proficiency needed to go on to further study, but an appreciation for when, why, and how the tools of linear algebra can be used across modern applied mathematics. Providing an extensive treatment of essential topics such as Gaussian elimination, inner products and norms, and eigenvalues and singular values, this text can be used for an in-depth first course, or an application-driven second course in linear algebra. In this second edition, applications have been updated and expanded to include numerical methods, dynamical systems, data analysis, and signal processing, while the pedagogical flow of the core material has been improved. Throughout, the text emphasizes the conceptual connections between each application and the un...

  16. Theory of linear operations

    CERN Document Server

    Banach, S

    1987-01-01

    This classic work by the late Stefan Banach has been translated into English so as to reach a yet wider audience. It contains the basics of the algebra of operators, concentrating on the study of linear operators, which corresponds to that of the linear forms a1x1 + a2x2 + ... + anxn of algebra.The book gathers results concerning linear operators defined in general spaces of a certain kind, principally in Banach spaces, examples of which are: the space of continuous functions, that of the pth-power-summable functions, Hilbert space, etc. The general theorems are interpreted in various mathematical areas, such as group theory, differential equations, integral equations, equations with infinitely many unknowns, functions of a real variable, summation methods and orthogonal series.A new fifty-page section (``Some Aspects of the Present Theory of Banach Spaces'''') complements this important monograph.

  17. Dimension of linear models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høskuldsson, Agnar

    1996-01-01

    Determination of the proper dimension of a given linear model is one of the most important tasks in the applied modeling work. We consider here eight criteria that can be used to determine the dimension of the model, or equivalently, the number of components to use in the model. Four of these cri......Determination of the proper dimension of a given linear model is one of the most important tasks in the applied modeling work. We consider here eight criteria that can be used to determine the dimension of the model, or equivalently, the number of components to use in the model. Four...... the basic problems in determining the dimension of linear models. Then each of the eight measures are treated. The results are illustrated by examples....

  18. Linear programming using Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Ploskas, Nikolaos

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a theoretical and computational presentation of a variety of linear programming algorithms and methods with an emphasis on the revised simplex method and its components. A theoretical background and mathematical formulation is included for each algorithm as well as comprehensive numerical examples and corresponding MATLAB® code. The MATLAB® implementations presented in this book  are sophisticated and allow users to find solutions to large-scale benchmark linear programs. Each algorithm is followed by a computational study on benchmark problems that analyze the computational behavior of the presented algorithms. As a solid companion to existing algorithmic-specific literature, this book will be useful to researchers, scientists, mathematical programmers, and students with a basic knowledge of linear algebra and calculus.  The clear presentation enables the reader to understand and utilize all components of simplex-type methods, such as presolve techniques, scaling techniques, pivoting ru...

  19. Linear Colliders TESLA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of the TESLA (TeV Superconducting Linear Accelerator) collaboration (at present 19 institutions from seven countries) is to establish the technology for a high energy electron-positron linear collider using superconducting radiofrequency cavities to accelerate its beams. Another basic goal is to demonstrate that such a collider can meet its performance goals in a cost effective manner. For this the TESLA collaboration is preparing a 500 MeV superconducting linear test accelerator at the DESY Laboratory in Hamburg. This TTF (TESLA Test Facility) consists of four cryomodules, each approximately 12 m long and containing eight 9-cell solid niobium cavities operating at a frequency of 1.3 GHz

  20. Linearly Adjustable International Portfolios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, R. J.; Kuhn, D.; Rustem, B.

    2010-09-01

    We present an approach to multi-stage international portfolio optimization based on the imposition of a linear structure on the recourse decisions. Multiperiod decision problems are traditionally formulated as stochastic programs. Scenario tree based solutions however can become intractable as the number of stages increases. By restricting the space of decision policies to linear rules, we obtain a conservative tractable approximation to the original problem. Local asset prices and foreign exchange rates are modelled separately, which allows for a direct measure of their impact on the final portfolio value.

  1. Linearly Adjustable International Portfolios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, R. J.; Kuhn, D.; Rustem, B.

    2010-01-01

    We present an approach to multi-stage international portfolio optimization based on the imposition of a linear structure on the recourse decisions. Multiperiod decision problems are traditionally formulated as stochastic programs. Scenario tree based solutions however can become intractable as the number of stages increases. By restricting the space of decision policies to linear rules, we obtain a conservative tractable approximation to the original problem. Local asset prices and foreign exchange rates are modelled separately, which allows for a direct measure of their impact on the final portfolio value.

  2. Linear induction motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkman, W.E.; Adams, W.Q.; Berrier, B.R.

    1978-01-01

    A linear induction motor has been operated on a test bed with a feedback pulse resolution of 5 nm (0.2 μin). Slewing tests with this slide drive have shown positioning errors less than or equal to 33 nm (1.3 μin) at feedrates between 0 and 25.4 mm/min (0-1 ipm). A 0.86-m (34-in)-stroke linear motor is being investigated, using the SPACO machine as a test bed. Initial results were encouraging, and work is continuing to optimize the servosystem compensation

  3. Handbook of linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Hogben, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    With a substantial amount of new material, the Handbook of Linear Algebra, Second Edition provides comprehensive coverage of linear algebra concepts, applications, and computational software packages in an easy-to-use format. It guides you from the very elementary aspects of the subject to the frontiers of current research. Along with revisions and updates throughout, the second edition of this bestseller includes 20 new chapters.New to the Second EditionSeparate chapters on Schur complements, additional types of canonical forms, tensors, matrix polynomials, matrix equations, special types of

  4. Linear Algebra Thoroughly Explained

    CERN Document Server

    Vujičić, Milan

    2008-01-01

    Linear Algebra Thoroughly Explained provides a comprehensive introduction to the subject suitable for adoption as a self-contained text for courses at undergraduate and postgraduate level. The clear and comprehensive presentation of the basic theory is illustrated throughout with an abundance of worked examples. The book is written for teachers and students of linear algebra at all levels and across mathematics and the applied sciences, particularly physics and engineering. It will also be an invaluable addition to research libraries as a comprehensive resource book for the subject.

  5. Technical note: Avoiding the direct inversion of the numerator relationship matrix for genotyped animals in single-step genomic best linear unbiased prediction solved with the preconditioned conjugate gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Y; Misztal, I; Legarra, A; Tsuruta, S; Lourenco, D A L; Fragomeni, B O; Aguilar, I

    2017-01-01

    This paper evaluates an efficient implementation to multiply the inverse of a numerator relationship matrix for genotyped animals () by a vector (). The computation is required for solving mixed model equations in single-step genomic BLUP (ssGBLUP) with the preconditioned conjugate gradient (PCG). The inverse can be decomposed into sparse matrices that are blocks of the sparse inverse of a numerator relationship matrix () including genotyped animals and their ancestors. The elements of were rapidly calculated with the Henderson's rule and stored as sparse matrices in memory. Implementation of was by a series of sparse matrix-vector multiplications. Diagonal elements of , which were required as preconditioners in PCG, were approximated with a Monte Carlo method using 1,000 samples. The efficient implementation of was compared with explicit inversion of with 3 data sets including about 15,000, 81,000, and 570,000 genotyped animals selected from populations with 213,000, 8.2 million, and 10.7 million pedigree animals, respectively. The explicit inversion required 1.8 GB, 49 GB, and 2,415 GB (estimated) of memory, respectively, and 42 s, 56 min, and 13.5 d (estimated), respectively, for the computations. The efficient implementation required <1 MB, 2.9 GB, and 2.3 GB of memory, respectively, and <1 sec, 3 min, and 5 min, respectively, for setting up. Only <1 sec was required for the multiplication in each PCG iteration for any data sets. When the equations in ssGBLUP are solved with the PCG algorithm, is no longer a limiting factor in the computations.

  6. America, Linearly Cyclical

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    AND VICTIM- ~ vAP BLAMING 4. AMERICA, LINEARLY CYCUCAL AF IMT 1768, 19840901, V5 PREVIOUS EDITION WILL BE USED. C2C Jessica Adams Dr. Brissett...his desires, his failings, and his aspirations follow the same general trend throughout history and throughout cultures. The founding fathers sought

  7. Stanford's linear collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southworth, B.

    1985-01-01

    The peak of the construction phase of the Stanford Linear Collider, SLC, to achieve 50 GeV electron-positron collisions has now been passed. The work remains on schedule to attempt colliding beams, initially at comparatively low luminosity, early in 1987. (orig./HSI).

  8. Dosimetry of linear sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mafra Neto, F.

    1992-01-01

    The dose of gamma radiation from a linear source of cesium 137 is obtained, presenting two difficulties: oblique filtration of radiation when cross the platinum wall, in different directions, and dose connection due to the scattering by the material mean of propagation. (C.G.C.)

  9. Resistors Improve Ramp Linearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinberg, L. L.

    1982-01-01

    Simple modification to bootstrap ramp generator gives more linear output over longer sweep times. New circuit adds just two resistors, one of which is adjustable. Modification cancels nonlinearities due to variations in load on charging capacitor and due to changes in charging current as the voltage across capacitor increases.

  10. LINEAR COLLIDERS: 1992 workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Settles, Ron; Coignet, Guy

    1992-01-01

    As work on designs for future electron-positron linear colliders pushes ahead at major Laboratories throughout the world in a major international collaboration framework, the LC92 workshop held in Garmisch Partenkirchen this summer, attended by 200 machine and particle physicists, provided a timely focus

  11. Linear genetic programming

    CERN Document Server

    Brameier, Markus

    2007-01-01

    Presents a variant of Genetic Programming that evolves imperative computer programs as linear sequences of instructions, in contrast to the more traditional functional expressions or syntax trees. This book serves as a reference for researchers, but also contains sufficient introduction for students and those who are new to the field

  12. On Solving Linear Recurrences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, David E.

    2013-01-01

    A direct method is given for solving first-order linear recurrences with constant coefficients. The limiting value of that solution is studied as "n to infinity." This classroom note could serve as enrichment material for the typical introductory course on discrete mathematics that follows a calculus course.

  13. Review of linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Seishi

    1992-01-01

    The status of R and D of future e + e - linear colliders proposed by the institutions throughout the world is described including the JLC, NLC, VLEPP, CLIC, DESY/THD and TESLA projects. The parameters and RF sources are discussed. (G.P.) 36 refs.; 1 tab

  14. Multiple linear regressions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The predictive analysis based on quantitative structure activity relationships (QSAR) on benzim- ... could lead to treatment of obesity, diabetes and related conditions. ..... After discussing the physical and chemical mean- ing of the ...

  15. Competitive inhibition can linearize dose-response and generate a linear rectifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savir, Yonatan; Tu, Benjamin P; Springer, Michael

    2015-09-23

    Many biological responses require a dynamic range that is larger than standard bi-molecular interactions allow, yet the also ability to remain off at low input. Here we mathematically show that an enzyme reaction system involving a combination of competitive inhibition, conservation of the total level of substrate and inhibitor, and positive feedback can behave like a linear rectifier-that is, a network motif with an input-output relationship that is linearly sensitive to substrate above a threshold but unresponsive below the threshold. We propose that the evolutionarily conserved yeast SAGA histone acetylation complex may possess the proper physiological response characteristics and molecular interactions needed to perform as a linear rectifier, and we suggest potential experiments to test this hypothesis. One implication of this work is that linear responses and linear rectifiers might be easier to evolve or synthetically construct than is currently appreciated.

  16. Finite-dimensional linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Gockenbach, Mark S

    2010-01-01

    Some Problems Posed on Vector SpacesLinear equationsBest approximationDiagonalizationSummaryFields and Vector SpacesFields Vector spaces Subspaces Linear combinations and spanning sets Linear independence Basis and dimension Properties of bases Polynomial interpolation and the Lagrange basis Continuous piecewise polynomial functionsLinear OperatorsLinear operatorsMore properties of linear operatorsIsomorphic vector spaces Linear operator equations Existence and uniqueness of solutions The fundamental theorem; inverse operatorsGaussian elimination Newton's method Linear ordinary differential eq

  17. Contributions to micromechanical model of the non linear behavior of the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou-Chakra Guery, A.

    2007-12-01

    This work is performed in the general context of the project of underground disposal of radioactive waste, undertaken by the French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA). Due to its strong density and weak permeability, the formation of Callovo-Oxfordian argillite is chosen as one of possible geological barriers to radionuclides. The objective of the study to develop and validate a non linear homogenization approach of the mechanical behavior of Callovo-Oxfordian argillites. The material is modelled as a composite constituted of an elasto(visco)plastic clay matrix and of linear elastic or elastic damage inclusions. The macroscopic constitutive law is obtained by adapting the incremental method proposed by Hill. The derived model is first compared to Finite Element calculations on unit cell. It is then validated and applied for the prediction of the macroscopic stress-strain responses of the argillite at different geological depths. Finally, the micromechanical model is implemented in a commercial finite element code (Abaqus) for the simulation of a vertical shaft of the underground laboratory. This allows predicting the distribution of damage state and plastic strains and characterizing the excavation damage zone (EDZ). (author)

  18. Linearity and Non-linearity of Photorefractive effect in Materials ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper we have studied the Linearity and Non-linearity of Photorefractive effect in materials using the band transport model. For low light beam intensities the change in the refractive index is proportional to the electric field for linear optics while for non- linear optics the change in refractive index is directly proportional ...

  19. Linearly Refined Session Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Baltazar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Session types capture precise protocol structure in concurrent programming, but do not specify properties of the exchanged values beyond their basic type. Refinement types are a form of dependent types that can address this limitation, combining types with logical formulae that may refer to program values and can constrain types using arbitrary predicates. We present a pi calculus with assume and assert operations, typed using a session discipline that incorporates refinement formulae written in a fragment of Multiplicative Linear Logic. Our original combination of session and refinement types, together with the well established benefits of linearity, allows very fine-grained specifications of communication protocols in which refinement formulae are treated as logical resources rather than persistent truths.

  20. Linear Water Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, N.; Maz'ya, V.; Vainberg, B.

    2002-08-01

    This book gives a self-contained and up-to-date account of mathematical results in the linear theory of water waves. The study of waves has many applications, including the prediction of behavior of floating bodies (ships, submarines, tension-leg platforms etc.), the calculation of wave-making resistance in naval architecture, and the description of wave patterns over bottom topography in geophysical hydrodynamics. The first section deals with time-harmonic waves. Three linear boundary value problems serve as the approximate mathematical models for these types of water waves. The next section uses a plethora of mathematical techniques in the investigation of these three problems. The techniques used in the book include integral equations based on Green's functions, various inequalities between the kinetic and potential energy and integral identities which are indispensable for proving the uniqueness theorems. The so-called inverse procedure is applied to constructing examples of non-uniqueness, usually referred to as 'trapped nodes.'

  1. The International Linear Collider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    List Benno

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The International Linear Collider (ILC is a proposed e+e− linear collider with a centre-of-mass energy of 200–500 GeV, based on superconducting RF cavities. The ILC would be an ideal machine for precision studies of a light Higgs boson and the top quark, and would have a discovery potential for new particles that is complementary to that of LHC. The clean experimental conditions would allow the operation of detectors with extremely good performance; two such detectors, ILD and SiD, are currently being designed. Both make use of novel concepts for tracking and calorimetry. The Japanese High Energy Physics community has recently recommended to build the ILC in Japan.

  2. The International Linear Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, Benno

    2014-04-01

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) is a proposed e+e- linear collider with a centre-of-mass energy of 200-500 GeV, based on superconducting RF cavities. The ILC would be an ideal machine for precision studies of a light Higgs boson and the top quark, and would have a discovery potential for new particles that is complementary to that of LHC. The clean experimental conditions would allow the operation of detectors with extremely good performance; two such detectors, ILD and SiD, are currently being designed. Both make use of novel concepts for tracking and calorimetry. The Japanese High Energy Physics community has recently recommended to build the ILC in Japan.

  3. Dimension of linear models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høskuldsson, Agnar

    1996-01-01

    Determination of the proper dimension of a given linear model is one of the most important tasks in the applied modeling work. We consider here eight criteria that can be used to determine the dimension of the model, or equivalently, the number of components to use in the model. Four...... the basic problems in determining the dimension of linear models. Then each of the eight measures are treated. The results are illustrated by examples....... of these criteria are widely used ones, while the remaining four are ones derived from the H-principle of mathematical modeling. Many examples from practice show that the criteria derived from the H-principle function better than the known and popular criteria for the number of components. We shall briefly review...

  4. Reciprocating linear motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldowsky, Michael P. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A reciprocating linear motor is formed with a pair of ring-shaped permanent magnets having opposite radial polarizations, held axially apart by a nonmagnetic yoke, which serves as an axially displaceable armature assembly. A pair of annularly wound coils having axial lengths which differ from the axial lengths of the permanent magnets are serially coupled together in mutual opposition and positioned with an outer cylindrical core in axial symmetry about the armature assembly. One embodiment includes a second pair of annularly wound coils serially coupled together in mutual opposition and an inner cylindrical core positioned in axial symmetry inside the armature radially opposite to the first pair of coils. Application of a potential difference across a serial connection of the two pairs of coils creates a current flow perpendicular to the magnetic field created by the armature magnets, thereby causing limited linear displacement of the magnets relative to the coils.

  5. Duality in linearized gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henneaux, Marc; Teitelboim, Claudio

    2005-01-01

    We show that duality transformations of linearized gravity in four dimensions, i.e., rotations of the linearized Riemann tensor and its dual into each other, can be extended to the dynamical fields of the theory so as to be symmetries of the action and not just symmetries of the equations of motion. Our approach relies on the introduction of two superpotentials, one for the spatial components of the spin-2 field and the other for their canonically conjugate momenta. These superpotentials are two-index, symmetric tensors. They can be taken to be the basic dynamical fields and appear locally in the action. They are simply rotated into each other under duality. In terms of the superpotentials, the canonical generator of duality rotations is found to have a Chern-Simons-like structure, as in the Maxwell case

  6. The SLAC linear collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phinney, N.

    1992-01-01

    The SLAC Linear Collider has begun a new era of operation with the SLD detector. During 1991 there was a first engineering run for the SLD in parallel with machine improvements to increase luminosity and reliability. For the 1992 run, a polarized electron source was added and more than 10,000 Zs with an average of 23% polarization have been logged by the SLD. This paper discusses the performance of the SLC in 1991 and 1992 and the technical advances that have produced higher luminosity. Emphasis will be placed on issues relevant to future linear colliders such as producing and maintaining high current, low emittance beams and focusing the beams to the micron scale for collisions. (Author) tab., 2 figs., 18 refs

  7. Linear waves and instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bers, A.

    1975-01-01

    The electrodynamic equations for small-amplitude waves and their dispersion relation in a homogeneous plasma are outlined. For such waves, energy and momentum, and their flow and transformation, are described. Perturbation theory of waves is treated and applied to linear coupling of waves, and the resulting instabilities from such interactions between active and passive waves. Linear stability analysis in time and space is described where the time-asymptotic, time-space Green's function for an arbitrary dispersion relation is developed. The perturbation theory of waves is applied to nonlinear coupling, with particular emphasis on pump-driven interactions of waves. Details of the time--space evolution of instabilities due to coupling are given. (U.S.)

  8. Extended linear chain compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Linear chain substances span a large cross section of contemporary chemistry ranging from covalent polymers, to organic charge transfer com­ plexes to nonstoichiometric transition metal coordination complexes. Their commonality, which coalesced intense interest in the theoretical and exper­ imental solid state physics/chemistry communities, was based on the obser­ vation that these inorganic and organic polymeric substrates exhibit striking metal-like electrical and optical properties. Exploitation and extension of these systems has led to the systematic study of both the chemistry and physics of highly and poorly conducting linear chain substances. To gain a salient understanding of these complex materials rich in anomalous aniso­ tropic electrical, optical, magnetic, and mechanical properties, the conver­ gence of diverse skills and talents was required. The constructive blending of traditionally segregated disciplines such as synthetic and physical organic, inorganic, and polymer chemistry, crystallog...

  9. Non-linear osmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Jared M.

    1966-01-01

    1. The relation between osmotic gradient and rate of osmotic water flow has been measured in rabbit gall-bladder by a gravimetric procedure and by a rapid method based on streaming potentials. Streaming potentials were directly proportional to gravimetrically measured water fluxes. 2. As in many other tissues, water flow was found to vary with gradient in a markedly non-linear fashion. There was no consistent relation between the water permeability and either the direction or the rate of water flow. 3. Water flow in response to a given gradient decreased at higher osmolarities. The resistance to water flow increased linearly with osmolarity over the range 186-825 m-osM. 4. The resistance to water flow was the same when the gall-bladder separated any two bathing solutions with the same average osmolarity, regardless of the magnitude of the gradient. In other words, the rate of water flow is given by the expression (Om — Os)/[Ro′ + ½k′ (Om + Os)], where Ro′ and k′ are constants and Om and Os are the bathing solution osmolarities. 5. Of the theories advanced to explain non-linear osmosis in other tissues, flow-induced membrane deformations, unstirred layers, asymmetrical series-membrane effects, and non-osmotic effects of solutes could not explain the results. However, experimental measurements of water permeability as a function of osmolarity permitted quantitative reconstruction of the observed water flow—osmotic gradient curves. Hence non-linear osmosis in rabbit gall-bladder is due to a decrease in water permeability with increasing osmolarity. 6. The results suggest that aqueous channels in the cell membrane behave as osmometers, shrinking in concentrated solutions of impermeant molecules and thereby increasing membrane resistance to water flow. A mathematical formulation of such a membrane structure is offered. PMID:5945254

  10. Fundamentals of linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Dash, Rajani Ballav

    2008-01-01

    FUNDAMENTALS OF LINEAR ALGEBRA is a comprehensive Text Book, which can be used by students and teachers of All Indian Universities. The Text has easy, understandable form and covers all topics of UGC Curriculum. There are lots of worked out examples which helps the students in solving the problems without anybody's help. The Problem sets have been designed keeping in view of the questions asked in different examinations.

  11. Linear network theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sander, K F

    1964-01-01

    Linear Network Theory covers the significant algebraic aspect of network theory, with minimal reference to practical circuits. The book begins the presentation of network analysis with the exposition of networks containing resistances only, and follows it up with a discussion of networks involving inductance and capacity by way of the differential equations. Classification and description of certain networks, equivalent networks, filter circuits, and network functions are also covered. Electrical engineers, technicians, electronics engineers, electricians, and students learning the intricacies

  12. Non linear viscoelastic models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2011-01-01

    Viscoelastic eects are often present in loudspeaker suspensions, this can be seen in the displacement transfer function which often shows a frequency dependent value below the resonance frequency. In this paper nonlinear versions of the standard linear solid model (SLS) are investigated....... The simulations show that the nonlinear version of the Maxwell SLS model can result in a time dependent small signal stiness while the Kelvin Voight version does not....

  13. Relativistic Linear Restoring Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.; Franklin, J.; Mann, N.

    2012-01-01

    We consider two different forms for a relativistic version of a linear restoring force. The pair comes from taking Hooke's law to be the force appearing on the right-hand side of the relativistic expressions: d"p"/d"t" or d"p"/d["tau"]. Either formulation recovers Hooke's law in the non-relativistic limit. In addition to these two forces, we…

  14. Superconducting linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The advantages of superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) for particle accelerators have been demonstrated by successful operation of systems in the TRISTAN and LEP electron-positron collider rings respectively at the Japanese KEK Laboratory and at CERN. If performance continues to improve and costs can be lowered, this would open an attractive option for a high luminosity TeV (1000 GeV) linear collider

  15. Perturbed asymptotically linear problems

    OpenAIRE

    Bartolo, R.; Candela, A. M.; Salvatore, A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is investigating the existence of solutions of some semilinear elliptic problems on open bounded domains when the nonlinearity is subcritical and asymptotically linear at infinity and there is a perturbation term which is just continuous. Also in the case when the problem has not a variational structure, suitable procedures and estimates allow us to prove that the number of distinct crtitical levels of the functional associated to the unperturbed problem is "stable" unde...

  16. Miniature linear cooler development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruitt, G.R.

    1993-01-01

    An overview is presented of the status of a family of miniature linear coolers currently under development by Hughes Aircraft Co. for use in hand held, volume limited or power limited infrared applications. These coolers, representing the latest additions to the Hughes family of TOP trademark [twin-opposed piston] linear coolers, have been fabricated and tested in three different configurations. Each configuration is designed to utilize a common compressor assembly resulting in reduced manufacturing costs. The baseline compressor has been integrated with two different expander configurations and has been operated with two different levels of input power. These various configuration combinations offer a wide range of performance and interface characteristics which may be tailored to applications requiring limited power and size without significantly compromising cooler capacity or cooldown characteristics. Key cooler characteristics and test data are summarized for three combinations of cooler configurations which are representative of the versatility of this linear cooler design. Configurations reviewed include the shortened coldfinger [1.50 to 1.75 inches long], limited input power [less than 17 Watts] for low power availability applications; the shortened coldfinger with higher input power for lightweight, higher performance applications; and coldfingers compatible with DoD 0.4 Watt Common Module coolers for wider range retrofit capability. Typical weight of these miniature linear coolers is less than 500 grams for the compressor, expander and interconnecting transfer line. Cooling capacity at 80K at room ambient conditions ranges from 400 mW to greater than 550 mW. Steady state power requirements for maintaining a heat load of 150 mW at 80K has been shown to be less than 8 Watts. Ongoing reliability growth testing is summarized including a review of the latest test article results

  17. Linear pneumatic actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avram Mihai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a linear pneumatic actuator with short working stroke. It consists of a pneumatic motor (a simple stroke cylinder or a membrane chamber, two 2/2 pneumatic distributors “all or nothing” electrically commanded for controlling the intake/outtake flow to/from the active chamber of the motor, a position transducer and a microcontroller. There is also presented the theoretical analysis (mathematical modelling and numerical simulation accomplished.

  18. Linear pneumatic actuator

    OpenAIRE

    Avram Mihai; Niţu Constantin; Bucşan Constantin; Grămescu Bogdan

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents a linear pneumatic actuator with short working stroke. It consists of a pneumatic motor (a simple stroke cylinder or a membrane chamber), two 2/2 pneumatic distributors “all or nothing” electrically commanded for controlling the intake/outtake flow to/from the active chamber of the motor, a position transducer and a microcontroller. There is also presented the theoretical analysis (mathematical modelling and numerical simulation) accomplished.

  19. Linear MHD equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheffel, J.

    1984-03-01

    The linear Grad-Shafranov equation for a toroidal, axisymmetric plasma is solved analytically. Exact solutions are given in terms of confluent hyper-geometric functions. As an alternative, simple and accurate WKBJ solutions are presented. With parabolic pressure profiles, both hollow and peaked toroidal current density profiles are obtained. As an example the equilibrium of a z-pinch with a square-shaped cross section is derived.(author)

  20. Linear induction accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttram, M.T.; Ginn, J.W.

    1988-06-21

    A linear induction accelerator includes a plurality of adder cavities arranged in a series and provided in a structure which is evacuated so that a vacuum inductance is provided between each adder cavity and the structure. An energy storage system for the adder cavities includes a pulsed current source and a respective plurality of bipolar converting networks connected thereto. The bipolar high-voltage, high-repetition-rate square pulse train sets and resets the cavities. 4 figs.

  1. Linear algebraic groups

    CERN Document Server

    Springer, T A

    1998-01-01

    "[The first] ten chapters...are an efficient, accessible, and self-contained introduction to affine algebraic groups over an algebraically closed field. The author includes exercises and the book is certainly usable by graduate students as a text or for self-study...the author [has a] student-friendly style… [The following] seven chapters... would also be a good introduction to rationality issues for algebraic groups. A number of results from the literature…appear for the first time in a text." –Mathematical Reviews (Review of the Second Edition) "This book is a completely new version of the first edition. The aim of the old book was to present the theory of linear algebraic groups over an algebraically closed field. Reading that book, many people entered the research field of linear algebraic groups. The present book has a wider scope. Its aim is to treat the theory of linear algebraic groups over arbitrary fields. Again, the author keeps the treatment of prerequisites self-contained. The material of t...

  2. Parametric Linear Dynamic Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Faymonville

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We introduce Parametric Linear Dynamic Logic (PLDL, which extends Linear Dynamic Logic (LDL by temporal operators equipped with parameters that bound their scope. LDL was proposed as an extension of Linear Temporal Logic (LTL that is able to express all ω-regular specifications while still maintaining many of LTL's desirable properties like an intuitive syntax and a translation into non-deterministic Büchi automata of exponential size. But LDL lacks capabilities to express timing constraints. By adding parameterized operators to LDL, we obtain a logic that is able to express all ω-regular properties and that subsumes parameterized extensions of LTL like Parametric LTL and PROMPT-LTL. Our main technical contribution is a translation of PLDL formulas into non-deterministic Büchi word automata of exponential size via alternating automata. This yields a PSPACE model checking algorithm and a realizability algorithm with doubly-exponential running time. Furthermore, we give tight upper and lower bounds on optimal parameter values for both problems. These results show that PLDL model checking and realizability are not harder than LTL model checking and realizability.

  3. Quantum linear Boltzmann equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacchini, Bassano; Hornberger, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    We review the quantum version of the linear Boltzmann equation, which describes in a non-perturbative fashion, by means of scattering theory, how the quantum motion of a single test particle is affected by collisions with an ideal background gas. A heuristic derivation of this Lindblad master equation is presented, based on the requirement of translation-covariance and on the relation to the classical linear Boltzmann equation. After analyzing its general symmetry properties and the associated relaxation dynamics, we discuss a quantum Monte Carlo method for its numerical solution. We then review important limiting forms of the quantum linear Boltzmann equation, such as the case of quantum Brownian motion and pure collisional decoherence, as well as the application to matter wave optics. Finally, we point to the incorporation of quantum degeneracies and self-interactions in the gas by relating the equation to the dynamic structure factor of the ambient medium, and we provide an extension of the equation to include internal degrees of freedom.

  4. The Stanford Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emma, P.

    1995-01-01

    The Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) is the first and only high-energy e + e - linear collider in the world. Its most remarkable features are high intensity, submicron sized, polarized (e - ) beams at a single interaction point. The main challenges posed by these unique characteristics include machine-wide emittance preservation, consistent high intensity operation, polarized electron production and transport, and the achievement of a high degree of beam stability on all time scales. In addition to serving as an important machine for the study of Z 0 boson production and decay using polarized beams, the SLC is also an indispensable source of hands-on experience for future linear colliders. Each new year of operation has been highlighted with a marked improvement in performance. The most significant improvements for the 1994-95 run include new low impedance vacuum chambers for the damping rings, an upgrade to the optics and diagnostics of the final focus systems, and a higher degree of polarization from the electron source. As a result, the average luminosity has nearly doubled over the previous year with peaks approaching 10 30 cm -2 s -1 and an 80% electron polarization at the interaction point. These developments as well as the remaining identifiable performance limitations will be discussed

  5. Use of linear discriminant function analysis in seed morphotype ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Use of linear discriminant function analysis in seed morphotype relationship study in 31 ... Data were collected on 100-seed weight, seed length and seed width. ... to the Mesoamerican gene pool, comprising the cultigroups Sieva-Big Lima, ...

  6. Distributed Monitoring of the R2 Statistic for Linear Regression

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The problem of monitoring a multivariate linear regression model is relevant in studying the evolving relationship between a set of input variables (features) and...

  7. Near-Regular Structure Discovery Using Linear Programming

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Qixing; Guibas, Leonidas J.; Mitra, Niloy J.

    2014-01-01

    as an optimization and efficiently solve it using linear programming techniques. Our optimization has a discrete aspect, that is, the connectivity relationships among the elements, as well as a continuous aspect, namely the locations of the elements of interest. Both

  8. (Non) linear regression modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cizek, P.; Gentle, J.E.; Hardle, W.K.; Mori, Y.

    2012-01-01

    We will study causal relationships of a known form between random variables. Given a model, we distinguish one or more dependent (endogenous) variables Y = (Y1,…,Yl), l ∈ N, which are explained by a model, and independent (exogenous, explanatory) variables X = (X1,…,Xp),p ∈ N, which explain or

  9. Non linear microtearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbet, X.; Mourgues, F.; Samain, A.

    1987-01-01

    Among the various instabilities which could explain the anomalous electron heat transport observed in tokamaks during additional heating, a microtearing turbulence is a reasonable candidate since it affects directly the magnetic topology. This turbulence may be described in a proper frame rotating around the majors axis by a static potential vector. In strong non linear regimes, the flow of electrons along the stochastic field lines induces a current. The point is to know whether this current can sustain the turbulence. The mechanisms of this self-consistency, involving the combined effects of the thermal diamagnetism and of the electric drift are presented here

  10. RF linear accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Wangler, Thomas P

    2008-01-01

    Thomas P. Wangler received his B.S. degree in physics from Michigan State University, and his Ph.D. degree in physics and astronomy from the University of Wisconsin. After postdoctoral appointments at the University of Wisconsin and Brookhaven National Laboratory, he joined the staff of Argonne National Laboratory in 1966, working in the fields of experimental high-energy physics and accelerator physics. He joined the Accelerator Technology Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1979, where he specialized in high-current beam physics and linear accelerator design and technology. In 2007

  11. SLAC linear collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.; Bell, R.A.; Brown, K.L.

    1980-06-01

    The SLAC LINEAR COLLIDER is designed to achieve an energy of 100 GeV in the electron-positron center-of-mass system by accelerating intense bunches of particles in the SLAC linac and transporting the electron and positron bunches in a special magnet system to a point where they are focused to a radius of about 2 microns and made to collide head on. The rationale for this new type of colliding beam system is discussed, the project is described, some of the novel accelerator physics issues involved are discussed, and some of the critical technical components are described

  12. Matlab linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez, Cesar

    2014-01-01

    MATLAB is a high-level language and environment for numerical computation, visualization, and programming. Using MATLAB, you can analyze data, develop algorithms, and create models and applications. The language, tools, and built-in math functions enable you to explore multiple approaches and reach a solution faster than with spreadsheets or traditional programming languages, such as C/C++ or Java. MATLAB Linear Algebra introduces you to the MATLAB language with practical hands-on instructions and results, allowing you to quickly achieve your goals. In addition to giving an introduction to

  13. A Design of Mechanical Frequency Converter Linear and Non-linear Spring Combination for Energy Harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, K; Fujita, T; Kanda, K; Maenaka, K; Badel, A; Formosa, F

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the improvement of energy harvesting from wideband vibration with random change by using a combination of linear and nonlinear spring system is investigated. The system consists of curved beam spring for non-linear buckling, which supports the linear mass-spring resonator. Applying shock acceleration generates a snap through action to the buckling spring. From the FEM analysis, we showed that the snap through acceleration from the buckling action has no relationship with the applied shock amplitude and duration. We use this uniform acceleration as an impulse shock source for the linear resonator. It is easy to obtain the maximum shock response from the uniform snap through acceleration by using a shock response spectrum (SRS) analysis method. At first we investigated the relationship between the snap-through behaviour and an initial curved deflection. Then a time response result for non-linear springs with snap through and minimum force that makes a buckling behaviour were obtained by FEM analysis. By obtaining the optimum SRS frequency for linear resonator, we decided its resonant frequency with the MATLAB simulator

  14. Optical surfacing via linear ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Lixiang; Wei, Chaoyang; Shao, Jianda

    2017-01-01

    We present a concept of surface decomposition extended from double Fourier series to nonnegative sinusoidal wave surfaces, on the basis of which linear ion sources apply to the ultra-precision fabrication of complex surfaces and diffractive optics. The modified Fourier series, or sinusoidal wave surfaces, build a relationship between the fabrication process of optical surfaces and the surface characterization based on power spectral density (PSD) analysis. Also, we demonstrate that the one-dimensional scanning of linear ion source is applicable to the removal of mid-spatial frequency (MSF) errors caused by small-tool polishing in raster scan mode as well as the fabrication of beam sampling grating of high diffractive uniformity without a post-processing procedure. The simulation results show that optical fabrication with linear ion source is feasible and even of higher output efficiency compared with the conventional approach.

  15. Optical surfacing via linear ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Lixiang, E-mail: wulx@hdu.edu.cn [Key Lab of RF Circuits and Systems of Ministry of Education, Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab of LSI Design, Microelectronics CAD Center, College of Electronics and Information, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou (China); Wei, Chaoyang, E-mail: siomwei@siom.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials for High Power Laser, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Shao, Jianda, E-mail: jdshao@siom.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials for High Power Laser, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2017-04-15

    We present a concept of surface decomposition extended from double Fourier series to nonnegative sinusoidal wave surfaces, on the basis of which linear ion sources apply to the ultra-precision fabrication of complex surfaces and diffractive optics. The modified Fourier series, or sinusoidal wave surfaces, build a relationship between the fabrication process of optical surfaces and the surface characterization based on power spectral density (PSD) analysis. Also, we demonstrate that the one-dimensional scanning of linear ion source is applicable to the removal of mid-spatial frequency (MSF) errors caused by small-tool polishing in raster scan mode as well as the fabrication of beam sampling grating of high diffractive uniformity without a post-processing procedure. The simulation results show that optical fabrication with linear ion source is feasible and even of higher output efficiency compared with the conventional approach.

  16. Special set linear algebra and special set fuzzy linear algebra

    OpenAIRE

    Kandasamy, W. B. Vasantha; Smarandache, Florentin; Ilanthenral, K.

    2009-01-01

    The authors in this book introduce the notion of special set linear algebra and special set fuzzy Linear algebra, which is an extension of the notion set linear algebra and set fuzzy linear algebra. These concepts are best suited in the application of multi expert models and cryptology. This book has five chapters. In chapter one the basic concepts about set linear algebra is given in order to make this book a self contained one. The notion of special set linear algebra and their fuzzy analog...

  17. Electrodynamic linear motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munehiro, H

    1980-05-29

    When driving the carriage of a printer through a rotating motor, there are problems regarding the limited accuracy of the carriage position due to rotation or contraction and ageing of the cable. In order to solve the problem, a direct drive system was proposed, in which the printer carriage is driven by a linear motor. If one wants to keep the motor circuit of such a motor compact, then the magnetic flux density in the air gap must be reduced or the motor travel must be reduced. It is the purpose of this invention to create an electrodynamic linear motor, which on the one hand is compact and light and on the other hand has a relatively high constant force over a large travel. The invention is characterised by the fact that magnetic fields of alternating polarity are generated at equal intervals in the magnetic field, and that the coil arrangement has 2 adjacent coils, whose size corresponds to half the length of each magnetic pole. A logic circuit is provided to select one of the two coils and to determine the direction of the current depending on the signals of a magnetic field sensor on the coil arrangement.

  18. Linear wind generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozarov, A.; Petrov, O.; Antonov, J.; Sotirova, S.; Petrova, B.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the linear wind-power generator described in this article is to decrease the following disadvantages of the common wind-powered turbine: 1) large bending and twisting moments to the blades and the shaft, especially when strong winds and turbulence exist; 2) significant values of the natural oscillation period of the construction result in the possibility of occurrence of destroying resonance oscillations; 3) high velocity of the peripheral parts of the rotor creating a danger for birds; 4) difficulties, connected with the installation and the operation on the mountain ridges and passages where the wind energy potential is the largest. The working surfaces of the generator in questions driven by the wind are not connected with a joint shaft but each moves along a railway track with few oscillations. So the sizes of each component are small and their number can be rather large. The mechanical trajectory is not a circle but a closed outline in a vertical plain, which consists of two rectilinear sectors, one above the other, connected in their ends by semi-circumferences. The mechanical energy of each component turns into electrical on the principle of the linear electrical generator. A regulation is provided when the direction of the wind is perpendicular to the route. A possibility of effectiveness is shown through aiming of additional quantities of air to the movable components by static barriers

  19. APPROBATION OF THE NUMERICAL METHOD OF CALCULATING THE DYNAMIC STRESS-STRAIN STATE OF THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL SYSTEM “FOUNDATION – FACILITY OF THE PRESSURE FRONT HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING STRUCTURE – WATER RESERVOIR” ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE CLUSTER-REGULATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry S. Dmitriev

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the results of approbation of the developed technique of the refined numerical simula-tion of the dynamic stress-strain state of the three-dimensional system “ground base (earth foundation – reser-voir – construction of the pressure head of the hydraulic system” under seismic influences. A comparison is made between two different ways of modeling the fluid interacting with the structure and the base of the hydroe-lectric power station. The issues of choosing the dimensions of the base unit and taking into account the inertial load from it, as well as the method of determining the initial seismic action, are touched upon.

  20. Linearization of the Lorenz system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chunbiao; Sprott, Julien Clinton; Thio, Wesley

    2015-01-01

    A partial and complete piecewise linearized version of the Lorenz system is proposed. The linearized versions have an independent total amplitude control parameter. Additional further linearization leads naturally to a piecewise linear version of the diffusionless Lorenz system. A chaotic circuit with a single amplitude controller is then implemented using a new switch element, producing a chaotic oscillation that agrees with the numerical calculation for the piecewise linear diffusionless Lorenz system. - Highlights: • A partial and complete piecewise linearized version of the Lorenz system are addressed. • The linearized versions have an independent total amplitude control parameter. • A piecewise linear version of the diffusionless Lorenz system is derived by further linearization. • A corresponding chaotic circuit without any multiplier is implemented for the chaotic oscillation