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Sample records for linear resonant response

  1. The giant resonances in hot nuclei. Linear response calculations

    Braghin, F.L.; Vautherin, D.; Abada, A.

    1995-01-01

    The isovector response function of hot nuclear matter is calculated using various effective Skyrme interactions. For Skyrme forces with a small effective mass the strength distribution is found to be nearly independent of temperature, and shows little collective effects. In contrast effective forces with an effective mass close to unity produce at zero temperature sizeable collective effects which disappear at temperatures of a few MeV. The relevance of these results for the saturation of the multiplicity of photons emitted by the giant dipole resonance in hot nuclei observed in recent experiments beyond T = 3 MeV is discussed. (authors). 12 refs., 3 figs

  2. Non-linear magnetohydrodynamic modeling of plasma response to resonant magnetic perturbations

    Orain, F.; Bécoulet, M.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Nardon, E.; Passeron, C.; Latu, G.; Grandgirard, V.; Fil, A.; Ratnani, A. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Huijsmans, G. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon, F-13115 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Pamela, S. [IIFS-PIIM. Aix Marseille Université - CNRS, 13397 Marseille Cedex20 (France); Chapman, I.; Kirk, A.; Thornton, A. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Hoelzl, M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany); Cahyna, P. [Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2013-10-15

    The interaction of static Resonant Magnetic Perturbations (RMPs) with the plasma flows is modeled in toroidal geometry, using the non-linear resistive MHD code JOREK, which includes the X-point and the scrape-off-layer. Two-fluid diamagnetic effects, the neoclassical poloidal friction and a source of toroidal rotation are introduced in the model to describe realistic plasma flows. RMP penetration is studied taking self-consistently into account the effects of these flows and the radial electric field evolution. JET-like, MAST, and ITER parameters are used in modeling. For JET-like parameters, three regimes of plasma response are found depending on the plasma resistivity and the diamagnetic rotation: at high resistivity and slow rotation, the islands generated by the RMPs at the edge resonant surfaces rotate in the ion diamagnetic direction and their size oscillates. At faster rotation, the generated islands are static and are more screened by the plasma. An intermediate regime with static islands which slightly oscillate is found at lower resistivity. In ITER simulations, the RMPs generate static islands, which forms an ergodic layer at the very edge (ψ≥0.96) characterized by lobe structures near the X-point and results in a small strike point splitting on the divertor targets. In MAST Double Null Divertor geometry, lobes are also found near the X-point and the 3D-deformation of the density and temperature profiles is observed.

  3. Linear and Nonlinear Response of a Rotating Tokamak Plasma to a Resonant Error-Field

    Fitzpatrick, Richard

    2014-10-01

    An in-depth investigation of the effect of a resonant error-field on a rotating, quasi-cylindrical, tokamak plasma is preformed within the context of resistive-MHD theory. General expressions for the response of the plasma at the rational surface to the error-field are derived in both the linear and nonlinear regimes, and the extents of these regimes mapped out in parameter space. Torque-balance equations are also obtained in both regimes. These equations are used to determine the steady-state plasma rotation at the rational surface in the presence of the error-field. It is found that, provided the intrinsic plasma rotation is sufficiently large, the torque-balance equations possess dynamically stable low-rotation and high-rotation solution branches, separated by a forbidden band of dynamically unstable solutions. Moreover, bifurcations between the two stable solution branches are triggered as the amplitude of the error-field is varied. A low- to high-rotation bifurcation is invariably associated with a significant reduction in the width of the magnetic island chain driven at the rational surface, and vice versa. General expressions for the bifurcation thresholds are derived, and their domains of validity mapped out in parameter space. This research was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-FG02-04ER-54742.

  4. Linear resonance acceleration of pellets

    Mills, R.G.

    1978-01-01

    A possible requirement for the acceleration of macroscopic pellets to velocities exceeding 10 4 meters per second implies the development of new apparatus. A satisfactory approach might be the linear resonance accelerator. Such apparatus would require the charging of pellets to very high values not yet demonstrated. The incompatibility of phase stability with radial stability in these machines may require abandoning phase stability and adopting feedback control of the accelerating voltage to accommodate statistical fluctuations in the charge to mass ratio of successive pellets

  5. Radio frequency quadrupole resonator for linear accelerator

    Moretti, Alfred

    1985-01-01

    An RFQ resonator for a linear accelerator having a reduced level of interfering modes and producing a quadrupole mode for focusing, bunching and accelerating beams of heavy charged particles, with the construction being characterized by four elongated resonating rods within a cylinder with the rods being alternately shorted and open electrically to the shell at common ends of the rods to provide an LC parallel resonant circuit when activated by a magnetic field transverse to the longitudinal axis.

  6. Resonance Control for Future Linear Accelerators

    Schappert, Warren [Fermilab

    2017-05-01

    Many of the next generation of particle accelerators (LCLS II, PIP II) are designed for relatively low beam loading. Low beam loading requirement means the cavities can operate with narrow bandwidths, minimizing capital and base operational costs of the RF power system. With such narrow bandwidths, however, cavity detuning from microphonics or dynamic Lorentz Force Detuning becomes a significant factor, and in some cases can significantly increase both the acquisition cost and the operational cost of the machine. In addition to the efforts to passive environmental detuning reduction (microphonics) active resonance control for the SRF cavities for next generation linear machine will be required. State of the art in the field of the SRF Cavity active resonance control and the results from the recent efforts at FNAL will be presented in this talk.

  7. Origin of optical non-linear response in TiN owing to excitation dynamics of surface plasmon resonance electronic oscillations

    Divya, S.; Nampoori, V. P. N.; Radhakrishnan, P.; Mujeeb, A.

    2014-08-01

    TiN nanoparticles of average size 55 nm were investigated for their optical non-linear properties. During the experiment the irradiated laser wavelength coincided with the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak of the nanoparticle. The large non-linearity of the nanoparticle was attributed to the plasmon resonance, which largely enhanced the local field within the nanoparticle. Both open and closed aperture Z-scan experiments were performed and the corresponding optical constants were explored. The post-excitation absorption spectra revealed the interesting phenomenon of photo fragmentation leading to the blue shift in band gap and red shift in the SPR. The results are discussed in terms of enhanced interparticle interaction simultaneous with size reduction. Here, the optical constants being intrinsic constants for a particular sample change unusually with laser power intensity. The dependence of χ(3) is discussed in terms of the size variation caused by photo fragmentation. The studies proved that the TiN nanoparticles are potential candidates in photonics technology offering huge scope to study unexplored research for various expedient applications.

  8. Linear signal processing using silicon micro-ring resonators

    Peucheret, Christophe; Ding, Yunhong; Ou, Haiyan

    2012-01-01

    We review our recent achievements on the use of silicon micro-ring resonators for linear optical signal processing applications, including modulation format conversion, phase-to-intensity modulation conversion and waveform shaping.......We review our recent achievements on the use of silicon micro-ring resonators for linear optical signal processing applications, including modulation format conversion, phase-to-intensity modulation conversion and waveform shaping....

  9. Radio-frequency quadrupole resonator for linear accelerator

    Moretti, A.

    1982-10-19

    An RFQ resonator for a linear accelerator having a reduced level of interfering modes and producing a quadrupole mode for focusing, bunching and accelerating beams of heavy charged particles, with the construction being characterized by four elongated resonating rods within a cylinder with the rods being alternately shorted and open electrically to the shell at common ends of the rods to provide an LC parallel resonant circuit when activated by a magnetic field transverse to the longitudinal axis.

  10. Resonance tongues in the linear Sitnikov equation

    Misquero, Mauricio

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we deal with a Hill's equation, depending on two parameters e\\in [0,1) and Λ >0, that has applications to some problems in Celestial Mechanics of the Sitnikov type. Due to the nonlinearity of the eccentricity parameter e and the coexistence problem, the stability diagram in the (e,Λ )-plane presents unusual resonance tongues emerging from points (0,(n/2)^2), n=1,2,\\ldots The tongues bounded by curves of eigenvalues corresponding to 2π -periodic solutions collapse into a single curve of coexistence (for which there exist two independent 2π -periodic eigenfunctions), whereas the remaining tongues have no pockets and are very thin. Unlike most of the literature related to resonance tongues and Sitnikov-type problems, the study of the tongues is made from a global point of view in the whole range of e\\in [0,1). Indeed, an interesting behavior of the tongues is found: almost all of them concentrate in a small Λ -interval [1, 9 / 8] as e→ 1^-. We apply the stability diagram of our equation to determine the regions for which the equilibrium of a Sitnikov (N+1)-body problem is stable in the sense of Lyapunov and the regions having symmetric periodic solutions with a given number of zeros. We also study the Lyapunov stability of the equilibrium in the center of mass of a curved Sitnikov problem.

  11. Charge-resonance excitations in symmetric molecules - Comparison of linear response DFT with CC3 for the excited states of a model dimer

    Kuhlman, Thomas Scheby; Mikkelsen, Kurt V.; Møller, Klaus Braagaard

    2009-01-01

    to a reference CC3 calculation revealing a better description of the excited states by CAM-B3LYP than that of B3LYP. The Λ parameter introduced by Peach et al. [M.J.G. Peach, P. Benfield, T. Helgaker, D.J. Tozer, J. Chem. Phys. 128 (2008) 044118] does not always reveal the problematic charge-resonance states...

  12. Linear all-optical signal processing using silicon micro-ring resonators

    Ding, Yunhong; Ou, Haiyan; Xu, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Silicon micro-ring resonators (MRRs) are compact and versatile devices whose periodic frequency response can be exploited for a wide range of applications. In this paper, we review our recent work on linear all-optical signal processing applications using silicon MRRs as passive filters. We focus...

  13. The non-linear ion trap. Part 5. Nature of non-linear resonances and resonant ion ejection

    Franzen, J.

    1994-01-01

    The superposition of higher order multipole fields on the basic quadrupole field in ion traps generates a non-harmonic oscillator system for the ions. Fourier analyses of simulated secular oscillations in non-linear ion traps, therefore, not only reveal the sideband frequencies, well-known from the Mathieu theory, but additionally a commonwealth of multipole-specific overtones (or higher harmonics), and corresponding sidebands of overtones. Non-linear resonances occur when the overtone frequencies match sideband frequencies. It can be shown that in each of the resonance conditions, not just one overtone matches one sideband, instead, groups of overtones match groups of sidebands. The generation of overtones is studied by Fourier analysis of computed ion oscillations in the direction of thez axis. Even multipoles (octopole, dodecapole, etc.) generate only odd orders of higher harmonics (3, 5, etc.) of the secular frequency, explainable by the symmetry with regard to the planez = 0. In contrast, odd multipoles (hexapole, decapole, etc.) generate all orders of higher harmonics. For all multipoles, the lowest higher harmonics are found to be strongest. With multipoles of higher orders, the strength of the overtones decreases weaker with the order of the harmonics. Forz direction resonances in stationary trapping fields, the function governing the amplitude growth is investigated by computer simulations. The ejection in thez direction, as a function of timet, follows, at least in good approximation, the equation wheren is the order of multipole, andC is a constant. This equation is strictly valid for the electrically applied dipole field (n = 1), matching the secular frequency or one of its sidebands, resulting in a linear increase of the amplitude. It is valid also for the basic quadrupole field (n = 2) outside the stability area, giving an exponential increase. It is at least approximately valid for the non-linear resonances by weak superpositions of all higher odd

  14. Magnetic x-ray linear dichroism in resonant and non-resonant Gd 4f photoemission

    Mishra, S.; Gammon, W.J.; Pappas, D.P. [Virginia Commonwealth Univ., Richmond, VA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    The enhancement of the magnetic linear dichroism in resonant 4f photoemission (MLDRPE) is studied from a 50 monolayer film of Gd/Y(0001). The ALS at beamline 7.0.1 provided the source of linearly polarized x-rays used in this study. The polarized light was incident at an angle of 30 degrees relative to the film plane, and the sample magnetization was perpendicular to the photon polarization. The linear dichroism of the 4f core levels is measured as the photon energy is tuned through the 4d-4f resonance. The authors find that the MLDRPE asymmetry is strongest at the resonance. Near the threshold the asymmetry has several features which are out of phase with the fine structure of the total yield.

  15. Magnetic x-ray linear dichroism in resonant and non-resonant Gd 4f photoemission

    Mishra, S.; Gammon, W.J.; Pappas, D.P.

    1997-01-01

    The enhancement of the magnetic linear dichroism in resonant 4f photoemission (MLDRPE) is studied from a 50 monolayer film of Gd/Y(0001). The ALS at beamline 7.0.1 provided the source of linearly polarized x-rays used in this study. The polarized light was incident at an angle of 30 degrees relative to the film plane, and the sample magnetization was perpendicular to the photon polarization. The linear dichroism of the 4f core levels is measured as the photon energy is tuned through the 4d-4f resonance. The authors find that the MLDRPE asymmetry is strongest at the resonance. Near the threshold the asymmetry has several features which are out of phase with the fine structure of the total yield

  16. Biological responses of human solid tumor cells to X-ray irradiation within a 1.5-Tesla magnetic field generated by a magnetic resonance imaging–linear accelerator

    Wang, Li; Hoogcarspel, Stan Jelle; Wen, Zhifei; van Vulpen, Marco; Molkentine, David P.; Kok, Jan; Lin, Steven H.; Broekhuizen, Roel; Ang, Kie Kian; Bovenschen, Niels; Raaymakers, Bas W.; Frank, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Devices that combine magnetic resonance imaging with linear accelerators (MRL) represent a novel tool for MR-guided radiotherapy. However, whether magnetic fields (MFs) generated by these devices affect the radiosensitivity of tumors is unknown. We investigated the influence of a 1.5-T MF on cell

  17. Linear ubiquitination signals in adaptive immune responses.

    Ikeda, Fumiyo

    2015-07-01

    Ubiquitin can form eight different linkage types of chains using the intrinsic Met 1 residue or one of the seven intrinsic Lys residues. Each linkage type of ubiquitin chain has a distinct three-dimensional topology, functioning as a tag to attract specific signaling molecules, which are so-called ubiquitin readers, and regulates various biological functions. Ubiquitin chains linked via Met 1 in a head-to-tail manner are called linear ubiquitin chains. Linear ubiquitination plays an important role in the regulation of cellular signaling, including the best-characterized tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced canonical nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway. Linear ubiquitin chains are specifically generated by an E3 ligase complex called the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC) and hydrolyzed by a deubiquitinase (DUB) called ovarian tumor (OTU) DUB with linear linkage specificity (OTULIN). LUBAC linearly ubiquitinates critical molecules in the TNF pathway, such as NEMO and RIPK1. The linear ubiquitin chains are then recognized by the ubiquitin readers, including NEMO, which control the TNF pathway. Accumulating evidence indicates an importance of the LUBAC complex in the regulation of apoptosis, development, and inflammation in mice. In this article, I focus on the role of linear ubiquitin chains in adaptive immune responses with an emphasis on the TNF-induced signaling pathways. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Linear response theory for quantum open systems

    Wei, J. H.; Yan, YiJing

    2011-01-01

    Basing on the theory of Feynman's influence functional and its hierarchical equations of motion, we develop a linear response theory for quantum open systems. Our theory provides an effective way to calculate dynamical observables of a quantum open system at its steady-state, which can be applied to various fields of non-equilibrium condensed matter physics.

  19. Diagnostics for Linear Models With Functional Responses

    Xu, Hongquan; Shen, Qing

    2005-01-01

    Linear models where the response is a function and the predictors are vectors are useful in analyzing data from designed experiments and other situations with functional observations. Residual analysis and diagnostics are considered for such models. Studentized residuals are defined and their properties are studied. Chi-square quantile-quantile plots are proposed to check the assumption of Gaussian error process and outliers. Jackknife residuals and an associated test are proposed to det...

  20. Engineering non-linear resonator mode interactions in circuit QED by continuous driving: Introduction

    Pfaff, Wolfgang; Reagor, Matthew; Heeres, Reinier; Ofek, Nissim; Chou, Kevin; Blumoff, Jacob; Leghtas, Zaki; Touzard, Steven; Sliwa, Katrina; Holland, Eric; Krastanov, Stefan; Frunzio, Luigi; Devoret, Michel; Jiang, Liang; Schoelkopf, Robert

    2015-03-01

    High-Q microwave resonators show great promise for storing and manipulating quantum states in circuit QED. Using resonator modes as such a resource in quantum information processing applications requires the ability to manipulate the state of a resonator efficiently. Further, one must engineer appropriate coupling channels without spoiling the coherence properties of the resonator. We present an architecture that combines millisecond lifetimes for photonic quantum states stored in a linear resonator with fast measurement provided by a low-Q readout resonator. We demonstrate experimentally how a continuous drive on a transmon can be utilized to generate highly non-classical photonic states inside the high-Q resonator via effective nonlinear resonator mode interactions. Our approach opens new avenues for using modes of long-lived linear resonators in the circuit QED platform for quantum information processing tasks.

  1. Hydration thermodynamics beyond the linear response approximation.

    Raineri, Fernando O

    2016-10-19

    The solvation energetics associated with the transformation of a solute molecule at infinite dilution in water from an initial state A to a final state B is reconsidered. The two solute states have different potentials energies of interaction, [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], with the solvent environment. Throughout the A [Formula: see text] B transformation of the solute, the solvation system is described by a Hamiltonian [Formula: see text] that changes linearly with the coupling parameter ξ. By focusing on the characterization of the probability density [Formula: see text] that the dimensionless perturbational solute-solvent interaction energy [Formula: see text] has numerical value y when the coupling parameter is ξ, we derive a hierarchy of differential equation relations between the ξ-dependent cumulant functions of various orders in the expansion of the appropriate cumulant generating function. On the basis of this theoretical framework we then introduce an inherently nonlinear solvation model for which we are able to find analytical results for both [Formula: see text] and for the solvation thermodynamic functions. The solvation model is based on the premise that there is an upper or a lower bound (depending on the nature of the interactions considered) to the amplitude of the fluctuations of Y in the solution system at equilibrium. The results reveal essential differences in behavior for the model when compared with the linear response approximation to solvation, particularly with regards to the probability density [Formula: see text]. The analytical expressions for the solvation properties show, however, that the linear response behavior is recovered from the new model when the room for the thermal fluctuations in Y is not restricted by the existence of a nearby bound. We compare the predictions of the model with the results from molecular dynamics computer simulations for aqueous solvation, in which either (1) the solute

  2. Responsive linear-dendritic block copolymers.

    Blasco, Eva; Piñol, Milagros; Oriol, Luis

    2014-06-01

    The combination of dendritic and linear polymeric structures in the same macromolecule opens up new possibilities for the design of block copolymers and for applications of functional polymers that have self-assembly properties. There are three main strategies for the synthesis of linear-dendritic block copolymers (LDBCs) and, in particular, the emergence of click chemistry has made the coupling of preformed blocks one of the most efficient ways of obtaining libraries of LDBCs. In these materials, the periphery of the dendron can be precisely functionalised to obtain functional LDBCs with self-assembly properties of interest in different technological areas. The incorporation of stimuli-responsive moieties gives rise to smart materials that are generally processed as self-assemblies of amphiphilic LDBCs with a morphology that can be controlled by an external stimulus. Particular emphasis is placed on light-responsive LDBCs. Furthermore, a brief review of the biomedical or materials science applications of LDBCs is presented. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Determination of the electromagnetic field in a high-Tc linear superconducting resonator

    Trotel, A.; Sautrot, S.; Pyee, M.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, the electromagnetic field configuration in a linear SHTC resonator is described. Two areas are considered: 1) the superconducting strip, 2) the dielectric around the strip. The calculation is based on the current density given by Bowers for an infinite superconducting line. The current density in the resonator is defined by these relations and the resonance conditions. (orig.)

  4. Damping characteristic identification of non-linear soil-structural system interaction by phase resonance

    Poterasu, V.F.

    1984-01-01

    It is presented a method and the phase resonance for damping characteristic identification of non-linear soil-structural interaction. The algorithm can be applied in case of any, not necessarily, damping characteristic of the system examined. For the identification, the system is harmonically excited and are considered the super-harmonic amplitudes for odd and even powers of the x. The response of shear beam system for different levels of base excitation and for different locations of the load is considered. (Author) [pt

  5. A time-dependent density functional theory investigation of plasmon resonances of linear Au atomic chains

    Liu Dan-Dan; Zhang Hong

    2011-01-01

    We report theoretical studies on the plasmon resonances in linear Au atomic chains by using ab initio time-dependent density functional theory. The dipole responses are investigated each as a function of chain length. They converge into a single resonance in the longitudinal mode but split into two transverse modes. As the chain length increases, the longitudinal plasmon mode is redshifted in energy while the transverse modes shift in the opposite direction (blueshifts). In addition, the energy gap between the two transverse modes reduces with chain length increasing. We find that there are unique characteristics, different from those of other metallic chains. These characteristics are crucial to atomic-scale engineering of single-molecule sensing, optical spectroscopy, and so on. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  6. Ultrafast Non-thermal Response of Plasmonic Resonance in Gold Nanoantennas

    Soavi, Giancarlo; Valle, Giuseppe Della; Biagioni, Paolo; Cattoni, Andrea; Longhi, Stefano; Cerullo, Giulio; Brida, Daniele

    Ultrafast thermalization of electrons in metal nanostructures is studied by means of pump-probe spectroscopy. We track in real-time the plasmon resonance evolution, providing a tool for understanding and controlling gold nanoantennas non-linear optical response.

  7. Rectifier Current Control for an LLC Resonant Converter Based on a Simplified Linearized Model

    Zhijian Fang; Junhua Wang; Shanxu Duan; Liangle Xiao; Guozheng Hu; Qisheng Liu

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a rectifier current control for an LLC resonant converter is proposed, based on a simplified, two-order, linearized model that adds a rectifier current feedback inner loop to improve dynamic performance. Compared to the traditional large-signal model with seven resonant states, this paper utilizes a rectifier current state to represent the characteristics of the resonant states, simplifying the LLC resonant model from seven orders to two orders. Then, the rectifier current feed...

  8. Airfoil wake and linear theory gust response including sub and superresonant flow conditions

    Henderson, Gregory H.; Fleeter, Sanford

    1992-01-01

    The unsteady aerodynamic gust response of a high solidity stator vane row is examined in terms of the fundamental gust modeling assumptions with particular attention given to the effects near an acoustic resonance. A series of experiments was performed with gusts generated by rotors comprised of perforated plates and airfoils. It is concluded that, for both the perforated plate and airfoil wake generated gusts, the unsteady pressure responses do not agree with the linear-theory gust predictions near an acoustic resonance. The effects of the acoustic resonance phenomena are clearly evident on the airfoil surface unsteady pressure responses. The transition of the measured lift coefficients across the acoustic resonance from the subresonant regime to the superresonant regime occurs in a simple linear fashion.

  9. Biological responses of human solid tumor cells to X-ray irradiation within a 1.5-Tesla magnetic field generated by a magnetic resonance imaging-linear accelerator.

    Wang, Li; Hoogcarspel, Stan Jelle; Wen, Zhifei; van Vulpen, Marco; Molkentine, David P; Kok, Jan; Lin, Steven H; Broekhuizen, Roel; Ang, Kie-Kian; Bovenschen, Niels; Raaymakers, Bas W; Frank, Steven J

    2016-10-01

    Devices that combine magnetic resonance imaging with linear accelerators (MRL) represent a novel tool for MR-guided radiotherapy. However, whether magnetic fields (MFs) generated by these devices affect the radiosensitivity of tumors is unknown. We investigated the influence of a 1.5-T MF on cell viability and radioresponse of human solid tumors. Human head/neck cancer and lung cancer cells were exposed to single or fractionated 6-MV X-ray radiation; effects of the MF on cell viability were determined by cell plating efficiency and on radioresponsiveness by clonogenic cell survival. Doses needed to reduce the fraction of surviving cells to 37% of the initial value (D0s) were calculated for multiple exposures to MF and radiation. Results were analyzed using Student's t-tests. Cell viability was no different after single or multiple exposures to MRL than after exposure to a conventional linear accelerator (Linac, without MR-generated MF) in 12 of 15 experiments (all P > 0.05). Single or multiple exposures to MF had no influence on cell radioresponse (all P > 0.05). Cells treated up to four times with an MRL or a Linac further showed no changes in D0s with MF versus without MF (all P > 0.05). In conclusion, MF within the MRL does not seem to affect in vitro tumor radioresponsiveness as compared with a conventional Linac. Bioelectromagnetics. 37:471-480, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Wideband energy harvesting for piezoelectric devices with linear resonant behavior.

    Luo, Cheng; Hofmann, Heath F

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, an active energy harvesting technique for a spring-mass-damper mechanical resonator with piezoelectric electromechanical coupling is investigated. This technique applies a square-wave voltage to the terminals of the device at the same frequency as the mechanical excitation. By controlling the magnitude and phase angle of this voltage, an effective impedance matching can be achieved which maximizes the amount of power extracted from the device. Theoretically, the harvested power can be the maximum possible value, even at off-resonance frequencies. However, in actual implementation, the efficiency of the power electronic circuit limits the amount of power harvested. A power electronic full-bridge converter is built to implement the technique. Experimental results show that the active technique can increase the effective bandwidth by a factor of more than 2, and harvests significantly higher power than rectifier-based circuits at off-resonance frequencies.

  11. Generation of linearly polarized resonant transition radiation X-ray beam

    Yajima, Kazuaki; Awata, Takaaki; Ikeda, Mitsuharu; Ikeda, Kenichi; Yogo, Akifumi; Itoh, Akio; Imanishi, Nobutsugu

    2000-01-01

    We have proposed a method to generate almost linearly polarized resonant transition radiation X rays by using a rectangular slit placed on an electron beam axis. Our calculation predicted that the linearity is 93.5% for the resonant transition radiation X-ray beam extracted through a slit of 0.5 mrad long and 0.2 mrad wide in case of 1-GeV electron beam irradiating a 7.5-μm thick Kapton foil stack. (author)

  12. Generation of linearly polarized resonant transition radiation X-ray beam

    Yajima, Kazuaki; Awata, Takaaki; Ikeda, Mitsuharu; Ikeda, Kenichi; Yogo, Akifumi; Itoh, Akio; Imanishi, Nobutsugu [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    2000-03-01

    We have proposed a method to generate almost linearly polarized resonant transition radiation X rays by using a rectangular slit placed on an electron beam axis. Our calculation predicted that the linearity is 93.5% for the resonant transition radiation X-ray beam extracted through a slit of 0.5 mrad long and 0.2 mrad wide in case of 1-GeV electron beam irradiating a 7.5-{mu}m thick Kapton foil stack. (author)

  13. A linear postaccelerator with superconducting helix resonators for medium mass ions

    Ingwersen, H.; Jaeschke, E.; Repnow, R.; Walcher, T.; Hochschild, G.; Lehmann, W.; Piosczyk, B.; Spath, F.; Vetter, J.E.

    1978-05-01

    The concept is presented of a linear accelerator equiped with short superconducting resonators as accelerating elements. Saving high-frequency power remarkably reduces the operating costs as compared with normal conducting resonators. Booster systems of this type can be used to further accelerate medium heavy ions having passed on MP tandem after their charge state has been increased. (orig.) 891 WL [de

  14. Finite orbit energetic particle linear response to toroidal Alfven eigenmodes

    Berk, H.L.; Ye Huanchun; Breizman, B.N.

    1992-01-01

    The linear response of energetic particles of the TAE modes is calculated taking into account their finite orbit excursion from the flux surfaces. The general expression reproduces the previously derived theory for small banana width; when the banana width Δ b is much larger than the mode thickness Δ m , we obtain a new compact expression for the linear power transfer. When Δ m /Δ b m /Δ b from that predicted by the narrow orbit theory. A comparison is made of the contribution to the TAE growth rate of energetic particles with a slowing-down distribution arising from an isotropic source, and a balanced-injected beam source when the source speed is close to the Alfven speed. For the same stored energy density, the contribution from the principal resonances (vertical strokev parallel vertical stroke=v A ) is substantially enhanced in the beam case compared to the isotropic case, while the contribution at the higher sidebands (vertical strokev parallel vertical stroke=v A /(2l-1) with l≥2) is substantially reduced. (orig.)

  15. Finite orbit energetic particle linear response to toroidal Alfven eigenmodes

    Berk, H.L.; Ye, Huanchun; Breizman, B.N.

    1991-07-01

    The linear response of energetic particles to the TAE modes is calculated taking into account their finite orbit excursion from the flux surfaces. The general expression reproduces the previously derived theory for small banana width: when the banana width triangle b is much larger than the mode thickness triangle m , we obtain a new compact expression for the linear power transfer. When triangle m /triangle b much-lt 1, the banana orbit effect reduces the power transfer by a factor of triangle m /triangle b from that predicted by the narrow orbit theory. A comparison is made of the contribution to the TAE growth rate of energetic particles with a slowing-down distribution arising from an isotropic source, and a balance-injected beam source when the source speed is close to the Alfven speed. For the same stored energy density, the contribution from the principal resonances (|υ parallel | = υ A is substantially enhanced in the beam case compared to the isotropic case, while the contribution at the higher sidebands (|υ parallel |) = υ A /(2 ell - 1) with ell ≥ 2) is substantially reduced. 10 refs

  16. Electron cyclotron resonance breakdown studies in a linear plasma ...

    linear cylindrical system with four different gases – hydrogen, helium, argon and ... The axial magnetic field required for ECR in the system is such that the fundamental .... p being the operating pressure in mbar. λe for various gases at different ...

  17. Linear and nonlinear resonance features of an erbium-doped fibre ...

    2014-07-01

    Jul 1, 2014 ... Abstract. The continuous-wave output of a single-mode erbium-doped fibre ring laser when sub- jected to cavity-loss modulation is found to exhibit linear as well as nonlinear resonances. At sufficiently low driving amplitude, the system resembles a linear damped oscillator. At higher amplitudes, the ...

  18. Quasi-linear theory for a tokamak plasma in the presence of cyclotron resonance

    Belikov, V.S.; Kolesnichenko, Ya.I.

    1993-01-01

    Quasi-linear diffusion equations for the distribution function of trapped and circulating particles interacting with waves in a tokamak by means of cyclotron resonance are derived. The resulting equations reveal new features of quasi-linear diffusion and are of two kinds, one which involves bounce resonances overlapping in velocity space and one with well separated bounce resonances. These two cases correspond to situations where the phase of the wave-particle interaction between successive resonances can be considered as random or deterministic, respectively. An analysis of the conditions of applicability of the new equations is carried out and previous well-known forms of the quasi-linear diffusion equations are shown to be recovered in the proper limits. (10 refs., 3 figs.)

  19. Responsive gelation of hydrophobized linear polymer

    Madsen, Claus Greve; Toeth, Joachim; Jørgensen, Lene

    In this study we present the rheological properties of a physically linked polymer network, composed of linear hydrophilic chains, modified with hydrophobic moieties in each end. Solutions of the polymer in ethanol-water mixtures showed Newtonian behaviour up to about 99 % ethanol, with the highest...

  20. The mathematical structure of the approximate linear response relation

    Yasuda, Muneki; Tanaka, Kazuyuki

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we study the mathematical structures of the linear response relation based on Plefka's expansion and the cluster variation method in terms of the perturbation expansion, and we show how this linear response relation approximates the correlation functions of the specified system. Moreover, by comparing the perturbation expansions of the correlation functions estimated by the linear response relation based on these approximation methods with exact perturbative forms of the correlation functions, we are able to explain why the approximate techniques using the linear response relation work well

  1. Tunneling of heat: Beyond linear response regime

    Walczak, Kamil; Saroka, David

    2018-02-01

    We examine nanoscale processes of heat (energy) transfer as carried by electrons tunneling via potential barriers and molecular interconnects between two heat reservoirs (thermal baths). For that purpose, we use Landauer-type formulas to calculate thermal conductance and quadratic correction to heat flux flowing via quantum systems. As an input, we implement analytical expressions for transmission functions related to simple potential barriers and atomic bridges. Our results are discussed with respect to energy of tunneling electrons, temperature, the presence of resonant states, and specific parameters characterizing potential barriers as well as heat carriers. The simplicity of semi-analytical models developed by us allows to fit experimental data and extract crucial information about the values of model parameters. Further investigations are expected for more realistic transmission functions, while time-dependent aspects of nanoscale heat transfer may be addressed by using the concept of wave packets scattered on potential barriers and point-like defects within regular (periodic) nanostructures.

  2. Nano-resonator frequency response based on strain gradient theory

    Miandoab, Ehsan Maani; Yousefi-Koma, Aghil; Pishkenari, Hossein Nejat; Fathi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to explore the dynamic behaviour of a nano-resonator under ac and dc excitation using strain gradient theory. To achieve this goal, the partial differential equation of nano-beam vibration is first converted to an ordinary differential equation by the Galerkin projection method and the lumped model is derived. Lumped parameters of the nano-resonator, such as linear and nonlinear springs and damper coefficients, are compared with those of classical theory and it is demonstrated that beams with smaller thickness display greater deviation from classical parameters. Stable and unstable equilibrium points based on classic and non-classical theories are also compared. The results show that, regarding the applied dc voltage, the dynamic behaviours expected by classical and non-classical theories are significantly different, such that one theory predicts the un-deformed shape as the stable condition, while the other theory predicts that the beam will experience bi-stability. To obtain the frequency response of the nano-resonator, a general equation including cubic and quadratic nonlinearities in addition to parametric electrostatic excitation terms is derived, and the analytical solution is determined using a second-order multiple scales method. Based on frequency response analysis, the softening and hardening effects given by two theories are investigated and compared, and it is observed that neglecting the size effect can lead to two completely different predictions in the dynamic behaviour of the resonators. The findings of this article can be helpful in the design and characterization of the size-dependent dynamic behaviour of resonators on small scales. (paper)

  3. Non-linear stochastic response of a shallow cable

    Larsen, Jesper Winther; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    2004-01-01

    The paper considers the stochastic response of geometrical non-linear shallow cables. Large rain-wind induced cable oscillations with non-linear interactions have been observed in many large cable stayed bridges during the last decades. The response of the cable is investigated for a reduced two...

  4. Competitive inhibition can linearize dose-response and generate a linear rectifier.

    Savir, Yonatan; Tu, Benjamin P; Springer, Michael

    2015-09-23

    Many biological responses require a dynamic range that is larger than standard bi-molecular interactions allow, yet the also ability to remain off at low input. Here we mathematically show that an enzyme reaction system involving a combination of competitive inhibition, conservation of the total level of substrate and inhibitor, and positive feedback can behave like a linear rectifier-that is, a network motif with an input-output relationship that is linearly sensitive to substrate above a threshold but unresponsive below the threshold. We propose that the evolutionarily conserved yeast SAGA histone acetylation complex may possess the proper physiological response characteristics and molecular interactions needed to perform as a linear rectifier, and we suggest potential experiments to test this hypothesis. One implication of this work is that linear responses and linear rectifiers might be easier to evolve or synthetically construct than is currently appreciated.

  5. Equilibrium beam distribution in an electron storage ring near linear synchrobetatron coupling resonances

    Boaz Nash

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Linear dynamics in a storage ring can be described by the one-turn map matrix. In the case of a resonance where two of the eigenvalues of this matrix are degenerate, a coupling perturbation causes a mixing of the uncoupled eigenvectors. A perturbation formalism is developed to find eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the one-turn map near such a linear resonance. Damping and diffusion due to synchrotron radiation can be obtained by integrating their effects over one turn, and the coupled eigenvectors can be used to find the coupled damping and diffusion coefficients. Expressions for the coupled equilibrium emittances and beam distribution moments are then derived. In addition to the conventional instabilities at the sum, integer, and half-integer resonances, it is found that the coupling can cause an instability through antidamping near a sum resonance even when the symplectic dynamics are stable. As one application of this formalism, the case of linear synchrobetatron coupling is analyzed where the coupling is caused by dispersion in the rf cavity, or by a crab cavity. Explicit closed-form expressions for the sum/difference resonances are given along with the integer/half-integer resonances. The integer and half-integer resonances caused by coupling require particular care. We find an example of this with the case of a crab cavity for the integer resonance of the synchrotron tune. Whether or not there is an instability is determined by the value of the horizontal betatron tune, a unique feature of these coupling-caused integer or half-integer resonances. Finally, the coupled damping and diffusion coefficients along with the equilibrium invariants and projected emittances are plotted as a function of the betatron and synchrotron tunes for an example storage ring based on PEP-II.

  6. The design of a small linear-resonant, split Stirling cryogenic refrigerator compressor

    Ackermann, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    The development of a small linear-resonant compressor for use in a 1/4-watt, 78K, split Stirling cryogenic refrigerator is discussed. The compressor contains the following special features: (1) a permanent-magnet linear motor; (2) resonant dynamics; (3) dynamic balancing; and (4) a close-clearance seal between the compressor piston and cylinder. This paper describes the design of the compressor, and presents component test data and system test data for the compressor driving a 1/4-watt expander.

  7. Elastic Nonlinear Response in Granular Media Under Resonance Conditions

    Jia, X.; Johnson, P. A.

    2004-12-01

    We are studying the elastic linear and nonlinear behavior of granular media using dynamic wave methods. In the work presented here, our goal is to quantify the elastic nonlinear response by applying wave resonance. Resonance studies are desirable because they provide the means to easily study amplitude dependencies of elastic nonlinear behavior and thus to characterize the physical nature of the elastic nonlinearity. This work has implications for a variety of topics, in particular, the in situ nonlinear response of surface sediments. For this work we constructed an experimental cell in which high sensitivity dynamic resonance studies were conducted using granular media under controlled effective pressure. We limit our studies here to bulk modes but have the capability to employ shear waves as well. The granular media are composed of glass beads held under pressure by a piston, while applying resonance waves from transducers as both the excitation and the material probe. The container is closed with two fitted pistons and a normal load is applied to the granular sample across the top piston. Force and displacement are measured directly. Resonant frequency sweeps with frequencies corresponding to the fundamental bulk mode are applied to the longitudinal source transducer. The pore pressure in the system is 1 atm. The glass beads used in our experiments are of diameter 0.5 mm, randomly deposited in a duralumin cylinder of diameter 30 mm and height of 15 mm. This corresponds to a granular skeleton acoustic wave velocity of v ª 750m/s under 50 N of force [0.07 Mpa]. The loaded system gives fundamental mode resonances in the audio frequency band at half a wavelength where resonance frequency is effective-pressure dependent. The volume fraction of glass beads thus obtained is found to be 0.63 ± 0.01. Plane-wave generating and detecting transducers of diameter 30 mm are placed on axis at the top and bottom of the cylindrical container in direct contact with the glass

  8. Optimal trajectory control of a series-resonant inverter with a non-linear resonant inductor

    Huisman, H.; Baskurt, F.; Bouloukos, A; Baars, N.H.; Lomonova, E.A.

    2017-01-01

    ies-Resonant (SR) converters have been used as building blocks for DC-AC and DC-DC power converters for at least half a century. Applications were first found in induction heating [1], where generating a substantial AC current at moderately high frequency was required by the application. Later, the

  9. Design of a dual linear polarization antenna using split ring resonators at X-band

    Ahmed, Sadiq; Chandra, Madhukar

    2017-11-01

    Dual linear polarization microstrip antenna configurations are very suitable for high-performance satellites, wireless communication and radar applications. This paper presents a new method to improve the co-cross polarization discrimination (XPD) for dual linear polarized microstrip antennas at 10 GHz. For this, three various configurations of a dual linear polarization antenna utilizing metamaterial unit cells are shown. In the first layout, the microstrip patch antenna is loaded with two pairs of spiral ring resonators, in the second model, a split ring resonator is placed between two microstrip feed lines, and in the third design, a complementary split ring resonators are etched in the ground plane. This work has two primary goals: the first is related to the addition of metamaterial unit cells to the antenna structure which permits compensation for an asymmetric current distribution flow on the microstrip antenna and thus yields a symmetrical current distribution on it. This compensation leads to an important enhancement in the XPD in comparison to a conventional dual linear polarized microstrip patch antenna. The simulation reveals an improvement of 7.9, 8.8, and 4 dB in the E and H planes for the three designs, respectively, in the XPD as compared to the conventional dual linear polarized patch antenna. The second objective of this paper is to present the characteristics and performances of the designs of the spiral ring resonator (S-RR), split ring resonator (SRR), and complementary split ring resonator (CSRR) metamaterial unit cells. The simulations are evaluated using the commercial full-wave simulator, Ansoft High-Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS).

  10. Nonlinear aeroacoustic characterization of Helmholtz resonators with a local-linear neuro-fuzzy network model

    Förner, K.; Polifke, W.

    2017-10-01

    The nonlinear acoustic behavior of Helmholtz resonators is characterized by a data-based reduced-order model, which is obtained by a combination of high-resolution CFD simulation and system identification. It is shown that even in the nonlinear regime, a linear model is capable of describing the reflection behavior at a particular amplitude with quantitative accuracy. This observation motivates to choose a local-linear model structure for this study, which consists of a network of parallel linear submodels. A so-called fuzzy-neuron layer distributes the input signal over the linear submodels, depending on the root mean square of the particle velocity at the resonator surface. The resulting model structure is referred to as an local-linear neuro-fuzzy network. System identification techniques are used to estimate the free parameters of this model from training data. The training data are generated by CFD simulations of the resonator, with persistent acoustic excitation over a wide range of frequencies and sound pressure levels. The estimated nonlinear, reduced-order models show good agreement with CFD and experimental data over a wide range of amplitudes for several test cases.

  11. Linear optical response of finite systems using multishift linear system solvers

    Hübener, Hannes; Giustino, Feliciano [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-28

    We discuss the application of multishift linear system solvers to linear-response time-dependent density functional theory. Using this technique the complete frequency-dependent electronic density response of finite systems to an external perturbation can be calculated at the cost of a single solution of a linear system via conjugate gradients. We show that multishift time-dependent density functional theory yields excitation energies and oscillator strengths in perfect agreement with the standard diagonalization of the response matrix (Casida's method), while being computationally advantageous. We present test calculations for benzene, porphin, and chlorophyll molecules. We argue that multishift solvers may find broad applicability in the context of excited-state calculations within density-functional theory and beyond.

  12. Modification of linear response theory for mean-field approximations

    Hütter, M.; Öttinger, H.C.

    1996-01-01

    In the framework of statistical descriptions of many particle systems, the influence of mean-field approximations on the linear response theory is studied. A procedure, analogous to one where no mean-field approximation is involved, is used in order to determine the first order response of the

  13. High-efficiency FEL with Bragg resonator driven by linear induction accelerator

    Ginzburg, N S; Kaminskij, A A; Kaminskij, A K; Peskov, N Yu; Sedykh, S N; Sergeev, A P; Sergeev, A S [Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation). Inst. of Applied Physics

    1997-12-31

    A narrow-band high-efficiency FEL-oscillator with a Bragg resonator was constructed based on a linear induction accelerator which formed a 1 MeV, 200 A, 200 ns electron beam. At the frequency of 31 GHz, radiation with a power of 31 MW and efficiency of 25% was measured. A high efficiency and a narrow width of the spectrum were achieved owing to the selective properties of the Bragg resonator in combination with the high quality of the helical electron beam formed in the reversed guide field regime. (author). 3 figs., 3 refs.

  14. Rectifier Current Control for an LLC Resonant Converter Based on a Simplified Linearized Model

    Zhijian Fang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a rectifier current control for an LLC resonant converter is proposed, based on a simplified, two-order, linearized model that adds a rectifier current feedback inner loop to improve dynamic performance. Compared to the traditional large-signal model with seven resonant states, this paper utilizes a rectifier current state to represent the characteristics of the resonant states, simplifying the LLC resonant model from seven orders to two orders. Then, the rectifier current feedback inner loop is proposed to increase the control system damping, improving dynamic performance. The modeling and design methodology for the LLC resonant converter are also presented in this paper. A frequency analysis is conducted to verify the accuracy of the simplified model. Finally, a 200 W LLC resonant converter prototype is built to verify the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy. Compared to a traditional single-loop controller, the settling time and voltage droop were reduced from 10.8 ms to 8.6 ms and from 6.8 V to 4.8 V, respectively, using the proposed control strategy.

  15. Study of loading by beam of dual-resonator structure of linear electron accelerator

    Milovanov, O.S.; Smirnov, I.A.

    1988-01-01

    Loading by the beam of the accelerating structure of an Argus dual-resonator linear electron accelerator with a kinetic energy of ∼ 1 MeV and a pulsed beam current of up to 0.5 A is studied experimentally. It is shown that the conditions for stable single-frequency operation of the magnetron are disrupted and the acceleration process is cut off at certain electron-beam currents. Experimental curves of the maximum beam current and maximum electron efficiency of the Argus linear electron accelerator as functions of rf power are given

  16. A Near-Threshold Shape Resonance in the Valence-Shell Photoabsorption of Linear Alkynes

    Jacovella, U.; Holland, D. M. P.; Boyé-Péronne, S.; Gans, Bérenger; de Oliveira, N.; Ito, K.; Joyeux, D.; Archer, L. E.; Lucchese, R. R.; Xu, Hong; Pratt, S. T.

    2015-12-17

    The room-temperature photoabsorption spectra of a number of linear alkynes with internal triple bonds (e.g., 2-butyne, 2-pentyne, and 2- and 3-hexyne) show similar resonances just above the lowest ionization threshold of the neutral molecules. These features result in a substantial enhancement of the photoabsorption cross sections relative to the cross sections of alkynes with terminal triple bonds (e.g., propyne, 1-butyne, 1-pentyne,...). Based on earlier work on 2-butyne [Xu et al., J. Chem. Phys. 2012, 136, 154303], these features are assigned to excitation from the neutral highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) to a shape resonance with g (l = 4) character and approximate pi symmetry. This generic behavior results from the similarity of the HOMOs in all internal alkynes, as well as the similarity of the corresponding g pi virtual orbital in the continuum. Theoretical calculations of the absorption spectrum above the ionization threshold for the 2- and 3-alkynes show the presence of a shape resonance when the coupling between the two degenerate or nearly degenerate pi channels is included, with a dominant contribution from l = 4. These calculations thus confirm the qualitative arguments for the importance of the l = 4 continuum near threshold for internal alkynes, which should also apply to other linear internal alkynes and alkynyl radicals. The 1-alkynes do not have such high partial waves present in the shape resonance. The lower l partial waves in these systems are consistent with the broader features observed in the corresponding spectra.

  17. Note: A high dynamic range, linear response transimpedance amplifier.

    Eckel, S; Sushkov, A O; Lamoreaux, S K

    2012-02-01

    We have built a high dynamic range (nine decade) transimpedance amplifier with a linear response. The amplifier uses junction-gate field effect transistors (JFETs) to switch between three different resistors in the feedback of a low input bias current operational amplifier. This allows for the creation of multiple outputs, each with a linear response and a different transimpedance gain. The overall bandwidth of the transimpedance amplifier is set by the bandwidth of the most sensitive range. For our application, we demonstrate a three-stage amplifier with transimpedance gains of approximately 10(9)Ω, 3 × 10(7)Ω, and 10(4)Ω with a bandwidth of 100 Hz.

  18. Linear density response function in the projector augmented wave method

    Yan, Jun; Mortensen, Jens Jørgen; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    2011-01-01

    We present an implementation of the linear density response function within the projector-augmented wave method with applications to the linear optical and dielectric properties of both solids, surfaces, and interfaces. The response function is represented in plane waves while the single...... functions of Si, C, SiC, AlP, and GaAs compare well with previous calculations. While optical properties of semiconductors, in particular excitonic effects, are generally not well described by ALDA, we obtain excellent agreement with experiments for the surface loss function of graphene and the Mg(0001...

  19. Non-linear dynamic response of reactor containment

    Takemori, T.; Sotomura, K.; Yamada, M.

    1975-01-01

    A computer program was developed to investigate the elasto-plastic behavior of structures. This program is outlined and the problems of non-linear response of structures are discussed. Since the mode superposition method is only valid in an elastic analysis, the direct integration method was adopted here. As the sample model, an actual reactor containment (reactor building) of PWR plant was adopted. This building consists of three components, that is, a concrete internal structure, a steel containment vessel and a concrete outer shield wall. These components are resting on a rigid foundation mat. Therefore they were modeled with a lumped mass model respectively and coupled on the foundation. The following assumptions were employed to establish the properties of dynamic model: rocking and swaying springs of soil can be obtained from an elastic half-space solution, and the hysteretic characteristic of springs is bi-linear; springs connecting each mass are dealt with shear beams so that both bending and shear deflections can be included (Hysteretic characteristics of springs are linear, bi-linear and tri-linear for the internal structure, the containment vessel and the outer shield wall, respectively); generally, each damping coefficient is given for each mode in modal superposition (However, a damping matrix must be made directly in a non-linear response). Therefore the damping matrix of the model was made by combining the damping matrices [C] of each component obtained by Caughy's method and a damping value of the rocking and swaying by the half-space solution. On the basis of above conditions, the non-linear response of the structure was obtained and the difference between elastic and elasto-plastic analysis is presented

  20. Endoreversible quantum heat engines in the linear response regime.

    Wang, Honghui; He, Jizhou; Wang, Jianhui

    2017-07-01

    We analyze general models of quantum heat engines operating a cycle of two adiabatic and two isothermal processes. We use the quantum master equation for a system to describe heat transfer current during a thermodynamic process in contact with a heat reservoir, with no use of phenomenological thermal conduction. We apply the endoreversibility description to such engine models working in the linear response regime and derive expressions of the efficiency and the power. By analyzing the entropy production rate along a single cycle, we identify the thermodynamic flux and force that a linear relation connects. From maximizing the power output, we find that such heat engines satisfy the tight-coupling condition and the efficiency at maximum power agrees with the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency known as the upper bound in the linear response regime.

  1. Power Take-Off with Integrated Resonator for Energy Extraction from Linear Motions

    2014-01-01

    The invention relates to a magnetic gear for converting linear motion into rotational motion and vice versa. The present invention converts slow linear irregular oscillating motion of wave energy devices into torque on a high speed shaft for powering a generator while making the wave energy device...... of sea or ocean waves into useful energy, such as electricity. The invention relates to the control and operation of a magnetic gear based motor/generator system. The invention provides a high force density electric powered linear actuator....... resonate with the waves. The invention relates to the field of energy-harvesting from energy sources, where the energy-harvesting requires the extraction of energy from slow and often irregular reciprocating motion of bodies. The present invention relates to a wave power apparatus for converting power...

  2. Linear response at the 4-component relativistic level

    Saue, T.; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aagaard

    2003-01-01

    The theory, implementation, and application of linear response at the 4-component relativistic closed-shell Hartree-Fock level based on the concept of quasienergy and time averaging are reported. As such, an efficient AO-driven algorithm is obtained by assigning specific Hermiticity and time...

  3. Optimal approximation of linear systems by artificial immune response

    2006-01-01

    This paper puts forward a novel artificial immune response algorithm for optimal approximation of linear systems. A quaternion model of artificial immune response is proposed for engineering computing. The model abstracts four elements, namely, antigen, antibody, reaction rules among antibodies, and driving algorithm describing how the rules are applied to antibodies, to simulate the process of immune response. Some reaction rules including clonal selection rules, immunological memory rules and immune regulation rules are introduced. Using the theorem of Markov chain, it is proofed that the new model is convergent. The experimental study on the optimal approximation of a stable linear system and an unstable one show that the approximate models searched by the new model have better performance indices than those obtained by some existing algorithms including the differential evolution algorithm and the multi-agent genetic algorithm.

  4. Design studies of heavy ion linear accelerators constructed of independently phased spiral resonators

    Stokes, R.H.; Armstrong, D.D.

    1975-01-01

    Preliminary design studies are reported for two linear accelerators for heavy ions. One accelerator is a high-intensity machine which would operate with 100 percent duty factor and would produce tin ions with 6.1 MeV/A. Alternatively, it could be operated under pulsed conditions with 25 percent duty factor and would then accelerate uranium ions to 8.1 MeV/A, tin ions to 10.5 MeV/A, and all lighter ions to higher velocities. It would be injected with a positive multicharge ion source and a 4-MV single-ended dc generator. Also, design studies are reported for small postaccelerator injected by a model FN tandem. Both accelerators use three-drift-tube spiral resonators operating at room temperature. Magnetic quadrupole singlets are placed between all resonators to provide radial focussing. Each resonator is independently phased according to the velocity of the ion to be accelerated. The ability to adjust the phase of each resonator permits variations in final energy and other beam properties with great flexibility. (U.S.)

  5. A linear chromatic mechanism drives the pupillary response.

    Tsujimura, S.; Wolffsohn, J. S.; Gilmartin, B.

    2001-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that a chromatic mechanism can drive pupil responses. The aim of this research was to clarify whether a linear or nonlinear chromatic mechanism drives pupillary responses by using test stimuli of various colours that are defined in cone contrast space. The pupil and accommodation responses evoked by these test stimuli were continuously and simultaneously objectively measured by photorefraction. The results with isochromatic and isoluminant stimuli showed that the accommodative level remained approximately constant (< 0.25 D change in mean level) even when the concurrent pupillary response was large (ca. 0.30 mm). The pupillary response to an isoluminant grating was sustained, delayed (by ca. 60 ms) and larger in amplitude than that for a isochromatic uniform stimulus, which supports previous work suggesting that the chromatic mechanism contributes to the pupillary response. In a second experiment, selected chromatic test gratings were used and isoresponse contours in cone contrast space were obtained. The results showed that the isoresponse contour in cone contrast space is well described (r(2) = 0.99) by a straight line with a positive slope. The results indicate that a /L - M/ linear chromatic mechanism, whereby a signal from the long wavelength cone is subtracted from that of the middle wavelength cone and vice versa, drives pupillary responses. PMID:11674867

  6. A measurement of the Z boson resonance parameters at the SLC [Stanford Linear Center

    Nash, J.

    1989-11-01

    We have measured the resonance parameters of the Z boson using 480 hadronic and Leptonic Z decays collected by the Mark II Detector at the Stanford Linear Collider. We find the Mass to be 91.14 ± 0.12 GeV/c 2 , and the width to be 2.42 +0.45 -0.35 GeV. If we constrain the visible width to its Standard Model value, we find a partial width to invisible decay modes corresponding to 2.8 ± 0.6 neutrino species with a 95% confidence level limit of 3.9. 9 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  7. Superconducting resonators as beam splitters for linear-optics quantum computation.

    Chirolli, Luca; Burkard, Guido; Kumar, Shwetank; Divincenzo, David P

    2010-06-11

    We propose and analyze a technique for producing a beam-splitting quantum gate between two modes of a ring-resonator superconducting cavity. The cavity has two integrated superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) that are modulated by applying an external magnetic field. The gate is accomplished by applying a radio frequency pulse to one of the SQUIDs at the difference of the two mode frequencies. Departures from perfect beam splitting only arise from corrections to the rotating wave approximation; an exact calculation gives a fidelity of >0.9992. Our construction completes the toolkit for linear-optics quantum computing in circuit quantum electrodynamics.

  8. A Linearized Large Signal Model of an LCL-Type Resonant Converter

    Hong-Yu Li

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an LCL-type resonant dc/dc converter with a capacitive output filter is modeled in two stages. In the first high-frequency ac stage, all ac signals are decomposed into two orthogonal vectors in a synchronous rotating d–q frame using multi-frequency modeling. In the dc stage, all dc quantities are represented by their average values with average state-space modeling. A nonlinear two-stage model is then created by means of a non-linear link. By aligning the transformer voltage on the d-axis, the nonlinear link can be eliminated, and the whole converter can be modeled by a single set of linear state-space equations. Furthermore, a feedback control scheme can be formed according to the steady-state solutions. Simulation and experimental results have proven that the resulted model is good for fast simulation and state variable estimation.

  9. Linear response theory for magnetic Schrodinger operators in disordered media

    Bouclet, J M; Klein, A; Schenker, J

    2004-01-01

    We justify the linear response theory for an ergodic Schrodinger operator with magnetic field within the non-interacting particle approximation, and derive a Kubo formula for the electric conductivity tensor. To achieve that, we construct suitable normed spaces of measurable covariant operators where the Liouville equation can be solved uniquely. If the Fermi level falls into a region of localization, we recover the well-known Kubo-Streda formula for the quantum Hall conductivity at zero temperature.

  10. Linear response calculation using the canonical-basis TDHFB with a schematic pairing functional

    Ebata, Shuichiro; Nakatsukasa, Takashi; Yabana, Kazuhiro

    2011-01-01

    A canonical-basis formulation of the time-dependent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (TDHFB) theory is obtained with an approximation that the pair potential is assumed to be diagonal in the time-dependent canonical basis. The canonical-basis formulation significantly reduces the computational cost. We apply the method to linear-response calculations for even-even nuclei. E1 strength distributions for proton-rich Mg isotopes are systematically calculated. The calculation suggests strong Landau damping of giant dipole resonance for drip-line nuclei.

  11. Linear response in the nonequilibrium zero range process

    Maes, Christian; Salazar, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    We explore a number of explicit response formulæ around the boundary driven zero range process to changes in the exit and entrance rates. In such a nonequilibrium regime kinetic (and not only thermodynamic) aspects make a difference in the response. Apart from a number of formal approaches, we illustrate a general decomposition of the linear response into entropic and frenetic contributions, the latter being realized from changes in the dynamical activity at the boundaries. In particular in this way one obtains nonlinear modifications to the Green–Kubo relation. We end by bringing some general remarks about the situation where that nonequilibrium response remains given by the (equilibrium) Kubo formula such as for the density profile in the boundary driven Lorentz gas

  12. Measurements of the Z boson resonance parameters at SLC [SLAC Linear Collider

    Hearty, C.

    1989-07-01

    This paper presents the measurement by the Mark II experiment at the SLAC Linear Collider of the parameters of the Z boson resonance. The results are updated from those presented at the SLAC Summer Institute to include all data presented in the most recent Mark II publication, consisting of 19 nb -1 of data at ten different center-of-mass energies between 89.2 and 93.0 GeV. The resonance parameters are extracted by measuring the Z production cross section at a series of center-of-mass energies (scan points) near the Z peak, then fitting these data with the theoretical cross section. The four major aspects of the analysis are the determination at each scan point of the center-of-mass energy (E), the integrated luminosity, the number of Z decays and the expected cross section as a function of the resonance parameters, such as mass and width. I will discuss each of these steps in turn, after a brief description of the Mark II detector, then conclude with the results of the analysis. 7 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Non linear excitation of waves at the vicinity of plasma resonance

    Chiron, Arnaud

    1992-01-01

    This research thesis reports the study of the non linear evolution of ionic acoustic and plasma waves excited by resonant absorption of an electromagnetic wave, in a non collisional plasma, without external magnetic field, and with a parabolic density profile. The plasma resonance occurs about the density profile peak. The numerical resolution of the Zakharov equation system is performed to describe the coupled evolution of the plasma wave electric field envelope, and low frequency density disturbances. Experiments performed in the microwave domain show the existence of a new effect related to the modification of the electromagnetic wave propagation under the influence of plasma density disturbances created by the ponderomotive force. This effect which results in a collisional relaxation of plasma waves trapped in the cavity formed at resonance, cannot be taken into account by a numerical simulation using a capacitive pump field. Measurements showed that plasma waves were trapped and relaxing in a cavity with characteristic dimensions of some thousands of Debye lengths, and that the plasma wave in the cavity was stationary. A new turbulence regime is thus highlighted [fr

  14. Linear response to long wavelength fluctuations using curvature simulations

    Baldauf, Tobias; Zaldarriaga, Matias [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States); Seljak, Uroš [Physics Department, Astronomy Department and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Senatore, Leonardo, E-mail: baldauf@ias.edu, E-mail: useljak@berkeley.edu, E-mail: senatore@stanford.edu, E-mail: matiasz@ias.edu [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2016-09-01

    We study the local response to long wavelength fluctuations in cosmological N -body simulations, focusing on the matter and halo power spectra, halo abundance and non-linear transformations of the density field. The long wavelength mode is implemented using an effective curved cosmology and a mapping of time and distances. The method provides an alternative, more direct, way to measure the isotropic halo biases. Limiting ourselves to the linear case, we find generally good agreement between the biases obtained from the curvature method and the traditional power spectrum method at the level of a few percent. We also study the response of halo counts to changes in the variance of the field and find that the slope of the relation between the responses to density and variance differs from the naïve derivation assuming a universal mass function by approximately 8–20%. This has implications for measurements of the amplitude of local non-Gaussianity using scale dependent bias. We also analyze the halo power spectrum and halo-dark matter cross-spectrum response to long wavelength fluctuations and derive second order halo bias from it, as well as the super-sample variance contribution to the galaxy power spectrum covariance matrix.

  15. Multispectral code excited linear prediction coding and its application in magnetic resonance images.

    Hu, J H; Wang, Y; Cahill, P T

    1997-01-01

    This paper reports a multispectral code excited linear prediction (MCELP) method for the compression of multispectral images. Different linear prediction models and adaptation schemes have been compared. The method that uses a forward adaptive autoregressive (AR) model has been proven to achieve a good compromise between performance, complexity, and robustness. This approach is referred to as the MFCELP method. Given a set of multispectral images, the linear predictive coefficients are updated over nonoverlapping three-dimensional (3-D) macroblocks. Each macroblock is further divided into several 3-D micro-blocks, and the best excitation signal for each microblock is determined through an analysis-by-synthesis procedure. The MFCELP method has been applied to multispectral magnetic resonance (MR) images. To satisfy the high quality requirement for medical images, the error between the original image set and the synthesized one is further specified using a vector quantizer. This method has been applied to images from 26 clinical MR neuro studies (20 slices/study, three spectral bands/slice, 256x256 pixels/band, 12 b/pixel). The MFCELP method provides a significant visual improvement over the discrete cosine transform (DCT) based Joint Photographers Expert Group (JPEG) method, the wavelet transform based embedded zero-tree wavelet (EZW) coding method, and the vector tree (VT) coding method, as well as the multispectral segmented autoregressive moving average (MSARMA) method we developed previously.

  16. Linear dose response curves in fungi and tradescantia

    Unrau, P.

    1999-07-01

    Tradescantia Clone 02 data suggests that linear non-threshold dose responses are expected to the lowest doses and dose rates of low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation. This is likely to be true for other living organisms even though Clone 02 is radiation sensitive. It is concluded that Clone 02 is partially defective in the RAD 6 pathway for the repair of DNA interstrand cross-links (ISCL) and other loss of coding damage (LCD), based on its cross sensitivities to EMS and ionizing radiation. Tradescantia Clone 02 data showing linear non-threshold induction of somatic genetic events in part reflects the repair deficiency of this Clone. More DNA damage is repaired by recombinational mechanisms in Clone 02 than would occur in a wild-type strain. Two important classes of DNA lesions are induced by ionizing radiation in DNA - double strand breaks (DSB) which are repaired by recombination mechanisms, and loss of coding information damage (LCD), which is repaired by error prone mechanisms but may also be a substrate for recombinational repair. Based on data from yeast, there are two different repair pathways which deal with these differing lesions with different somatic genetic consequences. From yeast, yield cross sections can be derived and applied to DNA damage and repair in Tradescantia. For Clone 02, per lesion, more visible genetic events are scored than in wild-type strains. In a radiation-derived sub-clone, Clone 0106, which is more variable than Clone 02, even more events occur per lesion. This derivative clone, plus breeding experiments, indicate that Clone 02 is heterozygous, or a 'carrier' for a mutant version of a gene in the Tradescantia RAD 6 repair pathway. Clone 02 is, therefore, much like a Fanconi's anemia carrier in a human population, while the Clone 0106 derivative is much like a homozygous Fanconi's anemia patient, with respect to its response to ionizing radiation damage. Two anomalies in its dose response curves for 'pink' loss of

  17. Non-linear interactions of multi-level atoms with a near-resonant standing wave

    O'Kane, T.J.; Scholten, R.E.; Walkiewicz, M.R.; Farrell, P.M.

    1998-01-01

    Using a semiclassical density matrix formalism we have calculated the behavior of multi-level atoms interacting with a standing wave field, and show how complex non-linear phenomena, including multi-photon effects, combine to produce saturation spectra as observed in experiments. We consider both 20-level sodium and 24-level rubidium models, contrasting these with a simple 2-level case. The influence of parameters such as atomic trajectory and the time the atom remains in the beam are shown to have a critical effect on the lineshape of these resonances and the emission/absorption processes. Stable oscillations in the excited state populations for both the two-level and multi-level cases are shown to be limit cycles. These limit cycles undergo period doubling as the system evolves into chaos. Finally, using a Monte Carlo treatment, these processes average to produce saturated absorption spectra complete with power and Doppler broadening effects consistent with experiment. (authors)

  18. Linear-fitting-based similarity coefficient map for tissue dissimilarity analysis in -w magnetic resonance imaging

    Yu Shao-De; Wu Shi-Bin; Xie Yao-Qin; Wang Hao-Yu; Wei Xin-Hua; Chen Xin; Pan Wan-Long; Hu Jiani

    2015-01-01

    Similarity coefficient mapping (SCM) aims to improve the morphological evaluation of weighted magnetic resonance imaging However, how to interpret the generated SCM map is still pending. Moreover, is it probable to extract tissue dissimilarity messages based on the theory behind SCM? The primary purpose of this paper is to address these two questions. First, the theory of SCM was interpreted from the perspective of linear fitting. Then, a term was embedded for tissue dissimilarity information. Finally, our method was validated with sixteen human brain image series from multi-echo . Generated maps were investigated from signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and perceived visual quality, and then interpreted from intra- and inter-tissue intensity. Experimental results show that both perceptibility of anatomical structures and tissue contrast are improved. More importantly, tissue similarity or dissimilarity can be quantified and cross-validated from pixel intensity analysis. This method benefits image enhancement, tissue classification, malformation detection and morphological evaluation. (paper)

  19. Linearity optimizations of analog ring resonator modulators through bias voltage adjustments

    Hosseinzadeh, Arash; Middlebrook, Christopher T.

    2018-03-01

    The linearity of ring resonator modulator (RRM) in microwave photonic links is studied in terms of instantaneous bandwidth, fabrication tolerances, and operational bandwidth. A proposed bias voltage adjustment method is shown to maximize spur-free dynamic range (SFDR) at instantaneous bandwidths required by microwave photonic link (MPL) applications while also mitigating RRM fabrication tolerances effects. The proposed bias voltage adjustment method shows RRM SFDR improvement of ∼5.8 dB versus common Mach-Zehnder modulators at 500 MHz instantaneous bandwidth. Analyzing operational bandwidth effects on SFDR shows RRMs can be promising electro-optic modulators for MPL applications which require high operational frequencies while in a limited bandwidth such as radio-over-fiber 60 GHz wireless network access.

  20. Linear Resonance Compressor for Stirling-Type Cryocoolers Activated by Piezoelectric Stack-Type Elements

    Sobol, S; Grossman, G

    2015-01-01

    A novel type of a PZT- based compressor operating at mechanical resonance, suitable for pneumatically-driven Stirling-type cryocoolers was developed theoretically and built practically during this research. A resonance operation at relatively low frequency was achieved by incorporating the piezo ceramics into the moving part, and by reducing the effective piezo stiffness using hydraulic amplification. The detailed concept, analytical model and the test results of the preliminary prototype were reported earlier and presented at ICC17 [2]. A fine agreement between the simulations and experiments spurred development of the current actual compressor designed to drive a miniature Pulse Tube cryocooler, particularly our MTSa model, which operates at 103 Hz and requires an average PV power of 11 W, filling pressure of 40 Bar and a pressure ratio of 1.3. The paper concentrates on design aspects and optimization of the governing parameters. The small stroke to diameter ratio (about 1:10) allows for the use of a composite diaphragm instead of a clearance-seal piston. The motivation is to create an adequate separation between the working fluid and the buffer gas of the compressor, thus preventing possible contamination in the cryocooler. Providing efficiency and power density similar to those of conventional linear compressors, the piezo compressor may serve as a good alternative for cryogenic applications requiring extreme reliability and absence of magnetic field interference. (paper)

  1. Electromagnetic response in kinetic energy driven cuprate superconductors: Linear response approach

    Krzyzosiak, Mateusz; Huang, Zheyu; Feng, Shiping; Gonczarek, Ryszard

    2010-01-01

    Within the framework of the kinetic energy driven superconductivity, the electromagnetic response in cuprate superconductors is studied in the linear response approach. The kernel of the response function is evaluated and employed to calculate the local magnetic field profile, the magnetic field penetration depth, and the superfluid density, based on the specular reflection model for a purely transverse vector potential. It is shown that the low temperature magnetic field profile follows an exponential decay at the surface, while the magnetic field penetration depth depends linearly on temperature, except for the strong deviation from the linear characteristics at extremely low temperatures. The superfluid density is found to decrease linearly with decreasing doping concentration in the underdoped regime. The problem of gauge invariance is addressed and an approximation for the dressed current vertex, which does not violate local charge conservation is proposed and discussed.

  2. Response of resonant gravitational wave detectors to damped sinusoid signals

    Pai, A; Celsi, C; Pallottino, G V; D'Antonio, S; Astone, P

    2007-01-01

    Till date, the search for burst signals with resonant gravitational wave (GW) detectors has been done using the δ-function approximation for the signal, which was reasonable due to the very small bandwidth of these detectors. However, now with increased bandwidth (of the order of 10 or more Hz) and with the possibility of comparing results with interferometric GW detectors (broad-band), it is very important to exploit the resonant detectors' capability to detect also signals with specific wave shapes. As a first step, we present a study of the response of resonant GW detectors to damped sinusoids with given frequency and decay time and report on the development of a filter matched to these signals. This study is a preliminary step towards the comprehension of the detector response and of the filtering for signals such as the excitation of stellar quasi-normal modes

  3. Dynamic pressure probe response tests for robust measurements in periodic flows close to probe resonating frequency

    Ceyhun Şahin, Fatma; Schiffmann, Jürg

    2018-02-01

    A single-hole probe was designed to measure steady and periodic flows with high fluctuation amplitudes and with minimal flow intrusion. Because of its high aspect ratio, estimations showed that the probe resonates at a frequency two orders of magnitude lower than the fast response sensor cut-off frequencies. The high fluctuation amplitudes cause a non-linear behavior of the probe and available models are neither adequate for a quantitative estimation of the resonating frequencies nor for predicting the system damping. Instead, a non-linear data correction procedure based on individual transfer functions defined for each harmonic contribution is introduced for pneumatic probes that allows to extend their operating range beyond the resonating frequencies and linear dynamics. This data correction procedure was assessed on a miniature single-hole probe of 0.35 mm inner diameter which was designed to measure flow speed and direction. For the reliable use of such a probe in periodic flows, its frequency response was reproduced with a siren disk, which allows exciting the probe up to 10 kHz with peak-to-peak amplitudes ranging between 20%-170% of the absolute mean pressure. The effect of the probe interior design on the phase lag and amplitude distortion in periodic flow measurements was investigated on probes with similar inner diameters and different lengths or similar aspect ratios (L/D) and different total interior volumes. The results suggest that while the tube length consistently sets the resonance frequency, the internal total volume affects the non-linear dynamic response in terms of varying gain functions. A detailed analysis of the introduced calibration methodology shows that the goodness of the reconstructed data compared to the reference data is above 75% for fundamental frequencies up to twice the probe resonance frequency. The results clearly suggest that the introduced procedure is adequate to capture non-linear pneumatic probe dynamics and to

  4. Linear dose response curves in fungi and tradescantia

    Unrau, P. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    1999-07-15

    Tradescantia Clone 02 data suggests that linear non-threshold dose responses are expected to the lowest doses and dose rates of low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation. This is likely to be true for other living organisms even though Clone 02 is radiation sensitive. It is concluded that Clone 02 is partially defective in the RAD 6 pathway for the repair of DNA interstrand cross-links (ISCL) and other loss of coding damage (LCD), based on its cross sensitivities to EMS and ionizing radiation. Tradescantia Clone 02 data showing linear non-threshold induction of somatic genetic events in part reflects the repair deficiency of this Clone. More DNA damage is repaired by recombinational mechanisms in Clone 02 than would occur in a wild-type strain. Two important classes of DNA lesions are induced by ionizing radiation in DNA - double strand breaks (DSB) which are repaired by recombination mechanisms, and loss of coding information damage (LCD), which is repaired by error prone mechanisms but may also be a substrate for recombinational repair. Based on data from yeast, there are two different repair pathways which deal with these differing lesions with different somatic genetic consequences. From yeast, yield cross sections can be derived and applied to DNA damage and repair in Tradescantia. For Clone 02, per lesion, more visible genetic events are scored than in wild-type strains. In a radiation-derived sub-clone, Clone 0106, which is more variable than Clone 02, even more events occur per lesion. This derivative clone, plus breeding experiments, indicate that Clone 02 is heterozygous, or a 'carrier' for a mutant version of a gene in the Tradescantia RAD 6 repair pathway. Clone 02 is, therefore, much like a Fanconi's anemia carrier in a human population, while the Clone 0106 derivative is much like a homozygous Fanconi's anemia patient, with respect to its response to ionizing radiation damage. Two anomalies in its dose response curves for &apos

  5. Prenatal magnetic resonance imaging: brain normal linear biometric values below 24 gestational weeks

    Parazzini, C.; Righini, A.; Triulzi, F.; Rustico, M.; Consonni, D.

    2008-01-01

    Prenatal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is currently used to measure quantitative data concerning brain structural development. At present, morphometric MR imaging studies have been focused mostly on the third trimester of gestational age. However, in many countries, because of legal restriction on abortion timing, the majority of MR imaging fetal examination has to be carried out during the last part of the second trimester of pregnancy (i.e., before the 24th week of gestation). Accurate and reliable normative data of the brain between 20 and 24 weeks of gestation is not available. This report provides easy and practical parametric support to assess those normative data. From a database of 1,200 fetal MR imaging studies, we retrospectively selected 84 studies of the brain of fetuses aged 20-24 weeks of gestation that resulted normal on clinical and radiological follow-up. Fetuses with proved or suspected infections, twin pregnancy, and fetuses of mothers affected by pathology that might have influenced fetal growth were excluded. Linear biometrical measurements of the main cerebral structures were obtained by three experienced pediatric neuroradiologists. A substantial interobserver agreement for each measurements was reached, and normative data with median, maximum, and minimum value were obtained for brain structures. The knowledge of a range of normality and interindividual variability of linear biometrical values for the developing brain between 20th and 24th weeks of gestation may be valuable in assessing normal brain development in clinical settings. (orig.)

  6. Prenatal magnetic resonance imaging: brain normal linear biometric values below 24 gestational weeks

    Parazzini, C.; Righini, A.; Triulzi, F. [Children' s Hospital ' ' V. Buzzi' ' , Department of Radiology and Neuroradiology, Milan (Italy); Rustico, M. [Children' s Hospital ' ' V. Buzzi' ' , Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Milan (Italy); Consonni, D. [Fondazione IRCCS Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Unit of Epidemiology, Milan (Italy)

    2008-10-15

    Prenatal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is currently used to measure quantitative data concerning brain structural development. At present, morphometric MR imaging studies have been focused mostly on the third trimester of gestational age. However, in many countries, because of legal restriction on abortion timing, the majority of MR imaging fetal examination has to be carried out during the last part of the second trimester of pregnancy (i.e., before the 24th week of gestation). Accurate and reliable normative data of the brain between 20 and 24 weeks of gestation is not available. This report provides easy and practical parametric support to assess those normative data. From a database of 1,200 fetal MR imaging studies, we retrospectively selected 84 studies of the brain of fetuses aged 20-24 weeks of gestation that resulted normal on clinical and radiological follow-up. Fetuses with proved or suspected infections, twin pregnancy, and fetuses of mothers affected by pathology that might have influenced fetal growth were excluded. Linear biometrical measurements of the main cerebral structures were obtained by three experienced pediatric neuroradiologists. A substantial interobserver agreement for each measurements was reached, and normative data with median, maximum, and minimum value were obtained for brain structures. The knowledge of a range of normality and interindividual variability of linear biometrical values for the developing brain between 20th and 24th weeks of gestation may be valuable in assessing normal brain development in clinical settings. (orig.)

  7. Fourier-based linear systems description of free-breathing pulmonary magnetic resonance imaging

    Capaldi, D. P. I.; Svenningsen, S.; Cunningham, I. A.; Parraga, G.

    2015-03-01

    Fourier-decomposition of free-breathing pulmonary magnetic resonance imaging (FDMRI) was recently piloted as a way to provide rapid quantitative pulmonary maps of ventilation and perfusion without the use of exogenous contrast agents. This method exploits fast pulmonary MRI acquisition of free-breathing proton (1H) pulmonary images and non-rigid registration to compensate for changes in position and shape of the thorax associated with breathing. In this way, ventilation imaging using conventional MRI systems can be undertaken but there has been no systematic evaluation of fundamental image quality measurements based on linear systems theory. We investigated the performance of free-breathing pulmonary ventilation imaging using a Fourier-based linear system description of each operation required to generate FDMRI ventilation maps. Twelve subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or bronchiectasis underwent pulmonary function tests and MRI. Non-rigid registration was used to co-register the temporal series of pulmonary images. Pulmonary voxel intensities were aligned along a time axis and discrete Fourier transforms were performed on the periodic signal intensity pattern to generate frequency spectra. We determined the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the FDMRI ventilation maps using a conventional approach (SNRC) and using the Fourier-based description (SNRF). Mean SNR was 4.7 ± 1.3 for subjects with bronchiectasis and 3.4 ± 1.8, for COPD subjects (p>.05). SNRF was significantly different than SNRC (p<.01). SNRF was approximately 50% of SNRC suggesting that the linear system model well-estimates the current approach.

  8. How linear features alter predator movement and the functional response.

    McKenzie, Hannah W

    2012-01-18

    In areas of oil and gas exploration, seismic lines have been reported to alter the movement patterns of wolves (Canis lupus). We developed a mechanistic first passage time model, based on an anisotropic elliptic partial differential equation, and used this to explore how wolf movement responses to seismic lines influence the encounter rate of the wolves with their prey. The model was parametrized using 5 min GPS location data. These data showed that wolves travelled faster on seismic lines and had a higher probability of staying on a seismic line once they were on it. We simulated wolf movement on a range of seismic line densities and drew implications for the rate of predator-prey interactions as described by the functional response. The functional response exhibited a more than linear increase with respect to prey density (type III) as well as interactions with seismic line density. Encounter rates were significantly higher in landscapes with high seismic line density and were most pronounced at low prey densities. This suggests that prey at low population densities are at higher risk in environments with a high seismic line density unless they learn to avoid them.

  9. How linear features alter predator movement and the functional response.

    McKenzie, Hannah W; Merrill, Evelyn H; Spiteri, Raymond J; Lewis, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    In areas of oil and gas exploration, seismic lines have been reported to alter the movement patterns of wolves (Canis lupus). We developed a mechanistic first passage time model, based on an anisotropic elliptic partial differential equation, and used this to explore how wolf movement responses to seismic lines influence the encounter rate of the wolves with their prey. The model was parametrized using 5 min GPS location data. These data showed that wolves travelled faster on seismic lines and had a higher probability of staying on a seismic line once they were on it. We simulated wolf movement on a range of seismic line densities and drew implications for the rate of predator-prey interactions as described by the functional response. The functional response exhibited a more than linear increase with respect to prey density (type III) as well as interactions with seismic line density. Encounter rates were significantly higher in landscapes with high seismic line density and were most pronounced at low prey densities. This suggests that prey at low population densities are at higher risk in environments with a high seismic line density unless they learn to avoid them.

  10. Reflections on the nature of non-linear responses of the climate to forcing

    Ditlevsen, Peter

    2017-04-01

    On centennial to multi-millennial time scales the paleoclimatic record shows that climate responds in a very non-linear way to the external forcing. Perhaps most puzzling is the change in glacial period duration at the Middle Pleistocene Transition. From a dynamical systems perspective, this could be a change in frequency locking between the orbital forcing and the climatic response or it could be a non-linear resonance phenomenon. In both cases the climate system shows a non-trivial oscillatory behaviour. From the records it seems that this behaviour can be described by an effective dynamics on a low-dimensional slow manifold. These different possible dynamical behaviours will be discussed. References: Arianna Marchionne, Peter Ditlevsen, and Sebastian Wieczorek, "Three types of nonlinear resonances", arXiv:1605.00858 Peter Ashwin and Peter Ditlevsen, "The middle Pleistocene transition as a generic bifurcation on a slow manifold", Climate Dynamics, 45, 2683, 2015. Peter D. Ditlevsen, "The bifurcation structure and noise assisted transitions in the Pleistocene glacial cycles", Paleoceanography, 24, PA3204, 2009

  11. Linear response formula for piecewise expanding unimodal maps

    Baladi, Viviane; Smania, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The average R(t) = ∫φdμ t of a smooth function ψ with respect to the SRB measure μ t of a smooth one-parameter family f t of piecewise expanding interval maps is not always Lipschitz (Baladi 2007 Commun. Math. Phys. 275 839–59, Mazzolena 2007 Master's Thesis Rome 2, Tor Vergata). We prove that if f t is tangent to the topological class of f, and if ∂ t f t | t=0 = X circle f, then R(t) is differentiable at zero, and R'(0) coincides with the resummation proposed (Baladi 2007) of the (a priori divergent) series given by Ruelle's conjecture. In fact, we show that t map μ t is differentiable within Radon measures. Linear response is violated if and only if f t is transversal to the topological class of f

  12. Linear response theory of activated surface diffusion with interacting adsorbates

    Marti' nez-Casado, R. [Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, South Kensington, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Sanz, A.S.; Vega, J.L. [Instituto de Fi' sica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Rojas-Lorenzo, G. [Instituto Superior de Tecnologi' as y Ciencias Aplicadas, Ave. Salvador Allende, esq. Luaces, 10400 La Habana (Cuba); Instituto de Fi' sica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cienti' ficas, Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Miret-Artes, S., E-mail: s.miret@imaff.cfmac.csic.es [Instituto de Fi' sica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cienti' ficas, Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-05-12

    Graphical abstract: Activated surface diffusion with interacting adsorbates is analyzed within the Linear Response Theory framework. The so-called interacting single adsorbate model is justified by means of a two-bath model, where one harmonic bath takes into account the interaction with the surface phonons, while the other one describes the surface coverage, this leading to defining a collisional friction. Here, the corresponding theory is applied to simple systems, such as diffusion on flat surfaces and the frustrated translational motion in a harmonic potential. Classical and quantum closed formulas are obtained. Furthermore, a more realistic problem, such as atomic Na diffusion on the corrugated Cu(0 0 1) surface, is presented and discussed within the classical context as well as within the framework of Kramer's theory. Quantum corrections to the classical results are also analyzed and discussed. - Abstract: Activated surface diffusion with interacting adsorbates is analyzed within the Linear Response Theory framework. The so-called interacting single adsorbate model is justified by means of a two-bath model, where one harmonic bath takes into account the interaction with the surface phonons, while the other one describes the surface coverage, this leading to defining a collisional friction. Here, the corresponding theory is applied to simple systems, such as diffusion on flat surfaces and the frustrated translational motion in a harmonic potential. Classical and quantum closed formulas are obtained. Furthermore, a more realistic problem, such as atomic Na diffusion on the corrugated Cu(0 0 1) surface, is presented and discussed within the classical context as well as within the framework of Kramer's theory. Quantum corrections to the classical results are also analyzed and discussed.

  13. A Bivariate Generalized Linear Item Response Theory Modeling Framework to the Analysis of Responses and Response Times.

    Molenaar, Dylan; Tuerlinckx, Francis; van der Maas, Han L J

    2015-01-01

    A generalized linear modeling framework to the analysis of responses and response times is outlined. In this framework, referred to as bivariate generalized linear item response theory (B-GLIRT), separate generalized linear measurement models are specified for the responses and the response times that are subsequently linked by cross-relations. The cross-relations can take various forms. Here, we focus on cross-relations with a linear or interaction term for ability tests, and cross-relations with a curvilinear term for personality tests. In addition, we discuss how popular existing models from the psychometric literature are special cases in the B-GLIRT framework depending on restrictions in the cross-relation. This allows us to compare existing models conceptually and empirically. We discuss various extensions of the traditional models motivated by practical problems. We also illustrate the applicability of our approach using various real data examples, including data on personality and cognitive ability.

  14. Linear and Non-Linear Dielectric Response of Periodic Systems from Quantum Monte Carlo

    Umari, Paolo

    2006-03-01

    We present a novel approach that allows to calculate the dielectric response of periodic systems in the quantum Monte Carlo formalism. We employ a many-body generalization for the electric enthalpy functional, where the coupling with the field is expressed via the Berry-phase formulation for the macroscopic polarization. A self-consistent local Hamiltonian then determines the ground-state wavefunction, allowing for accurate diffusion quantum Monte Carlo calculations where the polarization's fixed point is estimated from the average on an iterative sequence. The polarization is sampled through forward-walking. This approach has been validated for the case of the polarizability of an isolated hydrogen atom, and then applied to a periodic system. We then calculate the linear susceptibility and second-order hyper-susceptibility of molecular-hydrogen chains whith different bond-length alternations, and assess the quality of nodal surfaces derived from density-functional theory or from Hartree-Fock. The results found are in excellent agreement with the best estimates obtained from the extrapolation of quantum-chemistry calculations.P. Umari, A.J. Williamson, G. Galli, and N. MarzariPhys. Rev. Lett. 95, 207602 (2005).

  15. Nanoscale resonant-cavity-enhanced germanium photodetectors with lithographically defined spectral response for improved performance at telecommunications wavelengths.

    Balram, Krishna C; Audet, Ross M; Miller, David A B

    2013-04-22

    We demonstrate the use of a subwavelength planar metal-dielectric resonant cavity to enhance the absorption of germanium photodetectors at wavelengths beyond the material's direct absorption edge, enabling high responsivity across the entire telecommunications C and L bands. The resonant wavelength of the detectors can be tuned linearly by varying the width of the Ge fin, allowing multiple detectors, each resonant at a different wavelength, to be fabricated in a single-step process. This approach is promising for the development of CMOS-compatible devices suitable for integrated, high-speed, and energy-efficient photodetection at telecommunications wavelengths.

  16. A simple non-linear model of immune response

    Gutnikov, Sergei; Melnikov, Yuri

    2003-01-01

    It is still unknown why the adaptive immune response in the natural immune system based on clonal proliferation of lymphocytes requires interaction of at least two different cell types with the same antigen. We present a simple mathematical model illustrating that the system with separate types of cells for antigen recognition and patogen destruction provides more robust adaptive immunity than the system where just one cell type is responsible for both recognition and destruction. The model is over-simplified as we did not have an intention of describing the natural immune system. However, our model provides a tool for testing the proposed approach through qualitative analysis of the immune system dynamics in order to construct more sophisticated models of the immune systems that exist in the living nature. It also opens a possibility to explore specific features of highly non-linear dynamics in nature-inspired computational paradigms like artificial immune systems and immunocomputing . We expect this paper to be of interest not only for mathematicians but also for biologists; therefore we made effort to explain mathematics in sufficient detail for readers without professional mathematical background

  17. Quantum optimal control theory in the linear response formalism

    Castro, Alberto; Tokatly, I. V.

    2011-01-01

    Quantum optimal control theory (QOCT) aims at finding an external field that drives a quantum system in such a way that optimally achieves some predefined target. In practice, this normally means optimizing the value of some observable, a so-called merit function. In consequence, a key part of the theory is a set of equations, which provides the gradient of the merit function with respect to parameters that control the shape of the driving field. We show that these equations can be straightforwardly derived using the standard linear response theory, only requiring a minor generalization: the unperturbed Hamiltonian is allowed to be time dependent. As a result, the aforementioned gradients are identified with certain response functions. This identification leads to a natural reformulation of QOCT in terms of the Keldysh contour formalism of the quantum many-body theory. In particular, the gradients of the merit function can be calculated using the diagrammatic technique for nonequilibrium Green's functions, which should be helpful in the application of QOCT to computationally difficult many-electron problems.

  18. Engineering non-linear resonator mode interactions in circuit QED by continuous driving: Manipulation of a photonic quantum memory

    Reagor, Matthew; Pfaff, Wolfgang; Heeres, Reinier; Ofek, Nissim; Chou, Kevin; Blumoff, Jacob; Leghtas, Zaki; Touzard, Steven; Sliwa, Katrina; Holland, Eric; Albert, Victor V.; Frunzio, Luigi; Devoret, Michel H.; Jiang, Liang; Schoelkopf, Robert J.

    2015-03-01

    Recent advances in circuit QED have shown great potential for using microwave resonators as quantum memories. In particular, it is possible to encode the state of a quantum bit in non-classical photonic states inside a high-Q linear resonator. An outstanding challenge is to perform controlled operations on such a photonic state. We demonstrate experimentally how a continuous drive on a transmon qubit coupled to a high-Q storage resonator can be used to induce non-linear dynamics of the resonator. Tailoring the drive properties allows us to cancel or enhance non-linearities in the system such that we can manipulate the state stored in the cavity. This approach can be used to either counteract undesirable evolution due to the bare Hamiltonian of the system or, ultimately, to perform logical operations on the state encoded in the cavity field. Our method provides a promising pathway towards performing universal control for quantum states stored in high-coherence resonators in the circuit QED platform.

  19. Comparison of equivalent linear and non linear methods on ground response analysis: case study at West Bangka site

    Eko Rudi Iswanto; Eric Yee

    2016-01-01

    Within the framework of identifying NPP sites, site surveys are performed in West Bangka (WB), Bangka-Belitung Island Province. Ground response analysis of a potential site has been carried out using peak strain profiles and peak ground acceleration. The objective of this research is to compare Equivalent Linear (EQL) and Non Linear (NL) methods of ground response analysis on the selected NPP site (West Bangka) using Deep Soil software. Equivalent linear method is widely used because requires soil data in simple way and short time of computational process. On the other hand, non linear method is capable of representing the actual soil behaviour by considering non linear soil parameter. The results showed that EQL method has similar trends to NL method. At surface layer, the acceleration values for EQL and NL methods are resulted as 0.425 g and 0.375 g respectively. NL method is more reliable in capturing higher frequencies of spectral acceleration compared to EQL method. (author)

  20. A novel L-shaped linear ultrasonic motor operating in a single resonance mode

    Zhang, Bailiang; Yao, Zhiyuan; Liu, Zhen; Li, Xiaoniu

    2018-01-01

    In this study, a large thrust linear ultrasonic motor using an L-shaped stator is described. The stator is constructed by two mutually perpendicular rectangular plate vibrators, one of which is mounted in parallel with the slider to make the motor structure to be more compact. The symmetric and antisymmetric modes of the stator based on the first order bending vibration of two vibrators are adopted, in which each resonance mode is assigned to drive the slider in one direction. The placement of piezoelectric ceramics in a stator could be determined by finite element analysis, and the influence of slots in the head block on the vibration amplitudes of driving foot was studied as well. Three types of prototypes (non-slotted, dual-slot, and single-slot) were fabricated and experimentally investigated. Experimental results demonstrated that the prototype with one slot exhibited the best mechanical output performance. The maximum loads under the excitation of symmetric mode and antisymmetric mode were 65 and 90 N, respectively.

  1. Improved application of independent component analysis to functional magnetic resonance imaging study via linear projection techniques.

    Long, Zhiying; Chen, Kewei; Wu, Xia; Reiman, Eric; Peng, Danling; Yao, Li

    2009-02-01

    Spatial Independent component analysis (sICA) has been widely used to analyze functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. The well accepted implicit assumption is the spatially statistical independency of intrinsic sources identified by sICA, making the sICA applications difficult for data in which there exist interdependent sources and confounding factors. This interdependency can arise, for instance, from fMRI studies investigating two tasks in a single session. In this study, we introduced a linear projection approach and considered its utilization as a tool to separate task-related components from two-task fMRI data. The robustness and feasibility of the method are substantiated through simulation on computer data and fMRI real rest data. Both simulated and real two-task fMRI experiments demonstrated that sICA in combination with the projection method succeeded in separating spatially dependent components and had better detection power than pure model-based method when estimating activation induced by each task as well as both tasks.

  2. Carbon 13 nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shifts empiric calculations of polymers by multi linear regression and molecular modeling

    Da Silva Pinto, P.S.; Eustache, R.P.; Audenaert, M.; Bernassau, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    This work deals with carbon 13 nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shifts empiric calculations by multi linear regression and molecular modeling. The multi linear regression is indeed one way to obtain an equation able to describe the behaviour of the chemical shift for some molecules which are in the data base (rigid molecules with carbons). The methodology consists of structures describer parameters definition which can be bound to carbon 13 chemical shift known for these molecules. Then, the linear regression is used to determine the equation significant parameters. This one can be extrapolated to molecules which presents some resemblances with those of the data base. (O.L.). 20 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  3. Status of neutron cross sections of transactinium isotopes in the resonance region - linear accelerator measurements

    James, G.D.

    1976-01-01

    A review of the status of transactinium isotope cross sections in the resonance region and of resolved resonance parameters is given by summarising the work submitted by fourteen contributors and also by highlighting other work where notable progress has been made in our knowledge of neutron resonance phenomena. (author)

  4. Neuromyelitis optica with linear enhancement of corpus callosum in brain magnetic resonance imaging with contrast: a case report.

    Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Moghadasi, Abdorreza Naser; Owji, Mahsa; Naghshineh, Hoda; Minagar, Alireza

    2015-06-10

    Neuromyelitis optica is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system with various patterns of brain lesions. Corpus callosum may be involved in both multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica. Previous case reports have demonstrated that callosal lesions in neuromyelitis optica are usually large and edematous and have a heterogeneous intensity showing a "marbled pattern" in the acute phase. Their size and intensity may reduce with time or disappear in the chronic stages. In this report, we describe a case of a 25-year-old Caucasian man with neuromyelitis optica who presented clinically with optic neuritis and myelitis. His brain magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated linear enhancement of the corpus callosum. Brain images with contrast agent added also showed linear ependymal layer enhancement of the lateral ventricles, which has been reported in this disease previously. Linear enhancement of corpus callosum in magnetic resonance imaging with contrast agent could help in diagnosing neuromyelitis optica and differentiating it from other demyelinating disease, especially multiple sclerosis.

  5. Linear response formula for piecewise expanding unimodal maps

    Baladi, Viviane; Smania, Daniel

    2008-04-01

    The average R(t)=\\int \\varphi\\,\\rmd \\mu_t of a smooth function phiv with respect to the SRB measure μt of a smooth one-parameter family ft of piecewise expanding interval maps is not always Lipschitz (Baladi 2007 Commun. Math. Phys. 275 839-59, Mazzolena 2007 Master's Thesis Rome 2, Tor Vergata). We prove that if ft is tangent to the topological class of f, and if ∂t ft|t = 0 = X circle f, then R(t) is differentiable at zero, and R'(0) coincides with the resummation proposed (Baladi 2007) of the (a priori divergent) series \\sum_{n=0}^\\infty \\int X(y) \\partial_y (\\varphi \\circ f^n)(y)\\,\\rmd \\mu_0(y) given by Ruelle's conjecture. In fact, we show that t map μt is differentiable within Radon measures. Linear response is violated if and only if ft is transversal to the topological class of f.

  6. A noble refractive optical scanner with linear response

    Mega, Yair J.; Lai, Zhenhua; DiMarzio, Charles A.

    2013-03-01

    Many applications in various fields of science and engineering use steered optical beam systems. Currently, many methods utilize mirrors in order to steer the beam. However, this approach is an off-axis solution, which normally increases the total size of the system as well as its error and complexity. Other methods use a "Risely Prisms" based solution, which is on-axis solution, however it poses some difficulties from an engineering standpoint, and therefore isn't widely used. We present here a novel technique for steering a beam on its optical axis with a linear deflection response. We derived the formulation for the profile required of the refractive optical component necessary for preforming the beam steering. The functionality of the device was simulated analytically using Matlab, as well as using a ray-tracing software, Zemax, and showed agreement with the analytical model. An optical element was manufactured based on the proposed design and the device was tested. The results show agreement with our hypothesis. We also present some proposed geometries of the several other devices, all based on the same concept, which can be used for higher performance applications such as two-dimensional scanner, video rate scanner etc.

  7. Linear response theory an analytic-algebraic approach

    De Nittis, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a modern and systematic approach to Linear Response Theory (LRT) by combining analytic and algebraic ideas. LRT is a tool to study systems that are driven out of equilibrium by external perturbations. In particular the reader is provided with a new and robust tool to implement LRT for a wide array of systems. The proposed formalism in fact applies to periodic and random systems in the discrete and the continuum. After a short introduction describing the structure of the book, its aim and motivation, the basic elements of the theory are presented in chapter 2. The mathematical framework of the theory is outlined in chapters 3–5: the relevant von Neumann algebras, noncommutative $L^p$- and Sobolev spaces are introduced; their construction is then made explicit for common physical systems; the notion of isopectral perturbations and the associated dynamics are studied. Chapter 6 is dedicated to the main results, proofs of the Kubo and Kubo-Streda formulas. The book closes with a chapter about...

  8. Nonlinear Response of Cantilever Beams to Combination and Subcombination Resonances

    Ali H. Nayfeh

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear planar response of cantilever metallic beams to combination parametric and external subcombination resonances is investigated, taking into account the effects of cubic geometric and inertia nonlinearities. The beams considered here are assumed to have large length-to-width aspect ratios and thin rectangular cross sections. Hence, the effects of shear deformations and rotatory inertia are neglected. For the case of combination parametric resonance, a two-mode Galerkin discretization along with Hamilton’s extended principle is used to obtain two second-order nonlinear ordinary-differential equations of motion and associated boundary conditions. Then, the method of multiple scales is applied to obtain a set of four first-order nonlinear ordinary-differential equations governing the modulation of the amplitudes and phases of the two excited modes. For the case of subcombination resonance, the method of multiple scales is applied directly to the Lagrangian and virtual-work term. Then using Hamilton’s extended principle, we obtain a set of four first-order nonlinear ordinary-differential equations governing the amplitudes and phases of the two excited modes. In both cases, the modulation equations are used to generate frequency- and force-response curves. We found that the trivial solution exhibits a jump as it undergoes a subcritical pitchfork bifurcation. Similarly, the nontrivial solutions also exhibit jumps as they undergo saddle-node bifurcations.

  9. Linear and Non-Linear Dose-Response Functions Reveal a Hormetic Relationship Between Stress and Learning

    Zoladz, Phillip R.; Diamond, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Over a century of behavioral research has shown that stress can enhance or impair learning and memory. In the present review, we have explored the complex effects of stress on cognition and propose that they are characterized by linear and non-linear dose-response functions, which together reveal a hormetic relationship between stress and learning. We suggest that stress initially enhances hippocampal function, resulting from amygdala-induced excitation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity, as ...

  10. Nonlinear dynamic response of an electrically actuated imperfect microbeam resonator

    Ruzziconi, Laura

    2013-08-04

    We present a study of the dynamic behavior of a MEMS device constituted of an imperfect clamped-clamped microbeam subjected to electrostatic and electrodynamic actuation. Our objective is to develop a theoretical analysis, which is able to describe and predict all the main relevant aspects of the experimental response. Extensive experimental investigation is conducted, where the main imperfections coming from microfabrication are detected and the nonlinear dynamics are explored at increasing values of electrodynamic excitation, in a neighborhood of the first symmetric resonance. The nonlinear behavior is highlighted, which includes ranges of multistability, where the non-resonant and the resonant branch coexist, and intervals where superharmonic resonances are clearly visible. Numerical simulations are performed. Initially, two single mode reduced-order models are considered. One is generated via the Galerkin technique, and the other one via the combined use of the Ritz method and the Padé approximation. Both of them are able to provide a satisfactory agreement with the experimental data. This occurs not only at low values of electrodynamic excitation, but also at higher ones. Their computational efficiency is discussed in detail, since this is an essential aspect for systematic local and global simulations. Finally, the theoretical analysis is further improved and a two-degree-of-freedom reduced-order model is developed, which is capable also to capture the measured second symmetric superharmonic resonance. Despite the apparent simplicity, it is shown that all the proposed reduced-order models are able to describe the experimental complex nonlinear dynamics of the device accurately and properly, which validates the proposed theoretical approach. Copyright © 2013 by ASME.

  11. Linear and Non-Linear Response of Liquid and Solid Particles to Energetic Radiation

    1991-03-11

    but with the beam left within and upon the surface of a spherical particle illuminat - circularly polarized. (The fifth-order corrected, linearly po...specific situation. Figure 1 shows a schematic of the imaging system under consideration. The incident illuminat - ing radiation is generated from a pulsed

  12. Suppression of chaos by weak resonant excitations in a non-linear oscillator with a non-symmetric potential

    Litak, Grzegorz; Syta, Arkadiusz; Borowiec, Marek

    2007-01-01

    We examine the Melnikov criterion for transition to chaos in case of one degree of freedom non-linear oscillator with non-symmetric potential. This system, when subjected to an external periodic force, shows homoclinic transition from regular vibrations to chaos just before escape from a potential well. We focus especially on the effect of a second resonant excitation with a different phase on the system transition to chaos. We propose a way of its control

  13. Superradiance Effects in the Linear and Nonlinear Optical Response of Quantum Dot Molecules

    Sitek, A.; Machnikowski, P.

    2008-11-01

    We calculate the linear optical response from a single quantum dot molecule and the nonlinear, four-wave-mixing response from an inhomogeneously broadened ensemble of such molecules. We show that both optical signals are affected by the coupling-dependent superradiance effect and by optical interference between the two polarizations. As a result, the linear and nonlinear responses are not identical.

  14. Linear optical response of carbon nanotubes under axial magnetic field

    Moradian, Rostam; Chegel, Raad; Behzad, Somayeh

    2010-04-01

    We considered single walled carbon naotubes (SWCNTs) as real three dimensional (3D) systems in a cylindrical coordinate. The optical matrix elements and linear susceptibility, χ(ω), in the tight binding approximation in terms of one-dimensional wave vector, kz and subband index, l are calculated. In an external axial magnetic field optical frequency dependence of linear susceptibility are investigated. We found that axial magnetic field has two effects on the imaginary part of the linear susceptibility spectrum, in agreement with experimental results. The first effect is broadening and the second, splitting. Also we found that for all metallic zigzag and armchair SWCNTs, the axial magnetic field leads to the creation of a peak with energy less than 1.5 eV, contrary to what is observed in the absence of a magnetic field.

  15. Stability and response bounds of non-conservative linear systems

    Pommer, Christian

    2003-01-01

    For a linear system of second order differential equations the stability is studied by Lyapunov's direct method. The Lyapunov matrix equation is solved and a sufficient condition for stability is expressed by the system matrices. For a system which satisfies the condition for stability the Lyapunov...

  16. Electrostatic resonances and optical responses of cylindrical clusters

    Choy, C W; Xiao, J J; Yu, K W

    2008-01-01

    We developed a Green function formalism (GFF) for computing the electrostatic resonance in clusters of cylindrical particles. In the GFF, we take advantage of a surface integral equation to avoid matching the complicated boundary conditions on the surfaces of the particles. Numerical solutions of the eigenvalue equation yield a pole spectrum in the spectral representation. The pole spectrum can in turn be used to compute the optical response of these particles. For two cylindrical particles, the results are in excellent agreement with the exact results from the multiple image method and the normal mode expansion method. The results of this work can be extended to investigate the enhanced nonlinear optical responses of metal-dielectric composites, as well as optical switching in plasmonic waveguides.

  17. A consistent response spectrum analysis including the resonance range

    Schmitz, D.; Simmchen, A.

    1983-01-01

    The report provides a complete consistent Response Spectrum Analysis for any component. The effect of supports with different excitation is taken into consideration, at is the description of the resonance ranges. It includes information explaining how the contributions of the eigenforms with higher eigenfrequencies are to be considered. Stocking of floor response spectra is also possible using the method described here. However, modified floor response spectra must now be calculated for each building mode. Once these have been prepared, the calculation of the dynamic component values is practically no more complicated than with the conventional, non-consistent methods. The consistent Response Spectrum Analysis can supply smaller and larger values than the conventional theory, a fact which can be demonstrated using simple examples. The report contains a consistent Response Spectrum Analysis (RSA), which, as far as we know, has been formulated in this way for the first time. A consistent RSA is so important because today this method is preferentially applied as an important tool for the earthquake proof of components in nuclear power plants. (orig./HP)

  18. Linear and non-linear dose-response functions reveal a hormetic relationship between stress and learning.

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Diamond, David M

    2008-10-16

    Over a century of behavioral research has shown that stress can enhance or impair learning and memory. In the present review, we have explored the complex effects of stress on cognition and propose that they are characterized by linear and non-linear dose-response functions, which together reveal a hormetic relationship between stress and learning. We suggest that stress initially enhances hippocampal function, resulting from amygdala-induced excitation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity, as well as the excitatory effects of several neuromodulators, including corticosteroids, norepinephrine, corticotropin-releasing hormone, acetylcholine and dopamine. We propose that this rapid activation of the amygdala-hippocampus brain memory system results in a linear dose-response relation between emotional strength and memory formation. More prolonged stress, however, leads to an inhibition of hippocampal function, which can be attributed to compensatory cellular responses that protect hippocampal neurons from excitotoxicity. This inhibition of hippocampal functioning in response to prolonged stress is potentially relevant to the well-described curvilinear dose-response relationship between arousal and memory. Our emphasis on the temporal features of stress-brain interactions addresses how stress can activate, as well as impair, hippocampal functioning to produce a hormetic relationship between stress and learning.

  19. CFORM- LINEAR CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN AND ANALYSIS: CLOSED FORM SOLUTION AND TRANSIENT RESPONSE OF THE LINEAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION

    Jamison, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    CFORM was developed by the Kennedy Space Center Robotics Lab to assist in linear control system design and analysis using closed form and transient response mechanisms. The program computes the closed form solution and transient response of a linear (constant coefficient) differential equation. CFORM allows a choice of three input functions: the Unit Step (a unit change in displacement); the Ramp function (step velocity); and the Parabolic function (step acceleration). It is only accurate in cases where the differential equation has distinct roots, and does not handle the case for roots at the origin (s=0). Initial conditions must be zero. Differential equations may be input to CFORM in two forms - polynomial and product of factors. In some linear control analyses, it may be more appropriate to use a related program, Linear Control System Design and Analysis (KSC-11376), which uses root locus and frequency response methods. CFORM was written in VAX FORTRAN for a VAX 11/780 under VAX VMS 4.7. It has a central memory requirement of 30K. CFORM was developed in 1987.

  20. Dynamic Response Analysis of Linear Pulse Motor with Closed Loop Control

    山本, 行雄; 山田, 一

    1989-01-01

    A linear pulse motor can translate digital signals into linear positions without a gear system. It is important to predict a dynamic response in order to the motor that has the good performance. In this report the maximum pulse rate and the maximum speed on the linear pulse motor are obtained by using the sampling theory.

  1. Linear and nonlinear response matrix and its application to the SIS18 synchrotron

    Parfenova, Angelina

    2008-01-01

    This Thesis is dedicated to the numerical as well as the experimental study of beam dynamics in circular accelerators. The experimental part was undertaken in the SIS18 synchrotron. The detailed description of the experiments contained in this work can be considered as a starting point for future experiments and machine development. The work has the following structure. In Chapter 2 an overview of the GSI and FAIR accelerator facilities, and a general description of the SIS18 instrumentation related to the study of this work are given. The expected SIS18 performance in view of the upgrade program for FAIR project are outlined. The main beam dynamics issues connected with the purpose of this work are discussed. Chapter 3 is devoted to the study of linear beam dynamics in the SIS18. The resonance beam loss measurements were carried out with residual gas profile monitor in the SIS18 (Chapter 4). In the frame of this work a novel technique 'nonlinear tune response matrix method' to identify strengths, polarities and locations of nonlinear errors in circular accelerators is developed (Chapter 5). In the method the feed down effect of the nonlinear components at level of linear tune response to the closed-orbit change is explored. The closed-orbit change is introduced by varying correction steerers. The tune values are retrieved from the spectrum of coherent betatron oscillations excited by a fast kick. The theoretical background, the robustness of the method and numerical examples for the SIS18 using numerical library MICROMAP are presented. The technique to measure lattice nonlinearities was experimentally validated in the SIS18 where two normal as well as two skew sextupolar errors of the order of natural errors were reconstructed with a tolerant precision. It was shown how this technique can be applied to reconstruct sextupolar nonlinear errors in the complete machine. In Chapter 6 the main results and the conclusions of this work are outlined. (orig.)

  2. Frequency Preference Response to Oscillatory Inputs in Two-dimensional Neural Models: A Geometric Approach to Subthreshold Amplitude and Phase Resonance.

    Rotstein, Horacio G

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the dynamic mechanisms of generation of subthreshold and phase resonance in two-dimensional linear and linearized biophysical (conductance-based) models, and we extend our analysis to account for the effect of simple, but not necessarily weak, types of nonlinearities. Subthreshold resonance refers to the ability of neurons to exhibit a peak in their voltage amplitude response to oscillatory input currents at a preferred non-zero (resonant) frequency. Phase-resonance refers to the ability of neurons to exhibit a zero-phase (or zero-phase-shift) response to oscillatory input currents at a non-zero (phase-resonant) frequency. We adapt the classical phase-plane analysis approach to account for the dynamic effects of oscillatory inputs and develop a tool, the envelope-plane diagrams, that captures the role that conductances and time scales play in amplifying the voltage response at the resonant frequency band as compared to smaller and larger frequencies. We use envelope-plane diagrams in our analysis. We explain why the resonance phenomena do not necessarily arise from the presence of imaginary eigenvalues at rest, but rather they emerge from the interplay of the intrinsic and input time scales. We further explain why an increase in the time-scale separation causes an amplification of the voltage response in addition to shifting the resonant and phase-resonant frequencies. This is of fundamental importance for neural models since neurons typically exhibit a strong separation of time scales. We extend this approach to explain the effects of nonlinearities on both resonance and phase-resonance. We demonstrate that nonlinearities in the voltage equation cause amplifications of the voltage response and shifts in the resonant and phase-resonant frequencies that are not predicted by the corresponding linearized model. The differences between the nonlinear response and the linear prediction increase with increasing levels of the time scale separation between

  3. Enhancing optical response of graphene through stochastic resonance

    Ying, Lei; Huang, Liang; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2018-04-01

    Enhancing the optical response of graphene is a topic of interest with applications in optoelectronics. Subject to light irradiation, graphene can exhibit nontrivial topologically insulating states, effectively turning itself into a Floquet topological insulator due to the time periodicity of the external driving. We find that, when random disorder is present, its interplay with the topologically insulating states can have a dramatic effect on electronic transport through graphene. In particular, we consider the prototypical setting where a graphene nanoribbon is irradiated by circularly polarized light, where the length of the nanoribbon is sufficiently long so that evanescent states have little effect on transport. We uncover a resonance phenomenon in which the conductance is enhanced as the disorder strength is increased from zero, reaches a maximum value for an optimal level of disorder, and decreases as the disorder is strengthened further. With respect to its value at the zero-disorder strength, the maximum conductance value can be as much as 50 % higher. Qualitatively, this can be understood as a result of the dynamical interplay between disorder and Floquet states (channels) generated by light irradiation. Quantitatively, the resonance phenomenon can be explained in the framework of Born theory, where the disorder reorganizes the Floquet Hamiltonian and enhances the effective coupling between the adjacent Floquet conducting channels. That is, disorder is capable of promoting both photon absorption and emission, leading to significant enhancement of nonequilibrium electronic transport. We demonstrate the robustness of the resonance phenomenon by investigating the effects of spatial symmetry breaking on transport and provide an understanding based on analyzing the behavior of the density of states of the Floquet channels.

  4. How linear response shaped models of neural circuits and the quest for alternatives.

    Herfurth, Tim; Tchumatchenko, Tatjana

    2017-10-01

    In the past decades, many mathematical approaches to solve complex nonlinear systems in physics have been successfully applied to neuroscience. One of these tools is the concept of linear response functions. However, phenomena observed in the brain emerge from fundamentally nonlinear interactions and feedback loops rather than from a composition of linear filters. Here, we review the successes achieved by applying the linear response formalism to topics, such as rhythm generation and synchrony and by incorporating it into models that combine linear and nonlinear transformations. We also discuss the challenges encountered in the linear response applications and argue that new theoretical concepts are needed to tackle feedback loops and non-equilibrium dynamics which are experimentally observed in neural networks but are outside of the validity regime of the linear response formalism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A quantum-mechanical perspective on linear response theory within polarizable embedding

    List, Nanna Holmgaard; Norman, Patrick; Kongsted, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    We present a derivation of linear response theory within polarizable embedding starting from a rigorous quantum-mechanical treatment of a composite system. To this aim, two different subsystem decompositions (symmetric and nonsymmetric) of the linear response function are introduced and the pole...

  6. A generalized linear factor model approach to the hierarchical framework for responses and response times.

    Molenaar, Dylan; Tuerlinckx, Francis; van der Maas, Han L J

    2015-05-01

    We show how the hierarchical model for responses and response times as developed by van der Linden (2007), Fox, Klein Entink, and van der Linden (2007), Klein Entink, Fox, and van der Linden (2009), and Glas and van der Linden (2010) can be simplified to a generalized linear factor model with only the mild restriction that there is no hierarchical model at the item side. This result is valuable as it enables all well-developed modelling tools and extensions that come with these methods. We show that the restriction we impose on the hierarchical model does not influence parameter recovery under realistic circumstances. In addition, we present two illustrative real data analyses to demonstrate the practical benefits of our approach. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  7. Theory of magnetoelectric effect in multilayer nanocomposites on a substrate: Resonant bending-mode response

    Matthias C. Krantz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Resonant bending-mode magnetoelectric (ME coefficients of magnetostrictive-piezoelectric multilayer cantilevers are calculated analytically using a model developed for arbitrary multilayers on a substrate. Without quality factor effects the ME coefficient maxima in the four-dimensional parameter space of layer numbers, layer sequences, piezoelectric volume fractions, and substrate thicknesses are found to be essentially constant for nonzero substrate thickness. Global maxima occur for bilayers without substrates. Vanishing magnetoelectric response regions result from voltage cancellation in piezoelectric layers or absence of bending-mode excitation. They are determined by the neutral plane position in the multilayer stack. With Q-factor effects dominated by viscous air damping ME coefficients strongly increase with cantilever thickness primarily due to increasing resonance frequencies. The results yield a layer specific prediction of ME coefficients, resonance frequencies, and Q-factors in arbitrary multilayers and thus distinction of linear-coupling and Q-factor effects from exchange interaction, interface, or nonlinear ME effects.

  8. Numerical analysis of non-linear vibrations of a fractionally damped cylindrical shell under the conditions of combinational internal resonance

    Rossikhin Yury A.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-linear damped vibrations of a cylindrical shell embedded into a fractional derivative medium are investigated for the case of the combinational internal resonance, resulting in modal interaction, using two different numerical methods with further comparison of the results obtained. The damping properties of the surrounding medium are described by the fractional derivative Kelvin-Voigt model utilizing the Riemann-Liouville fractional derivatives. Within the first method, the generalized displacements of a coupled set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations of the second order are estimated using numerical solution of nonlinear multi-term fractional differential equations by the procedure based on the reduction of the problem to a system of fractional differential equations. According to the second method, the amplitudes and phases of nonlinear vibrations are estimated from the governing nonlinear differential equations describing amplitude-and-phase modulations for the case of the combinational internal resonance. A good agreement in results is declared.

  9. Nonlinear Plasma Response to Resonant Magnetic Perturbation in Rutherford Regime

    Zhu, Ping; Yan, Xingting; Huang, Wenlong

    2017-10-01

    Recently a common analytic relation for both the locked mode and the nonlinear plasma response in the Rutherford regime has been developed based on the steady-state solution to the coupled dynamic system of magnetic island evolution and torque balance equations. The analytic relation predicts the threshold and the island size for the full penetration of resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP). It also rigorously proves a screening effect of the equilibrium toroidal flow. In this work, we test the theory by solving for the nonlinear plasma response to a single-helicity RMP of a circular-shaped limiter tokamak equilibrium with a constant toroidal flow, using the initial-value, full MHD simulation code NIMROD. Time evolution of the parallel flow or ``slip frequency'' profile and its asymptotic approach to steady state obtained from the NIMROD simulations qualitatively agree with the theory predictions. Further comparisons are carried out for the saturated island size, the threshold for full mode penetration, as well as the screening effects of equilibrium toroidal flow in order to understand the physics of nonlinear plasma response in the Rutherford regime. Supported by National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China Grants 2014GB124002 and 2015GB101004, the 100 Talent Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and U.S. Department of Energy Grants DE-FG02-86ER53218 and DE-FC02-08ER54975.

  10. Linear Optical Response of Silicon Nanotubes Under Axial Magnetic Field

    Chegel, Raad; Behzad, Somayeh

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the optical properties of silicon nanotubes (SiNTs) in the low energy region, E < 0.5 eV, and middle energy region, 1.8 eV < E < 2 eV. The dependence of optical matrix elements and linear susceptibility on radius and magnetic field, in terms of one-dimensional (1-d) wavevector and subband index, is calculated using the tight-binding approximation. It is found that, on increasing the nanotube diameter, the low-energy peaks show red-shift and their intensities are decreased. Also, we found that in the middle energy region all tubes have two distinct peaks, where the energy position of the second peak is approximately constant and independent of the nanotube diameter. Comparing the band structure of these tubes in different magnetic fields, several differences are clearly seen, such as splitting of degenerate bands, creation of additional band-edge states, and bandgap modification. It is found that applying the magnetic field leads to a phase transition in zigzag silicon hexagonal nanotubes (Si h-NTs), unlike in zigzag silicon gear-like nanotubes (Si g-NTs), which remain semiconducting in any magnetic field. We found that the axial magnetic field has two effects on the linear susceptibility spectrum, namely broadening and splitting. The axial magnetic field leads to the creation of a peak with energy less than 0.2 eV in metallic Si h-NTs, whereas in the absence of a magnetic field such a transition is not allowed.

  11. Molding of plasmonic resonances in metallic nanostructures: Dependence of the non-linear electric permittivity on system size and temperature

    Alabastri, A.; Tuccio, S.; Giugni, A.; Toma, A.; Liberale, Carlo; Das, G.; Angelis, F.D.; Fabrizio, E.D.; Zaccaria, R.P.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we review the principal theoretical models through which the dielectric function of metals can be described. Starting from the Drude assumptions for intraband transitions, we show how this model can be improved by including interband absorption and temperature effect in the damping coefficients. Electronic scattering processes are described and included in the dielectric function, showing their role in determining plasmon lifetime at resonance. Relationships among permittivity, electric conductivity and refractive index are examined. Finally, a temperature dependent permittivity model is presented and is employed to predict temperature and non-linear field intensity dependence on commonly used plasmonic geometries, such as nanospheres. 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

  12. Emittance study of a 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source for the Rare Isotope Science Project superconducting linear accelerator.

    Park, Bum-Sik; Hong, In-Seok; Jang, Ji-Ho; Jin, Hyunchang; Choi, Sukjin; Kim, Yonghwan

    2016-02-01

    A 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source is being developed for use as an injector for the superconducting linear accelerator of the Rare Isotope Science Project. Beam extraction from the ECR ion source has been simulated using the KOBRA3-INP software. The simulation software can calculate charged particle trajectories in three dimensional complex magnetic field structures, which in this case are formed by the arrangement of five superconducting magnets. In this study, the beam emittance is simulated to understand the effects of plasma potential, mass-to-charge ratio, and spatial distribution. The results of these simulations and their comparison to experimental results are presented in this paper.

  13. Molding of plasmonic resonances in metallic nanostructures: Dependence of the non-linear electric permittivity on system size and temperature

    Alabastri, A.

    2013-10-25

    In this paper, we review the principal theoretical models through which the dielectric function of metals can be described. Starting from the Drude assumptions for intraband transitions, we show how this model can be improved by including interband absorption and temperature effect in the damping coefficients. Electronic scattering processes are described and included in the dielectric function, showing their role in determining plasmon lifetime at resonance. Relationships among permittivity, electric conductivity and refractive index are examined. Finally, a temperature dependent permittivity model is presented and is employed to predict temperature and non-linear field intensity dependence on commonly used plasmonic geometries, such as nanospheres. 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

  14. Reproducibility and signal response linearity of Alanine gel dosimeter

    Silva, Cleber Feijo Silva; Campos, Leticia Lucente

    2008-01-01

    Gel Dosimetry has been studied mainly for medical applications, because it presents signal response in the dose range used in radiotherapy treatments and it can be applied for three dimensional dosimetry. Alanine gel dosimeter is a new gel material developed at IPEN that presents significant improvement on previous alanine systems developed by Costa (1994). The DL-Alanine (C 3 H 7 NO 2 ) is an amino acid tissue equivalent that improves the production of ferric ions in the solution. These ferric ions concentration can be measured by spectrophotometry technique. This work aims to study the reproducibility of the alanine gel solutions and the signal response as a function of gamma radiation dose, considering that these two properties are very important for characterizing and standardizing any dosimeter. (author)

  15. Topologically determined optimal stochastic resonance responses of spatially embedded networks

    Gosak, Marko; Marhl, Marko; Korosak, Dean

    2011-01-01

    We have analyzed the stochastic resonance phenomenon on spatial networks of bistable and excitable oscillators, which are connected according to their location and the amplitude of external forcing. By smoothly altering the network topology from a scale-free (SF) network with dominating long-range connections to a network where principally only adjacent oscillators are connected, we reveal that besides an optimal noise intensity, there is also a most favorable interaction topology at which the best correlation between the response of the network and the imposed weak external forcing is achieved. For various distributions of the amplitudes of external forcing, the optimal topology is always found in the intermediate regime between the highly heterogeneous SF network and the strong geometric regime. Our findings thus indicate that a suitable number of hubs and with that an optimal ratio between short- and long-range connections is necessary in order to obtain the best global response of a spatial network. Furthermore, we link the existence of the optimal interaction topology to a critical point indicating the transition from a long-range interactions-dominated network to a more lattice-like network structure.

  16. Intricate Resonant Raman Response in Anisotropic ReS2.

    McCreary, Amber; Simpson, Jeffrey R; Wang, Yuanxi; Rhodes, Daniel; Fujisawa, Kazunori; Balicas, Luis; Dubey, Madan; Crespi, Vincent H; Terrones, Mauricio; Hight Walker, Angela R

    2017-10-11

    The strong in-plane anisotropy of rhenium disulfide (ReS 2 ) offers an additional physical parameter that can be tuned for advanced applications such as logic circuits, thin-film polarizers, and polarization-sensitive photodetectors. ReS 2 also presents advantages for optoelectronics, as it is both a direct-gap semiconductor for few-layer thicknesses (unlike MoS 2 or WS 2 ) and stable in air (unlike black phosphorus). Raman spectroscopy is one of the most powerful characterization techniques to nondestructively and sensitively probe the fundamental photophysics of a 2D material. Here, we perform a thorough study of the resonant Raman response of the 18 first-order phonons in ReS 2 at various layer thicknesses and crystal orientations. Remarkably, we discover that, as opposed to a general increase in intensity of all of the Raman modes at excitonic transitions, each of the 18 modes behave differently relative to each other as a function of laser excitation, layer thickness, and orientation in a manner that highlights the importance of electron-phonon coupling in ReS 2 . In addition, we correct an unrecognized error in the calculation of the optical interference enhancement of the Raman signal of transition metal dichalcogenides on SiO 2 /Si substrates that has propagated through various reports. For ReS 2 , this correction is critical to properly assessing the resonant Raman behavior. We also implemented a perturbation approach to calculate frequency-dependent Raman intensities based on first-principles and demonstrate that, despite the neglect of excitonic effects, useful trends in the Raman intensities of monolayer and bulk ReS 2 at different laser energies can be accurately captured. Finally, the phonon dispersion calculated from first-principles is used to address the possible origins of unexplained peaks observed in the Raman spectra, such as infrared-active modes, defects, and second-order processes.

  17. Modeling and non-linear responses of MEMS capacitive accelerometer

    Sri Harsha C.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical investigation of an electrically actuated beam has been illustrated when the electrostatic-ally actuated micro-cantilever beam is separated from the electrode by a moderately large gap for two distinct types of geometric configurations of MEMS accelerometer. Higher order nonlinear terms have been taken into account for studying the pull in voltage analysis. A nonlinear model of gas film squeezing damping, another source of nonlinearity in MEMS devices is included in obtaining the dynamic responses. Moreover, in the present work, the possible source of nonlinearities while formulating the mathematical model of a MEMS accelerometer and their influences on the dynamic responses have been investigated. The theoretical results obtained by using MATLAB has been verified with the results obtained in FE software and has been found in good agreement. Criterion towards stable micro size accelerometer for each configuration has been investigated. This investigation clearly provides an understanding of nonlinear static and dynamics characteristics of electrostatically micro cantilever based device in MEMS.

  18. Design and experimental validation of Unilateral Linear Halbach magnet arrays for single-sided magnetic resonance.

    Bashyam, Ashvin; Li, Matthew; Cima, Michael J

    2018-07-01

    Single-sided NMR has the potential for broad utility and has found applications in healthcare, materials analysis, food quality assurance, and the oil and gas industry. These sensors require a remote, strong, uniform magnetic field to perform high sensitivity measurements. We demonstrate a new permanent magnet geometry, the Unilateral Linear Halbach, that combines design principles from "sweet-spot" and linear Halbach magnets to achieve this goal through more efficient use of magnetic flux. We perform sensitivity analysis using numerical simulations to produce a framework for Unilateral Linear Halbach design and assess tradeoffs between design parameters. Additionally, the use of hundreds of small, discrete magnets within the assembly allows for a tunable design, improved robustness to variability in magnetization strength, and increased safety during construction. Experimental validation using a prototype magnet shows close agreement with the simulated magnetic field. The Unilateral Linear Halbach magnet increases the sensitivity, portability, and versatility of single-sided NMR. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Enhancement of Otolith Specific Ocular Responses Using Vestibular Stochastic Resonance

    Fiedler, Matthew; De Dios, Yiri E.; Esteves, Julie; Galvan, Raquel; Wood, Scott; Bloomberg, Jacob; Mulavara, Ajitkumar

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Astronauts experience disturbances in sensorimotor function after spaceflight during the initial introduction to a gravitational environment, especially after long-duration missions. Our goal is to develop a countermeasure based on vestibular stochastic resonance (SR) that could improve central interpretation of vestibular input and mitigate these risks. SR is a mechanism by which noise can assist and enhance the response of neural systems to relevant, imperceptible sensory signals. We have previously shown that imperceptible electrical stimulation of the vestibular system enhances balance performance while standing on an unstable surface. Methods: Eye movement data were collected from 10 subjects during variable radius centrifugation (VRC). Subjects performed 11 trials of VRC that provided equivalent tilt stimuli from otolith and other graviceptor input without the normal concordant canal cues. Bipolar stochastic electrical stimulation, in the range of 0-1500 microamperes, was applied to the vestibular system using a constant current stimulator through electrodes placed over the mastoid process behind the ears. In the VRC paradigm, subjects were accelerated to 216 deg./s. After the subjects no longer sensed rotation, the chair oscillated along a track at 0.1 Hz to provide tilt stimuli of 10 deg. Eye movements were recorded for 6 cycles while subjects fixated on a target in darkness. Ocular counter roll (OCR) movement was calculated from the eye movement data during periods of chair oscillations. Results: Preliminary analysis of the data revealed that 9 of 10 subjects showed an average increase of 28% in the magnitude of OCR responses to the equivalent tilt stimuli while experiencing vestibular SR. The signal amplitude at which performance was maximized was in the range of 100-900 microamperes. Discussion: These results indicate that stochastic electrical stimulation of the vestibular system can improve otolith specific responses. This will have a

  20. Implications of the 750 GeV γγ Resonance as a Case Study for the International Linear Collider

    Fujii, Keisuke [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Grojean, Christophe [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain). Inst. Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA) and Inst. de Fisica d' Altes Energies (IFAE); Peskin, Michael E. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Barklow, Tim [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Gao, Yuanning [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Center for High Energy Physics; Kanemura, Shinya [Univ. of Toyama (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Kim, Hyungdo [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; List, Jenny [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Nojiri, Mihoko [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Univ. of Tokyo (Japan). Kavli Inst. for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe; Perelstein, Maxim [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Lab. for Elementary Particle Physics; Poschl, Roman [Univ. Paris-Sud, Orsay (France). Linear Accelerator Lab. (LAL). Centre Scientifique d' Orsay; Reuter, Jurgen [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Simon, Frank [Max Planck Inst. for Physics (MPP), Munich (Germany); Tanabe, Tomohiko [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan). International Center for Elementary Particle Physics (ICEPP); Yu, Jaehoon [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States). Dept. of Physics; Wells, James D. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics; Falkowski, Adam [Univ. Paris-Sud, Orsay (France). Lab. of Theoretical Physics (LPT); Matsumoto, Shigeki [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan). Kavli Inst. for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe; Moroi, Takeo [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Richard, Francois [Univ. Paris-Sud, Orsay (France). Linear Accelerator Lab. (LAL). Centre Scientifique d' Orsay; Tian, Junping [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan). International Center for Elementary Particle Physics (ICEPP); Vos, Marcel [Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), Valencia (Spain) and Univ. of Valencia (Spain). Inst. for Corpuscular Physics (IFIC); Yokoya, Hiroshi [Korean Inst. for Advanced Study (KIAS), Seoul (Korea, Republic of ). Quantum Universe Center; Murayama, Hitoshi [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan). Kavli Inst. for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yamamoto, Hitoshi [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    2016-07-14

    If the γγ resonance at 750 GeV suggested by 2015 LHC data turns out to be a real effect, what are the implications for the physics case and upgrade path of the International Linear Collider? Whether or not the resonance is confirmed, this question provides an interesting case study testing the robustness of the ILC physics case. In this note, we address this question with two points: (1) Almost all models proposed for the new 750 GeV particle require additional new particles with electroweak couplings. The key elements of the 500 GeV ILC physics program - precision measurements of the Higgs boson, the top quark, and 4-fermion interactions - will powerfully discriminate among these models. This information will be important in conjunction with new LHC data, or alone, if the new particles accompanying the 750 GeV resonance are beyond the mass reach of the LHC. (2) Over a longer term, the energy upgrade of the ILC to 1 TeV already discussed in the ILC TDR will enable experiments in γγ and e+e- collisions to directly produce and study the 750 GeV particle from these unique initial states.

  1. Implications of the 750 GeV γγ resonance as a case study for the International Linear Collider

    Fujii, Keisuke; Grojean, Christophe; Univ. Autonoma de Barcelon; Peskin, Michael E.

    2016-07-01

    If the γγ resonance at 750 GeV suggested by 2015 LHC data turns out to be a real effect, what are the implications for the physics case and upgrade path of the International Linear Collider? Whether or not the resonance is confirmed, this question provides an interesting case study testing the robustness of the ILC physics case. In this note, we address this question with two points: (1) Almost all models proposed for the new 750 GeV particle require additional new particles with electroweak couplings. The key elements of the 500 GeV ILC physics program - precision measurements of the Higgs boson, the top quark, and 4-fermion interactions - will powerfully discriminate among these models. This information will be important in conjunction with new LHC data, or alone, if the new particles accompanying the 750 GeV resonance are beyond the mass reach of the LHC. (2) Over a longer term, the energy upgrade of the ILC to 1 TeV already discussed in the ILC TDR will enable experiments in γγ and e"+e"- collisions to directly produce and study the 750 GeV particle from these unique initial states.

  2. a{sub 0}(980) as a dynamically generated resonance in the extended Linear Sigma Model

    Wolkanowski-Gans, Thomas; Giacosa, Francesco [Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    We study basic properties of scalar hadronic resonances within the so-called extended linear sigma model (eLSM), which is an effective model of QCD based on chiral symmetry and dilatation invariance. In particular, we focus on the mass and decay width of the isovector state a{sub 0}(1450) and perform a numerical study of the propagator pole(s) on the unphysical Riemann sheets. Here, the a{sub 0}(1450) is understood as a seed state explicitly included in the eLSM - this is in fact not true for the corresponding resonance below 1 GeV, the a{sub 0}(980), which is sometimes interpreted as a kaonic (i.e., dynamically generated) bound state. In our work we want to clarify if the yet not included a{sub 0}(980) can be found as a propagator pole generated by hadronic loop contributions. From such an investigation one could learn more about the general dependence of the eLSM - and effective field models in general - on strongly coupled hadronic intermediate states, possibly giving new insight into the low-energy regime, scalar resonances and both its theoretical description and physical interpretation.

  3. Adiabatic Hamiltonian deformation, linear response theory, and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics

    Hoover, W.G.

    1980-01-01

    Although Hamiltonians of various kinds have previously been used to derive Green-Kubo relations for the transport coefficients, the particular choice described is uniquely related to thermodynamics. This nonequilibrium Hamiltonian formulation of fluid flow provides pedagogically simple routes to nonequilibrium fluxes and distribution functions, to theoretical understanding of long-time effects, and to new numerical methods for simulating systems far from equilibrium. The same methods are now being applied to solid-phase problems. At the relatively high frequencies used in the viscous fluid calculations described, solids typically behave elastically. Lower frequencies lead to the formation of dislocations and other defects, making it possible to study plastic flow. A property of the nonequilibrium equations of motion which might be profitably explored is their effective irreversibility. Because only a few particles are necessary to generate irreversible behavior, simulations using adiabatic deformations of the kind described here could perhaps elucidate the instability in the equations of motion responsible for irreversibility

  4. Dynamic Response of Non-Linear Inelsatic Systems to Poisson-Driven Stochastic Excitations

    Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Iwankiewicz, R.

    of an equivalent linearization techni que and substituting the non-analytical non-linearity in the original system by the cubic form in the pertinent state variables. The response moments are evaluated for the equivalent systems with the help of a generalized Ito's differential rule. The analytical results...

  5. Linear Ordinary Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients. Revisiting the Impulsive Response Method Using Factorization

    Camporesi, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    We present an approach to the impulsive response method for solving linear constant-coefficient ordinary differential equations based on the factorization of the differential operator. The approach is elementary, we only assume a basic knowledge of calculus and linear algebra. In particular, we avoid the use of distribution theory, as well as of…

  6. A nanolens-type enhancement in the linear and second harmonic response of a metallic dimer

    Pustovit, Vitaliy; Biswas, Sushmita; Vaia, Richard; Urbas, Augustine

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we explore the linear and second-order nonlinear response of gold nanoparticle pairs (dimers). Despite that even-order nonlinear processes are forbidden in bulk centrosymmetric media like metals, second order nonlinear response exhibits a high degree of sensitivity for spherical nanoparticles where inversion symmetry is broken at the surface. Recent experiments demonstrate significant dependence of linear response and second-harmonic surface nonlinear response arising from the local fundamental field distribution in a dimer configuration. Our calculations are carried out taking into account high order multipolar interactions between metal nanoparticles, and demonstrate that linear and nonlinear optical responses of the dimer exhibit periodic behavior dependent on the separation distance between nanoparticles. This response increases for dimers with a large difference between particle sizes. (paper)

  7. Approaching Resonant Absorption of Environmental Xenobiotics Harmonic Oscillation by Linear Structures

    Cornelia A. Bulucea

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last several decades, it has become increasingly accepted that the term xenobiotic relates to environmental impact, since environmental xenobiotics are understood to be substances foreign to a biological system, which did not exist in nature before their synthesis by humans. In this context, xenobiotics are persistent pollutants such as dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls, as well as plastics and pesticides. Dangerous and unstable situations can result from the presence of environmental xenobiotics since their harmful effects on humans and ecosystems are often unpredictable. For instance, the immune system is extremely vulnerable and sensitive to modulation by environmental xenobitics. Various experimental assays could be performed to ascertain the immunotoxic potential of environmental xenobiotics, taking into account genetic factors, the route of xenobiotic penetration, and the amount and duration of exposure, as well as the wave shape of the xenobiotic. In this paper, we propose an approach for the analysis of xenobiotic metabolism using mathematical models and corresponding methods. This study focuses on a pattern depicting mathematically modeled processes of resonant absorption of a xenobiotic harmonic oscillation by an organism modulated as an absorbing oscillator structure. We represent the xenobiotic concentration degree through a spatial concentration vector, and we model and simulate the oscillating regime of environmental xenobiotic absorption. It is anticipated that the results could be used to facilitate the assessment of the processes of environmental xenobiotic absorption, distribution, biotransformation and removal within the framework of compartmental analysis, by establishing appropriate mathematical models and simulations.

  8. Non-channel magnetron gun as the electron source for resonance linear accelerator

    Ivanov, G.M.; Makhnenko, L.A.; Cherenshchikov, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    Studies on the magnetron gun with a cold cathode being part of linear accelerator on the travelling wave are described. Two modes of the gun operation differing by presence of UHF field of the pre-buncher near the gun are observed. In the mode without UHF field the short (about 2 ns) pulses of accelerated electrons with amplitude up to 0.5 A at the gun current up to 20 A were obtained. The presence of UHF field near the gun makes it possible to obtain the beam of higher duration (up to 1.0 μs), but with current up to 20 mA at the accelerator outlet and up to 1 A at the gun outlet. The mechanism of the gun operation is concerned with the secondary-electron current increase and setting self-sustaining secondary emission. Gun characteristics under study are acceptable for the purposes of injection into accelerator [ru

  9. Evolution of Wigner function in laser process under the action of linear resonance force and its application

    Dao-ming, Lu

    2018-05-01

    The negativity of Wigner function (WF) is one of the important symbols of non-classical properties of light field. Therefore, it is of great significance to study the evolution of WF in dissipative process. The evolution formula of WF in laser process under the action of linear resonance force is given by virtue of thermo entangled state representation and the technique of integration within an ordered product of operator. As its application, the evolution of WF of thermal field and that of single-photon-added coherent state are discussed. The results show that the WF of thermal field maintains its original character. On the other hand, the negative region size and the depth of negativity of WF of single- photon-added coherent state decrease until it vanishes with dissipation. This shows that the non-classical property of single-photon-added coherent state is weakened, until it disappears with dissipation time increasing.

  10. Nonlinear dynamic response of an electrically actuated imperfect microbeam resonator

    Ruzziconi, Laura; Bataineh, Ahmad M.; Younis, Mohammad I.; Cui, Weili; Lenci, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    aspect for systematic local and global simulations. Finally, the theoretical analysis is further improved and a two-degree-of-freedom reduced-order model is developed, which is capable also to capture the measured second symmetric superharmonic resonance

  11. A Series-Fed Linear Substrate-Integrated Dielectric Resonator Antenna Array for Millimeter-Wave Applications

    Ke Gong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A series-fed linear substrate-integrated dielectric resonator antenna array (SIDRAA is presented for millimeter-wave applications, in which the substrate-integrated dielectric resonator antenna (SIDRA elements and the feeding structure can be codesigned and fabricated using the same planar process. A prototype 4 × 1 SIDRAA is designed at Ka-band and fabricated with a two-layer printed circuit board (PCB technology. Four SIDRAs are implemented in the Rogers RT6010 substrate using the perforation technique and fed by a compact substrate-integrated waveguide (SIW through four longitudinal coupling slots within the Rogers RT5880 substrate. The return loss, radiation patterns, and antenna gain were experimentally studied, and good agreement between the measured and simulated results is observed. The SIDRAA example provides a bandwidth of about 10% around 34.5 GHz for 10 dB return loss and stable broadside radiation patterns with the peak gain of 10.5–11.5 dBi across the band.

  12. Edge geometry effects on resonance response of electroplated cylindrical Ni/PZT/Ni magnetoelectric composites

    Yakubov, Vladislav; Xu, Lirong; Volinsky, Alex A.; Qiao, Lijie; Pan, De'an

    2017-08-01

    Trilayer Ni/PZT/Ni cylindrical magnetoelectric (ME) composites were prepared by electrodeposition, a process, which creates sub-millimeter raised edges due to current concentration near sharp points. The ME response in both axial and vertical modes was measured with the edges, with only outer edges removed, and with both outer and inner edges removed. The ME voltage coefficient improved at resonance by 40% and 147% without the edges in the vertical and axial modes, respectively. The observed improvements in three different samples were only present at the ME resonance and no changes were detected outside of the ME resonance. Mechanical quality factor at resonance also improved with no effect on the resonant frequency. Experimentally demonstrated minor geometry changes resulted in substantial ME improvement at resonant frequency. This study demonstrates device performance optimization. The observed effects have been attributed to improved vibrations in terms of decreased damping coefficient and enhanced vibration amplitude at resonance.

  13. Edge geometry effects on resonance response of electroplated cylindrical Ni/PZT/Ni magnetoelectric composites

    Vladislav Yakubov

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Trilayer Ni/PZT/Ni cylindrical magnetoelectric (ME composites were prepared by electrodeposition, a process, which creates sub-millimeter raised edges due to current concentration near sharp points. The ME response in both axial and vertical modes was measured with the edges, with only outer edges removed, and with both outer and inner edges removed. The ME voltage coefficient improved at resonance by 40% and 147% without the edges in the vertical and axial modes, respectively. The observed improvements in three different samples were only present at the ME resonance and no changes were detected outside of the ME resonance. Mechanical quality factor at resonance also improved with no effect on the resonant frequency. Experimentally demonstrated minor geometry changes resulted in substantial ME improvement at resonant frequency. This study demonstrates device performance optimization. The observed effects have been attributed to improved vibrations in terms of decreased damping coefficient and enhanced vibration amplitude at resonance.

  14. Resonance

    Petersen, Nils Holger

    2014-01-01

    A chapter in a book about terminology within the field of medievalism: the chapter discusses the resonance of medieval music and ritual in modern (classical) music culture and liturgical practice.......A chapter in a book about terminology within the field of medievalism: the chapter discusses the resonance of medieval music and ritual in modern (classical) music culture and liturgical practice....

  15. A diurnal resonance in the ocean tide and in the earth's load response due to the resonant free 'core nutation'

    Wahr, J. M.; Sasao, T.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of the oceans, which are subject to a resonance due to a free rotational eigenmode of an elliptical, rotating earth with a fluid outer core having an eigenfrequency of (1 + 1/460) cycle/day, on the body tide and nutational response of the earth to the diurnal luni-tidal force are computed. The response of an elastic, rotating, elliptical, oceanless earth with a fluid outer core to a given load distribution on its surface is first considered, and the tidal sea level height for equilibrium and nonequilibrium oceans is examined. Computations of the effects of equilibrium and nonequilibrium oceans on the nutational and deformational responses of the earth are then presented which show small but significant perturbations to the retrograde 18.6-year and prograde six-month nutations, and more important effects on the earth body tide, which is also resonant at the free core notation eigenfrequency.

  16. The response of a linear monostable system and its application in parameters estimation for PSK signals

    Duan, Chaowei; Zhan, Yafeng

    2016-01-01

    The output characteristics of a linear monostable system driven with a periodic signal and an additive white Gaussian noise are studied in this paper. Theoretical analysis shows that the output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) decreases monotonously with the increasing noise intensity but the output SNR-gain is stable. Inspired by this high SNR-gain phenomenon, this paper applies the linear monostable system in the parameters estimation algorithm for phase shift keying (PSK) signals and improves the estimation performance. - Highlights: • The response of a linear monostable system driven with a periodic signal and an additive white Gaussian noise is analyzed. • The optimal parameter of this linear monostable system to maximum the output SNR-gain is obtained. • Application of this linear monostable system in parameters estimation algorithm for PSK signals obtains performance improvement.

  17. Optimal Linear Responses for Markov Chains and Stochastically Perturbed Dynamical Systems

    Antown, Fadi; Dragičević, Davor; Froyland, Gary

    2018-03-01

    The linear response of a dynamical system refers to changes to properties of the system when small external perturbations are applied. We consider the little-studied question of selecting an optimal perturbation so as to (i) maximise the linear response of the equilibrium distribution of the system, (ii) maximise the linear response of the expectation of a specified observable, and (iii) maximise the linear response of the rate of convergence of the system to the equilibrium distribution. We also consider the inhomogeneous, sequential, or time-dependent situation where the governing dynamics is not stationary and one wishes to select a sequence of small perturbations so as to maximise the overall linear response at some terminal time. We develop the theory for finite-state Markov chains, provide explicit solutions for some illustrative examples, and numerically apply our theory to stochastically perturbed dynamical systems, where the Markov chain is replaced by a matrix representation of an approximate annealed transfer operator for the random dynamical system.

  18. The spin polarized linear response from density functional theory: Theory and application to atoms

    Fias, Stijn, E-mail: sfias@vub.ac.be; Boisdenghien, Zino; De Proft, Frank; Geerlings, Paul [General Chemistry (ALGC), Vrije Universiteit Brussel (Free University Brussels – VUB), Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2014-11-14

    Within the context of spin polarized conceptual density functional theory, the spin polarized linear response functions are introduced both in the [N, N{sub s}] and [N{sub α}, N{sub β}] representations. The mathematical relations between the spin polarized linear response functions in both representations are examined and an analytical expression for the spin polarized linear response functions in the [N{sub α}, N{sub β}] representation is derived. The spin polarized linear response functions were calculated for all atoms up to and including argon. To simplify the plotting of our results, we integrated χ(r, r′) to a quantity χ(r, r{sup ′}), circumventing the θ and ϕ dependence. This allows us to plot and to investigate the periodicity throughout the first three rows in the periodic table within the two different representations. For the first time, χ{sub αβ}(r, r{sup ′}), χ{sub βα}(r, r{sup ′}), and χ{sub SS}(r, r{sup ′}) plots have been calculated and discussed. By integration of the spin polarized linear response functions, different components to the polarisability, α{sub αα}, α{sub αβ}, α{sub βα}, and α{sub ββ} have been calculated.

  19. CiOpt: a program for optimization of the frequency response of linear circuits

    Miró Sans, Joan Maria; Palà Schönwälder, Pere

    1991-01-01

    An interactive personal-computer program for optimizing the frequency response of linear lumped circuits (CiOpt) is presented. CiOpt has proved to be an efficient tool in improving designs where the inclusion of more accurate device models distorts the desired frequency response, as well as in device modeling. The outputs of CiOpt are the element values which best match the obtained and the desired frequency response. The optimization algorithms used (the Fletcher-Powell and Newton's methods,...

  20. Comparing light sensitivity, linearity and step response of electronic cameras for ophthalmology.

    Kopp, O; Markert, S; Tornow, R P

    2002-01-01

    To develop and test a procedure to measure and compare light sensitivity, linearity and step response of electronic cameras. The pixel value (PV) of digitized images as a function of light intensity (I) was measured. The sensitivity was calculated from the slope of the P(I) function, the linearity was estimated from the correlation coefficient of this function. To measure the step response, a short sequence of images was acquired. During acquisition, a light source was switched on and off using a fast shutter. The resulting PV was calculated for each video field of the sequence. A CCD camera optimized for the near-infrared (IR) spectrum showed the highest sensitivity for both, visible and IR light. There are little differences in linearity. The step response depends on the procedure of integration and read out.

  1. A heteroscedastic generalized linear model with a non-normal speed factor for responses and response times.

    Molenaar, Dylan; Bolsinova, Maria

    2017-05-01

    In generalized linear modelling of responses and response times, the observed response time variables are commonly transformed to make their distribution approximately normal. A normal distribution for the transformed response times is desirable as it justifies the linearity and homoscedasticity assumptions in the underlying linear model. Past research has, however, shown that the transformed response times are not always normal. Models have been developed to accommodate this violation. In the present study, we propose a modelling approach for responses and response times to test and model non-normality in the transformed response times. Most importantly, we distinguish between non-normality due to heteroscedastic residual variances, and non-normality due to a skewed speed factor. In a simulation study, we establish parameter recovery and the power to separate both effects. In addition, we apply the model to a real data set. © 2017 The Authors. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Psychological Society.

  2. Long-Time Dynamic Response and Stochastic Resonance of Subdiffusive Overdamped Bistable Fractional Fokker-Planck Systems

    Yan-Mei, Kang; Yao-Lin, Jiang

    2008-01-01

    To explore the influence of anomalous diffusion on stochastic resonance (SR) more deeply and effectively, the method of moments is extended to subdiffusive overdamped bistable fractional Fokker-Planck systems for calculating the long-time linear dynamic response. It is found that the method of moments attains high accuracy with the truncation order N = 10, and in normal diffusion such obtained spectral amplification factor (SAF) of the first-order harmonic is also confirmed by stochastic simulation. Observing the SAF of the odd-order harmonics we find some interesting results, i.e. for smaller driving frequency the decrease of sub diffusion exponent inhibits the stochastic resonance (SR), while for larger driving frequency the decrease of sub diffusion exponent enhances the second SR peak, but the first one vanishes and a double SR is induced in the third-order harmonic at the same time. These observations suggest that the anomalous diffusion has important influence on the bistable dynamics

  3. Monitoring the electrochemical responses of neurotransmitters through localized surface plasmon resonance using nanohole array.

    Li, Nantao; Lu, Yanli; Li, Shuang; Zhang, Qian; Wu, Jiajia; Jiang, Jing; Liu, Gang Logan; Liu, Qingjun

    2017-07-15

    In this study, a novel spectroelectrochemical method was proposed for neurotransmitters detection. The central sensing device was a hybrid structure of nanohole array and gold nanoparticles, which demonstrated good conductivity and high localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) sensitivity. By utilizing such specially-designed nanoplasmonic sensor as working electrode, both electrical and spectral responses on the surface of the sensor could be simultaneously detected during the electrochemical process. Cyclic voltammetry was implemented to activate the oxidation and recovery of dopamine and serotonin, while transmission spectrum measurement was carried out to synchronously record to LSPR responses of the nanoplasmonic sensor. Coupling with electrochemistry, LSPR results indicated good integrity and linearity, along with promising accuracy in qualitative and quantitative detection even for mixed solution and in brain tissue homogenates. Also, the detection results of other negatively-charged neurotransmitters like acetylcholine demonstrated the selectivity of our detection method for transmitters with positive charge. When compared with traditional electrochemical signals, LSPR signals provided better signal-to-noise ratio and lower detection limits, along with immunity against interference factors like ascorbic acid. Taking the advantages of such robustness, the coupled detection method was proved to be a promising platform for point-of-care testing for neurotransmitters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A solution to the varying response of the linear power monitor induced by xenon poisoning

    Godsey, T A; Randall, J D [Texas A and M University (United States)

    1974-07-01

    After conversion to FLIP fuel at Texas A and M, the fuel temperatures were examined very carefully. It was observed that the fuel temperature at 1 Mw varied over a wide range during the week. This variation was shown to be due to the variation in response of the linear CIC which was used to establish reactor power level. A modification of the linear power monitor was designed and installed. The response of this system was verified by using cobalt wires, fuel temperature, and a fission chamber located at 6 feet from the reactor core. The system has proven to be operationally satisfactory. (author)

  5. Hydrodynamic theory for quantum plasmonics: Linear-response dynamics of the inhomogeneous electron gas

    Yan, Wei

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the hydrodynamic theory of metals, offering systematic studies of the linear-response dynamics for an inhomogeneous electron gas. We include the quantum functional terms of the Thomas-Fermi kinetic energy, the von Weizsa¨cker kinetic energy, and the exchange-correlation Coulomb...... energies under the local density approximation. The advantages, limitations, and possible improvements of the hydrodynamic theory are transparently demonstrated. The roles of various parameters in the theory are identified. We anticipate that the hydrodynamic theory can be applied to investigate the linear...... response of complex metallic nanostructures, including quantum effects, by adjusting theory parameters appropriately....

  6. Transition to Coherence in Populations of Coupled Chaotic Oscillators: A Linear Response Approach

    Topaj, Dmitri; Kye, Won-Ho; Pikovsky, Arkady

    2001-01-01

    We consider the collective dynamics in an ensemble of globally coupled chaotic maps. The transition to the coherent state with a macroscopic mean field is analyzed in the framework of the linear response theory. The linear response function for the chaotic system is obtained using the perturbation approach to the Frobenius-Perron operator. The transition point is defined from this function by virtue of the self-excitation condition for the feedback loop. Analytical results for the coupled Bernoulli maps are confirmed by the numerics

  7. Violations of local equilibrium and linear response in classical lattice systems

    Aoki, Kenichiro; Kusnezov, Dimitri

    2003-01-01

    We quantitatively and systematically analyze how local equilibrium, and linear response in transport are violated as systems move far from equilibrium. This is done by studying heat flow in classical lattice models with and without bulk transport behavior, in 1-3 dimensions, at various temperatures. Equations of motion for the system are integrated numerically to construct the non-equilibrium steady states. Linear response and local equilibrium assumptions are seen to break down in a similar manner. We quantify the breakdown through the analysis of both microscopic and macroscopic observables and examine its transformation properties under general redefinitions of the non-equilibrium temperature

  8. Evidence of a Nonequilibrium Distribution of Quasiparticles in the Microwave Response of a Superconducting Aluminum Resonator

    De Visser, P.J.; Goldie, D.J.; Diener, P.; Withington, S.; Baselmans, J.J.A.; Klapwijk, T.M.

    2014-01-01

    In a superconductor, absorption of photons with an energy below the superconducting gap leads to redistribution of quasiparticles over energy and thus induces a strong nonequilibrium quasiparticle energy distribution. We have measured the electrodynamic response, quality factor, and resonant

  9. Analysis of the Multiple-Solution Response of a Flexible Rotor Supported on Non-Linear Squeeze Film Dampers

    ZHU, C. S.; ROBB, D. A.; EWINS, D. J.

    2002-05-01

    The multiple-solution response of rotors supported on squeeze film dampers is a typical non-linear phenomenon. The behaviour of the multiple-solution response in a flexible rotor supported on two identical squeeze film dampers with centralizing springs is studied by three methods: synchronous circular centred-orbit motion solution, numerical integration method and slow acceleration method using the assumption of a short bearing and cavitated oil film; the differences of computational results obtained by the three different methods are compared in this paper. It is shown that there are three basic forms for the multiple-solution response in the flexible rotor system supported on the squeeze film dampers, which are the resonant, isolated bifurcation and swallowtail bifurcation multiple solutions. In the multiple-solution speed regions, the rotor motion may be subsynchronous, super-subsynchronous, almost-periodic and even chaotic, besides synchronous circular centred, even if the gravity effect is not considered. The assumption of synchronous circular centred-orbit motion for the journal and rotor around the static deflection line can be used only in some special cases; the steady state numerical integration method is very useful, but time consuming. Using the slow acceleration method, not only can the multiple-solution speed regions be detected, but also the non-synchronous response regions.

  10. Outer hair cell piezoelectricity: frequency response enhancement and resonance behavior.

    Weitzel, Erik K; Tasker, Ron; Brownell, William E

    2003-09-01

    Stretching or compressing an outer hair cell alters its membrane potential and, conversely, changing the electrical potential alters its length. This bi-directional energy conversion takes place in the cell's lateral wall and resembles the direct and converse piezoelectric effects both qualitatively and quantitatively. A piezoelectric model of the lateral wall has been developed that is based on the electrical and material parameters of the lateral wall. An equivalent circuit for the outer hair cell that includes piezoelectricity shows a greater admittance at high frequencies than one containing only membrane resistance and capacitance. The model also predicts resonance at ultrasonic frequencies that is inversely proportional to cell length. These features suggest all mammals use outer hair cell piezoelectricity to support the high-frequency receptor potentials that drive electromotility. It is also possible that members of some mammalian orders use outer hair cell piezoelectric resonance in detecting species-specific vocalizations.

  11. Linearization of Positional Response Curve of a Fiber-optic Displacement Sensor

    Babaev, O. G.; Matyunin, S. A.; Paranin, V. D.

    2018-01-01

    Currently, the creation of optical measuring instruments and sensors for measuring linear displacement is one of the most relevant problems in the area of instrumentation. Fiber-optic contactless sensors based on the magneto-optical effect are of special interest. They are essentially contactless, non-electrical and have a closed optical channel not subject to contamination. The main problem of this type of sensors is the non-linearity of their positional response curve due to the hyperbolic nature of the magnetic field intensity variation induced by moving the magnetic source mounted on the controlled object relative to the sensing element. This paper discusses an algorithmic method of linearizing the positional response curve of fiber-optic displacement sensors in any selected range of the displacements to be measured. The method is divided into two stages: 1 - definition of the calibration function, 2 - measurement and linearization of the positional response curve (including its temperature stabilization). The algorithm under consideration significantly reduces the number of points of the calibration function, which is essential for the calibration of temperature dependence, due to the use of the points that randomly deviate from the grid points with uniform spacing. Subsequent interpolation of the deviating points and piecewise linear-plane approximation of the calibration function reduces the microcontroller storage capacity for storing the calibration function and the time required to process the measurement results. The paper also presents experimental results of testing real samples of fiber-optic displacement sensors.

  12. LINEAR KERNEL SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINES FOR MODELING PORE-WATER PRESSURE RESPONSES

    KHAMARUZAMAN W. YUSOF

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Pore-water pressure responses are vital in many aspects of slope management, design and monitoring. Its measurement however, is difficult, expensive and time consuming. Studies on its predictions are lacking. Support vector machines with linear kernel was used here to predict the responses of pore-water pressure to rainfall. Pore-water pressure response data was collected from slope instrumentation program. Support vector machine meta-parameter calibration and model development was carried out using grid search and k-fold cross validation. The mean square error for the model on scaled test data is 0.0015 and the coefficient of determination is 0.9321. Although pore-water pressure response to rainfall is a complex nonlinear process, the use of linear kernel support vector machine can be employed where high accuracy can be sacrificed for computational ease and time.

  13. On the Linear Relation between the Mean and the Standard Deviation of a Response Time Distribution

    Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan; Brown, Scott

    2007-01-01

    Although it is generally accepted that the spread of a response time (RT) distribution increases with the mean, the precise nature of this relation remains relatively unexplored. The authors show that in several descriptive RT distributions, the standard deviation increases linearly with the mean. Results from a wide range of tasks from different…

  14. Non-linear wave loads and ship responses by a time-domain strip theory

    Xia, Jinzhu; Wang, Zhaohui; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    1998-01-01

    . Based on this time-domain strip theory, an efficient non-linear hydroelastic method of wave- and slamming-induced vertical motions and structural responses of ships is developed, where the structure is represented as a Timoshenko beam. Numerical calculations are presented for the S175 Containership...

  15. Non-Linear Wave Loads and Ship responses by a time-domain Strip Theory

    Xia, Jinzhu; Wang, Zhaohui; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    1998-01-01

    . Based on this time-domain strip theory, an efficient non-linear hyroelastic method of wave- and slamming-induced vertical motions and structural responses of ships is developed, where the structure is represented by the Timoshenko beam theory. Numerical calculations are presented for the S175...

  16. Evaluating and interpreting the chemical relevance of the linear response kernel for atoms II: open shell.

    Boisdenghien, Zino; Fias, Stijn; Van Alsenoy, Christian; De Proft, Frank; Geerlings, Paul

    2014-07-28

    Most of the work done on the linear response kernel χ(r,r') has focussed on its atom-atom condensed form χAB. Our previous work [Boisdenghien et al., J. Chem. Theory Comput., 2013, 9, 1007] was the first effort to truly focus on the non-condensed form of this function for closed (sub)shell atoms in a systematic fashion. In this work, we extend our method to the open shell case. To simplify the plotting of our results, we average our results to a symmetrical quantity χ(r,r'). This allows us to plot the linear response kernel for all elements up to and including argon and to investigate the periodicity throughout the first three rows in the periodic table and in the different representations of χ(r,r'). Within the context of Spin Polarized Conceptual Density Functional Theory, the first two-dimensional plots of spin polarized linear response functions are presented and commented on for some selected cases on the basis of the atomic ground state electronic configurations. Using the relation between the linear response kernel and the polarizability we compare the values of the polarizability tensor calculated using our method to high-level values.

  17. Linear-response theory of Coulomb drag in coupled electron systems

    Flensberg, Karsten; Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    1995-01-01

    We report a fully microscopic theory for the transconductivity, or, equivalently, the momentum transfer rate, of Coulomb coupled electron systems. We use the Kubo linear-response formalism and our main formal result expresses the transconductivity in terms of two fluctuation diagrams, which...

  18. A Capacitor-Free, Fast Transient Response Linear Voltage Regulator In a 180nm CMOS

    Deleuran, Alexander N.; Lindbjerg, Nicklas; Pedersen, Martin K.

    2015-01-01

    A 1.8 V capacitor-free linear regulator with fast transient response based on a new topology with a fast and slow regulation loop is presented. The design has been laid out and simulated in a 0.18 µm CMOS process. The design has a low component count and is tailored for system-on-chip integration...

  19. The simultaneous measurement of energy and linear polarization of the scattered radiation in resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering

    Braicovich, L., E-mail: lucio.braicovich@polimi.it; Minola, M.; Dellea, G.; Ghiringhelli, G. [CNR-SPIN and Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 32, Milano I-20133 (Italy); Le Tacon, M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Festkörperforschung, Heisenbergstrasse 1, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Moretti Sala, M.; Morawe, C.; Peffen, J.-Ch.; Yakhou, F.; Brookes, N. B. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, Grenoble F-38043 (France); Supruangnet, R. [Synchrotron Light Research Institute, Nakhon Ratchasima (Thailand)

    2014-11-15

    Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS) in the soft x-ray range is an element-specific energy-loss spectroscopy used to probe the electronic and magnetic excitations in strongly correlated solids. In the recent years, RIXS has been progressing very quickly in terms of energy resolution and understanding of the experimental results, but the interpretation of spectra could further improve, sometimes decisively, from a full knowledge of the polarization of incident and scattered photons. Here we present the first implementation, in a high resolution soft-RIXS spectrometer used to analyze the scattered radiation, of a device allowing the measurement of the degree of linear polarization. The system, based on a graded W/B{sub 4}C multilayer mirror installed in proximity of the CCD detector, has been installed on the AXES spectrometer at the ESRF (European Synchrotron Radiation Facility); it has been fully characterized and it has been used for a demonstration experiment at the Cu L{sub 3} edge on a high-T{sub c} superconducting cuprate. The loss in efficiency suffered by the spectrometer equipped with this test facility was a factor 17.5. We propose also a more advanced version, suitable for a routine use on the next generation of RIXS spectrometers and with an overall efficiency up to 10%.

  20. Optical measurement of the weak non-linearity in the eardrum vibration response to auditory stimuli

    Aerts, Johan

    The mammalian hearing organ consists of the external ear (auricle and ear canal) followed by the middle ear (eardrum and ossicles) and the inner ear (cochlea). Its function is to convert the incoming sound waves and convert them into nerve pulses which are processed in the final stage by the brain. The main task of the external and middle ear is to concentrate the incoming sound waves on a smaller surface to reduce the loss that would normally occur in transmission from air to inner ear fluid. In the past it has been shown that this is a linear process, thus without serious distortions, for sound waves going up to pressures of 130 dB SPL (˜90 Pa). However, at large pressure changes up to several kPa, the middle ear movement clearly shows non-linear behaviour. Thus, it is possible that some small non-linear distortions are also present in the middle ear vibration at lower sound pressures. In this thesis a sensitive measurement set-up is presented to detect this weak non-linear behaviour. Essentially, this set-up consists of a loud-speaker which excites the middle ear, and the resulting vibration is measured with an heterodyne vibrometer. The use of specially designed acoustic excitation signals (odd random phase multisines) enables the separation of the linear and non-linear response. The application of this technique on the middle ear demonstrates that there are already non-linear distortions present in the vibration of the middle ear at a sound pressure of 93 dB SPL. This non-linear component also grows strongly with increasing sound pressure. Knowledge of this non-linear component can contribute to the improvement of modern hearing aids, which operate at higher sound pressures where the non-linearities could distort the signal considerably. It is also important to know the contribution of middle ear non-linearity to otoacoustic emissions. This are non-linearities caused by the active feedback amplifier in the inner ear, and can be detected in the external and

  1. Resonances

    an impetus or drive to that account: change, innovation, rupture, or discontinuity. Resonances: Historical Essays on Continuity and Change explores the historiographical question of the modes of interrelation between these motifs in historical narratives. The essays in the collection attempt to realize...

  2. Resonating Terahertz Response of Periodic Arrays of Subwavelength Apertures

    D’ Apuzzo, Fausto; Candeloro, Patrizio; Domenici, Fabio; Autore, M.; Di Pietro, Paola; Perucchi, Andrea; Roy, P.; Sennato, Simona; Bordi, Federico; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Lupi, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) peaks mediated by plasmonic excitations can be observed in a variety of subwavelength patterned metallic surfaces. In this paper, we have fabricated and spectroscopically characterized plasmon devices exhibiting EOT peaks at terahertz (THz) frequencies. These devices, which resonate with intermediate and collective modes of macromolecules, can be used for detection of materials of biological interest and their performances have been experimentally determined by measuring the variation of the EOT frequencies for thin sub-micrometric organic layers deposited onto the device surface.

  3. Resonating Terahertz Response of Periodic Arrays of Subwavelength Apertures

    D’Apuzzo, Fausto

    2014-10-11

    Extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) peaks mediated by plasmonic excitations can be observed in a variety of subwavelength patterned metallic surfaces. In this paper, we have fabricated and spectroscopically characterized plasmon devices exhibiting EOT peaks at terahertz (THz) frequencies. These devices, which resonate with intermediate and collective modes of macromolecules, can be used for detection of materials of biological interest and their performances have been experimentally determined by measuring the variation of the EOT frequencies for thin sub-micrometric organic layers deposited onto the device surface.

  4. Nonrigid, Linear Plasma Response Model Based on Perturbed Equilibria for Axisymmetric Tokamak Control Design

    Welander, A.S.; Deranian, R.D.; Humphreys, D.A.; Leuer, J.A.; Walker, M.L.

    2005-01-01

    Tokamak control design relies on an accurate linear model of the plasma response, which can often dominate the local field variations in regions under active feedback control. For example, when fluxes at selected points on the plasma boundary are regulated in DIII-D, the plasma response to a change in a coil current gives rise to a flux change which can be larger than and opposite to the flux change caused by the coil alone.In the past, rigid plasma models have been used for linear stability and shape control design. In a rigid model, the plasma current profile is considered fixed and moves rigidly in response to control coils to maintain radial and vertical force balance. In a nonrigid model, however, changes in the plasma shape and current profile are taken into account. Such models are expected to be important for future advanced tokamak control design. The present work describes development of a nonrigid plasma response model for high-accuracy multivariable control design and provides comparisons of model predictions against DIII-D experimental data. The linear perturbed plasma response model is calculated rapidly from an existing equilibrium solution

  5. Generate floor response spectra, Part 2: Response spectra for equipment-structure resonance

    Li, Bo; Jiang, Wei; Xie, Wei-Chau; Pandey, Mahesh D.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The concept of tRS is proposed to deal with tuning of equipment and structures. • Established statistical approaches for estimating tRS corresponding to given GRS. • Derived a new modal combination rule from the theory of random vibration. • Developed efficient and accurate direct method for generating floor response spectra. - Abstract: When generating floor response spectra (FRS) using the direct spectra-to-spectra method developed in the companion paper, probability distribution of t-response spectrum (tRS), which deals with equipment-structure resonance or tuning, corresponding to a specified ground response spectrum (GRS) is required. In this paper, simulation results using a large number of horizontal and vertical ground motions are employed to establish statistical relationships between tRS and GRS. It is observed that the influence of site conditions on horizontal statistical relationships is negligible, whereas the effect of site conditions on vertical statistical relationships cannot be ignored. Considering the influence of site conditions, horizontal statistical relationship suitable for all site conditions and vertical statistical relationships suitable for hard sites and soft sites, respectively, are established. The horizontal and vertical statistical relationships are suitable to estimate tRS for design spectra in USNRC R.G. 1.60 and NUREG/CR-0098, Uniform Hazard Spectra (UHS) in Western North America (WNA), or any GRS falling inside the valid coverage of the statistical relationship. For UHS with significant high frequency spectral accelerations, such as UHS in Central and Eastern North America (CENA), an amplification ratio method is proposed to estimate tRS. Numerical examples demonstrate that the statistical relationships and the amplification ratio method are acceptable to estimate tRS for given GRS and to generate FRS using the direct method in different practical situations.

  6. Generate floor response spectra, Part 2: Response spectra for equipment-structure resonance

    Li, Bo, E-mail: b68li@uwaterloo.ca; Jiang, Wei, E-mail: w46jiang@uwaterloo.ca; Xie, Wei-Chau, E-mail: xie@uwaterloo.ca; Pandey, Mahesh D., E-mail: mdpandey@uwaterloo.ca

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • The concept of tRS is proposed to deal with tuning of equipment and structures. • Established statistical approaches for estimating tRS corresponding to given GRS. • Derived a new modal combination rule from the theory of random vibration. • Developed efficient and accurate direct method for generating floor response spectra. - Abstract: When generating floor response spectra (FRS) using the direct spectra-to-spectra method developed in the companion paper, probability distribution of t-response spectrum (tRS), which deals with equipment-structure resonance or tuning, corresponding to a specified ground response spectrum (GRS) is required. In this paper, simulation results using a large number of horizontal and vertical ground motions are employed to establish statistical relationships between tRS and GRS. It is observed that the influence of site conditions on horizontal statistical relationships is negligible, whereas the effect of site conditions on vertical statistical relationships cannot be ignored. Considering the influence of site conditions, horizontal statistical relationship suitable for all site conditions and vertical statistical relationships suitable for hard sites and soft sites, respectively, are established. The horizontal and vertical statistical relationships are suitable to estimate tRS for design spectra in USNRC R.G. 1.60 and NUREG/CR-0098, Uniform Hazard Spectra (UHS) in Western North America (WNA), or any GRS falling inside the valid coverage of the statistical relationship. For UHS with significant high frequency spectral accelerations, such as UHS in Central and Eastern North America (CENA), an amplification ratio method is proposed to estimate tRS. Numerical examples demonstrate that the statistical relationships and the amplification ratio method are acceptable to estimate tRS for given GRS and to generate FRS using the direct method in different practical situations.

  7. Linear combination of auditory steady-state responses evoked by co-modulated tones

    Guérit, François; Marozeau, Jeremy; Epp, Bastian

    2017-01-01

    Up to medium intensities and in the 80–100-Hz region, the auditory steady-state response (ASSR) to a multi-tone carrier is commonly considered to be a linear sum of the dipoles from each tone specific ASSR generator. Here, this hypothesis was investigated when a unique modulation frequency is used...... for all carrier components. Listeners were presented with a co-modulated dual-frequency carrier (1 and 4 kHz), from which the modulator starting phase Ui of the 1-kHz component was systematically varied. The results support the hypothesis of a linear superposition of the dipoles originating from different...

  8. Simultaneous EEG/fMRI analysis of the resonance phenomena in steady-state visual evoked responses.

    Bayram, Ali; Bayraktaroglu, Zubeyir; Karahan, Esin; Erdogan, Basri; Bilgic, Basar; Ozker, Muge; Kasikci, Itir; Duru, Adil D; Ademoglu, Ahmet; Oztürk, Cengizhan; Arikan, Kemal; Tarhan, Nevzat; Demiralp, Tamer

    2011-04-01

    The stability of the steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) across trials and subjects makes them a suitable tool for the investigation of the visual system. The reproducible pattern of the frequency characteristics of SSVEPs shows a global amplitude maximum around 10 Hz and additional local maxima around 20 and 40 Hz, which have been argued to represent resonant behavior of damped neuronal oscillators. Simultaneous electroencephalogram/functional magnetic resonance imaging (EEG/fMRI) measurement allows testing of the resonance hypothesis about the frequency-selective increases in SSVEP amplitudes in human subjects, because the total synaptic activity that is represented in the fMRI-Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (fMRI-BOLD) response would not increase but get synchronized at the resonance frequency. For this purpose, 40 healthy volunteers were visually stimulated with flickering light at systematically varying frequencies between 6 and 46 Hz, and the correlations between SSVEP amplitudes and the BOLD responses were computed. The SSVEP frequency characteristics of all subjects showed 3 frequency ranges with an amplitude maximum in each of them, which roughly correspond to alpha, beta and gamma bands of the EEG. The correlation maps between BOLD responses and SSVEP amplitude changes across the different stimulation frequencies within each frequency band showed no significant correlation in the alpha range, while significant correlations were obtained in the primary visual area for the beta and gamma bands. This non-linear relationship between the surface recorded SSVEP amplitudes and the BOLD responses of the visual cortex at stimulation frequencies around the alpha band supports the view that a resonance at the tuning frequency of the thalamo-cortical alpha oscillator in the visual system is responsible for the global amplitude maximum of the SSVEP around 10 Hz. Information gained from the SSVEP/fMRI analyses in the present study might be extrapolated to the

  9. Low voltage RF MEMS variable capacitor with linear C-V response

    Elshurafa, Amro M.

    2012-07-23

    An RF MEMS variable capacitor, fabricated in the PolyMUMPS process and tuned electrostatically, possessing a linear capacitance-voltage response is reported. The measured quality factor of the device was 17 at 1GHz, while the tuning range was 1.2:1 and was achieved at an actuation DC voltage of 8V only. Further, the linear regression coefficient was 0.98. The variable capacitor was created such that it has both vertical and horizontal capacitances present. As the top suspended plate moves towards the bottom fixed plate, the vertical capacitance increases whereas the horizontal capacitance decreases simultaneously such that the sum of the two capacitances yields a linear capacitance-voltage relation. © 2012 The Institution of Engineering and Technology.

  10. Improving linear accelerator service response with a real- time electronic event reporting system.

    Hoisak, Jeremy D P; Pawlicki, Todd; Kim, Gwe-Ya; Fletcher, Richard; Moore, Kevin L

    2014-09-08

    To track linear accelerator performance issues, an online event recording system was developed in-house for use by therapists and physicists to log the details of technical problems arising on our institution's four linear accelerators. In use since October 2010, the system was designed so that all clinical physicists would receive email notification when an event was logged. Starting in October 2012, we initiated a pilot project in collaboration with our linear accelerator vendor to explore a new model of service and support, in which event notifications were also sent electronically directly to dedicated engineers at the vendor's technical help desk, who then initiated a response to technical issues. Previously, technical issues were reported by telephone to the vendor's call center, which then disseminated information and coordinated a response with the Technical Support help desk and local service engineers. The purpose of this work was to investigate the improvements to clinical operations resulting from this new service model. The new and old service models were quantitatively compared by reviewing event logs and the oncology information system database in the nine months prior to and after initiation of the project. Here, we focus on events that resulted in an inoperative linear accelerator ("down" machine). Machine downtime, vendor response time, treatment cancellations, and event resolution were evaluated and compared over two equivalent time periods. In 389 clinical days, there were 119 machine-down events: 59 events before and 60 after introduction of the new model. In the new model, median time to service response decreased from 45 to 8 min, service engineer dispatch time decreased 44%, downtime per event decreased from 45 to 20 min, and treatment cancellations decreased 68%. The decreased vendor response time and reduced number of on-site visits by a service engineer resulted in decreased downtime and decreased patient treatment cancellations.

  11. Response statistics of rotating shaft with non-linear elastic restoring forces by path integration

    Gaidai, Oleg; Naess, Arvid; Dimentberg, Michael

    2017-07-01

    Extreme statistics of random vibrations is studied for a Jeffcott rotor under uniaxial white noise excitation. Restoring force is modelled as elastic non-linear; comparison is done with linearized restoring force to see the force non-linearity effect on the response statistics. While for the linear model analytical solutions and stability conditions are available, it is not generally the case for non-linear system except for some special cases. The statistics of non-linear case is studied by applying path integration (PI) method, which is based on the Markov property of the coupled dynamic system. The Jeffcott rotor response statistics can be obtained by solving the Fokker-Planck (FP) equation of the 4D dynamic system. An efficient implementation of PI algorithm is applied, namely fast Fourier transform (FFT) is used to simulate dynamic system additive noise. The latter allows significantly reduce computational time, compared to the classical PI. Excitation is modelled as Gaussian white noise, however any kind distributed white noise can be implemented with the same PI technique. Also multidirectional Markov noise can be modelled with PI in the same way as unidirectional. PI is accelerated by using Monte Carlo (MC) estimated joint probability density function (PDF) as initial input. Symmetry of dynamic system was utilized to afford higher mesh resolution. Both internal (rotating) and external damping are included in mechanical model of the rotor. The main advantage of using PI rather than MC is that PI offers high accuracy in the probability distribution tail. The latter is of critical importance for e.g. extreme value statistics, system reliability, and first passage probability.

  12. Recovery coefficients as a test of system linearity of response in PET

    Geworski, L.; Munz, D.L.; Knoop, B.; Hofmann, M.; Knapp, W.H.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: New imaging protocols have created an increasing demand for quantitation in dedicated PET. Besides attenuation and scatter correction the recovery correction, accounting for the instrument's limited spatial resolution, has gained importance. For clinical practicability these corrections should work independent from the object, i.e. from the actual distribution of emitter and absorber. Aim of the study was to test this object independency, i.e. system linearity of response, by comparing recovery coefficients (RC) determined for different object geometries. In fact, this comparison may serve as a final test on system linearity of response, as measured on the quantitative accuracy by which the activity concentration in small lesions can be recovered. Method: For hot and cold spot imaging situations spatial distribution of activity is different. Therefore, scatter correction algorithm has to deal with different scatter distributions. If all factors disturbing system linearity, specifically scatter and attenuation, are corrected to a sufficient degree of accuracy, the system behaves linearly resulting in the theoretical relationship. CSRC = (1-HSRC). Thus, this equation, applied hot and cold spot measurements, will serve as a test on the effectiveness of the corrections and, hence, as a test of system linearity of response. Following IEC standard procedures (IEC 61675-1) measurements were done with and without interplane septa (2D/3D) on an ECAT EXACT 922 using a cylindrical phantom containing six spheres of different diameters (10 mm - 40 mm). All data were corrected for attenuation (transmission scan) and scatter (2D: deconvolution, 3D: scatter model), as implemented in the scanner's standard software. Recovery coefficients were determined for cold (CSRC) and hot (HSRC) lesions using both 2D and 3D acquisition mode. Results: CSRC directly measured versus CSRC calculated according to eq. (1) from HSRC resulted in an excellent agreement for both 2D and 3D data

  13. Linear population allocation by bistable switches in response to transient stimulation.

    Srimani, Jaydeep K; Yao, Guang; Neu, John; Tanouchi, Yu; Lee, Tae Jun; You, Lingchong

    2014-01-01

    Many cellular decision processes, including proliferation, differentiation, and phenotypic switching, are controlled by bistable signaling networks. In response to transient or intermediate input signals, these networks allocate a population fraction to each of two distinct states (e.g. OFF and ON). While extensive studies have been carried out to analyze various bistable networks, they are primarily focused on responses of bistable networks to sustained input signals. In this work, we investigate the response characteristics of bistable networks to transient signals, using both theoretical analysis and numerical simulation. We find that bistable systems exhibit a common property: for input signals with short durations, the fraction of switching cells increases linearly with the signal duration, allowing the population to integrate transient signals to tune its response. We propose that this allocation algorithm can be an optimal response strategy for certain cellular decisions in which excessive switching results in lower population fitness.

  14. Flexible Ferroelectric Sensors with Ultrahigh Pressure Sensitivity and Linear Response over Exceptionally Broad Pressure Range.

    Lee, Youngoh; Park, Jonghwa; Cho, Soowon; Shin, Young-Eun; Lee, Hochan; Kim, Jinyoung; Myoung, Jinyoung; Cho, Seungse; Kang, Saewon; Baig, Chunggi; Ko, Hyunhyub

    2018-04-24

    Flexible pressure sensors with a high sensitivity over a broad linear range can simplify wearable sensing systems without additional signal processing for the linear output, enabling device miniaturization and low power consumption. Here, we demonstrate a flexible ferroelectric sensor with ultrahigh pressure sensitivity and linear response over an exceptionally broad pressure range based on the material and structural design of ferroelectric composites with a multilayer interlocked microdome geometry. Due to the stress concentration between interlocked microdome arrays and increased contact area in the multilayer design, the flexible ferroelectric sensors could perceive static/dynamic pressure with high sensitivity (47.7 kPa -1 , 1.3 Pa minimum detection). In addition, efficient stress distribution between stacked multilayers enables linear sensing over exceptionally broad pressure range (0.0013-353 kPa) with fast response time (20 ms) and high reliability over 5000 repetitive cycles even at an extremely high pressure of 272 kPa. Our sensor can be used to monitor diverse stimuli from a low to a high pressure range including weak gas flow, acoustic sound, wrist pulse pressure, respiration, and foot pressure with a single device.

  15. Non-linear finite element analysis for prediction of seismic response of buildings considering soil-structure interaction

    E. Çelebi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper focuses primarily on the numerical approach based on two-dimensional (2-D finite element method for analysis of the seismic response of infinite soil-structure interaction (SSI system. This study is performed by a series of different scenarios that involved comprehensive parametric analyses including the effects of realistic material properties of the underlying soil on the structural response quantities. Viscous artificial boundaries, simulating the process of wave transmission along the truncated interface of the semi-infinite space, are adopted in the non-linear finite element formulation in the time domain along with Newmark's integration. The slenderness ratio of the superstructure and the local soil conditions as well as the characteristics of input excitations are important parameters for the numerical simulation in this research. The mechanical behavior of the underlying soil medium considered in this prediction model is simulated by an undrained elasto-plastic Mohr-Coulomb model under plane-strain conditions. To emphasize the important findings of this type of problems to civil engineers, systematic calculations with different controlling parameters are accomplished to evaluate directly the structural response of the vibrating soil-structure system. When the underlying soil becomes stiffer, the frequency content of the seismic motion has a major role in altering the seismic response. The sudden increase of the dynamic response is more pronounced for resonance case, when the frequency content of the seismic ground motion is close to that of the SSI system. The SSI effects under different seismic inputs are different for all considered soil conditions and structural types.

  16. Microstrip linear phase low pass filter based on defected ground structures for partial response modulation

    Cimoli, Bruno; Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Olmos, Juan Jose Vegas

    2018-01-01

    We report a high performance linear phase low pass filter (LPF) designed for partial response (PR) modulations. For the implementation, we adopted microstrip technology and a variant of the standard stepped‐impedance technique. Defected ground structures (DGS) are used for increasing the characte......We report a high performance linear phase low pass filter (LPF) designed for partial response (PR) modulations. For the implementation, we adopted microstrip technology and a variant of the standard stepped‐impedance technique. Defected ground structures (DGS) are used for increasing...... the characteristic impedance of transmission lines. Experimental results prove that the proposed filter can successfully modulate a non‐return‐to‐zero (NRZ) signal into a five levels PR one....

  17. Linear response approach to active Brownian particles in time-varying activity fields

    Merlitz, Holger; Vuijk, Hidde D.; Brader, Joseph; Sharma, Abhinav; Sommer, Jens-Uwe

    2018-05-01

    In a theoretical and simulation study, active Brownian particles (ABPs) in three-dimensional bulk systems are exposed to time-varying sinusoidal activity waves that are running through the system. A linear response (Green-Kubo) formalism is applied to derive fully analytical expressions for the torque-free polarization profiles of non-interacting particles. The activity waves induce fluxes that strongly depend on the particle size and may be employed to de-mix mixtures of ABPs or to drive the particles into selected areas of the system. Three-dimensional Langevin dynamics simulations are carried out to verify the accuracy of the linear response formalism, which is shown to work best when the particles are small (i.e., highly Brownian) or operating at low activity levels.

  18. Kovacs-Like Memory Effect in Athermal Systems: Linear Response Analysis

    Plata, Carlos; Prados, Antonio

    2017-10-01

    We analyse the emergence of Kovacs-like memory effects in athermal systems within the linear response regime. This is done by starting from both the master equation for the probability distribution and the equations for the physically relevant moments. The general results are applied to a general class of models with conserved momentum and non-conserved energy. Our theoretical predictions, obtained within the first Sonine approximation, show an excellent agreement with the numerical results.

  19. Non-linear dose response of a few plant taxa to acute gamma radiation

    George, J.T.; Patel, B.B.; Pius, J.; Narula, B.; Shankhadarwar, S.; Rane, V.A.; Venu-Babu, P.; Eapen, S.; Singhal, R.K.

    2014-01-01

    Micronuclei induction serves as an essential biomarker of radiation stress in a living system, and the simplicity of its detection technique has made it a widely used indicator of radiation damage. The present study was conducted to reveal the cytological dose-response of a few plant taxa, viz., Allium cepa var. aggregatum Linn., Allium sativum Linn., Chlorophytum comosum (Thunb.) Jacques and Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, to low LET gamma radiation with special emphasis on the pattern of micronuclei induced across low and high dose regimes. A tri-phasic non-linear dose-response pattern was observed in the four taxa studied, characterized by a low dose linear segment, a plateau and a high dose linear segment. Despite a similar response trend, the critical doses where the phase transitions occurred varied amongst the plant taxa, giving an indication to their relative radiosensitivities. E. crassipes and A. sativum, with their lower critical doses for slope modifications of phase transitions, were concluded as being more radiosensitive as compared to C. comosum and A. cepa, which had relatively higher critical doses. (author)

  20. The sense of balance in humans: Structural features of otoconia and their response to linear acceleration.

    Rüdiger Kniep

    Full Text Available We explored the functional role of individual otoconia within the otolith system of mammalians responsible for the detection of linear accelerations and head tilts in relation to the gravity vector. Details of the inner structure and the shape of intact human and artificial otoconia were studied using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM, including decalcification by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA to discriminate local calcium carbonate density. Considerable differences between the rhombohedral faces of human and artificial otoconia already indicate that the inner architecture of otoconia is not consistent with the point group -3m. This is clearly confirmed by decalcified otoconia specimen which are characterized by a non-centrosymmetric volume distribution of the compact 3+3 branches. This structural evidence for asymmetric mass distribution was further supported by light microscopy in combination with a high speed camera showing the movement of single otoconia specimen (artificial specimen under gravitational influence within a viscous medium (artificial endolymph. Moreover, the response of otoconia to linear acceleration forces was investigated by particle dynamics simulations. Both, time-resolved microscopy and computer simulations of otoconia acceleration show that the dislocation of otoconia include significant rotational movement stemming from density asymmetry. Based on these findings, we suggest an otolith membrane expansion/stiffening mechanism for enhanced response to linear acceleration transmitted to the vestibular hair cells.

  1. Evaluation of bipolar phototransistors response used as detectors in megavoltage beams generated by a linear accelerator

    Silva, J.O. da; Magalhaes, C.M.S. de; Santos, L.A.P. dos

    2007-01-01

    Commercial bipolar phototransistors have been used as detectors for low energy X-rays. However, when they are used in high energy X-ray beams, there is a certain loss of sensitivity to the ionizing radiation. This damage is cumulative and irreversible. There are several factors that yield variations in the phototransistor response when it is under high energy radiation, such as its fabrication technology and its electrical characteristics. The aim of this work is to present experimental results that are used to correlate the response curve of SMT (Surface-Mount Technology) bipolar phototransistors with their loss of sensitivity after irradiation from a Linac (linear accelerator) megavoltage beams. (author)

  2. The non-linear response of the magnetosphere: 30 October 1978

    Price, C.P.; Prichard, D.

    1993-01-01

    The authors address the question of whether the response of the earth magnetosphere to the solar wind can be viewed as a nonlinear phenomena, rather than a linear response. The difficulty in answering this question is that the driving function, namely the solar wind, is very aperiodic, and it is difficult to argue that the system has time to go to any sort of a steady state in response to the driving force, prior to its making another random change. The application of nonlinear analysis methods in the face of this type of system is very limited. The authors pick a particular day, namely October 30, 1978, when the solar wind was very uniform for an extended period of time, and there is the possibility the system could converge to some type of strange attractor state within this period. They look at the auroral electrojet as a measure of the potential nonlinear response of the magnetosphere, and apply both nonlinear and linear analysis procedures to the data to try to determine if the data would support a nonlinear response of the magnetosphere to the solar wind driver, taken as the product of the solar wind speed v, and the southward component of the interplanetary magnetic field B s

  3. Resonance zones and quasi-linear diffusion coefficients for radiation belt energetic electron interaction with oblique chorus waves in the Dungey magnetosphere

    Shi Run; Ni, Binbin; Gu Xudong; Zhao Zhengyu; Zhou Chen

    2012-01-01

    The resonance regions for resonant interactions of radiation belt electrons with obliquely propagating whistler-mode chorus waves are investigated in detail in the Dungey magnetic fields that are parameterized by the intensity of uniform southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) Bz or, equivalently, by the values of D=(M/B z,0 ) 1/3 (where M is the magnetic moment of the dipole and B z,0 is the uniform southward IMF normal to the dipole’s equatorial plane). Adoption of background magnetic field model can considerably modify the determination of resonance regions. Compared to the results for the case of D = 50 (very close to the dipole field), the latitudinal coverage of resonance regions for 200 keV electrons interacting with chorus waves tends to become narrower for smaller D-values, regardless of equatorial pitch angle, resonance harmonics, and wave normal angle. In contrast, resonance regions for 1 MeV electrons tend to have very similar spatial lengths along the field line for various Dungey magnetic field models but cover different magnetic field intervals, indicative of a strong dependence on electron energy. For any given magnetic field line, the resonance regions where chorus-electron resonant interactions can take place rely closely on equatorial pitch angle, resonance harmonics, and kinetic energy. The resonance regions tend to cover broader latitudinal ranges for smaller equatorial pitch angles, higher resonance harmonics, and lower electron energies, consistent with the results in Ni and Summers [Phys. Plasmas 17, 042902, 042903 (2010)]. Calculations of quasi-linear bounce-averaged diffusion coefficients for radiation belt electrons due to nightside chorus waves indicate that the resultant scattering rates differ from using different Dungey magnetic field models, demonstrating a strong dependence of wave-induced electron scattering effect on the adoption of magnetic field model. Our results suggest that resonant wave-particle interaction processes

  4. Terahertz response of fractal meta-atoms based on concentric rectangular square resonators

    Song, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Zhenyu, E-mail: zyzhao@shnu.edu.cn; Shi, Wangzhou [Department of Physics, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234 (China); Peng, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2015-11-21

    We investigate the terahertz electromagnetic responses of fractal meta-atoms (MAs) induced by different mode coupling mechanisms. Two types of MAs based on concentric rectangular square (CRS) resonators are presented: independent CRS (I-CRS) and junctional-CRS (J-CRS). In I-CRS, each resonator works as an independent dipole so as to result in the multiple resonance modes when the fractal level is above 1. In J-CRS, however, the generated layer is rotated by π/2 radius to the adjacent CRS in one MA. The multiple resonance modes are coupled into a single mode resonance. The fractal level increasing induces resonance modes redshift in I-CRS while blueshift in J-CRS. When the fractal level is below 4, the mode Q factor of J-CRS is in between the two modes of I-CRS; when the fractal level is 4 or above, the mode Q factor of J-CRS exceeds the two modes of I-CRS. Furthermore, the modulation depth (MD) decreases in I-CRS while it increases in J-CRS with the increase in fractal levels. The surface currents analysis reveals that the capacitive coupling of modes in I-CRS results in the modes redshift, while the conductive coupling of modes in J-CRS induces the mode blueshift. A high Q mode with large MD can be achieved via conductive coupling between the resonators of different scales in a fractal MA.

  5. Impurity strength and impurity domain modulated frequency-dependent linear and second non-linear response properties of doped quantum dots

    Datta, Nirmal Kumar [Department of Physics, Suri Vidyasagar College, Suri, Birbhum 731 101, West Bengal (India); Ghosh, Manas [Department of Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Section, Visva Bharati University, Santiniketan, Birbhum 731 235, West Bengal (India)

    2011-08-15

    We explore the pattern of frequency-dependent linear and second non-linear optical responses of repulsive impurity doped quantum dots harmonically confined in two dimensions. The dopant impurity potential chosen assumes a Gaussian form and it is doped into an on-center location. The quantum dot is subject to a periodically oscillating external electric field. For some fixed values of transverse magnetic field strength ({omega}{sub c}) and harmonic confinement potential ({omega}{sub 0}), the influence of impurity strength (V{sub 0}) and impurity domain ({xi}) on the diagonal components of the frequency-dependent linear ({alpha}{sub xx} and {alpha}{sub yy}) and second non-linear ({gamma}{sub xxxx} and {gamma}{sub yyyy}) responses of the dot are computed through a linear variational route. The investigations reveal that the optical responses undergo enhancement with increase in both V{sub 0} and {xi} values. However, in the limitingly small dopant strength regime one observes a drop in the optical responses with increase in V{sub 0}. A time-average rate of energy transfer to the system is often invoked to support the findings. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. A generalized linear model for estimating spectrotemporal receptive fields from responses to natural sounds.

    Ana Calabrese

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the auditory system, the stimulus-response properties of single neurons are often described in terms of the spectrotemporal receptive field (STRF, a linear kernel relating the spectrogram of the sound stimulus to the instantaneous firing rate of the neuron. Several algorithms have been used to estimate STRFs from responses to natural stimuli; these algorithms differ in their functional models, cost functions, and regularization methods. Here, we characterize the stimulus-response function of auditory neurons using a generalized linear model (GLM. In this model, each cell's input is described by: 1 a stimulus filter (STRF; and 2 a post-spike filter, which captures dependencies on the neuron's spiking history. The output of the model is given by a series of spike trains rather than instantaneous firing rate, allowing the prediction of spike train responses to novel stimuli. We fit the model by maximum penalized likelihood to the spiking activity of zebra finch auditory midbrain neurons in response to conspecific vocalizations (songs and modulation limited (ml noise. We compare this model to normalized reverse correlation (NRC, the traditional method for STRF estimation, in terms of predictive power and the basic tuning properties of the estimated STRFs. We find that a GLM with a sparse prior predicts novel responses to both stimulus classes significantly better than NRC. Importantly, we find that STRFs from the two models derived from the same responses can differ substantially and that GLM STRFs are more consistent between stimulus classes than NRC STRFs. These results suggest that a GLM with a sparse prior provides a more accurate characterization of spectrotemporal tuning than does the NRC method when responses to complex sounds are studied in these neurons.

  7. Determination of the quasi-TE mode (in-plane) graphene linear absorption coefficient via integration with silicon-on-insulator racetrack cavity resonators.

    Crowe, Iain F; Clark, Nicholas; Hussein, Siham; Towlson, Brian; Whittaker, Eric; Milosevic, Milan M; Gardes, Frederic Y; Mashanovich, Goran Z; Halsall, Matthew P; Vijayaraghaven, Aravind

    2014-07-28

    We examine the near-IR light-matter interaction for graphene integrated cavity ring resonators based on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) race-track waveguides. Fitting of the cavity resonances from quasi-TE mode transmission spectra reveal the real part of the effective refractive index for graphene, n(eff) = 2.23 ± 0.02 and linear absorption coefficient, α(gTE) = 0.11 ± 0.01dBμm(-1). The evanescent nature of the guided mode coupling to graphene at resonance depends strongly on the height of the graphene above the cavity, which places limits on the cavity length for optical sensing applications.

  8. Properties of a novel linear sulfur response mode in a multiple flame photometric detector.

    Clark, Adrian G; Thurbide, Kevin B

    2014-01-24

    A new linear sulfur response mode was established in the multiple flame photometric detector (mFPD) by monitoring HSO* emission in the red spectral region above 600nm. Optimal conditions for this mode were found by using a 750nm interference filter and oxygen flows to the worker flames of this device that were about 10mL/min larger than those used for monitoring quadratic S2* emission. By employing these parameters, this mode provided a linear response over about 4 orders of magnitude, with a detection limit near 5.8×10(-11)gS/s and a selectivity of sulfur over carbon of about 3.5×10(3). Specifically, the minimum detectable masses for 10 different sulfur analytes investigated ranged from 0.4 to 3.6ng for peak half-widths spanning 4-6s. The response toward ten different sulfur compounds was examined and produced an average reproducibility of 1.7% RSD (n=10) and an average equimolarity value of 1.0±0.1. In contrast to this, a conventional single flame S2* mode comparatively yielded respective values of 6.7% RSD (n=10) and 1.1±0.4. HSO* emission in the mFPD was also found to be relatively much less affected by response quenching due to hydrocarbons compared to a conventional single flame S2* emission mode. Results indicate that this new alternative linear mFPD response mode could be beneficial for sulfur monitoring applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of ETOG-3Q, ETOG-3, FLANGE-II, XLACS, NJOY and LINEAR/RECENT/GROUPIE computer codes concerning to the resonance contribution and background cross sections

    Anaf, J.; Chalhoub, E.S.

    1988-12-01

    The NJOY and LINEAR/RECENT/GROUPIE calculational procedures for the resolved and unresolved resonance contributions and background cross sections are evaluated. Elastic scattering, fission and capture multigroup cross sections generated by these codes and the previously validated ETOG-3Q, ETOG-3, FLANGE-II and XLACS are compared. Constant weighting function and zero Kelvin temperature are considered. Discrepancies are presented and analysed. (author) [pt

  10. Evaluation of ETOG-3Q/ETOG-3, FLANGE-II, XLACS, NJOY and linear/recent/groupie codes for calculations of resonance and reference cross sections

    Anaf, J.; Chalhoub, E.S.

    1991-01-01

    The NJOY and LINEAR/RECENT/GROUPIE calculational procedures for the resolved and unresolved resonance contributions and background cross sections are evaluated. Elastic scattering, fission and capture multigroup cross sections generated by these codes and the previously validated ETOG-3Q, ETOG-3, FLANGE-II and XLACS are compared. Constant weighting function and zero Kelvin temperature are considered. Discrepancies are presented and analyzed. (author)

  11. Relevance of sampling schemes in light of Ruelle's linear response theory

    Lucarini, Valerio; Wouters, Jeroen; Faranda, Davide; Kuna, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    We reconsider the theory of the linear response of non-equilibrium steady states to perturbations. We first show that using a general functional decomposition for space–time dependent forcings, we can define elementary susceptibilities that allow us to construct the linear response of the system to general perturbations. Starting from the definition of SRB measure, we then study the consequence of taking different sampling schemes for analysing the response of the system. We show that only a specific choice of the time horizon for evaluating the response of the system to a general time-dependent perturbation allows us to obtain the formula first presented by Ruelle. We also discuss the special case of periodic perturbations, showing that when they are taken into consideration the sampling can be fine-tuned to make the definition of the correct time horizon immaterial. Finally, we discuss the implications of our results in terms of strategies for analysing the outputs of numerical experiments by providing a critical review of a formula proposed by Reick

  12. Non-Markovian linear response theory for quantum open systems and its applications.

    Shen, H Z; Li, D X; Yi, X X

    2017-01-01

    The Kubo formula is an equation that expresses the linear response of an observable due to a time-dependent perturbation. It has been extended from closed systems to open systems in recent years under the Markovian approximation, but is barely explored for open systems in non-Markovian regimes. In this paper, we derive a formula for the linear response of an open system to a time-independent external field. This response formula is available for both Markovian and non-Markovian dynamics depending on parameters in the spectral density of the environment. As an illustration of the theory, the Hall conductance of a two-band system subjected to environments is derived and discussed. With the tight-binding model, we point out the Hall conductance changes from Markovian to non-Markovian dynamics by modulating the spectral density of the environment. Our results suggest a way to the controlling of the system response, which has potential applications for quantum statistical mechanics and condensed matter physics.

  13. Non-linear magnetohydrodynamic modeling of plasma response to resonant magnetic perturbations

    Orain, F.; Bécoulet, M.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Huijsmans, G.; Pamela, S.; Nardon, E.; Passeron, C.; Latu, G.; Grandgirard, V.; Fil, A.; Ratnani, A.; Chapman, I.; Kirk, A.; Thornton, A.; Hoelzl, M.; Cahyna, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 10 (2013), s. 102510-102510 ISSN 1070-664X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/11/2341 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : tokamak * edge localized mode * magnetohydrodynamics Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.249, year: 2013 http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/journal/pop/20/10/10.1063/1.4824820

  14. Identifying the nonlinear mechanical behaviour of micro-speakers from their quasi-linear electrical response

    Zilletti, Michele; Marker, Arthur; Elliott, Stephen John; Holland, Keith

    2017-05-01

    In this study model identification of the nonlinear dynamics of a micro-speaker is carried out by purely electrical measurements, avoiding any explicit vibration measurements. It is shown that a dynamic model of the micro-speaker, which takes into account the nonlinear damping characteristic of the device, can be identified by measuring the response between the voltage input and the current flowing into the coil. An analytical formulation of the quasi-linear model of the micro-speaker is first derived and an optimisation method is then used to identify a polynomial function which describes the mechanical damping behaviour of the micro-speaker. The analytical results of the quasi-linear model are compared with numerical results. This study potentially opens up the possibility of efficiently implementing nonlinear echo cancellers.

  15. Fluctuations of two-time quantities and non-linear response functions

    Corberi, F; Lippiello, E; Sarracino, A; Zannetti, M

    2010-01-01

    We study the fluctuations of the autocorrelation and autoresponse functions and, in particular, their variances and covariance. In a first general part of the paper, we show the equivalence of the variance of the response function to the second-order susceptibility of a composite operator, and we derive an equilibrium fluctuation-dissipation theorem beyond linear order, relating it to the other variances. In a second part of the paper we apply the formalism in the study of non-disordered ferromagnets, in equilibrium or in the coarsening kinetics following a critical or sub-critical quench. We show numerically that the variances and the non-linear susceptibility obey scaling with respect to the coherence length ξ in equilibrium, and with respect to the growing length L(t) after a quench, similar to what is known for the autocorrelation and the autoresponse functions

  16. 2-D response mapping of multi-linear silicon drift detectors

    Castoldi, A.; Guazzoni, C.; Hartmann, R.; Mezza, D.; Strueder, L.; Tassan Garofolo, F.

    2010-01-01

    Multi-linear silicon drift detectors (MLSDDs) are good candidates to fulfill simultaneous requirements for 2-D position-sensing and spectroscopy applications. The optimization of their design and performance as 2-D imagers requires a detailed study of timing properties of the charge cloud in the MLSDD architecture. In particular it is important to experimentally determine the dependence of the measured amplitude and time-of-arrival on the photon position of interaction so as to derive the 2D detector response. In this paper we will present a detailed experimental characterization aimed at measuring the detector amplitude response and its timing response. The dependence of charge cloud drift time on precise position of interaction has been measured as a function of detector biasing conditions.

  17. Stochastic Response of an Inclined Shallow Cable with Linear Viscous Dampers under Stochastic Excitation

    Zhou, Qiang; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Qu, Weilian

    2010-01-01

    Considering the coupling between the in-plane and out-of-plane vibration, the stochastic response of an inclined shallow cable with linear viscous dampers subjected to Gaussian white noise excitation is investigated in this paper. Selecting the static deflection shape due to a concentrated force...... together with the C-type Gram-Charlier expansion with a fourth-order closure are applied to obtain statistical moments, power spectral density and probabilistic density function of the cable response, whose availability is verified by Monte Carlo method. Taking a typical cable as an example, the influence...... of several factors, which include excitation level and direction as well as damper size, on the dynamic response of the cable is extensively investigated. It is found that the sum of mean square in-plane and out-of-plane displacement is primarily independent of the load direction when the excitation level...

  18. Anomalous response of superconducting titanium nitride resonators to terahertz radiation

    Bueno, J.; Baselmans, J. J. A; Coumou, P. C. J. J.; Zheng, G.; Visser, P. J. de; Klapwijk, T. M.; Driessen, E. F. C.; Doyle, S.

    2014-01-01

    We present an experimental study of kinetic inductance detectors (KIDs) fabricated of atomic layer deposited TiN films and characterized at radiation frequencies of 350 GHz. The responsivity to radiation is measured and found to increase with the increase in radiation powers, opposite to what is expected from theory and observed for hybrid niobium titanium nitride/aluminium (NbTiN/Al) and all-aluminium (all-Al) KIDs. The noise is found to be independent of the level of the radiation power. The noise equivalent power improves with higher radiation powers, also opposite to what is observed and well understood for hybrid NbTiN/Al and all-Al KIDs. We suggest that an inhomogeneous state of these disordered superconductors should be used to explain these observations

  19. Anomalous response of superconducting titanium nitride resonators to terahertz radiation

    Bueno, J., E-mail: j.bueno@sron.nl; Baselmans, J. J. A [SRON, Netherlands Institute of Space Research, Utrecht (Netherlands); Coumou, P. C. J. J.; Zheng, G. [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Visser, P. J. de [SRON, Netherlands Institute of Space Research, Utrecht (Netherlands); Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Klapwijk, T. M. [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Physics Department, Moscow State Pedagogical University, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Driessen, E. F. C. [Université Grenoble Alpes, INAC-SPSMS, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, INAC-SPSMS, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Doyle, S. [Cardiff University, School of Physics and Astronomy, Queens Buildings, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-10

    We present an experimental study of kinetic inductance detectors (KIDs) fabricated of atomic layer deposited TiN films and characterized at radiation frequencies of 350 GHz. The responsivity to radiation is measured and found to increase with the increase in radiation powers, opposite to what is expected from theory and observed for hybrid niobium titanium nitride/aluminium (NbTiN/Al) and all-aluminium (all-Al) KIDs. The noise is found to be independent of the level of the radiation power. The noise equivalent power improves with higher radiation powers, also opposite to what is observed and well understood for hybrid NbTiN/Al and all-Al KIDs. We suggest that an inhomogeneous state of these disordered superconductors should be used to explain these observations.

  20. Linear and non-linear infrared response of one-dimensional vibrational Holstein polarons in the anti-adiabatic limit: Optical and acoustical phonon models

    Falvo, Cyril

    2018-02-01

    The theory of linear and non-linear infrared response of vibrational Holstein polarons in one-dimensional lattices is presented in order to identify the spectral signatures of self-trapping phenomena. Using a canonical transformation, the optical response is computed from the small polaron point of view which is valid in the anti-adiabatic limit. Two types of phonon baths are considered: optical phonons and acoustical phonons, and simple expressions are derived for the infrared response. It is shown that for the case of optical phonons, the linear response can directly probe the polaron density of states. The model is used to interpret the experimental spectrum of crystalline acetanilide in the C=O range. For the case of acoustical phonons, it is shown that two bound states can be observed in the two-dimensional infrared spectrum at low temperature. At high temperature, analysis of the time-dependence of the two-dimensional infrared spectrum indicates that bath mediated correlations slow down spectral diffusion. The model is used to interpret the experimental linear-spectroscopy of model α-helix and β-sheet polypeptides. This work shows that the Davydov Hamiltonian cannot explain the observations in the NH stretching range.

  1. Selected topics in the quantum theory of solids: collective excitations and linear response

    Balakrishnan, V.

    1977-08-01

    This report is based on the lecture notes of a course given at the Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, during the period January-April 1976 for M.Sc. students. The emphasis is on the concept of elementary excitations in many-body systems, and on the technique of linear response theory. Various topics are covered in 7 sections. The second section following the introductory section is on 'second quantization' and includes discussion on creation and destruction operators, multiparticle states, time-dependent operators etc. Section 3 deals with the 'electron gas' and includes discussion on non-interacting Fermi gas, Coulomb interaction and exchange energy, the two-electron correlation function etc. Section 4 deals with the dielectric response analysis of the electron gas and includes discussion on Coulomb interaction in terms of density fluctuations, self-consistent field dielectric function etc. In section 5 the 'linear response theory' is explained. The Liouville operator, Boltzmann's superposition integral, dispersion relations etc. are explained. Quasiparticles and plasmous are discussed in the Section 6. Section 7 deals with 'lattice dynamics and phonons'. In the last section 8, spin waves are explained. The Heisenberg exchange hamiltonian, Green Function for noninteracting magnons etc. are discussed. (author)

  2. Are there novel resonances in nanoplasmonic structures due to nonlocal response?

    Wubs, Martijn; Raza, Søren; Toscano, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    In tiny metallic nanostructures, quantum confinement and nonlocal response change the collective plasmonic behaviour with resulting important consequences for e.g. field-enhancement and extinction cross sections. Here we report on nonlocal resonances in the hydrodynamical Drude model for plasmonic...

  3. The longitudinal reliability and responsiveness of the OMERACT Hand Osteoarthritis Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scoring System (HOAMRIS)

    Haugen, Ida K.; Eshed, Iris; Gandjbakhch, Frederique

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the interreader reliability of change scores and the responsiveness of the OMERACT Hand Osteoarthritis (OA) Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI) Scoring System (HOAMRIS). Methods. Paired MRI (baseline and 5-yr followup) from 20 patients with hand OA were scored with known time se...

  4. Topology Optimization for Minimizing the Resonant Response of Plates with Constrained Layer Damping Treatment

    Zhanpeng Fang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A topology optimization method is proposed to minimize the resonant response of plates with constrained layer damping (CLD treatment under specified broadband harmonic excitations. The topology optimization problem is formulated and the square of displacement resonant response in frequency domain at the specified point is considered as the objective function. Two sensitivity analysis methods are investigated and discussed. The derivative of modal damp ratio is not considered in the conventional sensitivity analysis method. An improved sensitivity analysis method considering the derivative of modal damp ratio is developed to improve the computational accuracy of the sensitivity. The evolutionary structural optimization (ESO method is used to search the optimal layout of CLD material on plates. Numerical examples and experimental results show that the optimal layout of CLD treatment on the plate from the proposed topology optimization using the conventional sensitivity analysis or the improved sensitivity analysis can reduce the displacement resonant response. However, the optimization method using the improved sensitivity analysis can produce a higher modal damping ratio than that using the conventional sensitivity analysis and develop a smaller displacement resonant response.

  5. Local and linear chemical reactivity response functions at finite temperature in density functional theory

    Franco-Pérez, Marco; Ayers, Paul W.; Gázquez, José L.; Vela, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    We explore the local and nonlocal response functions of the grand canonical potential density functional at nonzero temperature. In analogy to the zero-temperature treatment, local (e.g., the average electron density and the local softness) and nonlocal (e.g., the softness kernel) intrinsic response functions are defined as partial derivatives of the grand canonical potential with respect to its thermodynamic variables (i.e., the chemical potential of the electron reservoir and the external potential generated by the atomic nuclei). To define the local and nonlocal response functions of the electron density (e.g., the Fukui function, the linear density response function, and the dual descriptor), we differentiate with respect to the average electron number and the external potential. The well-known mathematical relationships between the intrinsic response functions and the electron-density responses are generalized to nonzero temperature, and we prove that in the zero-temperature limit, our results recover well-known identities from the density functional theory of chemical reactivity. Specific working equations and numerical results are provided for the 3-state ensemble model

  6. The linear transformation model with frailties for the analysis of item response times.

    Wang, Chun; Chang, Hua-Hua; Douglas, Jeffrey A

    2013-02-01

    The item response times (RTs) collected from computerized testing represent an underutilized source of information about items and examinees. In addition to knowing the examinees' responses to each item, we can investigate the amount of time examinees spend on each item. In this paper, we propose a semi-parametric model for RTs, the linear transformation model with a latent speed covariate, which combines the flexibility of non-parametric modelling and the brevity as well as interpretability of parametric modelling. In this new model, the RTs, after some non-parametric monotone transformation, become a linear model with latent speed as covariate plus an error term. The distribution of the error term implicitly defines the relationship between the RT and examinees' latent speeds; whereas the non-parametric transformation is able to describe various shapes of RT distributions. The linear transformation model represents a rich family of models that includes the Cox proportional hazards model, the Box-Cox normal model, and many other models as special cases. This new model is embedded in a hierarchical framework so that both RTs and responses are modelled simultaneously. A two-stage estimation method is proposed. In the first stage, the Markov chain Monte Carlo method is employed to estimate the parametric part of the model. In the second stage, an estimating equation method with a recursive algorithm is adopted to estimate the non-parametric transformation. Applicability of the new model is demonstrated with a simulation study and a real data application. Finally, methods to evaluate the model fit are suggested. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  7. Resonant responses and chaotic dynamics of composite laminated circular cylindrical shell with membranes

    Zhang, W.; Liu, T.; Xi, A.; Wang, Y. N.

    2018-06-01

    This paper is focused on the resonant responses and chaotic dynamics of a composite laminated circular cylindrical shell with radially pre-stretched membranes at both ends and clamped along a generatrix. Based on the two-degree-of-freedom non-autonomous nonlinear equations of this system, the method of multiple scales is employed to obtain the four-dimensional nonlinear averaged equation. The resonant case considered here is the primary parametric resonance-1/2 subharmonic resonance and 1:1 internal resonance. Corresponding to several selected parameters, the frequency-response curves are obtained. From the numerical results, we find that the hardening-spring-type behaviors and jump phenomena are exhibited. The jump phenomena also occur in the amplitude curves of the temperature parameter excitation. Moreover, it is found that the temperature parameter excitation, the coupling degree of two order modes and the detuning parameters can effect the nonlinear oscillations of this system. The periodic and chaotic motions of the composite laminated circular cylindrical shell clamped along a generatrix are demonstrated by the bifurcation diagrams, the maximum Lyapunov exponents, the phase portraits, the waveforms, the power spectrums and the Poincaré map. The temperature parameter excitation shows that the Pomeau-Manneville type intermittent chaos occur under the certain initial conditions. It is also found that there exist the twin phenomena between the Pomeau-Manneville type intermittent chaos and the period-doubling bifurcation.

  8. Sequential double excitations from linear-response time-dependent density functional theory

    Mosquera, Martín A.; Ratner, Mark A.; Schatz, George C., E-mail: g-schatz@northwestern.edu [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Rd., Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Chen, Lin X. [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Rd., Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Ave., Lemont, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2016-05-28

    Traditional UV/vis and X-ray spectroscopies focus mainly on the study of excitations starting exclusively from electronic ground states. However there are many experiments where transitions from excited states, both absorption and emission, are probed. In this work we develop a formalism based on linear-response time-dependent density functional theory to investigate spectroscopic properties of excited states. We apply our model to study the excited-state absorption of a diplatinum(II) complex under X-rays, and transient vis/UV absorption of pyrene and azobenzene.

  9. Kovacs effect in the one-dimensional Ising model: A linear response analysis

    Ruiz-García, M.; Prados, A.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the so-called Kovacs effect in the one-dimensional Ising model with Glauber dynamics. We consider small enough temperature jumps, for which a linear response theory has been recently derived. Within this theory, the Kovacs hump is directly related to the monotonic relaxation function of the energy. The analytical results are compared with extensive Monte Carlo simulations, and an excellent agreement is found. Remarkably, the position of the maximum in the Kovacs hump depends on the fact that the true asymptotic behavior of the relaxation function is different from the stretched exponential describing the relevant part of the relaxation at low temperatures.

  10. Assessment of pulmonary venous stenosis after radiofrequency catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation by magnetic resonance angiography: a comparison of linear and cross-sectional area measurements

    Tintera, Jaroslav; Porod, Vaclav; Rolencova, Eva; Fendrych, Pavel [Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Department of Radiology, Prague 4 (Czech Republic); Cihak, Robert; Mlcochova, Hanka; Kautzner, Josef [Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Prague 4 (Czech Republic)

    2006-12-15

    One of the recognised complications of catheter ablation is pulmonary venous stenosis. The aim of this study was to compare two methods of evaluation of pulmonary venous diameter for follow-up assessment of the above complication: (1) a linear approach evaluating two main diameters of the vein, (2) semiautomatically measured cross-sectional area (CSA). The study population consists of 29 patients. All subjects underwent contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CeMRA) of the pulmonary veins (PVs) before and after the ablation; 14 patients were also scanned 3 months later. PV diameter was evaluated from two-dimensional multiplanar reconstructions by measuring either the linear diameter or CSA. A comparison between pulmonary venous CSA and linear measurements revealed a systematic difference in absolute values. This difference was not significant when comparing the relative change CSA and quadratic approximation using linear extents (linear approach). However, a trend towards over-estimation of calibre reduction was documented for the linear approach. Using CSA assessment, significant PV stenosis was found in ten PVs (8%) shortly after ablation. Less significant PV stenosis, ranging from 20 to 50% was documented in other 18 PVs (15%). CeMRA with CSA assessment of the PVs is suitable method for evaluation of PV diameters. (orig.)

  11. Assessment of pulmonary venous stenosis after radiofrequency catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation by magnetic resonance angiography: a comparison of linear and cross-sectional area measurements

    Tintera, Jaroslav; Porod, Vaclav; Rolencova, Eva; Fendrych, Pavel; Cihak, Robert; Mlcochova, Hanka; Kautzner, Josef

    2006-01-01

    One of the recognised complications of catheter ablation is pulmonary venous stenosis. The aim of this study was to compare two methods of evaluation of pulmonary venous diameter for follow-up assessment of the above complication: (1) a linear approach evaluating two main diameters of the vein, (2) semiautomatically measured cross-sectional area (CSA). The study population consists of 29 patients. All subjects underwent contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CeMRA) of the pulmonary veins (PVs) before and after the ablation; 14 patients were also scanned 3 months later. PV diameter was evaluated from two-dimensional multiplanar reconstructions by measuring either the linear diameter or CSA. A comparison between pulmonary venous CSA and linear measurements revealed a systematic difference in absolute values. This difference was not significant when comparing the relative change CSA and quadratic approximation using linear extents (linear approach). However, a trend towards over-estimation of calibre reduction was documented for the linear approach. Using CSA assessment, significant PV stenosis was found in ten PVs (8%) shortly after ablation. Less significant PV stenosis, ranging from 20 to 50% was documented in other 18 PVs (15%). CeMRA with CSA assessment of the PVs is suitable method for evaluation of PV diameters. (orig.)

  12. Comparisons of linear and nonlinear plasma response models for non-axisymmetric perturbations

    Turnbull, A. D.; Ferraro, N. M.; Lao, L. L.; Lanctot, M. J. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Izzo, V. A. [University of California-San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, California 92093-0417 (United States); Lazarus, E. A.; Hirshman, S. P. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Park, J.-K.; Lazerson, S.; Reiman, A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States); Cooper, W. A. [Association Euratom-Confederation Suisse, Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland); Liu, Y. Q. [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Turco, F. [Columbia University, 116th St and Broadway, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    With the installation of non-axisymmetric coil systems on major tokamaks for the purpose of studying the prospects of ELM-free operation, understanding the plasma response to the applied fields is a crucial issue. Application of different response models, using standard tools, to DIII-D discharges with applied non-axisymmetric fields from internal coils, is shown to yield qualitatively different results. The plasma response can be treated as an initial value problem, following the system dynamically from an initial unperturbed state, or from a nearby perturbed equilibrium approach, and using both linear and nonlinear models [A. D. Turnbull, Nucl. Fusion 52, 054016 (2012)]. Criteria are discussed under which each of the approaches can yield a valid response. In the DIII-D cases studied, these criteria show a breakdown in the linear theory despite the small 10{sup −3} relative magnitude of the applied magnetic field perturbations in this case. For nonlinear dynamical evolution simulations to reach a saturated nonlinear steady state, appropriate damping mechanisms need to be provided for each normal mode comprising the response. Other issues arise in the technical construction of perturbed flux surfaces from a displacement and from the presence of near nullspace normal modes. For the nearby equilibrium approach, in the absence of a full 3D equilibrium reconstruction with a controlled comparison, constraints relating the 2D system profiles to the final profiles in the 3D system also need to be imposed to assure accessibility. The magnetic helicity profile has been proposed as an appropriate input to a 3D equilibrium calculation and tests of this show the anticipated qualitative behavior.

  13. Summary Report of the Consultants' Meeting on EXFOR Data in Resonance Region and Spectrometer Response Function

    Gunsing, F.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Semkova, V.

    2013-12-01

    The Consultants' Meeting 'EXFOR Data in Resonance Region and Spectrometer Response Function' was held at the IAEA Headquarters in Vienna from 8 to 10 October 2013. A summary of the presentations and discussions that took place during the meeting is reported here. The participants have agreed on recommendations on data reporting for EXFOR and on the need of documenting spectrometer response functions. Recommendations are given for experimentalists, for compilers, and for evaluators. (author)

  14. Electron-related linear and nonlinear optical responses in vertically coupled triangular quantum dots

    Martínez-Orozco, J.C.; Mora-Ramos, M.E.; Duque, C.A.

    2014-01-01

    The conduction band states of GaAs-based vertically coupled double triangular quantum dots in two dimensions are investigated within the effective mass and parabolic approximation, using a diagonalization procedure to solve the corresponding Schrödinger-like equation. The effect of an externally applied static electric field is included in the calculation, and the variation of the lowest confined energy levels as a result of the change of the field strength is reported for different geometrical setups. The linear and nonlinear optical absorptions and the relative change of the refractive index, associated with the energy transition between the ground and the first excited state in the system, are studied as a function of the incident light frequency for distinct configurations of inter-dot distance and electric field intensities. The blueshift of the resonant absorption peaks is detected as a consequence of the increment in the field intensity, whereas the opposite effect is obtained from the increase of inter-dot vertical distance. It is also shown that for large enough values of the electric field there is a quenching of the optical absorption due to field-induced change of symmetry of the first excited state wavefunction, in the case of triangular dots of equal shape and size

  15. Electron-related linear and nonlinear optical responses in vertically coupled triangular quantum dots

    Martínez-Orozco, J.C. [Unidad Académica de Física. Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Calzada Solidaridad esquina con Paseo la Bufa S/N, C.P. 98060. Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Ave. Universidad 1001, CP 62209, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Duque, C.A., E-mail: cduque@fisica.udea.edu.co [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia)

    2014-11-01

    The conduction band states of GaAs-based vertically coupled double triangular quantum dots in two dimensions are investigated within the effective mass and parabolic approximation, using a diagonalization procedure to solve the corresponding Schrödinger-like equation. The effect of an externally applied static electric field is included in the calculation, and the variation of the lowest confined energy levels as a result of the change of the field strength is reported for different geometrical setups. The linear and nonlinear optical absorptions and the relative change of the refractive index, associated with the energy transition between the ground and the first excited state in the system, are studied as a function of the incident light frequency for distinct configurations of inter-dot distance and electric field intensities. The blueshift of the resonant absorption peaks is detected as a consequence of the increment in the field intensity, whereas the opposite effect is obtained from the increase of inter-dot vertical distance. It is also shown that for large enough values of the electric field there is a quenching of the optical absorption due to field-induced change of symmetry of the first excited state wavefunction, in the case of triangular dots of equal shape and size.

  16. Linear response and correlation of a self-propelled particle in the presence of external fields

    Caprini, Lorenzo; Marini Bettolo Marconi, Umberto; Vulpiani, Angelo

    2018-03-01

    We study the non-equilibrium properties of non interacting active Ornstein-Uhlenbeck particles (AOUP) subject to an external nonuniform field using a Fokker-Planck approach with a focus on the linear response and time-correlation functions. In particular, we compare different methods to compute these functions including the unified colored noise approximation (UCNA). The AOUP model, described by the position of the particle and the active force acting on it, is usually mapped into a Markovian process, describing the motion of a fictitious passive particle in terms of its position and velocity, where the effect of the activity is transferred into a position-dependent friction. We show that the form of the response function of the AOUP depends on whether we put the perturbation on the position and keep unperturbed the active force in the original variables or perturb the position and maintain unperturbed the velocity in the transformed variables. Indeed, as a result of the change of variables the perturbation on the position becomes a perturbation both on the position and on the fictitious velocity. We test these predictions by considering the response for three types of convex potentials: quadratic, quartic and double-well potential. Moreover, by comparing the response of the AOUP model with the corresponding response of the UCNA model we conclude that although the stationary properties are fairly well approximated by the UCNA, the non equilibrium properties are not, an effect which is not negligible when the persistence time is large.

  17. On the Boundary between Nonlinear Jump Phenomenon and Linear Response of Hypoid Gear Dynamics

    Jun Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear time-varying (NLTV dynamic model of a hypoid gear pair system with time-dependent mesh point, line-of-action vector, mesh stiffness, mesh damping, and backlash nonlinearity is formulated to analyze the transitional phase between nonlinear jump phenomenon and linear response. It is found that the classical jump discontinuity will occur if the dynamic mesh force exceeds the mean value of tooth mesh force. On the other hand, the propensity for the gear response to jump disappears when the dynamic mesh force is lower than the mean mesh force. Furthermore, the dynamic analysis is able to distinguish the specific tooth impact types from analyzing the behaviors of the dynamic mesh force. The proposed theory is general and also applicable to high-speed spur, helical and spiral bevel gears even though those types of gears are not the primary focus of this paper.

  18. Electronic response and longitudinal phonons of a charge-density-wave distorted linear chain

    Giuliani, G.

    1978-01-01

    The longitudinal-phonon spectrum of an incommensurate charge-density-wave distorted linear chain at T = 0 K are calculated. This is done by direct numerical evaluation of the full static-electronic-response matrix. The electronic band structure assumed for this purpose is that of a mean-field theory 1-D Peierls insulator. The present results show how, within this simplified, but self-consistent picture, the phase and amplitude modes connect to, and interact with, the ordinary longitudinal-phonon branch. Effects due to our inclusion of (0,2ksub(F)) scattering along with the usual (-2ksub(F), 2ksub(F)) are also pointed out. An alternative approximate expression for the 1-D electronic-response matrix is also given. (author)

  19. Lanczos-driven coupled-cluster damped linear response theory for molecules in polarizable environments

    List, Nanna Holmgaard; Coriani, Sonia; Kongsted, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    are specifically motivated by a twofold aim: (i) computation of core excitations in realistic surroundings and (ii) examination of the effect of the differential response of the environment upon excitation solely related to the CC multipliers (herein denoted the J matrix) in computations of excitation energies......We present an extension of a previously reported implementation of a Lanczos-driven coupled-cluster (CC) damped linear response approach to molecules in condensed phases, where the effects of a surrounding environment are incorporated by means of the polarizable embedding formalism. We...... and transition moments of polarizable-embedded molecules. Numerical calculations demonstrate that the differential polarization of the environment due to the first-order CC multipliers provides only minor contributions to the solvatochromic shift for all transitions considered. We thus complement previous works...

  20. Disorder and non-linear magnetic response of high Tc superconductors

    Burin, J.P. (Lab. de Physique des Solides, INSA, 35 - Rennes (France)); Fouad, Y. (Lab. de Physique des Solides, INSA, 35 - Rennes (France)); Raboutou, A. (Lab. de Physique des Solides, INSA, 35 - Rennes (France)); Peyral, P. (Lab. de Physique des Solides, INSA, 35 - Rennes (France)); Lebeau, C. (Lab. de Physique des Solides, INSA, 35 - Rennes (France)); Rosenblatt, J. (Lab. de Physique des Solides, INSA, 35 - Rennes (France)); Mokhtari, M. (Lab. de Chimie du Solide et inorganique Moleculaire, Univ. Rennes 1, 35 (France)); Pena, O. (Lab. de Chimie du Solide et inorganique Moleculaire, Univ. Rennes 1, 35 (France)); Perrin, C. (Lab. de Chimie du Solide et inorganique Moleculaire, Univ. Rennes 1, 35 (France))

    1993-05-10

    We measure the low frequency magnetic response of YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 6.7]F[sub x] (0 [<=] x < 0.2) ceramics in a wide range of a.c. fields (10[sup -7] T [<=] [mu][sub 0]H[sub 0] [<=] 10[sup -4]). When changing the amount of disorder (varying x) on the microscopic level we find the same non linear response with field amplitude H[sub 0] as in granular conventional superconductors. The real part of the susceptibility appears as a universal function of H[sub 1](T)/H[sub 0] where H[sub 1](T) is the field of first flux penetration. The power law dependence found for H[sub 1](T) can be understood in the framework of the coherence transition of granular superconductors with random couplings. (orig.)

  1. Linear, no threshold response at low doses of ionizing radiation: ideology, prejudice and science

    Kesavan, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    The linear, no threshold (LNT) response model assumes that there is no threshold dose for the radiation-induced genetic effects (heritable mutations and cancer), and it forms the current basis for radiation protection standards for radiation workers and the general public. The LNT model is, however, based more on ideology than valid radiobiological data. Further, phenomena such as 'radiation hormesis', 'radioadaptive response', 'bystander effects' and 'genomic instability' are now demonstrated to be radioprotective and beneficial. More importantly, the 'differential gene expression' reveals that qualitatively different proteins are induced by low and high doses. This finding negates the LNT model which assumes that qualitatively similar proteins are formed at all doses. Thus, all available scientific data challenge the LNT hypothesis. (author)

  2. Resonant acoustic radiation force optical coherence elastography

    Qi, Wenjuan; Li, Rui; Ma, Teng; Li, Jiawen; Kirk Shung, K.; Zhou, Qifa; Chen, Zhongping

    2013-01-01

    We report on a resonant acoustic radiation force optical coherence elastography (ARF-OCE) technique that uses mechanical resonant frequency to characterize and identify tissues of different types. The linear dependency of the resonant frequency on the square root of Young's modulus was validated on silicone phantoms. Both the frequency response spectrum and the 3D imaging results from the agar phantoms with hard inclusions confirmed the feasibility of deploying the resonant frequency as a mec...

  3. A computer tool for a minimax criterion in binary response and heteroscedastic simple linear regression models.

    Casero-Alonso, V; López-Fidalgo, J; Torsney, B

    2017-01-01

    Binary response models are used in many real applications. For these models the Fisher information matrix (FIM) is proportional to the FIM of a weighted simple linear regression model. The same is also true when the weight function has a finite integral. Thus, optimal designs for one binary model are also optimal for the corresponding weighted linear regression model. The main objective of this paper is to provide a tool for the construction of MV-optimal designs, minimizing the maximum of the variances of the estimates, for a general design space. MV-optimality is a potentially difficult criterion because of its nondifferentiability at equal variance designs. A methodology for obtaining MV-optimal designs where the design space is a compact interval [a, b] will be given for several standard weight functions. The methodology will allow us to build a user-friendly computer tool based on Mathematica to compute MV-optimal designs. Some illustrative examples will show a representation of MV-optimal designs in the Euclidean plane, taking a and b as the axes. The applet will be explained using two relevant models. In the first one the case of a weighted linear regression model is considered, where the weight function is directly chosen from a typical family. In the second example a binary response model is assumed, where the probability of the outcome is given by a typical probability distribution. Practitioners can use the provided applet to identify the solution and to know the exact support points and design weights. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. New computational method for non-LTE, the linear response matrix

    Fournier, K.B.; Grasiani, F.R.; Harte, J.A.; Libby, S.B.; More, R.M.; Zimmerman, G.B.

    1998-01-01

    My coauthors have done extensive theoretical and computational calculations that lay the ground work for a linear response matrix method to calculate non-LTE (local thermodynamic equilibrium) opacities. I will give briefly review some of their work and list references. Then I will describe what has been done to utilize this theory to create a computational package to rapidly calculate mild non-LTE emission and absorption opacities suitable for use in hydrodynamic calculations. The opacities are obtained by performing table look-ups on data that has been generated with a non-LTE package. This scheme is currently under development. We can see that it offers a significant computational speed advantage. It is suitable for mild non-LTE, quasi-steady conditions. And it offers a new insertion path for high-quality non-LTE data. Currently, the linear response matrix data file is created using XSN. These data files could be generated by more detailed and rigorous calculations without changing any part of the implementation in the hydro code. The scheme is running in Lasnex and is being tested and developed

  5. Lead-lag relationships between stock and market risk within linear response theory

    Borysov, Stanislav; Balatsky, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    We study historical correlations and lead-lag relationships between individual stock risks (standard deviation of daily stock returns) and market risk (standard deviation of daily returns of a market-representative portfolio) in the US stock market. We consider the cross-correlation functions averaged over stocks, using historical stock prices from the Standard & Poor's 500 index for 1994-2013. The observed historical dynamics suggests that the dependence between the risks was almost linear during the US stock market downturn of 2002 and after the US housing bubble in 2007, remaining at that level until 2013. Moreover, the averaged cross-correlation function often had an asymmetric shape with respect to zero lag in the periods of high correlation. We develop the analysis by the application of the linear response formalism to study underlying causal relations. The calculated response functions suggest the presence of characteristic regimes near financial crashes, when individual stock risks affect market risk and vice versa. This work was supported by VR 621-2012-2983.

  6. Modeling exposure–lag–response associations with distributed lag non-linear models

    Gasparrini, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    In biomedical research, a health effect is frequently associated with protracted exposures of varying intensity sustained in the past. The main complexity of modeling and interpreting such phenomena lies in the additional temporal dimension needed to express the association, as the risk depends on both intensity and timing of past exposures. This type of dependency is defined here as exposure–lag–response association. In this contribution, I illustrate a general statistical framework for such associations, established through the extension of distributed lag non-linear models, originally developed in time series analysis. This modeling class is based on the definition of a cross-basis, obtained by the combination of two functions to flexibly model linear or nonlinear exposure-responses and the lag structure of the relationship, respectively. The methodology is illustrated with an example application to cohort data and validated through a simulation study. This modeling framework generalizes to various study designs and regression models, and can be applied to study the health effects of protracted exposures to environmental factors, drugs or carcinogenic agents, among others. © 2013 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24027094

  7. Multilevel linear modelling of the response-contingent learning of young children with significant developmental delays.

    Raab, Melinda; Dunst, Carl J; Hamby, Deborah W

    2018-02-27

    The purpose of the study was to isolate the sources of variations in the rates of response-contingent learning among young children with multiple disabilities and significant developmental delays randomly assigned to contrasting types of early childhood intervention. Multilevel, hierarchical linear growth curve modelling was used to analyze four different measures of child response-contingent learning where repeated child learning measures were nested within individual children (Level-1), children were nested within practitioners (Level-2), and practitioners were nested within the contrasting types of intervention (Level-3). Findings showed that sources of variations in rates of child response-contingent learning were associated almost entirely with type of intervention after the variance associated with differences in practitioners nested within groups were accounted for. Rates of child learning were greater among children whose existing behaviour were used as the building blocks for promoting child competence (asset-based practices) compared to children for whom the focus of intervention was promoting child acquisition of missing skills (needs-based practices). The methods of analysis illustrate a practical approach to clustered data analysis and the presentation of results in ways that highlight sources of variations in the rates of response-contingent learning among young children with multiple developmental disabilities and significant developmental delays. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. A Fresh Look at Linear Ordinary Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients. Revisiting the Impulsive Response Method Using Factorization

    Camporesi, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    We present an approach to the impulsive response method for solving linear constant-coefficient ordinary differential equations of any order based on the factorization of the differential operator. The approach is elementary, we only assume a basic knowledge of calculus and linear algebra. In particular, we avoid the use of distribution theory, as…

  9. Linear theory of microwave absortion in fusion plasmas. A study of the electron cyclotron resonance and its particularization to a helical axis device for magnetic confinement

    Castejon M, F.

    1989-01-01

    The study of the Linear Theory microwave propagation and absorption in the the frequency range of electron cyclotron resonance, in a magnetized plasma, is developed. This study is particularized to the flexible heliac TJ-II, whose main characteristics are dsetailed in a memory chapter, as an interesting case example for its peculiar magnetic configuration. As a preliminary phase, a cold plasma model is useds to analyze the resonance accessibility and the approximated density limits which will be obtainable in each electron cyclotron resonance harmonic. This analysis was used to find the suitable positions for the microwave injection in TJ-II. An analytical weakly relativistic model for the dielectric tensor is developed, valid for oblique propagation, that takes account of the effect of superthermal electrons. Second order Larmor radius effects are included, so that the Quasi-Electrostatic branch of X mode can be studied. A numerical study is then presented on the absorption properties of TJ-II. Since the TJ-II geometry is complex and its magnetic field distribution is very different from that of a tokamak, ray tracing calculations are necessary to consider refraction effects. The ray tracing codse RAYS, developed in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (U.S.A.), was take and adapted to the helical magnetic configuration of the TJ-II. The absorption model described above was then included in RAYS. For completeness, an introduction to the Quasi Linear Theory, natural prolongation of this work, is included at the end of the memory, ands the effects of taking into account the quasi linear evolution of the distribution function are described. (Author)

  10. A biological basis for the linear non-threshold dose-response relationship for low-level carcinogen exposure

    Albert, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    This chapter examines low-level dose-response relationships in terms of the two-stage mouse tumorigenesis model. Analyzes the feasibility of the linear non-threshold dose-response model which was first adopted for use in the assessment of cancer risks from ionizing radiation and more recently from chemical carcinogens. Finds that both the interaction of B(a)P with epidermal DNA of the mouse skin and the dose-response relationship for the initiation stage of mouse skin tumorigenesis showed a linear non-threshold dose-response relationship. Concludes that low level exposure to environmental carcinogens has a linear non-threshold dose-response relationship with the carcinogen acting as an initiator and the promoting action being supplied by the factors that are responsible for the background cancer rate in the target tissue

  11. Linear response coupled cluster theory with the polarizable continuum model within the singles approximation for the solvent response

    Caricato, Marco

    2018-04-01

    We report the theory and the implementation of the linear response function of the coupled cluster (CC) with the single and double excitations method combined with the polarizable continuum model of solvation, where the correlation solvent response is approximated with the perturbation theory with energy and singles density (PTES) scheme. The singles name is derived from retaining only the contribution of the CC single excitation amplitudes to the correlation density. We compare the PTES working equations with those of the full-density (PTED) method. We then test the PTES scheme on the evaluation of excitation energies and transition dipoles of solvated molecules, as well as of the isotropic polarizability and specific rotation. Our results show a negligible difference between the PTED and PTES schemes, while the latter affords a significantly reduced computational cost. This scheme is general and can be applied to any solvation model that includes mutual solute-solvent polarization, including explicit models. Therefore, the PTES scheme is a competitive approach to compute response properties of solvated systems using CC methods.

  12. A fresh look at linear ordinary differential equations with constant coefficients. Revisiting the impulsive response method using factorization

    Camporesi, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    We present an approach to the impulsive response method for solving linear constant-coefficient ordinary differential equations of any order based on the factorization of the differential operator. The approach is elementary, we only assume a basic knowledge of calculus and linear algebra. In particular, we avoid the use of distribution theory, as well as of the other more advanced approaches: Laplace transform, linear systems, the general theory of linear equations with variable coefficients and variation of parameters. The approach presented here can be used in a first course on differential equations for science and engineering majors.

  13. Nuclear resonant scattering measurements on (57)Fe by multichannel scaling with a 64-pixel silicon avalanche photodiode linear-array detector.

    Kishimoto, S; Mitsui, T; Haruki, R; Yoda, Y; Taniguchi, T; Shimazaki, S; Ikeno, M; Saito, M; Tanaka, M

    2014-11-01

    We developed a silicon avalanche photodiode (Si-APD) linear-array detector for use in nuclear resonant scattering experiments using synchrotron X-rays. The Si-APD linear array consists of 64 pixels (pixel size: 100 × 200 μm(2)) with a pixel pitch of 150 μm and depletion depth of 10 μm. An ultrafast frontend circuit allows the X-ray detector to obtain a high output rate of >10(7) cps per pixel. High-performance integrated circuits achieve multichannel scaling over 1024 continuous time bins with a 1 ns resolution for each pixel without dead time. The multichannel scaling method enabled us to record a time spectrum of the 14.4 keV nuclear radiation at each pixel with a time resolution of 1.4 ns (FWHM). This method was successfully applied to nuclear forward scattering and nuclear small-angle scattering on (57)Fe.

  14. Linear response theory for long-range interacting systems in quasistationary states.

    Patelli, Aurelio; Gupta, Shamik; Nardini, Cesare; Ruffo, Stefano

    2012-02-01

    Long-range interacting systems, while relaxing to equilibrium, often get trapped in long-lived quasistationary states which have lifetimes that diverge with the system size. In this work, we address the question of how a long-range system in a quasistationary state (QSS) responds to an external perturbation. We consider a long-range system that evolves under deterministic Hamilton dynamics. The perturbation is taken to couple to the canonical coordinates of the individual constituents. Our study is based on analyzing the Vlasov equation for the single-particle phase-space distribution. The QSS represents a stable stationary solution of the Vlasov equation in the absence of the external perturbation. In the presence of small perturbation, we linearize the perturbed Vlasov equation about the QSS to obtain a formal expression for the response observed in a single-particle dynamical quantity. For a QSS that is homogeneous in the coordinate, we obtain an explicit formula for the response. We apply our analysis to a paradigmatic model, the Hamiltonian mean-field model, which involves particles moving on a circle under Hamiltonian dynamics. Our prediction for the response of three representative QSSs in this model (the water-bag QSS, the Fermi-Dirac QSS, and the Gaussian QSS) is found to be in good agreement with N-particle simulations for large N. We also show the long-time relaxation of the water-bag QSS to the Boltzmann-Gibbs equilibrium state. © 2012 American Physical Society

  15. Non-Linear Dose Response Relationships in Biology, Toxicology, and Medicine (June 8-10, 2004). Final Report

    Calabrese, Edward J.

    2004-01-01

    The conference attracts approximately 500 scientists researching in the area of non-linear low dose effects. These scientists represent a wide range of biological/medical fields and technical disciplines. Observations that biphasic dose responses are frequently reported in each of these areas but that the recognition of similar dose response relationships across disciplines is very rarely appreciated and exploited. By bringing scientist of such diverse backgrounds together who are working on the common area of non-linear dose response relationships this will enhance our understanding of the occurrence, origin, mechanism, significance and practical applications of such dose response relationships

  16. Development of a Magnetron Resonance Frequency Auto Tuning System for Medical Xband [9300 MHz] RF Linear Accelerator

    Cha, Sung Su; Lee, Byung Cheol [University of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yujong; Park, Hyung Dal; Lee, Byeong-No; Joo, Youngwoo; Cha, Hyungki; Lee, Soo Min; Song, Ki Baek [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Hyun [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The total components of the accelerator are the magnetron, electron gun, accelerating structure, a set of solenoid magnets, four sets of steering coils, a modulator, and a circulator. One of the accelerator components of the accelerating structure is made of oxygen-free high-conductivity copper (OFHC), and its volume is changed according to the ambient temperature. As the volume changes, the resonant frequency of the accelerating structure is changed. Accordingly, the resonance frequency is mismatched between the source of the magnetron and the accelerating structure. An automatic frequency tuning system is automatically matched with the resonant frequency of the magnetron and accelerating structure, which allows a high output power and reliable accelerator operation. An automatic frequency tuning system is composed of a step motor control part for correcting the frequency of the source and power measuring parts, i.e., the forward and reflected power between the magnetron and accelerating structure. In this paper, the design, fabrication, and RF power test of the automatic frequency tuning system for the X-band linac are presented. A frequency tuning system was developed to overcome an unstable accelerator operation owing to the frequency mismatch between the magnetron and accelerating structure. The frequency measurement accuracy is 100 kHz and 0.72 degree per pulse.

  17. Acoustically determined linear piezoelectric response of lithium niobate up to 1100 V

    Patel, N. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States); Branch, D. W.; Cular, S. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Schamiloglu, E. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States)

    2014-04-21

    We present a method to measure high voltages using the piezoelectric crystal lithium niobate without using voltage dividers. A 36° Y-X cut lithium niobate crystal was coupled to two acoustic transducers, where direct current voltages were applied from 128–1100 V. The time-of-flight through the crystal was determined to be linearly dependent on the applied voltage. A model was developed to predict the time-delay in response to the applied voltage. The results show a sensitivity of 17 fs/V with a measurement error of 1 fs/V was achievable using this method. The sensitivity of this method can be increased by measuring the acoustic wave after multiple passes through the crystal. This method has many advantages over traditional techniques such as: favorable scalability for larger voltages, ease of use, cost effectiveness, and compactness.

  18. Fields of an ultrashort tightly focused radially polarized laser pulse in a linear response plasma

    Salamin, Yousef I.

    2017-10-01

    Analytical expressions for the fields of a radially polarized, ultrashort, and tightly focused laser pulse propagating in a linear-response plasma are derived and discussed. The fields are obtained from solving the inhomogeneous wave equations for the vector and scalar potentials, linked by the Lorenz gauge, in a plasma background. First, the scalar potential is eliminated using the gauge condition, then the vector potential is synthesized from Fourier components of an initial uniform distribution of wavenumbers, and the inverse Fourier transformation is carried out term-by-term in a truncated series (finite sum). The zeroth-order term in, for example, the axial electric field component is shown to model a pulse much better than its widely used paraxial approximation counterpart. Some of the propagation characteristics of the fields are discussed and all fields are shown to have manifested the expected limits for propagation in a vacuum.

  19. Exact asymptotic relations for the effective response of linear viscoelastic heterogeneous media

    Gallican, Valentin; Brenner, Renald; Suquet, Pierre

    2017-11-01

    This article addresses the asymptotic response of viscoelastic heterogeneous media in the frequency domain, at high and low frequencies, for different types of elementary linear viscoelastic constituents. By resorting to stationary principles for complex viscoelasticity and adopting a classification of the viscoelastic behaviours based on the nature of their asymptotic regimes, either elastic or viscous, four exact relations are obtained on the overall viscoelastic complex moduli in each case. Two relations are related to the asymptotic uncoupled heterogeneous problems, while the two remaining ones result from the viscoelastic coupling that manifests itself in the transient regime. These results also provide exact conditions on certain integrals in time of the effective relaxation spectrum. This general setting encompasses the results obtained in preceding studies on mixtures of Maxwell constituents [1,2]. xml:lang="fr"

  20. A Hybrid Density Functional Theory/Molecular Mechanics Approach for Linear Response Properties in Heterogeneous Environments.

    Rinkevicius, Zilvinas; Li, Xin; Sandberg, Jaime A R; Mikkelsen, Kurt V; Ågren, Hans

    2014-03-11

    We introduce a density functional theory/molecular mechanical approach for computation of linear response properties of molecules in heterogeneous environments, such as metal surfaces or nanoparticles embedded in solvents. The heterogeneous embedding environment, consisting from metallic and nonmetallic parts, is described by combined force fields, where conventional force fields are used for the nonmetallic part and capacitance-polarization-based force fields are used for the metallic part. The presented approach enables studies of properties and spectra of systems embedded in or placed at arbitrary shaped metallic surfaces, clusters, or nanoparticles. The capability and performance of the proposed approach is illustrated by sample calculations of optical absorption spectra of thymidine absorbed on gold surfaces in an aqueous environment, where we study how different organizations of the gold surface and how the combined, nonadditive effect of the two environments is reflected in the optical absorption spectrum.

  1. Stochastic Parameter Estimation of Non-Linear Systems Using Only Higher Order Spectra of the Measured Response

    Vasta, M.; Roberts, J. B.

    1998-06-01

    Methods for using fourth order spectral quantities to estimate the unknown parameters in non-linear, randomly excited dynamic systems are developed. Attention is focused on the case where only the response is measurable and the excitation is unmeasurable and known only in terms of a stochastic process model. The approach is illustrated through application to a non-linear oscillator with both non-linear damping and stiffness and with excitation modelled as a stationary Gaussian white noise process. The methods have applications in studies of the response of structures to random environmental loads, such as wind and ocean wave forces.

  2. Testing For The Linearity of Responses To Multiple Anthropogenic Climate Forcings

    Forest, C. E.; Stone, P. H.; Sokolov, A. P.

    To test whether climate forcings are additive, we compare climate model simulations in which anthropogenic forcings are applied individually and in combination. Tests are performed with different values for climate system properties (climate sensitivity and rate of heat uptake by the deep ocean) as well as for different strengths of the net aerosol forcing, thereby testing for the dependence of linearity on these properties. The MIT 2D Land-Ocean Climate Model used in this study consists of a zonally aver- aged statistical-dynamical atmospheric model coupled to a mixed-layer Q-flux ocean model, with heat anomalies diffused into the deep ocean. Following our previous stud- ies, the anthropogenic forcings are the changes in concentrations of greenhouse gases (1860-1995), sulfate aerosol (1860-1995), and stratospheric and tropospheric ozone (1979-1995). The sulfate aerosol forcing is applied as a surface albedo change. For an aerosol forcing of -1.0 W/m2 and an effective ocean diffusitivity of 2.5 cm2/s, the nonlinearity of the response of global-mean surface temperatures to the combined forcing shows a strong dependence on climate sensitivity. The fractional change in decadal averages ([(TG + TS + TO) - TGSO]/TGSO) for the 1986-1995 period compared to pre-industrial times are 0.43, 0.90, and 1.08 with climate sensitiv- ities of 3.0, 4.5, and 6.2 C, respectively. The values of TGSO for these three cases o are 0.52, 0.62, and 0.76 C. The dependence of linearity on climate system properties, o the role of climate system feedbacks, and the implications for the detection of climate system's response to individual forcings will be presented. Details of the model and forcings can be found at http://web.mit.edu/globalchange/www/.

  3. Quantum Kramers model: Corrections to the linear response theory for continuous bath spectrum

    Rips, Ilya

    2017-01-01

    Decay of the metastable state is analyzed within the quantum Kramers model in the weak-to-intermediate dissipation regime. The decay kinetics in this regime is determined by energy exchange between the unstable mode and the stable modes of thermal bath. In our previous paper [Phys. Rev. A 42, 4427 (1990), 10.1103/PhysRevA.42.4427], Grabert's perturbative approach to well dynamics in the case of the discrete bath [Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 1683 (1988), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.61.1683] has been extended to account for the second order terms in the classical equations of motion (EOM) for the stable modes. Account of the secular terms reduces EOM for the stable modes to those of the forced oscillator with the time-dependent frequency (TDF oscillator). Analytic expression for the characteristic function of energy loss of the unstable mode has been derived in terms of the generating function of the transition probabilities for the quantum forced TDF oscillator. In this paper, the approach is further developed and applied to the case of the continuous frequency spectrum of the bath. The spectral density functions of the bath of stable modes are expressed in terms of the dissipative properties (the friction function) of the original bath. They simplify considerably for the one-dimensional systems, when the density of phonon states is constant. Explicit expressions for the fourth order corrections to the linear response theory result for the characteristic function of the energy loss and its cumulants are obtained for the particular case of the cubic potential with Ohmic (Markovian) dissipation. The range of validity of the perturbative approach in this case is determined (γ /ωbrate for the quantum and for the classical Kramers models. Results for the classical escape rate are in very good agreement with the numerical simulations for high barriers. The results can serve as an additional proof of the robustness and accuracy of the linear response theory.

  4. Calculations of the resonant response of carbon nanotubes to binding of DNA

    Zheng Meng; Ke Changhong; Eom, Kilho

    2009-01-01

    We theoretically study the dynamical response of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to the binding of DNA in an aqueous environment by considering two major interactions in DNA helical binding to the CNT side surface: adhesion between DNA nucleobases and CNT surfaces and electrostatic interactions between negative charges on DNA backbones. The equilibrium DNA helical wrapping angle is obtained using the minimum potential energy method. Our results show that the preferred DNA wrapping angle in the equilibrium binding to CNT is dependent on both DNA length and DNA base. The equilibrium wrapping angle for a poly(dT) chain is larger than a comparable poly(dA) chain as a result of dT in a homopolymer chain having a higher effective binding energy to CNT than dA. Our results also interestingly reveal a sharp transition in the wrapping angle-DNA length profile for both homopolymers, implying that the equilibrium helical wrapping configuration does not exist for a certain range of wrapping angles. Furthermore, the resonant response of the DNA-CNT complex is analysed based on the variational method with a Hamiltonian which takes into account the CNT bending energy as well as DNA-CNT interactions. The closed-form analytical solution for predicting the resonant frequency of the DNA-CNT complex is presented. Our results show that the hydrodynamic loading on the oscillating CNT in aqueous environments has profound impacts on the resonance behaviour of DNA-CNT complexes. Our results suggest that detection of DNA molecules using CNT resonators based on DNA-CNT interactions through frequency measurements should be conducted in media with low hydrodynamic loading on CNTs. Our theoretical framework provides a fundamental principle for label-free detection using CNT resonators based on DNA-CNT interactions.

  5. LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    Christofilos, N.C.; Polk, I.J.

    1959-02-17

    Improvements in linear particle accelerators are described. A drift tube system for a linear ion accelerator reduces gap capacity between adjacent drift tube ends. This is accomplished by reducing the ratio of the diameter of the drift tube to the diameter of the resonant cavity. Concentration of magnetic field intensity at the longitudinal midpoint of the external sunface of each drift tube is reduced by increasing the external drift tube diameter at the longitudinal center region.

  6. Magnetic resonance as a local probe for linear bands in the Weyl semimetals NbP and TaP

    Baenitz, Michael; Yasuoka, Hiroshi; Majumder, Mayukh; Shekhar, Chandra; Yan, Binghai; Felser, Claudia; Schmidt, Marcus [MPI for Chemical Physics of Solids, Dresden (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Some compensated d-electron semimetals, for example the monophosphites NbP and TaP, with non centrosymmetric structure and with sizable spin orbit coupling (SOC) form a new class of material: the Weyl semimetals (WSM). A unique linear crossing of valence- and conduction- band in a single point in reciprocal space defines the so called Weyl point where the fermion mass vanishes theoretically. In real materials the Fermi level E{sub F} does not exactly match the Weyl node and as a consequence residual very light fermions are found. Due to the SOC these Weyl fermions have a chirality (handedness) on their linear dispersive (E ∝k) bands and frequently a linear density of states (DOS) at the Fermi level E{sub F}. We use NMR as a probe for this linear d- electron bands. The shift provides the s- and d- electron contributions to the DOS at E{sub F}, whereas the spin lattice relaxation is governed by low energy excitations around E{sub F}. {sup 31}P (I = 1/2) - Fourier - transform - and {sup 95}Nb (I = 9/2) - broadline - sweep - NMR studies are performed. We investigated powder samples as well as single crystals on both systems. The angular dependence of the {sup 95}Nb- and {sup 31}P - NMR lines is discussed.

  7. Microscopic Linear Response Theory of Spin Relaxation and Relativistic Transport Phenomena in Graphene

    Manuel Offidani

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a unified theoretical framework for the study of spin dynamics and relativistic transport phenomena in disordered two-dimensional Dirac systems with pseudospin-spin coupling. The formalism is applied to the paradigmatic case of graphene with uniform Bychkov-Rashba interaction and shown to capture spin relaxation processes and associated charge-to-spin interconversion phenomena in response to generic external perturbations, including spin density fluctuations and electric fields. A controlled diagrammatic evaluation of the generalized spin susceptibility in the diffusive regime of weak spin-orbit interaction allows us to show that the spin and momentum lifetimes satisfy the standard Dyakonov-Perel relation for both weak (Gaussian and resonant (unitary nonmagnetic disorder. Finally, we demonstrate that the spin relaxation rate can be derived in the zero-frequency limit by exploiting the SU(2 covariant conservation laws for the spin observables. Our results set the stage for a fully quantum-mechanical description of spin relaxation in both pristine graphene samples with weak spin-orbit fields and in graphene heterostructures with enhanced spin-orbital effects currently attracting much attention.

  8. Development of Vestibular Stochastic Resonance as a Sensorimotor Countermeasure: Improving Otolith Ocular and Motor Task Responses

    Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Fiedler, Matthew; DeDios,Yiri E.; Galvan, Raquel; Bloomberg, Jacob; Wood, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Astronauts experience disturbances in sensorimotor function after spaceflight during the initial introduction to a gravitational environment, especially after long-duration missions. Stochastic resonance (SR) is a mechanism by which noise can assist and enhance the response of neural systems to relevant, imperceptible sensory signals. We have previously shown that imperceptible electrical stimulation of the vestibular system enhances balance performance while standing on an unstable surface. The goal of our present study is to develop a countermeasure based on vestibular SR that could improve central interpretation of vestibular input and improve motor task responses to mitigate associated risks.

  9. Assessment of the setup dependence of detector response functions for mega-voltage linear accelerators

    Fox, Christopher; Simon, Tom; Simon, Bill; Dempsey, James F.; Kahler, Darren; Palta, Jatinder R.; Liu Chihray; Yan Guanghua [Sun Nuclear Inc., 425-A Pineda Court, Melbourne, Florida 32940 and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, P.O. Box 100385, Gainesville, Florida 32610-0385 (United States); NRE, 202 Nuclear Science Building, University of Florida, P.O. Box 118300, Gainesville, Florida 32611-8300 and Sun Nuclear Inc., 425-A Pineda Court, Melbourne, Florida 32940 (United States); Sun Nuclear Inc., 425-A Pineda Court, Melbourne, Florida 32940 (United States); ViewRay Inc., 2 Thermo Fisher Way, Oakwood Village, Ohio 44146 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, P.O. Box 100385, Gainesville, Florida 32610-0385 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Purpose: Accurate modeling of beam profiles is important for precise treatment planning dosimetry. Calculated beam profiles need to precisely replicate profiles measured during machine commissioning. Finite detector size introduces perturbations into the measured profiles, which, in turn, impact the resulting modeled profiles. The authors investigate a method for extracting the unperturbed beam profiles from those measured during linear accelerator commissioning. Methods: In-plane and cross-plane data were collected for an Elekta Synergy linac at 6 MV using ionization chambers of volume 0.01, 0.04, 0.13, and 0.65 cm{sup 3} and a diode of surface area 0.64 mm{sup 2}. The detectors were orientated with the stem perpendicular to the beam and pointing away from the gantry. Profiles were measured for a 10x10 cm{sup 2} field at depths ranging from 0.8 to 25.0 cm and SSDs from 90 to 110 cm. Shaping parameters of a Gaussian response function were obtained relative to the Edge detector. The Gaussian function was deconvolved from the measured ionization chamber data. The Edge detector profile was taken as an approximation to the true profile, to which deconvolved data were compared. Data were also collected with CC13 and Edge detectors for additional fields and energies on an Elekta Synergy, Varian Trilogy, and Siemens Oncor linear accelerator and response functions obtained. Response functions were compared as a function of depth, SSD, and detector scan direction. Variations in the shaping parameter were introduced and the effect on the resulting deconvolution profiles assessed. Results: Up to 10% setup dependence in the Gaussian shaping parameter occurred, for each detector for a particular plane. This translated to less than a {+-}0.7 mm variation in the 80%-20% penumbral width. For large volume ionization chambers such as the FC65 Farmer type, where the cavity length to diameter ratio is far from 1, the scan direction produced up to a 40% difference in the shaping

  10. Assessment of the setup dependence of detector response functions for mega-voltage linear accelerators

    Fox, Christopher; Simon, Tom; Simon, Bill; Dempsey, James F.; Kahler, Darren; Palta, Jatinder R.; Liu Chihray; Yan Guanghua

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Accurate modeling of beam profiles is important for precise treatment planning dosimetry. Calculated beam profiles need to precisely replicate profiles measured during machine commissioning. Finite detector size introduces perturbations into the measured profiles, which, in turn, impact the resulting modeled profiles. The authors investigate a method for extracting the unperturbed beam profiles from those measured during linear accelerator commissioning. Methods: In-plane and cross-plane data were collected for an Elekta Synergy linac at 6 MV using ionization chambers of volume 0.01, 0.04, 0.13, and 0.65 cm 3 and a diode of surface area 0.64 mm 2 . The detectors were orientated with the stem perpendicular to the beam and pointing away from the gantry. Profiles were measured for a 10x10 cm 2 field at depths ranging from 0.8 to 25.0 cm and SSDs from 90 to 110 cm. Shaping parameters of a Gaussian response function were obtained relative to the Edge detector. The Gaussian function was deconvolved from the measured ionization chamber data. The Edge detector profile was taken as an approximation to the true profile, to which deconvolved data were compared. Data were also collected with CC13 and Edge detectors for additional fields and energies on an Elekta Synergy, Varian Trilogy, and Siemens Oncor linear accelerator and response functions obtained. Response functions were compared as a function of depth, SSD, and detector scan direction. Variations in the shaping parameter were introduced and the effect on the resulting deconvolution profiles assessed. Results: Up to 10% setup dependence in the Gaussian shaping parameter occurred, for each detector for a particular plane. This translated to less than a ±0.7 mm variation in the 80%-20% penumbral width. For large volume ionization chambers such as the FC65 Farmer type, where the cavity length to diameter ratio is far from 1, the scan direction produced up to a 40% difference in the shaping parameter between in

  11. Response of Non-Linear Shock Absorbers-Boundary Value Problem Analysis

    Rahman, M. A.; Ahmed, U.; Uddin, M. S.

    2013-08-01

    A nonlinear boundary value problem of two degrees-of-freedom (DOF) untuned vibration damper systems using nonlinear springs and dampers has been numerically studied. As far as untuned damper is concerned, sixteen different combinations of linear and nonlinear springs and dampers have been comprehensively analyzed taking into account transient terms. For different cases, a comparative study is made for response versus time for different spring and damper types at three important frequency ratios: one at r = 1, one at r > 1 and one at r <1. The response of the system is changed because of the spring and damper nonlinearities; the change is different for different cases. Accordingly, an initially stable absorber may become unstable with time and vice versa. The analysis also shows that higher nonlinearity terms make the system more unstable. Numerical simulation includes transient vibrations. Although problems are much more complicated compared to those for a tuned absorber, a comparison of the results generated by the present numerical scheme with the exact one shows quite a reasonable agreement

  12. Multiphoton resonances

    Shore, B.W.

    1977-01-01

    The long-time average of level populations in a coherently-excited anharmonic sequence of energy levels (e.g., an anharmonic oscillator) exhibits sharp resonances as a function of laser frequency. For simple linearly-increasing anharmonicity, each resonance is a superposition of various multiphoton resonances (e.g., a superposition of 3, 5, 7, . . . photon resonances), each having its own characteristic width predictable from perturbation theory

  13. On spurious detection of linear response and misuse of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem in finite time series

    Gottwald, Georg A.; Wormell, J. P.; Wouters, Jeroen

    2016-09-01

    Using a sensitive statistical test we determine whether or not one can detect the breakdown of linear response given observations of deterministic dynamical systems. A goodness-of-fit statistics is developed for a linear statistical model of the observations, based on results for central limit theorems for deterministic dynamical systems, and used to detect linear response breakdown. We apply the method to discrete maps which do not obey linear response and show that the successful detection of breakdown depends on the length of the time series, the magnitude of the perturbation and on the choice of the observable. We find that in order to reliably reject the assumption of linear response for typical observables sufficiently large data sets are needed. Even for simple systems such as the logistic map, one needs of the order of 106 observations to reliably detect the breakdown with a confidence level of 95 %; if less observations are available one may be falsely led to conclude that linear response theory is valid. The amount of data required is larger the smaller the applied perturbation. For judiciously chosen observables the necessary amount of data can be drastically reduced, but requires detailed a priori knowledge about the invariant measure which is typically not available for complex dynamical systems. Furthermore we explore the use of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem (FDT) in cases with limited data length or coarse-graining of observations. The FDT, if applied naively to a system without linear response, is shown to be very sensitive to the details of the sampling method, resulting in erroneous predictions of the response.

  14. Contributions of DNA repair and damage response pathways to the non-linear genotoxic responses of alkylating agents.

    Klapacz, Joanna; Pottenger, Lynn H; Engelward, Bevin P; Heinen, Christopher D; Johnson, George E; Clewell, Rebecca A; Carmichael, Paul L; Adeleye, Yeyejide; Andersen, Melvin E

    2016-01-01

    From a risk assessment perspective, DNA-reactive agents are conventionally assumed to have genotoxic risks at all exposure levels, thus applying a linear extrapolation for low-dose responses. New approaches discussed here, including more diverse and sensitive methods for assessing DNA damage and DNA repair, strongly support the existence of measurable regions where genotoxic responses with increasing doses are insignificant relative to control. Model monofunctional alkylating agents have in vitro and in vivo datasets amenable to determination of points of departure (PoDs) for genotoxic effects. A session at the 2013 Society of Toxicology meeting provided an opportunity to survey the progress in understanding the biological basis of empirically-observed PoDs for DNA alkylating agents. Together with the literature published since, this review discusses cellular pathways activated by endogenous and exogenous alkylation DNA damage. Cells have evolved conserved processes that monitor and counteract a spontaneous steady-state level of DNA damage. The ubiquitous network of DNA repair pathways serves as the first line of defense for clearing of the DNA damage and preventing mutation. Other biological pathways discussed here that are activated by genotoxic stress include post-translational activation of cell cycle networks and transcriptional networks for apoptosis/cell death. The interactions of various DNA repair and DNA damage response pathways provide biological bases for the observed PoD behaviors seen with genotoxic compounds. Thus, after formation of DNA adducts, the activation of cellular pathways can lead to the avoidance of a mutagenic outcome. The understanding of the cellular mechanisms acting within the low-dose region will serve to better characterize risks from exposures to DNA-reactive agents at environmentally-relevant concentrations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Contributions of DNA repair and damage response pathways to the non-linear genotoxic responses of alkylating agents

    Klapacz, Joanna; Pottenger, Lynn H.; Engelward, Bevin P.; Heinen, Christopher D.; Johnson, George E.; Clewell, Rebecca A.; Carmichael, Paul L.; Adeleye, Yeyejide; Andersen, Melvin E.

    2016-01-01

    From a risk assessment perspective, DNA-reactive agents are conventionally assumed to have genotoxic risks at all exposure levels, thus applying a linear extrapolation for low-dose responses. New approaches discussed here, including more diverse and sensitive methods for assessing DNA damage and DNA repair, strongly support the existence of measurable regions where genotoxic responses with increasing doses are insignificant relative to control. Model monofunctional alkylating agents have in vitro and in vivo datasets amenable to determination of points of departure (PoDs) for genotoxic effects. A session at the 2013 Society of Toxicology meeting provided an opportunity to survey the progress in understanding the biological basis of empirically-observed PoDs for DNA alkylating agents. Together with the literature published since, this review discusses cellular pathways activated by endogenous and exogenous alkylation DNA damage. Cells have evolved conserved processes that monitor and counteract a spontaneous steady-state level of DNA damage. The ubiquitous network of DNA repair pathways serves as the first line of defense for clearing of the DNA damage and preventing mutation. Other biological pathways discussed here that are activated by genotoxic stress include post-translational activation of cell cycle networks and transcriptional networks for apoptosis/cell death. The interactions of various DNA repair and DNA damage response pathways provide biological bases for the observed PoD behaviors seen with genotoxic compounds. Thus, after formation of DNA adducts, the activation of cellular pathways can lead to the avoidance a mutagenic outcome. The understanding of the cellular mechanisms acting within the low-dose region will serve to better characterize risks from exposures to DNA-reactive agents at environmentally-relevant concentrations. PMID:27036068

  16. Room temperature quarter wave resonator re-buncher development for a high power heavy-ion linear accelerator

    Kim, Hye-Jin; Choi, B. H.; Han, Jaeeun; Hyun, Myung Ook; Park, Bum-Sik; Choi, Ohryoung; Lee, Doyoon; Son, Kitaek

    2018-03-01

    In the medium energy beam transport (MEBT) line system of the RAON which consists of several quadrupole magnets, three normal-conducting re-bunchers, and several diagnostic devices, a quarter wave resonator type re-buncher was chosen for minimizing longitudinal emittance growth and manipulating a longitudinal phase ellipse into the longitudinal acceptance of the low energy linac. The re-buncher has a resonant frequency of 81.25 MHz, geometrical beta (βg) of 0.049, and physical length of 24 cm. Based on the result of numerical calculations of electromagnetic field using CST-MWS and mechanical analysis of the heat distribution and deformation, an internal structure of the re-buncher was optimized to increase the effective voltage and to reduce power losses in the wall. The criteria of the multipacting effect was estimated and it was confirmed by the experiment. The position and specification of cooling channels are designed to recover a heat load up to 15 kW with reasonable margin of 25%. The coaxial and loop type RF power coupler are positioned on the high magnetic field region and two slug tuners are installed perpendicularly to the beam axis. The frequency sensitivity as a function of the tuner depth and cooling water temperature is measured and the frequency shift is in all cases within the provided tuner range. The test with a high power of 10 kW and the continuous wave is performed and the reflection power is observed less than 450 W.

  17. Normalize the response of EPID in pursuit of linear accelerator dosimetry standardization.

    Cai, Bin; Goddu, S Murty; Yaddanapudi, Sridhar; Caruthers, Douglas; Wen, Jie; Noel, Camille; Mutic, Sasa; Sun, Baozhou

    2018-01-01

    Normalize the response of electronic portal imaging device (EPID) is the first step toward an EPID-based standardization of Linear Accelerator (linac) dosimetry quality assurance. In this study, we described an approach to generate two-dimensional (2D) pixel sensitivity maps (PSM) for EPIDs response normalization utilizing an alternative beam and dark-field (ABDF) image acquisition technique and large overlapping field irradiations. The automated image acquisition was performed by XML-controlled machine operation and the PSM was generated based on a recursive calculation algorithm for Varian linacs equipped with aS1000 and aS1200 imager panels. Cross-comparisons of normalized beam profiles and 1.5%/1.5 mm 1D Gamma analysis was adopted to quantify the improvement of beam profile matching before and after PSM corrections. PSMs were derived for both photon (6, 10, 15 MV) and electron (6, 20 MeV) beams via proposed method. The PSM-corrected images reproduced a horn-shaped profile for photon beams and a relative uniform profiles for electrons. For dosimetrically matched linacs equipped with aS1000 panels, PSM-corrected images showed increased 1D-Gamma passing rates for all energies, with an average 10.5% improvement for crossline and 37% for inline beam profiles. Similar improvements in the phantom study were observed with a maximum improvement of 32% for 15 MV and 22% for 20 MeV. The PSM value showed no significant change for all energies over a 3-month period. In conclusion, the proposed approach correct EPID response for both aS1000 and aS1200 panels. This strategy enables the possibility to standardize linac dosimetry QA and to benchmark linac performance utilizing EPID as the common detector. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  18. Magneto-optical response of Cu/NiFe/Cu nanostructure under surface plasmon resonance

    Mahmoodi, S. [Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Kashan, Kashan, 87317 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moradi, M., E-mail: m.moradi@kashanu.ac.ir [Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Kashan, Kashan, 87317 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohseni, S.M. [Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University, Evin, Tehran, 19839 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    In this paper, we present theoretical and experimental studies about the surface plasmon resonance effects on the magneto-optical activity of Cu/NiFe/Cu nanostructures as a function of layers thickness and light incident angle. Device fabrication was done by an oblique deposition technique with RF magnetron sputtering to carefully cover fine step thickness variation of all constituted layers. Angular dependent transverse Kerr response of samples was measured in the Kretschmann configuration at a fixed wavelength of 632 nm. At an optimum layer thickness and incident angle, significant amplification of the transverse Kerr effect was observed. Enhancement in the transverse Kerr effect can be realized by hybridization of surface plasmon excitation and cavity resonance in the plasmonic nanostructure. Experimental results were in qualitative agreement with modeling based on the 4×4 transfer matrix formalism. - Highlights: • Large magneto-optical response in Cu/NiFe/Cu multilayer nanostructure is achieved. • Layer thickness and sequence are studied to find large transverse Kerr signal. • Hybridization of surface plasmon excitation and cavity resonance were done.

  19. Spectral response, dark current, and noise analyses in resonant tunneling quantum dot infrared photodetectors.

    Jahromi, Hamed Dehdashti; Mahmoodi, Ali; Sheikhi, Mohammad Hossein; Zarifkar, Abbas

    2016-10-20

    Reduction of dark current at high-temperature operation is a great challenge in conventional quantum dot infrared photodetectors, as the rate of thermal excitations resulting in the dark current increases exponentially with temperature. A resonant tunneling barrier is the best candidate for suppression of dark current, enhancement in signal-to-noise ratio, and selective extraction of different wavelength response. In this paper, we use a physical model developed by the authors recently to design a proper resonant tunneling barrier for quantum infrared photodetectors and to study and analyze the spectral response of these devices. The calculated transmission coefficient of electrons by this model and its dependency on bias voltage are in agreement with experimental results. Furthermore, based on the calculated transmission coefficient, the dark current of a quantum dot infrared photodetector with a resonant tunneling barrier is calculated and compared with the experimental data. The validity of our model is proven through this comparison. Theoretical dark current by our model shows better agreement with the experimental data and is more accurate than the previously developed model. Moreover, noise in the device is calculated. Finally, the effect of different parameters, such as temperature, size of quantum dots, and bias voltage, on the performance of the device is simulated and studied.

  20. ON THE MIGRATION OF JUPITER AND SATURN: CONSTRAINTS FROM LINEAR MODELS OF SECULAR RESONANT COUPLING WITH THE TERRESTRIAL PLANETS

    Agnor, Craig B.; Lin, D. N. C.

    2012-01-01

    We examine how the late divergent migration of Jupiter and Saturn may have perturbed the terrestrial planets. Using a modified secular model we have identified six secular resonances between the ν 5 frequency of Jupiter and Saturn and the four apsidal eigenfrequencies of the terrestrial planets (g 1-4 ). We derive analytic upper limits on the eccentricity and orbital migration timescale of Jupiter and Saturn when these resonances were encountered to avoid perturbing the eccentricities of the terrestrial planets to values larger than the observed ones. Because of the small amplitudes of the j = 2, 3 terrestrial eigenmodes the g 2 – ν 5 and g 3 – ν 5 resonances provide the strongest constraints on giant planet migration. If Jupiter and Saturn migrated with eccentricities comparable to their present-day values, smooth migration with exponential timescales characteristic of planetesimal-driven migration (τ ∼ 5-10 Myr) would have perturbed the eccentricities of the terrestrial planets to values greatly exceeding the observed ones. This excitation may be mitigated if the eccentricity of Jupiter was small during the migration epoch, migration was very rapid (e.g., τ ∼< 0.5 Myr perhaps via planet-planet scattering or instability-driven migration) or the observed small eccentricity amplitudes of the j = 2, 3 terrestrial modes result from low probability cancellation of several large amplitude contributions. Results of orbital integrations show that very short migration timescales (τ < 0.5 Myr), characteristic of instability-driven migration, may also perturb the terrestrial planets' eccentricities by amounts comparable to their observed values. We discuss the implications of these constraints for the relative timing of terrestrial planet formation, giant planet migration, and the origin of the so-called Late Heavy Bombardment of the Moon 3.9 ± 0.1 Ga ago. We suggest that the simplest way to satisfy these dynamical constraints may be for the bulk of any giant

  1. Superconducting linear accelerator cryostat

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Elkonin, B.V.; Sokolowski, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    A large vertical cryostat for a superconducting linear accelerator using quarter wave resonators has been developed. The essential technical details, operational experience and performance are described. (author)

  2. Inducing Strong Non-Linearities in a Phonon Trapping Quartz Bulk Acoustic Wave Resonator Coupled to a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device

    Maxim Goryachev

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A quartz Bulk Acoustic Wave resonator is designed to coherently trap phonons in such a way that they are well confined and immune to suspension losses so they exhibit extremely high acoustic Q-factors at low temperature, with Q × f products of order 10 18 Hz. In this work we couple such a resonator to a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID amplifier and investigate effects in the strong signal regime. Both parallel and series connection topologies of the system are investigated. The study reveals significant non-Duffing response that is associated with the nonlinear characteristics of Josephson junctions. The nonlinearity provides quasi-periodic structure of the spectrum in both incident power and frequency. The result gives an insight into the open loop behaviour of a future Cryogenic Quartz Oscillator in the strong signal regime.

  3. Linear response of stretch-affected premixed flames to flow oscillations

    Wang, H.Y.; Law, C.K. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Lieuwen, T. [School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

    2009-04-15

    The linear response of 2D wedge-shaped premixed flames to harmonic velocity disturbances was studied, allowing for the influence of flame stretch manifested as variations in the local flame speed along the wrinkled flame front. Results obtained from analyzing the G-equation show that the flame response is mainly characterized by a Markstein number {sigma}{sub C}, which measures the curvature effect of the wrinkles, and a Strouhal number, St{sub f}, defined as the angular frequency of the disturbance normalized by the time taken for the disturbance to propagate the flame length. Flame stretch is found to become important when the disturbance frequency satisfies {sigma}{sub C}St{sub f}{sup 2}{proportional_to} O(1), i.e. St{sub f}{proportional_to} O({sigma}{sub C}{sup -1/2}). Specifically, for disturbance frequencies below this order, stretch effects are small and the flame responds as an unstretched one. When the disturbance frequencies are of this order, the transfer function, defined as the ratio of the normalized fluctuation of the heat release rate to that of the velocity, is contributed mostly from fluctuations of the flame surface area, which is now affected by stretch. Finally, as the disturbance frequency increases to St{sub f}{proportional_to} O({sigma}{sub C}{sup -1}), i.e. {sigma}{sub C}St{sub f}{proportional_to} O(1), the direct contribution from the stretch-affected flame speed fluctuation to the transfer function becomes comparable to that of the flame surface area. The present study phenomenologically explains the experimentally observed filtering effect in which the flame wrinkles developed at the flame base decay along the flame surface for large frequency disturbances as well as for thermal-diffusively stable and weakly unstable mixtures. (author)

  4. Review of Response and Damage of Linear and Nonlinear Systems under Multiaxial Vibration

    Ed Habtour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of past and recent developments in multiaxial excitation of linear and nonlinear structures is presented. The objective is to review some of the basic approaches used in the analytical and experimental methods for kinematic and dynamic analysis of flexible mechanical systems, and to identify future directions in this research area. In addition, comparison between uniaxial and multiaxial excitations and their impact on a structure’s life-cycles is provided. The importance of understanding failure mechanisms in complex structures has led to the development of a vast range of theoretical, numerical, and experimental techniques to address complex dynamical effects. Therefore, it is imperative to identify the failure mechanisms of structures through experimental and virtual failure assessment based on correctly identified dynamic loads. For that reason, techniques for mapping the dynamic loads to fatigue were provided. Future research areas in structural dynamics due to multiaxial excitation are identified as (i effect of dynamic couplings, (ii modal interaction, (iii modal identification and experimental methods for flexible structures, and (iv computational models for large deformation in response to multiaxial excitation.

  5. Wavelet-based linear-response time-dependent density-functional theory

    Natarajan, Bhaarathi; Genovese, Luigi; Casida, Mark E.; Deutsch, Thierry; Burchak, Olga N.; Philouze, Christian; Balakirev, Maxim Y.

    2012-06-01

    Linear-response time-dependent (TD) density-functional theory (DFT) has been implemented in the pseudopotential wavelet-based electronic structure program BIGDFT and results are compared against those obtained with the all-electron Gaussian-type orbital program DEMON2K for the calculation of electronic absorption spectra of N2 using the TD local density approximation (LDA). The two programs give comparable excitation energies and absorption spectra once suitably extensive basis sets are used. Convergence of LDA density orbitals and orbital energies to the basis-set limit is significantly faster for BIGDFT than for DEMON2K. However the number of virtual orbitals used in TD-DFT calculations is a parameter in BIGDFT, while all virtual orbitals are included in TD-DFT calculations in DEMON2K. As a reality check, we report the X-ray crystal structure and the measured and calculated absorption spectrum (excitation energies and oscillator strengths) of the small organic molecule N-cyclohexyl-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)imidazo[1, 2-a]pyridin-3-amine.

  6. Testing a linear time invariant model for skin conductance responses by intraneural recording and stimulation.

    Gerster, Samuel; Namer, Barbara; Elam, Mikael; Bach, Dominik R

    2018-02-01

    Skin conductance responses (SCR) are increasingly analyzed with model-based approaches that assume a linear and time-invariant (LTI) mapping from sudomotor nerve (SN) activity to observed SCR. These LTI assumptions have previously been validated indirectly, by quantifying how much variance in SCR elicited by sensory stimulation is explained under an LTI model. This approach, however, collapses sources of variability in the nervous and effector organ systems. Here, we directly focus on the SN/SCR mapping by harnessing two invasive methods. In an intraneural recording experiment, we simultaneously track SN activity and SCR. This allows assessing the SN/SCR relationship but possibly suffers from interfering activity of non-SN sympathetic fibers. In an intraneural stimulation experiment under regional anesthesia, such influences are removed. In this stimulation experiment, about 95% of SCR variance is explained under LTI assumptions when stimulation frequency is below 0.6 Hz. At higher frequencies, nonlinearities occur. In the intraneural recording experiment, explained SCR variance is lower, possibly indicating interference from non-SN fibers, but higher than in our previous indirect tests. We conclude that LTI systems may not only be a useful approximation but in fact a rather accurate description of biophysical reality in the SN/SCR system, under conditions of low baseline activity and sporadic external stimuli. Intraneural stimulation under regional anesthesia is the most sensitive method to address this question. © 2017 The Authors. Psychophysiology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  7. Time-dependent density functional theory of open quantum systems in the linear-response regime.

    Tempel, David G; Watson, Mark A; Olivares-Amaya, Roberto; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2011-02-21

    Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) has recently been extended to describe many-body open quantum systems evolving under nonunitary dynamics according to a quantum master equation. In the master equation approach, electronic excitation spectra are broadened and shifted due to relaxation and dephasing of the electronic degrees of freedom by the surrounding environment. In this paper, we develop a formulation of TDDFT linear-response theory (LR-TDDFT) for many-body electronic systems evolving under a master equation, yielding broadened excitation spectra. This is done by mapping an interacting open quantum system onto a noninteracting open Kohn-Sham system yielding the correct nonequilibrium density evolution. A pseudoeigenvalue equation analogous to the Casida equations of the usual LR-TDDFT is derived for the Redfield master equation, yielding complex energies and Lamb shifts. As a simple demonstration, we calculate the spectrum of a C(2 +) atom including natural linewidths, by treating the electromagnetic field vacuum as a photon bath. The performance of an adiabatic exchange-correlation kernel is analyzed and a first-order frequency-dependent correction to the bare Kohn-Sham linewidth based on the Görling-Levy perturbation theory is calculated.

  8. Adding salt to a surfactant solution: Linear rheological response of the resulting morphologies

    Gaudino, Danila; Pasquino, Rossana, E-mail: r.pasquino@unina.it; Grizzuti, Nino [DICMaPI, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, P.le Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy)

    2015-11-15

    The micellar system composed of Cetylpyridinium Chloride-Sodium Salicylate (CPyCl-NaSal) in brine aqueous solutions has been studied by systematically changing the salt concentration, in order to investigate the rheology of the arising morphologies. In particular, the zero-shear viscosity and the linear viscoelastic response have been measured as a function of the NaSal concentration (with [CPyCl] = 100 mM). The Newtonian viscosity shows a nonmonotonic dependence upon concentration, passing through a maximum at NaSal/CPyCl ≈ 0.6, and eventually dropping at higher salt concentrations. The progressive addition of salt determines first a transition from a Newtonian to a purely Maxwell-like behavior as the length of the micelles significantly increases. Beyond the peak viscosity, the viscoelastic data show two distinct features. On the one hand, the main relaxation time of the system strongly decreases, while the plateau modulus remains essentially constant. Calculations based on the rheological data show that, as the binding salt concentration increases, there is a decrease in micelles breaking rate and a decrease in their average length. On the other hand, in the same concentration region, a low-frequency elastic plateau is measured. Such a plateau is considered as the signature of a tenuous, but persistent branched network, whose existence is confirmed by cryo-transmission electron microscopy images.

  9. Efficient block preconditioned eigensolvers for linear response time-dependent density functional theory

    Vecharynski, Eugene [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Computational Research Division; Brabec, Jiri [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Computational Research Division; Shao, Meiyue [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Computational Research Division; Govind, Niranjan [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Environmental Molecular Sciences Lab.; Yang, Chao [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Computational Research Division

    2017-12-01

    We present two efficient iterative algorithms for solving the linear response eigen- value problem arising from the time dependent density functional theory. Although the matrix to be diagonalized is nonsymmetric, it has a special structure that can be exploited to save both memory and floating point operations. In particular, the nonsymmetric eigenvalue problem can be transformed into a product eigenvalue problem that is self-adjoint with respect to a K-inner product. This product eigenvalue problem can be solved efficiently by a modified Davidson algorithm and a modified locally optimal block preconditioned conjugate gradient (LOBPCG) algorithm that make use of the K-inner product. The solution of the product eigenvalue problem yields one component of the eigenvector associated with the original eigenvalue problem. However, the other component of the eigenvector can be easily recovered in a postprocessing procedure. Therefore, the algorithms we present here are more efficient than existing algorithms that try to approximate both components of the eigenvectors simultaneously. The efficiency of the new algorithms is demonstrated by numerical examples.

  10. Materials and noncoplanar mesh designs for integrated circuits with linear elastic responses to extreme mechanical deformations.

    Kim, Dae-Hyeong; Song, Jizhou; Choi, Won Mook; Kim, Hoon-Sik; Kim, Rak-Hwan; Liu, Zhuangjian; Huang, Yonggang Y; Hwang, Keh-Chih; Zhang, Yong-wei; Rogers, John A

    2008-12-02

    Electronic systems that offer elastic mechanical responses to high-strain deformations are of growing interest because of their ability to enable new biomedical devices and other applications whose requirements are impossible to satisfy with conventional wafer-based technologies or even with those that offer simple bendability. This article introduces materials and mechanical design strategies for classes of electronic circuits that offer extremely high stretchability, enabling them to accommodate even demanding configurations such as corkscrew twists with tight pitch (e.g., 90 degrees in approximately 1 cm) and linear stretching to "rubber-band" levels of strain (e.g., up to approximately 140%). The use of single crystalline silicon nanomaterials for the semiconductor provides performance in stretchable complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits approaching that of conventional devices with comparable feature sizes formed on silicon wafers. Comprehensive theoretical studies of the mechanics reveal the way in which the structural designs enable these extreme mechanical properties without fracturing the intrinsically brittle active materials or even inducing significant changes in their electrical properties. The results, as demonstrated through electrical measurements of arrays of transistors, CMOS inverters, ring oscillators, and differential amplifiers, suggest a valuable route to high-performance stretchable electronics.

  11. Global hybrids from the semiclassical atom theory satisfying the local density linear response.

    Fabiano, Eduardo; Constantin, Lucian A; Cortona, Pietro; Della Sala, Fabio

    2015-01-13

    We propose global hybrid approximations of the exchange-correlation (XC) energy functional which reproduce well the modified fourth-order gradient expansion of the exchange energy in the semiclassical limit of many-electron neutral atoms and recover the full local density approximation (LDA) linear response. These XC functionals represent the hybrid versions of the APBE functional [Phys. Rev. Lett. 2011, 106, 186406] yet employing an additional correlation functional which uses the localization concept of the correlation energy density to improve the compatibility with the Hartree-Fock exchange as well as the coupling-constant-resolved XC potential energy. Broad energetic and structural testing, including thermochemistry and geometry, transition metal complexes, noncovalent interactions, gold clusters and small gold-molecule interfaces, as well as an analysis of the hybrid parameters, show that our construction is quite robust. In particular, our testing shows that the resulting hybrid, including 20% of Hartree-Fock exchange and named hAPBE, performs remarkably well for a broad palette of systems and properties, being generally better than popular hybrids (PBE0 and B3LYP). Semiempirical dispersion corrections are also provided.

  12. Heterogenous migraine aura symptoms correlate with visual cortex functional magnetic resonance imaging responses

    Arngrim, Nanna; Hougaard, Anders; Ahmadi, Khazar

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Migraine aura is sparsely studied due to the highly challenging task of capturing patients during aura. Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is likely the underlying phenomenon of aura. The possible correlation between the multifaceted phenomenology of aura symptoms and the effects of CSD...... on the brain has not been ascertained. Methods: Five migraine patients were studied during various forms of aura symptoms induced by hypoxia, sham hypoxia, or physical exercise with concurrent photostimulation. The blood oxygenation level–dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal...... response to visual stimulation was measured in retinotopic mapping–defined visual cortex areas V1 to V4. Results: We found reduced BOLD response in patients reporting scotoma and increased response in patients who only experienced positive symptoms. Furthermore, patients with bilateral visual symptoms had...

  13. Reliability and responsiveness of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in rheumatoid arthritis

    Axelsen, M.B.; Poggenborg, R.P.; Stoltenberg, M.

    2013-01-01

    intraarticular injection with 80 mg methylprednisolone. Using semi-automated image processing software, DCE-MRI parameters, including the initial rate of enhancement (IRE) and maximal enhancement (ME), were generated for three regions of interest (ROIs): ‘Whole slice’, ‘Quick ROI’, and ‘Precise ROI......Objectives: To investigate the responsiveness to treatment and the reliability of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) knee joints. Methods: DCE-MRI was performed in 12 clinically active RA knee joints before and 1, 7, 30, and 180 days after......’. The smallest detectable difference (SDD), the smallest detectable change (SDC), and intra- and inter-reader intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to assess the reliability of DCE-MRI. Responsiveness to treatment was assessed by the standardized response mean (SRM). Results: In all patients...

  14. Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Monitoring Rectal Cancer Response to Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy

    Barbaro, Brunella; Vitale, Renata; Valentini, Vincenzo; Illuminati, Sonia; Vecchio, Fabio M.; Rizzo, Gianluca; Gambacorta, Maria Antonietta; Coco, Claudio; Crucitti, Antonio; Persiani, Roberto; Sofo, Luigi; Bonomo, Lorenzo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively monitor the response in patients with locally advanced nonmucinous rectal cancer after chemoradiotherapy (CRT) using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. The histopathologic finding was the reference standard. Methods and Materials: The institutional review board approved the present study. A total of 62 patients (43 men and 19 women; mean age, 64 years; range, 28–83) provided informed consent. T 2 - and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans (b value, 0 and 1,000 mm 2 /s) were acquired before, during (mean 12 days), and 6–8 weeks after CRT. We compared the median apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) between responders and nonresponders and examined the associations with the Mandard tumor regression grade (TRG). The postoperative nodal status (ypN) was evaluated. The Mann-Whitney/Wilcoxon two-sample test was used to evaluate the relationships among the pretherapy ADCs, extramural vascular invasion, early percentage of increases in ADCs, and preoperative ADCs. Results: Low pretreatment ADCs ( −3 mm 2 /s) were correlated with TRG 4 scores (p = .0011) and associated to extramural vascular invasion with ypN+ (85.7% positive predictive value for ypN+). During treatment, the mean percentage of increase in tumor ADC was significantly greater in the responders than in the nonresponders (p 23% ADC increase had a 96.3% negative predictive value for TRG 4. In 9 of 16 complete responders, CRT-related tumor downsizing prevented ADC evaluations. The preoperative ADCs were significantly different (p = .0012) between the patients with and without downstaging (preoperative ADC ≥1.4 × 10 −3 mm 2 /s showed a positive and negative predictive value of 78.9% and 61.8%, respectively, for response assessment). The TRG 1 and TRG 2–4 groups were not significantly different. Conclusion: Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging seems to be a promising tool for monitoring the response to CRT.

  15. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in monitoring rectal cancer response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy.

    Barbaro, Brunella; Vitale, Renata; Valentini, Vincenzo; Illuminati, Sonia; Vecchio, Fabio M; Rizzo, Gianluca; Gambacorta, Maria Antonietta; Coco, Claudio; Crucitti, Antonio; Persiani, Roberto; Sofo, Luigi; Bonomo, Lorenzo

    2012-06-01

    To prospectively monitor the response in patients with locally advanced nonmucinous rectal cancer after chemoradiotherapy (CRT) using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. The histopathologic finding was the reference standard. The institutional review board approved the present study. A total of 62 patients (43 men and 19 women; mean age, 64 years; range, 28-83) provided informed consent. T(2)- and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans (b value, 0 and 1,000 mm(2)/s) were acquired before, during (mean 12 days), and 6-8 weeks after CRT. We compared the median apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) between responders and nonresponders and examined the associations with the Mandard tumor regression grade (TRG). The postoperative nodal status (ypN) was evaluated. The Mann-Whitney/Wilcoxon two-sample test was used to evaluate the relationships among the pretherapy ADCs, extramural vascular invasion, early percentage of increases in ADCs, and preoperative ADCs. Low pretreatment ADCs (23% ADC increase had a 96.3% negative predictive value for TRG 4. In 9 of 16 complete responders, CRT-related tumor downsizing prevented ADC evaluations. The preoperative ADCs were significantly different (p = .0012) between the patients with and without downstaging (preoperative ADC ≥1.4 × 10(-3)mm(2)/s showed a positive and negative predictive value of 78.9% and 61.8%, respectively, for response assessment). The TRG 1 and TRG 2-4 groups were not significantly different. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging seems to be a promising tool for monitoring the response to CRT. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. High power operation of the polyphase resonant converter modulator system for the spallation neutron source linear accelerator

    Reass, W A; Baca, D M; Doss, J D; Gonzáles, J M; Gribble, R F; Trujillo, P G

    2003-01-01

    The spallation neutron source (SNS) is a new 1.4 MW average power beam, 1 GeV accelerator being built at Oak Ridge national laboratory. The accelerator requires 15 "long-pulse" converter-modulator stations each providing a maximum of 11 MW pulses with a 1.1 MW average power. Two variants of the converter-modulator are utilized, an 80 kV and a 140 kV design, the voltage dependant on the type of klystron load. The converter-modulator can be described as a resonant zero-voltage- switching polyphase boost inverter. As noted in Figure 1, each converter modulator derives its buss voltage from a standard 13.8 kV to 2100 Y (1.5 MVA) substation cast-core transformer. The substation also contains harmonic traps and filters to accommodate IEEE 519 and 141 regulations. Each substation is followed by an SCR preregulator to accommodate system voltage changes from no load to full load, in addition to providing a soft-start function. Energy storage and filtering is provided by special low inductance self-clearing metallized ...

  17. The time-walk of analog constant fraction discriminators using very fast scintillator detectors with linear and non-linear energy response

    Regis, J.-M., E-mail: regis@ikp.uni-koeln.de [Institut fuer Kernphysik der Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, 50937 Koeln (Germany); Rudigier, M.; Jolie, J.; Blazhev, A.; Fransen, C.; Pascovici, G.; Warr, N. [Institut fuer Kernphysik der Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, 50937 Koeln (Germany)

    2012-08-21

    The electronic {gamma}-{gamma} fast timing technique allows for direct nuclear lifetime determination down to the few picoseconds region by measuring the time difference between two coincident {gamma}-ray transitions. Using high resolution ultra-fast LaBr{sub 3}(Ce) scintillator detectors in combination with the recently developed mirror symmetric centroid difference method, nuclear lifetimes are measured with a time resolving power of around 5 ps. The essence of the method is to calibrate the energy dependent position (centroid) of the prompt response function of the setup which is obtained for simultaneously occurring events. This time-walk of the prompt response function induced by the analog constant fraction discriminator has been determined by systematic measurements using different photomultiplier tubes and timing adjustments of the constant fraction discriminator. We propose a universal calibration function which describes the time-walk or the combined {gamma}-{gamma} time-walk characteristics, respectively, for either a linear or a non-linear amplitude versus energy dependency of the scintillator detector output pulses.

  18. Equivalent linear and nonlinear site response analysis for design and risk assessment of safety-related nuclear structures

    Bolisetti, Chandrakanth; Whittaker, Andrew S.; Mason, H. Benjamin; Almufti, Ibrahim; Willford, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Performed equivalent linear and nonlinear site response analyses using industry-standard numerical programs. • Considered a wide range of sites and input ground motions. • Noted the practical issues encountered while using these programs. • Examined differences between the responses calculated from different programs. • Results of biaxial and uniaxial analyses are compared. - Abstract: Site response analysis is a precursor to soil-structure interaction analysis, which is an essential component in the seismic analysis of safety-related nuclear structures. Output from site response analysis provides input to soil-structure interaction analysis. Current practice in calculating site response for safety-related nuclear applications mainly involves the equivalent linear method in the frequency-domain. Nonlinear time-domain methods are used by some for the assessment of buildings, bridges and petrochemical facilities. Several commercial programs have been developed for site response analysis but none of them have been formally validated for large strains and high frequencies, which are crucial for the performance assessment of safety-related nuclear structures. This study sheds light on the applicability of some industry-standard equivalent linear (SHAKE) and nonlinear (DEEPSOIL and LS-DYNA) programs across a broad range of frequencies, earthquake shaking intensities, and sites ranging from stiff sand to hard rock, all with a focus on application to safety-related nuclear structures. Results show that the equivalent linear method is unable to reproduce the high frequency acceleration response, resulting in almost constant spectral accelerations in the short period range. Analysis using LS-DYNA occasionally results in some unrealistic high frequency acceleration ‘noise’, which can be removed by smoothing the piece-wise linear backbone curve. Analysis using DEEPSOIL results in abrupt variations in the peak strains of consecutive soil layers

  19. A 3,3′-dichlorobenzidine-imprinted polymer gel surface plasmon resonance sensor based on template-responsive shrinkage

    Zhou, Chunyan; Gao, Jigang; Zhang, Lili; Zhou, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Based on template-responsive shrinkage of imprinted gel film, a novel surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor is prepared. •The relevant electrochemical parameters are optimized. •The imprinted gel-SPR system has great capability for providing highly sensitive and selective analysis of 3,3′-dichlorobenzidine. •The present SPR sensor was successfully employed to detect 3,3′-dichlorobenzidine in tap water and soil samples. -- Abstract: Molecularly imprinted polymer gel film on the gold substrate of a chip was prepared with minute amount of cross-linker for the fabrication of a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor sensitive to 3,3′-dichlorobenzidine. The molecularly imprinted gel film was anchored on a gold chip by a surface-bound photo-radical initiator. The sensing of 3,3′-dichlorobenzidine is based on responsive shrinkage of the imprinted polymer gel film that is triggered by target binding. This change can improve the responsiveness of the imprinted SPR sensor to 3,3′-dichlorobenzidine. The molecularly imprinted polymer gel film was characterized with contact angle measurements, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammogram, swelling measurements and atomic force microscopy. The changes of SPR spectroscopy wavenumber shifts revealed that the imprinted gel sensing film can ‘memorize’ the binding of 3,3′-dichlorobenzidine compared to non-imprinted one. The imprinted gel-SPR sensor showed a linear response in the range of 9.0 × 10 −12 to 5.0 × 10 −10 mol L −1 (R 2 = 0.9998) for the detection of 3,3′-dichlorobenzidine, and it also exhibited high selectivity to 3,3′-dichlorobenzidine compared to its structurally related analogues. We calculated the detection limits to be 0.471 ng L −1 for tap water and 0.772 ng kg −1 for soil based on a signal to noise ratio of 3. The method showed good recoveries and precision for the samples spiked with 3,3′-dichlorobenzidine. This suggest

  20. A Combined Pharmacokinetic and Radiologic Assessment of Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Predicts Response to Chemoradiation in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer

    Semple, Scott; Harry, Vanessa N. MRCOG.; Parkin, David E.; Gilbert, Fiona J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the combination of pharmacokinetic and radiologic assessment of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an early response indicator in women receiving chemoradiation for advanced cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Twenty women with locally advanced cervical cancer were included in a prospective cohort study. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI was carried out before chemoradiation, after 2 weeks of therapy, and at the conclusion of therapy using a 1.5-T MRI scanner. Radiologic assessment of uptake parameters was obtained from resultant intensity curves. Pharmacokinetic analysis using a multicompartment model was also performed. General linear modeling was used to combine radiologic and pharmacokinetic parameters and correlated with eventual response as determined by change in MRI tumor size and conventional clinical response. A subgroup of 11 women underwent repeat pretherapy MRI to test pharmacokinetic reproducibility. Results: Pretherapy radiologic parameters and pharmacokinetic K trans correlated with response (p < 0.01). General linear modeling demonstrated that a combination of radiologic and pharmacokinetic assessments before therapy was able to predict more than 88% of variance of response. Reproducibility of pharmacokinetic modeling was confirmed. Conclusions: A combination of radiologic assessment with pharmacokinetic modeling applied to dynamic MRI before the start of chemoradiation improves the predictive power of either by more than 20%. The potential improvements in therapy response prediction using this type of combined analysis of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI may aid in the development of more individualized, effective therapy regimens for this patient group.

  1. Dynamical response of multi-walled carbon nanotube resonators based on continuum mechanics modeling for mass sensing applications

    Choi, Myungseok; Olshevskiy, Alexander; Kim, Chang-Wan [Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Eom, Kilho [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Gwak, Kwanwoong [Sejong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Dai, Mai Duc [Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology and Education, Ho Chi Minh (Viet Nam)

    2017-05-15

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) has recently received much attention due to its excellent electromechanical properties, indicating that CNT can be employed for development of Nanoelectromechanical system (NEMS) such as nanomechanical resonators. For effective design of CNT-based resonators, it is required to accurately predict the vibration behavior of CNT resonators as well as their frequency response to mass adsorption. In this work, we have studied the vibrational behavior of Multi-walled CNT (MWCNT) resonators by using a continuum mechanics modeling that was implemented in Finite element method (FEM). In particular, we consider a transversely isotropic hollow cylinder solid model with Finite element (FE) implementation for modeling the vibration behavior of Multi-walled CNT (MWCNT) resonators. It is shown that our continuum mechanics model provides the resonant frequencies of various MWCNTs being comparable to those obtained from experiments. Moreover, we have investigated the frequency response of MWCNT resonators to mass adsorption by using our continuum model with FE implementation. Our study sheds light on our continuum mechanics model that is useful in predicting not only the vibration behavior of MWCNT resonators but also their sensing performance for further effective design of MWCNT- based NEMS devices.

  2. Frequency Response of Synthetic Vocal Fold Models with Linear and Nonlinear Material Properties

    Shaw, Stephanie M.; Thomson, Scott L.; Dromey, Christopher; Smith, Simeon

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to create synthetic vocal fold models with nonlinear stress-strain properties and to investigate the effect of linear versus nonlinear material properties on fundamental frequency (F[subscript 0]) during anterior-posterior stretching. Method: Three materially linear and 3 materially nonlinear models were…

  3. Functions Represented as Linear Sequential Data: Relationships between Presentation and Student Responses

    Ayalon, Michal; Watson, Anne; Lerman, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates students' ways of attending to linear sequential data in two tasks, and conjectures possible relationships between those ways and elements of the task design. Drawing on the substantial literature about such situations, we focus for this paper on linear rate of change, and on covariation and correspondence approaches to…

  4. An introduction to linear ordinary differential equations using the impulsive response method and factorization

    Camporesi, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a method for solving linear ordinary differential equations based on the factorization of the differential operator. The approach for the case of constant coefficients is elementary, and only requires a basic knowledge of calculus and linear algebra. In particular, the book avoids the use of distribution theory, as well as the other more advanced approaches: Laplace transform, linear systems, the general theory of linear equations with variable coefficients and variation of parameters. The case of variable coefficients is addressed using Mammana’s result for the factorization of a real linear ordinary differential operator into a product of first-order (complex) factors, as well as a recent generalization of this result to the case of complex-valued coefficients.

  5. Diffusion of responsibility attenuates altruistic punishment: A functional magnetic resonance imaging effective connectivity study.

    Feng, Chunliang; Deshpande, Gopikrishna; Liu, Chao; Gu, Ruolei; Luo, Yue-Jia; Krueger, Frank

    2016-02-01

    Humans altruistically punish violators of social norms to enforce cooperation and pro-social behaviors. However, such altruistic behaviors diminish when others are present, due to a diffusion of responsibility. We investigated the neural signatures underlying the modulations of diffusion of responsibility on altruistic punishment, conjoining a third-party punishment task with event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging and multivariate Granger causality mapping. In our study, participants acted as impartial third-party decision-makers and decided how to punish norm violations under two different social contexts: alone (i.e., full responsibility) or in the presence of putative other third-party decision makers (i.e., diffused responsibility). Our behavioral results demonstrated that the diffusion of responsibility served as a mediator of context-dependent punishment. In the presence of putative others, participants who felt less responsible also punished less severely in response to norm violations. Our neural results revealed that underlying this behavioral effect was a network of interconnected brain regions. For unfair relative to fair splits, the presence of others led to attenuated responses in brain regions implicated in signaling norm violations (e.g., AI) and to increased responses in brain regions implicated in calculating values of norm violations (e.g., vmPFC, precuneus) and mentalizing about others (dmPFC). The dmPFC acted as the driver of the punishment network, modulating target regions, such as AI, vmPFC, and precuneus, to adjust altruistic punishment behavior. Our results uncovered the neural basis of the influence of diffusion of responsibility on altruistic punishment and highlighted the role of the mentalizing network in this important phenomenon. Hum Brain Mapp 37:663-677, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Wavelet-based linear-response time-dependent density-functional theory

    Natarajan, Bhaarathi; Genovese, Luigi; Casida, Mark E.; Deutsch, Thierry; Burchak, Olga N.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We has been implemented LR-TD-DFT in the pseudopotential wavelet-based program. ► We have compared the results against all-electron Gaussian-type program. ► Orbital energies converges significantly faster for BigDFT than for DEMON2K. ► We report the X-ray crystal structure of the small organic molecule flugi6. ► Measured and calculated absorption spectrum of flugi6 is also reported. - Abstract: Linear-response time-dependent (TD) density-functional theory (DFT) has been implemented in the pseudopotential wavelet-based electronic structure program BIGDFT and results are compared against those obtained with the all-electron Gaussian-type orbital program DEMON2K for the calculation of electronic absorption spectra of N 2 using the TD local density approximation (LDA). The two programs give comparable excitation energies and absorption spectra once suitably extensive basis sets are used. Convergence of LDA density orbitals and orbital energies to the basis-set limit is significantly faster for BIGDFT than for DEMON2K. However the number of virtual orbitals used in TD-DFT calculations is a parameter in BIGDFT, while all virtual orbitals are included in TD-DFT calculations in DEMON2K. As a reality check, we report the X-ray crystal structure and the measured and calculated absorption spectrum (excitation energies and oscillator strengths) of the small organic molecule N-cyclohexyl-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)imidazo[1, 2-a]pyridin-3-amine.

  7. New concept on an integrated interior magnetic resonance imaging and medical linear accelerator system for radiation therapy.

    Jia, Xun; Tian, Zhen; Xi, Yan; Jiang, Steve B; Wang, Ge

    2017-01-01

    Image guidance plays a critical role in radiotherapy. Currently, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is routinely used in clinics for this purpose. While this modality can provide an attenuation image for therapeutic planning, low soft-tissue contrast affects the delineation of anatomical and pathological features. Efforts have recently been devoted to several MRI linear accelerator (LINAC) projects that lead to the successful combination of a full diagnostic MRI scanner with a radiotherapy machine. We present a new concept for the development of the MRI-LINAC system. Instead of combining a full MRI scanner with the LINAC platform, we propose using an interior MRI (iMRI) approach to image a specific region of interest (RoI) containing the radiation treatment target. While the conventional CBCT component still delivers a global image of the patient's anatomy, the iMRI offers local imaging of high soft-tissue contrast for tumor delineation. We describe a top-level system design for the integration of an iMRI component into an existing LINAC platform. We performed numerical analyses of the magnetic field for the iMRI to show potentially acceptable field properties in a spherical RoI with a diameter of 15 cm. This field could be shielded to a sufficiently low level around the LINAC region to avoid electromagnetic interference. Furthermore, we investigate the dosimetric impacts of this integration on the radiotherapy beam.

  8. Modelling of Plasma Response to Resonant Magnetic Perturbations and its Influence on Divertor Strike Points

    Cahyna, P.; Peterka, M.; Panek, R., E-mail: cahyna@ipp.cas.cz [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, Prague (Czech Republic); Liu, Y.; Kirk, A.; Harrison, J.; Thornton, A.; Chapman, I. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Nardon, E. [Association Euratom/CEA, CEA Cadarache, St. Paul-lez-Durance (France); Schmitz, O. [Forschung Zentrum Juelich, Juelich (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    Full text: Resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) for edge localized mode (ELM) mitigation in tokamaks can be modified by the plasma response and indeed strong screening of the applied perturbation is in some cases predicted by simulations. In this contribution we investigate what effect would such screening have on the spiralling patterns (footprints) which may appear at the divertor when RMPs are applied. We use two theoretical tools for investigation of the impact of plasma response on footprints: a simple model of the assumed screening currents, which can be used to translate the screening predicted by MHD codes in a simplified geometry into the real geometry, and the MHD code MARS-F. The former consistently predicts that footprints are significantly reduced when complete screening of the resonant perturbation modes (like it is the case in ideal MHD) is assumed. This result is supported by the result of MARS-F in ideal mode for the case of the MAST tokamak. To predict observed patterns of fluxes it is necessary to take into account the deformation of the scrape-off layer, and for this we developed an approximative method based on the Melnikov integral. If the screening of perturbations indeed reduces the footprints, it would provide us with an important tool to evaluate the amount of screening in experiments, as the footprints can be easily observed. We thus present a comparison between predictions and experimental data, especially for the MAST tokamak, where a significant amount of data has been collected. (author)

  9. Altered functional magnetic resonance imaging responses to nonpainful sensory stimulation in fibromyalgia patients.

    López-Solà, Marina; Pujol, Jesus; Wager, Tor D; Garcia-Fontanals, Alba; Blanco-Hinojo, Laura; Garcia-Blanco, Susana; Poca-Dias, Violant; Harrison, Ben J; Contreras-Rodríguez, Oren; Monfort, Jordi; Garcia-Fructuoso, Ferran; Deus, Joan

    2014-11-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a disorder characterized by chronic pain and enhanced responses to acute noxious events. However, the sensory systems affected in FM may extend beyond pain itself, as FM patients show reduced tolerance to non-nociceptive sensory stimulation. Characterizing the neural substrates of multisensory hypersensitivity in FM may thus provide important clues about the underlying pathophysiology of the disorder. The aim of this study was to characterize brain responses to non-nociceptive sensory stimulation in FM patients and their relationship to subjective sensory sensitivity and clinical pain severity. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to assess brain response to auditory, visual, and tactile motor stimulation in 35 women with FM and 25 matched controls. Correlation and mediation analyses were performed to establish the relationship between brain responses and 3 types of outcomes: subjective hypersensitivity to daily sensory stimulation, spontaneous pain, and functional disability. Patients reported increased subjective sensitivity (increased unpleasantness) in response to multisensory stimulation in daily life. Functional MRI revealed that patients showed reduced task-evoked activation in primary/secondary visual and auditory areas and augmented responses in the insula and anterior lingual gyrus. Reduced responses in visual and auditory areas were correlated with subjective sensory hypersensitivity and clinical severity measures. FM patients showed strong attenuation of brain responses to nonpainful events in early sensory cortices, accompanied by an amplified response at later stages of sensory integration in the insula. These abnormalities are associated with core FM symptoms, suggesting that they may be part of the pathophysiology of the disease. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  10. Biologically relevant conformational features of linear and cyclic proteolipid protein (PLP) peptide analogues obtained by high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance and molecular dynamics

    Kordopati, Golfo G.; Tzoupis, Haralambos; Troganis, Anastassios N.; Tsivgoulis, Gerasimos M.; Golic Grdadolnik, Simona; Simal, Carmen; Tselios, Theodore V.

    2017-09-01

    Proteolipid protein (PLP) is one of the main proteins of myelin sheath that are destroyed during the progress of multiple sclerosis (MS). The immunodominant PLP139-151 epitope is known to induce experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, animal model of MS), wherein residues 144 and 147 are recognized by T cell receptor (TCR) during the formation of trimolecular complex with peptide-antigen and major histocompability complex. The conformational behavior of linear and cyclic peptide analogues of PLP, namely PLP139-151 and cyclic (139-151) (L144, R147) PLP139-151, have been studied in solution by means of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods in combination with unrestrained molecular dynamics simulations. The results indicate that the side chains of mutated amino acids in the cyclic analogue have different spatial orientation compared with the corresponding side chains of the linear analogue, which can lead to reduced affinity to TCR. NMR experiments combined with theoretical calculations pave the way for the design and synthesis of potent restricted peptides of immunodominant PLP139-151 epitope as well as non peptide mimetics that rises as an ultimate goal.

  11. Pancreatic beta cell function increases in a linear dose-response manner following exercise training in adults with prediabetes

    Malin, Steven K; Solomon, Thomas; Blaszczak, Alecia

    2013-01-01

    While some studies suggest that a linear dose-response relationship exists between exercise and insulin sensitivity, the exercise dose required to enhance pancreatic beta-cell function is unknown. Thirty-five older, obese adults with prediabetes underwent a progressive 12-week supervised exercise...

  12. A single charge in the actin binding domain of fascin can independently tune the linear and non-linear response of an actin bundle network.

    Maier, M; Müller, K W; Heussinger, C; Köhler, S; Wall, W A; Bausch, A R; Lieleg, O

    2015-05-01

    Actin binding proteins (ABPs) not only set the structure of actin filament assemblies but also mediate the frequency-dependent viscoelastic moduli of cross-linked and bundled actin networks. Point mutations in the actin binding domain of those ABPs can tune the association and dissociation dynamics of the actin/ABP bond and thus modulate the network mechanics both in the linear and non-linear response regime. We here demonstrate how the exchange of a single charged amino acid in the actin binding domain of the ABP fascin triggers such a modulation of the network rheology. Whereas the overall structure of the bundle networks is conserved, the transition point from strain-hardening to strain-weakening sensitively depends on the cross-linker off-rate and the applied shear rate. Our experimental results are consistent both with numerical simulations of a cross-linked bundle network and a theoretical description of the bundle network mechanics which is based on non-affine bending deformations and force-dependent cross-link dynamics.

  13. Accuracy of 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy for quantification of 2-hydroxyglutarate using linear combination and J-difference editing at 9.4T.

    Neuberger, Ulf; Kickingereder, Philipp; Helluy, Xavier; Fischer, Manuel; Bendszus, Martin; Heiland, Sabine

    2017-12-01

    Non-invasive detection of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) by magnetic resonance spectroscopy is attractive since it is related to tumor metabolism. Here, we compare the detection accuracy of 2HG in a controlled phantom setting via widely used localized spectroscopy sequences quantified by linear combination of metabolite signals vs. a more complex approach applying a J-difference editing technique at 9.4T. Different phantoms, comprised out of a concentration series of 2HG and overlapping brain metabolites, were measured with an optimized point-resolved-spectroscopy sequence (PRESS) and an in-house developed J-difference editing sequence. The acquired spectra were post-processed with LCModel and a simulated metabolite set (PRESS) or with a quantification formula for J-difference editing. Linear regression analysis demonstrated a high correlation of real 2HG values with those measured with the PRESS method (adjusted R-squared: 0.700, pJ-difference editing method (adjusted R-squared: 0.908, pJ-difference editing method however had a significantly higher explanatory value over the regression model with the PRESS method (pJ-difference editing 2HG was discernible down to 1mM, whereas with the PRESS method 2HG values were not discernable below 2mM and with higher systematic errors, particularly in phantoms with high concentrations of N-acetyl-asparate (NAA) and glutamate (Glu). In summary, quantification of 2HG with linear combination of metabolite signals shows high systematic errors particularly at low 2HG concentration and high concentration of confounding metabolites such as NAA and Glu. In contrast, J-difference editing offers a more accurate quantification even at low 2HG concentrations, which outweighs the downsides of longer measurement time and more complex postprocessing. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  14. Accuracy of 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy for quantification of 2-hydroxyglutarate using linear combination and J-difference editing at 9.4 T

    Neuberger, Ulf; Fischer, Manuel; Heiland, Sabine [Univ. of Heidelberg Medical Center, Heidelberg (Germany). Dept. of Neuroradiology; Univ. of Heidelberg Medical Center, Heidelberg (Germany). Div. of Experimental Radiology; Kickingereder, Philipp; Bendszus, Martin [Univ. of Heidelberg Medical Center, Heidelberg (Germany). Dept. of Neuroradiology; Helluy, Xavier [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Biopsychology

    2017-07-01

    Non-invasive detection of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) by magnetic resonance spectroscopy is attractive since it is related to tumor metabolism. Here, we compare the detection accuracy of 2HG in a controlled phantom setting via widely used localized spectroscopy sequences quantified by linear combination of metabolite signals vs. a more complex approach applying a J-difference editing technique at 9.4 T. Different phantoms, comprised out of a concentration series of 2HG and overlapping brain metabolites, were measured with an optimized point-resolved-spectroscopy sequence (PRESS) and an in-house developed J-difference editing sequence. The acquired spectra were post-processed with LCModel and a simulated metabolite set (PRESS) or with a quantification formula for J-difference editing. Linear regression analysis demonstrated a high correlation of real 2HG values with those measured with the PRESS method (adjusted R-squared: 0.700, p < 0.001) as well as with those measured with the J-difference editing method (adjusted R-squared: 0.908, p < 0.001). The regression model with the J-difference editing method however had a significantly higher explanatory value over the regression model with the PRESS method (p < 0.0001). Moreover, with J-difference editing 2HG was discernible down to 1 mM, whereas with the PRESS method 2HG values were not discernable below 2 mM and with higher systematic errors, particularly in phantoms with high concentrations of N-acetyl-asparate (NAA) and glutamate (Glu). In summary, quantification of 2HG with linear combination of metabolite signals shows high systematic errors particularly at low 2HG concentration and high concentration of confounding metabolites such as NAA and Glu. In contrast, J-difference editing offers a more accurate quantification even at low 2HG concentrations, which outweighs the downsides of longer measurement time and more complex postprocessing.

  15. The response of a linear monostable system and its application in parameters estimation for PSK signals

    Duan, Chaowei; Zhan, Yafeng

    2016-03-01

    The output characteristics of a linear monostable system driven with a periodic signal and an additive white Gaussian noise are studied in this paper. Theoretical analysis shows that the output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) decreases monotonously with the increasing noise intensity but the output SNR-gain is stable. Inspired by this high SNR-gain phenomenon, this paper applies the linear monostable system in the parameters estimation algorithm for phase shift keying (PSK) signals and improves the estimation performance.

  16. Non-linear response of electrode-electrolyte interface at high current density

    Ruiz, G.A.; Felice, C.J.; Valentinuzzi, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    A distributed parameter non-linear circuit is presented as fractal model of an electrode-electrolyte interface. It includes the charge transfer resistance and the double layer capacitance at each fractal level. The circuit explains the linear behavior of its series equivalent resistance R eq with signals of amplitudes eq Fourier spectrum. As a consequence, both the equivalent resistance and reactance drop with voltage, facts reported experimentally by other authors

  17. The dynamic response of a linear brushless D.C. motor

    Moghani, J.S.; Eastham, J.F. [Univ. of Bath (United Kingdom). School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

    1995-12-31

    The paper describes the use of the Matlab Analogue Simulation Toolbox SIMULINK for the closed loop dynamic modeling of a linear brushless dc motor which is supplied from a delta-modulated inverter. The work is validated by experimental results taken from a large test rig. Linear version of all rotating machines are possible; a rotating machine can be notionally cut along a radial plane and unrolled to yield a linear version. The most popular form of linear machine, as judged by the quantities that have been produced is the linear induction motor. This has the advantage of first an inexpensive secondary that is often a simple iron backed conducting plate, and secondly the possibility of simple voltage control. The linear brushless synchronous motor is potentially more expensive to produce than its induction counterpart because of the permanent magnets which provide the excitation mmf and the necessity of an inverter supply. However the machine has a power factor efficiency product which can be double that of an induction motor together with about twice the tractive force per pole area.

  18. The log-linear response function of the bounded number-line task is unrelated to the psychological representation of quantity.

    Cohen, Dale J; Quinlan, Philip T

    2018-02-01

    The bounded number-line task has been used extensively to assess the numerical competence of both children and adults. One consistent finding has been that young children display a logarithmic response function, whereas older children and adults display a more linear response function. Traditionally, these log-linear functions have been interpreted as providing a transparent window onto the nature of the participants' psychological representations of quantity (termed here a direct response strategy). Here we show that the direct response strategy produces the log-linear response function regardless of whether the psychological representation of quantity is compressive or expansive. Simply put, the log-linear response function results from task constraints rather than from the psychological representation of quantities. We also demonstrate that a proportion/subtraction response strategy produces response patterns that almost perfectly correlate with the psychological representation of quantity. We therefore urge researchers not to interpret the log-linear response pattern in terms of numerical representation.

  19. Multiple linear regression to estimate time-frequency electrophysiological responses in single trials.

    Hu, L; Zhang, Z G; Mouraux, A; Iannetti, G D

    2015-05-01

    Transient sensory, motor or cognitive event elicit not only phase-locked event-related potentials (ERPs) in the ongoing electroencephalogram (EEG), but also induce non-phase-locked modulations of ongoing EEG oscillations. These modulations can be detected when single-trial waveforms are analysed in the time-frequency domain, and consist in stimulus-induced decreases (event-related desynchronization, ERD) or increases (event-related synchronization, ERS) of synchrony in the activity of the underlying neuronal populations. ERD and ERS reflect changes in the parameters that control oscillations in neuronal networks and, depending on the frequency at which they occur, represent neuronal mechanisms involved in cortical activation, inhibition and binding. ERD and ERS are commonly estimated by averaging the time-frequency decomposition of single trials. However, their trial-to-trial variability that can reflect physiologically-important information is lost by across-trial averaging. Here, we aim to (1) develop novel approaches to explore single-trial parameters (including latency, frequency and magnitude) of ERP/ERD/ERS; (2) disclose the relationship between estimated single-trial parameters and other experimental factors (e.g., perceived intensity). We found that (1) stimulus-elicited ERP/ERD/ERS can be correctly separated using principal component analysis (PCA) decomposition with Varimax rotation on the single-trial time-frequency distributions; (2) time-frequency multiple linear regression with dispersion term (TF-MLRd) enhances the signal-to-noise ratio of ERP/ERD/ERS in single trials, and provides an unbiased estimation of their latency, frequency, and magnitude at single-trial level; (3) these estimates can be meaningfully correlated with each other and with other experimental factors at single-trial level (e.g., perceived stimulus intensity and ERP magnitude). The methods described in this article allow exploring fully non-phase-locked stimulus-induced cortical

  20. Nonlinear response of a forced van der Pol-Duffing oscillator at non-resonant bifurcations of codimension two

    Ji, J.C.; Zhang, N.

    2009-01-01

    Non-resonant bifurcations of codimension two may appear in the controlled van der Pol-Duffing oscillator when two critical time delays corresponding to a double Hopf bifurcation have the same value. With the aid of centre manifold theorem and the method of multiple scales, the non-resonant response and two types of primary resonances of the forced van der Pol-Duffing oscillator at non-resonant bifurcations of codimension two are investigated by studying the possible solutions and their stability of the four-dimensional ordinary differential equations on the centre manifold. It is shown that the non-resonant response of the forced oscillator may exhibit quasi-periodic motions on a two- or three-dimensional (2D or 3D) torus. The primary resonant responses admit single and mixed solutions and may exhibit periodic motions or quasi-periodic motions on a 2D torus. Illustrative examples are presented to interpret the dynamics of the controlled system in terms of two dummy unfolding parameters and exemplify the periodic and quasi-periodic motions. The analytical predictions are found to be in good agreement with the results of numerical integration of the original delay differential equation.

  1. High-Speed imaging of the plasma response to resonant magnetic perturbations in HBT-EP

    Angelini, Sarah M; Levesque, Jeffrey P; Mauel, Michael E; Navratil, Gerald A

    2015-01-01

    A Phantom v7.3 fast digital camera was used to study visible light fluctuations in the High Beta Tokamak–Extended Pulse (HBT–EP). This video data is the first to be used to analyze and understand the behavior of long wavelength kink perturbations in a wall-stabilized tokamak. The light was mostly comprised of Dα 656 nm light. Profiles of the plasma light at the midplane were hollow with a radial scale length of approximately 4 cm at the plasma edge. The fast camera was also used to measure the plasma’s response to applied helical magnetic perturbations. The programmed toroidal phase angle of the resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) was directly inferred from the resulting images of the plasma response. The plasma response and the intensity of the RMP were compared under different conditions. The resulting amplitude correlations are consistent with previous measurements of the static response using an array of magnetic sensors. (paper)

  2. Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Monitoring Rectal Cancer Response to Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy

    Barbaro, Brunella, E-mail: bbarbaro@rm.unicatt.it [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Catholic University School of Medicine, Rome (Italy); Vitale, Renata; Valentini, Vincenzo; Illuminati, Sonia [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Catholic University School of Medicine, Rome (Italy); Vecchio, Fabio M. [Department of Pathology, Catholic University School of Medicine, Rome (Italy); Rizzo, Gianluca [Department of Surgery, Catholic University School of Medicine, Rome (Italy); Gambacorta, Maria Antonietta [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Catholic University School of Medicine, Rome (Italy); Coco, Claudio; Crucitti, Antonio; Persiani, Roberto; Sofo, Luigi [Department of Surgery, Catholic University School of Medicine, Rome (Italy); Bonomo, Lorenzo [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Catholic University School of Medicine, Rome (Italy)

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: To prospectively monitor the response in patients with locally advanced nonmucinous rectal cancer after chemoradiotherapy (CRT) using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. The histopathologic finding was the reference standard. Methods and Materials: The institutional review board approved the present study. A total of 62 patients (43 men and 19 women; mean age, 64 years; range, 28-83) provided informed consent. T{sub 2}- and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans (b value, 0 and 1,000 mm{sup 2}/s) were acquired before, during (mean 12 days), and 6-8 weeks after CRT. We compared the median apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) between responders and nonresponders and examined the associations with the Mandard tumor regression grade (TRG). The postoperative nodal status (ypN) was evaluated. The Mann-Whitney/Wilcoxon two-sample test was used to evaluate the relationships among the pretherapy ADCs, extramural vascular invasion, early percentage of increases in ADCs, and preoperative ADCs. Results: Low pretreatment ADCs (<1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3}mm{sup 2}/s) were correlated with TRG 4 scores (p = .0011) and associated to extramural vascular invasion with ypN+ (85.7% positive predictive value for ypN+). During treatment, the mean percentage of increase in tumor ADC was significantly greater in the responders than in the nonresponders (p < .0001) and a >23% ADC increase had a 96.3% negative predictive value for TRG 4. In 9 of 16 complete responders, CRT-related tumor downsizing prevented ADC evaluations. The preoperative ADCs were significantly different (p = .0012) between the patients with and without downstaging (preoperative ADC {>=}1.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3}mm{sup 2}/s showed a positive and negative predictive value of 78.9% and 61.8%, respectively, for response assessment). The TRG 1 and TRG 2-4 groups were not significantly different. Conclusion: Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging seems to be a promising

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of treatment response of lateral epicondylitis of the elbow

    Savnik, Anette; Jensen, Bente; Noerregaard, Jesper; Danneskiold-Samsoee, Bente; Bliddal, Henning; Egund, Niels

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the treatment response in lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow) by MRI. Magnetic resonance imaging was obtained in 30 patients with clinical symptoms of lateral epicondylitis of the elbow using T1-, T2- and T2-weighted fat-saturated (FS) sequences. The patients were randomised to either i.m. corticosteroid injection (n=16) or immobilisation in a wrist splint (n=14). Magnetic resonance imaging of the elbow was performed on a 1.5-T MR system at baseline and after 6 weeks. The extensor carpi radialis (ECRB) tendon, the radial collateral ligament, lateral humerus epicondyle at tendon insertion site, joint fluid and signal intensity changes within brachio-radialis and anconeus muscles were evaluated on the MR unit's workstation before and after 6 weeks of treatment. The MRI was performed once in 22 healthy controls for comparison and all images evaluated by an investigator blinded to the clinical status of the subjects. The MR images showed thickening with separation of the ECRB tendon from the radial collateral ligament and abnormal signal change in 25 of the 30 patients on the T1-weighted sequences at inclusion. The signal intensity of the ECRB tendon was increased in 24 of the 30 patients with lateral epicondylitis of the elbow on the T2-weighted FS sequences. (orig.)

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of treatment response of lateral epicondylitis of the elbow

    Savnik, Anette [Parker Institute, Frederiksberg Hospital, Nordre Fasanvej 57, 2000, Frederiksberg (Denmark); Department of Radiology, Frederiksberg Hospital, Nordre Fasanvej 57, 2000, Frederiksberg (Denmark); Hovmarksvej 39, 2920, Charlottenlund (Denmark); Jensen, Bente; Noerregaard, Jesper; Danneskiold-Samsoee, Bente; Bliddal, Henning [Parker Institute, Frederiksberg Hospital, Nordre Fasanvej 57, 2000, Frederiksberg (Denmark); Egund, Niels [Department of Radiology, Aarhus University Hospital, 8000, Aarhus C (Denmark)

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the treatment response in lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow) by MRI. Magnetic resonance imaging was obtained in 30 patients with clinical symptoms of lateral epicondylitis of the elbow using T1-, T2- and T2-weighted fat-saturated (FS) sequences. The patients were randomised to either i.m. corticosteroid injection (n=16) or immobilisation in a wrist splint (n=14). Magnetic resonance imaging of the elbow was performed on a 1.5-T MR system at baseline and after 6 weeks. The extensor carpi radialis (ECRB) tendon, the radial collateral ligament, lateral humerus epicondyle at tendon insertion site, joint fluid and signal intensity changes within brachio-radialis and anconeus muscles were evaluated on the MR unit's workstation before and after 6 weeks of treatment. The MRI was performed once in 22 healthy controls for comparison and all images evaluated by an investigator blinded to the clinical status of the subjects. The MR images showed thickening with separation of the ECRB tendon from the radial collateral ligament and abnormal signal change in 25 of the 30 patients on the T1-weighted sequences at inclusion. The signal intensity of the ECRB tendon was increased in 24 of the 30 patients with lateral epicondylitis of the elbow on the T2-weighted FS sequences. (orig.)

  5. Analysis of Resonance Response Performance of C-Band Antenna Using Parasitic Element

    Islam, M. T.; Misran, N.; Mandeep, J. S.

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of the resonance response improvement of a planar C-band (4–8 GHz) antenna is proposed using parasitic element method. This parasitic element based method is validated for change in the active and parasitic antenna elements. A novel dual-band antenna for C-band application covering 5.7 GHz and 7.6 GHz is designed and fabricated. The antenna is composed of circular parasitic element with unequal microstrip lines at both sides and a rectangular partial ground plane. A fractional bandwidth of 13.5% has been achieved from 5.5 GHz to 6.3 GHz (WLAN band) for the lower band. The upper band covers from 7.1 GHz to 8 GHz with a fractional bandwidth of 12%. A gain of 6.4 dBi is achieved at the lower frequency and 4 dBi is achieved at the upper frequency. The VSWR of the antenna is less than 2 at the resonance frequency. PMID:24895643

  6. Comparative study of nuclear magnetic resonance and UV-visible spectroscopy dose-response of polymer gel based on N-(Isobutoxymethyl) acrylamide

    Lotfy, S.; Basfar, A. A.; Moftah, B.; Al-Moussa, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    A comparative study of nuclear magnetic resonance and UV-visible spectroscopy of dose-response for polymer gel dosimeters was performed. Dosimeters were prepared using N-(Isobutoxymethyl) acrylamide (NIBMA) as a new monomer via radiation induced polymerization for use in radiotherapy planning. The prepared dosimeters were irradiated with doses up to 30 Gy at a constant dose rate of 600 MU/min. Using a medical linear accelerator at irradiation energies of 6, 10 and 18 MV photon beam. The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), via spin-spin relaxation rate (R2) for water proton surrounding the polymer formulation and UV-Visible spectroscopy, via the optical absorbance measurements of irradiated dosimeters at selected wavelengths of 500 nm, was used to investigate the dose response of NIBMAGAT gel dosimeters. Scavenge of oxygen was done using tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium chloride (THPC). The THPC optimum concentration in the dosimeters formulations were 5 and 10 mM for the NMR and optical absorbance measurements respectively. The quantitative investigation of the dosimeters components reveals the selective formulations based on 4% w/w gelatin, 1% w/w NIBMA, 3% w/w BisAAm, 5 or 10 mM THPC and 17% w/w glycerol which significantly increase the dosimeters dose response. The prepared dosimeters were found to be dose rate and photon beam irradiation energy independent. The stability study shows no change in the relaxation rate or in the optical absorbance of the gel dosimeters up to 8 days post-irradiation. The prepared polymer gel dosimeters at the energies of 6, 10 and 18 MV photon beam irradiation in the range of 1-30 Gy have the linearity of the dose response function in the case of R2 is better than in the case of absorbance measurements; correlation coefficient (r2) equals 0.995 and 0.991, respectively. Dose sensitivity, R2 of NIBMAGAT dosimeters (0.0775 s-1 Gy-1). The absorption band intensity increases linearly with a dose sensitivity of 0.016 cm-1 Gy-1. The

  7. Charge and pairing dynamics in the attractive Hubbard model: Mode coupling and the validity of linear-response theory

    Bünemann, Jörg; Seibold, Götz

    2017-12-01

    Pump-probe experiments have turned out as a powerful tool in order to study the dynamics of competing orders in a large variety of materials. The corresponding analysis of the data often relies on standard linear-response theory generalized to nonequilibrium situations. Here we examine the validity of such an approach for the charge and pairing response of systems with charge-density wave and (or) superconducting (SC) order. Our investigations are based on the attractive Hubbard model which we study within the time-dependent Hartree-Fock approximation. In particular, we calculate the quench and pump-probe dynamics for SC and charge order parameters in order to analyze the frequency spectra and the coupling of the probe field to the specific excitations. Our calculations reveal that the "linear-response assumption" is justified for small to moderate nonequilibrium situations (i.e., pump pulses) in the case of a purely charge-ordered ground state. However, the pump-probe dynamics on top of a superconducting ground state is determined by phase and amplitude modes which get coupled far from the equilibrium state indicating the failure of the linear-response assumption.

  8. Development of parallel-plate-based MEMS tunable capacitors with linearized capacitance–voltage response and extended tuning range

    Shavezipur, M; Nieva, P; Khajepour, A; Hashemi, S M

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a design technique that can be used to linearize the capacitance–voltage (C–V) response and extend the tuning range of parallel-plate-based MEMS tunable capacitors beyond that of conventional designs. The proposed technique exploits the curvature of the capacitor's moving electrode which could be induced by either manipulating the stress gradients in the plate's material or using bi-layer structures. The change in curvature generates a nonlinear structural stiffness as the moving electrode undergoes out-of-plane deformation due to the actuation voltage. If the moving plate curvature is tailored such that the capacitance increment is proportional to the voltage increment, then a linear C–V response is obtained. The larger structural resistive force at higher bias voltage also delays the pull-in and increases the maximum tunability of the capacitor. Moreover, for capacitors containing an insulation layer between the two electrodes, the proposed technique completely eliminates the pull-in effect. The experimental data obtained from different capacitors fabricated using PolyMUMPs demonstrate the advantages of this design approach where highly linear C–V responses and tunabilities as high as 1050% were recorded. The design methodology introduced in this paper could be easily extended to for example, capacitive pressure and temperature sensors or infrared detectors to enhance their response characteristics.

  9. Modeling the Non-Linear Response of Fiber-Reinforced Laminates Using a Combined Damage/Plasticity Model

    Schuecker, Clara; Davila, Carlos G.; Pettermann, Heinz E.

    2008-01-01

    The present work is concerned with modeling the non-linear response of fiber reinforced polymer laminates. Recent experimental data suggests that the non-linearity is not only caused by matrix cracking but also by matrix plasticity due to shear stresses. To capture the effects of those two mechanisms, a model combining a plasticity formulation with continuum damage has been developed to simulate the non-linear response of laminates under plane stress states. The model is used to compare the predicted behavior of various laminate lay-ups to experimental data from the literature by looking at the degradation of axial modulus and Poisson s ratio of the laminates. The influence of residual curing stresses and in-situ effect on the predicted response is also investigated. It is shown that predictions of the combined damage/plasticity model, in general, correlate well with the experimental data. The test data shows that there are two different mechanisms that can have opposite effects on the degradation of the laminate Poisson s ratio which is captured correctly by the damage/plasticity model. Residual curing stresses are found to have a minor influence on the predicted response for the cases considered here. Some open questions remain regarding the prediction of damage onset.

  10. Linear Viscoelastic and Dielectric Relaxation Response of Unentangled UPy-Based Supramolecular Networks

    Shabbir, Aamir; Javakhishvili, Irakli; Cerveny, Silvina

    2016-01-01

    Supramolecular polymers possess versatile mechanical properties and a unique ability to respond to external stimuli. Understanding the rich dynamics of such associative polymers is essential for tailoring user-defined properties in many products. Linear copolymers of 2-methoxyethyl acrylate (MEA)...

  11. Low voltage RF MEMS variable capacitor with linear C-V response

    Elshurafa, Amro M.; Ho, Pak Hung; Salama, Khaled N.

    2012-01-01

    .2:1 and was achieved at an actuation DC voltage of 8V only. Further, the linear regression coefficient was 0.98. The variable capacitor was created such that it has both vertical and horizontal capacitances present. As the top suspended plate moves towards the bottom

  12. Recent results on stability and response bounds of linear systems - a review

    Pommer, Christian; Kliem, Wolfhard

    2006-01-01

    The literature on linear systems emerging from second order differential equations is extensive because such systems are ubiquitous in modeling, particularly modeling of mechanical systems. This paper offers an overview of some of the recent research in this field, in particular on the subject...

  13. A non-linear association between self-reported negative emotional response to stress and subsequent allostatic load

    Dich, Nadya; Doan, Stacey N; Kivimäki, Mika

    2014-01-01

    dysregulation. Allostatic load also increased with age, but the association between negative emotional response and allostatic load remained stable over time. These results provide evidence for a more nuanced understanding of the role of negative emotions in long-term physical health....... response to major life events and allostatic load, a multisystem indicator of physiological dysregulation. Study sample was 6764 British civil service workers from the Whitehall II cohort. Negative emotional response was assessed by self-report at baseline. Allostatic load was calculated using...... cardiovascular, metabolic and immune function biomarkers at three clinical follow-up examinations. A non-linear association between negative emotional response and allostatic load was observed: being at either extreme end of the distribution of negative emotional response increased the risk of physiological...

  14. INTRANS. A computer code for the non-linear structural response analysis of reactor internals under transient loads

    Ramani, D.T.

    1977-01-01

    The 'INTRANS' system is a general purpose computer code, designed to perform linear and non-linear structural stress and deflection analysis of impacting or non-impacting nuclear reactor internals components coupled with reactor vessel, shield building and external as well as internal gapped spring support system. This paper describes in general a unique computational procedure for evaluating the dynamic response of reactor internals, descretised as beam and lumped mass structural system and subjected to external transient loads such as seismic and LOCA time-history forces. The computational procedure is outlined in the INTRANS code, which computes component flexibilities of a discrete lumped mass planar model of reactor internals by idealising an assemblage of finite elements consisting of linear elastic beams with bending, torsional and shear stiffnesses interacted with external or internal linear as well as non-linear multi-gapped spring support system. The method of analysis is based on the displacement method and the code uses the fourth-order Runge-Kutta numerical integration technique as a basis for solution of dynamic equilibrium equations of motion for the system. During the computing process, the dynamic response of each lumped mass is calculated at specific instant of time using well-known step-by-step procedure. At any instant of time then, the transient dynamic motions of the system are held stationary and based on the predicted motions and internal forces of the previous instant. From which complete response at any time-step of interest may then be computed. Using this iterative process, the relationship between motions and internal forces is satisfied step by step throughout the time interval

  15. Linear and Nonlinear Optical Response in Silver Nanoclusters: Insight from a Computational Investigation (Postprint)

    2016-01-05

    enhanced catalysis, magnetic resonant imaging contrast agents, energy conversion, reduced toxicity , and bio- logical sensing and imaging were investigated...acid or a fluorinated phenyl group, while for Ag14(SR)12(PR′3)8, R = C6H3F2 and R′ = C6H5. These materials tend to follow the superatom number rule...distribution unlimited. p-mercaptobenzoic acid or any of three fluorinated arylthiols (SPhF, SPhF2, and SPhCF3), and a simplified system was used in our

  16. A Design of Mechanical Frequency Converter Linear and Non-linear Spring Combination for Energy Harvesting

    Yamamoto, K; Fujita, T; Kanda, K; Maenaka, K; Badel, A; Formosa, F

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the improvement of energy harvesting from wideband vibration with random change by using a combination of linear and nonlinear spring system is investigated. The system consists of curved beam spring for non-linear buckling, which supports the linear mass-spring resonator. Applying shock acceleration generates a snap through action to the buckling spring. From the FEM analysis, we showed that the snap through acceleration from the buckling action has no relationship with the applied shock amplitude and duration. We use this uniform acceleration as an impulse shock source for the linear resonator. It is easy to obtain the maximum shock response from the uniform snap through acceleration by using a shock response spectrum (SRS) analysis method. At first we investigated the relationship between the snap-through behaviour and an initial curved deflection. Then a time response result for non-linear springs with snap through and minimum force that makes a buckling behaviour were obtained by FEM analysis. By obtaining the optimum SRS frequency for linear resonator, we decided its resonant frequency with the MATLAB simulator

  17. Comparison of Damage Models for Predicting the Non-Linear Response of Laminates Under Matrix Dominated Loading Conditions

    Schuecker, Clara; Davila, Carlos G.; Rose, Cheryl A.

    2010-01-01

    Five models for matrix damage in fiber reinforced laminates are evaluated for matrix-dominated loading conditions under plane stress and are compared both qualitatively and quantitatively. The emphasis of this study is on a comparison of the response of embedded plies subjected to a homogeneous stress state. Three of the models are specifically designed for modeling the non-linear response due to distributed matrix cracking under homogeneous loading, and also account for non-linear (shear) behavior prior to the onset of cracking. The remaining two models are localized damage models intended for predicting local failure at stress concentrations. The modeling approaches of distributed vs. localized cracking as well as the different formulations of damage initiation and damage progression are compared and discussed.

  18. Analytical expression for position sensitivity of linear response beam position monitor having inter-electrode cross talk

    Kumar, Mukesh, E-mail: mukeshk@rrcat.gov.in [Beam Diagnostics Section, Indus Operations, Beam Dynamics & Diagnostics Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore, 452013 MP (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400 094 (India); Ojha, A.; Garg, A.D.; Puntambekar, T.A. [Beam Diagnostics Section, Indus Operations, Beam Dynamics & Diagnostics Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore, 452013 MP (India); Senecha, V.K. [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400 094 (India); Ion Source Lab., Proton Linac & Superconducting Cavities Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore, 452013 MP (India)

    2017-02-01

    According to the quasi electrostatic model of linear response capacitive beam position monitor (BPM), the position sensitivity of the device depends only on the aperture of the device and it is independent of processing frequency and load impedance. In practice, however, due to the inter-electrode capacitive coupling (cross talk), the actual position sensitivity of the device decreases with increasing frequency and load impedance. We have taken into account the inter-electrode capacitance to derive and propose a new analytical expression for the position sensitivity as a function of frequency and load impedance. The sensitivity of a linear response shoe-box type BPM has been obtained through simulation using CST Studio Suite to verify and confirm the validity of the new analytical equation. Good agreement between the simulation results and the new analytical expression suggest that this method can be exploited for proper designing of BPM.

  19. Dependence of total dose response of bipolar linear microcircuits on applied dose rate

    McClure, S.; Will, W.; Perry, G.; Pease, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of dose rate on the total dose radiation hardness of three commercial bipolar linear microcircuits is investigated. Total dose tests of linear bipolar microcircuits show larger degradation at 0.167 rad/s than at 90 rad/s even after the high dose rate test is followed by a room temperature plus a 100 C anneal. No systematic correlation could be found for degradation at low dose rate versus high dose rate and anneal. Comparison of the low dose rate with the high dose rate anneal data indicates that MIL-STD-883, method 1019.4 is not a worst-case test method when applied to bipolar microcircuits for low dose rate space applications

  20. The In Vitro Response of Tissue Stem Cells to Irradiation With Different Linear Energy Transfers

    Nagle, Peter W.; Hosper, Nynke A. [Department of Cell Biology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Ploeg, Emily M. [Department of Cell Biology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Goethem, Marc-Jan van [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); KVI-Center for Advanced Radiation Research, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Brandenburg, Sytze [KVI-Center for Advanced Radiation Research, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Langendijk, Johannes A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Chiu, Roland K. [Department of Cell Biology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Coppes, Robert P., E-mail: r.p.coppes@umcg.nl [Department of Cell Biology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: A reduction in the dose, irradiated volume, and sensitivity of, in particular, normal tissue stem cells is needed to advance radiation therapy. This could be obtained with the use of particles for radiation therapy. However, the radiation response of normal tissue stem cells is still an enigma. Therefore, in the present study, we developed a model to investigate the in vitro response of stem cells to particle irradiation. Methods and Materials: We used the immortalized human salivary gland (HSG) cell line resembling salivary gland (SG) cells to translate the radiation response in 2-dimensional (2D) to 3-dimensional (3D) conditions. This response was subsequently translated to the response of SG stem cells (SGSCs). Dispersed single cells were irradiated with photons or carbon ions at different linear energy transfers (LETs; 48.76 ± 2.16, 149.9 ± 10.8, and 189 ± 15 keV/μm). Subsequently, 2D or 3D clonogenicity was determined by counting the colonies or secondary stem cell-derived spheres in Matrigel. γH2AX immunostaining was used to assess DNA double strand break repair. Results: The 2D response of HSG cells showed a similar increase in dose response to increasing higher LET irradiation as other cell lines. The 3D response of HSG cells to increasing LET irradiation was reduced compared with the 2D response. Finally, the response of mouse SGSCs to photons was similar to the 3D response of HSG cells. The response to higher LET irradiation was reduced in the stem cells. Conclusions: Mouse SGSC radiosensitivity seems reduced at higher LET radiation compared with transformed HSG cells. The developed model to assess the radiation response of SGSCs offers novel possibilities to study the radiation response of normal tissue in vitro.

  1. The In Vitro Response of Tissue Stem Cells to Irradiation With Different Linear Energy Transfers

    Nagle, Peter W.; Hosper, Nynke A.; Ploeg, Emily M.; Goethem, Marc-Jan van; Brandenburg, Sytze; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Chiu, Roland K.; Coppes, Robert P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: A reduction in the dose, irradiated volume, and sensitivity of, in particular, normal tissue stem cells is needed to advance radiation therapy. This could be obtained with the use of particles for radiation therapy. However, the radiation response of normal tissue stem cells is still an enigma. Therefore, in the present study, we developed a model to investigate the in vitro response of stem cells to particle irradiation. Methods and Materials: We used the immortalized human salivary gland (HSG) cell line resembling salivary gland (SG) cells to translate the radiation response in 2-dimensional (2D) to 3-dimensional (3D) conditions. This response was subsequently translated to the response of SG stem cells (SGSCs). Dispersed single cells were irradiated with photons or carbon ions at different linear energy transfers (LETs; 48.76 ± 2.16, 149.9 ± 10.8, and 189 ± 15 keV/μm). Subsequently, 2D or 3D clonogenicity was determined by counting the colonies or secondary stem cell-derived spheres in Matrigel. γH2AX immunostaining was used to assess DNA double strand break repair. Results: The 2D response of HSG cells showed a similar increase in dose response to increasing higher LET irradiation as other cell lines. The 3D response of HSG cells to increasing LET irradiation was reduced compared with the 2D response. Finally, the response of mouse SGSCs to photons was similar to the 3D response of HSG cells. The response to higher LET irradiation was reduced in the stem cells. Conclusions: Mouse SGSC radiosensitivity seems reduced at higher LET radiation compared with transformed HSG cells. The developed model to assess the radiation response of SGSCs offers novel possibilities to study the radiation response of normal tissue in vitro.

  2. A GEM readout with radial zigzag strips and linear charge-sharing response

    Zhang, Aiwu; Hohlmann, Marcus; Azmoun, Babak; Purschke, Martin L.; Woody, Craig

    2018-04-01

    We study the position sensitivity of radial zigzag strips intended to read out large GEM detectors for tracking at future experiments. Zigzag strips can cover a readout area with fewer strips than regular straight strips while maintaining good spatial resolution. Consequently, they can reduce the number of required electronic channels and related cost for large-area GEM detector systems. A non-linear relation between incident particle position and hit position measured from charge sharing among zigzag strips was observed in a previous study. We significantly reduce this non-linearity by improving the interleaving of adjacent physical zigzag strips. Zigzag readout structures are implemented on PCBs and on a flexible foil and are tested using a 10 cm × 10 cm triple-GEM detector scanned with a strongly collimated X-ray gun on a 2D motorized stage. Angular resolutions of 60-84 μrad are achieved with a 1.37 mrad angular strip pitch at a radius of 784 mm. On a linear scale this corresponds to resolutions below 100 μm.

  3. A dose-response curve for biodosimetry from a 6 MV electron linear accelerator

    Lemos-Pinto, M.M.P.; Cadena, M.; Santos, N.; Fernandes, T.S.; Borges, E.; Amaral, A., E-mail: marcelazoo@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear

    2015-10-15

    Biological dosimetry (biodosimetry) is based on the investigation of radiation-induced biological effects (biomarkers), mainly dicentric chromosomes, in order to correlate them with radiation dose. To interpret the dicentric score in terms of absorbed dose, a calibration curve is needed. Each curve should be constructed with respect to basic physical parameters, such as the type of ionizing radiation characterized by low or high linear energy transfer (LET) and dose rate. This study was designed to obtain dose calibration curves by scoring of dicentric chromosomes in peripheral blood lymphocytes irradiated in vitro with a 6 MV electron linear accelerator (Mevatron M, Siemens, USA). Two software programs, CABAS (Chromosomal Aberration Calculation Software) and Dose Estimate, were used to generate the curve. The two software programs are discussed; the results obtained were compared with each other and with other published low LET radiation curves. Both software programs resulted in identical linear and quadratic terms for the curve presented here, which was in good agreement with published curves for similar radiation quality and dose rates. (author)

  4. Linear time delay methods and stability analyses of the human spine. Effects of neuromuscular reflex response.

    Franklin, Timothy C; Granata, Kevin P; Madigan, Michael L; Hendricks, Scott L

    2008-08-01

    Linear stability methods were applied to a biomechanical model of the human musculoskeletal spine to investigate effects of reflex gain and reflex delay on stability. Equations of motion represented a dynamic 18 degrees-of-freedom rigid-body model with time-delayed reflexes. Optimal muscle activation levels were identified by minimizing metabolic power with the constraints of equilibrium and stability with zero reflex time delay. Muscle activation levels and associated muscle forces were used to find the delay margin, i.e., the maximum reflex delay for which the system was stable. Results demonstrated that stiffness due to antagonistic co-contraction necessary for stability declined with increased proportional reflex gain. Reflex delay limited the maximum acceptable proportional reflex gain, i.e., long reflex delay required smaller maximum reflex gain to avoid instability. As differential reflex gain increased, there was a small increase in acceptable reflex delay. However, differential reflex gain with values near intrinsic damping caused the delay margin to approach zero. Forward-dynamic simulations of the fully nonlinear time-delayed system verified the linear results. The linear methods accurately found the delay margin below which the nonlinear system was asymptotically stable. These methods may aid future investigations in the role of reflexes in musculoskeletal stability.

  5. A dose-response curve for biodosimetry from a 6 MV electron linear accelerator.

    Lemos-Pinto, M M P; Cadena, M; Santos, N; Fernandes, T S; Borges, E; Amaral, A

    2015-10-01

    Biological dosimetry (biodosimetry) is based on the investigation of radiation-induced biological effects (biomarkers), mainly dicentric chromosomes, in order to correlate them with radiation dose. To interpret the dicentric score in terms of absorbed dose, a calibration curve is needed. Each curve should be constructed with respect to basic physical parameters, such as the type of ionizing radiation characterized by low or high linear energy transfer (LET) and dose rate. This study was designed to obtain dose calibration curves by scoring of dicentric chromosomes in peripheral blood lymphocytes irradiated in vitro with a 6 MV electron linear accelerator (Mevatron M, Siemens, USA). Two software programs, CABAS (Chromosomal Aberration Calculation Software) and Dose Estimate, were used to generate the curve. The two software programs are discussed; the results obtained were compared with each other and with other published low LET radiation curves. Both software programs resulted in identical linear and quadratic terms for the curve presented here, which was in good agreement with published curves for similar radiation quality and dose rates.

  6. Linear trend and climate response of five-needle pines in the western United States related to treeline proximity

    Kipfmueller, K.F. [Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Geography; Salzer, M.W. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research

    2010-01-15

    This study investigated sixty-six 5-needle pine growth chronologies from 1896 to their end years in order to identify potential patterns related to linear trends in ring width. Individual chronology responses to climate were also evaluated by comparing the chronologies with seasonal temperature and precipitation data from 1896 to the present date. Chronologies exhibiting similar patterns of climate response were grouped in order to examine the role of treeline proximity on climate-growth relationships. Ring width measurements for pine sites located in the western United States were obtained from the International Tree Ring Data Bank. Growth indices were compared among all sites in order to assess the relative strength of common signals with increasing distance. Pearson correlations were used to calculate linear trends for each chronology. A cluster analysis of climate response patterns indicated that most chronologies positively associated with temperatures were located near upper treeline and contained significant positive linear trends. The study suggested that 5-needle pine treeline chronologies may be used as predictors in temperature reconstructions. However, care must be taken to determine that collection sites have not been impacted by disturbances such as fire or insect outbreaks. 35 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  7. Density and spin linear response of atomic Fermi superfluids with population imbalance in the BCS–BEC crossover

    Guo, Hao; Li, Yang; He, Yan; Chien, Chih-Chun

    2014-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of the density and spin (representing the two components) linear response of Fermi superfluids with tunable attractive interactions and population imbalance. In both linear response theories, we find that the fluctuations of the order parameter must be treated on equal footing with the gauge transformations associated with the symmetries of the Hamiltonian so that important constraints including various sum rules can be satisfied. Both theories can be applied to the whole BCS–Bose–Einstein condensation crossover. The spin linear responses are qualitatively different with and without population imbalance because collective-mode effects from the fluctuations of the order parameter survive in the presence of population imbalance, even though the associated symmetry is not broken by the order parameter. Since a polarized superfluid becomes unstable at low temperatures in the weak and intermediate coupling regimes, we found that the density and spin susceptibilities diverge as the system approaches the unstable regime, but the emergence of phase separation preempts the divergence. (paper)

  8. High-frequency response and the possibilities of frequency-tunable narrow-band terahertz amplification in resonant tunneling nanostructures

    Kapaev, V. V.; Kopaev, Yu. V.; Savinov, S. A.; Murzin, V. N.

    2013-01-01

    The characteristics of the high-frequency response of single- and double-well resonant tunneling structures in a dc electric field are investigated on the basis of the numerical solution of a time-dependent Schrödinger equation with open boundary conditions. The frequency dependence of the real part of high frequency conductivity (high-frequency response) in In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As/AlAs/InP structures is analyzed in detail for various values of the dc voltage V dc in the negative differential resistance (NDR) region. It is shown that double-well three-barrier structures are promising for the design of terahertz-band oscillators. The presence of two resonant states with close energies in such structures leads to a resonant (in frequency) response whose frequency is determined by the energy difference between these levels and can be controlled by varying the parameters of the structure. It is shown that, in principle, such structures admit narrow-band amplification, tuning of the amplification frequency, and a fine control of the amplification (oscillation) frequency in a wide range of terahertz frequencies by varying a dc electric voltage applied to the structure. Starting from a certain width of the central intermediate barrier in double-well structures, one can observe a collapse of resonances, where the structure behaves like a single-well system. This phenomenon imposes a lower limit on the oscillation frequency in three-barrier resonant tunneling structures.

  9. Precision Interval Estimation of the Response Surface by Means of an Integrated Algorithm of Neural Network and Linear Regression

    Lo, Ching F.

    1999-01-01

    The integration of Radial Basis Function Networks and Back Propagation Neural Networks with the Multiple Linear Regression has been accomplished to map nonlinear response surfaces over a wide range of independent variables in the process of the Modem Design of Experiments. The integrated method is capable to estimate the precision intervals including confidence and predicted intervals. The power of the innovative method has been demonstrated by applying to a set of wind tunnel test data in construction of response surface and estimation of precision interval.

  10. Rectal Cancer: Mucinous Carcinoma on Magnetic Resonance Imaging Indicates Poor Response to Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation

    Oberholzer, Katja; Menig, Matthias; Kreft, Andreas; Schneider, Astrid; Junginger, Theodor; Heintz, Achim; Kreitner, Karl-Friedrich; Hötker, Andreas M.; Hansen, Torsten; Düber, Christoph; Schmidberger, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To assess response of locally advanced rectal carcinoma to chemoradiation with regard to mucinous status and local tumor invasion found at pretherapeutic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods and Materials: A total of 88 patients were included in this prospective study of patients with advanced mrT3 and mrT4 carcinomas. Carcinomas were categorized by MRI as mucinous (mucin proportion >50% within the tumor volume), and as nonmucinous. Patients received neoadjuvant chemoradiation consisting of 50.4 Gy (1.8 Gy/fraction) and 5-fluorouracil on Days 1 to 5 and Days 29 to 33. Therapy response was assessed by comparing pretherapeutic MRI with histopathology of surgical specimens (minimum distance between outer tumor edge and circumferential resection margin = CRM, T, and N category). Results: A mucinous carcinoma was found in 21 of 88 patients. Pretherapeutic mrCRM was 0 mm (median) in the mucinous and nonmucinous group. Of the 88 patients, 83 underwent surgery with tumor resection. The ypCRM (mm) at histopathology was significantly lower in mucinous carcinomas than in nonmucinous carcinomas (p ≤ 0.001). Positive resection margins (ypCRM ≤ 1 mm) were found more frequently in mucinous carcinomas than in nonmucinous ones (p ≤ 0.001). Treatment had less effect on local tumor stage in mucinous carcinomas than in nonmucinous carcinomas (for T downsizing, p = 0.012; for N downstaging, p = 0.007). Disease progression was observed only in patients with mucinous carcinomas (n = 5). Conclusion: Mucinous status at pretherapeutic MRI was associated with a noticeably worse response to chemoradiation and should be assessed by MRI in addition to local tumor staging to estimate response to treatment before it is initiated.

  11. Growth of silver-coated gold nanoshells with enhanced linear and nonlinear optical responses

    Zhang, Ya-Fang; Wang, Jia-Hong; Ma, Liang; Nan, Fan; Cheng, Zi-Qiang; Zhou, Li, E-mail: zhouli@whu.edu.cn; Wang, Qu-Quan, E-mail: qqwang@whu.edu.cn [Wuhan University, Department of Physics, Key Laboratory of Artificial Miro- and Nano-structures of the Ministry of Education, and School of Physics and Technology (China)

    2015-03-15

    Silver-coated gold nanoshells with 1,4-BDT molecules as the spacer (Ag/BDT/Au) were synthesized on the surface of SiO{sub 2} nanospheres. The surface plasmon resonance of Au/SiO{sub 2} and Ag/BDT/Au/SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles with single and double shells were tuned by adjusting the thickness of Au and Ag nanoshells. The enhanced local field in the gap of Au and Ag shells is demonstrated by measuring Raman scattering and nonlinear refraction. The results show that the Raman intensity is enhanced by 17 times and the nonlinear refractive index is enhanced by 30 % due to the growth of Ag shells.

  12. Vibration-response due to thickness loss on steel plate excited by resonance frequency

    Kudus, S. A.; Suzuki, Y.; Matsumura, M.; Sugiura, K.

    2018-04-01

    The degradation of steel structure due to corrosion is a common problem found especially in the marine structure due to exposure to the harsh marine environment. In order to ensure safety and reliability of marine structure, the damage assessment is an indispensable prerequisite for plan of remedial action on damaged structure. The main goal of this paper is to discuss simple vibration measurement on plated structure to give image on overview condition of the monitored structure. The changes of vibration response when damage was introduced in the plate structure were investigated. The damage on plate was simulated in finite element method as loss of thickness section. The size of damage and depth of loss of thickness were varied for different damage cases. The plate was excited with lower order of resonance frequency in accordance estimate the average remaining thickness based on displacement response obtain in the dynamic analysis. Significant reduction of natural frequency and increasing amplitude of vibration can be observed in the presence of severe damage. The vibration analysis summarized in this study can serve as benchmark and reference for researcher and design engineer.

  13. Coupled large earthquakes in the Baikal rift system: Response to bifurcations in nonlinear resonance hysteresis

    Anatoly V. Klyuchevskii

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The current lithospheric geodynamics and tectonophysics in the Baikal rift are discussed in terms of a nonlinear oscillator with dissipation. The nonlinear oscillator model is applicable to the area because stress change shows up as quasi-periodic inharmonic oscillations at rifting attractor structures (RAS. The model is consistent with the space-time patterns of regional seismicity in which coupled large earthquakes, proximal in time but distant in space, may be a response to bifurcations in nonlinear resonance hysteresis in a system of three oscillators corresponding to the rifting attractors. The space-time distribution of coupled MLH > 5.5 events has been stable for the period of instrumental seismicity, with the largest events occurring in pairs, one shortly after another, on two ends of the rift system and with couples of smaller events in the central part of the rift. The event couples appear as peaks of earthquake ‘migration’ rate with an approximately decadal periodicity. Thus the energy accumulated at RAS is released in coupled large events by the mechanism of nonlinear oscillators with dissipation. The new knowledge, with special focus on space-time rifting attractors and bifurcations in a system of nonlinear resonance hysteresis, may be of theoretical and practical value for earthquake prediction issues. Extrapolation of the results into the nearest future indicates the probability of such a bifurcation in the region, i.e., there is growing risk of a pending M ≈ 7 coupled event to happen within a few years.

  14. Exposure-lag-response in Longitudinal Studies: Application of Distributed Lag Non-linear Models in an Occupational Cohort.

    Neophytou, Andreas M; Picciotto, Sally; Brown, Daniel M; Gallagher, Lisa E; Checkoway, Harvey; Eisen, Ellen A; Costello, Sadie

    2018-02-13

    Prolonged exposures can have complex relationships with health outcomes, as timing, duration, and intensity of exposure are all potentially relevant. Summary measures such as cumulative exposure or average intensity of exposure may not fully capture these relationships. We applied penalized and unpenalized distributed lag non-linear models (DLNMs) with flexible exposure-response and lag-response functions in order to examine the association between crystalline silica exposure and mortality from lung cancer and non-malignant respiratory disease in a cohort study of 2,342 California diatomaceous earth workers, followed 1942-2011. We also assessed associations using simple measures of cumulative exposure assuming linear exposure-response and constant lag-response. Measures of association from DLNMs were generally higher than from simpler models. Rate ratios from penalized DLNMs corresponding to average daily exposures of 0.4 mg/m3 during lag years 31-50 prior to the age of observed cases were 1.47 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.92, 2.35) for lung cancer and 1.80 (95% CI: 1.14, 2.85) for non-malignant respiratory disease. Rate ratios from the simpler models for the same exposure scenario were 1.15 (95% CI: 0.89-1.48) and 1.23 (95% CI: 1.03-1.46) respectively. Longitudinal cohort studies of prolonged exposures and chronic health outcomes should explore methods allowing for flexibility and non-linearities in the exposure-lag-response. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

  15. Linear regression

    Olive, David J

    2017-01-01

    This text covers both multiple linear regression and some experimental design models. The text uses the response plot to visualize the model and to detect outliers, does not assume that the error distribution has a known parametric distribution, develops prediction intervals that work when the error distribution is unknown, suggests bootstrap hypothesis tests that may be useful for inference after variable selection, and develops prediction regions and large sample theory for the multivariate linear regression model that has m response variables. A relationship between multivariate prediction regions and confidence regions provides a simple way to bootstrap confidence regions. These confidence regions often provide a practical method for testing hypotheses. There is also a chapter on generalized linear models and generalized additive models. There are many R functions to produce response and residual plots, to simulate prediction intervals and hypothesis tests, to detect outliers, and to choose response trans...

  16. Analysis of the response of PVA-GTA Fricke-gel dosimeters with clinical magnetic resonance imaging

    Collura, Giorgio; Gallo, Salvatore; Tranchina, Luigi; Abbate, Boris Federico; Bartolotta, Antonio; d'Errico, Francesco; Marrale, Maurizio

    2018-01-01

    Fricke gel dosimeters produced with a matrix of Poly-vinyl alcohol (PVA) cross-linked with glutaraldehyde (GTA) were analyzed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Previous studies based on spectrophotometry showed valuable dosimetric features of these gels in terms of X-ray sensitivity and diffusion of the ferric ions produced after irradiation. In this study, MRI was performed on the gels at 1.5 T with a clinical scanner in order to optimize the acquisition parameters and obtain high contrast between irradiated and non-irradiated samples. The PVA gels were found to offer good linearity in the range of 0-10 Gy and a stable signal for several hours after irradiation. The sensitivity was about 40% higher compared to gels produced with agarose as gelling agent. The effect of xylenol orange (XO) on the MRI signal was also investigated: gel dosimeters made without XO show higher sensitivity to x-rays than those made with XO. The dosimetric accuracy of the 3D gels was investigated by comparing their MRI response to percentage depth dose and transversal dose profile measurements made with an ionization chamber in a water phantom. The comparison of PVA-GTA gels with and without XO showed that the chelating agent reduces the MRI sensitivity of the gels. Depth-dose and transversal dose profiles acquired by PVA-GTA gels without XO are more accurate and consistent with the ionization chamber data. However, diffusion effects hinder accurate measurements in the steep dose gradient regions and they should be further reduced by modifying the gel matrix and/or by minimizing the delay between irradiation and imaging.

  17. Perception of tilt (somatogravic illusion) in response to sustained linear acceleration during space flight

    Clement, G.; Moore, S. T.; Raphan, T.; Cohen, B.

    2001-01-01

    During the 1998 Neurolab mission (STS-90), four astronauts were exposed to interaural and head vertical (dorsoventral) linear accelerations of 0.5 g and 1 g during constant velocity rotation on a centrifuge, both on Earth and during orbital space flight. Subjects were oriented either left-ear-out or right-ear-out (Gy centrifugation), or lay supine along the centrifuge arm with their head off-axis (Gz centrifugation). Pre-flight centrifugation, producing linear accelerations of 0.5 g and 1 g along the Gy (interaural) axis, induced illusions of roll-tilt of 20 degrees and 34 degrees for gravito-inertial acceleration (GIA) vector tilts of 27 degrees and 45 degrees , respectively. Pre-flight 0.5 g and 1 g Gz (head dorsoventral) centrifugation generated perceptions of backward pitch of 5 degrees and 15 degrees , respectively. In the absence of gravity during space flight, the same centrifugation generated a GIA that was equivalent to the centripetal acceleration and aligned with the Gy or Gz axes. Perception of tilt was underestimated relative to this new GIA orientation during early in-flight Gy centrifugation, but was close to the GIA after 16 days in orbit, when subjects reported that they felt as if they were 'lying on side'. During the course of the mission, inflight roll-tilt perception during Gy centrifugation increased from 45 degrees to 83 degrees at 1 g and from 42 degrees to 48 degrees at 0.5 g. Subjects felt 'upside-down' during in-flight Gz centrifugation from the first in-flight test session, which reflected the new GIA orientation along the head dorsoventral axis. The different levels of in-flight tilt perception during 0.5 g and 1 g Gy centrifugation suggests that other non-vestibular inputs, including an internal estimate of the body vertical and somatic sensation, were utilized in generating tilt perception. Interpretation of data by a weighted sum of body vertical and somatic vectors, with an estimate of the GIA from the otoliths, suggests that

  18. A linear model for estimation of neurotransmitter response profiles from dynamic PET data

    Normandin, M.D.; Schiffer, W.K.; Morris, E.D.

    2011-01-01

    The parametric ntPET model (p-ntPET) estimates the kinetics of neurotransmitter release from dynamic PET data with receptor-ligand radiotracers. Here we introduce a linearization (lp-ntPET) that is computationally efficient and can be applied to single-scan data. lp-ntPET employs a non-invasive reference region input function and extends the LSRRM of Alpert et al. (2003) using basis functions to characterize the time course of neurotransmitter activation. In simulation studies, the temporal p...

  19. Non-parametric system identification from non-linear stochastic response

    Rüdinger, Finn; Krenk, Steen

    2001-01-01

    An estimation method is proposed for identification of non-linear stiffness and damping of single-degree-of-freedom systems under stationary white noise excitation. Non-parametric estimates of the stiffness and damping along with an estimate of the white noise intensity are obtained by suitable...... of the energy at mean-level crossings, which yields the damping relative to white noise intensity. Finally, an estimate of the noise intensity is extracted by estimating the absolute damping from the autocovariance functions of a set of modified phase plane variables at different energy levels. The method...

  20. Response of Non-Linear Systems to Renewal Impulses by Path Integration

    Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Iwankiewicz, R.

    The cell-to-cell mapping (path integration) technique has been devised for MDOF non-linear and non-hysteretic systems subjected to random trains of impulses driven by an ordinary renewal point process with gamma-distributed integer parameter interarrival times (an Erlang process). Since the renewal...... point process has not independent increments the state vector of the system, consisting of the generalized displacements and velocities, is not a Markov process. Initially it is shown how the indicated systems can be converted to an equivalent Poisson driven system at the expense of introducing...... additional discrete-valued state variables for which the stochastic equations are also formulated....

  1. Non-linear Membrane Properties in Entorhinal Cortical Stellate Cells Reduce Modulation of Input-Output Responses by Voltage Fluctuations

    Fernandez, Fernando R.; Malerba, Paola; White, John A.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of voltage fluctuations arising from synaptic activity is a critical component in models of gain control, neuronal output gating, and spike rate coding. The degree to which individual neuronal input-output functions are modulated by voltage fluctuations, however, is not well established across different cortical areas. Additionally, the extent and mechanisms of input-output modulation through fluctuations have been explored largely in simplified models of spike generation, and with limited consideration for the role of non-linear and voltage-dependent membrane properties. To address these issues, we studied fluctuation-based modulation of input-output responses in medial entorhinal cortical (MEC) stellate cells of rats, which express strong sub-threshold non-linear membrane properties. Using in vitro recordings, dynamic clamp and modeling, we show that the modulation of input-output responses by random voltage fluctuations in stellate cells is significantly limited. In stellate cells, a voltage-dependent increase in membrane resistance at sub-threshold voltages mediated by Na+ conductance activation limits the ability of fluctuations to elicit spikes. Similarly, in exponential leaky integrate-and-fire models using a shallow voltage-dependence for the exponential term that matches stellate cell membrane properties, a low degree of fluctuation-based modulation of input-output responses can be attained. These results demonstrate that fluctuation-based modulation of input-output responses is not a universal feature of neurons and can be significantly limited by subthreshold voltage-gated conductances. PMID:25909971

  2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Identifies Differential Response to Pro-Oxidant Chemotherapy in a Xenograft Model

    Terry H. Landowski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Induction of oxidative stress is a key component of cancer therapy. Pro-oxidant drugs have been demonstrated to enhance the efficacy of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. An emerging concept is that therapeutic outcomes are dictated by the differential redox buffering reserve in subpopulations of malignant cells, indicating the need for noninvasive biomarkers of tumor redox that can be used for dose identification and response assessment in a longitudinal setting. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI enhanced with the thiol-binding contrast agent Gd-LC6-SH, and hemodynamic response imaging (HRI in combination with hypercapnia and hyperoxia were investigated as biomarkers of the pharmacodynamics of the small molecule pro-oxidant imexon (IMX. Human multiple myeloma cell lines 8226/S and an IMX-resistant variant, 8226/IM10, were established as contralateral tumors in SCID mice. T1slope, an MRI measure of the washout rate of Gd-LC6-SH, was significantly lower post-IMX therapy in 8226/S tumors compared with vehicle controls, indicating treatment-related oxidization of the tumor microenvironment, which was confirmed by analysis of tumor tissue for thiols. T1slope and ex vivo assays for thiols both indicated a more reduced microenvironment in 8226/IM10 tumors following IMX therapy. HRI with hypercapnia challenge revealed IMX inhibition of vascular dilation in 8226/S tumors but not 8226/IM10 tumors, consistent with decreased immunohistochemical staining for smooth muscle actin in treated 8226/S tumors. MRI enhanced with Gd-LC6-SH, and HRI coupled with a hypercapnic challenge provide noninvasive biomarkers of tumor response to the redox modulator imexon.

  3. Linear increases in BOLD response associated with increasing proportion of incongruent trials across time in a colour Stroop task.

    Mitchell, Rachel L C

    2010-05-01

    Selective attention is popularly assessed with colour Stroop tasks in which participants name the ink colour of colour words, whilst resisting interference from the natural tendency to read the words. Prior studies hinted that the key brain regions (dorsolateral prefrontal (dlPFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)) may vary their degree of involvement, dependent on attentional demand. This study aimed to determine whether a parametrically varied increase in attentional demand resulted in linearly increased activity in these regions, and/or whether additional regions would be recruited during high attentional demand. Twenty-eight healthy young adults underwent fMRI whilst naming the font colour of colour words. Linear increases in BOLD response were assessed with increasing percentage incongruent trials per block (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100%). Whilst ACC activation increased linearly according to incongruity level, dlPFC activity appeared constant. Together with behavioural evidence of reduced Stroop interference, these data support a load-dependent conflict-related response in ACC, but not dlPFC.

  4. Non-linear seismic response of base-isolated liquid storage tanks to bi-directional excitation

    Shrimali, M.K.; Jangid, R.S.

    2002-01-01

    Seismic response of the liquid storage tanks isolated by lead-rubber bearings is investigated for bi-directional earthquake excitation (i.e. two horizontal components). The biaxial force-deformation behaviour of the bearings is considered as bi-linear modelled by coupled non-linear differential equations. The continuous liquid mass of the tank is modelled as lumped masses known as convective mass, impulsive mass and rigid mass. The corresponding stiffness associated with these lumped masses has been worked out depending upon the properties of the tank wall and liquid mass. Since the force-deformation behaviour of the bearings is non-linear, as a result, the seismic response is obtained by the Newmark's step-by-step method. The seismic responses of two types of the isolated tanks (i.e. slender and broad) are investigated under several recorded earthquake ground to study the effects of bi-directional interaction. Further, a parametric study is also carried out to study the effects of important system parameters on the effectiveness of seismic isolation for liquid storage tanks. The various important parameters considered are: (i) the period of isolation, (ii) the damping of isolation bearings and (iii) the yield strength level of the bearings. It has been observed that the seismic response of isolated tank is found to be insensitive to interaction effect of the bearing forces. Further, there exists an optimum value of isolation damping for which the base shear in the tank attains the minimum value. Therefore, increasing the bearing damping beyond a certain value may decrease the bearing and sloshing displacements but it may increase the base shear

  5. Complex motor task associated with non-linear BOLD responses in cerebro-cortical areas and cerebellum.

    Alahmadi, Adnan A S; Samson, Rebecca S; Gasston, David; Pardini, Matteo; Friston, Karl J; D'Angelo, Egidio; Toosy, Ahmed T; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A M

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies have used fMRI to address the relationship between grip force (GF) applied to an object and BOLD response. However, whilst the majority of these studies showed a linear relationship between GF and neural activity in the contralateral M1 and ipsilateral cerebellum, animal studies have suggested the presence of non-linear components in the GF-neural activity relationship. Here, we present a methodology for assessing non-linearities in the BOLD response to different GF levels, within primary motor as well as sensory and cognitive areas and the cerebellum. To be sensitive to complex forms, we designed a feasible grip task with five GF targets using an event-related visually guided paradigm and studied a cohort of 13 healthy volunteers. Polynomial functions of increasing order were fitted to the data. (1) activated motor areas irrespective of GF; (2) positive higher-order responses in and outside M1, involving premotor, sensory and visual areas and cerebellum; (3) negative correlations with GF, predominantly involving the visual domain. Overall, our results suggest that there are physiologically consistent behaviour patterns in cerebral and cerebellar cortices; for example, we observed the presence of a second-order effect in sensorimotor areas, consistent with an optimum metabolic response at intermediate GF levels, while higher-order behaviour was found in associative and cognitive areas. At higher GF levels, sensory-related cortical areas showed reduced activation, interpretable as a redistribution of the neural activity for more demanding tasks. These results have the potential of opening new avenues for investigating pathological mechanisms of neurological diseases.

  6. Adaptive response of low linear energy transfer X-rays for protection against high linear energy transfer accelerated heavy ion-induced teratogenesis.

    Wang, Bing; Ninomiya, Yasuharu; Tanaka, Kaoru; Maruyama, Kouichi; Varès, Guillaume; Eguchi-Kasai, Kiyomi; Nenoi, Mitsuru

    2012-12-01

    Adaptive response (AR) of low linear energy transfer (LET) irradiations for protection against teratogenesis induced by high LET irradiations is not well documented. In this study, induction of AR by X-rays against teratogenesis induced by accelerated heavy ions was examined in fetal mice. Irradiations of pregnant C57BL/6J mice were performed by delivering a priming low dose from X-rays at 0.05 or 0.30 Gy on gestation day 11 followed one day later by a challenge high dose from either X-rays or accelerated heavy ions. Monoenergetic beams of carbon, neon, silicon, and iron with the LET values of about 15, 30, 55, and 200 keV/μm, respectively, were examined. Significant suppression of teratogenic effects (fetal death, malformation of live fetuses, or low body weight) was used as the endpoint for judgment of a successful AR induction. Existence of AR induced by low-LET X-rays against teratogenic effect induced by high-LET accelerated heavy ions was demonstrated. The priming low dose of X-rays significantly reduced the occurrence of prenatal fetal death, malformation, and/or low body weight induced by the challenge high dose from either X-rays or accelerated heavy ions of carbon, neon or silicon but not iron particles. Successful AR induction appears to be a radiation quality event, depending on the LET value and/or the particle species of the challenge irradiations. These findings would provide a new insight into the study on radiation-induced AR in utero. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Linear optical absorption response of poly(vinylidene fluoride - trifluoroethylene) copolymers to high gamma dose

    Medeiros, Adriana S.

    2009-01-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) [PVDF] is a semicrystalline linear homopolymer composed by the repetition of CH 2 - CF 2 monomers. The Poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE)] is a copolymer which is obtained with the random introduction of fluorinated CHF-CF 2 monomers in the PVDF main chain. PVDF, and also its copolymers with TrFE contents ranging from 18 to 63 wt. %, have long been studied for their striking ferroelectric properties and their applications in actuators, transducers and ferroelectric memory. Recent research work around the world have demonstrated that, for TrFE contents ranging from with 30 to 50 wt. %, the copolymer can have its ferroelectric properties modified by high doses of ionizing radiation, with the appearing of radio-induced relaxor ferroelectric features. These studies have lead us to investigate the possible use of these copolymers as high dose dosemeters, once the reported amount of induced C=C conjugated bonds after X-ray, UV and gamma irradiation seems to be a function of the delivered radiation dose. In a first investigation for doses ranging from 0.1 to 100 kGy we found out a linear relation between the gamma radiation dose and the absorption peak intensities in the UV region of the spectrum, i.e., at 223 and 274 nm. The absorption peak at 223 nm is the most sensitive to gamma rays and can be used for detecting gamma doses ranging from 0.3 to 75 kGy. Simultaneously, the absorption peak at 274 nm can be used for doses ranging from 1 to 100 kGy. Now, in the present work, we extended the investigation to gamma doses up to 3 MGy. Particularly, this study is focused in the optical absorption peak at 274 nm, corresponding to the radio-induction of triplets of conjugated C=C double bonds. The investigation revealed a linear correlation between the gamma dose and peak intensity at 274 nm for gamma doses ranging from 0.1 to more than 750 KGy, with a huge extension of the original usable dose range. Calorimetric data revealed a

  8. A New Approach for Studying Nonlinear Dynamic Response of a Thin Plate with Internal Resonance in a Fractional Viscoelastic Medium

    Yury A. Rossikhin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the previous analysis, the dynamic behaviour of a nonlinear plate embedded into a fractional derivative viscoelastic medium has been studied by the method of multiple time scales under the conditions of the internal resonances two-to-one and one-to-one, as well as the internal combinational resonances for the case when the linear parts of nonlinear equations of motion occur to be coupled. A new approach proposed in this paper allows one to uncouple the linear parts of equations of motion of the plate, while the same method, the method of multiple time scales, has been utilized for solving nonlinear equations. The influence of viscosity on the energy exchange mechanism between interacting nonlinear modes has been analyzed. It has been shown that for some internal resonances there exist such particular cases when it is possible to obtain two first integrals, namely, the energy integral and the stream function, which allows one to reduce the problem to the calculation of elliptic integrals. The new approach enables one to solve the problems of vibrations of thin bodies more efficiently.

  9. Do responses to different anthropogenic forcings add linearly in climate models?

    Marvel, Kate; Schmidt, Gavin A; LeGrande, Allegra N; Nazarenko, Larissa; Shindell, Drew; Bonfils, Céline; Tsigaridis, Kostas

    2015-01-01

    Many detection and attribution and pattern scaling studies assume that the global climate response to multiple forcings is additive: that the response over the historical period is statistically indistinguishable from the sum of the responses to individual forcings. Here, we use the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) and National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate System Model (CCSM4) simulations from the CMIP5 archive to test this assumption for multi-year trends in global-average, annual-average temperature and precipitation at multiple timescales. We find that responses in models forced by pre-computed aerosol and ozone concentrations are generally additive across forcings. However, we demonstrate that there are significant nonlinearities in precipitation responses to different forcings in a configuration of the GISS model that interactively computes these concentrations from precursor emissions. We attribute these to differences in ozone forcing arising from interactions between forcing agents. Our results suggest that attribution to specific forcings may be complicated in a model with fully interactive chemistry and may provide motivation for other modeling groups to conduct further single-forcing experiments. (letter)

  10. Non-linear frequency response of non-isothermal adsorption controlled by micropore diffusion with variable diffusivity

    MENKA PETKOVSKA

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of higher order frequency response functions (FRFs is used for the analysis of non-linear adsorption kinetics on a particle scale, for the case of non-isothermal micropore diffusion with variable diffusivity. Six series of FRFs are defined for the general non-isothermal case. A non-linerar mathematical model is postulated and the first and second order FRFs derived and simulated. A variable diffusivity influences the shapes of the second order FRFs relating the sorbate concentration in the solid phase and t he gas pressure significantly, but they still keep their characteristics which can be used for discrimination of this from other kinetic mechanisms. It is also shown that first and second order particle FRFs offter sufficient information for an easy and fast estimation of all model parameters, including those defining the system non-linearity.

  11. Prediction of Individual Response to Electroconvulsive Therapy via Machine Learning on Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging Data.

    Redlich, Ronny; Opel, Nils; Grotegerd, Dominik; Dohm, Katharina; Zaremba, Dario; Bürger, Christian; Münker, Sandra; Mühlmann, Lisa; Wahl, Patricia; Heindel, Walter; Arolt, Volker; Alferink, Judith; Zwanzger, Peter; Zavorotnyy, Maxim; Kugel, Harald; Dannlowski, Udo

    2016-06-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is one of the most effective treatments for severe depression. However, biomarkers that accurately predict a response to ECT remain unidentified. To investigate whether certain factors identified by structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques are able to predict ECT response. In this nonrandomized prospective study, gray matter structure was assessed twice at approximately 6 weeks apart using 3-T MRI and voxel-based morphometry. Patients were recruited through the inpatient service of the Department of Psychiatry, University of Muenster, from March 11, 2010, to March 27, 2015. Two patient groups with acute major depressive disorder were included. One group received an ECT series in addition to antidepressants (n = 24); a comparison sample was treated solely with antidepressants (n = 23). Both groups were compared with a sample of healthy control participants (n = 21). Binary pattern classification was used to predict ECT response by structural MRI that was performed before treatment. In addition, univariate analysis was conducted to predict reduction of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score by pretreatment gray matter volumes and to investigate ECT-related structural changes. One participant in the ECT sample was excluded from the analysis, leaving 67 participants (27 men and 40 women; mean [SD] age, 43.7 [10.6] years). The binary pattern classification yielded a successful prediction of ECT response, with accuracy rates of 78.3% (18 of 23 patients in the ECT sample) and sensitivity rates of 100% (13 of 13 who responded to ECT). Furthermore, a support vector regression yielded a significant prediction of relative reduction in the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score. The principal findings of the univariate model indicated a positive association between pretreatment subgenual cingulate volume and individual ECT response (Montreal Neurological Institute [MNI] coordinates x = 8, y = 21, z = -18

  12. Characterization of Photon-Counting Detector Responsivity for Non-Linear Two-Photon Absorption Process

    Sburlan, S. E.; Farr, W. H.

    2011-01-01

    Sub-band absorption at 1550 nm has been demonstrated and characterized on silicon Geiger mode detectors which normally would be expected to have no response at this wavelength. We compare responsivity measurements to singlephoton absorption for wavelengths slightly above the bandgap wavelength of silicon (approx. 1100 microns). One application for this low efficiency sub-band absorption is in deep space optical communication systems where it is desirable to track a 1030 nm uplink beacon on the same flight terminal detector array that monitors a 1550 nm downlink signal for pointingcontrol. The currently observed absorption at 1550 nm provides 60-70 dB of isolation compared to the response at 1064 nm, which is desirable to avoid saturation of the detector by scattered light from the downlink laser.

  13. Linear Response of Field-Aligned Currents to the Interplanetary Electric Field

    Weimer, D. R.; R. Edwards, T.; Olsen, Nils

    2017-01-01

    Many studies that have shown that the ionospheric, polar cap electric potentials (PCEP) exhibit a “saturation” behavior in response to the level of the driving by the solar wind. As the magnitude of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and electric field (IEF) increase, the PCEP response...... of the field-aligned currents (FAC) with the solar wind/magnetosphere/ionosphere system has a role. As the FAC are more difficult to measure, their behavior in response to the level of the IEF has not been investigated as thoroughly. In order to resolve the question of whether or not the FAC also exhibit...... saturation, we have processed the magnetic field measurements from the Ørsted, CHAMP, and Swarm missions, spanning more than a decade. As the amount of current in each region needs to be known, a new technique is used to separate and sum the current by region, widely known as R0, R1, and R2. These totals...

  14. Left Ventricular Stroke Volume Quantification by Contrast Echocardiography – Comparison of Linear and Flow-Based Methods to Cardiac Magnetic Resonance

    Dele-Michael, Abiola O.; Fujikura, Kana; Devereux, Richard B; Islam, Fahmida; Hriljac, Ingrid; Wilson, Sean R.; Lin, Fay; Weinsaft, Jonathan W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Echocardiography (echo) quantified LV stroke volume (SV) is widely used to assess systolic performance after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This study compared two common echo approaches – predicated on flow (Doppler) and linear chamber dimensions (Teichholz) – to volumetric SV and global infarct parameters quantified by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). Methods Multimodality imaging was performed as part of a post-AMI registry. For echo, SV was measured by Doppler and Teichholz methods. Cine-CMR was used for volumetric SV and LVEF quantification, and delayed-enhancement CMR for infarct size. Results 142 patients underwent same-day echo and CMR. On echo, mean SV by Teichholz (78±17ml) was slightly higher than Doppler (75±16ml; Δ=3±13ml, p=0.02). Compared to SV on CMR (78±18ml), mean difference by Teichholz (Δ=−0.2±14; p=0.89) was slightly smaller than Doppler (Δ−3±14; p=0.02) but limits of agreement were similar between CMR and echo methods (Teichholz: −28, 27 ml, Doppler: −31, 24ml). For Teichholz, differences with CMR SV were greatest among patients with anteroseptal or lateral wall hypokinesis (p<0.05). For Doppler, differences were associated with aortic valve abnormalities or root dilation (p=0.01). SV by both echo methods decreased stepwise in relation to global LV injury as assessed by CMR-quantified LVEF and infarct size (p<0.01). Conclusions Teichholz and Doppler calculated SV yield similar magnitude of agreement with CMR. Teichholz differences with CMR increase with septal or lateral wall contractile dysfunction, whereas Doppler yields increased offsets in patients with aortic remodeling. PMID:23488864

  15. Lung density change after SABR: A comparative study between tri-Co-60 magnetic resonance-guided system and linear accelerator.

    Kim, Eunji; Wu, Hong-Gyun; Park, Jong Min; Kim, Jung-In; Kim, Hak Jae; Kang, Hyun-Cheol

    2018-01-01

    Radiation-induced lung damage is an important treatment-related toxicity after lung stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR). After implementing a tri-60Co magnetic-resonance image guided system, ViewRayTM, we compared the associated early radiological lung density changes to those associated with a linear accelerator (LINAC). Eight patients treated with the tri-60Co system were matched 1:1 with patients treated with LINAC. Prescription doses were 52 Gy or 60 Gy in four fractions, and lung dose-volumetric parameters were calculated from each planning system. The first two follow-up computed tomography (CT) were co-registered with the planning CT through deformable registration software, and lung density was measured by isodose levels. Tumor size was matched between the two groups, but the planning target volume of LINAC was larger than that of the tri-60Co system (p = 0.036). With regard to clinically relevant dose-volumetric parameters in the lungs, the ipsilateral lung mean dose, V10Gy and V20Gy were significantly poorer in tri-60Co plans compared to LINAC plans (p = 0.012, 0.036, and 0.017, respectively). Increased lung density was not observed in the first follow-up scan compared to the planning scan. A significant change of lung density was shown in the second follow-up scan and there was no meaningful difference between the tri-60Co system and LINAC for all dose regions. In addition, no patient developed clinical radiation pneumonitis until the second follow-up scan. Therefore, there was no significant difference in the early radiological lung damage between the tri-60Co system and LINAC for lung SABR despite of the inferior plan quality of the tri-60Co system compared to that of LINAC. Further studies with a longer follow-up period are needed to confirm our findings.

  16. Linear and nonlinear auditory response properties of interneurons in a high-order avian vocal motor nucleus during wakefulness.

    Raksin, Jonathan N; Glaze, Christopher M; Smith, Sarah; Schmidt, Marc F

    2012-04-01

    Motor-related forebrain areas in higher vertebrates also show responses to passively presented sensory stimuli. However, sensory tuning properties in these areas, especially during wakefulness, and their relation to perception, are poorly understood. In the avian song system, HVC (proper name) is a vocal-motor structure with auditory responses well defined under anesthesia but poorly characterized during wakefulness. We used a large set of stimuli including the bird's own song (BOS) and many conspecific songs (CON) to characterize auditory tuning properties in putative interneurons (HVC(IN)) during wakefulness. Our findings suggest that HVC contains a diversity of responses that vary in overall excitability to auditory stimuli, as well as bias in spike rate increases to BOS over CON. We used statistical tests to classify cells in order to further probe auditory responses, yielding one-third of neurons that were either unresponsive or suppressed and two-thirds with excitatory responses to one or more stimuli. A subset of excitatory neurons were tuned exclusively to BOS and showed very low linearity as measured by spectrotemporal receptive field analysis (STRF). The remaining excitatory neurons responded well to CON stimuli, although many cells still expressed a bias toward BOS. These findings suggest the concurrent presence of a nonlinear and a linear component to responses in HVC, even within the same neuron. These characteristics are consistent with perceptual deficits in distinguishing BOS from CON stimuli following lesions of HVC and other song nuclei and suggest mirror neuronlike qualities in which "self" (here BOS) is used as a referent to judge "other" (here CON).

  17. Synthesis, characterization and non-linear optical response of organophilic carbon dots

    Bourlinos, Athanasios B.; Karakassides, Michael A.; Kouloumpis, Antonios; Gournis, Dimitrios; Bakandritsos, Aristides; Papagiannouli, Irene; Aloukos, Panagiotis; Couris, Stelios; Hola, Katerina; Zboril, Radek; Krysmann, Marta; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2013-01-01

    For the first time ever we report the nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of carbon dots (C-dots). The C-dots for these experiments were synthesized by mild pyrolysis of lauryl gallate. The resulting C-dots bear lauryl chains and, hence, are highly dispersible in polar organic solvents, like chloroform. Dispersions in CHCl3 show significant NLO response. Specifically, the C-dots show negative nonlinear absorption coefficient and negative nonlinear refraction. Using suspensions with different concentrations these parameters are quantified and compared to those of fullerene a well-known carbon molecule with proven NLO response. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Synthesis, characterization and non-linear optical response of organophilic carbon dots

    Bourlinos, Athanasios B.

    2013-09-01

    For the first time ever we report the nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of carbon dots (C-dots). The C-dots for these experiments were synthesized by mild pyrolysis of lauryl gallate. The resulting C-dots bear lauryl chains and, hence, are highly dispersible in polar organic solvents, like chloroform. Dispersions in CHCl3 show significant NLO response. Specifically, the C-dots show negative nonlinear absorption coefficient and negative nonlinear refraction. Using suspensions with different concentrations these parameters are quantified and compared to those of fullerene a well-known carbon molecule with proven NLO response. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Response of a core coherent density oscillation on electron cyclotron resonance heating in Heliotron J plasma

    Kobayashi, T.; Kobayashi, S.; Lu, X. X.; Kenmochi, N.; Ida, K.; Ohshima, S.; Yamamoto, S.; Kado, S.; Kokubu, D.; Nagasaki, K.; Okada, H.; Minami, T.; Otani, Y.; Mizuuchi, T.

    2018-01-01

    We report properties of a coherent density oscillation observed in the core region and its response to electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECH) in Heliotron J plasma. The measurement was performed using a multi-channel beam emission spectroscopy system. The density oscillation is observed in a radial region between the core and the half radius. The poloidal mode number is found to be 1 (or 2). By modulating the ECH power with 100 Hz, repetition of formation and deformation of a strong electron temperature gradient, which is likely ascribed to be an electron internal transport barrier, is realized. Amplitude and rotation frequency of the coherent density oscillation sitting at the strong electron temperature gradient location are modulated by the ECH, while the poloidal mode structure remains almost unchanged. The change in the rotation velocity in the laboratory frame is derived. Assuming that the change of the rotation velocity is given by the background E × B velocity, a possible time evolution of the radial electric field was deduced.

  20. Response of plasma rotation to resonant magnetic perturbations in J-TEXT tokamak

    Yan, W.; Chen, Z. Y.; Huang, D. W.; Hu, Q. M.; Shi, Y. J.; Ding, Y. H.; Cheng, Z. F.; Yang, Z. J.; Pan, X. M.; Lee, S. G.; Tong, R. H.; Wei, Y. N.; Dong, Y. B.; J-TEXT Team

    2018-03-01

    The response of plasma toroidal rotation to the external resonant magnetic perturbations (RMP) has been investigated in Joint Texas Experimental Tokamak (J-TEXT) ohmic heating plasmas. For the J-TEXT’s plasmas without the application of RMP, the core toroidal rotation is in the counter-current direction while the edge rotation is near zero or slightly in the co-current direction. Both static RMP experiments and rotating RMP experiments have been applied to investigate the plasma toroidal rotation. The core toroidal rotation decreases to lower level with static RMP. At the same time, the edge rotation can spin to more than 20 km s-1 in co-current direction. On the other hand, the core plasma rotation can be slowed down or be accelerated with the rotating RMP. When the rotating RMP frequency is higher than mode frequency, the plasma rotation can be accelerated to the rotating RMP frequency. The plasma confinement is improved with high frequency rotating RMP. The plasma rotation is decelerated to the rotating RMP frequency when the rotating RMP frequency is lower than the mode frequency. The plasma confinement also degrades with low frequency rotating RMP.

  1. Assessment of treatment response in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis using advanced magnetic resonance imaging measures

    Lin, Steven C.; Heba, Elhamy; Bettencourt, Ricki; Lin, Grace Y.; Valasek, Mark A.; Lunde, Ottar; Hamilton, Gavin; Sirlin, Claude B.; Loomba, Rohit

    2017-01-01

    Background Magnetic resonance imaging derived measures of liver fat and volume are emerging as accurate, non-invasive imaging biomarkers in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Little is known about these measures in relation to histology longitudinally. Aims This study examines this relationship between MRI-derived proton-density fat-fraction (PDFF), total liver volume (TLV), total liver fat index (TLFI), vs. histology in a NASH trial. Methods This is a secondary analysis of a 24-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 50 patients with biopsy-proven NASH randomized to oral ezetimibe 10mg daily (n=25) vs. placebo (n=25). Baseline and post-treatment anthropometrics, biochemical profiling, MRI, and biopsies were obtained. Results Baseline mean PDFF correlated strongly with TLFI (Spearman’s ρ=0.94, n=45, PMRI-PDFF vs. TLV indicates that 10% reduction in MRI-PDFF predicts 257 mL reduction in TLV. Conclusions MRI-PDFF and TLV strongly correlated with TLFI. Decreases in steatosis were associated with an improvement in hepatomegaly. Lower values of these measures reflect lower histologic-steatosis grades. MRI-derived measures of liver fat and volume may be used as dynamic and more responsive imaging biomarkers in a NASH trial than histology. ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01766713. PMID:28116801

  2. Role of magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging in evaluating response after chemoembolization of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Yuan Zheng; Ye Xiaodan; Dong Sheng; Xu Lichao; Xu Xueyuan; Liu Shiyuan; Xiao Xiangsheng

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of hepatocellular carcinoma pretreatment apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) and its ADCs changes after treatment in predicting and early monitoring the response after chemoembolization. Materials and methods: Twenty-five responding and nine nonresponding hepatocellular carcinoma lesions were prospectively evaluated with magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging in 24 h before and in 48 h after chemoembolization. Quantitative ADC maps were calculated with images with b values of 0 and 500 s/mm 2 . Results: Nonresponding lesions had a significantly higher pretreatment mean ADC than did responding lesions (1.726 ± 0.323 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s vs.1.294 ± 0.185 10 -3 mm 2 /s, P ≤ 0.001). The results of receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis for identification of nonresponding lesions showed that threshold ADC value of 1.618 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s had 96.0% sensitivity and 77.8% specificity. After transarterial chemoembolization, responding lesions had a significant increase in %ADC values than did nonresponding lesions (32.63% vs. 5.24%, P = 0.025). The results of ROC analysis for identification of responding lesions showed that threshold %ADC value of 16.21% had 72% sensitivity and 100% specificity. No significant change was observed in normal liver parenchyma (P = 0.862) and spleen (P = 0.052). Conclusion: High pretreatment mean ADC value of hepatocellular carcinoma was predictive of poor response to chemoembolization. A significant increase in %ADC value was observed in lesions that responded to chemoembolization.

  3. Role of magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging in evaluating response after chemoembolization of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Yuan Zheng, E-mail: yuanzheng0404@163.co [Department of Radiology, Affiliated Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, 415 Feng Yang Road, Shanghai 200003 (China); Ye Xiaodan [Department of Radiology, Affiliated Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, 415 Feng Yang Road, Shanghai 200003 (China); Department of Radiology, Affiliated Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, 241 West Huai Hai Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Dong Sheng, E-mail: dongsheng2828@hotmail.co [Department of Radiology, Affiliated Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, 415 Feng Yang Road, Shanghai 200003 (China); Xu Lichao; Xu Xueyuan; Liu Shiyuan; Xiao Xiangsheng [Department of Radiology, Affiliated Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, 415 Feng Yang Road, Shanghai 200003 (China)

    2010-07-15

    Objective: To investigate the value of hepatocellular carcinoma pretreatment apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) and its ADCs changes after treatment in predicting and early monitoring the response after chemoembolization. Materials and methods: Twenty-five responding and nine nonresponding hepatocellular carcinoma lesions were prospectively evaluated with magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging in 24 h before and in 48 h after chemoembolization. Quantitative ADC maps were calculated with images with b values of 0 and 500 s/mm{sup 2}. Results: Nonresponding lesions had a significantly higher pretreatment mean ADC than did responding lesions (1.726 {+-} 0.323 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s vs.1.294 {+-} 0.185 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, P {<=} 0.001). The results of receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis for identification of nonresponding lesions showed that threshold ADC value of 1.618 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s had 96.0% sensitivity and 77.8% specificity. After transarterial chemoembolization, responding lesions had a significant increase in %ADC values than did nonresponding lesions (32.63% vs. 5.24%, P = 0.025). The results of ROC analysis for identification of responding lesions showed that threshold %ADC value of 16.21% had 72% sensitivity and 100% specificity. No significant change was observed in normal liver parenchyma (P = 0.862) and spleen (P = 0.052). Conclusion: High pretreatment mean ADC value of hepatocellular carcinoma was predictive of poor response to chemoembolization. A significant increase in %ADC value was observed in lesions that responded to chemoembolization.

  4. Response analysis of a laminar premixed M-flame to flow perturbations using a linearized compressible Navier-Stokes solver

    Blanchard, M.; Schuller, T.; Sipp, D.; Schmid, P. J.

    2015-01-01

    The response of a laminar premixed methane-air flame subjected to flow perturbations around a steady state is examined experimentally and using a linearized compressible Navier-Stokes solver with a one-step chemistry mechanism to describe combustion. The unperturbed flame takes an M-shape stabilized both by a central bluff body and by the external rim of a cylindrical nozzle. This base flow is computed by a nonlinear direct simulation of the steady reacting flow, and the flame topology is shown to qualitatively correspond to experiments conducted under comparable conditions. The flame is then subjected to acoustic disturbances produced at different locations in the numerical domain, and its response is examined using the linearized solver. This linear numerical model then allows the componentwise investigation of the effects of flow disturbances on unsteady combustion and the feedback from the flame on the unsteady flow field. It is shown that a wrinkled reaction layer produces hydrodynamic disturbances in the fresh reactant flow field that superimpose on the acoustic field. This phenomenon, observed in several experiments, is fully interpreted here. The additional perturbations convected by the mean flow stem from the feedback of the perturbed flame sheet dynamics onto the flow field by a mechanism similar to that of a perturbed vortex sheet. The different regimes where this mechanism prevails are investigated by examining the phase and group velocities of flow disturbances along an axis oriented along the main direction of the flow in the fresh reactant flow field. It is shown that this mechanism dominates the low-frequency response of the wrinkled shape taken by the flame and, in particular, that it fully determines the dynamics of the flame tip from where the bulk of noise is radiated

  5. Physical origin of third order non-linear optical response of porphyrin nanorods

    Mongwaketsi, N.; Khamlich, S.; Pranaitis, M.; Sahraoui, B.; Khammar, F.; Garab, G.; Sparrow, R.; Maaza, M.

    2012-01-01

    The non-linear optical properties of porphyrin nanorods were studied using Z-scan, Second and Third harmonic generation techniques. We investigated in details the heteroaggregate behaviour formation of [H 4 TPPS 4 ] 2- and [SnTPyP] 2+ mixture by means of the UV-VIS spectroscopy and aggregates structure and morphology by transmission electron microscopy. The porphyrin nanorods under investigation were synthesized by self assembly and molecular recognition method. They have been optimized in view of future application in the construction of the light harvesting system. The focus of this study was geared towards understanding the influence of the type of solvent used on these porphyrins nanorods using spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. Highlights: ► We synthesized porphyrin nanorods by self assembly and molecular recognition method. ► TEM images confirmed solid cylindrical shapes. ► UV-VIS spectroscopy showed the decrease in the absorbance peaks of the precursors. ► The enhanced third-order nonlinearities were observed.

  6. Linear response of vibrated granular systems to sudden changes in the vibration intensity

    Brey, J. Javier; Prados, A.

    2001-01-01

    The short-term memory effects recently observed in vibration-induced compaction of granular materials are studied. It is shown that they can be explained by means of quite plausible hypothesis about the mesoscopic description of the evolution of the system. The existence of a critical time separating regimes of 'anomalous' and 'normal' responses is predicted. A simple model fitting into the general framework is analyzed in the detail. The relationship between this paper and previous studies is discussed

  7. Linear response in stochastic mean-field theories and the onset of instabilities

    Colonna, M.; Chomaz, Ph.

    1993-01-01

    The small amplitude response of stochastic one-body theories, such as the Boltzmann-Langevin approach is studied. Whereas the two-time correlation function only describes the propagation of fluctuations initially present, the equal-time correlation function is related to the source of stochasticity. For stable systems it yields the Einstein relation, while for unstable systems it determines the growth of the instabilities. These features are illustrated for unstable nuclear matter in two dimensions. (author) 14 refs.; 5 figs

  8. The Tracking Resonance Frequency Method for Photoacoustic Measurements Based on the Phase Response

    Suchenek, Mariusz

    2017-04-01

    One of the major issues in the use of the resonant photoacoustic cell is the resonance frequency of the cell. The frequency is not stable, and its changes depend mostly on temperature and gas mixture. This paper presents a new method for tracking resonance frequency, where both the amplitude and phase are calculated from the input samples. The stimulating frequency can be adjusted to the resonance frequency of the cell based on the phase. This method was implemented using a digital measurement system with an analog to digital converter, field programmable gate array (FPGA) and a microcontroller. The resonance frequency was changed by the injection of carbon dioxide into the cell. A theoretical description and experimental results are also presented.

  9. Pressure-driven amplification and penetration of resonant magnetic perturbations

    Loizu, J. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Hudson, S. R.; Lazerson, S. A.; Bhattacharjee, A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Helander, P. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    We show that a resonant magnetic perturbation applied to the boundary of an ideal plasma screw-pinch equilibrium with nested surfaces can penetrate inside the resonant surface and into the core. The response is significantly amplified with increasing plasma pressure. We present a rigorous verification of nonlinear equilibrium codes against linear theory, showing excellent agreement.

  10. Non-linearity of the response accommodative convergence to accommodation ratio.

    Johnston, Miriam S; Firth, Alison Y

    2013-09-01

    Previous studies have reported variation in stimulus accommodative convergence to accommodation (AC/A) ratio across differing accommodative stimuli. Response AC/A ratio was assessed across 4 accommodative demands to determine if these differences could be due to accommodative inaccuracies to stimuli. Twenty-three student participants aged 18 to 26 years (mean age 20.3 ± 1.7 years) successfully completed all testing conditions. The modified Thorington technique was used at 4 m to measure heterophoria. The Shin Nippon SRW 5000 infrared autorefractor was used to determine accommodative change to -1.50, -3.00, -4.50, and -6.00D lens stimuli. Significant differences were found in response AC/A ratio between different minus lens stimulated accommodative demands (p accommodative stimuli, but tended to increase with accommodative demand. Significant variability in response AC/A ratio was found, both within individuals to different accommodative demands, and between individuals across the data set.

  11. Seismic response of the geologic structure underlying the Roman Colosseum and a 2-D resonance of a sediment valley

    P. Labak

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The seismic response of the geologic structure beneath the Colosseum is investigated using a two-dimensional modeling for a vertically incident plane SH wave. Computations indicate that the southern part of the Colosseum may be exposed to a seismic ground motion with significantly larger amplitudes, differential motion and longer duration than the northern part. because the southern part of the Colosseum is underlain by a sedimentfilled valley created by sedimentary filling of the former tributary of the River Tiber. A 2-D resonance may develop in the valley. Unlike the previous theoretical studies on 2-D resonance in sediment-filled valleys, an effect of heterogeneous valley surroundings on the resonance is partly investigated. A very small sensitivity of the maximum spectral amplifications connected with the fundamental and first higher modes to the presence of a horizontal surface layer (with an intermediate velocity in the valley surroundings is observed in the studied models.

  12. Effect of the nanowire diameter on the linearity of the response of GaN-based heterostructured nanowire photodetectors

    Spies, Maria; Polaczyński, Jakub; Ajay, Akhil; Kalita, Dipankar; Luong, Minh Anh; Lähnemann, Jonas; Gayral, Bruno; den Hertog, Martien I.; Monroy, Eva

    2018-06-01

    Nanowire photodetectors are investigated because of their compatibility with flexible electronics, or for the implementation of on-chip optical interconnects. Such devices are characterized by ultrahigh photocurrent gain, but their photoresponse scales sublinearly with the optical power. Here, we present a study of single-nanowire photodetectors displaying a linear response to ultraviolet illumination. Their structure consists of a GaN nanowire incorporating an AlN/GaN/AlN heterostructure, which generates an internal electric field. The activity of the heterostructure is confirmed by the rectifying behavior of the current–voltage characteristics in the dark, as well as by the asymmetry of the photoresponse in magnitude and linearity. Under reverse bias (negative bias on the GaN cap segment), the detectors behave linearly with the impinging optical power when the nanowire diameter is below a certain threshold (≈80 nm), which corresponds to the total depletion of the nanowire stem due to the Fermi level pinning at the sidewalls. In the case of nanowires that are only partially depleted, their nonlinearity is explained by a nonlinear variation of the diameter of their central conducting channel under illumination.

  13. Effect of linear alkylbenzene mixtures and sanitary sewage in biochemical and molecular responses in pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas.

    Flores-Nunes, Fabrício; Mattos, Jacó J; Zacchi, Flávia L; Serrano, Miguel A S; Piazza, Clei E; Sasaki, Silvio T; Taniguchi, Satie; Bicego, Márcia C; Melo, Cláudio M R; Bainy, Afonso C D

    2015-11-01

    Urban effluents are rich in nutrients, organic matter, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), pesticides, hydrocarbons, surfactants, and others. Previous studies have shown that oysters Crassostrea gigas accumulate significant levels of linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) in sanitary sewage contaminated sites, but there is little information about its toxicological effects in marine bivalves. The aim of this study was to analyze the transcription of genes in two tissues of C. gigas exposed for 12, 24, and 36 h to LABs or sanitary sewage. Likewise, the activity of antioxidant and biotransformation enzymes was measured in oysters exposed for 36 h in all groups. Oysters exposed to LABs and oysters exposed to sanitary sewage showed different patterns of transcriptional responses. LAB-exposed oysters showed lower level of biological responses than the oysters exposed to sanitary sewage. Despite the ability of the oyster C. gigas to accumulate LABs (28-fold), the data indicate that these contaminants are not the cause for the transcriptional responses observed in oysters exposed to sanitary sewage. Possibly, the biological changes observed in the sanitary sewage-exposed oysters are associated with the presence of other contaminants, which might have caused synergistic, additive, or antagonistic effects. The results show that FABP-like and GST-ω-like messenger RNAs (mRNAs) have a rapid response in tissues of oyster C. gigas exposed to sanitary sewage, suggesting a possible protective response and a role in maintaining homeostasis of these organisms.

  14. Response analysis of a class of quasi-linear systems with fractional derivative excited by Poisson white noise

    Yang, Yongge; Xu, Wei; Yang, Guidong; Jia, Wantao

    2016-08-01

    The Poisson white noise, as a typical non-Gaussian excitation, has attracted much attention recently. However, little work was referred to the study of stochastic systems with fractional derivative under Poisson white noise excitation. This paper investigates the stationary response of a class of quasi-linear systems with fractional derivative excited by Poisson white noise. The equivalent stochastic system of the original stochastic system is obtained. Then, approximate stationary solutions are obtained with the help of the perturbation method. Finally, two typical examples are discussed in detail to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The analysis also shows that the fractional order and the fractional coefficient significantly affect the responses of the stochastic systems with fractional derivative.

  15. Response analysis of a class of quasi-linear systems with fractional derivative excited by Poisson white noise

    Yang, Yongge; Xu, Wei; Yang, Guidong; Jia, Wantao

    2016-01-01

    The Poisson white noise, as a typical non-Gaussian excitation, has attracted much attention recently. However, little work was referred to the study of stochastic systems with fractional derivative under Poisson white noise excitation. This paper investigates the stationary response of a class of quasi-linear systems with fractional derivative excited by Poisson white noise. The equivalent stochastic system of the original stochastic system is obtained. Then, approximate stationary solutions are obtained with the help of the perturbation method. Finally, two typical examples are discussed in detail to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The analysis also shows that the fractional order and the fractional coefficient significantly affect the responses of the stochastic systems with fractional derivative.

  16. Response analysis of a class of quasi-linear systems with fractional derivative excited by Poisson white noise

    Yang, Yongge; Xu, Wei, E-mail: weixu@nwpu.edu.cn; Yang, Guidong; Jia, Wantao [Department of Applied Mathematics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)

    2016-08-15

    The Poisson white noise, as a typical non-Gaussian excitation, has attracted much attention recently. However, little work was referred to the study of stochastic systems with fractional derivative under Poisson white noise excitation. This paper investigates the stationary response of a class of quasi-linear systems with fractional derivative excited by Poisson white noise. The equivalent stochastic system of the original stochastic system is obtained. Then, approximate stationary solutions are obtained with the help of the perturbation method. Finally, two typical examples are discussed in detail to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The analysis also shows that the fractional order and the fractional coefficient significantly affect the responses of the stochastic systems with fractional derivative.

  17. A fortran programme for determining frequency responses for linear systems with time delays

    Milsom, P.R.

    1966-11-01

    In this report a digital computer programme for evaluating frequency responses is described. In its standard form the programme is capable of determining the gain and phase of up to 35 variables over a range of up to 30 frequencies for a system described by up to 65 equations. The equations must be either first order differential or algebraic and either type may include time delayed terms. Up to 50 such terms are permissible throughout the equation set. Provision is made for up to 10 inputs and up to 50 differentiated input terms are permitted throughout the equation set. However, it is possible for the user to increase a maximum dimension, albeit at the expense of another array dimension. In punching the data from the equations the user has no sorting or arranging of coefficients to do, and the equations may be in any order. The specifying of other input information, such as frequency range, the inputs to be perturbed and the variables for which frequency responses are required, is also very straightforward. (author)

  18. Fast response double series resonant high-voltage DC-DC converter

    Lee, S S; Iqbal, S; Kamarol, M

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a novel double series resonant high-voltage dc-dc converter with dual-mode pulse frequency modulation (PFM) control scheme is proposed. The proposed topology consists of two series resonant tanks and hence two resonant currents flow in each switching period. Moreover, it consists of two high-voltage transformer with the leakage inductances are absorbed as resonant inductor in the series resonant tanks. The secondary output of both transformers are rectified and mixed before supplying to load. In the resonant mode operation, the series resonant tanks are energized alternately by controlling two Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) switches with pulse frequency modulation (PFM). This topology operates in discontinuous conduction mode (DCM) with all IGBT switches operating in zero current switching (ZCS) condition and hence no switching loss occurs. To achieve fast rise in output voltage, a dual-mode PFM control during start-up of the converter is proposed. In this operation, the inverter is started at a high switching frequency and as the output voltage reaches 90% of the target value, the switching frequency is reduced to a value which corresponds to the target output voltage. This can effectively reduce the rise time of the output voltage and prevent overshoot. Experimental results collected from a 100-W laboratory prototype are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed system.

  19. Do Quercus ilex woodlands undergo abrupt non-linear functional changes in response to human disturbance along a climatic gradient?

    Bochet, Esther; García-Fayos, Patricio; José Molina, Maria; Moreno de las Heras, Mariano; Espigares, Tíscar; Nicolau, Jose Manuel; Monleon, Vicente

    2017-04-01

    Theoretical models predict that drylands are particularly prone to suffer critical transitions with abrupt non-linear changes in their structure and functions as a result of the existing complex interactions between climatic fluctuations and human disturbances. However, so far, few studies provide empirical data to validate these models. We aim at determining how holm oak (Quercus ilex) woodlands undergo changes in their functions in response to human disturbance along an aridity gradient (from semi-arid to sub-humid conditions), in eastern Spain. For that purpose, we used (a) remote-sensing estimations of precipitation-use-efficiency (PUE) from enhanced vegetation index (EVI) observations performed in 231x231 m plots of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS); (b) biological and chemical soil parameter determinations (extracellular soil enzyme activity, soil respiration, nutrient cycling processes) from soil sampled in the same plots; (c) vegetation parameter determinations (ratio of functional groups) from vegetation surveys performed in the same plots. We analyzed and compared the shape of the functional change (in terms of PUE and soil and vegetation parameters) in response to human disturbance intensity for our holm oak sites along the aridity gradient. Overall, our results evidenced important differences in the shape of the functional change in response to human disturbance between climatic conditions. Semi-arid areas experienced a more accelerated non-linear decrease with an increasing disturbance intensity than sub-humid ones. The proportion of functional groups (herbaceous vs. woody cover) played a relevant role in the shape of the functional response of the holm oak sites to human disturbance.

  20. Analysis of asymmetric resonance response of thermally excited silicon micro-cantilevers for mass-sensitive nanoparticle detection

    Bertke, Maik; Hamdana, Gerry; Wu, Wenze; Suryo Wasisto, Hutomo; Uhde, Erik; Peiner, Erwin

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, the asymmetric resonance frequency (f 0) responses of thermally in-plane excited silicon cantilevers for a pocket-sized, cantilever-based airborne nanoparticle detector (Cantor) are analysed. By measuring the shift of f 0 caused by the deposition of nanoparticles (NPs), the cantilevers are used as a microbalance. The cantilever sensors are low cost manufactured from silicon by bulk-micromachining techniques and contain an integrated p-type heating actuator and a sensing piezoresistive Wheatstone bridge. f 0 is tracked by a homemade phase-locked loop (PPL) for real-time measurements. To optimize the sensor performance, a new cantilever geometry was designed, fabricated and characterized by its frequency responses. The most significant characterisation parameters of our application are f 0 and the quality factor (Q), which have high influences on sensitivity and efficiency of the NP detector. Regarding the asymmetric resonance signal, a novel fitting function based on the Fano resonance replacing the conventionally used function of the simple harmonic oscillator and a method to calculate Q by its fitting parameters were developed for a quantitative evaluation. To obtain a better understanding of the resonance behaviours, we analysed the origin of the asymmetric line shapes. Therefore, we compared the frequency response of the on-chip thermal excitation with an external excitation using an in-plane piezo actuator. In correspondence to the Fano effect, we could reconstruct the measured resonance curves by coupling two signals with constant amplitude and the expected signal of the cantilever, respectively. Moreover, the phase of the measurement signal can be analysed by this method, which is important to understand the locking process of the PLL circuit. Besides the frequency analysis, experimental results and calibration measurements with different particle types are presented. Using the described analysis method, decent results to optimize a next

  1. Quantum resonances of Landau damping in the electromagnetic response of metallic nanoslabs.

    Castillo-López, S G; Makarov, N M; Pérez-Rodríguez, F

    2018-05-15

    The resonant quantization of Landau damping in far-infrared absorption spectra of metal nano-thin films is predicted within the Kubo formalism. Specifically, it is found that the discretization of the electromagnetic and electron wave numbers inside a metal nanoslab produces quantum nonlocal resonances well-resolved at slab thicknesses smaller than the electromagnetic skin depth. Landau damping manifests itself precisely as such resonances, tracing the spectral curve obtained within the semiclassical Boltzmann approach. For slab thicknesses much greater than the skin depth, the classical regime emerges. Here the results of the quantum model and the Boltzmann approach coincide. Our analytical study is in perfect agreement with corresponding numerical simulations.

  2. Groundwater decline and tree change in floodplain landscapes: Identifying non-linear threshold responses in canopy condition

    J. Kath

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater decline is widespread, yet its implications for natural systems are poorly understood. Previous research has revealed links between groundwater depth and tree condition; however, critical thresholds which might indicate ecological ‘tipping points’ associated with rapid and potentially irreversible change have been difficult to quantify. This study collated data for two dominant floodplain species, Eucalyptus camaldulensis (river red gum and E. populnea (poplar box from 118 sites in eastern Australia where significant groundwater decline has occurred. Boosted regression trees, quantile regression and Threshold Indicator Taxa Analysis were used to investigate the relationship between tree condition and groundwater depth. Distinct non-linear responses were found, with groundwater depth thresholds identified in the range from 12.1 m to 22.6 m for E. camaldulensis and 12.6 m to 26.6 m for E. populnea beyond which canopy condition declined abruptly. Non-linear threshold responses in canopy condition in these species may be linked to rooting depth, with chronic groundwater decline decoupling trees from deep soil moisture resources. The quantification of groundwater depth thresholds is likely to be critical for management aimed at conserving groundwater dependent biodiversity. Identifying thresholds will be important in regions where water extraction and drying climates may contribute to further groundwater decline. Keywords: Canopy condition, Dieback, Drought, Tipping point, Ecological threshold, Groundwater dependent ecosystems

  3. Swelling and Shrinking Properties of Thermo-Responsive Polymeric Ionic Liquid Hydrogels with Embedded Linear pNIPAAM

    Simon Gallagher

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, varying concentrations of linear pNIPAAM have been incorporated for the first time into a thermo-responsive polymeric ionic liquid (PIL hydrogel, namely tributyl-hexyl phosphonium 3-sulfopropylacrylate (P-SPA, to produce semi-interpenetrating polymer networks. The thermal properties of the resulting hydrogels have been investigated along with their thermo-induced shrinking and reswelling capabilities. The semi-interpenetrating networks (IPN hydrogels were found to have improved shrinking and reswelling properties compared with their PIL counterpart. At elevated temperatures (50–80 °C, it was found that the semi-IPN with the highest concentration of hydrophobic pNIPAAM exhibited the highest shrinking percentage of ~40% compared to the conventional P-SPA, (27%. This trend was also found to occur for the reswelling measurements, with semi-IPN hydrogels producing the highest reswelling percentage of ~67%, with respect to its contracted state. This was attributed to an increase in water affinity due to the presence of hydrophilic pNIPAAM. Moreover, the presence of linear pNIPAAM in the polymer matrix leads to improved shrinking and reswelling response compared to the equivalent PIL.

  4. Origins of Total-Dose Response Variability in Linear Bipolar Microcircuits

    Barnaby, H.J.; Cirba, C.R.; Schrimpf, R.D.; Fleetwood, D.M.; Pease, R.L.; Shaneyfelt, Marty R.; Turflinger, T.; Krieg, J.F.; Maher, M.C.

    2000-01-01

    LM1ll voltage comparators exhibit a wide range of total-dose-induced degradation. Simulations show this variability may be a natural consequence of the low base doping of the substrate PNP (SPNP) input transistors. Low base doping increases the SPNP's collector to base breakdown voltage, current gain, and sensitivity to small fluctuations in the radiation-induced oxide defect densities. The build-up of oxide trapped charge (N ot ) and interface traps (N it ) is shown to be a function of pre-irradiation bakes. Experimental data indicate that, despite its structural similarities to the LM111, irradiated input transistors of the LM124 operational amplifier do not exhibit the same sensitivity to variations in pre-irradiation thermal cycles. Further disparities in LM111 and LM124 responses may result from a difference in the oxide defect build-up in the two part types. Variations in processing, packaging, and circuit effects are suggested as potential explanations

  5. Polarizable embedding with a multiconfiguration short-range density functional theory linear response method

    Hedegård, Erik D.; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard; Knecht, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    . To demonstrate the capabilities of PE-MC-srDFT, we also investigated the retinylidene Schiff base chromophore embedded in the channelrhodopsin protein. While using a much more compact reference wave function in terms of active space, our PE-MC-srDFT approach yields excitation energies comparable in quality......We present here the coupling of a polarizable embedding (PE) model to the recently developed multiconfiguration short-range density functional theory method (MC-srDFT), which can treat multiconfigurational systems with a simultaneous account for dynamical and static correlation effects. PE......-MC-srDFT is designed to combine efficient treatment of complicated electronic structures with inclusion of effects from the surrounding environment. The environmental effects encompass classical electrostatic interactions as well as polarization of both the quantum region and the environment. Using response theory...

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging in spondyloarthritis--how to quantify findings and measure response

    Østergaard, Mikkel; Poggenborg, René Panduro; Axelsen, Mette Bjørndal

    2010-01-01

    Sensitive and reliable tools for monitoring disease activity and damage, and for prognostication, are essential in the management of patients with spondyloarthritis, including ankylosing spondylitis and psoriatic arthritis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows direct visualisation...

  7. Visualizing arthritic inflammation and therapeutic response by fluorine-19 magnetic resonance imaging (19F MRI

    Balducci Anthony

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-invasive imaging of inflammation to measure the progression of autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA, and to monitor responses to therapy is critically needed. V-Sense, a perfluorocarbon (PFC contrast agent that preferentially labels inflammatory cells, which are then recruited out of systemic circulation to sites of inflammation, enables detection by 19F MRI. With no 19F background in the host, detection is highly-specific and can act as a proxy biomarker of the degree of inflammation present. Methods Collagen-induced arthritis in rats, a model with many similarities to human RA, was used to study the ability of the PFC contrast agent to reveal the accumulation of inflammation over time using 19F MRI. Disease progression in the rat hind limbs was monitored by caliper measurements and 19F MRI on days 15, 22 and 29, including the height of clinically symptomatic disease. Naïve rats served as controls. The capacity of the PFC contrast agent and 19F MRI to assess the effectiveness of therapy was studied in a cohort of rats administered oral prednisolone on days 14 to 28. Results Quantification of 19F signal measured by MRI in affected limbs was linearly correlated with disease severity. In animals with progressive disease, increases in 19F signal reflected the ongoing recruitment of inflammatory cells to the site, while no increase in 19F signal was observed in animals receiving treatment which resulted in clinical resolution of disease. Conclusion These results indicate that 19F MRI may be used to quantitatively and qualitatively evaluate longitudinal responses to a therapeutic regimen, while additionally revealing the recruitment of monocytic cells involved in the inflammatory process to the anatomical site. This study may support the use of 19F MRI to clinically quantify and monitor the severity of inflammation, and to assess the effectiveness of treatments in RA and other diseases with an inflammatory

  8. Non-linear Response to a Type of Seismic Input Motion. Additional Information

    2011-06-01

    This publication reports the results and findings of a coordinated research project on the safety significance of near-field earthquakes in the design of nuclear power plants. It describes the outcome of a benchmark exercise conducted by a number of institutions on the effects of low to moderate magnitude near-field earthquakes, comparing model analytical simulations with the results of a shaking test performed in France on a physical model of a conventional shear-wall structure. The results build the basis for proposals for possible evolution of engineering practices in order to realistically take into account the effects of near-field earthquakes. A CD is attached that contains the List of participants; Summary of the Research Coordination Meetings; Description of the Camus data; Description of the Japanese input motions: near-field earthquakes observed recently in Japan; Description of the output requested of the IAEA CRP participants; Summary of the participants' modelling; Results of Benchmark Step 1, 2 and 3; Scientific background on classification of seismic loads as primary or secondary; and Japanese practice on nonlinear seismic response analysis of safety related important structures.

  9. Non-linear Response to a Type of Seismic Input Motion

    2011-06-01

    This publication reports the results and findings of a coordinated research project on the safety significance of near-field earthquakes in the design of nuclear power plants. It describes the outcome of a benchmark exercise conducted by a number of institutions on the effects of low to moderate magnitude near-field earthquakes, comparing model analytical simulations with the results of a shaking test performed in France on a physical model of a conventional shear-wall structure. The results build the basis for proposals for possible evolution of engineering practices in order to realistically take into account the effects of near-field earthquakes. A CD is attached that contains the List of participants; Summary of the Research Coordination Meetings; Description of the CAMUS data; Description of the Japanese input motions: near-field earthquakes observed recently in Japan; Description of the output requested of the IAEA CRP participants; Summary of the participants' modelling; Results of Benchmark Step 1, 2 and 3; Scientific background on classification of seismic loads as primary or secondary; and Japanese practice on nonlinear seismic response analysis of safety related important structures.

  10. Unusual Magnetic Response of an S = 1 Antiferromagetic Linear-Chain Material

    Xia, Jian-Sheng; Ozarowski, Andrzej; Spurgeon, Peter M.; Graham, Adora G.; Manson, Jamie L.; Meisel, Mark W.

    2018-03-01

    An S = 1 antiferromagnetic polymeric chain, [Ni(HF2)(3-Clpy)4]BF4 (py = pyridine), also referred to as NBCT, has previously been identified to have intrachain, nearest-neighbor antiferromagnetic interaction strength J/k B = 4.86 K and single-ion anisotropy (zero-field splitting) D/k B = 4.3 K, so the ratio D/J = 0.88 places this system close to the D/J ≈ 1 gapless critical point between the topologically distinct Haldane and Large-D phases. The magnetization was studied over a range of temperatures, 50 mK ≤ T ≤ 1 K, and magnetic fields, B ≤ 10 T, in an attempt to identify a critical field, B c, associated with the closing of a gap, and the present work places an upper bound of B c ≤ (35 ± 10) mT. At higher fields, the observed magnetic response is qualitatively similar to the “excess” signal observed by other workers at 0.5 K and below 3 T. The high-field (up to 14.5 T), multi-frequency (nominally 200 GHz to 425 GHz) ESR spectra at 3 K reveal several features associated with the sample.

  11. Orientation phenomena in chromophore DR1-containing polymer films and their non-linear optical response

    Moencke, Doris; Mountrichas, Grigoris; Pispas, Stergios; Kamitsos, Efstratios I.

    2011-01-01

    The effectiveness of chromophore alignment in polymer films following corona poling can be assessed by the generated second harmonic signal. Optimization of the stability and strength of this nonlinear optical response may improve with a better understanding of the underlying principal order phenomena. Structural analysis by vibrational, optical, and 1 H NMR spectroscopy reveals side chain tacticity, aggregation effects, and changes in orientation as a function of temperature. Co-polymers with the functionalized chromophore Disperse Red 1 methacrylate (MDR1) were prepared for three different methacrylate types. High side chain polarity and short side chain length increase generally chromophore aggregation in films, whereas the very long poly-ether side chains in PMEO based co-polymers are wrapped separately around the DR1 entities. Side chain tacticity depends on space requirements, but also on the capacity of side groups to form OH-bridges. Side chain tacticity might present an additional parameter for the assessment of chromophore aggregation and poling induced alignments. Stepwise heating of co-polymer films causes an increase in the number of random over ordered side chain arrangements. Cross-linking by anhydride formation is observed after heating the methacrylic acid based co-polymer.

  12. A numerical study on acoustic behavior in gas turbine combustor with acoustic resonator

    Park, I Sun; Sohn, Chae Hoon

    2005-01-01

    Acoustic behavior in gas turbine combustor with acoustic resonator is investigated numerically by adopting linear acoustic analysis. Helmholtz-type resonator is employed as acoustic resonator to suppress acoustic instability passively. The tuning frequency of acoustic resonator is adjusted by varying its length. Through harmonic analysis, acoustic-pressure responses of chamber to acoustic excitation are obtained and the resonant acoustic modes are identified. Acoustic damping effect of acoustic resonator is quantified by damping factor. As the tuning frequency of acoustic resonator approaches the target frequency of the resonant mode to be suppressed, mode split from the original resonant mode to lower and upper modes appears and thereby complex patterns of acoustic responses show up. Considering mode split and damping effect as a function of tuning frequency, it is desirable to make acoustic resonator tuned to broad-band frequencies near the maximum frequency of those of the possible upper modes

  13. Thouless-Valatin rotational moment of inertia from linear response theory

    Petrík, Kristian; Kortelainen, Markus

    2018-03-01

    Spontaneous breaking of continuous symmetries of a nuclear many-body system results in the appearance of zero-energy restoration modes. These so-called spurious Nambu-Goldstone modes represent a special case of collective motion and are sources of important information about the Thouless-Valatin inertia. The main purpose of this work is to study the Thouless-Valatin rotational moment of inertia as extracted from the Nambu-Goldstone restoration mode that results from the zero-frequency response to the total-angular-momentum operator. We examine the role and effects of the pairing correlations on the rotational characteristics of heavy deformed nuclei in order to extend our understanding of superfluidity in general. We use the finite-amplitude method of the quasiparticle random-phase approximation on top of the Skyrme energy density functional framework with the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory. We have successfully extended this formalism and established a practical method for extracting the Thouless-Valatin rotational moment of inertia from the strength function calculated in the symmetry-restoration regime. Our results reveal the relation between the pairing correlations and the moment of inertia of axially deformed nuclei of rare-earth and actinide regions of the nuclear chart. We have also demonstrated the feasibility of the method for obtaining the moment of inertia for collective Hamiltonian models. We conclude that from the numerical and theoretical perspective, the finite-amplitude method can be widely used to effectively study rotational properties of deformed nuclei within modern density functional approaches.

  14. Time-dependent quantum many-body systems. Linear response, electronic transport, and reduced density matrices

    Appel, H.

    2007-05-01

    In part I of this work we present a double-pole approximation (DPA) to the response equations of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). The double-pole approximation provides an exact description of systems with two strongly coupled excitations which are isolated from the rest of the spectrum. In contrast to the traditional single-pole approximation of TDDFT the DPA also yields corrections to the Kohn-Sham oscillator strengths. We also demonstrate how to invert the double-pole solution which allows us to predict matrix elements of the exchange-correlation kernel f xc from experimental input. We attempt some first steps towards a time-dependent generalization of reduced density matrix functional theory (RDMFT). In part II we derive equations of motion for natural orbitals and occupation numbers. Using the equation of motion for the occupation numbers we show that an adiabatic extension of presently known ground-state functionals of static RDMFT always leads to occupation numbers which are constant in time. From the stationary conditions of the equations of motion for the N-body correlations (correlated parts of the N-body matrices) we derive a new class of ground-state functionals which can be used in static RDMFT. Applications are presented for a one-dimensional model system where the time-dependent many-body Schroedinger equation can be propagated numerically. We use optimal control theory to find optimized laser pulses for transitions in a model for atomic Helium. From the numerically exact correlated wavefunction we extract the exact time evolution of natural orbitals and occupation numbers for (i) laser-driven Helium and (ii) electron-ion scattering. Part III of this work considers time-dependent quantum transport within TDDFT. We present an algorithm for the calculation of extended eigenstates of single-particle Hamiltonians which is especially tailored to a finite-difference discretization of the Schroedinger equation. We consider the propagation

  15. Time-dependent quantum many-body systems. Linear response, electronic transport, and reduced density matrices

    Appel, H.

    2007-05-15

    In part I of this work we present a double-pole approximation (DPA) to the response equations of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). The double-pole approximation provides an exact description of systems with two strongly coupled excitations which are isolated from the rest of the spectrum. In contrast to the traditional single-pole approximation of TDDFT the DPA also yields corrections to the Kohn-Sham oscillator strengths. We also demonstrate how to invert the double-pole solution which allows us to predict matrix elements of the exchange-correlation kernel f{sub xc} from experimental input. We attempt some first steps towards a time-dependent generalization of reduced density matrix functional theory (RDMFT). In part II we derive equations of motion for natural orbitals and occupation numbers. Using the equation of motion for the occupation numbers we show that an adiabatic extension of presently known ground-state functionals of static RDMFT always leads to occupation numbers which are constant in time. From the stationary conditions of the equations of motion for the N-body correlations (correlated parts of the N-body matrices) we derive a new class of ground-state functionals which can be used in static RDMFT. Applications are presented for a one-dimensional model system where the time-dependent many-body Schroedinger equation can be propagated numerically. We use optimal control theory to find optimized laser pulses for transitions in a model for atomic Helium. From the numerically exact correlated wavefunction we extract the exact time evolution of natural orbitals and occupation numbers for (i) laser-driven Helium and (ii) electron-ion scattering. Part III of this work considers time-dependent quantum transport within TDDFT. We present an algorithm for the calculation of extended eigenstates of single-particle Hamiltonians which is especially tailored to a finite-difference discretization of the Schroedinger equation. We consider the

  16. Analysis of Nonlinear Dynamics in Linear Compressors Driven by Linear Motors

    Chen, Liangyuan

    2018-03-01

    The analysis of dynamic characteristics of the mechatronics system is of great significance for the linear motor design and control. Steady-state nonlinear response characteristics of a linear compressor are investigated theoretically based on the linearized and nonlinear models. First, the influence factors considering the nonlinear gas force load were analyzed. Then, a simple linearized model was set up to analyze the influence on the stroke and resonance frequency. Finally, the nonlinear model was set up to analyze the effects of piston mass, spring stiffness, driving force as an example of design parameter variation. The simulating results show that the stroke can be obtained by adjusting the excitation amplitude, frequency and other adjustments, the equilibrium position can be adjusted by adjusting the DC input, and to make the more efficient operation, the operating frequency must always equal to the resonance frequency.

  17. Van der Waals potentials between metal clusters and helium atoms obtained with density functional theory and linear response methods

    Liebrecht, M.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of van der Waals interactions in many diverse research fields such as, e. g., polymer science, nano--materials, structural biology, surface science and condensed matter physics created a high demand for efficient and accurate methods that can describe van der Waals interactions from first principles. These methods should be able to deal with large and complex systems to predict functions and properties of materials that are technologically and biologically relevant. Van der Waals interactions arise due to quantum mechanical correlation effects and finding appropriate models an numerical techniques to describe this type of interaction is still an ongoing challenge in electronic structure and condensed matter theory. This thesis introduces a new variational approach to obtain intermolecular interaction potentials between clusters and helium atoms by means of density functional theory and linear response methods. It scales almost linearly with the number of electrons and can therefore be applied to much larger systems than standard quantum chemistry techniques. The main focus of this work is the development of an ab-initio method to account for London dispersion forces, which are purely attractive and dominate the interaction of non--polar atoms and molecules at large distances. (author) [de

  18. Confirmation of linear system theory prediction: Rate of change of Herrnstein's κ as a function of response-force requirement

    McDowell, J. J; Wood, Helena M.

    1985-01-01

    Four human subjects worked on all combinations of five variable-interval schedules and five reinforcer magnitudes (¢/reinforcer) in each of two phases of the experiment. In one phase the force requirement on the operandum was low (1 or 11 N) and in the other it was high (25 or 146 N). Estimates of Herrnstein's κ were obtained at each reinforcer magnitude. The results were: (1) response rate was more sensitive to changes in reinforcement rate at the high than at the low force requirement, (2) κ increased from the beginning to the end of the magnitude range for all subjects at both force requirements, (3) the reciprocal of κ was a linear function of the reciprocal of reinforcer magnitude for seven of the eight data sets, and (4) the rate of change of κ was greater at the high than at the low force requirement by an order of magnitude or more. The second and third findings confirm predictions made by linear system theory, and replicate the results of an earlier experiment (McDowell & Wood, 1984). The fourth finding confirms a further prediction of the theory and supports the theory's interpretation of conflicting data on the constancy of Herrnstein's κ. PMID:16812408

  19. Confirmation of linear system theory prediction: Rate of change of Herrnstein's kappa as a function of response-force requirement.

    McDowell, J J; Wood, H M

    1985-01-01

    Four human subjects worked on all combinations of five variable-interval schedules and five reinforcer magnitudes ( cent/reinforcer) in each of two phases of the experiment. In one phase the force requirement on the operandum was low (1 or 11 N) and in the other it was high (25 or 146 N). Estimates of Herrnstein's kappa were obtained at each reinforcer magnitude. The results were: (1) response rate was more sensitive to changes in reinforcement rate at the high than at the low force requirement, (2) kappa increased from the beginning to the end of the magnitude range for all subjects at both force requirements, (3) the reciprocal of kappa was a linear function of the reciprocal of reinforcer magnitude for seven of the eight data sets, and (4) the rate of change of kappa was greater at the high than at the low force requirement by an order of magnitude or more. The second and third findings confirm predictions made by linear system theory, and replicate the results of an earlier experiment (McDowell & Wood, 1984). The fourth finding confirms a further prediction of the theory and supports the theory's interpretation of conflicting data on the constancy of Herrnstein's kappa.

  20. FPGA-based electrocardiography (ECG signal analysis system using least-square linear phase finite impulse response (FIR filter

    Mohamed G. Egila

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a proposed design for analyzing electrocardiography (ECG signals. This methodology employs highpass least-square linear phase Finite Impulse Response (FIR filtering technique to filter out the baseline wander noise embedded in the input ECG signal to the system. Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT was utilized as a feature extraction methodology to extract the reduced feature set from the input ECG signal. The design uses back propagation neural network classifier to classify the input ECG signal. The system is implemented on Xilinx 3AN-XC3S700AN Field Programming Gate Array (FPGA board. A system simulation has been done. The design is compared with some other designs achieving total accuracy of 97.8%, and achieving reduction in utilizing resources on FPGA implementation.

  1. Formation of a three-dimensional plasma boundary after decay of the plasma response to resonant magnetic perturbation fields

    Schmitz, O.; Evans, T. E.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Lanctot, M. J.; Lasnier, C. L.; Mordijck, S.; Moyer, R. A.; Reimerdes, H.; the DIII-D Team

    2014-01-01

    First time experimental evidence is presented for a direct link between the decay of a n = 3 plasma response and the formation of a three-dimensional (3D) plasma boundary. We inspect a lower single-null L-mode plasma which first reacts at sufficiently high rotation with an ideal resonant screening response to an external toroidal mode number n = 3 resonant magnetic perturbation field. Decay of this response due to reduced bulk plasma rotation changes the plasma state considerably. Signatures such as density pump out and a spin up of the edge rotation—which are usually connected to formation of a stochastic boundary—are detected. Coincident, striation of the divertor single ionized carbon emission and a 3D emission structure in double ionized carbon at the separatrix is seen. The striated C II pattern follows in this stage the perturbed magnetic footprint modelled without a plasma response (vacuum approach). This provides for the first time substantial experimental evidence, that a 3D plasma boundary with direct impact on the divertor particle flux pattern is formed as soon as the internal plasma response decays. The resulting divertor structure follows the vacuum modelled magnetic field topology. However, the inward extension of the perturbed boundary layer can still not directly be determined from these measurements.

  2. Linear response of mutans streptococci to increasing frequency of xylitol chewing gum use: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN43479664

    Yamaguchi David K

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Xylitol is a naturally occurring sugar substitute that has been shown to reduce the level of mutans streptococci in plaque and saliva and to reduce tooth decay. It has been suggested that the degree of reduction is dependent on both the amount and the frequency of xylitol consumption. For xylitol to be successfully and cost-effectively used in public health prevention strategies dosing and frequency guidelines should be established. This study determined the reduction in mutans streptococci levels in plaque and unstimulated saliva to increasing frequency of xylitol gum use at a fixed total daily dose of 10.32 g over five weeks. Methods Participants (n = 132 were randomized to either active groups (10.32 g xylitol/day or a placebo control (9.828 g sorbitol and 0.7 g maltitol/day. All groups chewed 12 pieces of gum per day. The control group chewed 4 times/day and active groups chewed xylitol gum at a frequency of 2 times/day, 3 times/day, or 4 times/day. The 12 gum pieces were evenly divided into the frequency assigned to each group. Plaque and unstimulated saliva samples were taken at baseline and five-weeks and were cultured on modified Mitis Salivarius agar for mutans streptococci enumeration. Results There were no significant differences in mutans streptococci level among the groups at baseline. At five-weeks, mutans streptococci levels in plaque and unstimulated saliva showed a linear reduction with increasing frequency of xylitol chewing gum use at the constant daily dose. Although the difference observed for the group that chewed xylitol 2 times/day was consistent with the linear model, the difference was not significant. Conclusion There was a linear reduction in mutans streptococci levels in plaque and saliva with increasing frequency of xylitol gum use at a constant daily dose. Reduction at a consumption frequency of 2 times per day was small and consistent with the linear-response line but was not statistically

  3. Investigations of a new nanostructured Si-material by spectral response and electron paramagnetic resonance

    Kuznicki, Z.T.; Ley, M. [Laboratoire PHASE, CNRS UPR 292, 23 rue du Loess, F-67037 Strasbourg cedex 2 (France); Turek, P.; Bernard, M. [Institut Charles Sadron, CNRS UPR 22, 6 rue Boussingault, F-67083 Strasbourg cedex (France)

    2002-08-01

    Electron spin resonance (or electron paramagnetic resonance) was applied to analyze multi-interface solar cells with an active amorphized substructure inserted in the emitter. The nanostructure was realized by P ion implantation followed by an adequate thermal treatment to yield very sharp a-Si/c-Si heterointerfaces. The authors have investigated especially the substructure and the transition zones between the two Si phases, which is particularly interesting because of the stress induced by the density difference of the two Si phases. (Abstract Copyright[2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  4. Inhibition linearizes firing rate responses in human motor units: implications for the role of persistent inward currents.

    Revill, Ann L; Fuglevand, Andrew J

    2017-01-01

    Motor neurons are the output neurons of the central nervous system and are responsible for controlling muscle contraction. When initially activated during voluntary contraction, firing rates of motor neurons increase steeply but then level out at modest rates. Activation of an intrinsic source of excitatory current at recruitment onset may underlie the initial steep increase in firing rate in motor neurons. We attempted to disable this intrinsic excitatory current by artificially activating an inhibitory reflex. When motor neuron activity was recorded while the inhibitory reflex was engaged, firing rates no longer increased steeply, suggesting that the intrinsic excitatory current was probably responsible for the initial sharp rise in motor neuron firing rate. During graded isometric contractions, motor unit (MU) firing rates increase steeply upon recruitment but then level off at modest rates even though muscle force continues to increase. The mechanisms underlying such firing behaviour are not known although activation of persistent inward currents (PICs) might be involved. PICs are intrinsic, voltage-dependent currents that activate strongly when motor neurons (MNs) are first recruited. Such activation might cause a sharp escalation in depolarizing current and underlie the steep initial rise in MU firing rate. Because PICs can be disabled with synaptic inhibition, we hypothesized that artificial activation of an inhibitory pathway might curb this initial steep rise in firing rate. To test this, human subjects performed slow triangular ramp contractions of the ankle dorsiflexors in the absence and presence of tonic synaptic inhibition delivered to tibialis anterior (TA) MNs by sural nerve stimulation. Firing rate profiles (expressed as a function of contraction force) of TA MUs recorded during these tasks were compared for control and stimulation conditions. Under control conditions, during the ascending phase of the triangular contractions, 93% of the firing

  5. Predictive factors for pelvic magnetic resonance in response to arterial embolization of a uterine leiomyoma

    Eduardo Zlotnik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Minimally invasive methods are used as alternatives to treat leiomyomas and include uterine artery embolization, which has emerged as a safe, effective method. This study aims to evaluate the magnetic resonance imaging predictors for a reduction in leiomyoma volume in patients undergoing uterine artery embolization. METHODS: This prospective longitudinal study was performed at a university hospital. We followed 50 symptomatic premenopausal women with uterine leiomyomas who underwent uterine artery embolization. We examined 179 leiomyomas among these patients. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed one month before and six months after uterine artery embolization. Two radiologists who specialized in abdominal imaging independently interpreted the images. Main Outcome Measures: The magnetic resonance imaging parameters were the uterus and leiomyomas volumes, their localizations, contrast perfusion pattern and node-to-muscle ratio. RESULTS: Six months after treatment, the average uterine volume reduction was 38.91%, and the leiomyomas were reduced by 55.23%. When the leiomyomas were submucosal and/or had a higher node-to-muscle ratio in the T2 images, the volume reduction was even greater (greater than 50%. Other parameters showed no association. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that symptomatic uterine leiomyomas in patients undergoing uterine artery embolization exhibit volume reductions greater than 50% by magnetic resonance imaging when the leiomyomas are submucosal and/or had a high node-to-muscle ratio in the T2 images.

  6. Regenerative feedback resonant circuit

    Jones, A. Mark; Kelly, James F.; McCloy, John S.; McMakin, Douglas L.

    2014-09-02

    A regenerative feedback resonant circuit for measuring a transient response in a loop is disclosed. The circuit includes an amplifier for generating a signal in the loop. The circuit further includes a resonator having a resonant cavity and a material located within the cavity. The signal sent into the resonator produces a resonant frequency. A variation of the resonant frequency due to perturbations in electromagnetic properties of the material is measured.

  7. Non-LTE modeling of the radiative properties of high-Z plasma using linear response methodology

    Foord, Mark; Harte, Judy; Scott, Howard

    2017-10-01

    Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) atomic processes play a key role in the radiation flow and energetics in highly ionized high temperature plasma encountered in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and astrophysical applications. Modeling complex high-Z atomic systems, such as gold used in ICF hohlraums, is particularly challenging given the complexity and intractable number of atomic states involved. Practical considerations, i.e. speed and memory, in large radiation-hydrodynamic simulations further limit model complexity. We present here a methodology for utilizing tabulated NLTE radiative and EOS properties for use in our radiation-hydrodynamic codes. This approach uses tabulated data, previously calculated with complex atomic models, modified to include a general non-Planckian radiation field using a linear response methodology. This approach extends near-LTE response method to conditions far from LTE. Comparisons of this tabular method with in-line NLTE simulations of a laser heated 1-D hohlraum will be presented, which show good agreement in the time-evolution of the plasma conditions. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Dept. of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  8. Linear Discriminant Analysis achieves high classification accuracy for the BOLD fMRI response to naturalistic movie stimuli.

    Hendrik eMandelkow

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Naturalistic stimuli like movies evoke complex perceptual processes, which are of great interest in the study of human cognition by functional MRI (fMRI. However, conventional fMRI analysis based on statistical parametric mapping (SPM and the general linear model (GLM is hampered by a lack of accurate parametric models of the BOLD response to complex stimuli. In this situation, statistical machine-learning methods, a.k.a. multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA, have received growing attention for their ability to generate stimulus response models in a data-driven fashion. However, machine-learning methods typically require large amounts of training data as well as computational resources. In the past this has largely limited their application to fMRI experiments involving small sets of stimulus categories and small regions of interest in the brain. By contrast, the present study compares several classification algorithms known as Nearest Neighbour (NN, Gaussian Naïve Bayes (GNB, and (regularised Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA in terms of their classification accuracy in discriminating the global fMRI response patterns evoked by a large number of naturalistic visual stimuli presented as a movie.Results show that LDA regularised by principal component analysis (PCA achieved high classification accuracies, above 90% on average for single fMRI volumes acquired 2s apart during a 300s movie (chance level 0.7% = 2s/300s. The largest source of classification errors were autocorrelations in the BOLD signal compounded by the similarity of consecutive stimuli. All classifiers performed best when given input features from a large region of interest comprising around 25% of the voxels that responded significantly to the visual stimulus. Consistent with this, the most informative principal components represented widespread distributions of co-activated brain regions that were similar between subjects and may represent functional networks. In light of these

  9. Critical dose threshold for TL dose response non-linearity: Dependence on the method of analysis: It’s not only the data

    Datz, H.; Horowitz, Y.S.; Oster, L.; Margaliot, M.

    2011-01-01

    It is demonstrated that the method of data analysis, i.e., the method of the phenomenological/theoretical interpretation of dose response data, can greatly influence the estimation of the onset of deviation from dose response linearity of the high temperature thermoluminescence in LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100).

  10. Dryland responses to global change suggest the potential for rapid non-linear responses to some changes but resilience to others

    Reed, S.; Ferrenberg, S.; Tucker, C.; Rutherford, W. A.; Wertin, T. M.; McHugh, T. A.; Morrissey, E.; Kuske, C.; Belnap, J.

    2017-12-01

    Drylands represent our planet's largest terrestrial biome, making up over 35% of Earth's land surface. In the context of this vast areal extent, it is no surprise that recent research suggests dryland inter-annual variability and responses to change have the potential to drive biogeochemical cycles and climate at the global-scale. Further, the data we do have suggest drylands can respond rapidly and non-linearly to change. Nevertheless, our understanding of the cross-system consistency of and mechanisms behind dryland responses to a changed environment remains relatively poor. This poor understanding hinders not only our larger understanding of terrestrial ecosystem function, but also our capacity to forecast future global biogeochemical cycles and climate. Here we present data from a series of Colorado Plateau manipulation experiments - including climate, land use, and nitrogen deposition manipulations - to explore how vascular plants, microbial communities, and biological soil crusts (a community of mosses, lichens, and/or cyanobacteria living in the interspace among vascular plants in arid and semiarid ecosystems worldwide) respond to a host of environmental changes. These responses include not only assessments of community composition, but of their function as well. We will explore photosynthesis, net soil CO2 exchange, soil carbon stocks and chemistry, albedo, and nutrient cycling. The experiments were begun with independent questions and cover a range of environmental change drivers and scientific approaches, but together offer a relatively holistic picture of how some drylands can change their structure and function in response to change. In particular, the data show very high ecosystem vulnerability to particular drivers, but surprising resilience to others, suggesting a multi-faceted response of these diverse systems.

  11. Kinetic analysis of synthetic analogues of linear-epitope peptides of glycoprotein D of herpes simplex virus type 1 by surface plasmon resonance

    Lasonder, E; Schellekens, GA; Koedijk, DGAM; Damhof, RA; WellingWester, S; Feijlbrief, M; Scheffer, AJ; Welling, GW

    1996-01-01

    The interaction between mAb A16 and glycoprorein D (gD) of herpes simplex virus type 1 was analyzed by studying the kinetics of binding with a surface-plasmon-resonance biosensor. mAb A16 belongs to group VII antibodies, which recognize residues 11-19 of gD. In a previous study, three critical

  12. Non-Linear Relationships between Aflatoxin B1 Levels and the Biological Response of Monkey Kidney Vero Cells

    Mendel Friedman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin-producing fungi contaminate food and feed during pre-harvest, storage and processing periods. Once consumed, aflatoxins (AFs accumulate in tissues, causing illnesses in animals and humans. Most human exposure to AF seems to be a result of consumption of contaminated plant and animal products. The policy of blending and dilution of grain containing higher levels of aflatoxins with uncontaminated grains for use in animal feed implicitly assumes that the deleterious effects of low levels of the toxins are linearly correlated to concentration. This assumption may not be justified, since it involves extrapolation of these nontoxic levels in feed, which are not of further concern. To develop a better understanding of the significance of low dose effects, in the present study, we developed quantitative methods for the detection of biologically active aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 in Vero cells by two independent assays: the green fluorescent protein (GFP assay, as a measure of protein synthesis by the cells, and the microculture tetrazolium (MTT assay, as a measure of cell viability. The results demonstrate a non-linear dose-response relationship at the cellular level. AFB1 at low concentrations has an opposite biological effect to higher doses that inhibit protein synthesis. Additional studies showed that heat does not affect the stability of AFB1 in milk and that the Vero cell model can be used to determine the presence of bioactive AFB1 in spiked beef, lamb and turkey meat. The implication of the results for the cumulative effects of low amounts of AFB1 in numerous foods is discussed.

  13. Nonlinear resonances

    Rajasekar, Shanmuganathan

    2016-01-01

    This introductory text presents the basic aspects and most important features of various types of resonances and anti-resonances in dynamical systems. In particular, for each resonance, it covers the theoretical concepts, illustrates them with case studies, and reviews the available information on mechanisms, characterization, numerical simulations, experimental realizations, possible quantum analogues, applications and significant advances made over the years. Resonances are one of the most fundamental phenomena exhibited by nonlinear systems and refer to specific realizations of maximum response of a system due to the ability of that system to store and transfer energy received from an external forcing source. Resonances are of particular importance in physical, engineering and biological systems - they can prove to be advantageous in many applications, while leading to instability and even disasters in others. The book is self-contained, providing the details of mathematical derivations and techniques invo...

  14. Resonant magnetoelectric response of cantilevers with magnetostrictive and piezoelectric layers on opposite sides of the substrate

    Matthias C. Krantz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A theory is derived for the bending-mode magnetoelectric coefficients at resonance for magnetostrictive and piezoelectric layers on opposite sides of a substrate. Results are given for the transverse ME coefficient in the Metglas-Si-AlN system with magnetic field excitation parallel and electric polarization perpendicular to the cantilever. The center-substrate layer sequence is found to produce about 50 % enhancement of the magnetoelectric effect compared to magnetoelectric bilayers on one side of a substrate. Up to about 10 % additional enhancement of the ME effect is predicted if the magnetostrictive and piezoelectric layers are separated from the substrate by spacer layers with lower Youngs modulus. Lowest order bending mode resonance frequencies are given.

  15. Nonlinear Response of Vibrational Conveyers with Nonideal Vibration Exciter: Superharmonic and Subharmonic Resonance

    H. Bayıroğlu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibrational conveyers with a centrifugal vibration exciter transmit their load based on the jumping method. Common unbalanced-mass driver oscillates the trough. The motion is strictly related to the vibrational parameters. The transition over resonance of a vibratory system, excited by rotating unbalances, is important in terms of the maximum vibrational amplitude produced and the power demand on the drive for the crossover. The mechanical system is driven by the DC motor. In this study, the working ranges of oscillating shaking conveyers with nonideal vibration exciter have been analyzed analytically for superharmonic and subharmonic resonances by the method of multiple scales and numerically. The analytical results obtained in this study agree well with the numerical results.

  16. Ferromagnetic resonance response of electron-beam patterned arrays of ferromagnetic nanoparticles

    Jung, Sukkoo; Watkins, Byron; Feller, Jeffrey; Ketterson, John; Chandrasekhar, Venkat

    2001-03-01

    We report on the fabrication and the dynamic magnetic properties of periodic permalloy dot arrays. Electron-beam lithography and e-gun evaporation have been used to make the arrays with the aspect ratio of 2 (dot diameter : 40 nm, height : 80 nm) and periods of 100 - 200 nm. The magnetic properties of the arrays and their interactions have been investigated by ferromagnetic resonance (FMR), magnetic force microscopy (MFM), and SQUID magnetometry. The measured FMR data show that the position and magnitude of resonant absorption peaks strongly depend on the angle between magnetic field and the lattice structure. The results of dot arrays with various kinds of structural parameters will be presented. Supported by Army Research Office, DAAD19-99-1-0334/P001

  17. Enhancement of the thermo-optical response of silver nanoparticles due to surface plasmon resonance

    Hashemi Zadeh, Sakineh; Rashidi-Huyeh, Majid; Palpant, Bruno

    2017-10-01

    Owing to their remarkable optical properties, noble metals' nanoparticles are proposed for many applications. Controlling the temperature dependence of these properties may then appear to be of great relevance. In this paper, we investigate the thermo-optical properties of silver nanoparticles. Different silver nanocolloids were prepared with different surface plasmon resonance modes. The thermo-extinction spectra of the colloidal solutions were then evaluated by measuring the extinction spectra at different temperatures. This reveals a typical peak-valley profile around each surface plasmon resonance mode. Mie theory was used to study theoretically the impact of nanoparticle size on the thermo-optical properties. The results allow us to interpret properly the experimental findings.

  18. Toroidal modeling of plasma response and resonant magnetic perturbation field penetration

    Liu, Y.Q.; Kirk, A.; Sun, Y.; Cahyna, Pavel; Chapman, I.T.; Denner, P.; Fishpool, G.; Garofalo, A.M.; Harrison, J.R.; Nardon, E.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 12 (2012), s. 124013-124013 ISSN 0741-3335 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : tokamak * resonant magnetic perturbation * neoclassical toroidal viscosity Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.369, year: 2012 http://iopscience.iop.org/0741-3335/54/12/124013/pdf/0741-3335_54_12_124013.pdf

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging in spondyloarthritis--how to quantify findings and measure response

    Østergaard, Mikkel; Poggenborg, René Panduro; Axelsen, Mette Bjørndal

    2010-01-01

    Sensitive and reliable tools for monitoring disease activity and damage, and for prognostication, are essential in the management of patients with spondyloarthritis, including ankylosing spondylitis and psoriatic arthritis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows direct visualisation of inflammat...... and clinical practice. The present article reviews key aspects of the status and recent important advances in MRI in spondyloarthritis, focussing on available MRI tools for assessing activity and damage in peripheral and, particularly, axial joints....

  20. Tumor Volume Reduction Rate Measured by Magnetic Resonance Volumetry Correlated With Pathologic Tumor Response of Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy for Rectal Cancer

    Yeo, Seung-Gu; Kim, Dae Yong; Kim, Tae Hyun; Jung, Kyung Hae; Hong, Yong Sang; Chang, Hee Jin; Park, Ji Won; Lim, Seok-Byung; Choi, Hyo Seong; Jeong, Seung-Yong

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the tumor volume reduction rate (TVRR) measured using three-dimensional region-of-interest magnetic resonance volumetry correlates with the pathologic tumor response after preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for locally advanced rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: The study included 405 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (cT3-T4) who had undergone preoperative CRT and radical proctectomy. The tumor volume was measured using three-dimensional region-of-interest magnetic resonance volumetry before and after CRT but before surgery. We analyzed the correlation between the TVRR and the pathologic tumor response in terms of downstaging and tumor regression grade (TRG). Downstaging was defined as ypStage 0-I (ypT0-T2N0M0), and the TRG proposed by Dworak et al. was used. Results: The mean TVRR was 65.0% ± 22.3%. Downstaging and complete regression occurred in 167 (41.2%) and 58 (14.3%) patients, respectively. The TVRRs according to ypT classification (ypT0-T2 vs. ypT3-T4), ypN classification (ypN0 vs. ypN1-N2), downstaging (ypStage 0-I vs. ypStage II-III), good regression (TRG 3-4 vs. TRG 1-2), and complete regression (TRG 4 vs. TRG 1-3) were all significantly different (p 80%), the rates of ypT0-T2, ypN0, downstaging, and good regression were all significantly greater for patients with a TVRR of ≥60%, as was the complete regression rate for patients with a TVRR >80% (p <.05). Conclusion: The TVRR measured using three-dimensional region-of-interest magnetic resonance volumetry correlated significantly with the pathologic tumor response in terms of downstaging and TRG after preoperative CRT for locally advanced rectal cancer.

  1. Numerical simulation of plasma response to externally applied resonant magnetic perturbation on the J-TEXT tokamak

    Bicheng, LI; Zhonghe, JIANG; Jian, LV; Xiang, LI; Bo, RAO; Yonghua, DING

    2018-05-01

    Nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of an equilibrium on the J-TEXT tokamak with applied resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) are performed with NIMROD (non-ideal MHD with rotation, open discussion). Numerical simulation of plasma response to RMPs has been developed to investigate magnetic topology, plasma density and rotation profile. The results indicate that the pure applied RMPs can stimulate 2/1 mode as well as 3/1 mode by the toroidal mode coupling, and finally change density profile by particle transport. At the same time, plasma rotation plays an important role during the entire evolution process.

  2. Test input of radio-frequency power into the resonator mockup to the second part of the linear accelerator of a meson factory

    Andreev, V.G.; Belugin, V.M.; Galkin, V.M.

    1976-01-01

    On the experimental stand of the Radio Engineering Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR the accelerating structures for the second portion of the ''meson factory'' are researched. The test power input into the models of of the accelerating structures is accomplished from a powerful pulse klystron generator with external excitation and operating frequency of 991 MHz. The pulse duration of 140 μ s can be diminished as required during ageing of the resonator. The power is adjusted within wide limits. The wave-guide feeders measuring 220 104 terminate in the can-type sealing ports incorporating fused quartz discs and matching diaphragms. The standing wave coefficient in the feeder does not exceed 1.4. The temperature of the cooling water at the resonator input is kept stable. Under nominal conditions the average intensity of the electric field on the axis is 36 kV/cm, the pulse power of the r-f losses in the resonator is equal to 0.9 MW, the average power amounts to 11 kW

  3. Modeling ionospheric foF 2 response during geomagnetic storms using neural network and linear regression techniques

    Tshisaphungo, Mpho; Habarulema, John Bosco; McKinnell, Lee-Anne

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, the modeling of the ionospheric foF 2 changes during geomagnetic storms by means of neural network (NN) and linear regression (LR) techniques is presented. The results will lead to a valuable tool to model the complex ionospheric changes during disturbed days in an operational space weather monitoring and forecasting environment. The storm-time foF 2 data during 1996-2014 from Grahamstown (33.3°S, 26.5°E), South Africa ionosonde station was used in modeling. In this paper, six storms were reserved to validate the models and hence not used in the modeling process. We found that the performance of both NN and LR models is comparable during selected storms which fell within the data period (1996-2014) used in modeling. However, when validated on storm periods beyond 1996-2014, the NN model gives a better performance (R = 0.62) compared to LR model (R = 0.56) for a storm that reached a minimum Dst index of -155 nT during 19-23 December 2015. We also found that both NN and LR models are capable of capturing the ionospheric foF 2 responses during two great geomagnetic storms (28 October-1 November 2003 and 6-12 November 2004) which have been demonstrated to be difficult storms to model in previous studies.

  4. Non linear evolution of plasma waves excited to mode conversion at the vicinity of plasma resonance. Application to experiments of ionosphere modification

    Cros, Brigitte

    1989-01-01

    This research thesis reports the study of the non linear evolution of plasma waves excited by mode conversion in a non homogeneous, non collisional, and free-of-external-magnetic-field plasma. Experiments performed in the microwave domain in a plasma created by means of a multi-polar device show that the evolution of plasma waves displays a transition between a non linear quasi-steady regime and a stochastic regime when the power of incident electromagnetic waves or plasma gradient length is increased. These regimes are characterized through a numerical resolution of Zakharov equations which describe the coupled evolution of plasma wave envelope and low frequency density perturbations [fr

  5. Europium- and lithium-doped yttrium oxide nanocrystals that provide a linear emissive response with X-ray radiation exposure†

    Stanton, Ian N.; Belley, Matthew D.; Nguyen, Giao; Rodrigues, Anna; Li, Yifan; Kirsch, David G.; Yoshizumi, Terry T.

    2015-01-01

    Eu- and Li-doped yttrium oxide nanocrystals [Y2−xO3; Eux, Liy], in which Eu and Li dopant ion concentrations were systematically varied, were developed and characterized (TEM, XRD, Raman spectroscopic, UV-excited lifetime, and ICP-AES data) in order to define the most emissive compositions under specific X-ray excitation conditions. These optimized [Y2−xO3; Eux, Liy] compositions display scintillation responses that: (i) correlate linearly with incident radiation exposure at X-ray energies spanning from 40–220 kVp, and (ii) manifest no evidence of scintillation intensity saturation at the highest evaluated radiation exposures [up to 4 Roentgen per second]. For the most emissive nanoscale scintillator composition, [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16], excitation energies of 40, 120, and 220 kVp were chosen to probe the dependence of the integrated emission intensity upon X-ray exposure-rate in energy regimes having different mass-attenuation coefficients and where either the photoelectric or the Compton effect governs the scintillation mechanism. These experiments demonstrate for the first time for that for comparable radiation exposures, when the scintillation mechanism is governed by the photoelectric effect and a comparably larger mass-attenuation coefficient (120 kVp excitation), greater integrated emission intensities are recorded relative to excitation energies where the Compton effect regulates scintillation (220 kVp) in nanoscale [Y2−xO3; Eux] crystals. Nanoscale [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16] (70 ± 20 nm) was further exploited as a detector material in a prototype fiber-optic radiation sensor. The scintillation intensity from the [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16]-modified, 400 μm sized optical fiber tip, recorded using a CCD-photodetector and integrated over the 605–617 nm wavelength domain, was correlated with radiation exposure using a Precision XRAD 225Cx small-animal image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) system. For both 80 and 225 kVp energies, this radio transparent

  6. Resonant magnetoelectric response of composite cantilevers: Theory of short vs. open circuit operation and layer sequence effects

    Matthias C. Krantz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The magnetoelectric effect in layered composite cantilevers consisting of strain coupled layers of magnetostrictive (MS, piezoelectric (PE, and substrate materials is investigated for magnetic field excitation at bending resonance. Analytic theories are derived for the transverse magnetoelectric (ME response in short and open circuit operation for three different layer sequences and results presented and discussed for the FeCoBSi-AlN-Si and the FeCoBSi-PZT-Si composite systems. Response optimized PE-MS layer thickness ratios are found to greatly change with operation mode shifting from near equal MS and PE layer thicknesses in the open circuit mode to near vanishing PE layer thicknesses in short circuit operation for all layer sequences. In addition the substrate layer thickness is found to differently affect the open and short circuit ME response producing shifts and reversal between ME response maxima depending on layer sequence. The observed rich ME response behavior for different layer thicknesses, sequences, operating modes, and PE materials can be explained by common neutral plane effects and different elastic compliance effects in short and open circuit operation.

  7. Europium- and lithium-doped yttrium oxide nanocrystals that provide a linear emissive response with X-ray radiation exposure

    Stanton, Ian N.; Belley, Matthew D.; Nguyen, Giao; Rodrigues, Anna; Li, Yifan; Kirsch, David G.; Yoshizumi, Terry T.; Therien, Michael J.

    2014-04-01

    Eu- and Li-doped yttrium oxide nanocrystals [Y2-xO3 Eux, Liy], in which Eu and Li dopant ion concentrations were systematically varied, were developed and characterized (TEM, XRD, Raman spectroscopic, UV-excited lifetime, and ICP-AES data) in order to define the most emissive compositions under specific X-ray excitation conditions. These optimized [Y2-xO3 Eux, Liy] compositions display scintillation responses that: (i) correlate linearly with incident radiation exposure at X-ray energies spanning from 40-220 kVp, and (ii) manifest no evidence of scintillation intensity saturation at the highest evaluated radiation exposures [up to 4 Roentgen per second]. For the most emissive nanoscale scintillator composition, [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16], excitation energies of 40, 120, and 220 kVp were chosen to probe the dependence of the integrated emission intensity upon X-ray exposure-rate in energy regimes having different mass-attenuation coefficients and where either the photoelectric or the Compton effect governs the scintillation mechanism. These experiments demonstrate for the first time for that for comparable radiation exposures, when the scintillation mechanism is governed by the photoelectric effect and a comparably larger mass-attenuation coefficient (120 kVp excitation), greater integrated emission intensities are recorded relative to excitation energies where the Compton effect regulates scintillation (220 kVp) in nanoscale [Y2-xO3 Eux] crystals. Nanoscale [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16] (70 +/- 20 nm) was further exploited as a detector material in a prototype fiber-optic radiation sensor. The scintillation intensity from the [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16]-modified, 400 μm sized optical fiber tip, recorded using a CCD-photodetector and integrated over the 605-617 nm wavelength domain, was correlated with radiation exposure using a Precision XRAD 225Cx small-animal image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) system. For both 80 and 225 kVp energies, this radiotransparent device recorded

  8. Nested generalized linear mixed model with ordinal response: Simulation and application on poverty data in Java Island

    Widyaningsih, Yekti; Saefuddin, Asep; Notodiputro, Khairil A.; Wigena, Aji H.

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this research is to build a nested generalized linear mixed model using an ordinal response variable with some covariates. There are three main jobs in this paper, i.e. parameters estimation procedure, simulation, and implementation of the model for the real data. At the part of parameters estimation procedure, concepts of threshold, nested random effect, and computational algorithm are described. The simulations data are built for 3 conditions to know the effect of different parameter values of random effect distributions. The last job is the implementation of the model for the data about poverty in 9 districts of Java Island. The districts are Kuningan, Karawang, and Majalengka chose randomly in West Java; Temanggung, Boyolali, and Cilacap from Central Java; and Blitar, Ngawi, and Jember from East Java. The covariates in this model are province, number of bad nutrition cases, number of farmer families, and number of health personnel. In this modeling, all covariates are grouped as ordinal scale. Unit observation in this research is sub-district (kecamatan) nested in district, and districts (kabupaten) are nested in province. For the result of simulation, ARB (Absolute Relative Bias) and RRMSE (Relative Root of mean square errors) scale is used. They show that prov parameters have the highest bias, but more stable RRMSE in all conditions. The simulation design needs to be improved by adding other condition, such as higher correlation between covariates. Furthermore, as the result of the model implementation for the data, only number of farmer family and number of medical personnel have significant contributions to the level of poverty in Central Java and East Java province, and only district 2 (Karawang) of province 1 (West Java) has different random effect from the others. The source of the data is PODES (Potensi Desa) 2008 from BPS (Badan Pusat Statistik).

  9. Yield response of winter wheat cultivars to environments modeled by different variance-covariance structures in linear mixed models

    Studnicki, M.; Mądry, W.; Noras, K.; Wójcik-Gront, E.; Gacek, E.

    2016-11-01

    The main objectives of multi-environmental trials (METs) are to assess cultivar adaptation patterns under different environmental conditions and to investigate genotype by environment (G×E) interactions. Linear mixed models (LMMs) with more complex variance-covariance structures have become recognized and widely used for analyzing METs data. Best practice in METs analysis is to carry out a comparison of competing models with different variance-covariance structures. Improperly chosen variance-covariance structures may lead to biased estimation of means resulting in incorrect conclusions. In this work we focused on adaptive response of cultivars on the environments modeled by the LMMs with different variance-covariance structures. We identified possible limitations of inference when using an inadequate variance-covariance structure. In the presented study we used the dataset on grain yield for 63 winter wheat cultivars, evaluated across 18 locations, during three growing seasons (2008/2009-2010/2011) from the Polish Post-registration Variety Testing System. For the evaluation of variance-covariance structures and the description of cultivars adaptation to environments, we calculated adjusted means for the combination of cultivar and location in models with different variance-covariance structures. We concluded that in order to fully describe cultivars adaptive patterns modelers should use the unrestricted variance-covariance structure. The restricted compound symmetry structure may interfere with proper interpretation of cultivars adaptive patterns. We found, that the factor-analytic structure is also a good tool to describe cultivars reaction on environments, and it can be successfully used in METs data after determining the optimal component number for each dataset. (Author)

  10. Linear and nonlinear characteristics of the runoff response to regional climate factors in the Qira River basin, Xinjiang, Northwest China

    Jie Xue

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The inland river watersheds of arid Northwest China represent an example of how, in recent times, climatic warming has increased the complexity of Earth’s hydrological processes. In the present study, the linear and nonlinear characteristics of the runoff response to temperature and precipitation were investigated in the Qira River basin, located on the northern slope of the Kunlun Mountains. The results showed that average temperature on annual and seasonal scales has displayed a significantly increasing trend, but this has not been reflected in accumulated precipitation and runoff. Using path analysis, a positive link between precipitation and runoff was found both annually and in the summer season. Conversely, it was found that the impact of temperature on runoff has been negative since the 1960s, attributable to higher evaporation and infiltration in the Qira River basin. Over the past 50 years, abrupt changes in annual temperature, precipitation and runoff occurred in 1997, 1987 and 1995, respectively. Combined with analysis using the correlation dimension method, it was found that the temperature, precipitation and runoff, both annually and seasonally, possessed chaotic dynamic characteristics, implying that complex hydro-climatic processes must be introduced into other variables within models to describe the dynamics. In addition, as determined via rescaled range analysis, a consistent annual and seasonal decreasing trend in runoff under increasing temperature and precipitation conditions in the future should be taken into account. This work may provide a theoretical perspective that can be applied to the proper use and management of oasis water resources in the lower reaches of river basins like that of the Qira River.

  11. Linear and nonlinear characteristics of the runoff response to regional climate factors in the Qira River basin, Xinjiang, Northwest China.

    Xue, Jie; Gui, Dongwei

    2015-01-01

    The inland river watersheds of arid Northwest China represent an example of how, in recent times, climatic warming has increased the complexity of Earth's hydrological processes. In the present study, the linear and nonlinear characteristics of the runoff response to temperature and precipitation were investigated in the Qira River basin, located on the northern slope of the Kunlun Mountains. The results showed that average temperature on annual and seasonal scales has displayed a significantly increasing trend, but this has not been reflected in accumulated precipitation and runoff. Using path analysis, a positive link between precipitation and runoff was found both annually and in the summer season. Conversely, it was found that the impact of temperature on runoff has been negative since the 1960s, attributable to higher evaporation and infiltration in the Qira River basin. Over the past 50 years, abrupt changes in annual temperature, precipitation and runoff occurred in 1997, 1987 and 1995, respectively. Combined with analysis using the correlation dimension method, it was found that the temperature, precipitation and runoff, both annually and seasonally, possessed chaotic dynamic characteristics, implying that complex hydro-climatic processes must be introduced into other variables within models to describe the dynamics. In addition, as determined via rescaled range analysis, a consistent annual and seasonal decreasing trend in runoff under increasing temperature and precipitation conditions in the future should be taken into account. This work may provide a theoretical perspective that can be applied to the proper use and management of oasis water resources in the lower reaches of river basins like that of the Qira River.

  12. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of human hypothalamic responses to sweet taste and calories

    Smeets, P.A.M.; Graaf, C. de; Stafleu, A.; Osch, M.J.P. van; Grond, J. van der

    2005-01-01

    Background: Evidence exists that beverages do not trigger appropriate anticipatory physiologic responses, such as cephalic phase insulin release. Therefore, it is of interest to elucidate the food properties necessary for triggering adaptive responses. Previously, we found a prolonged dose-dependent

  13. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of human hypothalamic responses to sweet taste and calories

    Smeets, P.A.M.; Graaf, de C.; Stafleu, A.; Osch, M.J.P.; Grond, van der J.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence exists that beverages do not trigger appropriate anticipatory physiologic responses, such as cephalic phase insulin release. Therefore, it is of interest to elucidate the food properties necessary for triggering adaptive responses. Previously, we found a prolonged dose-dependent

  14. Radiation response of hydrated urea evaluated using 14N nuclear quadrupole resonance

    Hintenlang, D.E.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper Nitrogen-14 nuclear quadrupole resonance is utilized to detect radiation-induced changes in urea over the 0- to 300-Gy dose range. The spin-spin relaxation time exhibits a consistent change as a function of delivered dose in hydrated urea under exposure to 60 Co gamma radiation. No changes to the spin-spin relaxation time are observed in urea samples that were not hydrated. The radiation-induced changes are attributed to indirect radiation interactions with the water surrounding the urea molecules and are explained by the formation of subtle changes in the electron bonding configurations surrounding the 14 N nuclei, not major structural rearrangements. These subtle changes may provide additional insight into the effects of ionizing radiation on biological systems

  15. Study of horizontal-vertical interactive Sway Rocking (SR) model for basemat uplift. Part 2: non-linear response analysis and validation

    Momma, T.; Shirahama, K.; Suzuki, K.; Ogihara, M.

    1995-01-01

    Non-linear earthquake response analyses of a BWR MARK-II type nuclear reactor building are conducted by using a Sway Rocking model (SR model) proposed in Part 1 considering the interaction between horizontal and vertical motion. The results are compared with those of accurate mathematical model using the Green Function method. Horizontal response of the SR model agrees very well with that of the Green Function model. The floor response spectra of induced vertical motions by both methods are also corresponding well in periodic characteristics as well as peak-levels. From these results, it is confirmed that the horizontal-vertical interactive SR model is applicable to non-linear response analyses considering basemat uplift. Based on the comparison of the induced vertical motions due to basemat uplift by both methods, an application limit of the horizontal-vertical interactive SR model is set up at the ground contact ratio of about 50%. (author). 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  16. The temperature dependence of giant resonances in high-excited nucleus

    Li Ming; Song Hongqiu

    1991-01-01

    The Hartree-Fock equation and the linear response theory in finite temperature are used to calculate the positions and transition strenghths of the giant resonances of high-excited nucleus Pb 208 . The result shows a downward shift and a broadening of the giant resonance energies as temperatrue increases

  17. Magnetic resonance metabolic profiling of breast cancer tissue obtained with core needle biopsy for predicting pathologic response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    Ji Soo Choi

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether metabolic profiling of core needle biopsy (CNB samples using high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS could be used for predicting pathologic response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC in patients with locally advanced breast cancer. After institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained, CNB tissue samples were collected from 37 malignant lesions in 37 patients before NAC treatment. The metabolic profiling of CNB samples were performed by HR-MAS MRS. Metabolic profiles were compared according to pathologic response to NAC using the Mann-Whitney test. Multivariate analysis was performed with orthogonal projections to latent structure-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA. Various metabolites including choline-containing compounds were identified and quantified by HR-MAS MRS in all 37 breast cancer tissue samples obtained by CNB. In univariate analysis, the metabolite concentrations and metabolic ratios of CNB samples obtained with HR-MAS MRS were not significantly different between different pathologic response groups. However, there was a trend of lower levels of phosphocholine/creatine ratio and choline-containing metabolite concentrations in the pathologic complete response group compared to the non-pathologic complete response group. In multivariate analysis, the OPLS-DA models built with HR-MAS MR metabolic profiles showed visible discrimination between the pathologic response groups. This study showed OPLS-DA multivariate analysis using metabolic profiles of pretreatment CNB samples assessed by HR- MAS MRS may be used to predict pathologic response before NAC, although we did not identify the metabolite showing statistical significance in univariate analysis. Therefore, our preliminary results raise the necessity of further study on HR-MAS MR metabolic profiling of CNB samples for a large number of cancers.

  18. Natural excitation orbitals from linear response theories : Time-dependent density functional theory, time-dependent Hartree-Fock, and time-dependent natural orbital functional theory

    Van Meer, R.; Gritsenko, O. V.; Baerends, E. J.

    2017-01-01

    Straightforward interpretation of excitations is possible if they can be described as simple single orbital-to-orbital (or double, etc.) transitions. In linear response time-dependent density functional theory (LR-TDDFT), the (ground state) Kohn-Sham orbitals prove to be such an orbital basis. In

  19. Lysis solution composition and non-linear dose-response to ionizing radiation in the non-denaturing DNA filter elution technique

    Radford, I.R.

    1990-01-01

    The suggestion by Okayasu and Iliakis (1989) that the non-linear dose-response curve, obtained with the non-denaturing filter elution technique for mammalian cells exposed to low-LET radiation, is the result of a technical artefact, was not confirmed. (author)

  20. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging: biomarker for treatment response in oncology

    Maria Luiza Testa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors report a case where a quantitative assessment of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC of liver metastasis in a patient undergoing chemotherapy has shown to be an effective early marker for predicting therapeutic response, anticipating changes in tumor size. A lesion with lower initial ADC value and early increase in such value in the course of the treatment tends to present a better therapeutic response.

  1. Superconducting linear accelerator system for NSC

    59, No. 5. — journal of. November 2002 physics pp. 849–858. Superconducting linear accelerator system for NSC ... cryogenics facility, RF electronics development, facilities for fabricating niobium resonators indige- ... Prototype resonator was.

  2. Locally Advanced Prostate Cancer: Three-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy to Monitor Prostate Response to Therapy

    Valentini, Anna Lia; Gui, Benedetta; D’Agostino, Giuseppe Roberto; Mattiucci, Giancarlo; Clementi, Valeria; Di Molfetta, Ippolita Valentina; Bonomo, Pierluigi; Mantini, Giovanna

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To correlate results of three-dimensional magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels and time since external beam irradiation (EBRT) in patients treated with long-term hormone therapy (HT) and EBRT for locally advanced disease to verify successful treatment by documenting the achievement of metabolic atrophy (MA). Methods and Materials: Between 2006 and 2008, 109 patients were consecutively enrolled. MA was assessed by choline and citrate peak area-to-noise-ratio 1.5:1 or choline signal-to-noise-ratio >5:1. To test the strength of association between MRSI results and the time elapsed since EBRT (TEFRT), PSA levels, Gleason score (GS), and stage, logistic regression (LR) was performed. p value 2 years. MA was detected in 54.1% of patients of group 1, 88.9% of group 2, and in 94.5% of group 3 (100% when PSA nadir was reached). CM was detected in 50% of patients with reached PSA nadir in group 1. Local relapse was found in 3 patients previously showing CM at long TEFRT. Conclusion: MA detection, indicative of successful treatment because growth of normal or abnormal cells cannot occur without metabolism, increases with decreasing PSA levels and increasing time on HT after EBRT. This supports long-term HT in advanced prostate cancer. Larger study series are needed to assess whether MRSI could predict local relapse by detecting CM at long TEFRT.

  3. Hepatic fat quantification magnetic resonance for monitoring treatment response in pediatric nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    Koh, Hong; Kim, Seung; Kim, Myung-Joon; Kim, Hyun Gi; Shin, Hyun Joo; Lee, Mi-Jung

    2015-09-07

    To evaluate the possibility of treatment effect monitoring using hepatic fat quantification magnetic resonance (MR) in pediatric nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients who received educational recommendations and vitamin E for NASH and underwent hepatic fat quantification MR from 2011 to 2013. Hepatic fat fraction (%) was measured using dual- and triple-echo gradient-recalled-echo sequences at 3T. The compliant and non-compliant groups were compared clinically, biochemically, and radiologically. Twenty seven patients (M:F = 24:3; mean age: 12 ± 2.3 years) were included (compliant group = 22, non-compliant = 5). None of the baseline findings differed between the 2 groups, except for triglyceride level (compliant vs non-compliant, 167.7 mg/dL vs 74.2 mg/dL, P = 0.001). In the compliant group, high-density lipoprotein increased and all other parameters decreased after 1-year follow-up. However, there were various changes in the non-compliant group. Dual-echo fat fraction (-19.2% vs 4.6, P fat fraction (-13.4% vs 3.5, P fat fraction showed a positive correlation (ρ = 0.418, P = 0.030). Hepatic fat quantification MR can be a non-invasive, quantitative and useful tool for monitoring treatment effects in pediatric NASH.

  4. Waveguide resonance mode response of stacked structures of metallic sub-wavelength slit arrays

    Tokuda, Yasunori; Takano, Keisuke; Sakaguchi, Koichiro; Kato, Kosaku; Nakajima, Makoto; Akiyama, Koichi

    2018-05-01

    Detailed measurements of the optical properties of two-tier systems composed of metallic plates perforated with periodic sub-wavelength slit patterns were carried out using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. We demonstrate that the transmission properties observed experimentally for various configurations can be reproduced successfully by simulations based on the finite-differential time-domain method. Fabry-Perot-like waveguide resonance mode behaviors specific to this quasi-dielectric system were then investigated. For structures with no lateral displacement between the slit-array plates, mode disappearance phenomena, which are caused by destructive interference between the odd-order mode and the blue- or red-shifted even-order modes, were observed experimentally. The uncommon behavior of the even-order modes was examined precisely to explain the slit-width dependence. For structures with half-pitched displacement between the plates, extraordinarily strong transmission was observed experimentally, even when the optical paths were shut off. This result was interpreted in terms of the propagation of surface plasmon polaritons through very thin and labyrinthine spacings that inevitably exist between the metallic plates. Furthermore, the optical mode disappearance phenomena are revealed to be characterized by anticrossing of the two mixing modes formed by even- and odd-order modes. These experimental observations that are supported theoretically are indispensable to the practical use of this type of artificial dielectric and are expected to encourage interest in optical mode behaviors that are not typically observed in conventional dielectric systems.

  5. In situ nuclear magnetic resonance response of permafrost and active layer soil in boreal and tundra ecosystems

    M. A. Kass

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of permafrost, particularly warm and near-surface permafrost which can contain significant liquid water, is critical to understanding complex interrelationships with climate change, ecosystems, and disturbances such as wildfires. Understanding the vulnerability and resilience of permafrost requires an interdisciplinary approach, relying on (for example geophysical investigations, ecological characterization, direct observations, remote sensing, and more. As part of a multiyear investigation into the impacts of wildfires on permafrost, we have collected in situ measurements of the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR response of the active layer and permafrost in a variety of soil conditions, types, and saturations. In this paper, we summarize the NMR data and present quantitative relationships between active layer and permafrost liquid water content and pore sizes and show the efficacy of borehole NMR (bNMR to permafrost studies. Through statistical analyses and synthetic freezing simulations, we also demonstrate that borehole NMR is sensitive to the nucleation of ice within soil pore spaces.

  6. Response of the 1P0 resonance near n = 3 in the H- continuum to external electric fields

    Cohen, S.

    1986-05-01

    The response to external electric fields of the 1 P 0 resonance in the H - photodetachment continuum below the n = 3 hydrogenic excitation threshold is investigated. Using the relativistic (β = 0.806) 650 MeV H - beam at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) in Los Alamos, the fourth harmonic (2.66 nm) of a Nd:YAG laser is Doppler shifted to provide a continuously tunable photon beam in the rest frame of the ions. The magnetic field from pulsed Helmholtz coils, surrounding the photon-H - interaction point provides a Lorentz-transformed barycentric electric field. Relative total photodetachment cross sections were measured as a function of photon energy and electric field. The resulting spectra were fit to a Fano line shape. 70 refs., 28 figs., 7 tabs

  7. Study of small partial-wave contributions in the neighbourhood of dominating resonance states of the proton by linearly polarized photons; Untersuchung kleiner Partialwellenbeitraege in der Naehe dominierender Resonanzzustaende des Protons mit linear polarisierten Photonen

    Elsner, D.

    2007-04-15

    The reaction p(e, e'p){pi}{sup 0} has been studied at Q{sup 2}=0.2 (GeV/c){sup 2} in the region of W=1232 MeV. From measurements left and right of (vector)q cross section asymmetries {rho}{sub LT} have been obtained in forward {rho}{sub LT}({theta}{sub {pi}{sup 0}}{sup cm}=20 )=(-11.68{+-}2.36{sub stat}{+-}2.36{sub sys}) and backward {rho}{sub LT}({theta}{sub {pi}}{sub {sup 0}}{sup cm}=160)=(12.18{+-}0.27{sub stat}{+-}0.82{sub sys}) {pi}{sup 0} kinematics, from which R{l_brace}S{sub 1+}{sup *}M{sub 1+}{r_brace}/ vertical stroke M{sub 1+} vertical stroke {sup 2} and R{l_brace}S{sub 0+}{sup *}M{sub 1+}{r_brace}/ vertical stroke M{sub 1+} vertical stroke {sup 2} could be determined. Using linear polarised tagged photon beams of energy up to E{sub {gamma}}{approx_equal}1.5 GeV the photon beam asymmetry {sigma} has been measured in the reaction p((vector){gamma}, {eta})p. Based on coherent bremsstrahlung off a diamond crystal a maximum polarisation of P{sub {gamma}}=49% has been achieved at E{sub {gamma}}=1305 MeV. The beam asymmetry has been extracted from the azimuthal modulation of the cross section using both decay modes of the {eta} into two photons and 3{pi}{sup 0}. Large asymmetries up to 80% are observed, in agreement with previous measurements where already available. There is also agreement with standard model calculations. However, the required partial waves to describe the measurements differ significantly. (orig.)

  8. Plasma response to m/n  =  3/1 resonant magnetic perturbation at J-TEXT Tokamak

    Hu, Qiming; Li, Jianchao; Wang, Nengchao; Yu, Q.; Chen, Jie; Cheng, Zhifeng; Chen, Zhipeng; Ding, Yonghua; Jin, Hai; Li, Da; Li, Mao; Liu, Yang; Rao, Bo; Zhu, Lizhi; Zhuang, Ge; the J-TEXT Team

    2016-09-01

    The influence of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) with a large m/n  =  3/1 component on electron density has been studied at J-TEXT tokamak by using externally applied static and rotating RMPs, where m and n are the poloidal and toroidal mode number, respectively. The detailed time evolution of electron density profile, measured by the polarimeter-interferometer, shows that the electron density n e first increases (decreases) inside (around/outside) of the 3/1 rational surface (RS), and it is increased globally later together with enhanced edge recycling. Associated with field penetration, the toroidal rotation around the 3/1 RS is accelerated in the co-I p direction and the poloidal rotation is changed from the electron to ion diamagnetic drift direction. Spontaneous unlocking-penetration circles occur after field penetration if the RMPs amplitude is not strong enough. For sufficiently strong RMPs, the 2/1 locked mode is also triggered due to mode coupling, and the global density is increased. The field penetration threshold is found to be linearly proportional to n eL (line-integrated density) at the 3/1 RS but to (n eL)0.73 for n e at the plasma core. In addition, for rotating RMPs with a large 3/1 component, field penetration causes a global increase in electron density.

  9. Effects of CO2 injection and Kerogen Maturation on Low-Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Response

    Prasad, M.; Livo, K.

    2017-12-01

    Low-field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is commonly used in petrophysical analysis of petroleum reservoir rocks. NMR experiments record the relaxation and polarization of in-situ hydrogen protons present in gaseous phases such as free-gas intervals and solution gas fluids, bulk fluid phases such as oil and aquifer intervals, and immovable fractions of kerogen and bitumen. Analysis of NMR relaxation spectra is performed to record how fluid composition, maturity, and viscosity change NMR experimental results. We present T1-T2 maps as thermal maturity of a water-saturated, sub-mature Woodford shale is increased at temperatures from 125 to 400 degrees Celsius. Experiments with applied fluid pressure in paraffinic mineral oil and DI water with varying fluid pH have been performed to mimic reservoir conditions in analysis of the relaxation of bulk fluid phases. We have recorded NMR spectra, T1-T2 maps, and fluid diffusion coefficients using a low-field (2 MHz) MagritekTM NMR. CO2 was injected at a pressure of 900 psi in an in house developed NMR pressure vessel made of torlon plastic. Observable 2D NMR shifts in immature kerogen formations as thermal maturity is increased show generation of lighter oils with increased maturity. CO2 injection leads to a decrease in bulk fluid relaxation time that is attributed to viscosity modification with gas presence. pH variation with increased CO2 presence were shown to not effect NMR spectra. From this, fluid properties have been shown to greatly affect NMR readings and must be taken into account for more accurate NMR reservoir characterization.

  10. Synchronization of Two Non-Identical Coupled Exciters in a Non-Resonant Vibrating System of Linear Motion. Part II: Numeric Analysis

    Chunyu Zhao

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the quantitative analysis of the coupling dynamic characteristics of two non-identical exciters in a non-resonant vibrating system. The load torque of each motor consists of three items, including the torque of sine effect of phase angles, that of coupling sine effect and that of coupling cosine effect. The torque of frequency capture results from the torque of coupling cosine effect, which is equal to the product of the coupling kinetic energy, the coefficient of coupling cosine effect, and the sine of phase difference of two exciters. The motions of the system excited by two exciters in the same direction make phase difference close to π and that in opposite directions makes phase difference close to 0. Numerical results show that synchronous operation is stable when the dimensionless relative moments of inertia of two exciters are greater than zero and four times of their product is greater than the square of their coefficient of coupling cosine effect. The stability of the synchronous operation is only dependent on the structural parameters of the system, such as the mass ratios of two exciters to the vibrating system, and the ratio of the distance between an exciter and the centroid of the system to the equivalent radius of the system about its centroid.

  11. Synchronization of Two Non-Identical Coupled Exciters in a Non-Resonant Vibrating System of Linear Motion. Part I: Theoretical Analysis

    Chunyu Zhao

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an analytical approach is proposed to study the feature of frequency capture of two non-identical coupled exciters in a non-resonant vibrating system. The electromagnetic torque of an induction motor in the quasi-steady-state operation is derived. With the introduction of two perturbation small parameters to average angular velocity of two exciters and their phase difference, we deduce the Equation of Frequency Capture by averaging two motion equations of two exciters over their average period. It converts the synchronization problem of two exciters into that of existence and stability of zero solution for the Equation of Frequency Capture. The conditions of implementing frequency capture and that of stabilizing synchronous operation of two motors have been derived. The concept of torque of frequency capture is proposed to physically explain the peculiarity of self-synchronization of the two exciters. An interesting conclusion is reached that the moments of inertia of the two exciters in the Equation of Frequency Capture reduce and there is a coupling moment of inertia between the two exciters. The reduction of moments of inertia and the coupling moment of inertia have an effect on the stability of synchronous operation.

  12. Thermal and rotational effect on giant dipole resonances in rotating nuclei at high temperature

    Sugawara-Tanabe, Kazuko; Tanabe, Kosai.

    1986-01-01

    Microscopic calculations are carried out for the giant dipole resonances excited on the thermal high spin states in 162 Er and 166 Er based on the thermal linear response theory with realistic forces and large single-particle space. The dynamical strength function is compared with the experimental γ-ray absorption cross section. The general trend that the resonance energy decreases and the resonance width increases with increasing angular momentum and temperature is well reproduced by the calculations. (author)

  13. Genetic algorithm as a variable selection procedure for the simulation of 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of flavonoid derivatives using multiple linear regression.

    Ghavami, Raoof; Najafi, Amir; Sajadi, Mohammad; Djannaty, Farhad

    2008-09-01

    In order to accurately simulate (13)C NMR spectra of hydroxy, polyhydroxy and methoxy substituted flavonoid a quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) model, relating atom-based calculated descriptors to (13)C NMR chemical shifts (ppm, TMS=0), is developed. A dataset consisting of 50 flavonoid derivatives was employed for the present analysis. A set of 417 topological, geometrical, and electronic descriptors representing various structural characteristics was calculated and separate multilinear QSPR models were developed between each carbon atom of flavonoid and the calculated descriptors. Genetic algorithm (GA) and multiple linear regression analysis (MLRA) were used to select the descriptors and to generate the correlation models. Analysis of the results revealed a correlation coefficient and root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.994 and 2.53ppm, respectively, for the prediction set.

  14. Neural responses to visual food cues according to weight status: a systematic review of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies.

    Pursey, Kirrilly M; Stanwell, Peter; Callister, Robert J; Brain, Katherine; Collins, Clare E; Burrows, Tracy L

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidence from recent neuroimaging studies suggests that specific food-related behaviors contribute to the development of obesity. The aim of this review was to report the neural responses to visual food cues, as assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in humans of differing weight status. Published studies to 2014 were retrieved and included if they used visual food cues, studied humans >18 years old, reported weight status, and included fMRI outcomes. Sixty studies were identified that investigated the neural responses of healthy weight participants (n = 26), healthy weight compared to obese participants (n = 17), and weight-loss interventions (n = 12). High-calorie food images were used in the majority of studies (n = 36), however, image selection justification was only provided in 19 studies. Obese individuals had increased activation of reward-related brain areas including the insula and orbitofrontal cortex in response to visual food cues compared to healthy weight individuals, and this was particularly evident in response to energy dense cues. Additionally, obese individuals were more responsive to food images when satiated. Meta-analysis of changes in neural activation post-weight loss revealed small areas of convergence across studies in brain areas related to emotion, memory, and learning, including the cingulate gyrus, lentiform nucleus, and precuneus. Differential activation patterns to visual food cues were observed between obese, healthy weight, and weight-loss populations. Future studies require standardization of nutrition variables and fMRI outcomes to enable more direct comparisons between studies.

  15. Novel 19F MRS/I nanoprobe based on pH-responsive PEGylated nanogel. pH-dependent 19F magnetic resonance studies

    Oishi, Motoi; Sumitani, Shogo; Nagasaki, Yukio; Bronich, Tatiana K.; Kabanov, Alexander V.; Boska, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    The pH-responsive PEGylated nanogels composed of the cross-linked poly[2-(N,N-diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate]-co-poly(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl methacrylate) gel core showed a remarkable on-off regulation of 19 F magnetic resonance signal intensity (T 2 values) as well as signal-to-noise ratios in response to extracellular pH 6.5 of tumor environment under 19 F magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRS/I), demonstrating the utility of the PEGylated nanogels as solid tumor-specific 19 F MRI/S nanoprobes. (author)

  16. Electron paramagnetic resonance response and magnetic interactions in ordered solid solutions of lithium nickel oxides

    Azzoni, C.B. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica della Materia, Dipartimento di Fisica ' Alessandro Volta' , Universita di Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Paleari, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica della Materia, Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Milano, Milan (Italy); Massarotti, V.; Capsoni, D. [Dipartimento di Chimica-Fisica, Universita di Pavia, Pavia (Italy)

    1996-09-23

    EPR data of ordered solid solutions of lithium nickel oxides are reported as a function of the lithium content. The features of the signal and the EPR centre density are analysed by a model of dynamical trapping of holes in [(Ni{sup 2+}-O-Ni{sup 2+})-h{sup +}] complexes. The possible origin of the interactions responsible for the magnetic ordering and some features of the transport properties are also discussed. (author)

  17. Poloidal structure of the plasma response to n = 1 Resonant Magnetic Perturbations in ASDEX Upgrade

    Marrelli, L.; Bettini, P.; Piovesan, P.; Terranova, D.; Giannone, L.; Igochine, V.; Maraschek, M.; Suttrop, W.; Teschke, M.; Liu, Y. Q.; Ryan, D.; Eurofusion Mst1 Team; ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2017-10-01

    The hybrid scenario, a candidate for high-beta steady-state tokamak operations, becomes highly sensitive to 3D magnetic field near the no-wall limit. A predictive understanding of the plasma response to 3D fields near ideal MHD limits in terms of validated MHD stability codes is therefore important in order to safely operate future devices. Slowly rotating (5 - 10 Hz) n = 1 external magnetic fields have been applied in hybrid discharges in ASDEX Upgrade for an experimental characterization: the global n = 1 kink response has been measured by means of SXR and complete poloidal arrays of bθ probes located at different toroidal angles and compared to predictions of MHD codes such as MARS-F and V3FIT-VMEC. A Least-Squares Spectral Analysis approach has been developed together with a Monte Carlo technique to extract the small plasma response and its confidence interval from the noisy magnetic signals. MARS-F correctly reproduces the poloidal structure of the n = 1 measurements: for example, the dependence of the dominant poloidal mode number at the plasma edge from q95 is the same as in the experiment. Similar comparisons with V3FIT-VMEC and will be presented. See author list of ``H. Meyer et al. 2017 Nucl. Fusion 57 102014''.

  18. Locally Advanced Prostate Cancer: Three-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy to Monitor Prostate Response to Therapy

    Valentini, Anna Lia, E-mail: alvalentini@rm.unicatt.it [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Section of Radiology, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore di Roma, Milan (Italy); Gui, Benedetta [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Section of Radiology, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore di Roma, Milan (Italy); D' Agostino, Giuseppe Roberto; Mattiucci, Giancarlo [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Section of Radiotherapy, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore di Roma, Milan (Italy); Clementi, Valeria [Clinical Science Development Group, GE Healthcare, Milan (Italy); Di Molfetta, Ippolita Valentina [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Section of Radiology, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore di Roma, Milan (Italy); Bonomo, Pierluigi [OU Clinic Radiobiology, I.F.C.A. Florence (Italy); Mantini, Giovanna [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Section of Radiotherapy, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore di Roma, Milan (Italy)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To correlate results of three-dimensional magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels and time since external beam irradiation (EBRT) in patients treated with long-term hormone therapy (HT) and EBRT for locally advanced disease to verify successful treatment by documenting the achievement of metabolic atrophy (MA). Methods and Materials: Between 2006 and 2008, 109 patients were consecutively enrolled. MA was assessed by choline and citrate peak area-to-noise-ratio <5:1. Cancerous metabolism (CM) was defined by choline-to-creatine ratio >1.5:1 or choline signal-to-noise-ratio >5:1. To test the strength of association between MRSI results and the time elapsed since EBRT (TEFRT), PSA levels, Gleason score (GS), and stage, logistic regression (LR) was performed. p value <0.05 was statistically significant. The patients' outcomes were verified in 2011. Results: MRSI documented MA in 84 of 109 and CM in 25 of 109 cases. LR showed that age, GS, stage, and initial and recent PSA had no significant impact on MRSI results which were significantly related to PSA values at the time of MRSI and to TEFRT. Patients were divided into three groups according to TEFRT: <1 year, 1-2 years, and >2 years. MA was detected in 54.1% of patients of group 1, 88.9% of group 2, and in 94.5% of group 3 (100% when PSA nadir was reached). CM was detected in 50% of patients with reached PSA nadir in group 1. Local relapse was found in 3 patients previously showing CM at long TEFRT. Conclusion: MA detection, indicative of successful treatment because growth of normal or abnormal cells cannot occur without metabolism, increases with decreasing PSA levels and increasing time on HT after EBRT. This supports long-term HT in advanced prostate cancer. Larger study series are needed to assess whether MRSI could predict local relapse by detecting CM at long TEFRT.

  19. Linear algebra

    Shilov, Georgi E

    1977-01-01

    Covers determinants, linear spaces, systems of linear equations, linear functions of a vector argument, coordinate transformations, the canonical form of the matrix of a linear operator, bilinear and quadratic forms, Euclidean spaces, unitary spaces, quadratic forms in Euclidean and unitary spaces, finite-dimensional space. Problems with hints and answers.

  20. A computational methodology for a micro launcher engine test bench using a combined linear static and dynamic in frequency response analysis

    Ion DIMA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to provide a quick methodology to determine the critical values of the forces, displacements and stress function of frequency, under a combined linear static (101 Solution - Linear Static and dynamic load in frequency response (108 Solution - Frequency Response, Direct Method, applied to a micro launcher engine test bench, using NASTRAN 400 Solution - Implicit Nonlinear. NASTRAN/PATRAN software is used. Practically in PATRAN the preprocessor has to define a linear or nonlinear static load at step 1 and a dynamic in frequency response load (time dependent at step 2. In Analyze the following options are chosen: for Solution Type Implicit Nonlinear Solution (SOL 400 is selected, for Subcases Static Load and Transient Dynamic is chosen and for Subcase Select the two cases static and dynamic will be selected. NASTRAN solver will overlap results from static analysis with the dynamic analysis. The running time will be reduced three times if using Krylov solver. NASTRAN SYSTEM (387 = -1 instruction is used in order to activate Krylov option. Also, in Analysis the OP2 Output Format shall be selected, meaning that in bdf NASTRAN input file the PARAM POST 1 instruction shall be written. The structural damping can be defined in two different ways: either at the material card or using the PARAM, G, 0.05 instruction (in this example a damping coefficient by 5% was used. The SDAMPING instruction in pair with TABDMP1 work only for dynamic in frequency response, modal method, or in direct method with viscoelastic material, not for dynamic in frequency response, direct method (DFREQ, with linear elastic material. The Direct method – DFREQ used in this example is more accurate. A set in translation of boundary conditions was used and defined at the base of the test bench.

  1. Non-linear signal response functions and their effects on the statistical and noise cancellation properties of isotope ratio measurements by multi-collector plasma mass spectrometry

    Doherty, W.

    2013-01-01

    A nebulizer-centric response function model of the analytical inductively coupled argon plasma ion source was used to investigate the statistical frequency distributions and noise reduction factors of simultaneously measured flicker noise limited isotope ion signals and their ratios. The response function model was extended by assuming i) a single gaussian distributed random noise source (nebulizer gas pressure fluctuations) and ii) the isotope ion signal response is a parabolic function of the nebulizer gas pressure. Model calculations of ion signal and signal ratio histograms were obtained by applying the statistical method of translation to the non-linear response function model of the plasma. Histograms of Ni, Cu, Pr, Tl and Pb isotope ion signals measured using a multi-collector plasma mass spectrometer were, without exception, negative skew. Histograms of the corresponding isotope ratios of Ni, Cu, Tl and Pb were either positive or negative skew. There was a complete agreement between the measured and model calculated histogram skew properties. The nebulizer-centric response function model was also used to investigate the effect of non-linear response functions on the effectiveness of noise cancellation by signal division. An alternative noise correction procedure suitable for parabolic signal response functions was derived and applied to measurements of isotope ratios of Cu, Ni, Pb and Tl. The largest noise reduction factors were always obtained when the non-linearity of the response functions was taken into account by the isotope ratio calculation. Possible applications of the nebulizer-centric response function model to other types of analytical instrumentation, large amplitude signal noise sources (e.g., lasers, pumped nebulizers) and analytical error in isotope ratio measurements by multi-collector plasma mass spectrometry are discussed. - Highlights: ► Isotope ion signal noise is modelled as a parabolic transform of a gaussian variable. ► Flicker

  2. Frequency adaptation in controlled stochastic resonance utilizing delayed feedback method: two-pole approximation for response function.

    Tutu, Hiroki

    2011-06-01

    Stochastic resonance (SR) enhanced by time-delayed feedback control is studied. The system in the absence of control is described by a Langevin equation for a bistable system, and possesses a usual SR response. The control with the feedback loop, the delay time of which equals to one-half of the period (2π/Ω) of the input signal, gives rise to a noise-induced oscillatory switching cycle between two states in the output time series, while its average frequency is just smaller than Ω in a small noise regime. As the noise intensity D approaches an appropriate level, the noise constructively works to adapt the frequency of the switching cycle to Ω, and this changes the dynamics into a state wherein the phase of the output signal is entrained to that of the input signal from its phase slipped state. The behavior is characterized by power loss of the external signal or response function. This paper deals with the response function based on a dichotomic model. A method of delay-coordinate series expansion, which reduces a non-Markovian transition probability flux to a series of memory fluxes on a discrete delay-coordinate system, is proposed. Its primitive implementation suggests that the method can be a potential tool for a systematic analysis of SR phenomenon with delayed feedback loop. We show that a D-dependent behavior of poles of a finite Laplace transform of the response function qualitatively characterizes the structure of the power loss, and we also show analytical results for the correlation function and the power spectral density.

  3. Metabolomics by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the response to chloroethylnitrosourea reveals drug efficacy and tumor adaptive metabolic pathways.

    Morvan, Daniel; Demidem, Aicha

    2007-03-01

    Metabolomics of tumors may allow discovery of tumor biomarkers and metabolic therapeutic targets. Metabolomics by two-dimensional proton high-resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was applied to investigate metabolite disorders following treatment by chloroethylnitrosourea of murine B16 melanoma (n = 33) and 3LL pulmonary carcinoma (n = 31) in vivo. Treated tumors of both types resumed growth after a delay. Nitrosoureas provoke DNA damage but the metabolic consequences of genotoxic stress are little known yet. Although some differences were observed in the metabolite profile of untreated tumor types, the prominent metabolic features of the response to nitrosourea were common to both. During the growth inhibition phase, there was an accumulation of glucose (more than x10; P < 0.05), glutamine (x3 to 4; P < 0.01), and aspartate (x2 to 5; P < 0.01). This response testified to nucleoside de novo synthesis down-regulation and drug efficacy. However, this phase also involved the increase in alanine (P < 0.001 in B16 melanoma), the decrease in succinate (P < 0.001), and the accumulation of serine-derived metabolites (glycine, phosphoethanolamine, and formate; P < 0.01). This response witnessed the activation of pathways implicated in energy production and resumption of nucleotide de novo synthesis, thus metabolic pathways of DNA repair and adaptation to treatment. During the growth recovery phase, it remained polyunsaturated fatty acid accumulation (x1.5 to 2; P < 0.05) and reduced utilization of glucose compared with glutamine (P < 0.05), a metabolic fingerprint of adaptation. Thus, this study provides the proof of principle that metabolomics of tumor response to an anticancer agent may help discover metabolic pathways of drug efficacy and adaptation to treatment.

  4. The dose-response relationship between cumulative lifting load and lumbar disk degeneration based on magnetic resonance imaging findings.

    Hung, Yu-Ju; Shih, Tiffany T-F; Chen, Bang-Bin; Hwang, Yaw-Huei; Ma, Li-Ping; Huang, Wen-Chuan; Liou, Saou-Hsing; Ho, Ing-Kang; Guo, Yue L

    2014-11-01

    Lumbar disk degeneration (LDD) has been related to heavy physical loading. However, the quantification of the exposure has been controversial, and the dose-response relationship with the LDD has not been established. The purpose of this study was to investigate the dose-response relationship between lifetime cumulative lifting load and LDD. This was a cross-sectional study. Every participant received assessments with a questionnaire, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the lumbar spine, and estimation of lumbar disk compression load. The MRI assessments included assessment of disk dehydration, annulus tear, disk height narrowing, bulging, protrusion, extrusion, sequestration, degenerative and spondylolytic spondylolisthesis, foramina narrowing, and nerve root compression on each lumbar disk level. The compression load was predicted using a biomechanical software system. A total of 553 participants were recruited in this study and categorized into tertiles by cumulative lifting load (ie, lifting load. The best dose-response relationships were found at the L5-S1 disk level, in which high cumulative lifting load was associated with elevated odds ratios of 2.5 (95% confidence interval [95% CI]=1.5, 4.1) for dehydration and 4.1 (95% CI=1.9, 10.1) for disk height narrowing compared with low lifting load. Participants exposed to intermediate lifting load had an increased odds ratio of 2.1 (95% CI=1.3, 3.3) for bulging compared with low lifting load. The tests for trend were significant. There is no "gold standard" assessment tool for measuring the lumbar compression load. The results suggest a dose-response relationship between cumulative lifting load and LDD. © 2014 American Physical Therapy Association.

  5. Predicting variation in subject thermal response during transcranial magnetic resonance guided focused ultrasound surgery: Comparison in seventeen subject datasets

    Vyas, Urvi, E-mail: urvi.vyas@gmail.com; Ghanouni, Pejman; Halpern, Casey H.; Pauly, Kim Butts [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Elias, Jeff [Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    Purpose: In transcranial magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (tcMRgFUS) treatments, the acoustic and spatial heterogeneity of the skull cause reflection, absorption, and scattering of the acoustic beams. These effects depend on skull-specific parameters and can lead to patient-specific thermal responses to the same transducer power. In this work, the authors develop a simulation tool to help predict these different experimental responses using 3D heterogeneous tissue models based on the subject CT images. The authors then validate and compare the predicted skull efficiencies to an experimental metric based on the subject thermal responses during tcMRgFUS treatments in a dataset of seventeen human subjects. Methods: Seventeen human head CT scans were used to create tissue acoustic models, simulating the effects of reflection, absorption, and scattering of the acoustic beam as it propagates through a heterogeneous skull. The hybrid angular spectrum technique was used to model the acoustic beam propagation of the InSightec ExAblate 4000 head transducer for each subject, yielding maps of the specific absorption rate (SAR). The simulation assumed the transducer was geometrically focused to the thalamus of each subject, and the focal SAR at the target was used as a measure of the simulated skull efficiency. Experimental skull efficiency for each subject was calculated using the thermal temperature maps from the tcMRgFUS treatments. Axial temperature images (with no artifacts) were reconstructed with a single baseline, corrected using a referenceless algorithm. The experimental skull efficiency was calculated by dividing the reconstructed temperature rise 8.8 s after sonication by the applied acoustic power. Results: The simulated skull efficiency using individual-specific heterogeneous models predicts well (R{sup 2} = 0.84) the experimental energy efficiency. Conclusions: This paper presents a simulation model to predict the variation in thermal responses

  6. Electron and ion angular distributions in resonant dissociative photoionization of H{sub 2} and D{sub 2} using linearly polarized light

    Fernandez, Jorge; MartIn, Fernando [Departamento de Quimica C-9, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: fernando.martin@uam.es

    2009-04-15

    We have evaluated fully differential electron angular distributions in H{sub 2} and D{sub 2} dissociative photoionization by using linearly polarized light of 20, 27 and 33 eV. At 20 eV, the distributions exhibit simple p-wave patterns, which is the signature of direct ionization through the X{sup 2}{sigma}{sub g}{sup +}(1s{sigma}{sub g}) channel. At 27 eV, where the Q{sub 1} autoionizing states are populated, we observe a similar pattern, except when the molecule is oriented perpendicularly to the polarization direction and the energy of the ejected electron is small. In contrast, at 33 eV, autoionization from the Q{sub 1} and Q{sub 2} states leads to interferences between the X{sup 2}{sigma}{sub g}{sup +}(1s{sigma}{sub g}) and {sup 2}{sigma}{sub u}{sup +}(2p{sigma}{sub u}) ionization channels that result in a strong asymmetry of the electron angular distributions along the molecular axis. This asymmetry changes rapidly with the energy of the ejected electron. Electron angular distributions integrated over all possible molecular orientations or ion angular distributions integrated over electron emission angle show no reminiscence of the above phenomena, but the corresponding asymmetry parameters dramatically change with electron and ion energies in the region of autoionizing states.

  7. Study of small partial-wave contributions in the neighbourhood of dominating resonance states of the proton by linearly polarized photons

    Elsner, D.

    2007-04-01

    The reaction p(e, e'p)π 0 has been studied at Q 2 =0.2 (GeV/c) 2 in the region of W=1232 MeV. From measurements left and right of vector q cross section asymmetries ρ LT have been obtained in forward ρ LT (θ π 0 cm =20 )=(-11.68±2.36 stat ±2.36 sys ) and backward ρ LT (θ π 0 cm =160 )=(12.18±0.27 stat ±0.82 sys ) π 0 kinematics, from which R{S 1+ * M 1+ }/ vertical stroke M 1+ vertical stroke 2 and R{S 0+ * M 1+ }/ vertical stroke M 1+ vertical stroke 2 could be determined. Using linear polarised tagged photon beams of energy up to E γ ≅1.5 GeV the photon beam asymmetry Σ has been measured in the reaction p(vector γ, η)p. Based on coherent bremsstrahlung off a diamond crystal a maximum polarisation of P γ =49% has been achieved at E γ =1305 MeV. The beam asymmetry has been extracted from the azimuthal modulation of the cross section using both decay modes of the η into two photons and 3π 0 . Large asymmetries up to 80% are observed, in agreement with previous measurements where already available. There is also agreement with standard model calculations. However, the required partial waves to describe the measurements differ significantly. (orig.)

  8. Controlling Parametric Resonance

    Galeazzi, Roberto; Pettersen, Kristin Ytterstad

    2012-01-01

    the authors review the conditions for the onset of parametric resonance, and propose a nonlinear control strategy in order to both induce the resonant oscillations and to stabilize the unstable motion. Lagrange’s theory is used to derive the dynamics of the system and input–output feedback linearization...

  9. A non-linear association between self-reported negative emotional response to stress and subsequent allostatic load: prospective results from the Whitehall II cohort study.

    Dich, Nadya; Doan, Stacey N; Kivimäki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Rod, Naja Hulvej

    2014-11-01

    Previous research suggests that high levels of negative emotions may affect health. However, it is likely that the absence of an emotional response following stressful events may also be problematic. Accordingly, we investigated whether a non-linear association exists between negative emotional response to major life events and allostatic load, a multisystem indicator of physiological dysregulation. Study sample was 6764 British civil service workers from the Whitehall II cohort. Negative emotional response was assessed by self-report at baseline. Allostatic load was calculated using cardiovascular, metabolic and immune function biomarkers at three clinical follow-up examinations. A non-linear association between negative emotional response and allostatic load was observed: being at either extreme end of the distribution of negative emotional response increased the risk of physiological dysregulation. Allostatic load also increased with age, but the association between negative emotional response and allostatic load remained stable over time. These results provide evidence for a more nuanced understanding of the role of negative emotions in long-term physical health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Recent results on the linearity of the dose-response relationship for radiation-induced mutations in human cells by low dose levels

    Traut, H.

    1987-01-01

    Five studies made by various authors in the last years are discussed, which are significant in that the response of human cells to low-dose irradiation is determined directly and not by extrapolation, and which also provide information on the mutagenic effects of low radiation doses. The results of these studies do not indicate any other than a linear response for induction of mutations by low-dose irradiation, nor are there any reasons observable for assuming the existence of a threshold dose. It is very likely therefore that cancer initiation at the low dose level also is characterized by a linear relationship. Although threshold dose levels cannot generally be excluded, and maybe are only too low to be detected by experiment, there is no plausible biophysical argument for assuming the existence of such microdose threshold. (orig./MG) [de

  11. Linear dose-response of acentric chromosome fragments down to 1 R of x-rays in grasshopper neuroblasts, a potential mutagen-test system

    Gaulden, M.E.; Read, C.B.

    1978-01-01

    Grasshopper-embryo neuroblasts have no spontaneous chromosome breakage; therefore they permit easy detection of agents that break chromosomes. An X-ray exposure of 1 R induces in them a detectable number of chromosome fragments. The dose-response of acentric fragment frequency fits a linear model between 0 and 128 R. Thus another cell type is added to those previously demonstrated to have no threshold dose for the induction of chromosome or gene mutations

  12. Laterally Loaded Single Pile Response Considering the Influence of Suction and Non-Linear Behaviour of Reinforced Concrete Sections

    Stefano Stacul

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid BEM-p-y curves approach was developed for the single pile analysis with free/fixed head restraint conditions. The method considers the soil non-linear behaviour by means of p-y curves in series to a multi-layered elastic half-space. The non-linearity of reinforced concrete pile sections, also considering the influence of tension-stiffening, has been considered. The model reproduces the influence of suction by increasing the stress state and hence the stiffness of shallow soil-layers. Suction is modeled using the Modified-Kovacs model. The hybrid BEM-py curves method was validated by comparing results from data of 22 load tests on single piles. In addition, a detailed comparison is presented between measured and computed data on a large-diameter reinforced concrete bored single pile.

  13. Response Surface Method and Linear Programming in the development of mixed nectar of acceptability high and minimum cost

    Enrique López Calderón

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a high acceptability mixed nectar and low cost. To obtain the nectar mixed considered different amounts of passion fruit, sweet pepino, sucrose, and completing 100% with water, following a two-stage design: screening (using a design of type 2 3 + 4 center points and optimization (using a design of type 2 2 + 2*2 + 4 center points; stages that allow explore a high acceptability formulation. Then we used the technique of Linear Programming to minimize the cost of high acceptability nectar. Result of this process was obtained a mixed nectar optimal acceptability (score of 7, when the formulation is between 9 and 14% of passion fruit, 4 and 5% of sucrose, 73.5% of sweet pepino juice and filling with water to the 100%. Linear Programming possible reduced the cost of nectar mixed with optimal acceptability at S/.174 for a production of 1000 L/day.

  14. Quantitative Multi-Parametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Tumor Response to Photodynamic Therapy.

    Tom J L Schreurs

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize response to photodynamic therapy (PDT in a mouse cancer model using a multi-parametric quantitative MRI protocol and to identify MR parameters as potential biomarkers for early assessment of treatment outcome.CT26.WT colon carcinoma tumors were grown subcutaneously in the hind limb of BALB/c mice. Therapy consisted of intravenous injection of the photosensitizer Bremachlorin, followed by 10 min laser illumination (200 mW/cm2 of the tumor 6 h post injection. MRI at 7 T was performed at baseline, directly after PDT, as well as at 24 h, and 72 h. Tumor relaxation time constants (T1 and T2 and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC were quantified at each time point. Additionally, Gd-DOTA dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE MRI was performed to estimate transfer constants (Ktrans and volume fractions of the extravascular extracellular space (ve using standard Tofts-Kermode tracer kinetic modeling. At the end of the experiment, tumor viability was characterized by histology using NADH-diaphorase staining.The therapy induced extensive cell death in the tumor and resulted in significant reduction in tumor growth, as compared to untreated controls. Tumor T1 and T2 relaxation times remained unchanged up to 24 h, but decreased at 72 h after treatment. Tumor ADC values significantly increased at 24 h and 72 h. DCE-MRI derived tracer kinetic parameters displayed an early response to the treatment. Directly after PDT complete vascular shutdown was observed in large parts of the tumors and reduced uptake (decreased Ktrans in remaining tumor tissue. At 24 h, contrast uptake in most tumors was essentially absent. Out of 5 animals that were monitored for 2 weeks after treatment, 3 had tumor recurrence, in locations that showed strong contrast uptake at 72 h.DCE-MRI is an effective tool for visualization of vascular effects directly after PDT. Endogenous contrast parameters T1, T2, and ADC, measured at 24 to 72 h after PDT, are

  15. Isotopic dependence of giant multipole resonances

    Bar Touv, J.; Moalem, A.; Shlomo, S.

    1980-01-01

    A procedure is presented which allows the application of linear response theory and the random phase approximation to an open shell. The procedure is applied to Ca isotopes. The general features of giant multipole resonances are found to vary smoothly with the mass. The resonances exhibit more structure in the open lfsub(7/2) shell nuclei. While the energy-weighted dipole sum is practically constant in all isotopes, the isoscalar quadrupole and octupole energy weighted sums increase continuously by approx. 30% from 40 Ca to 48 Ca. (orig.)

  16. A class of non-linear exposure-response models suitable for health impact assessment applicable to large cohort studies of ambient air pollution.

    Nasari, Masoud M; Szyszkowicz, Mieczysław; Chen, Hong; Crouse, Daniel; Turner, Michelle C; Jerrett, Michael; Pope, C Arden; Hubbell, Bryan; Fann, Neal; Cohen, Aaron; Gapstur, Susan M; Diver, W Ryan; Stieb, David; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H; Kim, Sun-Young; Olives, Casey; Krewski, Daniel; Burnett, Richard T

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of regulatory actions designed to improve air quality is often assessed by predicting changes in public health resulting from their implementation. Risk of premature mortality from long-term exposure to ambient air pollution is the single most important contributor to such assessments and is estimated from observational studies generally assuming a log-linear, no-threshold association between ambient concentrations and death. There has been only limited assessment of this assumption in part because of a lack of methods to estimate the shape of the exposure-response function in very large study populations. In this paper, we propose a new class of variable coefficient risk functions capable of capturing a variety of potentially non-linear associations which are suitable for health impact assessment. We construct the class by defining transformations of concentration as the product of either a linear or log-linear function of concentration multiplied by a logistic weighting function. These risk functions can be estimated using hazard regression survival models with currently available computer software and can accommodate large population-based cohorts which are increasingly being used for this purpose. We illustrate our modeling approach with two large cohort studies of long-term concentrations of ambient air pollution and mortality: the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II (CPS II) cohort and the Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohort (CanCHEC). We then estimate the number of deaths attributable to changes in fine particulate matter concentrations over the 2000 to 2010 time period in both Canada and the USA using both linear and non-linear hazard function models.

  17. Pathway to a paradigm: the linear nonthreshold dose-response model in historical context. The American Academy of Health Physics 1995 Radiology Centennial Hartman Oration.

    Kathren, R L

    1996-05-01

    This paper traces the evolution of the linear nonthreshold dose-response model and its acceptance as a paradigm in radiation protection practice and risk analysis. Deterministic effects such as skin burns and even deep tissue trauma were associated with excessive exposure to x rays shortly after their discovery, and carcinogenicity was observed as early as 1902. Still, it was not until 1925 that the first protective limits were suggested. For three decades these limits were based on the concept of a tolerance dose which, if not exceeded, would result in no demonstrable harm to the individual and implicitly assumed a threshold dose below which radiation effects would be absent. After World War II, largely because of genetic concerns related to atmospheric weapons testing, radiation protection dose limits were expressed in terms of a risk based maximum permissible dose which clearly implied no threshold. The 1927 discovery by Muller of x-ray induced genetic mutations in fruit flies, linear with dose and with no apparent threshold, was an important underpinning of the standards. The linear nonthreshold dose-response model was originally used to provide an upper limit estimate of the risk, with zero being the lower limit, of low level irradiation since the dose-response curve could not be determined at low dose levels. Evidence to the contrary such as hormesis and the classic studies of the radium dial painters notwithstanding, the linear nonthreshold model gained greater acceptance and in the centennial year of the discovery of x rays stands as a paradigm although serious questions are beginning to be raised regarding its general applicability. The work includes a brief digression describing the work of x-ray protection pioneer William Rollins and concludes with a recommendation for application of a de minimis dose level in radiation protection.

  18. Bayesian estimation of direct and correlated responses to selection on linear or ratio expressions of feed efficiency in pigs

    Shirali, Mahmoud; Varley, Patrick Francis; Jensen, Just

    2018-01-01

    meat percentage (LMP) along with the derived traits of RFI and FCR; and (3) deriving Bayesian estimates of direct and correlated responses to selection on RFI, FCR, ADG, ADFI, and LMP. Response to selection was defined as the difference in additive genetic mean of the selected top individuals, expected......, respectively. Selection against RFIG showed a direct response of − 0.16 kg/d and correlated responses of − 0.16 kg/kg for FCR and − 0.15 kg/d for ADFI, with no effect on other production traits. Selection against FCR resulted in a direct response of − 0.17 kg/kg and correlated responses of − 0.14 kg/d for RFIG......, − 0.18 kg/d for ADFI, and 0.98% for LMP. Conclusions: The Bayesian methodology developed here enables prediction of breeding values for FCR and RFI from a single multi-variate model. In addition, we derived posterior distributions of direct and correlated responses to selection. Genetic parameter...

  19. Linearly chirped fiber Bragg grating response to thermal gradient: from bench tests to the real-time assessment during in vivo laser ablations of biological tissue

    Saccomandi, Paola; Varalda, Ambra; Gassino, Riccardo; Tosi, Daniele; Massaroni, Carlo; Caponero, Michele A.; Pop, Raoul; Korganbayev, Sanzhar; Perrone, Guido; Diana, Michele; Vallan, Alberto; Costamagna, Guido; Marescaux, Jacques; Schena, Emiliano

    2017-09-01

    The response of a fiber optic sensor [linearly chirped fiber Bragg grating (LCFBG)] to a linear thermal gradient applied on its sensing length (i.e., 1.5 cm) has been investigated. After these bench tests, we assessed their feasibility for temperature monitoring during thermal tumor treatment. In particular, we performed experiments during ex vivo laser ablation (LA) in pig liver and in vivo thermal ablation in animal models (pigs). We investigated the following: (i) the relationship between the full width at half maximum of the LCFBG spectrum and the temperature difference among the extremities of the LCFBG and (ii) the relationship between the mean spectrum wavelength and the mean temperature acting on the LCFBG sensing area. These relationships showed a linear trend during both bench tests and LA in animal models. Thermal sensitivity was significant although different values were found with regards to bench tests and animal experiments. The linear trend and significant sensitivity allow hypothesizing a future use of this kind of sensor to monitor both temperature gradient and mean temperature within a tissue undergoing thermal treatment.

  20. Gd-labeled glycol chitosan as a pH-responsive magnetic resonance imaging agent for detecting acidic tumor microenvironments.

    Nwe, Kido; Huang, Ching-Hui; Tsourkas, Andrew

    2013-10-24

    Neoplastic lesions can create a hostile tumor microenvironment with low extracellular pH. It is commonly believed that these conditions can contribute to tumor progression as well as resistance to therapy. We report the development and characterization of a pH-responsive magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent for imaging the acidic tumor microenvironment. The preparation included the conjugation of 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid 1-(2,5-dioxo-1-pyrrolidinyl) ester (DOTA-NHS) to the surface of a water-soluble glycol chitosan (GC) polymer, which contains pH-titrable primary amines, followed by gadolinium complexation (GC-NH2-GdDOTA). GC-NH2-GdDOTA had a chelate-to-polymer ratio of approximately1:24 and a molar relaxivity of 9.1 mM(-1) s(-1). GC-NH2-GdDOTA demonstrated pH-dependent cellular association in vitro compared to the control. It also generated a 2.4-fold enhancement in signal in tumor-bearing mice 2 h postinjection. These findings suggest that glycol chitosan coupled with contrast agents can provide important diagnostic information about the tumor microenvironment.