Finite-element semi-discretization of linearized compressible and resistive MHD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kerner, W.; Jakoby, A.; Lerbinger, K.
1985-08-01
The full resistive MHD equations are linearized around an equilibrium with cylindrical symmetry and solved numerically as an initial-value problem. The semi-discretization using cubic and quadratic finite elements for the spatial discretization and a fully implicit time advance yields very accurate results even for small values of the resistivity. In the application different phenomena such as waves, resistive instabilities and overstable modes are addressed. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Edery, D.
1983-11-01
The reduced system of the non linear resistive MHD equations is used in the 2-D one helicity approximation in the numerical computations of stationary tearing modes. The critical magnetic Raynolds number S (S=tausub(r)/tausub(H) where tausub(R) and tausub(H) are respectively the characteristic resistive and hydro magnetic times) and the corresponding linear solution are computed as a starting approximation for the full non linear equations. These equations are then treated numerically by an iterative procedure which is shown to be rapidly convergent. A numerical application is given in the last part of this paper
Energy principles for linear dissipative systems with application to resistive MHD stability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pletzer, A.
1997-04-01
A formalism for the construction of energy principles for dissipative systems is presented. It is shown that dissipative systems satisfy a conservation law for the bilinear Hamiltonian provided the Lagrangian is time invariant. The energy on the other hand, differs from the Hamiltonian by being quadratic and by having a negative definite time derivative (positive power dissipation). The energy is a Lyapunov functional whose definiteness yields necessary and sufficient stability criteria. The stability problem of resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) is addressed: the energy principle for ideal MHD is generalized and the stability criterion by Tasso is shown to be necessary in addition to sufficient for real growth rates. An energy principle is found for the inner layer equations that yields the resistive stability criterion D R <0 in the incompressible limit, whereas the tearing mode criterion Δ'<0 is shown to result from the conservation law of the bilinear concomitant in the resistive layer. (author) 1 fig., 25 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pletzer, A.; Bondeson, A.; Dewar, R.L.
1993-11-01
The quest to determine accurately the stability of tearing and resistive interchange modes in two-dimensional toroidal geometry led to the development of the PEST-3 code, which is based on solving the singular, zero-frequency ideal MHD equation in the plasma bulk and determining the outer data Δ', Γ' and A' needed to match the outer region solutions to those arising in the inner layers. No assumption regarding the aspect ratio, the number of rational surfaces or the pressure are made a priori. This approach is numerically less demanding than solving the full set of resistive equations, and has the major advantage of non-MHD theories of the non-ideal layers. Good convergence is ensured by the variational Galerkin scheme used to compute the outer matching data. To validate the code, we focus on the growth rate calculations of resistive kink modes which are reproduced in good agreement with those obtained by the full resistive MHD code MARS. (author) 11 figs., 27 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scheffel, J.
1984-03-01
The linear Grad-Shafranov equation for a toroidal, axisymmetric plasma is solved analytically. Exact solutions are given in terms of confluent hyper-geometric functions. As an alternative, simple and accurate WKBJ solutions are presented. With parabolic pressure profiles, both hollow and peaked toroidal current density profiles are obtained. As an example the equilibrium of a z-pinch with a square-shaped cross section is derived.(author)
Linear ideal MHD stability calculations for ITER
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hogan, J.T.
1988-01-01
A survey of MHD stability limits has been made to address issues arising from the MHD--poloidal field design task of the US ITER project. This is a summary report on the results obtained to date. The study evaluates the dependence of ballooning, Mercier and low-n ideal linear MHD stability on key system parameters to estimate overall MHD constraints for ITER. 17 refs., 27 figs
Resistive MHD studies of TFTR discharges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hughes, M.H.; Phillips, M.W.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Budny, R.V.
1991-01-01
MHD instabilities, thought to be resistive in character, are frequently observed in the supershot operating regime of TFTR (var-epsilon β p ≤ 0.7). These instabilities are always accompanied by substantial degradation of the confinement. Similarly of interest are recent experiments at much larger β p (var-epsilon β p ≤ 1.6), achieved through ramping the current during the beam heating phase of the discharge. In this latter regime the confinement can exceed three times the corresponding L-mode value and the β value normalized to I/aB can be as large as 4.7. Representative discharges from each of these operating regimes have been analyzed using a linear resistive MHD stability code with equilibrium pressure and q profiles obtained initially from the TRANSP analysis code. The main difference between the two types of discharge, as far as stability is concerned is shown to be the shape of the current density profile. The sensitivity to the assumed parameters is discussed. 1 ref
Problems in nonlinear resistive MHD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turnbull, A.D.; Strait, E.J.; La Haye, R.J.; Chu, M.S.; Miller, R.L.
1998-01-01
Two experimentally relevant problems can relatively easily be tackled by nonlinear MHD codes. Both problems require plasma rotation in addition to the nonlinear mode coupling and full geometry already incorporated into the codes, but no additional physics seems to be crucial. These problems discussed here are: (1) nonlinear coupling and interaction of multiple MHD modes near the B limit and (2) nonlinear coupling of the m/n = 1/1 sawtooth mode with higher n gongs and development of seed islands outside q = 1
Analysis of Linear MHD Power Generators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Witalis, E A
1965-02-15
The finite electrode size effects on the performance of an infinitely long MHD power generation duct are calculated by means of conformal mapping. The general conformal transformation is deduced and applied in a graphic way. The analysis includes variations in the segmentation degree, the Hall parameter of the gas and the electrode/insulator length ratio as well as the influence of the external circuitry and loading. A general criterion for a minimum of the generator internal resistance is given. The same criterion gives the conditions for the occurrence of internal current leakage between adjacent electrodes. It is also shown that the highest power output at a prescribed efficiency is always obtained when the current is made to flow between exactly opposed electrodes. Curves are presented showing the power-efficiency relations and other generator properties as depending on the segmentation degree and the Hall parameter in the cases of axial and transverse power extraction. The implications of limiting the current to flow between a finite number of identical electrodes are introduced and combined with the condition for current flow between opposed electrodes. The characteristics of generators with one or a few external loads can then be determined completely and examples are given in a table. It is shown that the performance of such generators must not necessarily be inferior to that of segmented generators with many independent loads. However, the problems of channel end losses and off-design loading have not been taken into consideration.
Construction of a Roe linearization for the ideal MHD equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cargo, P.; Gallice, G.; Raviart, P.A.
1996-01-01
In [3], Munz has constructed a Roe linearization for the equations of gas dynamics in Lagrangian coordinates. We extend this construction to the case of the ideal magnetohydrodynamics equations again in Lagrangian coordinates. As a consequence we obtain a Roe linearization for the MHD equations in Eulerian coordinates. (author)
Linear and Nonlinear MHD Wave Processes in Plasmas. Final Report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tataronis, J. A.
2004-01-01
This program treats theoretically low frequency linear and nonlinear wave processes in magnetized plasmas. A primary objective has been to evaluate the effectiveness of MHD waves to heat plasma and drive current in toroidal configurations. The research covers the following topics: (1) the existence and properties of the MHD continua in plasma equilibria without spatial symmetry; (2) low frequency nonresonant current drive and nonlinear Alfven wave effects; and (3) nonlinear electron acceleration by rf and random plasma waves. Results have contributed to the fundamental knowledge base of MHD activity in symmetric and asymmetric toroidal plasmas. Among the accomplishments of this research effort, the following are highlighted: Identification of the MHD continuum mode singularities in toroidal geometry. Derivation of a third order ordinary differential equation that governs nonlinear current drive in the singular layers of the Alfven continuum modes in axisymmetric toroidal geometry. Bounded solutions of this ODE implies a net average current parallel to the toroidal equilibrium magnetic field. Discovery of a new unstable continuum of the linearized MHD equation in axially periodic circular plasma cylinders with shear and incompressibility. This continuum, which we named ''accumulation continuum'' and which is related to ballooning modes, arises as discrete unstable eigenfrequency accumulate on the imaginary frequency axis in the limit of large mode numbers. Development of techniques to control nonlinear electron acceleration through the action of multiple coherent and random plasmas waves. Two important elements of this program aye student participation and student training in plasma theory
Normal mode analysis for linear resistive magnetohydrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kerner, W.; Lerbinger, K.; Gruber, R.; Tsunematsu, T.
1984-10-01
The compressible, resistive MHD equations are linearized around an equilibrium with cylindrical symmetry and solved numerically as a complex eigenvalue problem. This normal mode code allows to solve for very small resistivity eta proportional 10 -10 . The scaling of growthrates and layer width agrees very well with analytical theory. Especially, both the influence of current and pressure on the instabilities is studied in detail; the effect of resistivity on the ideally unstable internal kink is analyzed. (orig.)
Stability analysis of resistive MHD modes via a new numerical matching technique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Furukawa, M.; Tokuda, S.; Zheng, L.-J.
2009-01-01
Full text: Asymptotic matching technique is one of the principal methods for calculating linear stability of resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) modes such as tearing modes. In applying the asymptotic method, the plasma region is divided into two regions: a thin inner layer around the mode-resonant surface and ideal MHD regions except for the layer. If we try to solve this asymptotic matching problem numerically, we meet practical difficulties. Firstly, the inertia-less ideal MHD equation or the Newcomb equation has a regular singular point at the mode-resonant surface, leading to the so-called big and small solutions. Since the big solution is not square-integrable, it needs sophisticated treatment. Even if such a treatment is applied, the matching data or the ratio of small solution to the big one, has been revealed to be sensitive to local MHD equilibrium accuracy and grid structure at the mode-resonant surface by numerical experiments. Secondly, one of the independent solutions in the inner layer, which should be matched onto the ideal MHD solution, is not square-integrable. The response formalism has been adopted to resolve this problem. In the present paper, we propose a new method for computing the linear stability of resistive MHD modes via matching technique, where the plasma region is divided into ideal MHD regions and an inner region with finite width. The matching technique using an inner region with finite width was recently developed for ideal MHD modes in cylindrical geometry, and good performance was shown. Our method extends this idea to resistive MHD modes. In the inner region, the low-beta reduced MHD equations are solved, and the solution is matched onto the solution of the Newcomb equation by using boundary conditions such that the parallel electric field vanishes properly as approaching the computational boundaries. If we use the inner region with finite width, the practical difficulties raised above can be avoided from the beginning. Figure
Spectrum of resistive MHD modes in cylindrical plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ryu, C.M.; Grimm, R.C.
1983-07-01
A numerical study of the normal modes of a compressible resistive MHD fluid in cylindrical geometry is presented. Resistivity resolves the shear Alfven and slow magnetosonic continua of ideal MHD into discrete spectra and gives rise to heavily damped modes whose frequencies lie on specific lines in the complex plane. Fast magnetosonic waves are less affected but are also damped. Overstable modes arise from the shear Alfven spectrum. The stabilizing effect of favorable average curvature is shown. Eigenfunctions illustrating the nature of typical normal modes are displayed
Resistive MHD Stability Analysis in Near Real-time
Glasser, Alexander; Kolemen, Egemen
2017-10-01
We discuss the feasibility of a near real-time calculation of the tokamak Δ' matrix, which summarizes MHD stability to resistive modes, such as tearing and interchange modes. As the operational phase of ITER approaches, solutions for active feedback tokamak stability control are needed. It has been previously demonstrated that an ideal MHD stability analysis is achievable on a sub- O (1 s) timescale, as is required to control phenomena comparable with the MHD-evolution timescale of ITER. In the present work, we broaden this result to incorporate the effects of resistive MHD modes. Such modes satisfy ideal MHD equations in regions outside narrow resistive layers that form at singular surfaces. We demonstrate that the use of asymptotic expansions at the singular surfaces, as well as the application of state transition matrices, enable a fast, parallelized solution to the singular outer layer boundary value problem, and thereby rapidly compute Δ'. Sponsored by US DOE under DE-SC0015878 and DE-FC02-04ER54698.
CASTOR: Normal-mode analysis of resistive MHD plasmas
Kerner, W.; Goedbloed, J. P.; Huysmans, G. T. A.; Poedts, S.; Schwarz, E.
1998-01-01
The CASTOR (complex Alfven spectrum of toroidal plasmas) code computes the entire spectrum of normal-modes in resistive MHD for general tokamak configurations. The applied Galerkin method, in conjunction with a Fourier finite-element discretisation, leads to a large scale eigenvalue problem A (x)
Towards a Scalable Fully-Implicit Fully-coupled Resistive MHD Formulation with Stabilized FE Methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shadid, J N; Pawlowski, R P; Banks, J W; Chacon, L; Lin, P T; Tuminaro, R S
2009-06-03
This paper presents an initial study that is intended to explore the development of a scalable fully-implicit stabilized unstructured finite element (FE) capability for low-Mach-number resistive MHD. The discussion considers the development of the stabilized FE formulation and the underlying fully-coupled preconditioned Newton-Krylov nonlinear iterative solver. To enable robust, scalable and efficient solution of the large-scale sparse linear systems generated by the Newton linearization, fully-coupled algebraic multilevel preconditioners are employed. Verification results demonstrate the expected order-of-acuracy for the stabilized FE discretization of a 2D vector potential form for the steady and transient solution of the resistive MHD system. In addition, this study puts forth a set of challenging prototype problems that include the solution of an MHD Faraday conduction pump, a hydromagnetic Rayleigh-Bernard linear stability calculation, and a magnetic island coalescence problem. Initial results that explore the scaling of the solution methods are presented on up to 4096 processors for problems with up to 64M unknowns on a CrayXT3/4. Additionally, a large-scale proof-of-capability calculation for 1 billion unknowns for the MHD Faraday pump problem on 24,000 cores is presented.
A nonlinear resistive MHD-code in cylindrical geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jakoby, A.
1987-11-01
A computer code has been developed which solves the full compressible resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations in cylindrical geometry. The variables are expanded in Fourier series in the poloidal and axial directions while finite differences are used in the radial direction. The time advance is accomplished by using a semi-implicit predictor-corrector-scheme. Applications to the ideal m=1 ideal kink saturation in the nonlinear regime and the subsequent decay of the singular current layer due to resistivity are presented. (orig.)
An innovative method for ideal and resistive MHD stability analysis of tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tokuda, S.
2001-01-01
An advanced asymptotic matching method of ideal and resistive MHD stability analysis in tokamaks is reported. A solution method for the two dimensional Newcomb equation, a dispersion relation for an unstable ideal MHD mode in tokamaks and a new scheme for solving resistive MHD inner layer equations as an initial value problem are reported. (author)
An innovative method for ideal and resistive MHD stability analysis of tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tokuda, S.
2001-01-01
An advanced asymptotic matching method of ideal and resistive MHD stability analysis in tokamak is reported. The report explains a solution method of two-dimensional Newcomb equation, dispersion relation for an unstable ideal MHD mode in tokamak, and a new scheme for solving resistive MHD inner layer equations as an initial-value problem. (author)
Magnus: A New Resistive MHD Code with Heat Flow Terms
Navarro, Anamaría; Lora-Clavijo, F. D.; González, Guillermo A.
2017-07-01
We present a new magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code for the simulation of wave propagation in the solar atmosphere, under the effects of electrical resistivity—but not dominant—and heat transference in a uniform 3D grid. The code is based on the finite-volume method combined with the HLLE and HLLC approximate Riemann solvers, which use different slope limiters like MINMOD, MC, and WENO5. In order to control the growth of the divergence of the magnetic field, due to numerical errors, we apply the Flux Constrained Transport method, which is described in detail to understand how the resistive terms are included in the algorithm. In our results, it is verified that this method preserves the divergence of the magnetic fields within the machine round-off error (˜ 1× {10}-12). For the validation of the accuracy and efficiency of the schemes implemented in the code, we present some numerical tests in 1D and 2D for the ideal MHD. Later, we show one test for the resistivity in a magnetic reconnection process and one for the thermal conduction, where the temperature is advected by the magnetic field lines. Moreover, we display two numerical problems associated with the MHD wave propagation. The first one corresponds to a 3D evolution of a vertical velocity pulse at the photosphere-transition-corona region, while the second one consists of a 2D simulation of a transverse velocity pulse in a coronal loop.
Survey of linear MHD stability in tokamak configurations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wakatani, M.
1977-01-01
The results found by MHD stability studies for both low-beta and high-beta tokamaks are reviewed. The stability against kink-ballooning modes in equilibria surrounded by vacuum or a layer of force free currents is considered. Internal kink modes and the relation to interchange modes, which should be considered after external kink modes are suppressed, are surveyed
Achieving fast reconnection in resistive MHD models via turbulent means
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Lapenta
2012-04-01
Full Text Available Astrophysical fluids are generally turbulent and this preexisting turbulence must be taken into account for models of magnetic reconnection in astrophysical, solar or heliospheric environments. In addition, reconnection itself induces turbulence which provides an important feedback on the reconnection process. In this paper we discuss both the theoretical model and numerical evidence that magnetic reconnection becomes fast in the approximation of resistive MHD. We consider the relation between the Lazarian and Vishniac turbulent reconnection theory and Lapenta's numerical experiments testifying of the spontaneous onset of turbulent reconnection in systems which are initially laminar.
On performance of Krylov smoothing for fully-coupled AMG preconditioners for VMS resistive MHD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lin, Paul T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shadid, John N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Department of Mathematics and Statistics,; Tsuji, Paul H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
2017-11-01
Here, this study explores the performance and scaling of a GMRES Krylov method employed as a smoother for an algebraic multigrid (AMG) preconditioned Newton- Krylov solution approach applied to a fully-implicit variational multiscale (VMS) nite element (FE) resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) formulation. In this context a Newton iteration is used for the nonlinear system and a Krylov (GMRES) method is employed for the linear subsystems. The efficiency of this approach is critically dependent on the scalability and performance of the AMG preconditioner for the linear solutions and the performance of the smoothers play a critical role. Krylov smoothers are considered in an attempt to reduce the time and memory requirements of existing robust smoothers based on additive Schwarz domain decomposition (DD) with incomplete LU factorization solves on each subdomain. Three time dependent resistive MHD test cases are considered to evaluate the method. The results demonstrate that the GMRES smoother can be faster due to a decrease in the preconditioner setup time and a reduction in outer GMRESR solver iterations, and requires less memory (typically 35% less memory for global GMRES smoother) than the DD ILU smoother.
3-D resistive MHD calculations for tokamak plasmas: beyond the simple reduced set of equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carreras, B.A.; Garcia, L.; Hender, T.C.; Hicks, H.R.; Holmes, J.A.; Lynch, V.E.; Masden, B.F.
1983-01-01
Numerical studies of the resistive stability of tokamak plasmas in cylindrical geometry have been performed using: (1) the full set of resistive Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations and (2) an extended version of the reduced set of resistive MHD equations including diamagnetic and electron temperature effects. In particular, the nonlinear interaction of tearing modes of many helicities has been investigated. The numerical results confirm many of the features uncovered previously using the simple reduced equations. (author)
Numerical MHD study for plasmoid instability in uniform resistivity
Shimizu, Tohru; Kondoh, Koji; Zenitani, Seiji
2017-11-01
The plasmoid instability (PI) caused in uniform resistivity is numerically studied with a MHD numerical code of HLLD scheme. It is shown that the PI observed in numerical studies may often include numerical (non-physical) tearing instability caused by the numerical dissipations. By increasing the numerical resolutions, the numerical tearing instability gradually disappears and the physical tearing instability remains. Hence, the convergence of the numerical results is observed. Note that the reconnection rate observed in the numerical tearing instability can be higher than that of the physical tearing instability. On the other hand, regardless of the numerical and physical tearing instabilities, the tearing instability can be classified into symmetric and asymmetric tearing instability. The symmetric tearing instability tends to occur when the thinning of current sheet is stopped by the physical or numerical dissipations, often resulting in the drastic changes in plasmoid chain's structure and its activity. In this paper, by eliminating the numerical tearing instability, we could not specify the critical Lundquist number Sc beyond which PI is fully developed. It suggests that Sc does not exist, at least around S = 105.
Neoclassical viscous stress tensor for non-linear MHD simulations with XTOR-2F
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mellet, N.; Maget, P.; Meshcheriakov, D.; Lütjens, H.
2013-01-01
The neoclassical viscous stress tensor is implemented in the non-linear MHD code XTOR-2F (Lütjens and Luciani 2010 J. Comput. Phys. 229 8130–43), allowing consistent bi-fluid simulations of MHD modes, including the metastable branch of neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) (Carrera et al 1986 Phys. Fluids 29 899–902). Equilibrium flows and bootstrap current from the neoclassical theory are formally recovered in this Chew–Goldberger–Low formulation. The non-linear behaviour of the new model is verified on a test case coming from a Tore Supra non-inductive discharge. A NTM threshold that is larger than with the previous model is obtained. This is due to the fact that the velocity is now part of the bootstrap current and that it differs from the theoretical neoclassical value. (paper)
Linear Simulations of the Cylindrical Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability in Hydrodynamics and MHD
Gao, Song
2013-05-01
The Richtmyer-Meshkov instability occurs when density-stratified interfaces are impulsively accelerated, typically by a shock wave. We present a numerical method to simulate the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability in cylindrical geometry. The ideal MHD equations are linearized about a time-dependent base state to yield linear partial differential equations governing the perturbed quantities. Convergence tests demonstrate that second order accuracy is achieved for smooth flows, and the order of accuracy is between first and second order for flows with discontinuities. Numerical results are presented for cases of interfaces with positive Atwood number and purely azimuthal perturbations. In hydrodynamics, the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability growth of perturbations is followed by a Rayleigh-Taylor growth phase. In MHD, numerical results indicate that the perturbations can be suppressed for sufficiently large perturbation wavenumbers and magnetic fields.
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Furuya, Atsushi; Yagi, Masatoshi; Itoh, Sanae-I.
2003-01-01
The linear neoclassical tearing mode is investigated using the four-field reduced neoclassical MHD equations, in which the fluctuating ion parallel flow and ion neoclassical viscosity are taken into account. The dependences of the neoclassical tearing mode on collisionality, diamagnetic drift and q profile are investigated. These results are compared with the results from the conventional three-field model. It is shown that the linear neoclassical tearing mode is stabilized by the ion neoclassical viscosity in the banana regime even if Δ' > 0. (author)
Characteristics of Linear MHD Generators with One or a Few Loads
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Witalis, E.A.
1966-02-01
The theoretical performance of linear series segmented MHD generators with finite size electrodes and one or a few identical external loads is investigated. The analysis is an extension of our conformal mapping investigation previously reported. The electrical characteristics are evaluated as functions of the segmentation degree, the Hall parameter and the relative position of short-circuited electrodes. Special consideration is given to the influence of staggering the electrodes, i. e. shifting the relative positions of short-circuited electrodes. General electrical terminal characteristics, i. e. the full current-voltage relation, can not be obtained by the exact analytical method, which is applicable only to so-called design load conditions or infinitely long MHD channels. However, it is shown how the general properties can be explained qualitatively and calculated approximately by describing off-design modes of operation in terms of a fictitious 'effective' number of external loads
Characteristics of Linear MHD Generators with One or a Few Loads
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Witalis, E A
1966-02-15
The theoretical performance of linear series segmented MHD generators with finite size electrodes and one or a few identical external loads is investigated. The analysis is an extension of our conformal mapping investigation previously reported. The electrical characteristics are evaluated as functions of the segmentation degree, the Hall parameter and the relative position of short-circuited electrodes. Special consideration is given to the influence of staggering the electrodes, i. e. shifting the relative positions of short-circuited electrodes. General electrical terminal characteristics, i. e. the full current-voltage relation, can not be obtained by the exact analytical method, which is applicable only to so-called design load conditions or infinitely long MHD channels. However, it is shown how the general properties can be explained qualitatively and calculated approximately by describing off-design modes of operation in terms of a fictitious 'effective' number of external loads.
Linear and nonlinear stability criteria for compressible MHD flows in a gravitational field
Moawad, S. M.; Moawad
2013-10-01
The equilibrium and stability properties of ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) of compressible flow in a gravitational field with a translational symmetry are investigated. Variational principles for the steady-state equations are formulated. The MHD equilibrium equations are obtained as critical points of a conserved Lyapunov functional. This functional consists of the sum of the total energy, the mass, the circulation along field lines (cross helicity), the momentum, and the magnetic helicity. In the unperturbed case, the equilibrium states satisfy a nonlinear second-order partial differential equation (PDE) associated with hydrodynamic Bernoulli law. The PDE can be an elliptic or a parabolic equation depending on increasing the poloidal flow speed. Linear and nonlinear Lyapunov stability conditions under translational symmetric perturbations are established for the equilibrium states.
End Effects on the Linear Induction MHD Generator Calculated by Two-Sided Laplace Transform
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Engeln, F.; Peschka, W. [Deutsche Versuchsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Institut fuer Energiewandlung und Elektrische Antriebe, Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)
1966-11-15
In induction MHD systems special problems occur where the flow enters or leaves the magnetic field. These problems are generally described as end effects. Large gradients of the magnetic field are present at the inlet and also at the outlet of an MHD induction engine, these generating electric current systems in the fluid which may spoil the performance characteristics of the generator due to the interaction with the primary field of the engine. The two-dimensional induction MHD generator of finite length, using a polyphase winding system to obtain a travelling magnetic field, is treated as a boundary value problem by two-sided Laplace transform. For simplicity incompressibility is assumed. The two- dimensional boundary value problem of the induction engine is solved for - {infinity} Less-Than-Over-Equal-To x Less-Than-Over-Equal-To {infinity}. x is parallel to the flow direction of the linear MHD generator. In the region 0 Less-Than-Over-Equal-To x Less-Than-Over-Equal-To L the magnetic travelling wave is sinusoidal with a cyclical frequency {omega} and a phase-velocity v{sub s}. At x = 0 the conducting incompressible working fluid enters the field region and leaves it at the point-x = L. Two mathematical methods can be used to solve the boundary value problem, the Fourier transform or the two-sided Laplace transform. The latter offers the advantage of representing a complex analytical function in the image space. Moreover, it is possible to obtain the characteristics of the generator in the image space (e. g. field configuration, power flow function, etc.). That implies a large simplification of mathematical treatment. The solution in the original space then is given by asymptotic expansion of the known image function. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoelzl, M; Merkel, P; Lackner, K; Strumberger, E; Huijsmans, G T A; Aleynikova, K; Liu, F; Atanasiu, C; Nardon, E; Fil, A; McAdams, R; Chapman, I
2014-01-01
The dynamics of large scale plasma instabilities can be strongly influenced by the mutual interaction with currents flowing in conducting vessel structures. Especially eddy currents caused by time-varying magnetic perturbations and halo currents flowing directly from the plasma into the walls are important. The relevance of a resistive wall model is directly evident for Resistive Wall Modes (RWMs) or Vertical Displacement Events (VDEs). However, also the linear and non-linear properties of most other large-scale instabilities may be influenced significantly by the interaction with currents in conducting structures near the plasma. The understanding of halo currents arising during disruptions and VDEs, which are a serious concern for ITER as they may lead to strong asymmetric forces on vessel structures, could also benefit strongly from these non-linear modeling capabilities. Modeling the plasma dynamics and its interaction with wall currents requires solving the magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) equations in realistic toroidal X-point geometry consistently coupled with a model for the vacuum region and the resistive conducting structures. With this in mind, the non-linear finite element MHD code JOREK [1, 2] has been coupled [3] with the resistive wall code STARWALL [4], which allows us to include the effects of eddy currents in 3D conducting structures in non-linear MHD simulations. This article summarizes the capabilities of the coupled JOREK-STARWALL system and presents benchmark results as well as first applications to non-linear simulations of RWMs, VDEs, disruptions triggered by massive gas injection, and Quiescent H-Mode. As an outlook, the perspectives for extending the model to halo currents are described
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
England, W.B.
1978-01-01
Uncorrelated and correlated potential energy curves and dipole moments are reported for linear KOH. The compound is found to be ionic, K + OH - . Minimum energy bond lengths are R/sub KO/=4.2913 au and R/sub OH/=1.7688 au, with an estimated accuracy of 2%. The corresponding dipole moment is 3.3 au (8.46 D) with a similar accuracy estimate. This is to our knowledge the first value ever reported for the KOH dipole moment, and the large value suggests that KOH will be an effective electron scatterer in MHD plasmas
Ideal and resistive MHD stability of internal kink modes in circular and shaped tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bondeson, A.; Luetjens, H.; Vlad, G.
1992-01-01
Recent results for the MHD stability of internal kink modes in tokamaks are reviewed. In general, ideal stability is more restrictive than the conventionally cited limit β p p is the poloidal beta at the q = 1 surface). This holds, in particular, for shaped equilibria, where low shear in combination with elliptic shaping can drastically reduce the pressure limit. Also in resistive MHD, interchange effects are frequently destabilizing, and resistive stability at β p ≥0.05 is achieved, for circular section, only with a very restricted class of current profiles, and not at all for JET-shaped cross section. (author) 9 figs., 24 refs
Development of a 3D non-linear implicit MHD code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nicolas, T.; Ichiguchi, K.
2016-06-01
This paper details the on-going development of a 3D non-linear implicit MHD code, which aims at making possible large scale simulations of the non-linear phase of the interchange mode. The goal of the paper is to explain the rationale behind the choices made along the development, and the technical difficulties encountered. At the present stage, the development of the code has not been completed yet. Most of the discussion is concerned with the first approach, which utilizes cartesian coordinates in the poloidal plane. This approach shows serious difficulties in writing the preconditioner, closely related to the choice of coordinates. A second approach, based on curvilinear coordinates, also faced significant difficulties, which are detailed. The third and last approach explored involves unstructured tetrahedral grids, and indicates the possibility to solve the problem. The issue to domain meshing is addressed. (author)
Resistive MHD studies of high-β-tokamak plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lynch, V.E.; Carreras, B.A.; Hicks, H.R.; Holmes, J.A.; Garcia, L.
1981-01-01
Numerical calculations have been performed to study the MHD activity in high-β tokamaks such as ISX-B. These initial value calculations built on earlier low β techniques, but the β effects create several new numerical issues. These issues are discussed and resolved. In addition to time-stepping modules, our system of computer codes includes equilibrium solvers (used to provide an initial condition) and output modules, such as a magnetic field line follower and an X-ray diagnostic code. The transition from current driven modes at low β to predominantly pressure driven modes at high β is described. The nonlinear studies yield X-ray emissivity plots which are compared with experiment
Linear and nonlinear instability theory of a noble gas MHD generator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mesland, A.J.
1982-01-01
This thesis deals with the stability of the working medium of a seeded noble gas magnetohydrodynamic generator. The aim of the study is to determine the instability mechanism which is most likely to occur in experimental MHD generators and to describe its behaviour with linear and nonlinear theories. In chapter I a general introduction is given. The pertinent macroscopic basic equations are derived in chapter II, viz. the continuity, the momentum and the energy equation for the electrons and the heavy gas particles, consisting of the seed particles and the noble gas atoms. Chapter III deals with the linear plane wave analysis of small disturbances of a homogeneous steady state. The steady state is discussed in chapter IV. The values for the steady state parameters used for the calculations both for the linear analysis as for the nonlinear analysis are made plausible with the experimental values. Based on the results of the linear plane wave theory a nonlinear plane wave model of the electrothermal instability is introduced in chapter V. (Auth.)
Accretion and ejection in resistive GR-MHD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Qian, Qian
2017-05-10
In this thesis, the accretion and ejection processes from a black hole accretion system is investigated by means of resistive general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations. As a supplement to the results from prior research with non-relativistic simulations, my results confirm that the winds and outflows originated from thin accretion disks can also be observed in general relativistic simulations. In the first part, the execution of the implementation of resistivity, namely magnetic diffusivity, into the existing non-resistive general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic code HARM is illustrated. The test simulations of the new code rHARM include the comparison with analytical solution of the diffusion equation and a classic shock tube test. rHARM shows reliable performances in these tests. In the second part, rHARM is applied to investigate the evolution of magnetized tori. The results show that the existence of resistivity leads to inefficient accretions of matter from tori onto black holes by weakening the magnetorotational instability inside the tori. An indication for a critical magnetic diffusivity in this simulation setup is found beyond which no magnetorotational instability develops in the linear regime. In the third part, as the main purpose of this PhD project, rHARM is used to perform simulations of magnetically diffusive thin accretion disks that are threaded by a large-scale poloidal magnetic field around non-rotating and rotating black holes. These long-term simulations last 3000 code time units, which are about 195 rotation periods at the disk inner boundary, correspondingly. Their computational domains extend from black hole horizon to 80 Schwarzschild radii. Outflows driven from the accretion disk are clearly seen. These outflows have the typical radial velocity of 0.1 speed of light. In my analyses, I argue that these outflows are driven by the magnetic pressure gradient from the toroidal magnetic field generated by the rotation of the disk
rHARM: ACCRETION AND EJECTION IN RESISTIVE GR-MHD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Qian, Qian; Fendt, Christian [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg (Germany); Noble, Scott [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, University of Tulsa, Tulsa (United States); Bugli, Matteo, E-mail: qian@mpia.de, E-mail: fendt@mpia.de [Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Garching (Germany)
2017-01-01
Turbulent magnetic diffusivity plays an important role for accretion disks and the launching of disk winds. We have implemented magnetic diffusivity and respective resistivity in the general relativistic MHD code HARM. This paper describes the theoretical background of our implementation, its numerical realization, our numerical tests, and preliminary applications. The test simulations of the new code rHARM are compared to an analytic solution of the diffusion equation and a classical shock tube problem. We have further investigated the evolution of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in tori around black holes (BHs) for a range of magnetic diffusivities. We find an indication for a critical magnetic diffusivity (for our setup) beyond which no MRI develops in the linear regime and for which accretion of torus material to the BH is delayed. Preliminary simulations of magnetically diffusive thin accretion disks around Schwarzschild BHs that are threaded by a large-scale poloidal magnetic field show the launching of disk winds with mass fluxes of about 50% of the accretion rate. The disk magnetic diffusivity allows for efficient disk accretion that replenishes the mass reservoir of the inner disk area and thus allows for long-term simulations of wind launching for more than 5000 time units.
On the Measurements of Numerical Viscosity and Resistivity in Eulerian MHD Codes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rembiasz, Tomasz; Obergaulinger, Martin; Cerdá-Durán, Pablo; Aloy, Miguel-Ángel [Departamento de Astronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad de Valencia, C/Dr. Moliner 50, E-46100 Burjassot (Spain); Müller, Ewald, E-mail: tomasz.rembiasz@uv.es [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)
2017-06-01
We propose a simple ansatz for estimating the value of the numerical resistivity and the numerical viscosity of any Eulerian MHD code. We test this ansatz with the help of simulations of the propagation of (magneto)sonic waves, Alfvén waves, and the tearing mode (TM) instability using the MHD code Aenus. By comparing the simulation results with analytical solutions of the resistive-viscous MHD equations and an empirical ansatz for the growth rate of TMs, we measure the numerical viscosity and resistivity of Aenus. The comparison shows that the fast magnetosonic speed and wavelength are the characteristic velocity and length, respectively, of the aforementioned (relatively simple) systems. We also determine the dependence of the numerical viscosity and resistivity on the time integration method, the spatial reconstruction scheme and (to a lesser extent) the Riemann solver employed in the simulations. From the measured results, we infer the numerical resolution (as a function of the spatial reconstruction method) required to properly resolve the growth and saturation level of the magnetic field amplified by the magnetorotational instability in the post-collapsed core of massive stars. Our results show that it is most advantageous to resort to ultra-high-order methods (e.g., the ninth-order monotonicity-preserving method) to tackle this problem properly, in particular, in three-dimensional simulations.
Salient issues of edge physics pertaining to loss of confinement: A resistive MHD analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thayer, D.R.
1990-01-01
In general we have made significant contributions towards the ultimate goal of creating a complete theory of edge turbulence and transport in magnetic fusion devices. Our main focus has been to utilize a resistive MHD model. This analysis includes: (1) ''rippling'' type models in which the current fluctuations are decoupled and the resistivity fluctuations are fundamental, and (2) ''drift'' type models in which the ambient current can be small (no resistivity fluctuations needed) and the current fluctuations are fundamental. In these turbulence frameworks, the important atomic physics based edge sources have been included (impurity radiation, ionization, and charge exchange effects)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blake, B.; Zumbrun, K.; Lafitte, O.
2010-01-01
For the two-dimensional Navier Stokes equations of isentropic magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) with γ-law gas equation of state, γ≥1, and infinite electrical resistivity, we carry out a global analysis categorizing all possible viscous shock profiles. Precisely, we show that the phase portrait of the Crave ling-wave ODE generically consists of either two rest points connected by a viscous Lax profile, or else four rest points, two saddles and two nodes. In the latter configuration, which rest points are connected by profiles depends on the ratio of viscosities, and can involve Lax, over-compressive, or under-compressive shock profiles. Considered as three-dimensional solutions, under-compressive shocks are Lax-type (Alfven) waves. For the monatomic and diatomic cases γ=5/3 and γ=7/5, with standard viscosity ratio for a nonmagnetic gas, we find numerically that the the nodes are connected by a family of over-compressive profiles bounded by Lax profiles connecting saddles to nodes, with no under-compressive shocks occurring. We carry out a systematic numerical Evans function analysis indicating that all of these two-dimensional shock profiles are linearly and nonlinearly stable, both with respect to two- and three-dimensional perturbations. For the same gas constants, but different viscosity ratios, we investigate also cases for which under-compressive shocks appear; these are seen numerically to be stable as well, both with respect to two-dimensional and (in the neutral sense of convergence to nearby Riemann solutions) three-dimensional perturbations. (authors)
The instability criterion for ideal and resistive MHD modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Ding
2002-01-01
The instability criterions for ideal helical perturbation and resistive kink/tearing modes are derived for arbitrary q profile. It is found that the q=1 mode can be unstable only within the q=1 surface in positive shear plasma. The instability region is enlarged as q 0 decreases and/or the current density is flatted. The instability can be completely suppressed in the reverse shear plasma for peaked, and flatted current profile. The q>1 modes are stable in the plasma core and marginal stable within the rational surface in the positive shear plasma. They become more stable in the plasma core and still marginal stable around the rational surface in the reversed shear plasma. It is shown that in the positive shear plasma, the q=1, 5/4, 4/3, 3/2 and 2/1 modes are in turn destabilized and becomes dominant unstable mode as q 0 increases for fixed q a . In the reversed shear plasma, all the q=1 and q>1 modes can be stable when q0 1 modes in turn becomes unstable as q 0 (>1) increases. At first, the inner branch is stable while the outer branch weakly unstable. Then, the both branches can become strongly unstable as q0 increases. (author)
MHD computation of feedback of resistive-shell instabilities in the reversed field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zita, E.J.; Prager, S.C.
1992-05-01
MHD computation demonstrates that feedback can sustain reversal and reduce loop voltage in resistive-shell reversed field pinch (RFP) plasmas. Edge feedback on ∼2R/a tearing modes resonant near axis is found to restore plasma parameters to nearly their levels with a close-fitting conducting shell. When original dynamo modes are stabilized, neighboring tearing modes grow to maintain the RFP dynamo more efficiently. This suggests that experimentally observed limits on RFP pulselengths to the order of the shell time can be overcome by applying feedback to a few helical modes
Generalized reduced MHD equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kruger, S.E.; Hegna, C.C.; Callen, J.D.
1998-07-01
A new derivation of reduced magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations is presented. A multiple-time-scale expansion is employed. It has the advantage of clearly separating the three time scales of the problem associated with (1) MHD equilibrium, (2) fluctuations whose wave vector is aligned perpendicular to the magnetic field, and (3) those aligned parallel to the magnetic field. The derivation is carried out without relying on a large aspect ratio assumption; therefore this model can be applied to any general toroidal configuration. By accounting for the MHD equilibrium and constraints to eliminate the fast perpendicular waves, equations are derived to evolve scalar potential quantities on a time scale associated with the parallel wave vector (shear-alfven wave time scale), which is the time scale of interest for MHD instability studies. Careful attention is given in the derivation to satisfy energy conservation and to have manifestly divergence-free magnetic fields to all orders in the expansion parameter. Additionally, neoclassical closures and equilibrium shear flow effects are easily accounted for in this model. Equations for the inner resistive layer are derived which reproduce the linear ideal and resistive stability criterion of Glasser, Greene, and Johnson
Linear MHD stability analysis of post-disruption plasmas in ITER
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aleynikova, K., E-mail: ksenia.aleynikova@gmail.com [EURATOM Association, Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik (Germany); Huijsmans, G. T. A. [ITER Organization (France); Aleynikov, P. [EURATOM Association, Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik (Germany)
2016-05-15
Most of the plasma current can be replaced by a runaway electron (RE) current during plasma disruptions in ITER. In this case the post-disruption plasma current profile is likely to be more peaked than the pre-disruption profile. The MHD activity of such plasma will affect the runaway electron generation and confinement and the dynamics of the plasma position evolution (Vertical Displacement Event), limiting the timeframe for runaway electrons and disruption mitigation. In the present paper, we evaluate the influence of the possible RE seed current parameters on the onset of the MHD instabilities. By varying the RE seed current profile, we search for subsequent plasma evolutions with the highest and the lowest MHD activity. This information can be applied to a development of desirable ITER disruption scenario.
Intrinsic rotation due to MHD activity in a tokamak with a resistive wall
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haines, M G; Gimblett, C G; Hastie, R J
2013-01-01
MHD activity in a tokamak, in the form of waves and instabilities, generally has a preferred direction for propagation in a two-fluid plasma. When the radial component of magnetic field associated with this activity interacts with a resistive wall, momentum or angular momentum will be given to the wall. The equal and opposite reaction will be on the plasma, in particular, for ideal and resistive modes, at the singular or resonant surfaces for the various modes. In this case the torque exerted is electromagnetic. This is in contrast to other mechanisms for intrinsic or spontaneous rotation which may arise at the plasma boundary. The resistive wall is considered generally, and the thin and thick wall limits found, the latter being relevant to ITER parameters. Remarkably small radial perturbing fields of order 0.1 G could produce a torque comparable in effect to the apparent anomalous toroidal viscosity. (paper)
Neoclassical MHD descriptions of tokamak plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Callen, J.D.; Kim, Y.B.; Sundaram, A.K.
1988-01-01
Considerable progress has been made in extending neoclassical MHD theory and in exploring the linear instabilities, nonlinear behavior and turbulence models it implies for tokamak plasmas. The areas highlighted in this paper include: extension of the neoclassical MHD equations to include temperature-gradient and heat flow effects; the free energy and entropy evolution implied by this more complete description; a proper ballooning mode formalism analysis of the linear instabilities; a new rippling mode type instability; numerical simulation of the linear instabilities which exhibit a smooth transition from resistive ballooning modes at high collisionality to neoclassical MHD modes at low collisionality; numerical simulation of the nonlinear growth of a single helicity tearing mode; and a Direct-Interaction-Approximation model of neoclassical MHD turbulence and the anomalous transport it induces which substantially improves upon previous mixing length model estimates. 34 refs., 2 figs
Zhang, Jianwen; Zhao, Xiaokui
2015-01-01
In general, the resistivity is inversely proportional to the electrical conductivity, and is usually taken to be zero when the conducting fluid is of extremely high conductivity (e.g., ideal conductors). In this paper, we first establish the global well-posedness of strong solution to an initial-boundary value problem of the one-dimensional compressible, viscous, heat-conductive, non-resistive MHD equations with general heat-conductivity coefficient and large data. Then, the non-resistive lim...
Thermal resistance of buffer layer in a ceramic wall of MHD generation channel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nomura, Osami; Ebata, Yoshihiro; Hijikata, Kenichi.
1982-01-01
A wal l model is composed for obtaining the thermal resistance of the buffer layer. A buffer layer of the model is consisted to an adhesive layer and a buffer body. The adhesive layer is made of a copper plate, which is 0.3 mm thick, and adhered to the element by Refractory Method. The adhesive layer is consisted to three layers, i.e., Cu, Cu 2 O and CuO. These three layers seems to give rise to the thermal resistance. The buffer body is made of nickel wires of which radious is 0.4 mm and purity is 99.7%. All of the nickel wires are assembled in one direction which is parallel to a center line of the element, and bundled all together. Occupation ratio of nickel is about 78% in a sectional area of the buffer body. One end of the buffer body is soldered to adhesive layer by silver solder and opposite and is soldered to holder by lead solder. An element of the model is made of magnesia ceramics of which purity is about 99.9% and porosity is about 3%. A holder of the model is made of copper block. Results are as follows: (1) Thermal resistance of the buffer layer is from 1.9 to 2.5K/(W/cm 2 ). (2) Thermal resistance of the adhesive layer is from 0.43 to 0.87K/(W/cm 2 ). (3) Thermal resistance of the buffer body is calculated to about 0.7K/(W/cm 2 ) under the estimation at which the heat flows in the nickel wires only. (4) From above results, thermal resistance of silver soldering layer seems to be same as that of the adhesive layers. The buffer layer needs more value of the thermal resistance in order to apply to the MHD generation channel. Value of the thermal resistance is easily satisfied by changing of material of the buffer body, increase of thickness of the buffer layer and etc. Then this wall appears to be useful to an MHD generation channel wall. (author)
MHD flow of Powell-Eyring nanofluid over a non-linear stretching sheet with variable thickness
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Hayat
Full Text Available This research explores the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD boundary layer flow of Powell-Eyring nanofluid past a non-linear stretching sheet of variable thickness. An electrically conducting fluid is considered under the characteristics of magnetic field applied transverse to the sheet. The mathematical expressions are accomplished via boundary layer access, Brownian motion and thermophoresis phenomena. The flow analysis is subjected to a recently established conditions requiring zero nanoparticles mass flux. Adequate transformations are implemented for the reduction of partial differential systems to the ordinary differential systems. Series solutions for the governing nonlinear flow of momentum, temperature and nanoparticles concentration have been executed. Physical interpretation of numerous parameters is assigned by graphical illustrations and tabular values. Moreover the numerical data of drag coefficient and local heat transfer rate are executed and discussed. It is investigated that higher wall thickness parameter results in the reduction of velocity distribution. Effects of thermophoresis parameter on temperature and concentration profiles are qualitatively similar. Both the temperature and concentration profiles are enhanced for higher values of thermophoresis parameter. Keywords: MHD, Variable thicked surface, Powell-Eyring nanofluid, Zero mass flux conditions
Analysis of Design Variables of Annular Linear Induction Electromagnetic Pump using an MHD Model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kwak, Jae Sik; Kim, Hee Reyoung [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)
2015-05-15
The generated force is affected by lots of factors including electrical input, hydrodynamic flow, geometrical shape, and so on. These factors, which are the design variables of an ALIP, should be suitably analyzed to optimally design an ALIP. Analysis on the developed pressure and efficiency of the ALIP according to the change of design variables is required for the ALIP satisfying requirements. In this study, the design variables of the ALIP are analyzed by using ideal MHD analysis model. Electromagnetic force and efficiency are derived by analyzing the main design variables such as pump core length, inner core diameter, flow gap and turns of coils. The developed pressure and efficiency of the ALIP were derived and analyzed on the change of the main variables such as pump core length, inner core diameter, flow gap, and turns of coils of the ALIP.
Free-Boundary 3D Equilibria and Resistive Wall Instabilities with Extended-MHD
Ferraro, N. M.
2015-11-01
The interaction of the plasma with external currents, either imposed or induced, is a critical element of a wide range of important tokamak phenomena, including resistive wall mode (RWM) stability and feedback control, island penetration and locking, and disruptions. A model of these currents may be included within the domain of extended-MHD codes in a way that preserves the self-consistency, scalability, and implicitness of their numerical methods. Such a model of the resistive wall and non-axisymmetric coils is demonstrated using the M3D-C1 code for a variety of applications, including RWMs, perturbed non-axisymmetric equilibria, and a vertical displacement event (VDE) disruption. The calculated free-boundary equilibria, which include Spitzer resistivity, rotation, and two-fluid effects, are compared to external magnetic and internal thermal measurements for several DIII-D discharges. In calculations of the perturbed equilibria in ELM suppressed discharges, the tearing response at the top of the pedestal is found to correlate with the onset of ELM suppression. Nonlinear VDE calculations, initialized using a vertically unstable DIII-D equilibrium, resolve in both space and time the currents induced in the wall and on the plasma surface, and also the currents flowing between the plasma and the wall. The relative magnitude of these contributions and the total impulse to the wall depend on the resistive wall time, although the maximum axisymmetric force on the wall over the course of the VDE is found to be essentially independent of the wall conductivity. This research was supported by US DOE contracts DE-FG02-95ER54309, DE-FC02-04ER54698 and DE-AC52-07NA27344.
Equations for the non linear evolution of the resistive tearing modes in toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Edery, D.; Pellat, R.; Soule, J.L.
1979-09-01
Following the tokamak ordering, we simplify the resistive MHD equations in toroidal geometry. We obtain a closed system of non linear equations for two scalar potentials of the magnetic and velocity fields and for plasma density and temperature. If we expand these equations in the inverse of aspect ratio they are exact to the two first orders. Our formalism should correctly describe the mode coupling by curvature effects /1/ and the toroidal displacement of magnetic surfaces /2/. It provides a natural extension of the well known cylindrical model /3/ and is now being solved on computer
Longitudinal and radial MHD linear induction accelerator with hot conducting plasma core
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Denno, K.
1985-01-01
Conceptual design of linear induction accelerator is presented using for the core continuum a highly conductive plasma with sustained pumping velocity. Karlovitz criterion of boundary theory is employed in the process of design
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammed Almakki
2017-07-01
Full Text Available The entropy generation in unsteady three-dimensional axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamics (MHD nanofluid flow over a non-linearly stretching sheet is investigated. The flow is subject to thermal radiation and a chemical reaction. The conservation equations are solved using the spectral quasi-linearization method. The novelty of the work is in the study of entropy generation in three-dimensional axisymmetric MHD nanofluid and the choice of the spectral quasi-linearization method as the solution method. The effects of Brownian motion and thermophoresis are also taken into account. The nanofluid particle volume fraction on the boundary is passively controlled. The results show that as the Hartmann number increases, both the Nusselt number and the Sherwood number decrease, whereas the skin friction increases. It is further shown that an increase in the thermal radiation parameter corresponds to a decrease in the Nusselt number. Moreover, entropy generation increases with respect to some physical parameters.
The linear stability analysis of MHD models in axisymmetric toroidal geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Manickam, J.; Grimm, R.C.; Dewar, R.L.
1981-01-01
A computational model to analyze the linear stability properties of general toroidal systems in the ideal magnetohydrodynamic limits is presented. This model includes an explicit treatment of the asymptotic singular behaviour at rational surfaces. It is verified through applications to internal kink modes. (orig.)
MHD stability analyses of a tokamak plasma by time-dependent codes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kurita, Gen-ichi
1982-07-01
The MHD properties of a tokamak plasma are investigated by using time evolutional codes. As for the ideal MHD modes we have analyzed the external modes including the positional instability. Linear and nonlinear ideal MHD codes have been developed. Effects of the toroidicity and conducting shell on the external kink mode are studied minutely by the linear code. A new rezoning algorithm is devised and it is successfully applied to express numerically the axisymmetric plasma perturbation in a cylindrical geometry. As for the resistive MHD modes we have developed nonlinear codes on the basis of the reduced set of the resistive MHD equations. By using the codes we have studied the major disruption processes and properties of the low n resistive modes. We have found that the effects of toroidicity and finite poloidal beta are very important. Considering the above conclusion we propose a new scenario of the initiation of the major disruption. (author)
Bifurcation theory for toroidal MHD instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maschke, E.K.; Morros Tosas, J.; Urquijo, G.
1992-01-01
Using a general representation of magneto-hydrodynamics in terms of stream functions and potentials, proposed earlier, a set of reduced MHD equations for the case of toroidal geometry had been derived by an appropriate ordering with respect to the inverse aspect ratio. When all dissipative terms are neglected in this reduced system, it has the same linear stability limits as the full ideal MHD equations, to the order considered. When including resistivity, thermal conductivity and viscosity, we can apply bifurcation theory to investigate nonlinear stationary solution branches related to various instabilities. In particular, we show that a stationary solution of the internal kink type can be found
Modeling of fully coupled MHD flows in annular linear induction pumps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roman, C.; Dumont, M.; Letout, S.; Courtessole, C.; Fautrelle, Y.; Vitry, S.; Rey, F.
2014-01-01
The paper studies specific pumping characteristics of the Annular Linear Induction Pumps (ALIP) with travelling field for liquid sodium. The present work is focused on the analysis of very large electromagnetic pumps able to provide high flow rates. The magnetic Reynolds number is quite large, therefore, it is necessary to take into account the full magnetohydrodynamic interaction between the electromagnetic field and the liquid metal flow inside pump channel. We couple the electromagnetic aspects with the hydrodynamic ones by means of two commercial softwares. The geometry considered here is 2D axisymmetric. It is found that in such induction pumps the effect of convection is very important. Two main effects have been put forth. Firstly, due to the magnetic entrainment significant end effects are observed for large velocities. This leads to the existence of regions where the axial force is negative. Secondly, a Hartmann effect occurs near the walls. The electric current and the corresponding forces are confined near the wall in Hartmann layers. Global stability of e.m. pump is also analysed. (authors)
Development of the methodology for the MHD analysis in a linear induction electro-magnetic pump
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seong, Seung Hwan; Hur, Seop; Kim, Seong O; Choi, Seok Ki; Wi, Myung Hwan; Jeon, Won Dae
2004-01-01
Generally, fast breeder reactors have adopted a liquid metal as a coolant for the heat transfer from the reactor to the heat exchangers. Since a liquid metal has an electrical conductivity, the pumping of the liquid metal may use an induction electro-magnetic (EM) pump which induces electrical current and body force on the metal flow. These linear induction pumps use a traveling magnetic field wave created by poly-phase currents and the induced currents and their associated magnetic field generate the Lorentz force whose effect can be actually the pumping of the liquid metal. The flow behaviors in the pump are very complex such as the existence of a rotational force, pulsation and so on, because the induction EM pump has time-varying magnetic fields and the induced convective currents which originate form the flow of the liquid metal. These phenomena generate a stability problem in the pump and depend on the changes of the magnetic field and fluid flow field due to the induced currents and the fluid flow of the liquid metal with time and complex pump geometry. Therefore, an exact flow analysis is required for designing and evaluating the stability of a pump
Computational modeling of neoclassical and resistive MHD tearing modes in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gianakon, T.A.; Hegna, C.C.; Callen, J.D.
1996-01-01
Numerical studies of the nonlinear evolution of MHD-type tearing modes in three-dimensional toroidal geometry with neoclassical effects are presented. The inclusion of neoclassical physics introduces an additional free-energy source for the nonlinear formation of magnetic islands through the effects of a bootstrap current in Ohm's law. The neoclassical tearing mode is demonstrated to be destabilized in plasmas which are otherwise Δ' stable, albeit once an island width threshold is exceeded. The plasma pressure dynamics and neoclassical tearing growth is shown to be sensitive to the choice of the ratio of the parallel to perpendicular diffusivity (Χ parallel/Χ perpendicular). The study is completed with a demonstration and theoretical comparison of the threshold for single helicity neoclassical MHD tearing modes, which is described based on parameter scans of the local pressure gradient, the ratio of perpendicular to parallel pressure diffusivities Χ perpendicular/Χ parallel, and the magnitude of an initial seed magnetic perturbation
Linearization of resistance thermometers and other transducers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Diamond, Joseph M.
1970-01-01
deflection output or to null balance output. The application to the common temperature transducers is considered. It is shown that thermistors, linear metals (e.g., copper), and nickel can be linearized in terms of temperature, but platinum cannot be. If linearization is desired in terms of the reciprocal...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Farooq
Full Text Available This article studies MHD double stratified stagnation point flow of Carreau fluid towards a non linear stretchable surface with radiation. Features of heat and mass transfer are evaluated by using convective boundary conditions. Resulting nonlinear problems are solved and studied for the velocity, temperature and concentration fields. Heat and mass transfer rates in addition to skin friction are discussed. Besides this for the verification of the present findings, the results of presented analysis have been compared with the available works in particular situations and reasonable agreement is noted. Keywords: Convective boundary condition, Thermal radiation, Double stratification, Stagnation point flow
Effect of Linear and Non-linear Resistance Exercise on Anaerobic Performance among Young Women
Homa Esmaeili; Ali Reza Amani; Taher Afsharnezhad
2015-01-01
The main goals of strength training are improving muscle strength, power and muscle endurance. The objective of the current study is to compare two popular linear and nonlinear resistance exercises interventions on the anaerobic power. Previous research has shown differences intervention by the linear and non-linear resistance exercise in performance and strength in male athletes. By the way there are not enough data regarding female subjects. Eighteen young women subjects participated in th...
Proceedings of the workshop on nonlinear MHD and extended MHD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1998-01-01
Nonlinear MHD simulations have proven their value in interpreting experimental results over the years. As magnetic fusion experiments reach higher performance regimes, more sophisticated experimental diagnostics coupled with ever expanding computer capabilities have increased both the need for and the feasibility of nonlinear global simulations using models more realistic than regular ideal and resistive MHD. Such extended-MHD nonlinear simulations have already begun to produce useful results. These studies are expected to lead to ever more comprehensive simulation models in the future and to play a vital role in fully understanding fusion plasmas. Topics include the following: (1) current state of nonlinear MHD and extended-MHD simulations; (2) comparisons to experimental data; (3) discussions between experimentalists and theorists; (4) /equations for extended-MHD models, kinetic-based closures; and (5) paths toward more comprehensive simulation models, etc. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database
Proceedings of the workshop on nonlinear MHD and extended MHD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1998-12-01
Nonlinear MHD simulations have proven their value in interpreting experimental results over the years. As magnetic fusion experiments reach higher performance regimes, more sophisticated experimental diagnostics coupled with ever expanding computer capabilities have increased both the need for and the feasibility of nonlinear global simulations using models more realistic than regular ideal and resistive MHD. Such extended-MHD nonlinear simulations have already begun to produce useful results. These studies are expected to lead to ever more comprehensive simulation models in the future and to play a vital role in fully understanding fusion plasmas. Topics include the following: (1) current state of nonlinear MHD and extended-MHD simulations; (2) comparisons to experimental data; (3) discussions between experimentalists and theorists; (4) /equations for extended-MHD models, kinetic-based closures; and (5) paths toward more comprehensive simulation models, etc. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.
On axisymmetric resistive MHD equilibria with flow free of Pfirsch-Schlüter diffusion
Throumoulopoulos, George N.; Tasso, Henri
2002-11-01
The equilibrium of an axisymmetric magnetically confined plasma with anisotropic electrical conductivity and flows parallel to the magnetic field is investigated within the framework of the MHD theory by keeping the convective flow term in the momentum equation. It turns out that the stationary states are determined by a second-order partial differential equation for the poloidal magnetic flux function along with a Bernoulli equation for the density identical in form with the respective ideal MHD equations; equilibrium consistent expressions for the conductivities σ_allel and σ_⊥ parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field are also derived from Ohm's and Faraday's laws. Unlike in the case of stationary states with isotropic conductivity and parallel flows (see [1]) the equilibrium is compatible with non-vanishing poloidal currents. For incompressible flows exact solutions of the above mentioned set of equations can be constructed with σ_allel and σ_⊥ profiles compatible with collisional conductivity profiles, i.e. profiles peaked close to the magnetic axis, vanishing on the boundary and such that σ_allel> σ_⊥. In particular, an exact equilibrium describing a toroidal plasma of arbitrary aspect ratio being contained within a perfectly conducting boundary of rectangular cross-section and peaked toroidal current density profile vanishing on the boundary is further considered. For this equilibrium in the case of vanishing flows the difference σ_allel-σ_⊥ for the reversed field pinch scaling Bp Bt (where Bp and Bt are the poloidal and toroidal magnetic field components) is nearly two times larger than that for the tokamak scaling B_p 0.1 B_t. [1] G. N. Throumoulopoulos, H. Tasso, J. Plasma Physics 64, 601 (2000).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takeda, Tatsuoki
1985-01-01
In this article analyses of the MHD stabilities which govern the global behavior of a fusion plasma are described from the viewpoint of the numerical computation. First, we describe the high accuracy calculation of the MHD equilibrium and then the analysis of the linear MHD instability. The former is the basis of the stability analysis and the latter is closely related to the limiting beta value which is a very important theoretical issue of the tokamak research. To attain a stable tokamak plasma with good confinement property it is necessary to control or suppress disruptive instabilities. We, next, describe the nonlinear MHD instabilities which relate with the disruption phenomena. Lastly, we describe vectorization of the MHD codes. The above MHD codes for fusion plasma analyses are relatively simple though very time-consuming and parts of the codes which need a lot of CPU time concentrate on a small portion of the codes, moreover, the codes are usually used by the developers of the codes themselves, which make it comparatively easy to attain a high performance ratio on the vector processor. (author)
Linear and nonlinear stability in resistive magnetohydrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tasso, H.
1994-01-01
A sufficient stability condition with respect to purely growing modes is derived for resistive magnetohydrodynamics. Its open-quotes nearnessclose quotes to necessity is analysed. It is found that for physically reasonable approximations the condition is in some sense necessary and sufficient for stability against all modes. This, together with hermiticity makes its analytical and numerical evaluation worthwhile for the optimization of magnetic configurations. Physically motivated test functions are introduced. This leads to simplified versions of the stability functional, which makes its evaluation and minimization more tractable. In the case of special force-free fields the simplified functional reduces to a good approximation of the exact stability functional derived by other means. It turns out that in this case the condition is also sufficient for nonlinear stability. Nonlinear stability in hydrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics is discussed especially in connection with open-quotes unconditionalclose quotes stability and with severe limitations on the Reynolds number. Two examples in magnetohydrodynamics show that the limitations on the Reynolds numbers can be removed but unconditional stability is preserved. Practical stability needs to be treated for limited levels of perturbations or for conditional stability. This implies some knowledge of the basin of attraction of the unperturbed solution, which is a very difficult problem. Finally, a special inertia-caused Hopf bifurcation is identified and the nature of the resulting attractors is discussed. 23 refs
Linear and quadratic in temperature resistivity from holography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ge, Xian-Hui [Department of Physics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of High Temperature Superconductors,Shanghai 200444 (China); Shanghai Key Lab for Astrophysics,100 Guilin Road, 200234 Shanghai (China); Tian, Yu [School of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing, 100049 (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of High Temperature Superconductors,Shanghai 200444 (China); Wu, Shang-Yu [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University,Hsinchu 300 (China); Wu, Shao-Feng [Department of Physics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of High Temperature Superconductors,Shanghai 200444 (China); Shanghai Key Lab for Astrophysics,100 Guilin Road, 200234 Shanghai (China)
2016-11-22
We present a new black hole solution in the asymptotic Lifshitz spacetime with a hyperscaling violating factor. A novel computational method is introduced to compute the DC thermoelectric conductivities analytically. We find that both the linear-T and quadratic-T contributions to the resistivity can be realized, indicating that a more detailed comparison with experimental phenomenology can be performed in this scenario.
Effect of shape and resistivity of electrodes in a Faraday MHD duct
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jayakumar, R.; Ghosh, S.
1976-01-01
The object of achieving uniform current distribution in the presence of high axial fields has prompted the use of resistive electrodes in flat and wedge geometries. In the case of flat geometry the technique involves the generation of voltage drop along the surface of the electrodes in the axial direction, due to the Faraday current collected by the electrode and flowing into a lead wire, to reduce or eliminate the discontinuity in the axial electrical field that would otherwise occur, say in case of metal electrodes. In the case of wedge shapes, higher resistance path is provided for the regions where current is likely to concentrate. In the case of flat geometry, the effect of the position of lead wire also influences the current distribution in the plasma and on the electrode surface. The resistive electrodes have been investigated for the actual current distribution by numerically solving the Laplace's equation for current stream function, arising out of Maxwell's equation and generalised Ohm's law. In the case of wedge electrode, the solution has been sought by numerical analysis of both plasma and electrode zones. It is shown that both geometries, the flat geometry with a lead wire shifted optimally from one edge and the wedge electrode can almost eliminate current concentration. (author)
Linear growth rates of resistive tearing modes with sub-Alfvénic streaming flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, L. N.; Ma, Z. W.
2014-01-01
The tearing instability with sub-Alfvénic streaming flow along the external magnetic field is investigated using resistive MHD simulation. It is found that the growth rate of the tearing mode instability is larger than that without the streaming flow. With the streaming flow, there exist two Alfvén resonance layers near the central current sheet. The larger perturbation of the magnetic field in two closer Alfvén resonance layers could lead to formation of the observed cone structure and can largely enhance the development of the tearing mode for a narrower streaming flow. For a broader streaming flow, a larger separation of Alfvén resonance layers reduces the magnetic reconnection. The linear growth rate decreases with increase of the streaming flow thickness. The growth rate of the tearing instability also depends on the plasma beta (β). When the streaming flow is embedded in the current sheet, the growth rate increases with β if β s , but decreases if β > β s . The existence of the specific value β s can be attributed to competition between the suppressing effect of β and the enhancing effect of the streaming flow on the magnetic reconnection. The critical value β s increases with increase of the streaming flow strength
MAIA, Eigenvalues for MHD Equation of Tokamak Plasma Stability Problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanaka, Y.; Azumi, M.; Kurita, G.; Tsunematsu, T.; Takeda, T.
1986-01-01
1 - Description of program or function: This program solves an eigenvalue problem zBx=Ax where A and B are real block tri-diagonal matrices. This eigenvalue problem is derived from a reduced set of linear resistive MHD equations which is often employed to study tokamak plasma stability problem. 2 - Method of solution: Both the determinant and inverse iteration methods are employed. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The eigenvalue z must be real
MHD simulations on an unstructured mesh
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strauss, H.R.; Park, W.
1996-01-01
We describe work on a full MHD code using an unstructured mesh. MH3D++ is an extension of the PPPL MH3D resistive full MHD code. MH3D++ replaces the structured mesh and finite difference / fourier discretization of MH3D with an unstructured mesh and finite element / fourier discretization. Low level routines which perform differential operations, solution of PDEs such as Poisson's equation, and graphics, are encapsulated in C++ objects to isolate the finite element operations from the higher level code. The high level code is the same, whether it is run in structured or unstructured mesh versions. This allows the unstructured mesh version to be benchmarked against the structured mesh version. As a preliminary example, disruptions in DIIID reverse shear equilibria are studied numerically with the MH3D++ code. Numerical equilibria were first produced starting with an EQDSK file containing equilibrium data of a DIII-D L-mode negative central shear discharge. Using these equilibria, the linearized equations are time advanced to get the toroidal mode number n = 1 linear growth rate and eigenmode, which is resistively unstable. The equilibrium and linear mode are used to initialize 3D nonlinear runs. An example shows poloidal slices of 3D pressure surfaces: initially, on the left, and at an intermediate time, on the right
Sommariva, C.; Nardon, E.; Beyer, P.; Hoelzl, M.; Huijsmans, G. T. A.; van Vugt, D.; Contributors, JET
2018-01-01
In order to contribute to the understanding of runaway electron generation mechanisms during tokamak disruptions, a test particle tracker is introduced in the JOREK 3D non-linear MHD code, able to compute both full and guiding center relativistic orbits. Tests of the module show good conservation of the invariants of motion and consistency between full orbit and guiding center solutions. A first application is presented where test electron confinement properties are investigated in a massive gas injection-triggered disruption simulation in JET-like geometry. It is found that electron populations initialised before the thermal quench (TQ) are typically not fully deconfined in spite of the global stochasticity of the magnetic field during the TQ. The fraction of ‘survivors’ decreases from a few tens down to a few tenths of percent as the electron energy varies from 1 keV to 10 MeV. The underlying mechanism for electron ‘survival’ is the prompt reformation of closed magnetic surfaces at the plasma core and, to a smaller extent, the subsequent reappearance of a magnetic surface at the edge. It is also found that electrons are less deconfined at 10 MeV than at 1 MeV, which appears consistent with a phase averaging effect due to orbit shifts at high energy.
MHD activity triggered by monster sawtooth crashes on Tore Supra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maget, P; Artaud, J-F; Eriksson, L-G; Huysmans, G; Lazaros, A; Moreau, P; Ottaviani, M; Segui, J-L; Zwingmann, W
2005-01-01
The crash of monster sawteeth in Tore Supra ion cyclotron resonance heated plasmas is observed to trigger long-lived magneto hydrodynamic (MHD) activity, dominated by a (m = 3, n = 2) magnetic perturbation at the edge. This phenomenon is reminiscent of the triggering of neoclassical tearing modes, although in Tore Supra the MHD activity decays and eventually vanishes. It can be explained by the linear destabilization of the (3, 2) mode as the current sheet developed in the non-linear stage of the internal kink relaxation gets closer to q = 3/2. However, the lifetime of the (3, 2) island is longer than the period of linear instability. We find that the neoclassical drive is essential for explaining the observed lifetime and width of the island, although the overall dynamics is controlled by the relaxation of the current profile on a resistive time scale
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salat, A.
1981-12-01
The existence of quasi-periodic eigensolutions of a linear second order ordinary differential equation with quasi-periodic coefficient f(ω 1 t,ω 2 t) is investigated numerically and graphically. For sufficiently incommensurate frequencies ω 1 , ω 2 a doubly indexed infinite sequence of eigenvalues and eigenmodes is obtained. The equation considered is a model for the magneto-hydrodynamic 'continuum' in general toroidal geometry. The result suggests that continuum modes exist at least on sufficiently irrational magnetic surfaces. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Junaid Ahmad Khan
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Boundary layer flow around a stretchable rough cylinder is modeled by taking into account boundary slip and transverse magnetic field effects. The main concern is to resolve heat/mass transfer problem considering non-linear radiative heat transfer and temperature/concentration jump aspects. Using conventional similarity approach, the equations of motion and heat transfer are converted into a boundary value problem whose solution is computed by shooting method for broad range of slip coefficients. The proposed numerical scheme appears to improve as the strengths of magnetic field and slip coefficients are enhanced. Axial velocity and temperature are considerably influenced by a parameter M which is inversely proportional to the radius of cylinder. A significant change in temperature profile is depicted for growing wall to ambient temperature ratio. Relevant physical quantities such as wall shear stress, local Nusselt number and local Sherwood number are elucidated in detail. Keywords: Stretchable boundary, Thermal radiation, Chemical reaction, Mathematical modeling, Non-linear differential system, Mass transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Samtaney, Ravi
2009-01-01
We present a numerical method to solve the linear stability of impulsively accelerated density interfaces in two dimensions such as those arising in the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability. The method uses an Eulerian approach, and is based on an unwind method to compute the temporally evolving base state and a flux vector splitting method for the perturbations. The method is applicable to either gas dynamics or magnetohydrodynamics. Numerical examples are presented for cases in which a hydrodynamic shock interacts with a single or double density interface, and a doubly shocked single density interface. Convergence tests show that the method is spatially second order accurate for smooth flows, and between first and second order accurate for flows with shocks
Khan, Junaid Ahmad; Mustafa, M.
2018-03-01
Boundary layer flow around a stretchable rough cylinder is modeled by taking into account boundary slip and transverse magnetic field effects. The main concern is to resolve heat/mass transfer problem considering non-linear radiative heat transfer and temperature/concentration jump aspects. Using conventional similarity approach, the equations of motion and heat transfer are converted into a boundary value problem whose solution is computed by shooting method for broad range of slip coefficients. The proposed numerical scheme appears to improve as the strengths of magnetic field and slip coefficients are enhanced. Axial velocity and temperature are considerably influenced by a parameter M which is inversely proportional to the radius of cylinder. A significant change in temperature profile is depicted for growing wall to ambient temperature ratio. Relevant physical quantities such as wall shear stress, local Nusselt number and local Sherwood number are elucidated in detail.
Elms: MHD Instabilities at the transport barrier
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huysmans, G.T.A
2005-07-01
Significant progress has been made in recent years both on the experimental characterisation of ELMs (edge localized modes) and the theory and modelling of ELMs. The observed maximum pressure gradient is in good agreement with the calculated ideal MHD stability limits due to peeling-ballooning modes. The dependence on plasma current and plasma shape are also reproduced by the ideal MHD model. It will be a challenge to verify experimentally the influence of the extensions to the ideal MHD theory such as the possibly incomplete diamagnetic stabilisation, the influence of shear flow, finite resistivity or the stabilizing influence of the separatrix on peeling modes. The observations of the filamentary structures find their explanation in the theory and simulations of the early non-linear phase of the evolution of ballooning modes. One of the remaining open questions is what determines the size of the ELM and its duration. This is related to the loss mechanism of energy and density. Some heuristic descriptions of possible mechanisms have been proposed in literature but none of the models so far makes quantitative predictions on the ELM size. Also the numerical simulations are not yet advanced to the point where the full ELM crash can be modelled. The theory and simulations of the ELMs are necessary to decide between the possible parameters, such as the collisionality or the parallel transport time, that are proposed for the extrapolation of ELM sizes to ITER.
Elms: MHD Instabilities at the transport barrier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huysmans, G.T.A.
2005-01-01
Significant progress has been made in recent years both on the experimental characterisation of ELMs (edge localized modes) and the theory and modelling of ELMs. The observed maximum pressure gradient is in good agreement with the calculated ideal MHD stability limits due to peeling-ballooning modes. The dependence on plasma current and plasma shape are also reproduced by the ideal MHD model. It will be a challenge to verify experimentally the influence of the extensions to the ideal MHD theory such as the possibly incomplete diamagnetic stabilisation, the influence of shear flow, finite resistivity or the stabilizing influence of the separatrix on peeling modes. The observations of the filamentary structures find their explanation in the theory and simulations of the early non-linear phase of the evolution of ballooning modes. One of the remaining open questions is what determines the size of the ELM and its duration. This is related to the loss mechanism of energy and density. Some heuristic descriptions of possible mechanisms have been proposed in literature but none of the models so far makes quantitative predictions on the ELM size. Also the numerical simulations are not yet advanced to the point where the full ELM crash can be modelled. The theory and simulations of the ELMs are necessary to decide between the possible parameters, such as the collisionality or the parallel transport time, that are proposed for the extrapolation of ELM sizes to ITER
Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chandra, Avinash
1980-01-01
The concept of MHD power generation, principles of operation of the MHD generator, its design, types, MHD generator cycles, technological problems to be overcome, the current state of the art in USA and USSR are described. Progress of India's experimental 5 Mw water-gas fired open cycle MHD power generator project is reported in brief. (M.G.B.)
MHD simulation of Columbia HBT
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, X.L.
1987-01-01
The plasma of Columbia High Beta Tokamak (HBT) is studied numerically by using the two dimensional resistive MHD model. The main object of this work is to understand the high beta formation process of HBT plasma and to compare the simulation with the experiments. 21 refs., 48 figs., 2 tabs
A study on the fusion reactor - Development of MHD stability and transport code for KT-2 tokamak
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Jae Koo; Shin, Kyo Jin [Pohang University of Science and Tecnology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)
1996-08-01
MHD Stability analyses for KT-2 Tokamak were carried out by using CART (Resistive 3-D) Code. Linear Growth rates and linear perturbed eigen function of both N=0 axisymmetric mode and N=1 kink modes of highly elongated tokamak plasmas, in the presence of a conducting wall at various distances are computed and linear and nonlinear evolution of N=0 axisymmetric modes are simulated. 26 refs., 25 figs. (author)
MHD instabilities in heliotron/torsatron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wakatani, Masahiro; Nakamura, Yuji; Ichiguchi, Katsuji
1992-01-01
Recent theoretical results on MHD instabilities in heliotron/torsatron are reviewed. By comparing the results with experimental data in Heliotron E, Heliotron DR and ATF, it is pointed out that resistive interchange modes are the most crucial instabilities, since the magnetic hill occupies a substantial region of the plasma column. Development of three-dimensional MHD equilibrium codes has made significant progress. By applying the local stability criteria shown by D 1 (ideal MHD mode) and D R (resistive MHD mode) to the equilibria given by the three-dimensional codes such as BETA and VMEC, stability thresholds for the low n ideal modes or the low n resistive modes may be estimated with resonable accuracy, where n is a toroidal mode number. (orig.)
Neoclassical MHD equations for tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Callen, J.D.; Shaing, K.C.
1986-03-01
The moment equation approach to neoclassical-type processes is used to derive the flows, currents and resistive MHD-like equations for studying equilibria and instabilities in axisymmetric tokamak plasmas operating in the banana-plateau collisionality regime (ν* approx. 1). The resultant ''neoclassical MHD'' equations differ from the usual reduced equations of resistive MHD primarily by the addition of the important viscous relaxation effects within a magnetic flux surface. The primary effects of the parallel (poloidal) viscous relaxation are: (1) Rapid (approx. ν/sub i/) damping of the poloidal ion flow so the residual flow is only toroidal; (2) addition of the bootstrap current contribution to Ohm's laws; and (3) an enhanced (by B 2 /B/sub theta/ 2 ) polarization drift type term and consequent enhancement of the perpendicular dielectric constant due to parallel flow inertia, which causes the equations to depend only on the poloidal magnetic field B/sub theta/. Gyroviscosity (or diamagnetic vfiscosity) effects are included to properly treat the diamagnetic flow effects. The nonlinear form of the neoclassical MHD equations is derived and shown to satisfy an energy conservation equation with dissipation arising from Joule and poloidal viscous heating, and transport due to classical and neoclassical diffusion
Viscous, Resistive Magnetorotational Modes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pessah, Martin Elias; Chan, Chi-kwan
2008-01-01
We carry out a comprehensive analysis of the behavior of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in viscous, resistive plasmas. We find exact, non-linear solutions of the non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations describing the local dynamics of an incompressible, differentially rotating...
MHD stability analysis of helical system plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakamura, Yuji
2000-01-01
Several topics of the MHD stability studies in helical system plasmas are reviewed with respect to the linear and ideal modes mainly. Difference of the method of the MHD stability analysis in helical system plasmas from that in tokamak plasmas is emphasized. Lack of the cyclic (symmetric) coordinate makes an analysis more difficult. Recent topic about TAE modes in a helical system is also described briefly. (author)
Linear waves in a resistive plasma with Hall current
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Almaguer, J.A.
1992-01-01
Dispersion relations for the case of a magnetized plasma are determined taking into account the Hall current and a constant resistivity, η, in Ohm's law. It is found that the Hall effect is relevant only for parallel (to the equilibrium magnetic field) wave numbers in the case of uniform plasmas, giving place to a dispersive behavior. In particular, the cases of η→0 and small (nonzero) resistivity are discussed
PIXIE3D: An efficient, fully implicit, parallel, 3D extended MHD code for fusion plasma modeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chacon, L.
2007-01-01
PIXIE3D is a modern, parallel, state-of-the-art extended MHD code that employs fully implicit methods for efficiency and accuracy. It features a general geometry formulation, and is therefore suitable for the study of many magnetic fusion configurations of interest. PIXIE3D advances the state of the art in extended MHD modeling in two fundamental ways. Firstly, it employs a novel conservative finite volume scheme which is remarkably robust and stable, and demands very small physical and/or numerical dissipation. This is a fundamental requirement when one wants to study fusion plasmas with realistic conductivities. Secondly, PIXIE3D features fully-implicit time stepping, employing Newton-Krylov methods for inverting the associated nonlinear systems. These methods have been shown to be scalable and efficient when preconditioned properly. Novel preconditioned ideas (so-called physics based), which were prototypes in the context of reduced MHD, have been adapted for 3D primitive-variable resistive MHD in PIXIE3D, and are currently being extended to Hall MHD. PIXIE3D is fully parallel, employing PETSc for parallelism. PIXIE3D has been thoroughly benchmarked against linear theory and against other available extended MHD codes on nonlinear test problems (such as the GEM reconnection challenge). We are currently in the process of extending such comparisons to fusion-relevant problems in realistic geometries. In this talk, we will describe both the spatial discretization approach and the preconditioning strategy employed for extended MHD in PIXIE3D. We will report on recent benchmarking studies between PIXIE3D and other 3D extended MHD codes, and will demonstrate its usefulness in a variety of fusion-relevant configurations such as Tokamaks and Reversed Field Pinches. (Author)
MHD pilot industrial applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Freeman, M.; Riviere-Wekstein, G.
1994-01-01
MHD industrial applications (and their historical developments) are sketched in the fields of nuclear fission, nuclear fusion and marine vehicles propelling. Nuclear fission projects resulted in promising prototypes between 1972 and 1980, especially for liquid-metal MHD generators. All of them have been stopped by the scientific policies of the governments. Nuclear fusion projects used mainly the equilibrium plasma of tokamak type reactors; some military projects used pulsed plasma to perform pulsed MHD generators. Marine vehicle propelling is the most advanced field. By june 1992, the japanese sea-going boat 'Yamato 1' was sailing with two MHD propellers. A few months later, the building of 'Yamato 2' has begun
A criterion for heated pipe design by linear electric resistances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bloch, M.; Cruz, J.R.B.
1984-01-01
A criterion for linear eletrical elements instalation on horizontal tubes is obtainned in this work. This criterion is based upon the calculation of the thermal stresses caused by the non uniform temperature distribution in the tube cross section. The finite difference method and the SAP IV computer code are both used in the calculations. The criterion is applied to the thermal circuits of the IEN which has tube diameter varying from φ 1/2 in till φ 8 in. (author) [pt
Scaling, Intermittency and Decay of MHD Turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lazarian, A.; Cho, Jungyeon
2005-01-01
We discuss a few recent developments that are important for understanding of MHD turbulence. First, MHD turbulence is not so messy as it is usually believed. In fact, the notion of strong non-linear coupling of compressible and incompressible motions along MHD cascade is not tenable. Alfven, slow and fast modes of MHD turbulence follow their own cascades and exhibit degrees of anisotropy consistent with theoretical expectations. Second, the fast decay of turbulence is not related to the compressibility of fluid. Rates of decay of compressible and incompressible motions are very similar. Third, viscosity by neutrals does not suppress MHD turbulence in a partially ionized gas. Instead, MHD turbulence develops magnetic cascade at scales below the scale at which neutrals damp ordinary hydrodynamic motions. Forth, density statistics does not exhibit the universality that the velocity and magnetic field do. For instance, at small Mach numbers the density is anisotropic, but it gets isotropic at high Mach numbers. Fifth, the intermittency of magnetic field and velocity are different. Both depend on whether the measurements are done in a local system of reference oriented along the local magnetic field or in the global system of reference related to the mean magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Komoshvili, K.; Cuperman, S.
1998-01-01
Motivated by the recently increased interest in small aspect ratio tokamaks, we have derived a 2(1/2)D dielectric tensor-operator which can properly describe the plasma response to r.f. waves, under conditions prevailing in the pre-heated stages of arbitrary aspect ratio, axisymmetric toroidal fusion devices. The derived dielectric tensor elements are based on a two-fluid, weakly collisional plasma description, with the Hall term included. They are characterized by the following features: (i) They are cast in a form evidencing the dielectric (non-operator) and operator contributions - the latter being due to the toroidal structure of the V-operators present in Maxwell's equations, on the background of equilibrium currents and pressure gradients; (ii) They are not subject to any I imitation on the (relative) magnitude of the toroidal effects - no expansion in the inverse aspect ratio parameter is used for their derivation; (iii) They include anisotropic - parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field - contributions to the plasma resistivity; (iv) They are not Iimited by any restriction on the (relative) value of the wave frequency. The explicit, physically transparent formulation of the dielectric tensor is intended for the numerical solution of the full (E ll ≠ 0) wave equation and subsequently, evaluation of the Alfven wave current drive in small aspect ratio tokamaks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1990-07-01
Experimental disk MHD facilities are predesigned, and commercial-scale (1,000 MWt) MHD/steam systems are investigated. The predesigns of the disk MHD facilities indicate that enthalpy extraction is 8.7% for a 10 MWt open cycle MHD generator, and increases to 37% for a 5 MWt closed cycle MHD generator. Commercial (1,000 MWt) MHD/steam systems are studied for 4 types. Of these types, the open cycle disk MHD generator shows the lowest efficiency of 42.8%, while the closed cycle disk MHD generator the highest efficiency of 50.0%. The open cycle linear generator, although showing an efficiency of 49.4%, may be the lowest-cost type, when the necessary heat source, heat exchangers and the like are taken into consideration. For the design of superconducting magnet, it is necessary to further investigate whether the one for the test facility is applicable to the commercial systems. (NEDO)
Route analysis for MHD equilibria
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kikuchi, Fumio; Aizawa, Tatsuhiko
1982-01-01
In Tokamak facilities which are promising in nuclear fusion reactor development, the plasma in the core is often described by MHD approximation. Specifically, since an axisymmetric torus is approximately assumed as the first wall (shell) shape in actual Tokamak facilities, the Grad-Shafranov equation to be satisfied by an axisymmetric equilibrium solution for ideal MHD fluid must be solved, and the characteristics of its solution must be clarified. This paper shows the outline of the numerical calculation which employs both the incremental method taking the particular incremental nodal point values as the control parameters and the interaction method in accordance with Newton method at the same time, the analysis objective being a non-linear eigenvalue problem dealing the boundary of plasma region with surrounding vacuum region as the free boundary. Next, the detailed route analysis of the equilibrium solution is performed, utilizing the above numerical calculation technique, to clarify the effect of shell shape on the behaviour of the equilibrium solution. As the shape of the shell, a rectangular section torus, which have a notch depression at a part of the shell inner boundary, is considered. In the paper, the fundamental MHD equation and its approximate solution by the finite element method, the behaviour of plasma equilibrium solution in a shell having a notch, and the effect of notch shapes on plasma behaviour are described. This analysis verifies the effectiveness of the calculation method. (Wakatsuki, Y.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Imbert-Gérard Lise-Marie
2011-11-01
Full Text Available We propose numerical methods on Cartesian meshes for solving the 2-D axisymmetric two-temperature resistivive magnetohydrodynamics equations with self-generated magnetic field and Braginskii’s [1] closures. These rely on a splitting of the complete system in several subsystems according to the nature of the underlying mathematical operator. The hyperbolic part is solved using conservative high-order dimensionally split Lagrange-remap schemes whereas semi-implicit diffusion operators have been developed for the thermal and resistive conduction equations. Source terms are treated explictly. Numerical results on the deceleration phase of an ICF implosion test problem are proposed, a benchmark which was initially proposed in [2]. Nous proposons dans cet article des méthodes numériques pour les équations de la magnétohydrodynamique résistive à deux températures avec champ magnétique auto-généré et relations de fermeture de Braginskii [1] en géométrie 2-D axisymétrique sur maillage cartésien. Celles-ci sont basées sur une décomposition du système complet selon la nature des opérateurs mathématiques sous-jacents. La partie hyperbolique est résolue par des schémas conservatifs Lagrange-projection d’ordre élevé en directions alternées tandis que des opérateurs de diffusion semi-implicites ont été développés pour les équations de conduction thermique et résistive. Les termes sources sont traités de manière explicite. Des résultats numériques sur un cas-test simulant la phase de décélération d’une implosion de capsule FCI sont proposés, ce benchmark ayant été initialement présenté dans [2].
MHD stability, operational limits and disruptions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1999-01-01
The present physics understandings of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability of tokamak plasmas, the threshold conditions for onset of MHD instability, and the resulting operational limits on attainable plasma pressure (beta limit) and density (density limit), and the consequences of plasma disruption and disruption related effects are reviewed and assessed in the context of their application to a future DT burning reactor prototype tokamak experiment such as ITER. The principal considerations covered within the MHD stability and beta limit assessments are (i) magnetostatic equilibrium, ideal MHD stability and the resulting ideal MHD beta limit; (ii) sawtooth oscillations and the coupling of sawtooth activity to other types of MHD instability; (iii) neoclassical island resistive tearing modes and the corresponding limits on beta and energy confinement; (iv) wall stabilization of ideal MHD instabilities and resistive wall instabilities; (v) mode locking effects of non-axisymmetric error fields; (vi) edge localized MHD instabilities (ELMs, etc.); and (vii) MHD instabilities and beta/pressure gradient limits in plasmas with actively modified current and magnetic shear profiles. The principal considerations covered within the density limit assessments are (i) empirical density limits; (ii) edge power balance/radiative density limits in ohmic and L-mode plasmas; and (iii) edge parameter related density limits in H-mode plasmas. The principal considerations covered in the disruption assessments are (i) disruption causes, frequency and MHD instability onset; (ii) disruption thermal and current quench characteristics; (iii) vertical instabilities (VDEs), both before and after disruption, and plasma and in-vessel halo currents; (iv) after disruption runaway electron formation, confinement and loss; (v) fast plasma shutdown (rapid externally initiated dissipation of plasma thermal and magnetic energies); (vi) means for disruption avoidance and disruption effect mitigation; and
Dynamics of nonlinear resonant slow MHD waves in twisted flux tubes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Erdélyi
2002-01-01
Full Text Available Nonlinear resonant magnetohydrodynamic (MHD waves are studied in weakly dissipative isotropic plasmas in cylindrical geometry. This geometry is suitable and is needed when one intends to study resonant MHD waves in magnetic flux tubes (e.g. for sunspots, coronal loops, solar plumes, solar wind, the magnetosphere, etc. The resonant behaviour of slow MHD waves is confined in a narrow dissipative layer. Using the method of simplified matched asymptotic expansions inside and outside of the narrow dissipative layer, we generalise the so-called connection formulae obtained in linear MHD for the Eulerian perturbation of the total pressure and for the normal component of the velocity. These connection formulae for resonant MHD waves across the dissipative layer play a similar role as the well-known Rankine-Hugoniot relations connecting solutions at both sides of MHD shock waves. The key results are the nonlinear connection formulae found in dissipative cylindrical MHD which are an important extension of their counterparts obtained in linear ideal MHD (Sakurai et al., 1991, linear dissipative MHD (Goossens et al., 1995; Erdélyi, 1997 and in nonlinear dissipative MHD derived in slab geometry (Ruderman et al., 1997. These generalised connection formulae enable us to connect solutions obtained at both sides of the dissipative layer without solving the MHD equations in the dissipative layer possibly saving a considerable amount of CPU-time when solving the full nonlinear resonant MHD problem.
On the stability of dissipative MHD equilibria
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Teichmann, J.
1979-04-01
The global stability of stationary equilibria of dissipative MHD is studied uisng the direct Liapunov method. Sufficient and necessary conditions for stability of the linearized Euler-Lagrangian system with the full dissipative operators are given. The case of the two-fluid isentropic flow is discussed. (orig.)
Gravitational instability in isotropic MHD plasma waves
Cherkos, Alemayehu Mengesha
2018-04-01
The effect of compressive viscosity, thermal conductivity and radiative heat-loss functions on the gravitational instability of infinitely extended homogeneous MHD plasma has been investigated. By taking in account these parameters we developed the six-order dispersion relation for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves propagating in a homogeneous and isotropic plasma. The general dispersion relation has been developed from set of linearized basic equations and solved analytically to analyse the conditions of instability and instability of self-gravitating plasma embedded in a constant magnetic field. Our result shows that the presence of viscosity and thermal conductivity in a strong magnetic field substantially modifies the fundamental Jeans criterion of gravitational instability.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1970-07-01
Compiled are the results of studies conducted in fiscal 1970 on MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) power generation. In the operation test and modification of the 1000kW-class MHD power generator, modification is carried out involving the combustion system, seed collecting method, and power generation channel, and reviews through experiments are conducted about the analysis and control of the boundary layer structure. In the operation test of the MHD power generator designed for prolonged operation, a test operation for resistance to heat and seeds continues more than 100 hours using a cold wall type power generation channel constituted of water cooled ceramics, and the ceramics are analyzed for failure and loss. Studies are also conducted involving MHD power generator heat exchangers, seed collecting methods, electrode materials for MHD power generators, heat-resistant materials for MHD power generators, thermal performance rating for MHD power plants, etc. In the research and development of superconductive electromagnets, superconductive electromagnets are developed and tested for 1000kW-class MHD power generators, and studies are conducted on turbine type helium liquefiers, superinsulated superconductive electromagnetic field generators, etc. (NEDO)
Gaubas, E; Ceponis, T; Kusakovskij, J
2011-08-01
A technique for the combined measurement of barrier capacitance and spreading resistance profiles using a linearly increasing voltage pulse is presented. The technique is based on the measurement and analysis of current transients, due to the barrier and diffusion capacitance, and the spreading resistance, between a needle probe and sample. To control the impact of deep traps in the barrier capacitance, a steady state bias illumination with infrared light was employed. Measurements of the spreading resistance and barrier capacitance profiles using a stepwise positioned probe on cross sectioned silicon pin diodes and pnp structures are presented.
Turbulent Motion of Liquids in Hydraulic Resistances with a Linear Cylindrical Slide-Valve
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Velescu
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We analyze the motion of viscous and incompressible liquids in the annular space of controllable hydraulic resistances with a cylindrical linear slide-valve. This theoretical study focuses on the turbulent and steady-state motion regimes. The hydraulic resistances mentioned above are the most frequent type of hydraulic resistances used in hydraulic actuators and automation systems. To study the liquids’ motion in the controllable hydraulic resistances with a linear cylindrical slide-valve, the report proposes an original analytic method. This study can similarly be applied to any other type of hydraulic resistance. Another purpose of this study is to determine certain mathematical relationships useful to approach the theoretical functionality of hydraulic resistances with magnetic controllable fluids as incompressible fluids in the presence of a controllable magnetic field. In this report, we established general analytic equations to calculate (i velocity and pressure distributions, (ii average velocity, (iii volume flow rate of the liquid, (iv pressures difference, and (v radial clearance.
MHD stability limits in the TCV Tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reimerdes, H.
2001-07-01
Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities can limit the performance and degrade the confinement of tokamak plasmas. The Tokamak a Configuration Variable (TCV), unique for its capability to produce a variety of poloidal plasma shapes, has been used to analyse various instabilities and compare their behaviour with theoretical predictions. These instabilities are perturbations of the magnetic field, which usually extend to the plasma edge where they can be detected with magnetic pick-up coils as magnetic fluctuations. A spatially dense set of magnetic probes, installed inside the TCV vacuum vessel, allows for a fast observation of these fluctuations. The structure and temporal evolution of coherent modes is extracted using several numerical methods. In addition to the setup of the magnetic diagnostic and the implementation of analysis methods, the subject matter of this thesis focuses on four instabilities, which impose local and global stability limits. All of these instabilities are relevant for the operation of a fusion reactor and a profound understanding of their behaviour is required in order to optimise the performance of such a reactor. Sawteeth, which are central relaxation oscillations common to most standard tokamak scenarios, have a significant effect on central plasma parameters. In TCV, systematic scans of the plasma shape have revealed a strong dependence of their behaviour on elongation κ and triangularity δ, with high κ, and low δ leading to shorter sawteeth with smaller crashes. This shape dependence is increased by applying central electron cyclotron heating. The response to additional heating power is determined by the role of ideal or resistive MHD in triggering the sawtooth crash. For plasma shapes where additional heating and consequently, a faster increase of the central pressure shortens the sawteeth, the low experimental limit of the pressure gradient within the q = 1 surface is consistent with ideal MHD predictions. The observed decrease
Plasma resistance behavior during the linear decay phase of RFPs in ETA BETA II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nalesso, G.F.
1982-01-01
In the aided-reversal mode RFP discharges produced in ETA BETA II, the plasma current is characterized by a linear decay phase, which follows an approximately exponential phase. During the same period the measured toroidal voltage is negative and initially increasing in absolute value (exponential phase) and then decreasing to almost zero during the linear phase before the current termination. The same behavior of the current has been observed in the quiescent phase in Zeta where a negative toroidal electric field was also observed. In this note we present a model that can explain the linear decay phase and fits with the experimental parameters and allows us to estimate the plasma resistance behavior during the linear phase of slow reversed field pinch discharges
Hu, Tao; Liu, Yinshang; Xiao, Hong; Mu, Gang; Yang, Yi-Feng
2017-08-25
The strongly correlated electron fluids in high temperature cuprate superconductors demonstrate an anomalous linear temperature (T) dependent resistivity behavior, which persists to a wide temperature range without exhibiting saturation. As cooling down, those electron fluids lose the resistivity and condense into the superfluid. However, the origin of the linear-T resistivity behavior and its relationship to the strongly correlated superconductivity remain a mystery. Here we report a universal relation [Formula: see text], which bridges the slope of the linear-T-dependent resistivity (dρ/dT) to the London penetration depth λ L at zero temperature among cuprate superconductor Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ and heavy fermion superconductors CeCoIn 5 , where μ 0 is vacuum permeability, k B is the Boltzmann constant and ħ is the reduced Planck constant. We extend this scaling relation to different systems and found that it holds for other cuprate, pnictide and heavy fermion superconductors as well, regardless of the significant differences in the strength of electronic correlations, transport directions, and doping levels. Our analysis suggests that the scaling relation in strongly correlated superconductors could be described as a hydrodynamic diffusive transport, with the diffusion coefficient (D) approaching the quantum limit D ~ ħ/m*, where m* is the quasi-particle effective mass.
Petrick, Michael; Pierson, Edward S.; Schreiner, Felix
1980-01-01
According to the present invention, coal combustion gas is the primary working fluid and copper or a copper alloy is the electrodynamic fluid in the MHD generator, thereby eliminating the heat exchangers between the combustor and the liquid-metal MHD working fluids, allowing the use of a conventional coalfired steam bottoming plant, and making the plant simpler, more efficient and cheaper. In operation, the gas and liquid are combined in a mixer and the resulting two-phase mixture enters the MHD generator. The MHD generator acts as a turbine and electric generator in one unit wherein the gas expands, drives the liquid across the magnetic field and thus generates electrical power. The gas and liquid are separated, and the available energy in the gas is recovered before the gas is exhausted to the atmosphere. Where the combustion gas contains sulfur, oxygen is bubbled through a side loop to remove sulfur therefrom as a concentrated stream of sulfur dioxide. The combustor is operated substoichiometrically to control the oxide level in the copper.
Basic design of radiation-resistant LVDTs: Linear Variable Differential Transformer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sohn, J. M.; Park, S. J.; Kang, Y. H. (and others)
2008-02-15
A LVDT(Linear Variable Differential Transformer) for measuring the pressure level was used to measure the pressure of a nuclear fuel rod during the neutron irradiation test in a research reactor. A LVDT for measuring the elongation was also used to measure the elongation of nuclear fuels, and the creep and fatigue of materials during a neutron irradiation test in a research reactor. In this report, the basic design of two radiation-resistant LVDTs for measuring the pressure level and elongation are described. These LVDTs are used a under radiation environment such as a research reactor. In the basic design step, we analyzed the domestic and foreign technical status for radiation-resistant LVDTs, made part and assembly drawings and established simple procedures for their assembling. Only a few companies in the world can produce radiation-resistant LVDTs. Not only these are extremely expensive, but the prices are continuously rising. Also, it takes a long time to procure a LVDT, as it can only be bought about by an order-production. The localization of radiation-resistant LVDTs is necessary in order to provide them quickly and at a low cost. These radiation-resistant LVDTs will be used at neutron irradiation devices such as instrumented fuel capsules, special purpose capsules and a fuel test loop in research reactors. We expect that the use of neutron irradiation tests will be revitalized by the localization of radiation-resistant LVDTs.
Nonlinear MHD dynamo operating at equipartition
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Archontis, V.; Dorch, Bertil; Nordlund, Åke
2007-01-01
Context.We present results from non linear MHD dynamo experiments with a three-dimensional steady and smooth flow that drives fast dynamo action in the kinematic regime. In the saturation regime, the system yields strong magnetic fields, which undergo transitions between an energy-equipartition a......Context.We present results from non linear MHD dynamo experiments with a three-dimensional steady and smooth flow that drives fast dynamo action in the kinematic regime. In the saturation regime, the system yields strong magnetic fields, which undergo transitions between an energy......, and that it can saturate at a level significantly higher than intermittent turbulent dynamos, namely at energy equipartition, for high values of the magnetic and fluid Reynolds numbers. The equipartition solution however does not remain time-independent during the simulation but exhibits a much more intricate...
MHD stability limits in the TCV Tokamak
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reimerdes, H. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)
2001-07-01
Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities can limit the performance and degrade the confinement of tokamak plasmas. The Tokamak a Configuration Variable (TCV), unique for its capability to produce a variety of poloidal plasma shapes, has been used to analyse various instabilities and compare their behaviour with theoretical predictions. These instabilities are perturbations of the magnetic field, which usually extend to the plasma edge where they can be detected with magnetic pick-up coils as magnetic fluctuations. A spatially dense set of magnetic probes, installed inside the TCV vacuum vessel, allows for a fast observation of these fluctuations. The structure and temporal evolution of coherent modes is extracted using several numerical methods. In addition to the setup of the magnetic diagnostic and the implementation of analysis methods, the subject matter of this thesis focuses on four instabilities, which impose local and global stability limits. All of these instabilities are relevant for the operation of a fusion reactor and a profound understanding of their behaviour is required in order to optimise the performance of such a reactor. Sawteeth, which are central relaxation oscillations common to most standard tokamak scenarios, have a significant effect on central plasma parameters. In TCV, systematic scans of the plasma shape have revealed a strong dependence of their behaviour on elongation {kappa} and triangularity {delta}, with high {kappa}, and low {delta} leading to shorter sawteeth with smaller crashes. This shape dependence is increased by applying central electron cyclotron heating. The response to additional heating power is determined by the role of ideal or resistive MHD in triggering the sawtooth crash. For plasma shapes where additional heating and consequently, a faster increase of the central pressure shortens the sawteeth, the low experimental limit of the pressure gradient within the q = 1 surface is consistent with ideal MHD predictions. The
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1969-07-01
Compiled are the results of studies conducted in fiscal 1969 on MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) power generation. In the operation test and modification of the 1,000kW-class MHD power generator, the operation test continues from the preceding fiscal year using high-temperature air as oxidant, and the growth of boundary layer in the channel is determined. In the operation test of the MHD power generator designed for prolonged operation, insulation walls, electrode materials, and structures capable of prolonged operation are developed and tested. In the research of MHD power generator heat exchangers, studies are made about the bulkhead type and heat accumulator types (stationary type, rotary type, and falling-grain type). In addition, studies are conducted about seed collecting methods, MHD power generator electrode materials, heat-resisting insulators, and thermal performance rating. In the research and development of superconductive electromagnets, studies are conducted about superconductive electromagnets for 1kW MHD power generators, ferromagnetic superconductive electromagnets for 1,000kW-class MHD power generators, 45-kilogauss col type superconductive electromagnets, turbine type helium liquefier, high current density col type superconductive electromagnets, superinsulated magnetic field generators, etc. (NEDO)
O'Connell, R.; Forest, C. B.; Plard, F.; Kendrick, R.; Lovell, T.; Thomas, M.; Bonazza, R.; Jensen, T.; Politzer, P.; Gerritsen, W.; McDowell, M.
1997-11-01
A MHD experiment is being constructed which will have the possibility of showing dynamo action: the self--generation of currents from fluid motion. The design allows sufficient experimental flexibility and diagnostic access to study a variety of issues central to dynamo theory, including mean--field electrodynamics and saturation (backreaction physics). Initially, helical flows required for dynamo action will be driven by propellers embedded in liquid sodium. The flow fields will first be measured using laser doppler velocimetry in a water experiment with an identical fluid Reynolds number. The magnetic field evolution will then be predicted using a MHD code, replacing the water with sodium; if growing magnetic fields are found, the experiment will be repeated with sodium.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Falgarone, Edith; Rieutord, Michel; Richard, Denis; Zahn, Jean-Paul; Dauchot, Olivier; Daviaud, Francois; Dubrulle, Berengere; Laval, Jean-Philippe; Noullez, Alain; Bourgoin, Mickael; Odier, Philippe; Pinton, Jean-Francois; Leveque, Emmanuel; Chainais, Pierre; Abry, Patrice; Mordant, Nicolas; Michel, Olivier; Marie, Louis; Chiffaudel, Arnaud; Daviaud, Francois; Petrelis, Francois; Fauve, Stephan; Nore, C.; Brachet, M.-E.; Politano, H.; Pouquet, A.; Leorat, Jacques; Grapin, Roland; Brun, Sacha; Delour, Jean; Arneodo, Alain; Muzy, Jean-Francois; Magnaudet, Jacques; Braza, Marianna; Boree, Jacques; Maurel, S.; Ben, L.; Moreau, J.; Bazile, R.; Charnay, G.; Lewandowski, Roger; Laveder, Dimitri; Bouchet, Freddy; Sommeria, Joel; Le Gal, P.; Eloy, C.; Le Dizes, S.; Schneider, Kai; Farge, Marie; Bottausci, Frederic; Petitjeans, Philippe; Maurel, Agnes; Carlier, Johan; Anselmet, Fabien
2001-05-01
This publication gathers extended summaries of presentations proposed during two days on astrophysics and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). The first session addressed astrophysics and MHD: The cold interstellar medium, a low ionized turbulent plasma; Turbulent convection in stars; Turbulence in differential rotation; Protoplanetary disks and washing machines; gravitational instability and large structures; MHD turbulence in the sodium von Karman flow; Numerical study of the dynamo effect in the Taylor-Green eddy geometry; Solar turbulent convection under the influence of rotation and of the magnetic field. The second session addressed the description of turbulence: Should we give up cascade models to describe the spatial complexity of the velocity field in a developed turbulence?; What do we learn with RDT about the turbulence at the vicinity of a plane surface?; Qualitative explanation of intermittency; Reduced model of Navier-Stokes equations: quickly extinguished energy cascade; Some mathematical properties of turbulent closure models. The third session addressed turbulence and coherent structures: Alfven wave filamentation and formation of coherent structures in dispersive MHD; Statistical mechanics for quasi-geo-strophic turbulence: applications to Jupiter's coherent structures; Elliptic instabilities; Physics and modelling of turbulent detached unsteady flows in aerodynamics and fluid-structure interaction; Intermittency and coherent structures in a washing machine: a wavelet analysis of joint pressure/velocity measurements; CVS filtering of 3D turbulent mixing layer using orthogonal wavelets. The last session addressed experimental methods: Lagrangian velocity measurements; Energy dissipation and instabilities within a locally stretched vortex; Study by laser imagery of the generation and breakage of a compressed eddy flow; Study of coherent structures of turbulent boundary layer at high Reynolds number
The Front-End Readout as an Encoder IC for Magneto-Resistive Linear Scale Sensors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Trong-Hieu Tran
2016-09-01
Full Text Available This study proposes a front-end readout circuit as an encoder chip for magneto-resistance (MR linear scales. A typical MR sensor consists of two major parts: one is its base structure, also called the magnetic scale, which is embedded with multiple grid MR electrodes, while another is an “MR reader” stage with magnets inside and moving on the rails of the base. As the stage is in motion, the magnetic interaction between the moving stage and the base causes the variation of the magneto-resistances of the grid electrodes. In this study, a front-end readout IC chip is successfully designed and realized to acquire temporally-varying resistances in electrical signals as the stage is in motions. The acquired signals are in fact sinusoids and co-sinusoids, which are further deciphered by the front-end readout circuit via newly-designed programmable gain amplifiers (PGAs and analog-to-digital converters (ADCs. The PGA is particularly designed to amplify the signals up to full dynamic ranges and up to 1 MHz. A 12-bit successive approximation register (SAR ADC for analog-to-digital conversion is designed with linearity performance of ±1 in the least significant bit (LSB over the input range of 0.5–2.5 V from peak to peak. The chip was fabricated by the Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC 0.35-micron complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS technology for verification with a chip size of 6.61 mm2, while the power consumption is 56 mW from a 5-V power supply. The measured integral non-linearity (INL is −0.79–0.95 LSB while the differential non-linearity (DNL is −0.68–0.72 LSB. The effective number of bits (ENOB of the designed ADC is validated as 10.86 for converting the input analog signal to digital counterparts. Experimental validation was conducted. A digital decoder is orchestrated to decipher the harmonic outputs from the ADC via interpolation to the position of the moving stage. It was found that the displacement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1991-10-01
The current MHD program being implemented is a result of a consensus established in public meetings held by the Department of Energy in 1984. Essential elements of the current program include: (1) develop technical and environmental data for the integrated MHD topping cycle system through POC testing (1,000 hours); (2) develop technical and environmental data for the integrated MHD bottoming cycle sub system through POC testing (4,000 hours); (3) design, construct, and operate a seed regeneration POC facility (SRPF) capable of processing spent seed materials from the MHD bottoming cycle; (4) prepare conceptual designs for a site specific MHD retrofit plant; and (5) continue system studies and supporting research necessary for system testing. The current MHD program continues to be directed toward coal fired power plant applications, both stand-alone and retrofit. Development of a plant should enhance the attractiveness of MHD for applications other than electrical power. MHD may find application in electrical energy intensive industries and in the defense sector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petit, J.P.
1995-01-01
Jean-Pierre PETIT, one of the best MHD specialists, is telling this technology story and he is insisting on its military consequences. Civil MHD is only one iceberg emerged part, including a lot of leader technologies, interesting he defense. 3 notes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1981-03-01
'Research on MHD generation system' was implemented by its expert committee in the electric joint study group, with the results of fiscal 1980 reported. This year, a detailed conceptual design was carried out on a coal fired MHD generation system, with points for the technological development concretely examined. In addition, investigation was conducted on the progress of MHD generation technology, development situation of other generation systems, state of energy resources, etc., in various foreign countries. In the conceptual design of the coal fired MHD generation plant, the system structure of a 2,000 MWt class commercial MHD generation plant was explained, as were the conceptual design of the structural elements and proposals for a 500 MWt class demonstration plant and an 100 MWt class experimental plant, for example. In the overseas trend of R and D on MHD generation, investigations were made concerning the U.S., Soviet Union, and China, with details compiled for such items as generation plants, combustors, generation channels, heat resisting materials, superconducting magnets, heat exchangers, seed slags, inverters, boilers and environments, and commercial plants. (NEDO)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Schüssler
Full Text Available Two aspects of solar MHD are discussed in relation to the work of the MHD simulation group at KIS. Photospheric magneto-convection, the nonlinear interaction of magnetic field and convection in a strongly stratified, radiating fluid, is a key process of general astrophysical relevance. Comprehensive numerical simulations including radiative transfer have significantly improved our understanding of the processes and have become an important tool for the interpretation of observational data. Examples of field intensification in the solar photosphere ('convective collapse' are shown. The second line of research is concerned with the dynamics of flux tubes in the convection zone, which has far-reaching implications for our understanding of the solar dynamo. Simulations indicate that the field strength in the region where the flux is stored before erupting to form sunspot groups is of the order of 10^{5} G, an order of magnitude larger than previous estimates based on equipartition with the kinetic energy of convective flows.
Key words. Solar physics · astrophysics and astronomy (photosphere and chromosphere; stellar interiors and dynamo theory; numerical simulation studies.
MHD thrust vectoring of a rocket engine
Labaune, Julien; Packan, Denis; Tholin, Fabien; Chemartin, Laurent; Stillace, Thierry; Masson, Frederic
2016-09-01
In this work, the possibility to use MagnetoHydroDynamics (MHD) to vectorize the thrust of a solid propellant rocket engine exhaust is investigated. Using a magnetic field for vectoring offers a mass gain and a reusability advantage compared to standard gimbaled, elastomer-joint systems. Analytical and numerical models were used to evaluate the flow deviation with a 1 Tesla magnetic field inside the nozzle. The fluid flow in the resistive MHD approximation is calculated using the KRONOS code from ONERA, coupling the hypersonic CFD platform CEDRE and the electrical code SATURNE from EDF. A critical parameter of these simulations is the electrical conductivity, which was evaluated using a set of equilibrium calculations with 25 species. Two models were used: local thermodynamic equilibrium and frozen flow. In both cases, chlorine captures a large fraction of free electrons, limiting the electrical conductivity to a value inadequate for thrust vectoring applications. However, when using chlorine-free propergols with 1% in mass of alkali, an MHD thrust vectoring of several degrees was obtained.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sakurai, K; Shima, H [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)
1996-10-01
This paper proposes a modeling method of one-dimensional complex resistivity using linear filter technique which has been extended to the complex resistivity. In addition, a numerical test of inversion was conducted using the monitoring results, to discuss the measured frequency band. Linear filter technique is a method by which theoretical potential can be calculated for stratified structures, and it is widely used for the one-dimensional analysis of dc electrical exploration. The modeling can be carried out only using values of complex resistivity without using values of potential. In this study, a bipolar method was employed as a configuration of electrodes. The numerical test of one-dimensional complex resistivity inversion was conducted using the formulated modeling. A three-layered structure model was used as a numerical model. A multi-layer structure with a thickness of 5 m was analyzed on the basis of apparent complex resistivity calculated from the model. From the results of numerical test, it was found that both the chargeability and the time constant agreed well with those of the original model. A trade-off was observed between the chargeability and the time constant at the stage of convergence. 3 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martin, Pablo; Castro, Enrique; Puerta, Julio
2009-01-01
Non-linear plasma diffusion effects due to hole currents in tokamaks is analyzed in this work. Since the recent discovery of hole currents in tokamaks, this matter has become very important in confinement and instabilities in tokamaks plasmas. The analysis here presented includes non-linear flows as well as hole currents. In the case of low vorticity plasmas our treatment is performed using MHD equations, an it is more suitable for plasmas with very low levels of turbulence, as in the H-mode. The present treatment follows the lines of previous works, and some of the equations and results look like those obtained on these papers. However, the form of the family of the magnetic surfaces is very different to previous treatment, since the hole current modifies those families in a very important way. Elliptic plasmas with triangularity are considered. Pfirsch-Schlueter type currents are obtained for these generalized cases. Diffusion with and without holes are calculated and compared for several values of ellipticity and triangularity. Negative and positive triangularities are considered. In most of the calculations triangularity improves confinement, but the results are different for the positive than for the negative case.
Resistive toroidal stability of internal kink modes in circular and shaped tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bondeson, A.; Luetjens, H.; Vlad, G.
1991-12-01
The linear resistive magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) stability of the n=1 internal kink mode in tokamaks is studied by toroidal computations. The stabilizing influence of small aspect ratio is confirmed, but it is found that shaping of the cross section influences the internal kink mode significantly. For finite pressure and small resistivity, curvature effects at the q=1 surface make the stability sensitively dependent on shape, and ellipticity (including JET shape) is destabilizing. Only a very restricted set of finite pressure equilibria is completely stable for q 0 <1. A typical result is that the resistive kink mode is slowed down by toroidal effects to a weak tearing/resistive interchange mode. It is suggested that weak resistive instabilities are stabilized during the ramp phase of the sawteeth by effects not included in the linear resistive MHD model. Possible mechanisms for triggering a sawtooth crash are discussed. (author) 18 figs., 34 refs
77 GHz MEMS antennas on high-resistivity silicon for linear and circular polarization
Sallam, M. O.
2011-07-01
Two new MEMS antennas operating at 77 GHz are presented in this paper. The first antenna is linearly polarized. It possesses a vertical silicon wall that carries a dipole on top of it. The wall is located on top of silicon substrate covered with a ground plane. The other side of the substrate carries a microstrip feeding network in the form of U-turn that causes 180 phase shift. This phase-shifter feeds the arms of the dipole antenna via two vertical Through-Silicon Vias (TSVs) that go through the entire wafer. The second antenna is circularly polarized and formed using two linearly polarized antennas spatially rotated with respect to each other by 90 and excited with 90 phase shift. Both antennas are fabricated using novel process flow on a single high-resistivity silicon wafer via bulk micromachining. Only three processing steps are required to fabricate these antennas. The proposed antennas have appealing characteristics, such as high polarization purity, high gain, and high radiation efficiency. © 2011 IEEE.
MHD channel performance for potential early commercial MHD power plants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Swallom, D.W.
1981-01-01
The commercial viability of full and part load early commercial MHD power plants is examined. The load conditions comprise a mass flow of 472 kg/sec in the channel, Rosebud coal, 34% by volume oxygen in the oxidizer preheated to 922 K, and a one percent by mass seeding with K. The full load condition is discussed in terms of a combined cycle plant with optimized electrical output by the MHD channel. Various electrical load parameters, pressure ratios, and magnetic field profiles are considered for a baseload MHD generator, with a finding that a decelerating flow rate yields slightly higher electrical output than a constant flow rate. Nominal and part load conditions are explored, with a reduced gas mass flow rate and an enriched oxygen content. An enthalpy extraction of 24.6% and an isentropic efficiency of 74.2% is predicted for nominal operation of a 526 MWe MHD generator, with higher efficiencies for part load operation
Magnetic levitation and MHD propulsion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tixador, P [CNRS/CRTBT-LEG, 38 - Grenoble (France)
1994-04-01
Magnetic levitation and MHD propulsion are now attracting attention in several countries. Different superconducting MagLev and MHD systems will be described concentrating on, above all, the electromagnetic aspect. Some programmes occurring throughout the world will be described. Magnetic levitated trains could be the new high speed transportation system for the 21st century. Intensive studies involving MagLev trains using superconductivity have been carried our in Japan since 1970. The construction of a 43 km long track is to be the next step. In 1991 a six year programme was launched in the United States to evaluate the performances of MagLev systems for transportation. The MHD (MagnetoHydroDynamic) offers some interesting advantages (efficiency, stealth characteristics, ..) for naval propulsion and increasing attention is being paid towards it nowadays. Japan is also up at the top with the tests of Yamato I, a 260 ton MHD propulsed ship. (orig.).
Magnetic levitation and MHD propulsion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tixador, P.
1994-01-01
Magnetic levitation and MHD propulsion are now attracting attention in several countries. Different superconducting MagLev and MHD systems will be described concentrating on, above all, the electromagnetic aspect. Some programmes occurring throughout the world will be described. Magnetic levitated trains could be the new high speed transportation system for the 21st century. Intensive studies involving MagLev trains using superconductivity have been carried our in Japan since 1970. The construction of a 43 km long track is to be the next step. In 1991 a six year programme was launched in the United States to evaluate the performances of MagLev systems for transportation. The MHD (MagnetoHydroDynamic) offers some interesting advantages (efficiency, stealth characteristics, ..) for naval propulsion and increasing attention is being paid towards it nowadays. Japan is also up at the top with the tests of Yamato I, a 260 ton MHD propulsed ship. (orig.)
Experimental rigs for MHD studies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Venkataramani, N.; Jayakumar, R.; Iyer, D.R.; Dixit, N.S.
1976-01-01
An MHD experimental rig is a miniature MHD installation consisting of basic equipments necessary for specific investigations. Some of the experimental rigs used in the investigations being carried out at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India) are dealt with. The experiments included diagnostics and evaluation of materials in seeded combustion plasmas and argon plasmas. The design specifications, schematics and some of the results of the investigations are also mentioned. (author)
1990-10-01
The current magnetohydrodynamic MHD program being implemented is a result of a consensus established in public meetings held by the Department of Energy in 1984. The public meetings were followed by the formulation of a June 1984 Coal-Fired MHD Preliminary Transition and Program Plan. This plan focused on demonstrating the proof-of-concept (POC) of coal-fired MHD electric power plants by the early 1990s. MHD test data indicate that while there are no fundamental technical barriers impeding the development of MHD power plants, technical risk remains. To reduce the technical risk three key subsystems (topping cycle, bottoming cycle, and seed regeneration) are being assembled and tested separately. The program does not require fabrication of a complete superconducting magnet, but rather the development and testing of superconductor cables. The topping cycle system test objectives can be achieved using a conventional iron core magnet system already in place at a DOE facility. Systems engineering-derived requirements and analytical modeling to support scale-up and component design guide the program. In response to environmental, economic, engineering, and utility acceptance requirements, design choices and operating modes are tested and refined to provide technical specifications for meeting commercial criteria. These engineering activities are supported by comprehensive and continuing systems analyses to establish realistic technical requirements and cost data. Essential elements of the current program are to: develop technical and environmental data for the integrated MHD topping cycle and bottoming cycle systems through POC testing (1000 and 4000 hours, respectively); design, construct, and operate a POC seed regeneration system capable of processing spent seed materials from the MHD bottoming cycle; prepare conceptual designs for a site specific MHD retrofit plant; and continue supporting research necessary for system testing.
Numerical study of the axisymmetric ideal MHD stability of Extrap
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benda, M.
1993-04-01
A numerical study of the free-boundary axisymmetric (n=0) ideal magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) motions of the Extrap device is presented. The dependence of stability on current profiles in the plasma and currents in the external conductors is investigated. Results are shown for linear growth-rates and nonlinear saturation amplitudes and their dependence on plasma radius as well as on the conducting shell radius. A method combined of two different algorithms has been developed and tested. The interior region of the plasma is simulated by means of a Lagrangian Finite Element Method (FEM) for ideal magnetohydrodynamics, The method is based on a nonlinear radiation principle for the Lagrangian description of ideal MHD. The Boundary Element Method (BEM) is used together with the Lagrangian FEM to simulate nonlinear motion of an ideal MHD plasma behaviour in a vacuum region under the influence of external magnetic fields. 31 refs
The Biermann catastrophe of numerical MHD
Graziani, C.; Tzeferacos, P.; Lee, D.; Lamb, D. Q.; Weide, K.; Fatenejad, M.; Miller, J.
2016-05-01
The Biermann Battery effect is frequently invoked in cosmic magnetogenesis and studied in High-Energy Density laboratory physics experiments. Unfortunately, direct implementation of the Biermann effect in MHD codes is known to produce unphysical magnetic fields at shocks whose value does not converge with resolution. We show that this convergence breakdown is due to naive discretization, which fails to account for the fact that discretized irrotational vector fields have spurious solenoidal components that grow without bound near a discontinuity. We show that careful consideration of the kinetics of ion viscous shocks leads to a formulation of the Biermann effect that gives rise to a convergent algorithm. We note a novel physical effect a resistive magnetic precursor in which Biermann-generated field in the shock “leaks” resistively upstream. The effect appears to be potentially observable in experiments at laser facilities.
Linear studies of resistive interchange modes in a cylindrical reversed field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mirin, A.A.; O'Neill, N.J.; Killeen, J.; Bonugli, R.J.; Ellis, M.J.
1986-01-01
Resistive interchange modes in a cylindrical reversed field pinch are studied using a one-dimensional, linear, compressible initial value code. Separate equations for the electron and ion temperature perturbations are solved. Hall terms and the thermal force vector are included in Ohm's law. Anisotropic thermal conductivity and viscosity are included in the code model. Calculations are carried out for various values of poloidal and toroidal mode number, Lundquist number, Suydam parameter, Hall parameter, thermal conductivity, viscosity, etc., with respect to uniform density equilibria known to be stable to tearing modes. It is shown that in the cold ion limit sufficiently large Hall terms cause all modes that are tested to become stable. However for T/sub i/ = T/sub e/ and ignoring the effects of viscosity and thermal conductivity, there is a critical value of the ratio of Alfven to ion cyclotron frequency above which the ''even'' mode not only dominates the ''odd'' mode but is likely to have a growth rate significantly larger than that of the odd mode in the absence of Hall terms. Inclusion of a classical tensor thermal conductivity, while having little effect on the odd mode in the absence of Hall terms, does stabilize the even mode for sufficiently large Hall parameter. Inclusion of a classical tensor viscosity reduces the growth rate of (but does not necessarily stabilize) the odd mode. Inclusion of Hall and thermal force terms, tensor thermal conductivity and tensor viscosity causes all modes that are tested to stabilize. Results are compared to other contemporary studies
Influence of magnetic flutter on tearing growth in linear and nonlinear theory
Kreifels, L.; Hornsby, W. A.; Weikl, A.; Peeters, A. G.
2018-06-01
Recent simulations of tearing modes in turbulent regimes show an unexpected enhancement in the growth rate. In this paper the effect is investigated analytically. The enhancement is linked to the influence of turbulent magnetic flutter, which is modelled by diffusion terms in magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) momentum balance and Ohm’s law. Expressions for the linear growth rate as well as the island width in nonlinear theory for small amplitudes are derived. The results indicate an enhanced linear growth rate and a larger linear layer width compared with resistive MHD. Also the island width in the nonlinear regime grows faster in the diffusive model. These observations correspond well to simulations in which the effect of turbulence on the magnetic island width and tearing mode growth is analyzed.
Simulation study of MHD relaxation and reconnection processes in RFP plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kusano, Kanya; Kunimoto, Kaito; Suzuki, Yoshio; Tamano, Teruo; Sato, Tetsuya
1991-01-01
The authors have studied several nonlinear processes in RFP plasma through the use of 3D MHD simulations. In particular, they have shed light on: (1) dynamo and self-sustainment in reversed-field pinch (RFP), (2) phase locking process in MHD relaxation, and (3) the heating and acceleration in magnetic reconnection process. First, the contributions of the kink (m = 1) mode (linearly unstable) and of the m = 0 mode (driven by nonlinear coupling) to the dynamo are qualitatively evaluated using a high accuracy simulation. It is found that, if the free energy to drive kink instabilities is as small as that in the actual experimental plasma, the m = 0 modes, driven nonlinearly, play a more important role for the flux generation than the kink modes. Secondly, numerical simulations of the self-sustainment process in a RFP are performed. It is confirmed that the self-sustainment process is a coherent oscillating process composed of the MHD relaxation and the resistive diffusion processes. Toroidal phase locking process of kink modes is numerically observed in simulations of self-reversal and self-sustainment processes. It has characteristics similar to the slinky mode observed in the OHTE experiment. A detailed investigation reveals that nonlinear coupling between the most unstable two kink modes governs the entire dynamics in all kink modes and leads to the phase locking process. They find that reconnection can accelerate plasma over a local Alfven speed. This is a result of the fact that the magnetic field in the downstream area plays a similar role to de Laval nozzle. They also investigate the heating mechanisms in reconnection process. It is revealed that the viscous heating rate is as large as the joule heating rate in the reconnection process. This result implies that the viscous heating in the reconnection process is an important candidate for the mechanism to explain the RFP experiments where the ion temperatures is higher than the electron temperature
MHD turbulent dynamo in astrophysics: Theory and numerical simulation
Chou, Hongsong
2001-10-01
This thesis treats the physics of dynamo effects through theoretical modeling of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) systems and direct numerical simulations of MHD turbulence. After a brief introduction to astrophysical dynamo research in Chapter 1, the following issues in developing dynamic models of dynamo theory are addressed: In Chapter 2, nonlinearity that arises from the back reaction of magnetic field on velocity field is considered in a new model for the dynamo α-effect. The dependence of α-coefficient on magnetic Reynolds number, kinetic Reynolds number, magnetic Prandtl number and statistical properties of MHD turbulence is studied. In Chapter 3, the time-dependence of magnetic helicity dynamics and its influence on dynamo effects are studied with a theoretical model and 3D direct numerical simulations. The applicability of and the connection between different dynamo models are also discussed. In Chapter 4, processes of magnetic field amplification by turbulence are numerically simulated with a 3D Fourier spectral method. The initial seed magnetic field can be a large-scale field, a small-scale magnetic impulse, and a combination of these two. Other issues, such as dynamo processes due to helical Alfvénic waves and the implication and validity of the Zeldovich relation, are also addressed in Appendix B and Chapters 4 & 5, respectively. Main conclusions and future work are presented in Chapter 5. Applications of these studies are intended for astrophysical magnetic field generation through turbulent dynamo processes, especially when nonlinearity plays central role. In studying the physics of MHD turbulent dynamo processes, the following tools are developed: (1)A double Fourier transform in both space and time for the linearized MHD equations (Chapter 2 and Appendices A & B). (2)A Fourier spectral numerical method for direct simulation of 3D incompressible MHD equations (Appendix C).
A kinetic-MHD model for low frequency phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng, C.Z.
1991-07-01
A hybrid kinetic-MHD model for describing low-frequency phenomena in high beta anisotropic plasmas that consist of two components: a low energy core component and an energetic component with low density. The kinetic-MHD model treats the low energy core component by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) description, the energetic component by kinetic approach such as the gyrokinetic equation, and the coupling between the dynamics of these two components through plasma pressure in the momentum equation. The kinetic-MHD model optimizes both the physics contents and the theoretical efforts in studying low frequency MHD waves and transport phenomena in general magnetic field geometries, and can be easily modified to include the core plasma kinetic effects if necessary. It is applicable to any magnetized collisionless plasma system where the parallel electric field effects are negligibly small. In the linearized limit two coupled eigenmode equations for describing the coupling between the transverse Alfven type and the compressional Alfven type waves are derived. The eigenmode equations are identical to those derived from the full gyrokinetic equation in the low frequency limit and were previously analyzed both analytically nd numerically to obtain the eigenmode structure of the drift mirror instability which explains successfully the multi-satellite observation of antisymmetric field-aligned structure of the compressional magnetic field of Pc 5 waves in the magnetospheric ring current plasma. Finally, a quadratic form is derived to demonstrate the stability of the low-frequency transverse and compressional Alfven type instabilities in terms of the pressure anisotropy parameter τ and the magnetic field curvature-pressure gradient parameter. A procedure for determining the stability of a marginally stable MHD wave due to wave-particle resonances is also presented
Characterizing electrostatic turbulence in tokamak plasmas with high MHD activity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guimaraes-Filho, Z O; Santos Lima, G Z dos; Caldas, I L; Nascimento, I C; Kuznetsov, Yu K [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66316, 05315-970, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Viana, R L, E-mail: viana@fisica.ufpr.b [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Parana, Caixa Postal 19044, 81531-990, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)
2010-09-01
One of the challenges in obtaining long lasting magnetic confinement of fusion plasmas in tokamaks is to control electrostatic turbulence near the vessel wall. A necessary step towards achieving this goal is to characterize the turbulence level and so as to quantify its effect on the transport of energy and particles of the plasma. In this paper we present experimental results on the characterization of electrostatic turbulence in Tokamak Chauffage Alfven Bresilien (TCABR), operating in the Institute of Physics of University of Sao Paulo, Brazil. In particular, we investigate the effect of certain magnetic field fluctuations, due to magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) instabilities activity, on the spectral properties of electrostatic turbulence at plasma edge. In some TCABR discharges we observe that this MHD activity may increase spontaneously, following changes in the edge safety factor, or after changes in the radial electric field achieved by electrode biasing. During the high MHD activity, the magnetic oscillations and the plasma edge electrostatic turbulence present several common linear spectral features with a noticeable dominant peak in the same frequency. In this article, dynamical analyses were applied to find other alterations on turbulence characteristics due to the MHD activity and turbulence enhancement. A recurrence quantification analysis shows that the turbulence determinism radial profile is substantially changed, becoming more radially uniform, during the high MHD activity. Moreover, the bicoherence spectra of these two kinds of fluctuations are similar and present high bicoherence levels associated with the MHD frequency. In contrast with the bicoherence spectral changes, that are radially localized at the plasma edge, the turbulence recurrence is broadly altered at the plasma edge and the scrape-off layer.
Analytic study of resistive instabilities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Svensson, Magnus
2003-05-01
In a fusion plasma there is always a small amount of resistivity that may cause instabilities. Although their rather slow growth rates they can be of major importance for fusion plasma confinement. In this work a MAPLE-code was rewritten and simplified to make it possible to analytically solve the linearized MHD-equations with resistivity in an RFP-configuration. By using the MHD-equations and expanding the unknown perturbed quantities u{sub 1r}(r) and B{sub 1r}(r) as Taylor series and solving each coefficient we could get eigenvalues, dispersion relations and a relation between the growth rate and the resistivity. The new code was first used to solve two cases with no resistivity and simple unstable equilibria which after running gave the correct expected results. The difference from running the original code with these two cases was the greater speed of the calculations and the less memory needed. Then by using an ideal MHD-stable equilibrium in a plasma with no resistivity the code gave us solutions which unfortunately were not of the expected kind but the time of the calculations was still very fast. The resistivity was finally added to the code with the ideal MHD-stable equilibrium. The program also this time gave incorrect results. We could, however, see from a relation between the growth rate and the resistivity that the solution may be approximately correct in this domain. Although we did not get all the correct results we have to consider the fact that we got results, that were not possible before. Before this work was carried out we could not get any results at all in the resistive cue because of the very long memory demanding expressions. In future work and studies it is not only possible to get the desired eigenvalues {gamma} as function of {eta} but also possible to get expressions for eigenfunctions, dispersion relations and other significant relations with a number of variable parameters. We could also use the method for any geometry and possibly for
Analytic study of resistive instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Svensson, Magnus
2003-05-01
In a fusion plasma there is always a small amount of resistivity that may cause instabilities. Although their rather slow growth rates they can be of major importance for fusion plasma confinement. In this work a MAPLE-code was rewritten and simplified to make it possible to analytically solve the linearized MHD-equations with resistivity in an RFP-configuration. By using the MHD-equations and expanding the unknown perturbed quantities u 1r (r) and B 1r (r) as Taylor series and solving each coefficient we could get eigenvalues, dispersion relations and a relation between the growth rate and the resistivity. The new code was first used to solve two cases with no resistivity and simple unstable equilibria which after running gave the correct expected results. The difference from running the original code with these two cases was the greater speed of the calculations and the less memory needed. Then by using an ideal MHD-stable equilibrium in a plasma with no resistivity the code gave us solutions which unfortunately were not of the expected kind but the time of the calculations was still very fast. The resistivity was finally added to the code with the ideal MHD-stable equilibrium. The program also this time gave incorrect results. We could, however, see from a relation between the growth rate and the resistivity that the solution may be approximately correct in this domain. Although we did not get all the correct results we have to consider the fact that we got results, that were not possible before. Before this work was carried out we could not get any results at all in the resistive cue because of the very long memory demanding expressions. In future work and studies it is not only possible to get the desired eigenvalues γ as function of η but also possible to get expressions for eigenfunctions, dispersion relations and other significant relations with a number of variable parameters. We could also use the method for any geometry and possibly for non-linear
New insights into MHD dynamics of magnetically confined plasmas from experiments in RFX
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martin, P.; Martini, S.; Antoni, V.
2001-01-01
The experimental and theoretical activity performed in the RFX experiment has allowed a deeper insight into the MHD properties of the RFP configuration. A set of successful experiments has demonstrated the possibility of influencing both the amplitude and the spectrum of the magnetic fluctuations which characterise the RFP configuration. A new regime (QSH states) where the dynamo mechanism works in a nearly laminar way and a helical core plasma is produced has been investigated. With these studies a reduction of the magnetic chaos has been obtained. The continuos rotation of wall locked resistive tearing modes has been obtained by an m=0 rotating perturbation. This perturbation induces rotation of m=1 non-linearly coupled modes. (author)
Resonant MHD modes with toroidal coupling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Connor, J.W.; Hastie, R.J.; Taylor, J.B.
1990-07-01
This is part 2 of a study of resonant perturbations, such as resistive tearing and ballooning modes, in a torus. These are described by marginal ideal mhd equations in the regions between resonant surfaces; matching across these surfaces provides the dispersion relation. In part 1 we described how all the necessary information from the ideal mhd calculations could be represented by a so-called E-matrix. We also described the calculation of this E-matrix for tearing modes (even parity in perturbed magnetic field) in a large aspect ratio torus. There the toroidal modes comprise coupled cylinder tearing modes and the E-matrix is a generalization of the familiar Δ' quantity in a cylinder. In the present paper we discuss resistive ballooning, or twisting-modes, which have odd-parity in perturbed magnetic field. We show that, unlike the tearing modes, these odd-parity modes are instrinsically toroidal and are not directly related to the odd-parity modes in a cylinder. This is evident from the analysis of the high-n limit in ballooning-space, where a transition from a stable Δ' to an unstable Δ' occurs for the twisting mode when the ballooning effect exceeds the interchange effect, which can occur even at large aspect ratio (as in a tokamak). Analysis of the high-n limit in coordinate space, rather than ballooning space, clarifies this singular behaviour and indicates how one may define twisting-mode Δ'. It also yields a prescription for treating low-n twisting modes and a method for calculating an E-matrix for resistive ballooning modes in a large aspect ratio tokamak. The elements of this matrix are given in terms of cylindrical tearing mode solutions
Exact solutions for MHD flow of couple stress fluid with heat transfer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Najeeb Alam Khan
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper aims at presenting exact solutions for MHD flow of couple stress fluid with heat transfer. The governing partial differential equations (PDEs for an incompressible MHD flow of couple stress fluid are reduced to ordinary differential equations by employing wave parameter. The methodology is implemented for linearizing the flow equations without extra transformation and restrictive assumptions. Comparison is made with the result obtained previously.
Scratch- and mar-resistant refinish two-pack clear coats – linear versus branched acrylics
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Huybrechts, J.; Vaes, A.; Dušek, Karel; Dušková, Miroslava; Barsotti, R. J.
2006-01-01
Roč. 89, B4 (2006), s. 275-283 ISSN 1476-4865 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : scratch resistance * mar resistance * refinishing two-pack clear coats Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.338, year: 2006
Extended MHD Effects in High Energy Density Experiments
Seyler, Charles
2016-10-01
The MHD model is the workhorse for computational modeling of HEDP experiments. Plasma models are inheritably limited in scope, but MHD is expected to be a very good model for studying plasmas at the high densities attained in HEDP experiments. There are, however, important ways in which MHD fails to adequately describe the results, most notably due to the omission of the Hall term in the Ohm's law (a form of extended MHD or XMHD). This talk will discuss these failings by directly comparing simulations of MHD and XMHD for particularly relevant cases. The methodology is to simulate HEDP experiments using a Hall-MHD (HMHD) code based on a highly accurate and robust Discontinuous Galerkin method, and by comparison of HMHD to MHD draw conclusions about the impact of the Hall term. We focus on simulating two experimental pulsed power machines under various scenarios. We examine the MagLIF experiment on the Z-machine at Sandia National Laboratories and liner experiments on the COBRA machine at Cornell. For the MagLIF experiment we find that power flow in the feed leads to low density plasma ablation into the region surrounding the liner. The inflow of this plasma compresses axial magnetic flux onto the liner. In MHD this axial flux tends to resistively decay, whereas in HMHD a force-free current layer sustains the axial flux on the liner leading to a larger ratio of axial to azimuthal flux. During the liner compression the magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability leads to helical perturbations due to minimization of field line bending. Simulations of a cylindrical liner using the COBRA machine parameters can under certain conditions exhibit amplification of an axial field due to a force-free low-density current layer separated by some distance from the liner. This results in a configuration in which there is predominately axial field on the liner inside the current layer and azimuthal field outside the layer. We are currently attempting to experimentally verify the simulation
Alpha-Driven MHD and MHD-Induced Alpha Loss in TFTR DT Experiments
Chang, Zuoyang
1996-11-01
Theoretical calculation and numerical simulation indicate that there can be interesting interactions between alpha particles and MHD activity which can adversely affect the performance of a tokamak reactor (e.g., ITER). These interactions include alpha-driven MHD, like the toroidicity-induced-Alfven-eigenmode (TAE) and MHD induced alpha particle losses or redistribution. Both phenomena have been observed in recent TFTR DT experiments. Weak alpha-driven TAE activity was observed in a NBI-heated DT experiment characterized by high q0 ( >= 2) and low core magnetic shear. The TAE mode appears at ~30-100 ms after the neutral beam turning off approximately as predicted by theory. The mode has an amplitude measured by magnetic coils at the edge tildeB_p ~1 mG, frequency ~150-190 kHz and toroidal mode number ~2-3. It lasts only ~ 30-70 ms and has been seen only in DT discharges with fusion power level about 1.5-2.0 MW. Numerical calculation using NOVA-K code shows that this type of plasma has a big TAE gap. The calculated TAE frequency and mode number are close to the observation. (2) KBM-induced alpha particle loss^1. In some high-β, high fusion power DT experiments, enhanced alpha particle losses were observed to be correlated to the high frequency MHD modes with f ~100-200 kHz (the TAE frequency would be two-times higher) and n ~5-10. These modes are localized around the peak plasma pressure gradient and have ballooning characteristics. Alpha loss increases by 30-100% during the modes. Particle orbit simulations show the added loss results from wave-particle resonance. Linear instability analysis indicates that the plasma is unstable to the kinetic MHD ballooning modes (KBM) driven primarily by strong local pressure gradients. ----------------- ^1Z. Chang, et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76 (1996) 1071. In collaberation with R. Nazikian, G.-Y. Fu, S. Batha, R. Budny, L. Chen, D. Darrow, E. Fredrickson, R. Majeski, D. Mansfield, K. McGuire, G. Rewoldt, G. Taylor, R. White, K
Stabilities of MHD rotational discontinuities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, S.
1984-11-01
In this paper, the stabilities of MHD rotational discontinuities are analyzed. The results show that the rotational discontinuities in an incompressible magnetofluid are not always stable with respect to infinitesimal perturbation. The instability condition in a special case is obtained. (author)
MHD stability of tandem mirrors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Poulsen, P.; Molvik, A.; Shearer, J.
1982-01-01
The TMX-Upgrade experiment was described, and the manner in which various plasma parameters could be affected was discussed. The initial analysis of the MHD stability of the tandem mirror was also discussed, with emphasis on the negative tandem configuration
MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1992-01-01
The overall objective of the project is to design and construct prototypical hardware for an integrated MHD topping cycle, and conduct long duration proof-of-concept tests of integrated system at the US DOE Component Development and Integration Facility in Butte, Montana. The results of the long duration tests will augment the existing engineering design data base on MHD power train reliability, availability, maintainability, and performance, and will serve as a basis for scaling up the topping cycle design to the next level of development, an early commercial scale power plant retrofit. The components of the MHD power train to be designed, fabricated, and tested include: A slagging coal combustor with a rated capacity of 50 MW thermal input, capable of operation with an Eastern (Illinois {number sign}6) or Western (Montana Rosebud) coal, a segmented supersonic nozzle, a supersonic MHD channel capable of generating at least 1.5 MW of electrical power, a segmented supersonic diffuser section to interface the channel with existing facility quench and exhaust systems, a complete set of current control circuits for local diagonal current control along the channel, and a set of current consolidation circuits to interface the channel with the existing facility inverter.
Numerical computation of MHD equilibria
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Atanasiu, C.V.
1982-10-01
A numerical code for a two-dimensional MHD equilibrium computation has been carried out. The code solves the Grad-Shafranov equation in its integral form, for both formulations: the free-boundary problem and the fixed boundary one. Examples of the application of the code to tokamak design are given. (author)
Nonlinear evolution of MHD instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bateman, G.; Hicks, H.R.; Wooten, J.W.; Dory, R.A.
1975-01-01
A 3-D nonlinear MHD computer code was used to study the time evolution of internal instabilities. Velocity vortex cells are observed to persist into the nonlinear evolution. Pressure and density profiles convect around these cells for a weak localized instability, or convect into the wall for a strong instability. (U.S.)
Investigations on application of multigrid method to MHD equilibrium analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ikuno, Soichiro
2000-01-01
The potentiality of application for Multi-grid method to MHD equilibrium analysis is investigated. The nonlinear eigenvalue problem often appears when the MHD equilibria are determined by solving the Grad-Shafranov equation numerically. After linearization of the equation, the problem is solved by use of the iterative method. Although the Red-Black SOR method or Gauss-Seidel method is often used for the solution of the linearized equation, it takes much CPU time to solve the problem. The Multi-grid method is compared with the SOR method for the Poisson Problem. The results of computations show that the CPU time required for the Multi-grid method is about 1000 times as small as that for the SOR method. (author)
Lattice Boltzmann Approach to Resistive MHD
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Macnab, A.; Vahala, G.; Vahala, L.; Pavlo, Pavol; Soe, M.
2002-01-01
Roč. 47, č. 9 (2002), s. 51 ISSN 0003-0503. [Annual Meeting of the Division of Plasma Physics of the American Physical Society/44th./. Orlando , Florida, 11.11.2001-15.11.2001] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/00/1216 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : Lattice Boltzmann, magnetic fields Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics
Perturbed solutions of fixed boundary MHD equilibria
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Portone, A.
2004-01-01
In this study, the fixed boundary plasma MHD equilibrium problem is solved by the finite element method; then, by perturbing the flux at the plasma boundary nodes, linear formulae are derived linking the variation of several plasma parameters of interest to the variation of the currents flowing in the external circuits. On the basis of these formulae it is shown how it is possible to efficiently solve two central problems in plasma engineering, namely (1) the optimization of the currents in a given set of coils necessary to maintain a specified equilibrium configuration and (2) the derivation of a linear dynamic model describing the plasma axisymmetric displacement (n = 0 mode) about a given magnetic configuration. A case study-based on the ITER reference equilibrium magnetic configuration at burn-is analysed both in terms of equilibrium currents optimality as well as axisymmetric stability features. The results obtained by these formulae are also compared with the predictions of a non-linear free boundary code and of a linear, dynamic model. As shown, the formulae derived here are in good agreement with such predictions, confirming the validity of the present approach. (author)
Goya - an MHD equilibrium code for toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scheffel, J.
1984-09-01
A description of the GOYA free-boundary equilibrium code is given. The non-linear Grad-Shafranov equation of ideal MHD is solved in a toroidal geometry for plasmas with purely poloidal magnetic fields. The code is based on a field line-tracing procedure, making storage of a large amount of information on a grid unnecessary. Usage of the code is demonstrated by computations of equi/libria for the EXTRAP-T1 device. (Author)
MHD pressure drop of imperfect insulation of liquid metal flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horiike, H.; Nishiura, R.; Inoue, S.; Miyazaki, K.
2000-01-01
An experiment was performed to study magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) pressure gradient in the case of an imperfect electric insulation coating when using NaK loop. Test channels with uniform defects in their coating were made by painting inner surface with acrylic lacquer insulation. It was found that the exponent to B -- which is 1 for insulated walls, and 2 for conducting ones, was very sensitive to crack fractions lower than 25%. The pressure gradient was found to increase almost linearly with the fraction
Two-dimensional simulation of the MHD stability, (1)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kurita, Gen-ichi; Amano, Tsuneo.
1976-03-01
The two-dimensional computer code has been prepared to study MHD stability of an axisymmetric toroidal plasma with and without the surrounding vacuum region. It also includes the effect of magnetic surfaces with non-circular cross sections. The linearized equations of motion are solved as an initial value problem. The results by computer simulation are compared with those by the theory for the cylindrical plasma; they are in good agreement. (auth.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1968-09-01
Compiled are the results of studies conducted in fiscal 1967 on MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) power generation. In the test operation and modification of a 1,000kW-class MHD power generator at the Electrical Research Laboratory, a test is conducted using Faraday-type electrodes. It is then found that this configuration results in a maximum output of approximately 700kW, which is less than expected. In the experimental construction at the Hitachi, Ltd., of a machine capable of a long-term operation, an MHD power generator is built for a continuous operation of 100 hours with an maximum output of 2kW, and a 110-hour power generation is successfully achieved with a maximum output of 1.9kW. In the research and development of heat exchangers, tests are conducted for a bulkhead type heat exchanger, heat accumulator type heat exchanger, molten slag type heat exchanger, and a gas/liquid 2-phase flow type heat exchanger. In the study of heat-resisting insulators, materials based on zirconate, magnesia, thoria, zirconia, etc., are tested. In addition, studies are conducted on electrode materials, superconductive electromagnets (small superconductive electromagnets for MHD power generators, turbine type helium liquefiers, superconductive wires for 70-kilogauss electromagnets, etc.), and thermal performance rating. (NEDO)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aiba, N.; Tokuda, S.; Oyama, N.; Ozeki, T.; Furukawa, M.
2009-01-01
Effects of a sheared toroidal rotation are investigated numerically on the stability of the MHD modes in the tokamak edge pedestal, which relate to the type-I edge-localized mode. A linear MHD stability code MINERVA is newly developed for solving the Frieman-Rotenberg equation that is the linear ideal MHD equation with flow. Numerical stability analyses with this code reveal that the sheared toroidal rotation destabilizes edge localized MHD modes for rotation frequencies which are experimentally achievable, though the ballooning mode stability changes little by rotation. This rotation effect on the edge MHD stability becomes stronger as the toroidal mode number of the unstable MHD mode increases when the stability analysis was performed for MHD modes with toroidal mode numbers smaller than 40. The toroidal mode number of the unstable MHD mode depends on the stabilization of the current-driven mode and the ballooning mode by increasing the safety factor. This dependence of the toroidal mode number of the unstable mode on the safety factor is considered to be the reason that the destabilization by toroidal rotation is stronger for smaller edge safety factors.
Magnetic levitation and MHD propulsion
Tixador, P.
1994-04-01
Magnetic levitation and MHD propulsion are now attracting attention in several countries. Different superconducting MagLev and MHD systems will be described concentrating on, above all, the electromagnetic aspect. Some programmes occurring throughout the world will be described. Magnetic levitated trains could be the new high speed transportation system for the 21st century. Intensive studies involving MagLev trains using superconductivity have been carried out in Japan since 1970. The construction of a 43 km long track is to be the next step. In 1991 a six year programme was launched in the United States to evaluate the performances of MagLev systems for transportation. The MHD (MagnetoHydroDynamic) offers some interesting advantages (efficiency, stealth characteristics, ...) for naval propulsion and increasing attention is being paid towards it nowadays. Japan is also up at the top with the tests of Yamato I, a 260 ton MHD propulsed ship. Depuis quelques années nous assistons à un redémarrage de programmes concernant la lévitation et la propulsion supraconductrices. Différents systèmes supraconducteurs de lévitation et de propulsion seront décrits en examinant plus particulièrement l'aspect électromagnétique. Quelques programmes à travers le monde seront abordés. Les trains à sustentation magnétique pourraient constituer un nouveau mode de transport terrestre à vitesse élevée (500 km/h) pour le 21^e siècle. Les japonais n'ont cessé de s'intéresser à ce système avec bobine supraconductrice. Ils envisagent un stade préindustriel avec la construction d'une ligne de 43 km. En 1991 un programme américain pour une durée de six ans a été lancé pour évaluer les performances des systèmes à lévitation pour le transport aux Etats Unis. La MHD (Magnéto- Hydro-Dynamique) présente des avantages intéressants pour la propulsion navale et un regain d'intérêt apparaît à l'heure actuelle. Le japon se situe là encore à la pointe des d
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1981-03-01
'Research on MHD generation system' was implemented by its expert committee in the electric joint study group, with the results of fiscal 1980 reported. This year, a detailed conceptual design was carried out on a coal fired MHD generation system, with points for the technological development concretely examined. In addition, investigation was conducted on the progress of MHD generation technology, development situation of other generation systems, state of energy resources, etc., in various foreign countries. In the conceptual design of the coal fired MHD generation plant, the system structure of a 2,000 MWt class commercial MHD generation plant was explained, as were the conceptual design of the structural elements and proposals for a 500 MWt class demonstration plant and an 100 MWt class experimental plant, for example. In the overseas trend of R and D on MHD generation, investigations were made concerning the U.S., Soviet Union, and China, with details compiled for such items as generation plants, combustors, generation channels, heat resisting materials, superconducting magnets, heat exchangers, seed slags, inverters, boilers and environments, and commercial plants. (NEDO)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shiraishi, J.; Aiba, N.; Miyato, N.; Yagi, M.
2014-01-01
Toroidal rotation effects are self-consistently taken into account not only in the linear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability analysis but also in the equilibrium calculation. The MHD equilibrium computation is affected by centrifugal force due to the toroidal rotation. To study the toroidal rotation effects on resistive wall modes (RWMs), a new code has been developed. The RWMaC modules, which solve the electromagnetic dynamics in vacuum and the resistive wall, have been implemented in the MINERVA code, which solves the Frieman–Rotenberg equation that describes the linear ideal MHD dynamics in a rotating plasma. It is shown that modification of MHD equilibrium by the centrifugal force significantly reduces growth rates of RWMs with fast rotation in the order of M 2 = 0.1 where M is the Mach number. Moreover, it can open a stable window which does not exist under the assumption that the rotation affects only the linear dynamics. The rotation modifies the equilibrium pressure gradient and current density profiles, which results in the change of potential energy including rotational effects. (paper)
Ayres, D R; Pereira, R J; Boligon, A A; Silva, F F; Schenkel, F S; Roso, V M; Albuquerque, L G
2013-12-01
Cattle resistance to ticks is measured by the number of ticks infesting the animal. The model used for the genetic analysis of cattle resistance to ticks frequently requires logarithmic transformation of the observations. The objective of this study was to evaluate the predictive ability and goodness of fit of different models for the analysis of this trait in cross-bred Hereford x Nellore cattle. Three models were tested: a linear model using logarithmic transformation of the observations (MLOG); a linear model without transformation of the observations (MLIN); and a generalized linear Poisson model with residual term (MPOI). All models included the classificatory effects of contemporary group and genetic group and the covariates age of animal at the time of recording and individual heterozygosis, as well as additive genetic effects as random effects. Heritability estimates were 0.08 ± 0.02, 0.10 ± 0.02 and 0.14 ± 0.04 for MLIN, MLOG and MPOI models, respectively. The model fit quality, verified by deviance information criterion (DIC) and residual mean square, indicated fit superiority of MPOI model. The predictive ability of the models was compared by validation test in independent sample. The MPOI model was slightly superior in terms of goodness of fit and predictive ability, whereas the correlations between observed and predicted tick counts were practically the same for all models. A higher rank correlation between breeding values was observed between models MLOG and MPOI. Poisson model can be used for the selection of tick-resistant animals. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Amini Afshar, Mostafa; Bingham, Harry B.; Read, Robert
During recent years a computational strategy has been developed at the Technical University of Denmark for numerical simulation of water wave problems based on the high-order nite-dierence method, [2],[4]. These methods exhibit a linear scaling of the computational eort as the number of grid points...... increases. This understanding is being applied to develop a tool for predicting the added resistance (drift force) of ships in ocean waves. We expect that the optimal scaling properties of this solver will allow us to make a convincing demonstration of convergence of the added resistance calculations based...... on both near-eld and far-eld methods. The solver has been written inside a C++ library known as Overture [3], which can be used to solve partial dierential equations on overlapping grids based on the high-order nite-dierence method. The resulting code is able to solve, in the time domain, the linearised...
Several hundred megawatt MHD units
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pishchikov, S.; Pinkhasik, D.; Sidorov, V.
1978-01-01
The features are described of the future MHD unit U-25 tested at the Institute of High Temperatures of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. The attainable thermal load of the combustion chamber is 290x10 6 kJ/m 3 .h. Three types of channel were tested, i.e., the Faraday channel divided into sections with modular insulating walls, the diagonal channel without metal body, and an improved Faraday channel with an output of 20 MW. The described MHD generator is equipped with an inverter which transforms direct current into alternating current, continuously adjusts the load from no-load operation to short-circuit connection and maintains the desired electrical voltage independently of the changes in loading. A new technique of connecting and disconnecting the oxygen equipment was developed which considerably reduces the time of start-up and shut-down. Natural gas is used for heating the air heaters. All equipment used in the operation of the MHD generator is remote controlled by computer or manually. (J.B.)
Several hundred megawatt MHD units
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pishchikov, S; Pinkhasik, D; Sidorov, V
1978-07-01
The features are described of the future MHD unit U-25 tested at the Institute of High Temperatures of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. The attainable thermal load of the combustion chamber is 290x10/sup 6/ kJ/m/sup 3/.h. Three types of channel were tested, i.e., the Faraday channel divided into sections with modular insulating walls, the diagonal channel without metal body, and an improved Faraday channel with an output of 20 MW. The described MHD generator is equipped with an inverter which transforms direct current into alternating current, continuously adjusts the load from no-load operation to short-circuit connection and maintains the desired electrical voltage independently of the changes in loading. A new technique of connecting and disconnecting the oxygen equipment was developed which considerably reduces the time of start-up and shut-down. Natural gas is used for heating the air heaters. All equipment used in the operation of the MHD generator is remote controlled by computer or manually.
Advanced energy utilization MHD power generation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2008-01-01
The 'Technical Committee on Advanced Energy Utilization MHD Power Generation' was started to establish advanced energy utilization technologies in Japan, and has been working for three years from June 2004 to May 2007. This committee investigated closed cycle MHD, open cycle MHD, and liquid metal MHD power generation as high-efficiency power generation systems on the earth. Then, aero-space application and deep space exploration technologies were investigated as applications of MHD technology. The spin-off from research and development on MHD power generation such as acceleration and deceleration of supersonic flows was expected to solve unstart phenomena in scramjet engine and also to solve abnormal heating of aircrafts by shock wave. In addition, this committee investigated researches on fuel cells, on secondary batteries, on connection of wind power system to power grid, and on direct energy conversion system from nuclear fusion reactor for future. The present technical report described results of investigations by the committee. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yvars, M.
1979-10-01
The materials considered for the insulating walls of a M.H.D. converter are Al 2 O 3 , and the calcium or strontium zirconates. For the conducting walls electricity conducting oxides are being considered such as ZrO 2 or CrO 3 La essentially. The principle of M.H.D. systems is recalled, the materials considered are described as is their behaviour in the corrosive atmospheres of M.H.D. streams [fr
Resistive wall modes in the EXTRAP T2R reversed-field pinch
Brunsell, P. R.; Malmberg, J.-A.; Yadikin, D.; Cecconello, M.
2003-10-01
Resistive wall modes (RWM) in the reversed field pinch are studied and a detailed comparison of experimental growth rates and linear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory is made. RWM growth rates are experimentally measured in the thin shell device EXTRAP T2R [P. R. Brunsell et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 43, 1 (2001)]. Linear MHD calculations of RWM growth rates are based on experimental equilibria. Experimental and linear MHD RWM growth rate dependency on the equilibrium profiles is investigated experimentally by varying the pinch parameter Θ=Bθ(a)/ in the range Θ=1.5-1.8. Quantitative agreement between experimental and linear MHD growth rates is seen. The dominating RWMs are the internal on-axis modes (having the same helicity as the central equilibrium field). At high Θ, external nonresonant modes are also observed. For internal modes experimental growth rates decrease with Θ while for external modes, growth rates increase with Θ. The effect of RWMs on the reversed-field pinch plasma performance is discussed.
Non-linear impact of glutathione depletion on C. elegans life span and stress resistance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nadine Urban
2017-04-01
Full Text Available The redox environment in cells and organisms is set by low-molecular mass and protein-bound thiols, with glutathione (GSH representing a major intracellular redox buffer. Subtle thiol oxidation elicits signal transduction processes and adaptive responses to cope with stressors, whereas highly oxidizing conditions may provoke cell death. We here tested how thiol depletion affects life span, stress resistance and stress signaling in the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. Diethyl maleate (DEM, an α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compound that conjugates to GSH and other thiols, decreased C. elegans life span at a concentration of 1 mM. In contrast, low and moderate doses of DEM (10–100 µM increased mean and maximum life span and improved resistance against oxidative stress. DEM-induced life span extension was not detectable in worms deficient in either the FoxO orthologue, DAF-16, or the Nrf2 orthologue, SKN-1, pointing to a collaborative role of the two transcription factors in life span extension induced by thiol depletion. Cytoprotective target genes of DAF-16 and SKN-1 were upregulated after at least 3 days of exposure to 100 µM DEM, but not 1 mM DEM, whereas only 1 mM DEM caused upregulation of egl-1, a gene controlled by a p53-orthologue, CEP-1. In order to test whether depletion of GSH may elicit effects similar to DEM, we suppressed GSH biosynthesis in worms by attenuating γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gcs-1 expression through RNAi. The decline in GSH levels elicited by gcs-1 knockdown starting at young adult stage did not impair viability, but increased both stress resistance and life expectancy of the worms. In contrast, gcs-1 knockdown commencing right after hatching impaired nematode stress resistance and rendered young adult worms prone to vulval ruptures during egg-laying. Thus, modest decrease in GSH levels in young adult worms may promote stress resistance and life span, whereas depletion of GSH is detrimental to freshly
Non-linear impact of glutathione depletion on C. elegans life span and stress resistance.
Urban, Nadine; Tsitsipatis, Dimitrios; Hausig, Franziska; Kreuzer, Katrin; Erler, Katrin; Stein, Vanessa; Ristow, Michael; Steinbrenner, Holger; Klotz, Lars-Oliver
2017-04-01
The redox environment in cells and organisms is set by low-molecular mass and protein-bound thiols, with glutathione (GSH) representing a major intracellular redox buffer. Subtle thiol oxidation elicits signal transduction processes and adaptive responses to cope with stressors, whereas highly oxidizing conditions may provoke cell death. We here tested how thiol depletion affects life span, stress resistance and stress signaling in the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. Diethyl maleate (DEM), an α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compound that conjugates to GSH and other thiols, decreased C. elegans life span at a concentration of 1mM. In contrast, low and moderate doses of DEM (10-100µM) increased mean and maximum life span and improved resistance against oxidative stress. DEM-induced life span extension was not detectable in worms deficient in either the FoxO orthologue, DAF-16, or the Nrf2 orthologue, SKN-1, pointing to a collaborative role of the two transcription factors in life span extension induced by thiol depletion. Cytoprotective target genes of DAF-16 and SKN-1 were upregulated after at least 3 days of exposure to 100µM DEM, but not 1mM DEM, whereas only 1mM DEM caused upregulation of egl-1, a gene controlled by a p53-orthologue, CEP-1. In order to test whether depletion of GSH may elicit effects similar to DEM, we suppressed GSH biosynthesis in worms by attenuating γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gcs-1) expression through RNAi. The decline in GSH levels elicited by gcs-1 knockdown starting at young adult stage did not impair viability, but increased both stress resistance and life expectancy of the worms. In contrast, gcs-1 knockdown commencing right after hatching impaired nematode stress resistance and rendered young adult worms prone to vulval ruptures during egg-laying. Thus, modest decrease in GSH levels in young adult worms may promote stress resistance and life span, whereas depletion of GSH is detrimental to freshly hatched and developing worms
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1978-08-01
This is the summary of results of the research on MHD generation in fiscal 1977. In the experimental studies on MHD generators using a copper/iron magnet, the combustor of the Mark 7 generator was manufactured and installed, as were the supply systems of fuel, oxygen, air, seed, sulfur dioxide, cooling water, etc., respectively of the Mark 7 generator based on the design implemented in the previous year. In the studies on element technologies, various tests were performed, namely, immersion tests by K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution for electrode materials; tests of corrosion resistance, thermal shock resistance, and compatibility with electrode materials, for insulation wall materials; and material selection tests, based on a dynamic state, for consumption quantity and distribution, surface temperature and heat flow, measurement of arc spot generating critical current and electrode lowering voltage, etc.. In the research on the MHD generation system, examinations were carried out on the position of MHD generation as a total system, as well as on a system of a practical plant, MHD generation for peak load, superconducting magnet, etc. In addition, examinations were also conducted on the Mark 7 calculation, Mark 8 plan, surveys on overseas trend, etc. (NEDO)
Sawtooth oscillations as MHD relaxation process in a plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoshida, Zensho; Inoue, Nobuyuki; Ogawa, Yuichi
1992-01-01
The sawtooth oscillation in a tokamak plasma is a spontaneous relaxation process accompanying global instabilities which behave to reduce the internal magnetic energy. This phenomenon has a similarity to the MHD relaxation processes in Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) and Ultra Low Q (ULQ) plasmas. The self-stabilizing effect of instabilities with m (poloidal mode number) = 1 results in an increase in the central safety factor q(0). Nonlinear dynamics of m = 1 instabilities has been discussed both for global and local modes. The latter appears when a pitch minimum exists in the plasma, and is relevant to the compound sawtooth oscillation. The MHD relaxation is a restructuring process of the plasma current profile that is competitive with the resistive diffusion. (author)
Characteristics of MHD stability of high beta plasmas in LHD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sato, M.; Nakajima, N.; Watanabe, K.Y.; Todo, Y.; Suzuki, Y.
2012-11-01
In order to understand characteristics of the MHD stability of high beta plasmas obtained in the LHD experiments, full MHD simulations have been performed for the first time. Since there is a magnetic hill in a plasma peripheral region, the ballooning modes extending into the plasma peripheral region with a chaotic magnetic field are destabilized. However, in the nonlinear phase, the core region comes under the in influence of the instabilities and the central pressure decreases. There is a tendency that modes are suppressed as the beta value and/or magnetic Reynolds number increase, which is consistent with a result that high beta plasmas enter the second stable region of the ideal ballooning modes as beta increases and remaining destabilized ballooning modes are considered to be resistive type. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tarasenko Alexandr
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The paper is aimed at determining the possibility of applying the simplified method proposed by the authors to calculate the tank seismic resistance in compliance with current regulations and scientific provisions. The authors propose a highly detailed numerical model for a common oil storage tank RVSPK-50000 that enables static operational loads and dynamic action of earthquakes to be calculated. Within the modal analysis the natural oscillation frequencies in the range of 0-10 Hz were calculated; the results are given for the first ten modes. The model takes into account the effect of impulsive and convective components of hydrodynamic pressure during earthquakes. Within the spectral analysis by generalized response spectra was calculated a general stress-strain state of a structure during earthquakes of 7, 8, 9 intensity degrees on the MSK-64 scale for a completely filled up, a half-filled up to the mark of 8.5 m and an empty RVSPK-50000 tank. The developed finite element model can be used to perform calculations of seismic resistance by the direct dynamic method, which will give further consideration to the impact of individual structures (floating roof, support posts, adjoined elements of added stiffness on the general stress-strain state of a tank.
Development and Application of Predictive Tools for MHD Stability Limits in Tokamaks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brennan, Dylan [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Miller, G. P. [Univ. of Tulsa, Tulsa, AZ (United States)
2016-10-03
This is a project to develop and apply analytic and computational tools to answer physics questions relevant to the onset of non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities in toroidal magnetic confinement plasmas. The focused goal of the research is to develop predictive tools for these instabilities, including an inner layer solution algorithm, a resistive wall with control coils, and energetic particle effects. The production phase compares studies of instabilities in such systems using analytic techniques, PEST- III and NIMROD. Two important physics puzzles are targeted as guiding thrusts for the analyses. The first is to form an accurate description of the physics determining whether the resistive wall mode or a tearing mode will appear first as β is increased at low rotation and low error fields in DIII-D. The second is to understand the physical mechanism behind recent NIMROD results indicating strong damping and stabilization from energetic particle effects on linear resistive modes. The work seeks to develop a highly relevant predictive tool for ITER, advance the theoretical description of this physics in general, and analyze these instabilities in experiments such as ASDEX Upgrade, DIII-D, JET, JT-60U and NTSX. The awardee on this grant is the University of Tulsa. The research efforts are supervised principally by Dr. Brennan. Support is included for two graduate students, and a strong collaboration with Dr. John M. Finn of LANL. The work includes several ongoing collaborations with General Atomics, PPPL, and the NIMROD team, among others.
Development and Application of Predictive Tools for MHD Stability Limits in Tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brennan, Dylan; Miller, G. P.
2016-01-01
This is a project to develop and apply analytic and computational tools to answer physics questions relevant to the onset of non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities in toroidal magnetic confinement plasmas. The focused goal of the research is to develop predictive tools for these instabilities, including an inner layer solution algorithm, a resistive wall with control coils, and energetic particle effects. The production phase compares studies of instabilities in such systems using analytic techniques, PEST- III and NIMROD. Two important physics puzzles are targeted as guiding thrusts for the analyses. The first is to form an accurate description of the physics determining whether the resistive wall mode or a tearing mode will appear first as β is increased at low rotation and low error fields in DIII-D. The second is to understand the physical mechanism behind recent NIMROD results indicating strong damping and stabilization from energetic particle effects on linear resistive modes. The work seeks to develop a highly relevant predictive tool for ITER, advance the theoretical description of this physics in general, and analyze these instabilities in experiments such as ASDEX Upgrade, DIII-D, JET, JT-60U and NTSX. The awardee on this grant is the University of Tulsa. The research efforts are supervised principally by Dr. Brennan. Support is included for two graduate students, and a strong collaboration with Dr. John M. Finn of LANL. The work includes several ongoing collaborations with General Atomics, PPPL, and the NIMROD team, among others.
Nakanishi, Koichi; Kogure, Akinori; Deuchi, Keiji; Kuwana, Ritsuko; Takamatsu, Hiromu; Ito, Kiyoshi
2015-01-01
We previously developed a method for evaluating the heat resistance of microorganisms by measuring the transition temperature at which the coefficient of linear expansion of a cell changes. Here, we performed heat resistance measurements using a scanning probe microscope with a nano thermal analysis system. The microorganisms studied included six strains of the genus Bacillus or related genera, one strain each of the thermophilic obligate anaerobic bacterial genera Thermoanaerobacter and Moorella, two strains of heat-resistant mold, two strains of non-sporulating bacteria, and one strain of yeast. Both vegetative cells and spores were evaluated. The transition temperature at which the coefficient of linear expansion due to heating changed from a positive value to a negative value correlated strongly with the heat resistance of the microorganism as estimated from the D value. The microorganisms with greater heat resistance exhibited higher transition temperatures. There was also a strong negative correlation between the coefficient of linear expansion and heat resistance in bacteria and yeast, such that microorganisms with greater heat resistance showed lower coefficients of linear expansion. These findings suggest that our method could be useful for evaluating the heat resistance of microorganisms.
MHD simulations of DC helicity injection for current drive in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sovinec, C.R.; Prager, S.C.
1994-12-01
MHD computations of DC helicity injection in tokamak-like configurations show current drive with no ''loop voltage'' in a resistive, pressureless plasma. The self-consistently generated current profiles are unstable to resistive modes that partially relax the profile through the MHD dynamo mechanism. The current driven by the fluctuations leads to closed contours of average poloidal flux. However, the 1% fluctuation level is large enough to produce a region of stochastic magnetic field. A limited Lundquist number (S) scan from 2.5 x 10 3 to 4 x 10 4 indicates that both the fluctuation level and relaxation increase with S
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burke, B. J.; Kruger, S. E.; Hegna, C. C.; Zhu, P.; Snyder, P. B.; Sovinec, C. R.; Howell, E. C.
2010-01-01
A linear benchmark between the linear ideal MHD stability codes ELITE [H. R. Wilson et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 1277 (2002)], GATO [L. Bernard et al., Comput. Phys. Commun. 24, 377 (1981)], and the extended nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code, NIMROD [C. R. Sovinec et al.., J. Comput. Phys. 195, 355 (2004)] is undertaken for edge-localized (MHD) instabilities. Two ballooning-unstable, shifted-circle tokamak equilibria are compared where the stability characteristics are varied by changing the equilibrium plasma profiles. The equilibria model an H-mode plasma with a pedestal pressure profile and parallel edge currents. For both equilibria, NIMROD accurately reproduces the transition to instability (the marginally unstable mode), as well as the ideal growth spectrum for a large range of toroidal modes (n=1-20). The results use the compressible MHD model and depend on a precise representation of 'ideal-like' and 'vacuumlike' or 'halo' regions within the code. The halo region is modeled by the introduction of a Lundquist-value profile that transitions from a large to a small value at a flux surface location outside of the pedestal region. To model an ideal-like MHD response in the core and a vacuumlike response outside the transition, separate criteria on the plasma and halo Lundquist values are required. For the benchmarked equilibria the critical Lundquist values are 10 8 and 10 3 for the ideal-like and halo regions, respectively. Notably, this gives a ratio on the order of 10 5 , which is much larger than experimentally measured values using T e values associated with the top of the pedestal and separatrix. Excellent agreement with ELITE and GATO calculations are made when sharp boundary transitions in the resistivity are used and a small amount of physical dissipation is added for conditions very near and below marginal ideal stability.
MHD stability properties of a system of reduced toroidal MHD equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maschke, E.K.; Morros Tosas, J.; Urquijo, G.
1993-01-01
A system of reduced toroidal magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) equations is derived from a general scalar representation of the complete MHD system, using an ordering in terms of the inverse aspect ratio ε of a toroidal plasma. It is shown that the energy principle for the reduced equations is identical with the usual energy principle of the complete MHD system, to the appropriate order in ε. Thus, the reduced equations have the same ideal MHD stability limits as the full MHD equations. (authors). 6 refs
MHD activity in the ISX-B tokamak: experimental results and theoretical interpretation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carreras, B.A.; Dunlap, J.L.; Bell, J.D.; Charlton, L.A.; Cooper, W.A.; Dory, R.A.; Hender, T.C.; Hicks, H.R.; Holmes, J.A.; Lynch, V.E.
1982-01-01
The observed spectrum of MHD fluctuations in the ISX-B tokamak is clearly dominated by the n=1 mode when the q=1 surface is in the plasma. This fact agrees well with theoretical predictions based on 3-D resistive MHD calculations. They show that the (m=1; n=1) mode is then the dominant instability. It drives other n=1 modes through toroidal coupling and n>1 modes through nonlinear couplings. These theoretically predicted mode structures have been compared in detail with the experimentally measured wave forms (using arrays of soft x-ray detectors). The agreement is excellent. More detailed comparisons between theory and experiment have required careful reconstructions of the ISX-B equilibria. The equilibria so constructed have permitted a precise evaluation of the ideal MHD stability properties of ISX-B. The present results indicate that the high ..beta.. ISX-B equilibria are marginally stable to finite eta ideal MHD modes. The resistive MHD calculations also show that at finite ..beta.. there are unstable resistive pressure driven modes.
Effects of compressibility on the resistive ballooning mode
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hender, T.C.; Carreras, B.A.; Cooper, W.A.; Holmes, J.A.; Diamond, P.H.; Similon, P.L.
1983-09-01
The linear stability of the resistive ballooning mode, as described by the resistive MHD model, is investigated both analytically and numerically. When the pressure evolution is approximated by fluid convection (reduced MHD model), an instability driven by geodesic curvature, with a growth rate γ approx. eta/sup 1/3/β/sub rho//sup 2/3/, is found. For conditions relevant to the Impurity Study Experiment (ISX-B), it is shown that for modest poloidal beta (β/sub rho/ approx. = 1), high current, and relatively high temperatures, compressibility has a significant stabilizing influence, relative to the pressure convection model, for low toroidal mode number modes. However, at high β/sub rho/ (greater than or equal to 2), low current, and lower temperatures, compressibility has much less effect
Multi-scale-nonlinear interactions among macro-MHD mode, micro-turbulence, and zonal flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishizawa, Akihiro; Nakajima, Noriyoshi
2007-01-01
This is the first numerical simulation demonstrating that macro-magnetohydrodynamic (macro-MHD) mode is exited as a result of multi-scale interaction in a quasi-steady equilibrium formed by a balance between zonal flow and micro-turbulence via reduced-two-fluid simulation. Only after obtaining the equilibrium which includes zonal flow and the turbulence caused by kinetic ballooning mode is this simulation of macro-MHD mode, double tearing mode, accomplished. In the quasi-steady equilibrium a macro-fluctuation which has the same helicity as that of double tearing mode is a part of the turbulence until it grows as a macro-MHD mode finally. When the macro-MHD grows it effectively utilize free energy of equilibrium current density gradient because of positive feedback loop between suppression of zonal flow and growth of the macro-fluctuation causing magnetic reconnection. Thus once the macro-MHD grows from the quasi-equilibrium, it does not go back. This simulation is more comparable with experimental observation of growing macro-fluctuation than traditional MHD simulation of linear instabilities in a static equilibrium. (author)
Study of MHD problems in liquid metal blankets of fusion reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Michael, I.
1984-12-01
This study describes in a concise form the state of knowledge regarding MHD problems to be expected in case of use of liquid metal in the blankets of fusion reactors with magnetic confinement. MHD pressure losses and MHD friction coefficients in the straight channel, in bent sections and in case of variation of the channel cross section play a major role because the high MHD flow resistances call for high pumping powers. Influencing the velocity profile transverse to the main flow direction of the liquid metal by application of an external, strong magnetic field bears consequences on the release and transport of corrosion products in the liquid metal circuit and on the heat transfer. Possibilities of reducing the MHD effects are discussed. However, it becomes obvious that an account of the lack of experimental results there are still major gaps in the knowledge of MHD effects occurring in strong magnetic fields. These gaps can be greatly reduced by implementation of an experimental program as proposed in this report. (orig.) [de
Design of MHD generator systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buende, R.; Raeder, J.
1975-01-01
By assessment of the influence of the combustion efficiency on the electric output of the MHD generator, it can be shown that the construction and efficiency of the generator strongly depend on these parameters. The solutions of this system of equations are discussed. Following a derivation of criteria and boundary conditions of the design and a determination of the specific construction costs of individual system components, it is shown how the single design parameters influence the operational characteristics of such a system, especially the output, efficiency and energy production costs. (GG/LH) [de
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Galkowski, A. [Institute of Atomic Energy, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)
1994-12-31
Non-linear ideal MHD equilibria in axisymmetric system with flows are examined, both in 1st and 2nd ellipticity regions. Evidence of the bifurcation of solutions is provided and numerical solutions of several problems in a tokamak geometry are given, exhibiting bifurcation phenomena. Relaxation of plasma in the presence of zero-order flows is studied in a realistic toroidal geometry. The field aligned flow allows equilibria with finite pressure gradient but with homogeneous temperature distribution. Numerical calculations have been performed for the 1st and 2nd ellipticity regimes of the extended Grad-Shafranov-Schlueter equation. Numerical technique, alternative to the well-known Grad`s ADM methods has been proposed to deal with slow adiabatic evolution of toroidal plasma with flows. The equilibrium problem with prescribed adiabatic constraints may be solved by simultaneous calculations of flux surface geometry and original profile functions. (author). 178 refs, 37 figs, 5 tabs.
Axisymmetric MHD stable sloshing ion distributions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berk, H.L.; Dominguez, N.; Roslyakov, G.V.
1986-07-01
The MHD stability of a sloshing ion distribution is investigated in a symmetric mirror cell. Fokker-Planck calculations show that stable configurations are possible for ion injection energies that are at least 150 times greater than the electron temperture. Special axial magnetic field profiles are suggested to optimize the favorable MHD properties
MHD (Magnetohydrodynamics) recovery and regeneration
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McIlroy, R. A. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH (United States). Research Center; Probert, P. B. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH (United States). Research Center; Lahoda, E. J. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Swift, W. M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jackson, D. M. [Univ. of Tennessee Space Inst. (UTSI), Tullahoma, TN (United States); Prasad, J. [Univ. of Tennessee Space Inst. (UTSI), Tullahoma, TN (United States); Martin, J. [Hudson Engineering (United States); Rogers, C. [Hudson Engineering (United States); Ho, K. K. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH (United States). Research Center; Senary, M. K. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH (United States). Research Center; Lee, S. [Univ. of Akron, OH (United States)
1988-10-01
A two-phase program investigating MHD seed regeneration is described. In Phase I, bench scale experiments were carried out to demonstrate the technical feasibility of a proposed Seed Regeneration Process. The Phase I data has been used for the preliminary design of a Proof-of-Concept (POC) plant which will be built and tested in Phase II. The Phase I data will also be used to estimate the costs of a 300 Mw(t) demonstration plant for comparison with other processes. The Seed Regeneration Process consists of two major subprocesses; a Westinghouse Dry Reduction process and a modified Tampella (sulfur) Recovery process. The Westinghouse process reduces the recovered spent seed (i.e., potassium sulfate) to potassium polysulfide in a rotary kiln. The reduction product is dissolved in water to form green liquor, clarified to remove residual coal ash, and sent to the Tampella sulfur release system. The sulfur is released using carbon dioxide from flue gas in a two stage reaction. The sulfur is converted to elemental sulfur as a marketable by product. The potassium is crystallized from the green liquor and dried to the anhydrous form for return to the MHD unit.
Halo current and resistive wall simulations of ITER
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strauss, H.R.; Zheng Linjin; Kotschenreuther, M.; Park, W.; Jardin, S.; Breslau, J.; Pletzer, A.; Paccagnella, R.; Sugiyama, L.; Chu, M.; Chance, M.; Turnbull, A.
2005-01-01
A number of ITER relevant problems in resistive MHD concern the effects of a resistive wall: vertical displacement events (VDE), halo currents caused by disruptions, and resistive wall modes. Simulations of these events have been carried out using the M3D code. We have verified the growth rate scaling of VDEs, which is proportional to the wall resistivity. Simulations have been done of disruptions caused by large inversion radius internal kink modes, as well as by nonlinear growth of resistive wall modes. Halo current flowing during the disruption has asymmetries with toroidal peaking factor up to about 3. VDEs have larger growth rates during disruption simulations, which may account for the loss of vertical feedback control during disruptions in experiments. Further simulations have been made of disruptions caused by resistive wall modes in ITER equilibria. For these modes the toroidal peaking factor is close to 1. Resistive wall modes in ITER and reactors have also been investigated utilizing the newly developed AEGIS (Adaptive EiGenfunction Independent Solution) linear full MHD code, for realistically shaped, fully toroidal equilibria. The AEGIS code uses an adaptive mesh in the radial direction which allows thin inertial layers to be accurately resolved, such as those responsible for the stabilization of resistive wall modes (RWM) by plasma rotation. Stabilization of resistive wall modes by rotation and wall thickness effects are examined. (author)
Two-Fluid and Resistive Nonlinear Simulations of Tokamak Equilibrium, Stability, and Reconnection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jardin, S.; Sovinec, C.; Breslau, J.; Ferraro, N.; Hudson, S.; King, J.; Kruger, S.; Ramos, J.; Schnack, D.
2008-01-01
The NIMROD and M3D/M3D-C1 codes now each have both a resistive MHD and a two-fluid (2F) capability including gyroviscosity and Hall terms. We describe: (1) a nonlinear 3D verification test in the resistive MHD regime in which the two codes are in detailed agreement, (2) new studies that illuminate the effect of two-fluid physics on spontaneous rotation in tokamaks, (3) studies of nonlinear reconnection in regimes of relevance to fusion plasmas with peak nonlinear reconnection rates that are essentially independent of the resistivity, and (4) linear two-fluid tearing mode calculations including electron mass that agree with analytic studies over a wide range of parameter regimes
Performance of the CNEN MHD Blow-Down Loop Facility
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bertolini, E.; Brown, R.; Gasparotto, M.; Gay, P.; Toschi, R. [Laboratorio Conversione Diretta, CNEN, Frascati (Italy)
1968-11-15
The CNEN facility has been designed, manufactured and used for alkali-seeded noble gas MHD energy conversion research, as the major experimental effort during the first five-year CNEN Research Programme on MHD. The main specifications and the general arrangement with information on preliminary commissioning tests of some components were given at the Salzburg Symposium. Since then the facility has been successfully commissioned and from March 1967 has been working on MHD experiments. Efforts were made to reduce any adverse effects on the experimental MHD results that were due to inherent limitations of an experimental apparatus (particularly under open-circuit conditions). Great emphasis was placed on problems of caesium vaporization and the mixing with helium, the purity level of the mixture, measurements and the control system. The insulation of the plasma from ground was carefully treated, increasing the ratio between insulator resistance and typical plasma resistance as much as possible. Fluidynamic tests at room and high temperatures have shown that stability in the gas parameters (temperature, pressure and mass flow) can be maintained within few per cent for tens of seconds after a transient, giving a behaviour similar to a continuously running system. The high- temperature, alumina pebble-bed heater has successfully operated, bringing the helium-caesium mixtures up to 2000 Degree-Sign K and up to 4 atm abs pressure, and undergoing seven thermal cycles, for a total of more than 2000 hours operation at top temperature. Preheated generator ducts using alumina as insulator and tantalum for electrodes performed satisfactorily, very much attention having been given in the design to reduction of thermal shocks and to obviating possible paths for caesium leakage and short-circuiting of electrode leads. The pulsed liquid nitrogen precooled magnet has been run for about 50 pulses at high field ( Asymptotically-Equal-To 4.5 tesla) with an operating time of about 10
The effects of imperfect insulator coatings on MHD and heat transfer in rectangular duct
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ying, A.Y.; Gaizer, A.A.
1994-01-01
In self cooled liquid metal blankets, the use of an insulator coating to reduce the flow of the eddy current to the structure leads to a significant reduction in MHD pressure drop. Furthermore, this insulating layer alters the velocity structure by reducing the potential difference between the side wall and boundary layer. The questions which arise are: (1) How the imperfections in the insulator coating affect the velocity profiles and their consequent impacts on heat transfer performance?; and, (2) How much crack can lead to an unacceptable MHD pressure drop? The dynamics of the crack healing in an insulator coating duct is one of the important subjects requiring study. The purpose of this work is to present numerical simulations of fully developed MHD flow and developing heat transfer characteristics in imperfectly insulated ducts, and to quantify the influences of crack locations, sizes and resistivities on 2-D MHD pressure drops. Comparisons of finite element solutions of pressure drops in partially insulated ducts with analytical solutions obtained from a circuit analogy show excellent agreement. In addition, the remarkable side layer velocity profile observed in a laminar MHD flow of a conducting duct gradually diminishes as the resistance of the insulating layer increases. The average side wall Nusselt number drops by a factor of 2 as the duct becomes fully insulated
Generation of compressible modes in MHD turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cho, Jungyeon [Chungnam National Univ., Daejeon (Korea); Lazarian, A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)
2005-05-01
Astrophysical turbulence is magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) in nature. We discuss fundamental properties of MHD turbulence and in particular the generation of compressible MHD waves by Alfvenic turbulence and show that this process is inefficient. This allows us to study the evolution of different types of MHD perturbations separately. We describe how to separate MHD fluctuations into three distinct families: Alfven, slow, and fast modes. We find that the degree of suppression of slow and fast modes production by Alfvenic turbulence depends on the strength of the mean field. We review the scaling relations of the modes in strong MHD turbulence. We show that Alfven modes in compressible regime exhibit scalings and anisotropy similar to those in incompressible regime. Slow modes passively mimic Alfven modes. However, fast modes exhibit isotropy and a scaling similar to that of acoustic turbulence both in high and low {beta} plasmas. We show that our findings entail important consequences for star formation theories, cosmic ray propagation, dust dynamics, and gamma ray bursts. We anticipate many more applications of the new insight to MHD turbulence and expect more revisions of the existing paradigms of astrophysical processes as the field matures. (orig.)
Resistive effects on line-tied magnetohydrodynamic modes in cylindrical geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Delzanno, Gian Luca; Evstatiev, E. G.; Finn, John M.
2007-01-01
An investigation of the effect of resistivity on the linear stability of line-tied magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes is presented in cylindrical geometry, based on the method recently developed in the paper by Evstatiev et al. [Phys. Plasmas 13, 072902 (2006)]. The method uses an expansion of the full solution of the problem in one-dimensional radial eigenfunctions. This method is applied to study sausage modes (m=0, m being the poloidal wavenumber), kink modes (m=1), and m=2 modes. All these modes can be resistively unstable. It is found that m≠0 modes can be unstable below the ideal MHD threshold due to resistive diffusion of the field lines, with growth rates proportional to resistivity. For these resistive modes, there is no indication of tearing, i.e., current sheets or boundary layers due to ideal MHD singularities. That is, resistivity acts globally on the whole plasma column and not in layers. Modes with m=0, on the other hand, can exist as tearing modes if the equilibrium axial magnetic field reverses sign within the plasma
Development of brazing procedure for refractory metals of MHD channel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shibalov, M.V.; Belkin, E.Ya.
1983-01-01
A wide range of electric insulation oxidix materials for the channel of MHD-generator is considered. Insulators on the basis of magnesium, aluminium oxides, zirconates have practical value and application. Electromelted magnesium oxide is considered as electric insulation material for the channel, it is widely used for electric insulation in U-02 and U-25 installations at the temperature up to 1900 deg C. Ways of increasing heat resistance and improvement of other properties of magnesian ceramics are disclosed. Investigations into application of non-calcinated oxidic compositions as insulators are conducted
MHD intermediate shock discontinuities: Pt. 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kennel, C.F.; Blandford, R.D.; Coppi, P.
1989-01-01
Recent numerical investigations have focused attention once more on the role of intermediate shocks in MHD. Four types of intermediate shock are identified using a graphical representation of the MHD Rankine-Hugoniot conditions. This same representation can be used to exhibit the close relationship of intermediate shocks to switch-on shocks and rotational discontinuities. The conditions under which intermediate discontinuities can be found are elucidated. The variations in velocity, pressure, entropy and magnetic-field jumps with upstream parameters in intermediate shocks are exhibited graphically. The evolutionary arguments traditionally advanced against intermediate shocks may fail because the equations of classical MHD are not strictly hyperbolic. (author)
Liquid metal MHD generator systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Satyamurthy, P.; Dixit, N.S.; Venkataramani, N.; Rohatgi, V.K.
1985-01-01
Liquid Metal MHD (LMMHD) Generator Systems are becoming increasingly important in space and terrestrial applications due to their compactness and versatility. This report gives the current status and economic viability of LMMHD generators coupled to solar collectors, fast breeder reactors, low grade heat sources and conventional high grade heat sources. The various thermodynamic cycles in the temperatures range of 100degC-2000degC have been examined. The report also discusses the present understanding of various loss mechanisms inherent in LMMHD systems and the techniques for overcoming these losses. A small mercury-air LMMHD experimental facility being set up in Plasma Physics Division along with proposals for future development of this new technology is also presented in this report. (author)
MHD equilibrium with toroidal rotation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, J.
1987-03-01
The present work attempts to formulate the equilibrium of axisymmetric plasma with purely toroidal flow within ideal MHD theory. In general, the inertial term Rho(v.Del)v caused by plasma flow is so complicated that the equilibrium equation is completely different from the Grad-Shafranov equation. However, in the case of purely toroidal flow the equilibrium equation can be simplified so that it resembles the Grad-Shafranov equation. Generally one arbitrary two-variable functions and two arbitrary single variable functions, instead of only four single-variable functions, are allowed in the new equilibrium equations. Also, the boundary conditions of the rotating (with purely toroidal fluid flow, static - without any fluid flow) equilibrium are the same as those of the static equilibrium. So numerically one can calculate the rotating equilibrium as a static equilibrium. (author)
3D simulation studies of tokamak plasmas using MHD and extended-MHD models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, W.; Chang, Z.; Fredrickson, E.; Fu, G.Y.
1996-01-01
The M3D (Multi-level 3D) tokamak simulation project aims at the simulation of tokamak plasmas using a multi-level tokamak code package. Several current applications using MHD and Extended-MHD models are presented; high-β disruption studies in reversed shear plasmas using the MHD level MH3D code, ω *i stabilization and nonlinear island saturation of TAE mode using the hybrid particle/MHD level MH3D-K code, and unstructured mesh MH3D ++ code studies. In particular, three internal mode disruption mechanisms are identified from simulation results which agree which agree well with experimental data
Characteristics of laminar MHD fluid hammer in pipe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang, Z.Y.; Liu, Y.J.
2016-01-01
As gradually wide applications of MHD fluid, transportation as well as control with pumps and valves is unavoidable, which induces MHD fluid hammer. The paper attempts to combine MHD effect and fluid hammer effect and to investigate the characteristics of laminar MHD fluid hammer. A non-dimensional fluid hammer model, based on Navier–Stocks equations, coupling with Lorentz force is numerically solved in a reservoir–pipe–valve system with uniform external magnetic field. The MHD effect is represented by the interaction number which associates with the conductivity of the MHD fluid as well as the external magnetic field and can be interpreted as the ratio of Lorentz force to Joukowsky force. The transient numerical results of pressure head, average velocity, wall shear stress, velocity profiles and shear stress profiles are provided. The additional MHD effect hinders fluid motion, weakens wave front and homogenizes velocity profiles, contributing to obvious attenuation of oscillation, strengthened line packing and weakened Richardson annular effect. Studying the characteristics of MHD laminar fluid hammer theoretically supplements the gap of knowledge of rapid-transient MHD flow and technically provides beneficial information for MHD pipeline system designers to better devise MHD systems. - Highlights: • Characteristics of laminar MHD fluid hammer are discussed by simulation. • MHD effect has significant influence on attenuation of wave. • MHD effect strengthens line packing. • MHD effect inhibits Richardson annular effect.
Resistive Wall Mode Stability and Control in the Reversed Field Pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yadikin, Dmitriy
2006-03-01
Control of MHD instabilities using a conducting wall together with external magnetic fields is an important route to improved performance and reliability in fusion devices. Active control of MHD modes is of interest for both the Advanced Tokamak and the Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) configurations. A wide range of unstable, current driven MHD modes is present in the RFP. An ideally conducting wall facing the plasma can in principle provide stabilization to these modes. However, a real, resistive wall characterized by a wall field diffusion time, cannot stabilize the ideal MHD modes unless they rotate with Alfvenic velocity, which is usually not the case. With a resistive wall, the ideal modes are converted into resistive wall modes (RWM) with growth rates comparable to the inverse wall time. Resistive wall modes have been studied in the EXTRAP T2R thin shell RFP device. Growth rates have been measured and found in agreement with linear MHD stability calculations. An advanced system for active control has been developed and installed on the EXTRAP T2R device. The system includes an array of 128 active saddle coils, fully covering the torus surface. Experiments on EXTRAP T2R have for the first time demonstrated simultaneous active suppression of multiple independent RWMs. In experiments with a partial array, coupling of different modes due to the limited number of feedback coils has been observed, in agreement with theory. Different feedback strategies, such as the intelligent shell, the rotating shell, and mode control have been studied. Further, feedback operation with different types of magnetic field sensors, measuring either the radial or the toroidal field components have been compared
NaK-nitrogen liquid metal MHD converter tests at 30 kw
Cerini, D. J.
1974-01-01
The feasibility of electrical power generation with an ambient temperature liquid-metal MHD separator cycle is demonstrated by tests in which a NaK-nitrogen LM-MHD converter was operated at nozzle inlet pressures ranging from 100 to 165 N/sq cm, NaK flow rates from 46 to 72 kg/sec, and nitrogen flow rates from 2.4 to 3.8 kg/sec. The generator was operated as an eight-phase linear induction generator, with two of the eight phases providing magnetic field compensation to minimized electrical end losses at the generator channel inlet and exit.
Investigation of the Hall MHD channel operating with the ionized instable plasma of inert gases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vasi'leva, R.V.; D'yakova, E.A.; Erofeev, A.V.; Zuev, A.D.; Lapushkina, T.A.; Markhotok, A.A.
1997-01-01
Possibility of applying ionization-instable plasma of pure inert gases as perspective working substance for closed-cycle MHD generators is studied. The experiment was produced in the model of the disk Hall MHD channel. The ionized gas flux was produced in a shock tube. Xenon was used as a working substance. Gas pressure, flux velocity, electron concentration and temperature, azimuthal current density, potential distribution in the channel and near-electrode voltage drop values were measured in the experiment. Volt-ampere characteristics were taken by various indices of magnetic field and load resistance
Two dimensional analysis of MHD generator by means of equivalent circuit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoshida, Masaharu; Umoto, Juro
1975-01-01
The authors report on the method analyzing generally the MHD generator by means of the equivalent circuit including the negative resistance. At first, they divide the duct space into many space elements, and for each space element they derive the fundamental equivalent four-terminal circuit which satisfies the two-dimensional Ohm's law. Next, they make an attempt to apply the equivalent circuits to the typical MHD generators such as diagonal, Faraday and Hall generators considering the boundary layer in the duct and the wall leakage current. Using their analysis, the current density, Joul's heat, generated and output electrical powers, electrical efficiency etc. in the generator can be fairly easily calculated. (auth.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dunn, P.F.
1978-01-01
The basic features of the two-phase liquid-metal MHD energy conversion under development at Argonne National Laboratory are presented. The results of system studies on the Rankine-cycle and the open-cycle coal-fired cycle options are discussed. The liquid-metal MHD experimental facilities are described in addition to the system's major components, the generator, mixer and nozzle-separator-diffuser
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lau, Y.T.; Novakovskii, S.V.; Drake, J.F.
1996-01-01
We will present 2D linear and 3D nonlinear studies of resistive-ballooning modes in tokamak edge plasmas which include a closed flux region, as well as a limiter scrape-off layer (SOL) region. These studies therefore go beyond most earlier work, where the stability of the edge in the closed flux region and in the SOL have been considered separately. A 2D linear code, 2D-BALLOON, examines the stability of these curvature driven modes and provides the complete 2D eigenfunction spanning the closed flux surface region as well the open field line region. The sheath boundary condition in the SOL introduces an important new parameter λ = (m e /m i ) 1/2 v ei qR/v Te . This parameter plays a significant role in determining the stability of these modes in both the closed flux and SOL regions because of the radial coupling across the last closed flux surface (LCFS). For small λ the spectrum of unstable modes is broad and extends into the low toroidal mode number exclamation point regime where the spatial structure is flute-like. The amplitude for these modes is larger in the SOL compared to the closed flux region. However when A is increased, the low mode numbers are strongly stabilized and the high mode numbers which are strongly ballooning are the dominant modes. In this regime the radial modes straddle the LCFS. In both these cases, the variation in the plasma density is necessary for the radial localization. In the three-dimensional nonlinear simulations, we have solved a set of fluid equations in a toroidal geometry with both the closed flux region and the SOL. The introduction of the SOL to the twisted tube for the closed flux region, has been a major addition to our 3D code. We find that the turbulent transport in the SOL drops significantly as A is increased, which is consistent with our expectations from the 2D linear code results
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Charlton, L.A.; Carreras, B.A.; Holmes, J.A.; Lynch, V.E.
1988-01-01
The linear stability and nonlinear evolution of the resistive m = 1 mode in tokamaks is studied using a full set of resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations in toroidal geometry. The modification of the linear and nonlinear properties of the mode by a combination of strong toroidal effects and low resistivity is the focus of this work. Linearly there is a transition from resistive kink to resistive tearing behavior as the aspect ratio and resistivity are reduced, and there is a corresponding modification of the nonlinear behavior, including a slowing of the island growth and development of a Rutherford regime, as the tearing regime is approached. In order to study the sensitivity of the stability and evolution to assumptions concerning the equation of state, two sets of full nonlinear resistive MHD equations (a pressure convection set and an incompressible set) are used. Both sets give more stable nonlinear behavior as the aspect ratio is reduced. The pressure convection set shows a transition from a Kadomtsev reconnection at large aspect ratio to a saturation at small aspect ratio. The incompressible set yields Kadomtsev reconnection for all aspect ratios, but with a significant lengthening of the reconnection time and development of a Rutherford regime at an aspect ratio approaching the transition from a resistive kink mode to a tearing mode. The pressure convection set gives an incomplete reconnection similar to that sometimes seen experimentally. The pressure convection set is, however, strictly justified only at high beta
Neelly, Kurt R; Terry, Joseph G; Morris, Martin J
2010-01-01
A relatively new and scarcely researched technique to increase strength is the use of supplemental heavy chain resistance (SHCR) in conjunction with plate weights to provide variable resistance to free weight exercises. The purpose of this case study was to determine the actual resistance being provided by a double-looped versus a linear hung SHCR to the back squat exercise. The linear technique simply hangs the chain directly from the bar, whereas the double-looped technique uses a smaller chain to adjust the height of the looped chain. In both techniques, as the squat descends, chain weight is unloaded onto the floor, and as the squat ascends, chain weight is progressively loaded back as resistance. One experienced and trained male weight lifter (age = 33 yr; height = 1.83 m; weight = 111.4 kg) served as the subject. Plate weight was set at 84.1 kg, approximately 50% of the subject's 1 repetition maximum. The SHCR was affixed to load cells, sampling at a frequency of 500 Hz, which were affixed to the Olympic bar. Data were collected as the subject completed the back squat under the following conditions: double-looped 1 chain (9.6 kg), double-looped 2 chains (19.2 kg), linear 1 chain, and linear 2 chains. The double-looped SHCR resulted in a 78-89% unloading of the chain weight at the bottom of the squat, whereas the linear hanging SHCR resulted in only a 36-42% unloading. The double-looped technique provided nearly 2 times the variable resistance at the top of the squat compared with the linear hanging technique, showing that attention must be given to the technique used to hang SHCR.
Investigations on high speed MHD liquid flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamasaki, Takasuke; Kamiyama, Shin-ichi.
1982-01-01
Lately, the pressure drop problem of MHD two-phase flow in a duct has been investigated theoretically and experimentally in conjunction with the problems of liquid metal MHD two-phase flow power-generating cycle or of liquid metal boiling two-phase flow in the blanket of a nuclear fusion reactor. Though many research results have been reported so far for MHD single-phase flow, the hydrodynamic studies on high speed two-phase flow are reported only rarely, specifically the study dealing with the generation of cavitation is not found. In the present investigation, the basic equation was derived, analyzing the high speed MHD liquid flow in a diverging duct as the one-dimensional flow of homogeneous two-phase fluid of small void ratio. Furthermore, the theoretical solution for the effect of magnetic field on cavitation-generating conditions was tried. The pressure distribution in MHD flow in a duct largely varies with load factor, and even if the void ratio is small, the pressure distribution in two-phase flow is considerably different from that in single-phase flow. Even if the MHD two-phase flow in a duct is subsonic flow at the throat, the critical conditions may be achieved sometimes in a diverging duct. It was shown that cavitation is more likely to occur as magnetic field becomes more intense if it is generated downstream of the throat. This explains the experimental results qualitatively. (Wakatsuki, Y.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Konrad Kwiatkowski
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The presented results make an original contribution to the development of knowledge on the prediction and/or modeling of the abrasive wear properties of polyurethanes. A series of segmented linear polyurethane elastomers (PUR—In which the hard segments consist of 4,4′-methylene bis(phenylisocyanate and 1,4-butanodiol, whilst polyether, polycarbonate, or polyester polyols constitute the soft segments—Were synthesized and characterized. The hardness and wear performance as functions of the variable chemical composition of polyurethane elastomers were evaluated in order to define the relationship between studied factors. The microstructure was characterized in detail, including analysis of the hydrogen bonding by Fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy and the phase structure by X-ray scattering (WAXS and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC methods. The presented studies provide the key features of the polymer composition affecting the abrasive resistance as well as attempts to explain the origin of the differences in the polyurethane elastomers’ performance.
Implementation of a 3-D nonlinear MHD [magnetohydrodynamics] calculation on the Intel hypercube
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lynch, V.E.; Carreras, B.A.; Drake, J.B.; Hicks, H.R.; Lawkins, W.F.
1987-01-01
The optimization of numerical schemes and increasing computer capabilities in the last ten years have improved the efficiency of 3-D nonlinear resistive MHD calculations by about two to three orders of magnitude. However, we are still very limited in performing these types of calculations. Hypercubes have a large number of processors with only local memory and bidirectional links among neighbors. The Intel Hypercube at Oak Ridge has 64 processors with 0.5 megabytes of memory per processor. The multiplicity of processors opens new possibilities for the treatment of such computations. The constraint on time and resources favored the approach of using the existing RSF code which solves as an initial value problem the reduced set of MHD equations for a periodic cylindrical geometry. This code includes minimal physics and geometry, but contains the basic three dimensionality and nonlinear structure of the equations. The code solves the reduced set of MHD equations by Fourier expansion in two angular coordinates and finite differences in the radial one. Due to the continuing interest in these calculations and the likelihood that future supercomputers will take greater advantage of parallelism, the present study was initiated by the ORNL Exploratory Studies Committee and funded entirely by Laboratory Discretionary Funds. The objectives of the study were: to ascertain the suitability of MHD calculation for parallel computation, to design and implement a parallel algorithm to perform the computations, and to evaluate the hypercube, and in particular, ORNL's Intel iPSC, for use in MHD computations
Evaluation of MHD materials for use in high-temperature fuel cells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guidotti, R.
1978-06-15
The MHD and high-temperature fuel cell literature was surveyed for data pertaining to materials properties in order to identify materials used in MHD power generation which also might be suitable for component use in high-temperature fuel cells. Classes of MHD-electrode materials evaluated include carbides, nitrides, silicides, borides, composites, and oxides. Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/-stabilized ZrO/sub 2/ used as a reference point to evaluate materials for use in the solid-oxide fuel cell. Physical and chemical properties such as electrical resistivity, coefficient of thermal expansion, and thermodynamic stability toward oxidation were used to screen candidate materials. A number of the non-oxide ceramic MHD-electrode materials appear promising for use in the solid-electrolyte and molten-carbonate fuel cell as anodes or anode constituents. The MHD-insulator materials appear suitable candidates for electrolyte-support tiles in the molten-carbonate fuel cells. The merits and possible problem areas for these applications are discussed and additional needed areas of research are delineated.
Solar furnace experiments for thermophysical properties studies of rare-earth oxide MHD materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coutures, J.P.
1978-01-01
Some high temperature work performed with solar furnaces on rare earth oxides is reviewed. Emphasis is on the thermophysical properties (refractoriness, vaporization behavior) and the nature of solid solution on materials which could be used as electrodes for the MHD process. As new sources of energy are being developed due to the world energy crisis, MHD conversion could be useful. The development of MHD systems requires new efforts to develop and optimize materials properties. These materials must have good mechanical and electrical properties (if possible, pure electronic conduction with good emission). Because of the high temperature in MHD generators, the materials for electrodes must have good refractoriness and also must resist vaporization and corrosion at high temperature (T approx. 2000 0 C). Rare-earth oxides are the basic components for most of the MHD electrode materials and it is important to know their thermophysical properties (solidification point phase transitions, heat of fusion and of phase transition, vapor pressure). Because of the high temperature range and the nature of the atmosphere in which these experiments must be performed, special equipment adapted to solar furnaces was developed
Semi-implicit method for three-dimensional compressible MHD simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harned, D.S.; Kerner, W.
1984-03-01
A semi-implicit method for solving the full compressible MHD equations in three dimensions is presented. The method is unconditionally stable with respect to the fast compressional modes. The time step is instead limited by the slower shear Alfven motion. The computing time required for one time step is essentially the same as for explicit methods. Linear stability limits are derived and verified by three-dimensional tests on linear waves in slab geometry. (orig.)
Three-scale expansion of the solution of MHD and Reynolds equations for tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maslov, V.P.; Omel'yanov, G.A.
1994-01-01
An asymptotic solution of the magnetohydrodynamic equations is constructed. The three scales asymptotic solution describes the non-linear evolution of small, rapidly varying perturbations of equilibrium. It is shown, that an anisotropic coherent structure appears in the linear nonstability situation, and the structures evolution directs to energy interaction between high-frequency and low-frequency waves. The closed system of MHD Reynolds equations for anisotropic structure is derived
Nonlinear dynamics of single-helicity neoclassical MHD tearing instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spong, D.A.; Shaing, K.C.; Carreras, B.A.; Callen, J.D.; Garcia, L.
1988-10-01
Neoclassical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects can significantly alter the nonlinear evolution of resistive tearing instabilities. This is studied numerically by using a flux-surface-averaged set of evolution equations that includes the lowest-order neoclassical MHD effects. The new terms in the equations are fluctuating bootstrap current, neoclassical modification of the resistivity, and neoclassical damping of the vorticity. Single-helicity tearing modes are studied in a cylindrical model over a range of neoclassical viscosities (μ/sub e//ν/sup e/) and values of the Δ' parameter of tearing mode theory. Increasing the neoclassical viscosity leads to increased growth rate and saturated island width as predicted analytically. The larger island width is caused by the fluctuating bootstrap current contribution in Ohm's law. The Δ' parameter no longer solely determines the island width, and finite-width saturated islands may be obtained even when Δ' is negative. The importance of the bootstrap current (/approximately/∂/rho///partial derivative/psi/) in the nonlinear dynamics leads us to examine the sensitivity of the results with respect to different models for the density evolution. 11 refs., 8 figs
Resistive stability of the cylindrical spheromak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
DeLucia, J.; Jardin, S.C.; Glasser, A.H.
1983-11-01
The growth rates for resistive instabilities in a straight circular cylinder with spheromak profiles are computed by using two complementary methods. The first method employs boundary layer analysis and asymptotic matching, most valid for values of the magnetic Reynolds number S greater than or equal to 10 5 . The second method solved the full linearized resistive MHD equations as an initial value problem, utilizing zone packing around the mode rational surface. Resolution requirements limit this to S less than or equal to 10 7 . The results from these two methods agree to better than 1 in 10 3 in the overlap region 10 7 greater than or equal to S greater than or equal to 10 5 . A scan of parameter space reveals that for parabolic q-profiles, the least unstable configurations have q 0 R/a approx. 0.67. The Hall term in Ohm's Law is easily incorporated into both methods. Recalculating the resistive MHD growth rates in the presence of this term shows that the resistive interchange mode is completely stabilized for a large enough value of the ion cyclotron time
MHD diffuser model test program
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Idzorek, J J
1976-07-01
Experimental results of the aerodynamic performance of seven candidate diffusers are presented to assist in determining their suitability for joining an MHD channel to a steam generator at minimum spacing. The three dimensional diffusers varied in area ratio from 2 to 3.8 and wall half angle from 2 to 5 degrees. The program consisted of five phases: (1) tailoring a diffuser inlet nozzle to a 15 percent blockage; (2) comparison of isolated diffusers at enthalpy ratios 0.5 to 1.0 with respect to separation characteristics and pressure recovery coefficients; (3) recording the optimum diffuser exit flow distribution; (4) recording the internal flow distribution within the steam generator when attached to the diffuser; and (5) observing isolated diffuser exhaust dynamic characteristics. The 2 and 2-1/3 degree half angle rectangular diffusers showed recovery coefficients equal to 0.48 with no evidence of flow separation or instability. Diffusion at angles greater than these produced flow instabilities and with angles greater than 3 degrees random flow separation and reattachment.
MHD diffuser model test program
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Idzorek, J.J.
1976-07-01
Experimental results of the aerodynamic performance of seven candidate diffusers are presented to assist in determining their suitability for joining an MHD channel to a steam generator at minimum spacing. The three dimensional diffusers varied in area ratio from 2 to 3.8 and wall half angle from 2 to 5 degrees. The program consisted of five phases: (1) tailoring a diffuser inlet nozzle to a 15 percent blockage; (2) comparison of isolated diffusers at enthalpy ratios 0.5 to 1.0 with respect to separation characteristics and pressure recovery coefficients; (3) recording the optimum diffuser exit flow distribution; (4) recording the internal flow distribution within the steam generator when attached to the diffuser; and (5) observing isolated diffuser exhaust dynamic characteristics. The 2 and 2-1/3 degree half angle rectangular diffusers showed recovery coefficients equal to 0.48 with no evidence of flow separation or instability. Diffusion at angles greater than these produced flow instabilities and with angles greater than 3 degrees random flow separation and reattachment
MHD waveguides in space plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mazur, N. G.; Fedorov, E. N.; Pilipenko, V. A.
2010-01-01
The waveguide properties of two characteristic formations in the Earth's magnetotail-the plasma sheet and the current (neutral) sheet-are considered. The question of how the domains of existence of different types of MHD waveguide modes (fast and slow, body and surface) in the (k, ω) plane and their dispersion properties depend on the waveguide parameters is studied. Investigation of the dispersion relation in a number of particular (limiting) cases makes it possible to obtain a fairly complete qualitative pattern of all the branches of the dispersion curve. Accounting for the finite size of perturbations across the wave propagation direction reveals new additional effects such as a change in the critical waveguide frequencies, the excitation of longitudinal current at the boundaries of the sheets, and a change in the symmetry of the fundamental mode. Knowledge of the waveguide properties of the plasma and current sheets can explain the occurrence of preferred frequencies in the low-frequency fluctuation spectra in the magnetotail. In satellite observations, the type of waveguide mode can be determined from the spectral properties, as well as from the phase relationships between plasma oscillations and magnetic field oscillations that are presented in this paper.
Analytic MHD Theory for Earth's Bow Shock at Low Mach Numbers
Grabbe, Crockett L.; Cairns, Iver H.
1995-01-01
A previous MHD theory for the density jump at the Earth's bow shock, which assumed the Alfven M(A) and sonic M(s) Mach numbers are both much greater than 1, is reanalyzed and generalized. It is shown that the MHD jump equation can be analytically solved much more directly using perturbation theory, with the ordering determined by M(A) and M(s), and that the first-order perturbation solution is identical to the solution found in the earlier theory. The second-order perturbation solution is calculated, whereas the earlier approach cannot be used to obtain it. The second-order terms generally are important over most of the range of M(A) and M(s) in the solar wind when the angle theta between the normal to the bow shock and magnetic field is not close to 0 deg or 180 deg (the solutions are symmetric about 90 deg). This new perturbation solution is generally accurate under most solar wind conditions at 1 AU, with the exception of low Mach numbers when theta is close to 90 deg. In this exceptional case the new solution does not improve on the first-order solutions obtained earlier, and the predicted density ratio can vary by 10-20% from the exact numerical MHD solutions. For theta approx. = 90 deg another perturbation solution is derived that predicts the density ratio much more accurately. This second solution is typically accurate for quasi-perpendicular conditions. Taken together, these two analytical solutions are generally accurate for the Earth's bow shock, except in the rare circumstance that M(A) is less than or = 2. MHD and gasdynamic simulations have produced empirical models in which the shock's standoff distance a(s) is linearly related to the density jump ratio X at the subsolar point. Using an empirical relationship between a(s) and X obtained from MHD simulations, a(s) values predicted using the MHD solutions for X are compared with the predictions of phenomenological models commonly used for modeling observational data, and with the predictions of a
The SOL width and the MHD interchange instability in tokamaks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kerner, W [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Pogutse, O [Kurchatov institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)
1994-07-01
Instabilities in the SOL plasma can strongly influence the SOL plasma behaviour and in particular the SOL width. The SOL stability analysis shows that there exists a critical ratio of the thermal energy and the magnetic energy. If the SOL beta is greater than this critical value, the magnetic field cannot prevent the plasma displacement and a strong MHD instability in the SOL occurs. In the opposite case only slower resistive instabilities can develop. A theoretical investigation of the SOL plasma stability is presented for JET single-null and double-null divertor configurations. The dependence of the stability threshold on the SOL beta and on the sheath resistance is established. Applying a simple mixing length argument gives the scaling of the SOL width. 5 refs., 2 figs.
Transverse MHD shock waves in a partly ionized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mathers, C.D.
1980-01-01
The structure of transverse MHD shock waves in a partly ionized hydrogen plasma is studied using a three-fluid model with collisional transport coefficients. The morphology of the various sublayers in the shock front is analyzed in detail and it is shown that strong shock waves have a characteristic viscous structure. Weak to moderate strength shock waves display a resistive structure in which the enhanced transverse resistivity due to ion-slip plays a significant role, leading to a pronounced peak in the ion temperature profile. Calculated shock structure profiles are also compared with experimental temperature data. Results in the form of tables and figures are presented for shock waves with fast Mach number ranging from 1-10 in hydrogen plasma with initial degree of ionization ranging from 5-100%. (author)
Chen, Xinxin; Gu, Ermin; Wang, Shuanghu; Zheng, Xiang; Chen, Mengchun; Wang, Li; Hu, Guoxin; Cai, Jian-ping; Zhou, Hongyu
2016-03-01
Oxcarbazepine (OXC), a second-generation antiepileptic drug, undergoes rapid reduction with formation of the active metabolite 10,11-dihydro-10-hydroxy-carbazepine (MHD) in vivo. In this study, a method for simultaneous determination of OXC and MHD in rat plasma using ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS-MS) was developed and validated. Under given chromatographic conditions, OXC, MHD and internal standard diazepam were separated well and quantified by electrospray positive ionization mass spectrometry in the multiple reaction monitoring transitions mode. The method validation demonstrated good linearity over the range of 10-2,000 ng/mL for OXC and 5-1,000 ng/mL for MHD. The lower limit of quantification was 5 ng/mL for OXC and 2.5 ng/mL for MHD, respectively. The method was successfully applied to the evaluation of the pharmacokinetics of OXC and MHD in rats, with or without pretreatment by ketoconazole (KET) and voriconazole (VOR). Statistics indicated that KET and VOR significantly affected the disposition of OXC and MHD in vivo, whereas VOR predominantly interfered with the disposition of MHD. This method is suitable for pharmacokinetic study in small animals. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Numerical simulations of resistive magnetohydrodynamic instabilities in a poloidal divertor tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uchimoto, E.
1988-03-01
A new 3-D resistive MHD initial value code RPD has been successfully developed from scratch to study the linear and nonlinear evolution of long wavelength resistive MHD instabilities in a square cross-section tokamak with or without a poloidal divertor. The code numerically advances the full set of compressible resistive MHD equations in a toroidal geometry, with an important option of permitting the divertor separatrix and the region outside it to be in the computational domain. A severe temporal step size restriction for numerical stability imposed by the fast compressional waves was removed by developing and implementing a new, efficient semi-implicit scheme extending one first proposed by Harned and Kerner. As a result, the code typically runs faster than that with a mostly explicit scheme by a factor of about the aspect ratio. The equilibrium input for RPD is generated by a new 2-D code EQPD that is based on the Chodura-Schluter method. The RPD code, as well as the new semi-implicit scheme, has passed very extensive numerical tests in both divertor and divertorless geometries. Linear and nonlinear simulations in a divertorless geometry have reproduced the standard, previously known results. In a geometry with a four-node divertor the m = 2,n = 1 (2/1) tearing mode tends to be linearly stabilized as the q = 2 surface approaches the divertor separatrix. However, the m = 1,n = 1 (1/1) resistive kink mode remains relatively unaffected by the nearness of the q = 1 surface to the divertor separatrix. When plasma current is added to the region outside the divertor separatrix, the 2/1 tearing mode is linearly stabilized not by this current, but by the profile modifications induced near the q = 2 surface and the divertor separatrix. A similar stabilization effect is seen for the 1/1 resistive kink mode, but to a lesser extent. 77 refs., 91 figs
Rare-earth hafnium oxide materials for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator application
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marchant, D. D; Bates, J. L.
1979-01-01
Several ceramic materials based on rare-earth hafnium oxides have been identified as potential high-temperature electrodes and low-temperature current leadouts for open cycle coal-fired MHD generator channels. The electrode-current leadouts combination must operate at temperatures between 400 and 2000K with an electrical conductivity greater than 10/sup -2/ ohm/sup -1/ cm/sup -1/. The electrodes will be exposed to flowing (linear flow rates up to 100 m/s) potassium seeded coal combustion gases (plasma core temperatures between 2400 to 3200/sup 0/K) and coal slag. During operation the electrodes must conduct direct electric current at densities near 1.5 amp/cm/sup 2/. Consequently, the electrodes must be resistant to electrochemical decompositions and interactions with both the coal slag and potassium salts (e.g., K/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/). The current leadout materials are placed between the hot electrodes and the water-cooled copper structural members and must have electrical conductivities greater than 10/sup -2/ ohm/sup -1/ cm/sup -1/ between 1400 and 400/sup 0/K. The current leadouts must be thermally and electrochemically compatible with the electrode, copper, and potassium salts. Ideally, the electrodes and current leadouts should exhibit minimal ionic conductivity. The fabrication, electrical conductivity, and electrochemical corrosion of rare-earth hafnium oxide materials are discussed. (WHK)
Nonequilibrium fluctuations in micro-MHD effects on electrodeposition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aogaki, Ryoichi; Morimoto, Ryoichi; Asanuma, Miki
2010-01-01
In copper electrodeposition under a magnetic field parallel to electrode surface, different roles of two kinds of nonequilibrium fluctuations for micro-magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects are discussed; symmetrical fluctuations are accompanied by the suppression of three dimensional (3D) nucleation by micro-MHD flows (the 1st micro-MHD effect), whereas asymmetrical fluctuations controlling 2D nucleation yield secondary nodules by larger micro-MHD flows (the 2nd micro-MHD effect). Though the 3D nucleation with symmetrical fluctuations is always suppressed by the micro-MHD flows, due to the change in the rate-determining step from electron transfer to mass transfer, the 2D nucleation with asymmetrical fluctuations newly turns unstable, generating larger micro-MHD flows. As a result, round semi-spherical deposits, i.e., secondary nodules are yielded. Using computer simulation, the mechanism of the 2nd micro-MHD effect is validated.
Stabilizing effect of resistivity towards ELM-free H-mode discharge in lithium-conditioned NSTX
Banerjee, Debabrata; Zhu, Ping; Maingi, Rajesh
2017-07-01
Linear stability analysis of the national spherical torus experiment (NSTX) Li-conditioned ELM-free H-mode equilibria is carried out in the context of the extended magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) model in NIMROD. The purpose is to investigate the physical cause behind edge localized mode (ELM) suppression in experiment after the Li-coating of the divertor and the first wall of the NSTX tokamak. Besides ideal MHD modeling, including finite-Larmor radius effect and two-fluid Hall and electron diamagnetic drift contributions, a non-ideal resistivity model is employed, taking into account the increase of Z eff after Li-conditioning in ELM-free H-mode. Unlike an earlier conclusion from an eigenvalue code analysis of these equilibria, NIMROD results find that after reduced recycling from divertor plates, profile modification is necessary but insufficient to explain the mechanism behind complete ELMs suppression in ideal two-fluid MHD. After considering the higher plasma resistivity due to higher Z eff, the complete stabilization could be explained. A thorough analysis of both pre-lithium ELMy and with-lithium ELM-free cases using ideal and non-ideal MHD models is presented, after accurately including a vacuum-like cold halo region in NIMROD to investigate ELMs.
Method of operating a MHD power plant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wysk, S.R.
1982-01-01
A fossil fuel is burned substoichiometrically in the combustor of a mhd power plant to produce a high temperature, fuelrich product gas. The product gas is passed through a mhd channel to generate electricity. A reducing agent, preferably natural gas or hydrocarbon, is injected into the fuelrich product gas leaving the mhd generator; and the resulting mixture is held at a temperature in the range of 950 to 1500 0 C for about 1 second to permit the reducing agent to decompose a portion of the nitrogen oxides formed in the combustor. The fuel-rich product gas then passes thru an afterburner wherein combustion is completed and any excess reducing agent is consumed
Numerical study of MHD supersonic flow control
Ryakhovskiy, A. I.; Schmidt, A. A.
2017-11-01
Supersonic MHD flow around a blunted body with a constant external magnetic field has been simulated for a number of geometries as well as a range of the flow parameters. Solvers based on Balbas-Tadmor MHD schemes and HLLC-Roe Godunov-type method have been developed within the OpenFOAM framework. The stability of the solution varies depending on the intensity of magnetic interaction The obtained solutions show the potential of MHD flow control and provide insights into for the development of the flow control system. The analysis of the results proves the applicability of numerical schemes, that are being used in the solvers. A number of ways to improve both the mathematical model of the process and the developed solvers are proposed.
Investigations of MHD activity in ASDEX discharges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stambaugh, R.; Gernhardt, J.; Klueber, O.; Wagner, F.
1984-06-01
This report makes a strong attempt to relate some specific observations of MHD activity in ADEX discharges to observations made on the Doublet III and PDX tokamaks and to theoretical work on high β MHD modes at GA and PPPL. Three topics are discussed. The first topic is the detailed analysis of the time history of MHD activity in a β discharge. The β limit discharge in ASDEX is identified as a discharge in which, during constant neutral beam power, β reaches a maximum and then decreases, often to a lower steady level if the heating pulse is long enough. During the L phase of this discharge, the MHD activity observed in the B coils is both a continuous and bursting coupled m >= 1 mode of the 'fishbone' type. When β is rising in the H phase, this mode disappears; only ELMs are present. At βsub(max), a different mode appears, the m=2, n=1 tearing mode, which grows rapidly as β decreases. The second topic is the very new observation of the fishbone-like mode in a discharge heated by combined neutral beam and ion cyclotron heating power. The mode characteristics are modulated by sawtooth oscillations in a manner consistent with the importance of q(0) in the stability of this mode. The third topic is the search for ELM precursors in discharges designed to have no other competing and complicating MHD activity. In these cases nonaxisymmetric precursors to the Hsub(α) spike were observed. Hence, it appears that an MHD mode, rather than an energy balance problem, must be the origin of the ELM. (orig./GG)
MHD deceleration of fusion reaction products
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chow, S.; Bohachevsky, I.O.
1979-04-01
The feasibility of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) deceleration of fuel pellet debris ions exiting from an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor cavity is investigated using one-dimensional flow equations. For engineering reasons, induction-type devices are emphasized; their performance characteristics are similar to those of electrode-type decelerators. Results of the analysis presented in this report indicate that MHD decelerators can be designed within conventional magnet technology to not only decelerate the high-energy fusion pellet debris ions but also to produce some net electric power in the process
Safety and reliability in superconducting MHD magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laverick, C.; Powell, J.; Hsieh, S.; Reich, M.; Botts, T.; Prodell, A.
1979-07-01
This compilation adapts studies on safety and reliability in fusion magnets to similar problems in superconducting MHD magnets. MHD base load magnet requirements have been identified from recent Francis Bitter National Laboratory reports and that of other contracts. Information relevant to this subject in recent base load magnet design reports for AVCO - Everett Research Laboratories and Magnetic Corporation of America is included together with some viewpoints from a BNL workshop on structural analysis needed for superconducting coils in magnetic fusion energy. A summary of design codes used in large bubble chamber magnet design is also included
Compact torus theory: MHD equilibrium and stability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barnes, D.C.; Seyler, C.E.; Anderson, D.V.
1979-01-01
Field reversed theta pinches have demonstrated the production and confinement of compact toroidal configurations with surprisingly good MHD stability. In these observations, the plasma is either lost by diffusion or by the loss of the applied field or is disrupted by an n = 2 (where n is the toroidal mode number) rotating instability only after 30 to 100 MHD times, when the configuration begins to rotate rigidly above a critical speed. These experiments have led one to investigate the equilibrium, stability, and rotation of a very elongated, toroidally axisymmetric configuration with no toroidal field. Many of the above observations are explained by recent results of these investigations which are summarized
Free-boundary perturbed MHD equilibria
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nührenberg, C
2012-01-01
The concept of perturbed ideal MHD equilibria [Boozer A H and Nuhrenberg C 2006 Phys. Plasmas 13 102501] is employed to study the influence of external error-fields and of small plasma-pressure changes on toroidal plasma equilibria. In tokamak and stellarator free-boundary calculations, benchmarks were successful of the perturbed-equilibrium version of the CAS3D stability code [Nührenberg C et al. 2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 102 235001] with the ideal MHD equilibrium code NEMEC [Hirshman S P et al. 1986 Comput. Phys. Commun. 43 143].
MHD power station with coal gasification
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brzozowski, W.S.; Dul, J.; Pudlik, W.
1976-01-01
A description is given of the proposed operating method of a MHD-power station including a complete coal gasification into lean gas with a simultaneous partial gas production for the use of outside consumers. A comparison with coal gasification methods actually being used and full capabilities of power stations heated with coal-derived gas shows distinct advantages resulting from applying the method of coal gasification with waste heat from MHD generators working within the boundaries of the thermal-electric power station. (author)
MHD equilibrium of heliotron J plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Yuji; Kondo, Katsumi; Nakajima, Noriyoshi; Hayashi, Takaya
2004-01-01
MHD equilibria of Heliotron J plasma are investigated by using HINT code. By assuming some profiles of the current density, effects of the net toroidal currents on the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equilibrium are investigated. If the rotational transform can be controlled by the currents, the generation of good flux surfaces is expected. In order to study equilibria with self-consistent bootstrap current, the boozer coordinates are constructed by converged HINT equilibrium as a preliminary study. Obtained spectra are compared with ones of VMEC code and both results are consistent. (author)
PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE AND BODY COMPOSITION IN MAINTENANCE HEMODIALYSIS (MHD PATIENTS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M Zhang
2012-06-01
Conclusions: These findings indicate that adult MHD pts had a higher % body fat. Measures of physical performance were markedly reduced in MHD pts as compared to Normals. Physical performance in MHD, measured especially by 6-MW, correlated negatively with some measures of body composition, particularly with LBMI.
Closed cycle MHD specialist meeting. Progress report, 1971--1972
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rietjens, L.H.
1972-04-01
Abstracts of the conference papers on closed cycle MHD research are presented. The general areas of discussion are the following: results on closed cycle experiments; plasma properties, and instabilities and stabilization in nonequilibrium plasmas; loss mechanisms, current distributions, electrode effects, boundary layers, and gas dynamic effects; and design concepts of large MHD generators, and nuclear MHD power plants. (GRA)
Buttery, Richard
2011-08-01
This annual workshop on MHD Stability Control has been held since 1996 with a focus on understanding and developing control of MHD instabilities for future fusion reactors. The workshop generally covers a wide range of stability topics: from disruptions, to tearing modes, error fields, ELMs, resistive wall modes (RWMs) and ideal MHD. It spans many device types, particularly tokamaks, stellarators and reversed field pinches, to pull out commonalities in the physics and improve understanding. In 2010 the workshop was held on 15-17 November at the University of Wisconsin in Madison and was combined with the annual US-Japan MHD Workshop. The theme was `3D Magnetic Field Effects in MHD Control', with a focus on multidisciplinary sessions exploring issues of plasma response to 3D fields, the manifestation of such fields in the plasma, and how they influence stability. This has been a topic of renewed interest, with utilisation of 3D fields for ELM control now planned in ITER, and a focus on the application of such fields for error field correction, disruption avoidance, and RWM control. Key issues included the physics of the interaction, types of coils and harmonic spectra needed to control instabilities, and subsidiary effects such as braking (or rotating) the plasma. More generally, a wider range of issues were discussed including RWM physics, tearing mode physics, disruption mitigation, ballooning stability, the snowflake divertor concept, and the line tied pinch! A novel innovation to the meeting was a panel discussion session, this year on Neoclassical Toroidal Viscosity, which ran well; more will be tried next year. In this special section of Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion we present several of the invited and contributed papers from the 2010 workshop, which have been subject to the normal refereeing procedures of the journal. These papers give a sense of the exceptional quality of the presentations at this workshop, all of which may be found at http://fusion.gat.com/conferences/mhd
3D simulation studies of tokamak plasmas using MHD and extended-MHD models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, W.; Chang, Z.; Fredrickson, E.; Fu, G.Y.; Pomphrey, N.; Sugiyama, L.E.
1997-01-01
The M3D (Multi-level 3D) tokamak simulation project aims at the simulation of tokamak plasmas using a multi-level tokamak code package. Several current applications using MHD and Extended-MHD models are presented; high-β disruption studies in reversed shear plasmas using the MHD level MH3D code, ω *i stabilization and nonlinear island rotation studies using the two-fluid level MH3D-T code, studies of nonlinear saturation of TAE modes using the hybrid particle/MHD level MH3D-K code, and unstructured mesh MH3D ++ code studies. In particular, three internal mode disruption mechanisms are identified from simulation results which agree well with experimental data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sifeu Takougang Kingni
2017-01-01
Full Text Available A linear resistive-capacitive-inductance shunted junction (LRCLSJ model obtained by replacing the nonlinear piecewise resistance of a nonlinear resistive-capacitive-inductance shunted junction (NRCLSJ model by a linear resistance is analyzed in this paper. The LRCLSJ model has two or no equilibrium points depending on the dc bias current. For a suitable choice of the parameters, the LRCLSJ model without equilibrium point can exhibit regular and fast spiking, intrinsic and periodic bursting, and periodic and chaotic behaviors. We show that the LRCLSJ model displays similar dynamical behaviors as the NRCLSJ model. Moreover the coexistence between periodic and chaotic attractors is found in the LRCLSJ model for specific parameters. The lowest order of the commensurate form of the no equilibrium LRCLSJ model to exhibit chaotic behavior is found to be 2.934. Moreover, adaptive finite-time synchronization with parameter estimation is applied to achieve synchronization of unidirectional coupled identical fractional-order form of chaotic no equilibrium LRCLSJ models. Finally, a cryptographic encryption scheme with the help of the finite-time synchronization of fractional-order chaotic no equilibrium LRCLSJ models is illustrated through a numerical example, showing that a high level security device can be produced using this system.
MHD equilibrium and stability in heliotron plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ichiguchi, Katsuji [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)
1999-09-01
Recent topics in the theoretical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) analysis in the heliotron configuration are overviewed. Particularly, properties of three-dimensional equilibria, stability boundary of the interchange mode, effects of the net toroidal current including the bootstrap current and the ballooning mode stability are focused. (author)
MHD stability of vertically asymmetric tokamak equilibria
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dalhed, H.E.; Grimm, R.C.; Johnson, J.L.
1981-03-01
The ideal MHD stability properties of a special class of vertically asymmetric tokamak equilibria are examined. The calculations confirm that no major new physical effects are introduced and the modifications can be understood by conventional arguments. The results indicate that significant departures from up-down symmetry can be tolerated before the reduction in β becomes important for reactor operation
Principal characteristics of SFC type MHD generator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kayukawa, Naoyuki; Oikawa, Shun-ichi; Aoki, Yoshiaki; Seidou, Tadashi; Okinaka, Noriyuki
1988-01-01
This paper describes the experimental and analytical results obtained for an MHD channel with a two dimensionally shaped magnetic field configuration called 'the SFC-type'. The power generating performance was examined under various load conditions and B-field intensities with a 2 MWt shock tunnel MHD facility. It is demonstrated that the power output performance and the enthalpy extraction scaling law of the conventional uniform B-field MHD generator (UFC-type) were significantly improved by the SFC-design of the spatial distribution of the magnetic field. The arcing processes were also examined by a high speed camera and the post-test observation of arc spot traces on electrodes. Further, the characteristic frequencies of each of the so-called micro and constricted arcs were clarified by spectral analyses. The critical current densities, which define the transient conditions of each from the diffuse-to micro arc, and from the micro-to constricted arc modes could be clearly obtained by the present spectral analysis method. We also investigated the three-dimensional behavior under strong magnetic field based on the coupled electrical and hydrodynamical equations for both of the middle scale SFC-and UFC-type generators. Finally, it is concluded from the above mentioned various aspects that the shaped 2-D magnetic field design will offer a most useful means for the realization of a compact, high efficiency and a long duration open-cycle MHD generator. (author)
MHD Ballooning Instability in the Plasma Sheet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng, C.Z.; Zaharia, S.
2003-01-01
Based on the ideal-MHD model the stability of ballooning modes is investigated by employing realistic 3D magnetospheric equilibria, in particular for the substorm growth phase. Previous MHD ballooning stability calculations making use of approximations on the plasma compressibility can give rise to erroneous conclusions. Our results show that without making approximations on the plasma compressibility the MHD ballooning modes are unstable for the entire plasma sheet where beta (sub)eq is greater than or equal to 1, and the most unstable modes are located in the strong cross-tail current sheet region in the near-Earth plasma sheet, which maps to the initial brightening location of the breakup arc in the ionosphere. However, the MHD beq threshold is too low in comparison with observations by AMPTE/CCE at X = -(8 - 9)R(sub)E, which show that a low-frequency instability is excited only when beq increases over 50. The difficulty is mitigated by considering the kinetic effects of ion gyrorad ii and trapped electron dynamics, which can greatly increase the stabilizing effects of field line tension and thus enhance the beta(sub)eq threshold [Cheng and Lui, 1998]. The consequence is to reduce the equatorial region of the unstable ballooning modes to the strong cross-tail current sheet region where the free energy associated with the plasma pressure gradient and magnetic field curvature is maximum
MHD simulations of coronal dark downflows considering thermal conduction
Zurbriggen, E.; Costa, A.; Esquivel, A.; Schneiter, M.; Cécere, M.
2017-10-01
While several scenarios have been proposed to explain supra-arcade downflows (SADs) observed descending through turbulent hot regions, none of them have systematically addressed the consideration of thermal conduction. The SADs are known to be voided cavities. Our model assumes that SADs are triggered by bursty localized reconnection events that produce non-linear waves generating the voided cavity. These subdense cavities are sustained in time because they are hotter than their surrounding medium. Due to the low density and large temperature values of the plasma we expect the thermal conduction to be an important process. Our main aim here is to study if it is possible to generate SADs in the framework of our model considering thermal conduction. We carry on 2D MHD simulations including anisotropic thermal conduction, and find that if the magnetic lines envelope the cavities, they can be isolated from the hot environment and be identified as SADs.
MHD stability analysis using higher order spline functions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ida, Akihiro [Department of Energy Engineering and Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Todoroki, Jiro; Sanuki, Heiji
1999-04-01
The eigenvalue problem of the linearized magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equation is formulated by using higher order spline functions as the base functions of Ritz-Galerkin approximation. When the displacement vector normal to the magnetic surface (in the magnetic surface) is interpolated by B-spline functions of degree p{sub 1} (degree p{sub 2}), which is continuously c{sub 1}-th (c{sub 2}-th) differentiable on neighboring finite elements, the sufficient conditions for the good approximation is given by p{sub 1}{>=}p{sub 2}+1, c{sub 1}{<=}c{sub 2}+1, (c{sub 1}{>=}1, p{sub 2}{>=}c{sub 2}{>=}0). The influence of the numerical integration upon the convergence of calculated eigenvalues is discussed. (author)
Some rigorous results concerning spectral theory for ideal MHD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laurence, P.
1986-01-01
Spectral theory for linear ideal MHD is laid on a firm foundation by defining appropriate function spaces for the operators associated with both the first- and second-order (in time and space) partial differential operators. Thus, it is rigorously established that a self-adjoint extension of F(xi) exists. It is shown that the operator L associated with the first-order formulation satisfies the conditions of the Hille--Yosida theorem. A foundation is laid thereby within which the domains associated with the first- and second-order formulations can be compared. This allows future work in a rigorous setting that will clarify the differences (in the two formulations) between the structure of the generalized eigenspaces corresponding to the marginal point of the spectrum ω = 0
Some rigorous results concerning spectral theory for ideal MHD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laurence, P.
1985-05-01
Spectral theory for linear ideal MHD is laid on a firm foundation by defining appropriate function spaces for the operators associated with both the first and second order (in time and space) partial differential operators. Thus, it is rigorously established that a self-adjoint extension of F(xi) exists. It is shown that the operator L associated with the first order formulation satisfies the conditions of the Hille-Yosida theorem. A foundation is laid thereby within which the domains associated with the first and second order formulations can be compared. This allows future work in a rigorous setting that will clarify the differences (in the two formulations) between the structure of the generalized eigenspaces corresponding to the marginal point of the spectrum ω = 0
Tearing mode dynamics and sawtooth oscillation in Hall-MHD
Ma, Zhiwei; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Sheng
2017-10-01
Tearing mode instability is one of the most important dynamic processes in space and laboratory plasmas. Hall effects, resulted from the decoupling of electron and ion motions, could cause the fast development and perturbation structure rotation of the tearing mode and become non-negligible. We independently developed high accuracy nonlinear MHD code (CLT) to study Hall effects on the dynamic evolution of tearing modes with Tokamak geometries. It is found that the rotation frequency of the mode in the electron diamagnetic direction is in a good agreement with analytical prediction. The linear growth rate increases with increase of the ion inertial length, which is contradictory to analytical solution in the slab geometry. We further find that the self-consistently generated rotation largely alters the dynamic behavior of the double tearing mode and the sawtooth oscillation. National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China under Grant No. 2013GB104004 and 2013GB111004.
MHD-Vlasov simulation of the toroidal Alfven eigenmode
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Todo, Y.; Sato, T.; Watanabe, K.; Watanabe, T.H.; Horiuchi, R.
1994-11-01
A new simulation method has been developed to investigate the excitation and saturation processes of toroidal Alfven eigenmodes (TAE modes). The background plasma is described by a full-MHD fluid model, while the kinetic evolution of energetic alpha particles is followed by the drift kinetic equation. The magnetic fluctuation of n = 2 mode develops and saturates at the level of 1.8x10 -3 of the equilibrium field when the initial beta of alpha particles is 2% at the magnetic axis. After saturation, the TAE mode amplitude shows an oscillatory behavior with a frequency corresponding to the bounce frequency of the alpha particles trapped by the TEA mode. The decrease of the power transfer rate from the alpha particles to the TAE mode, which is due to the trapped particle effect of a finite-amplitude wave, causes the saturation. From the linear growth rate the saturation level can be estimated. (author)
MHD equilibrium of toroidal fusion plasma with stationary flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galkowski, A.
1994-01-01
Non-linear ideal MHD equilibria in axisymmetric system with flows are examined, both in 1st and 2nd ellipticity regions. Evidence of the bifurcation of solutions is provided and numerical solutions of several problems in a tokamak geometry are given, exhibiting bifurcation phenomena. Relaxation of plasma in the presence of zero-order flows is studied in a realistic toroidal geometry. The field aligned flow allows equilibria with finite pressure gradient but with homogeneous temperature distribution. Numerical calculations have been performed for the 1st and 2nd ellipticity regimes of the extended Grad-Shafranov-Schlueter equation. Numerical technique, alternative to the well-known Grad's ADM methods has been proposed to deal with slow adiabatic evolution of toroidal plasma with flows. The equilibrium problem with prescribed adiabatic constraints may be solved by simultaneous calculations of flux surface geometry and original profile functions. (author). 178 refs, 37 figs, 5 tabs
Resolving the effects of toroidal and poloidal coupling on resistive modes in Heliotron E and LHD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McMillan, B.F.; Dewar, R.L.; Storer, R.G.
2003-01-01
In general, stellarators are less subject than axisymmetric configurations to the most dangerous of instabilities, which lead to disruption of the plasma. For example, the LHD experiment has been shown to be remarkably stable to large scale instabilities, even where analysis suggests the presence of (unstable) ballooning modes. This may not be the case for configurations which contain large parallel currents, where possible kink and tearing modes might lead to unfavourable confinement or even disruptions. These effects can only be approximately modelled while averaging over poloidal and/or toroidal angles, so a complete study would include both a full 3D resistive linear stability analysis and a determination of the non-linear behaviour of the plasma. We have developed a linear, fully 3D resistive MHD code, Spector3D, to examine the stable and unstable wavemodes in a plasma. As verification of the applicability and correctness of the code, we have checked our results against resistive codes of lower dimensionality, and we present here a comparsion with published ideal MHD results for LHD and Heliotron E. As an application of the code, we then determine the stability of current-carrying Heliotron E plasmas against resistive tearing modes under the variation of plasma current and pressure. (orig.)
On MHD waves, fire-hose and mirror instabilities in anisotropic plasmas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L.-N. Hau
2007-09-01
Full Text Available Temperature or pressure anisotropies are characteristic of space plasmas, standard magnetohydrodynamic (MHD model for describing large-scale plasma phenomena however usually assumes isotropic pressure. In this paper we examine the characteristics of MHD waves, fire-hose and mirror instabilities in anisotropic homogeneous magnetized plasmas. The model equations are a set of gyrotropic MHD equations closed by the generalized Chew-Goldberger-Low (CGL laws with two polytropic exponents representing various thermodynamic conditions. Both ions and electrons are allowed to have separate plasma beta, pressure anisotropy and energy equations. The properties of linear MHD waves and instability criteria are examined and numerical examples for the nonlinear evolutions of slow waves, fire-hose and mirror instabilities are shown. One significant result is that slow waves may develop not only mirror instability but also a new type of compressible fire-hose instability. Their corresponding nonlinear structures thus may exhibit anticorrelated density and magnetic field perturbations, a property used for identifying slow and mirror mode structures in the space plasma environment. The conditions for nonlinear saturation of both fire-hose and mirror instabilities are examined.
Boundary effects on the MHD dynamo in laboratory plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ho, Y.L.; Prager, S.C.
1989-07-01
In recent laboratory experiments, a dynamo-like mechanism has been demonstrated in which a portion of the axisymmetric component of the magnetic field is believed to be sustained by 3D spatial fluctuations in the field and flow. With a conducting shell at the plasma surface, past MHD computation shows that sustainment arises from fluctuations which cause magnetic reconnection. If the conducting wall is retracted from the plasma surface, the fluctuations are amplified and the dynamo sustainment is still active for the times studied, but an increased energy input to the plasma is required through the applied electric field. The retraction of the conducting wall enhances the helicity dissipation rate by the intersection of the fields with the resistive surface which bounds the plasma. This enhanced helicity dissipation is balanced by the helicity injection that accompanies the increased applied electric field. 17 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab
MHD flow layer formation at boundaries of magnetic islands in tokamak plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jiaqi Dong; Yongxing Long; Zongze Mou; Jinhua Zhang
2005-01-01
Non-linear development of double tearing modes induced by electron viscosity is numerically simulated. MHD flow layers are demonstrated to merge in the development of the modes. The sheared flows are shown to lie just at the boundaries of the magnetic islands, and to have sufficient levels required for internal transport barrier (ITB) formation. Possible correlation between the layer formation and triggering of experimentally observed ITBs, preferentially formed in proximities of rational flux surfaces of low safety factors, is discussed. (author)
Insulating wall materials for MHD electric power generating channels, 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakamura, Kazuo; Okubo, Tsutomu; Maeda, Minoru
1984-01-01
The various kinds of ceramic specimens were soaked in molten K 2 SO 4 at 1300 0 C for 300 hrs, the changes in porosity, volume and weight before and after the tests (hereafter, referred as the amount of change) were measured and the corrosion resistance was examined from the calculated corrosion velocity. 1) MgO and MgO-Al 2 O 3 System. Reaction products were not found, the amount of change was small, and the electrical resistivity and corrosion resistance were good. 2) MgO-BN, ZrO 2 -BN and MgO-SrZrO 3 -BN System. Of all these systems, BN in the specimens disappeared, and it turned into B 2 O 3 or other boron compounds. This reaction caused the cracking and collapse of the specimens. 3) MgO-Si 3 N 4 and MgAl 2 O 4 -Si 3 N 4 System. The specimens were attacked by molten K 2 SO 4 , resulting in the large amount of change, and the reaction layer was formed on the surface. 4) Al 2 O 3 -AlN-Si 3 N 4 System. Although the specimens were attacked by molten K 2 SO 4 , the dense specimens with about 40 mol % Si 3 N 4 showed a very small amount of change, and the deterioration of electrical resistivity was small. The durability of MHD power generating operation might be improved by further controlling the production process and composition. (author)
Non-linear numerical studies of the tearing mode
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schnack, D.D. Jr.
1978-01-01
A non-linear, time dependent, hydromagnetic model is developed and applied to the tearing mode, one of a class of instabilities which can occur in a magnetically confined plasma when the constraint of infinite conductivity is relaxed. The model is based on the eight partial differential equations of resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). The equations are expressed as a set of conservation laws which conserves magnetic flux, momentum, mass, and total energy. These equations are then written in general, orthogonal, curvilinear coordinates in two space dimensions, so that the model can readily be applied to a variety of geometries. No assumption about the ordering of terms is made. The resulting equations are then solved by the method of finite differences on an Eulerian mesh. The model is applied to several geometries
Effects of toroidicity on resistive tearing modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Izzo, R.; Monticello, D.A.; Manickam, J.; Strauss, H.R.; Grimm, R.; McGuire, K.
1983-03-01
A reduced set of resistive MHD equations is solved numerically in three dimensions to study the stability of tokamak plasmas. Toroidal effects are included self-consistently to leading and next order in inverse aspect ratio, epsilon. The equations satisfy an energy integral. In addition, the momentum equation yields the Grad-Shafranov equation correct to all orders in epsilon. Low beta plasma are studied using several different q-profiles. In all cases, the linear growth rates are reduced by finite toroidicity. Excellent agreement with resistive PEST is obtianed. In some cases, toroidal effects lead to complete stabilization of the mode. Nonlinear results show smaller saturated island widths for finite aspect ratio compared to the cylindrical limit. If the current channel is wide enough so as to produce steep gradients towards the outside of the plasma, both the finite aspect ratio cases and cylindrical cases disrupt
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Edery, D.; Pellat, R.; Soule, J.L.
1981-01-01
The resistive MHD equations have been handled in toroidal geometry following the tokamak ordering, in order to obtain a simplified set of non-linear equations. This system of equations is compact, closed, consistent and exact to the first two orders in the expansion in the inverse aspect ratio. Studies of the non-linear evolution of tearing modes in the real geometry of tokamak discharges are now in progress, and quite significant results have been obtained from the numerical code REVE of Fontenay based on our above model. From the analytical results, strong linear coupling between neighbouring modes is expected as is demonstrated by the numerical results in the linear, and non-linear regimes. Moreover, coupling exhibits a stochastic structure of the magnetic field lines, the threshold of which is seen to be easily computed by a simple analytical criterion. (orig.)
Multi-bunch effect of resistive wall in the Beam Delivery System of the Compact Linear Collider
Mutzner, R; Rumolo, G; Tomas, R; Pieloni, T
2010-01-01
Wake fields in the CLIC Beam Delivery System (BDS) can cause severe single or multi-bunch effects leading to luminosity loss. The main contributors in the BDS are geometric and resistive wall wake fields of the collimators and resistive wall wakes of the beam pipe. The present work focuses only on the multi-bunch effects from resistive wall. Using particle tracking with wake fields through the BDS, we have established the aperture radius, above which the effect of the wake fields becomes negligible. Our simulations were later extended to include a realistic aperture model along the BDS as well as the collimators. The two cases of 3 TeV and 500 GeV have been examined.
Multi-Bunch effect of resistive wall in the beam delivery system of the Compact Linear Collider
Mutzner, Raphael; Pieloni, Tatiana; Rivkin, Leonid
2010-01-01
Wake fields in the CLIC Beam Delivery System (BDS) can cause severe single or multi-bunch effects leading to luminosity loss. The main contributors in the BDS are geometric and resistive wall wake fields of the collimators and resistive wall wakes of the beam pipe. The present master thesis focuses only on the multi-bunch effects from resistive wall. Using particle tracking with wake fields through the BDS, we have established the aperture radius, above which the effect of the wake fields becomes negligible. Simulations were later extended to include a realistic aperture model along the BDS as well as the collimators. We examine the two cases of 3 TeV and 500 GeV in this work, for stainless steel and copper pipes.
Energy storage and dissipation in the magnetotail during substorms. 2. MHD simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Steinolfson, R.S.; Winglee, R.M.
1993-01-01
The authors present a global MHD simulation of the magnetotail in an effort to study magnetic storm development. They address the question of energy storage in the current sheet in the early phases of storm growth, which previous simulations have not shown. They address this problem by dealing with the variation of the resistivity throughout the magnetosphere. They argue that MHD theory should provide a suitable representation to this problem on a global scale, even if it does not handle all details adequately. For their simulation they use three different forms for the resistivity. First is a uniform and constant resistivity. Second is a resistivity proportional to the current density, which is related to argument that resistivity is driven by wave-particle interactions which should be strongest in regions where the current is the greatest. Thirdly is a model where the resistivity varies with the magnetic field strength, which was suggested by previous results from particle simulations of the same problem. The simulation then gives approximately the same response of the magnetosphere for all three of the models. Each results in the formation and ejection of plasmoids, but the energy stored in the magnetotail, the timing of substorm onset in relation to the appearance of a southward interplanetary magnetic field, and the speed of ejection of the plasmoids formed differ with the resistivity models
The mixed linear model (MLM) is currently among the most advanced and flexible statistical modeling techniques and its use in tackling problems in plant pathology has begun surfacing in the literature. The longitudinal MLM is a multivariate extension that handles repeatedly measured data, such as r...
The North American water and wastewater community has hundreds of millions of feet of ductile iron pipe in service. Only a portion of the inventory has any form of external corrosion control. Ductile iron pipe, in certain environments, is subject to external corrosion.Linear Pola...
Resistive Magnetohydrodynamics Simulation of Fusion Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tang, X.Z.; Fu, G.Y.; Jardin, S.C.; Lowe, L.L.; Park, W.; Strauss, H.R.
2001-01-01
Although high-temperature plasmas in laboratory magnetic fusion confinements are sufficiently collisionless that formal fluid closures are difficult to attain, the resistive MHD model has proven, by comparison with experimental data, to be useful for describing the large scale dynamics of magnetized plasmas. Resistive MHD model consists of Faraday's law for the evolution of the magnetic field and Navier-Stokes equation for the plasma flow. These equations are closed by the Ohm's law and an equation of state for the plasma
Neoclassical MHD equilibria with ohmic current
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tokuda, Shinji; Takeda, Tatsuoki; Okamoto, Masao.
1989-01-01
MHD equilibria of tokamak plasmas with neoclassical current effects (neoclassical conductivity and bootstrap current) were calculated self-consistently. Neoclassical effects on JFT-2M tokamak plasmas, sustained by ohmic currents, were studied. Bootstrap currents flow little for L-mode type equilibria because of low attainable values of poloidal beta, β J . H-mode type equilibria give bootstrap currents of 30% ohmic currents for β J attained by JFT-2M and 100% for β J ≥ 1.5, both of which are sufficient to change the current profiles and the resultant MHD equilibria. Neoclassical conductivity which has roughly half value of the classical Spitzer conductivity brings peaked ohmic current profiles to yield low safety factor at the magnetic axis. Neoclassical conductivity reduces the value of effective Z(Z eff ) which is necessary to give the observed one-turn voltage but it needs impurities accumulating at the center when such peaked current profiles are not observed. (author)
Regular shock refraction in planar ideal MHD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Delmont, P; Keppens, R
2010-01-01
We study the classical problem of planar shock refraction at an oblique density discontinuity, separating two gases at rest, in planar ideal (magneto)hydrodynamics. In the hydrodynamical case, 3 signals arise and the interface becomes Richtmyer-Meshkov unstable due to vorticity deposition on the shocked contact. In the magnetohydrodynamical case, on the other hand, when the normal component of the magnetic field does not vanish, 5 signals will arise. The interface then typically remains stable, since the Rankine-Hugoniot jump conditions in ideal MHD do not allow for vorticity deposition on a contact discontinuity. We present an exact Riemann solver based solution strategy to describe the initial self similar refraction phase. Using grid-adaptive MHD simulations, we show that after reflection from the top wall, the interface remains stable.
Evolution of the MHD sheet pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matthaeus, W.H.; Montgomery, D.
1979-01-01
A magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) problem of recurrent interest for both astrophysical and laboratory plasmas is the evolution of the unstable sheet pinch, a current sheet across which a dc magnetic field reverses sign. The evolution of such a sheet pinch is followed with a spectral-method, incompressible, two-dimensional, MHD turbulence code. Spectral diagnostics are employed, as are contour plots of vector potential (magnetic field lines), electric current density, and velocity stream function (velocity streamlines). The nonlinear effect which seems most important is seen to be current filamentation: the concentration of the current density onto sets of small measure near a mgnetic X point. A great deal of turbulence is apparent in the current distribution, which, for high Reynolds numbers, requires large spatial grids (greater than or equal to (64) 2 ). 11 figures, 1 table
Impulsive relaxation process in MHD driven reconnection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kitabata, H.; Hayashi, T.; Sato, T.
1997-01-01
Compressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation is carried out in order to investigate energy relaxation process of the driven magnetic reconnection in an open finite system through a long time calculation. It is found that a very impulsive energy release occurs in an intermittent fashion through magnetic reconnection for a continuous magnetic flux injection on the boundary. We focus our attention on the detailed process in the impulsive phase, which is the reconnection rate is remarkably enhanced up. (author)
MHD simulations on an unstructured mesh
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strauss, H.R.; Park, W.; Belova, E.; Fu, G.Y.; Sugiyama, L.E.
1998-01-01
Two reasons for using an unstructured computational mesh are adaptivity, and alignment with arbitrarily shaped boundaries. Two codes which use finite element discretization on an unstructured mesh are described. FEM3D solves 2D and 3D RMHD using an adaptive grid. MH3D++, which incorporates methods of FEM3D into the MH3D generalized MHD code, can be used with shaped boundaries, which might be 3D
Hopes for commercial use of MHD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1968-01-01
Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is the study of the motion of fluids and gases in magnetic fields. After 25 years of theoretical and experimental work, it seems commercially promising for a new type of power station, where heat would be converted directly into electricity by generators without moving parts. Nuclear reactors would be well suited as the heat sources. At an Agency symposium in Warsaw in July it was felt that international cooperation is essential to develop the technique for industrial use. (author)
MHD instability studies in ISX-B
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pare, V.K.; Dunlap, J.L.; Navarro, A.P.; Burris, R.D.
1979-01-01
MHD instabilities in Ohmically and beam heated ISX-B plasmas have been studied using collimated x-ray and Mirnov loop diagnostics. The diagnostic systems will be described and the instability signals will be illustrated for a variety of discharges. The latter will include those observed in connection with low and high β operation, density clamping, pellet injection, and deliberate introduction of toroidal field ripple
Status report on the Indian MHD programme
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ambasankaran, C.
1978-03-01
MHD programme in India, which has been started recently as a collaborative effort by the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre and Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd., with the technical consultation provided by the High Temperature Institute, Moscow, is described. The basic considerations which led to the launching of this project and the details of the experimental plant for R and D work are spelt out. (K.B.)
Statistical Theory of the Ideal MHD Geodynamo
Shebalin, J. V.
2012-01-01
A statistical theory of geodynamo action is developed, using a mathematical model of the geodynamo as a rotating outer core containing an ideal (i.e., no dissipation), incompressible, turbulent, convecting magnetofluid. On the concentric inner and outer spherical bounding surfaces the normal components of the velocity, magnetic field, vorticity and electric current are zero, as is the temperature fluctuation. This allows the use of a set of Galerkin expansion functions that are common to both velocity and magnetic field, as well as vorticity, current and the temperature fluctuation. The resulting dynamical system, based on the Boussinesq form of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations, represents MHD turbulence in a spherical domain. These basic equations (minus the temperature equation) and boundary conditions have been used previously in numerical simulations of forced, decaying MHD turbulence inside a sphere [1,2]. Here, the ideal case is studied through statistical analysis and leads to a prediction that an ideal coherent structure will be found in the form of a large-scale quasistationary magnetic field that results from broken ergodicity, an effect that has been previously studied both analytically and numerically for homogeneous MHD turbulence [3,4]. The axial dipole component becomes prominent when there is a relatively large magnetic helicity (proportional to the global correlation of magnetic vector potential and magnetic field) and a stationary, nonzero cross helicity (proportional to the global correlation of velocity and magnetic field). The expected angle of the dipole moment vector with respect to the rotation axis is found to decrease to a minimum as the average cross helicity increases for a fixed value of magnetic helicity and then to increase again when average cross helicity approaches its maximum possible value. Only a relatively small value of cross helicity is needed to produce a dipole moment vector that is aligned at approx.10deg with the
The CHEASE code for toroidal MHD equilibria
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luetjens, H. [Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France). Centre de Physique Theorique; Bondeson, A. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Inst. for Electromagnetic Field Theory and Plasma Physics; Sauter, O. [ITER-San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)
1996-03-01
CHEASE solves the Grad-Shafranov equation for the MHD equilibrium of a Tokamak-like plasma with pressure and current profiles specified by analytic forms or sets of data points. Equilibria marginally stable to ballooning modes or with a prescribed fraction of bootstrap current can be computed. The code provides a mapping to magnetic flux coordinates, suitable for MHD stability calculations or global wave propagation studies. The code computes equilibrium quantities for the stability codes ERATO, MARS, PEST, NOVA-W and XTOR and for the global wave propagation codes LION and PENN. The two-dimensional MHD equilibrium (Grad-Shafranov) equation is solved in variational form. The discretization uses bicubic Hermite finite elements with continuous first order derivates for the poloidal flux function {Psi}. The nonlinearity of the problem is handled by Picard iteration. The mapping to flux coordinates is carried out with a method which conserves the accuracy of the cubic finite elements. The code uses routines from the CRAY libsci.a program library. However, all these routines are included in the CHEASE package itself. If CHEASE computes equilibrium quantities for MARS with fast Fourier transforms, the NAG library is required. CHEASE is written in standard FORTRAN-77, except for the use of the input facility NAMELIST. CHEASE uses variable names with up to 8 characters, and therefore violates the ANSI standard. CHEASE transfers plot quantities through an external disk file to a plot program named PCHEASE using the UNIRAS or the NCAR plot package. (author) figs., tabs., 34 refs.
The Statistical Mechanics of Ideal MHD Turbulence
Shebalin, John V.
2003-01-01
Turbulence is a universal, nonlinear phenomenon found in all energetic fluid and plasma motion. In particular. understanding magneto hydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence and incorporating its effects in the computation and prediction of the flow of ionized gases in space, for example, are great challenges that must be met if such computations and predictions are to be meaningful. Although a general solution to the "problem of turbulence" does not exist in closed form, numerical integrations allow us to explore the phase space of solutions for both ideal and dissipative flows. For homogeneous, incompressible turbulence, Fourier methods are appropriate, and phase space is defined by the Fourier coefficients of the physical fields. In the case of ideal MHD flows, a fairly robust statistical mechanics has been developed, in which the symmetry and ergodic properties of phase space is understood. A discussion of these properties will illuminate our principal discovery: Coherent structure and randomness co-exist in ideal MHD turbulence. For dissipative flows, as opposed to ideal flows, progress beyond the dimensional analysis of Kolmogorov has been difficult. Here, some possible future directions that draw on the ideal results will also be discussed. Our conclusion will be that while ideal turbulence is now well understood, real turbulence still presents great challenges.
Energetic particle effects on global MHD modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng, C.Z.
1990-01-01
The effects of energetic particles on MHD type modes are studied by analytical theories and the nonvariational kinetic-MHD stability code (NOVA-K). In particular we address the problems of (1) the stabilization of ideal MHD internal kink modes and the excitation of resonant ''fishbone'' internal modes and (2) the alpha particle destabilization of toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes (TAE) via transit resonances. Analytical theories are presented to help explain the NOVA-K results. For energetic trapped particles generated by neutral-beam injection (NBI) or ion cyclotron resonant heating (ICRH), a stability window for the n=1 internal kink mode in the hot particle beat space exists even in the absence of core ion finite Larmor radius effect (finite ω *i ). On the other hand, the trapped alpha particles are found to resonantly excite instability of the n=1 internal mode and can lower the critical beta threshold. The circulating alpha particles can strongly destabilize TAE modes via inverse Landau damping associated with the spatial gradient of the alpha particle pressure. 23 refs., 5 figs
Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation of solar prominence formation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bao, J.
1987-01-01
Formation of Kippenhahn-Schluter type solar prominences by chromospheric mass injection is studied via numerical simulation. The numerical model is based on a two-dimensional, time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory. In addition, an analysis of gravitational thermal MHD instabilities related to condensation is performed by using the small-perturbation method. The conclusions are: (1) Both quiescent and active-region prominences can be formed by chromospheric mass injection, provided certain optimum conditions are satisfied. (2) Quiescent prominences cannot be formed without condensation, though enough mass is supplied from chromosphere. The mass of a quiescent prominence is composed of both the mass injected from the chromosphere and the mass condensed from the corona. On the other hand, condensation is not important to active region prominence formation. (3) In addition to channeling and supporting effects, the magnetic field plays another important role, i.e. containing the prominence material. (4) In the model cases, prominences are supported by the Lorentz force, the gas-pressure gradient and the mass-injection momentum. (5) Due to gravity, more MHD condensation instability modes appear in addition to the basic condensation mode
The CHEASE code for toroidal MHD equilibria
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luetjens, H.
1996-03-01
CHEASE solves the Grad-Shafranov equation for the MHD equilibrium of a Tokamak-like plasma with pressure and current profiles specified by analytic forms or sets of data points. Equilibria marginally stable to ballooning modes or with a prescribed fraction of bootstrap current can be computed. The code provides a mapping to magnetic flux coordinates, suitable for MHD stability calculations or global wave propagation studies. The code computes equilibrium quantities for the stability codes ERATO, MARS, PEST, NOVA-W and XTOR and for the global wave propagation codes LION and PENN. The two-dimensional MHD equilibrium (Grad-Shafranov) equation is solved in variational form. The discretization uses bicubic Hermite finite elements with continuous first order derivates for the poloidal flux function Ψ. The nonlinearity of the problem is handled by Picard iteration. The mapping to flux coordinates is carried out with a method which conserves the accuracy of the cubic finite elements. The code uses routines from the CRAY libsci.a program library. However, all these routines are included in the CHEASE package itself. If CHEASE computes equilibrium quantities for MARS with fast Fourier transforms, the NAG library is required. CHEASE is written in standard FORTRAN-77, except for the use of the input facility NAMELIST. CHEASE uses variable names with up to 8 characters, and therefore violates the ANSI standard. CHEASE transfers plot quantities through an external disk file to a plot program named PCHEASE using the UNIRAS or the NCAR plot package. (author) figs., tabs., 34 refs
Kinetic-MHD simulations of gyroresonance instability driven by CR pressure anisotropy
Lebiga, O.; Santos-Lima, R.; Yan, H.
2018-05-01
The transport of cosmic rays (CRs) is crucial for the understanding of almost all high-energy phenomena. Both pre-existing large-scale magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence and locally generated turbulence through plasma instabilities are important for the CR propagation in astrophysical media. The potential role of the resonant instability triggered by CR pressure anisotropy to regulate the parallel spatial diffusion of low-energy CRs (≲100 GeV) in the interstellar and intracluster medium of galaxies has been shown in previous theoretical works. This work aims to study the gyroresonance instability via direct numerical simulations, in order to access quantitatively the wave-particle scattering rates. For this, we employ a 1D PIC-MHD code to follow the growth and saturation of the gyroresonance instability. We extract from the simulations the pitch-angle diffusion coefficient Dμμ produced by the instability during the linear and saturation phases, and a very good agreement (within a factor of 3) is found with the values predicted by the quasi-linear theory (QLT). Our results support the applicability of the QLT for modelling the scattering of low-energy CRs by the gyroresonance instability in the complex interplay between this instability and the large-scale MHD turbulence.
Stability calculations for MHD magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turner, L.R.; Wang, S.T.; Harrang, J.
1978-01-01
When a cryostable composite conductor carrying current experiences a heat input from a mechanical perturbation, a normal region develops which initially propagates and then either collapses or continues to propagate. A computer model has been devised to study this phenomenon. The model incorporates initial or continuing heat input from mechanical perturbations, heat conducted to the neighboring elements of the conductor and, if appropriate, heat conducted through insulation to neighboring turns. Heat is transferred to the helium coolant according to a specified heat transfer coefficient. If the element of conductor is in a normal or current-sharing state, resistive heating also occurs. The (unstable) equilibrium state of heat generation and conduction has been studied; results agree with those of a static calculation. The model has been validated against experimental measurements of response to heat pulses. The model suffers from uncertainties in transient heat transfer to the helium, but even more from uncertainties in the perturbing heat pulse which the magnet might be expected to suffer
Theoretical modeling of the feedback stabilization of external MHD modes of toroidal geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chance, M.S.; Chu, M.S.; Okabayashi, M.
2001-01-01
A theoretical framework for understanding the feedback mechanism against external MHD modes has been formulated. Efficient computational tools - the GATO stability code coupled with a substantially modified VACUUM code - have been developed to effectively design viable feedback systems against these modes. The analysis assumed a thin resistive shell and a feedback coil structure accurately modeled in θ, with only a single harmonic variation in φ. An optimized configuration and placement of the feedback and sensor coils as well as the time constants and induced currents in the enclosing resistive shell have been computed for the DIII-D device. Up to 90% of the effectiveness of an ideal wall can be achieved. (author)
THEORETICAL MODELING OF THE FEEDBACK STABILIZATION OF EXTERNAL MHD MODES IN TOROIDAL GEOMETRY
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
CHANCE, M.S.; CHU, M.S.; OKABAYASHI, M.; TURNBULL, A.D.
2001-02-01
OAK-B135 A theoretical framework for understanding the feedback mechanism against external MHD modes has been formulated. Efficient computational tools--the GATO stability code coupled with a substantially modified VACUUM code--have been developed to effectively design viable feedback systems against these modes. The analysis assumed a thin resistive shell and a feedback coil structure accurately modeled in θ, with only a single harmonic variation in φ. Time constants and induced currents in the enclosing resistive shell are calculated. An optimized configuration based on an idealized model have been computed for the DIII-D device. Up to 90% of the effectiveness of an ideal wall can be achieved
MHD power generation for the synthetic-fuels industry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jones, M.S. Jr.
1982-01-01
The integration of open cycle MHD with various processes for the recovery of hydrocarbons for heavy oil deposits, oil sands, and oil shales are examined along with its use in producing medium Btu gas, synthetic natural gas and solvent refined coal. The major features of the MHD cycle which are of interest are: (a) the ability to produce hydrogen through the shift reaction by introducing H 2 O into the substoichiometric combustion product flow exiting the MHD diffuser, (b) the use of high temperature waste heat in the MHD exhaust, and (c) the ability of the seed in the MHD flow to remove sulfur from the combustion products. Therefore the use of the MHD cycle allows coal to be used in an environmentally acceptable manner in place of hydrocarbons which are now used to produce process heat and hydrogen. The appropriate plant sizes are in the range of 25 to 50 MWe and the required MHD generator enthalpy extraction efficiencies are low. Sale of electricity produced, over and above that used in the process, can provide a revenue stream which can improve the economics of the hydrocarbon processing. This, coupled with the replacement of coal for hydrocarbons in certain phases of the process, should improve the overall economics, while not requiring a high level of performance by the MHD components. Therefore, this area should be an early target of opportunity for the commercialization of MHD
MHD power plants - a reality of the 80's
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pishchikov, S.
1981-01-01
A 300 MW MHD generator and a conventional turbogenerator of the same capacity will be used for the first MHD power block assembly projected in the USSR. The power plant's own consumption will not exceed 12% and the availability will be approximately 50%. Compared with a conventional power generating unit of a capacity of 500 MW the projected unit will provide fuel savings of at least 23%. The project is based on almost seven years long experience with the U-25 experimental MHD facility. Similar to the U-25, the MHD power plant projected will be fired with natural gas. (B.S.)
MHD power plants - a reality of the 80's
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pishchikov, S
1981-02-01
A 300 MW MHD generator and a conventional turbogenerator of the same capacity will be used for the first MHD power block assembly projected in the USSR. The power plant's own consumption will not exceed 12% and the availability will be approximately 50%. Compared with a conventional power generating unit of a capacity of 500 MW the projected unit will provide fuel savings of at least 23%. The project is based on almost seven years long experience with the U-25 experimental MHD facility. Similar to the U-25, the MHD power plant projected will be fired with natural gas.
FLIP-MHD: A particle-in-cell mehtod for magnetohydrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brackbill, J.U.
1990-01-01
A particle-in-cell (PIC) method, FLIP is extended to magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow in two dimensions. Particles are used to reduce computational diffusion of the magnetic field. FLIP is an extension of ''classical'' PIC, where particles have mass, but every other property of the fluid is stored on a grid. In FLIP, particles have every property of the fluid, so that they provide a complete Lagrangian description not only to resolve contact discontinuities but also to reduce computational diffusion of linear and angular momentum. The interactions among the particles are calculated on a grid, for convenience and economy. The present study extends FLIP to MHD, by including information about the magnetic field among the attributes of the particles. 6 refs
A Parametric Study of a Constant-Mach-Number MHD Generator with Nuclear Ionization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Braun, J.
1965-03-01
The influence of electrical and gas dynamical parameters on the length, of a linear constant-Mach-number MHD duct has been investigated. The gas has been assumed to be ionized by neutron irradiation in the expansion nozzle preceding the MHD duct. Inside the duct the electron recombination is assumed to be governed, by volume recombination. It is found that there exists a distinct domain from which the parameters must be chosen, pressure and Mach number being the most critical ones. If power densities in the order of magnitude 100 MW/m 3 are desired, high magnetic fields and Mach numbers in the supersonic range are needed. The influence of the variation of critical parameters on the channel length is given as a product of simple functions, each containing one parameter
The effect of compressive viscosity and thermal conduction on the longitudinal MHD waves
Bahari, K.; Shahhosaini, N.
2018-05-01
longitudinal Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) oscillations have been studied in a slowly cooling coronal loop, in the presence of thermal conduction and compressive viscosity, in the linear MHD approximation. WKB method has been used to solve the governing equations. In the leading order approximation the dispersion relation has been obtained, and using the first order approximation the time dependent amplitude has been determined. Cooling causes the oscillations to amplify and damping mechanisms are more efficient in hot loops. In cool loops the oscillation amplitude increases with time but in hot loops the oscillation amplitude decreases with time. Our conclusion is that in hot loops the efficiency of the compressive viscosity in damping longitudinal waves is comparable to that of the thermal conduction.
Application of Fourier transform to MHD flow over an accelerated plate with partial-slippage
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Salman Ahmad
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Magneto-Hydrodynamic (MHD flow over an accelerated plate is investigated with partial slip conditions. Generalized Fourier Transform is used to get the exact solution not only for uniform acceleration but also for variable acceleration. The numerical solution is obtained by using linear finite element method in space and One-Step-θ-scheme in time. The resulting discretized algebraic systems are solved by applying geometric-multigrid approach. Numerical solutions are compared with the obtained Fourier transform results. Many interesting results related with slippage and MHD effects are discussed in detail through graphical sketches and tables. Application of Dirac-Delta function is one of the main features of present work.
A method based on a separation of variables in magnetohydrodynamics (MHD)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cessenat, M.; Genta, P.
1996-01-01
We use a method based on a separation of variables for solving a system of first order partial differential equations, in a very simple modelling of MHD. The method consists in introducing three unknown variables φ1, φ2, φ3 in addition of the time variable τ and then searching a solution which is separated with respect to φ1 and τ only. This is allowed by a very simple relation, called a 'metric separation equation', which governs the type of solutions with respect to time. The families of solutions for the system of equations thus obtained, correspond to a radial evolution of the fluid. Solving the MHD equations is then reduced to find the transverse component H Σ of the magnetic field on the unit sphere Σ by solving a non linear partial differential equation on Σ. Thus we generalize ideas due to Courant-Friedrichs and to Sedov on dimensional analysis and self-similar solutions. (authors)
A Parametric Study of a Constant-Mach-Number MHD Generator with Nuclear Ionization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Braun, J
1965-03-15
The influence of electrical and gas dynamical parameters on the length, of a linear constant-Mach-number MHD duct has been investigated. The gas has been assumed to be ionized by neutron irradiation in the expansion nozzle preceding the MHD duct. Inside the duct the electron recombination is assumed to be governed, by volume recombination. It is found that there exists a distinct domain from which the parameters must be chosen, pressure and Mach number being the most critical ones. If power densities in the order of magnitude 100 MW/m{sup 3} are desired, high magnetic fields and Mach numbers in the supersonic range are needed. The influence of the variation of critical parameters on the channel length is given as a product of simple functions, each containing one parameter.
Some remarks on the time of flight and range of a projectile in a linear resisting medium
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. M. Stewart
2011-01-01
Full Text Available In view of the recent work by Karkantzakos [Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Review 2 (2009 76–81], anumber of remarks highlighting the connection between the Lambert W function and the time of flight and range of a projectilemoving in a resisting medium where the retarding force acting on the projectile is proportional to its velocity are made.In particular, we show how each of these quantities can be expressed in closed form in terms of the Lambert W function andindicate how the analysis of the motion becomes greatly simplified by its introduction.
Linear simulations of the cylindrical Richtmyer-Meshkov instability in magnetohydrodynamics
Bakhsh, Abeer; Gao, Song; Samtaney, Ravi; Wheatley, V.
2016-01-01
fusion and suppression by means of a magnetic field, we investigate the RMI via linear MHD simulations in cylindrical geometry. The physical setup is that of a Chisnell-type converging shock interacting with a density interface with either axial
Structure of reconnection boundary layers in incompressible MHD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sonnerup, B.U.Oe.; Wang, D.J.
1987-01-01
The incompressible MHD equations with nonvanishing viscosity and resistivity are simplified by use of the boundary layer approximation to describe the flow and magnetic field in the exit flow regions of magnetic field reconnection configurations when the reconnection rate is small. The conditions are derived under which self-similar solutions exist of the resulting boundary layer equations. For the case of zero viscosity and resistivity, the equations describing such self-similar layers are then solved in terms of quadratures, and the resulting flow and field configurations are described. Symmetric solutions, relevant, for example, to reconnection in the geomagnetic tail, as well as asymmetric solutions, relevant to reconnection at the earth's magnetopause, are found to exist. The nature of the external solutions to which the boundary layer solutions should be matched is discussed briefly, but the actual matching, which is to occur at Alfven-wave characteristic curves in the boundary layer solutions, is not carried out. Finally, it is argued that the solutions obtained may also be used to describe the structure of the intense vortex layers observed to occur at magnetic separatrices in computer simulations and in certain analytical models of the reconnection process
Analysis of ELM stability with extended MHD models in JET, JT-60U and future JT-60SA tokamak plasmas
Aiba, N.; Pamela, S.; Honda, M.; Urano, H.; Giroud, C.; Delabie, E.; Frassinetti, L.; Lupelli, I.; Hayashi, N.; Huijsmans, G.; JET Contributors, the; Research Unit, JT-60SA
2018-01-01
The stability with respect to a peeling-ballooning mode (PBM) was investigated numerically with extended MHD simulation codes in JET, JT-60U and future JT-60SA plasmas. The MINERVA-DI code was used to analyze the linear stability, including the effects of rotation and ion diamagnetic drift ({ω }* {{i}}), in JET-ILW and JT-60SA plasmas, and the JOREK code was used to simulate nonlinear dynamics with rotation, viscosity and resistivity in JT-60U plasmas. It was validated quantitatively that the ELM trigger condition in JET-ILW plasmas can be reasonably explained by taking into account both the rotation and {ω }* {{i}} effects in the numerical analysis. When deuterium poloidal rotation is evaluated based on neoclassical theory, an increase in the effective charge of plasma destabilizes the PBM because of an acceleration of rotation and a decrease in {ω }* {{i}}. The difference in the amount of ELM energy loss in JT-60U plasmas rotating in opposite directions was reproduced qualitatively with JOREK. By comparing the ELM affected areas with linear eigenfunctions, it was confirmed that the difference in the linear stability property, due not to the rotation direction but to the plasma density profile, is thought to be responsible for changing the ELM energy loss just after the ELM crash. A predictive study to determine the pedestal profiles in JT-60SA was performed by updating the EPED1 model to include the rotation and {ω }* {{i}} effects in the PBM stability analysis. It was shown that the plasma rotation predicted with the neoclassical toroidal viscosity degrades the pedestal performance by about 10% by destabilizing the PBM, but the pressure pedestal height will be high enough to achieve the target parameters required for the ITER-like shape inductive scenario in JT-60SA.
MHD instabilities in astrophysical plasmas: very different from MHD instabilities in tokamaks!
Goedbloed, J. P.
2018-01-01
The extensive studies of MHD instabilities in thermonuclear magnetic confinement experiments, in particular of the tokamak as the most promising candidate for a future energy producing machine, have led to an 'intuitive' description based on the energy principle that is very misleading for
Nonlinear MHD Waves in a Prominence Foot
Ofman, L.; Knizhnik, K.; Kucera, T.; Schmieder, B.
2015-11-01
We study nonlinear waves in a prominence foot using a 2.5D MHD model motivated by recent high-resolution observations with Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope in Ca ii emission of a prominence on 2012 October 10 showing highly dynamic small-scale motions in the prominence material. Observations of Hα intensities and of Doppler shifts show similar propagating fluctuations. However, the optically thick nature of the emission lines inhibits a unique quantitative interpretation in terms of density. Nevertheless, we find evidence of nonlinear wave activity in the prominence foot by examining the relative magnitude of the fluctuation intensity (δI/I ˜ δn/n). The waves are evident as significant density fluctuations that vary with height and apparently travel upward from the chromosphere into the prominence material with quasi-periodic fluctuations with a typical period in the range of 5-11 minutes and wavelengths <2000 km. Recent Doppler shift observations show the transverse displacement of the propagating waves. The magnetic field was measured with the THEMIS instrument and was found to be 5-14 G. For the typical prominence density the corresponding fast magnetosonic speed is ˜20 km s-1, in qualitative agreement with the propagation speed of the detected waves. The 2.5D MHD numerical model is constrained with the typical parameters of the prominence waves seen in observations. Our numerical results reproduce the nonlinear fast magnetosonic waves and provide strong support for the presence of these waves in the prominence foot. We also explore gravitational MHD oscillations of the heavy prominence foot material supported by dipped magnetic field structure.
MHD dynamo action in space plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faelthammar, C.G.
1984-05-01
Electric currents are now recognized to play a major role in the physical process of the Earths magnetosphere as well as in distant astrophysical plasmas. In driving these currents MHD dynamos as well as generators of a thermoelectric nature are important. The primary source of power for the Earths magnetospheric process is the solar wind, which supplies a voltage of the order of 200 kV across the magnetosphere. The direction of the large-scale solar wind electric field varies of many different time scales. The power input to the magnetosphere is closely correlated with the direction of the large-scale solar wind electric field in such a fashion as to mimick the response of a half-wave rectifier with a down-to-dusk conduction direction. Behind this apparently simple response there are complex plasma physical processes that are still very incompletely understood. They are intimately related to auroras, magnetic storms, radiation belts and changes in magnetospheric plasma populations. Similar dynamo actions should occur at other planets having magnetospheres. Recent observations seem to indicate that part of the power input to the Earths magnetosphere comes through MHD dynamo action of a forced plasma flow inside the flanks of the magnetopause and may play a role in other parts of the magnetosphere, too. An example of a cosmical MHD connected to a solid load is the corotating plasma of Jupiters inner magnetosphere, sweeping past the plants inner satelites. In particular the electric currents thereby driven to and from the satellite Io have attracted considerable interest.(author)
NONLINEAR MHD WAVES IN A PROMINENCE FOOT
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ofman, L. [Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Knizhnik, K.; Kucera, T. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Schmieder, B. [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Univ. Paris-Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cit, 5 place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon (France)
2015-11-10
We study nonlinear waves in a prominence foot using a 2.5D MHD model motivated by recent high-resolution observations with Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope in Ca ii emission of a prominence on 2012 October 10 showing highly dynamic small-scale motions in the prominence material. Observations of Hα intensities and of Doppler shifts show similar propagating fluctuations. However, the optically thick nature of the emission lines inhibits a unique quantitative interpretation in terms of density. Nevertheless, we find evidence of nonlinear wave activity in the prominence foot by examining the relative magnitude of the fluctuation intensity (δI/I ∼ δn/n). The waves are evident as significant density fluctuations that vary with height and apparently travel upward from the chromosphere into the prominence material with quasi-periodic fluctuations with a typical period in the range of 5–11 minutes and wavelengths <2000 km. Recent Doppler shift observations show the transverse displacement of the propagating waves. The magnetic field was measured with the THEMIS instrument and was found to be 5–14 G. For the typical prominence density the corresponding fast magnetosonic speed is ∼20 km s{sup −1}, in qualitative agreement with the propagation speed of the detected waves. The 2.5D MHD numerical model is constrained with the typical parameters of the prominence waves seen in observations. Our numerical results reproduce the nonlinear fast magnetosonic waves and provide strong support for the presence of these waves in the prominence foot. We also explore gravitational MHD oscillations of the heavy prominence foot material supported by dipped magnetic field structure.
Annular MHD Physics for Turbojet Energy Bypass
Schneider, Steven J.
2011-01-01
The use of annular Hall type MHD generator/accelerator ducts for turbojet energy bypass is evaluated assuming weakly ionized flows obtained from pulsed nanosecond discharges. The equations for a 1-D, axisymmetric MHD generator/accelerator are derived and numerically integrated to determine the generator/accelerator performance characteristics. The concept offers a shockless means of interacting with high speed inlet flows and potentially offers variable inlet geometry performance without the complexity of moving parts simply by varying the generator loading parameter. The cycle analysis conducted iteratively with a spike inlet and turbojet flying at M = 7 at 30 km altitude is estimated to have a positive thrust per unit mass flow of 185 N-s/kg. The turbojet allowable combustor temperature is set at an aggressive 2200 deg K. The annular MHD Hall generator/accelerator is L = 3 m in length with a B(sub r) = 5 Tesla magnetic field and a conductivity of sigma = 5 mho/m for the generator and sigma= 1.0 mho/m for the accelerator. The calculated isentropic efficiency for the generator is eta(sub sg) = 84 percent at an enthalpy extraction ratio, eta(sub Ng) = 0.63. The calculated isentropic efficiency for the accelerator is eta(sub sa) = 81 percent at an enthalpy addition ratio, eta(sub Na) = 0.62. An assessment of the ionization fraction necessary to achieve a conductivity of sigma = 1.0 mho/m is n(sub e)/n = 1.90 X 10(exp -6), and for sigma = 5.0 mho/m is n(sub e)/n = 9.52 X 10(exp -6).
MHD simulations of molybdenum X-pinches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ivanenkov, G.V.; Stepnevski, V.
2002-01-01
One investigates into compression of molybdenum X-pinches applying numerical MHD-models with parabolic and conical initial geometry. The second model describing plasma axial motion in greater detail offers a real geometry of a discharge and is applicable to loads characterized by higher masses in contrast to the first one. Both models enabled to describe all basic phases of compression including origination of a minidiode, occurrence of a narrow neck, microexplosion of a hot point and origination of shock waves followed by sausage instability [ru
MHD oxidant intermediate temperature ceramic heater study
Carlson, A. W.; Chait, I. L.; Saari, D. P.; Marksberry, C. L.
1981-09-01
The use of three types of directly fired ceramic heaters for preheating oxygen enriched air to an intermediate temperature of 1144K was investigated. The three types of ceramic heaters are: (1) a fixed bed, periodic flow ceramic brick regenerative heater; (2) a ceramic pebble regenerative heater. The heater design, performance and operating characteristics under conditions in which the particulate matter is not solidified are evaluated. A comparison and overall evaluation of the three types of ceramic heaters and temperature range determination at which the particulate matter in the MHD exhaust gas is estimated to be a dry powder are presented.
MHD power conversion employing liquid metals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Houben, J.W.M.A.; Massee, P.
1969-02-01
The work performed in the field of MHD generation of electricity by means of liquid metals is described. It is shown that the study of two-phase flows is essential in this topic of research; two-phase flows are therefore described. Two types of generators which can be utilized with liquid metals have been studied. The results of this study are described. A short survey of the prospects of other liquid metal systems which emerge from a study of the literature is given. Finally, conclusions are drawn concerning possibilities for further investigation
MHD equilibrium identification on ASDEX-Upgrade
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McCarthy, P.J.; Schneider, W.; Lakner, K.; Zehrfeld, H.P.; Buechl, K.; Gernhardt, J.; Gruber, O.; Kallenbach, A.; Lieder, G.; Wunderlich, R.
1992-01-01
A central activity accompanying the ASDEX-Upgrade experiment is the analysis of MHD equilibria. There are two different numerical methods available, both using magnetic measurements which reflect equilibrium states of the plasma. The first method proceeds via a function parameterization (FP) technique, which uses in-vessel magnetic measurements to calculate up to 66 equilibrium parameters. The second method applies an interpretative equilibrium code (DIVA) for a best fit to a different set of magnetic measurements. Cross-checks with the measured particle influxes from the inner heat shield and the divertor region and with visible camera images of the scrape-off layer are made. (author) 3 refs., 3 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huysmans, G.
1998-03-01
One of the aims of the JET, the Joint European Torus, project is to optimise the maximum fusion performance as measured by the neutron rate. At present, two different scenarios are developed at JET to achieve the high performance the so-called Hot-Ion H-mode scenario and the more recent development of the Optimised Shear scenario. Both scenarios have reached similar values of the neutron rate in Deuterium plasmas, up to 5 10 17 neutrons/second. Both scenarios are characterised by a transport barrier, i.e., a region in the plasma where the confinement is improved. The Hot-Ion H-mode has a transport barrier at the plasma boundary just inside the separatrix, an Optimised Shear plasma exhibits a transport barrier at about mid radius. Associated with the improved confinement of the transport barriers are locally large pressure gradients. It is these pressure gradients which, either directly or indirectly, can drive MHD instabilities. The instabilities limit the maximum performance. In the optimised shear scenario a global MHD instability leads to a disruptive end of the discharge. In the Hot-Ion H-mode plasmas, so-called Outer Modes can occur which are localised at the plasma boundary and lead to a saturation of the plasma performance. In this paper, two examples of the MHD instabilities are discussed and identified by comparing the experimentally observed modes with theoretical calculations from the ideal MHD code MISHKA-1. Also, the MHD stability boundaries of the two scenarios are presented. Section 3 contains a discussion of the mode observed just before the disruption
On nonlinear MHD-stability of toroidal magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ilgisonis, V.I.; Pastukhov, V.P.
1994-01-01
The variational approach to analyze the nonlinear MHD stability of ideal plasma in toroidal magnetic field is proposed. The potential energy functional to be used is expressed in terms of complete set of independent Lagrangian invariants, that allows to take strictly into account all the restrictions inherent in the varied functions due to MHD dynamic equations. (author). 3 refs
Technical support for open-cycle MHD program
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
None
1978-05-01
The support program for open-cycle MHD at Argonne National Lab is developing the analytical tools needed to investigate the performance of the major components in the combined-cycle MHD/steam power system. The analytical effort is centered on the primary components of the system that are unique to MHD and also on the integration of these analytical representations into a model of the entire power producing system. The present project activities include modeling of the combustor, MHD channel, slag separator, and the high-temperature air preheater. In addition, these models are combined into a complete system model, which is at present capable of carrying out optimizations of the entire system on either thermodynamic efficiency or with less confidence, cost of electrical power. Also, in support of the open-cycle program, considerable effort has gone into the formulation of a CDIF Test Plan and a National MHD Test Program.
Priority pollutant analysis of MHD-derived combustion products
Parks, Katherine D.
An important factor in developing Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) for commercial applications is environmental impact. Consequently, an effort was initiated to identify and quantify any possible undesirable minute chemical constituents in MHD waste streams, with special emphasis on the priority pollutant species. This paper discusses how priority pollutant analyses were used to accomplish the following goals at the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI): comparison of the composition of solid combustion products collected from various locations along a prototypical MHD flow train during the firing of Illinois No. 6 and Montana Rosebud coals; comparison of solid waste products generated from MHD and conventional power plant technologies; and identification of a suitable disposal option for various MHD derived combustion products. Results from our ongoing research plans for gas phase sampling and analysis of priority pollutant volatiles, semi-volatiles, and metals are discussed.
Preliminary results of MHD stability in HL-1 tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zheng Yongzhen; Ma Tengcai; Xiao Zhenggui Cai Renfang
1987-01-01
In this paper, MHD activities of HL-1 tokamak plasma are studied with Fourier transform and correlatio analysis. The poloidal modes m = 1, 2, 3,4 and toroidal modes n of MHD magnetic fluctuation signals are detected. Methods for suppressing MHD instabilities are suggested and tested, after MHD instabilities are studied in HL-1. The effects of MHD characteristics in the beginning stage of discharge on the whole process of discharge are analyzed. The disruption, in HL-1 device could be divided into three kinds: internal disruption, minor disruption and major disruption. The result shows that HL-1 will have a better operation condition if internal disruption appears. In is end, the stable operation region of HL-1 tokamak is also given
Ideal MHD stability and performance of ITER steady-state scenarios with ITBs
Poli, F. M.; Kessel, C. E.; Chance, M. S.; Jardin, S. C.; Manickam, J.
2012-06-01
Non-inductive steady-state scenarios on ITER will need to operate with internal transport barriers (ITBs) in order to reach adequate fusion gain at typical currents of 9 MA. The large pressure gradients at the location of the internal barrier are conducive to the development of ideal MHD instabilities that may limit the plasma performance and may lead to plasma disruptions. Fully non-inductive scenario simulations with five combinations of heating and current drive sources are presented in this work, with plasma currents in the range 7-10 MA. For each configuration the linear, ideal MHD stability is analysed for variations of the Greenwald fraction and of the pressure peaking factor around the operating point, aiming at defining an operational space for stable, steady-state operations at optimized performance. It is shown that plasmas with lower hybrid heating and current drive maintain the minimum safety factor above 1.5, which is desirable in steady-state operations to avoid neoclassical tearing modes. Operating with moderate ITBs at 2/3 of the minor radius, these plasmas have a minimum safety factor above 2, are ideal MHD stable and reach Q ≳ 5 operating above the ideal no-wall limit.
A civil engineering approach to ideal MHD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jensen, V.O.
1992-01-01
It is well known that a magnetic field can be conceived as a medium where an isotropic compressive stress, B 2 /2μ 0 , is superimposed on a tensile stress, B 2 /μ 0 , parallel to the lines of force. When a stationary ideal MHD plasma is present in the magnetic field, the particle pressure adds to the magnetic stresses to form a combined stress tensor. Calculations of plasma equilibria based on this concept are very similar to calculations in civil engineering of static structures based on compressive, tensile, and shear stresses. Therefore the very simple physical pictures known from civil engineering when used in plasma physics provide simple physical understanding and facilitate the physical interpretation of the results. In an earlier paper the concept was used to derive and discuss the equilibrium equations for θ-, Z-, and screw pinches and the Grad-Shafranov shift in a tokamak plasma with circular cross sections of the flux surfaces. Here the concept is used to discuss the virial theorem and to obtain a simple physical interpretation of this theorem. We also reconsider the Grad-Shafranov shift in a tokamak plasma and show that a situation where all flux surfaces have circular cross sections cannot be an exact solution to the ideal MHD equations. (author) 3 refs., 3 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parchevsky, K. V.; Kosovichev, A. G.
2009-01-01
Investigation of propagation, conversion, and scattering of MHD waves in the Sun is very important for understanding the mechanisms of observed oscillations and waves in sunspots and active regions. We have developed a three-dimensional linear MHD numerical model to investigate the influence of the magnetic field on excitation and properties of the MHD waves. The results show that surface gravity waves (f-modes) are affected by the background magnetic field more than acoustic-type waves (p-modes). Comparison of our simulations with the time-distance helioseismology results from Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/MDI shows that the amplitude of travel time variations with azimuth around sunspots caused by the inclined magnetic field does not exceed 25% of the observed amplitude even for strong fields of 1400-1900 G. This can be an indication that other effects (e.g., background flows and nonuniform distribution of the magnetic field) can contribute to the observed azimuthal travel time variations. The azimuthal travel time variations caused by the wave interaction with the magnetic field are similar for simulated and observed travel times for strong fields of 1400-1900 G if Doppler velocities are taken at the height of 300 km above the photosphere where the plasma parameter β << 1. For the photospheric level the travel times are systematically smaller by approximately 0.12 minutes than for the height of 300 km above the photosphere for all studied ranges of the magnetic field strength and inclination angles. Numerical MHD wave modeling and new data from the HMI instrument of the Solar Dynamics Observatory will substantially advance our knowledge of the wave interaction with strong magnetic fields on the Sun and improve the local helioseismology diagnostics.
Generalized MHD for numerical stability analysis of high-performance plasmas in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mikhailovskii, A.B.
1998-01-01
A set of generalized magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations is formulated to accommodate the effects associated with high ion and electron temperatures in high-performance plasmas in tokamaks. The effects of neoclassical bootstrap current, neoclassical ion viscosity, the ion finite Larmor radius effect and electron and ion drift effects are taken into account in two-fluid MHD equations together with gyroviscosity, parallel viscosity, electron parallel inertia and collisionless ion heat flux. The ion velocity is identified as the plasma velocity, while the electron velocity is expressed in terms of the plasma velocity and electric current. Ion and electron momentum equations are combined to give the plasma momentum equation. The perpendicular (with respect to the equilibrium magnetic field) ion momentum equation is used as perpendicular Ohm's law and the parallel electron momentum equation - as parallel Ohm's law. Perpendicular Ohm's law allows for the Hall and ion drift effects. Parallel Ohm's law includes the electron drift effect, collisionless skin effect and bootstrap current. In addition, both perpendicular and parallel Ohm's laws contain the resistivity. Due to the quasineutrality condition, the ions and electrons are characterized by the same number density which is described by the ion continuity equation. On the other hand, the ion and electron temperatures are allowed to be different. The ion temperature is described by the ion energy equation allowing for the oblique heat flux, in addition to the perpendicular ion heat flux. The electron temperature is determined by the condition of high parallel electron heat conductivity. The ion and electron parallel viscosities are represented in a form valid for all the collisionality regimes (Pfirsch-Schluter, plateau, and banana). An optimized form of the generalized MHD equations is then represented in terms of the toroidal coordinate system used in the JET equilibrium and stability codes. The derived equations
MHD limits in non-inductive tokamak plasmas: simulations and comparison to experiments on Tore Supra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maget, P.; Huysmans, G.; Ottaviani, M.; Garbet, X.; Moreau, Ph.; Segui, J.-L.; Luetjens, H.
2008-01-01
Non-inductive tokamak discharges with a flat or hollow current profile are prone to the triggering of large tearing modes when the minimum of the safety factor is just below a low order rational. This issue is of particular importance for discussing the optimal safety factor for MHD modes avoidance in Steady-State reactor plasmas. Different non-linear regimes of such magnetic configurations in Tore Supra are studied using the full MHD code XTOR. Numerical simulations show that the non-linear stage of the Double-Tearing Mode (DTM) is governed by the full reconnection model, but a single tearing mode in a low magnetic shear configuration can have a similar impact on the confinement. The different regimes observed experimentally are recovered in the simulations: a small amplitude (2,1) DTM for close resonant surfaces as seen in Tore Supra, a sawtooth-like behaviour of the (2,1) Double-Tearing Mode as first seen in TFTR, or a large amplitude (2,1) tearing mode that severely degrades the energy confinement, as reported in Tore Supra, JET or DIII-D. Situations where q min ≅1.5 with a stable n = 1 mode, as seen in Tore Supra longest discharges, seem to put specific constraints on the MHD model that is used. Indeed, curvature stabilisation without transport terms as could explain linear stability, but such effect vanishes in presence of heat transport. Electron diamagnetic rotation effect is investigated as a possible mechanism for n = 1 mode stabilization.
MHD generator performance analysis for the Advanced Power Train study
Pian, C. C. P.; Hals, F. A.
1984-01-01
Comparative analyses of different MHD power train designs for early commercial MHD power plants were performed for plant sizes of 200, 500, and 1000 MWe. The work was conducted as part of the first phase of a planned three-phase program to formulate an MHD Advanced Power Train development program. This paper presents the results of the MHD generator design and part-load analyses. All of the MHD generator designs were based on burning of coal with oxygen-enriched air preheated to 1200 F. Sensitivities of the MHD generator design performance to variations in power plant size, coal type, oxygen enrichment level, combustor heat loss, channel length, and Mach number were investigated. Basd on these sensitivity analyses, together with the overall plant performance and cost-of-electricity analyses, as well as reliability and maintenance considerations, a recommended MHD generator design was selected for each of the three power plants. The generators for the 200 MWe and 500 MWe power plant sizes are supersonic designs. A subsonic generator design was selected for the 1000 MWe plant. Off-design analyses of part-load operation of the supersonic channel selected for the 200 MWe power plant were also conductd. The results showed that a relatively high overall net plant efficiency can be maintained during part-laod operation with a supersonic generator design.
MHD biconvective flow of Powell Eyring nanofluid over stretched surface
Naseem, Faiza; Shafiq, Anum; Zhao, Lifeng; Naseem, Anum
2017-06-01
The present work is focused on behavioral characteristics of gyrotactic microorganisms to describe their role in heat and mass transfer in the presence of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) forces in Powell-Eyring nanofluids. Implications concerning stretching sheet with respect to velocity, temperature, nanoparticle concentration and motile microorganism density were explored to highlight influential parameters. Aim of utilizing microorganisms was primarily to stabilize the nanoparticle suspension due to bioconvection generated by the combined effects of buoyancy forces and magnetic field. Influence of Newtonian heating was also analyzed by taking into account thermophoretic mechanism and Brownian motion effects to insinuate series solutions mediated by homotopy analysis method (HAM). Mathematical model captured the boundary layer regime that explicitly involved contemporary non linear partial differential equations converted into the ordinary differential equations. To depict nanofluid flow characteristics, pertinent parameters namely bioconvection Lewis number Lb, traditional Lewis number Le, bioconvection Péclet number Pe, buoyancy ratio parameter Nr, bioconvection Rayleigh number Rb, thermophoresis parameter Nt, Hartmann number M, Grashof number Gr, and Eckert number Ec were computed and analyzed. Results revealed evidence of hydromagnetic bioconvection for microorganism which was represented by graphs and tables. Our findings further show a significant effect of Newtonian heating over a stretching plate by examining the coefficient values of skin friction, local Nusselt number and the local density number. Comparison was made between Newtonian fluid and Powell-Eyring fluid on velocity field and temperature field. Results are compared of with contemporary studies and our findings are found in excellent agreement with these studies.
Influence of slag-seed interaction on MHD generator performance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luongo, C.A.; Kruger, C.M.
1984-01-01
An overview of past work in the field of slag/seed interaction is presented. The ideal solution model for the slag and its failure to lead to accurate predictions are discussed. The non-ideal solution model is introduced. Data on potassium vapor pressure over slags taken at the National Bureau of Standards and Montana State University were compiled and compared. Large disagreement between these sources was observed. The shortcomings of the complete thermodynamic equilibrium models led to over predictions in the fraction of seed lost to the slag. A model including non-equilibrium effects is introduced. The heat/mass transfer analogy is invoked to calculate the mass transfer rate of potassium towards the slag. Using typical conditions for a large MHD generator, an integral method is used to evaluate the potassium concentration boundary layer thickness. The calculations are performed with the slag runoff (ash rejection) as a parameter. The increase in boundary layer resistance due to potassium depletion is calculated
Performance of MHD coatings in flowing Li at 700 deg
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pint, B.; Pawel, S.J.; Howell, M.; Moser, J.L.; Garner, G.W.; Santella, M.L.; Tortorelli, P.F.; Di Stefano, J.R.
2007-01-01
Full text of publication follows: A thermal convection loop was constructed from V-4Cr-4Ti tubing and operated in vacuum at a maximum Li temperature of 700 deg. C for ∼1000 h.. Due to slow Li flow (∼1 cm/s) in the loop, the temperature gradient was ∼340 deg. C. Specimens in the hot and cold legs of the loop included V-4Cr-4Ti spacers, tensile specimens (SS-3 type) and coupons coated by physical vapor deposition with yttria and over coated with unalloyed vanadium. Based on prior work, the multi-layer electrically-insulating coatings were developed to reduce the magneto hydrodynamic (MHD) force expected in the first wall of a lithium cooled blanket in a magnetic confinement fusion reactor. Characterization of the specimens after exposure will include: (1) mass change and chemistry change as a function of location in the temperature gradient, (2) the effect of Li exposure on the tensile properties of V-4Cr-4Ti and (3) characterization of the properties and microstructure of the coatings after exposure. Of particular interest will be the coating resistivity after exposure and any degradation of the thin (∼10 μm) vanadium overlayer. Chemistry of the Li before and after the experiment will be compared in order to assess any mass transfer effects. (authors)
Active MHD control experiments in RFX-mod
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ortolani, Sergio
2006-01-01
The RFX reversed field pinch experiment has been modified (RFX-mod) to address specific issues of active control of MHD instabilities. A thin shell (τ Bv ∼50 ms) has replaced the old thick one (τ Bv ∼500 ms) and 192 (4 poloidal x 48 toroidal) independently powered saddle coils surround the thin shell forming a cage completely covering the torus. This paper reports the results obtained during the first year of operation. The system has been used with various control scenarios including experiments on local radial field cancellation over the entire torus surface to mimic an ideal wall ('virtual shell') and on single and multiple mode feedback control. Successful virtual shell operation has been achieved leading to: a 3-fold increase in pulse length and well controlled 300 ms pulses(∼6 shell times) up to ∼1 MA plasma current; one order of magnitude reduction of the dominant radial field perturbations at the plasma edge and correspondingly 100% increase in global energy confinement time. Robust feedback stabilization of resistive wall modes has been demonstrated in conditions where rotation does not play a role and multiple unstable modes are present
Power take-off analysis for diagonally connected MHD channels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pan, Y.C.; Doss, E.D.
1980-01-01
The electrical loading of the power take-off region of diagonally connected MHD channels is investigated by a two-dimensional model. The study examines the loading schemes typical of those proposed for the U-25 and U-25 Bypass channels. The model is applicable for the following four cases: (1) connection with diodes only, (2) connection with diodes and equal resistors, (3) connection with diodes and variable resistances to obtain a given current distribution, and (4) connection with diodes and variable resistors under changing load. The analysis is applicable for the power take-off regions of single or multiple-output systems. The general behaviors of the current and the potential distributions in all four cases are discussed. The analytical results are in good agreement with the experimental data. It is found possible to design the electrical circuit of the channel in the take-off region so as to achieve a fairly even load current output under changing total load current
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
None
1979-01-01
Progress is reported on the following tasks: characterization of coal for open-cycle MHD power generation systems; compressive creep and strength studies of MHD preheater materials; preparation of coals for utilization in direct coal-fired MHD generation; characterization of volatile matter in coal; MHD materials evaluation; operability of the Moderate Temperature Slag Flow Facility; slag-seed equilibria and separations related to the MHD system; thermionic emission of coal and electrode materials; MHD instrumentation, consolidated inversion simulator, and data acquisition; combined MHD-steam plant cycle analysis and control; and slag physical properties - electrical and thermal conductivity. (WHK)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guenter, S.; Gude, A.; Hobirk, J.; Maraschek, M.; Peeters, A.G.; Pinches, S.D.; Schade, S.; Wolf, R.C.; Saarelma, S.
2001-01-01
MHD instabilities in advanced tokamak scenarios on the one hand are favourable as they can contribute to the stationarity of the current profiles and act as a trigger for the formation of internal transport barriers. In particular fishbone oscillations driven by fast particles arising from neutral beam injection (NBI) are shown to trigger internal transport barriers in low and reversed magnetic shear discharges. During the whistling down period of the fishbone oscillation the transport is reduced around the corresponding rational surface, leading to an increased pressure gradient. This behaviour is explained by the redistribution of the resonant fast particles resulting in a sheared plasma rotation due to the return current in the bulk plasma, which is equivalent to a radial electric field. On the other hand MHD instabilities limit the accessible operating regime. Ideal and resistive MHD modes such as double tearing modes, infernal modes and external kinks degrade the confinement or even lead to disruptions in ASDEX Upgrade reversed shear discharges. Localized electron cyclotron heating and current drive is shown to significantly affect the MHD stability of this type of discharges. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guenter, S.; Gude, A.; Hobirk, J.; Maraschek, M.; Schade, S.; Wolf, R.C.; Saarelma, S.
2001-01-01
On the one hand, MHD instabilities in advanced tokamak scenarios are favourable as they can contribute to the stationarity of the current profiles and act as a trigger for the formation of internal transport barriers (ITBs). In particular, fishbone oscillations driven by fast particles arising from NBI are shown to trigger ITBs in low and reversed magnetic shear discharges. During the whistling down period of the fishbone oscillation the transport is reduced around the corresponding rational surface, leading to an increased pressure gradient. This behaviour could be explained by the redistribution of the resonant fast particles resulting in a sheared plasma rotation due to the return current in the bulk plasma, which is equivalent to a radial electric field. On the other hand, MHD instabilities limit the accessible operating regime. Ideal and resistive MHD modes such as double tearing modes, infernal modes and external kinks degrade the confinement or even lead to disruptions in ASDEX Upgrade reversed shear discharges. Localized electron cyclotron heating and current drive are shown to significantly affect the MHD stability of this type of discharge. (author)
Hall MHD reconnection in cometary magnetotail
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jovanovic, Dusan; Shukla, Padma Kant; Morfill, Gregor
2005-01-01
The fine structure of cometary tails (swirls, loops and blobs) is studied in the framework of resistive magnetic reconnection without a guide field in a dusty plasma. For a high-beta plasma (β ∼ 1) consisting of electrons, ions, and immobile dust grains, a two-fluid description is used to study electromagnetic perturbations with the frequency below Ωi, propagating at an arbitrary angle, and including the effects of Hall current. A zero-order current associated with the anti-parallel magnetic configuration may exist even in the limit of zero plasma temperature in a dusty plasma due to a symmetry breaking between electrons and ions by dust grains that yields an E-vector x B-vector current. In the perturbed state, a new linear electromagnetic mode is found in dusty plasma which is evanescent below the Rao cut-off frequency and has the characteristic wavelength comparable to the ion skin depth, which enables the reconnection at short spatial scales. The role of the dust is found to be twofold, yielding a new mode outside of the current sheet and altering the continuity conditions at its edge by an inhomogeneous Doppler shift associated with the E-vector x B-vector current
Analysis of voltage-drop near cold-electrodes of a combustion MHD generator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Satyamurthy, P.; Venkatramani, N.; Rohatgi, V.K.
1983-01-01
In this paper turbulent compressible boundary layer equations for mass, momentum and energy are solved near the cold electrode wall of a combustion MHD generator. Arcs are simulated by freezing the electron temperature (and hence electrical conductivity) to a temperature called Tsub(arc) when gas temperature is less than Tsub(arc). Theoretical near electrode drop for various current densities along the flow direction is analysed for various Tsub(arc) temperatures and compared with experimentally obtained near electrode drop. It is found that the Tsub(arc) temperature increases as a square root along the flow direction and has linear dependency on current density. (author)
Khan, Imad; Ullah, Shafquat; Malik, M. Y.; Hussain, Arif
2018-06-01
The current analysis concentrates on the numerical solution of MHD Carreau fluid flow over a stretching cylinder under the influences of homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions. Modelled non-linear partial differential equations are converted into ordinary differential equations by using suitable transformations. The resulting system of equations is solved with the aid of shooting algorithm supported by fifth order Runge-Kutta integration scheme. The impact of non-dimensional governing parameters on the velocity, temperature, skin friction coefficient and local Nusselt number are comprehensively delineated with the help of graphs and tables.
Linear calculations of edge current driven kink modes with BOUT++ code
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, G. Q., E-mail: ligq@ipp.ac.cn; Xia, T. Y. [Institute of Plasma Physics, CAS, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Xu, X. Q. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Snyder, P. B.; Turnbull, A. D. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186 (United States); Ma, C. H.; Xi, P. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); FSC, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)
2014-10-15
This work extends previous BOUT++ work to systematically study the impact of edge current density on edge localized modes, and to benchmark with the GATO and ELITE codes. Using the CORSICA code, a set of equilibria was generated with different edge current densities by keeping total current and pressure profile fixed. Based on these equilibria, the effects of the edge current density on the MHD instabilities were studied with the 3-field BOUT++ code. For the linear calculations, with increasing edge current density, the dominant modes are changed from intermediate-n and high-n ballooning modes to low-n kink modes, and the linear growth rate becomes smaller. The edge current provides stabilizing effects on ballooning modes due to the increase of local shear at the outer mid-plane with the edge current. For edge kink modes, however, the edge current does not always provide a destabilizing effect; with increasing edge current, the linear growth rate first increases, and then decreases. In benchmark calculations for BOUT++ against the linear results with the GATO and ELITE codes, the vacuum model has important effects on the edge kink mode calculations. By setting a realistic density profile and Spitzer resistivity profile in the vacuum region, the resistivity was found to have a destabilizing effect on both the kink mode and on the ballooning mode. With diamagnetic effects included, the intermediate-n and high-n ballooning modes can be totally stabilized for finite edge current density.
Linear calculations of edge current driven kink modes with BOUT++ code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, G. Q.; Xia, T. Y.; Xu, X. Q.; Snyder, P. B.; Turnbull, A. D.; Ma, C. H.; Xi, P. W.
2014-01-01
This work extends previous BOUT++ work to systematically study the impact of edge current density on edge localized modes, and to benchmark with the GATO and ELITE codes. Using the CORSICA code, a set of equilibria was generated with different edge current densities by keeping total current and pressure profile fixed. Based on these equilibria, the effects of the edge current density on the MHD instabilities were studied with the 3-field BOUT++ code. For the linear calculations, with increasing edge current density, the dominant modes are changed from intermediate-n and high-n ballooning modes to low-n kink modes, and the linear growth rate becomes smaller. The edge current provides stabilizing effects on ballooning modes due to the increase of local shear at the outer mid-plane with the edge current. For edge kink modes, however, the edge current does not always provide a destabilizing effect; with increasing edge current, the linear growth rate first increases, and then decreases. In benchmark calculations for BOUT++ against the linear results with the GATO and ELITE codes, the vacuum model has important effects on the edge kink mode calculations. By setting a realistic density profile and Spitzer resistivity profile in the vacuum region, the resistivity was found to have a destabilizing effect on both the kink mode and on the ballooning mode. With diamagnetic effects included, the intermediate-n and high-n ballooning modes can be totally stabilized for finite edge current density
Temperature and density profiles of an MHD switch-on shock
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Watson-Munro, C.N.; Bighel, L.; Collins, A.R.; Cramer, N.F.; Cross, R.C.
1975-01-01
An experimental study of the structure of MHD switch-on shock waves propagating into partially ionized hydrogen and helium plasmas is described. The variation of electron and ion temperatures through the shock front was studied as a function of the level of pre-ionization. When the shock propagates into an almost fully ionized plasma, the electron temperature rises well above the ion temperature owing to resistive heating of the electrons. At low pre-ionization levels, however, the ion temperature rises above the electron temperature. These results indicate that ion-neutral collisions can play a dominant role in the dissipation of energy in a shock wave. (author)
GRADSPMHD: A parallel MHD code based on the SPH formalism
Vanaverbeke, S.; Keppens, R.; Poedts, S.
2014-03-01
We present GRADSPMHD, a completely Lagrangian parallel magnetohydrodynamics code based on the SPH formalism. The implementation of the equations of SPMHD in the “GRAD-h” formalism assembles known results, including the derivation of the discretized MHD equations from a variational principle, the inclusion of time-dependent artificial viscosity, resistivity and conductivity terms, as well as the inclusion of a mixed hyperbolic/parabolic correction scheme for satisfying the ∇ṡB→ constraint on the magnetic field. The code uses a tree-based formalism for neighbor finding and can optionally use the tree code for computing the self-gravity of the plasma. The structure of the code closely follows the framework of our parallel GRADSPH FORTRAN 90 code which we added previously to the CPC program library. We demonstrate the capabilities of GRADSPMHD by running 1, 2, and 3 dimensional standard benchmark tests and we find good agreement with previous work done by other researchers. The code is also applied to the problem of simulating the magnetorotational instability in 2.5D shearing box tests as well as in global simulations of magnetized accretion disks. We find good agreement with available results on this subject in the literature. Finally, we discuss the performance of the code on a parallel supercomputer with distributed memory architecture. Catalogue identifier: AERP_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AERP_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 620503 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 19837671 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: FORTRAN 90/MPI. Computer: HPC cluster. Operating system: Unix. Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: Yes, parallelized using MPI. RAM: ˜30 MB for a
Mechanism of power generation - the MHD way
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rangachari, S.; Ramash, V.R.; Subramanian, C.K.
1975-01-01
The basic physical principles of magnetohydrodynamics and the application of this principle for power generation (direct energy conversion) are explained. A magnetohydrodynamic generator (MHDG) is described both in the Faraday and Hall modes. The advantages of the Faraday mode and the Hall mode for different geometries of the generator are mentioned. The conductor used is a fluid - an ionised gas (plasma) or a liquid metal at high temperature. The difficulties in maintaining high temperature and high velocity for the gas and very low temperature at the same time side by side for superconducting magnets to produce a strong magnetic field, are pointed out. The most commonly used gas is purified air. The advantages of MHD generators and the present power crisis have compelled further research in this field in spite of the high costs involved. (A.K.)
Measured MHD equilibrium in Alcator C
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pribyl, P.A.
1986-03-01
A method of processing data from a set of partial Rogowski loops is developed to study the MHD equilibrium in Alcator C. Time dependent poloidal fields in the vicinity of the plasma are calculated from measured currents, with field penetration effects being accounted for. Fields from eddy currents induced by the plasma in the tokamak structure are estimated as well. Each of the set of twelve B/sub θ/ measurements can then be separated into a component from the plasma current and a component from currents external to the pickup loops. Harmonic solutions to Maxwell's equations in toroidal coordinates are fit to these measurements in order to infer the fields everywhere in the vacuum region surrounding the plasma. Using this diagnostic, plasma current, position, shape, and the Shafranov term Λ = β/sub p/ + l/sub i//2 - 1 may be computed, and systematic studies of these plasma parameters are undertaken for Alcator C plasmas
Ideal MHD properties for proposed noncircular tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Helton, F.J.; Greene, J.M.
1986-01-01
We obtain Double Dee, TFXC-C, Big Dee, and JET equlibria which are optimized with respect to both shape and current profile for stability to ideal MHD modes. With a wall reasonably far from the plasma surface we find that the external kink constrains q 1 to be above two, where q 1 is the plasma surface value of the safety factor, and the ballooning mode limits the value of β. Then a relevant stable β value for the Double Dee reactor design is over 7%. Such a Double Dee equilibrium is not in a separated second stability region and thus does not have a problem with accessibility. A relevant stable β value for the TFCX-C reactor design is over 6%. Equivalent relevant stable β values for the Big Dee (17%) and JET (7%) are included for calibration purposes. We compare these relevant stable β values with the β's determined by two recent scaling laws
MHD simulation of the Bastille day event
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Linker, Jon, E-mail: linkerj@predsci.com; Torok, Tibor; Downs, Cooper; Lionello, Roberto; Titov, Viacheslav; Caplan, Ronald M.; Mikić, Zoran; Riley, Pete [Predictive Science Inc., 9990 Mesa Rim Road, Suite 170, San Diego CA, USA 92121 (United States)
2016-03-25
We describe a time-dependent, thermodynamic, three-dimensional MHD simulation of the July 14, 2000 coronal mass ejection (CME) and flare. The simulation starts with a background corona developed using an MDI-derived magnetic map for the boundary condition. Flux ropes using the modified Titov-Demoulin (TDm) model are used to energize the pre-event active region, which is then destabilized by photospheric flows that cancel flux near the polarity inversion line. More than 10{sup 33} ergs are impulsively released in the simulated eruption, driving a CME at 1500 km/s, close to the observed speed of 1700km/s. The post-flare emission in the simulation is morphologically similar to the observed post-flare loops. The resulting flux rope that propagates to 1 AU is similar in character to the flux rope observed at 1 AU, but the simulated ICME center passes 15° north of Earth.
Magnetic stresses in ideal MHD plasmas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, V.O.
1995-01-01
The concept of magnetic stresses in ideal MHD plasma theory is reviewed and revisited with the aim of demonstrating its advantages as a basis for calculating and understanding plasma equilibria. Expressions are derived for the various stresses that transmit forces in a magnetized plasma...... and it is shown that the resulting magnetic forces on a finite volume element can be obtained by integrating the magnetic stresses over the surface of the element. The concept is used to rederive and discuss the equilibrium conditions for axisymmetric toroidal plasmas, including the virial theorem...... and the Shafranov shift. The method had pedagogical merits as it simplifies the calculations, improves the physical understanding and facilitates an assessment of the approximations made in the calculations....
3-D nonlinear evolution of MHD instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bateman, G.; Hicks, H.R.; Wooten, J.W.
1977-03-01
The nonlinear evolution of ideal MHD internal instabilities is investigated in straight cylindrical geometry by means of a 3-D initial-value computer code. These instabilities are characterized by pairs of velocity vortex cells rolling off each other and helically twisted down the plasma column. The cells persist until the poloidal velocity saturates at a few tenths of the Alfven velocity. The nonlinear phase is characterized by convection around these essentially fixed vortex cells. For example, the initially centrally peaked temperature profile is convected out and around to form an annulus of high temperature surrounding a small region of lower temperature. Weak, centrally localized instabilities do not alter the edge of the plasma. Strong, large-scale instabilities, resulting from a stronger longitudinal equilibrium current, drive the plasma against the wall. After three examples of instability are analyzed in detail, the numerical methods and their verification are discussed
Nonlinear MHD analysis for LHD plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ichiguchi, K.; Nakajima, N.; Wakatani, M.; Carreras, B.A.
2003-01-01
The nonlinear behavior of the interchange modes with multi-helicity in the Large Helical Device is analyzed based on the reduced MHD equations. In the equilibrium at sufficiently low beta value, the saturation of a single mode and the following excitation of other single mode whose resonant surface is close to that of the saturated mode are slowly repeated. This sequence leads to the local deformation of the pressure profile. Increasing the beta value with the pressure profile fixed, a bursting phenomenon due to the overlap of multiple modes is observed in the kinetic energy, which results in the global reduction of the pressure profile. Increasing the beta value using the pressure profile saturated at the lower beta value suppresses the bursting behavior. This result indicates the possibility that the pressure profile is self-organized so that the LHD plasma should attain the high beta regime through a stable path. (author)
Averaged description of 3D MHD equilibrium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Medvedev, S.Yu.; Drozdov, V.V.; Ivanov, A.A.; Martynov, A.A.; Pashekhonov, Yu.Yu.; Mikhailov, M.I.
2001-01-01
A general approach by S.A.Galkin et al. in 1991 to 2D description of MHD equilibrium and stability in 3D systems was proposed. The method requires a background 3D equilibrium with nested flux surfaces to generate the metric of a Riemannian space in which the background equilibrium is described by the 2D equation of Grad-Shafranov type. The equation can be solved then varying plasma profiles and shape to get approximate 3D equilibria. In the framework of the method both planar axis conventional stellarators and configurations with spatial magnetic axis can be studied. In the present report the formulation and numerical realization of the equilibrium problem for stellarators with planar axis is reviewed. The input background equilibria with nested flux surfaces are taken from vacuum magnetic field approximately described by analytic scalar potential
Two dimensional MHD flows between porous boundaries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gratton, F.T.
1994-01-01
Similarity solutions of dissipative MHD equations representing conducting fluids injected through porous walls and flowing out in both directions from the center of the channel, are studied as a function of four non dimensional parameters, Reynolds number R e , magnetic Reynolds number R m , Alfvenic Mach number, M A , and pressure gradient coefficient, C. The effluence is restrained by an external magnetic field normal to the walls. When R m m >>1, the solution may model a collision of plasmas of astrophysical interest. In this case the magnetic field lines help to drive the outflow acting jointly with the pressure gradient. The law for C as a function of the other parameters is given for several asymptotic limits. (author). 3 refs, 6 figs
Development of materials for open-cycle magnetohydrodynamics (MHD): ceramic electrode. Final report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bates, J.L.; Marchant, D.D.
1986-09-01
Pacific Northwest Laboratory, supported by the US Department of Energy, developed advanced materials for use in open-cycle, closed cycle magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) power generation, an advanced energy conversion system in which the flow of electrically conducting fluid interacts with an electric field to convert the energy directly into electricity. The purpose of the PNL work was to develop electrodes for the MHD channel. Such electrodes must have: (1) electrical conductivity above 0.01 (ohm-cm)/sup -1/ from near room temperature to 1900/sup 0/K, (2) resistance to both electrochemical and chemical corrosion by both slag and potassium seed, (3) resistance to erosion by high-velocity gases and particles, (4) resistance to thermal shock, (5) adequate thermal conductivity, (6) compatibility with other channel components, particularly the electrical insulators, (7) oxidation-reduction stability, and (8) adequate thermionic emission. This report describes the concept and development of high-temperature, graded ceramic composite electrode materials and their electrical and structural properties. 47 refs., 16 figs., 13 tabs.
The Stellar IMF from Isothermal MHD Turbulence
Haugbølle, Troels; Padoan, Paolo; Nordlund, Åke
2018-02-01
We address the turbulent fragmentation scenario for the origin of the stellar initial mass function (IMF), using a large set of numerical simulations of randomly driven supersonic MHD turbulence. The turbulent fragmentation model successfully predicts the main features of the observed stellar IMF assuming an isothermal equation of state without any stellar feedback. As a test of the model, we focus on the case of a magnetized isothermal gas, neglecting stellar feedback, while pursuing a large dynamic range in both space and timescales covering the full spectrum of stellar masses from brown dwarfs to massive stars. Our simulations represent a generic 4 pc region within a typical Galactic molecular cloud, with a mass of 3000 M ⊙ and an rms velocity 10 times the isothermal sound speed and 5 times the average Alfvén velocity, in agreement with observations. We achieve a maximum resolution of 50 au and a maximum duration of star formation of 4.0 Myr, forming up to a thousand sink particles whose mass distribution closely matches the observed stellar IMF. A large set of medium-size simulations is used to test the sink particle algorithm, while larger simulations are used to test the numerical convergence of the IMF and the dependence of the IMF turnover on physical parameters predicted by the turbulent fragmentation model. We find a clear trend toward numerical convergence and strong support for the model predictions, including the initial time evolution of the IMF. We conclude that the physics of isothermal MHD turbulence is sufficient to explain the origin of the IMF.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1980-03-01
Examination was conducted in detail on an MHD generation system by coal combustion, with the results reported. Concerning a gas table calculation program in coal combustion, it was prepared assuming 100% slag removal ratio in the combustor as the primary approximation. A combustor for MHD generation needs to efficiently burn fuel using high temperature pre-heated air as the oxidant, to fully dissociate/electrolytically dissociate seed, and to supply to the generation channel a high speed combustion gas plasma having a high electrical conductivity which is required for MHD generation. This year, an examination was conducted on technological problems in burning coal in an MHD combustor. As for the NOx elimination system in an MHD generation plant, an examination was made if the method studied so far in MHD generation using heavy oil as the fuel is applicable to coal. Also investigated and reviewed were various characteristics, change in physical properties, recovery method, etc., in a mixed state of seed and slag in the case of coal combustion MHD. (NEDO)
Conversion software for ANSYS APDL 2 FLUENT MHD magnetic file
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghita, G.; Ionescu, S.; Prisecaru, I.
2016-01-01
The present paper describes the improvements made to the conversion software for ANSYS APDL 2 FLUENT MHD Magnetic File which is able to extract the data from ANSYS APDL file and write down a file containing the magnetic field data in FLUENT magneto hydro dynamics (MHD) format. The MHD module has some features for the uniform and non uniform magnetic field but it is limited for sinusoidal or pulsed, square wave, having a fixed duty cycle of 50%. The present software, ANSYS APDL 2 FLUENT MHD Magnetic File, suffered major modifications in comparison with the last one. The most important improvement consists in a new graphical interface, which has 3D graphical interface for the input file but also for the output file. Another improvement has been made for processing time, the new version is two times faster comparing with the old one. (authors)
Numerical Simulation of 3D Viscous MHD Flows
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Golovachov, Yurii P; Kurakin, Yurii A; Schmidt, Alexander A; Van Wie, David M
2003-01-01
.... Flows in hypersonic intakes are considered. Preliminary results showed that local MHD interaction in the inlet part of the intake model was the most effective for control over plasma flow field...
Diagnostic development and support of MHD (magnetohydrodynamics) test facilities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1989-07-01
Mississippi State University (MSU) is developing diagnostic instruments for Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) power train data acquisition and for support of MHD component development test facilities. Microprocessor-controlled optical instruments, initially developed for HRSR support, are being refined, and new systems to measure temperatures and gas-seed-slag stream characteristics are being developed. To further data acquisition and analysis capabilities, the diagnostic systems are being interfaced with MHD Energy Center computers. Technical support for the diagnostic needs of the national MHD research effort is being provided. MSU personnel will also cooperate with government agencies and private industries to improve the transformation of research and development results into processes, products and services applicable to their needs.
Formation, structure, and stability of MHD intermediate shocks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, C.C.
1990-01-01
Contrary to the usual belief that MHD intermediate shocks are extraneous, the author has recently shown by numerical solutions of dissipative MHD equations that intermediate shocks are admissible and can be formed through nonlinear wave steepening from continuous waves. In this paper, the formation, structure and stability of intermediate shocks in dissipative MHD are considered in detail. The differences between the conventional theory and his are pointed out and clarified. He shows that all four types of intermediate shocks can be formed from smooth waves. He also shows that there are free parameters in the structure of the intermediate shocks, and that these parameters are related to the shock stability. In addition, he shows that a rotational discontinuity can not exist with finite width, indicate how this is related to the existence of time-dependent intermediate shocks, and show why the conventional theory is not a good approximation to dissipative MHD solutions whenever there is rotation in magnetic field
Unsteady MHD free convective flow past a vertical porous plate ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
user
International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology .... dimensional MHD boundary layer on the body with time varying temperature. ... flow of an electrically conducting fluid past an infinite vertical porous flat plate coinciding with.
Generalized similarity method in unsteady two-dimensional MHD ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
user
International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology. Vol. 1, No. 1, 2009 ... temperature two-dimensional MHD laminar boundary layer of incompressible fluid. ...... Φ η is Blasius solution for stationary boundary layer on the plate,. ( ). 0.
Combined effects of radiation and chemical reaction on MHD flow ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
(2016) have studied unsteady MHD flow in porous media over exponentially accelerated plate ... boundary layer flow of heat and mass transfer over a moving vertical plate with suction. ... flow considering free convection over a porous plate.
Electrode materials for an open-cycle MHD generator channel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Telegin, G.P.; Romanov, A.I.; Akopov, F.A.; Gokhshtejn, Ya.P.; Rekov, A.I.
1983-01-01
The results of investigations, technological developments and tests of high temperature materials for MHD electrodes on the base of zirconium dioxide, stabilized with oxides of calcium, yttrium, neodymium, and dioxide of cerium, chromites, tamping masses from stabilized dioxide of zirconium, cermets are considered. It is established that binary and ternary solutions on the base of zirconium dioxide and alloyed chromites are the perspective materials for the MHD electrodes on pure fuel
An Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian Discretization of MHD on 3D Unstructured Grids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rieben, R N; White, D A; Wallin, B K; Solberg, J M
2006-06-12
We present an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) discretization of the equations of resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) on unstructured hexahedral grids. The method is formulated using an operator-split approach with three distinct phases: electromagnetic diffusion, Lagrangian motion, and Eulerian advection. The resistive magnetic dynamo equation is discretized using a compatible mixed finite element method with a 2nd order accurate implicit time differencing scheme which preserves the divergence-free nature of the magnetic field. At each discrete time step, electromagnetic force and heat terms are calculated and coupled to the hydrodynamic equations to compute the Lagrangian motion of the conducting materials. By virtue of the compatible discretization method used, the invariants of Lagrangian MHD motion are preserved in a discrete sense. When the Lagrangian motion of the mesh causes significant distortion, that distortion is corrected with a relaxation of the mesh, followed by a 2nd order monotonic remap of the electromagnetic state variables. The remap is equivalent to Eulerian advection of the magnetic flux density with a fictitious mesh relaxation velocity. The magnetic advection is performed using a novel variant of constrained transport (CT) that is valid for unstructured hexahedral grids with arbitrary mesh velocities. The advection method maintains the divergence free nature of the magnetic field and is second order accurate in regions where the solution is sufficiently smooth. For regions in which the magnetic field is discontinuous (e.g. MHD shocks) the method is limited using a novel variant of algebraic flux correction (AFC) which is local extremum diminishing (LED) and divergence preserving. Finally, we verify each stage of the discretization via a set of numerical experiments.
Vlahos, Loukas; Archontis, Vasilis; Isliker, Heinz
We consider 3D nonlinear MHD simulations of an emerging flux tube, from the convection zone into the corona, focusing on the coronal part of the simulations. We first analyze the statistical nature and spatial structure of the electric field, calculating histograms and making use of iso-contour visualizations. Then test-particle simulations are performed for electrons, in order to study heating and acceleration phenomena, as well as to determine HXR emission. This study is done by comparatively exploring quiet, turbulent explosive, and mildly explosive phases of the MHD simulations. Also, the importance of collisional and relativistic effects is assessed, and the role of the integration time is investigated. Particular aim of this project is to verify the quasi- linear assumptions made in standard transport models, and to identify possible transport effects that cannot be captured with the latter. In order to determine the relation of our results to Fermi acceleration and Fokker-Planck modeling, we determine the standard transport coefficients. After all, we find that the electric field of the MHD simulations must be downscaled in order to prevent an un-physically high degree of acceleration, and the value chosen for the scale factor strongly affects the results. In different MHD time-instances we find heating to take place, and acceleration that depends on the level of MHD turbulence. Also, acceleration appears to be a transient phenomenon, there is a kind of saturation effect, and the parallel dynamics clearly dominate the energetics. The HXR spectra are not yet really compatible with observations, we have though to further explore the scaling of the electric field and the integration times used.
Ballester, J. L.; Carbonell, M.; Soler, R.; Terradas, J.
2018-01-01
Context. During heating or cooling processes in prominences, the plasma microscopic parameters are modified due to the change of temperature and ionization degree. Furthermore, if waves are excited on this non-stationary plasma, the changing physical conditions of the plasma also affect wave dynamics. Aims: Our aim is to study how temporal variation of temperature and microscopic plasma parameters modify the behaviour of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves excited in a prominence-like hydrogen plasma. Methods: Assuming optically thin radiation, a constant external heating, the full expression of specific internal energy, and a suitable energy equation, we have derived the profiles for the temporal variation of the background temperature. We have computed the variation of the ionization degree using a Saha equation, and have linearized the single-fluid MHD equations to study the temporal behaviour of MHD waves. Results: For all the MHD waves considered, the period and damping time become time dependent. In the case of Alfvén waves, the cut-off wavenumbers also become time dependent and the attenuation rate is completely different in a cooling or heating process. In the case of slow waves, while it is difficult to distinguish the slow wave properties in a cooling partially ionized plasma from those in an almost fully ionized plasma, the period and damping time of these waves in both plasmas are completely different when the plasma is heated. The temporal behaviour of the Alfvén and fast wave is very similar in the cooling case, but in the heating case, an important difference appears that is related with the time damping. Conclusions: Our results point out important differences in the behaviour of MHD waves when the plasma is heated or cooled, and show that a correct interpretation of the observed prominence oscillations is very important in order to put accurate constraints on the physical situation of the prominence plasma under study, that is, to perform prominence
Present state of research and development of MHD power generation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ikeda, Shigeru
1978-01-01
MHD power generation can obtain electric energy directly from the heat energy of high speed plasma flow, and the power generating plant of 1 million kW can be realized by this method. When the MHD power generation method is combined before conventional thermal power generation method, the thermal efficiency can be raised to about 60% as compared with 38% in thermal power generation plants. The research and development of MHD power generation are in progress in USA and USSR. The research and development in Japan are in the second stage now after the first stage project for 10 years, and the Mark 7 generator with 100 kW electric output for 200 hr continuous operation is under construction. The MHD power generation is divided into three types according to the conductive fluids used, namely combustion type for thermal power generation, unequilibrated type and liquid metal type for nuclear power generation. The principle of MHD power generation and the constitution of the plant are explained. In Japan, the Mark 2 generator generated 1,180 kW for 1 min in 1971, and the Mark 3 generator generated 1.9 kW continuously for 110 hr in 1967. The MHD generator with superconducting magnet succeeded in 1969 to generate 25 kW for 6 min. The second stage project aimes at collecting design data and obtaining operational experience for the construction of 10 MW class pilot plant, and the Mark 7 and 8 generators are planned. (Kako, I.)
Electromagnetic properties of a modular MHD thruster
Kom, C. H.; Brunet, Y.
1999-04-01
The magnetic field of an annular MHD thruster made of independent superconducting modules has been studied with analytical and numerical methods. This configuration allows to obtain large magnetized volumes and high induction levels with rapidly decreasing stray fields. When some inductors are out of order, the thruster remains still operational, but the stray fields increase in the vicinity of the failure. For given structural materials and superconductors, it is possible to determine the size of the conductor in order to reduce the electromagnetic forces and the peak field supported by the conductors. For an active field of 10 T in a 6 m ray annular active channel of a thruster with 24 modules, the peak field is exactly 15.6 T in the Nb3Sn conductors and the structure has to sustain 10^8 N/m forces. The necessity to place some magnetic or superconducting shield is discussed, particularly when the thruster is in a degraded regime. Nous présentons une étude analytique et numérique du champ magnétique d'un propulseur MHD naval annulaire, constitué de secteurs inducteurs supraconducteurs. Cette configuration nécessite des champs magnétiques élevés dans des volumes importants, et permet une décroissance rapide des champs de fuite. Lorsque quelques inducteurs sont en panne, le propulseur reste toujours opérationnel, mais les champs de fuite sont importants aux environs des modules hors service. Étant donné un matériau supraconducteur, il est possible de déterminer la forme des inducteurs dans le but de réduire à la fois les forces électromagnétiques et le surchamp supporté par le bobinage. Pour un propulseur annulaire constitué de 24 modules inducteurs, et un champ actif de 10 T au centre de la partie active du canal (r = 6 m) on obtient avec du Nb3Sn un champ maximun sur le conducteur de 15,5 T et la structure supporte une force de 10^8 N/m. De plus, la nécessité de placer des écrans magnétique ou supraconducteur en régime dégradé (mise
Global and kinetic MHD simulation by the Gpic-MHD code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Naitou, Hiroshi; Yamada, Yusuke; Kajiwara, Kenji; Lee, Wei-li; Tokuda, Shinji; Yagi, Masatoshi
2011-01-01
In order to implement large-scale and high-beta tokamak simulation, a new algorithm of the electromagnetic gyrokinetic PIC (particle-in-cell) code was proposed and installed on the Gpic-MHD code [Gyrokinetic PIC code for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation]. In the new algorithm, the vortex equation and the generalized ohm's law along the magnetic field are derived from the basic equations of the gyrokinetic Vlasov, Poisson, and Ampere system and are used to describe the spatio-temporal evolution of the field quantities of the electrostatic potential φ and the longitudinal component of the vector potential A z . Particle information is mainly used to estimate second order moments in the generalized ohm's law. Because the lower order moments of the charge density and the longitudinal current density are not used explicitly to determine φ and A z , the numerical noise induced by the discreteness of particle quantities reduces drastically. Another advantage of the algorithm is that the longitudinal induced electric field, E Tz =-∂A z /∂t, is explicitly estimated by the generalized ohm's law and used in the equations of motion. The particle velocities along the magnetic field are used (v z -formulation) instead of generalized momentums (p z -formulation), hence there is no problem of 'cancellation', which appear when estimating A z from the Ampere's law in the p z -formulation. The successful simulation of the collisionless internal kink mode by new Gpic-MHD with the realistic values of the large-scale and high-beta, revealed the usefulness of the new algorithm. (author)
EVIDENCE OF ACTIVE MHD INSTABILITY IN EULAG-MHD SIMULATIONS OF SOLAR CONVECTION
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lawson, Nicolas; Strugarek, Antoine; Charbonneau, Paul, E-mail: nicolas.laws@gmail.ca, E-mail: strugarek@astro.umontreal.ca, E-mail: paulchar@astro.umontreal.ca [Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128 Succ. Centre-ville, Montréal, Qc H3C 3J7 (Canada)
2015-11-10
We investigate the possible development of magnetohydrodynamical instabilities in the EULAG-MHD “millennium simulation” of Passos and Charbonneau. This simulation sustains a large-scale magnetic cycle characterized by solar-like polarity reversals taking place on a regular multidecadal cadence, and in which zonally oriented bands of strong magnetic fields accumulate below the convective layers, in response to turbulent pumping from above in successive magnetic half-cycles. Key aspects of this simulation include low numerical dissipation and a strongly sub-adiabatic fluid layer underlying the convectively unstable layers corresponding to the modeled solar convection zone. These properties are conducive to the growth and development of two-dimensional instabilities that are otherwise suppressed by stronger dissipation. We find evidence for the action of a non-axisymmetric magnetoshear instability operating in the upper portions of the stably stratified fluid layers. We also investigate the possibility that the Tayler instability may be contributing to the destabilization of the large-scale axisymmetric magnetic component at high latitudes. On the basis of our analyses, we propose a global dynamo scenario whereby the magnetic cycle is driven primarily by turbulent dynamo action in the convecting layers, but MHD instabilities accelerate the dissipation of the magnetic field pumped down into the overshoot and stable layers, thus perhaps significantly influencing the magnetic cycle period. Support for this scenario is found in the distinct global dynamo behaviors observed in an otherwise identical EULAG-MHD simulations, using a different degree of sub-adiabaticity in the stable fluid layers underlying the convection zone.
Extended MHD modeling of nonlinear instabilities in fusion and space plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Germaschewski, Kai [Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States)
2017-11-15
A number of different sub-projects where pursued within this DOE early career project. The primary focus was on using fully nonlinear, curvilinear, extended MHD simulations of instabilities with applications to fusion and space plasmas. In particular, we performed comprehensive studies of the dynamics of the double tearing mode in different regimes and confi gurations, using Cartesian and cyclindrical geometry and investigating both linear and non-linear dynamics. In addition to traditional extended MHD involving Hall term and electron pressure gradient, we also employed a new multi-fluid moment model, which shows great promise to incorporate kinetic effects, in particular off-diagonal elements of the pressure tensor, in a fluid model, which is naturally computationally much cheaper than fully kinetic particle or Vlasov simulations. We used our Vlasov code for detailed studies of how weak collisions effect plasma echos. In addition, we have played an important supporting role working with the PPPL theory group around Will Fox and Amitava Bhattacharjee on providing simulation support for HED plasma experiments performed at high-powered laser facilities like OMEGA-EP in Rochester, NY. This project has support a great number of computational advances in our fluid and kinetic plasma models, and has been crucial to winning multiple INCITE computer time awards that supported our computational modeling.
The structure of ideal MHD Alfven modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turnbull, A.D.; Chu, M.S.; Lao, L.L.; Greene, J.M.; Strait, E.J.; Chance, M.S.
1991-01-01
Continuum Alfven modes have undergone a resurgence in interest with the recent realization that so-called Toroidicity-Induced Alfven Eigenmodes (TAE modes) can be destabilized either by energetic beam ions in a strongly heated plasma or by alpha particles in a burning plasma. The GATO Ideal MHD Stability code, which minimizes the potential energy according to a variational formulation, has now been modified to isolate and calculate stable continuum eigenmodes. The existence of the TAE mode and its associated gap has been verified, using this code, for a circular cross-section, finite aspect ratio equilibrium. Moreover, the eigenfrequencies and eigenmodes obtained from this variational calculation are found to be in extremely good quantitative agreement with those obtained from the non-variational NOVA code. A systematic survey of the stable continuum has further revealed a surprising diversity in the structure of the continuum Alfven modes; the logarithmic singularity can be so broad, in some cases, as to occupy the whole cross-section. This has important implications for heating experiments which aim to locally excite the plasma by rf waves in the Alfven frequency range. The structure of several representative examples is discussed. The Alfven continuum, in general, and the TAE mode and its associated gap, in particular, are also found to be strongly modified by cross-sectional shaping. The dependence of the spectrum on various shaping factors is explored
Alpha particle effects on MHD ballooning
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1991-01-01
During the period, as the first step towards the goal of detail understanding of the effects of alpha particle on MHD Ballooning Modes, a new numerical approach to investigate the stability of low-frequency fluctuations in high temperature tokamaks was developed by solving the gyrokinetic equations for the ion and electron directly as an initial value problem. The advantage of this approach is the inclusion of many important kinetic features of the problem without approximations and computationally more economical than particle-pushing simulation. The ion-temperature-gradient-mode was investigated to benchmark this new simulation technique. Previous results in literature were recovered. Both the adiabatic electron model and the full drift-kinetic electron model are studied. Numerical result shows that the full drift-kinetic electron model is more unstable. The development of subcycling technique to handle the fast electron bounce time is particularly significant to apply this new approach to the alpha particle problem since alpha particle bounce frequency is also significantly higher than the mode frequency. This new numerical technique will be the basis of future study of the microstability in high temperature tokamaks with alpha particles (or any energetic species). 15 refs., 13 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsiklauri, D.
2014-01-01
Previous studies (e.g., Malara et al., Astrophys. J. 533, 523 (2000)) considered small-amplitude Alfven wave (AW) packets in Arnold-Beltrami-Childress (ABC) magnetic field using WKB approximation. They draw a distinction between 2D AW dissipation via phase mixing and 3D AW dissipation via exponentially divergent magnetic field lines. In the former case, AW dissipation time scales as S 1∕3 and in the latter as log(S), where S is the Lundquist number. In this work, linearly polarised Alfven wave dynamics in ABC magnetic field via direct 3D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical simulation is studied for the first time. A Gaussian AW pulse with length-scale much shorter than ABC domain length and a harmonic AW with wavelength equal to ABC domain length are studied for four different resistivities. While it is found that AWs dissipate quickly in the ABC field, contrary to an expectation, it is found the AW perturbation energy increases in time. In the case of the harmonic AW, the perturbation energy growth is transient in time, attaining peaks in both velocity and magnetic perturbation energies within timescales much smaller than the resistive time. In the case of the Gaussian AW pulse, the velocity perturbation energy growth is still transient in time, attaining a peak within few resistive times, while magnetic perturbation energy continues to grow. It is also shown that the total magnetic energy decreases in time and this is governed by the resistive evolution of the background ABC magnetic field rather than AW damping. On contrary, when the background magnetic field is uniform, the total magnetic energy decrease is prescribed by AW damping, because there is no resistive evolution of the background. By considering runs with different amplitudes and by analysing the perturbation spectra, possible dynamo action by AW perturbation-induced peristaltic flow and inverse cascade of magnetic energy have been excluded. Therefore, the perturbation energy growth is attributed to
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tsiklauri, D. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)
2014-05-15
Previous studies (e.g., Malara et al., Astrophys. J. 533, 523 (2000)) considered small-amplitude Alfven wave (AW) packets in Arnold-Beltrami-Childress (ABC) magnetic field using WKB approximation. They draw a distinction between 2D AW dissipation via phase mixing and 3D AW dissipation via exponentially divergent magnetic field lines. In the former case, AW dissipation time scales as S{sup 1∕3} and in the latter as log(S), where S is the Lundquist number. In this work, linearly polarised Alfven wave dynamics in ABC magnetic field via direct 3D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical simulation is studied for the first time. A Gaussian AW pulse with length-scale much shorter than ABC domain length and a harmonic AW with wavelength equal to ABC domain length are studied for four different resistivities. While it is found that AWs dissipate quickly in the ABC field, contrary to an expectation, it is found the AW perturbation energy increases in time. In the case of the harmonic AW, the perturbation energy growth is transient in time, attaining peaks in both velocity and magnetic perturbation energies within timescales much smaller than the resistive time. In the case of the Gaussian AW pulse, the velocity perturbation energy growth is still transient in time, attaining a peak within few resistive times, while magnetic perturbation energy continues to grow. It is also shown that the total magnetic energy decreases in time and this is governed by the resistive evolution of the background ABC magnetic field rather than AW damping. On contrary, when the background magnetic field is uniform, the total magnetic energy decrease is prescribed by AW damping, because there is no resistive evolution of the background. By considering runs with different amplitudes and by analysing the perturbation spectra, possible dynamo action by AW perturbation-induced peristaltic flow and inverse cascade of magnetic energy have been excluded. Therefore, the perturbation energy growth is
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fasoli, A.F.; Testa, D.; Jaun, A.; Sharapov, S.; Gormezano, C.
2001-01-01
The linear stability properties of global modes that can be driven by resonant energetic particles or by the bulk plasma are studied using an external excitation method based on the JET saddle coil antennas. Low toroidal mode number, stable plasma modes are driven by the saddle coils and detected by magnetic probes to measure their structure, frequency and damping rate, both in the Alfven Eigenmode (AE) frequency range and in the low frequency Magneto-Hydro-Dynamic (MHD) range. For AEs, the dominant damping mechanisms are identified for different plasma conditions of relevance for reactors. Spectra and damping rates of low frequency MHD modes that are localized at the foot of the internal transport barrier and can affect the plasma performance in advanced tokamak scenarios have been directly measured for the first time. This gives the possibility of monitoring in real time the approach to the instability boundary. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cessenat, M.; Genta, P.
1996-12-31
We use a method based on a separation of variables for solving a system of first order partial differential equations, in a very simple modelling of MHD. The method consists in introducing three unknown variables {phi}1, {phi}2, {phi}3 in addition of the time variable {tau} and then searching a solution which is separated with respect to {phi}1 and {tau} only. This is allowed by a very simple relation, called a `metric separation equation`, which governs the type of solutions with respect to time. The families of solutions for the system of equations thus obtained, correspond to a radial evolution of the fluid. Solving the MHD equations is then reduced to find the transverse component H{sub {Sigma}} of the magnetic field on the unit sphere {Sigma} by solving a non linear partial differential equation on {Sigma}. Thus we generalize ideas due to Courant-Friedrichs and to Sedov on dimensional analysis and self-similar solutions. (authors).
Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; Prosperi, Mattia C F; Kjær, Jesper; Dunn, David; Paredes, Roger; Sabin, Caroline A; Lundgren, Jens D; Phillips, Andrew N; Pillay, Deenan
2011-01-01
The question of whether a score for a specific antiretroviral (e.g. lopinavir/r in this analysis) that improves prediction of viral load response given by existing expert-based interpretation systems (IS) could be derived from analyzing the correlation between genotypic data and virological response using statistical methods remains largely unanswered. We used the data of the patients from the UK Collaborative HIV Cohort (UK CHIC) Study for whom genotypic data were stored in the UK HIV Drug Resistance Database (UK HDRD) to construct a training/validation dataset of treatment change episodes (TCE). We used the average square error (ASE) on a 10-fold cross-validation and on a test dataset (the EuroSIDA TCE database) to compare the performance of a newly derived lopinavir/r score with that of the 3 most widely used expert-based interpretation rules (ANRS, HIVDB and Rega). Our analysis identified mutations V82A, I54V, K20I and I62V, which were associated with reduced viral response and mutations I15V and V91S which determined lopinavir/r hypersensitivity. All models performed equally well (ASE on test ranging between 1.1 and 1.3, p = 0.34). We fully explored the potential of linear regression to construct a simple predictive model for lopinavir/r-based TCE. Although, the performance of our proposed score was similar to that of already existing IS, previously unrecognized lopinavir/r-associated mutations were identified. The analysis illustrates an approach of validation of expert-based IS that could be used in the future for other antiretrovirals and in other settings outside HIV research.
Resistivity at the field null of the FRC plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gerwin, R.A.
1989-01-01
In the absence of the major destructive instabilities, the configuration time is ultimately determined by particle and flux containment. If the profiles are ''gentle,'' then the anomalous flux-loss rate depends essentially on the anomalous resistivity at the field null. Conventional electrostatic quasi-linear models of anomalous cross-field resistive diffusivity are based upon the use of rvec E x rvec B drift velocities, and hence break down at the magnetic field null. In this paper, an electromagnetic treatment valid at the field null is developed, based upon the presence of flute-parity perturbations. An expression for anomalous resistivity at the field null in the quasi-linear approximation is derived by averaging in the ignorable direction over the random phases of the perturbations. The expression is valid for arbitrary (non-local) radial shapes of the perturbing modes (for example, the eigenfunctions need not be centered at the field null), and for an arbitrary ratio of real frequency to growth rate. The effective resistivity due to flute perturbations of the MHD type will be considered. 1 ref
Study on closed cycle MHD generation systems; Closed cycle MHD hatsuden system no kento
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1988-03-01
The closed cycle noble gas MHD generation systems are surveyed and studied. The concept of closed cycle noble gas MHD generation is confirmed to extract high enthalpy, and now going into the engineering demonstration stage from the basic research stage. These systems have various characteristics. The highest working temperature is around 1,700 degrees C, which is close to that associated with the existing techniques. Use of helium or argon gas as the working fluid makes the system relatively free of various problems, e.g., corrosion. It can attain a much higher efficiency than the combined cycle involving gas turbine. It suffers less heat loss in the passages, is suitable for small- to medium-capacity power generation systems, and copes with varying load. The compact power generation passages decrease required size of the superconducting magnet. The technical problems to be solved include optimization of power generation conditions, demonstration of durability of the power generation passages, injection/recovery of the seed material, treatment of the working gas to remove molecular impurities, and development of heat exchangers serviceable at high temperature produced by direct combustion of coal. The conceptual designs of the triple combined system are completed. (NEDO)
Report on studies on closed cycle MHD power generation; Closed cycle MHD hatsuden kento hokokusho
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1991-04-01
Summarized herein are results of the studies on closed cycle MHD (CCMHD) power generation by the study committee. The studied system is based on the MHD gas turbine combined Brayton cycle of about 500,000 kW in output power, firing natural gas as the fuel, and the conceptual design works therefor are completed. The major findings are: the overall plant efficiency: 54.2% at the power transmission side, plot area required per unit power output: 0.04 m{sup 2}/KW, unit construction cost: 251,000 yen/KW, and unit power generation cost: 10.2 yen/KWh. This system will be more operable than the gas turbine combined cycle with steam system, because start-up time, output change rate, optimum load and so on are constrained not on the power generator side but on the gas turbine side. The expected environmental effects include the exhaust gas NOX concentration being equivalent with that associated with the conventional power generator of 2-stage combustion system, quantity of combustion gases to be treated being approximately 40% of that associated with the gas turbine combined cycle, and reduced CO2 gas emissions, resulting from enhanced power generation efficiency. It is expected that the CCMHD system can exhibit higher efficiency than the high-temperature gas turbine combined cycle system. (NEDO)
MHD convective flow of magnetite-Fe3O4 nanoparticles by curved stretching sheet
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tasawar Hayat
Full Text Available Present work is devoted to convective flow of ferrofluid due to non linear stretching curved sheet. Electrically conducting fluid is considered in the presence of uniform magnetic field. Nanofluid comprises water and magnetite-Fe3O4 as nanoparticles. Thermal radiation and heat generation/absorption are explained. Homotopy concept is utilized for the development of solutions. Highly nonlinear partial differential systems are reduced into the nonlinear ordinary differential system. Impact of non-dimensional radius of curvature and power law index on the physical quantities like fluid pressure, velocity and temperature field are examined. Computations for surface shear stress and heat transfer rate also analyzed. Keywords: MHD nanofluid, Thermal radiation, Porous medium, Convective boundary conditions, Non-linear curved stretching sheet
Modelling of diamagnetic stabilization of ideal MHD eigenmodes associated with the transport barrier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huysmans, G.; Sharapov, S.; Mikhailovskii, A.; Kerner, W.
2001-01-01
A new code, MISHKA-D (Drift MHD), has been developed as an extension of the ideal MHD code MISHKA-1 in order to investigate the finite gyroradius stabilizing effect of ion diamagnetic drift frequency, ω *i , on linear ideal MHD eigenmodes in tokamaks with shaped plasma cross-section. The MISHKA-D code gives a self-consistent computation of both stable and unstable eigenmodes with eigenvalues [γ] ≅ ω *i in plasmas with strong radial variation in the ion diamagnetic frequency. Test results of the MISHKA-D code show good agreement with the analytically obtained ω *i -spectrum and stability limits of the internal kink mode, n/m=1/1, used as a benchmark case. Finite-n ballooning and low-n kink (peeling) modes in the edge transport barrier just inside the separatrix are studied for H-mode plasma with the ω *i -effect included. The ion diamagnetic stabilization of the ballooning modes is found to be most effective for narrow edge pedestals. For low enough plasma density the ω *i - stabilization can lead to a second zone of ballooning stability, in which all the ballooning modes are stable for any value of the pressure gradient. For internal transport barriers typical of JET optimised shear discharges, the stabilizing influence of ion diamagnetic frequency on the n=1 global pressure driven disruptive mode is studied. A strong radial variation of ω *i is found to significantly decrease the stabilizing ω *i - effect on the n=1 mode, in comparison with the case of constant ω *i estimated at the foot of the internal transport barrier. (author)
Spectroscopic measurement of the MHD dynamo in the MST reversed field pinch
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chapman, James Tharp [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)
1998-09-01
The author has directly observed the coupling of ion velocity fluctuations and magnetic field fluctuations to produce an MHD dynamo electric field in the interior of the MST reversed field pinch. Chord averaged ion velocity fluctuations were measured with a fast spectroscopic diagnostic which collects line radiation from intrinsic carbon impurities simultaneously along two lines of sight. The chords employed for the measurements resolved long wavelength velocity fluctuations of several km/s at 8-20 kHz as tiny, fast Doppler shifts in the emitted line profile. During discrete dynamo events the velocity fluctuations, like the magnetic fluctuations, increase dramatically. The toroidal and poloidal chords with impact parameters of 0.3 a and 0.6 a respectively, resolved fluctuation wavenumbers with resonance surfaces near or along the lines of sight indicating a radial velocity fluctuation width for each mode which spans only a fraction of the plasma radius. The phase between the measured toroidal velocity fluctuations and the magnetic fluctuations matches the predictions of resistive MHD while the poloidal velocity fluctuations exhibit a phase consistent with the superposition of MHD effects and the advection of a mean flow gradient past the poloidal line of sight. Radial velocity fluctuations resolved by a chord through the center of the plasma were small compared to the poloidal and toroidal fluctuations and exhibited low coherence with the magnetic fluctuations. The ensembled nonlinear product of the ion velocity fluctuations and fluctuations in the magnetic field indicates a substantial dynamo electric field which peaks during the periods of spontaneous flux generation.
Spectroscopic measurement of the MHD dynamo in the MST reversed field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chapman, J.T.
1998-09-01
The author has directly observed the coupling of ion velocity fluctuations and magnetic field fluctuations to produce an MHD dynamo electric field in the interior of the MST reversed field pinch. Chord averaged ion velocity fluctuations were measured with a fast spectroscopic diagnostic which collects line radiation from intrinsic carbon impurities simultaneously along two lines of sight. The chords employed for the measurements resolved long wavelength velocity fluctuations of several km/s at 8--20 kHz as tiny, fast Doppler shifts in the emitted line profile. During discrete dynamo events the velocity fluctuations, like the magnetic fluctuations, increase dramatically. The toroidal and poloidal chords with impact parameters of 0.3 a and 0.6 a respectively, resolved fluctuation wavenumbers with resonance surfaces near or along the lines of sight indicating a radial velocity fluctuation width for each mode which spans only a fraction of the plasma radius. The phase between the measured toroidal velocity fluctuations and the magnetic fluctuations matches the predictions of resistive MHD while the poloidal velocity fluctuations exhibit a phase consistent with the superposition of MHD effects and the advection of a mean flow gradient past the poloidal line of sight. Radial velocity fluctuations resolved by a chord through the center of the plasma were small compared to the poloidal and toroidal fluctuations and exhibited low coherence with the magnetic fluctuations. The ensembled nonlinear product of the ion velocity fluctuations and fluctuations in the magnetic field indicates a substantial dynamo electric field which peaks during the periods of spontaneous flux generation
A MHD channel study for the ETF conceptual design
Wang, S. Y.; Staiger, P. J.; Smith, J. M.
1981-01-01
The procedures and computations used to identify an MHD channel for a 540 mW(I) EFT-scale plant are presented. Under the assumed constraints of maximum E(x), E(y), J(y) and Beta; results show the best plant performance is obtained for active length, L is approximately 12 M, whereas in the initial ETF studies, L is approximately 16 M. As MHD channel length is reduced from 16 M, the channel enthalpy extraction falls off, slowly. This tends to reduce the MHD power output; however, the shorter channels result in lower heat losses to the MHD channel cooling water which allows for the incorporation of more low pressure boiler feedwater heaters into the system and an increase in steam plant efficiency. The net result of these changes is a net increase in the over all MHD/steam plant efficiency. In addition to the sensitivity of various channel parameters, the trade-offs between the level of oxygen enrichment and the electrical stress on the channel are also discussed.
Further analysis of MHD acceleration for a hypersonic wind tunnel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Christiansen, M.J.; Schmidt, H.J.; Chapman, J.N.
1995-01-01
A previously completed MHD study of the use of an MHD accelerator with seeded air from a state-of-the-art arc heater, was generally hailed as showing that the system studied has some promise of meeting the most critical hypersonic testing requirements. However, some concerns existed about certain aspects of the results. This paper discusses some of these problems and presents analysis of potential solutions. Specifically the problems addressed are; reducing the amount of seed in the flow, reducing test chamber temperatures, and reducing the oxygen dissociation. Modeling techniques are used to study three design variables of the MHD accelerator. The accelerator channel inlet Mach number, the accelerator channel divergence angle, and the magnetic field strength are all studied. These variables are all optimized to meet the goals for seed, temperature, and dissociated oxygen reduction. The results of this paper are encouraging, showing that all three goals can be met. General relationships are observed as to how the design variables affect the performance of the MHD accelerator facility. This paper expands on the results presented in the UTSI report and further supports the feasibility of MHD acceleration as a means to provide hypersonic flight simulation
Results from a large-scale MHD propulsion experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petrick, M.; Libera, J.; Bouillard, J.X.; Pierson, E.S.; Hill, D.
1992-01-01
This paper reports on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) thrusters which have long been recognized as potentially attractive candidates for ship propulsion because such systems eliminate the conventional rotating drive components. The MHD thruster is essentially an electromagnet (EM) pump operating in seawater. An electrical current is passed directly through the seawater and interacts with an applied magnetic field; the interaction of the magnetic field and the electrode current in the seawater results in a Lorentz force acting on the water, and the reaction to this force propels the vessel forward. The concept of EM propulsion has been examined periodically during the past 35 years as an alternative method of propulsion for surface ships and submersibles. The conclusions reached in early studies were that MHD thrusters restricted to fields of 2T (the state-of-the-art at that time) were impractical and very inefficient. With the evolution of superconducting magnet technology, later studies investigated the performance of MHD thrusters with much higher magnetic field strengths and concluded that at higher fields (>6 T) practical MHD propulsion systems appear possible
Shilov, Georgi E
1977-01-01
Covers determinants, linear spaces, systems of linear equations, linear functions of a vector argument, coordinate transformations, the canonical form of the matrix of a linear operator, bilinear and quadratic forms, Euclidean spaces, unitary spaces, quadratic forms in Euclidean and unitary spaces, finite-dimensional space. Problems with hints and answers.
Non-linear magnetohydrodynamic modeling of plasma response to resonant magnetic perturbations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Orain, F.; Bécoulet, M.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Nardon, E.; Passeron, C.; Latu, G.; Grandgirard, V.; Fil, A.; Ratnani, A. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Huijsmans, G. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon, F-13115 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Pamela, S. [IIFS-PIIM. Aix Marseille Université - CNRS, 13397 Marseille Cedex20 (France); Chapman, I.; Kirk, A.; Thornton, A. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Hoelzl, M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany); Cahyna, P. [Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Prague (Czech Republic)
2013-10-15
The interaction of static Resonant Magnetic Perturbations (RMPs) with the plasma flows is modeled in toroidal geometry, using the non-linear resistive MHD code JOREK, which includes the X-point and the scrape-off-layer. Two-fluid diamagnetic effects, the neoclassical poloidal friction and a source of toroidal rotation are introduced in the model to describe realistic plasma flows. RMP penetration is studied taking self-consistently into account the effects of these flows and the radial electric field evolution. JET-like, MAST, and ITER parameters are used in modeling. For JET-like parameters, three regimes of plasma response are found depending on the plasma resistivity and the diamagnetic rotation: at high resistivity and slow rotation, the islands generated by the RMPs at the edge resonant surfaces rotate in the ion diamagnetic direction and their size oscillates. At faster rotation, the generated islands are static and are more screened by the plasma. An intermediate regime with static islands which slightly oscillate is found at lower resistivity. In ITER simulations, the RMPs generate static islands, which forms an ergodic layer at the very edge (ψ≥0.96) characterized by lobe structures near the X-point and results in a small strike point splitting on the divertor targets. In MAST Double Null Divertor geometry, lobes are also found near the X-point and the 3D-deformation of the density and temperature profiles is observed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1968-01-01
Proceedings of a Symposium on Magnetohydrodynamic Electrical Power Generation held by the IAEA at Warsaw, 24-30 July 1968. The meeting was attended by some 300 participants from 21 countries and three international organizations. In contrast to the Symposium held two years ago, much more emphasis was placed on the economic aspects of using MHD generators in large-scale power generation. Among closed- cycle systems, the prospects of linking an ultra-high-temperature reactor with an MHD generator were explored, and the advantages gained by having a liquid-metal generator as a 'topper' in a conventional steam generating plant were presented. Comments were made about the disproportionate effect of end and boundary conditions in experimental MHD generators on the main plasma parameters, and estimates were made of the interrelationship to be expected in real generators. The estimates will have to await confirmation until results are obtained on large-scale prototype MHD systems. Progress in materials research, in design and construction of auxiliary equipment such as heat exchangers, supercooled magnets (which are- now commercially available), etc., is accompanied by sophisticated ideas of plant design. The Proceedings are complemented by three Round Table Discussions in which chosen experts from various countries discuss the outlook for closed-cycle gas, closed-cycle liquid-metal and open-cycle MHD, and give their views as to the most fruitful course to follow to achieve economic full-scale power generation. Contents: (Vol. I) 1. Closed-Cycle MHD with Gaseous Working Fluids: (a) Diagnostics (3 papers); (b) Steady-state non-equilibrium ionization (8 papers); (c) Transient non-equilibrium ionization (7 papers); (d) Pre-ionization and gas discharge (4 papers); (e) Fields and flow in MHD channels (10 papers); (0 Instabilities (8 papers); (g) Generator design and performance studies (6 papers); (Vol. II) (h) Shock waves (6 papers); (i) Power generation experiments (13 papers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soler, Roberto; Terradas, Jaume; Oliver, Ramón; Goossens, Marcel
2013-01-01
Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves are ubiquitously observed in the solar atmosphere. Kink waves are a type of transverse MHD waves in magnetic flux tubes that are damped due to resonant absorption. The theoretical study of kink MHD waves in solar flux tubes is usually based on the simplification that the transverse variation of density is confined to a nonuniform layer much thinner than the radius of the tube, i.e., the so-called thin boundary approximation. Here, we develop a general analytic method to compute the dispersion relation and the eigenfunctions of ideal MHD waves in pressureless flux tubes with transversely nonuniform layers of arbitrary thickness. Results for kink waves are produced and compared with fully numerical resistive MHD eigenvalue computations in the limit of small resistivity. We find that the frequency and resonant damping rate are the same in both ideal and resistive cases. The actual results for thick nonuniform layers deviate from the behavior predicted in the thin boundary approximation and strongly depend on the shape of the nonuniform layer. The eigenfunctions in ideal MHD are very different from those in resistive MHD. The ideal eigenfunctions display a global character regardless of the thickness of the nonuniform layer, while the resistive eigenfunctions are localized around the resonance and are indistinguishable from those of ordinary resistive Alfvén modes. Consequently, the spatial distribution of wave energy in the ideal and resistive cases is dramatically different. This poses a fundamental theoretical problem with clear observational consequences
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Niemann, R.C.; Mataya, K.F.; Smith, R.P.; McWilliams, D.A.; Borden, R.; Streeter, M.H.; Wickson, R.; Privalov, N.P.
1978-01-01
In order to facilitate the rapid development of MHD technology for the generation of electrical energy, the U.S. and U.S.S.R. are jointly conducting research within the framework of the Program of Scientific and Technical Cooperation. The Institute for High Temperature (IVTAN) of the U.S.S.R. has designed and fabricated a special MHD facility which uses as its base much of the equipment of the existing U-25 Facility. The new MHD fow train consisting of a combustor, magnet, channel, and diffuser is named U-25B. The U.S. has provided a superconducting magnet system for the U-25B MHD Facility. As a result of these joint efforts, a unique and broad range of experimental test conditions similar to those that will exist in operation of commercial MHD generators has been created. The United States Superconducting Magnet System (U.S. SCMS) was designed, fabricated, and delivered to the U-25B Facility by the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy. The following description focuses on the cryogenic-related aspects of the magnet system commissioning and operation in the U.S.S.R
Helium refrigerator-liquefier system for MHD generator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akiyama, Y.; Ishii, H.; Mori, Y.; Yamamoto, M.; Wada, R.; Ando, M.
1974-01-01
MHD power generators have been investigated in the Electro-Technical Laboratory as one of the National Research and Development Programmes. A helium refrigerator-liquefier system has been developed to cool the superconducting magnet for a 1000 kW class MHD power generator. The turboexpander with low temperature gas bearings and an alternator had been developed for the MHD project at the Electro-Technical Laboratory previously. The liquefaction capacity is 250 iota/h and the refrigeration power is 2.9 kW at 20 K. The superconducting magnet is 50 tons and the cryostat has a liquid helium volume of 2700 iota. The evaporation rate is 60 to 80 iota/h. It takes, in all 2 to 3 weeks to fill the cryostat with liquid helium. (author)
Outline of fast analyzer for MHD equilibrium 'FAME'
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sakata, Shinya; Haginoya, Hirofumi; Tsuruoka, Takuya; Aoyagi, Tetsuo; Saito, Naoyuki; Harada, Hiroo; Tani, Keiji; Watanabe, Hideto.
1994-03-01
The FAME (Fast Analyzer for Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Equilibrium) system has been developed in order to provide more than 100 MHD equilibria in time series which are enough for the non-stationary analysis of the experimental data of JT-60 within about 20 minutes shot interval. The FAME is an MIMD type small scale parallel computer with 20 microprocessors which are connected by a multi-stage switching system. The maximum theoretical speed is 250 MFLOPS. For the software system of FAME, MHD equilibrium analysis code SELENE and its input data production code FBI are tuned up taking the parallel processing into consideration. Consequently, the computational performance of the FAME system becomes more than 7 times faster than the existing general purpose computer FACOM M780-10s. This report summarizes the outline of the FAME system including hardware, soft-ware and peripheral equipments. (author)
MHD Flows in Compact Astrophysical Objects Accretion, Winds and Jets
Beskin, Vasily S
2010-01-01
Accretion flows, winds and jets of compact astrophysical objects and stars are generally described within the framework of hydrodynamical and magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) flows. Analytical analysis of the problem provides profound physical insights, which are essential for interpreting and understanding the results of numerical simulations. Providing such a physical understanding of MHD Flows in Compact Astrophysical Objects is the main goal of this book, which is an updated translation of a successful Russian graduate textbook. The book provides the first detailed introduction into the method of the Grad-Shafranov equation, describing analytically the very broad class of hydrodynamical and MHD flows. It starts with the classical examples of hydrodynamical accretion onto relativistic and nonrelativistic objects. The force-free limit of the Grad-Shafranov equation allows us to analyze in detail the physics of the magnetospheres of radio pulsars and black holes, including the Blandford-Znajek process of energy e...
Diagnostic development and support of MHD test facilities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1990-01-01
The Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL) at Mississippi State University (MSU) is developing diagnostic instruments for MHD power train data acquisition and for support of MHD component development test facilities. Microprocessor-controlled optical instruments, initially developed for Heat Recovery/Seed Recovery support, are being refined, and new systems to measure temperatures and gas-seed-slag stream characteristics are being developed. To further data acquisition and analysis capabilities, the diagnostic systems are being interfaced with DIAL's computers. Technical support for the diagnostic needs of the national MHD research effort is being provided. DIAL personnel will also cooperate with government agencies and private industries to improve the transformation of research and development results into processes, products and services applicable to their needs. 25 figs., 6 tabs.
Criteria for Scaled Laboratory Simulations of Astrophysical MHD Phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ryutov, D. D.; Drake, R. P.; Remington, B. A.
2000-01-01
We demonstrate that two systems described by the equations of the ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) evolve similarly, if the initial conditions are geometrically similar and certain scaling relations hold. The thermodynamic properties of the gas must be such that the internal energy density is proportional to the pressure. The presence of the shocks is allowed. We discuss the applicability conditions of the ideal MHD and demonstrate that they are satisfied with a large margin both in a number of astrophysical objects, and in properly designed simulation experiments with high-power lasers. This allows one to perform laboratory experiments whose results can be used for quantitative interpretation of various effects of astrophysical MHD. (c) 2000 The American Astronomical Society
Pseudo-MHD ballooning modes in tokamak plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Callen, J.D.; Hegna, C.C.
1996-08-01
The MHD description of a plasma is extended to allow electrons to have both fluid-like and adiabatic-regime responses within an instability eigenmode. In the resultant open-quotes pseudo-MHDclose quotes model, magnetic field line bending is reduced in the adiabatic electron regime. This makes possible a new class of ballooning-type, long parallel extent, MHD-like instabilities in tokamak plasmas for α > s 2 (2 7/3 /9) (r p /R 0 ) or-d√Β/dr > (2 1/6 /3)(s/ R 0q ), which is well below the ideal-MHD stability boundary. The marginally stable pressure profile is similar in both magnitude and shape to that observed in ohmically heated tokamak plasmas
Diagnostic development and support of MHD test facilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shepard, W.S.; Cook, R.L.
1990-01-01
The Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL) at Mississippi State University (MSU) is developing diagnostic instruments for MHD power train data acquisition and for support of MHD component development test facilities. Microprocessor-controlled optical instruments, initially developed for Heat Recovery/ Seed Recovery support, are being refined, and new systems to measure temperatures and gas-seed-slag stream characteristics are being developed. To further data acquisition and analysis capabilities, the diagnostic systems are being interfaced with DIAL's computers. Technical support for the diagnostic needs of the national MHD research effort is being provided. DIAL personnel will also cooperate with government agencies and private industries to improve the transformation of research and development results into processes, products and services applicable to their needs
Toward textbook multigrid efficiency for fully implicit resistive magnetohydrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adams, Mark F.; Samtaney, Ravi; Brandt, Achi
2013-01-01
Multigrid methods can solve some classes of elliptic and parabolic equations to accuracy below the truncation error with a work-cost equivalent to a few residual calculations so-called textbook multigrid efficiency. We investigate methods to solve the system of equations that arise in time dependent magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations with textbook multigrid efficiency. We apply multigrid techniques such as geometric interpolation, full approximate storage, Gauss-Seidel smoothers, and defect correction for fully implicit, nonlinear, second-order finite volume discretizations of MHD. We apply these methods to a standard resistive MHD benchmark problem, the GEM reconnection problem, and add a strong magnetic guide field, which is a critical characteristic of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. We show that our multigrid methods can achieve near textbook efficiency on fully implicit resistive MHD simulations.
Toward textbook multigrid efficiency for fully implicit resistive magnetohydrodynamics
Adams, Mark F.; Samtaney, Ravi; Brandt, Achi
2010-01-01
Multigrid methods can solve some classes of elliptic and parabolic equations to accuracy below the truncation error with a work-cost equivalent to a few residual calculations so-called "textbook" multigrid efficiency. We investigate methods to solve the system of equations that arise in time dependent magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations with textbook multigrid efficiency. We apply multigrid techniques such as geometric interpolation, full approximate storage, Gauss-Seidel smoothers, and defect correction for fully implicit, nonlinear, second-order finite volume discretizations of MHD. We apply these methods to a standard resistive MHD benchmark problem, the GEM reconnection problem, and add a strong magnetic guide field, which is a critical characteristic of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. We show that our multigrid methods can achieve near textbook efficiency on fully implicit resistive MHD simulations. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Toward textbook multigrid efficiency for fully implicit resistive magnetohydrodynamics
Adams, Mark F.
2010-09-01
Multigrid methods can solve some classes of elliptic and parabolic equations to accuracy below the truncation error with a work-cost equivalent to a few residual calculations so-called "textbook" multigrid efficiency. We investigate methods to solve the system of equations that arise in time dependent magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations with textbook multigrid efficiency. We apply multigrid techniques such as geometric interpolation, full approximate storage, Gauss-Seidel smoothers, and defect correction for fully implicit, nonlinear, second-order finite volume discretizations of MHD. We apply these methods to a standard resistive MHD benchmark problem, the GEM reconnection problem, and add a strong magnetic guide field, which is a critical characteristic of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. We show that our multigrid methods can achieve near textbook efficiency on fully implicit resistive MHD simulations. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Toward textbook multigrid efficiency for fully implicit resistive magnetohydrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adams, Mark F.; Samtaney, Ravi; Brandt, Achi
2010-01-01
Multigrid methods can solve some classes of elliptic and parabolic equations to accuracy below the truncation error with a work-cost equivalent to a few residual calculations - so-called 'textbook' multigrid efficiency. We investigate methods to solve the system of equations that arise in time dependent magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations with textbook multigrid efficiency. We apply multigrid techniques such as geometric interpolation, full approximate storage, Gauss-Seidel smoothers, and defect correction for fully implicit, nonlinear, second-order finite volume discretizations of MHD. We apply these methods to a standard resistive MHD benchmark problem, the GEM reconnection problem, and add a strong magnetic guide field, which is a critical characteristic of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. We show that our multigrid methods can achieve near textbook efficiency on fully implicit resistive MHD simulations.
A performance analysis for MHD power cycles operating at maximum power density
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sahin, Bahri; Kodal, Ali; Yavuz, Hasbi
1996-01-01
An analysis of the thermal efficiency of a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power cycle at maximum power density for a constant velocity type MHD generator has been carried out. The irreversibilities at the compressor and the MHD generator are taken into account. The results obtained from power density analysis were compared with those of maximum power analysis. It is shown that by using the power density criteria the MHD cycle efficiency can be increased effectively. (author)
Phase Coherence of Large Amplitude MHD Waves in the Earth's Foreshock: Geotail Observations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hada, Tohru; Koga, Daiki; Yamamoto, Eiko
2003-01-01
Large amplitude MHD turbulence is commonly found in the earth's foreshock region. It can be represented as a superposition of Fourier modes with characteristic frequency, amplitude, and phase. Nonlinear interactions between the Fourier modes are likely to produce finite correlation among the wave phases. For discussions of various transport processes of energetic particles, it is fundamentally important to determine whether the wave phases are randomly distributed (as assumed in quasi-linear theories) or they have a finite coherence. However, naive inspection of wave phases does not reveal anything, as the wave phase is sensitively related to the choice of origin of the coordinate, which should be arbitrary. Using a method based on a surrogate data technique and a fractal analysis, we analyzed Geotail magnetic field data to evaluate the phase coherence among the MHD waves in the earth's foreshock region. We show that the correlation of wave phases does exist, indicating that the nonlinear interactions between the waves is in progress. Furthermore, by introducing an index to represent the degree of the phase coherence, we discuss that the wave phases become more coherent as the turbulence amplitude increases, and also as the propagation angle of the most dominant wave mode becomes oblique. Details of the analysis as well as implications of the present results to transport processes of energetic particles will be discussed
Nonlinear Diamagnetic Stabilization of Double Tearing Modes in Cylindrical MHD Simulations
Abbott, Stephen; Germaschewski, Kai
2014-10-01
Double tearing modes (DTMs) may occur in reversed-shear tokamak configurations if two nearby rational surfaces couple and begin reconnecting. During the DTM's nonlinear evolution it can enter an ``explosive'' growth phase leading to complete reconnection, making it a possible driver for off-axis sawtooth crashes. Motivated by similarities between this behavior and that of the m = 1 kink-tearing mode in conventional tokamaks we investigate diamagnetic drifts as a possible DTM stabilization mechanism. We extend our previous linear studies of an m = 2 , n = 1 DTM in cylindrical geometry to the fully nonlinear regime using the MHD code MRC-3D. A pressure gradient similar to observed ITB profiles is used, together with Hall physics, to introduce ω* effects. We find the diamagnetic drifts can have a stabilizing effect on the nonlinear DTM through a combination of large scale differential rotation and mechanisms local to the reconnection layer. MRC-3D is an extended MHD code based on the libMRC computational framework. It supports nonuniform grids in curvilinear coordinates with parallel implicit and explicit time integration.
Badia, Santiago; Martín, Alberto F.; Planas, Ramon
2014-10-01
The thermally coupled incompressible inductionless magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) problem models the flow of an electrically charged fluid under the influence of an external electromagnetic field with thermal coupling. This system of partial differential equations is strongly coupled and highly nonlinear for real cases of interest. Therefore, fully implicit time integration schemes are very desirable in order to capture the different physical scales of the problem at hand. However, solving the multiphysics linear systems of equations resulting from such algorithms is a very challenging task which requires efficient and scalable preconditioners. In this work, a new family of recursive block LU preconditioners is designed and tested for solving the thermally coupled inductionless MHD equations. These preconditioners are obtained after splitting the fully coupled matrix into one-physics problems for every variable (velocity, pressure, current density, electric potential and temperature) that can be optimally solved, e.g., using preconditioned domain decomposition algorithms. The main idea is to arrange the original matrix into an (arbitrary) 2 × 2 block matrix, and consider an LU preconditioner obtained by approximating the corresponding Schur complement. For every one of the diagonal blocks in the LU preconditioner, if it involves more than one type of unknowns, we proceed the same way in a recursive fashion. This approach is stated in an abstract way, and can be straightforwardly applied to other multiphysics problems. Further, we precisely explain a flexible and general software design for the code implementation of this type of preconditioners.
Particle orbits and non-ideal MHD stability of Z-pinches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faghihi, M.
1987-01-01
Particle orbits in a linear EXTRAP vacuum magnetic field configuration are computed. The results indicate that, with an applied electric field along the axis, the particles starting near the magnetic stagnation line would gain substantial energy in the 'free fall', and are the most efficient ones to participate in the ionization process. The acquired energy depends on the electric field strength; the required value of the field is determined. The influence of the pressure anisotropy on the small wavelength internal kink (m=1) mode instability in a Z-pinch, using a generalization of Freidbergs perpendicular MHD model, is investigated. It is found that the stability criterion can not be fulfilled without violation of the fire hose stability condition. This investigation is also performed using the double-adiabatic theory. A finite Larmor radius treatment of the small wavelength kink instabilities for a Z-pinch geometry is presented. It is shown that, when the gyroviscosity is included in the perpendicular MHD model, exponentially growing Alfven waves are predicted even in a homogeneous static equilibrium with isotropic plasma pressure. The Hall effect in the incompressible Hall fluid model is considered. It is found that the Hall parameter reduces the growth rates of the kink modes, but it does not yield complete stabilization (author)
Particle orbits and non-ideal MHD stability of Z-pinches
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Faghihi, M.
1987-01-01
Particle orbits in a linear EXTRAP vacuum magnetic field configuration are computed. The results indicate that, with an applied electric field along the axis, the particles starting near the magnetic stagnation line would gain substantial energy in the 'free fall', and are the most efficient ones to participate in the ionization process. The acquired energy depends on the electric field strength; the required value of the field is determined. The influence of the pressure anisotropy on the small wavelength internal kink (m=1) mode instability in a Z-pinch, using a generalization of Freidbergs perpendicular MHD model, is investigated. It is found that the stability criterion can not be fulfilled without violation of the fire hose stability condition. This investigation is also performed using the double-adiabatic theory. A finite Larmor radius treatment of the small wavelength kink instabilities for a Z-pinch geometry is presented. It is shown that, when the gyroviscosity is included in the perpendicular MHD model, exponentially growing Alfven waves are predicted even in a homogeneous static equilibrium with isotropic plasma pressure. The Hall effect in the incompressible Hall fluid model is considered. It is found that the Hall parameter reduces the growth rates of the kink modes, but it does not yield complete stabilization
A spatial discretization of the MHD equations based on the finite volume - spectral method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miyoshi, Takahiro
2000-05-01
Based on the finite volume - spectral method, we present new discretization formulae for the spatial differential operators in the full system of the compressible MHD equations. In this approach, the cell-centered finite volume method is adopted in a bounded plane (poloidal plane), while the spectral method is applied to the differential with respect to the periodic direction perpendicular to the poloidal plane (toroidal direction). Here, an unstructured grid system composed of the arbitrary triangular elements is utilized for constructing the cell-centered finite volume method. In order to maintain the divergence free constraint of the magnetic field numerically, only the poloidal component of the rotation is defined at three edges of the triangular element. This poloidal component is evaluated under the assumption that the toroidal component of the operated vector times the radius, RA φ , is linearly distributed in the element. The present method will be applied to the nonlinear MHD dynamics in an realistic torus geometry without the numerical singularities. (author)
Fast-ion response to energetic-particle-driven MHD activity in Heliotron J
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kobayashi, S.; Yamamoto, S.; Mizuuchi, T.; Nagasaki, K.; Okada, H.; Minami, T.; Hanatani, K.; Konoshima, S.; Ohshima, S.; Toushi, K.; Sano, F. [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji (Japan); Nagaoka, K.; Suzuki, Y.; Takeiri, Y.; Yokoyama, M. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Murakami, S. [Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Lee, H.Y.; Nakamura, Y.; Hosaka, K. [Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji (Japan)
2010-08-15
In Heliotron J, low magnetic shear configuration, instabilities with frequency chirping in the frequency range of Alfven eigenmodes have been observed in tangentially injected neutral beam plasmas. These modes are induced by energetic-particle driven magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities such as global Alfven eigenmode or energetic particle mode. A hybrid directional Langmuir probe system has been installed into Heliotron J to investigate the response of fast-ion fluxes to the MHD modes. A high coherent response of the ion flux to the bursting modes has been observed not only by the co-directed probe but also by the counter-directed one. A linear correlation between the response of the co-directed ion flux and the mode amplitude has been found. The radial profile of the response of the co-directed ions has decreased with the minor radius and has not been obtained significantly outside last closed flux surface. These results indicate that the fast-ion response is due to a resonant convective oscillation. The ion flux response of the counter-directed probe has appeared in the growth phase of the mode burst. Its phase relation is different from that of co-directed one and magnetic probe located at the Heliotron J vacuum vessel. Two candidates of the detected ion flux of the counter-directed probe have been discussed. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Experimental and theoretical studies of the effects of nonuniformities in equilibrium MHD generators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosenbaum, M.; Shamma, S.E.; Louis, J.F.
1980-01-01
An experimental study of the effects of thermal and velocity nonuniformities is performed in an equilibrium plasma for a range of Hall parameters. An electrodeless MHD disk generator with radial flow is chosen as the ideal geometry for these experiments. By introducing equally spaced cold blades in the flow, it is possible to create well defined two-dimensional wake nonuniformities with strong variations of the plasma properties in the direction normal to the magnetic field and the flow. This type of nonuniformity is predicted to provide the strongest reduction of Hall coefficient and effective conductivity for high values of Hall parameter. This degradation is controlled by both the level of nonuniformities and the value of the ideal Hall parameter. The former is dependent upon the number of blades (root mean square deviation of the conductivity), and the latter is dependent upon the values of the magnetic field intensities. The results provide basic quantitative information about the effects of conductivity and velocity nonuniformities on the performance of equilibrium MHD generators over a wide range of Hall coefficients, between 2 and 7. Reduction formulae are established between the effective and ideal Hall parameters for different levels of nonuniformities intensities. Theoretical predictions are derived from a detailed two-dimensional electrodynamic analysis and a simplified engineering model based on a generalization of Rosa's layer model. These experiments validate the analytical studies and support the use of the theoretical layer models in describing the effect of boundary layers on the performance of linear generators
Present state of the theory of a MHD-dynamo
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Soward, A M; Roberts, P H
1976-01-01
A review is given of the state of the theory of a MHD-dynamo, that is, the theory of self-excited magnetic fields in homogeneous moving liquids. A description is given of two basic approaches-the turbulent dynamos of Steinbeck, Krause and Redler and the high-conductivity dynamo of Braginski, and a look is also taken at the relation between these dynamos. Finally a look is taken at the results of recent studies of the total problem of a MHD-dynamo, that is, at the results of recent attempts to solve the electro- and hydrodynamic equations and to obtain self-excited fields. 6 figs., 122 ref. (SJR)
High pressure MHD coal combustors investigation, phase 2
Iwata, H.; Hamberg, R.
1981-05-01
A high pressure MHD coal combustor was investigated. The purpose was to acquire basic design and support engineering data through systematic combustion experiments at the 10 and 20 thermal megawatt size and to design a 50 MW/sub t/ combustor. This combustor is to produce an electrically conductive plasma generated by the direct combustion of pulverized coal with hot oxygen enriched vitiated air that is seeded with potassium carbonate. Vitiated air and oxygen are used as the oxidizer, however, preheated air will ultimately be used as the oxidizer in coal fired MHD combustors.
Temperature oscillating regimes in Tore Supra diagnosed by MHD activity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maget, P.; Imbeaux, F.; Giruzzi, G.; Udintsev, V.S.; Huysmans, G.T.A.; Segui, J.-L.; Goniche, M.; Moreau, Ph.; Sabot, R.; Garbet, X.
2006-01-01
This paper describes what we can learn on the regimes of spontaneous electron temperature oscillations discovered in Tore Supra from the analysis of MHD activity. Since the first observations of this oscillating behaviour of plasma equilibrium, and its interpretation as a predator-prey system involving lower hybrid waves power deposition and electron confinement, analysis of MHD modes has confirmed the reality of safety factor profile oscillations. This points towards the importance of rational values of the safety factor in the transition to transport barriers in reversed magnetic shear plasmas
A review on application of MHD theory to plasma boundary problems in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Itoh, Kimitaka.
1992-08-01
A survey is made on the problems of the edge plasmas, to which the analyses based on the MHD theory have been successfully applied. Also discussed are the efforts to extend the model equation to more general (and important as well) problems such as H-mode physics. An overview is first made on the advantages of the MHD picture, and the necessary supplementary physics are examined. Next, one- and two-dimensional models of the spatial structure of the edge plasma is discussed. The results on the stationary structure, both analytical and numerical, are reviewed: Typical example as well as the scaling law are shown. The instabilities associated with edge plasma is next reviewed. The surface kink mode, ballooning mode, interchange mode, resistive interchange mode and thermal instability are discussed. Role of the geometry such as the location of the X-point is studied. Influences of the atomic processes, and those of the radial electric field are also discussed. The analysis of the H-mode transition physics is finally discussed. The boundary plasma is a nonlinear media which possesses the possibility for bifurcation in which the radial electric field plays a key role. The model of the ion viscosity is also studied. Transition physics is developed. Analysis on the self-generating oscillation is shown and the relation with ELMs is discussed. After reviewing these problems, several comments are made to what directions the study can be deepened. (author) 53 refs
MHD instabilities in astrophysical plasmas: very different from MHD instabilities in tokamaks!
Goedbloed, J. P.
2018-01-01
The extensive studies of MHD instabilities in thermonuclear magnetic confinement experiments, in particular of the tokamak as the most promising candidate for a future energy producing machine, have led to an ‘intuitive’ description based on the energy principle that is very misleading for most astrophysical plasmas. The ‘intuitive’ picture almost directly singles out the dominant stabilizing field line bending energy of the Alfvén waves and, consequently, concentrates on expansion schemes that minimize that contribution. This happens when the wave vector {{k}}0 of the perturbations, on average, is perpendicular to the magnetic field {B}. Hence, all macroscopic instabilities of tokamaks (kinks, interchanges, ballooning modes, ELMs, neoclassical tearing modes, etc) are characterized by satisfying the condition {{k}}0 \\perp {B}, or nearly so. In contrast, some of the major macroscopic instabilities of astrophysical plasmas (the Parker instability and the magneto-rotational instability) occur when precisely the opposite condition is satisfied: {{k}}0 \\parallel {B}. How do those instabilities escape from the dominance of the stabilizing Alfvén wave? The answer to that question involves, foremost, the recognition that MHD spectral theory of waves and instabilities of laboratory plasmas could be developed to such great depth since those plasmas are assumed to be in static equilibrium. This assumption is invalid for astrophysical plasmas where rotational and gravitational accelerations produce equilibria that are at best stationary, and the associated spectral theory is widely, and incorrectly, believed to be non-self adjoint. These complications are addressed, and cured, in the theory of the Spectral Web, recently developed by the author. Using this method, an extensive survey of instabilities of astrophysical plasmas demonstrates how the Alfvén wave is pushed into insignificance under these conditions to give rise to a host of instabilities that do not
Effect of chemical reaction on unsteady MHD free convective two ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The effect of flow parameters on the coefficient of skin friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are also tabulated and discussed appropriately. It was observed that the increase in chemical reaction coefficient/parameter suppresses both velocity and concentration profiles. Keywords: Chemical Reaction, MHD, ...
MHD Hele-Shaw flow of Rivlin-Ericksen fluid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghosh, B.C.; Sengupta, P.R.
1995-01-01
In this paper, an attempt has been made to study the MHD Hele-Shaw flow of Rivlin-Ericksen visco-elastic fluid assuming the pressure gradient to be proportional to exp (-nt). The velocity components are obtained and the effect of visco-elasticity is discussed on velocity components. (author). 8 refs
Thermosolutal MHD flow and radiative heat transfer with viscous ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This paper investigates double diffusive convection MHD flow past a vertical porous plate in a chemically active fluid with radiative heat transfer in the presence of viscous work and heat source. The resulting nonlinear dimensionless equations are solved by asymptotic analysis technique giving approximate analytic ...
Free convection effects and radiative heat transfer in MHD Stokes ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The present note deals with the effects of radiative heat transfer and free convection in MHD for a ﬂow of an electrically conducting, incompressible, dusty viscous ﬂuid past an impulsively started vertical non-conducting plate, under the inﬂuence of transversely applied magnetic ﬁeld. The heat due to viscous dissipation and ...
Hall effects on MHD flow past an accelerated plate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soundalgekar, V.M.; Ravi, S.; Hiremath, S.B.
1980-01-01
An exact solution of the MHD flow of an incompressible, electrically conducting, viscous fluid past a uniformly accelerated plate is presented. The velocity profiles are shown graphically and the numerical values of axial and transverse components of skin friction are tabulated. At high values of the Hall parameter, ωtau, the velocity is found to be oscillatory near the plate. (author)
Initial assessment of the MHD stability of TMX-U
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nexsen, W.E.
1983-01-01
In its operation to date TMX-U has reached values of beta which, for all except the hot electron beta, are close to the proposal values and has not encountered MHD stability problems. The hot electron beta values are presently limited by gyrotron output power and pulse length as well as ion confinement time. Further exploration of stability awaits full thermal barrier operation
A high current density DC magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) micropump
Homsy, Alexandra; Koster, Sander; Hogen-Koster, S.; Eijkel, Jan C.T.; van den Berg, Albert; Lucklum, F.; Verpoorte, E.; de Rooij, Nico F.
2005-01-01
This paper describes the working principle of a DC magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) micropump that can be operated at high DC current densities (J) in 75-µm-deep microfluidic channels without introducing gas bubbles into the pumping channel. The main design feature for current generation is a micromachined
A high current density DC magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) micropump
Homsy, A; Koster, Sander; Eijkel, JCT; van den Berg, A; Lucklum, F; Verpoorte, E; de Rooij, NF
2005-01-01
This paper describes the working principle of a DC magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) micropump that can be operated at high DC current densities (J) in 75-mu m-deep microfluidic channels without introducing gas bubbles into the pumping channel. The main design feature for current generation is a
Standing Slow MHD Waves in Radiatively Cooling Coronal Loops ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The standing slow magneto-acoustic oscillations in cooling coronal loops ... turbation and, eventually, reduces the MHD equations to a 1D system modelling ..... where the function Q is expanded in power series with respect to ǫ, i.e.,. Q = Q0 + ...
Ideal MHD stability analysis of KSTAR target AT mode
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yi, S.M.; Kim, J.H.; You, K.I.; Kim, J.Y.
2009-01-01
Full text: A main research objective of KSTAR (Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research) device is to demonstrate the steady-state operation capability of high-performance AT (Advanced Tokamak) mode. To meet this goal, it is critical for KSTAR to have a good MHD stability boundary, particularly against the high-beta ideal instabilities such as the external kink and the ballooning modes. To support this MHD stability KSTAR has been designed to have a strong plasma shape and a close interval between plasma and passive- plate wall. During the conceptual design phase of KSTAR, a preliminary study was performed to estimate the high beta MHD stability limit of KSTAR target AT mode using PEST and VACUUM codes and it was shown that the target AT mode can be stable up to β N ∼ 5 with a well-defined plasma pressure and current profiles. Recently, a new calculation has been performed to estimate the ideal stability limit in various KSTAR operating conditions using DCON code, and it has been observed that there is some difference between the new and old calculation results, particularly in the dependence of the maximum β N value on the toroidal mode number. Here, we thus present a more detailed analysis of the ideal MHD stability limit of KSTAR target AT mode using various codes, which include GATO as well as PEST and DCON, in the comparison of calculation results among the three codes. (author)
Superconducting dipole magnet for the UTSI MHD facility
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, S.T.; Niemann, R.C.; Turner, L.R.
1978-01-01
The Argonne National Laboratory is designing and will build a large superconducting dipole magnet system for use in the Coal Fired Flow MHD Research Facility at the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI). Presented in detail are the conceptual design of the magnet geometry, conductor design, cryostability evaluation, magnetic pressure computation, structural design, cryostat design, the cryogenics system design, and magnet instrumentations and control
Merging of coronal and heliospheric numerical two dimensional MHD models
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Odstrčil, Dušan; Linker, J. A.; Lionello, R.; Mikic, Z.; Riley, P.; Pizzo, J. V.; Luhmann, J. G.
2002-01-01
Roč. 107, A12 (2002), s. SSH14-1 - SSH14-11 ISSN 0148-0227 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3003003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : coronal mass ejection * interplanetary shock * numerical MHD simulation Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 2.245, year: 2002
Conducting grids to stabilize MHD generator plasmas against ionization instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Veefkind, A.
1972-09-01
Ionization instabilities in MHD generators may be suppressed by the use of grids that short circuit the AC electric field component corresponding to the direction of maximum growth. An analysis of the influence of the corresponding boundary conditions has been performed in order to obtain more quantitative information about the stabilizing effect of this system
2-D skin-current toroidal-MHD-equilibrium code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feinberg, B.; Niland, R.A.; Coonrod, J.; Levine, M.A.
1982-09-01
A two-dimensional, toroidal, ideal MHD skin-current equilibrium computer code is described. The code is suitable for interactive implementation on a minicomptuer. Some examples of the use of the code for design and interpretation of toroidal cusp experiments are presented
Numerical Calculation of the Output Power of a MHD Generator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adrian CARABINEANU
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Using Lazăr Dragoş’s analytic solution for the electric potential we perform some numerical calculations in order to find the characteristics of a Faraday magnetohydrodymamics (MHD power generator (total power, useful power and Joule dissipation power.
Modified NASA-Lewis chemical equilibrium code for MHD applications
Sacks, R. A.; Geyer, H. K.; Grammel, S. J.; Doss, E. D.
1979-01-01
A substantially modified version of the NASA-Lewis Chemical Equilibrium Code was recently developed. The modifications were designed to extend the power and convenience of the Code as a tool for performing combustor analysis for MHD systems studies. The effect of the programming details is described from a user point of view.
A Fast MHD Code for Gravitationally Stratified Media using ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
namic (MHD) algorithms are important for numerical modelling of highly .... include OpenMP-style pragma-based programming, e.g., developed by PGI, HMPP, .... Thus, the formula (10) returns the one-dimensional index for a field point. A.
On the stochastic stability of MHD equilibria
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Teichmann, J.
1979-07-01
The stochastic stability in the large of stationary equilibria of ideal and dissipative magnetohydrodynamics under the influence of stationary random fluctuations is studied using the direct Liapunov method. Sufficient and necessary conditions for stability of the linearized Euler-Lagrangian systems are given. The destabilizing effect of stochastic fluctuations is demonstrated. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1981-01-01
The members of MHD project examination subcommittee made an investigative tour of the U.S. on the state of development of MHD generation. This report of the 2nd part explains opinions and the present status of the R and D on MHD generation by each of the 19 institutions visited. The U.S. research on MHD generation is under the leadership of DOE, whereby the budget for the development is so large as nearly one hundred million dollars have been provided for several years. The purpose is the effective use of domestic coal. General Electric is of the opinion that a combined gas turbine system will be put to practical use earlier because MHD takes time for practicability despite its highest efficiency in coal-utilized power generation. Yet, GE thinks MHD will be more attractive in the future. Reynolds Metal is considering application of MHD generation to the electro-chemical industry at present. According to Reynolds, combined supply of electric output and heat of MHD can reduce the use of calorie per ton of aluminum from 240 MBTU to 100. Montana Power is promoting practicability through a combined plan with DOE-built MHD generation. (NEDO)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Welch, G.E.; Dugan, E.T.; Lear, W.E. Jr.; Appelbaum, J.G.
1990-01-01
A gas core nuclear reactor (GCR)/disk magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator direct closed Rankine space power system concept is described. The GCR/disk MHD generator marriage facilitates efficient high electric power density system performance at relatively high operating temperatures. The system concept promises high specific power levels, on the order of 1 kW e /kg. An overview of the disk MHD generator component magnetofluiddynamic and plasma physics theoretical modeling is provided. Results from a parametric design analysis of the disk MHD generator are presented and discussed
An approach to verification and validation of MHD codes for fusion applications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Smolentsev, S., E-mail: sergey@fusion.ucla.edu [University of California, Los Angeles (United States); Badia, S. [Centre Internacional de Mètodes Numèrics en Enginyeria, Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya – Barcelona Tech (Spain); Bhattacharyay, R. [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Bühler, L. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Chen, L. [University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Huang, Q. [Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China); Jin, H.-G. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Krasnov, D. [Technische Universität Ilmenau (Germany); Lee, D.-W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Mas de les Valls, E. [Centre Internacional de Mètodes Numèrics en Enginyeria, Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya – Barcelona Tech (Spain); Mistrangelo, C. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Munipalli, R. [HyPerComp, Westlake Village (United States); Ni, M.-J. [University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Pashkevich, D. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University (Russian Federation); Patel, A. [Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya – Barcelona Tech (Spain); Pulugundla, G. [University of California, Los Angeles (United States); Satyamurthy, P. [Bhabha Atomic Research Center (India); Snegirev, A. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University (Russian Federation); Sviridov, V. [Moscow Power Engineering Institute (Russian Federation); Swain, P. [Bhabha Atomic Research Center (India); and others
2015-11-15
Highlights: • Review of status of MHD codes for fusion applications. • Selection of five benchmark problems. • Guidance for verification and validation of MHD codes for fusion applications. - Abstract: We propose a new activity on verification and validation (V&V) of MHD codes presently employed by the fusion community as a predictive capability tool for liquid metal cooling applications, such as liquid metal blankets. The important steps in the development of MHD codes starting from the 1970s are outlined first and then basic MHD codes, which are currently in use by designers of liquid breeder blankets, are reviewed. A benchmark database of five problems has been proposed to cover a wide range of MHD flows from laminar fully developed to turbulent flows, which are of interest for fusion applications: (A) 2D fully developed laminar steady MHD flow, (B) 3D laminar, steady developing MHD flow in a non-uniform magnetic field, (C) quasi-two-dimensional MHD turbulent flow, (D) 3D turbulent MHD flow, and (E) MHD flow with heat transfer (buoyant convection). Finally, we introduce important details of the proposed activities, such as basic V&V rules and schedule. The main goal of the present paper is to help in establishing an efficient V&V framework and to initiate benchmarking among interested parties. The comparison results computed by the codes against analytical solutions and trusted experimental and numerical data as well as code-to-code comparisons will be presented and analyzed in companion paper/papers.
Liquid metal MHD research and development in Israel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Branover, H.
1993-01-01
The study of liquid metal MHD in Israel commenced in 1973. Initially it was concentrated mainly on laminar flows influenced by external magnetic fields. In 1978 a liquid metal MHD energy conversion program was started. This program was developed at the Center for MHD Studies at Ben-Gurion University in Beer-Sheva, with the participation of specialists from the Technion, the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel Atomic Energy Commission, and others. The program was sponsored initially by the Israel Ministry of Energy and Infrastructure, and later by the Ministry of Industry and Trade. Since 1980, Solmecs, a private commercial company has become a major factor in the development of liquid metal MHD in Israel. From the very beginning the program was based on broad international cooperation. A number of overseas institutions and individuals became participants in the program. Through extensive research and evaluation of a number of concepts of liquid metal MHD power generation systems, It was established that the most promising concept, demanding a relatively short period of development, is the gravitational system using heavy metals (lead, lead alloys) as the magneto-hydrodynamic fluid and steam or gases as thermodynamic fluids. This concept was chosen for further development and industrial application, and the program related to such systems was named the Etgar Program. The main directions of research and development activities have been defined as follows: investigations of physical phenomena, development of universal numerical code for parametric studies, optimization and design of the system, material studies, development of engineering components, building and testing of integrated small-scale Etgar type systems, economic evaluation of the system and comparison with conventional technologies, development of moderate scale industrial demonstration plant. At this time 6 items have been fully implemented and activities on the last item were started. (author)
Performance and flow characteristics of MHD seawater thruster
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Doss, E.D.
1990-01-01
The main goal of the research is to investigate the effects of strong magnetic fields on the electrical and flow fields inside MHD thrusters. The results of this study is important in the assessment of the feasibility of MHD seawater propulsion for the Navy. To accomplish this goal a three-dimensional fluid flow computer model has been developed and applied to study the concept of MHD seawater propulsion. The effects of strong magnetic fields on the current and electric fields inside the MHD thruster and their interaction with the flow fields, particularly those in the boundary layers, have been investigated. The results of the three-dimensional computations indicate that the velocity profiles are flatter over the sidewalls of the thruster walls in comparison to the velocity profiles over the electrode walls. These nonuniformities in the flow fields give rise to nonuniform distribution of the skin friction along the walls of the thrusters, where higher values are predicted over the sidewalls relative to those over the electrode walls. Also, a parametric study has been performed using the three-dimensional MHD flow model to analyze the performance of continuous electrode seawater thrusters under different operating parameters. The effects of these parameters on the fluid flow characteristics, and on the thruster efficiency have been investigated. Those parameters include the magnetic field (10--20 T), thruster diameter, surface roughness, flow velocity, and the electric load factor. The results show also that the thruster performance improves with the strength of the magnetic field and thruster diameter, and the efficiency decreases with the flow velocity and surface roughness.
Doubly stratified MHD tangent hyperbolic nanofluid flow due to permeable stretched cylinder
Nagendramma, V.; Leelarathnam, A.; Raju, C. S. K.; Shehzad, S. A.; Hussain, T.
2018-06-01
An investigation is exhibited to analyze the presence of heat source and sink in doubly stratified MHD incompressible tangent hyperbolic fluid due to stretching of cylinder embedded in porous space under nanoparticles. To develop the mathematical model of tangent hyperbolic nanofluid, movement of Brownian and thermophoretic are accounted. The established equations of continuity, momentum, thermal and solutal boundary layers are reassembled into sets of non-linear expressions. These assembled expressions are executed with the help of Runge-Kutta scheme with MATLAB. The impacts of sundry parameters are illustrated graphically and the engineering interest physical quantities like skin friction, Nusselt and Sherwood number are examined by computing numerical values. It is clear that the power-law index parameter and curvature parameter shows favorable effect on momentum boundary layer thickness whereas Weissennberg number reveals inimical influence.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muhammad Mubashir Bhatti
2016-05-01
Full Text Available In this article, entropy generation with radiation on non-Newtonian Carreau nanofluid towards a shrinking sheet is investigated numerically. The effects of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD are also taken into account. Firstly, the governing flow problem is simplified into ordinary differential equations from partial differential equations with the help of similarity variables. The solution of the resulting nonlinear differential equations is solved numerically with the help of the successive linearization method and Chebyshev spectral collocation method. The influence of all the emerging parameters is discussed with the help of graphs and tables. It is observed that the influence of magnetic field and fluid parameters oppose the flow. It is also analyzed that thermal radiation effects and the Prandtl number show opposite behavior on temperature profile. Furthermore, it is also observed that entropy profile increases for all the physical parameters.
Interaction between MHD generator and DC-AC power conversion system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanaka, D.
1982-01-01
Transient characteristics of an MHD power generating system including a DC-AC inverter are analyzed using a time-dependent quasi-one-dimensional approximation. The generator model considered is Faraday type of U-25 class with heavy-oil and air combustion gas. It is found that a short-circuited fault of the invertor may become more serious than an open-circuited fault, resulting in significant gas velocity reduction. An open-circuited fault, if retained for more than 5-8 ms, can substantially increase the gas velocity at the upstream end of the fault region. A protection system composed of a fast-acting DC circuit-breaker and an emergency load resistance is proposed. The switching speed of the DC breaker must be about 500 microsec to stop a pressure increase, resulting, for example, from the short-circuiting of 20 electrode pairs, before it reaches 120% of the initial level
Closed-loop feedback of MHD instabilities on DIII-D
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fredrickson, E.D.; Johnson, L.C.; Manickam, J.; Okabayashi, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Bialek, J.; Garofalo, A.M.; Navratil, G.A. [Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); La Haye, R.J.; Scoville, J.T.; Strait, E.J. [General Atomics, La Jolla, CA 92186 (United States); Lazarus, E.A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States)
2001-03-01
A system of coils, sensors and amplifiers has been installed on the DIII-D tokamak to study the physics of feedback stabilization of low-frequency MHD modes such as the resistive wall mode (RWM). Experiments are being performed to assess the effectiveness of this minimal system and benchmark the predictions of theoretical models and codes. In the last campaign the experiments had been extended to a regime where the RWM threshold is lowered by a fast ramp of the plasma current. In these experiments the onset time of the RWM is very reproducible. With this system, the onset of the RWM had been delayed by up to 100 ms without degrading the plasma performance. The growth rate of the mode increases proportional to the length of the delay, suggesting that the plasma is evolving towards a more unstable configuration. The present results have suggested directions for improving the feedback system, including better sensors and improved feedback algorithms. (author)
Hall MHD Modeling of Two-dimensional Reconnection: Application to MRX Experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lukin, V.S.; Jardin, S.C.
2003-01-01
Two-dimensional resistive Hall magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) code is used to investigate the dynamical evolution of driven reconnection in the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment (MRX). The initial conditions and dimensionless parameters of the simulation are set to be similar to the experimental values. We successfully reproduce many features of the time evolution of magnetic configurations for both co- and counter-helicity reconnection in MRX. The Hall effect is shown to be important during the early dynamic X-phase of MRX reconnection, while effectively negligible during the late ''steady-state'' Y-phase, when plasma heating takes place. Based on simple symmetry considerations, an experiment to directly measure the Hall effect in MRX configuration is proposed and numerical evidence for the expected outcome is given
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1982-03-01
'Research on MHD generation system' was implemented by its expert committee in the electric joint study group, with the results of fiscal 1981 reported. This year, technological reexamination was conducted for a 2,000 MWt commercial MHD generation plant, with evaluation carried out on the cost performance including the construction and operation cost. In addition, for the purpose of intermediate R and D towards the practicability, examination was also conducted on a system structure, concrete specifications of component element, cost of R and D including operation expenses for example, concerning an 100 MWt class experimental plant and a 500 MWt class plant. In the investigation of the overseas trend, information was summarized in detail on the experimental devices, combustors, generation channels, electrode materials, electrode phenomena, theoretical analyses, seeds, slag, component equipment, instrumental technologies, conceptual designs of generation plant, commercial plant, etc., in Soviet Union, China, Holland, India and EPRI, on the basis of the materials from the 19th MHD symposium held in UTSI and from the coal MHD specialist conference held in Sydney. (NEDO)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suwono.
1978-01-01
A linear gate providing a variable gate duration from 0,40μsec to 4μsec was developed. The electronic circuity consists of a linear circuit and an enable circuit. The input signal can be either unipolar or bipolar. If the input signal is bipolar, the negative portion will be filtered. The operation of the linear gate is controlled by the application of a positive enable pulse. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vretenar, M
2014-01-01
The main features of radio-frequency linear accelerators are introduced, reviewing the different types of accelerating structures and presenting the main characteristics aspects of linac beam dynamics
Linearization Method and Linear Complexity
Tanaka, Hidema
We focus on the relationship between the linearization method and linear complexity and show that the linearization method is another effective technique for calculating linear complexity. We analyze its effectiveness by comparing with the logic circuit method. We compare the relevant conditions and necessary computational cost with those of the Berlekamp-Massey algorithm and the Games-Chan algorithm. The significant property of a linearization method is that it needs no output sequence from a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) because it calculates linear complexity using the algebraic expression of its algorithm. When a PRNG has n [bit] stages (registers or internal states), the necessary computational cost is smaller than O(2n). On the other hand, the Berlekamp-Massey algorithm needs O(N2) where N(≅2n) denotes period. Since existing methods calculate using the output sequence, an initial value of PRNG influences a resultant value of linear complexity. Therefore, a linear complexity is generally given as an estimate value. On the other hand, a linearization method calculates from an algorithm of PRNG, it can determine the lower bound of linear complexity.
17th Workshop on MHD Stability Control: addressing the disruption challenge for ITER
Buttery, Richard
2013-08-01
This annual workshop on magnetohydrodynamic stability control was held on 5-7 November 2012 at Columbia University in the city of New York, in the aftermath of a violent hydrodynamic instability event termed 'Hurricane Sandy'. Despite these challenging circumstances, Columbia University managed an excellent meeting, enabling the full participation of the community. This Workshop has been held since 1996 to help in the development of understanding and control of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities for future fusion reactors. It covers a wide range of stability topics—from disruptions, to tearing modes, error fields, edge-localized modes (ELMs), resistive wall modes (RWMs) and ideal MHD—spanning many device types (tokamaks, stellarators and reversed field pinches) to identify commonalities in the physics and a means of control. The theme for 2012 was 'addressing the disruption challenge for ITER', and thus the first day had a heavy focus on both the avoidance and mitigation of disruptions in ITER. Key elements included understanding how to apply 3D fields to maintain stability, as well as managing the disruption process itself through mitigating loads in the thermal quench and handling so called 'runaway electrons'. This culminated in a panel discussion on the disruption mitigation strategy for ITER, which noted that heat load asymmetries during the thermal quench appear to be an artifact of MHD processes, and that runaway electron generation may be inevitable, suggesting research should focus on control and dissipation of the runaway beam. The workshop was combined this year with the annual US-Japan MHD Workshop, with a special section looking more deeply at 'Fundamentals of 3D Perturbed Equilibrium Control', with interesting sessions on 3D equilibrium reconstruction, RWM physics, novel control concepts such as non-magnetic sensing, adaptive control, q operation, and the effects of flow. The final day turned to tearing mode interactions, exploring the state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bussac, M.N.; Pellat, R.; Edery, D.; Soule, J.L.
1976-01-01
A linear analysis is presented of the toroidal coupling between the internal resistive modes (m=1, n=1) and (m=2, n=1) in the Tokomak with circular cross sections. One includes the resistive and diamagnetic effects in the singular layers where the safety factor q takes respectively the values one and two. By expanding the MHD equations in powers of epsilon, the local inverse of the aspect ratio, one obtains a system of two coupled equations for the harmonic amplitudes. When the shear is finite on q=1, the toroidal coupling is negligible. In the opposite limit, one can explain: the experimental behaviour of the (m=1, n=1) mode before the internal disruption; the simultaneous observation of the modes (m=1, n=1) and [de
Said-Houari, Belkacem
2017-01-01
This self-contained, clearly written textbook on linear algebra is easily accessible for students. It begins with the simple linear equation and generalizes several notions from this equation for the system of linear equations and introduces the main ideas using matrices. It then offers a detailed chapter on determinants and introduces the main ideas with detailed proofs. The third chapter introduces the Euclidean spaces using very simple geometric ideas and discusses various major inequalities and identities. These ideas offer a solid basis for understanding general Hilbert spaces in functional analysis. The following two chapters address general vector spaces, including some rigorous proofs to all the main results, and linear transformation: areas that are ignored or are poorly explained in many textbooks. Chapter 6 introduces the idea of matrices using linear transformation, which is easier to understand than the usual theory of matrices approach. The final two chapters are more advanced, introducing t...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Riedmüller, Benjamin; Huber, Felix; Herr, Ulrich
2014-01-01
In this work, we present a detailed investigation of a focused ion beam (FIB) assisted nano-structuring process for giant magneto-resistive (GMR) spin valve sensors. We have performed a quantitative study of the dependence of the GMR ratio as well as the sensor resistance on the ion dose, which is implanted in the active region of our sensors. These findings are correlated with the decrease of magneto-resistive properties after micro- and nano-structuring by the FIB and reveal the importance of ion damage which limits the applicability of FIB milling to GMR devices in the low μm range. Deposition of a protective layer (50 nm SiO 2 ) on top of the sensor structure before milling leads to a preservation of the magneto-resistive properties after the milling procedure down to sensor dimensions of ∼300 nm. The reduction of the sensor dimensions to the nanometer regime is accompanied by a shift of the GMR curves, and a modification of the saturation behavior. Both effects can be explained by a micromagnetic model including the magnetic interaction of free and pinned layer as well as the effect of the demagnetizing field of the free layer on the sensor behavior. The results demonstrate that the FIB technology can be successfully used to prepare spintronic nanostructures
Kinematics of Nonlinearly Interacting MHD Instabilities in a Plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hansen, Alexander K.
2000-01-01
Plasmas play host to a wide variety of instabilities. For example, tearing instabilities use finite plasma resistivity to exploit the free energy provided by plasma currents parallel to the magnetic field to alter the magnetic topology of the plasma through a process known as reconnection. These instabilities frequently make themselves known in magnetic confinement experiments such as tokamaks and reversed field pinches (RFPs). In RFP plasmas, in fact, several tearing instabilities (modes) are simultaneously active, and are of large amplitude. Theory predicts that in addition to interacting linearly with magnetic perturbations from outside the plasma, such as field errors or as resistive wall, the modes in the RFP can interact nonlinearly with each other through a three-wave interaction. In the current work investigations of both the linear (external) and nonlinear contributions to the kinematics of the tearing modes in the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) RFP are reported Theory predicts that tearing modes will respond only to magnetic perturbations that are spatially resonant with them, and was supported by experimental work done on tokamak devices. The results in this work verified that the theory is still applicable to the RFP, in spite of its more complicated magnetic mode structure, involving perturbations of a single poloidal mode number
Stoll, R R
1968-01-01
Linear Algebra is intended to be used as a text for a one-semester course in linear algebra at the undergraduate level. The treatment of the subject will be both useful to students of mathematics and those interested primarily in applications of the theory. The major prerequisite for mastering the material is the readiness of the student to reason abstractly. Specifically, this calls for an understanding of the fact that axioms are assumptions and that theorems are logical consequences of one or more axioms. Familiarity with calculus and linear differential equations is required for understand
Recent Progress in MHD Stability Calculations of Compact Stellarators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fu, G.Y.; Ku, L.P.; Redi, M.H.; Kessel, C.; Monticello, D.A.; Reiman, A.; Cooper, W.A.; Nuehrenberg, C.; Sanchez, R.; Ware, A.; Hirshman, S.P.; Spong, D.A.
2000-01-01
A key issue for compact stellarators is the stability of beta-limiting MHD modes, such as external kink modes driven by bootstrap current and pressure gradient. We report here recent progress in MHD stability studies for low-aspect-ratio Quasi-Axisymmetric Stellarators (QAS) and Quasi-Omnigeneous Stellarators (QOS). We find that the N = 0 periodicity-preserving vertical mode is significantly more stable in stellarators than in tokamaks because of the externally generated rotational transform. It is shown that both low-n external kink modes and high-n ballooning modes can be stabilized at high beta by appropriate 3D shaping without a conducting wall. The stabilization mechanism for external kink modes in QAS appears to be an enhancement of local magnetic shear due to 3D shaping. The stabilization of ballooning mode in QOS is related to a shortening of the normal curvature connection length
Nonlinear MHD dynamics of tokamak plasmas on multiple time scales
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kruger, S.E.; Schnack, D.D.; Brennan, D.P.; Gianakon, T.A.; Sovinec, C.R.
2003-01-01
Two types of numerical, nonlinear simulations using the NIMROD code are presented. In the first simulation, we model the disruption occurring in DIII-D discharge 87009 as an ideal MHD instability driven unstable by neutral-beam heating. The mode grows faster than exponential, but on a time scale that is a hybrid of the heating rate and the ideal MHD growth rate as predicted by analytic theory. The second type of simulations, which occur on a much longer time scale, focus on the seeding of tearing modes by sawteeth. Pressure effects play a role both in the exterior region solutions and in the neoclassical drive terms. The results of both simulations are reviewed and their implications for experimental analysis is discussed. (author)
Design of an Open-Cycle, Vortex MHD Generator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thalimer, J. R.; Kurtzrock, R. C.; Simons, W. H.; Bienstock, D. [Pittsburgh Coal Research Center, US Bureau Of Mines, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Hughes, W. F. [Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)
1968-11-15
The US Bureau of Mines has built a vortex MHD generator which combines the combustor-nozzle-duct combination into one integral unit. The vortex MHD generator consists of a cyclone burner, 7.5 in. diameter, 21 in. in length, with the inner wall used as one electrode together with a coaxial centre electrode. Power is obtained by impressing an axial field of 3000 G from an air solenoid magnet. Electrical output is expected to be one kilowatt. For the initial runs natural gas will be burned in oxygen-enriched, preheated air with a subsequent change to coal as a fuel. A theoretical analysis has been completed which predicts the velocity profiles and the electrical output characteristics of the generator. This analysis assumes variations in the radial and axial directions for all variables, steady state inviscid flow, constant electrical conductivity and a small magnetic Reynolds number. (author)
Divergence-free MHD Simulations with the HERACLES Code
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vides J.
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Numerical simulations of the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD equations have played a significant role in plasma research over the years. The need of obtaining physical and stable solutions to these equations has led to the development of several schemes, all requiring to satisfy and preserve the divergence constraint of the magnetic field numerically. In this paper, we aim to show the importance of maintaining this constraint numerically. We investigate in particular the hyperbolic divergence cleaning technique applied to the ideal MHD equations on a collocated grid and compare it to the constrained transport technique that uses a staggered grid to maintain the property. The methods are implemented in the software HERACLES and several numerical tests are presented, where the robustness and accuracy of the different schemes can be directly compared.
Kinetic Modifications to MHD Phenomena in Toroidal Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng, C.Z.; Gorelenkov, N.N.; Kramer, G.J.; Fredrickson, E.
2004-01-01
Particle kinetic effects involving small spatial and fast temporal scales can strongly affect MHD phenomena and the long time behavior of plasmas. In particular, kinetic effects such as finite ion gyroradii, trapped particle dynamics, and wave-particle resonances have been shown to greatly modify the stability of MHD modes. Here, the kinetic effects of trapped electron dynamics and finite ion gyroradii are shown to have a large stabilizing effect on kinetic ballooning modes in low aspect ratio toroidal plasmas such as NSTX [National Spherical Torus Experiment]. We also present the analysis of Toroidicity-induced Alfven Eigenmodes (TAEs) destabilized by fast neutral-beam injected ions in NSTX experiments and TAE stability in ITER due to alpha-particles and MeV negatively charged neutral beam injected ions
Ceramic component for M.H.D electrode
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marchant, D.D.; Bates, J.L.
1980-01-01
A ceramic component which exhibits electrical conductivity down to near room temperatures has the formula: Hfsub(x)Insub(y)Asub(z)O 2 where x = 0.1 to 0.4, y = 0.3 to 0.6, z = 0.1 to 0.4 and A is a rare earth or yttrium. The rare earth may be Yb, Tb, Pr or Ce. The component is suitable for use in the fabrication of MHD electrodes or as the current lead-out portion of a composite electrode with other ceramic components. An MHD electrode comprises a cap of a known ceramic, e.g. stabilised zirconium or hafnium oxide or terbium stabilised hafnium, a current lead-out ceramic according to the invention, and a copper frame. (author)
Calculation code NIRVANA for free boundary MHD equilibrium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ninomiya, Hiromasa; Suzuki, Yasuo; Kameari, Akihisa
1975-03-01
The calculation method and code of solving the free boundary problem for MHD equilibrium has been developed. Usage of the code ''NIRVANA'' is described. The toroidal plasma current density determined as a function of the flux function PSI is substituted by a group of the ring currents, whereby the equation of MHD equilibrium is transformed into an integral equation. Either of the two iterative methods is chosen to solve the integral equation, depending on the assumptions made of the plasma surface points. Calculation of the magnetic field configurations is possible when the plasma surface coincides self-consistently with the magnetic flux including the separatrix points. The code is usable in calculation of the circular or non-circular shell-less Tokamak equilibrium. (auth.)
Studies on the crossed flow type MHD turbines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hori, Toshihiro; Katsurai, Makoto
1981-01-01
The studies on crossed flow type MHD turbines were performed to improve its characteristics. Two-dimensional models were considered for the analytical studies. To compensate the edge effect of magnetic field, the magnetic field gradient by tapering was considered. An iron-core structure and an air-core structure were investigated. It was found that the ideal characteristics can be obtained when there is the tapered length more than one wave length. Various methods for the improvement of magnetic field were studied in the case of practical crossed flow type MHD turbines. The methods were the adjustment with an iron-core, and the adoption of a curved channel. It can be expected to obtain the internal efficiency of more than 70 percent, when the number of pole-pairs is more than 10 and the radius of curvature of a few times of rotor radius is given to a curved channel. (Kato, T.)
United States Superconducting MHD Magnet Technology Development Program
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dawson, A.M.; Marston, P.G.; Thome, R.J.; Iwasa, Y.; Tarrh, J.M.
1981-01-01
A three-faceted program supported by the U.S. Dep of Energy is described. These facets include basic technology development, technology transfer and construction by industry of magnets for the national MHD program. The program includes the maintenance of a large component test facility; investigation of superconductor stability and structural behavior; measurements of materials' properties at low temperatures; structural design optimization; analytical code development; cryogenic systems and power supply design. The technology transfer program is designed to bring results of technology development and design and construction effort to the entire superconducting magnet community. The magnet procurement program is responsible for developing conceptual designs of magnets needed for the national MHD program, for issuing requests for quotation, selecting vendors and supervising design, construction, installation and test of these systems. 9 refs
MHD Advanced Power Train Phase I, Final Report, Volume 7
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
A. R. Jones
1985-08-01
This appendix provides additional data in support of the MHD/Steam Power Plant Analyses reported in report Volume 5. The data is in the form of 3PA/SUMARY computer code printouts. The order of presentation in all four cases is as follows: (1) Overall Performance; (2) Component/Subsystem Information; (3) Plant Cost Accounts Summary; and (4) Plant Costing Details and Cost of Electricity.
Waveguide and loop coupling to fast MHD toroidal eigenmodes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paoloni, F.J.
1975-12-01
Heating of plasmas by wave techniques requires an effective method of coupling rf energy to the plasma. In cavities the presence of weakly damped eigenmodes will enhance the loading of antennas when the wave frequency equals an eigenmode frequency. This report considers two methods of coupling to fast MHD eigenmodes in a toroidal cavity: one is by a waveguide mounted perpendicular to the vacuum vessel wall; and the other by a loop placed within the cavity
Intermittency in MHD turbulence and coronal nanoflares modelling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Veltri
2005-01-01
Full Text Available High resolution numerical simulations, solar wind data analysis, and measurements at the edges of laboratory plasma devices have allowed for a huge progress in our understanding of MHD turbulence. The high resolution of solar wind measurements has allowed to characterize the intermittency observed at small scales. We are now able to set up a consistent and convincing view of the main properties of MHD turbulence, which in turn constitutes an extremely efficient tool in understanding the behaviour of turbulent plasmas, like those in solar corona, where in situ observations are not available. Using this knowledge a model to describe injection, due to foot-point motions, storage and dissipation of MHD turbulence in coronal loops, is built where we assume strong longitudinal magnetic field, low beta and high aspect ratio, which allows us to use the set of reduced MHD equations (RMHD. The model is based on a shell technique in the wave vector space orthogonal to the strong magnetic field, while the dependence on the longitudinal coordinate is preserved. Numerical simulations show that injected energy is efficiently stored in the loop where a significant level of magnetic and velocity fluctuations is obtained. Nonlinear interactions give rise to an energy cascade towards smaller scales where energy is dissipated in an intermittent fashion. Due to the strong longitudinal magnetic field, dissipative structures propagate along the loop, with the typical speed of the Alfvén waves. The statistical analysis on the intermittent dissipative events compares well with all observed properties of nanoflare emission statistics. Moreover the recent observations of non thermal velocity measurements during flare occurrence are well described by the numerical results of the simulation model. All these results naturally emerge from the model dynamical evolution without any need of an ad-hoc hypothesis.
HPC parallel programming model for gyrokinetic MHD simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Naitou, Hiroshi; Yamada, Yusuke; Tokuda, Shinji; Ishii, Yasutomo; Yagi, Masatoshi
2011-01-01
The 3-dimensional gyrokinetic PIC (particle-in-cell) code for MHD simulation, Gpic-MHD, was installed on SR16000 (“Plasma Simulator”), which is a scalar cluster system consisting of 8,192 logical cores. The Gpic-MHD code advances particle and field quantities in time. In order to distribute calculations over large number of logical cores, the total simulation domain in cylindrical geometry was broken up into N DD-r × N DD-z (number of radial decomposition times number of axial decomposition) small domains including approximately the same number of particles. The axial direction was uniformly decomposed, while the radial direction was non-uniformly decomposed. N RP replicas (copies) of each decomposed domain were used (“particle decomposition”). The hybrid parallelization model of multi-threads and multi-processes was employed: threads were parallelized by the auto-parallelization and N DD-r × N DD-z × N RP processes were parallelized by MPI (message-passing interface). The parallelization performance of Gpic-MHD was investigated for the medium size system of N r × N θ × N z = 1025 × 128 × 128 mesh with 4.196 or 8.192 billion particles. The highest speed for the fixed number of logical cores was obtained for two threads, the maximum number of N DD-z , and optimum combination of N DD-r and N RP . The observed optimum speeds demonstrated good scaling up to 8,192 logical cores. (author)
MHD seed recovery and regeneration, Phase II. Final report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1994-10-01
This final report summarizes the work performed by the Space and Technology Division of the TRW Space and Electronics Group for the U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center for the Econoseed process. This process involves the economical recovery and regeneration of potassium seed used in the MHD channel. The contract period of performance extended from 1987 through 1994 and was divided into two phases. The Phase II test results are the subject of this Final Report. However, the Phase I test results are presented in summary form in Section 2.3 of this Final Report. The Econoseed process involves the treatment of the potassium sulfate in spent MHD seed with an aqueous calcium formate solution in a continuously stirred reactor system to solubilize, as potassium formate, the potassium content of the seed and to precipitate and recover the sulfate as calcium sulfate. The slurry product from this reaction is centrifuged to separate the calcium sulfate and insoluble seed constituents from the potassium formate solution. The dilute solids-free potassium formate solution is then concentrated in an evaporator. The concentrated potassium formate product is a liquid which can be recycled as a spray into the MHD channel. Calcium formate is the seed regenerant used in the Econoseed process. Since calcium formate is produced in the United States in relatively small quantities, a new route to the continuous production of large quantities of calcium formate needed to support an MHD power industry was investigated. This route involves the reaction of carbon monoxide gas with lime solids in an aqueous medium.
Two-dimensional simulation of the MHD stability, (2)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kurita, Gen-ichi; Amano, Tsuneo.
1977-09-01
Growth rate and eigen-function of the MHD instability of a toroidal plasma were calculated numerically as an initial-boundary value problem. When a conducting shell is away from the plasma, toroidicity hardly influences growth rate of the external kink modes in a slender tokamak, but it stabilizes the modes in a fat tokamak. On the other hand, when the shell is near to the plasma, the unstable external modes are stabilized by both toroidicity and shell effect. (auth.)
UTSI/CFFF MHD Program Completion and Related Activity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1997-04-01
Routine preventive maintenance of the DOE Coal Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) is being performed. Modernization programs, being funded under subcontract from Foster Wheeler Development by the DOE HIPPS Program, are being implemented on the coal processing system, the data acquisition and control system and control room. Environmental restoration actions continued with monitoring of groundwater wells and holding pond effluent. Actions are under way to dispose of spent seed/ash mixtures and excess coal remaining from the MHD POC program.
Solow, Daniel
2014-01-01
This text covers the basic theory and computation for a first course in linear programming, including substantial material on mathematical proof techniques and sophisticated computation methods. Includes Appendix on using Excel. 1984 edition.
Liesen, Jörg
2015-01-01
This self-contained textbook takes a matrix-oriented approach to linear algebra and presents a complete theory, including all details and proofs, culminating in the Jordan canonical form and its proof. Throughout the development, the applicability of the results is highlighted. Additionally, the book presents special topics from applied linear algebra including matrix functions, the singular value decomposition, the Kronecker product and linear matrix equations. The matrix-oriented approach to linear algebra leads to a better intuition and a deeper understanding of the abstract concepts, and therefore simplifies their use in real world applications. Some of these applications are presented in detailed examples. In several ‘MATLAB-Minutes’ students can comprehend the concepts and results using computational experiments. Necessary basics for the use of MATLAB are presented in a short introduction. Students can also actively work with the material and practice their mathematical skills in more than 300 exerc...
Berberian, Sterling K
2014-01-01
Introductory treatment covers basic theory of vector spaces and linear maps - dimension, determinants, eigenvalues, and eigenvectors - plus more advanced topics such as the study of canonical forms for matrices. 1992 edition.
Searle, Shayle R
2012-01-01
This 1971 classic on linear models is once again available--as a Wiley Classics Library Edition. It features material that can be understood by any statistician who understands matrix algebra and basic statistical methods.
Singh, Rahul; Shukla, K. K.; Kumar, A.; Okram, G. S.; Singh, D.; Ganeshan, V.; Lakhani, Archana; Ghosh, A. K.; Chatterjee, Sandip
2016-09-01
Magnetoresistance (MR), thermo power, magnetization and Hall effect measurements have been performed on Co-doped Bi2Se3 topological insulators. The undoped sample shows that the maximum MR as a destructive interference due to a π-Berry phase leads to a decrease of MR. As the Co is doped, the linearity in MR is increased. The observed MR of Bi2Se3 can be explained with the classical model. The low temperature MR behavior of Co doped samples cannot be explained with the same model, but can be explained with the quantum linear MR model. Magnetization behavior indicates the establishment of ferromagnetic ordering with Co doping. Hall effect data also supports the establishment of ferromagnetic ordering in Co-doped Bi2Se3 samples by showing the anomalous Hall effect. Furthermore, when spectral weight suppression is insignificant, Bi2Se3 behaves as a dilute magnetic semiconductor. Moreover, the maximum power factor is observed when time reversal symmetry (TRS) is maintained. As the TRS is broken the power factor value is decreased, which indicates that with the rise of Dirac cone above the Fermi level the anomalous Hall effect and linearity in MR increase and the power factor decreases.
Finkers-Tomczak, Anna; Bakker, Erin; de Boer, Jan; van der Vossen, Edwin; Achenbach, Ute; Golas, Tomasz; Suryaningrat, Suwardi; Smant, Geert; Bakker, Jaap; Goverse, Aska
2011-02-01
The H1 locus confers resistance to the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis pathotypes 1 and 4. It is positioned at the distal end of chromosome V of the diploid Solanum tuberosum genotype SH83-92-488 (SH) on an introgression segment derived from S. tuberosum ssp. andigena. Markers from a high-resolution genetic map of the H1 locus (Bakker et al. in Theor Appl Genet 109:146-152, 2004) were used to screen a BAC library to construct a physical map covering a 341-kb region of the resistant haplotype coming from SH. For comparison, physical maps were also generated of the two haplotypes from the diploid susceptible genotype RH89-039-16 (S. tuberosum ssp. tuberosum/S. phureja), spanning syntenic regions of 700 and 319 kb. Gene predictions on the genomic segments resulted in the identification of a large cluster consisting of variable numbers of the CC-NB-LRR type of R genes for each haplotype. Furthermore, the regions were interspersed with numerous transposable elements and genes coding for an extensin-like protein and an amino acid transporter. Comparative analysis revealed a major lack of gene order conservation in the sequences of the three closely related haplotypes. Our data provide insight in the evolutionary mechanisms shaping the H1 locus and will facilitate the map-based cloning of the H1 resistance gene.
Christofilos, N.C.; Polk, I.J.
1959-02-17
Improvements in linear particle accelerators are described. A drift tube system for a linear ion accelerator reduces gap capacity between adjacent drift tube ends. This is accomplished by reducing the ratio of the diameter of the drift tube to the diameter of the resonant cavity. Concentration of magnetic field intensity at the longitudinal midpoint of the external sunface of each drift tube is reduced by increasing the external drift tube diameter at the longitudinal center region.
MHD code using multi graphical processing units: SMAUG+
Gyenge, N.; Griffiths, M. K.; Erdélyi, R.
2018-01-01
This paper introduces the Sheffield Magnetohydrodynamics Algorithm Using GPUs (SMAUG+), an advanced numerical code for solving magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) problems, using multi-GPU systems. Multi-GPU systems facilitate the development of accelerated codes and enable us to investigate larger model sizes and/or more detailed computational domain resolutions. This is a significant advancement over the parent single-GPU MHD code, SMAUG (Griffiths et al., 2015). Here, we demonstrate the validity of the SMAUG + code, describe the parallelisation techniques and investigate performance benchmarks. The initial configuration of the Orszag-Tang vortex simulations are distributed among 4, 16, 64 and 100 GPUs. Furthermore, different simulation box resolutions are applied: 1000 × 1000, 2044 × 2044, 4000 × 4000 and 8000 × 8000 . We also tested the code with the Brio-Wu shock tube simulations with model size of 800 employing up to 10 GPUs. Based on the test results, we observed speed ups and slow downs, depending on the granularity and the communication overhead of certain parallel tasks. The main aim of the code development is to provide massively parallel code without the memory limitation of a single GPU. By using our code, the applied model size could be significantly increased. We demonstrate that we are able to successfully compute numerically valid and large 2D MHD problems.
Multimegawatt space nuclear power open-cycle MHD-facility
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pavshuk, V.A.; Panchenko, V.P.
2008-01-01
Paper presents the results of the efforts to calculate the characteristics, the layout and the engineering design of the open cycle space power propulsion on the basis of the high-temperature nuclear reactor for a nuclear rocket engine and the Faraday 20 MW capacity MHD-generator. The IVG-1 heterogeneous channel-vessel reactor ensuring in the course of the experiments hydrogen heating up to 3100 K, up to 5 MPa pressure at the reactor core outlet, up to 5 kg/s flowsheet, up to 220 MW thermal power served as a reactor is considered. One determined the MHD-generator basic parameters, namely: the portion of Cs dope was equal to 20%, the outlet stagnation pressure - 2 MPa, the electric conductivity - ≅30 S/m, the Mach number - ≅0.7, the magnetic field induction - 6 T, the capacity - 20 MW, the specific power removal - ∼4 MJ/kg. Paper describes the design of the MHD-facility with the working fluid momentless discharge and its basic characteristics [ru
MHD magnet technology development program summary, September 1982
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1983-11-01
The program of MHD magnet technology development conducted for the US Department of Energy by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology during the past five years is summarized. The general strategy is explained, the various parts of the program are described and the results are discussed. Subjects covered include component analysis, research and development aimed at improving the technology base, preparation of reference designs for commercial-scale magnets with associated design evaluations, manufacturability studies and cost estimations, the detail design and procurement of MHD test facility magnets involving transfer of technology to industry, investigations of accessory subsystem characteristics and magnet-flow-train interfacing considerations and the establishment of tentative recommendations for design standards, quality assurance procedures and safety procedures. A systematic approach (framework) developed to aid in the selection of the most suitable commercial-scale magnet designs is presented and the program status as of September 1982 is reported. Recommendations are made for future work needed to complete the design evaluation and selection process and to provide a sound technological base for the detail design and construction of commercial-scale MHD magnets. 85 references.
Direct numerical simulation of MHD flow with electrically conducting wall
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Satake, S.; Kunugi, T.; Naito, N.; Sagara, A.
2006-01-01
The 2D vortex problem and 3D turbulent channel flow are treated numerically to assess the effect of electrically conducting walls on turbulent MHD flow. As a first approximation, the twin vortex pair is considered as a model of a turbulent eddy near the wall. As the eddy approaches and collides with the wall, a high value electrical potential is induced inside the wall. The Lorentz force, associated with the potential distribution, reduces the velocity gradient in the near-wall region. When considering a fully developed turbulent channel flow, a high electrical conductivity wall was chosen to emphasize the effect of electromagnetic coupling between the wall and the flow. The analysis was performed using DNS. The results are compared with a non-MHD flow and MHD flow in the insulated channel. The mean velocity within the logarithmic region in the case of the electrically conducting wall is slightly higher than that in the non-conducting wall case. Thus, the drag is smaller compared to that in the non-conducting wall case due to a reduction of the Reynolds stress in the near wall region through the Lorentz force. This mechanism is explained via reduction of the production term in the Reynolds shear stress budget
MHD magnet technology development program summary, September 1982
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1983-11-01
The program of MHD magnet technology development conducted for the US Department of Energy by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology during the past five years is summarized. The general strategy is explained, the various parts of the program are described and the results are discussed. Subjects covered include component analysis, research and development aimed at improving the technology base, preparation of reference designs for commercial-scale magnets with associated design evaluations, manufacturability studies and cost estimations, the detail design and procurement of MHD test facility magnets involving transfer of technology to industry, investigations of accessory subsystem characteristics and magnet-flow-train interfacing considerations and the establishment of tentative recommendations for design standards, quality assurance procedures and safety procedures. A systematic approach (framework) developed to aid in the selection of the most suitable commercial-scale magnet designs is presented and the program status as of September 1982 is reported. Recommendations are made for future work needed to complete the design evaluation and selection process and to provide a sound technological base for the detail design and construction of commercial-scale MHD magnets. 85 references
Synoptic, Global Mhd Model For The Solar Corona
Cohen, Ofer; Sokolov, I. V.; Roussev, I. I.; Gombosi, T. I.
2007-05-01
The common techniques for mimic the solar corona heating and the solar wind acceleration in global MHD models are as follow. 1) Additional terms in the momentum and energy equations derived from the WKB approximation for the Alfv’en wave turbulence; 2) some empirical heat source in the energy equation; 3) a non-uniform distribution of the polytropic index, γ, used in the energy equation. In our model, we choose the latter approach. However, in order to get a more realistic distribution of γ, we use the empirical Wang-Sheeley-Arge (WSA) model to constrain the MHD solution. The WSA model provides the distribution of the asymptotic solar wind speed from the potential field approximation; therefore it also provides the distribution of the kinetic energy. Assuming that far from the Sun the total energy is dominated by the energy of the bulk motion and assuming the conservation of the Bernoulli integral, we can trace the total energy along a magnetic field line to the solar surface. On the surface the gravity is known and the kinetic energy is negligible. Therefore, we can get the surface distribution of γ as a function of the final speed originating from this point. By interpolation γ to spherically uniform value on the source surface, we use this spatial distribution of γ in the energy equation to obtain a self-consistent, steady state MHD solution for the solar corona. We present the model result for different Carrington Rotations.
Coal-fired magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) electric power generation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sens, P.F.
1992-01-01
Since 1986 Directorate-General XII 'Science, Research and Development' of the Commission of the European Communities has kept a watching brief on the development of coal-fired magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) electric power generation from the 'solid fuels' section of its non-nuclear energy R and D programme. It established, in 1987, the Faraday Working Group (FWG) to assess the development status of coal-fired MHD and to evaluate its potential contribution to the future electricity production in the Community. The FWG expressed as its opinion, at the end of 1987, that in sufficient data were available to justify a final answer to the question about MHD's potential contribution to future electricity production and recommended that studies be undertaken in three areas; (i) the lifetime of the generator, (ii) cost and performance of direct air preheating, (iii) cost and efficiency of seed recovery/reprocessing. These studies were contracted and results were presented in the extended FWG meeting on 15 November 1990, for an audience of about 70 people. The present volume contains the proceedings of this meeting. The introduction describes the reasons for establishing the FWG, its activities and the content of its extended meeting followed by the summary of the discussions and the concluding remarks of this meeting. The main part of the volume consists of the text either of the oral presentations during the meeting or of the final reports resulting from the studies under contract
MHD-flow in slotted channels with conducting walls
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Evtushenko, I.A.; Kirillov, I.R.; Reed, C.B.
1994-07-01
A review of experimental results is presented for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow in rectangular channels with conducting walls and high aspect ratios (longer side parallel to the applied magnetic field), which are called slotted channels. The slotted channel concept was conceived at Efremov Institute as a method for reducing MHD pressure drop in liquid metal cooled blanket design. The experiments conducted by the authors were aimed at studying both fully developed MHD-flow, and the effect of a magnetic field on the hydrodynamics of 3-D flows in slotted channels. Tests were carried out on five models of the slotted geometry. A good agreement between test and theoretical results for the pressure drop in slotted channels was demonstrated. Application of a open-quotes one-electrode movable probeclose quotes for velocity measurement permitted measurement of the M-shape velocity profiles in the slotted channels. Suppression of 3-D inertial effects in slotted channels of complex geometry was demonstrated based on potential distribution data
Subsonic Constant-Area MHD Generator Experiments with the CNEN Blow-Down Loop Facility
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bertolini, E.; Gasparotto, M.; Gay, P.; Toschi, R. [Laboratorio Conversione Diretta, CNEN, Frascati (Italy)
1968-11-15
The design of the facility, described at the Salzburg Symposium, was somewhat modified following the results of the commissioning tests; the changes were mainly concerned with the thermal insulation, duct materials and caesium recovery system. The facility went into full operation in March 1967 and since then two series of MHD experiments, a total of twenty-six runs, have been performed. During the MHD runs the facility has been working mostly under the following operating conditions: stagnation temperature 1500 to 1800 Degree-Sign K; stagnation pressure-1 to 3 atm. abs.; mass How 50 to 150 g/sec; seeding 2 to 5 at.%- ; magnetic field 0 to 45 k G; Mach number 0.4 to 0.8; Hall parameter up to 6. The main purpose of the experiments was to study the performance of relatively small generators (cross-section 3 x 5 cm{sup 2}, length 8-20 cm) both when the non-equilibrium ionization is expected to be negligible and when it should be, in a very idealized model, relevant. As a first step, efforts were made to ascertain whether any of the unsatisfactory results reported in Salzburg, both for equilibrium and non-equilibrium generators, stemmed not from the basic functioning principle of an MHD small-scale generator but rather from some inadequacy of the experimental apparatus. Therefore particular attention was paid to: ceasium vaporization and mixing with helium; plasma insulation from ground; electrical insulation from ground and from each other of those electrically conductive parts of the facility which may, during the functioning, come into contact with the plasma; temperature control of the duct; purity level; duct materials; measurement system and control. In the equilibrium regime the Faraday field measured is very close to the ideal value and it reaches 80 V/cm (400 volts between electrodes); the Hall field still remains below the ideal value uB{beta}L (50% at {beta} = 3). The maximum Hall field was about 35 V/cm for a corresponding voltage of 600 V. Preionization
Bhakta, S.; Prajapati, R. P.; Dolai, B.
2017-08-01
The small amplitude quantum magnetohydrodynamic (QMHD) waves and linear firehose and mirror instabilities in uniformly rotating dense quantum plasma have been investigated using generalized polytropic pressure laws. The QMHD model and Chew-Goldberger-Low (CGL) set of equations are used to formulate the basic equations of the problem. The general dispersion relation is derived using normal mode analysis which is discussed in parallel, transverse, and oblique wave propagations. The fast, slow, and intermediate QMHD wave modes and linear firehose and mirror instabilities are analyzed for isotropic MHD and CGL quantum fluid plasmas. The firehose instability remains unaffected while the mirror instability is modified by polytropic exponents and quantum diffraction parameter. The graphical illustrations show that quantum corrections have a stabilizing influence on the mirror instability. The presence of uniform rotation stabilizes while quantum corrections destabilize the growth rate of the system. It is also observed that the growth rate stabilizes much faster in parallel wave propagation in comparison to the transverse mode of propagation. The quantum corrections and polytropic exponents also modify the pseudo-MHD and reverse-MHD modes in dense quantum plasma. The phase speed (Friedrichs) diagrams of slow, fast, and intermediate wave modes are illustrated for isotropic MHD and double adiabatic MHD or CGL quantum plasmas, where the significant role of magnetic field and quantum diffraction parameters on the phase speed is observed.
The MHD intermediate shock interaction with an intermediate wave: Are intermediate shocks physical?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, C.C.
1988-01-01
Contrary to the usual belief that MHD intermediate shocks are extraneous, the authors have recently shown by numerical solutions of dissipative MHD equations that intermediate shocks are admissible and can be formed through nonlinear steepening from a continuous wave. In this paper, he clarifies the differences between the conventional view and the results by studying the interaction of an MHD intermediate shock with an intermediate wave. The study reaffirms his results. In addition, the study shows that there exists a larger class of shocklike solutions in the time-dependent dissiaptive MHD equations than are given by the MHD Rankine-Hugoniot relations. it also suggests a mechanism for forming rotational discontinuities through the interaction of an intermediate shock with an intermediate wave. The results are of importance not only to the MHD shock theory but also to studies such as magnetic field reconnection models
Study of MHD stability beta limit in LHD by hierarchy integrated simulation code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sato, M.; Watanabe, K.Y.; Nakamura, Y.
2008-10-01
The beta limit by the ideal MHD instabilities (so-called 'MHD stability beta limit') for helical plasmas is studied by a hierarchy integrated simulation code. A numerical model for the effect of the MHD instabilities is introduced such that the pressure profile is flattened around the rational surface due to the MHD instabilities. The width of the flattening of the pressure gradient is determined from the width of the eigenmode structure of the MHD instabilities. It is assumed that there is the upper limit of the mode number of the MHD instabilities which directly affect the pressure gradient. The upper limit of the mode number is determined using a recent high beta experiment in the Large Helical Device (LHD). The flattening of the pressure gradient is calculated by the transport module in a hierarchy integrated code. The achievable volume averaged beta value in the LHD is expected to be beyond 6%. (author)
Accuracy of MHD simulations: Effects of simulation initialization in GUMICS-4
Lakka, Antti; Pulkkinen, Tuija; Dimmock, Andrew; Osmane, Adnane; Palmroth, Minna; Honkonen, Ilja
2016-04-01
We conducted a study aimed at revealing how different global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation initialization methods affect the dynamics in different parts of the Earth's magnetosphere-ionosphere system. While such magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling codes have been used for more than two decades, their testing still requires significant work to identify the optimal numerical representation of the physical processes. We used the Grand Unified Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling Simulation (GUMICS-4), the only European global MHD simulation being developed by the Finnish Meteorological Institute. GUMICS-4 was put to a test that included two stages: 1) a 10 day Omni data interval was simulated and the results were validated by comparing both the bow shock and the magnetopause spatial positions predicted by the simulation to actual measurements and 2) the validated 10 day simulation run was used as a reference in a comparison of five 3 + 12 hour (3 hour synthetic initialisation + 12 hour actual simulation) simulation runs. The 12 hour input was not only identical in each simulation case but it also represented a subset of the 10 day input thus enabling quantifying the effects of different synthetic initialisations on the magnetosphere-ionosphere system. The used synthetic initialisation data sets were created using stepwise, linear and sinusoidal functions. Switching the used input from the synthetic to real Omni data was immediate. The results show that the magnetosphere forms in each case within an hour after the switch to real data. However, local dissimilarities are found in the magnetospheric dynamics after formation depending on the used initialisation method. This is evident especially in the inner parts of the lobe.
Arc damage characteristics of inter-anode insulators in MHD generator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kato, Ken; Takano, Kiyonami
1990-01-01
The inter-anode arc caused by a Hall field is driven by a magnetic field into the anode-wall in an MHD generator, which limits the lifetime and performance of the generator. The arc damage to inter-anode insulators of an MHD generator has been studied experimentally, in order to obtain basic data for the design of the inter-anode insulation. The experiment was conducted using a pair of electrodes with an insulator between them. Arc currents was supplied from a DC power source and magnetic field was applied perpendicular to the arc current. Experimental parameters are the insulator thickness, arc current, magnetic field and insulator materials. Quartz glass, boron nitride, magnesia, alumina, silicon carbide, silicon nitride etc. were tested and evaluated. The following conclusions are evident from the experiments. Boron nitride and quartz glass are the most promising inter-anode insulators. Boron nitride has a higher arc voltage and longer cutting time than quartz glass, and it is the best material. Cutting time is approximately proportional to the -0.4 th power of the magnetic field. Loss of insulator is approximately proportional to the 0.7 th power of the arc current. The arc voltage increases linearly with the inter anode gap length. It also increases with magnetic field, but decreases with increase of arc current. An equation which approximates to such relations of arc voltage versus inter-anode gap length, arc current and magnetic field has been obtained. The standard deviation of the error of this equation is 12 % for boron nitride and 15 % for quartz glass. (author)
1981-01-01
The reference conceptual design of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Engineering Test Facility (ETF), a prototype 200 MWe coal-fired electric generating plant designed to demonstrate the commercial feasibility of open cycle MHD, is summarized. Main elements of the design, systems, and plant facilities are illustrated. System design descriptions are included for closed cycle cooling water, industrial gas systems, fuel oil, boiler flue gas, coal management, seed management, slag management, plant industrial waste, fire service water, oxidant supply, MHD power ventilating
A study of some recent advances in the concept and design of MHD generators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vakilian, M.
1976-02-01
Direct conversion of energy and high temperature working fluid making Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) power plants potentially much more efficient than steam power stations. The study indicates an overall efficiency of 50% to 60%. This compares with most modern fossil-fuel plants at 40% efficiency. Advances in design and construction of experimental and commercial MHD plants developed in various countries are presented. Environmental effects and advantages of the MHD power plants over the more conventional fossil and nuclear plants are discussed
Internal Short-Circuiting Phenomena In An Open-Cycle MHD Generator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sasaki, Y.; Ishibashi, E. [Hitachi Research Laboratory, Hitachi-shi, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Kasahara, T.; Kazawa, Y. [Hitachi Works, Hitachi Ltd., Hitachi-shi, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)
1968-11-15
The influence of internal electrical leakage due to circulating currents flowing through velocity boundary layers and due to metallic elements in insulating walls (peg walls) is experimentally investigated. For this purpose a combustion-driven MHD generator is utilized. The active part of the generator test section is 60 cm in length with a constant cross-section of 3 x 12 cm{sup 2}. At typical operating conditions about 70 g/s of diesel light oil is burned with oxygen-enriched air, resulting in a thermal input of 3 MW, a fluid velocity of 500 to 700 m/s and a gas temperature of 2700 to 2900 Degree-Sign K at the channel inlet. KOH is used as the seed material. The magnetic field can be raised up to 1.95 Teslas. In the range of lower magnetic fields (B < 0.8T) it is shown that an observed open-circuit voltage agrees well with the theoretical value OBh which is defined in a one-dimensional MHD model. In other words, the circulating currents scarcely affect the open-circuit voltage. The theoretical basis for this fact is obtained by the use of a simple model. Experimental results obtained in several runs using three sets of insulating walls show that thermal boundary layers at water-cooled metals are more conductive than expected and that the open- circuit voltage decreases because of leakage currents flowing through metal pegs, when the internal resistance of the generator is relatively large. Also, it is shown that an alumina coating is effective in reducing the leakage currents. (author)
Towards Integrated Pulse Detonation Propulsion and MHD Power
Litchford, Ron J.; Thompson, Bryan R.; Lineberry, John T.
1999-01-01
with PDEs for integrated aerospace propulsion and MHD power. An effort is made to estimate the energy requirements for direct detonation initiation of potential fuel/oxidizer mixtures and to determine the electrical power requirements. This requirement is evaluated in terms of the possibility for MHD power generation using the combustion detonation wave. Small scale laboratory experiments were conducted using stoichiometric mixtures of acetylene and oxygen with an atomized spray of cesium hydroxide dissolved in alcohol as an ionization seed in the active MHD region. Time resolved thrust and MHD power generation measurements were performed. These results show that PDEs yield higher I(sub sp) levels than a comparable rocket engine and that MHD power generation is viable candidate for achieving self-excited engine operation.
Scaling Optimization of the SIESTA MHD Code
Seal, Sudip; Hirshman, Steven; Perumalla, Kalyan
2013-10-01
SIESTA is a parallel three-dimensional plasma equilibrium code capable of resolving magnetic islands at high spatial resolutions for toroidal plasmas. Originally designed to exploit small-scale parallelism, SIESTA has now been scaled to execute efficiently over several thousands of processors P. This scaling improvement was accomplished with minimal intrusion to the execution flow of the original version. First, the efficiency of the iterative solutions was improved by integrating the parallel tridiagonal block solver code BCYCLIC. Krylov-space generation in GMRES was then accelerated using a customized parallel matrix-vector multiplication algorithm. Novel parallel Hessian generation algorithms were integrated and memory access latencies were dramatically reduced through loop nest optimizations and data layout rearrangement. These optimizations sped up equilibria calculations by factors of 30-50. It is possible to compute solutions with granularity N/P near unity on extremely fine radial meshes (N > 1024 points). Grid separation in SIESTA, which manifests itself primarily in the resonant components of the pressure far from rational surfaces, is strongly suppressed by finer meshes. Large problem sizes of up to 300 K simultaneous non-linear coupled equations have been solved on the NERSC supercomputers. Work supported by U.S. DOE under Contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 with UT-Battelle, LLC.
CAFE: A NEW RELATIVISTIC MHD CODE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lora-Clavijo, F. D.; Cruz-Osorio, A. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, AP 70-264, Distrito Federal 04510, México (Mexico); Guzmán, F. S., E-mail: fdlora@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: aosorio@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: guzman@ifm.umich.mx [Instituto de Física y Matemáticas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo. Edificio C-3, Cd. Universitaria, 58040 Morelia, Michoacán, México (Mexico)
2015-06-22
We introduce CAFE, a new independent code designed to solve the equations of relativistic ideal magnetohydrodynamics (RMHD) in three dimensions. We present the standard tests for an RMHD code and for the relativistic hydrodynamics regime because we have not reported them before. The tests include the one-dimensional Riemann problems related to blast waves, head-on collisions of streams, and states with transverse velocities, with and without magnetic field, which is aligned or transverse, constant or discontinuous across the initial discontinuity. Among the two-dimensional (2D) and 3D tests without magnetic field, we include the 2D Riemann problem, a one-dimensional shock tube along a diagonal, the high-speed Emery wind tunnel, the Kelvin–Helmholtz (KH) instability, a set of jets, and a 3D spherical blast wave, whereas in the presence of a magnetic field we show the magnetic rotor, the cylindrical explosion, a case of Kelvin–Helmholtz instability, and a 3D magnetic field advection loop. The code uses high-resolution shock-capturing methods, and we present the error analysis for a combination that uses the Harten, Lax, van Leer, and Einfeldt (HLLE) flux formula combined with a linear, piecewise parabolic method and fifth-order weighted essentially nonoscillatory reconstructors. We use the flux-constrained transport and the divergence cleaning methods to control the divergence-free magnetic field constraint.
Magnetic Reconnection in MHD and Kinetic Turbulence
Loureiro, Nuno; Boldyrev, Stanislav
2017-10-01
Recent works have revisited the current understanding of Alfvénic turbulence to account for the role of magnetic reconnection. Theoretical arguments suggest that reconnection inevitably becomes important in the inertial range, at the scale where it becomes faster than the eddy turnover time. This leads to a transition to a new sub-inertial interval, suggesting a route to energy dissipation that is fundamentally different from that envisioned in the usual Kolmogorov-like phenomenology. These concepts can be extended to collisionless plasmas, where reconnection is enabled by electron inertia rather than resistivity. Although several different cases must then be considered, a common result is that the energy spectrum exhibits a scaling with the perpendicular wave number that scales between k⊥- 8 / 3 and k⊥- 3 , in favourable agreement with many numerical results and observations. Work supported by NSF-DOE Partnership in Basic Plasma Science and Engineering, Award No. DE-SC0016215, and by NSF CAREER Award No. 1654168 (NFL); and by NSF Grant NSF AGS- 1261659 and by the Vilas Associates Award of UWM (SB).
Experimental investigation of MHD effects in a manifold of a downstream circular pipe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu Zengyu; Pan Chuanjie; Wei Wenhao; Chen Xiaoqiong; Zhang Yanxu
2001-01-01
The velocity distribution in the mid-plane of the cross section of a main pipe in the region of a junction is investigated. The result confirms that the MHD-flow near the junction is strongly affected by the junction itself. This holds even if the bypass pipe is closed. The MHD pressure drops are also measured, and a three-dimensional (3D) factor of MHD pressure drop due to manifold effects is obtained with theoretical analysis and comparing with experimental data. The factor is directly proportional to Hartmann number Ha. Two dimensional MHD pressure drop is also discussed
MHD repowering of a 250 MWe unit of the TVA Allen Steam Plant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chapman, J.N.; Attig, R.C.
1992-01-01
In this paper coal fired MHD repowering is considered for the TVA Allen Steam Plant. The performance of the repowered plant is presented. Cost comparisons are made of the cost of repowering with MHD versus the cost of meeting similar standards by installing scrubbers and selective catalytic NO x reduction (SCNR). For repowering of a single 250 MW e unit, the costs favor scrubbing and SCNR. If one considers a single repowering of all three 250 MW e units by a single MHD topping cycle and boiler, MHD repowering is more economical. Environmental emissions from the repowered plant are estimated
Global Current Circuit Structure in a Resistive Pulsar Magnetosphere Model
Kato, Yugo. E.
2017-12-01
Pulsar magnetospheres have strong magnetic fields and large amounts of plasma. The structures of these magnetospheres are studied using force-free electrodynamics. To understand pulsar magnetospheres, discussions must include their outer region. However, force-free electrodynamics is limited in it does not handle dissipation. Therefore, a resistive pulsar magnetic field model is needed. To break the ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) condition E\\cdot B=0, Ohm’s law is used. This work introduces resistivity depending upon the distance from the star and obtain a self-consistent steady state by time integration. Poloidal current circuits form in the magnetosphere while the toroidal magnetic field region expands beyond the light cylinder and the Poynting flux radiation appears. High electric resistivity causes a large space scale poloidal current circuit and the magnetosphere radiates a larger Poynting flux than the linear increase outside of the light cylinder radius. The formed poloidal-current circuit has width, which grows with the electric conductivity. This result contributes to a more concrete dissipative pulsar magnetosphere model.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Asma Khalid
2018-06-01
Full Text Available The intention here is to investigate the effects of wall couple stress with energy and concentration transfer in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD flow of a micropolar fluid embedded in a porous medium. The mathematical model contains the set of linear conservation forms of partial differential equations. Laplace transforms and convolution technique are used for computation of exact solutions of velocity, microrotations, temperature and concentration equations. Numerical values of skin friction, couple wall stress, Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are also computed. Characteristics for the significant variables on the physical quantities are graphically discussed. Comparison with previously published work in limiting sense shows an excellent agreement. Keywords: Micropolor fluid, Microrotation, MHD, Porosity, Wall couple stress, Exact solutions
Experiments on MHD Generation with ETL Mark II
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mori, F.; Fushimi, K.; Ikeda, S. [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Ministry of International Trade and Industry, Tokyo (Japan)
1968-11-15
The experimental results of the ETL Mark II combustion-driven Faraday-type MHD generator are described. The cross-sectional area of the generator duct is 9 x 11 cm{sup 2} at the inlet and 9 x 25 cm{sup 2} at the outlet. The insulating wall of the duct is made of magnesia and the electrode of carbon. There are 30 electrode pairs. The length of the duct is 120 cm and the width of an electrode is 3 cm. The combustion chamber is of cylindrical shape, and from the bottom of the chamber the fuel, the seeding material and the oxidizer are injected. The fuel is diesel oil and the seeding material potassium hydroxide dissolved in methyl alcohol. The oxidizer is oxygen, but air or oxygen-enriched air can be used. In the latter case, the air is pre-heated up to about 1700 Degree-Sign K by a pebble heater containing alumina pebbles to about 7 tons in weight. The heater, which incorporates a propane burner, supplies the pre-heated air to the combustion chamber at a pressure of 5 atm(g) and at a rate of 2.6 kg/s for a period of 5 minutes. The maximum temperature of the air is 1700 Degree-Sign K at the outlet of the heater and the temperature falls by 20 Degree-Sign K after 5 minutes. If pre-heated air (or oxygen-enriched air) is used as the oxidizer, only the methyl alcohol containing the dissolved potassium hydroxide is used as the fuel. The electromagnet, which has an iron core of about 80 tons weight, can generate a maximum flux density of 3.4 T with an air gap of 16 cm. The exciting ampere-turns of the copper coil are then 1.4 x 10{sup 6} AT. The experimental procedure with the generator is as follows. The combustion chamber and the generator duct are heated to about 1300 Degree-Sign K by the combustion products of propane and air, and then the electromagnet is excited and the fuel, oxidizer and seeding material are injected. The load.resistances of each of the 30 electrode pairs are varied and the output voltages and the currents of every second electrode pair are measured
Sander, K F
1964-01-01
Linear Network Theory covers the significant algebraic aspect of network theory, with minimal reference to practical circuits. The book begins the presentation of network analysis with the exposition of networks containing resistances only, and follows it up with a discussion of networks involving inductance and capacity by way of the differential equations. Classification and description of certain networks, equivalent networks, filter circuits, and network functions are also covered. Electrical engineers, technicians, electronics engineers, electricians, and students learning the intricacies