Acute Predictors of Social Integration Following Mild Stroke.
Wise, Frances M; Harris, Darren W; Olver, John H; Davis, Stephen M; Disler, Peter B
2018-04-01
Despite an acknowledged need to accurately predict stroke outcome, there is little empirical evidence regarding acute predictors of participation restriction post stroke. The current study examines prediction of social integration following mild stroke, using combinations of acute poststroke factors. In a prospective, longitudinal study, a cohort of 60 stroke survivors was followed up at 6 months post stroke. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were employed to evaluate the value of acute poststroke variables in predicting social integration at 6 months post stroke. A combination of age, number of comorbidities, stroke severity, social support factors, and general self-efficacy in the acute poststroke period accounted for 42% of the variance in 6-month social integration. The largest amount of variance (20%) was explained by inclusion of social support factors, including number and types of support. Post hoc analysis was conducted to establish whether marital status was the mediating variable through which early poststroke social support factors exerted influence upon subsequent social integration. The new combination of acute variables accounted for 48% of the variance in 6-month social integration. Results suggested that subjects with partners perceived higher levels of functional social support and lower levels of participation restriction. Stroke survivors with partners may receive greater amounts of companionship and encouragement from their partners, which enhances self-esteem and confidence. Such individuals are possibly more able to participate in and maintain relationships, thus improving social integration. Social support factors, mediated via marital status, are the strongest predictors of subsequent social integration following mild stroke. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Determining Predictor Importance in Hierarchical Linear Models Using Dominance Analysis
Luo, Wen; Azen, Razia
2013-01-01
Dominance analysis (DA) is a method used to evaluate the relative importance of predictors that was originally proposed for linear regression models. This article proposes an extension of DA that allows researchers to determine the relative importance of predictors in hierarchical linear models (HLM). Commonly used measures of model adequacy in…
Predictors of patient dependence in mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease.
Benke, Thomas; Sanin, Günter; Lechner, Anita; Dal-Bianco, Peter; Ransmayr, Gerhard; Uranüs, Margarete; Marksteiner, Josef; Gaudig, Maren; Schmidt, Reinhold
2015-01-01
Patient dependence has rarely been studied in mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD). To identify factors which predict patient dependence in mild-to-moderate AD. We studied 398 non-institutionalized AD patients (234 females) of the ongoing Prospective Registry on Dementia (PRODEM) in Austria. The Dependence Scale (DS) was used to assess patient dependence. Patient assessment comprised functional abilities, neuropsychiatric symptoms and cognitive functions. A multiple linear regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of patient dependence. AD patients were mildly-to-moderately impaired (mean scores and SDs were: CDR 0.84 ± 0.43; DAD 74.4 ± 23.3, MMSE = 22.5 ± 3.6). Psychopathology and caregiver burden were in the low range (mean NPI score 13.2, range 0 to 98; mean ZBI score 18, range 0-64). Seventy five percent of patients were classified as having a mild level of patient dependence (DS sum score 0 to 6). Patient dependence correlated significantly and positively with age, functional measures, psychopathology and depression, disease duration, and caregiver burden. Significant negative, but low correlations were found between patient dependence, cognitive variables, and global cognition. Activities of daily living, patient age, and disease severity accounted for 63% of variance in patient dependence, whereas cognitive variables accounted for only 11%. Dependence in this cohort was mainly related to age and functional impairment, and less so to cognitive and neuropsychiatric variables. This differs from studies investigating patients in more advanced disease stages which found abnormal behavior and impairments of cognition as main predictors of patient dependence.
Forlenza,Orestes V.; Diniz,Breno S.; Talib,Leda L.; Radanovic,Marcia; Yassuda,Monica S.; Ojopi,Elida B.; Gattaz,Wagner F.
2010-01-01
OBJECTIVE: To identify predictors of the progression from pre-dementia stages of cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease is relevant to clinical management and to substantiate the decision of prescribing antidementia drugs. METHOD: Longitudinal study of a cohort of elderly adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and healthy controls, carried out to estimate the risk and characterize predictors of the progression to Alzheimer's disease. RESULTS: Patients with amnestic mild cognitive...
High-Order Sparse Linear Predictors for Audio Processing
Giacobello, Daniele; van Waterschoot, Toon; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll
2010-01-01
Linear prediction has generally failed to make a breakthrough in audio processing, as it has done in speech processing. This is mostly due to its poor modeling performance, since an audio signal is usually an ensemble of different sources. Nevertheless, linear prediction comes with a whole set...... of interesting features that make the idea of using it in audio processing not far fetched, e.g., the strong ability of modeling the spectral peaks that play a dominant role in perception. In this paper, we provide some preliminary conjectures and experiments on the use of high-order sparse linear predictors...... in audio processing. These predictors, successfully implemented in modeling the short-term and long-term redundancies present in speech signals, will be used to model tonal audio signals, both monophonic and polyphonic. We will show how the sparse predictors are able to model efﬁciently the different...
Asdaghi, Negar; Wang, Kefeng; Ciliberti-Vargas, Maria A; Gutierrez, Carolina Marinovic; Koch, Sebastian; Gardener, Hannah; Dong, Chuanhui; Rose, David Z; Garcia, Enid J; Burgin, W Scott; Zevallos, Juan Carlos; Rundek, Tatjana; Sacco, Ralph L; Romano, Jose G
2018-03-01
Mild stroke is the most common cause for thrombolysis exclusion in patients acutely presenting to the hospital. Thrombolysis administration in this subgroup is highly variable among different clinicians and institutions. We aim to study the predictors of thrombolysis in patients with mild ischemic stroke in the FL-PR CReSD registry (Florida-Puerto Rico Collaboration to Reduce Stroke Disparities). Among 73 712 prospectively enrolled patients with a final diagnosis of ischemic stroke or TIA from January 2010 to April 2015, we identified 7746 cases with persistent neurological symptoms and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale ≤5 who arrived within 4 hours of symptom onset. Multilevel logistic regression analysis with generalized estimating equations was used to identify independent predictors of thrombolytic administration in the subgroup of patients without contraindications to thrombolysis. We included 6826 cases (final diagnosis mild stroke, 74.6% and TIA, 25.4%). Median age was 72 (interquartile range, 21); 52.7% men, 70.3% white, 12.9% black, 16.8% Hispanic; and median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, 2 (interquartile range, 3). Patients who received thrombolysis (n=1281, 18.7%) were younger (68 versus 72 years), had less vascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia), had lower risk of prior vascular disease (myocardial infarction, peripheral vascular disease, and previous stroke), and had a higher presenting median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (4 versus 2). In the multilevel multivariable model, early hospital arrival (arrive by 0-2 hours versus ≥3.5 hours; odds ratio [OR], 8.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.76-13.98), higher National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.77-1.98), aphasia at presentation (OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.12-1.62), faster door-to-computed tomography time (OR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.53-2.15), and presenting to an academic hospital (OR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.39-2.95) were
Clinical Predictors of Progressive Hemorrhagic Injury in Children with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury
Guangfu Di
2017-11-01
Full Text Available ObjectiveTraumatic brain injury (TBI occurs commonly in children. Repeat computed tomography (CT follow up of TBI patients is often scheduled to identify progressive hemorrhagic injury (PHI. However, the utility of repeated CT scans, especially in children with mild TBI [Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS scores of 13–15], has been debated. The purposes of the present study were to identify clinical predictors of PHI in children with mild TBI and to clarify relevant clinical factors via radiological examination.MethodsFrom 2014 to 2016, we retrospectively enrolled children <15 years of age with mild TBI. We recorded age, sex, GCS scores on admission, causes of head injury, timing of initial CT, any loss of consciousness, vomiting and seizure data, and type of TBI. Based on repeat CT findings, patients were dichotomized into either a PHI group or a non-PHI group. Also, clinical data were comparatively reviewed. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify clinical predictors of PHI.ResultsOf the 175 enrolled children, 15 (8.6% experienced PHI. Univariate analysis revealed that GCS score on admission, cause of head injury, vomiting, seizure, and TBI type were associated with PHI. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that a GCS score of 13 and epidural hemorrhage (EDH were independently associated with PHI (hazard ratio = 0.131, P = 0.018; hazard ratio = 6.612, P = 0.027, respectively.ConclusionA GCS score of 13 and EDH were associated with PHI. These factors should be considered when deciding whether to repeat CT on children with mild TBI.
Pedro K. Curiati
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Background/Aims: The purpose of our study was to evaluate vascular risk factors and other clinical variables as predictors of cognitive and functional decline in elderly patients with mild to moderate dementia. Methods: The clinical characteristics of 82 elderly patients (mean age 79.0 ± 5.9 years; 67.1% females with mild to moderate dementia were obtained at baseline, including years of education, Framingham Coronary Heart Disease Risk score, Hachinski Ischemic Score (HIS, Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE score, Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ score, Burden Interview Scale score, and Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI score. Changes in MMSE and FAQ scores over time were assessed annually. The association between baseline clinical variables and cognitive and functional decline was investigated during 3 years of follow-up through the use of generalized linear mixed effects models. Results: A trend was found towards steeper cognitive decline in patients with less vascular burden according to the HIS (β = 0.056, p = 0.09, better cognitive performance according to the CDR score (β = 0.313, p = 0.06 and worse caregiver burden according to the Burden Interview Scale score (β = -0.012, p = 0.07 at baseline. Conclusion: Further studies with larger samples are necessary to confirm and expand our findings.
van der Naalt, Joukje; Timmerman, Marieke E; de Koning, Myrthe E; van der Horn, Harm J; Scheenen, Myrthe E; Jacobs, Bram; Hageman, Gerard; Yilmaz, Tansel; Roks, Gerwin; Spikman, Jacoba M
2017-07-01
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) accounts for most cases of TBI, and many patients show incomplete long-term functional recovery. We aimed to create a prognostic model for functional outcome by combining demographics, injury severity, and psychological factors to identify patients at risk for incomplete recovery at 6 months. In particular, we investigated additional indicators of emotional distress and coping style at 2 weeks above early predictors measured at the emergency department. The UPFRONT study was an observational cohort study done at the emergency departments of three level-1 trauma centres in the Netherlands, which included patients with mTBI, defined by a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 13-15 and either post-traumatic amnesia lasting less than 24 h or loss of consciousness for less than 30 min. Emergency department predictors were measured either on admission with mTBI-comprising injury severity (GCS score, post-traumatic amnesia, and CT abnormalities), demographics (age, gender, educational level, pre-injury mental health, and previous brain injury), and physical conditions (alcohol use on the day of injury, neck pain, headache, nausea, dizziness)-or at 2 weeks, when we obtained data on mood (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), emotional distress (Impact of Event Scale), coping (Utrecht Coping List), and post-traumatic complaints. The functional outcome was recovery, assessed at 6 months after injury with the Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE). We dichotomised recovery into complete (GOSE=8) and incomplete (GOSE≤7) recovery. We used logistic regression analyses to assess the predictive value of patient information collected at the time of admission to an emergency department (eg, demographics, injury severity) alone, and combined with predictors of outcome collected at 2 weeks after injury (eg, emotional distress and coping). Between Jan 25, 2013, and Jan 6, 2015, data from 910 patients with mTBI were collected 2 weeks after injury; the final
An effective description of dark matter and dark energy in the mildly non-linear regime
Lewandowski, Matthew; Senatore, Leonardo [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94306 (United States); Maleknejad, Azadeh, E-mail: matthew.lewandowski@cea.fr, E-mail: azade@ipm.ir, E-mail: senatore@stanford.edu [School of Physics, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P. Code. 19538-33511, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2017-05-01
In the next few years, we are going to probe the low-redshift universe with unprecedented accuracy. Among the various fruits that this will bear, it will greatly improve our knowledge of the dynamics of dark energy, though for this there is a strong theoretical preference for a cosmological constant. We assume that dark energy is described by the so-called Effective Field Theory of Dark Energy, which assumes that dark energy is the Goldstone boson of time translations. Such a formalism makes it easy to ensure that our signatures are consistent with well-established principles of physics. Since most of the information resides at high wavenumbers, it is important to be able to make predictions at the highest wavenumber that is possible. The Effective Field Theory of Large-Scale Structure (EFTofLSS) is a theoretical framework that has allowed us to make accurate predictions in the mildly non-linear regime. In this paper, we derive the non-linear equations that extend the EFTofLSS to include the effect of dark energy both on the matter fields and on the biased tracers. For the specific case of clustering quintessence, we then perturbatively solve to cubic order the resulting non-linear equations and construct the one-loop power spectrum of the total density contrast.
Identifying predictors of physics item difficulty: A linear regression approach
Mesic, Vanes; Muratovic, Hasnija
2011-06-01
Large-scale assessments of student achievement in physics are often approached with an intention to discriminate students based on the attained level of their physics competencies. Therefore, for purposes of test design, it is important that items display an acceptable discriminatory behavior. To that end, it is recommended to avoid extraordinary difficult and very easy items. Knowing the factors that influence physics item difficulty makes it possible to model the item difficulty even before the first pilot study is conducted. Thus, by identifying predictors of physics item difficulty, we can improve the test-design process. Furthermore, we get additional qualitative feedback regarding the basic aspects of student cognitive achievement in physics that are directly responsible for the obtained, quantitative test results. In this study, we conducted a secondary analysis of data that came from two large-scale assessments of student physics achievement at the end of compulsory education in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Foremost, we explored the concept of “physics competence” and performed a content analysis of 123 physics items that were included within the above-mentioned assessments. Thereafter, an item database was created. Items were described by variables which reflect some basic cognitive aspects of physics competence. For each of the assessments, Rasch item difficulties were calculated in separate analyses. In order to make the item difficulties from different assessments comparable, a virtual test equating procedure had to be implemented. Finally, a regression model of physics item difficulty was created. It has been shown that 61.2% of item difficulty variance can be explained by factors which reflect the automaticity, complexity, and modality of the knowledge structure that is relevant for generating the most probable correct solution, as well as by the divergence of required thinking and interference effects between intuitive and formal physics knowledge
Identifying predictors of physics item difficulty: A linear regression approach
Hasnija Muratovic
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Large-scale assessments of student achievement in physics are often approached with an intention to discriminate students based on the attained level of their physics competencies. Therefore, for purposes of test design, it is important that items display an acceptable discriminatory behavior. To that end, it is recommended to avoid extraordinary difficult and very easy items. Knowing the factors that influence physics item difficulty makes it possible to model the item difficulty even before the first pilot study is conducted. Thus, by identifying predictors of physics item difficulty, we can improve the test-design process. Furthermore, we get additional qualitative feedback regarding the basic aspects of student cognitive achievement in physics that are directly responsible for the obtained, quantitative test results. In this study, we conducted a secondary analysis of data that came from two large-scale assessments of student physics achievement at the end of compulsory education in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Foremost, we explored the concept of “physics competence” and performed a content analysis of 123 physics items that were included within the above-mentioned assessments. Thereafter, an item database was created. Items were described by variables which reflect some basic cognitive aspects of physics competence. For each of the assessments, Rasch item difficulties were calculated in separate analyses. In order to make the item difficulties from different assessments comparable, a virtual test equating procedure had to be implemented. Finally, a regression model of physics item difficulty was created. It has been shown that 61.2% of item difficulty variance can be explained by factors which reflect the automaticity, complexity, and modality of the knowledge structure that is relevant for generating the most probable correct solution, as well as by the divergence of required thinking and interference effects between intuitive and formal
Stable 1-Norm Error Minimization Based Linear Predictors for Speech Modeling
Giacobello, Daniele; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm
2014-01-01
In linear prediction of speech, the 1-norm error minimization criterion has been shown to provide a valid alternative to the 2-norm minimization criterion. However, unlike 2-norm minimization, 1-norm minimization does not guarantee the stability of the corresponding all-pole filter and can generate...... saturations when this is used to synthesize speech. In this paper, we introduce two new methods to obtain intrinsically stable predictors with the 1-norm minimization. The first method is based on constraining the roots of the predictor to lie within the unit circle by reducing the numerical range...... based linear prediction for modeling and coding of speech....
Cheung, Y M; Leung, W M; Xu, L
1997-01-01
We propose a prediction model called Rival Penalized Competitive Learning (RPCL) and Combined Linear Predictor method (CLP), which involves a set of local linear predictors such that a prediction is made by the combination of some activated predictors through a gating network (Xu et al., 1994). Furthermore, we present its improved variant named Adaptive RPCL-CLP that includes an adaptive learning mechanism as well as a data pre-and-post processing scheme. We compare them with some existing models by demonstrating their performance on two real-world financial time series--a China stock price and an exchange-rate series of US Dollar (USD) versus Deutschmark (DEM). Experiments have shown that Adaptive RPCL-CLP not only outperforms the other approaches with the smallest prediction error and training costs, but also brings in considerable high profits in the trading simulation of foreign exchange market.
DISAL glycosyl donors for the synthesis of a linear hexasaccharide under mild conditions
Petersen, Lars; Laursen, Jane B.; Larsen, K.
2003-01-01
The new class of glycosyl donors with a methyl 3,5-dinitrosalicylate (DISAL) anomeric leaving group has proved efficient for glycosylation under strictly neutral, mildly basic, or mildly acidic conditions. Here, we report the synthesis of novel DISAL disaccharide glycosyl donors prepared by easy...... nucleophilic aromatic substitution. These DISAL donors proved efficient in the synthesis of a starch-related hexasaccharide under very mild conditions. Glycosylations proceeded with alpha-selectivity and were compatible with Trt protecting groups....
Subedi, Bidya Raj; Reese, Nancy; Powell, Randy
2015-01-01
This study explored significant predictors of student's Grade Point Average (GPA) and truancy (days absent), and also determined teacher effectiveness based on proportion of variance explained at teacher level model. We employed a two-level hierarchical linear model (HLM) with student and teacher data at level-1 and level-2 models, respectively.…
Phung, Thien Kieu Thi; Siersma, Volkert; Vogel, Asmus
2018-01-01
OBJECTIVE: Self-assessment of health is a strong and independent predictor of mortality for cognitively intact people. Because the ability of patients with dementia to rate their own health is questionable, caregiver-rated health for patients may serve as a proxy. The authors aimed to validate...... and compare self- and caregiver-rated health for patients with dementia as independent predictors of patient mortality. METHODS: This was a post-hoc analysis of data from The Danish Alzheimer's Disease Intervention Study, a randomized controlled trial of psychosocial intervention for 330 patients with mild...... dementia and their caregivers with a 36-month follow-up. Patients and caregivers rated patients' health on the Euro Quality of Life Visual Analog Scale (EQ-VAS) from 0 (worst) to 100 (best). The ability of self- and caregiver-rated health for the patient to predict patient mortality was analyzed as hazard...
Vajargah, Kianoush Fathi; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Mehdizadeh-Esfanjani, Robab; Savadi-Oskouei, Daryoush; Farhoudi, Mehdi
2012-01-01
The objective of the present study was to assess the comparable applicability of orthogonal projections to latent structures (OPLS) statistical model vs traditional linear regression in order to investigate the role of trans cranial doppler (TCD) sonography in predicting ischemic stroke prognosis. The study was conducted on 116 ischemic stroke patients admitted to a specialty neurology ward. The Unified Neurological Stroke Scale was used once for clinical evaluation on the first week of admission and again six months later. All data was primarily analyzed using simple linear regression and later considered for multivariate analysis using PLS/OPLS models through the SIMCA P+12 statistical software package. The linear regression analysis results used for the identification of TCD predictors of stroke prognosis were confirmed through the OPLS modeling technique. Moreover, in comparison to linear regression, the OPLS model appeared to have higher sensitivity in detecting the predictors of ischemic stroke prognosis and detected several more predictors. Applying the OPLS model made it possible to use both single TCD measures/indicators and arbitrarily dichotomized measures of TCD single vessel involvement as well as the overall TCD result. In conclusion, the authors recommend PLS/OPLS methods as complementary rather than alternative to the available classical regression models such as linear regression.
Japundža-Milisavljević Mirjana
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The most significant segment during the process of solving mathematical tasks is translation from mathematical to native language, in the basis o which, among others, are the following factors: resistance to distraction and forming adequate verbal strategies. The goal of this research is to evaluate the contribution of some aspects of executive functions in explaining the variance of solving illustrative mathematical tasks in students with mild intellectual disability. The sample consists of 90 students with mild intellectual disability aged from 12 to 16 (M=14.7; SD=1.6, of both sexes (44.4% boys and 55.6% girls. The Twenty questions test and the Stroop test were used to estimate the executive functions. Verbal problem tasks were used for the purpose of understanding mathematical language The obtained results show that the estimated aspects of executive functions are significant predictors of understanding mathematical language in students with intellectual disabilities. The strongest predictor is distraction resistance (p=0.01.
van der Naalt, J.; Timmerman, M.E.; de Koning, M.E.; van der Horn, H.J.; Scheenen, M.E.; Jacobs, B.; Hageman, G.; Yilmaz, T.; Roks, G.; Spikman, J.M.
Background: Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) accounts for most cases of TBI, and many patients show incomplete long-term functional recovery. We aimed to create a prognostic model for functional outcome by combining demographics, injury severity, and psychological factors to identify patients at
Damen-Elias, Henny A. M.; Luijnenburg, Saskia E.; Visser, Gerard H. A.; Stoutenbeek, Philip H.; de Jong, Tom P. V. M.
2005-01-01
To determine whether children with prenatally diagnosed mild pyelectasis have more urinary tract morbidity during childhood than children without this finding. Case-control study in children with pyelectasis (anteroposterior diameter of the fetal renal pelvis of 5-10 mm). A validated questionnaire
Taylor, Julie Lounds; Shivers, Carolyn M.
2011-01-01
This study examined aspects of the sibling relationship that predicted helping profession choice and volunteerism in siblings of individuals with mild intellectual deficits at 3 points in adulthood: their mid-30s, early 50s, and mid-60s. The 393 respondents were from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, a prospective, longitudinal study following…
Predictors of work participation of young adults with mild intellectual disabilities
Holwerda, Anja; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; de Boer, Michiel R.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Brouwer, Sandra
Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) are three to four times less often employed compared to their non-disabled peers. Evidence for factors associated with work participation of young adults with ID is limited. Furthermore, studies on predictors for sustainable work participation among
Predictors of Work Participation of Young Adults with Mild Intellectual Disabilities
Holwerda, Anja; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; de Boer, Michiel R.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Brouwer, Sandra
2013-01-01
Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) are three to four times less often employed compared to their non-disabled peers. Evidence for factors associated with work participation of young adults with ID is limited. Furthermore, studies on predictors for sustainable work participation among young adults with ID is lacking altogether.…
Predictors of work participation in young adults with mild intellectual disabilities
Holwerda, A.; van der Klink, J.J.L.; de Boer, M.R.; Groothoff, J.W.; Brouwer, S.
2013-01-01
Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) are three to four times less often employed compared to their non-disabled peers. Evidence for factors associated with work participation of young adults with ID is limited. Furthermore, studies on predictors for sustainable work participation among
Predictors of Risky Behavior and Offending for Adolescents with Mild Intellectual Disability
Savage, Melissa N.; Bouck, Emily C.
2017-01-01
Adolescents with intellectual disability (ID) engage in risky behavior and offending. However, little is known on the impact school-related predictors have on engagement in risky behaviors for adolescents with ID. This study analyzed secondary data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) to determine levels of engagement in risky…
Predictors of outcome after treatment of mild traumatic brain injury: a pilot study.
Leininger, Shelley; Strong, Carrie-Ann H; Donders, Jacobus
2014-01-01
To determine factors affecting outcome of comprehensive outpatient rehabilitation of individuals who sustained a mild traumatic brain injury. From a 4-year series of referrals, 49 nonconsecutive participants met criteria for mild traumatic brain injury (ie, loss of consciousness 12). Outpatient, community-based postconcussion clinic at a rehabilitation hospital. Participants and therapy staff completed the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory-Fourth Edition (MPAI-4) at the initiation and conclusion of treatment. Participants were also administered the Trail Making Test at the start of treatment. Participants generally gave poorer adaptability ratings than staff at the beginning and discharge of treatment. Regression analyses revealed that after controlling for baseline ratings, psychiatric history was associated with worse participant-rated MPAI-4 Adjustment scores at treatment discharge, whereas better Trail Making Test Part B performance at initiation of treatment predicted better participant-rated MPAI-4 Ability at treatment discharge. Premorbid demographic and baseline neurocognitive factors should be taken into account prior to comprehensive treatment of mild traumatic brain injury, as they can influence long-term outcomes. Adaptability ratings from both staff and participants can be useful in gaining different perspectives and assessing factors affecting recovery.
Predictors of cognitive and physical fatigue in post-acute mild-moderate traumatic brain injury.
Schiehser, Dawn M; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Jak, Amy J; Hanson, Karen L; Sorg, Scott F; Orff, Henry; Clark, Alexandra L
2017-10-01
Post-traumatic fatigue (PTF) is a common, disabling, and often chronic symptom following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Yet, the impact of chronic cognitive and physical fatigue and their associations with psychiatric, sleep, cognitive, and psychosocial sequelae in mild-moderate TBI remain poorly understood. Sixty Veterans with a history of mild-moderate TBI and 40 Veteran controls (VC) were administered the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale, a validated measure of TBI-related cognitive and physical fatigue as well as measures of neuropsychiatric, psychosocial, sleep, and objective cognitive functioning. Compared to VC, TBI Veterans endorsed significantly greater levels of cognitive and physical fatigue. In TBI, psychiatric symptoms, sleep disturbance, and post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) were associated with both cognitive and physical fatigue, while loss of consciousness (LOC) and poor attention/processing speed were related to elevations in cognitive fatigue only. In regression analyses, anxiety, sleep disturbance, and LOC significantly predicted cognitive fatigue, while only post-traumatic stress symptoms and PTA contributed to physical fatigue. Cognitive and physical fatigue are problematic symptoms following mild-moderate TBI that are differentially associated with specific injury and psychiatric sequelae. Findings provide potential symptom targets for interventions aimed at ameliorating fatigue, and further underscore the importance of assessing and treating fatigue as a multi-dimensional symptom following TBI.
Stephanie Yamin
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Driving is a multifactorial behaviour drawing on multiple cognitive, sensory, and physical systems. Dementia is a progressive and degenerative neurological condition that impacts the cognitive processes necessary for safe driving. While a number of studies have examined driving among individuals with Alzheimer’s disease, less is known about the impact of Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB on driving safety. The present study compared simulated driving performance of 15 older drivers with mild DLB with that of 21 neurologically healthy control drivers. DLB drivers showed poorer performance on all indicators of simulated driving including an increased number of collisions in the simulator and poorer composite indicators of overall driving performance. A measure of global cognitive function (i.e., the Mini Mental State Exam was found to be related to the overall driving performance. In addition, measures of attention (i.e., Useful Field of View, UFOV and space processing (Visual Object and Space Perception, VOSP, Test correlated significantly with a rater’s assessment of driving performance.
Verbal cued recall as a predictor of conversion to Alzheimer's disease in Mild Cognitive Impairment.
Dierckx, E; Engelborghs, S; De Raedt, R; Van Buggenhout, M; De Deyn, P P; Verté, D; Ponjaert-Kristoffersen, I
2009-10-01
This study was set up to investigate whether neuropsychological tests are able to predict conversion to AD among Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) patients. At baseline the cognitive part of the Cambridge Examination for Mental Disorders of the Elderly (CAMCOG), the Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE), the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), a Dutch variation of Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test, the Memory Impairment Screen plus (MISplus) and the Visual Association Test (VAT) were administered to 40 patients diagnosed with MCI. After 18 months, MCI-patients were reassessed and a follow-up diagnosis was established. Of those who were seen for follow-up (n = 31), seven fulfilled (NINCDS-ADRDA) criteria of probable AD, while 24 did not convert. A binary logistic regression analysis showed that the MISplus contributed most to the prediction of conversion (OR = 0.28, 95% CI 0.099-0.790). With a cut-off of 2 out of 6, a positive predictive value of 71.5%, a negative predictive value of 91.5% and an overall diagnostic accuracy of 87.0% were achieved. This prospective, longitudinal study shows that a score of 0 or 1 out of 6 on the MISplus may be a good indicator of future (within 18 months) progression to AD among MCI-patients. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Cruz, Antonio M; Barr, Cameron; Puñales-Pozo, Elsa
2008-01-01
This research's main goals were to build a predictor for a turnaround time (TAT) indicator for estimating its values and use a numerical clustering technique for finding possible causes of undesirable TAT values. The following stages were used: domain understanding, data characterisation and sample reduction and insight characterisation. Building the TAT indicator multiple linear regression predictor and clustering techniques were used for improving corrective maintenance task efficiency in a clinical engineering department (CED). The indicator being studied was turnaround time (TAT). Multiple linear regression was used for building a predictive TAT value model. The variables contributing to such model were clinical engineering department response time (CE(rt), 0.415 positive coefficient), stock service response time (Stock(rt), 0.734 positive coefficient), priority level (0.21 positive coefficient) and service time (0.06 positive coefficient). The regression process showed heavy reliance on Stock(rt), CE(rt) and priority, in that order. Clustering techniques revealed the main causes of high TAT values. This examination has provided a means for analysing current technical service quality and effectiveness. In doing so, it has demonstrated a process for identifying areas and methods of improvement and a model against which to analyse these methods' effectiveness.
Solowey, Douglas P.; Mane, Manoj V.; Kurogi, Takashi; Carroll, Patrick J.; Manor, Brian C.; Baik, Mu-Hyun; Mindiola, Daniel J.
2017-11-01
Selectively converting linear alkanes to α-olefins under mild conditions is a highly desirable transformation given the abundance of alkanes as well as the use of olefins as building blocks in the chemical community. Until now, this reaction has been primarily the remit of noble-metal catalysts, despite extensive work showing that base-metal alkylidenes can mediate the reaction in a stoichiometric fashion. Here, we show how the presence of a hydrogen acceptor, such as the phosphorus ylide, when combined with the alkylidene complex (PNP)Ti=CHtBu(CH3) (PNP=N[2-P(CHMe2)2-4-methylphenyl]2-), catalyses the dehydrogenation of cycloalkanes to cyclic alkenes, and linear alkanes with chain lengths of C4 to C8 to terminal olefins under mild conditions. This Article represents the first example of a homogeneous and selective alkane dehydrogenation reaction using a base-metal titanium catalyst. We also propose a unique mechanism for the transfer dehydrogenation of hydrocarbons to olefins and discuss a complete cycle based on a combined experimental and computational study.
Gonçalves, Jessica; Ansai, Juliana Hotta; Masse, Fernando Arturo Arriagada; Vale, Francisco Assis Carvalho; Takahashi, Anielle Cristhine de Medeiros; Andrade, Larissa Pires de
2018-04-04
A dual-task tool with a challenging and daily secondary task, which involves executive functions, could facilitate the screening for risk of falls in older people with mild cognitive impairment or mild Alzheimer's disease. To verify if a motor-cognitive dual-task test could predict falls in older people with mild cognitive impairment or mild Alzheimer's disease, and to establish cutoff scores for the tool for both groups. A prospective study was conducted with community-dwelling older adults, including 40 with mild cognitive impairment and 38 with mild Alzheimer's disease. The dual-task test consisted of the Timed up and Go Test associated with a motor-cognitive task using a phone to call. Falls were recorded during six months by calendar and monthly telephone calls and the participants were categorized as fallers or non-fallers. In the Mild cognitive impairment Group, fallers presented higher values in time (35.2s), number of steps (33.7 steps) and motor task cost (116%) on dual-task compared to non-fallers. Time, number of steps and motor task cost were significantly associated with falls in people with mild cognitive impairment. Multivariate analysis identified higher number of steps spent on the test to be independently associated with falls. A time greater than 23.88s (sensitivity=80%; specificity=61%) and a number of steps over 29.50 (sensitivity=65%; specificity=83%) indicated prediction of risk of falls in the Mild cognitive impairment Group. Among people with Alzheimer's disease, no differences in dual-task between fallers and non-fallers were found and no variable of the tool was able to predict falls. The dual-task predicts falls only in older people with mild cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2018 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Ansar, A.B.; Osaki, Yasuhiro; Kazui, Hiroaki
2006-01-01
Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) was employed to investigate the regional decline in cerebral blood flow (rCBF) as measured by 99m Tc-hexamethyl propylene amine oxime (HMPAO) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the role of the post reconstruction image processing on the interpretation of SPM, which detects rCBF pattern, has not been precisely studied. We performed 99m Tc-HMPAO SPECT in mild AD patients and analyzed the effect of linearization correction for washout of the tracer on the detectability of abnormal perfusion. Eleven mild AD (National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NINCDS-ADRDA), male/female, 5/6; mean±SD age, 70.6±6.2 years; mean±SD mini-mental state examination score, 23.9±3.41; clinical dementia rating score, 1) and eleven normal control subjects (male/female, 4/7; mean±SD age, 66.8±8.4 years) were enrolled in this study. 99m Tc-HMPAO SPECT was performed with a four-head rotating gamma camera. We employed linearization uncorrected (LU) and linearization corrected (LC) images for the patients and controls. The pattern of hypoperfusion in mild AD on LU and LC images was detected by SPM99 applying the same image standardization and analytical parameters. A statistical inter image-group analysis (LU vs. LC) was also performed. Clear differences were observed between the interpretation of SPM with LU and LC images. Significant hypoperfusion in mild AD was found on the LU images in the left posterior cingulate gyrus, right precuneus, left hippocampus, left uncus, and left superior temporal gyrus (cluster level, corrected p 99m Tc-HMPAO SPECT with or without linearization correction, which should be carefully evaluated when interpreting the pattern of rCBF changes in mild Alzheimer's disease. (author)
Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Ferrando, Pere J
2011-03-01
We provide an SPSS program that implements currently recommended techniques and recent developments for selecting variables in multiple linear regression analysis via the relative importance of predictors. The approach consists of: (1) optimally splitting the data for cross-validation, (2) selecting the final set of predictors to be retained in the equation regression, and (3) assessing the behavior of the chosen model using standard indices and procedures. The SPSS syntax, a short manual, and data files related to this article are available as supplemental materials from brm.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental.
Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K; Wagner, Brandie D; Grunwald, Gary K; Riggs, Paula D; Zerbe, Gary O
2018-01-01
Medical research is often designed to investigate changes in a collection of response variables that are measured repeatedly on the same subjects. The multivariate generalized linear mixed model (MGLMM) can be used to evaluate random coefficient associations (e.g. simple correlations, partial regression coefficients) among outcomes that may be non-normal and differently distributed by specifying a multivariate normal distribution for their random effects and then evaluating the latent relationship between them. Empirical Bayes predictors are readily available for each subject from any mixed model and are observable and hence, plotable. Here, we evaluate whether second-stage association analyses of empirical Bayes predictors from a MGLMM, provide a good approximation and visual representation of these latent association analyses using medical examples and simulations. Additionally, we compare these results with association analyses of empirical Bayes predictors generated from separate mixed models for each outcome, a procedure that could circumvent computational problems that arise when the dimension of the joint covariance matrix of random effects is large and prohibits estimation of latent associations. As has been shown in other analytic contexts, the p-values for all second-stage coefficients that were determined by naively assuming normality of empirical Bayes predictors provide a good approximation to p-values determined via permutation analysis. Analyzing outcomes that are interrelated with separate models in the first stage and then associating the resulting empirical Bayes predictors in a second stage results in different mean and covariance parameter estimates from the maximum likelihood estimates generated by a MGLMM. The potential for erroneous inference from using results from these separate models increases as the magnitude of the association among the outcomes increases. Thus if computable, scatterplots of the conditionally independent empirical Bayes
Li, Xiaoyu; Fan, Guodong; Rizzoni, Giorgio; Canova, Marcello; Zhu, Chunbo; Wei, Guo
2016-01-01
The design of a simplified yet accurate physics-based battery model enables researchers to accelerate the processes of the battery design, aging analysis and remaining useful life prediction. In order to reduce the computational complexity of the Pseudo Two-Dimensional mathematical model without sacrificing the accuracy, this paper proposes a simplified multi-particle model via a predictor-corrector strategy and quasi-linearization. In this model, a predictor-corrector strategy is used for updating two internal states, especially used for solving the electrolyte concentration approximation to reduce the computational complexity and reserve a high accuracy of the approximation. Quasi-linearization is applied to the approximations of the Butler-Volmer kinetics equation and the pore wall flux distribution to predict the non-uniform electrochemical reaction effects without using any nonlinear iterative solver. Simulation and experimental results show that the isothermal model and the model coupled with thermal behavior are greatly improve the computational efficiency with almost no loss of accuracy. - Highlights: • A simplified multi-particle model with high accuracy and computation efficiency is proposed. • The electrolyte concentration is solved based on a predictor-corrector strategy. • The non-uniform electrochemical reaction is solved based on quasi-linearization. • The model is verified by simulations and experiments at various operating conditions.
Jacobs, B.; Beems, T.; Stulemeijer, M.; Vugt, A.B. van; Vliet, A.M. van der; Borm, G.F.; Vos, P.E.
2010-01-01
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a common heterogeneous neurological disorder with a wide range of possible clinical outcomes. Accurate prediction of outcome is desirable for optimal treatment. This study aimed both to identify the demographic, clinical, and computed tomographic (CT)
Ziegler, Albert; Finsterwald, Monika; Grassinger, Robert
2005-01-01
In mathematics, physics, and chemistry, women are still considered to be at a disadvantage. In the present study, the development of the symptoms of learned helplessness was of particular interest. A study involving average and mildly gifted 8th-grade boys and girls (top 60%) investigated whether girls, regardless of ability level, experience…
Ramakers, I.H.G.B.; Visser, P.J.; Aalten, P.; Kester, A.; Jolles, J.; Verhey, F.R.J.
2010-01-01
Background Affective symptoms are common in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), but there is disagreement whether these symptoms are predictive for Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated the predictive accuracy of affective symptoms for AD during a follow-up study in subjects with MCI,
van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.; Orobio de Castro, B.; van Aken, M. A. G.; Matthys, W.
2009-01-01
Background: A growing interest exists in mechanisms involved in behaviour problems in children with mild intellectual disabilities and borderline intelligence (MID/BI). Social problem solving difficulties have been found to be an explanatory mechanism for aggressive behaviour in these children. However, recently a discrepancy was found between…
van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.; de Castro, B. Orobio; van Aken, M. A. G.; Matthys, W.
A growing interest exists in mechanisms involved in behaviour problems in children with mild intellectual disabilities and borderline intelligence (MID/BI). Social problem solving difficulties have been found to be an explanatory mechanism for aggressive behaviour in these children. However,
Scholten, A C; Haagsma, J A; Andriessen, T M J C; Vos, P E; Steyerberg, E W; van Beeck, E F; Polinder, S
2015-04-01
The Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE) is the established functional outcome scale to assess disability following traumatic brain injury (TBI), however does not capture the patient's subjective perspective. Health-related quality of life (HRQL) does capture the individual's perception of disability after TBI, and has therefore been recognized as an important outcome in TBI. In contrast to GOSE, HRQL enables comparison of health outcome across various disease states and with healthy individuals. We aimed to assess functional outcome, HRQL, recovery, and predictors of 6 and 12-month outcome in a comprehensive sample of patients with mild, moderate or severe TBI, and to examine the relationship between functional impairment (GOSE) and HRQL. A prospective cohort study was conducted among a sample of 2066 adult TBI patients who attended the emergency department (ED). GOSE was determined through questionnaires or structured interviews. Questionnaires 6 and 12 months after ED treatment included socio-demographic information and HRQL measured with Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36; reflecting physical, mental and social functioning) and Perceived Quality of Life Scale (PQoL; measuring degree of satisfaction with functioning). 996 TBI survivors with mild, moderate or severe TBI completed the 6-month questionnaire. Functional outcome and HRQL after moderate or severe TBI was significantly lower than after mild TBI. Patients with moderate TBI showed greatest improvement. After one year, the mild TBI group reached outcomes comparable to population norms. TBI of all severities highly affected SF-36 domains physical and social functioning, and physical and emotional role functioning. GOSE scores were highly related to all SF-36 domains and PQoL scores. Female gender, older age, co-morbidity and high ISS were strongest independent predictors of decreased HRQL at 6 and 12 months after TBI. HRQL and recovery patterns differ for mild, moderate and severe TBI. This study indicates
Camilo, Daniela Castro
2017-08-30
Grid-based landslide susceptibility models at regional scales are computationally demanding when using a fine grid resolution. Conversely, Slope-Unit (SU) based susceptibility models allows to investigate the same areas offering two main advantages: 1) a smaller computational burden and 2) a more geomorphologically-oriented interpretation. In this contribution, we generate SU-based landslide susceptibility for the Sado Island in Japan. This island is characterized by deep-seated landslides which we assume can only limitedly be explained by the first two statistical moments (mean and variance) of a set of predictors within each slope unit. As a consequence, in a nested experiment, we first analyse the distributions of a set of continuous predictors within each slope unit computing the standard deviation and quantiles from 0.05 to 0.95 with a step of 0.05. These are then used as predictors for landslide susceptibility. In addition, we combine shape indices for polygon features and the normalized extent of each class belonging to the outcropping lithology in a given SU. This procedure significantly enlarges the size of the predictor hyperspace, thus producing a high level of slope-unit characterization. In a second step, we adopt a LASSO-penalized Generalized Linear Model to shrink back the predictor set to a sensible and interpretable number, carrying only the most significant covariates in the models. As a result, we are able to document the geomorphic features (e.g., 95% quantile of Elevation and 5% quantile of Plan Curvature) that primarily control the SU-based susceptibility within the test area while producing high predictive performances. The implementation of the statistical analyses are included in a parallelized R script (LUDARA) which is here made available for the community to replicate analogous experiments.
Camilo, Daniela Castro; Lombardo, Luigi; Mai, Paul Martin; Dou, Jie; Huser, Raphaë l
2017-01-01
Grid-based landslide susceptibility models at regional scales are computationally demanding when using a fine grid resolution. Conversely, Slope-Unit (SU) based susceptibility models allows to investigate the same areas offering two main advantages: 1) a smaller computational burden and 2) a more geomorphologically-oriented interpretation. In this contribution, we generate SU-based landslide susceptibility for the Sado Island in Japan. This island is characterized by deep-seated landslides which we assume can only limitedly be explained by the first two statistical moments (mean and variance) of a set of predictors within each slope unit. As a consequence, in a nested experiment, we first analyse the distributions of a set of continuous predictors within each slope unit computing the standard deviation and quantiles from 0.05 to 0.95 with a step of 0.05. These are then used as predictors for landslide susceptibility. In addition, we combine shape indices for polygon features and the normalized extent of each class belonging to the outcropping lithology in a given SU. This procedure significantly enlarges the size of the predictor hyperspace, thus producing a high level of slope-unit characterization. In a second step, we adopt a LASSO-penalized Generalized Linear Model to shrink back the predictor set to a sensible and interpretable number, carrying only the most significant covariates in the models. As a result, we are able to document the geomorphic features (e.g., 95% quantile of Elevation and 5% quantile of Plan Curvature) that primarily control the SU-based susceptibility within the test area while producing high predictive performances. The implementation of the statistical analyses are included in a parallelized R script (LUDARA) which is here made available for the community to replicate analogous experiments.
A differential-geometric approach to generalized linear models with grouped predictors
Augugliaro, Luigi; Mineo, Angelo M.; Wit, Ernst C.
We propose an extension of the differential-geometric least angle regression method to perform sparse group inference in a generalized linear model. An efficient algorithm is proposed to compute the solution curve. The proposed group differential-geometric least angle regression method has important
Xiangni Su
Full Text Available Mild cognitive impairment (MCI is an intermediate stage between normal cognitive function and dementia among aging individuals. This study was designed to estimate the prevalence of MCI and explore the possible risk factors including gender disparities among community-dwelling older individuals. The study was conducted in Xi'an, China. This is a cross-sectional study. A total of 815 individuals, 60 years and older were selected by stratified random cluster sampling. Cognitive function was measured using the mini-mental status examination (MMSE, the Chinese version of the Dementia Rating Scales (CDRS was used to apply the diagnostic of non-dementia, and activities of daily living (ADL and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL systems were used to functional status. The association between sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle, history of chronic diseases and MCI were evaluated separately for men and women using the Pearson χ²-test and binary logistic regression. Of the 815 community-dwelling individuals, 145 were found to have MCI. Overall, the prevalence of MCI was 18.5%, with a prevalence of 19.6% in women (105/535, and 15.3% (40/261 in men. The results of the binary logistical regression analysis indicated that age and history of stroke were associated with MCI in men. For women, the risk factors were lower level of educational and lack of religious attendance. Results suggested that the factors capable of influencing MCI differed profoundly between older men and older women. For this reason, different preventative measures should be adopted to delay or reverse cognitive impairment among community-dwelling older men and women.
Molina, J. M.; Zaitchik, B. F.
2016-12-01
Recent findings considering high CO2 emission scenarios (RCP8.5) suggest that the tropical Andes may experience a massive warming and a significant precipitation increase (decrease) during the wet (dry) seasons by the end of the 21st century. Variations on rainfall-streamflow relationships and seasonal crop yields significantly affect human development in this region and make local communities highly vulnerable to climate change and variability. We developed an expert-informed empirical statistical downscaling (ESD) algorithm to explore and construct robust global climate predictors to perform skillful RCP8.5 projections of in-situ March-May (MAM) precipitation required for impact modeling and adaptation studies. We applied our framework to a topographically-complex region of the Colombian Andes where a number of previous studies have reported El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) as the main driver of climate variability. Supervised machine learning algorithms were trained with customized and bias-corrected predictors from NCEP reanalysis, and a cross-validation approach was implemented to assess both predictive skill and model selection. We found weak and not significant teleconnections between precipitation and lagged seasonal surface temperatures over El Niño3.4 domain, which suggests that ENSO fails to explain MAM rainfall variability in the study region. In contrast, series of Sea Level Pressure (SLP) over American Samoa -likely associated with the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ)- explains more than 65% of the precipitation variance. The best prediction skill was obtained with Selected Generalized Additive Models (SGAM) given their ability to capture linear/nonlinear relationships present in the data. While SPCZ-related series exhibited a positive linear effect in the rainfall response, SLP predictors in the north Atlantic and central equatorial Pacific showed nonlinear effects. A multimodel (MIROC, CanESM2 and CCSM) ensemble of ESD projections revealed
Prediction of Complex Human Traits Using the Genomic Best Linear Unbiased Predictor
de los Campos, Gustavo; Vazquez, Ana I; Fernando, Rohan
2013-01-01
Despite important advances from Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS), for most complex human traits and diseases, a sizable proportion of genetic variance remains unexplained and prediction accuracy (PA) is usually low. Evidence suggests that PA can be improved using Whole-Genome Regression (WGR......) models where phenotypes are regressed on hundreds of thousands of variants simultaneously. The Genomic Best Linear Unbiased Prediction G-BLUP, a ridge-regression type method) is a commonly used WGR method and has shown good predictive performance when applied to plant and animal breeding populations....... However, breeding and human populations differ greatly in a number of factors that can affect the predictive performance of G-BLUP. Using theory, simulations, and real data analysis, we study the erformance of G-BLUP when applied to data from related and unrelated human subjects. Under perfect linkage...
Genetic evaluation using single-step genomic best linear unbiased predictor in American Angus.
Lourenco, D A L; Tsuruta, S; Fragomeni, B O; Masuda, Y; Aguilar, I; Legarra, A; Bertrand, J K; Amen, T S; Wang, L; Moser, D W; Misztal, I
2015-06-01
Predictive ability of genomic EBV when using single-step genomic BLUP (ssGBLUP) in Angus cattle was investigated. Over 6 million records were available on birth weight (BiW) and weaning weight (WW), almost 3.4 million on postweaning gain (PWG), and over 1.3 million on calving ease (CE). Genomic information was available on, at most, 51,883 animals, which included high and low EBV accuracy animals. Traditional EBV was computed by BLUP and genomic EBV by ssGBLUP and indirect prediction based on SNP effects was derived from ssGBLUP; SNP effects were calculated based on the following reference populations: ref_2k (contains top bulls and top cows that had an EBV accuracy for BiW ≥0.85), ref_8k (contains all parents that were genotyped), and ref_33k (contains all genotyped animals born up to 2012). Indirect prediction was obtained as direct genomic value (DGV) or as an index of DGV and parent average (PA). Additionally, runs with ssGBLUP used the inverse of the genomic relationship matrix calculated by an algorithm for proven and young animals (APY) that uses recursions on a small subset of reference animals. An extra reference subset included 3,872 genotyped parents of genotyped animals (ref_4k). Cross-validation was used to assess predictive ability on a validation population of 18,721 animals born in 2013. Computations for growth traits used multiple-trait linear model and, for CE, a bivariate CE-BiW threshold-linear model. With BLUP, predictivities were 0.29, 0.34, 0.23, and 0.12 for BiW, WW, PWG, and CE, respectively. With ssGBLUP and ref_2k, predictivities were 0.34, 0.35, 0.27, and 0.13 for BiW, WW, PWG, and CE, respectively, and with ssGBLUP and ref_33k, predictivities were 0.39, 0.38, 0.29, and 0.13 for BiW, WW, PWG, and CE, respectively. Low predictivity for CE was due to low incidence rate of difficult calving. Indirect predictions with ref_33k were as accurate as with full ssGBLUP. Using the APY and recursions on ref_4k gave 88% gains of full ssGBLUP and
Urosevich, Thomas G; Boscarino, Joseph J; Hoffman, Stuart N; Kirchner, H Lester; Figley, Charles R; Adams, Richard E; Withey, Carrie A; Boscarino, Joseph A
2018-05-24
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and post-traumatic stress disorder are considered the signature injuries of the Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts. With the extensive use of improvised explosive devices by the enemy, the concussive effects from blast have a greater potential to cause mild TBI (mTBI) in military Service Members. These mTBI can be associated with other physical and psychological health problems, including mTBI-induced visual processing and eye movement dysfunctions. Our study assessed if any visual dysfunctions existed in those surveyed in non-Veterans Administration (VA) facilities who had suffered mTBI (concussive effect), in addition to the presence of concussion-related co-morbidities. As part of a larger study involving veterans from different service eras, we surveyed 235 Veterans who had served during the Iraq and/or Afghanistan conflict era. Data for the study were collected using diagnostic telephone interviews of these veterans who were outpatients of the Geisinger Health System. We assess visual dysfunction in this sample and compare visual dysfunctions of those who had suffered a mTBI (concussive effect), as well as co-morbidities, with those in the cohort who had not suffered concussion effects. Of those veterans who experienced visual dysfunctions, our results reflected that the visual symptoms were significant for concussion with the subjects surveyed, even though all had experienced a mTBI event greater than five years ago. Although we did find an association with concussion and visual symptoms, the association for concussion was strongest with the finding of greater than or equal to three current TBI symptoms, therefore we found this to be the best predictor of previous concussion among the veterans. Veterans from the Iraq/Afghanistan era who had suffered concussive blast effects (mTBI) can present with covert visual dysfunction as well as additional physical and psychological health problems. The primary eye care providers, especially
Taylor, Ian M; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Standage, Martyn; Spray, Christopher M
2010-02-01
Grounded in self-determination theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 2000), the current study explored whether physical education (PE) students' psychological needs and their motivational regulations toward PE predicted mean differences and changes in effort in PE, exercise intentions, and leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) over the course of one UK school trimester. One hundred and seventy-eight students (69% male) aged between 11 and 16 years completed a multisection questionnaire at the beginning, middle, and end of a school trimester. Multilevel growth models revealed that students' perceived competence and self-determined regulations were the most consistent predictors of the outcome variables at the within- and between-person levels. The results of this work add to the extant SDT-based literature by examining change in PE students' motivational regulations and psychological needs, as well as underscoring the importance of disaggregating within- and between-student effects.
Lobos, G; Schnettler, B; Grunert, K G; Adasme, C
2017-01-01
The main objective of this study is to show why perceived resources are a strong predictor of satisfaction with food-related life in Chilean older adults. Design, sampling and participants: A survey was conducted in rural and urban areas in 30 communes of the Maule Region with 785 participants over 60 years of age who live in their own homes. The Satisfaction with Food-related Life (SWFL) scale was used. Generalized linear models (GLM) were used for the regression analysis. The results led to different considerations: First, older adults' perceived levels of resources are a good reflection of their actual levels of resources. Second, the individuals rated the sum of the perceived resources as 'highly important' to explain older adults' satisfaction with food-related life. Third, SWFL was predicted by satisfaction with economic situation, family importance, quantity of domestic household goods and a relative health indicator. Fourth, older adults who believe they have more resources compared to others are more satisfied with their food-related life. Finally, Poisson and binomial logistic models showed that the sum of perceived resources significantly increased the prediction of SWFL. The main conclusion is that perceived personal resources are a strong predictor of SWFL in Chilean older adults.
Price, Matthew; Anderson, Page; Henrich, Christopher C; Rothbaum, Barbara Olasov
2008-12-01
A client's expectation that therapy will be beneficial has long been considered an important factor contributing to therapeutic outcomes, but recent empirical work examining this hypothesis has primarily yielded null findings. The present study examined the contribution of expectancies for treatment outcome to actual treatment outcome from the start of therapy through 12-month follow-up in a clinical sample of individuals (n=72) treated for fear of flying with either in vivo exposure or virtual reality exposure therapy. Using a piecewise hierarchical linear model, outcome expectancy predicted treatment gains made during therapy but not during follow-up. Compared to lower levels, higher expectations for treatment outcome yielded stronger rates of symptom reduction from the beginning to the end of treatment on 2 standardized self-report questionnaires on fear of flying. The analytic approach of the current study is one potential reason that findings contrast with prior literature. The advantages of using hierarchical linear modeling to assess interindividual differences in longitudinal data are discussed.
Hori, Takumi; Sanjo, Nobuo; Tomita, Makoto; Mizusawa, Hidehiro
2013-01-01
The Visual Reproduction (VR) test is used to assess mild cognitive impairment (MCI), but the characteristics of visual memory in Japanese MCI patients remain unclear. VR scores of 27 MCI patients were evaluated using the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised. Scores of MCI, no-dementia, and Alzheimer's disease (AD) groups were then compared. The annual conversion rate of MCI to AD was 18.8%. Mean VR-I and VR-II baseline scores for MCI patients were 33.3 ± 5.6 and 20.5 ± 14.0, respectively. Mean VR-II scores for converted and nonconverted MCI patients were 7.2 ± 8.7 and 29.8 ± 9.3, respectively. It is likely that VR-II and VR-II/I scores are more sensitive for predicting conversion to AD in Japanese than in American MCI patients. Our results indicate that VR is a sensitive and useful measure for predicting the conversion of Japanese MCI patients to AD within 2 years. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Julayanont, Parunyou; Brousseau, Mélanie; Chertkow, Howard; Phillips, Natalie; Nasreddine, Ziad S
2014-04-01
To assess the usefulness of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) total score (MoCA-TS) and Memory Index Score (MoCA-MIS) in predicting conversion to Alzheimer's disease (AD) in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Retrospective chart review. Community-based memory clinic. Individuals meeting Petersen's MCI criteria (N = 165). Baseline MoCA scores at MCI diagnosis were collected from charts of eligible individuals with MCI, and MoCA-TS, MoCA-MIS, and a cognitive domain index score were calculated to assess their prognostic value in predicting conversion to AD. One hundred fourteen participants progressed to AD (MCI-AD), and 51 did not (nonconverters; MCI-NC); 90.5% of participants with MCI with a MoCA-TS less than 20/30 and a MoCA-MIS less than 7/15 at baseline converted to AD within the average follow-up period of 18 months, compared with 52.7% of participants with MCI above the cutoffs on both scores. Individuals with multiple-domain amnestic MCI had the highest AD conversion rates (73.9%). Identifying individuals with MCI at high risk of conversion to AD is important clinically and for selecting appropriate subjects for therapeutic trials. Individuals with MCI with a low MoCA-TS and a low newly devised memory index score (MoCA-MIS) are at greater risk of short-term conversion to AD. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.
Pablo Martinez-Martín
Full Text Available To estimate the magnitude in which Parkinson's disease (PD symptoms and health- related quality of life (HRQoL determined PD costs over a 4-year period.Data collected during 3-month, each year, for 4 years, from the ELEP study, included sociodemographic, clinical and use of resources information. Costs were calculated yearly, as mean 3-month costs/patient and updated to Spanish €, 2012. Mixed linear models were performed to analyze total, direct and indirect costs based on symptoms and HRQoL.One-hundred and seventy four patients were included. Mean (SD age: 63 (11 years, mean (SD disease duration: 8 (6 years. Ninety-three percent were HY I, II or III (mild or moderate disease. Forty-nine percent remained in the same stage during the study period. Clinical evaluation and HRQoL scales showed relatively slight changes over time, demonstrating a stable group overall. Mean (SD PD total costs augmented 92.5%, from € 2,082.17 (€ 2,889.86 in year 1 to € 4,008.6 (€ 7,757.35 in year 4. Total, direct and indirect cost incremented 45.96%, 35.63%, and 69.69% for mild disease, respectively, whereas increased 166.52% for total, 55.68% for direct and 347.85% for indirect cost in patients with moderate PD. For severe patients, cost remained almost the same throughout the study. For each additional point in the SCOPA-Motor scale total costs increased € 75.72 (p = 0.0174; for each additional point on SCOPA-Motor and the SCOPA-COG, direct costs incremented € 49.21 (p = 0.0094 and € 44.81 (p = 0.0404, respectively; and for each extra point on the pain scale, indirect costs increased € 16.31 (p = 0.0228.PD is an expensive disease in Spain. Disease progression and severity as well as motor and cognitive dysfunctions are major drivers of costs increments. Therapeutic measures aimed at controlling progression and symptoms could help contain disease expenses.
Prada-Sanchez, J.M.; Febrero-Bande, M.; Gonzalez-Manteiga, W. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Dept. de Estadistica e Investigacion Operativa, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Costos-Yanez, T. [Universidad de Vigo, Dept. de Estadistica e Investigacion Operativa, Orense (Spain); Bermudez-Cela, J.L.; Lucas-Dominguez, T. [Laboratorio, Central Termica de As Pontes, La Coruna (Spain)
2000-07-01
Atmospheric SO{sub 2} concentrations at sampling stations near the fossil fuel fired power station at As Pontes (La Coruna, Spain) were predicted using a model for the corresponding time series consisting of a self-explicative term and a linear combination of exogenous variables. In a supplementary simulation study, models of this kind behaved better than the corresponding pure self-explicative or pure linear regression models. (Author)
Prada-Sanchez, J.M.; Febrero-Bande, M.; Gonzalez-Manteiga, W.; Costos-Yanez, T.; Bermudez-Cela, J.L.; Lucas-Dominguez, T.
2000-01-01
Atmospheric SO 2 concentrations at sampling stations near the fossil fuel fired power station at As Pontes (La Coruna, Spain) were predicted using a model for the corresponding time series consisting of a self-explicative term and a linear combination of exogenous variables. In a supplementary simulation study, models of this kind behaved better than the corresponding pure self-explicative or pure linear regression models. (Author)
Coupé, Christophe
2018-01-01
As statistical approaches are getting increasingly used in linguistics, attention must be paid to the choice of methods and algorithms used. This is especially true since they require assumptions to be satisfied to provide valid results, and because scientific articles still often fall short of reporting whether such assumptions are met. Progress is being, however, made in various directions, one of them being the introduction of techniques able to model data that cannot be properly analyzed with simpler linear regression models. We report recent advances in statistical modeling in linguistics. We first describe linear mixed-effects regression models (LMM), which address grouping of observations, and generalized linear mixed-effects models (GLMM), which offer a family of distributions for the dependent variable. Generalized additive models (GAM) are then introduced, which allow modeling non-linear parametric or non-parametric relationships between the dependent variable and the predictors. We then highlight the possibilities offered by generalized additive models for location, scale, and shape (GAMLSS). We explain how they make it possible to go beyond common distributions, such as Gaussian or Poisson, and offer the appropriate inferential framework to account for 'difficult' variables such as count data with strong overdispersion. We also demonstrate how they offer interesting perspectives on data when not only the mean of the dependent variable is modeled, but also its variance, skewness, and kurtosis. As an illustration, the case of phonemic inventory size is analyzed throughout the article. For over 1,500 languages, we consider as predictors the number of speakers, the distance from Africa, an estimation of the intensity of language contact, and linguistic relationships. We discuss the use of random effects to account for genealogical relationships, the choice of appropriate distributions to model count data, and non-linear relationships. Relying on GAMLSS, we
Christophe Coupé
2018-04-01
Full Text Available As statistical approaches are getting increasingly used in linguistics, attention must be paid to the choice of methods and algorithms used. This is especially true since they require assumptions to be satisfied to provide valid results, and because scientific articles still often fall short of reporting whether such assumptions are met. Progress is being, however, made in various directions, one of them being the introduction of techniques able to model data that cannot be properly analyzed with simpler linear regression models. We report recent advances in statistical modeling in linguistics. We first describe linear mixed-effects regression models (LMM, which address grouping of observations, and generalized linear mixed-effects models (GLMM, which offer a family of distributions for the dependent variable. Generalized additive models (GAM are then introduced, which allow modeling non-linear parametric or non-parametric relationships between the dependent variable and the predictors. We then highlight the possibilities offered by generalized additive models for location, scale, and shape (GAMLSS. We explain how they make it possible to go beyond common distributions, such as Gaussian or Poisson, and offer the appropriate inferential framework to account for ‘difficult’ variables such as count data with strong overdispersion. We also demonstrate how they offer interesting perspectives on data when not only the mean of the dependent variable is modeled, but also its variance, skewness, and kurtosis. As an illustration, the case of phonemic inventory size is analyzed throughout the article. For over 1,500 languages, we consider as predictors the number of speakers, the distance from Africa, an estimation of the intensity of language contact, and linguistic relationships. We discuss the use of random effects to account for genealogical relationships, the choice of appropriate distributions to model count data, and non-linear relationships
Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) Overview Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an intermediate stage between the expected cognitive decline of normal aging and the more-serious decline of dementia. It ...
Szadkowski, Zbigniew [University of Lodz, Department of Physics and Applied Informatics, 90-236 Lodz, (Poland)
2015-07-01
We present the new approach to a filtering of radio frequency interferences (RFI) in the Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) which study the electromagnetic part of the Extensive Air Showers. The radio stations can observe radio signals caused by coherent emissions due to geomagnetic radiation and charge excess processes. AERA observes frequency band from 30 to 80 MHz. This range is highly contaminated by human-made RFI. In order to improve the signal to noise ratio RFI filters are used in AERA to suppress this contamination. The first kind of filter used by AERA was the Median one, based on the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) technique. The second one, which is currently in use, is the infinite impulse response (IIR) notch filter. The proposed new filter is a finite impulse response (FIR) filter based on a linear prediction (LP). A periodic contamination hidden in a registered signal (digitized in the ADC) can be extracted and next subtracted to make signal cleaner. The FIR filter requires a calculation of n=32, 64 or even 128 coefficients (dependent on a required speed or accuracy) by solving of n linear equations with coefficients built from the covariance Toeplitz matrix. This matrix can be solved by the Levinson recursion, which is much faster than the Gauss procedure. The filter has been already tested in the real AERA radio stations on Argentinean pampas with a very successful results. The linear equations were solved either in the virtual soft-core NIOSR processor (implemented in the FPGA chip as a net of logic elements) or in the external Voipac PXA270M ARM processor. The NIOS processor is relatively slow (50 MHz internal clock), calculations performed in an external processor consume a significant amount of time for data exchange between the FPGA and the processor. Test showed a very good efficiency of the RFI suppression for stationary (long-term) contaminations. However, we observed a short-time contaminations, which could not be suppressed either by the
... mild Traumatic Brain Injury Resilience Families with Kids Depression Families & Friendships Tobacco Life Stress Spirituality Anger Physical Injury Stigma Health & Wellness Work Adjustment Community Peer-2-Peer Forum ...
Orestes V. Forlenza
2010-09-01
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify predictors of the progression from pre-dementia stages of cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease is relevant to clinical management and to substantiate the decision of prescribing antidementia drugs. METHOD: Longitudinal study of a cohort of elderly adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and healthy controls, carried out to estimate the risk and characterize predictors of the progression to Alzheimer's disease. RESULTS: Patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment had a higher risk to develop Alzheimer's disease during follow-up (odds ratio = 4.5, CI95% [1.3-13.6], p = 0.010. At baseline, older age, lower scores on memory tests and presence of the APOE*4 allele predicted the progression from amnestic mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's disease. In a sub sample of amnestic mild cognitive impairment patients, those who progressed to Alzheimer's disease had lower cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ42, p = 0.020 and higher concentrations of total TAU (p = 0.030 and phosphorylated TAU (p = 0.010, as compared to non-converters. DISCUSSION: This is the first Brazilian study to report cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers in the prediction of the conversion from MCI to Alzheimer's disease. Our data are in accordance with those reported in other settings. The measurement of cerebrospinal fluid total-TAU, phospho-TAU and Aβ42 may help identify patients with mild cognitive impairment at higher risk for developing Alzheimer's disease.OBJETIVO: A identificação de preditores da conversão para a doença de Alzheimer em pacientes com comprometimento cognitivo leve é relevante para o manejo clínico e para decidir sobre a prescrição de drogas antidemência. MÉTODO: Estudo longitudinal em coorte de indivíduos idosos com comprometimento cognitivo leve amnéstico e controles saudáveis; estimativa do risco da progressão para doença de Alzheimer nos dois grupos; determinação das vari
Faraway, Julian J
2014-01-01
A Hands-On Way to Learning Data AnalysisPart of the core of statistics, linear models are used to make predictions and explain the relationship between the response and the predictors. Understanding linear models is crucial to a broader competence in the practice of statistics. Linear Models with R, Second Edition explains how to use linear models in physical science, engineering, social science, and business applications. The book incorporates several improvements that reflect how the world of R has greatly expanded since the publication of the first edition.New to the Second EditionReorganiz
K. M. Volkers
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Background. Physical performances and cognition are positively related in cognitively healthy people. The aim of this study was to examine whether physical performances are related to specific cognitive functioning in older people with mild to severe cognitive impairment. Methods. This cross-sectional study included 134 people with a mild to severe cognitive impairment (mean age 82 years. Multiple linear regression was performed, after controlling for covariates and the level of global cognition, with the performances on mobility, strength, aerobic fitness, and balance as predictors and working memory and episodic memory as dependent variables. Results. The full models explain 49–57% of the variance in working memory and 40–43% of episodic memory. Strength, aerobic fitness, and balance are significantly associated with working memory, explaining 3–7% of its variance, irrespective of the severity of the cognitive impairment. Physical performance is not related to episodic memory in older people with mild to severe cognitive impairment. Conclusions. Physical performance is associated with working memory in older people with cognitive impairment. Future studies should investigate whether physical exercise for increased physical performance can improve cognitive functioning. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NTR1482.
An effect of left ventricular hypertrophy on mild-to-moderate left ventricular diastolic dysfunction
Sharma Kattel, MD
2016-03-01
Conclusions: In mild-to-moderate LVDD patients, both FP and the Tei index were significantly higher when LVH was present. This may suggest LVH as a possible predictor for the future development of severe LVDD and diastolic heart failure.
Raquel Lorenzo
2007-07-01
Full Text Available The knowledge of talent predictors is the initial point for building diagnosis and encouragement procedures in this field. The meaning of word predictor is to anticipate the future, to divine. Early prediction of high performance is complex problem no resolute by the science yet. There are many discrepancies about what measure and how to do. The article analyze the art state in this problematic because the excellence is determined by the interaction between internal and environmental factors.
... more: Key Types of Dementia , What Is Alzheimer's? , Alzheimer's Risk Factors Symptoms back to top Experts classify Mild cognitive ... in Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy 2014 Thor Stein Genetic Risk Factors Underlying Chronic Trauma and Alzheimer's Disease Pathology 2014 Kun Ping Lu Validation of ...
Jilani, Tanveer; Azam, Iqbal; Moiz, Bushra; Mehboobali, Naseema; Perwaiz Iqbal, Mohammad
2015-01-01
Hemoglobin levels slightly below the lower limit of normal are common in adults in the general population in developing countries. A few human studies have suggested the use of antioxidant vitamins in the correction of mild anemia. The objective of the present study was to investigate the association of vitamin E supplementation in mildly anemic healthy adults with post-supplemental blood hemoglobin levels in the general population of Karachi, Pakistan. In a single-blinded and placebo-controlled randomized trial, 124 mildly anemic subjects from the General Practitioners' Clinics and personnel of the Aga Khan University were randomized into intervention (n = 82) and control (n = 42) group. In the intervention group, each subject was given vitamin E (400 mg) everyday for a period of three months, while control group subjects received a placebo. Eighty six subjects completed the trial. Fasting venous blood was collected at baseline and after three months of supplementation. Hemoglobin levels and serum/plasma concentrations of vitamin E, vitamin B12, folate, ferritin, serum transferrin receptor (sTfR), glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, creatinine, total-antioxidant-status and erythropoietin were measured and analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA and multiple linear regression. The adjusted regression coefficients (β) and standard error [SE(β)] of the significant predictors of post-supplemental hemoglobin levels were serum concentration of vitamin E (0.983[0.095]), gender (- 0.656[0.244]), sTfR (- 0.06[0.02]) and baseline hemoglobin levels (0.768[0.077]). The study showed a positive association between vitamin E supplementation and enhanced hemoglobin levels in mildly anemic adults.
Johansen, Maria E; Jensen, Jens-Ulrik; Bestle, Morten H
2014-01-01
INTRODUCTION: Coagulopathy associates with poor outcome in sepsis. Mild induced hypothermia has been proposed as treatment in sepsis but it is not known whether this intervention worsens functional coagulopathy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Interim analysis data from an ongoing randomized controlled...... trial; The Cooling And Surviving Septic shock (CASS) study. Patients suffering severe sepsis/septic shock are allocated to either mild induced hypothermia (cooling to 32-34°C for 24hours) or control (uncontrolled temperature). TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01455116. Thrombelastography (TEG) is performed three....... At enrollment, 3%, 38%, and 59% had a hypocoagulable, normocoagulable, and hypercoagulable TEG clot strength (MA), respectively. In the hypothermia group, functional coagulopathy improved during the hypothermia phase, measured by R and MA, in patients with hypercoagulation as well as in patients...
Social participation in home-living patients with mild Alzheimer's disease
Sørensen, Lisbeth Villemoes; Waldorff, Frans Boch; Waldemar, Gunhild
2007-01-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate social participation in home-living patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to identify predictors for low social participation. The study was based on baseline data from 330 home-living patients with mild AD who participated in The Danish...... Alzheimer Intervention Study (DAISY). Proxy-obtained information from primary caregiver assessed patients' social participation. The result showed that low social participation was present in mild AD. Significant independent predictors of low social participation were impairment in activities of daily...
Advanced statistics: linear regression, part I: simple linear regression.
Marill, Keith A
2004-01-01
Simple linear regression is a mathematical technique used to model the relationship between a single independent predictor variable and a single dependent outcome variable. In this, the first of a two-part series exploring concepts in linear regression analysis, the four fundamental assumptions and the mechanics of simple linear regression are reviewed. The most common technique used to derive the regression line, the method of least squares, is described. The reader will be acquainted with other important concepts in simple linear regression, including: variable transformations, dummy variables, relationship to inference testing, and leverage. Simplified clinical examples with small datasets and graphic models are used to illustrate the points. This will provide a foundation for the second article in this series: a discussion of multiple linear regression, in which there are multiple predictor variables.
Shilov, Georgi E
1977-01-01
Covers determinants, linear spaces, systems of linear equations, linear functions of a vector argument, coordinate transformations, the canonical form of the matrix of a linear operator, bilinear and quadratic forms, Euclidean spaces, unitary spaces, quadratic forms in Euclidean and unitary spaces, finite-dimensional space. Problems with hints and answers.
Optimal Trading with Alpha Predictors
Filippo Passerini; Samuel E. Vazquez
2015-01-01
We study the problem of optimal trading using general alpha predictors with linear costs and temporary impact. We do this within the framework of stochastic optimization with finite horizon using both limit and market orders. Consistently with other studies, we find that the presence of linear costs induces a no-trading zone when using market orders, and a corresponding market-making zone when using limit orders. We show that, when combining both market and limit orders, the problem is furthe...
Pharmacotherapy for mild hypertension
Diana Diao
2012-01-01
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: People with no previous cardiovascular events or cardiovascular disease represent a primary prevention population. The benefits and harms of treating mild hypertension in primary prevention patients are not known at present. This review examines the existing randomized controlled trial (RCT evidence. OBJECTIVE: Primary objective: To quantify the effects of antihypertensive drug therapy on mortality and morbidity in adults with mild hypertension (systolic blood pressure (BP 140-159 mmHg and/or diastolic BP 90-99 mmHg and without cardiovascular disease. METHODS: Search: We searched CENTRAL (2011, Issue 1, MEDLINE (1948 to May 2011, EMBASE (1980 to May 2011 and reference lists of articles. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE were searched for previous reviews and meta-analyses of anti-hypertensive drug treatment compared to placebo or no treatment trials up until the end of 2011. Selection criteria: RCTs of at least 1 year duration. Data collection and analysis: The outcomes assessed were mortality, stroke, coronary heart disease (CHD, total cardiovascular events (CVS, and withdrawals due to adverse effects. MAIN RESULTS: Of 11 RCTs identified 4 were included in this review, with 8,912 participants. Treatment for 4 to 5 years with antihypertensive drugs as compared to placebo did not reduce total mortality (RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.63, 1.15. In 7,080 participants treatment with antihypertensive drugs as compared to placebo did not reduce coronary heart disease (RR 1.12, 95% CI 0.80, 1.57, stroke (RR 0.51, 95% CI 0.24, 1.08, or total cardiovascular events (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.72, 1.32. Withdrawals due to adverse effects were increased by drug therapy (RR 4.80, 95% CI 4.14, 5.57, ARR 9%. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Antihypertensive drugs used in the treatment of adults (primary prevention with mild hypertension (systolic BP 140-159 mmHg and/or diastolic BP 90-99 mmHg have not been
Advanced statistics: linear regression, part II: multiple linear regression.
Marill, Keith A
2004-01-01
The applications of simple linear regression in medical research are limited, because in most situations, there are multiple relevant predictor variables. Univariate statistical techniques such as simple linear regression use a single predictor variable, and they often may be mathematically correct but clinically misleading. Multiple linear regression is a mathematical technique used to model the relationship between multiple independent predictor variables and a single dependent outcome variable. It is used in medical research to model observational data, as well as in diagnostic and therapeutic studies in which the outcome is dependent on more than one factor. Although the technique generally is limited to data that can be expressed with a linear function, it benefits from a well-developed mathematical framework that yields unique solutions and exact confidence intervals for regression coefficients. Building on Part I of this series, this article acquaints the reader with some of the important concepts in multiple regression analysis. These include multicollinearity, interaction effects, and an expansion of the discussion of inference testing, leverage, and variable transformations to multivariate models. Examples from the first article in this series are expanded on using a primarily graphic, rather than mathematical, approach. The importance of the relationships among the predictor variables and the dependence of the multivariate model coefficients on the choice of these variables are stressed. Finally, concepts in regression model building are discussed.
Suwono.
1978-01-01
A linear gate providing a variable gate duration from 0,40μsec to 4μsec was developed. The electronic circuity consists of a linear circuit and an enable circuit. The input signal can be either unipolar or bipolar. If the input signal is bipolar, the negative portion will be filtered. The operation of the linear gate is controlled by the application of a positive enable pulse. (author)
Vretenar, M
2014-01-01
The main features of radio-frequency linear accelerators are introduced, reviewing the different types of accelerating structures and presenting the main characteristics aspects of linac beam dynamics
Linearization Method and Linear Complexity
Tanaka, Hidema
We focus on the relationship between the linearization method and linear complexity and show that the linearization method is another effective technique for calculating linear complexity. We analyze its effectiveness by comparing with the logic circuit method. We compare the relevant conditions and necessary computational cost with those of the Berlekamp-Massey algorithm and the Games-Chan algorithm. The significant property of a linearization method is that it needs no output sequence from a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) because it calculates linear complexity using the algebraic expression of its algorithm. When a PRNG has n [bit] stages (registers or internal states), the necessary computational cost is smaller than O(2n). On the other hand, the Berlekamp-Massey algorithm needs O(N2) where N(≅2n) denotes period. Since existing methods calculate using the output sequence, an initial value of PRNG influences a resultant value of linear complexity. Therefore, a linear complexity is generally given as an estimate value. On the other hand, a linearization method calculates from an algorithm of PRNG, it can determine the lower bound of linear complexity.
Said-Houari, Belkacem
2017-01-01
This self-contained, clearly written textbook on linear algebra is easily accessible for students. It begins with the simple linear equation and generalizes several notions from this equation for the system of linear equations and introduces the main ideas using matrices. It then offers a detailed chapter on determinants and introduces the main ideas with detailed proofs. The third chapter introduces the Euclidean spaces using very simple geometric ideas and discusses various major inequalities and identities. These ideas offer a solid basis for understanding general Hilbert spaces in functional analysis. The following two chapters address general vector spaces, including some rigorous proofs to all the main results, and linear transformation: areas that are ignored or are poorly explained in many textbooks. Chapter 6 introduces the idea of matrices using linear transformation, which is easier to understand than the usual theory of matrices approach. The final two chapters are more advanced, introducing t...
Bayesian Subset Modeling for High-Dimensional Generalized Linear Models
Liang, Faming
2013-06-01
This article presents a new prior setting for high-dimensional generalized linear models, which leads to a Bayesian subset regression (BSR) with the maximum a posteriori model approximately equivalent to the minimum extended Bayesian information criterion model. The consistency of the resulting posterior is established under mild conditions. Further, a variable screening procedure is proposed based on the marginal inclusion probability, which shares the same properties of sure screening and consistency with the existing sure independence screening (SIS) and iterative sure independence screening (ISIS) procedures. However, since the proposed procedure makes use of joint information from all predictors, it generally outperforms SIS and ISIS in real applications. This article also makes extensive comparisons of BSR with the popular penalized likelihood methods, including Lasso, elastic net, SIS, and ISIS. The numerical results indicate that BSR can generally outperform the penalized likelihood methods. The models selected by BSR tend to be sparser and, more importantly, of higher prediction ability. In addition, the performance of the penalized likelihood methods tends to deteriorate as the number of predictors increases, while this is not significant for BSR. Supplementary materials for this article are available online. © 2013 American Statistical Association.
Correlation and simple linear regression.
Zou, Kelly H; Tuncali, Kemal; Silverman, Stuart G
2003-06-01
In this tutorial article, the concepts of correlation and regression are reviewed and demonstrated. The authors review and compare two correlation coefficients, the Pearson correlation coefficient and the Spearman rho, for measuring linear and nonlinear relationships between two continuous variables. In the case of measuring the linear relationship between a predictor and an outcome variable, simple linear regression analysis is conducted. These statistical concepts are illustrated by using a data set from published literature to assess a computed tomography-guided interventional technique. These statistical methods are important for exploring the relationships between variables and can be applied to many radiologic studies.
Stoll, R R
1968-01-01
Linear Algebra is intended to be used as a text for a one-semester course in linear algebra at the undergraduate level. The treatment of the subject will be both useful to students of mathematics and those interested primarily in applications of the theory. The major prerequisite for mastering the material is the readiness of the student to reason abstractly. Specifically, this calls for an understanding of the fact that axioms are assumptions and that theorems are logical consequences of one or more axioms. Familiarity with calculus and linear differential equations is required for understand
Solow, Daniel
2014-01-01
This text covers the basic theory and computation for a first course in linear programming, including substantial material on mathematical proof techniques and sophisticated computation methods. Includes Appendix on using Excel. 1984 edition.
Liesen, Jörg
2015-01-01
This self-contained textbook takes a matrix-oriented approach to linear algebra and presents a complete theory, including all details and proofs, culminating in the Jordan canonical form and its proof. Throughout the development, the applicability of the results is highlighted. Additionally, the book presents special topics from applied linear algebra including matrix functions, the singular value decomposition, the Kronecker product and linear matrix equations. The matrix-oriented approach to linear algebra leads to a better intuition and a deeper understanding of the abstract concepts, and therefore simplifies their use in real world applications. Some of these applications are presented in detailed examples. In several ‘MATLAB-Minutes’ students can comprehend the concepts and results using computational experiments. Necessary basics for the use of MATLAB are presented in a short introduction. Students can also actively work with the material and practice their mathematical skills in more than 300 exerc...
Berberian, Sterling K
2014-01-01
Introductory treatment covers basic theory of vector spaces and linear maps - dimension, determinants, eigenvalues, and eigenvectors - plus more advanced topics such as the study of canonical forms for matrices. 1992 edition.
Searle, Shayle R
2012-01-01
This 1971 classic on linear models is once again available--as a Wiley Classics Library Edition. It features material that can be understood by any statistician who understands matrix algebra and basic statistical methods.
Christofilos, N.C.; Polk, I.J.
1959-02-17
Improvements in linear particle accelerators are described. A drift tube system for a linear ion accelerator reduces gap capacity between adjacent drift tube ends. This is accomplished by reducing the ratio of the diameter of the drift tube to the diameter of the resonant cavity. Concentration of magnetic field intensity at the longitudinal midpoint of the external sunface of each drift tube is reduced by increasing the external drift tube diameter at the longitudinal center region.
Linear zonal atmospheric prediction for adaptive optics
McGuire, Patrick C.; Rhoadarmer, Troy A.; Coy, Hanna A.; Angel, J. Roger P.; Lloyd-Hart, Michael
2000-07-01
We compare linear zonal predictors of atmospheric turbulence for adaptive optics. Zonal prediction has the possible advantage of being able to interpret and utilize wind-velocity information from the wavefront sensor better than modal prediction. For simulated open-loop atmospheric data for a 2- meter 16-subaperture AO telescope with 5 millisecond prediction and a lookback of 4 slope-vectors, we find that Widrow-Hoff Delta-Rule training of linear nets and Back- Propagation training of non-linear multilayer neural networks is quite slow, getting stuck on plateaus or in local minima. Recursive Least Squares training of linear predictors is two orders of magnitude faster and it also converges to the solution with global minimum error. We have successfully implemented Amari's Adaptive Natural Gradient Learning (ANGL) technique for a linear zonal predictor, which premultiplies the Delta-Rule gradients with a matrix that orthogonalizes the parameter space and speeds up the training by two orders of magnitude, like the Recursive Least Squares predictor. This shows that the simple Widrow-Hoff Delta-Rule's slow convergence is not a fluke. In the case of bright guidestars, the ANGL, RLS, and standard matrix-inversion least-squares (MILS) algorithms all converge to the same global minimum linear total phase error (approximately 0.18 rad2), which is only approximately 5% higher than the spatial phase error (approximately 0.17 rad2), and is approximately 33% lower than the total 'naive' phase error without prediction (approximately 0.27 rad2). ANGL can, in principle, also be extended to make non-linear neural network training feasible for these large networks, with the potential to lower the predictor error below the linear predictor error. We will soon scale our linear work to the approximately 108-subaperture MMT AO system, both with simulations and real wavefront sensor data from prime focus.
D'Urso, Giordano; Dell'Osso, Bernardo; Rossi, Rodolfo; Brunoni, Andre Russowsky; Bortolomasi, Marco; Ferrucci, Roberta; Priori, Alberto; de Bartolomeis, Andrea; Altamura, Alfredo Carlo
2017-09-01
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a promising neuromodulation intervention for poor-responding or refractory depressed patients. However, little is known about predictors of response to this therapy. The present study aimed to analyze clinical predictors of response to tDCS in depressed patients. Clinical data from 3 independent tDCS trials on 171 depressed patients (including unipolar and bipolar depression), were pooled and analyzed to assess predictors of response. Depression severity and the underlying clinical dimensions were measured using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) at baseline and after the tDCS treatment. Age, gender and diagnosis (bipolar/unipolar depression) were also investigated as predictors of response. Linear mixed models were fitted in order to ascertain which HDRS factors were associated with response to tDCS. Age, gender and diagnosis did not show any association with response to treatment. The reduction in HDRS scores after tDCS was strongly associated with the baseline values of "Cognitive Disturbances" and "Retardation" factors, whilst the "Anxiety/Somatization" factor showed a mild association with the response. Open-label design, the lack of control group, and minor differences in stimulation protocols. No differences in response to tDCS were found between unipolar and bipolar patients, suggesting that tDCS is effective for both conditions. "Cognitive disturbance", "Retardation", and "Anxiety/Somatization", were identified as potential clinical predictors of response to tDCS. These findings point to the pre-selection of the potential responders to tDCS, therefore optimizing the clinical use of this technique and the overall cost-effectiveness of the psychiatric intervention for depressed patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Motivation for change as a predictor of treatment response for dysthymia.
Frías Ibáñez, Álvaro; González Vallespí, Laura; Palma Sevillano, Carol; Farriols Hernando, Núria
2016-05-01
Dysthymia constitutes a chronic, mild affective disorder characterized by heterogeneous treatment effects. Several predictors of clinical response and attendance have been postulated, although research on the role of the psychological variables involved in this mental disorder is still scarce. Fifty-four adult patients, who met criteria for dysthymia completed an ongoing naturalistic treatment based on the brief interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT-B), which was delivered bimonthly over 16 months. As potential predictor variables, the therapeutic alliance, coping strategies, perceived self-efficacy, and motivation for change were measured at baseline. Outcome variables were response to treatment (Clinical Global Impression and Beck’s Depression Inventory) and treatment attendance. Stepwise multiple linear regression analyses revealed that higher motivation for change predicted better response to treatment. Moreover, higher motivation for change also predicted treatment attendance. Therapeutic alliance was not a predictor variable of neither clinical response nor treatment attendance. These preliminary findings support the adjunctive use of motivational interviewing (MI) techniques in the treatment of dysthymia. Further research with larger sample size and follow-up assessment is warranted.
Olive, David J
2017-01-01
This text covers both multiple linear regression and some experimental design models. The text uses the response plot to visualize the model and to detect outliers, does not assume that the error distribution has a known parametric distribution, develops prediction intervals that work when the error distribution is unknown, suggests bootstrap hypothesis tests that may be useful for inference after variable selection, and develops prediction regions and large sample theory for the multivariate linear regression model that has m response variables. A relationship between multivariate prediction regions and confidence regions provides a simple way to bootstrap confidence regions. These confidence regions often provide a practical method for testing hypotheses. There is also a chapter on generalized linear models and generalized additive models. There are many R functions to produce response and residual plots, to simulate prediction intervals and hypothesis tests, to detect outliers, and to choose response trans...
Alcaraz, J.
2001-01-01
After several years of study e''+ e''- linear colliders in the TeV range have emerged as the major and optimal high-energy physics projects for the post-LHC era. These notes summarize the present status form the main accelerator and detector features to their physics potential. The LHC era. These notes summarize the present status, from the main accelerator and detector features to their physics potential. The LHC is expected to provide first discoveries in the new energy domain, whereas an e''+ e''- linear collider in the 500 GeV-1 TeV will be able to complement it to an unprecedented level of precision in any possible areas: Higgs, signals beyond the SM and electroweak measurements. It is evident that the Linear Collider program will constitute a major step in the understanding of the nature of the new physics beyond the Standard Model. (Author) 22 refs
Edwards, Harold M
1995-01-01
In his new undergraduate textbook, Harold M Edwards proposes a radically new and thoroughly algorithmic approach to linear algebra Originally inspired by the constructive philosophy of mathematics championed in the 19th century by Leopold Kronecker, the approach is well suited to students in the computer-dominated late 20th century Each proof is an algorithm described in English that can be translated into the computer language the class is using and put to work solving problems and generating new examples, making the study of linear algebra a truly interactive experience Designed for a one-semester course, this text adopts an algorithmic approach to linear algebra giving the student many examples to work through and copious exercises to test their skills and extend their knowledge of the subject Students at all levels will find much interactive instruction in this text while teachers will find stimulating examples and methods of approach to the subject
Effect of Pain and Mild Cognitive Impairment on Mobility
Schepker, Caroline A; Leveille, Suzanne G; Pedersen, Mette Merete
2016-01-01
OBJECTIVES: To examine the effect of pain and mild cognitive impairment (MCI)-together and separately-on performance-based and self-reported mobility outcomes in older adults in primary care with mild to moderate self-reported mobility limitations. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis. SETTING...... Inventory (BPI) were defined as having pain. MCI was defined using age-adjusted scores on a neuropsychological battery. Multivariable linear regression models assessed associations between pain and MCI, together and separately, and mobility performance (habitual gait speed, Short Physical Performance...
Karloff, Howard
1991-01-01
To this reviewer’s knowledge, this is the first book accessible to the upper division undergraduate or beginning graduate student that surveys linear programming from the Simplex Method…via the Ellipsoid algorithm to Karmarkar’s algorithm. Moreover, its point of view is algorithmic and thus it provides both a history and a case history of work in complexity theory. The presentation is admirable; Karloff's style is informal (even humorous at times) without sacrificing anything necessary for understanding. Diagrams (including horizontal brackets that group terms) aid in providing clarity. The end-of-chapter notes are helpful...Recommended highly for acquisition, since it is not only a textbook, but can also be used for independent reading and study. —Choice Reviews The reader will be well served by reading the monograph from cover to cover. The author succeeds in providing a concise, readable, understandable introduction to modern linear programming. —Mathematics of Computing This is a textbook intend...
Papma, Janne M; Smits, Marion; de Groot, Marius; Mattace Raso, Francesco U; van der Lugt, Aad; Vrooman, Henri A; Niessen, Wiro J; Koudstaal, Peter J; van Swieten, John C; van der Veen, Frederik M; Prins, Niels D
2017-09-01
Diminished function of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) is a typical finding in early Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is hypothesized that in early stage AD, PCC functioning relates to or reflects hippocampal dysfunction or atrophy. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between hippocampus function, volume and structural connectivity, and PCC activation during an episodic memory task-related fMRI study in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). MCI patients (n = 27) underwent episodic memory task-related fMRI, 3D-T1w MRI, 2D T2-FLAIR MRI and diffusion tensor imaging. Stepwise linear regression analysis was performed to examine the relationship between PCC activation and hippocampal activation, hippocampal volume and diffusion measures within the cingulum along the hippocampus. We found a significant relationship between PCC and hippocampus activation during successful episodic memory encoding and correct recognition in MCI patients. We found no relationship between the PCC and structural hippocampal predictors. Our results indicate a relationship between PCC and hippocampus activation during episodic memory engagement in MCI. This may suggest that during episodic memory, functional network deterioration is the most important predictor of PCC functioning in MCI. • PCC functioning during episodic memory relates to hippocampal functioning in MCI. • PCC functioning during episodic memory does not relate to hippocampal structure in MCI. • Functional network changes are an important predictor of PCC functioning in MCI.
Lukas, Manuel; Hillebrand, Eric
Relations between economic variables can often not be exploited for forecasting, suggesting that predictors are weak in the sense that estimation uncertainty is larger than bias from ignoring the relation. In this paper, we propose a novel bagging predictor designed for such weak predictor variab...
Window observers for linear systems
Utkin Vadim
2000-01-01
Full Text Available Given a linear system x ˙ = A x + B u with output y = C x and a window function ω ( t , i.e., ∀ t , ω ( t ∈ {0,1 }, and assuming that the window function is Lebesgue measurable, we refer to the following observer, x ˆ = A x + B u + ω ( t L C ( x − x ˆ as a window observer. The stability issue is treated in this paper. It is proven that for linear time-invariant systems, the window observer can be stabilized by an appropriate design under a very mild condition on the window functions, albeit for linear time-varying system, some regularity of the window functions is required to achieve observer designs with the asymptotic stability. The corresponding design methods are developed. An example is included to illustrate the possible applications
Dahdal, Philippe; Meyer, Antonia; Chaturvedi, Menorca; Nowak, Karolina; Roesch, Anne D; Fuhr, Peter; Gschwandtner, Ute
2016-01-01
The objective of this study was to investigate the relation between impaired fine motor skills in Parkinson disease (PD) patients and their cognitive status, and to determine whether fine motor skills are more impaired in PD patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) than in non-MCI patients. Twenty PD MCI and 31 PD non-MCI patients (mean age 66.7 years, range 50-84, 36 males/15 females), all right-handed, took part in a motor performance test battery. Steadiness, precision, dexterity, velocity of arm-hand movements, and velocity of wrist-finger movements were measured and compared across groups and analyzed for confounders (age, sex, education, severity of motor symptoms, and disease duration). Statistical analysis included t tests corrected for multiple testing, and a linear regression with stepwise elimination procedure was used to select significant predictors for fine motor function. PD MCI patients performed significantly worse in precision (p motor function skills were confounded by age. Fine motor skills in PD MCI patients are impaired compared to PD non-MCI patients. Investigating the relation between the fine motor performance and MCI in PD might be a relevant subject for future research. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Reduction of Linear Programming to Linear Approximation
Vaserstein, Leonid N.
2006-01-01
It is well known that every Chebyshev linear approximation problem can be reduced to a linear program. In this paper we show that conversely every linear program can be reduced to a Chebyshev linear approximation problem.
Multiple Imputation of Predictor Variables Using Generalized Additive Models
de Jong, Roel; van Buuren, Stef; Spiess, Martin
2016-01-01
The sensitivity of multiple imputation methods to deviations from their distributional assumptions is investigated using simulations, where the parameters of scientific interest are the coefficients of a linear regression model, and values in predictor variables are missing at random. The
Mild solutions to a measure-valued mass evolution problem with flux boundary conditions
Evers, J.H.M.; Hille, S.C.; Muntean, A.
2015-01-01
We investigate the well-posedness and approximation of mild solutions to a class of linear transport equations on the unit interval [0,1][0,1] endowed with a linear discontinuous production term, formulated in the space M([0,1])M([0,1]) of finite Borel measures. Our working technique includes a
Tanwiwat Jaikuna
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Purpose: To develop an in-house software program that is able to calculate and generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram by physical dose conversion using the linear-quadratic-linear (LQL model. Material and methods : The Isobio software was developed using MATLAB version 2014b to calculate and generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histograms. The physical dose from each voxel in treatment planning was extracted through Computational Environment for Radiotherapy Research (CERR, and the accuracy was verified by the differentiation between the dose volume histogram from CERR and the treatment planning system. An equivalent dose in 2 Gy fraction (EQD2 was calculated using biological effective dose (BED based on the LQL model. The software calculation and the manual calculation were compared for EQD2 verification with pair t-test statistical analysis using IBM SPSS Statistics version 22 (64-bit. Results: Two and three-dimensional biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram were displayed correctly by the Isobio software. Different physical doses were found between CERR and treatment planning system (TPS in Oncentra, with 3.33% in high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV determined by D90%, 0.56% in the bladder, 1.74% in the rectum when determined by D2cc, and less than 1% in Pinnacle. The difference in the EQD2 between the software calculation and the manual calculation was not significantly different with 0.00% at p-values 0.820, 0.095, and 0.593 for external beam radiation therapy (EBRT and 0.240, 0.320, and 0.849 for brachytherapy (BT in HR-CTV, bladder, and rectum, respectively. Conclusions : The Isobio software is a feasible tool to generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram for treatment plan evaluation in both EBRT and BT.
Multicollinearity in hierarchical linear models.
Yu, Han; Jiang, Shanhe; Land, Kenneth C
2015-09-01
This study investigates an ill-posed problem (multicollinearity) in Hierarchical Linear Models from both the data and the model perspectives. We propose an intuitive, effective approach to diagnosing the presence of multicollinearity and its remedies in this class of models. A simulation study demonstrates the impacts of multicollinearity on coefficient estimates, associated standard errors, and variance components at various levels of multicollinearity for finite sample sizes typical in social science studies. We further investigate the role multicollinearity plays at each level for estimation of coefficient parameters in terms of shrinkage. Based on these analyses, we recommend a top-down method for assessing multicollinearity in HLMs that first examines the contextual predictors (Level-2 in a two-level model) and then the individual predictors (Level-1) and uses the results for data collection, research problem redefinition, model re-specification, variable selection and estimation of a final model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tanigawa, Takanori; Takechi, Hajime; Arai, Hidenori; Yamada, Minoru; Nishiguchi, Shu; Aoyama, Tomoki
2014-10-01
It is very important to maintain cognitive function in patients with mild cognitive disorder. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the amount of physical activity is associated with memory function in older adults with mild cognitive disorder. A total of 47 older adults with mild cognitive disorder were studied; 30 were diagnosed with mild Alzheimer's disease and 17 with mild cognitive impairment. The global cognitive function, memory function, physical performance and amount of physical activity were measured in these patients. We divided these patients according to their walking speed (1 m/s). A total of 26 elderly patients were classified as the slow walking group, whereas 21 were classified as the normal walking group. The normal walking group was younger and had significantly better scores than the slow walking group in physical performance. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis showed that only the daily step counts were associated with the Scenery Picture Memory Test in patients of the slow walking group (β=0.471, P=0.031), but not other variables. No variable was significantly associated with the Scenery Picture Memory Test in the normal walking group. Memory function was strongly associated with the amount of physical activity in patients with mild cognitive disorder who showed slow walking speed. The results show that lower physical activities could be a risk factor for cognitive decline, and that cognitive function in the elderly whose motor function and cognitive function are declining can be improved by increasing the amount of physical activity. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Reem A. Al-Omair
2009-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper we prove the existence of a mild solution for a semilinear evolution differential inclusion with nonlocal condition and governed by a family of linear operators, not necessarily bounded or closed, in a Banach space. No compactness assumption is assumed on the evolution operator generated by the family operators. Also, we prove that the set of mild solutions is compact.
Cell Mean Versus Best Linear Unbiased Predictors in Biplot ...
In multi-environment trials, accurate estimation of yields in individual environments ... AMMI analysis of variance based on cell means depicted the first five ... means in their GGE and AMMI biplot analysis of GE for wheat yield in Canada. .... GGE biplot only) principal components were partitioned to the respective genotype.
Cell Mean Versus Best Linear Unbiased Predictors in Biplot ...
Environment contributed to 65%, GE to 26.6% and G to 8.4% of the G. + E + GE sum ..... Of these, genotypes 3371, ehil and fer projected the most towards ... had the highest mean grain yield, the lowest lodging score (4%), the most number of .... multiplicative interaction model: I. theory on variance components for predicting.
Zaretzki, J.; Bergeron, C.; Huang, T.-W.
2013-01-01
Regioselectivity-WebPredictor (RS-WebPredictor) is a server that predicts isozyme-specific cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated sites of metabolism (SOMs) on drug-like molecules. Predictions may be made for the promiscuous 2C9, 2D6 and 3A4 CYP isozymes, as well as CYPs 1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C19 and 2E1....... RS-WebPredictor is the first freely accessible server that predicts the regioselectivity of the last six isozymes. Server execution time is fast, taking on average 2s to encode a submitted molecule and 1s to apply a given model, allowing for high-throughput use in lead optimization projects.......Availability: RS-WebPredictor is accessible for free use at http://reccr.chem.rpi.edu/ Software/RS-WebPredictor....
Predictors of transformational leadership of nurse managers.
Echevarria, Ilia M; Patterson, Barbara J; Krouse, Anne
2017-04-01
The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among education, leadership experience, emotional intelligence and transformational leadership of nurse managers. Nursing leadership research provides limited evidence of predictors of transformational leadership style in nurse managers. A predictive correlational design was used with a sample of nurse managers (n = 148) working in varied health care settings. Data were collected using the Genos Emotional Intelligence Inventory, the Multi-factor Leadership Questionnaire and a demographic questionnaire. Simple linear and multiple regression analyses were used to examine relationships. A statistically significant relationship was found between emotional intelligence and transformational leadership (r = 0.59, P transformational leadership. Nurse managers should be well informed of the predictors of transformational leadership in order to pursue continuing education and development opportunities related to those predictors. The results of this study emphasise the need for emotional intelligence continuing education, leadership development and leader assessment programmes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Linear viscoelastic characterization from filament stretching rheometry
Wingstrand, Sara Lindeblad; Alvarez, Nicolas J.; Hassager, Ole
to measure both linear and nonlinear dynamics on a single apparatus. With a software modification to the FSR motor control, we show that linear viscoelasticity can be measured via small amplitude squeeze flow (SASF). Squeeze flow is a combination of both shear and extensional flow applied by axially......Traditionally, linear viscoelasticity is measured using small amplitude oscillatory shear flow. Due to experimental difficulties, shear flows are predominately confined to the linear and mildly nonlinear regime. On the other hand, extensional flows have proven more practical in measuring...... viscoelasticity well into the nonlinear regime. Therefore at present, complete rheological characterization of a material requires two apparatuses: a shear and an extensional rheometer. This work is focused on developing a linear viscoelastic protocol for the filament stretching rheometer (FSR) in order...
Comparing linear probability model coefficients across groups
Holm, Anders; Ejrnæs, Mette; Karlson, Kristian Bernt
2015-01-01
of the following three components: outcome truncation, scale parameters and distributional shape of the predictor variable. These results point to limitations in using linear probability model coefficients for group comparisons. We also provide Monte Carlo simulations and real examples to illustrate......This article offers a formal identification analysis of the problem in comparing coefficients from linear probability models between groups. We show that differences in coefficients from these models can result not only from genuine differences in effects, but also from differences in one or more...... these limitations, and we suggest a restricted approach to using linear probability model coefficients in group comparisons....
Linear Algebra and Smarandache Linear Algebra
Vasantha, Kandasamy
2003-01-01
The present book, on Smarandache linear algebra, not only studies the Smarandache analogues of linear algebra and its applications, it also aims to bridge the need for new research topics pertaining to linear algebra, purely in the algebraic sense. We have introduced Smarandache semilinear algebra, Smarandache bilinear algebra and Smarandache anti-linear algebra and their fuzzy equivalents. Moreover, in this book, we have brought out the study of linear algebra and vector spaces over finite p...
Estimates for mild solutions to semilinear Cauchy problems
Kresimir Burazin
2014-09-01
Full Text Available The existence (and uniqueness results on mild solutions of the abstract semilinear Cauchy problems in Banach spaces are well known. Following the results of Tartar (2008 and Burazin (2008 in the case of decoupled hyperbolic systems, we give an alternative proof, which enables us to derive an estimate on the mild solution and its time of existence. The nonlinear term in the equation is allowed to be time-dependent. We discuss the optimality of the derived estimate by testing it on three examples: the linear heat equation, the semilinear heat equation that models dynamic deflection of an elastic membrane, and the semilinear Schrodinger equation with time-dependent nonlinearity, that appear in the modelling of numerous physical phenomena.
Consumer preferences for mild cheddar cheese flavors.
Drake, S L; Gerard, P D; Drake, M A
2008-11-01
Flavor is an important factor in consumer selection of cheeses. Mild Cheddar cheese is the classification used to describe Cheddar cheese that is not aged extensively and has a "mild" flavor. However, there is no legal definition or age limit for Cheddar cheese to be labeled mild, medium, or sharp, nor are the flavor profiles or flavor expectations of these cheeses specifically defined. The objectives of this study were to document the distinct flavor profiles among commercially labeled mild Cheddar cheeses, and to characterize if consumer preferences existed for specific mild Cheddar cheese flavors or flavor profiles. Flavor descriptive sensory profiles of a representative array of commercial Cheddar cheeses labeled as mild (n= 22) were determined using a trained sensory panel and an established cheese flavor sensory language. Nine representative Cheddar cheeses were selected for consumer testing. Consumers (n= 215) assessed the cheeses for overall liking and other consumer liking attributes. Internal preference mapping, cluster analysis, and discriminant analysis were conducted. Mild Cheddar cheeses were diverse in flavor with many displaying flavors typically associated with more age. Four distinct consumer clusters were identified. The key drivers of liking for mild Cheddar cheese were: color, cooked/milky, whey and brothy flavors, and sour taste. Consumers have distinct flavor and color preferences for mild Cheddar cheese. These results can help manufacturers understand consumer preferences for mild Cheddar cheese.
Kjølhede, Tue; Vissing, Kristian; Langeskov-Christensen, Daniel
2015-01-01
BACKGROUND: Maximal muscle strength has been shown to be an important predictor of functional capacity for persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). Another muscle strength parameter known to be important for functional capacity in other patient groups is rate of force development (RFD) in knee...... is the better predictor of walking performance in persons with mild to moderate multiple sclerosis. RFD, although also important for functional capacity, is a less strong predictor. Maximal strength of the knee extensors, rather than the knee flexors, predicted performance in the stairclimb and 5STS tests....
Multivariate covariance generalized linear models
Bonat, W. H.; Jørgensen, Bent
2016-01-01
are fitted by using an efficient Newton scoring algorithm based on quasi-likelihood and Pearson estimating functions, using only second-moment assumptions. This provides a unified approach to a wide variety of types of response variables and covariance structures, including multivariate extensions......We propose a general framework for non-normal multivariate data analysis called multivariate covariance generalized linear models, designed to handle multivariate response variables, along with a wide range of temporal and spatial correlation structures defined in terms of a covariance link...... function combined with a matrix linear predictor involving known matrices. The method is motivated by three data examples that are not easily handled by existing methods. The first example concerns multivariate count data, the second involves response variables of mixed types, combined with repeated...
Hypoglycemia in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes - Predictors and role of metabolic control
Nielsen, L.R.; Johansen, M.; Pedersen-Bjergaard, U.
2008-01-01
OBJECTIVE- In pregnancy with type 1 diabetes, we evaluated occurrence of mild and severe hypoglycemia and analyzed the influence of strict metabolic control, nausea, Vomiting, and other potential predictors of occurrence of severe hypoglycemia. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS- A prospective...... awareness or unawareness (3.2 [1.2-8.2]) as independent predictors for severe hypoglycemia. CONCLUSIONS - In pregnancy with type 1 diabetes, the incidence of mild and severe hypoglycemia was highest in early pregnancy, although metabolic control was tighter in the last part of pregnancy. Predictors...... observational study of 108 consecutive pregnant women with type 1 diabetes was conducted. At 8, 14, 21, 27, and 33 weeks of gestation, patients performed self-monitored plasma glucose (SMPG) (eight/day) for 3 days and completed a questionnaire on nausea, vomiting, hypoglycemia awareness, and history of mild...
Papma, Janne M.; Koudstaal, Peter J.; Swieten, John C. van; Smits, Marion; Lugt, Aad van der; Groot, Marius de; Vrooman, Henri A.; Mattace Raso, Francesco U.; Niessen, Wiro J.; Veen, Frederik M. van der; Prins, Niels D.
2017-01-01
Diminished function of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) is a typical finding in early Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is hypothesized that in early stage AD, PCC functioning relates to or reflects hippocampal dysfunction or atrophy. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between hippocampus function, volume and structural connectivity, and PCC activation during an episodic memory task-related fMRI study in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). MCI patients (n = 27) underwent episodic memory task-related fMRI, 3D-T1w MRI, 2D T2-FLAIR MRI and diffusion tensor imaging. Stepwise linear regression analysis was performed to examine the relationship between PCC activation and hippocampal activation, hippocampal volume and diffusion measures within the cingulum along the hippocampus. We found a significant relationship between PCC and hippocampus activation during successful episodic memory encoding and correct recognition in MCI patients. We found no relationship between the PCC and structural hippocampal predictors. Our results indicate a relationship between PCC and hippocampus activation during episodic memory engagement in MCI. This may suggest that during episodic memory, functional network deterioration is the most important predictor of PCC functioning in MCI. (orig.)
Papma, Janne M.; Koudstaal, Peter J.; Swieten, John C. van [Erasmus MC - University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Neurology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Smits, Marion; Lugt, Aad van der [Erasmus MC - University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Groot, Marius de; Vrooman, Henri A. [Erasmus MC - University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus MC - University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Medical Informatics, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Mattace Raso, Francesco U. [Erasmus MC - University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Geriatrics, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Niessen, Wiro J. [Erasmus MC - University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus MC - University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Medical Informatics, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft (Netherlands); Veen, Frederik M. van der [Erasmus University Rotterdam, Institute of Psychology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Prins, Niels D. [VU University Medical Center, Alzheimer Center, Department of Neurology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)
2017-09-15
Diminished function of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) is a typical finding in early Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is hypothesized that in early stage AD, PCC functioning relates to or reflects hippocampal dysfunction or atrophy. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between hippocampus function, volume and structural connectivity, and PCC activation during an episodic memory task-related fMRI study in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). MCI patients (n = 27) underwent episodic memory task-related fMRI, 3D-T1w MRI, 2D T2-FLAIR MRI and diffusion tensor imaging. Stepwise linear regression analysis was performed to examine the relationship between PCC activation and hippocampal activation, hippocampal volume and diffusion measures within the cingulum along the hippocampus. We found a significant relationship between PCC and hippocampus activation during successful episodic memory encoding and correct recognition in MCI patients. We found no relationship between the PCC and structural hippocampal predictors. Our results indicate a relationship between PCC and hippocampus activation during episodic memory engagement in MCI. This may suggest that during episodic memory, functional network deterioration is the most important predictor of PCC functioning in MCI. (orig.)
Mild mental stress in diabetes
Hildebrandt, P; Mehlsen, J; Sestoft, L
1985-01-01
A TV-game of tennis of 20 min duration was used to study the influence of mild mental stress on subcutaneous blood-flow (SBF), blood-pressure and heart rate in nine insulin-dependent diabetics and nine healthy subjects. SBF was measured on the thigh by local clearance of xenon-133. Measurements...... were made before, during and after the period of stress. During stress, SBF increased significantly by 26% in the healthy subjects, while SBF remained unchanged in the diabetics. The difference between the two groups was significant (P less than 0.05). Following stress, SBF returned to pre-stress level...... in the healthy subjects, while a significant decrease of 33% was observed in the diabetics. The pre-stress heart rate level was higher and the stress-induced increase in heart rate was less in the diabetics compared with the healthy subjects (P less than 0.05). During the stress a slight--but insignificant...
Understanding mild persistent asthma in children
Bisgaard, Hans; Szefler, Stanley J
2005-01-01
Limitations in asthma prevalence studies and difficulties in diagnosing pediatric asthma lead to uncertainty over the full extent of mild persistent asthma in children and adolescents. Although recent surveys have reported that the majority of pediatric patients with asthma in the United States...... and Europe have symptoms consistent with mild disease, these surveys have limitations in design. Thus, the true prevalence of mild asthma remains unknown. It is unclear whether children with mild persistent asthma progress to more severe asthma, but the risk of severe asthma exacerbations seems...... to be unrelated to the symptom severity. Clinical studies restricted to pediatric patients with mild asthma are limited, but available data do suggest substantial morbidity of mild persistent asthma in this population and support inhaled corticosteroid intervention. There is a need for further investigation...
A Note on the Identifiability of Generalized Linear Mixed Models
Labouriau, Rodrigo
2014-01-01
I present here a simple proof that, under general regularity conditions, the standard parametrization of generalized linear mixed model is identifiable. The proof is based on the assumptions of generalized linear mixed models on the first and second order moments and some general mild regularity...... conditions, and, therefore, is extensible to quasi-likelihood based generalized linear models. In particular, binomial and Poisson mixed models with dispersion parameter are identifiable when equipped with the standard parametrization...
The Effect of Mild Motion Sickness and Sopite Syndrome on Multitasking Cognitive Performance
2013-03-01
useful as a predictor of performance in occupations such as pilot , where demands on multitasking are presumably high.” 33 It is interesting to assess...Council Committee on Selection and Training of Aircraft Pilots , Executive Subcommittee. Washington, D.C. Wendt, G. R. (1951). Vestibular functions. In S...public release; distribution is unlimited THE EFFECT OF MILD MOTION SICKNESS AND SOPITE SYNDROME ON MULTITASKING COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE by
Predictors of Video Game Console Aggression
Bean, Anthony Martin; Ferro, Lauren
2016-01-01
This study was designed to investigate the aggression levels of college students found in the Northeastern part of the United States following exposure to video games. The 59 participants played their assigned game, Mortal Kombat on Nintendo Wii or Halo 2 on the Xbox, for 45 minutes with a partner. The researchers employed twelve t-tests (alpha adjusted to .004) and three multiple linear regressions to explore the difference of aggression levels in gender, violent video game, and predictors o...
Clinical Predictors of Intensive Care Unit Admission for Asthmatic Children
Mohammad Hasan Kargar Maher; Parinaz Habibi; Nemat Bilan
2015-01-01
IntroductionChildren with severe asthma attack are a challenging group of patients who could be difficult to treat and leading to significant morbidity and mortality. Asthma attack severity is qualitatively estimated as mild, moderate and severe attacks and respiratory failure based on conditions such as respiration status, feeling of dyspnea, and the degree of unconsciousness. part of which are subjective rather than objective. We investigated clinical findings as predictors of severe attack...
Truncated predictor feedback for time-delay systems
Zhou, Bin
2014-01-01
This book provides a systematic approach to the design of predictor based controllers for (time-varying) linear systems with either (time-varying) input or state delays. Differently from those traditional predictor based controllers, which are infinite-dimensional static feedback laws and may cause difficulties in their practical implementation, this book develops a truncated predictor feedback (TPF) which involves only finite dimensional static state feedback. Features and topics: A novel approach referred to as truncated predictor feedback for the stabilization of (time-varying) time-delay systems in both the continuous-time setting and the discrete-time setting is built systematically Semi-global and global stabilization problems of linear time-delay systems subject to either magnitude saturation or energy constraints are solved in a systematic manner Both stabilization of a single system and consensus of a group of systems (multi-agent systems) are treated in a unified manner by applying the truncated pre...
Impact of mild renal impairment on early postoperative mortality after open cardiac surgery
A Abdel Ghani; Muath Al Nasar
2010-01-01
Preoperative severe renal impairment is included in the risk scores to predict outcome after open cardiac surgery. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of pr operative mild renal impairment on the early postoperative mortality after open heart surgery. Data of all cases of open cardiac surgery performed from January 2005 to June 2006 were collected. Cases with preoperative creatinine clearance below 60 mL/min were excluded from the study. Data were retrospectively analyzed to find the impact of renal impairment on short-term outcome. Of the 500 cases studied, 47 had preoperative creatinine clearance between 89-60 mL/min. The overall mortality in the study cases was 6.8%. The mortality was 28.7% in those who developed postoperative ARF, 33.3% in those who required dialysis and 40.8% in those with preoperative mild renal impairment. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that female gender (P = 0.01), preoperative mild renal impairment (P 0.007) as well as occurrence of multi organ failure (P < 0.001) were the only independent variables determining the early postoperative mortality after cardiac surgeries. Among them, preoperative mild renal impairment was the most significant and the best predictor for early postoperative mortality after cardiac surgery. Our study suggests that renal impairment remains a strong predictor of early mortality even after adjustment for several confounders (Author).
Renata Claudia Zanchet
2006-06-01
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar o padrão da oximetria noturna em portadores de doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica sem apnéia do sono e com hipoxemia leve em vigília, identificar prováveis parâmetros diurnos capazes de predizer a dessaturação noturna e verificar sua influência no padrão de sono. MÉTODOS: Avaliaram-se 25 pacientes, divididos em dois grupos: com e sem dessaturação noturna. RESULTADOS: Comparando-se o primeiro grupo (52% com o segundo observou-se: idade, 63 ± 5 versus 63 ± 6 anos; volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo, 53 ± 31% versus 56 ± 19% do previsto; relação entre volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo e capacidade vital forçada, 49 ± 14% versus 52 ± 10%; pressão parcial de oxigênio no sangue arterial, 68 ± 8mmHg versus 72 ± 68mmHg; saturação arterial de oxigênio, 93 ± 2% versus 94 ± 1%. O grupo com dessaturação noturna apresentou menores valores de saturação arterial de oxigênio diurna e saturação periférica de oxigênio noturna. Não houve diferença no padrão de sono entre os grupos. Houve correlação da relação entre o volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo e a capacidade vital forçada, pressão parcial de oxigênio no sangue arterial e saturação arterial de oxigênio diurnas, e saturação periférica de oxigênio no exercício com os níveis de saturação periférica de oxigênio noturna, porém somente a saturação arterial de oxigênio diurna foi preditora da dessaturação noturna. CONCLUSÃO: A única variável capaz de predizer dessaturação noturna foi a saturação arterial de oxigênio diurna. A dessaturação noturna não influencia o padrão de sono de portadores de doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica com hipoxemia diurna leve.OBJECTIVE: To determine the nocturnal oximetry pattern in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients having no sleep apnea and presenting mild daytime hypoxemia, to identify probable daytime parameters capable of
Ogama, Noriko; Sakurai, Takashi; Shimizu, Atsuya; Toba, Kenji
2014-01-01
Preventive strategy for falls in demented elderly is a clinical challenge. From early-stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD), patients show impaired balance and gait. The purpose of this study is to determine whether regional white matter lesions (WMLs) can predict balance/gait disturbance and falls in elderly with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) or AD. Cross-sectional. Hospital out-patient clinic. One hundred sixty-three patients diagnosed with aMCI or AD were classified into groups having experienced falls (n = 63) or not (n = 100) in the previous year. Cognition, depression, behavior and psychological symptoms of dementia, medication, and balance/gait function were evaluated. Regional WMLs were visually analyzed as periventricular hyperintensity in frontal caps, bands, and occipital caps, and as deep white matter hyperintensity in frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes, basal ganglia, thalamus, and brain stem. Brain atrophy was linearly measured. The fallers had a greater volume of WMLs and their posture/gait performance tended to be worse than nonfallers. Several WMLs in particular brain regions were closely associated with balance and gait impairment. Besides polypharmacy, periventricular hyperintensity in frontal caps and occipital WMLs were strong predictors for falls, even after potential risk factors for falls were considered. Regional white matter burden, independent of cognitive decline, correlates with balance/gait disturbance and predicts falls in elderly with aMCI and AD. Careful insight into regional WMLs on brain magnetic resonance may greatly help to diagnose demented elderly with a higher risk of falls. Copyright © 2014 American Medical Directors Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Theta-Gamma Coupling and Working Memory in Alzheimer’s Dementia and Mild Cognitive Impairment
Michelle S. Goodman
2018-04-01
Full Text Available Working memory deficits are common among individuals with Alzheimer’s dementia (AD or mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Yet, little is known about the mechanisms underlying these deficits. Theta-gamma coupling—the modulation of high-frequency gamma oscillations by low-frequency theta oscillations—is a neurophysiologic process underlying working memory. We assessed the relationship between theta-gamma coupling and working memory deficits in AD and MCI. We hypothesized that: (1 individuals with AD would display the most significant working memory impairments followed by MCI and finally healthy control (HC participants; and (2 there would be a significant association between working memory performance and theta-gamma coupling across all participants. Ninety-eight participants completed the N-back working memory task during an electroencephalography (EEG recording: 33 with AD (mean ± SD age: 76.5 ± 6.2, 34 with MCI (mean ± SD age: 74.8 ± 5.9 and 31 HCs (mean ± SD age: 73.5 ± 5.2. AD participants performed significantly worse than control and MCI participants on the 1- and 2-back conditions. Regarding theta-gamma coupling, AD participants demonstrated the lowest level of coupling followed by the MCI and finally control participants on the 2-back condition. Finally, a linear regression analysis demonstrated that theta-gamma coupling (β = 0.69, p < 0.001 was the most significant predictor of 2-back performance. Our results provide evidence for a relationship between altered theta-gamma coupling and working memory deficits in individuals with AD and MCI. They also provide insight into a potential mechanism underlying working memory impairments in these individuals.
Predictors of Relationship Power among Drug-involved Women
Campbell, Aimee N. C.; Tross, Susan; Hu, Mei-chen; Pavlicova, Martina; Nunes, Edward V.
2012-01-01
Gender-based relationship power is frequently linked to women’s capacity to reduce sexual risk behaviors. This study offers an exploration of predictors of relationship power, as measured by the multidimensional and theoretically grounded Sexual Relationship Power Scale (SRPS), among women in outpatient substance abuse treatment. Linear models were used to test nine predictors (age, race/ethnicity, education, time in treatment, economic dependence, substance use, sexual concurrency, partner a...
Predictor feedback for delay systems implementations and approximations
Karafyllis, Iasson
2017-01-01
This monograph bridges the gap between the nonlinear predictor as a concept and as a practical tool, presenting a complete theory of the application of predictor feedback to time-invariant, uncertain systems with constant input delays and/or measurement delays. It supplies several methods for generating the necessary real-time solutions to the systems’ nonlinear differential equations, which the authors refer to as approximate predictors. Predictor feedback for linear time-invariant (LTI) systems is presented in Part I to provide a solid foundation on the necessary concepts, as LTI systems pose fewer technical difficulties than nonlinear systems. Part II extends all of the concepts to nonlinear time-invariant systems. Finally, Part III explores extensions of predictor feedback to systems described by integral delay equations and to discrete-time systems. The book’s core is the design of control and observer algorithms with which global stabilization, guaranteed in the previous literature with idealized (b...
Mild traumatic brain injury and fatigue: a prospective longitudinal study.
Norrie, Joan; Heitger, Marcus; Leathem, Janet; Anderson, Tim; Jones, Richard; Flett, Ross
2010-01-01
To examine fatigue prevalence, severity, predictors and co-variates over 6 months post-mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). Longitudinal prospective study including 263 adults with MTBI. Participants completed the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), Rivermead Post-concussion Symptoms Questionnaire (RPSQ), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Short Form 36 Health Survey-Version 2 (SF-36v2). Complete data were available for 159 participants. Key measures; prevalence--RPSQ Item 6: severity--FSS. The effect of time on fatigue prevalence and severity was examined using ANOVA. Multiple regression analysis identified statistically significant covariates. Post-MTBI fatigue prevalence was 68%, 38% and 34% at 1 week, 3 and 6 months, respectively. There was a strong effect for time over the first 3 months and moderate-to-high correlations between fatigue prevalence and severity. Early fatigue strongly predicted later fatigue; depression, but not anxiety was a predictor. Fatigue was seen as laziness by family or friends in 30% of cases. Post-MTBI fatigue is a persistent post-concussion symptom, exacerbated by depression but not anxiety. It diminishes in the first 3 months and then becomes relatively stable, suggesting the optimum intervention placement is at 3 months or more post-MTBI.
Predictors of depression stigma
Jorm Anthony F
2008-04-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate and compare the predictors of personal and perceived stigma associated with depression. Method Three samples were surveyed to investigate the predictors: a national sample of 1,001 Australian adults; a local community sample of 5,572 residents of the Australian Capital Territory and Queanbeyan aged 18 to 50 years; and a psychologically distressed subset (n = 487 of the latter sample. Personal and Perceived Stigma were measured using the two subscales of the Depression Stigma Scale. Potential predictors included demographic variables (age, gender, education, country of birth, remoteness of residence, psychological distress, awareness of Australia's national depression initiative beyondblue, depression literacy and level of exposure to depression. Not all predictors were used for all samples. Results Personal stigma was consistently higher among men, those with less education and those born overseas. It was also associated with greater current psychological distress, lower prior contact with depression, not having heard of a national awareness raising initiative, and lower depression literacy. These findings differed from those for perceived stigma except for psychological distress which was associated with both higher personal and higher perceived stigma. Remoteness of residence was not associated with either type of stigma. Conclusion The findings highlight the importance of treating the concepts of personal and perceived stigma separately in designing measures of stigma, in interpreting the pattern of findings in studies of the predictors of stigma, and in designing, interpreting the impact of and disseminating interventions for stigma.
Linearly constrained minimax optimization
Madsen, Kaj; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans
1978-01-01
We present an algorithm for nonlinear minimax optimization subject to linear equality and inequality constraints which requires first order partial derivatives. The algorithm is based on successive linear approximations to the functions defining the problem. The resulting linear subproblems...
A coupled boundary element-finite difference solution of the elliptic modified mild slope equation
Naserizadeh, R.; Bingham, Harry B.; Noorzad, A.
2011-01-01
The modified mild slope equation of [5] is solved using a combination of the boundary element method (BEM) and the finite difference method (FDM). The exterior domain of constant depth and infinite horizontal extent is solved by a BEM using linear or quadratic elements. The interior domain...
Foundations of linear and generalized linear models
Agresti, Alan
2015-01-01
A valuable overview of the most important ideas and results in statistical analysis Written by a highly-experienced author, Foundations of Linear and Generalized Linear Models is a clear and comprehensive guide to the key concepts and results of linear statistical models. The book presents a broad, in-depth overview of the most commonly used statistical models by discussing the theory underlying the models, R software applications, and examples with crafted models to elucidate key ideas and promote practical model building. The book begins by illustrating the fundamentals of linear models,
Diagnostics for Linear Models With Functional Responses
Xu, Hongquan; Shen, Qing
2005-01-01
Linear models where the response is a function and the predictors are vectors are useful in analyzing data from designed experiments and other situations with functional observations. Residual analysis and diagnostics are considered for such models. Studentized residuals are defined and their properties are studied. Chi-square quantile-quantile plots are proposed to check the assumption of Gaussian error process and outliers. Jackknife residuals and an associated test are proposed to det...
Transitions to mild cognitive impairments, dementia, and death: findings from the Nun Study.
Tyas, Suzanne L; Salazar, Juan Carlos; Snowdon, David A; Desrosiers, Mark F; Riley, Kathryn P; Mendiondo, Marta S; Kryscio, Richard J
2007-06-01
The potential of early interventions for dementia has increased interest in cognitive impairments less severe than dementia. However, predictors of the trajectory from intact cognition to dementia have not yet been clearly identified. The purpose of this study was to determine whether known risk factors for dementia increased the risk of mild cognitive impairments or progression from mild cognitive impairments to dementia. A polytomous logistic regression model was used, with parameters governing transitions within transient states (intact cognition, mild cognitive impairments, global impairment) estimated separately from parameters governing the transition from transient to absorbing state (dementia or death). Analyses were based on seven annual examinations (1991-2002) of 470 Nun Study participants aged > or = 75 years at baseline and living in the United States. Odds of developing dementia increased with age primarily for those with low educational levels. In these women, presence of an apolipoprotein E gene *E4 allele increased the odds more than fourfold by age 95 years. Age, education, and the apolipoprotein E gene were all significantly associated with mild cognitive impairments. Only age, however, was associated with progression to dementia. Thus, risk factors for dementia may operate primarily by predisposing individuals to develop mild cognitive impairments; subsequent progression to dementia then depends on only time and competing mortality.
Mok, W K; Ling, T K
2016-08-01
The aim of this study was to predict the fruit and vegetable consumption intention of students with mild intellectual disability in Hong Kong by the application of Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behaviour. 50 students with mild intellectual disability (30 male and 20 female), ranging in age from 15 to 38 years, were participated in this study. By means of face-to-face interviews, demographic data, Food Preference and variables of Theory of Planned Behaviour, such as Attitude, Subjective Norm and Perceived Behavioural Control were measured. 20%, 28% and 10% students with mild intellectual disability were rated to be overweight, obese and severely obese respectively. The rest of 10% were classified to be underweight. Regarding the daily intake of fruit and vegetable, 96% students with mild intellectual disability failed to consume sufficient amount. The variables of Theory of Planned Behaviour explained 47.7% of fruit and vegetable consumption intention with significant factors of Attitude, Subjective Norm and Perceived Behavioural Control. Food Preference was found to be a useful construct and further improve the prediction by about 7% after incorporating into the model. Results of this study indicated that Theory of Planned Behaviour is a useful model to predict dietary intention of students with mild intellectual disability in Hong Kong. Food Preference was a significant predictor to model the intention of fruit and vegetable consumption among students other than Attitude, Subjective Norm and Perceived Behavioural Control.
[Definition and clinical characteristics of mild hypertension].
Saruta, Takao
2008-08-01
Mild hypertension is defined as blood pressure level of 140-159 mmHg systolic and/or 90-99 mmHg diastolic. The patients with blood pressure level of mild hypertension occupy about 60% of total hypertensive patients in Japan, and most of them are free of subjective symptoms except elevated blood pressure. However, some of the patients with mild hypertension develop cardiovascular events, since thay have occasionally cardiovascular damages on this level of blood pressure and several risk factors of cardiovascular diseases such as diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia.
Correlations and Non-Linear Probability Models
Breen, Richard; Holm, Anders; Karlson, Kristian Bernt
2014-01-01
the dependent variable of the latent variable model and its predictor variables. We show how this correlation can be derived from the parameters of non-linear probability models, develop tests for the statistical significance of the derived correlation, and illustrate its usefulness in two applications. Under......Although the parameters of logit and probit and other non-linear probability models are often explained and interpreted in relation to the regression coefficients of an underlying linear latent variable model, we argue that they may also be usefully interpreted in terms of the correlations between...... certain circumstances, which we explain, the derived correlation provides a way of overcoming the problems inherent in cross-sample comparisons of the parameters of non-linear probability models....
Mild troponin I elevation does not predict ischemia on myocardial perfusion imaging
Le Dung Ha
2017-08-01
Full Text Available IntroductionData are limited on the degree of mild troponin I elevation and clinical risk factors in predicting myocardial ischemia.MethodsHospitalized adult patients who underwent myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI from 2015 to 2016 at Rochester General Hospital and had mild troponin I elevation (>0.1 and <1.5 ng/mL were included. Predictors of outcomes were determined using logistic regression model.ResultsOne hundred and sixty-six patients with mild troponin I elevation who underwent MPI were followed. Mean age was 69.6 ± 12.5 years and 53.0% of the patients were female. Fourteen patients (8.4% presented with typical chest pain (CP, 60 patients (36.1% had atypical CP and 92 patients (55.4% had no CP on presentation. MPI was positive for ischemia in 45 patients (27.1%. There was no difference in peak troponin I level with ischemia versus no ischemia on MPI (0.34 ng/dL [0.13-0.69] vs. 0.23 ng/dL [0.14-0.50], p value 0.254. Atypical CP did not predict the presence of ischemia on MPI (odds ratio [OR] 1.97, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.91-4.26. Coronary artery disease (CAD history (age and sex adjusted p value 0.013, diabetes (adjusted p value 0.036, creatinine ≥2 mg/dL (adjusted p value 0.019 and dialysis (adjusted p value 0.006 were statistically significant predictors of ischemia on MPI.ConclusionsIn patients presenting with mild troponin I elevation, peak troponin I level did not predict ischemia on MPI. The presence of CAD history, diabetes, elevated creatinine and dialysis were predictors of ischemia on MPI.
Probable mild Opitz trigonocephaly C syndrome
Rabah M. Shawky
2011-12-11
Dec 11, 2011 ... brachycephaly shape to the skull, hypoplastic scrotum and bilateral undescended testes, and mild generalised ... It may occur isolated or syndromic involving other abnor- ..... [12] Sargent C, Burn J, Baraitser M, Pembrey ME.
Postpartum Depression After Mild and Severe Preeclampsia
Hoedjes, Meeke; Berks, Durk; Vogel, Ineke; Franx, Arie; Bangma, Meike; Darlington, Anne-Sophie E.; Visser, Willy; Duvekot, Johannes J.; Habbema, J. Dik F.; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Raat, Hein
2011-01-01
Objective: To describe the prevalence of postpartum depressive symptoms after preeclampsia, to assess the extent to which the prevalence of postpartum depressive symptoms differs after mild and severe preeclampsia, and to investigate which factors contribute to such differences. Methods: Women
Thermophysiological adaptations to passive mild heat acclimation
Pallubinsky, H; Schellen, L; Kingma, B R M; Dautzenberg, B; van Baak, M A; van Marken Lichtenbelt, W D
Passive mild heat acclimation (PMHA) reflects realistic temperature challenges encountered in everyday life. Active heat acclimation, combining heat exposure and exercise, influences several important thermophysiological parameters; for example, it decreases core temperature and enhances heat
Mild TBI Diagnosis and Management Strategies
Department of Veterans Affairs — The Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) Diagnosis and Management Strategies will assist in the study of TBI issues, such as the Influence of Concussion on Persistent...
Exploratory regression analysis: a tool for selecting models and determining predictor importance.
Braun, Michael T; Oswald, Frederick L
2011-06-01
Linear regression analysis is one of the most important tools in a researcher's toolbox for creating and testing predictive models. Although linear regression analysis indicates how strongly a set of predictor variables, taken together, will predict a relevant criterion (i.e., the multiple R), the analysis cannot indicate which predictors are the most important. Although there is no definitive or unambiguous method for establishing predictor variable importance, there are several accepted methods. This article reviews those methods for establishing predictor importance and provides a program (in Excel) for implementing them (available for direct download at http://dl.dropbox.com/u/2480715/ERA.xlsm?dl=1) . The program investigates all 2(p) - 1 submodels and produces several indices of predictor importance. This exploratory approach to linear regression, similar to other exploratory data analysis techniques, has the potential to yield both theoretical and practical benefits.
Predictors of Outcome in Ulcerative Colitis.
Waterman, Matti; Knight, Jo; Dinani, Amreen; Xu, Wei; Stempak, Joanne M; Croitoru, Kenneth; Nguyen, Geoffrey C; Cohen, Zane; McLeod, Robin S; Greenberg, Gordon R; Steinhart, A Hillary; Silverberg, Mark S
2015-09-01
Approximately 80% of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) have intermittently active disease and up to 20% will require a colectomy, but little data available on predictors of poor disease course. The aim of this study was to identify clinical and genetic markers that can predict prognosis. Medical records of patients with UC with ≥5 years of follow-up and available DNA and serum were retrospectively assessed. Immunochip was used to genotype loci associated with immune mediated inflammatory disorders (IMIDs), inflammatory bowel diseases, and other single nucleotide polypmorphisms previously associated with disease severity. Serum levels of pANCA, ASCA, CBir1, and OmpC were also evaluated. Requirement for colectomy, medication, and hospitalization were used to group patients into 3 prognostic groups. Six hundred one patients with UC were classified as mild (n = 78), moderate (n = 273), or severe disease (n = 250). Proximal disease location frequencies at diagnosis were 13%, 21%, and 30% for mild, moderate, and severe UC, respectively (P = 0.001). Disease severity was associated with greater proximal extension rates on follow-up (P 40 and proximal disease location were associated with severe UC (odds ratios = 1.94 and 2.12, respectively). None of the single nucleotide polypmorphisms or serum markers tested was associated with severe UC, proximal disease extension or colectomy. Older age and proximal disease location at diagnosis, but not genetic and serum markers, were associated with a more severe course. Further work is required to identify biomarkers that will predict outcomes in UC.
Existence and uniqueness of mild and classical solutions of impulsive evolution equations
Annamalai Anguraj
2005-10-01
Full Text Available We consider the non-linear impulsive evolution equation $$displaylines{ u'(t=Au(t+f(t,u(t,Tu(t,Su(t, quad 0
Gender and distance influence performance predictors in young swimmers
Paulo Victor Mezzaroba
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Predictors of performance in adult swimmers are constantly changing during youth especially because the training routine begins even before puberty in the modality. Therefore this study aimed to determine the group of parameters that best predict short and middle swimming distance performances of young swimmers of both genders. Thirty-three 10-to 16-years-old male and female competitive swimmers participated in the study. Multiple linear regression (MLR was used considering mean speed of maximum 100, 200 and 400 m efforts as dependent variables, and five parameters groups as possible predictors (anthropometry, body composition, physiological and biomechanical parameters, chronological age/pubic hair. The main results revealed explanatory powers of almost 100% for both genders and all performances, but with different predictors entered in MLR models of each parameter group or all variables. Thus, there are considerable differences in short and middle swimming distance, and males and females predictors that should be considered in training programs.
Predictors of nurses' experience of verbal abuse by nurse colleagues.
Keller, Ronald; Krainovich-Miller, Barbara; Budin, Wendy; Djukic, Maja
Between 45% and 94% of registered nurses (RNs) experience verbal abuse, which is associated with physical and psychological harm. Although several studies examined predictors of RNs' verbal abuse, none examined predictors of RNs' experiences of verbal abuse by RN colleagues. To examine individual, workplace, dispositional, contextual, and interpersonal predictors of RNs' reported experiences of verbal abuse from RN colleagues. In this secondary analysis, a cross-sectional design with multiple linear regression analysis was used to examine the effect of 23 predictors on verbal abuse by RN colleagues in a sample of 1,208 early career RNs. Selected variables in the empirical intragroup conflict model explained 23.8% of variance in RNs' experiences of verbal abuse by RN colleagues. A number of previously unstudied factors were identified that organizational leaders can monitor and develop or modify policies to prevent early career RNs' experiences of verbal abuse by RN colleagues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Predictors of relationship power among drug-involved women.
Campbell, Aimee N C; Tross, Susan; Hu, Mei-chen; Pavlicova, Martina; Nunes, Edward V
2012-08-01
Gender-based relationship power is frequently linked to women's capacity to reduce sexual risk behaviors. This study offers an exploration of predictors of relationship power, as measured by the multidimensional and theoretically grounded sexual relationship power scale, among women in outpatient substance abuse treatment. Linear models were used to test nine predictors (age, race/ethnicity, education, time in treatment, economic dependence, substance use, sexual concurrency, partner abuse, and sex role orientation) of relationship power among 513 women participating in a multi-site HIV risk reduction intervention study. Significant predictors of relationship control included having a non-abusive male partner, only one male partner, and endorsing traditional masculine (or both masculine and feminine) sex role attributes. Predictors of decision-making dominance were interrelated, with substance use × partner abuse and age × sex role orientation interactions. Results contribute to the understanding of factors which may influence relationship power and to their potential role in HIV sexual risk reduction interventions.
PCX, Interior-Point Linear Programming Solver
Czyzyk, J.
2004-01-01
1 - Description of program or function: PCX solves linear programming problems using the Mehrota predictor-corrector interior-point algorithm. PCX can be called as a subroutine or used in stand-alone mode, with data supplied from an MPS file. The software incorporates modules that can be used separately from the linear programming solver, including a pre-solve routine and data structure definitions. 2 - Methods: The Mehrota predictor-corrector method is a primal-dual interior-point method for linear programming. The starting point is determined from a modified least squares heuristic. Linear systems of equations are solved at each interior-point iteration via a sparse Cholesky algorithm native to the code. A pre-solver is incorporated in the code to eliminate inefficiencies in the user's formulation of the problem. 3 - Restriction on the complexity of the problem: There are no size limitations built into the program. The size of problem solved is limited by RAM and swap space on the user's computer
Predictors of weight maintenance
Pasman, W.J.; Saris, W.H.M.; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S.
1999-01-01
Objective: To obtain predictors of weight maintenance after a weight-loss intervention. Research Methods and Procedures: An overall analysis of data from two-long intervention studies [n = 67 women; age: 37.9±1.0 years; body weight (BW): 87.0±1.2 kg; body mass index: 32.1±0.5 kg·m-2; % body fat:
Predictors of Adolescent Breakfast Consumption: Longitudinal Findings from Project EAT
Bruening, Meg; Larson, Nicole; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Hannan, Peter
2011-01-01
Objective: To identify predictors of breakfast consumption among adolescents. Methods: Five-year longitudinal study Project EAT (Eating Among Teens). Baseline surveys were completed in Minneapolis-St. Paul schools and by mail at follow-up by youth (n = 800) transitioning from middle to high school. Linear regression models examined associations…
Epistemological Predictors of Prospective Biology Teachers' Nature of Science Understandings
Köseoglu, Pinar; Köksal, Mustafa Serdar
2015-01-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate epistemological predictors of nature of science understandings of 281 prospective biology teachers surveyed using the Epistemological Beliefs Scale Regarding Science and the Nature of Science Scale. The findings on multiple linear regression showed that understandings about definition of science and…
Tuey, R. C.
1972-01-01
Computer solutions of linear programming problems are outlined. Information covers vector spaces, convex sets, and matrix algebra elements for solving simultaneous linear equations. Dual problems, reduced cost analysis, ranges, and error analysis are illustrated.
Peterson, David; Stofleth, Jerome H.; Saul, Venner W.
2017-07-11
Linear shaped charges are described herein. In a general embodiment, the linear shaped charge has an explosive with an elongated arrowhead-shaped profile. The linear shaped charge also has and an elongated v-shaped liner that is inset into a recess of the explosive. Another linear shaped charge includes an explosive that is shaped as a star-shaped prism. Liners are inset into crevices of the explosive, where the explosive acts as a tamper.
Classifying Linear Canonical Relations
Lorand, Jonathan
2015-01-01
In this Master's thesis, we consider the problem of classifying, up to conjugation by linear symplectomorphisms, linear canonical relations (lagrangian correspondences) from a finite-dimensional symplectic vector space to itself. We give an elementary introduction to the theory of linear canonical relations and present partial results toward the classification problem. This exposition should be accessible to undergraduate students with a basic familiarity with linear algebra.
Mild Primary Hyperparathyroidism: A Literature Review
Applewhite, Megan K.
2014-01-01
The biochemical profile of classic primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) consists of both elevated calcium and parathyroid hormone levels. The standard of care is parathyroidectomy unless prohibited by medical comorbidities. Because more patients are undergoing routine bone density evaluation and neck imaging studies for other purposes, there is a subset of people identified with a biochemically mild form of the pHPT that expresses itself as either elevated calcium or parathyroid hormone levels. These patients often do not fall into the criteria for operation based on the National Institutes of Health consensus guidelines, and they can present a challenge of diagnosis and management. The purpose of this paper is to review the available literature on mild pHPT in an effort to better characterize this patient population and to determine whether patients benefit from parathyroidectomy. Evidence suggests that there are patients with mild pHPT who have overt symptoms that are found to improve after parathyroidectomy. There is also a group of patients with biochemically mild pHPT who are found to progress to classic pHPT over time; however, it is not predictable which group of patients this will be. Early intervention for this group with mild pHPT may prevent progression of bone, psychiatric, and renal complications, and parathyroidectomy has proven safe in appropriately selected patients at high volume centers. PMID:25063228
Lawson, C. L.; Krogh, F. T.; Gold, S. S.; Kincaid, D. R.; Sullivan, J.; Williams, E.; Hanson, R. J.; Haskell, K.; Dongarra, J.; Moler, C. B.
1982-01-01
The Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS) library is a collection of 38 FORTRAN-callable routines for performing basic operations of numerical linear algebra. BLAS library is portable and efficient source of basic operations for designers of programs involving linear algebriac computations. BLAS library is supplied in portable FORTRAN and Assembler code versions for IBM 370, UNIVAC 1100 and CDC 6000 series computers.
Morita, Tomoya; Nakamura, Kensuke; Osuga, Tatsuyuki; Yokoyama, Nozomu; Morishita, Keitaro; Sasaki, Noboru; Ohta, Hiroshi; Takiguchi, Mitsuyoshi
2017-07-01
The assessment of hemodynamic change by echocardiography is clinically useful in patients with pulmonary hypertension. Recently, mild elevation of the mean pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) has been shown to be associated with increased mortality. However, changes in the echocardiographic indices of right ventricular (RV) function are still unknown. The objective of this study was to validate the relationship between echocardiographic indices of RV function and right heart catheterization variables under a mild RV pressure overload condition. Echocardiography and right heart catheterization were performed in dog models of mild RV pressure overload induced by thromboxane A 2 analog (U46619) (n=7). The mean PAP was mildly increased (19.3±1.1 mm Hg), and the cardiac index was decreased. Most echocardiographic indices of RV function were significantly impaired even under a mild RV pressure overload condition. Multivariate analysis revealed that the RV free wall longitudinal strain (RVLS), standard deviation of the time-to-peak longitudinal strain of RV six segments (RV-SD) by speckle-tracking echocardiography, and Tei index were independent echocardiographic predictors of the mean PAP (free wall RVLS, β=-0.60, P<.001; RV-SD, β=0.40, P=.011), pulmonary vascular resistance (free wall RVLS, β=-0.39, P=.020; RV-SD, β=0.47, P=.0086; Tei index, β=0.34, P=.047), and cardiac index (Tei index, β=-0.65, P<.001). Free wall RVLS, RV-SD, and Tei index are useful for assessing the hemodynamic change under a mild RV pressure overload condition. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Rapoport, Mark J; Naglie, Gary; Herrmann, Nathan; Zucchero Sarracini, Carla; Mulsant, Benoit H; Frank, Christopher; Kiss, Alex; Seitz, Dallas; Vrkljan, Brenda; Masellis, Mario; Tang-Wai, David; Pimlott, Nicholas; Molnar, Frank
2014-12-01
To establish consensus among dementia experts about which patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or mild dementia should be reported to transportation authorities. We conducted a literature review of predictors of driving safety in patients with dementia and combined these into 26 case scenarios. Using a modified Delphi technique, case scenarios were reviewed by 38 dementia experts (geriatric psychiatrists, geriatricians, cognitive neurologists and family physicians with expertise in elder care) who indicated whether or not they would report the patient in each scenario to regional transportation authorities and recommend a specialized on-road driving test. Scenarios were presented up to five times to achieve consensus, defined as 85% agreement, and discrepancies were discussed anonymously online. By the end of the fifth iteration, there was cumulative consensus on 18 scenarios (69%). The strongest predictors of decision to report were the combination of caregiver concern about the patient's driving and abnormal Clock Drawing Test, which accounted for 62% of the variance in decision to report at the same time as or without a road test (p driving safety is uncertain for patients with MCI and emphasizes the importance of assessing executive dysfunction and caregiver concern about driving. Copyright © 2014 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Effect of Pain and Mild Cognitive Impairment on Mobility.
Schepker, Caroline A; Leveille, Suzanne G; Pedersen, Mette M; Ward, Rachel E; Kurlinski, Laura A; Grande, Laura; Kiely, Dan K; Bean, Jonathan F
2016-01-01
To examine the effect of pain and mild cognitive impairment (MCI)-together and separately-on performance-based and self-reported mobility outcomes in older adults in primary care with mild to moderate self-reported mobility limitations. Cross-sectional analysis. Academic community outpatient clinic. Individuals aged 65 and older in primary care enrolled in the Boston Rehabilitative Impairment Study in the Elderly who were at risk of mobility decline (N=430). Participants with an average score greater than three on the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) were defined as having pain. MCI was defined using age-adjusted scores on a neuropsychological battery. Multivariable linear regression models assessed associations between pain and MCI, together and separately, and mobility performance (habitual gait speed, Short Physical Performance Battery), and self-reports of function and disability in various day-to-day activities (Late Life Function and Disability Instrument). The prevalence of pain was 34% and of MCI was 42%; 17% had pain only, 25% had MCI only, 17% had pain and MCI, and 41% had neither. Participants with pain and MCI performed significantly worse than all others on all mobility outcomes (Pmobility outcomes than those with neither (Pmobility, and the presence of both comorbidities was associated with the poorest status. Primary care practitioners who encounter older adults in need of mobility rehabilitation should consider screening them for pain and MCI to better inform subsequent therapeutic interventions. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.
Stability of cognitive performance in children with mild intellectual disability.
Jenni, Oskar G; Fintelmann, Sylvia; Caflisch, Jon; Latal, Beatrice; Rousson, Valentin; Chaouch, Aziz
2015-05-01
Longitudinal studies that have examined cognitive performance in children with intellectual disability more than twice over the course of their development are scarce. We assessed population and individual stability of cognitive performance in a clinical sample of children with borderline to mild non-syndromic intellectual disability. Thirty-six children (28 males, eight females; age range 3-19y) with borderline to mild intellectual disability (Full-scale IQ [FSIQ] 50-85) of unknown origin were examined in a retrospective clinical case series using linear mixed models including at least three assessments with standardized intelligence tests. Average cognitive performance remained remarkably stable over time (high population stability, drop of only 0.38 IQ points per year, standard error=0.39, p=0.325) whereas individual stability was at best moderate (intraclass correlation of 0.58), indicating that about 60% of the residual variation in FSIQ scores can be attributed to between-child variability. Neither sex nor socio-economic status had a statistically significant impact on FSIQ. Although intellectual disability during childhood is a relatively stable phenomenon, individual stability of IQ is only moderate, likely to be caused by test-to-test reliability (e.g. level of child's cooperation, motivation, and attention). Therefore, clinical decisions and predictions should not rely on single IQ assessments, but should also consider adaptive functioning and previous developmental history. © 2014 Mac Keith Press.
Dependence and caregiver burden in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment.
Gallagher, Damien
2011-03-01
The dependence scale has been designed to be sensitive to the overall care needs of the patient and is considered distinct from standard measures of functional ability in this regard. Little is known regarding the relationship between patient dependence and caregiver burden. We recruited 100 patients with Alzheimer\\'s disease or mild cognitive impairment and their caregivers through a memory clinic. Patient function, dependence, hours of care, cognition, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and caregiver burden were assessed. Dependence was significantly correlated with caregiver burden. Functional decline and dependence were most predictive of caregiver burden in patients with mild impairment while behavioral symptoms were most predictive in patients with moderate to severe disease. The dependence scale demonstrated good utility as a predictor of caregiver burden. Interventions to reduce caregiver burden should address patient dependence, functional decline, and behavioral symptoms while successful management of the latter becomes more critical with disease progression.
Continuous selections of set of mild solutions of evolution inclusions
Annamalai Anguraj
2005-02-01
Full Text Available We prove the existence of continuous selections of the set valued map $xio mathcal{S}(xi$ where $mathcal{S}(xi$ is the set of all mild solutions of the evolution inclusions of the form $$displaylines{ dot{x}(t in A(tx(t+int_0^tK(t,sF(s,x(sds cr x(0=xi ,quad tin I=[0,T], }$$ where $F$ is a lower semi continuous set valued map Lipchitzean with respect to $x$ in a separable Banach space $X$, $A$ is the infinitesimal generator of a $C_0$-semi group of bounded linear operators from $X$ to $X$, and $K(t,s$ is a continuous real valued function defined on $Iimes I$ with $tgeq s$ for all $t,sin I$ and $xi in X$.
Neuropsychological function following mild exposure to pentaborane
Hart, R.P.; Silverman, J.J.; Garrettson, L.K.; Schulz, C.; Hamer, R.M.
1984-01-01
Neuropsychological tests and self-report personality inventories were administered to 14 workers and rescue squad personnel approximately 2 months following mild exposure to pentaborane, a highly toxic volatile liquid boron hydride. Performance decrements were evident on 5 of 11 neuropsychological tests, including Block Design and measures of sustained attention and recent memory. Neuropsychological deficits were not related to emotional changes reported on the Hopkins Symptom Checklist nor to the presence of CT scan abnormality. These results indicate mild residual brain dysfunction following pentaborane intoxication, including possible dysfunction in subcortical regions mediating memory processes and in cortical areas mediating visuo-spatial abilities
Predictors and Outcomes of Dysphagia Screening After Acute Ischemic Stroke.
Joundi, Raed A; Martino, Rosemary; Saposnik, Gustavo; Giannakeas, Vasily; Fang, Jiming; Kapral, Moira K
2017-04-01
Guidelines advocate screening all acute stroke patients for dysphagia. However, limited data are available regarding how many and which patients are screened and how failing a swallowing screen affects patient outcomes. We sought to evaluate predictors of receiving dysphagia screening after acute ischemic stroke and outcomes after failing a screening test. We used the Ontario Stroke Registry from April 1, 2010, to March 31, 2013, to identify patients hospitalized with acute ischemic stroke and determine predictors of documented dysphagia screening and outcomes after failing the screening test, including pneumonia, disability, and death. Among 7171 patients, 6677 patients were eligible to receive dysphagia screening within 72 hours, yet 1280 (19.2%) patients did not undergo documented screening. Patients with mild strokes were significantly less likely than those with more severe strokes to have documented screening (adjusted odds ratio, 0.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.41-0.64). Failing dysphagia screening was associated with poor outcomes, including pneumonia (adjusted odds ratio, 4.71; 95% CI, 3.43-6.47), severe disability (adjusted odds ratio, 5.19; 95% CI, 4.48-6.02), discharge to long-term care (adjusted odds ratio, 2.79; 95% CI, 2.11-3.79), and 1-year mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.42; 95% CI, 2.09-2.80). Associations were maintained in patients with mild strokes. One in 5 patients with acute ischemic stroke did not have documented dysphagia screening, and patients with mild strokes were substantially less likely to have documented screening. Failing dysphagia screening was associated with poor outcomes, including in patients with mild strokes, highlighting the importance of dysphagia screening for all patients with acute ischemic stroke. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Non linear system become linear system
Petre Bucur
2007-01-01
Full Text Available The present paper refers to the theory and the practice of the systems regarding non-linear systems and their applications. We aimed the integration of these systems to elaborate their response as well as to highlight some outstanding features.
Linear motor coil assembly and linear motor
2009-01-01
An ironless linear motor (5) comprising a magnet track (53) and a coil assembly (50) operating in cooperation with said magnet track (53) and having a plurality of concentrated multi-turn coils (31 a-f, 41 a-d, 51 a-k), wherein the end windings (31E) of the coils (31 a-f, 41 a-e) are substantially
A feasible DY conjugate gradient method for linear equality constraints
LI, Can
2017-09-01
In this paper, we propose a feasible conjugate gradient method for solving linear equality constrained optimization problem. The method is an extension of the Dai-Yuan conjugate gradient method proposed by Dai and Yuan to linear equality constrained optimization problem. It can be applied to solve large linear equality constrained problem due to lower storage requirement. An attractive property of the method is that the generated direction is always feasible and descent direction. Under mild conditions, the global convergence of the proposed method with exact line search is established. Numerical experiments are also given which show the efficiency of the method.
Jonas Jardim de Paula
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Cognitive functioning play an important role in the performance of activities of daily living (ADL. Although and association between this two measures are usually reported in neuropsychological studies, the results are inconsistent, especially in what aspects cognitive functioning are more or less related to each functional aspect. In addition, only a few studies investigated if depressive symptoms are associated with worse functional performance in older adults. Our objective is to investigate the role of different cognitive functions and the depressive symptoms in the performance of different groups of ADL and each activity individually. We assessed 264 older adults (96 normal aging controls, 85 patients diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment and 93 with mild probable Alzheimer’s disease dementia with low formal education (about 4 years. We used measures of ADL with different levels of complexity: Selfcare, Instrumental-Domestic and Instrumental Complex, along with composite factors of cognitive functions and the score of the Geriatric Depression Scale. Multiple linear regression analysis showed significant predictors of Instrumental-Domestic ADL (executive functions and episodic memory and Instrumental-Complex ADL (executive functions, episodic memory and language/semantic memory, with large effect sizes (22 and 28% of explained variance. Individual analysis of each Instrumental ADL shows a heterogeneous pattern of association with different cognitive factors and depressive symptoms, with effect sizes ranging from 22 to 38% of explained variance. Our results suggest that specific measures of ADL have different cognitive predictors and that depressive symptoms are associated with activities more dependent on social contact.
Do we over treat mild hypertension?
Zanchetti, Alberto
2015-06-01
The important question whether 'mild' hypertension should or should not be treated by drugs is difficult to answer, because the only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating this question were conducted when the definition of 'mild' hypertension was based on diastolic blood pressure only, whereas the present definition of grade 1 hypertension includes both systolic and diastolic values (SBP/DBP), and the concept of 'mild' hypertension also includes that of low-moderate cardiovascular risk (hypertension only on the basis of expert opinion. However, recent meta-analyses have provided some support to drug treatment intervention in low-moderate risk grade 1 hypertensives and have shown that, when treatment is deferred until organ damage or cardiovascular disease occur, absolute residual risk (events occurring despite treatment) markedly increases. Although evidence favoring therapeutic intervention in mild hypertension is nowadays stronger than expert opinion, meta-analyses are not substitutes for specific RCTs, and the wide BP spans defining grade 1 hypertension as well as the span defining low-moderate risk leave a wide space for individualized or personalized decisions.
The association between asymptomatic and mild neurocognitive ...
2018-04-12
Apr 12, 2018 ... antiretroviral therapy among people living with human .... larger than 0.05.26 This is as shown below: = +. −. 1. 1 ..... HAND in general, and did not focus on the mild forms of .... Poster exhibition: Sydney – IAS 2007: Abstract no.
Mission Connect Mild TBI Translational Research Consortium
2013-08-01
and covered with dental acrylic . Isoflurane was discontinued; rats were connected to the trauma device and subjected to a mild 1.0-atm fluid-percussion...thought to play roles in the regulation of extracellular concentrations of water, potassium and other ions, and glutamate and other transmitters and
Learning Strategies for Adolescents with Mild Disabilities
Conderman, Greg; Koman, Kara; Schibelka, Mary; Higgin, Karen; Cooper, Cody; Butler, Jordyn
2013-01-01
Learning strategy instruction is an evidence-based practice for teaching adolescents with mild disabilities. However, researchers have not developed strategies for every content area or skill. Therefore, teachers need to be able develop strategies based on the needs of their students. This article reviews the process for developing and teaching…
Mild disintegration of green microalgae and macroalgae
Postma, Richard
2016-01-01
An increased worldwide protein demand for food and feed and the necessity to release the water soluble proteins in the first stage of the cascade biorefinery require the development of mild protein extraction technologies. Cell disintegration is the first hurdle and is considered as one of the
Reducing Truancy in Students with Mild Handicaps.
Hess, Albert M.; And Others
1990-01-01
Contingency contracting and group counseling were provided to 26 mildly to moderately handicapped middle school students with high rates of truancy. Subjects exhibited attendance gains after treatment; gains were not maintained at followup but attendance rates were still higher than the rates of control students. Measures of academic performance…
SHORT COMMUNICATION CONVENIENT AND MILD SYNTHESIS ...
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*Corresponding author. E-mail: naeimi@kashanu.ac.ir. SHORT COMMUNICATION. CONVENIENT AND MILD SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERISATION OF. SOME NEW SCHIFF BASES. Hossein Naeimi* and Zahra Sadat Nazifi. Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Kashan,. Kashan, 87317 ...
Facebook Addiction: Onset Predictors.
Biolcati, Roberta; Mancini, Giacomo; Pupi, Virginia; Mugheddu, Valeria
2018-05-23
Worldwide, Facebook is becoming increasingly widespread as a communication platform. Young people especially use this social networking site daily to maintain and establish relationships. Despite the Facebook expansion in the last few years and the widespread acceptance of this social network, research into Facebook Addiction (FA) is still in its infancy. Hence, the potential predictors of Facebook overuse represent an important matter for investigation. This study aimed to deepen the understanding of the relationship between personality traits, social and emotional loneliness, life satisfaction, and Facebook addiction. A total of 755 participants (80.3% female; n = 606) aged between 18 and 40 (mean = 25.17; SD = 4.18) completed the questionnaire packet including the Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale, the Big Five, the short version of Social and Emotional Loneliness Scale for Adults, and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. A regression analysis was used with personality traits, social, family, romantic loneliness, and life satisfaction as independent variables to explain variance in Facebook addiction. The findings showed that Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Neuroticism, and Loneliness (Social, Family, and Romantic) were strong significant predictors of FA. Age, Openness, Agreeableness, and Life Satisfaction, although FA-related variables, were not significant in predicting Facebook overuse. The risk profile of this peculiar behavioral addiction is also discussed.
Wiedemann, H.
1981-11-01
Since no linear colliders have been built yet it is difficult to know at what energy the linear cost scaling of linear colliders drops below the quadratic scaling of storage rings. There is, however, no doubt that a linear collider facility for a center of mass energy above say 500 GeV is significantly cheaper than an equivalent storage ring. In order to make the linear collider principle feasible at very high energies a number of problems have to be solved. There are two kinds of problems: one which is related to the feasibility of the principle and the other kind of problems is associated with minimizing the cost of constructing and operating such a facility. This lecture series describes the problems and possible solutions. Since the real test of a principle requires the construction of a prototype I will in the last chapter describe the SLC project at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center.
Blyth, T S
2002-01-01
Basic Linear Algebra is a text for first year students leading from concrete examples to abstract theorems, via tutorial-type exercises. More exercises (of the kind a student may expect in examination papers) are grouped at the end of each section. The book covers the most important basics of any first course on linear algebra, explaining the algebra of matrices with applications to analytic geometry, systems of linear equations, difference equations and complex numbers. Linear equations are treated via Hermite normal forms which provides a successful and concrete explanation of the notion of linear independence. Another important highlight is the connection between linear mappings and matrices leading to the change of basis theorem which opens the door to the notion of similarity. This new and revised edition features additional exercises and coverage of Cramer's rule (omitted from the first edition). However, it is the new, extra chapter on computer assistance that will be of particular interest to readers:...
Wiedemann, H.
1981-11-01
Since no linear colliders have been built yet it is difficult to know at what energy the linear cost scaling of linear colliders drops below the quadratic scaling of storage rings. There is, however, no doubt that a linear collider facility for a center of mass energy above say 500 GeV is significantly cheaper than an equivalent storage ring. In order to make the linear collider principle feasible at very high energies a number of problems have to be solved. There are two kinds of problems: one which is related to the feasibility of the principle and the other kind of problems is associated with minimizing the cost of constructing and operating such a facility. This lecture series describes the problems and possible solutions. Since the real test of a principle requires the construction of a prototype I will in the last chapter describe the SLC project at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center
Matrices and linear transformations
Cullen, Charles G
1990-01-01
""Comprehensive . . . an excellent introduction to the subject."" - Electronic Engineer's Design Magazine.This introductory textbook, aimed at sophomore- and junior-level undergraduates in mathematics, engineering, and the physical sciences, offers a smooth, in-depth treatment of linear algebra and matrix theory. The major objects of study are matrices over an arbitrary field. Contents include Matrices and Linear Systems; Vector Spaces; Determinants; Linear Transformations; Similarity: Part I and Part II; Polynomials and Polynomial Matrices; Matrix Analysis; and Numerical Methods. The first
Efficient Non Linear Loudspeakers
Petersen, Bo R.; Agerkvist, Finn T.
2006-01-01
Loudspeakers have traditionally been designed to be as linear as possible. However, as techniques for compensating non linearities are emerging, it becomes possible to use other design criteria. This paper present and examines a new idea for improving the efficiency of loudspeakers at high levels...... by changing the voice coil layout. This deliberate non-linear design has the benefit that a smaller amplifier can be used, which has the benefit of reducing system cost as well as reducing power consumption....
Carr, Joseph
1996-01-01
The linear IC market is large and growing, as is the demand for well trained technicians and engineers who understand how these devices work and how to apply them. Linear Integrated Circuits provides in-depth coverage of the devices and their operation, but not at the expense of practical applications in which linear devices figure prominently. This book is written for a wide readership from FE and first degree students, to hobbyists and professionals.Chapter 1 offers a general introduction that will provide students with the foundations of linear IC technology. From chapter 2 onwa
Fault tolerant linear actuator
Tesar, Delbert
2004-09-14
In varying embodiments, the fault tolerant linear actuator of the present invention is a new and improved linear actuator with fault tolerance and positional control that may incorporate velocity summing, force summing, or a combination of the two. In one embodiment, the invention offers a velocity summing arrangement with a differential gear between two prime movers driving a cage, which then drives a linear spindle screw transmission. Other embodiments feature two prime movers driving separate linear spindle screw transmissions, one internal and one external, in a totally concentric and compact integrated module.
Superconducting linear accelerator cryostat
Ben-Zvi, I.; Elkonin, B.V.; Sokolowski, J.S.
1984-01-01
A large vertical cryostat for a superconducting linear accelerator using quarter wave resonators has been developed. The essential technical details, operational experience and performance are described. (author)
Akl, Ahmad; Snoek, Jasper; Mihailidis, Alex
2015-01-01
With a globally aging population, the burden of care of cognitively impaired older adults is becoming increasingly concerning. Instances of Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia are becoming ever more frequent. Earlier detection of cognitive impairment offers significant benefits, but remains difficult to do in practice. In this paper, we develop statistical models of the behavior of older adults within their homes using sensor data in order to detect the early onset of cognitive decline. Specifically, we use inhomogenous Poisson processes to model the presence of subjects within different rooms throughout the day in the home using unobtrusive sensing technologies. We compare the distributions learned from cognitively intact and impaired subjects using information theoretic tools and observe statistical differences between the two populations which we believe can be used to help detect the onset of cognitive decline. PMID:25570050
Akl, Ahmad; Snoek, Jasper; Mihailidis, Alex
2014-01-01
With a globally aging population, the burden of care of cognitively impaired older adults is becoming increasingly concerning. Instances of Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia are becoming ever more frequent. Earlier detection of cognitive impairment offers significant benefits, but remains difficult to do in practice. In this paper, we develop statistical models of the behavior of older adults within their homes using sensor data in order to detect the early onset of cognitive decline. Specifically, we use inhomogenous Poisson processes to model the presence of subjects within different rooms throughout the day in the home using unobtrusive sensing technologies. We compare the distributions learned from cognitively intact and impaired subjects using information theoretic tools and observe statistical differences between the two populations which we believe can be used to help detect the onset of cognitive decline.
Patten, B.C.
1983-04-01
Two issues concerning linearity or nonlinearity of natural systems are considered. Each is related to one of the two alternative defining properties of linear systems, superposition and decomposition. Superposition exists when a linear combination of inputs to a system results in the same linear combination of outputs that individually correspond to the original inputs. To demonstrate this property it is necessary that all initial states and inputs of the system which impinge on the output in question be included in the linear combination manipulation. As this is difficult or impossible to do with real systems of any complexity, nature appears nonlinear even though it may be linear. A linear system that displays nonlinear behavior for this reason is termed pseudononlinear. The decomposition property exists when the dynamic response of a system can be partitioned into an input-free portion due to state plus a state-free portion due to input. This is a characteristic of all linear systems, but not of nonlinear systems. Without the decomposition property, it is not possible to distinguish which portions of a system's behavior are due to innate characteristics (self) vs. outside conditions (environment), which is an important class of questions in biology and ecology. Some philosophical aspects of these findings are then considered. It is suggested that those ecologists who hold to the view that organisms and their environments are separate entities are in effect embracing a linear view of nature, even though their belief systems and mathematical models tend to be nonlinear. On the other hand, those who consider that organism-environment complex forms a single inseparable unit are implictly involved in non-linear thought, which may be in conflict with the linear modes and models that some of them use. The need to rectify these ambivalences on the part of both groups is indicated.
inhibition performance of mild ste thiophene ac rmance of mild steel
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d Industrial Chemistry, Faculty of Physical Science, Bayero University, Kan. P. M. B. 3011 ..... chemical studies on the inhibition potentials of some ... Efficiency of Thiophene Derivatives on. Mild Steel : A QSAR Model. International. Journal.
Linear colliders - prospects 1985
Rees, J.
1985-06-01
We discuss the scaling laws of linear colliders and their consequences for accelerator design. We then report on the SLAC Linear Collider project and comment on experience gained on that project and its application to future colliders. 9 refs., 2 figs
Richter, B.
1985-01-01
A report is given on the goals and progress of the SLAC Linear Collider. The author discusses the status of the machine and the detectors and give an overview of the physics which can be done at this new facility. He also gives some ideas on how (and why) large linear colliders of the future should be built
Rogner, H.H.
1989-01-01
The submitted sections on linear programming are extracted from 'Theorie und Technik der Planung' (1978) by W. Blaas and P. Henseler and reformulated for presentation at the Workshop. They consider a brief introduction to the theory of linear programming and to some essential aspects of the SIMPLEX solution algorithm for the purposes of economic planning processes. 1 fig
Rowe, C.H.; Wilton, M.S. de.
1979-01-01
An improved recirculating electron beam linear accelerator of the racetrack type is described. The system comprises a beam path of four straight legs with four Pretzel bending magnets at the end of each leg to direct the beam into the next leg of the beam path. At least one of the beam path legs includes a linear accelerator. (UK)
Predictors of postpartum depression.
Katon, Wayne; Russo, Joan; Gavin, Amelia
2014-09-01
To examine sociodemographic factors, pregnancy-associated psychosocial stress and depression, health risk behaviors, prepregnancy medical and psychiatric illness, pregnancy-related illnesses, and birth outcomes as risk factors for post-partum depression (PPD). A prospective cohort study screened women at 4 and 8 months of pregnancy and used hierarchical logistic regression analyses to examine predictors of PPD. The study sample include 1,423 pregnant women at a university-based high risk obstetrics clinic. A score of ≥10 on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) indicated clinically significant depressive symptoms. Compared with women without significant postpartum depressive symptoms, women with PPD were significantly younger (pdepressive symptoms (pdepression case finding for pregnant women.
Semidefinite linear complementarity problems
Eckhardt, U.
1978-04-01
Semidefinite linear complementarity problems arise by discretization of variational inequalities describing e.g. elastic contact problems, free boundary value problems etc. In the present paper linear complementarity problems are introduced and the theory as well as the numerical treatment of them are described. In the special case of semidefinite linear complementarity problems a numerical method is presented which combines the advantages of elimination and iteration methods without suffering from their drawbacks. This new method has very attractive properties since it has a high degree of invariance with respect to the representation of the set of all feasible solutions of a linear complementarity problem by linear inequalities. By means of some practical applications the properties of the new method are demonstrated. (orig.) [de
Axler, Sheldon
2015-01-01
This best-selling textbook for a second course in linear algebra is aimed at undergrad math majors and graduate students. The novel approach taken here banishes determinants to the end of the book. The text focuses on the central goal of linear algebra: understanding the structure of linear operators on finite-dimensional vector spaces. The author has taken unusual care to motivate concepts and to simplify proofs. A variety of interesting exercises in each chapter helps students understand and manipulate the objects of linear algebra. The third edition contains major improvements and revisions throughout the book. More than 300 new exercises have been added since the previous edition. Many new examples have been added to illustrate the key ideas of linear algebra. New topics covered in the book include product spaces, quotient spaces, and dual spaces. Beautiful new formatting creates pages with an unusually pleasant appearance in both print and electronic versions. No prerequisites are assumed other than the ...
Handbook on linear motor application
1988-10-01
This book guides the application for Linear motor. It lists classification and speciality of Linear Motor, terms of linear-induction motor, principle of the Motor, types on one-side linear-induction motor, bilateral linear-induction motor, linear-DC Motor on basic of the motor, linear-DC Motor for moving-coil type, linear-DC motor for permanent-magnet moving type, linear-DC motor for electricity non-utility type, linear-pulse motor for variable motor, linear-pulse motor for permanent magneto type, linear-vibration actuator, linear-vibration actuator for moving-coil type, linear synchronous motor, linear electromagnetic motor, linear electromagnetic solenoid, technical organization and magnetic levitation and linear motor and sensor.
Thyroid disorders in mild iodine deficiency
Laurberg, P; Nøhr, S B; Pedersen, K M
2000-01-01
Comparative epidemiologic studies in areas with low and high iodine intake and controlled studies of iodine supplementation have demonstrated that the major consequence of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency for the health of the population is an extraordinarily high occurrence of hyperthyroidism...... endangered but the consequences of severe iodine deficiency for brain development are grave and a considerable safety margin is advisable. Moreover, a shift toward less malignant types of thyroid cancer and a lower radiation dose to the thyroid in case of nuclear fallout support that mild-to-moderate iodine...... deficiency should be corrected. However, there is evidence that a high iodine intake may be associated with more autoimmune hypothyroidism, and that Graves' disease may manifest at a younger age and be more difficult to treat. Hence, the iodine intake should be brought to a level at which iodine deficiency...
Predictors of Discharge to Home after Thrombolytic Treatment in Right Hemisphere Infarct Patients
E-I. Ruuskanen
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Background The aim of the study was to assess the association between thrombolysis and length of hospital stay after right hemisphere (RH infarct, and to identify which cognitive functions were predictive of discharge. Methods The study group consisted of 75 acute RH patients. Thirty-three patients had thrombolysis. Neuropsychologicalexaminations were performed within 11 days of stroke onset. The cognitive predictors were visual neglect, visual memory, visual search and reasoning and visuoconstructive abilities. The outcome variable was time from stroke to discharge to home. Results Thrombolysis emerged as a statistically significant predictor of discharge time in patients with moderate/severe stroke (NIHSS ≥5. In the total series of patients and in patients with mild stroke (NIHSS <5, thrombolysiswas not significantly associated with discharge time. Milder visuoconstructive defects shortened the hospital stay of the whole patient group and of patients with moderate/severe stroke. In all patient groups, independence in activitiesof daily living (ADL was a significant single predictor of a shorter hospital stay. The best combination of predictors for discharge was independence in ADL in the total series of patients and in patients with mild stroke, and thrombolysis and independence in ADL in patients with moderate/severe stroke. Conclusions Thrombolytic treatment was a significant predictor of earlier discharge to home in patients with moderate/severe RH infarct, while cognitive functions had less predictive power.
A mild form of Proteus syndrome
Hauer, M.P.; Allmann, K.H.; Langer, M. [Abteilung Roentgendiagnostik, Radiologische Universitaetsklinik, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg (Germany); Uhl, M. [Sektion Kinderradiologie, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet (Germany); Darge, K. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik, Abteilung Kinderradiologie, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany)
1998-05-01
Proteus syndrome is a rare congenital hamartomatous syndrome. We report on the clinical and radiological appearances of a boy in order to illustrate the typical signs which include subcutaneous masses, in mild forms partial gigantism of hands and feet, hemihypertrophy, and bony abnormalities. We discuss how to make the definitive diagnosis on the basis of using a known rating scale, important aspects of differential diagnosis and clinical features, and diagnostic management. (orig.) With 3 figs., 1 tab., 14 refs.
Linear ubiquitination in immunity.
Shimizu, Yutaka; Taraborrelli, Lucia; Walczak, Henning
2015-07-01
Linear ubiquitination is a post-translational protein modification recently discovered to be crucial for innate and adaptive immune signaling. The function of linear ubiquitin chains is regulated at multiple levels: generation, recognition, and removal. These chains are generated by the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC), the only known ubiquitin E3 capable of forming the linear ubiquitin linkage de novo. LUBAC is not only relevant for activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in various signaling pathways, but importantly, it also regulates cell death downstream of immune receptors capable of inducing this response. Recognition of the linear ubiquitin linkage is specifically mediated by certain ubiquitin receptors, which is crucial for translation into the intended signaling outputs. LUBAC deficiency results in attenuated gene activation and increased cell death, causing pathologic conditions in both, mice, and humans. Removal of ubiquitin chains is mediated by deubiquitinases (DUBs). Two of them, OTULIN and CYLD, are constitutively associated with LUBAC. Here, we review the current knowledge on linear ubiquitination in immune signaling pathways and the biochemical mechanisms as to how linear polyubiquitin exerts its functions distinctly from those of other ubiquitin linkage types. © 2015 The Authors. Immunological Reviews Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hogne Soennesyn
Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: White matter hyperintensities (WMH in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scans of the brain, and orthostatic hypotension (OH are both common in older people. We tested the hypothesis that OH is associated with WMH. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Secondary care outpatient clinics in geriatric medicine and old age psychiatry in western Norway. PARTICIPANTS: 160 older patients with mild dementia, diagnosed according to standardised criteria. MEASUREMENTS: OH was diagnosed according to the consensus definition, measuring blood pressure (BP in the supine position and within 3 minutes in the standing position. MRI scans were performed according to a common protocol at three centres, and the volumes of WMH were quantified using an automated method (n=82, followed by manual editing. WMH were also quantified using the visual Scheltens scale (n=139. Multiple logistic regression analyses were applied, with highest vs. lowest WMH quartile as response. RESULTS: There were no significant correlations between WMH volumes and systolic or diastolic orthostatic BP drops, and no significant correlations between Scheltens scores of WMH and systolic or diastolic BP drops. In the multivariate analyses, only APOEε4 status remained a significant predictor for WMH using the automated method (p=0.037, OR 0.075 (0.007-0.851, whereas only age remained a significant predictor for WMH scores (p=0.019, OR 1.119 (1.018-1.230. CONCLUSION: We found no association between OH and WMH load in a sample of older patients with mild dementia.
Puljula, Jussi; Cygnel, Hanna; Mäkinen, Elina; Tuomivaara, Veli; Karttunen, Vesa; Karttunen, Ari; Hillbom, Matti
2012-12-01
Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) in subjects with craniofacial fractures are usually diagnosed by emergency room physicians. We investigated how often TBI remains unrecorded in these subjects, and whether diagnostic accuracy has improved after the implementation of new TBI guidelines. All subjects with craniofacial fractures admitted to Oulu University Hospital in 1999 and in 2007 were retrospectively identified. New guidelines for improving the diagnostic accuracy of TBI were implemented between 2000 and 2006. Clinical symptoms of TBI were gathered from notes on hospital charts and compared to the recorded diagnoses at discharge. Logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors for TBI to remain unrecorded. Of 194 subjects with craniofacial fracture, 111(57%) had TBI, 40 in 1999 and 71 in 2007. Fifty-one TBIs (46%) remained unrecorded at discharge, 48 being mild and 3 moderate-to-severe. Subjects with unrecorded TBI were significantly less frequently referred to follow-up visits. Failures to record the TBI diagnosis were less frequent (29/71, 41%) in 2007 than in 1999 (22/40, 55%), but the difference was not statistically significant. The most significant independent predictor for this failure was the clinical specialty (other than neurology/neurosurgery) of the examining physician (palcohol intoxication did not hamper the diagnosis of TBI. TBIs remain frequently unrecorded in subjects with craniofacial fractures. Recording of mild TBI slightly but insignificantly improved after the implementation of new guidelines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Developmental Exposure to Mild Variable Stress: Adult ...
In utero exposure to mild variable stress has been reported to influence learning and memory formation in offspring. Our research aims to examine whether nonchemical environmental stressors will exacerbate effects to chemical exposure. This study utilized a varying stress paradigm to simulate human psychosocial stress incurred during and after pregnancy to identify phenotypic learning changes in adult offspring that are potential stress markers. We additionally wanted to compare these behavioral outcomes to rat performance induced by perinatal exposure to manganese (Mn), a neurotoxic environmental element, at 2 or 5 g/l in drinking water throughout gestation and lactation. Pregnant Long Evans rats were exposed to an unpredictable series of mild stressful events which had previously been shown to increase maternal corticosterone levels. Nonchemical stressors were presented from GD 13 through GD 21 and included varying noise, light, housing, and confinement during both sleep and wake cycles. A subgroup of offspring was also exposed to periods of maternal separation. Starting at PND 97 offspring were trained with a trace fear conditioning protocol whereby rats were exposed to a compound cue (light and tone) followed by 30 seconds (trace period) and a mild foot shock (1mA, 0.5 seconds). Five paired training sessions occurred on the first day. The following day, context and cue learning were assessed by measuring motor activity. Preliminary data suggests adu
Krivonos, S.O.; Sorin, A.S.
1994-06-01
We show that the Zamolodchikov's and Polyakov-Bershadsky nonlinear algebras W 3 and W (2) 3 can be embedded as subalgebras into some linear algebras with finite set of currents. Using these linear algebras we find new field realizations of W (2) 3 and W 3 which could be a starting point for constructing new versions of W-string theories. We also reveal a number of hidden relationships between W 3 and W (2) 3 . We conjecture that similar linear algebras can exist for other W-algebra as well. (author). 10 refs
Schneider, Hans
1989-01-01
Linear algebra is one of the central disciplines in mathematics. A student of pure mathematics must know linear algebra if he is to continue with modern algebra or functional analysis. Much of the mathematics now taught to engineers and physicists requires it.This well-known and highly regarded text makes the subject accessible to undergraduates with little mathematical experience. Written mainly for students in physics, engineering, economics, and other fields outside mathematics, the book gives the theory of matrices and applications to systems of linear equations, as well as many related t
Linearity in Process Languages
Nygaard, Mikkel; Winskel, Glynn
2002-01-01
The meaning and mathematical consequences of linearity (managing without a presumed ability to copy) are studied for a path-based model of processes which is also a model of affine-linear logic. This connection yields an affine-linear language for processes, automatically respecting open......-map bisimulation, in which a range of process operations can be expressed. An operational semantics is provided for the tensor fragment of the language. Different ways to make assemblies of processes lead to different choices of exponential, some of which respect bisimulation....
Amir-Moez, A R; Sneddon, I N
1962-01-01
Elements of Linear Space is a detailed treatment of the elements of linear spaces, including real spaces with no more than three dimensions and complex n-dimensional spaces. The geometry of conic sections and quadric surfaces is considered, along with algebraic structures, especially vector spaces and transformations. Problems drawn from various branches of geometry are given.Comprised of 12 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to real Euclidean space, followed by a discussion on linear transformations and matrices. The addition and multiplication of transformations and matrices a
Weisberg, Sanford
2013-01-01
Praise for the Third Edition ""...this is an excellent book which could easily be used as a course text...""-International Statistical Institute The Fourth Edition of Applied Linear Regression provides a thorough update of the basic theory and methodology of linear regression modeling. Demonstrating the practical applications of linear regression analysis techniques, the Fourth Edition uses interesting, real-world exercises and examples. Stressing central concepts such as model building, understanding parameters, assessing fit and reliability, and drawing conclusions, the new edition illus
Mild obstructive sleep apnoea: clinical relevance and approaches to management.
McNicholas, Walter T; Bonsignore, Maria R; Lévy, Patrick; Ryan, Silke
2016-10-01
Obstructive sleep apnoea is highly prevalent in the general population worldwide, especially in its mild form. Clinical manifestations correlate poorly with disease severity measured by the apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI), which complicates diagnosis. Full polysomnography might be more appropriate to assess suspected mild cases because limited ambulatory diagnostic systems are least accurate in mild disease. Treatment options in mild obstructive sleep apnoea include continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and oral appliance therapy, in addition to positional therapy and weight reduction when appropriate. The superior efficacy of CPAP in reducing AHI is offset by greater tolerance of oral appliances, especially in mild disease. Although severe obstructive sleep apnoea is associated with adverse health consequences, including cardiometabolic comorbidities, the association with mild disease is unclear, and reports differ regarding the clinical relevance of mild obstructive sleep apnoea. Improved diagnostic techniques and evidence-based approaches to management in mild obstructive sleep apnoea require further research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mild Cognitive Impairment and Progession to Dementia: New Findings
... David C. Spencer, MD Steven Karceski, MD Mild cognitive impairment and progression to dementia New findings John C.S. ... exami- nations showed that 534 persons had mild cognitive impairment, or MCI (see About MCI, following sec- tion). ...
Impact of Mild versus Moderate Intensity Aerobic Walking Exercise ...
2014-03-01
Mar 1, 2014 ... Objective: To compare the effects of mild and moderate intensity treadmill walking exercises on markers of bone ... second group (B) received mild intensity aerobic exercise training. ..... Using functional loading to influence.
Callier, Frank M.; Desoer, Charles A.
1991-01-01
The aim of this book is to provide a systematic and rigorous access to the main topics of linear state-space system theory in both the continuous-time case and the discrete-time case; and the I/O description of linear systems. The main thrusts of the work are the analysis of system descriptions and derivations of their properties, LQ-optimal control, state feedback and state estimation, and MIMO unity-feedback systems.
Post-processing through linear regression
van Schaeybroeck, B.; Vannitsem, S.
2011-03-01
Various post-processing techniques are compared for both deterministic and ensemble forecasts, all based on linear regression between forecast data and observations. In order to evaluate the quality of the regression methods, three criteria are proposed, related to the effective correction of forecast error, the optimal variability of the corrected forecast and multicollinearity. The regression schemes under consideration include the ordinary least-square (OLS) method, a new time-dependent Tikhonov regularization (TDTR) method, the total least-square method, a new geometric-mean regression (GM), a recently introduced error-in-variables (EVMOS) method and, finally, a "best member" OLS method. The advantages and drawbacks of each method are clarified. These techniques are applied in the context of the 63 Lorenz system, whose model version is affected by both initial condition and model errors. For short forecast lead times, the number and choice of predictors plays an important role. Contrarily to the other techniques, GM degrades when the number of predictors increases. At intermediate lead times, linear regression is unable to provide corrections to the forecast and can sometimes degrade the performance (GM and the best member OLS with noise). At long lead times the regression schemes (EVMOS, TDTR) which yield the correct variability and the largest correlation between ensemble error and spread, should be preferred.
Post-processing through linear regression
B. Van Schaeybroeck
2011-03-01
Full Text Available Various post-processing techniques are compared for both deterministic and ensemble forecasts, all based on linear regression between forecast data and observations. In order to evaluate the quality of the regression methods, three criteria are proposed, related to the effective correction of forecast error, the optimal variability of the corrected forecast and multicollinearity. The regression schemes under consideration include the ordinary least-square (OLS method, a new time-dependent Tikhonov regularization (TDTR method, the total least-square method, a new geometric-mean regression (GM, a recently introduced error-in-variables (EVMOS method and, finally, a "best member" OLS method. The advantages and drawbacks of each method are clarified.
These techniques are applied in the context of the 63 Lorenz system, whose model version is affected by both initial condition and model errors. For short forecast lead times, the number and choice of predictors plays an important role. Contrarily to the other techniques, GM degrades when the number of predictors increases. At intermediate lead times, linear regression is unable to provide corrections to the forecast and can sometimes degrade the performance (GM and the best member OLS with noise. At long lead times the regression schemes (EVMOS, TDTR which yield the correct variability and the largest correlation between ensemble error and spread, should be preferred.
The Influence of Hearing Aid Use on Outcomes of Children With Mild Hearing Loss.
Walker, Elizabeth A; Holte, Lenore; McCreery, Ryan W; Spratford, Meredith; Page, Thomas; Moeller, Mary Pat
2015-10-01
This study examined the effects of consistent hearing aid (HA) use on outcomes in children with mild hearing loss (HL). Five- or 7-year-old children with mild HL were separated into 3 groups on the basis of patterns of daily HA use. Using analyses of variance, we compared outcomes between groups on speech and language tests and a speech perception in noise task. Regression models were used to investigate the influence of cumulative auditory experience (audibility, early intervention, HA use) on outcomes. Full-time HA users demonstrated significantly higher scores on vocabulary and grammar measures compared with nonusers. There were no significant differences between the 3 groups on articulation or speech perception measures. After controlling for the variance in age at confirmation of HL, level of audibility, and enrollment in early intervention, only amount of daily HA use was a significant predictor of grammar and vocabulary. The current results provide evidence that children's language development benefits from consistent HA use. Nonusers are at risk in areas such as vocabulary and grammar compared with other children with mild HL who wear HAs regularly. Service providers should work collaboratively to encourage consistent HA use.
Predictors of disability retirement.
Krause, N; Lynch, J; Kaplan, G A; Cohen, R D; Goldberg, D E; Salonen, J T
1997-12-01
Disability retirement may increase as the work force ages, but there is little information on factors associated with retirement because of disability. This is the first prospective population-based study of predictors of disability retirement including information on workplace, socioeconomic, behavioral, and health-related factors. The subjects were 1038 Finnish men who were enrolled in the Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study, who were 42, 48, 54, or 60 years of age at the beginning of the study, and who participated in a 4-year follow-up medical examination. Various job characteristics predicted disability retirement. Heavy work, work in uncomfortable positions, long workhours, noise at work, physical job strain, musculoskeletal strain, repetitive or continuous muscle strain, mental job strain, and job dissatisfaction were all significantly associated with the incidence of disability retirement. The ability to communicate with fellow workers and social support from supervisors tended to reduce the risk of disability retirement. The relationships persisted after control for socioeconomic factors, prevalent disease, and health behavior, which were also associated with disability retirement. The strong associations found between workplace factors and the incidence of disability retirement link the problem of disability retirement to the problem of poor work conditions.
O'Caoimh, Rónán
2012-09-01
differentiating mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from normal cognition (NC) is difficult. The AB Cognitive Screen (ABCS) 135, sensitive in differentiating MCI from dementia, was modified to improve sensitivity and specificity, producing the quick mild cognitive impairment (Qmci) screen.
Atsuko Hayashi
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Background/Aims: We investigated writing abilities in patients with the amnestic type of mild cognitive impairment (aMCI and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD. To examine the earliest changes in writing function, we used writing tests for both words and sentences with different types of Japanese characters (Hiragana, Katakana, and Kanji. Methods: A total of 25 aMCI patients, 38 AD patients, and 22 healthy controls performed writing to dictation for Kana and Kanji words, copied Kanji words, and wrote in response to a picture story task. Analysis of variance was used to test the subject group effects on the scores in the above writing tasks. Results: For the written Kanji words, the mild AD group performed worse than the aMCI group and the controls, but there was no difference between the aMCI group and the controls. For the picture story writing task, the mild AD and aMCI groups performed worse than the controls, but the difference between the AD and the aMCI groups was not significant. Conclusions: The mild AD group showed defects in writing Kanji characters, and the aMCI group showed impairments in narrative writing. Our study suggests that narrative writing, which demands complex integration of multiple cognitive functions, can be used to detect the subtle writing deficits in aMCI patients.
Hayashi, Atsuko; Nomura, Hiroshi; Mochizuki, Ruriko; Ohnuma, Ayumu; Kimpara, Teiko; Suzuki, Kyoko; Mori, Etsuro
2015-01-01
We investigated writing abilities in patients with the amnestic type of mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). To examine the earliest changes in writing function, we used writing tests for both words and sentences with different types of Japanese characters (Hiragana, Katakana, and Kanji). A total of 25 aMCI patients, 38 AD patients, and 22 healthy controls performed writing to dictation for Kana and Kanji words, copied Kanji words, and wrote in response to a picture story task. Analysis of variance was used to test the subject group effects on the scores in the above writing tasks. For the written Kanji words, the mild AD group performed worse than the aMCI group and the controls, but there was no difference between the aMCI group and the controls. For the picture story writing task, the mild AD and aMCI groups performed worse than the controls, but the difference between the AD and the aMCI groups was not significant. The mild AD group showed defects in writing Kanji characters, and the aMCI group showed impairments in narrative writing. Our study suggests that narrative writing, which demands complex integration of multiple cognitive functions, can be used to detect the subtle writing deficits in aMCI patients.
Mohd, Yusairie; Dzolin, Syaidah Athirah; Bahron, Hadariah; Halim, Nurul Huda Abdul
2017-12-01
Corrosion is inherent for mild steel and it can be retarded through many approaches including electrodeposition of inert inhibitors in the form of organic molecules. Salicylideneaniline (L1) and 4-hydroxybenzalaniline (L2) were electrodeposited on mild steel using cyclic voltammetry (CV) using 0.1 M inhibitor concentration in 0.3 M NaOH. The scanning potential range for coating via CV was set from 0 - 2 V and back to 0 V for five cycles. A yellow film was observed covering the surface of the mild steel. The corrosion behavior of coated and uncoated mild steel was studied using Linear Polarization Resistance (LPR) in 0.5 M NaCl. Both coated mild steel specimens showed better corrosion resistance than the uncoated, with L1 providing a better inhibition protection with the inhibition efficiency of 80.51 %.
Predictors of Longitudinal Quality of Life in Juvenile Localized Scleroderma.
Ardalan, Kaveh; Zigler, Christina K; Torok, Kathryn S
2017-07-01
Localized scleroderma can negatively affect children's quality of life (QoL), but predictors of impact have not been well described. We sought to identify predictors of QoL impact in juvenile localized scleroderma patients. We analyzed longitudinal data from a single-center cohort of juvenile localized scleroderma patients, using hierarchical generalized linear modeling (HGLM) to identify predictors of QoL impact. HGLM is useful for nested data and allows for evaluation of both time-variant and time-invariant predictors. The number of extracutaneous manifestations (ECMs; e.g., joint contracture and hemifacial atrophy) and female sex predicted negative QoL impact, defined as a Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index score >1 (P = 0.019 for ECMs and P = 0.002 for female sex). As the time since the initial visit increased, the odds of reporting a negative QoL impact decreased (P scleroderma than cutaneous features. Further study is required to determine which ECMs have the most impact on QoL, which factors underlie sex differences in QoL in localized scleroderma, and why increasing the time since the initial visit appears to be protective. An improved understanding of predictors of QoL impact may allow for the identification of patients at risk of poorer outcomes and for the tailoring of treatment and psychosocial support. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.
Gender and distance influence performance predictors in young swimmers
Mezzaroba, Paulo Victor; Papoti, Marcelo; Machado, Fabiana Andrade
2013-01-01
Predictors of performance in adult swimmers are constantly changing during youth especially because the training routine begins even before puberty in the modality. Therefore this study aimed to determine the group of parameters that best predict short and middle swimming distance performances of young swimmers of both genders. Thirty-three 10-to 16-years-old male and female competitive swimmers participated in the study. Multiple linear regression (MLR) was used considering mean speed of max...
Prevalence and predictors of musculoskeletal pain among Danish fishermen
Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; Østergaard, Helle; Jepsen, Jørgen Riis
2016-01-01
at sea, age, BMI and education were used as predictors for the overall musculoskeletal pain score (multiple linear regression) and for each single pain site (multinomial logistic regression). RESULTS: The prevalence of pain was high for all musculoskeletal locations. Overall, more than 80...... demanding and impacting their musculoskeletal pain. Potential explanation for this unexpected result like increased work pressure and reduced financial attractiveness in small scale commercial fishery needs to be confirmed in future research....
Multiple predictor smoothing methods for sensitivity analysis
Helton, Jon Craig; Storlie, Curtis B.
2006-01-01
The use of multiple predictor smoothing methods in sampling-based sensitivity analyses of complex models is investigated. Specifically, sensitivity analysis procedures based on smoothing methods employing the stepwise application of the following nonparametric regression techniques are described: (1) locally weighted regression (LOESS), (2) additive models, (3) projection pursuit regression, and (4) recursive partitioning regression. The indicated procedures are illustrated with both simple test problems and results from a performance assessment for a radioactive waste disposal facility (i.e., the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant). As shown by the example illustrations, the use of smoothing procedures based on nonparametric regression techniques can yield more informative sensitivity analysis results than can be obtained with more traditional sensitivity analysis procedures based on linear regression, rank regression or quadratic regression when nonlinear relationships between model inputs and model predictions are present
Multiple predictor smoothing methods for sensitivity analysis.
Helton, Jon Craig; Storlie, Curtis B.
2006-08-01
The use of multiple predictor smoothing methods in sampling-based sensitivity analyses of complex models is investigated. Specifically, sensitivity analysis procedures based on smoothing methods employing the stepwise application of the following nonparametric regression techniques are described: (1) locally weighted regression (LOESS), (2) additive models, (3) projection pursuit regression, and (4) recursive partitioning regression. The indicated procedures are illustrated with both simple test problems and results from a performance assessment for a radioactive waste disposal facility (i.e., the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant). As shown by the example illustrations, the use of smoothing procedures based on nonparametric regression techniques can yield more informative sensitivity analysis results than can be obtained with more traditional sensitivity analysis procedures based on linear regression, rank regression or quadratic regression when nonlinear relationships between model inputs and model predictions are present.
Mild trigonocephaly. Report of 300 operative cases
Shimoji, Takeyoshi; Yamashiro, Katsumi; Nagamine, Tomoaki; Kawakubo, Junichi; Shimoji, Kazuaki
2009-01-01
Since 1999, we have reported mild trigonocephaly with symptoms mainly accompanied with developmental delays. We would like to report the operative results of 300 patients. All patients had some kind of clinical symptoms. The diagnosis made recognizing ridge of the fused metopic suture by palpation and a three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT). Most patients (287 among 300) could not be diagnosed because of the mild changes of their facial features and their natural development as infants. They suffered from symptoms such as mental retardation, delayed language development, hyperactivity, autistic tendencies, panic and irritability, motor dysfunctions, self-mutilation and sleeping disturbances. Two hundred thirteen patients were recorded intracranial pressure (ICP). Developmental quotients (D.Q) were also measured. Two hundred fifteen (73.6%) of 292 patients with delays of language development were improved within a year after surgery. Other symptoms also improved: 91.6% in hyperactivity, 76.5% in autistic tendencies, 92% in panic, 90.4% in motor dysfunctions, 88.6% in self-mutilation and 93% in sleeping disturbances. The chronological scores in D.Q maintained parallel in most patients. Measurements of ICP resulted in 10 cases (5%) under mean 10 mmHg, 33 cases (15%) between 11 to 15 mmHg and 170 cases (80%) over 16 mmHg. The mean pulse pressure calculated around 9 mmHg in each group. Decompressive cranioplasty was applied to all patients. Patients with mild trigonocephaly may have a possibility to show clinical symptoms. Since the ICP seems to be high, decompressive cranioplasty may be a reasonable treatment for these patients. (author)
Autobiographical and episodic memory deficits in mild traumatic brain injury.
Wammes, Jeffrey D; Good, Tyler J; Fernandes, Myra A
2017-02-01
Those who have suffered a concussion, otherwise known as a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), often complain of lingering memory problems. However, there is little evidence in the behavioral literature reliably demonstrating memory deficits. Thus, in the present study, cognitive profiles including measures of general executive functioning and processing speed, as well as episodic and semantic memory were collected in younger and older adult participants with or without a remote (>1year prior to testing) mTBI. We first investigated whether there were observable episodic and autobiographical memory impairments associated with mTBI within an otherwise healthy young group. Next, because previous work had demonstrated some overlap in patterns of behavioral impairment in normally aging adults and younger adults with a history of mTBI (e.g. Ozen, Fernandes, Clark, & Roy, 2015), we sought to determine whether these groups displayed similar cognitive profiles. Lastly, we conducted an exploratory analysis to test whether having suffered an mTBI might exacerbate age-related cognitive decline. Results showed the expected age-related decline in episodic memory performance, coupled with a relative preservation of semantic memory in older adults. Importantly, this pattern was also present in younger adults with a history of remote mTBI. No differences were observed across older adult groups based on mTBI status. Logistic regression analyses, using each measure in our battery as a predictor, successfully classified mTBI status in younger participants with a high degree of specificity (79.5%). These results indicate that those who have had an mTBI demonstrate a distinct cognitive signature, characterized by impairment in episodic and autobiographical memory, coupled with a relative preservation of semantic memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Blyth, T S
2002-01-01
Most of the introductory courses on linear algebra develop the basic theory of finite dimensional vector spaces, and in so doing relate the notion of a linear mapping to that of a matrix. Generally speaking, such courses culminate in the diagonalisation of certain matrices and the application of this process to various situations. Such is the case, for example, in our previous SUMS volume Basic Linear Algebra. The present text is a continuation of that volume, and has the objective of introducing the reader to more advanced properties of vector spaces and linear mappings, and consequently of matrices. For readers who are not familiar with the contents of Basic Linear Algebra we provide an introductory chapter that consists of a compact summary of the prerequisites for the present volume. In order to consolidate the student's understanding we have included a large num ber of illustrative and worked examples, as well as many exercises that are strategi cally placed throughout the text. Solutions to the ex...
Mild Cognitive Impairment Status and Mobility Performance
Pedersen, Mette; Holt, Nicole E; Grande, Laura
2014-01-01
: An analysis was conducted on baseline data from the Boston Rehabilitative Impairment Study in the Elderly study, a cohort study of 430 primary care patients aged 65 or older. Neuropsychological tests identified participants with MCI and further subclassified those with impairment in memory domains (a......BACKGROUND: The prevalence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and mobility limitations is high among older adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between MCI status and both performance-based and self-report measures of mobility in community-dwelling older adults. METHODS...
Thyroid disorders in mild iodine deficiency
Laurberg, P; Nøhr, S B; Pedersen, K M
2000-01-01
in elderly subjects, especially women, with risk of cardiac arrhythmias, osteoporosis, and muscle wasting. The hyperthyroidism is caused by autonomous nodular growth and function of the thyroid gland and it is accompanied by a high frequency of goiter. Pregnant women and small children are not immediately...... endangered but the consequences of severe iodine deficiency for brain development are grave and a considerable safety margin is advisable. Moreover, a shift toward less malignant types of thyroid cancer and a lower radiation dose to the thyroid in case of nuclear fallout support that mild-to-moderate iodine...
Factors controlling nitrate cracking of mild steel
Donovan, J.A.
1977-01-01
Nitrite and hydroxide ions inhibit the growth of nitrate stress corrosion cracks in mild steel. Crack growth measurements showed that sufficient concentrations of nitrite and hydroxide ions can prevent crack growth; however, insufficient concentrations of these ions did not influence the Stage II growth rate or the threshold stress intensity, but extended the initiation time. Stage III growth was discontinuous. Oxide formed in the grain boundaries ahead of the crack tip and oxide dissolution (Stage II) and fracture (Stage III) are the proposed mechanisms of nitrate stress corrosion crack growth
Eddy current inspection of mildly ferromagnetic tubing
Mayo, W.R.; Carter, J.R.
1984-02-01
The past decade has seen the development of eddy current probes for inspection of the mildly ferro-magnetic alloy Monel 400. Due to the rapid advances in permanent magnet technology similar probes have been upgraded to magnetically saturate, and hence inspect, the duplex stainless steel Sandvik 3RE60, which has saturation induction more than twice that of Monel 400. Prototypes of these probes have been tested in three ways: saturation capability, quality of typical eddy current data, and ability to eliminate permeability induced signals. Successful laboratory testing, potential applications, and limitations of these type probes are discussed
Serial position effects in mild cognitive impairment.
Howieson, Diane B; Mattek, Nora; Seeyle, Adriana M; Dodge, Hiroko H; Wasserman, Dara; Zitzelberger, Tracy; Jeffrey, Kaye
2011-03-01
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is often associated with the preclinical phase of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Special scoring of word-list recall data for serial position has been suggested to improve discrimination of normal aging from dementia. We examined serial position effects in word-list recall for MCI participants compared to Alzheimer patients and controls. Individuals with MCI, like Alzheimer patients, had a diminished primacy effect in recalling words from a list. No alternative scoring system was better than standard scoring of word-list recall in distinguishing MCI patients from controls. Retention weighted scoring improved the discrimination of MCI and AD groups.
Clinical Predictors of Intensive Care Unit Admission for Asthmatic Children
Mohammad Hasan Kargar Maher
2015-07-01
Full Text Available IntroductionChildren with severe asthma attack are a challenging group of patients who could be difficult to treat and leading to significant morbidity and mortality. Asthma attack severity is qualitatively estimated as mild, moderate and severe attacks and respiratory failure based on conditions such as respiration status, feeling of dyspnea, and the degree of unconsciousness. part of which are subjective rather than objective. We investigated clinical findings as predictors of severe attack and probable requirement for Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU admission.Materials and MethodsIn a cross sectional and analytical study 120 patients with asthma attack were enrolled from April 2010 to April 2014 (80 admitted in the ward and 40 in pediatric intensive care unit. Predictors of PICU admission were investigated regarding to initial heart rate(HR, respiratory rate (RR, Arterial Oxygen Saturation(SaO2 and PaCo2 and clinically evident cyanosis.ResultsInitial heart rate(p-value=0.02, respiratory rate (p-value=0.03, Arterial Oxygen Saturation(p-value=0.02 and PaCo2(p-value=0.03 and clinically evident cyanosis were significantly different in two groups(Ward admitted and PICU admittedConclusion There was a significant correlation between initial vital sign and blood gas analysis suggesting usefulness of these factors as predictors of severe asthma attack and subsequent clinical course.
Mamyrin, B.A.; Shmikk, D.V.
1979-01-01
A description and operating principle of a linear mass reflectron with V-form trajectory of ion motion -a new non-magnetic time-of-flight mass spectrometer with high resolution are presented. The ion-optical system of the device consists of an ion source with ionization by electron shock, of accelerating gaps, reflector gaps, a drift space and ion detector. Ions move in the linear mass refraction along the trajectories parallel to the axis of the analyzer chamber. The results of investigations into the experimental device are given. With an ion drift length of 0.6 m the device resolution is 1200 with respect to the peak width at half-height. Small-sized mass spectrometric transducers with high resolution and sensitivity may be designed on the base of the linear mass reflectron principle
Olver, Peter J
2018-01-01
This textbook develops the essential tools of linear algebra, with the goal of imparting technique alongside contextual understanding. Applications go hand-in-hand with theory, each reinforcing and explaining the other. This approach encourages students to develop not only the technical proficiency needed to go on to further study, but an appreciation for when, why, and how the tools of linear algebra can be used across modern applied mathematics. Providing an extensive treatment of essential topics such as Gaussian elimination, inner products and norms, and eigenvalues and singular values, this text can be used for an in-depth first course, or an application-driven second course in linear algebra. In this second edition, applications have been updated and expanded to include numerical methods, dynamical systems, data analysis, and signal processing, while the pedagogical flow of the core material has been improved. Throughout, the text emphasizes the conceptual connections between each application and the un...
Banach, S
1987-01-01
This classic work by the late Stefan Banach has been translated into English so as to reach a yet wider audience. It contains the basics of the algebra of operators, concentrating on the study of linear operators, which corresponds to that of the linear forms a1x1 + a2x2 + ... + anxn of algebra.The book gathers results concerning linear operators defined in general spaces of a certain kind, principally in Banach spaces, examples of which are: the space of continuous functions, that of the pth-power-summable functions, Hilbert space, etc. The general theorems are interpreted in various mathematical areas, such as group theory, differential equations, integral equations, equations with infinitely many unknowns, functions of a real variable, summation methods and orthogonal series.A new fifty-page section (``Some Aspects of the Present Theory of Banach Spaces'''') complements this important monograph.
Høskuldsson, Agnar
1996-01-01
Determination of the proper dimension of a given linear model is one of the most important tasks in the applied modeling work. We consider here eight criteria that can be used to determine the dimension of the model, or equivalently, the number of components to use in the model. Four of these cri......Determination of the proper dimension of a given linear model is one of the most important tasks in the applied modeling work. We consider here eight criteria that can be used to determine the dimension of the model, or equivalently, the number of components to use in the model. Four...... the basic problems in determining the dimension of linear models. Then each of the eight measures are treated. The results are illustrated by examples....
Linear programming using Matlab
Ploskas, Nikolaos
2017-01-01
This book offers a theoretical and computational presentation of a variety of linear programming algorithms and methods with an emphasis on the revised simplex method and its components. A theoretical background and mathematical formulation is included for each algorithm as well as comprehensive numerical examples and corresponding MATLAB® code. The MATLAB® implementations presented in this book are sophisticated and allow users to find solutions to large-scale benchmark linear programs. Each algorithm is followed by a computational study on benchmark problems that analyze the computational behavior of the presented algorithms. As a solid companion to existing algorithmic-specific literature, this book will be useful to researchers, scientists, mathematical programmers, and students with a basic knowledge of linear algebra and calculus. The clear presentation enables the reader to understand and utilize all components of simplex-type methods, such as presolve techniques, scaling techniques, pivoting ru...
Anon.
1994-01-01
The aim of the TESLA (TeV Superconducting Linear Accelerator) collaboration (at present 19 institutions from seven countries) is to establish the technology for a high energy electron-positron linear collider using superconducting radiofrequency cavities to accelerate its beams. Another basic goal is to demonstrate that such a collider can meet its performance goals in a cost effective manner. For this the TESLA collaboration is preparing a 500 MeV superconducting linear test accelerator at the DESY Laboratory in Hamburg. This TTF (TESLA Test Facility) consists of four cryomodules, each approximately 12 m long and containing eight 9-cell solid niobium cavities operating at a frequency of 1.3 GHz
Linearly Adjustable International Portfolios
Fonseca, R. J.; Kuhn, D.; Rustem, B.
2010-09-01
We present an approach to multi-stage international portfolio optimization based on the imposition of a linear structure on the recourse decisions. Multiperiod decision problems are traditionally formulated as stochastic programs. Scenario tree based solutions however can become intractable as the number of stages increases. By restricting the space of decision policies to linear rules, we obtain a conservative tractable approximation to the original problem. Local asset prices and foreign exchange rates are modelled separately, which allows for a direct measure of their impact on the final portfolio value.
Linearly Adjustable International Portfolios
Fonseca, R. J.; Kuhn, D.; Rustem, B.
2010-01-01
We present an approach to multi-stage international portfolio optimization based on the imposition of a linear structure on the recourse decisions. Multiperiod decision problems are traditionally formulated as stochastic programs. Scenario tree based solutions however can become intractable as the number of stages increases. By restricting the space of decision policies to linear rules, we obtain a conservative tractable approximation to the original problem. Local asset prices and foreign exchange rates are modelled separately, which allows for a direct measure of their impact on the final portfolio value.
Barkman, W.E.; Adams, W.Q.; Berrier, B.R.
1978-01-01
A linear induction motor has been operated on a test bed with a feedback pulse resolution of 5 nm (0.2 μin). Slewing tests with this slide drive have shown positioning errors less than or equal to 33 nm (1.3 μin) at feedrates between 0 and 25.4 mm/min (0-1 ipm). A 0.86-m (34-in)-stroke linear motor is being investigated, using the SPACO machine as a test bed. Initial results were encouraging, and work is continuing to optimize the servosystem compensation
Hogben, Leslie
2013-01-01
With a substantial amount of new material, the Handbook of Linear Algebra, Second Edition provides comprehensive coverage of linear algebra concepts, applications, and computational software packages in an easy-to-use format. It guides you from the very elementary aspects of the subject to the frontiers of current research. Along with revisions and updates throughout, the second edition of this bestseller includes 20 new chapters.New to the Second EditionSeparate chapters on Schur complements, additional types of canonical forms, tensors, matrix polynomials, matrix equations, special types of
Linear Algebra Thoroughly Explained
Vujičić, Milan
2008-01-01
Linear Algebra Thoroughly Explained provides a comprehensive introduction to the subject suitable for adoption as a self-contained text for courses at undergraduate and postgraduate level. The clear and comprehensive presentation of the basic theory is illustrated throughout with an abundance of worked examples. The book is written for teachers and students of linear algebra at all levels and across mathematics and the applied sciences, particularly physics and engineering. It will also be an invaluable addition to research libraries as a comprehensive resource book for the subject.
Kim TH
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Tae Hoon Kim, Jae Seung Lee, Sei Won Lee, Yeon-Mok Oh Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea Abstract: Postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs are one of the most important causes of postoperative morbidity and mortality after abdominal surgery. Although chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD has been considered a risk factor for PPCs, it remains unclear whether mild-to-moderate COPD is a risk factor. This retrospective cohort study included 387 subjects who underwent abdominal surgery with general anesthesia in a tertiary referral hospital. PPCs included pneumonia, pulmonary edema, pulmonary thromboembolism, atelectasis, and acute exacerbation of COPD. Among the 387 subjects, PPCs developed in 14 (12.0% of 117 patients with mild-to-moderate COPD and in 13 (15.1% of 86 control patients. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that mild-to-moderate COPD was not a significant risk factor for PPCs (odds ratio [OR] =0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI] =0.31–2.03; P=0.628. However, previous hospitalization for respiratory problems (OR =4.20; 95% CI =1.52–11.59, emergency surgery (OR =3.93; 95% CI =1.75–8.82, increased amount of red blood cell (RBC transfusion (OR =1.09; 95% CI =1.05–1.14 for one pack increase of RBC transfusion, and laparoscopic surgery (OR =0.41; 95% CI =0.18–0.93 were independent predictors of PPCs. These findings suggested that mild-to-moderate COPD may not be a significant risk factor for PPCs after abdominal surgery.Keywords: postoperative pulmonary complications, spirometry, risk factor, abdominal surgery, postoperative complications, postoperative care
Enhancement of immunological activity after mild hyperthermia
Noguchi, Kenichi; Hasegawa, Takeo; Takahashi, Tohru
2002-01-01
At present, hyperthermia is clinically very important as interdisciplinary therapeutic method, and studies are being performed on combined effects with surgical treatment, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and gene therapy for the treatment of malignant tumors. We evaluated the effects of hyperthermia under temperature of 42.5C and demonstrated that the activation of immunological response is increased and anti-tumor effect cabn be obtained in this studies. We used animals were C3H mice (male,7W) bearing SCC-VII tumor on femur skin. Then, the mice were divided to 10 mice in each group, and only femur region was immersed in warm water for thermal treatment. Also we measured the tumor growth, changes of blood cell fraction and NK cell activity. The results of the present study confirmed: (1) Anti-tumor effect can be given by thermal treatment at relatively mild temperature (mild temperature at 39C-42C); (2) The increase of neutrophils is dependent on the quantity of heat added; (3) Immunological response of monocytes and lymphocytes is associated with it; (4) Activity of the immunological potency as a whole such as activation of NK cells was also confirmed
Thyroid disorders in mild iodine deficiency.
Laurberg, P; Nøhr, S B; Pedersen, K M; Hreidarsson, A B; Andersen, S; Bülow Pedersen, I; Knudsen, N; Perrild, H; Jørgensen, T; Ovesen, L
2000-11-01
Comparative epidemiologic studies in areas with low and high iodine intake and controlled studies of iodine supplementation have demonstrated that the major consequence of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency for the health of the population is an extraordinarily high occurrence of hyperthyroidism in elderly subjects, especially women, with risk of cardiac arrhythmias, osteoporosis, and muscle wasting. The hyperthyroidism is caused by autonomous nodular growth and function of the thyroid gland and it is accompanied by a high frequency of goiter. Pregnant women and small children are not immediately endangered but the consequences of severe iodine deficiency for brain development are grave and a considerable safety margin is advisable. Moreover, a shift toward less malignant types of thyroid cancer and a lower radiation dose to the thyroid in case of nuclear fallout support that mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency should be corrected. However, there is evidence that a high iodine intake may be associated with more autoimmune hypothyroidism, and that Graves' disease may manifest at a younger age and be more difficult to treat. Hence, the iodine intake should be brought to a level at which iodine deficiency disorders are avoided but not higher. Iodine supplementation programs should aim at relatively uniform iodine intake, avoiding deficient or excessive iodine intake in subpopulations. To adopt such a strategy, surveillance programs are needed.
DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF MILD COMBUSTION BURNER
M.M. Noor
2013-12-01
Full Text Available This paper discusses the design and development of the Moderate and Intense Low oxygen Dilution (MILD combustion burner using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD simulations. The CFD commercial package was used to simulate preliminary designs for the burner before the final design was sent to the workshop for fabrication. The burner is required to be a non-premixed and open burner. To capture and use the exhaust gas, the burner was enclosed within a large circular shaped wall with an opening at the top. An external EGR pipe was used to transport the exhaust gas which was mixed with the fresh oxidant. To control the EGR and exhaust flow, butterfly valves were installed at the top opening as a damper to close the exhaust gas flow at a certain ratio for EGR and exhaust out to the atmosphere. High temperature fused silica glass windows were installed to view and capture images of the flame and analyze the flame propagation. The burner simulation shows that MILD combustion was achieved for the oxygen mole fraction of 3-13%. The final design of the burner was fabricated and ready for the experimental validation.
2013-05-10
AND VICTIM- ~ vAP BLAMING 4. AMERICA, LINEARLY CYCUCAL AF IMT 1768, 19840901, V5 PREVIOUS EDITION WILL BE USED. C2C Jessica Adams Dr. Brissett...his desires, his failings, and his aspirations follow the same general trend throughout history and throughout cultures. The founding fathers sought
Southworth, B.
1985-01-01
The peak of the construction phase of the Stanford Linear Collider, SLC, to achieve 50 GeV electron-positron collisions has now been passed. The work remains on schedule to attempt colliding beams, initially at comparatively low luminosity, early in 1987. (orig./HSI).
Mafra Neto, F.
1992-01-01
The dose of gamma radiation from a linear source of cesium 137 is obtained, presenting two difficulties: oblique filtration of radiation when cross the platinum wall, in different directions, and dose connection due to the scattering by the material mean of propagation. (C.G.C.)
Resistors Improve Ramp Linearity
Kleinberg, L. L.
1982-01-01
Simple modification to bootstrap ramp generator gives more linear output over longer sweep times. New circuit adds just two resistors, one of which is adjustable. Modification cancels nonlinearities due to variations in load on charging capacitor and due to changes in charging current as the voltage across capacitor increases.
LINEAR COLLIDERS: 1992 workshop
Settles, Ron; Coignet, Guy
1992-01-01
As work on designs for future electron-positron linear colliders pushes ahead at major Laboratories throughout the world in a major international collaboration framework, the LC92 workshop held in Garmisch Partenkirchen this summer, attended by 200 machine and particle physicists, provided a timely focus
Brameier, Markus
2007-01-01
Presents a variant of Genetic Programming that evolves imperative computer programs as linear sequences of instructions, in contrast to the more traditional functional expressions or syntax trees. This book serves as a reference for researchers, but also contains sufficient introduction for students and those who are new to the field
Dobbs, David E.
2013-01-01
A direct method is given for solving first-order linear recurrences with constant coefficients. The limiting value of that solution is studied as "n to infinity." This classroom note could serve as enrichment material for the typical introductory course on discrete mathematics that follows a calculus course.
Takeda, Seishi
1992-01-01
The status of R and D of future e + e - linear colliders proposed by the institutions throughout the world is described including the JLC, NLC, VLEPP, CLIC, DESY/THD and TESLA projects. The parameters and RF sources are discussed. (G.P.) 36 refs.; 1 tab
Ahamad, Ishtiaque [Department of Applied Chemistry, Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005 (India); Prasad, Rajendra [Department of Chemistry, SGB Amravati University, Amravati 444 602 (India); Quraishi, M.A., E-mail: maquraishi@rediffmail.co [Department of Applied Chemistry, Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005 (India)
2010-09-15
Inhibition of mild steel corrosion in 1 M HCl solution by Pheniramine drug was studied using weight loss, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, linear polarization resistance, and potentiodynamic polarization measurements. The values of activation energy (E{sub a}) and different thermodynamic parameters such as adsorption equilibrium constant (K{sub ads}), free energy of adsorption ({Delta}G{sub ads}{sup o}), adsorption enthalpy ({Delta}H{sub ads}{sup o}) and adsorption entropy ({Delta}S{sub ads}{sup o}) were calculated and discussed. The adsorption process of studied drug on mild steel surface obeys the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Potentiodynamic polarization measurements showed that Pheniramine is mixed-type inhibitor. Further, theoretical calculations were carried out and relations between computed parameters and experimental inhibition efficiency were discussed.
Ahamad, Ishtiaque; Prasad, Rajendra; Quraishi, M.A.
2010-01-01
Inhibition of mild steel corrosion in 1 M HCl solution by Pheniramine drug was studied using weight loss, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, linear polarization resistance, and potentiodynamic polarization measurements. The values of activation energy (E a ) and different thermodynamic parameters such as adsorption equilibrium constant (K ads ), free energy of adsorption (ΔG ads o ), adsorption enthalpy (ΔH ads o ) and adsorption entropy (ΔS ads o ) were calculated and discussed. The adsorption process of studied drug on mild steel surface obeys the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Potentiodynamic polarization measurements showed that Pheniramine is mixed-type inhibitor. Further, theoretical calculations were carried out and relations between computed parameters and experimental inhibition efficiency were discussed.
Swimming and Persons with Mild Persistant Asthma
Mirjana Arandelovic
2007-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of our study was to analyze the effect of recreational swimming on lung function and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR in patients with mild persistent asthma. This study included 65 patients with mild persistent asthma, who were divided into two groups: experimental group A (n = 45 and control group B (n = 20. Patients from both groups were treated with low doses of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS and short-acting β2 agonists salbutamol as needed. Our program for patients in group A was combined asthma education with swimming (twice a week on a 1-h basis for the following 6 months. At the end of the study, in Group A, we found a statistically significant increase of lung function parameters FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (3.55 vs. 3.65 (p < 0.01, FVC (forced vital capacity (4.27 vs. 4.37 (p < 0.05, PEF (peak expiratory flow (7.08 vs. 7.46 (p < 0.01, and statistically significant decrease of BHR (PD20 0.58 vs. 2.01 (p < 0.001. In Group B, there was a statistically significant improvement of FEV1 3.29 vs. 3.33 (p < 0.05 and although FVC, FEV1/FVC, and PEF were improved, it was not significant. When Groups A and B were compared at the end of the study, there was a statistically significant difference of FVC (4.01 vs. 4.37, FEV1 (3.33 vs. 3.55, PEF (6.79 vs.7.46, and variability (p <0.001, and statistically significantly decreased BHR in Group A (2.01 vs. 1.75 (p < 0.001. Engagement of patients with mild persistent asthma in recreational swimming in nonchlorinated pools, combined with regular medical treatment and education, leads to better improvement of their parameters of lung function and also to more significant decrease of their airway hyperresponsiveness compared to patients treated with traditional medicine
Sven Bocklandt
Full Text Available From the moment of conception, we begin to age. A decay of cellular structures, gene regulation, and DNA sequence ages cells and organisms. DNA methylation patterns change with increasing age and contribute to age related disease. Here we identify 88 sites in or near 80 genes for which the degree of cytosine methylation is significantly correlated with age in saliva of 34 male identical twin pairs between 21 and 55 years of age. Furthermore, we validated sites in the promoters of three genes and replicated our results in a general population sample of 31 males and 29 females between 18 and 70 years of age. The methylation of three sites--in the promoters of the EDARADD, TOM1L1, and NPTX2 genes--is linear with age over a range of five decades. Using just two cytosines from these loci, we built a regression model that explained 73% of the variance in age, and is able to predict the age of an individual with an average accuracy of 5.2 years. In forensic science, such a model could estimate the age of a person, based on a biological sample alone. Furthermore, a measurement of relevant sites in the genome could be a tool in routine medical screening to predict the risk of age-related diseases and to tailor interventions based on the epigenetic bio-age instead of the chronological age.
Hayes, Jasmeet P; Logue, Mark W; Sadeh, Naomi; Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Verfaellie, Mieke; Hayes, Scott M; Reagan, Andrew; Salat, David H; Wolf, Erika J; McGlinchey, Regina E; Milberg, William P; Stone, Annjanette; Schichman, Steven A; Miller, Mark W
2017-03-01
Moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury is one of the strongest environmental risk factors for the development of neurodegenerative diseases such as late-onset Alzheimer's disease, although it is unclear whether mild traumatic brain injury, or concussion, also confers risk. This study examined mild traumatic brain injury and genetic risk as predictors of reduced cortical thickness in brain regions previously associated with early Alzheimer's disease, and their relationship with episodic memory. Participants were 160 Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans between the ages of 19 and 58, many of whom carried mild traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic stress disorder diagnoses. Whole-genome polygenic risk scores for the development of Alzheimer's disease were calculated using summary statistics from the largest Alzheimer's disease genome-wide association study to date. Results showed that mild traumatic brain injury moderated the relationship between genetic risk for Alzheimer's disease and cortical thickness, such that individuals with mild traumatic brain injury and high genetic risk showed reduced cortical thickness in Alzheimer's disease-vulnerable regions. Among males with mild traumatic brain injury, high genetic risk for Alzheimer's disease was associated with cortical thinning as a function of time since injury. A moderated mediation analysis showed that mild traumatic brain injury and high genetic risk indirectly influenced episodic memory performance through cortical thickness, suggesting that cortical thinning in Alzheimer's disease-vulnerable brain regions is a mechanism for reduced memory performance. Finally, analyses that examined the apolipoprotein E4 allele, post-traumatic stress disorder, and genetic risk for schizophrenia and depression confirmed the specificity of the Alzheimer's disease polygenic risk finding. These results provide evidence that mild traumatic brain injury is associated with greater neurodegeneration and reduced memory performance
Finite-dimensional linear algebra
Gockenbach, Mark S
2010-01-01
Some Problems Posed on Vector SpacesLinear equationsBest approximationDiagonalizationSummaryFields and Vector SpacesFields Vector spaces Subspaces Linear combinations and spanning sets Linear independence Basis and dimension Properties of bases Polynomial interpolation and the Lagrange basis Continuous piecewise polynomial functionsLinear OperatorsLinear operatorsMore properties of linear operatorsIsomorphic vector spaces Linear operator equations Existence and uniqueness of solutions The fundamental theorem; inverse operatorsGaussian elimination Newton's method Linear ordinary differential eq
Distillation Column Flooding Predictor
George E. Dzyacky
2010-11-23
The Flooding Predictor™ is a patented advanced control technology proven in research at the Separations Research Program, University of Texas at Austin, to increase distillation column throughput by over 6%, while also increasing energy efficiency by 10%. The research was conducted under a U. S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement awarded to George Dzyacky of 2ndpoint, LLC. The Flooding Predictor™ works by detecting the incipient flood point and controlling the column closer to its actual hydraulic limit than historical practices have allowed. Further, the technology uses existing column instrumentation, meaning no additional refining infrastructure is required. Refiners often push distillation columns to maximize throughput, improve separation, or simply to achieve day-to-day optimization. Attempting to achieve such operating objectives is a tricky undertaking that can result in flooding. Operators and advanced control strategies alike rely on the conventional use of delta-pressure instrumentation to approximate the column’s approach to flood. But column delta-pressure is more an inference of the column’s approach to flood than it is an actual measurement of it. As a consequence, delta pressure limits are established conservatively in order to operate in a regime where the column is never expected to flood. As a result, there is much “left on the table” when operating in such a regime, i.e. the capacity difference between controlling the column to an upper delta-pressure limit and controlling it to the actual hydraulic limit. The Flooding Predictor™, an innovative pattern recognition technology, controls columns at their actual hydraulic limit, which research shows leads to a throughput increase of over 6%. Controlling closer to the hydraulic limit also permits operation in a sweet spot of increased energy-efficiency. In this region of increased column loading, the Flooding Predictor is able to exploit the benefits of higher liquid
Predictors of Persistent Axial Neck Pain After Cervical Laminoplasty.
Kimura, Atsushi; Shiraishi, Yasuyuki; Inoue, Hirokazu; Endo, Teruaki; Takeshita, Katsushi
2018-01-01
Retrospective analysis of prospective data. The aim of this study was to reveal baseline predictors of persistent postlaminoplasty neck pain. Axial neck pain is one of the most common complications after cervical laminoplasty; however, baseline predictors of persistent postlaminoplasty neck pain are unclear. We analyzed data from 156 patients who completed a 2-year follow-up after double-door laminoplasty for degenerative cervical myelopathy. Patients rated the average intensity of axial neck pain in the last month using an 11-point numerical rating scale preoperatively and at the 2-year follow-up. The dependent variable was the presence of moderate-to-severe neck pain (numerical rating scale ≥4) at the 2-year follow-up. The independent variables included patient characteristics, baseline radiological parameters, surgical variables, baseline axial neck pain intensity, and baseline functions, which were measured by the Japanese Orthopaedic Association score and the Short Form-36 survey (SF-36). Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent predictors of moderate-to-severe neck pain after laminoplasty. At the 2-year follow-up, 51 patients (32%) had moderate-to-severe neck pain, and 106 patients (68%) had no or mild pain. Univariate analysis revealed that the ratio of cervical anterolisthesis, ratio of current smoking, baseline neck pain intensity, and baseline SF-36 Mental Component Summary differed significantly between the groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that independent predictors of moderate-to-severe neck pain at the 2-year follow-up include the presence of anterolisthesis, current smoking, moderate-to-severe baseline neck pain, and lower SF-36 Mental Component Summary. The presence of anterolisthesis and moderate-to-severe baseline neck pain were also associated with significantly poorer physical function after surgery. The presence of anterolisthesis was associated not only with the highest odds ratio of
Delayed epidural hematoma after mild head injury
Radulović Danilo
2005-01-01
Full Text Available Background. Traumatic delayed epidural hematoma (DEH can be defined as insignificant or not seen on the initial CT scan performed after a trauma but seen on the subsequent CT scan as a “massive” epidural bleeding. Case report. We presented two cases of traumatic DEH after mild head injury. Both patients were conscious and without neurological deficit on the admission. Initial CT scan did not reveal intracranial hematoma. Repeated CT scan, that was performed after neurological deterioration, revealed epidural hematoma in both cases. The patients were operated with a favorable surgical outcome. Conclusion. Traumatic DEH could occur in the patients with head injuries who were conscious on the admission with a normal initial CT scan finding. Early detection of DEH and an urgent surgical evacuation were essential for a good outcome.
Atmospheric corrosion of mild steel in Oman
Gismelseed, Abbasher, E-mail: abbasher@squ.edu.om; Al-Harthi, S. H.; Elzain, M.; Al-Rawas, A. D.; Yousif, A.; Al-Saadi, S.; Al-Omari, I.; Widatallah, H.; Bouziane, K. [College of Science, Department of Physics (Oman)
2006-01-15
A systematic study has been made of the initial corrosion products which form on mild steel capons exposed near the coastal region of Oman and at some industrial areas. The phases and compositions of the products formed at different periods of exposure were examined by using Moessbauer spectroscopy (295 and 78 K) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The results show that lepidocorcite and maghemite are early corrosion products and goethite starts to form after 2 months of metal exposure to the atmosphere. Akaganeite is an early corrosion product but it forms in marine environments only, which reflects the role of chlorine effect in the atmosphere. The 12 months coupons showed the presence of goethite, lepidocorcite and maghemite, but no akaganeite being seen in the products of one of the studied areas.
Atmospheric corrosion of mild steel in Oman
Gismelseed, Abbasher; Al-Harthi, S. H.; Elzain, M.; Al-Rawas, A. D.; Yousif, A.; Al-Saadi, S.; Al-Omari, I.; Widatallah, H.; Bouziane, K.
2006-01-01
A systematic study has been made of the initial corrosion products which form on mild steel capons exposed near the coastal region of Oman and at some industrial areas. The phases and compositions of the products formed at different periods of exposure were examined by using Moessbauer spectroscopy (295 and 78 K) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The results show that lepidocorcite and maghemite are early corrosion products and goethite starts to form after 2 months of metal exposure to the atmosphere. Akaganeite is an early corrosion product but it forms in marine environments only, which reflects the role of chlorine effect in the atmosphere. The 12 months coupons showed the presence of goethite, lepidocorcite and maghemite, but no akaganeite being seen in the products of one of the studied areas.
Functional Hubs in Mild Cognitive Impairment
Navas, Adrián; Papo, David; Boccaletti, Stefano; Del-Pozo, F.; Bajo, Ricardo; Maestú, Fernando; Martínez, J. H.; Gil, Pablo; Sendiña-Nadal, Irene; Buldú, Javier M.
We investigate how hubs of functional brain networks are modified as a result of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a condition causing a slight but noticeable decline in cognitive abilities, which sometimes precedes the onset of Alzheimer's disease. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate the functional brain networks of a group of patients suffering from MCI and a control group of healthy subjects, during the execution of a short-term memory task. Couplings between brain sites were evaluated using synchronization likelihood, from which a network of functional interdependencies was constructed and the centrality, i.e. importance, of their nodes was quantified. The results showed that, with respect to healthy controls, MCI patients were associated with decreases and increases in hub centrality respectively in occipital and central scalp regions, supporting the hypothesis that MCI modifies functional brain network topology, leading to more random structures.
A mild Grave's ophthalmopathy during pregnancy.
Abbouda, Alessandro; Trimboli, Pierpaolo; Bruscolini, Alice
2014-01-01
Thyroid ophthalmopathy is a complication most commonly associated with Grave's disease. The disease course ranges from mild to severe, with severe cases resulting in major visual impairment. A complete ophthalmic examination in a 35-year-old secundigravida to 14 weeks of gestation presented to the hospital for a routine ophthalmological examination with eyelid retraction in the right eye was made. We studied the course of ocular disease through the gestation with orbit ecography and a 3T MRI. A diagnosis of Grave's Ophthalmopathy was made. This case presents an unusual course of the GD during pregnancy and a normal post-partum relapse, according to the Th1/Th2 balance. The frequent follow-up and the use of MRI allowed a prompt identification and complete control of the disease.
Ramari, Cintia; Moraes, Andréa G; Tauil, Carlos B; von Glehn, Felipe; Motl, Robert; de David, Ana C
2018-02-01
Physiological factors such as muscle weakness and balance could explain declines in walking distance by multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. The purpose of this study was to characterize levels and examine associations among decline in walking distance, balance and muscular strength in women with mild MS. Participants included 28 women with mild relapsing-remitting MS and 21 women without MS. We executed the 6-min walk test (6MWT) to verify declines in walking distance. Isokinetic knee flexion (KF) and extension (KE) muscle strength was measured using a dynamometer. Balance was quantified using a force platform, with eyes open and closed, on a rigid and foam surface. The MS patients presented declines in walking, lower KF muscle strength, and worse balance than controls. KF strength and balance correlated with walking in the MS group. The KF strength explained differences between groups in walking. The KF strength and balance presented as predictors of walking slowing down in the 6MWT, in mild MS. Women with mild MS have strength impairment of knee flexor muscles and balance control impairment that may explain walking related motor fatigability during prolonged walking. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Linearity and Non-linearity of Photorefractive effect in Materials ...
In this paper we have studied the Linearity and Non-linearity of Photorefractive effect in materials using the band transport model. For low light beam intensities the change in the refractive index is proportional to the electric field for linear optics while for non- linear optics the change in refractive index is directly proportional ...
Linearly Refined Session Types
Pedro Baltazar
2012-11-01
Full Text Available Session types capture precise protocol structure in concurrent programming, but do not specify properties of the exchanged values beyond their basic type. Refinement types are a form of dependent types that can address this limitation, combining types with logical formulae that may refer to program values and can constrain types using arbitrary predicates. We present a pi calculus with assume and assert operations, typed using a session discipline that incorporates refinement formulae written in a fragment of Multiplicative Linear Logic. Our original combination of session and refinement types, together with the well established benefits of linearity, allows very fine-grained specifications of communication protocols in which refinement formulae are treated as logical resources rather than persistent truths.
Kuznetsov, N.; Maz'ya, V.; Vainberg, B.
2002-08-01
This book gives a self-contained and up-to-date account of mathematical results in the linear theory of water waves. The study of waves has many applications, including the prediction of behavior of floating bodies (ships, submarines, tension-leg platforms etc.), the calculation of wave-making resistance in naval architecture, and the description of wave patterns over bottom topography in geophysical hydrodynamics. The first section deals with time-harmonic waves. Three linear boundary value problems serve as the approximate mathematical models for these types of water waves. The next section uses a plethora of mathematical techniques in the investigation of these three problems. The techniques used in the book include integral equations based on Green's functions, various inequalities between the kinetic and potential energy and integral identities which are indispensable for proving the uniqueness theorems. The so-called inverse procedure is applied to constructing examples of non-uniqueness, usually referred to as 'trapped nodes.'
The International Linear Collider
List Benno
2014-04-01
Full Text Available The International Linear Collider (ILC is a proposed e+e− linear collider with a centre-of-mass energy of 200–500 GeV, based on superconducting RF cavities. The ILC would be an ideal machine for precision studies of a light Higgs boson and the top quark, and would have a discovery potential for new particles that is complementary to that of LHC. The clean experimental conditions would allow the operation of detectors with extremely good performance; two such detectors, ILD and SiD, are currently being designed. Both make use of novel concepts for tracking and calorimetry. The Japanese High Energy Physics community has recently recommended to build the ILC in Japan.
The International Linear Collider
List, Benno
2014-04-01
The International Linear Collider (ILC) is a proposed e+e- linear collider with a centre-of-mass energy of 200-500 GeV, based on superconducting RF cavities. The ILC would be an ideal machine for precision studies of a light Higgs boson and the top quark, and would have a discovery potential for new particles that is complementary to that of LHC. The clean experimental conditions would allow the operation of detectors with extremely good performance; two such detectors, ILD and SiD, are currently being designed. Both make use of novel concepts for tracking and calorimetry. The Japanese High Energy Physics community has recently recommended to build the ILC in Japan.
Høskuldsson, Agnar
1996-01-01
Determination of the proper dimension of a given linear model is one of the most important tasks in the applied modeling work. We consider here eight criteria that can be used to determine the dimension of the model, or equivalently, the number of components to use in the model. Four...... the basic problems in determining the dimension of linear models. Then each of the eight measures are treated. The results are illustrated by examples....... of these criteria are widely used ones, while the remaining four are ones derived from the H-principle of mathematical modeling. Many examples from practice show that the criteria derived from the H-principle function better than the known and popular criteria for the number of components. We shall briefly review...
Goldowsky, Michael P. (Inventor)
1987-01-01
A reciprocating linear motor is formed with a pair of ring-shaped permanent magnets having opposite radial polarizations, held axially apart by a nonmagnetic yoke, which serves as an axially displaceable armature assembly. A pair of annularly wound coils having axial lengths which differ from the axial lengths of the permanent magnets are serially coupled together in mutual opposition and positioned with an outer cylindrical core in axial symmetry about the armature assembly. One embodiment includes a second pair of annularly wound coils serially coupled together in mutual opposition and an inner cylindrical core positioned in axial symmetry inside the armature radially opposite to the first pair of coils. Application of a potential difference across a serial connection of the two pairs of coils creates a current flow perpendicular to the magnetic field created by the armature magnets, thereby causing limited linear displacement of the magnets relative to the coils.
Henneaux, Marc; Teitelboim, Claudio
2005-01-01
We show that duality transformations of linearized gravity in four dimensions, i.e., rotations of the linearized Riemann tensor and its dual into each other, can be extended to the dynamical fields of the theory so as to be symmetries of the action and not just symmetries of the equations of motion. Our approach relies on the introduction of two superpotentials, one for the spatial components of the spin-2 field and the other for their canonically conjugate momenta. These superpotentials are two-index, symmetric tensors. They can be taken to be the basic dynamical fields and appear locally in the action. They are simply rotated into each other under duality. In terms of the superpotentials, the canonical generator of duality rotations is found to have a Chern-Simons-like structure, as in the Maxwell case
Phinney, N.
1992-01-01
The SLAC Linear Collider has begun a new era of operation with the SLD detector. During 1991 there was a first engineering run for the SLD in parallel with machine improvements to increase luminosity and reliability. For the 1992 run, a polarized electron source was added and more than 10,000 Zs with an average of 23% polarization have been logged by the SLD. This paper discusses the performance of the SLC in 1991 and 1992 and the technical advances that have produced higher luminosity. Emphasis will be placed on issues relevant to future linear colliders such as producing and maintaining high current, low emittance beams and focusing the beams to the micron scale for collisions. (Author) tab., 2 figs., 18 refs
Linear waves and instabilities
Bers, A.
1975-01-01
The electrodynamic equations for small-amplitude waves and their dispersion relation in a homogeneous plasma are outlined. For such waves, energy and momentum, and their flow and transformation, are described. Perturbation theory of waves is treated and applied to linear coupling of waves, and the resulting instabilities from such interactions between active and passive waves. Linear stability analysis in time and space is described where the time-asymptotic, time-space Green's function for an arbitrary dispersion relation is developed. The perturbation theory of waves is applied to nonlinear coupling, with particular emphasis on pump-driven interactions of waves. Details of the time--space evolution of instabilities due to coupling are given. (U.S.)
Extended linear chain compounds
Linear chain substances span a large cross section of contemporary chemistry ranging from covalent polymers, to organic charge transfer com plexes to nonstoichiometric transition metal coordination complexes. Their commonality, which coalesced intense interest in the theoretical and exper imental solid state physics/chemistry communities, was based on the obser vation that these inorganic and organic polymeric substrates exhibit striking metal-like electrical and optical properties. Exploitation and extension of these systems has led to the systematic study of both the chemistry and physics of highly and poorly conducting linear chain substances. To gain a salient understanding of these complex materials rich in anomalous aniso tropic electrical, optical, magnetic, and mechanical properties, the conver gence of diverse skills and talents was required. The constructive blending of traditionally segregated disciplines such as synthetic and physical organic, inorganic, and polymer chemistry, crystallog...
Diamond, Jared M.
1966-01-01
1. The relation between osmotic gradient and rate of osmotic water flow has been measured in rabbit gall-bladder by a gravimetric procedure and by a rapid method based on streaming potentials. Streaming potentials were directly proportional to gravimetrically measured water fluxes. 2. As in many other tissues, water flow was found to vary with gradient in a markedly non-linear fashion. There was no consistent relation between the water permeability and either the direction or the rate of water flow. 3. Water flow in response to a given gradient decreased at higher osmolarities. The resistance to water flow increased linearly with osmolarity over the range 186-825 m-osM. 4. The resistance to water flow was the same when the gall-bladder separated any two bathing solutions with the same average osmolarity, regardless of the magnitude of the gradient. In other words, the rate of water flow is given by the expression (Om — Os)/[Ro′ + ½k′ (Om + Os)], where Ro′ and k′ are constants and Om and Os are the bathing solution osmolarities. 5. Of the theories advanced to explain non-linear osmosis in other tissues, flow-induced membrane deformations, unstirred layers, asymmetrical series-membrane effects, and non-osmotic effects of solutes could not explain the results. However, experimental measurements of water permeability as a function of osmolarity permitted quantitative reconstruction of the observed water flow—osmotic gradient curves. Hence non-linear osmosis in rabbit gall-bladder is due to a decrease in water permeability with increasing osmolarity. 6. The results suggest that aqueous channels in the cell membrane behave as osmometers, shrinking in concentrated solutions of impermeant molecules and thereby increasing membrane resistance to water flow. A mathematical formulation of such a membrane structure is offered. PMID:5945254
Fundamentals of linear algebra
Dash, Rajani Ballav
2008-01-01
FUNDAMENTALS OF LINEAR ALGEBRA is a comprehensive Text Book, which can be used by students and teachers of All Indian Universities. The Text has easy, understandable form and covers all topics of UGC Curriculum. There are lots of worked out examples which helps the students in solving the problems without anybody's help. The Problem sets have been designed keeping in view of the questions asked in different examinations.
Sander, K F
1964-01-01
Linear Network Theory covers the significant algebraic aspect of network theory, with minimal reference to practical circuits. The book begins the presentation of network analysis with the exposition of networks containing resistances only, and follows it up with a discussion of networks involving inductance and capacity by way of the differential equations. Classification and description of certain networks, equivalent networks, filter circuits, and network functions are also covered. Electrical engineers, technicians, electronics engineers, electricians, and students learning the intricacies
Non linear viscoelastic models
Agerkvist, Finn T.
2011-01-01
Viscoelastic eects are often present in loudspeaker suspensions, this can be seen in the displacement transfer function which often shows a frequency dependent value below the resonance frequency. In this paper nonlinear versions of the standard linear solid model (SLS) are investigated....... The simulations show that the nonlinear version of the Maxwell SLS model can result in a time dependent small signal stiness while the Kelvin Voight version does not....
Relativistic Linear Restoring Force
Clark, D.; Franklin, J.; Mann, N.
2012-01-01
We consider two different forms for a relativistic version of a linear restoring force. The pair comes from taking Hooke's law to be the force appearing on the right-hand side of the relativistic expressions: d"p"/d"t" or d"p"/d["tau"]. Either formulation recovers Hooke's law in the non-relativistic limit. In addition to these two forces, we…
Superconducting linear colliders
Anon.
1990-01-01
The advantages of superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) for particle accelerators have been demonstrated by successful operation of systems in the TRISTAN and LEP electron-positron collider rings respectively at the Japanese KEK Laboratory and at CERN. If performance continues to improve and costs can be lowered, this would open an attractive option for a high luminosity TeV (1000 GeV) linear collider
Perturbed asymptotically linear problems
Bartolo, R.; Candela, A. M.; Salvatore, A.
2012-01-01
The aim of this paper is investigating the existence of solutions of some semilinear elliptic problems on open bounded domains when the nonlinearity is subcritical and asymptotically linear at infinity and there is a perturbation term which is just continuous. Also in the case when the problem has not a variational structure, suitable procedures and estimates allow us to prove that the number of distinct crtitical levels of the functional associated to the unperturbed problem is "stable" unde...
Miniature linear cooler development
Pruitt, G.R.
1993-01-01
An overview is presented of the status of a family of miniature linear coolers currently under development by Hughes Aircraft Co. for use in hand held, volume limited or power limited infrared applications. These coolers, representing the latest additions to the Hughes family of TOP trademark [twin-opposed piston] linear coolers, have been fabricated and tested in three different configurations. Each configuration is designed to utilize a common compressor assembly resulting in reduced manufacturing costs. The baseline compressor has been integrated with two different expander configurations and has been operated with two different levels of input power. These various configuration combinations offer a wide range of performance and interface characteristics which may be tailored to applications requiring limited power and size without significantly compromising cooler capacity or cooldown characteristics. Key cooler characteristics and test data are summarized for three combinations of cooler configurations which are representative of the versatility of this linear cooler design. Configurations reviewed include the shortened coldfinger [1.50 to 1.75 inches long], limited input power [less than 17 Watts] for low power availability applications; the shortened coldfinger with higher input power for lightweight, higher performance applications; and coldfingers compatible with DoD 0.4 Watt Common Module coolers for wider range retrofit capability. Typical weight of these miniature linear coolers is less than 500 grams for the compressor, expander and interconnecting transfer line. Cooling capacity at 80K at room ambient conditions ranges from 400 mW to greater than 550 mW. Steady state power requirements for maintaining a heat load of 150 mW at 80K has been shown to be less than 8 Watts. Ongoing reliability growth testing is summarized including a review of the latest test article results
Avram Mihai
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The paper presents a linear pneumatic actuator with short working stroke. It consists of a pneumatic motor (a simple stroke cylinder or a membrane chamber, two 2/2 pneumatic distributors “all or nothing” electrically commanded for controlling the intake/outtake flow to/from the active chamber of the motor, a position transducer and a microcontroller. There is also presented the theoretical analysis (mathematical modelling and numerical simulation accomplished.
Avram Mihai; Niţu Constantin; Bucşan Constantin; Grămescu Bogdan
2017-01-01
The paper presents a linear pneumatic actuator with short working stroke. It consists of a pneumatic motor (a simple stroke cylinder or a membrane chamber), two 2/2 pneumatic distributors “all or nothing” electrically commanded for controlling the intake/outtake flow to/from the active chamber of the motor, a position transducer and a microcontroller. There is also presented the theoretical analysis (mathematical modelling and numerical simulation) accomplished.
Scheffel, J.
1984-03-01
The linear Grad-Shafranov equation for a toroidal, axisymmetric plasma is solved analytically. Exact solutions are given in terms of confluent hyper-geometric functions. As an alternative, simple and accurate WKBJ solutions are presented. With parabolic pressure profiles, both hollow and peaked toroidal current density profiles are obtained. As an example the equilibrium of a z-pinch with a square-shaped cross section is derived.(author)
Buttram, M.T.; Ginn, J.W.
1988-06-21
A linear induction accelerator includes a plurality of adder cavities arranged in a series and provided in a structure which is evacuated so that a vacuum inductance is provided between each adder cavity and the structure. An energy storage system for the adder cavities includes a pulsed current source and a respective plurality of bipolar converting networks connected thereto. The bipolar high-voltage, high-repetition-rate square pulse train sets and resets the cavities. 4 figs.
Springer, T A
1998-01-01
"[The first] ten chapters...are an efficient, accessible, and self-contained introduction to affine algebraic groups over an algebraically closed field. The author includes exercises and the book is certainly usable by graduate students as a text or for self-study...the author [has a] student-friendly style… [The following] seven chapters... would also be a good introduction to rationality issues for algebraic groups. A number of results from the literature…appear for the first time in a text." –Mathematical Reviews (Review of the Second Edition) "This book is a completely new version of the first edition. The aim of the old book was to present the theory of linear algebraic groups over an algebraically closed field. Reading that book, many people entered the research field of linear algebraic groups. The present book has a wider scope. Its aim is to treat the theory of linear algebraic groups over arbitrary fields. Again, the author keeps the treatment of prerequisites self-contained. The material of t...
Parametric Linear Dynamic Logic
Peter Faymonville
2014-08-01
Full Text Available We introduce Parametric Linear Dynamic Logic (PLDL, which extends Linear Dynamic Logic (LDL by temporal operators equipped with parameters that bound their scope. LDL was proposed as an extension of Linear Temporal Logic (LTL that is able to express all ω-regular specifications while still maintaining many of LTL's desirable properties like an intuitive syntax and a translation into non-deterministic Büchi automata of exponential size. But LDL lacks capabilities to express timing constraints. By adding parameterized operators to LDL, we obtain a logic that is able to express all ω-regular properties and that subsumes parameterized extensions of LTL like Parametric LTL and PROMPT-LTL. Our main technical contribution is a translation of PLDL formulas into non-deterministic Büchi word automata of exponential size via alternating automata. This yields a PSPACE model checking algorithm and a realizability algorithm with doubly-exponential running time. Furthermore, we give tight upper and lower bounds on optimal parameter values for both problems. These results show that PLDL model checking and realizability are not harder than LTL model checking and realizability.
Quantum linear Boltzmann equation
Vacchini, Bassano; Hornberger, Klaus
2009-01-01
We review the quantum version of the linear Boltzmann equation, which describes in a non-perturbative fashion, by means of scattering theory, how the quantum motion of a single test particle is affected by collisions with an ideal background gas. A heuristic derivation of this Lindblad master equation is presented, based on the requirement of translation-covariance and on the relation to the classical linear Boltzmann equation. After analyzing its general symmetry properties and the associated relaxation dynamics, we discuss a quantum Monte Carlo method for its numerical solution. We then review important limiting forms of the quantum linear Boltzmann equation, such as the case of quantum Brownian motion and pure collisional decoherence, as well as the application to matter wave optics. Finally, we point to the incorporation of quantum degeneracies and self-interactions in the gas by relating the equation to the dynamic structure factor of the ambient medium, and we provide an extension of the equation to include internal degrees of freedom.
Emma, P.
1995-01-01
The Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) is the first and only high-energy e + e - linear collider in the world. Its most remarkable features are high intensity, submicron sized, polarized (e - ) beams at a single interaction point. The main challenges posed by these unique characteristics include machine-wide emittance preservation, consistent high intensity operation, polarized electron production and transport, and the achievement of a high degree of beam stability on all time scales. In addition to serving as an important machine for the study of Z 0 boson production and decay using polarized beams, the SLC is also an indispensable source of hands-on experience for future linear colliders. Each new year of operation has been highlighted with a marked improvement in performance. The most significant improvements for the 1994-95 run include new low impedance vacuum chambers for the damping rings, an upgrade to the optics and diagnostics of the final focus systems, and a higher degree of polarization from the electron source. As a result, the average luminosity has nearly doubled over the previous year with peaks approaching 10 30 cm -2 s -1 and an 80% electron polarization at the interaction point. These developments as well as the remaining identifiable performance limitations will be discussed
Hansen, Marie-Louise H; Waldorff, Frans B; Waldemar, Gunhild
2011-01-01
The aim of the study was to identify prognostic factors for weight loss in patients recently diagnosed with mild Alzheimer disease (AD), with special emphasis on the patients' social participation and living arrangements. The data used in this study was part of the Danish Alzheimer Intervention......%. Furthermore, the results suggested a trend that for men, living alone was a risk factor for losing weight, whereas for women living with somebody was associated with a higher risk. However, further studies are pertinent within this area. As weight loss is a predictor of mortality in patients with AD...
Generalized Linear Models in Vehicle Insurance
Silvie Kafková
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Actuaries in insurance companies try to find the best model for an estimation of insurance premium. It depends on many risk factors, e.g. the car characteristics and the profile of the driver. In this paper, an analysis of the portfolio of vehicle insurance data using a generalized linear model (GLM is performed. The main advantage of the approach presented in this article is that the GLMs are not limited by inflexible preconditions. Our aim is to predict the relation of annual claim frequency on given risk factors. Based on a large real-world sample of data from 57 410 vehicles, the present study proposed a classification analysis approach that addresses the selection of predictor variables. The models with different predictor variables are compared by analysis of deviance and Akaike information criterion (AIC. Based on this comparison, the model for the best estimate of annual claim frequency is chosen. All statistical calculations are computed in R environment, which contains stats package with the function for the estimation of parameters of GLM and the function for analysis of deviation.
Stephanie Yamin
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Purpose. Alzheimer’s disease (AD and dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB constitute two of the most common forms of dementia in North America. Driving is a primary means of mobility among older adults and the risk of dementia increases with advanced age. The purpose of this paper is to describe the cognitive profile of licensed drivers with mild AD and mild DLB. Method. Licensed drivers with mild AD, mild DLB, and healthy controls completed neuropsychological tests measuring general cognition, attention, visuospatial/perception, language, and cognitive fluctuations. Results. The results showed differences between healthy controls and demented participants on almost all neuropsychological measures. Participants with early DLB were found to perform significantly worse on some measures of attention and visuospatial functioning in comparison with early AD. Discussion. Future research should examine the relationship between neuropsychological measures and driving outcomes among individuals with mild AD and mild DLB.
Sparsity in Linear Predictive Coding of Speech
Giacobello, Daniele
of the effectiveness of their application in audio processing. The second part of the thesis deals with introducing sparsity directly in the linear prediction analysis-by-synthesis (LPAS) speech coding paradigm. We first propose a novel near-optimal method to look for a sparse approximate excitation using a compressed...... one with direct applications to coding but also consistent with the speech production model of voiced speech, where the excitation of the all-pole filter can be modeled as an impulse train, i.e., a sparse sequence. Introducing sparsity in the LP framework will also bring to de- velop the concept...... sensing formulation. Furthermore, we define a novel re-estimation procedure to adapt the predictor coefficients to the given sparse excitation, balancing the two representations in the context of speech coding. Finally, the advantages of the compact parametric representation of a segment of speech, given...
Ryu, Seon Young; Lee, Sang Bong; Kim, Tae Woo; Lee, Taek Jun
2016-12-01
Memory complaints are a frequent phenomenon in elderly individuals and can lead to opportunistic help-seeking behavior. The aim of this study was to compare different aspects of memory complaints (i.e., prospective versus retrospective complaints) in individuals with subjective cognitive impairment (SCI), amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). The study included a total of 115 participants (mean age: 68.82 ± 8.83 years) with SCI (n = 34), aMCI (n = 46), and mild AD (n = 35). Memory complaints were assessed using the Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ), which consists of 16 items that describe everyday memory failure of both prospective memory (PM) and retrospective memory (RM). For aMCI and AD subjects, informants also completed an informant-rating of the PRMQ. All participants completed detailed neuropsychological tests. Results show that PM complaints were equivalent among the three groups. However, RM complaints differed. Specifically, RM complaints in aMCI were higher than SCI, but similar to AD. Informant-reported memory complaints were higher for AD than aMCI. Our study suggests that RM complaints of memory complaints may be helpful in discriminating between SCI and aMCI, but both PM and RM complaints are of limited value in differentiating aMCI from AD.
Mohades, Sara; Dubois, Jonathan; Parent, Maxime
regional cortical thinning (CT) measured by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and brain amyloidosis (measured by CSF Ab 1-42 concentrations), or tau hyperphosphorylation (tau 181; p-tau) in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) patients. We test the hypothesis that the association...... (CN; n¼8) were obtained from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) cohort. Cortical surface reconstruction and group registration were generated using Freesurfer. A general linear model was used to conduct regressions between CSF markers and cortical thickness. Results: Correlation...
Modeling community integration in workers with delayed recovery from mild traumatic brain injury
Mollayeva, T.; Shapiro, C. M.; Mollayeva, S.
2015-01-01
Background: Delayed recovery in persons after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is poorly understood. Community integration (CI) is endorsed by persons with neurological disorders as an important outcome. We aimed to describe CI and its associated factors in insured Ontario workers with delayed...... assessments, and insurers' referral files. Community Integration Questionnaire (CIQ) scores were compared using analysis of variance or Spearman's correlation tests. Stepwise multivariable linear regression models were used to evaluate the associations with CI. Results: Ninety-four workers with mTBI (45...
Garbet, X.; Mourgues, F.; Samain, A.
1987-01-01
Among the various instabilities which could explain the anomalous electron heat transport observed in tokamaks during additional heating, a microtearing turbulence is a reasonable candidate since it affects directly the magnetic topology. This turbulence may be described in a proper frame rotating around the majors axis by a static potential vector. In strong non linear regimes, the flow of electrons along the stochastic field lines induces a current. The point is to know whether this current can sustain the turbulence. The mechanisms of this self-consistency, involving the combined effects of the thermal diamagnetism and of the electric drift are presented here
Wangler, Thomas P
2008-01-01
Thomas P. Wangler received his B.S. degree in physics from Michigan State University, and his Ph.D. degree in physics and astronomy from the University of Wisconsin. After postdoctoral appointments at the University of Wisconsin and Brookhaven National Laboratory, he joined the staff of Argonne National Laboratory in 1966, working in the fields of experimental high-energy physics and accelerator physics. He joined the Accelerator Technology Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1979, where he specialized in high-current beam physics and linear accelerator design and technology. In 2007
Richter, B.; Bell, R.A.; Brown, K.L.
1980-06-01
The SLAC LINEAR COLLIDER is designed to achieve an energy of 100 GeV in the electron-positron center-of-mass system by accelerating intense bunches of particles in the SLAC linac and transporting the electron and positron bunches in a special magnet system to a point where they are focused to a radius of about 2 microns and made to collide head on. The rationale for this new type of colliding beam system is discussed, the project is described, some of the novel accelerator physics issues involved are discussed, and some of the critical technical components are described
Lopez, Cesar
2014-01-01
MATLAB is a high-level language and environment for numerical computation, visualization, and programming. Using MATLAB, you can analyze data, develop algorithms, and create models and applications. The language, tools, and built-in math functions enable you to explore multiple approaches and reach a solution faster than with spreadsheets or traditional programming languages, such as C/C++ or Java. MATLAB Linear Algebra introduces you to the MATLAB language with practical hands-on instructions and results, allowing you to quickly achieve your goals. In addition to giving an introduction to
[Decision-making and apathy in early stage of Alzheimer's disease and in mild cognitive impairment].
Jacus, Jean-Pierre; Bayard, Sophie; Raffard, Stéphane; Gély-Nargeot, Marie-Christine
2013-06-01
Decision-making and apathy have common neuropsychological processes and neuroanatomical substrates. However, their links in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) remain unclear. in order to evaluate these links, we compared 3 groups of 20 control subjects to 20 patients with MCI and 20 patients with mild AD. All participants completed the mini mental state examination (MMSE), the Lille apathy rating scale (LARS, a multidimensional scale of apathy), the game of dice task (GDT, assessing decision under risk) and the Iowa gambling task (IGT, assessing decision under ambiguity). 60% of patients in both clinical groups were apathetic versus 5% of control subjects. In both clinical groups the IGT and GDT net scores were comparable (respectively: p = 0.76 and p = 0.84), while the control group had higher scores than MCI and AD's groups (respectively, GDT p decision under risk (× 6), and under ambiguity (× 3.5). No global contribution of apathy was found for decision-making performances (all PS > 0.05), but on the LARS, the "intellectual curiosity" (cognitive dimension) was a predictor for the performances on GDT's (OR = 1.73, p = 0.05), while the "action initiation" (behavioral dimension) was a predictor of those on IGT (OR = 1.57, p = 0.05). these results highlight the behavioral and the cognitive sensitivity of the IGT and the GDT, and are analyzed according to Levy and Dubois's model of apathy, and to the three steps of the decision-making process of Gleichgerrcht et al. (2010). However, more researches are necessary to explain the causality links between action initiation and decision under ambiguity.
Namjoshi, Dhananjay R; Cheng, Wai Hang; Bashir, Asma; Wilkinson, Anna; Stukas, Sophie; Martens, Kris M; Whyte, Tom; Abebe, Zelalem A; McInnes, Kurt A; Cripton, Peter A; Wellington, Cheryl L
2017-06-01
CHIMERA (Closed Head Impact Model of Engineered Rotational Acceleration) is a recently described animal model of traumatic brain injury (TBI) that primarily produces diffuse axonal injury (DAI) characterized by white matter inflammation and axonal damage. CHIMERA was specifically designed to reliably generate a variety of TBI severities using precise and quantifiable biomechanical inputs in a nonsurgical user-friendly platform. The objective of this study was to define the lower limit of single impact mild TBI (mTBI) using CHIMERA by characterizing the dose-response relationship between biomechanical input and neurological, behavioral, neuropathological and biochemical outcomes. Wild-type male mice were subjected to a single CHIMERA TBI using six impact energies ranging from 0.1 to 0.7J, and post-TBI outcomes were assessed over an acute period of 14days. Here we report that single TBI using CHIMERA induces injury dose- and time-dependent changes in behavioral and neurological deficits, axonal damage, white matter tract microgliosis and astrogliosis. Impact energies of 0.4J or below produced no significant phenotype (subthreshold), 0.5J led to significant changes for one or more phenotypes (threshold), and 0.6 and 0.7J resulted in significant changes in all outcomes assessed (mTBI). We further show that linear head kinematics are the most robust predictors of duration of unconsciousness, severity of neurological deficits, white matter injury, and microgliosis following single TBI. Our data extend the validation of CHIMERA as a biofidelic animal model of DAI and establish working parameters to guide future investigations of the mechanisms underlying axonal pathology and inflammation induced by mechanical trauma. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Special set linear algebra and special set fuzzy linear algebra
Kandasamy, W. B. Vasantha; Smarandache, Florentin; Ilanthenral, K.
2009-01-01
The authors in this book introduce the notion of special set linear algebra and special set fuzzy Linear algebra, which is an extension of the notion set linear algebra and set fuzzy linear algebra. These concepts are best suited in the application of multi expert models and cryptology. This book has five chapters. In chapter one the basic concepts about set linear algebra is given in order to make this book a self contained one. The notion of special set linear algebra and their fuzzy analog...
Psychological well-being in individuals with mild cognitive impairment
Gates N
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Nicola Gates,1–3 Michael Valenzuela,3 Perminder S Sachdev,1,2,4 Maria A Fiatarone Singh5,61School of Psychiatry, 2Centre for Healthy Brain Ageing (CheBA, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3Regenerative Neuroscience Group, Brain and Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 4Neuropsychiatric Institute, Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 5Exercise Health and Performance Faculty Research Group, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Lidcombe, NSW, Australia; 6Hebrew SeniorLife, Boston, MA, and Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, MA, USAObjectives: Cognitive impairments associated with aging and dementia are major sources of burden, deterioration in life quality, and reduced psychological well-being (PWB. Preventative measures to both reduce incident disease and improve PWB in those afflicted are increasingly targeting individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI at early disease stage. However, there is very limited information regarding the relationships between early cognitive changes and memory concern, and life quality and PWB in adults with MCI; furthermore, PWB outcomes are too commonly overlooked in intervention trials. The purpose of this study was therefore to empirically test a theoretical model of PWB in MCI in order to inform clinical intervention.Methods: Baseline data from a convenience sample of 100 community-dwelling adults diagnosed with MCI enrolled in the Study of Mental Activity and Regular Training (SMART trial were collected. A series of regression analyses were performed to develop a reduced model, then hierarchical regression with the Baron Kenny test of mediation derived the final three-tiered model of PWB.Results: Significant predictors of PWB were subjective memory concern, cognitive function, evaluations of quality of life, and negative affect, with a final model explaining 61% of the variance
Functional abilities in older adults with mild cognitive impairment.
Burton, Catherine L; Strauss, Esther; Bunce, David; Hunter, Michael A; Hultsch, David F
2009-01-01
A classification scheme and general set of criteria for diagnosing mild cognitive impairment (MCI) were recently proposed by a multidisciplinary group of experts who met at an international symposium on MCI. One of the proposed criteria included preserved basic activities of daily living and minimal impairment in complex instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs). To investigate whether older adults with MCI classified according to the subtypes identified by the Working Group (i.e. amnestic, single non-memory domain, and multiple domain with or without a memory component) differed from cognitively intact older adults on a variety of measures indexing IADLs and to examine how well measures of IADL predict concurrent MCI status. Two hundred and fifty community-dwelling older adults, ranging in age from 66 to 92, completed self-report measures of IADLs (Lawton and Brody IADL Scale, Scales of Independent Behaviour-Revised--SIB-R) and a measure of everyday problem solving indexing IADLs (Everyday Problems Test--EPT). Ratings of participants' IADL functioning were also obtained from informants (e.g. spouse, adult child and friend). Older adults with multiple-domain MCI demonstrated poorer IADL functioning than older adults with no cognitive impairment on the EPT and the SIB-R (both self- and informant-report versions). The multiple-domain MCI participants also demonstrated poorer IADLs than MCI participants with impairments in a single cognitive domain on the self-reported SIB-R and EPT. The single-domain MCI groups demonstrated poorer IADLs than older adults without cognitive impairment on the informant-reported SIB-R and EPT. No significant group differences were found on the Lawton and Brody IADL Scale. Using the EPT and SIB-R as predictors in a multinomial regression analysis, MCI group status was reliably predicted, but the classification rate was poor. Individuals with MCI demonstrated poorer IADL functioning compared to cognitively intact older adults
Munehiro, H
1980-05-29
When driving the carriage of a printer through a rotating motor, there are problems regarding the limited accuracy of the carriage position due to rotation or contraction and ageing of the cable. In order to solve the problem, a direct drive system was proposed, in which the printer carriage is driven by a linear motor. If one wants to keep the motor circuit of such a motor compact, then the magnetic flux density in the air gap must be reduced or the motor travel must be reduced. It is the purpose of this invention to create an electrodynamic linear motor, which on the one hand is compact and light and on the other hand has a relatively high constant force over a large travel. The invention is characterised by the fact that magnetic fields of alternating polarity are generated at equal intervals in the magnetic field, and that the coil arrangement has 2 adjacent coils, whose size corresponds to half the length of each magnetic pole. A logic circuit is provided to select one of the two coils and to determine the direction of the current depending on the signals of a magnetic field sensor on the coil arrangement.
Kozarov, A.; Petrov, O.; Antonov, J.; Sotirova, S.; Petrova, B.
2006-01-01
The purpose of the linear wind-power generator described in this article is to decrease the following disadvantages of the common wind-powered turbine: 1) large bending and twisting moments to the blades and the shaft, especially when strong winds and turbulence exist; 2) significant values of the natural oscillation period of the construction result in the possibility of occurrence of destroying resonance oscillations; 3) high velocity of the peripheral parts of the rotor creating a danger for birds; 4) difficulties, connected with the installation and the operation on the mountain ridges and passages where the wind energy potential is the largest. The working surfaces of the generator in questions driven by the wind are not connected with a joint shaft but each moves along a railway track with few oscillations. So the sizes of each component are small and their number can be rather large. The mechanical trajectory is not a circle but a closed outline in a vertical plain, which consists of two rectilinear sectors, one above the other, connected in their ends by semi-circumferences. The mechanical energy of each component turns into electrical on the principle of the linear electrical generator. A regulation is provided when the direction of the wind is perpendicular to the route. A possibility of effectiveness is shown through aiming of additional quantities of air to the movable components by static barriers
Serum Metabonomics of Mild Acute Pancreatitis.
Xu, Hongmin; Zhang, Lei; Kang, Huan; Zhang, Jiandong; Liu, Jie; Liu, Shuye
2016-11-01
Mild acute pancreatitis (MAP) is a common acute abdominal disease, and exhibits rising incidence in recent decades. As an important component of systemic biology, metabonomics is a new discipline developed following genomics and proteomics. In this study, the objective was to analyze the serum metabonomics of patients with MAP, aiming to screen metabolic markers with potential diagnostic values. An analysis platform with ultra performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry was used to screen the difference metabolites related to MAP diagnosis and disease course monitoring. A total of 432 endogenous metabolites were screened out from 122 serum samples, and 49 difference metabolites were verified, among which 12 difference metabolites were identified by nonparametric test. After material identification, eight metabolites exhibited reliable results, and their levels in MAP serum were higher than those in healthy serum. Four metabolites exhibited gradual downward trend with treatment process going on, and the differences were statistically significant (P Metabonomic analysis has revealed eight metabolites with potential diagnostic values toward MAP, among which four metabolites can be used to monitor the disease course. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Long duration mild temperature hyperthermia and brachytherapy.
Armour, E P; Raaphorst, G P
2004-03-01
Combining long duration mild temperature hyperthermia (LDMH) and low dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy to enhance therapeutic killing of cancer cells was proposed many years ago. The cellular and tumour research that supports this hypothesis is presented in this review. Research describing LDMH interaction with pulsed brachytherapy and high dose-rate brachytherapy using clinically relevant parameters are compared with LDMH/LDR brachytherapy. The mechanism by which LDMH sensitizes LDR has been established as the inhibition of sublethal damage repair. The molecular mechanisms have been shown to involve DNA repair enzymes, but the exact nature of these processes is still under investigation. The relative differences between LDMH interactions with human and rodent cells are presented to help in the understanding of possible roles of LDMH in clinical application. The role of LDMH in modifying tumour blood flow and its possible role in LDR sensitization of tumours is also presented. The positive aspects of LDMH-brachytherapy for clinical application are sixfold; (1) the thermal goals (temperature, time and volume) are achievable with currently available technology, (2) the hyperthermia by itself has no detectable toxic effects, (3) thermotolerance appears to play a minor if any role in radiation sensitization, (4) TER of around 2 can be expected, (5) hypoxic fraction may be decreased due to blood flow modification and (6) simultaneous chemotherapy may also be sensitized. Combined LDMH and brachytherapy is a cancer therapy that has established biological rationale and sufficient technical and clinical advancements to be appropriately applied. This modality is ripe for clinical testing.
Some problems on non-linear semigroups and the blow-up of integral solutions
Pavel, N.H.
1983-07-01
After some introductory remarks, this highly mathematical document considers a unifying approach in the theory of non-linear semigroups. Then a brief survey is given on blow-up of mild solutions from the semilinear case. Finally, the global behavior of solutions to non-linear evolution equations is addressed; it is found that classical results on the behavior of the maximal solution u as t up-arrow tsub(max) hold also for integral solutions
A sibship with a mild variant of Zellweger syndrome
Barth, P. G.; Schutgens, R. B.; Wanders, R. J.; Heymans, H. S.; Moser, A. E.; Moser, H. W.; Bleeker-Wagemakers, E. M.; Jansonius-Schultheiss, K.; Derix, M.; Nelck, G. F.
1987-01-01
A mild variant of Zellweger (cerebro-hepato-renal) syndrome was diagnosed in male and female siblings aged 7 and 2 years. They had mild facial dysmorphia, moderate psychomotor retardation, tapetoretinal degeneration, sensorineural deafness and hepatomegaly. Ultrastructural examination of a liver
Mild Aphasia: Is This the Place for an Argument?
Armstrong, Elizabeth; Fox, Sarah; Wilkinson, Ray
2013-01-01
Purpose: Individuals with mild aphasia often report significant disruption to their communication despite seemingly minor impairment. This study explored this phenomenon through examining conversations of a person with mild aphasia engaging in argumentation--a skill she felt had significantly deteriorated after her stroke. Method: A person with…
Efficacy of psychosocial intervention in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease
Waldorff, F B; Buss, D V; Eckermann, A
2012-01-01
To assess the efficacy at 12 months of an early psychosocial counselling and support programme for outpatients with mild Alzheimer's disease and their primary care givers.......To assess the efficacy at 12 months of an early psychosocial counselling and support programme for outpatients with mild Alzheimer's disease and their primary care givers....
Digit Symbol Performance in Mild Dementia and Depression.
Hart, Robert P.; And Others
1987-01-01
Patients with mild dementia of the Alzheimer's type (DAT), patients with major depression, and normal control subjects completed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) Digit Symbol test of incidental memory. Though mild DAT and depressed patients had equivalent deficits in psychomotor speed, DAT patients recalled fewer digit-symbol items.…
Heterogeneity in executive impairment in patients with very mild Alzheimer's
Stokholm, J.; Gade, Anders; Vogel, A.
2006-01-01
The presence of executive impairment in mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) has primarily been demonstrated by means of group comparison. Whether executive dysfunction is a common feature of mild AD or only present in a subgroup of patients remains unclear. The aim of this study was to describe...
Anticorrosion potential of hydralazine for corrosion of mild steel in ...
Anticorrosion potential of mild steel by Hydralazine as corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in 1M hydrochloric acid was investigated by chemical and electrochemical measurements at 303-333 K temperature. The maximum inhibition efficiency of inhibitor by Weight loss method is around 90%, Tafel polarization method is ...
Reliability and performance evaluation of stainless and mild steel ...
Reliability and performance of stainless and mild steel products in methanolic and aqueous sodium chloride media have been investigated. Weight-loss and pre-exposure methods were used. There was a higher rate of weight-loss of mild steels and stainless steels in 1% HCl methanolic solution than in aqueous NaCl ...
Media and Life Dissatisfaction as Predictors of Body Dissatisfaction
Melissa Bittencourt Jaeger
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Body dissatisfaction can contribute to social, occupational and recreational losses, constituting a risk factor to health. This study aimed to evaluate the predictors of body dissatisfaction regarding demographic variables, media and life satisfaction among university students. The sample consisted of 321 participants older than 18 years. Body dissatisfaction, life dissatisfaction and media messages internalization were evaluated by Escala de Silhuetas para Adultos Brasileiros, Subjective Well-Being Scale and Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3, respectively. Data were collected by an online survey tool (SurveyMonkey® and were analyzed using multiple linear regression. It was found that body dissatisfaction was positively related to inaccuracy in the perception of body size, Body Mass Index, life dissatisfaction, media messages internalization and television exposure. These findings evidence the importance of these predictors in the dynamics of body dissatisfaction, which support the development of preventive and treatment interventions.
Linearization of the Lorenz system
Li, Chunbiao; Sprott, Julien Clinton; Thio, Wesley
2015-01-01
A partial and complete piecewise linearized version of the Lorenz system is proposed. The linearized versions have an independent total amplitude control parameter. Additional further linearization leads naturally to a piecewise linear version of the diffusionless Lorenz system. A chaotic circuit with a single amplitude controller is then implemented using a new switch element, producing a chaotic oscillation that agrees with the numerical calculation for the piecewise linear diffusionless Lorenz system. - Highlights: • A partial and complete piecewise linearized version of the Lorenz system are addressed. • The linearized versions have an independent total amplitude control parameter. • A piecewise linear version of the diffusionless Lorenz system is derived by further linearization. • A corresponding chaotic circuit without any multiplier is implemented for the chaotic oscillation
Topics in computational linear optimization
Hultberg, Tim Helge
2000-01-01
Linear optimization has been an active area of research ever since the pioneering work of G. Dantzig more than 50 years ago. This research has produced a long sequence of practical as well as theoretical improvements of the solution techniques avilable for solving linear optimization problems...... of high quality solvers and the use of algebraic modelling systems to handle the communication between the modeller and the solver. This dissertation features four topics in computational linear optimization: A) automatic reformulation of mixed 0/1 linear programs, B) direct solution of sparse unsymmetric...... systems of linear equations, C) reduction of linear programs and D) integration of algebraic modelling of linear optimization problems in C++. Each of these topics is treated in a separate paper included in this dissertation. The efficiency of solving mixed 0-1 linear programs by linear programming based...
Linearization of the Lorenz system
Li, Chunbiao, E-mail: goontry@126.com [School of Electronic & Information Engineering, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Engineering Technology Research and Development Center of Jiangsu Circulation Modernization Sensor Network, Jiangsu Institute of Commerce, Nanjing 211168 (China); Sprott, Julien Clinton [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Thio, Wesley [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)
2015-05-08
A partial and complete piecewise linearized version of the Lorenz system is proposed. The linearized versions have an independent total amplitude control parameter. Additional further linearization leads naturally to a piecewise linear version of the diffusionless Lorenz system. A chaotic circuit with a single amplitude controller is then implemented using a new switch element, producing a chaotic oscillation that agrees with the numerical calculation for the piecewise linear diffusionless Lorenz system. - Highlights: • A partial and complete piecewise linearized version of the Lorenz system are addressed. • The linearized versions have an independent total amplitude control parameter. • A piecewise linear version of the diffusionless Lorenz system is derived by further linearization. • A corresponding chaotic circuit without any multiplier is implemented for the chaotic oscillation.
Zucco, Gesualdo M; Bollini, Fabiola
2011-12-30
Olfactory deficits, in detection, recognition and identification of odorants have been documented in ageing and in several neurodegenerative and psychiatric conditions. However, olfactory abilities in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) have been less investigated, and available studies have provided inconsistent results. The present study assessed odour recognition memory and odour identification in two groups of 12 mild MDD patients (M age 41.3, range 25-57) and 12 severe MDD patients (M age, 41.9, range 23-58) diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria and matched for age and gender to 12 healthy normal controls. The suitability of olfactory identification and recognition memory tasks as predictors of the progression of MDD was also addressed. Data analyses revealed that Severe MDD patients performed significantly worse than Mild MDD patients and Normal controls on both tasks, with these last groups not differing significantly from one another. The present outcomes are consistent with previous studies in other domains which have shown reliable, although not conclusive, impairments in cognitive function, including memory, in patients with MDD, and highlight the role of olfactory identification and recognition tasks as an important additional tool to discriminate between patients characterised by different levels of severity of MDD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
MMPI-2 profiles 23 years after paediatric mild traumatic brain injury.
Hessen, Erik; Anderson, Vicki; Nestvold, Knut
2008-01-01
Research suggest that post-concussive syndrome after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is more common than chronic cognitive impairment. The aim of this study was to investigate very long-term outcome of subjective complaints after paediatric mTBI. The study was a follow-up 23 years after a prospective head injury study at a general hospital in Norway. Forty-one patients were assessed with the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) 23 years after sustaining mTBI as children. A good overall outcome was found with scores close to the normative mean, average length of education and normal employment rate. However, the children that sustained complicated mTBI showed slightly more pathological scores, typical for mild post-concussive syndrome. The most important predictors of poor outcome were skull fracture and a combination of post-traumatic amnesia > 30 minutes and EEG pathology within 24 hours after TBI. No influence of pre- and post-injury risk factors on current MMPI-2 profiles was evident. The results give support for the notion of potentially differential impact of uncomplicated vs complicated mTBI. The findings suggest that children and adolescents sustaining complicated mTBI may be at risk of developing subtle chronic symptoms typical of post-concussive syndrome.
Indicators of complicated mild TBI predict MMPI-2 scores after 23 years.
Hessen, Erik; Nestvold, Knut
2009-03-01
Research suggests that post-concussive syndrome may become persistent after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). The aim of this study was to investigate determinants of subjective complaints, characteristic for post-concussive syndrome, 23 years after mTBI. The study was a follow-up after a prospective head injury study at a general hospital in Norway. Ninety-seven patients were assessed with the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) 23 years after sustaining primarily mTBI. A good overall outcome was found with scores close to the normative mean, average length of education and normal employment rate. However, the patients that sustained complicated mTBI showed somewhat more pathological scores, well-matched with mild post-concussive syndrome. The most important predictors of poor outcome were a combination of post-traumatic amnesia >30 minutes and EEG pathology within 24 hours after TBI. No influence of pre- and post-injury risk factors on current MMPI-2 profiles was found. The results are in line with previous research findings and support the notion of potentially differential impact of uncomplicated vs. complicated mTBI. The findings suggest that complicated mTBI may cause subtle chronic symptoms typical of post-concussive syndrome.
James R. Hall
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Objectives. Determine the relationship between depressive symptom clusters and neuropsychological test performance in an elderly cohort of cognitively normal controls and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD. Design. Cross-sectional analysis. Setting. Four health science centers in Texas. Participants. 628 elderly individuals (272 diagnosed with mild AD and 356 controls from ongoing longitudinal study of Alzheimer's disease. Measurements. Standard battery of neuropsychological tests and the 30-item Geriatric Depression Scale with regressions model generated on GDS-30 subscale scores (dysphoria, apathy, meaninglessness and cognitive impairment as predictors and neuropsychological tests as outcome variables. Follow-up analyses by gender were conducted. Results. For AD, all symptom clusters were related to specific neurocognitive domains; among controls apathy and cognitive impairment were significantly related to neuropsychological functioning. The relationship between performance and symptom clusters was significantly different for males and females in each group. Conclusion. Findings suggest the need to examine disease status and gender when considering the impact of depressive symptoms on cognition.
On the linear programming bound for linear Lee codes.
Astola, Helena; Tabus, Ioan
2016-01-01
Based on an invariance-type property of the Lee-compositions of a linear Lee code, additional equality constraints can be introduced to the linear programming problem of linear Lee codes. In this paper, we formulate this property in terms of an action of the multiplicative group of the field [Formula: see text] on the set of Lee-compositions. We show some useful properties of certain sums of Lee-numbers, which are the eigenvalues of the Lee association scheme, appearing in the linear programming problem of linear Lee codes. Using the additional equality constraints, we formulate the linear programming problem of linear Lee codes in a very compact form, leading to a fast execution, which allows to efficiently compute the bounds for large parameter values of the linear codes.
Özkır, Demet; Kayakırılmaz, Kadriye; Bayol, Emel; Gürten, A. Ali; Kandemirli, Fatma
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► Azure A molecule is found to be a good inhibitor for mild steel in HCl solution. ► SEM results clearly indicate that a protective film formation occurred on the mild steel surface. ► The long term corrosion tests are cleared that the Azure A has effectively protected the mild steel in HCl solution. ► The quantum chemical measurements were cleared the reactive sites and charges of atoms in the molecule. - Abstract: In this study, inhibition effect of Azure A on mild steel in 1.0 M HCl were evaluated by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), linear polarization resistance (LPR), and potentiodynamic polarization and scanning electron microscope (SEM) methods. These studies were carried out at different concentrations, temperatures and durations. The inhibitor molecules were chemisorbed on electrode surface according to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The quantum chemical calculations were employed to give further insight into the inhibition mechanism of Azure A.
Measures for Predictors of Innovation Adoption
Chor, Ka Ho Brian; Wisdom, Jennifer P.; Olin, Su-Chin Serene; Hoagwood, Kimberly E.; Horwitz, Sarah M.
2014-01-01
Building on a narrative synthesis of adoption theories by Wisdom et al. (2013), this review identifies 118 measures associated with the 27 adoption predictors in the synthesis. The distribution of measures is uneven across the predictors and predictors vary in modifiability. Multiple dimensions and definitions of predictors further complicate measurement efforts. For state policymakers and researchers, more effective and integrated measurement can advance the adoption of complex innovations such as evidence-based practices. PMID:24740175
Mechanical behaviour of Zn-Fe alloy coated mild steel
Panagopoulos, C.N.; Georgiou, E.P.; Agathocleous, P.E.; Giannakopoulos, K.I.
2009-01-01
Zinc alloy coatings containing various amounts of Fe were deposited by electrodeposition technique on a mild steel substrate. The concentration of Fe in the produced alloy coatings ranged from 0 to 14 wt.%, whereas the thickness of the coatings was about 50 μm. Structural and metallurgical characterization of the produced coatings was performed with the aid of X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) techniques. This study aims in investigating the mechanical behaviour of Zn-Fe coated mild steel specimens, as no research investigation concerning the tensile behaviour of Zn alloy coated ferrous alloys has been reported in the past. The experimental results indicated that the ultimate tensile strength of the Zn-Fe coated mild steel was lower than the bare mild steel. In addition, the ductility of the Zn-Fe coated mild steel was found to decrease significantly with increasing Fe content in the coating.
Oren, Asaf; Wang, Michael K; Brnjac, Lori; Mahmud, Farid H; Palmert, Mark R
2013-12-01
To examine a large population of infants with mild neonatal hyperthyrotrophinaemia (MNH) and determine prevalence, clinical characteristics and treatment history. Retrospective study of infants with MNH followed at The Hospital for Sick Children between 2000 and 2011. MNH was defined by an abnormal newborn screen followed by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) between 5 and 30 mU/l and normal free T4 (FT4) on confirmatory tests. Mild neonatal hyperthyrotrophinaemia represented 22·3% of patients (103/462; 60 boys, 43 girls) within our clinic. Incidence increased from two of 20 in 2000 to 31 of 74 cases in 2010. Seventy eight percent of patients started L-thyroxine (initial dose: 8·3 ± 2·5 mcg/kg). The treated group had higher confirmatory TSH levels (P = 0·001) and had undergone thyroid scintigraphy more often (P = 0·0001) compared with the nontreated group. Evidence of overtreatment was detected in 45% of thyroid function tests obtained during treatment. Among the treated infants who had reached 3 years of age, 45% (N = 14) underwent a trial-off medication. Compared with those not trialled-off therapy, these infants were less likely to have had dose escalations during treatment (P = 0·001). The trial-off treatment was successful in 50% of cases. In the subset of infants with confirmatory TSH >10 mU/l, trial-off therapy was successful in 40%. None of the assessed variables predicted success of trial-off therapy. Mild neonatal hyperthyrotrophinaemia is an increasingly common diagnosis. It is more common in males and is often transient, but predictors of success of trial-off therapy were not identified. Further studies are needed to determine optimum L-thyroxine dosing and to determine whether treatment improves neurocognitive outcomes. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Introduction to linear elasticity
Gould, Phillip L
2013-01-01
Introduction to Linear Elasticity, 3rd Edition, provides an applications-oriented grounding in the tensor-based theory of elasticity for students in mechanical, civil, aeronautical, and biomedical engineering, as well as materials and earth science. The book is distinct from the traditional text aimed at graduate students in solid mechanics by introducing the subject at a level appropriate for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students. The author's presentation allows students to apply the basic notions of stress analysis and move on to advanced work in continuum mechanics, plasticity, plate and shell theory, composite materials, viscoelasticity and finite method analysis. This book also: Emphasizes tensor-based approach while still distilling down to explicit notation Provides introduction to theory of plates, theory of shells, wave propagation, viscoelasticity and plasticity accessible to advanced undergraduate students Appropriate for courses following emerging trend of teaching solid mechan...
Haniger, L.; Elger, R.; Kocandrle, L.; Zdebor, J.
1986-01-01
A linear step drive is described developed in Czechoslovak-Soviet cooperation and intended for driving WWER-1000 control rods. The functional principle is explained of the motor and the mechanical and electrical parts of the drive, power control, and the indicator of position are described. The motor has latches situated in the reactor at a distance of 3 m from magnetic armatures, it has a low structural height above the reactor cover, which suggests its suitability for seismic localities. Its magnetic circuits use counterpoles; the mechanical shocks at the completion of each step are damped using special design features. The position indicator is of a special design and evaluates motor position within ±1% of total travel. A drive diagram and the flow chart of both the control electronics and the position indicator are presented. (author) 4 figs
Tjutju, R.L.
1977-01-01
Pulse amplifier is standard significant part of spectrometer. Apart from other type of amplification, it's a combination of amplification and pulse shaping. Because of its special purpose the device should fulfill the following : High resolution is desired to gain a high yield comparable to its actual state of condition. High signal to noise is desired to nhν resolution. High linearity to facilitate calibration. A good overload recovery, in order to the device will capable of analizing a low energy radiation which appear joinly on the high energy fields. Other expections of the device are its economical and practical use its extentive application. For that reason it's built on a standard NIM principle. Taking also into account the above mentioned considerations. High quality component parts are used throughout, while its availability in the domestic market is secured. (author)
1976-01-01
This report covers the activity of the Linear Accelerator Laboratory during the period June 1974-June 1976. The activity of the Laboratory is essentially centered on high energy physics. The main activities were: experiments performed with the colliding rings (ACO), construction of the new colliding rings and beginning of the work at higher energy (DCI), bubble chamber experiments with the CERN PS neutrino beam, counter experiments with CERN's PS and setting-up of equipment for new experiments with CERN's SPS. During this period a project has also been prepared for an experiment with the new PETRA colliding ring at Hamburg. On the other hand, intense collaboration with the LURE Laboratory, using the electron synchrotron radiation emitted by ACO and DCI, has been developed [fr
Van Atta, C.M.; Beringer, R.; Smith, L.
1959-01-01
A linear accelerator of heavy ions is described. The basic contributions of the invention consist of a method and apparatus for obtaining high energy particles of an element with an increased charge-to-mass ratio. The method comprises the steps of ionizing the atoms of an element, accelerating the resultant ions to an energy substantially equal to one Mev per nucleon, stripping orbital electrons from the accelerated ions by passing the ions through a curtain of elemental vapor disposed transversely of the path of the ions to provide a second charge-to-mass ratio, and finally accelerating the resultant stripped ions to a final energy of at least ten Mev per nucleon.
Tip, A.
1998-06-01
Starting from Maxwell's equations for a linear, nonconducting, absorptive, and dispersive medium, characterized by the constitutive equations D(x,t)=ɛ1(x)E(x,t)+∫t-∞dsχ(x,t-s)E(x,s) and H(x,t)=B(x,t), a unitary time evolution and canonical formalism is obtained. Given the complex, coordinate, and frequency-dependent, electric permeability ɛ(x,ω), no further assumptions are made. The procedure leads to a proper definition of band gaps in the periodic case and a new continuity equation for energy flow. An S-matrix formalism for scattering from lossy objects is presented in full detail. A quantized version of the formalism is derived and applied to the generation of Čerenkov and transition radiation as well as atomic decay. The last case suggests a useful generalization of the density of states to the absorptive situation.
Do subjective memory complaints herald the onset of mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson disease?
Erro, Roberto; Santangelo, Gabriella; Barone, Paolo; Picillo, Marina; Amboni, Marianna; Longo, Katia; Giordano, Flavio; Moccia, Marcello; Allocca, Roberto; Pellecchia, Maria Teresa; Vitale, Carmine
2014-12-01
Longitudinal studies on healthy participants have shown that subjective memory impairment (defined as subjective cognitive complaints with normal cognitive objective performance) might be a strong predictor of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Parkinson disease (PD) also manifests cognitive disturbances, but whether subjective memory complaints may predict the development of MCI in PD has not yet been explored. We prospectively screened newly diagnosed, untreated patients with PD in order to evaluate whether subjective memory complaints may predict development of MCI over a 2-year follow-up evaluation. We enrolled 76 de novo untreated patients with PD. Of the 76 patients, 23 (30.3%) complained memory issues. Among the patients cognitively unimpaired at baseline, those with subjective complaints were more likely to develop MCI at follow-up. The regression model confirmed that presence of subjective memory complaints at baseline was an independent predictor of development of MCI at follow-up. This is the first prospective study to explore the relationship between subjective and objective cognitive deficits in newly diagnosed, untreated patients. Our results provide preliminary evidence that subjective memory complaints might predict future development of MCI. © The Author(s) 2014.
Neuropathology of mild cognitive impairment (MCI)
Murayama, Shigeo; Saito, Yuko
2007-01-01
Described are retrospective pathological studies on mild cognitive impairment (MCI) of brain specimens in the brain bank of authors' institute and current clinical studies of outpatients for screening of MCI based on those pathological findings. The study projects, aided by Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) from 2003 and from 2007, have aimed to develop the optimal way for prophylaxis of dementia. In the former autopsy, about 10% of the elderly dead registered in the institute are found to have pathological changes of the clinical dementia rating 0.5, in whom the early Alzheimer disease (AD), Lewy body dementia, argentaffin granular disease and neurofibrillary tangle dominant disease are involved in a similar ratio to each other. Clinically, new patients with memory complaint are first screened by neurological tests involving CT, and then those with suspicious dementia undergo the second screening (2-day hospitalization) involving MRI with VSRAD (Voxel-based Specific Regional Analysis System for AD), ECD single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with eZis (easy Z-score imaging system), myocardial scintigraphy with homovanillic acid (HVA)/m-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), and if necessary, PET with fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), PIB (Pittsburgh Compound B, an amyloid prove) and/or 11 C-CFT and 11 C-raclopride. Further, new patients with suspicious Parkinson disease undergo the screening (3-day) of various tests involving MRI with voxel-based morphometry and VSRAD, cerebral blood flow ECD SPECT with eZis and MIBG myocardial scintigraphy. It is concluded that AD is the most important subject in MCI and systemic diseases can also affect the cognitive ability as well. (R.T.)
Cognitive predictors of adaptive functioning in children with symptomatic epilepsy.
Kerr, Elizabeth N; Fayed, Nora
2017-10-01
The current study sought to understand the contribution of the attention and working memory challenges experienced by children with active epilepsy without an intellectual disability to adaptive functioning (AF) while taking into account intellectual ability, co-occurring brain-based psychosocial diagnoses, and epilepsy-related variables. The relationship of attention and working memory with AF was examined in 76 children with active epilepsy with intellectual ability above the 2nd percentile recruited from a tertiary care center. AF was measured using the Scales of Independent Behavior-Revised (SIB-R) and compared with norm-referenced data. Standardized clinical assessments of attention span, sustained attention, as well as basic and more complex working memory were administered to children. Commonality analysis was used to investigate the importance of the variables with respect to the prediction of AF and to construct parsimonious models to elucidate the factors most important in explaining AF. Seventy-one percent of parents reported that their child experienced mild to severe difficulties with overall AF. Similar proportions of children displayed limitations in domain-specific areas of AF (Motor, Social/Communication, Person Living, and Community Living). The reduced models for Broad and domain-specific AF produced a maximum of seven predictor variables, with little loss in overall explained variance compared to the full models. Intellectual ability was a powerful predictor of Broad and domain-specific AF. Complex working memory was the only other cognitive predictor retained in each of the parsimonious models of AF. Sustained attention and complex working memory explained a large amount of the total variance in Motor AF. Children with a previously diagnosed comorbidity displayed lower Social/Communication, Personal Living, and Broad AF than those without a diagnosis. At least one epilepsy-related variable appeared in each of the reduced models, with age of
Computer Program For Linear Algebra
Krogh, F. T.; Hanson, R. J.
1987-01-01
Collection of routines provided for basic vector operations. Basic Linear Algebra Subprogram (BLAS) library is collection from FORTRAN-callable routines for employing standard techniques to perform basic operations of numerical linear algebra.
Quaternion Linear Canonical Transform Application
Bahri, Mawardi
2015-01-01
Quaternion linear canonical transform (QLCT) is a generalization of the classical linear canonical transfom (LCT) using quaternion algebra. The focus of this paper is to introduce an application of the QLCT to study of generalized swept-frequency filter
Recursive Algorithm For Linear Regression
Varanasi, S. V.
1988-01-01
Order of model determined easily. Linear-regression algorithhm includes recursive equations for coefficients of model of increased order. Algorithm eliminates duplicative calculations, facilitates search for minimum order of linear-regression model fitting set of data satisfactory.
Dynamical systems and linear algebra
Colonius, Fritz (Prof.)
2007-01-01
Dynamical systems and linear algebra / F. Colonius, W. Kliemann. - In: Handbook of linear algebra / ed. by Leslie Hogben. - Boca Raton : Chapman & Hall/CRC, 2007. - S. 56,1-56,22. - (Discrete mathematics and its applications)
Linear spaces: history and theory
Albrecht Beutelspracher
1990-01-01
Linear spaces belong to the most fundamental geometric and combinatorial structures. In this paper I would like to give an onerview about the theory of embedding finite linear spaces in finite projective planes.
Discrimination, acculturation and other predictors of depression among pregnant Hispanic women.
Walker, Janiece L; Ruiz, R Jeanne; Chinn, Juanita J; Marti, Nathan; Ricks, Tiffany N
2012-01-01
The purpose of our study was to examine the effects of socioeconomic status, acculturative stress, discrimination, and marginalization as predictors of depression in pregnant Hispanic women. A prospective observational design was used. Central and Gulf coast areas of Texas in obstetrical offices. A convenience sample of 515 pregnant, low income, low medical risk, and self-identified Hispanic women who were between 22-24 weeks gestation was used to collect data. The predictor variables were socioeconomic status, discrimination, acculturative stress, and marginalization. The outcome variable was depression. Education, frequency of discrimination, age, and Anglo marginality were significant predictors of depressive symptoms in a linear regression model, F (6, 458) = 8.36, Pdiscrimination was the strongest positive predictor of increased depressive symptoms. It is important that health care providers further understand the impact that age and experiences of discrimination throughout the life course have on depressive symptoms during pregnancy.
Wright, Bruce R; Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina; Hoekstra, T.
Objective: To determine whether law enforcement officer (LEO) status and perceived stress are longitudinal predictors of traditional and inflammatory cardiovascular (CV) risk factors. Method: Linear hierarchical regression was employed to investigate the longitudinal (more than 7 years) relationship
Linear versus non-linear supersymmetry, in general
Ferrara, Sergio [Theoretical Physics Department, CERN,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); INFN - Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati,Via Enrico Fermi 40, I-00044 Frascati (Italy); Department of Physics and Astronomy, UniversityC.L.A.,Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Kallosh, Renata [SITP and Department of Physics, Stanford University,Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Proeyen, Antoine Van [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven,Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Wrase, Timm [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Technische Universität Wien,Wiedner Hauptstr. 8-10, A-1040 Vienna (Austria)
2016-04-12
We study superconformal and supergravity models with constrained superfields. The underlying version of such models with all unconstrained superfields and linearly realized supersymmetry is presented here, in addition to the physical multiplets there are Lagrange multiplier (LM) superfields. Once the equations of motion for the LM superfields are solved, some of the physical superfields become constrained. The linear supersymmetry of the original models becomes non-linearly realized, its exact form can be deduced from the original linear supersymmetry. Known examples of constrained superfields are shown to require the following LM’s: chiral superfields, linear superfields, general complex superfields, some of them are multiplets with a spin.
Linear versus non-linear supersymmetry, in general
Ferrara, Sergio; Kallosh, Renata; Proeyen, Antoine Van; Wrase, Timm
2016-01-01
We study superconformal and supergravity models with constrained superfields. The underlying version of such models with all unconstrained superfields and linearly realized supersymmetry is presented here, in addition to the physical multiplets there are Lagrange multiplier (LM) superfields. Once the equations of motion for the LM superfields are solved, some of the physical superfields become constrained. The linear supersymmetry of the original models becomes non-linearly realized, its exact form can be deduced from the original linear supersymmetry. Known examples of constrained superfields are shown to require the following LM’s: chiral superfields, linear superfields, general complex superfields, some of them are multiplets with a spin.
Monahan, John F
2008-01-01
Preface Examples of the General Linear Model Introduction One-Sample Problem Simple Linear Regression Multiple Regression One-Way ANOVA First Discussion The Two-Way Nested Model Two-Way Crossed Model Analysis of Covariance Autoregression Discussion The Linear Least Squares Problem The Normal Equations The Geometry of Least Squares Reparameterization Gram-Schmidt Orthonormalization Estimability and Least Squares Estimators Assumptions for the Linear Mean Model Confounding, Identifiability, and Estimability Estimability and Least Squares Estimators F
Predictors of the clinical effects of pirfenidone on idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
Arai, Toru; Inoue, Yoshikazu; Sasaki, Yumiko; Tachibana, Kazunobu; Nakao, Keiko; Sugimoto, Chikatoshi; Okuma, Tomohisa; Akira, Masanori; Kitaichi, Masanori; Hayashi, Seiji
2014-03-01
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive interstitial lung disease with a poor prognosis. Recently, pirfenidone was reported to slow the rate of decline in vital capacity and improve progression-free survival in IPF. The purpose of this study was to clarify the factors that predicted a good response to pirfenidone, as well as its adverse effects. Forty-one IPF cases, treated with pirfenidone from January 2009 to January 2011, were enrolled in this investigation. Disease severity was classified into grades I-IV, as defined by the Japanese Respiratory Society (JRS). Short-term responsiveness to pirfenidone was evaluated by the modified criteria of the JRS. Predictors of nausea, anorexia, or both that represented important adverse effects were examined by multivariate Cox proportional hazard analyses. Predictors of short-time responsiveness were examined by multivariate logistic regression analyses. Diagnosed by a surgical lung biopsy (SLB), the mild cases of grade I/II were predictors of good, short-term responsiveness. Patients taking acid-secretion inhibitors, including proton pump inhibitors and histamine H2-receptor antagonists, showed less anorexia, nausea, or both. Only 1 case was administered drugs to activate gastrointestinal motility. We concluded that IPF patients with a mild disease, diagnosis by SLB, or both showed indications of a good response to pirfenidone. In addition, acid-secretion inhibitors may reduce the frequency of anorexia, nausea, or both from pirfenidone. © 2013 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
A Predictor-Corrector Approach for the Numerical Solution of Fractional Differential Equations
Diethelm, Kai; Ford, Neville J.; Freed, Alan D.; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
We discuss an Adams-type predictor-corrector method for the numerical solution of fractional differential equations. The method may be used both for linear and for nonlinear problems, and it may be extended to multi-term equations (involving more than one differential operator) too.
Predictors of Career Adaptability Skill among Higher Education Students in Nigeria
Ebenehi, Amos Shaibu; Rashid, Abdullah Mat; Bakar, Ab Rahim
2016-01-01
This paper examined predictors of career adaptability skill among higher education students in Nigeria. A sample of 603 higher education students randomly selected from six colleges of education in Nigeria participated in this study. A set of self-reported questionnaire was used for data collection, and multiple linear regression analysis was used…
Templates for Linear Algebra Problems
Bai, Z.; Day, D.; Demmel, J.; Dongarra, J.; Gu, M.; Ruhe, A.; Vorst, H.A. van der
1995-01-01
The increasing availability of advanced-architecture computers is having a very signicant eect on all spheres of scientic computation, including algorithm research and software development in numerical linear algebra. Linear algebra {in particular, the solution of linear systems of equations and
Linearization of CIF through SOS
Nadales Agut, D.E.; Reniers, M.A.; Luttik, B.; Valencia, F.
2011-01-01
Linearization is the procedure of rewriting a process term into a linear form, which consist only of basic operators of the process language. This procedure is interesting both from a theoretical and a practical point of view. In particular, a linearization algorithm is needed for the Compositional
Engberg, Uffe Henrik; Winskel, Glynn
This article shows how individual Petri nets form models of Girard's intuitionistic linear logic. It explores questions of expressiveness and completeness of linear logic with respect to this interpretation. An aim is to use Petri nets to give an understanding of linear logic and give some apprai...
Asperity-Level Origins of Transition from Mild to Severe Wear
Aghababaei, Ramin; Brink, Tobias; Molinari, Jean-François
2018-05-01
Wear is the inevitable damage process of surfaces during sliding contact. According to the well-known Archard's wear law, the wear volume scales with the real contact area and as a result is proportional to the load. Decades of wear experiments, however, show that this relation only holds up to a certain load limit, above which the linearity is broken and a transition from mild to severe wear occurs. We investigate the microscopic origins of this breakdown and the corresponding wear transition at the asperity level. Our atomistic simulations reveal that the interaction between subsurface stress fields of neighboring contact spots promotes the transition from mild to severe wear. The results show that this interaction triggers the deep propagation of subsurface cracks and the eventual formation of large debris particles, with a size corresponding to the apparent contact area of neighboring contact spots. This observation explains the breakdown of the linear relation between the wear volume and the normal load in the severe wear regime. This new understanding highlights the critical importance of studying contact beyond the elastic limit and single-asperity models.
Richards, J.A.
1977-01-01
A linear particle accelerator which provides a pulsed beam of charged particles of uniform energy is described. The accelerator is in the form of an evacuated dielectric tube, inside of which a particle source is located at one end of the tube, with a target or window located at the other end of the dielectric tube. Along the length of the tube are externally located pairs of metal plates, each insulated from each other in an insulated housing. Each of the plates of a pair are connected to an electrical source of voltage of opposed polarity, with the polarity of the voltage of the plates oriented so that the plate of a pair, nearer to the particle source, is of the opposed polarity to the charge of the particle emitted by the source. Thus, a first plate about the tube located nearest the particle source, attracts a particle which as it passes through the tube past the first plate is then repelled by the reverse polarity of the second plate of the pair to continue moving towards the target
Generalized Linear Covariance Analysis
Carpenter, James R.; Markley, F. Landis
2014-01-01
This talk presents a comprehensive approach to filter modeling for generalized covariance analysis of both batch least-squares and sequential estimators. We review and extend in two directions the results of prior work that allowed for partitioning of the state space into solve-for'' and consider'' parameters, accounted for differences between the formal values and the true values of the measurement noise, process noise, and textita priori solve-for and consider covariances, and explicitly partitioned the errors into subspaces containing only the influence of the measurement noise, process noise, and solve-for and consider covariances. In this work, we explicitly add sensitivity analysis to this prior work, and relax an implicit assumption that the batch estimator's epoch time occurs prior to the definitive span. We also apply the method to an integrated orbit and attitude problem, in which gyro and accelerometer errors, though not estimated, influence the orbit determination performance. We illustrate our results using two graphical presentations, which we call the variance sandpile'' and the sensitivity mosaic,'' and we compare the linear covariance results to confidence intervals associated with ensemble statistics from a Monte Carlo analysis.
Equipartitioning in linear accelerators
Jameson, R.A.
1982-01-01
Emittance growth has long been a concern in linear accelerators, as has the idea that some kind of energy balance, or equipartitioning, between the degrees of freedom, would ameliorate the growth. M. Prome observed that the average transverse and longitudinal velocity spreads tend to equalize as current in the channel is increased, while the sum of the energy in the system stays nearly constant. However, only recently have we shown that an equipartitioning requirement on a bunched injected beam can indeed produce remarkably small emittance growth. The simple set of equations leading to this condition are outlined. At the same time, Hofmann has investigated collective instabilities in transported beams and has identified thresholds and regions in parameter space where instabilities occur. Evidence is presented that shows transport system boundaries to be quite accurate in computer simulations of accelerating systems. Discussed are preliminary results of efforts to design accelerators that avoid parameter regions where emittance is affected by the instabilities identified by Hofmann. These efforts suggest that other mechanisms are present. The complicated behavior of the RFQ linac in this framework also is shown
Equipartitioning in linear accelerators
Jameson, R.A.
1981-01-01
Emittance growth has long been a concern in linear accelerators, as has the idea that some kind of energy balance, or equipartitioning, between the degrees of freedom, would ameliorate the growth. M. Prome observed that the average transverse and longitudinal velocity spreads tend to equalize as current in the channel is increased, while the sum of the energy in the system stays nearly constant. However, only recently have we shown that an equipartitioning requirement on a bunched injected beam can indeed produce remarkably small emittance growth. The simple set of equations leading to this condition are outlined below. At the same time, Hofmann, using powerful analytical and computational methods, has investigated collective instabilities in transported beams and has identified thresholds and regions in parameter space where instabilities occur. This is an important generalization. Work that he will present at this conference shows that the results are essentially the same in r-z coordinates for transport systems, and evidence is presented that shows transport system boundaries to be quite accurate in computer simulations of accelerating systems also. Discussed are preliminary results of efforts to design accelerators that avoid parameter regions where emittance is affected by the instabilities identified by Hofmann. These efforts suggest that other mechanisms are present. The complicated behavior of the RFQ linac in this framework also is shown
Briggs, R.J.
1986-06-01
The development of linear induction accelerators has been motivated by applications requiring high-pulsed currents of charged particles at voltages exceeding the capability of single-stage, diode-type accelerators and at currents too high for rf accelerators. In principle, one can accelerate charged particles to arbitrarily high voltages using a multi-stage induction machine, but the 50-MeV, 10-kA Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) at LLNL is the highest voltage machine in existence at this time. The advent of magnetic pulse power systems makes sustained operation at high-repetition rates practical, and this capability for high-average power is very likely to open up many new applications of induction machines in the future. This paper surveys the US induction linac technology with primary emphasis on electron machines. A simplified description of how induction machines couple energy to the electron beam is given, to illustrate many of the general issues that bound the design space of induction linacs
Berkeley Proton Linear Accelerator
Alvarez, L. W.; Bradner, H.; Franck, J.; Gordon, H.; Gow, J. D.; Marshall, L. C.; Oppenheimer, F. F.; Panofsky, W. K. H.; Richman, C.; Woodyard, J. R.
1953-10-13
A linear accelerator, which increases the energy of protons from a 4 Mev Van de Graaff injector, to a final energy of 31.5 Mev, has been constructed. The accelerator consists of a cavity 40 feet long and 39 inches in diameter, excited at resonance in a longitudinal electric mode with a radio-frequency power of about 2.2 x 10{sup 6} watts peak at 202.5 mc. Acceleration is made possible by the introduction of 46 axial "drift tubes" into the cavity, which is designed such that the particles traverse the distance between the centers of successive tubes in one cycle of the r.f. power. The protons are longitudinally stable as in the synchrotron, and are stabilized transversely by the action of converging fields produced by focusing grids. The electrical cavity is constructed like an inverted airplane fuselage and is supported in a vacuum tank. Power is supplied by 9 high powered oscillators fed from a pulse generator of the artificial transmission line type.
Predictors of restraint use among child occupants.
Benedetti, Marco; Klinich, Kathleen D; Manary, Miriam A; Flannagan, Carol A
2017-11-17
The objective of this study was to identify factors that predict restraint use and optimal restraint use among children aged 0 to 13 years. The data set is a national sample of police-reported crashes for years 2010-2014 in which type of child restraint is recorded. The data set was supplemented with demographic census data linked by driver ZIP code, as well as a score for the state child restraint law during the year of the crash relative to best practice recommendations for protecting child occupants. Analysis used linear regression techniques. The main predictor of unrestrained child occupants was the presence of an unrestrained driver. Among restrained children, children had 1.66 (95% confidence interval, 1.27, 2.17) times higher odds of using the recommended type of restraint system if the state law at the time of the crash included requirements based on best practice recommendations. Children are more likely to ride in the recommended type of child restraint when their state's child restraint law includes wording that follows best practice recommendations for child occupant protection. However, state child restraint law requirements do not influence when caregivers fail to use an occupant restraint for their child passengers.
Distinct molecular signatures of mild extrinsic and intrinsic atopic dermatitis
Martel, Britta Cathrina; Litman, Thomas; Hald, Andreas
2016-01-01
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common inflammatory skin disease with underlying defects in epidermal function and immune responses. In this study, we used microarray analysis to investigate differences in gene expression in lesional skin from patients with mild extrinsic or intrinsic AD compared...... with mild extrinsic and intrinsic AD similar to previous reports for severe AD. Interestingly, expression of genes involved in inflammatory responses in intrinsic AD resembled that of psoriasis more than that of extrinsic AD. Overall, differences in expression of inflammation-associated genes found among...... patients with mild intrinsic and extrinsic AD correlated with previous findings for patients with severe intrinsic and extrinsic AD....
Corrosion inhibition of mild steel by Capsicum annuum fruit paste
Chandan M. Reddy
2016-09-01
Full Text Available The anti-corrosive property of Capsicum annuum fruit paste (CFP on mild steel was investigated. Weight loss and SEM analysis showed that the aqueous and ethanolic solutions of CFP exhibits excellent corrosion inhibition in 2 M HCl. Contact angle, surface atomic composition and FTIR studies verified the presence of an organic film on the mild steel surface. The FTIR spectra also indicated the formation of active compound-Fe complex. CFP thus shows potential as an inexpensive environment friendly corrosion inhibitor for mild steel.
Farmakologisk behandling af mild ukompliceret hypertension i almen praksis
Paulsen, Maja Skov; Christensen, Bo; Søndergaard, Jens
2013-01-01
pressure 90-99 mmHg; no diabetes or cardiovascular disease) did not reduce mortality or morbidity. The evidence for pharmacotherapy in patients having mild/uncomplicated hypertension is weak. However, current Danish guidelines have taken this into consideration in their recommendations of pharmacotherapy......Hypertension is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. In Denmark, patients with hypertension are primarily managed in primary care. A recent Cochrane review concluded that pharmacotherapy of patients with mild hypertension (systolic blood pressure 140-159 mmHg; diastolic blood...... to patients with mild/uncomplicated hypertension....
Random linear codes in steganography
Kamil Kaczyński
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Syndrome coding using linear codes is a technique that allows improvement in the steganographic algorithms parameters. The use of random linear codes gives a great flexibility in choosing the parameters of the linear code. In parallel, it offers easy generation of parity check matrix. In this paper, the modification of LSB algorithm is presented. A random linear code [8, 2] was used as a base for algorithm modification. The implementation of the proposed algorithm, along with practical evaluation of algorithms’ parameters based on the test images was made.[b]Keywords:[/b] steganography, random linear codes, RLC, LSB
Time estimation in mild Alzheimer's disease patients
Nichelli Paolo
2009-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Time information processing relies on memory, which greatly supports the operations of hypothetical internal timekeepers. Scalar Expectancy Theory (SET postulates the existence of a memory component that is functionally separated from an internal clock and other processing stages. SET has devised several experimental procedures to map these cognitive stages onto cerebral regions and neurotransmitter systems. One of these, the time bisection procedure, has provided support for a dissociation between the clock stage, controlled by dopaminergic systems, and the memory stage, mainly supported by cholinergic neuronal networks. This study aimed at linking the specific memory processes predicted by SET to brain mechanisms, by submitting time bisection tasks to patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD, that are known to present substantial degeneration of the fronto-temporal regions underpinning memory. Methods Twelve mild AD patients were required to make temporal judgments about intervals either ranging from 100 to 600 ms (short time bisection task or from 1000 to 3000 ms (long time bisection task. Their performance was compared with that of a group of aged-matched control participants and a group of young control subjects. Results Long time bisection scores of AD patients were not significantly different from those of the two control groups. In contrast, AD patients showed increased variability (as indexed by increased WR values in timing millisecond durations and a generalized inconsistency of responses over the same interval in both the short and long bisection tasks. A similar, though milder, decreased millisecond interval sensitivity was found for elderly subjects. Conclusion The present results, that are consistent with those of previous timing studies in AD, are interpreted within the SET framework as not selectively dependent on working or reference memory disruptions but as possibly due to distortions in different
Wiersma, Jacobijne J.; Trip, Mieke D.; Piek, Jan J.; Tijssen, Jan G.P.; Verberne, Hein J.; Eck-Smit, Berthe L.F. van; Holt, Wik L. ten
2006-01-01
To determine the prevalence and predictors of reversible myocardial perfusion defects, indicative of myocardial ischaemia, in patients with mild, stable anginal complaints [Canadian Cardiovascular Society classification (CCS) I-II/IV] and diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM). A total of 329 patients with T2DM and stable, mild anginal symptoms (CCS I-II/IV) underwent myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. Perfusion images were assessed using a five-point (semi)-quantitative scoring system according to a 17-segment myocardial model. One-hundred and fifty-six (47%) patients showed reversible myocardial perfusion defects defined as a summed difference score of ≥3. Male gender [odds ratio (OR) 2.28, 95% CI 1.4-3.71, p=0.001], previous myocardial infarction (MI) without revascularisation (OR 3.04, 95% CI 1.28-7.24, p=0.01), and the use of two or more classes of anti-anginal medication (OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.48-3.76, p<0.001) were independent predictors for the presence of reversible defects. By contrast, lipid-lowering therapy reduced the possibility of reversible perfusion defects (OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.33-0.95, p=0.03). Approximately half of the patients with mild, stable angina pectoris and T2DM showed evidence of myocardial ischaemia. Male gender, previous MI and the use of anti-anginal medication were positive predictors and lipid-lowering therapy was a negative predictor for the results of the scintigraphic stress test. (orig.)
Wiersma, Jacobijne J.; Trip, Mieke D.; Piek, Jan J.; Tijssen, Jan G.P. [Academic Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Verberne, Hein J.; Eck-Smit, Berthe L.F. van [Academic Medical Center Amsterdam, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Holt, Wik L. ten [Amstelland Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Amstelveen (Netherlands)
2006-12-15
To determine the prevalence and predictors of reversible myocardial perfusion defects, indicative of myocardial ischaemia, in patients with mild, stable anginal complaints [Canadian Cardiovascular Society classification (CCS) I-II/IV] and diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM). A total of 329 patients with T2DM and stable, mild anginal symptoms (CCS I-II/IV) underwent myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. Perfusion images were assessed using a five-point (semi)-quantitative scoring system according to a 17-segment myocardial model. One-hundred and fifty-six (47%) patients showed reversible myocardial perfusion defects defined as a summed difference score of {>=}3. Male gender [odds ratio (OR) 2.28, 95% CI 1.4-3.71, p=0.001], previous myocardial infarction (MI) without revascularisation (OR 3.04, 95% CI 1.28-7.24, p=0.01), and the use of two or more classes of anti-anginal medication (OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.48-3.76, p<0.001) were independent predictors for the presence of reversible defects. By contrast, lipid-lowering therapy reduced the possibility of reversible perfusion defects (OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.33-0.95, p=0.03). Approximately half of the patients with mild, stable angina pectoris and T2DM showed evidence of myocardial ischaemia. Male gender, previous MI and the use of anti-anginal medication were positive predictors and lipid-lowering therapy was a negative predictor for the results of the scintigraphic stress test. (orig.)
Santana Isabel
2011-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Dementia and cognitive impairment associated with aging are a major medical and social concern. Neuropsychological testing is a key element in the diagnostic procedures of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI, but has presently a limited value in the prediction of progression to dementia. We advance the hypothesis that newer statistical classification methods derived from data mining and machine learning methods like Neural Networks, Support Vector Machines and Random Forests can improve accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of predictions obtained from neuropsychological testing. Seven non parametric classifiers derived from data mining methods (Multilayer Perceptrons Neural Networks, Radial Basis Function Neural Networks, Support Vector Machines, CART, CHAID and QUEST Classification Trees and Random Forests were compared to three traditional classifiers (Linear Discriminant Analysis, Quadratic Discriminant Analysis and Logistic Regression in terms of overall classification accuracy, specificity, sensitivity, Area under the ROC curve and Press'Q. Model predictors were 10 neuropsychological tests currently used in the diagnosis of dementia. Statistical distributions of classification parameters obtained from a 5-fold cross-validation were compared using the Friedman's nonparametric test. Results Press' Q test showed that all classifiers performed better than chance alone (p Conclusions When taking into account sensitivity, specificity and overall classification accuracy Random Forests and Linear Discriminant analysis rank first among all the classifiers tested in prediction of dementia using several neuropsychological tests. These methods may be used to improve accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of Dementia predictions from neuropsychological testing.
Linear Algebraic Method for Non-Linear Map Analysis
Yu, L.; Nash, B.
2009-01-01
We present a newly developed method to analyze some non-linear dynamics problems such as the Henon map using a matrix analysis method from linear algebra. Choosing the Henon map as an example, we analyze the spectral structure, the tune-amplitude dependence, the variation of tune and amplitude during the particle motion, etc., using the method of Jordan decomposition which is widely used in conventional linear algebra.
Steel fiber replacement of mild steel in prestressed concrete beams
2010-10-01
In traditional prestressed concrete beams, longitudinal prestressed tendons serve to resist bending moment and : transverse mild steel bars (or stirrups) are used to carry shear forces. However, traditional prestressed concrete I-beams : exhibit earl...
Cognitive Profile of Elderly Patients with Mild Stroke
Arne Gramstad
2011-11-01
Full Text Available Background: A pattern characterizing cognitive deficits in mild stroke could help in differential diagnosis and rehabilitation planning. Methods: Fifty patients with mild stroke (modified Rankin scale ≤2 at discharge aged >60 years were given the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R and the Stroop test. Results: On HVLT-R, significant impairments were found in learning and recall, but not in delayed recall. The Stroop test revealed significant impairments in reading speed, but not in color-word interference. Using the MMSE, significant deficits were only found in the youngest age group. Conclusion: Elderly patients with mild stroke show deficits in verbal learning/recall and in reading speed, but not in the MMSE, delayed recall or color-word interference. The deficits are consistent with a mild-to-moderate brain dysfunction, with relative sparing of medial brain structures.
Development of mild steel exposure chart for neutron radiography application
Hafizal Yazid; Rafhayudi Jamro; Hishamuddin Husain; Muhammad Rawi Mohd Zin; Razali Kassim; Abd Aziz Mohamed; Azali Muhammad
2004-01-01
A neutron radiography exposure chart for mild steel was developed to facilitate the determination of exposure time when producing neutron radiographs for any given mild steel thickness. A mild steel sample in the form of step wedge (1-10 mm thick) was exposed to thermal neutron using Direct technique. This technique involves exposing x-ray film-Gadolinium converter housed in one film cassette simultaneously to thermal neutron beam. Gadolinium converters with thickness of 0.025 mm and 0.5 mm were used to observe the effect of converter thickness on radiographic density and exposure time. Collected radiographic density data is then calculated based on manufacturer's film characteristic chart and finally exposure chart for mild steel was plotted. This chart could later be used as a guide for estimating exposure time for any given sample thickness providing other conditions are similar (material, film processing, neutron flux, film density and converter thickness). (Author)
ALMOST AUTOMORPHIC MILD SOLUTIONS TO SOME FRACTIONAL DELAY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
无
2012-01-01
In this paper,a new and general existence and uniqueness theorem of almost automorphic mild solutions is obtained for some fractional delay differential equations,using sectorial operators and the Banach contraction principle.
Reflections on "Multisensory Mathematics for Children with Mild Disabilities."
Scott, Kristin S.
1993-01-01
The author of EC 606 784 describes the background of her research, noting her experience with the "TOUCH MATH" manipulative materials to help students with mild disabilities acquire math facts and computational skills. (DB)
Recent neuroimaging techniques in mild traumatic brain injury.
Belanger, Heather G; Vanderploeg, Rodney D; Curtiss, Glenn; Warden, Deborah L
2007-01-01
Mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) is characterized by acute physiological changes that result in at least some acute cognitive difficulties and typically resolve by 3 months postinjury. Because the majority of mild TBI patients have normal structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/computed tomography (CT) scans, there is increasing attention directed at finding objective physiological correlates of persistent cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms through experimental neuroimaging techniques. The authors review studies utilizing these techniques in patients with mild TBI; these techniques may provide more sensitive assessment of structural and functional abnormalities following mild TBI. Particular promise is evident with fMRI, PET, and SPECT scanning, as demonstrated by associations between brain activation and clinical outcomes.
Preliminary questions before studying mild traumatic brain injury outcome.
Fayol, P; Carrière, H; Habonimana, D; Dumond, J-J
2009-07-01
To point out from the literature the issues in mild traumatic brain injury outcome. METHODOLOGY-RESULTS: The literature review allows to point out several different factors involved in the difficulty to study mild traumatic brain injury: mild traumatic brain injury definition, postconcussional syndrome definition, diagnosis threshold, severity and functional symptoms outcome, neuropsychological tests, unspecific syndrome feature, individual factors, confounding factors and treatment interventions. The mild traumatic brain injury outcome study is complicated by the definitions issues and especially their practical use and by the multiplicity and the intricate interrelationships among involved factors. The individual outcome and social cost weight is widely emphasized for an event still considered as medically trivial. The well-ordered preventive interventions necessity and the targeted treatment programs need for the persisting postconcussive symptoms complete our critical review.
Simulation of MILD combustion using Perfectly Stirred Reactor model
Chen, Z.; Vanteru, Mahendra Reddy; Ruan, S.; Doan, N. A K; Roberts, William L.; Swaminathan, N.
2016-01-01
A simple model based on a Perfectly Stirred Reactor (PSR) is proposed for moderate or intense low-oxygen dilution (MILD) combustion. The PSR calculation is performed covering the entire flammability range and the tabulated chemistry approach is used
Steel fiber replacement of mild steel in prestressed concrete beams.
2011-01-01
In traditional prestressed concrete beams, longitudinal prestressed tendons serve to resist bending moment and transverse mild : steel bars (or stirrups) are used to carry shear forces. However, traditional prestressed concrete I-beams exhibit early-...
Perioperative corticosteroids for intermittent and mild persistent asthma
Hiroto Matsuse; Terufumi Shimoda; Ikuko Machida; Yuki Kondo; Tetsuya Kawano; Sachiko Saeki; Shinya Tomari; Kazuko Mitsuta; Chizu Fukushima; Yasushi Obase; Shigeru Kohno
2002-01-01
Objectives: Asthmatics are considered to be at high risk for pulmonary complications during general anesthesia with tracheal intubation. The purpose of the present study was to determine the usefulness of perioperative corticosteroids for mild asthmatics in preventing perioperative exacerbation of asthma. Methods: Airway hyperresponsiveness to inhaled methacholine was determined in patients with intermittent (n = 27) and mild persistent (n = 48) asthma before general anesthesia who underwe...
Ventilatory sensitivity to mild asphyxia: prone versus supine sleep position
Galland, B; Bolton, D; Taylor, B; Sayers, R; Williams, S
2000-01-01
AIMS—To compare the effects of prone and supine sleep position on the main physiological responses to mild asphyxia: increase in ventilation and arousal. METHODS—Ventilatory and arousal responses to mild asphyxia (hypercapnia/hypoxia) were measured in 53 healthy infants at newborn and 3 months of age, during quiet sleep (QS) and active sleep (AS), and in supine and prone sleep positions. The asphyxial test mimicked face down rebreathing by slowly altering the inspired air: C...
Sinalbin degradation products in mild yellow mustard paste
Paunović, Dragana; Šolević-Knudsen, Tatjana; Krivokapić, Mirjana; Zlatković, Branislav; Antić, Mališa
2012-01-01
Sinalbin degradation products in mild yellow mustard paste were investigated. The analyzed material consisted of a mild yellow mustard paste condiment and ground white mustard seeds which were originally used in the mustard paste production process. The samples were extracted in a Soxhlet extraction system and analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. The only sinalbin degradation product in ground mustard seeds was 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetonitrile. The most a...
Modelling of diffuse solar fraction with multiple predictors
Ridley, Barbara; Boland, John [Centre for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Boulevard, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Lauret, Philippe [Laboratoire de Physique du Batiment et des Systemes, University of La Reunion, Reunion (France)
2010-02-15
For some locations both global and diffuse solar radiation are measured. However, for many locations, only global radiation is measured, or inferred from satellite data. For modelling solar energy applications, the amount of radiation on a tilted surface is needed. Since only the direct component on a tilted surface can be calculated from direct on some other plane using trigonometry, we need to have diffuse radiation on the horizontal plane available. There are regression relationships for estimating the diffuse on a tilted surface from diffuse on the horizontal. Models for estimating the diffuse on the horizontal from horizontal global that have been developed in Europe or North America have proved to be inadequate for Australia. Boland et al. developed a validated model for Australian conditions. Boland et al. detailed our recent advances in developing the theoretical framework for the use of the logistic function instead of piecewise linear or simple nonlinear functions and was the first step in identifying the means for developing a generic model for estimating diffuse from global and other predictors. We have developed a multiple predictor model, which is much simpler than previous models, and uses hourly clearness index, daily clearness index, solar altitude, apparent solar time and a measure of persistence of global radiation level as predictors. This model performs marginally better than currently used models for locations in the Northern Hemisphere and substantially better for Southern Hemisphere locations. We suggest it can be used as a universal model. (author)
Predictors of Immunosuppressive Regulatory T Lymphocytes in Healthy Women
Hampras, S. S.; Nesline, M.; Davis, W.; Moysich, K. B.; Wallace, P. K.; Odunsi, K.; Furlani, N.
2012-01-01
Immunosuppressive regulatory T (Treg) cells play an important role in antitumor immunity, self-tolerance, transplantation tolerance, and attenuation of allergic response. Higher proportion of Treg cells has been observed in peripheral blood of cancer cases compared to controls. Little is known about potential epidemiological predictors of Treg cell levels in healthy individuals. We conducted a cross-sectional study including 75 healthy women, between 20 and 80 years of age, who participated in the Data Bank and Bio Repository (DBBR) program at Roswell Park Cancer Institute (RPCI), Buffalo, NY, USA. Peripheral blood levels of CD4 + CD25 + FOXP3 + Treg cells were measured using flow cytometric analysis. A range of risk factors was evaluated using Wilcoxon Rank-Sum test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and linear regression. Age, smoking, medications for treatment of osteoporosis, postmenopausal status, body mass index (BMI), and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) were found to be significant positive predictors of Treg cell levels in peripheral blood (π≤0.05 ). Higher education, exercise, age at first birth, oral contraceptives, and use of Ibuprofen were found be significant (π<0.05) negative predictors of Treg levels. Thus, various epidemiological risk factors might explain interindividual variation in immune response to pathological conditions, including cancer.
Childhood Depression: Relation to Adaptive, Clinical and Predictor Variables
Maite Garaigordobil
2017-05-01
Full Text Available The study had two goals: (1 to explore the relations between self-assessed childhood depression and other adaptive and clinical variables (2 to identify predictor variables of childhood depression. Participants were 420 students aged 7–10 years old (53.3% boys, 46.7% girls. Results revealed: (1 positive correlations between depression and clinical maladjustment, school maladjustment, emotional symptoms, internalizing and externalizing problems, problem behaviors, emotional reactivity, and childhood stress; and (2 negative correlations between depression and personal adaptation, global self-concept, social skills, and resilience (sense of competence and affiliation. Linear regression analysis including the global dimensions revealed 4 predictors of childhood depression that explained 50.6% of the variance: high clinical maladjustment, low global self-concept, high level of stress, and poor social skills. However, upon introducing the sub-dimensions, 9 predictor variables emerged that explained 56.4% of the variance: many internalizing problems, low family self-concept, high anxiety, low responsibility, low personal self-assessment, high social stress, few aggressive behaviors toward peers, many health/psychosomatic problems, and external locus of control. The discussion addresses the importance of implementing prevention programs for childhood depression at early ages.
Predictors of specific phobia in children with Williams syndrome.
Pitts, C H; Klein-Tasman, B P; Osborne, J W; Mervis, C B
2016-10-01
Specific phobia (SP) is the most common anxiety disorder among children with Williams syndrome (WS); prevalence rates derived from Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-based diagnostic interviews range from 37% to 56%. We evaluated the effects of gender, age, intellectual abilities and/or behaviour regulation difficulties on the likelihood that a child with WS would be diagnosed with SP. A total of 194 6-17 year-olds with WS were evaluated. To best characterise the relations between the predictors and the probability of a SP diagnosis, we explored not only possible linear effects but also curvilinear effects. No gender differences were detected. As age increased, the likelihood of receiving a SP diagnosis decreased. As IQ increased, the probability of receiving a SP diagnosis also decreased. Behaviour regulation difficulties were the strongest predictor of a positive diagnosis. A quadratic relation was detected: The probability of receiving a SP diagnosis gradually rose as behaviour regulation difficulties increased. However, once behaviour regulation difficulties approached the clinical range, the probability of receiving a SP diagnosis asymptoted at a high level. Children with behaviour regulation difficulties in or just below the clinical range were at the greatest risk of developing SP. These findings highlight the value of large samples and the importance of evaluating for nonlinear effects to provide accurate model specification when characterising relations among a dependent variable and possible predictors. © 2016 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Predictors of pathological gambling severity taking gender differences into account.
González-Ortega, I; Echeburúa, E; Corral, P; Polo-López, R; Alberich, S
2013-01-01
The current study aims to identify predictors of pathological gambling (PG) severity, taking gender differences into account, in an outpatient sample of pathological gamblers seeking treatment. The sample for this study consisted of 103 subjects (51 women and 52 men) meeting current DSM-IV-TR criteria for PG. Linear and logistic regression analyses were used to examine different risk factors (gender, age, impulsivity, sensation seeking, self-esteem) and risk markers (depression, anxiety, gambling-related thoughts, substance abuse) as predictors of PG severity. Impulsivity, maladjustment in everyday life and age at gambling onset were the best predictors in the overall sample. When gender differences were taken into account, duration of gambling disorder in women and depression and impulsivity in men predicted PG severity. In turn, a high degree of severity in the South Oaks Gambling Screen score was related to older age and more familiy support in women and to low self-esteem and alcohol abuse in men. Female gamblers were older than male gamblers and started gambling later in life, but became dependent on gambling more quickly than men. Further research should examine these data to tailor treatment to specific patients' needs according to sex and individual characteristics. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Updating the mild encephalitis hypothesis of schizophrenia.
Bechter, K
2013-04-05
Schizophrenia seems to be a heterogeneous disorder. Emerging evidence indicates that low level neuroinflammation (LLNI) may not occur infrequently. Many infectious agents with low overall pathogenicity are risk factors for psychoses including schizophrenia and for autoimmune disorders. According to the mild encephalitis (ME) hypothesis, LLNI represents the core pathogenetic mechanism in a schizophrenia subgroup that has syndromal overlap with other psychiatric disorders. ME may be triggered by infections, autoimmunity, toxicity, or trauma. A 'late hit' and gene-environment interaction are required to explain major findings about schizophrenia, and both aspects would be consistent with the ME hypothesis. Schizophrenia risk genes stay rather constant within populations despite a resulting low number of progeny; this may result from advantages associated with risk genes, e.g., an improved immune response, which may act protectively within changing environments, although they are associated with the disadvantage of increased susceptibility to psychotic disorders. Specific schizophrenic symptoms may arise with instances of LLNI when certain brain functional systems are involved, in addition to being shaped by pre-existing liability factors. Prodrome phase and the transition to a diseased status may be related to LLNI processes emerging and varying over time. The variability in the course of schizophrenia resembles the varying courses of autoimmune disorders, which result from three required factors: genes, the environment, and the immune system. Preliminary criteria for subgrouping neurodevelopmental, genetic, ME, and other types of schizophrenias are provided. A rare example of ME schizophrenia may be observed in Borna disease virus infection. Neurodevelopmental schizophrenia due to early infections has been estimated by others to explain approximately 30% of cases, but the underlying pathomechanisms of transition to disease remain in question. LLNI (e.g. from
A REVIEW OF MILD COMBUSTION AND OPEN FURNACE DESIGN CONSIDERATION
M.M. Noor
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Combustion is still very important to generate energy. Moderate or Intense Low-oxygen Dilution (MILD combustion is one of the best new technologies for clean and efficient combustion. MILD combustion has been proven to be a promising combustion technology in industrial applications with decreased energy consumption due to the uniformity of its temperature distribution. It is clean compared to traditional combustion due to producing low NOx and CO emissions. This article provides a review and discussion of recent research and developments in MILD. The issue and applications are summarized, with some suggestions presented on the upgrading and application of MILD in the future. Currently MILD combustion has been successfully applied in closed furnaces. The preheating of supply air is no longer required since the recirculation inside the enclosed furnace already self-preheats the supply air and self-dilutes the oxygen in the combustion chamber. The possibility of using open furnace MILD combustion will be reviewed. The design consideration for open furnace with exhaust gas re-circulation (EGR was discussed.
Detection of Mild Emphysema by Computed Tomography Density Measurements
Vikgren, J.; Friman, O.; Borga, M.; Boijsen, M.; Gustavsson, S.; Bake, B.; Tylen, U.; Ekberg-Jansson, A.
2005-01-01
Purpose: To assess the ability of a conventional density mask method to detect mild emphysema by high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT); to analyze factors influencing quantification of mild emphysema; and to validate a new algorithm for detection of mild emphysema. Material and Methods: Fifty-five healthy male smokers and 34 never-smokers, 61-62 years of age, were examined. Emphysema was evaluated visually, by the conventional density mask method, and by a new algorithm compensating for the effects of gravity and artifacts due to motion and the reconstruction algorithm. Effects of the reconstruction algorithm, slice thickness, and various threshold levels on the outcome of the density mask area were evaluated. Results: Forty-nine percent of the smokers had mild emphysema. The density mask area was higher the thinner the slice irrespective of the reconstruction algorithm and threshold level. The sharp algorithm resulted in increased density mask area. The new reconstruction algorithm could discriminate between smokers with and those without mild emphysema, whereas the density mask method could not. The diagnostic ability of the new algorithm was dependent on lung level. At about 90% specificity, sensitivity was 65-100% in the apical levels, but low in the rest of the lung. Conclusion: The conventional density mask method is inadequate for detecting mild emphysema, while the new algorithm improves the diagnostic ability but is nevertheless still imperfect
State space and input-output linear systems
Delchamps, David F
1988-01-01
It is difficult for me to forget the mild sense of betrayal I felt some ten years ago when I discovered, with considerable dismay, that my two favorite books on linear system theory - Desoer's Notes for a Second Course on Linear Systems and Brockett's Finite Dimensional Linear Systems - were both out of print. Since that time, of course, linear system theory has undergone a transformation of the sort which always attends the maturation of a theory whose range of applicability is expanding in a fashion governed by technological developments and by the rate at which such advances become a part of engineering practice. The growth of the field has inspired the publication of some excellent books; the encyclopedic treatises by Kailath and Chen, in particular, come immediately to mind. Nonetheless, I was inspired to write this book primarily by my practical needs as a teacher and researcher in the field. For the past five years, I have taught a one semester first year gradu ate level linear system theory course i...
Development of Zn50 Brazing Alloy for Joining Mild Steel to Mild Steel (SAE1018
S.C. Nwigbo
2014-09-01
Full Text Available This work has developed new brazing alloys for joining mild steel to mild steel (SAE1018 at a lower temperature. The alloys blends and error analysis were done by experimental design software (Design Expert 8.0.7.1. Design of experiments was done by Scheffe quadratic mixture method. The liquidus temperatures were predicted by calculation of phase diagrams of the alloying metals. The brazing alloys were produced by gravity technique and melted using silicon carbide graphite crucible. The quality of the brazing alloys was analyzed by optical microscopy (OM, atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR. Brazed joints were produced by torch method with a commercial flux. Brazing temperatures (liquidus were tracked by a digital infrared/laser pyrometer. Some mechanical properties studied were tensile strength and hardness. Finally, brazed joints produced from the developed brazing alloys were compared to that produced from muntz brass. Six (6 brazing alloys were successfully developed. Zinc and manganese were the main components, to which were added; 3 to 4 %wt silver and 11 to15 %wt modifying element. The microstructure showed a typical eutectic structure with zinc-rich phase distributed uniformly in the matrix with a combination of different sizes of dendrite, rounded blocks of compounds and hypoeutectic structures. AAS results indicated minimal out-gassing of zinc and FT-IR results indicated very low presence of atmospheric gas. The range of brazing temperature for best results was recorded from 690.90 to 735.10 0C. The joints produced from the developed brazing alloys had acceptable strengths with improved stress-strain behaviour compared to muntz brass.
Chang, Hung-Yue; Luo, Ching-Hsing; Lo, Tun-Shin; Chen, Hsiao-Chuan; Huang, Kuo-You; Liao, Wen-Huei; Su, Mao-Chang; Liu, Shu-Yu; Wang, Nan-Mai
2017-08-28
This study investigated whether a self-designed assistive listening device (ALD) that incorporates an adaptive dynamic range optimization (ADRO) amplification strategy can surpass a commercially available monaurally worn linear ALD, SM100. Both subjective and objective measurements were implemented. Mandarin Hearing-In-Noise Test (MHINT) scores were the objective measurement, whereas participant satisfaction was the subjective measurement. The comparison was performed in a mixed design (i.e., subjects' hearing status being mild or moderate, quiet versus noisy, and linear versus ADRO scheme). The participants were two groups of hearing-impaired subjects, nine mild and eight moderate, respectively. The results of the ADRO system revealed a significant difference in the MHINT sentence reception threshold (SRT) in noisy environments between monaurally aided and unaided conditions, whereas the linear system did not. The benchmark results showed that the ADRO scheme is effectively beneficial to people who experience mild or moderate hearing loss in noisy environments. The satisfaction rating regarding overall speech quality indicated that the participants were satisfied with the speech quality of both ADRO and linear schemes in quiet environments, and they were more satisfied with ADRO than they with the linear scheme in noisy environments.
A new disease? Persistent isolated beta.hydroxybutyrate ketosis and mild congenital hyperinsulinism
Christesen, Henrik Thybo; Brusgaard, Klaus; Ditkovskaya, L
A new disease? Persistent isolated beta.hydroxybutyrate ketosis and mild congenital hyperinsulinism.......A new disease? Persistent isolated beta.hydroxybutyrate ketosis and mild congenital hyperinsulinism....
Chapman, Robin S.; Hesketh, Linda J.; Kistler, Doris J.
2002-01-01
Longitudinal change in syntax comprehension and production skill, measured over six years, was modeled in 31 individuals (ages 5-20) with Down syndrome. The best fitting Hierarchical Linear Modeling model of comprehension uses age and visual and auditory short-term memory as predictors of initial status, and age for growth trajectory. (Contains…
Akbulut, Yavuz
2007-01-01
Factors predicting vocabulary learning and reading comprehension of advanced language learners of English in a linear multimedia text were investigated in the current study. Predictor variables of interest were multimedia type, reading proficiency, learning styles, topic interest and background knowledge about the topic. The outcome variables of…
Age is no barrier: predictors of academic success in older learners
Imlach, Abbie-Rose; Ward, David D.; Stuart, Kimberley E.; Summers, Mathew J.; Valenzuela, Michael J.; King, Anna E.; Saunders, Nichole L.; Summers, Jeffrey; Srikanth, Velandai K.; Robinson, Andrew; Vickers, James C.
2017-11-01
Although predictors of academic success have been identified in young adults, such predictors are unlikely to translate directly to an older student population, where such information is scarce. The current study aimed to examine cognitive, psychosocial, lifetime, and genetic predictors of university-level academic performance in older adults (50-79 years old). Participants were mostly female (71%) and had a greater than high school education level (M = 14.06 years, SD = 2.76), on average. Two multiple linear regression analyses were conducted. The first examined all potential predictors of grade point average (GPA) in the subset of participants who had volunteered samples for genetic analysis (N = 181). Significant predictors of GPA were then re-examined in a second multiple linear regression using the full sample (N = 329). Our data show that the cognitive domains of episodic memory and language processing, in conjunction with midlife engagement in cognitively stimulating activities, have a role in predicting academic performance as measured by GPA in the first year of study. In contrast, it was determined that age, IQ, gender, working memory, psychosocial factors, and common brain gene polymorphisms linked to brain function, plasticity and degeneration (APOE, BDNF, COMT, KIBRA, SERT) did not influence academic performance. These findings demonstrate that ageing does not impede academic achievement, and that discrete cognitive skills as well as lifetime engagement in cognitively stimulating activities can promote academic success in older adults.
Linear Programming and Network Flows
Bazaraa, Mokhtar S; Sherali, Hanif D
2011-01-01
The authoritative guide to modeling and solving complex problems with linear programming-extensively revised, expanded, and updated The only book to treat both linear programming techniques and network flows under one cover, Linear Programming and Network Flows, Fourth Edition has been completely updated with the latest developments on the topic. This new edition continues to successfully emphasize modeling concepts, the design and analysis of algorithms, and implementation strategies for problems in a variety of fields, including industrial engineering, management science, operations research
Mild-moderate congenital hearing loss: secular trends in outcomes across four systems of detection.
Carew, P; Mensah, F K; Rance, G; Flynn, T; Poulakis, Z; Wake, M
2018-01-01
Universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) targets moderate or greater hearing loss. However, UNHS also frequently detects children with mild loss that results in many receiving early treatment. The benefits of this approach are not yet established. We aimed to (i) compare language and psychosocial outcomes between four hearing loss detection systems for children aged 5-8 years with congenital mild-moderate hearing loss; (ii) determine whether age of detection predicts outcomes; and (iii) compare outcomes between children identified via well-established UNHS and the general population. Linear regression adjusted for potential confounding factors was used throughout. Via a quasi-experimental design, language and psychosocial outcomes were compared across four population-based Australian systems of hearing loss detection: opportunistic detection, born 1991-1993, n = 50; universal risk factor referral, born 2003-2005, n = 34; newly established UNHS, born 2003-2005, n = 41; and well-established UNHS, born 2007-2010, n = 21. In pooled analyses, we examined whether age of detection predicted outcomes. Outcomes were similarly compared between the current well-established UNHS system and typically developing children in the Early Language in Victoria Study, born 2003, n = 1217. Age at diagnosis and hearing aid fitting fell steadily across the four systems. For moderate losses, mean expressive language (P for trend .05) and receptive vocabulary (P for trend .06) improved across the four systems, but benefit was not obvious for mild losses. In pooled analyses, diagnosis before age six months predicted better language outcomes for moderate losses. Children with mild-moderate losses exposed to well-established UNHS continue to experience expressive language scores well below children in the general population (adjusted mean difference -8.9 points, 95% CI -14.7 to -3.1). Treatment arising from UNHS appears to be clearly benefitting children with moderate hearing
LINEAR2007, Linear-Linear Interpolation of ENDF Format Cross-Sections
2007-01-01
1 - Description of program or function: LINEAR converts evaluated cross sections in the ENDF/B format into a tabular form that is subject to linear-linear interpolation in energy and cross section. The code also thins tables of cross sections already in that form. Codes used subsequently need thus to consider only linear-linear data. IAEA1311/15: This version include the updates up to January 30, 2007. Changes in ENDF/B-VII Format and procedures, as well as the evaluations themselves, make it impossible for versions of the ENDF/B pre-processing codes earlier than PREPRO 2007 (2007 Version) to accurately process current ENDF/B-VII evaluations. The present code can handle all existing ENDF/B-VI evaluations through release 8, which will be the last release of ENDF/B-VI. Modifications from previous versions: - Linear VERS. 2007-1 (JAN. 2007): checked against all ENDF/B-VII; increased page size from 60,000 to 600,000 points 2 - Method of solution: Each section of data is considered separately. Each section of File 3, 23, and 27 data consists of a table of cross section versus energy with any of five interpolation laws. LINEAR will replace each section with a new table of energy versus cross section data in which the interpolation law is always linear in energy and cross section. The histogram (constant cross section between two energies) interpolation law is converted to linear-linear by substituting two points for each initial point. The linear-linear is not altered. For the log-linear, linear-log and log- log laws, the cross section data are converted to linear by an interval halving algorithm. Each interval is divided in half until the value at the middle of the interval can be approximated by linear-linear interpolation to within a given accuracy. The LINEAR program uses a multipoint fractional error thinning algorithm to minimize the size of each cross section table
Elementary linear programming with applications
Kolman, Bernard
1995-01-01
Linear programming finds the least expensive way to meet given needs with available resources. Its results are used in every area of engineering and commerce: agriculture, oil refining, banking, and air transport. Authors Kolman and Beck present the basic notions of linear programming and illustrate how they are used to solve important common problems. The software on the included disk leads students step-by-step through the calculations. The Second Edition is completely revised and provides additional review material on linear algebra as well as complete coverage of elementary linear program
Hood, John Linsley
2013-01-01
The Art of Linear Electronics presents the principal aspects of linear electronics and techniques in linear electronic circuit design. The book provides a wide range of information on the elucidation of the methods and techniques in the design of linear electronic circuits. The text discusses such topics as electronic component symbols and circuit drawing; passive and active semiconductor components; DC and low frequency amplifiers; and the basic effects of feedback. Subjects on frequency response modifying circuits and filters; audio amplifiers; low frequency oscillators and waveform generato
Linearity and Non-linearity of Photorefractive effect in Materials ...
Linearity and Non-linearity of Photorefractive effect in Materials using the Band transport ... For low light beam intensities the change in the refractive index is ... field is spatially phase shifted by /2 relative to the interference fringe pattern, which ...
The linear programming bound for binary linear codes
Brouwer, A.E.
1993-01-01
Combining Delsarte's (1973) linear programming bound with the information that certain weights cannot occur, new upper bounds for dmin (n,k), the maximum possible minimum distance of a binary linear code with given word length n and dimension k, are derived.
Linear operator inequalities for strongly stable weakly regular linear systems
Curtain, RF
2001-01-01
We consider the question of the existence of solutions to certain linear operator inequalities (Lur'e equations) for strongly stable, weakly regular linear systems with generating operators A, B, C, 0. These operator inequalities are related to the spectral factorization of an associated Popov
Mascalchi, M; Ginestroni, A; Bessi, V; Toschi, N; Padiglioni, S; Ciulli, S; Tessa, C; Giannelli, M; Bracco, L; Diciotti, S
2013-01-01
Manually drawn VOI-based analysis shows a decrease in magnetization transfer ratio in the hippocampus of patients with Alzheimer disease. We investigated with whole-brain voxelwise analysis the regional changes of the magnetization transfer ratio in patients with mild Alzheimer disease and patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Twenty patients with mild Alzheimer disease, 27 patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, and 30 healthy elderly control subjects were examined with high-resolution T1WI and 3-mm-thick magnetization transfer images. Whole-brain voxelwise analysis of magnetization transfer ratio maps was performed by use of Statistical Parametric Mapping 8 software and was supplemented by the analysis of the magnetization transfer ratio in FreeSurfer parcellation-derived VOIs. Voxelwise analysis showed 2 clusters of significantly decreased magnetization transfer ratio in the left hippocampus and amygdala and in the left posterior mesial temporal cortex (fusiform gyrus) of patients with Alzheimer disease as compared with control subjects but no difference between patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and either patients with Alzheimer disease or control subjects. VOI analysis showed that the magnetization transfer ratio in the hippocampus and amygdala was significantly lower (bilaterally) in patients with Alzheimer disease when compared with control subjects (ANOVA with Bonferroni correction, at P ratio values in the hippocampus and amygdala in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment were between those of healthy control subjects and those of patients with mild Alzheimer disease. Support vector machine-based classification demonstrated improved classification performance after inclusion of magnetization transfer ratio-related features, especially between patients with Alzheimer disease versus healthy subjects. Bilateral but asymmetric decrease of magnetization transfer ratio reflecting microstructural changes of the
Ansai, Juliana H.; Andrade, Larissa P.; Rossi, Paulo G.; Takahashi, Anielle C.M.; Vale, Francisco A.C.; Rebelatto, Jos? R.
2017-01-01
Background Studies with functional and applicable methods and new cognitive demands involving executive function are needed to improve screening, prevention and rehabilitation of cognitive impairment and falls. Objective to identify differences in gait, dual task performances, and history of falls between elderly people with preserved cognition, mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer's disease. Method A cross-sectional study was conducted. The sample consisted of 40 community-dwelling o...
Frontal lobe hypoperfusion in mild cognitive impairment patients
Liao, S.Q.; Chung, C.P.; Liao, Y.C.; Wang, P.N.; Lee, Y.C.; Liu, H.C.; Liu, R.S.
2004-01-01
Objective: Mild cognitive impairement (MCI) refers to the clinical state of individuals who are memory impaired subjectively but are functioning well and do not meet the criteria of dementia. MCI subjects have a high risk of progressing to Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is important to detect the earliest evidence of AD for clinicians to recognize the high risk subjects and to implicate the therapy. The aim of this study was to assess the early change of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in MCI with high risk of AD by SPECT. Methods: Subjects complained of memory impairment with normal cognitive function and intact daily activities were enrolled. Each patient underwent 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT at the time of initial evaluation. Patients were followed for one to five years. The diagnosis of AD was based on the criteria of the Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association. There were 8 patients (4 males, 4 females; age range, 64-80 yrs; mean, 73.5 yrs) progressing to AD within one year. Ten gender and age matched normal control subjects (NC) were also included. The SPECT images were analyzed by using SPM 99. The image data were transformed into a standard stereotactic space, using a 12-parameter linear and 2x2x2 nonlinear spatial normalization with the template image. Group comparisons of the SPECT images between the 8 rapid AD converters and 10 NCs were performed on a voxel-by-voxel basis using t test. The t statistics was transformed to a normal statistic yielding a Z score for every voxel. Results: In 8 rapid AD converters, rCBF in the right medial frontal gyms (Brodmann area 10; BA 10), anterior cingulated gyms (BA 32) and middle frontal gyms (BA 46) was significantly lower than in NCs (p<0.001). The neuropsychological performances of these 8 cases revealed decrement in short-term memory, mental manipulation and list-generation frequency. Conclusions: rCBF is decreased in right medial frontal, anterior cingulated and middle frontal gyms in MCI patients who
Molecular imaging of serotonin degeneration in mild cognitive impairment.
Smith, Gwenn S; Barrett, Frederick S; Joo, Jin Hui; Nassery, Najlla; Savonenko, Alena; Sodums, Devin J; Marano, Christopher M; Munro, Cynthia A; Brandt, Jason; Kraut, Michael A; Zhou, Yun; Wong, Dean F; Workman, Clifford I
2017-09-01
Neuropathological and neuroimaging studies have consistently demonstrated degeneration of monoamine systems, especially the serotonin system, in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease. The evidence for degeneration of the serotonin system in mild cognitive impairment is limited. Thus, the goal of the present study was to measure the serotonin transporter in vivo in mild cognitive impairment and healthy controls. The serotonin transporter is a selective marker of serotonin terminals and of the integrity of serotonin projections to cortical, subcortical and limbic regions and is found in high concentrations in the serotonergic cell bodies of origin of these projections (raphe nuclei). Twenty-eight participants with mild cognitive impairment (age 66.6±6.9, 16 males) and 28 healthy, cognitively normal, demographically matched controls (age 66.2±7.1, 15 males) underwent magnetic resonance imaging for measurement of grey matter volumes and high-resolution positron emission tomography with well-established radiotracers for the serotonin transporter and regional cerebral blood flow. Beta-amyloid imaging was performed to evaluate, in combination with the neuropsychological testing, the likelihood of subsequent cognitive decline in the participants with mild cognitive impairment. The following hypotheses were tested: 1) the serotonin transporter would be lower in mild cognitive impairment compared to controls in cortical and limbic regions, 2) in mild cognitive impairment relative to controls, the serotonin transporter would be lower to a greater extent and observed in a more widespread pattern than lower grey matter volumes or lower regional cerebral blood flow and 3) lower cortical and limbic serotonin transporters would be correlated with greater deficits in auditory-verbal and visual-spatial memory in mild cognitive impairment, not in controls. Reduced serotonin transporter availability was observed in mild cognitive impairment compared to controls in cortical and limbic
Linear and non-linear optics of condensed matter
McLean, T.P.
1977-01-01
Part I - Linear optics: 1. General introduction. 2. Frequency dependence of epsilon(ω, k vector). 3. Wave-vector dependence of epsilon(ω, k vector). 4. Tensor character of epsilon(ω, k vector). Part II - Non-linear optics: 5. Introduction. 6. A classical theory of non-linear response in one dimension. 7. The generalization to three dimensions. 8. General properties of the polarizability tensors. 9. The phase-matching condition. 10. Propagation in a non-linear dielectric. 11. Second harmonic generation. 12. Coupling of three waves. 13. Materials and their non-linearities. 14. Processes involving energy exchange with the medium. 15. Two-photon absorption. 16. Stimulated Raman effect. 17. Electro-optic effects. 18. Limitations of the approach presented here. (author)
Predictors of recurrence in pheochromocytoma.
Press, Danielle; Akyuz, Muhammet; Dural, Cem; Aliyev, Shamil; Monteiro, Rosebel; Mino, Jeff; Mitchell, Jamie; Hamrahian, Amir; Siperstein, Allan; Berber, Eren
2014-12-01
The recurrence rate of pheochromocytoma after adrenalectomy is 6.5-16.5%. This study aims to identify predictors of recurrence and optimal biochemical testing and imaging for detecting the recurrence of pheochromocytoma. In this retrospective study we reviewed all patients who underwent adrenalectomy for pheochromocytoma during a 14-year period at a single institution. One hundred thirty-five patients had adrenalectomy for pheochromocytoma. Eight patients (6%) developed recurrent disease. The median time from initial operation to diagnosis of recurrence was 35 months. On multivariate analysis, tumor size >5 cm was an independent predictor of recurrence. One patient with recurrence died, 4 had stable disease, 2 had progression of disease, and 1 was cured. Recurrence was diagnosed by increases in plasma and/or urinary metanephrines and positive imaging in 6 patients (75%), and by positive imaging and normal biochemical levels in 2 patients (25%). Patients with large tumors (>5 cm) should be followed vigilantly for recurrence. Because 25% of patients with recurrence had normal biochemical levels, we recommend routine imaging and testing of plasma or urinary metanephrines for prompt diagnosis of recurrence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rubínová, Eva; Nikolai, Tomáš; Marková, Hana; Siffelová, Kamila; Laczó, Jan; Hort, Jakub; Vyhnálek, Martin
2014-01-01
The Clock Drawing Test is a frequently used cognitive screening test with several scoring systems in elderly populations. We compare simple and complex scoring systems and evaluate the usefulness of the combination of the Clock Drawing Test with the Mini-Mental State Examination to detect patients with mild cognitive impairment. Patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (n = 48) and age- and education-matched controls (n = 48) underwent neuropsychological examinations, including the Clock Drawing Test and the Mini-Mental State Examination. Clock drawings were scored by three blinded raters using one simple (6-point scale) and two complex (17- and 18-point scales) systems. The sensitivity and specificity of these scoring systems used alone and in combination with the Mini-Mental State Examination were determined. Complex scoring systems, but not the simple scoring system, were significant predictors of the amnestic mild cognitive impairment diagnosis in logistic regression analysis. At equal levels of sensitivity (87.5%), the Mini-Mental State Examination showed higher specificity (31.3%, compared with 12.5% for the 17-point Clock Drawing Test scoring scale). The combination of Clock Drawing Test and Mini-Mental State Examination scores increased the area under the curve (0.72; p Drawing Test did not differentiate between healthy elderly and patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment in our sample. Complex scoring systems were slightly more efficient, yet still were characterized by high rates of false-positive results. We found psychometric improvement using combined scores from the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Clock Drawing Test when complex scoring systems were used. The results of this study support the benefit of using combined scores from simple methods.
Generalized linear mixed models modern concepts, methods and applications
Stroup, Walter W
2012-01-01
PART I The Big PictureModeling BasicsWhat Is a Model?Two Model Forms: Model Equation and Probability DistributionTypes of Model EffectsWriting Models in Matrix FormSummary: Essential Elements for a Complete Statement of the ModelDesign MattersIntroductory Ideas for Translating Design and Objectives into ModelsDescribing ""Data Architecture"" to Facilitate Model SpecificationFrom Plot Plan to Linear PredictorDistribution MattersMore Complex Example: Multiple Factors with Different Units of ReplicationSetting the StageGoals for Inference with Models: OverviewBasic Tools of InferenceIssue I: Data
Distinct molecular signatures of mild extrinsic and intrinsic atopic dermatitis.
Martel, Britta C; Litman, Thomas; Hald, Andreas; Norsgaard, Hanne; Lovato, Paola; Dyring-Andersen, Beatrice; Skov, Lone; Thestrup-Pedersen, Kristian; Skov, Søren; Skak, Kresten; Poulsen, Lars K
2016-06-01
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common inflammatory skin disease with underlying defects in epidermal function and immune responses. In this study, we used microarray analysis to investigate differences in gene expression in lesional skin from patients with mild extrinsic or intrinsic AD compared to skin from healthy controls and from lesional psoriasis skin. The primary aim was to identify differentially expressed genes involved in skin barrier formation and inflammation, and to compare our results with those reported for patients with moderate and severe AD. In contrast to severe AD, expression of the majority of genes associated with skin barrier formation was unchanged or upregulated in patients with mild AD compared to normal healthy skin. Among these, no significant differences in the expression of filaggrin (FLG) and loricrin at both mRNA and protein level were found in lesional skin from patients with mild AD, despite the presence of heterozygous FLG mutations in the majority of patients with mild extrinsic AD. Several inflammation-associated genes such as S100A9, MMP12, CXCL10 and CCL18 were highly expressed in lesional skin from patients with mild psoriasis and were also increased in patients with mild extrinsic and intrinsic AD similar to previous reports for severe AD. Interestingly, expression of genes involved in inflammatory responses in intrinsic AD resembled that of psoriasis more than that of extrinsic AD. Overall, differences in expression of inflammation-associated genes found among patients with mild intrinsic and extrinsic AD correlated with previous findings for patients with severe intrinsic and extrinsic AD. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Predictors of outcomes in outpatients with anorexia nervosa - Results from the ANTOP study.
Wild, Beate; Friederich, Hans-Christoph; Zipfel, Stephan; Resmark, Gaby; Giel, Katrin; Teufel, Martin; Schellberg, Dieter; Löwe, Bernd; de Zwaan, Martina; Zeeck, Almut; Herpertz, Stephan; Burgmer, Markus; von Wietersheim, Jörn; Tagay, Sefik; Dinkel, Andreas; Herzog, Wolfgang
2016-10-30
This study aimed to determine predictors of BMI and recovery for outpatients with anorexia nervosa (AN). Patients were participants of the ANTOP (Anorexia Nervosa Treatment of Out-Patients) trial and randomized to focal psychodynamic therapy (FPT), enhanced cognitive behavior therapy (CBT-E), or optimized treatment as usual (TAU-O). N=169 patients participated in the one-year follow-up (T4). Outcomes were the BMI and global outcome (recovery/partial syndrome/full syndrome) at T4. We examined the following baseline variables as possible predictors: age, BMI, duration of illness, subtype of AN, various axis I diagnoses, quality of life, self-esteem, and psychological characteristics relevant to AN. Linear and logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify the predictors of the BMI and global outcome. The strongest positive predictor for BMI and recovery at T4 was a higher baseline BMI of the patients. Negative predictors for BMI and recovery were a duration of illness >6 years and a lifetime depression diagnosis at baseline. Additionally, higher bodily pain was significantly associated with a lower BMI and self-esteem was a positive predictor for recovery at T4. A higher baseline BMI and shorter illness duration led to a better outcome. Further research is necessary to investigate whether or not AN patients with lifetime depression, higher bodily pain, and lower self-esteem may benefit from specific treatment approaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Crasmareanu Mircea
2017-12-01
Full Text Available We consider the paracomplex version of the notion of mixed linear spaces introduced by M. Jurchescu in [4] by replacing the complex unit i with the paracomplex unit j, j2 = 1. The linear algebra of these spaces is studied with a special view towards their morphisms.
Linear Algebra and Image Processing
Allali, Mohamed
2010-01-01
We use the computing technology digital image processing (DIP) to enhance the teaching of linear algebra so as to make the course more visual and interesting. Certainly, this visual approach by using technology to link linear algebra to DIP is interesting and unexpected to both students as well as many faculty. (Contains 2 tables and 11 figures.)
Efficient Searching with Linear Constraints
Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars Allan; Erickson, Jeff
2000-01-01
We show how to preprocess a set S of points in d into an external memory data structure that efficiently supports linear-constraint queries. Each query is in the form of a linear constraint xd a0+∑d−1i=1 aixi; the data structure must report all the points of S that satisfy the constraint. This pr...
Johnson, Bruce G.; Gerver, Michael J.; Hawkey, Timothy J.; Fenn, Ralph C.
1993-01-01
Improved linear actuator comprises air slide and linear electric motor. Unit exhibits low friction, low backlash, and more nearly even acceleration. Used in machinery in which positions, velocities, and accelerations must be carefully controlled and/or vibrations must be suppressed.
Linear morphoea follows Blaschko's lines.
Weibel, L; Harper, J I
2008-07-01
The aetiology of morphoea (or localized scleroderma) remains unknown. It has previously been suggested that lesions of linear morphoea may follow Blaschko's lines and thus reflect an embryological development. However, the distribution of linear morphoea has never been accurately evaluated. We aimed to identify common patterns of clinical presentation in children with linear morphoea and to establish whether linear morphoea follows the lines of Blaschko. A retrospective chart review of 65 children with linear morphoea was performed. According to clinical photographs the skin lesions of these patients were plotted on to standardized head and body charts. With the aid of Adobe Illustrator a final figure was produced including an overlay of all individual lesions which was used for comparison with the published lines of Blaschko. Thirty-four (53%) patients had the en coup de sabre subtype, 27 (41%) presented with linear morphoea on the trunk and/or limbs and four (6%) children had a combination of the two. In 55 (85%) children the skin lesions were confined to one side of the body, showing no preference for either left or right side. On comparing the overlays of all body and head lesions with the original lines of Blaschko there was an excellent correlation. Our data indicate that linear morphoea follows the lines of Blaschko. We hypothesize that in patients with linear morphoea susceptible cells are present in a mosaic state and that exposure to some trigger factor may result in the development of this condition.
Campagnoli, Patrizia; Petris, Giovanni
2009-01-01
State space models have gained tremendous popularity in as disparate fields as engineering, economics, genetics and ecology. Introducing general state space models, this book focuses on dynamic linear models, emphasizing their Bayesian analysis. It illustrates the fundamental steps needed to use dynamic linear models in practice, using R package.
Linear Programming across the Curriculum
Yoder, S. Elizabeth; Kurz, M. Elizabeth
2015-01-01
Linear programming (LP) is taught in different departments across college campuses with engineering and management curricula. Modeling an LP problem is taught in every linear programming class. As faculty teaching in Engineering and Management departments, the depth to which teachers should expect students to master this particular type of…
Introduction to RF linear accelerators
Weiss, M.
1994-01-01
The basic features of RF linear accelerators are described. The concept of the 'loaded cavity', essential for the synchronism wave-particle, is introduced, and formulae describing the action of electromagnetic fields on the beam are given. The treatment of intense beams is mentioned, and various existing linear accelerators are presented as examples. (orig.)
Spatial Processes in Linear Ordering
von Hecker, Ulrich; Klauer, Karl Christoph; Wolf, Lukas; Fazilat-Pour, Masoud
2016-01-01
Memory performance in linear order reasoning tasks (A > B, B > C, C > D, etc.) shows quicker, and more accurate responses to queries on wider (AD) than narrower (AB) pairs on a hypothetical linear mental model (A -- B -- C -- D). While indicative of an analogue representation, research so far did not provide positive evidence for spatial…
Andersen, O. Krogh
1975-01-01
of Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker, linear-combination-of-atomic-orbitals, and cellular methods; the secular matrix is linear in energy, the overlap integrals factorize as potential parameters and structure constants, the latter are canonical in the sense that they neither depend on the energy nor the cell volume...
Blood pressure patterns in women with gestational hypertension or mild preeclampsia at term.
van der Tuuk, K; Tajik, P; Koopmans, C M; van den Berg, P P; Mol, B W J; van Pampus, M G; Groen, H
2017-03-01
Gestational hypertension (GH) and mild preeclampsia (PE) represent the most common medical complications of pregnancy, with the majority of cases developing at or near term. There is little knowledge of the course of blood pressure over time in these women. We explored the pattern of systolic and diastolic blood pressure over time in women with GH or mild PE at term participating in the HYPITAT trial, and we attempted to identify clinical factors influencing these blood pressure patterns and the impact of severe hypertension on clinical management. We used data from the HYPITAT trial, that included women with a singleton pregnancy with a fetus in cephalic position between 36 and 41 weeks of gestation with the diagnosis of GH or mild PE. Blood pressure measurements were performed from randomization or admission until delivery or discharge from the hospital. We included the highest blood pressure of each day. We evaluated systolic and diastolic blood pressure change over time, as well as the influence of clinical characteristics and laboratory findings on the course of blood pressure. We used univariate and multivariate regression analysis with a backward stepwise algorithm for the selection of variables. The model with the best fit (lowest AIC) was selected as the final model. We also compared mode of delivery for women with and without severe hypertension. We studied 1076 women who had 4188 blood pressure measurements done. The systolic blood pressure showed a significant non-linear increase over time and for the diastolic blood pressure the pattern was also non-linear. In the multivariable model of systolic blood pressure change over time, nulliparity, ethnicity, systolic blood pressure (at baseline), BMI and LDH at randomization influenced the course of blood pressure. In the diastolic blood pressure model ALT and the baseline diastolic blood pressure had a significant influence. When we explored the association between blood pressure and mode of delivery, it
Introduction to generalized linear models
Dobson, Annette J
2008-01-01
Introduction Background Scope Notation Distributions Related to the Normal Distribution Quadratic Forms Estimation Model Fitting Introduction Examples Some Principles of Statistical Modeling Notation and Coding for Explanatory Variables Exponential Family and Generalized Linear Models Introduction Exponential Family of Distributions Properties of Distributions in the Exponential Family Generalized Linear Models Examples Estimation Introduction Example: Failure Times for Pressure Vessels Maximum Likelihood Estimation Poisson Regression Example Inference Introduction Sampling Distribution for Score Statistics Taylor Series Approximations Sampling Distribution for MLEs Log-Likelihood Ratio Statistic Sampling Distribution for the Deviance Hypothesis Testing Normal Linear Models Introduction Basic Results Multiple Linear Regression Analysis of Variance Analysis of Covariance General Linear Models Binary Variables and Logistic Regression Probability Distributions ...
Acoustic emission linear pulse holography
Collins, H.D.; Busse, L.J.; Lemon, D.K.
1983-01-01
This paper describes the emission linear pulse holography which produces a chronological linear holographic image of a flaw by utilizing the acoustic energy emitted during crack growth. A thirty two point sampling array is used to construct phase-only linear holograms of simulated acoustic emission sources on large metal plates. The concept behind the AE linear pulse holography is illustrated, and a block diagram of a data acquisition system to implement the concept is given. Array element spacing, synthetic frequency criteria, and lateral depth resolution are specified. A reference timing transducer positioned between the array and the inspection zone and which inititates the time-of-flight measurements is described. The results graphically illustrate the technique using a one-dimensional FFT computer algorithm (ie. linear backward wave) for an AE image reconstruction
Linear accelerator stereotactic radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia.
Varela-Lema, Leonor; Lopez-Garcia, Marisa; Maceira-Rozas, Maria; Munoz-Garzon, Victor
2015-01-01
Stereotactic radiosurgery is accepted as an alternative for patients with refractory trigeminal neuralgia, but existing evidence is fundamentally based on the Gamma Knife, which is a specific device for intracranial neurosurgery, available in few facilities. Over the last decade it has been shown that the use of linear accelerators can achieve similar diagnostic accuracy and equivalent dose distribution. To assess the effectiveness and safety of linear-accelerator stereotactic radiosurgery for the treatment of patients with refractory trigeminal neuralgia. We carried out a systematic search of the literature in the main electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, ISI Web of Knowledge, Cochrane, Biomed Central, IBECS, IME, CRD) and reviewed grey literature. All original studies on the subject published in Spanish, French, English, and Portuguese were eligible for inclusion. The selection and critical assessment was carried out by 2 independent reviewers based on pre-defined criteria. In view of the impossibility of carrying out a pooled analysis, data were analyzed in a qualitative way. Eleven case series were included. In these, satisfactory pain relief (BIN I-IIIb or reduction in pain = 50) was achieved in 75% to 95.7% of the patients treated. The mean time to relief from pain ranged from 8.5 days to 3.8 months. The percentage of patients who presented with recurrences after one year of follow-up ranged from 5% to 28.8%. Facial swelling or hypoesthesia, mostly of a mild-moderate grade appeared in 7.5% - 51.9% of the patients. Complete anaesthesia dolorosa was registered in only study (5.3%). Cases of hearing loss (2.5%), brainstem edema (5.8%), and neurotrophic keratoplasty (3.5%) were also isolated. The results suggest that stereotactic radiosurgery with linear accelerators could constitute an effective and safe therapeutic alternative for drug-resistant trigeminal neuralgia. However, existing studies leave important doubts as to optimal treatment doses or the
Linear and Generalized Linear Mixed Models and Their Applications
Jiang, Jiming
2007-01-01
This book covers two major classes of mixed effects models, linear mixed models and generalized linear mixed models, and it presents an up-to-date account of theory and methods in analysis of these models as well as their applications in various fields. The book offers a systematic approach to inference about non-Gaussian linear mixed models. Furthermore, it has included recently developed methods, such as mixed model diagnostics, mixed model selection, and jackknife method in the context of mixed models. The book is aimed at students, researchers and other practitioners who are interested
Energy and fuel efficient parallel mild hybrids for urban roads
Babu, Ajay; Ashok, S.
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Energy and fuel savings depend on battery charge variations and the vehicle speed parameters. • Indian urban conditions provide lot of scope for energy and fuel savings in mild hybrids. • Energy saving strategy has lower payback periods than the fuel saving one in mild hybrids. • Sensitivity to parameter variations is the least for energy saving strategy in a mild hybrid. - Abstract: Fuel economy improvements and battery energy savings can promote the adoption of parallel mild hybrids for urban driving conditions. The aim of this study is to establish these benefits through two operating modes: an energy saving mode and a fuel saving mode. The performances of a typical parallel mild hybrid using these modes were analysed over urban driving cycles, in the US, Europe, and India, with a particular focus on the Indian urban conditions. The energy pack available from the proposed energy-saving operating mode, in addition to the energy already available from the conventional mode, was observed to be the highest for the representative urban driving cycle of the US. The extra energy pack available was found to be approximately 21.9 times that available from the conventional mode. By employing the proposed fuel saving operating mode, the fuel economy improvement achievable in New York City was observed to be approximately 22.69% of the fuel economy with the conventional strategy. The energy saving strategy was found to possess the lowest payback periods and highest immunity to variations in various cost parameters.
Prenatal natural history of isolated fetal mild bilateral pyelectasis
Gustavo de Paula Pereira
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the prenatal outcomes in a cohort of fetuses with mild bilateral pyelectasis and determine whether performing serial ultrasounds is a good follow-up strategy. METHODS: A prospective longitudinal study was conducted on 62 fetuses with mild bilateral pyelectasis. Fetal mild bilateral pyelectasis was considered when the renal pelvis measured (in millimeters ≥5.0 to 10.0, ≥7.0 to 10.0, and ≥10.0 to 15 at ≤23 weeks 6 days, 24 to 31 weeks 6 days, and ≥32 weeks, respectively, with no uretero-calyceal dilatation. Ultrasounds were performed every 3 weeks to assess whether the mild bilateral pyelectasis regressed, remained unchanged (Group 1 or progressed (Group 2. RESULTS: Group 1 consisted of 53 fetuses (85.4%, and progression was observed in 9 cases (Group 2, 14.6%. The initial renal pelvis diameter was significantly larger in fetuses with progression (p=0.028. Statistically significant differences in the renal pelvis diameter were also found at weeks 31 and 35 for both kidneys (p<0.05. The cases requiring intrauterine procedures or early delivery were not observed. CONCLUSION: Fetal mild bilateral pyelectasis with no calyceal dilatation is a benign condition that can be managed in the postnatal period. The initial renal pelvis diameter and the diameter in week 31 or 35 were valuable parameters for identifying cases that would eventually need specific postnatal procedures.
Socioeconomic disparities in work performance following mild stroke.
Brey, Joseph K; Wolf, Timothy J
2015-01-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among the factors that influence return to work for young individuals with mild stroke from different socioeconomic backgrounds. Prospective cohort study of working adults with mild stroke (N = 21). Participants completed an assessment battery of cognitive, work environment and work performance measures at approximately 3 weeks and 7 months post mild stroke. Individuals were placed in "skilled" and "unskilled" worker categories based on the Hollingshead Index. Unskilled workers had significantly poorer scores on the majority of the cognitive assessments. Unskilled workers also perceived less social support (p = 0.017) and autonomy (p = 0.049) in work responsibilities than individuals in the skilled worker group and also reported significantly poorer work productivity due to stroke than those in the skilled group (p = 0.015). Individuals from low socioeconomic backgrounds have more difficulty returning to work following mild stroke than individuals from higher socioeconomic backgrounds. Future work is needed to identify factors that can increase long-term work success and quality of work performance following a mild stroke that specifically targets the needs of individuals who have a lower socioeconomic status.
Mild Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson's Disease-What Is It?
Weil, Rimona S; Costantini, Alyssa A; Schrag, Anette E
2018-03-10
Mild cognitive impairment is a common feature of Parkinson's disease, even at the earliest disease stages, but there is variation in the nature and severity of cognitive involvement and in the risk of conversion to Parkinson's disease dementia. This review aims to summarise current understanding of mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease. We consider the presentation, rate of conversion to dementia, underlying pathophysiology and potential biomarkers of mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease. Finally, we discuss challenges and controversies of mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease. Large-scale longitudinal studies have shown that cognitive involvement is important and common in Parkinson's disease and can present early in the disease course. Recent criteria for mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's provide the basis for further study of cognitive decline and for the progression of different cognitive phenotypes and risk of conversion to dementia. Improved understanding of the underlying pathology and progression of cognitive change are likely to lead to opportunities for early intervention for this important aspect of Parkinson's disease.
Meike ePappens
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Fear learning is thought to play an important role in panic disorder. Benign interoceptive sensations can become predictors (conditioned stimuli - CSs of massive fear when experienced in the context of an initial panic attack (unconditioned stimulus – US. The mere encounter of these CSs on a later moment can induce anxiety and fear, and precipitate a new panic attack. It has been suggested that fear learning to interoceptive cues would result in unpredictable panic. The present study aimed to investigate whether fear learning to an interoceptive CS is possible without declarative knowledge of the CS-US contingency. The CS consisted of mild breathlessness (or: dyspnea, the US was a suffocation experience. During acquisition, the experimental group received 6 presentations of mild breathlessness immediately followed by suffocation; for the control group both experiences were always separated by an intertrial interval. In the subsequent extinction phase, participants received 6 unreinforced presentations of the CS. Expectancy of the US was rated continuously and startle eyeblink EMG, skin conductance and respiration were measured. Declarative knowledge of the CS-US relationship was also assessed with a post-experimental questionnaire. At the end of acquisition, both groups displayed the same levels of US expectancy and skin conductance in response to the CS, but the experimental group showed a fear potentiated startle eyeblink and a different respiratory response to the CS compared to the control group. Further analyses on a subgroup of CS-US unaware participants confirmed the presence of startle eyeblink conditioning in the experimental group but not in the control group. Our findings suggest that interoceptive fear learning is not dependent on declarative knowledge of the CS-US relationship. The present interoceptive fear conditioning paradigm may serve as an ecologically valid laboratory model for unexpected panic attacks.
Clinical and Cognitive Phenotype of Mild Cognitive Impairment Evolving to Dementia with Lewy Bodies
Annachiara Cagnin
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine which characteristics could better distinguish dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB from Alzheimer's disease (AD at the mild cognitive impairment (MCI stage, with particular emphasis on visual space and object perception abilities. Methods: Fifty-three patients with mild cognitive deficits that were eventually diagnosed with probable DLB (MCI-DLB: n = 25 and AD (MCI-AD: n = 28 at a 3-year follow-up were retrospectively studied. At the first visit, the patients underwent cognitive assessment including the Qualitative Scoring Mini Mental State Examination Pentagon Test and the Visual Object and Space Perception Battery. The Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS and questionnaires for cognitive fluctuations and sleep disorders were also administered. Results: The best clinical predictor of DLB was the presence of soft extrapyramidal signs (mean UPDRS score: 4.04 ± 5.9 detected in 72% of patients, followed by REM sleep behavior disorder (60% and fluctuations (60%. Wrong performances in the pentagon's number of angles were obtained in 44% of DLB and 3.7% of AD patients and correlated with speed of visual attention. Executive functions, visual attention and visuospatial abilities were worse in DLB, while verbal episodic memory impairment was greater in AD. Deficits in the visual-perceptual domain were present in both MCI-DLB and AD. Conclusions: Poor performance in the pentagon's number of angles is specific of DLB and correlates with speed of visual attention. The dorsal visual stream seems specifically more impaired in MCI-DLB with respect to the ventral visual stream, the latter being involved in both DLB and AD. These cognitive features, associated with subtle extrapyramidal signs, should alert clinicians to a diagnostic hypothesis of DLB.
Prediction of falls and/or near falls in people with mild Parkinson's disease.
Beata Lindholm
Full Text Available To determine factors associated with future falls and/or near falls in people with mild PD.The study included 141 participants with PD. Mean (SD age and PD-duration were 68 (9.7 and 4 years (3.9, respectively. Their median (q1-q3 UPDRS III score was 13 (8-18. Those >80 years of age, requiring support in standing or unable to understand instructions were excluded. Self-administered questionnaires targeted freezing of gait, turning hesitations, walking difficulties in daily life, fatigue, fear of falling, independence in activities of daily living, dyskinesia, demographics, falls/near falls history, balance problems while dual tasking and pain. Clinical assessments addressed functional balance performance, retropulsion, comfortable gait speed, motor symptoms and cognition. All falls and near falls were subsequently registered in a diary during a six-month period. Risk factors for prospective falls and/or near falls were determined using logistic regression.Sixty-three participants (45% experienced ≥ 1 fall and/or near fall. Three factors were independent predictors of falls and/or near falls: fear of falling (OR = 1.032, p<0.001 history of near falls (OR = 3.475, p = 0.009 and retropulsion (OR = 2.813, p = 0.035. The strongest contributing factor was fear of falling, followed by a history of near falls and retropulsion.Fear of falling seems to be an important issue to address already in mild PD as well as asking about prior near falls.
Na, Boo Suk; Cho, Jin Whan; Park, Kwan; Kwon, Soonwook; Kim, Ye Sel; Kim, Ji Sun; Youn, Jinyoung
2018-04-27
Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is mostly caused by the compression of the facial nerve by cerebral vessels, but the significance of spasm severity remains unclear. We investigated the clinical significance of spasm severity in patients with HFS who underwent microvascular decompression (MVD). We enrolled 636 patients with HFS who underwent MVD between May 2010 and December 2013 at Samsung Medical Center (SMC), Seoul, Korea. Subjects were divided into two groups based on spasm severity: severe (SMC grade 3 or 4) and mild (SMC grade 1 or 2). We compared demographic, clinical, and surgical data between these two groups. The severe-spasm group was older and had a longer disease duration at the time of MVD compared to the mild-spasm group. Additionally, hypertension and diabetes mellitus were more common in the severe-spasm group than in the mild-spasm group. Regarding surgical findings, there were more patients with multiple offending vessels and more-severe indentations in the severe-spasm group than in the mild-spasm group. Even though the surgical outcomes did not differ, the incidence of delayed facial palsy after MVD was higher in the severe-spasm group than in the mild-spasm group. Logistic regression analysis showed that severe-spasm was correlated with longer disease duration, hypertension, severe indentation, multiple offending vessels, and delayed facial palsy after MVD. Spasm severity does not predict surgical outcomes, but it can be used as a marker of pathologic compression in MVD for HFS, and be considered as a predictor of delayed facial palsy after MVD. Copyright © 2018 Korean Neurological Association.
Predictors of Transience among Homeless Emerging Adults
Ferguson, Kristin M.; Bender, Kimberly; Thompson, Sanna J.
2014-01-01
This study identified predictors of transience among homeless emerging adults in three cities. A total of 601 homeless emerging adults from Los Angeles, Austin, and Denver were recruited using purposive sampling. Ordinary least squares regression results revealed that significant predictors of greater transience include White ethnicity, high…
Electrical Signs predictors of malignant ventricular arrhythmias
Aleman Fernandez, Ailema Amelia; Dorantes Sanchez, Margarita
2012-01-01
Recurrence of malignant ventricular arrhythmia is frequent in cardioverter-defibrillators related patients. The risk stratification is difficult, there are numerous electrocardiographic predictors but his sensibility and specificity are not absolute. The limit between normal and pathological is not defined, besides the complexity of ventricular arrhythmias. We expose different electrocardiographic predictors that can help to better individual risk stratification
Predictors of treatment failure among pulmonary tuberculosis ...
Introduction: Early identification of Tuberculosis (TB) treatment failure using cost effective means is urgently needed in developing nations. The study set out to describe affordable predictors of TB treatment failure in an African setting. Objective: To determine the predictors of treatment failure among patients with sputum ...
A smart predictor for material property testing
Wang, Wilson; Kanneg, Derek
2008-01-01
A reliable predictor is very useful for real-world industrial applications to forecast the future behavior of dynamic systems. A smart predictor, based on a novel recurrent neural fuzzy (RNF) scheme, is developed in this paper for multi-step-ahead prediction of material properties. A systematic investigation based on two benchmark data sets is conducted in terms of performance and efficiency. Analysis results reveal that, of the data-driven forecasting schemes, predictors based on step input patterns outperform those based on sequential input patterns; the RNF predictor outperforms those based on recurrent neural networks and ANFIS schemes in multi-step-ahead prediction of nonlinear time series. An adaptive Levenberg–Marquardt training technique is adopted to improve the robustness and convergence of the RNF predictor. Furthermore, the proposed smart predictor is implemented for material property testing. Investigation results show that the developed RNF predictor is a reliable forecasting tool for material property testing; it can capture and track the system's dynamic characteristics quickly and accurately. It is also a robust predictor to accommodate different system conditions
Incidence and predictors of coronary stent thrombosis
D'Ascenzo, Fabrizio; Bollati, Mario; Clementi, Fabrizio
2013-01-01
Stent thrombosis remains among the most feared complications of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stenting. However, data on its incidence and predictors are sparse and conflicting. We thus aimed to perform a collaborative systematic review on incidence and predictors of stent...
Ferencz, Donald C.; Viterna, Larry A.
1991-01-01
ALPS is a computer program which can be used to solve general linear program (optimization) problems. ALPS was designed for those who have minimal linear programming (LP) knowledge and features a menu-driven scheme to guide the user through the process of creating and solving LP formulations. Once created, the problems can be edited and stored in standard DOS ASCII files to provide portability to various word processors or even other linear programming packages. Unlike many math-oriented LP solvers, ALPS contains an LP parser that reads through the LP formulation and reports several types of errors to the user. ALPS provides a large amount of solution data which is often useful in problem solving. In addition to pure linear programs, ALPS can solve for integer, mixed integer, and binary type problems. Pure linear programs are solved with the revised simplex method. Integer or mixed integer programs are solved initially with the revised simplex, and the completed using the branch-and-bound technique. Binary programs are solved with the method of implicit enumeration. This manual describes how to use ALPS to create, edit, and solve linear programming problems. Instructions for installing ALPS on a PC compatible computer are included in the appendices along with a general introduction to linear programming. A programmers guide is also included for assistance in modifying and maintaining the program.
Linear and quasi-linear equations of parabolic type
Ladyženskaja, O A; Ural′ceva, N N; Uralceva, N N
1968-01-01
Equations of parabolic type are encountered in many areas of mathematics and mathematical physics, and those encountered most frequently are linear and quasi-linear parabolic equations of the second order. In this volume, boundary value problems for such equations are studied from two points of view: solvability, unique or otherwise, and the effect of smoothness properties of the functions entering the initial and boundary conditions on the smoothness of the solutions.
Markers for the risk of progression from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's disease.
Buratti, Laura; Balestrini, Simona; Altamura, Claudia; Viticchi, Giovanna; Falsetti, Lorenzo; Luzzi, Simona; Provinciali, Leandro; Vernieri, Fabrizio; Silvestrini, Mauro
2015-01-01
Defining reliable markers of conversion to dementia could be the first step in order to identify appropriate treatment strategies for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients. To develop a tool able to predict the risk of progression from MCI to Alzheimer's disease (AD). 406 MCI patients were included and followed for a one-year period. Demographic characteristics, vascular risk factors, extent of cerebrovascular lesions, markers of carotid atherosclerosis investigated with an ultrasonographic assessment (plaque index and intima-media thickness) and cerebrovascular reactivity to apnea (breath-holding index) were considered as potential predictors of conversion. 106 (26%) MCI patients showed a conversion to AD. Plaque index, intima-media thickness, and breath-holding index were relevant predictors of conversion (p = 0.042; p = 0.003; p < 0.001, multivariate logistic regression analysis). A simplified scoring system was devised based on the magnitude of the estimated multinomial logistic regression β coefficient results. A total score was calculated as the sum of each predictive factor which resulted in a 0-5 range. The optimal cut-off score was ≥3 (sensitivity, 23.6%, 95% CI 15.9%-32.8%; specificity, 97.7%, 95% CI 95.3%-99.1%; positive likelihood ratio, 10.1, 95% CI 4.5%-22.7%; negative likelihood ratio, 0.78, 95% CI 0.70%-0.87%). The AUC was 0.71 (95% CI, 0.65-0.77). Our findings show the possibility to obtain a predictive indicator of the risk of conversion from MCI to dementia by considering the presence of both atherosclerotic changes in the carotid district and impairment of cerebral hemodynamics. Such an approach may allow us to formulate a correct prognosis in more than 70% of patients with amnesic MCI.
Simulation of MILD combustion using Perfectly Stirred Reactor model
Chen, Z.
2016-07-06
A simple model based on a Perfectly Stirred Reactor (PSR) is proposed for moderate or intense low-oxygen dilution (MILD) combustion. The PSR calculation is performed covering the entire flammability range and the tabulated chemistry approach is used with a presumed joint probability density function (PDF). The jet, in hot and diluted coflow experimental set-up under MILD conditions, is simulated using this reactor model for two oxygen dilution levels. The computed results for mean temperature, major and minor species mass fractions are compared with the experimental data and simulation results obtained recently using a multi-environment transported PDF approach. Overall, a good agreement is observed at three different axial locations for these comparisons despite the over-predicted peak value of CO formation. This suggests that MILD combustion can be effectively modelled by the proposed PSR model with lower computational cost.
Johnson - Cook Strength Models for Mild and DP 590 Steels
Vedantam, K.; Brar, N. S.; Bajaj, D.; Hill, S.
2006-01-01
Automotive steels, Mild and Dual Phase590 (DP590) are characterized in tension at room temperature, using the quasi-static and split Hopkinson bar techniques at various strain rates ranging from ∼10-3/s to ∼1800/s. Tension stress-strain data for both the steels are analyzed to determine the Johnson-Cook Strength model constants, J-C strength model constants for mild steel are A=217 MPa, B = 234 MPa, n = 0.643 and C = 0.076 and for DP590 steel are A = 430 MPa, B = 824 MPa, n = 0.510 and C = 0.017. Higher value of strain rate sensitivity constant C for mild steel (0.076) compared to DP 590 (0.017) is also reflected in the stress- strain data at various strain rates
Mild Epicureanism: notes toward the definition of a therapeutic attitude.
Strenger, Carlo
2008-01-01
Psychotherapists generally feel uncomfortable addressing patients' beliefs, particularly religious beliefs, because of the desire to respect client subjectivity and to avoid the abuse of therapeutic authority. This paper's first contention is that at some junctures, investigation of the client's belief structure can be an important catalyst for change, as exemplified by an extended case example. This stance assumes that much of the individual and collective damage rigid belief systems inflict derives from their function as a defense against death awareness, as described by terror management theory. The paper develops the concept of a therapeutic meta-attitude towards belief mild Epicureanism, related to the classical Greek philosopher Epicurus (341-270 BC). Mild Epicureanism means to soften attachments to all belief systems, even therapeutic theories, to lower their potential inhibition of personal growth. The paper presents the argument that mild Epicureanism is consistent with most therapeutic approaches, and allows addressing clients' belief without interfering with their right to make up their own minds.
Correlation between Surface Roughness Characteristics in CO2 Laser Cutting of Mild Steel
M. Radovanović
2012-12-01
Full Text Available CO2 laser oxygen cutting of mild steel is widely used industrial application. Cut surface quality is a very important characteristic of laser cutting that ensures an advantage over other contour cutting processes. In this paper mathematical models for estimating characteristics of surface quality such as average surface roughness and ten-point mean roughness in CO2 laser cutting of mild steel based on laser cutting parameters were developed. Empirical models were developed using artificial neural networks and experimental data collected. Taguchi’s orthogonal array was implemented for experimental plan. From the analysis of the developed mathematical models it was observed that functional dependence between laser cutting parameters, their interactions and surface roughness characteristics is complex and non-linear. It was also observed that there exist region of minimal average surface roughness to ten-point mean roughness ratio. The relationship between average surface roughness and ten-point mean roughness was found to be nonlinear and can be expressed with a second degree polynomial.
Surface protection of mild steel in acidic chloride solution by 5-Nitro-8-Hydroxy Quinoline
R. Ganapathi Sundaram
2018-03-01
Full Text Available The effect of commercially available quinoline nucleus based pharmaceutically active compound 5-Nitro-8-Hydroxy Quinoline (NHQ against the corrosion of mild steel (MS in 1 M acidic chloride (HCl solution was investigated by chemical (weight loss – WL and electrochemical (Tafel polarization, Linear polarization and Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. From all the four methods, it is inferred that the percentage of inhibition efficiency increases with increasing the inhibitor concentration from 50 to 300 ppm. The adsorption behavior of inhibitor obeyed through Langmuir isotherm model. Thermodynamic parameters were also calculated and predict that the process of inhibition is a spontaneous reaction. EIS technique exhibits one capacitive loop indicating that, the corrosion reaction is controlled by charge transfer process. Tafel polarization studies revealed that the investigated inhibitor is mixed type and the mode of adsorption is physical in nature. The surface morphologies were examined by FT-IR, SEM and EDX techniques. Theoretical quantum chemical calculations were performed to confirm the ability of NHQ to adsorb onto mild steel surface. Keywords: Acidic chloride solution, MS, NHQ, WL, SEM, FT-IR
Relative brain displacement and deformation during constrained mild frontal head impact.
Feng, Y; Abney, T M; Okamoto, R J; Pless, R B; Genin, G M; Bayly, P V
2010-12-06
This study describes the measurement of fields of relative displacement between the brain and the skull in vivo by tagged magnetic resonance imaging and digital image analysis. Motion of the brain relative to the skull occurs during normal activity, but if the head undergoes high accelerations, the resulting large and rapid deformation of neuronal and axonal tissue can lead to long-term disability or death. Mathematical modelling and computer simulation of acceleration-induced traumatic brain injury promise to illuminate the mechanisms of axonal and neuronal pathology, but numerical studies require knowledge of boundary conditions at the brain-skull interface, material properties and experimental data for validation. The current study provides a dense set of displacement measurements in the human brain during mild frontal skull impact constrained to the sagittal plane. Although head motion is dominated by translation, these data show that the brain rotates relative to the skull. For these mild events, characterized by linear decelerations near 1.5g (g = 9.81 m s⁻²) and angular accelerations of 120-140 rad s⁻², relative brain-skull displacements of 2-3 mm are typical; regions of smaller displacements reflect the tethering effects of brain-skull connections. Strain fields exhibit significant areas with maximal principal strains of 5 per cent or greater. These displacement and strain fields illuminate the skull-brain boundary conditions, and can be used to validate simulations of brain biomechanics.
PENGARUH EVENT MARKETING TERHADAP BRAND IMAGE ROKOK DJARUM SUPER MILD PT DJARUM
Ellen Madhalena
2016-10-01
Rokok merupakan salah satu industri di Indonesia yang memiliki peningkatan setiap tahunnya. Dari data yang diperoleh untuk perusahaan rokok di Indonesia pada tahun 2014 bulan Mei, PT Djarum menempati posisi ke 3 pangsa pasar rokok di Indonesia berdasarkan survei dari CNN Indonesia 2014, dengan produk unggulan yaitu rokok low tar nicotine. Untuk mencapai tujuan perusahaan, maka setiap perusahaan menggunakan strategi dalam berpromosi. Salah satu bentuk promosi yang digunakan adalah event marketing. Event marketing yang dilaksanakan perusahaan juga harus tepat pada sasaran agar mengangkat citra merek suatu perusaan bagi konsumen. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh event marketing terhadap brand image rokok Djarum Super Mild. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian kuantitatif dengan analisis data deskriptif dan kausal dengan metode regresi linear berganda. Responden yang diteliti dalam penelitian ini berjumlah 100 pengunjung event Stage Bus Jazz Tour 2015 dengan teknik purposive sampling. Hasil penelitian secara simultan menunjukkan bahwa event marketing berpengaruh signifikan terhadap brand image rokok Djarum Super Mild. Sedangkan secara parsial menunjukkan bahwa variabel event marketing dengan dimensi involvement tidak berpengaruh signifikan terhadap brand image, interaction tidak berpengaruh signifikan terhadap brand image dengan, intensity berpengaruh signifikan terhadap brand image, individuality tidak berpengaruh signifikan terhadap brand image , innovation berpengaruh signifikan terhadap brand image, integrity tidak berpengaruh signifikan terhadap brand image. Kata Kunci : Event Marketing, Brand Image, Rokok
The Theory of Linear Prediction
Vaidyanathan, PP
2007-01-01
Linear prediction theory has had a profound impact in the field of digital signal processing. Although the theory dates back to the early 1940s, its influence can still be seen in applications today. The theory is based on very elegant mathematics and leads to many beautiful insights into statistical signal processing. Although prediction is only a part of the more general topics of linear estimation, filtering, and smoothing, this book focuses on linear prediction. This has enabled detailed discussion of a number of issues that are normally not found in texts. For example, the theory of vecto
Saravanan, R
2018-01-01
Non-linear optical materials have widespread and promising applications, but the efforts to understand the local structure, electron density distribution and bonding is still lacking. The present work explores the structural details, the electron density distribution and the local bond length distribution of some non-linear optical materials. It also gives estimation of the optical band gap, the particle size, crystallite size, and the elemental composition from UV-Visible analysis, SEM, XRD and EDS of some non-linear optical materials respectively.
Optimal control linear quadratic methods
Anderson, Brian D O
2007-01-01
This augmented edition of a respected text teaches the reader how to use linear quadratic Gaussian methods effectively for the design of control systems. It explores linear optimal control theory from an engineering viewpoint, with step-by-step explanations that show clearly how to make practical use of the material.The three-part treatment begins with the basic theory of the linear regulator/tracker for time-invariant and time-varying systems. The Hamilton-Jacobi equation is introduced using the Principle of Optimality, and the infinite-time problem is considered. The second part outlines the
Ansai, Juliana H; Andrade, Larissa P; Rossi, Paulo G; Takahashi, Anielle C M; Vale, Francisco A C; Rebelatto, José R
Studies with functional and applicable methods and new cognitive demands involving executive function are needed to improve screening, prevention and rehabilitation of cognitive impairment and falls. to identify differences in gait, dual task performances, and history of falls between elderly people with preserved cognition, mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer's disease. A cross-sectional study was conducted. The sample consisted of 40 community-dwelling older adults with preserved cognition, 40 older adults with mild cognitive impairment, and 38 older adults with mild Alzheimer's disease. The assessment consisted of anamneses, gait (measured by the 10-meter walk test), dual task (measured by the Timed Up and Go Test associated with the motor-cognitive task of calling a phone number), and history of falls in the past year. There were no differences among all groups for all variables. However, the Alzheimer's disease Group performed significantly worse in the dual task than the other groups. No item of dual task could distinguish people with preserved cognition from those with mild cognitive impairment. The groups with cognitive impairment included more fallers, and specific characteristics in history of falls between groups were identified. Dual task could distinguish Alzheimer's disease patients specifically from other cognitive profiles. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Mild head injury and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children.
Chasle, Veronique; Riffaud, Laurent; Longuet, Romain; Martineau-Curt, Marie; Collet, Yann; Le Fournier, Luc; Pladys, Patrick
2016-12-01
Post-concussion syndrome is a well-described complication following moderate and severe head trauma but whether it occurs after mild head injury in children remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether exposure to mild head injury with potential additional risk factors (non-surgical lesion on computed tomographic, high kinetic trauma, or Glasgow Coma Scale <15) is associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) after the head trauma. This study was performed in an emergency department on children admitted between 2009 and 2013. It compared victims of mild head injury aged 6-16 years with matched children presenting isolated non-surgical forearm fracture (ratio1/2). ADHD was assessed using Conners' Global Index-Parent short version 3-40 months after the trauma. The patients were compared using chi-square test or Fisher's exact test, t test or u-test as appropriate with a p value set at 0.05. During the study period, 676 patients were admitted for mild head injury. Among them, 34 (5 %) fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were compared with 64 matched patients admitted for a forearm fracture. The groups were comparable. ADHD was observed in both groups (18 % in the mild head injury group, 11 % in the control group) with no significant differences between groups. The prevalence was high when compared to an expected frequency of 3.5-5.6 % in children aged 6-12 years in the general population. These results suggest that pre-existing ADHD may have contributed to injury proneness in both groups and does not argue for a specific risk of ADHD induced by mild head injury. The diagnosis of ADHD should be evoked at admission of children aged 6-16 years presenting with a trauma.
Lebrini, Mounim; Bentiss, Fouad; Vezin, Herve; Lagrenee, Michel
2005-01-01
The efficiency of 3,5-bis(n-pyridyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (n-POX, n = 1, 2, 3), as corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in 1 M perchloric acid (HClO 4 ) have been determined by weight loss measurements and electrochemical studies. The results show that these inhibitors revealed a good corrosion inhibition even at very low concentrations. Comparison of results among those obtained by the studied oxadiazoles shows that 3-POX was the best inhibitor. Polarisation curves indicate that n-pyridyl substituted-1,3,4-oxadiazoles are mixed type inhibitors in 1 M HClO 4 . The adsorption of these inhibitors follows a Langmuir isotherm model. The electronic properties of n-POX, obtained using the AM1 semi-empirical quantum chemical approach, were correlated with their experimental efficiencies using the linear resistance model (LR)
Finding structure in the dark: Coupled dark energy, weak lensing, and the mildly nonlinear regime
Miranda, Vinicius; González, Mariana Carrillo; Krause, Elisabeth; Trodden, Mark
2018-03-01
We reexamine interactions between the dark sectors of cosmology, with a focus on robust constraints that can be obtained using only mildly nonlinear scales. While it is well known that couplings between dark matter and dark energy can be constrained to the percent level when including the full range of scales probed by future optical surveys, calibrating matter power spectrum emulators to all possible choices of potentials and couplings requires many computationally expensive n-body simulations. Here we show that lensing and clustering of galaxies in combination with the cosmic microwave background (CMB) are capable of probing the dark sector coupling to the few percent level for a given class of models, using only linear and quasilinear Fourier modes. These scales can, in principle, be described by semianalytical techniques such as the effective field theory of large-scale structure.
Ermolaev, G V; Kovalev, O B [Khristianovich Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Institutskaya Str 4/1, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation)
2009-09-21
A physicomathematical model of cyclic iron combustion in an oxygen flow during oxygen laser cutting of metal sheets is developed. The combustion front is set into motion by focused laser radiation and a heterogeneous oxidation reaction in oxygen. The burning rate is limited by oxygen supply from the gas phase towards the metal surface, and the interface motion depends on the local temperature. A 3D numerical simulation predicts wavy structures on the metal surface; their linear sizes depend on the scanning speed of the laser beam, the thickness of the produced liquid oxide film and the parameters of the oxygen jet flow. Simulation results help in understanding the mechanism of striation formation during oxygen gas-laser cutting of mild steel and are in qualitative agreement with experimental findings.
Giraldo, Diana L.; Sijbers, Jan; Romero, Eduardo
2017-11-01
The diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is based on neuropsychological evaluation of the patient. Different cognitive and memory functions are assessed by a battery of tests that are composed of items devised to specifically evaluate such upper functions. This work aims to identify and quantify the factors that determine the performance in neuropsychological evaluation by conducting an Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA). For this purpose, using data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI), EFA was applied to 67 item scores taken from the baseline neuropsychological battery of the three phases of ADNI study. The found factors are directly related to specific brain functions such as memory, behavior, orientation, or verbal fluency. The identification of factors is followed by the calculation of factor scores given by weighted linear combinations of the items scores.
Bias-corrected estimation in potentially mildly explosive autoregressive models
Haufmann, Hendrik; Kruse, Robinson
This paper provides a comprehensive Monte Carlo comparison of different finite-sample bias-correction methods for autoregressive processes. We consider classic situations where the process is either stationary or exhibits a unit root. Importantly, the case of mildly explosive behaviour is studied...... that the indirect inference approach oers a valuable alternative to other existing techniques. Its performance (measured by its bias and root mean squared error) is balanced and highly competitive across many different settings. A clear advantage is its applicability for mildly explosive processes. In an empirical...
Prognosis in patients with cirrhosis and mild portal hypertension
Ytting, Henriette; Møller, Søren; Henriksen, Jens Henrik
2006-01-01
HVPG has been sparse. In this study, long-term survival and the risk of complications in mild portal hypertension were analysed. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty-one patients with cirrhosis and HVPG below 10 mmHg were included in the study. Data were collected from medical files and National Patient...... with that in the background population. CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of complications in patients with mild portal hypertension is considerable, and guidelines for follow-up or medical prophylaxis are warranted. The risk of bleeding from oesophageal varices is low and bleeding-related deaths rare....
Sinalbin degradation products in mild yellow mustard paste
Paunović Dragana
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Sinalbin degradation products in mild yellow mustard paste were investigated. The analyzed material consisted of a mild yellow mustard paste condiment and ground white mustard seeds which were originally used in the mustard paste production process. The samples were extracted in a Soxhlet extraction system and analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS technique. The only sinalbin degradation product in ground mustard seeds was 2-(4-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile. The most abundant sinalbin degradation product in yellow mustard paste was 4-(hydroxymethylphenol. Other compounds identified in this sample were: 4-methyl phenol, 4-ethyl phenol, 4-(2-hydroxyethylphenol and 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl ethanoic acid.
Cellular Automata Rules and Linear Numbers
Nayak, Birendra Kumar; Sahoo, Sudhakar; Biswal, Sagarika
2012-01-01
In this paper, linear Cellular Automta (CA) rules are recursively generated using a binary tree rooted at "0". Some mathematical results on linear as well as non-linear CA rules are derived. Integers associated with linear CA rules are defined as linear numbers and the properties of these linear numbers are studied.
Feedback systems for linear colliders
Hendrickson, L; Himel, Thomas M; Minty, Michiko G; Phinney, N; Raimondi, Pantaleo; Raubenheimer, T O; Shoaee, H; Tenenbaum, P G
1999-01-01
Feedback systems are essential for stable operation of a linear collider, providing a cost-effective method for relaxing tight tolerances. In the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC), feedback controls beam parameters such as trajectory, energy, and intensity throughout the accelerator. A novel dithering optimization system which adjusts final focus parameters to maximize luminosity contributed to achieving record performance in the 1997-98 run. Performance limitations of the steering feedback have been investigated, and improvements have been made. For the Next Linear Collider (NLC), extensive feedback systems are planned as an intregal part of the design. Feedback requiremetns for JLC (the Japanese Linear Collider) are essentially identical to NLC; some of the TESLA requirements are similar but there are significant differences. For NLC, algorithms which incorporate improvements upon the SLC implementation are being prototyped. Specialized systems for the damping rings, rf and interaction point will operate at hi...
An introduction to linear algebra
Mirsky, L
2003-01-01
Rigorous, self-contained coverage of determinants, vectors, matrices and linear equations, quadratic forms, more. Elementary, easily readable account with numerous examples and problems at the end of each chapter.
CLIC: developing a linear collider
Laurent Guiraud
1999-01-01
Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is a CERN project to provide high-energy electron-positron collisions. Instead of conventional radio-frequency klystrons, CLIC will use a low-energy, high-intensity primary beam to produce acceleration.
1988 linear accelerator conference proceedings
1989-06-01
This report contains papers presented at the 1988 Linear Accelerator Conference. A few topics covered are beam dynamics; beam transport; superconducting components; free electron lasers; ion sources; and klystron research
CERN balances linear collider studies
ILC Newsline
2011-01-01
The forces behind the two most mature proposals for a next-generation collider, the International Linear Collider (ILC) and the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) study, have been steadily coming together, with scientists from both communities sharing ideas and information across the technology divide. In a support of cooperation between the two, CERN in Switzerland, where most CLIC research takes place, recently converted the project-specific position of CLIC Study Leader to the concept-based Linear Collider Study Leader. The scientist who now holds this position, Steinar Stapnes, is charged with making the linear collider a viable option for CERN’s future, one that could include either CLIC or the ILC. The transition to more involve the ILC must be gradual, he said, and the redefinition of his post is a good start. Though not very much involved with superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) technology, where ILC researchers have made significant advances, CERN participates in many aspect...
Linear Methods for Image Interpolation
Pascal Getreuer
2011-01-01
We discuss linear methods for interpolation, including nearest neighbor, bilinear, bicubic, splines, and sinc interpolation. We focus on separable interpolation, so most of what is said applies to one-dimensional interpolation as well as N-dimensional separable interpolation.
Klumpp, A. R.; Lawson, C. L.
1988-01-01
Routines provided for common scalar, vector, matrix, and quaternion operations. Computer program extends Ada programming language to include linear-algebra capabilities similar to HAS/S programming language. Designed for such avionics applications as software for Space Station.
Acoustic emission linear pulse holography
Collins, H.D.; Busse, L.J.; Lemon, D.K.
1983-10-25
This device relates to the concept of and means for performing Acoustic Emission Linear Pulse Holography, which combines the advantages of linear holographic imaging and Acoustic Emission into a single non-destructive inspection system. This unique system produces a chronological, linear holographic image of a flaw by utilizing the acoustic energy emitted during crack growth. The innovation is the concept of utilizing the crack-generated acoustic emission energy to generate a chronological series of images of a growing crack by applying linear, pulse holographic processing to the acoustic emission data. The process is implemented by placing on a structure an array of piezoelectric sensors (typically 16 or 32 of them) near the defect location. A reference sensor is placed between the defect and the array.
Fowler, Stephanie M; Schmidt, Heinar; van de Ven, Remy; Wynn, Peter; Hopkins, David L
2014-12-01
A Raman spectroscopic hand held device was used to predict shear force (SF) of 80 fresh lamb m. longissimus lumborum (LL) at 1 and 5days post mortem (PM). Traditional predictors of SF including sarcomere length (SL), particle size (PS), cooking loss (CL), percentage myofibrillar breaks and pH were also measured. SF values were regressed against Raman spectra using partial least squares regression and against the traditional predictors using linear regression. The best prediction of shear force values used spectra at 1day PM to predict shear force at 1day which gave a root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 13.6 (Null=14.0) and the R(2) between observed and cross validated predicted values was 0.06 (R(2)cv). Overall, for fresh LL, the predictability SF, by either the Raman hand held probe or traditional predictors was low. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Functionalized linear and cyclic polyolefins
Tuba, Robert; Grubbs, Robert H.
2018-02-13
This invention relates to methods and compositions for preparing linear and cyclic polyolefins. More particularly, the invention relates to methods and compositions for preparing functionalized linear and cyclic polyolefins via olefin metathesis reactions. Polymer products produced via the olefin metathesis reactions of the invention may be utilized for a wide range of materials applications. The invention has utility in the fields of polymer and materials chemistry and manufacture.
Rumen Daskalov
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Let an $[n,k,d]_q$ code be a linear code of length $n$, dimension $k$ and minimum Hamming distance $d$ over $GF(q$. One of the most important problems in coding theory is to construct codes with optimal minimum distances. In this paper 22 new ternary linear codes are presented. Two of them are optimal. All new codes improve the respective lower bounds in [11].
Explorative methods in linear models
Høskuldsson, Agnar
2004-01-01
The author has developed the H-method of mathematical modeling that builds up the model by parts, where each part is optimized with respect to prediction. Besides providing with better predictions than traditional methods, these methods provide with graphic procedures for analyzing different feat...... features in data. These graphic methods extend the well-known methods and results of Principal Component Analysis to any linear model. Here the graphic procedures are applied to linear regression and Ridge Regression....
Polarized Electrons for Linear Colliders
Clendenin, J.
2004-01-01
Future electron-positron linear colliders require a highly polarized electron beam with a pulse structure that depends primarily on whether the acceleration utilizes warm or superconducting rf structures. The International Linear Collider (ILC) will use cold structures for the main linac. It is shown that a dc-biased polarized photoelectron source such as successfully used for the SLC can meet the charge requirements for the ILC micropulse with a polarization approaching 90%