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Sample records for linear pottery culture

  1. What is Changing and When - Post Linear Pottery Culture Life in Central Europe

    Řídký, Jaroslav; Květina, Petr; Stäuble, H.; Pavlů, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 3 (2015), s. 333-339 ISSN 0323-1119. [Annual Meeting of the European Association of Archaeologists /19./. Plzeň, 04.09.2013-08.09.2013] R&D Projects: GA MK(CZ) DF12P01OVV032 Keywords : archaeological culture * culture change * Final LBK * Neolithic * Post-LBK * site layout * social complexity Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  2. From Suazoid to folk pottery: pottery manufacturing traditions in a changing social and cultural environment on St. Lucia

    Corinne L. Hofman

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Overview of pottery manufacturing traditions in St Lucia, placed within the island's cultural history from pre-Columbian times up to present Afro-Caribbean folk pottery. Authors focus on manufacturing processes in different cultural traditions through history, looking at raw materials used, the shaping and finishing, decoration, and firing process. First, they sketch St Lucia's habitation history since the first Amerindian settlers in 200 AD, and evidence of pottery, which climaxed in the later Suazoid period pottery since about 1150 AD, and discuss how later European colonization and arrival of Africans contributed to the decline of Amerindian traditions, replaced by European and West African pottery traditions, although some Amerindian traditions remained. The pottery manufacturing of 3 main cultural traditions are examined, discussing differences, as well as similarities due to cultural blending: Suazoid pottery, later Amerindian Island Carib pottery, with origins in the Guianas region, related to the Kar'ina, and current St Lucian, West African-influenced, "folk pottery". Authors conclude that all 3 traditions mainly use local clay, and include hand-built and low-fired pottery. Shaping techniques include coiling, and in today's pottery also fashioning with smaller lumps. Surfaces are smooth and polished in today's pottery, but more scraped and scratched in Suazoid vessels. Further, they find that decoration is uncommon in today's pottery, while Suazoid ceramics included decorations, and that vessel shapes tend to be simple in all 3 traditions. They also find that women have been the principal potters through time, although pottery was a male activity among the Island Caribs in the mid-17th c.

  3. Moessbauer studies on ancient Chinese pottery of Yangshao Culture Period

    Zhengfang, Yu; Qi, Zheng; Yufang, Zheng

    1988-02-01

    Eleven pieces of ancient Chinese pottery (4770 B.C. - 2960 B.C.) of Yangshao Culture Period collected from the Xi'an area have been studied by means of Moessbauer spectroscopy. The samples were refired up to 1100/sup 0/C in steps of 100/sup 0/C for 2 h in air. The highest temperature up to which the Moessbauer pattern remains basically unchanged can be identified with the original firing temperature. The result indicates that the firing temperatures for most of the sherds were between 900-1000/sup 0/C. The function of the grit contained in the pottery has been discussed. The crimson and reddish painted materials on the surface of sherds have been studied, respectively. The first appearance of pottery can probably be traced back to an even earlier period.

  4. Moessbauer studies on ancient Chinese pottery of Yangshao Culture Period

    Yu Zhengfang; Zheng Qi; Zheng Yufang; Zhongshan Univ., Guangzhou

    1988-01-01

    Eleven pieces of ancient Chinese pottery (4770 B.C. - 2960 B.C.) of Yangshao Culture Period collected from the Xi'an area have been studied by means of Moessbauer spectroscopy. The samples were refired up to 1100 0 C in steps of 100 0 C for 2 h in air. The highest temperature up to which the Moessbauer pattern remains basically unchanged can be identified with the original firing temperature. The result indicates that the firing temperatures for most of the sherds were between 900-1000 0 C. The function of the grit contained in the pottery has been discussed. The crimson and reddish painted materials on the surface of sherds have been studied, respectively. The first appearance of pottery can probably be traced back to an even earlier period. (orig.)

  5. POTTERY IN CULTURE UKRAINIAN NATIONAL HOUSING OF PRIDNEPROVSKYI REGION

    YEVSEEVA G. P.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Formulation of the problem. Housing is a prerequisite for the existence of any rights, so the material culture of each nation it has an important place. In the exterior of ethnic expressed mainly in the way some design elements of housing and street facilities. Most ethnic specificity has interior housing, depending on external conditions: the nature of planning, construction, furniture, decoration items, dishes and more. There is a similarity residential interior throughout the residence Ukrainian. Such similarity is natural, it is in the internal space of the housing specific people represents their understanding feasibility, benefits and beauty. Beauty and the similarity of pottery that used the Ukrainian nation from its inception and up until today, confirms the unity of the aesthetic preferences of the people and the convenience of daily life. Analysis of publications. The study of Ukrainian national dishes, its specific features, artistic design tools dedicated to a number of scientific papers. Information on the national pottery central and southern regions of Ukraine are contained in the writings of scholars of the nineteenth century. and scholars period of independence. Some issues of Ukrainian pottery and its typologies considered in the work of scientists of the Soviet period. The purpose of the article is to analyze the types of pottery that were in use in the Ukrainian national housing of the Prydniprovia. Conclusions. Each peasant house, like today, a hundred years ago, saturating domestic products with dual reality hidden meaning, ancient meanings, is a kind of unique personal world, which is closely intertwined with the general social commonplace, seeing its effects and actively influencing it forms a harmonious world environment, in which modern man lives. It is therefore important to us to know, for example, not the evolution of Ukrainian houses as an insult, but its structure and nature of technology of hut building even a

  6. Technological and stylistic evaluation of the Early Bronze Age pottery at Tarsus-Gozlukule, Turkey: Pottery production and its interaction with economic, social, and cultural spheres

    Unlu, Elif

    This dissertation presents a technological and stylistic assessment of Early Bronze Age pottery production at Tarsus-Gozlukule, a multi-period mound settlement located in the Cilician Plain in southern Turkey. Pottery production, like all other man-made objects, is firstly a technological act. This dissertation maintains that material style (involving formal, technical, and decorative choices expressed by the artisan) of an artifact should be investigated as a whole as such an integrative study would be the most adequate way of understanding economic circumstances, social representation, and cultural boundaries. To facilitate this integrative investigation, seventy-two samples of Early Bronze Age pottery excavated from Tarsus-Gozlukule in the 1930s and 1940s.were selected for mineralogical, morphological, and chemical analyses. Petrographic and powder X-Ray Diffraction analyses were performed to determine the mineralogical makeup, Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope imagery was used to determine the morphology of these samples, and semi-quantitave Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy analysis was performed on some samples to determine chemical properties of the clays. As a result of these scientific analyses various fabric groups were established. Afterwards formal shape and stylistic analysis was performed where shapes and surface treatments of the samples were analyzed and compared to the known local and non-local examples. Such an integrative approach to pottery production facilitates a better definition of the local pottery production process and enables an assessment of the technological know-how of the local pottery producers, their labor organization and its role within the operating markets, their function within the sociopolitical structure, and how such issues relate to the cultural boundaries within the community. Defining the paradigm of the local pottery production process leads to a broader investigation of issues related to the technological

  7. Genetic and other diseases in the pottery of Tumaco-La Tolita culture in Colombia-Ecuador.

    Bernal, J E; Briceno, I

    2006-09-01

    The people of Tumaco-La Tolita culture inhabited the borders of present-day Colombia and Ecuador. Already extinct by the time of the Spaniards arrival, they left a huge collection of pottery artifacts depicting everyday life; among these, disease representations were frequently crafted. In this article, we present the results of the personal examination of the largest collections of Tumaco-La Tolita pottery in Colombia and Ecuador; cases of Down syndrome, achondroplasia, mucopolysaccharidosis I H, mucopolysaccharidosis IV, a tumor of the face and a benign tumor in an old woman were found. We believe these to be among the earliest artistic representations of disease.

  8. Physicochemical characterisation of pottery from the Vinča culture, Serbia, regarding the firing temperature and decoration techniques

    Perišić Nebojša

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of decorated Neolithic pottery samples from excavation site Pločnik, Serbia, was performed using X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR and X-ray fluorescence (XRF spectroscopy. Investigated samples belong to the era of the Vinča culture which existed at the central Balkan region from mid VI until the first half of V millennium BCE. The mineralogical composition of pottery samples and comparison of investigated pottery with thermally treated local clay indicated firing temperature in the range from 600 to 800°C. Two different types of white pigments have been identified in white incrusted decorations: calcium carbonate and Bone White (composed of crushed bones. This is the first evidence of use of bones for decorations in Vinča culture pottery from excavation site Pločnik. In addition to this, it was revealed that the potters used the iron reduction technique for obtaining the black decorations. [Projekat Ministartsva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177021 I br. 177012

  9. Analysis of late mid-Neolithic pottery illuminates the presenceof a Corded Ware Culture on the Baltic Island of Gotland

    Erik Palmgren

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss variations seen in the ornamentation and modes of manufacturing pottery from the end of the mid-Neolithic 4600–4300 BP on the Island of Gotland in the Baltic Sea. The Pitted Ware cultural groups have been discussed as a western influence from the Swedish mainland, but the aDNA on skeletal remains point to eastern influences. We analyse and discuss pottery from the well-investigated Ajvide Pitted Ware site and what these variations mean in term of intra- and inter-island relationships, ethnicity and change, and we suggest the development of what could be described as a hybrid culture.

  10. [Evidence of facial palsy and facial malformations in pottery from Peruvian Moche and Lambayeque pre-Columbian cultures].

    Carod-Artal, F J; Vázquez Cabrera, C B

    2006-01-01

    Moche (100-700 AD) and Lambayeque-Sicán (750-1100 AD) are pre-Columbian cultures from Regional States Period, developed in Northern Peru. Information about daily life, religion and medicine has been obtained through the study of Moche ceramics found in lords and priests tombs, pyramids and temples. To analyze archeological evidences of Moche Medicine and neurological diseases through ceramics. Representations of diseases in Moche and Lambayeque iconography and Moche pottery collections exposed in Casinelli museum from Trujillo, and Brüning National Archeological museum from Lambayeque, Peru, were studied. The most representative cases were analyzed and photographed, previous authorization from authorities and curators of the museums. The following pathologies were observed in ceramic collections: peripheral facial palsy, facial malformations such as cleft lip, hemifacial spasm, legs and arm amputations, scoliosis and Siamese patients. Male and females Moche doctors were also observed in the ceramics in ritual ceremonies treating patients. The main pathologies observed in Moche and Lambayeque pottery are facial palsy and cleft lip. These are one of the earliest registries of these pathologies in pre-Columbian cultures in South-America.

  11. Pottery versus sediment: Optically stimulated luminescence dating of the Neolithic Vinča culture, Serbia

    Bate, Stephen; Stevens, Thomas; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter

    2017-01-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating was applied to the Neolithic Vinča culture's type-site, Vinča Belo-Brdo, to establish best protocols for routine luminescence dating of similar Holocene sites, critical in understanding Neolithic to Chalcolithic cultural development. Equivalent dose ...

  12. The pottery from Petra

    Arnr, Khairieh.

    1987-01-01

    The paper presents a PHd thesis on the pottery excavated in Petra between 1958 and 1964, using neutron activation analysis. Neutron activation analysis is a very sensitive method for detecting trace elements in various materials, and it thus can differentiate between clay sources in the pottery. One of the aims of the excavations was to establish the local, Nabataean, pottery types. The thesis contains chapters on: historical background, samples of Petra excavations, neutron activation analysis, and the data analysis. (UK)

  13. Inland Ertebølle Culture: the importance of aquatic resources and the freshwater reservoir effect in radiocarbon dates from pottery food crusts

    Bente Philippsen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Ertebølle culture is a late Mesolithic hunter-gatherer-fisher culture in southern Scandinavia, northern Germany and Poland. Archaeological finds as well as scientific analyses of humans and their artefacts indicate the great importance of aquatic resources, both marine and freshwater, to Ertebølle subsistence. In northern Germany, modern freshwater fish samples can have very high apparent radiocarbon ages (up to 3000 years. If such dramatic 'freshwater reservoir effects' also existed during the late Mesolithic, they could lead to artificially old radiocarbon dates for the bones of Ertebølle humans and domestic dogs, and for carbonised food crusts on cooking pots. Conversely, if we can demonstrate radiocarbon age 'offsets' in such samples, we can often attribute them to the exploitation of freshwater food resources. This article discusses methods of identifying freshwater resources in prehistoric pottery, including radiocarbon reservoir effects. We consider the results of radiocarbon, stable isotope and elemental analyses of food crusts on prehistoric pottery from four sites in the Alster and Trave valleys: Kayhude, Schlamersdorf, Bebensee and Seedorf.

  14. Radiocarbon dating of Mesolithic pottery from Northern Germany

    Philippsen, Bente

    2013-01-01

    The earliest pottery in Schleswig-Holstein, Northern Germany, was produced by the Final Mesolithic Ertebølle culture. Radiocarbon dating of food crusts on Ertebølle pottery indicated that ceramics from inland sites were substantially older than those from the coast. Therefore, a freshwater...

  15. Neutron activation analysis of thin orange pottery

    Harbottle, G.; Sayre, E.V.; Abascal, R.

    1976-01-01

    The evidence thus far obtained supports the idea of ''Thin Orange'' ware, typical of classic Teotihuacan culture, easily identifiable petrographically or chemically, not necessarily made at Teotihuacan itself but widely traded, and ''thin, orange'' pottery, fabricated in many other places, and perhaps at other times as well

  16. Jomon pottery: cord-imitating decoration

    Irina Zhushchikhovskaya

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the decoration of pottery of the Neolithic Jomon culture (Japanese Archipelago, 13600–900 BC. The comb-impressed pattern produced by various kinds of cord or rope stamps is considered as the ‘calling card’ of Jomon pottery from the earliest cultural periods to the latest. Another kind of decoration recognized recently uses the cord not as a patterning tool, but as an essential motif of decorative composition. High relief elements imitate cordage forms and structures – knots, loops, hanging cord, net, etc. This kind of decoration corresponds to the pottery of Mid-dle Jomon period (3500–2500 BC sites located in northern and north-eastern Honshu and southern Hokkaido. It is supposed that the introduction of images of real material object into the field of decorative art was reasoned by the meaning of cord and cordage as cultural signs during the Middle Jomon period. Interesting parallels to some cordage structures reconstructed on Middle Jomon pottery decoration are well known in traditional Japanese culture of VI–XX cc. Analytical interpretation of this resemblance may became the subject of special research.

  17. Neutron activation analysis of thin orange pottery

    Harbottle, G; Sayre, E V; Abascal, R

    1976-01-01

    The evidence thus far obtained supports the idea of ''Thin Orange'' ware, typical of classic Teotihuacan culture, easily identifiable petrographically or chemically, not necessarily made at Teotihuacan itself but widely traded, and ''thin, orange'' pottery, fabricated in many other places, and perhaps at other times as well.

  18. PIXE study on ancient pottery from Chinese Shanghai area

    Cheng, H.S.; Zhang, Z.Q.; Song, J.; Gao, M.H.; Zhu, D.; Lin, J.W.; Feng, S.L.

    2006-01-01

    Shanghai is the largest city in China, and it also has a very long history. Archaeologists have found that six thousand yeas ago, there were ancient people living at Songze, Qingpu County, Shanghai. This paper reports the study of ancient potteries unearthed from the Guangfulin site located at Songjiang, Shanghai. The potteries unearthed from Guangfulin site belonged to two different culture types: the Liangzhu culture type (local culture) and a new culture, which might be derived from elsewhere. PIXE has been used to measure the chemical compositions of samples and factor analysis was used. Experimental results show that the compositions of the pottery from the two phases are different from each other. It means that the raw materials used to make the ancient pottery originate from different places. This results support the idea suggested by archaeologists that a group of ancient people migrated to the Shanghai area from some other place 4000 years ago

  19. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and Multivariate Statistics for Pottery Provenance

    Glascock, M. D.; Neff, H.; Vaughn, K. J.

    2004-06-01

    The application of instrumental neutron activation analysis and multivariate statistics to archaeological studies of ceramics and clays is described. A small pottery data set from the Nasca culture in southern Peru is presented for illustration.

  20. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and Multivariate Statistics for Pottery Provenance

    Glascock, M. D.; Neff, H.; Vaughn, K. J.

    2004-01-01

    The application of instrumental neutron activation analysis and multivariate statistics to archaeological studies of ceramics and clays is described. A small pottery data set from the Nasca culture in southern Peru is presented for illustration.

  1. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and Multivariate Statistics for Pottery Provenance

    Glascock, M. D.; Neff, H. [University of Missouri, Research Reactor Center (United States); Vaughn, K. J. [Pacific Lutheran University, Department of Anthropology (United States)

    2004-06-15

    The application of instrumental neutron activation analysis and multivariate statistics to archaeological studies of ceramics and clays is described. A small pottery data set from the Nasca culture in southern Peru is presented for illustration.

  2. Harry Potteri ABC

    2002-01-01

    Tutvustavat näitlejate ja nende rollide juurde J.K. Rowling'u Harry Potteri lugude teises filmis "Harry Potter ja saladuste kamber" ("Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets") : režissöör Chris Columbus. Filmi esilinastumisest New Yorgis

  3. Variability in coiling technique in LBK pottery inferred by experiments and pore structure micro-tomography analysis

    Neumannová, Klára; Petřík, J.; Vostrovská, I.; Dvořák, J.; Zikmund, T.; Kaiser, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 2 (2017), s. 172-186 ISSN 0323-1267 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-07062S Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601; GA ČR(CZ) GA17-11711S Program:LQ; GA Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : forming techniques * micro-tomography * Neolithic * Linear Pottery culture (LBK) Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology OBOR OECD: Archaeology

  4. Thermoluminescence dating of pottery

    Higashimura, Takenobu; Ichikawa, Yoneta.

    1978-01-01

    This report is divided into two parts. The first half describes on the history of thermoluminescence dating, and the latter half, the principle and measurement examples. It was in late 1955 that the measurement of radiation dose using thermoluminescence began. The method to thermoluminescence dating was developed when it was found that most natural stones emit the thermoluminescence. About Greek earthen wares, the study of which was presented in 1961 by G. Kennedy of University of California, the dating was able to be made within the standard deviation of 10%. Since then, this dating method progressed rapidly, and a number of laboratories are now forwarding the investigation. In the samples of natural materials, intensity of thermoluminescence I is proportional to natural radiation dose D which has been absorbed by the samples, i.e. I = kD, where k is the susceptibility of thermoluminescence of the samples. Since k is different in each sample, D can be determined by irradiating the sample with β or γ ray of known dose D 0 , measuring its luminescence I 0 , and eliminating k through these two equations, because i 0 = kD 0 . Next, if t is assumed to be the time passed since a pottery was made, D is expressed as Rt, where R is the natural radiation dose per year absorbed by the pottery. Thus t is determined if R is known. The report describes on the method of measuring R. As an example, the results of measurement of the potteries excavated at Iwakura remains, Yorikura, Taishaku-kyo, are listed. Results by 14 C dating are also described for reference. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  5. Identification of Spacial Pattern in Productive House of Pottery Craftsmen

    Dyah Kusuma Wardhani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The research goals were to identify a spacial pattern in craftsmen house and to see its relevance to the social-cultural life of the craftsmen. The existence of domestic and economic activity in craftsmen house creates a spacial pattern with particular characteristics. Data were collected through direct observation, interviews, and visual documentation to record productive house, settlement condition, and sequences of pottery production. The in-depth interview focused on the use of time, space, and house modification in craftsmen house. House in the craftsmen settlement was growing gradually by adjusting to the inhabitant's needs. This research was included in qualitative research that described observation results and then analyzed spacial pattern formed in craftsmen house. Research results show that in this settlement beside the mixed, balanced, and separated type of productive house, there is also pottery collectors house type. The changes in the productive house are related to housing adaptation or house adjustment to accommodate production process. The settlement orientation is along the streets, but the existence of open space in the form of pottery kiln and hay storage become the main orientation for productive spaces inside the craftsmen house. Pottery kiln and hay storage have become open cultural space that characterizes the pottery craftsmen settlement. 

  6. Harry Potteri looja uus rekord

    2005-01-01

    J. K. Rowlingult on ilmumas Harry Potteri lugude kuues köide "Harry Potter ja segavereline prints". Vaata ka: Postimees, 11. juuli, lk. 17, pealkirjaga: "Kuuendat Harry Potterit saab osta laupäevast" ; Postimees, 14. juuli, lk. 17, pealkirjaga ""Harry Potter" tuleb Tallinnas öömüüki" ; SL Õhtuleht, 15. juuli, lk. 12, pealkirjaga "Täna öösel saab osta Potteri uue raamatu"

  7. Study on provenance of ancient pottery excavated from Huating Ruins, Xinyi County by INAA

    Xu Anwu; Wang Changsui; Chi Jinqi; Satoshi Koshimizu; Kazai Manabu; Kushihara Koichi

    1997-01-01

    The ancient pottery excavated from Huating Ruins, Xinyi Country, Jiangsu Province, was measured and studied by INAA. The data were manipulated by multivariate statistic analysis, such as cluster and factor analysis. It has been shown that the specimens can be divided into two groups, which are related to Liangzhu Culture area and Dawenkou Culture area respectively. The result seems to support the viewpoint that the pottery specimens of Liangzhu Culture from Huating Ruins belong to war trophies

  8. The Ecological Aspects of Local Pottery in Guilan, Iran

    Majid Ziaee

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The modern world is facing pervasive environmental problems and pollution crisis, while in the previous eras, meeting one's need through environment would inflict less harm on one's surroundings. In traditional artifacts, compatibility with the natural environment does exist and in many aspects has been suited with the climate and environmental features of every locality. The main purpose of the study is to identify and introduce the environmental features of pottery of Guilan, Iran. This is achieved by investigating the interaction between the local potters and their environment. The primary data are collected through library resources, field observation and visiting active potteries in Guilan. In this regard, the main research questions of the present study are as follows: What are the features of Guilan local pottery? What features are compatible with environmental standards? To conduct the study, a descriptive-analytical method is employed. The findings show that pottery in Guilan is not a threat to the environment in terms of local knowledge in using raw material, finding resources of renewable energy, community-based manpower, optimum exploitation of time and energy, potteryware designing with various functions, and re-using a product for further purposes. Nonetheless, there exist some issues which are not environmentally friendly like failure to modernize the potteryware to be of use for current needs, high rate of waste over the production process, and using toxic materials in glazing. Therefore, raising environmental awareness of locals, cultural diffusion, informing the users of the benefits of using pottery, and making improvements to the cycle of design, producing, and marketing all play substantial role in preserving local pottery.

  9. Potential threats on pottery as local wisdom in Sitiwinangun Cirebon district

    Putri, D. P.

    2018-05-01

    This study is aimed to find out the type of threats of pottery as a local wisdom of Sitiwinangun Village. The study used qualitative approach which included observation, interviews, direct involvement and literature study as technique to collect the data. The data was analyzed by descriptive exploratory analysis. The finding results showed that the production of Sitiwinangun pottery, in the technique and motifs, were still produced according to the ancestors. Pottery has a closed-relationship to agrarian culture of Sitiwinangun's society. In cultivating season, the soil was used not only used to cultivate rice and palawija (crops planted as second crop in dry season) but it was also used to dig a layer of soil as the raw material of pottery. There were some potential threats on Sitiwinangun Pottery such as a reduction in raw material because of the land-settlement, slow regeneration, and consumers' preferred on household appliance made of plastic. Nevertheless, it never decreases the spirit of Sitiwinangun society to maintain the pottery as their local wisdom. They keep on their principle that the nature gives the value on their life and the value is an ancestral heritage that must be maintained in modern era in order to preserve the environment. Furthermore, the most important is that pottery is not only made as the functional object for human activity but it is made as the local knowledge of Sitiwinagun that very allows to be learnt intact and sustainable.

  10. A provenance study of roof tiles and potteries using neutron activation analysis from Katap-Ri, Korea

    Kwang, Yong Chung

    2005-01-01

    In Katap-ri, South Korea, potteries and roof tiles are excavated with the assumed raw materials. Using NAA, the provenance of these cultural remains was examined among the neighboring others, and the correlation the assumed raw materials with potteries and roof tiles was also examined. From the results of statistics it is concluded that this cultural site is distinguished from others by several trace elements, Ba, Cr, Sc, Yb, Eu, and Rb with 93.2 % accuracy. Also it turned out that the assumed raw materials wasn't related to potteries and roof tiles with 96.3 % accuracy

  11. Pottery from Peru. A Handbook. Second Edition.

    Rammage, Alix

    One of three handbooks dealing with pottery traditions from around the world, this packet draws together information about historical, ethnographic, and pottery traditions of Peru. The first of 13 brief subsections focuses on Peru's land and people. A presentation of a potter's history of Peru is followed by a discussion of the Chavin Cult (800…

  12. A Pottery Electric Kiln Using Decompression

    Naoe, Nobuyuki; Yamada, Hirofumi; Nakayama, Tetsuo; Nakayama, Minoru; Minamide, Akiyuki; Takemata, Kazuya

    This paper presents a novel type electric kiln which fires the pottery using the decompression. The electric kiln is suitable for the environment and the energy saving as the pottery furnace. This paper described the baking principle and the baking characteristic of the novel type electric kiln.

  13. Removal of mercury from water using pottery

    Helal, A.A.A.

    2006-01-01

    In a previous study, the sorption of radiocobalt by powdered pottery materials was investigated. The use of these materials as immobilization matrix for liquid radioactive waste requires the employment of pottery vessels. Therefore, the present study aims to give detailed investigations of the decontamination of radionuclides and toxic elements using pottery containers. These investigations are equally useful to elucidate how far these vessels can be utilized for water purification through decontamination of toxic and heavy metals. The radionuclide or heavy metal removal capability using pottery pots, as low cost sorbents, has been investigated for both radioactive ( 203 Hg) and stable mercury. The results indicated that Hg 2+ is better removed by pottery from neutral to alkaline solutions. The capacity of the used pottery container (100 ml in volume) for complete removal of mercury was found to reach 3 x 10 -4 mol/l, and the time needed was 8 hours. The sorption process was suggested to occur via adsorption and ion exchange. The effect of presence of humic or fulvic acid, as ligands abundant in water, is also investigated. The results imply that, in absence of humic or fulvic acid the sorption follows the expected behaviour, i.e. sorption sites with similar affinity for mercury. In presence of humic or fulvic acid, additional sorption sites are available by the organic molecule when it is associated to the pottery. (orig.)

  14. Late Hallstatt pottery from north-eastern Serbia (6th to 4th century BC

    Kapuran Aleksandar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available By looking at prehistoric collections and unpublished material from the museums in north-eastern Serbia, as well as by surveying and excavating, new information was gained which fulfills the image of material and spiritual culture of prehistoric communities from the end of the Early Iron Age. Usually, for a closer chronological determination, metal jewellery and weapons were considered. Pottery finds were published only occasionally, usually due to contexts which were not clear enough, or due to chronological insensitivity (unless they were grave goods, but also due to stylistic and typological differences not clearly distinguished between the 'Basarabi' culture and the culture of 'channelled pottery'. This paper aims to define features of pottery production from different sites, more precisely, those found in the territory between the Iron Gates, Ključ and the Timok valley.

  15. Cultural Arts in the Southwest.

    Cross, Kate

    1998-01-01

    Presents a pottery project for eighth-grade students based on a study of ancient and modern forms of Pueblo Indian pottery of the Southwest United States. Details the process for creating either carved, red clay, or painted white clay pottery typical of these cultural groups. Relates student reactions to the project. (DSK)

  16. Radiocarbon dating prehistoric pottery from Northern Europe

    Philippsen, Bente; Craig, Oliver; Heron, Carl

    2012-01-01

    , such as when aquatic products have been prepared in the pottery. Soot can derive from old wood that was used for the hearth fire, or from (potentially aquatic) food that boiled over. Plant remains may have been present in the clay for a long time before manufacture of the pottery. Post......-depositional contamination with organic carbon, such as humic acids, may also be problematic. We present these data with radiocarbon datings of contemporaneous terrestrial and aquatic samples to find out the true age of the pottery and estimate the reservoir age. Lipid analysis and bulk carbon and nitrogen stable isotope...

  17. Study of ancient pottery from Slovakia

    Lipka, J.; Fusek, G.; Sitek, J.; Hucl, M.; Rausz, J.; Gajdosova, M.

    1990-01-01

    Ancient pottery samples collected from south-west Slovakia were studied through subjective observation and by Moessbauer spectroscopy. This method is convenient for determining the provenance and the manufacture of pottery. Transformations, induced by firing the clay and characterized by Moessbauer spectroscopy, give valuable information regarding the manufacture as, for instance, the final temperature of firing in it. The relative abundance of Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ determines the atmosphere used to fire a pottery. It has been found that the determination of the firing atmosphere obtained through the subjective observation is in good agreement with that obtained using Moessbauer spectroscopy. An unfired and fired clay was also investigated. (orig.)

  18. A preliminary research on characteristics of rare-earth elements in ancient pottery of neolithic age in Su Wan area

    Chen Shuyu; Lin Shuqin; Peng Zicheng; Liu Fangxin; Zhang Jingguo

    1995-01-01

    The content of rare-earth elements in the three ancient ruins of pottery of the Neolithic age along Yangtze River is analyzed by means of Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry and X-ray fluorescence Spectrometry. It is shown that the distribution of rare-earth elements varies with the sites where the ancient pottery samples were unearthed. Therefore the analysis of the content of the rate-earth elements may help explore the ancient pottery production sites and the route of the ancient culture exchange

  19. Inca and pre-Inca pottery: pottery from Cusichaca, Department of Cuzco, Peru

    Lunt, S. W.

    1987-01-01

    Although important studies have been made of the Andean pottery of the Inca Empire and its predecessors, these studies usually have been based on pottery collections which lack good archaeological contexts. The usual interpretative framework for ceramic variation has been the hierarchical social organisation of the Inca Empire described in the Spanish chronicles. In this paper, the pottery differs from the previously studied collections in two ways: first in the classific...

  20. Moche Marks of Distinction: Time and Politics in Painted Pottery Substyles of the Moche Culture, North Coast, Peru AD 100-900

    Cole, Ethan Michael

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation proposes, on the basis of an iconographic and stylistic analysis of Moche fineline painted decorations on ceramic vessels from the Moche, Jequetepeque, and Chicama Valleys in north coastal Peru, a new chronology for, and an enhanced understanding of, the political landscape of Moche culture during the Late Moche period (AD 600-900). I, like others before me, see Moche ceramic vessel paintings as manifestations of the dominant ideology of the polities that created them and as...

  1. Plastic raw materials in Neolithic pottery production

    Alexander A. Bobrinsky

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is dedicated to the investigation of various natural silts as the most ancient type of raw material used in pottery production. The authors describe the specific features of the composition of plain and mountain silts, and discover the same features in ancient ceramics from different regions in Russia. It can be concluded that silts were the earliest raw material used, a tradition that faded away during the evolution of pottery production.

  2. PIXE analysis of ancient Jordanian pottery

    Saleh, N.; Carlsson, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    Proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) has been applied for the determination of 18 elements (Si, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Ba and Pb) in two groups of pottery from two different sites in Jordan, Biblical Bozrah (BB) and Amman Citadel (AC). The analysis showed that the elements Zn, Rb, Sr, Zr and Ba were the most useful elements to study to be able to differentiate between the two groups of pottery. (orig.)

  3. Characterization of colour pigments in pre-Columbian Chilean potteries by PIXE elemental analysis

    Dinator, M.I.; Morales, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    Ancient ceremonial potteries belonging to pre-Columbian cultures in Chile are decorated with three colours, red, white and black. Samples of these colours were analyzed with induced x-ray fluorescence by a 6.6 MeV proton beam. The analyses show clearly distinct patterns for each pigment and also denote differences between the same colour in two cultures. Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe and Cu were detected. (author) 7 refs.; 5 figs

  4. Beyond the Levant: first evidence of a pre-pottery Neolithic incursion into the Nefud Desert, Saudi Arabia.

    Rémy Crassard

    Full Text Available Pre-Pottery Neolithic assemblages are best known from the fertile areas of the Mediterranean Levant. The archaeological site of Jebel Qattar 101 (JQ-101, at Jubbah in the southern part of the Nefud Desert of northern Saudi Arabia, contains a large collection of stone tools, adjacent to an Early Holocene palaeolake. The stone tool assemblage contains lithic types, including El-Khiam and Helwan projectile points, which are similar to those recorded in Pre-Pottery Neolithic A and Pre-Pottery Neolithic B assemblages in the Fertile Crescent. Jebel Qattar lies ∼500 kilometres outside the previously identified geographic range of Pre-Pottery Neolithic cultures. Technological analysis of the typologically diagnostic Jebel Qattar 101 projectile points indicates a unique strategy to manufacture the final forms, thereby raising the possibility of either direct migration of Levantine groups or the acculturation of mobile communities in Arabia. The discovery of the Early Holocene site of Jebel Qattar suggests that our view of the geographic distribution and character of Pre-Pottery Neolithic cultures may be in need of revision.

  5. Beyond the Levant: First Evidence of a Pre-Pottery Neolithic Incursion into the Nefud Desert, Saudi Arabia

    Crassard, Rémy; Petraglia, Michael D.; Parker, Adrian G.; Parton, Ash; Roberts, Richard G.; Jacobs, Zenobia; Alsharekh, Abdullah; Al-Omari, Abdulaziz; Breeze, Paul; Drake, Nick A.; Groucutt, Huw S.; Jennings, Richard; Régagnon, Emmanuelle; Shipton, Ceri

    2013-01-01

    Pre-Pottery Neolithic assemblages are best known from the fertile areas of the Mediterranean Levant. The archaeological site of Jebel Qattar 101 (JQ-101), at Jubbah in the southern part of the Nefud Desert of northern Saudi Arabia, contains a large collection of stone tools, adjacent to an Early Holocene palaeolake. The stone tool assemblage contains lithic types, including El-Khiam and Helwan projectile points, which are similar to those recorded in Pre-Pottery Neolithic A and Pre-Pottery Neolithic B assemblages in the Fertile Crescent. Jebel Qattar lies ∼500 kilometres outside the previously identified geographic range of Pre-Pottery Neolithic cultures. Technological analysis of the typologically diagnostic Jebel Qattar 101 projectile points indicates a unique strategy to manufacture the final forms, thereby raising the possibility of either direct migration of Levantine groups or the acculturation of mobile communities in Arabia. The discovery of the Early Holocene site of Jebel Qattar suggests that our view of the geographic distribution and character of Pre-Pottery Neolithic cultures may be in need of revision. PMID:23894294

  6. Cultural distance and international trade: a non-linear relationship

    Lankhuizen, M.B.M.; de Groot, H.L.F.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of culture on trade using measures of cultural distance based on various dimensions of national culture from Hofstede (Culture’s Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values, 1980; Culture’s Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions

  7. Neutron activation analysis of Urartian pottery from eastern Anatolia

    Speakman, R.J.; Glascock, M.D.; Stone, E.C.; Cilingiroglu, A.; Zimansky, P.; Neff, H.

    2004-01-01

    A total of 275 pottery and clay samples from Urartian period sites in eastern Anatolia were analyzed by INAA. The pottery sample originates primarily from the fortress and Outer Town at Ayanis and also includes samples from nearby sites in the Lake Van basin. A small sample of pottery from Bastam, a contemporary Urartian fortress in northwest Iran, and Kef Kalesi, a site on the north shore of Lake Van were also analyzed. Ten distinct compositional groups were identified during the course of the analysis suggesting that pottery was produced at multiple locations throughout the Urartian kingdom. In addition to identifying multiple production locales, the long-distance movement of pottery from the sites of Kef Kalesi and Bastam into the Van Basin and the movement of pottery from Ayanis to Bastam were documented. (author)

  8. Microanalysis study on ancient Wiangkalong Pottery

    Won-in, K.; Tancharakorn, S.; Dararutana, P.

    2017-09-01

    Wiangkalong is one of major ceramic production cities in northern of Thailand, once colonized by the ancient Lanna Kingdom (1290 A.D.). Ancient Wiangkalong potteries were produced with shapes and designs as similar as those of the Chinese Yuan and Ming Dynasties. Due to the complex nature of materials and objects, extremely sensitive, spatially resolved, multi-elemental and versatile analytical instruments using non-destructive and non-sampling methods to analyze theirs composition are need. In this work, micro-beam X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy based on synchrotron radiation was firstly used to characterize the elemental composition of the ancient Wiangkalong pottery. The results showed the variations in elemental composition of the body matrix, the glaze and the underglaze painting, such as K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn and Fe.

  9. Analytical investigations of glazed Islamic pottery

    Pernicka, E.; Krejsa, P.

    1978-08-01

    42 fragments of medieval glazed pottery from seven sites in Iran, Afghanistan and India were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). In addition a secondary clay standard and some samples were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence for their main components. The results of the trace analysis formed the basis for cluster analysis using the graphtheoretical method of the minimum spanning tree. The samples were partitioned into five clusters, which were compared with the provenance of their respective members. Preliminary results indicate that pottery from the north of Afganistan can be differentiated from the southern one, while the southern ware seems to be homogeneous over a large area from Herat to Ghazni. Some of the pottery samples from Sistan have a different composition, which is due to a different production technique. The mass probably consisted of a 4 : 1 mixture of quartz and clay or a 15 : 4 : 1 mixture of quartz, clay and frit for the glaze. A similar recipe is described by Abu'l-Quasim, a medieval Persian potter. (author)

  10. "Stabilitas loci" of inhabitants of the Stroked Pottery site in Jaroměř (Eastern Bohemia, Czech Republic)

    Burgert, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 3 (2015), s. 473-483 ISSN 0323-1119 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-16963S Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : Neolithic * Stroke Pottery culture * longhouse * spatial analysis Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  11. Mineralogy and geotechnical characteristics of some pottery clay

    Mujib Olamide ADEAGBO

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The physical properties of soils, which are tremendously influenced by the active clay minerals in soil, are of great importance in geotechnical engineering. This paper investigates the clay-sized particles of the Igbara-Odo pottery clay, and compares results obtained with available data on the bulk sample, to determine their correlation and underline the dependence of the geotechnical properties of the bulk clay material on the clay-sized particles. The bulk clay sample consists of 52% sand-size particles, 21% silt and 27% clay. Analysis of the clay-sized particles and the bulk materials shows: specific gravity of 2.07 and 2.66, liquid limit of 91.0% and 33.0%, plastic limit of 27.5% and 14.3%, plasticity index of 63.5% and 18.7% and a linear shrinkage of 7.9% and 5.4%, for both clay-sized particles and bulk clay respectively. The activity value of the clay material (0.64 suggests the presence of Kaolinite and Ilite; and these were confirmed with X-Ray diffraction on the bulk sample and clay-sized particles. X-Ray diffraction patterns shows distinctive peaks which highlight the dominance of Kaolinite (with 8 peaks in the pottery clay sample for both clay-sized particles and bulk material; while traces of other clay minerals like Illite and Halloysite and rock minerals like Mica, Feldspar and Chrysotile were also found. These results suggest that the clay possesses high viability in the manufacturing of ceramics, refractory bricks, paper, fertilizer and paint. The clay material can be used as a subgrade in road construction, since it possesses low swelling characteristics.

  12. Relevance of pottery on traditional African economy: an ...

    This study probes the relevance of potteries in archaeological records in the reconstruction of traditional African economy as shown among the people of North-East Yoruba land of Nigeria. The use of ethnoarchaeological paradigms in the study of potteries, which has been employed in this study, can shed immense lights ...

  13. Application of Moessbauer spectroscopy to study archaeological Egyptian pottery

    Eissa, N.A.

    1988-01-01

    Moessbauer spectra have been used as ''fingerprints'' in obtaining information an ancient Egyptian pottery and in fine art. An empirical relation has been found that connects the natural radiation dose with the intensity ratio of the two non-magnetic central peaks. It was suggested that this relation be used for dating ancient pottery. 8 refs, 13 figs, 2 tabs

  14. Gamma-ray spectral map of standard pottery. Pt. 1

    Yellin, J.

    1984-01-01

    The gamma-ray spectrum of a neutron activated Standard Pottery is analyzed completely by means of spectral line shape fitting. A detailed spectral map of the standard is presented as it is typically used in pottery analysis. The spectrum obtained by a planar geometry Ge(Li) detector converts the energy range 11 to 409 keV. The map is intended to serve as a guide to the uninitiated user of Standard Pottery as well as a basis of comparison with other standards employed in pottery provenience work. It is shown that the process of calibrating detectors for spectral line interference can be greatly aided by means of a general approach to spectrum analysis and that much usefull information can be obtained by a general approach to pottery spectrum analysis. (orig.)

  15. Pre-Columbian estucado pottery from El Salvador: A multi-technique investigation

    Sodo, A.

    2016-03-01

    Pottery is one of the main productions of the pre-Columbian cultures in the Mesoamerican area. Among the others, the estucado pottery represents a very particular type of ceramic, widespread in Maya territory but still never investigated systematically. The peculiarity of this ceramic lies in the unusual application of the color decoration and in the excellent conservation conditions. Seventeen ceramic fragments from El Salvador have been analysed by Raman spectroscopy, SEM/EDS and XRPD, both as fragments and in cross-sections, in order to investigate the manufacturing technique and to understand the good and unexpected conservation state. In both cases, the presence and the chemical nature of a thin white layer (engobe) between the ceramic bulk and the colored decorations seems to be determinant.

  16. Pre-Columbian estucado pottery from El Salvador: A multi-technique investigation

    Sodo, A.

    2016-01-01

    Pottery is one of the main productions of the pre-Columbian cultures in the Mesoamerican area. Among the others, the estucado pottery represents a very particular type of ceramic, widespread in Maya territory but still never investigated systematically. The peculiarity of this ceramic lies in the unusual application of the color decoration and in the excellent conservation conditions. Seventeen ceramic fragments from El Salvador have been analysed by Raman spectroscopy, SEM/EDS and XRPD, both as fragments and in cross-sections, in order to investigate the manufacturing technique and to understand the good and unexpected conservation state. In both cases, the presence and the chemical nature of a thin white layer (engobe) between the ceramic bulk and the colored decorations seems to be determinant.

  17. Geochemical studies of Guarani ethnic groups pottery with XRF

    Facetti-Masulli, J.F.; Romero de Gonzalez, V.; Zulma de Diaz; Kump, P.

    2010-01-01

    Artefacts of pottery belonging to the Guarani ethnic group were investigated by XRF techniques. The Tupi-Guarani, is one of the three main representatives of the Neolithic culture in the Amazonian scope. Such an ethnic group dispersed towards the South; in the Paraguayan area between the Paraguay and the Parana Rivers several Guarani ethnic movements by both rivers and their tributaries are perceived. The lithology and ceramics typology have contributed to support that perception. The archaeological findings help to clarify prehistoric cultural aspects and dispersal areas. In that context, the knowledge of the chemical composition of the found ceramic devices, in particular of the rare earth elements (REE) and other refractory ones provide information on this dispersion and its expansion. Selected trace elements (Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Ba, La, Ce, and Nd) were determined in samples from thirteen archaeological sites with XRF using an Am-241 source. Their spidergrams have allowed identifying four different sets of samples according to their areas of provenance. (author)

  18. 69 Decline of Traditional Pottery Practice among the Afizere of ...

    Arc. Usman A. Jalam

    interest in their traditional pottery heritage and, avail themselves of the cottage or self- employment, and ..... prior to the local market day. .... communicate with people in Hausa instead of their ... serving food and beverages while some were.

  19. Neutron activation analysis for the archaeometric study of Catamarca pottery

    Pla, Rita R.; Moreno, Monica A.; Ratto, Norma R.

    1999-01-01

    Samples of pottery and raw materials from the Puna and the mesothermal valleys regions were irradiated in the RA-3 reactor for 5 hours and 22 elements (As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Gd, Hf, La, Lu, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, U and Yb) were determined by instrumental analysis, 37 days after the irradiation. The results allow drawing conclusions on the production and distribution of the pottery in the region. (authors)

  20. New data from Oposisi : implications for Early Papuan pottery phase

    Allen, J.; Summerhayes, G.; Mandui, H.; Leavesley, M.

    2011-01-01

    An apparent colonisation of the Papuan south coast by pottery-making villagers about 2000 years ago let in the 1970s to the development of a regional sequence of first millenium AD decorated pottery styles now known as Early Papuan pottery (EPP). Important in defining this style horizon is the Yule Island site of Oposisi first excavated by Ron Vanderwal in 1969. As part of an on-going re-appraisal of pottery production along this coast by two of us, we took advantage of an opportunity to re-sample the site in 2007. A paper proposing a much earlier starting date for EPP based on dates for sherds in Torres Strait meant that we could also take advantage of this visit to acquire further dating samples. A coherent set of seven new AMS dates strongly supports the Oposisi sequence beginning at c. 2000 BP. Beyond this our sample produced much more obsidian, imported from Fergusson Island 600 km to the east, than had previously been recorded for the site. This attests to stronger and more continuous eastern links than had been previously supposed. Lastly the paper reviews EPP in the light of recent pottery finds that suggest pre-EPP pottery will occur on the south Papuan coast. (author). 21 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs.

  1. The End of Roman Pottery Production in Southern Britain

    Malcolm Lyne

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to show that a full or partial monetary economy may have continued to operate in parts of Britain into the 2nd quarter of the 5th century at least; changing our perception of early 5th century material culture in South-East Britain from one leaving very few traces in the archaeological record to one which is an extension of that previously thought to be restricted to the period c.AD 370-410 but which can now be seen to span the period c.AD 370-430/440. Some Romano-British style pottery appears to have continued being made on a much more limited scale into the mid-5th century: a distinctive type of convex-sided dish with solid spaced bosses can be shown to have been made at or near Dorchester-upon-Thames, Portchester and Alice Holt Forest during the 5th century and continued being produced at the first-mentioned place for long enough to be copied by local Anglo-Saxon potters. Adjustments in dating mean that certain peculiarly insular types of military equipment such as the Tortworth strap-end and horse-headed buckle, hitherto dated to the last years of the 4th century, could belong to British soldiers of the early 5th century.

  2. PASEDHULURAN AS A SOCIAL CAPITAL FOR LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: EVIDENCE FROM POTTERY VILLAGE

    Mila Karmilah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The increase in both industrialization and tourism in Kasongan village famous with its pottery being the tourism Village since 1988, radically altered the local economy and domestic life. Based on oral history, survey, and documentary sources, this paper examine the impact of economics globalization to the diversity of culture in Kasongan. Globalization has two faces. If it can be managed properly, globalization can certainly give sufficient benefit to the country. The result of study indicated that pasedhuluran kinship systems in pottery production chain as one of social capital in socio-economic development in Kasongan, play an important role. This can be seen in terms of hiring local labor, then the pottery associated with the ordering system, and the use of the showroom to promote their pottery. Based on this note that the negative impact of globalization, especially the pottery in Kasongan indsutry can be minimized by pasedhuluran system. Peningkatan industrialisasi dan pariwisata di Desa Kasongan yang terkenal dengan kerajinan gerabah yang telah berkembang sejak tahun 1972 dan menjadi desa wisata pada tahun 1988, secara radikal telah mengubah ekonomi lokal dan kehidupan masyarakat di desa tersebut. Berdasarkan wawancara terkait sejarah, survei, dan sumber-sumber dokumenter lainnya, maka tulisan ini akan mengkaji dampak globalisasi ekonomi terhadap keragaman budaya masyarakat setempat. Globalisasi memiliki dua sisi. Jika globalisasi dapat dikelola dengan baik, maka globalisasi dapat memberikan manfaat yang cukup baik bagi negara. Namun, jika suatu negara tidak dapat beradaptasi dan menentukan strategi yang perlu diterapkan dalam rangka menghadapi globalisasi, negara akan menjadi korban dari globalisasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pasedhuluran adalah sistem kekerabatan di rantai produksi kegiatan produksi gerabah. Pasedhuluran sebagai salah satu modal sosial dalam pembangunan sosial-ekonomi di Kasongan, memainkan peranan yang

  3. Studies of Li, B and N in ancient oriental pottery and modern ceramic materials by means of (n,p) and (n,α) spectrometry

    Fink, D.; Riederer, J.

    1981-01-01

    The content of Li, B, and N is examined in ancient and modern pottery and its glazes by means of (n,p) and (n,α) reactions with thermal neutrons. Most samples exhibit a proportionality between B and Li concentrations with preferred values around 0.01 at.%. One group of pottery shows nearly constant Li abundance around 0.1 at.%, the B content varying from 10 -4 at.% to 10 at.%. An explanation is given, and the individual groups of pottery are described in detail. Results for different archaeological sites of Sumerian, Babylonian, Assyrian, Phoenician and Roman provenience are presented. The data scattering of B and Li contents of samples from different places of origin varies considerably, and can be used as a measure of the economical importance of ancient centers. Local urban cultures, such as Ur, exhibit a relative data scattering around 0.2, cities with average trade relations show values around 0.4, and for the famous trade center Palmyra, 0.8 was found. The B/Li ratio of pottery indicates whether the clay used is a fresh water or a marine sediment. The B and Li contents of Euphrates pottery show systematic variations along the river valley. Several samples, found in the Mesopotamian region are highly enriched in nitrogen. This is probably due to salt precipitation in the surrounding soil after the destruction of the irrigation facilities by the Mongols in 1258. (orig.)

  4. Studies of Li, B and N in ancient oriental pottery and modern ceramic materials by means of (n,p) and (n,. cap alpha. ) spectrometry

    Fink, D. (Hahn-Meitner-Institut fuer Kernforschung Berlin G.m.b.H. (Germany, F.R.)); Riederer, J. (Staatliche Museen Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Berlin (Germany, F.R.). Rathgen-Forschungslabor)

    1981-12-31

    The content of Li, B, and N is examined in ancient and modern pottery and its glazes by means of (n,p) and (n,..cap alpha..) reactions with thermal neutrons. Most samples exhibit a proportionality between B and Li concentrations with preferred values around 0.01 at.%. One group of pottery shows nearly constant Li abundance around 0.1 at.%, the B content varying from 10/sup -4/ at.% to 10 at.%. An explanation is given, and the individual groups of pottery are described in detail. Results for different archaeological sites of Sumerian, Babylonian, Assyrian, Phoenician and Roman provenience are presented. The data scattering of B and Li contents of samples from different places of origin varies considerably, and can be used as a measure of the economical importance of ancient centers. Local urban cultures, such as Ur, exhibit a relative data scattering around 0.2, cities with average trade relations show values around 0.4, and for the famous trade center Palmyra, 0.8 was found. The B/Li ratio of pottery indicates whether the clay used is a fresh water or a marine sediment. The B and Li contents of Euphrates pottery show systematic variations along the river valley. Several samples, found in the Mesopotamian region are highly enriched in nitrogen. This is probably due to salt precipitation in the surrounding soil after the destruction of the irrigation facilities by the Mongols in 1258.

  5. Neutron activation analysis of Etruscan pottery

    Whitehead, J.; Silverman, A.; Ouellet, C.G.; Clark, D.D.; Hossain, T.Z.

    1992-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) has been widely used in archaeology for compositional analysis of pottery samples taken from sites of archaeological importance. Elemental profiles can determine the place of manufacture. At Cornell, samples from an Etruscan site near Siena, Italy, are being studied. The goal of this study is to compile a trace element concentration profile for a large number of samples. These profiles will be matched with an existing data bank in an attempt to understand the place of origin for these samples. The 500 kW TRIGA reactor at the Ward Laboratory is used to collect NAA data for these samples. Experiments were done to set a procedure for the neutron activation analysis with respect to sample preparation, selection of irradiation container, definition of activation and counting parameters and data reduction. Currently, we are able to analyze some 27 elements in samples of mass 500 mg with a single irradiation of 4 hours and two sequences of counting. Our sensitivity for many of the trace elements is better than 1 ppm by weight under the conditions chosen. In this talk, details of our procedure, including quality assurance as measured by NIST standard reference materials, will be discussed. In addition, preliminary results from data treatment using cluster analysis will be presented. (author)

  6. Dating of a representative pottery sample from the basin of Sayula, Jalisco in Mexico using the thermoluminescence method

    Mercado U, H. [CINVESTAV, Unidad Monterrey, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Schaaf, P.; Ramirez, A. [Instituto de Geofisica, UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Gonzalez, P.R. [ININ, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Brunet, J. [CUCSH, Universidad de Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    In this work is presented a study of dating of the representative pottery sample from the west of Mexico, in a predominantly saline region. The study is carried out with the thermoluminescence method and the fine grain technique. The archaeological region was begun to study from 1990. This work also presents an historical and geographical context of the region and its relevance in the western culture of Mexico. (Author)

  7. Dating of a representative pottery sample from the basin of Sayula, Jalisco in Mexico using the thermoluminescence method

    Mercado U, H.; Schaaf, P.; Ramirez, A.; Gonzalez, P.R.; Brunet, J.

    2006-01-01

    In this work is presented a study of dating of the representative pottery sample from the west of Mexico, in a predominantly saline region. The study is carried out with the thermoluminescence method and the fine grain technique. The archaeological region was begun to study from 1990. This work also presents an historical and geographical context of the region and its relevance in the western culture of Mexico. (Author)

  8. Characterization of pottery from Cerro de Las Ventanas, Zacatecas, Mexico

    Lopez-del-Rio, H.; Mireles-Garcia, F. [Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, UAZ, Zacatecas (Mexico); Mendez-Cardona, R.Y. [Unidad Academica de Antropologia, UAZ, Zacatecas (Mexico); Nicolas-Caretta, M. [INAH Delegacion Zacatecas (Mexico); Coordinacion de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades, UASLP, Fracc. Talleres, SLP (Mexico); Speakman, R.J. [Museum Conservation Inst., Smithsonian Institution, Suitland, MD (United States); Glascock, M.D. [Research Reactor Center, Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    2009-09-15

    With the aim of classifying prehispanic pottery from Cerro de Las Ventanas site, Juchipila, Zacatecas, Mexico, instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to analyze ceramic samples at the University of Missouri Research Reactor Center. Thirty-two chemical elements were measured: Al, As, Ba, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Dy, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Ta, Tb, Ti, Th, U, V, Yb, Zn, and Zr. Two multivariate statistical methods, cluster analysis and principal component analysis, were performed on the dataset to examine similarities between samples and to establish compositional groups. The statistical analyses of the dataset suggest that the pottery samples form a unique chemically homogeneous group, with the exception of one pottery sample. The compositional data were compared to an existing Mesoamerican ceramic database. It was found that the newly generated data fit best with data from a previous chemical analysis of pottery from the Malpaso Valley. However, despite the apparent similarity, pottery samples from the site of Cerro de Las Ventanas represent a new and unique chemical fingerprint in the region. (orig.)

  9. Characterization of pottery from Cerro de Las Ventanas, Zacatecas, Mexico

    Lopez-del-Rio, H.; Mireles-Garcia, F.; Mendez-Cardona, R.Y.; Nicolas-Caretta, M.; Speakman, R.J.; Glascock, M.D.

    2009-01-01

    With the aim of classifying prehispanic pottery from Cerro de Las Ventanas site, Juchipila, Zacatecas, Mexico, instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to analyze ceramic samples at the University of Missouri Research Reactor Center. Thirty-two chemical elements were measured: Al, As, Ba, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Dy, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Ta, Tb, Ti, Th, U, V, Yb, Zn, and Zr. Two multivariate statistical methods, cluster analysis and principal component analysis, were performed on the dataset to examine similarities between samples and to establish compositional groups. The statistical analyses of the dataset suggest that the pottery samples form a unique chemically homogeneous group, with the exception of one pottery sample. The compositional data were compared to an existing Mesoamerican ceramic database. It was found that the newly generated data fit best with data from a previous chemical analysis of pottery from the Malpaso Valley. However, despite the apparent similarity, pottery samples from the site of Cerro de Las Ventanas represent a new and unique chemical fingerprint in the region. (orig.)

  10. PCR-based detection of a rare linear DNA in cell culture

    Saveliev Sergei V.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The described method allows for detection of rare linear DNA fragments generated during genomic deletions. The predicted limit of the detection is one DNA molecule per 107 or more cells. The method is based on anchor PCR and involves gel separation of the linear DNA fragment and chromosomal DNA before amplification. The detailed chemical structure of the ends of the linear DNA can be defined with the use of additional PCR-based protocols. The method was applied to study the short-lived linear DNA generated during programmed genomic deletions in a ciliate. It can be useful in studies of spontaneous DNA deletions in cell culture or for tracking intracellular modifications at the ends of transfected DNA during gene therapy trials.

  11. PCR-based detection of a rare linear DNA in cell culture.

    Saveliev, Sergei V.

    2002-11-11

    The described method allows for detection of rare linear DNA fragments generated during genomic deletions. The predicted limit of the detection is one DNA molecule per 10(7) or more cells. The method is based on anchor PCR and involves gel separation of the linear DNA fragment and chromosomal DNA before amplification. The detailed chemical structure of the ends of the linear DNA can be defined with the use of additional PCR-based protocols. The method was applied to study the short-lived linear DNA generated during programmed genomic deletions in a ciliate. It can be useful in studies of spontaneous DNA deletions in cell culture or for tracking intracellular modifications at the ends of transfected DNA during gene therapy trials.

  12. Not so coarse, nor always plain - the earliest pottery of Syria

    Nieuwenhuyse, Olivier P.; Akkermans, Peter M. M. G.; van der Plicht, Johannes

    The site of Tell Sabi Abyad in Syria offers a superb stratified sequence passing, from the aceramic (pre-pottery) to pottery-using Neolithic around 7000 BC Surprisingly the first pottery arrives fully developed with mineral tempering, burnishing and stripey decoration in painted slip. The expected,

  13. Investigation of trace elements in Guangxi ancient pottery by INAA

    Peng Zicheng; Sun Weidong; Huang Yunlan

    1997-01-01

    Guangxi Zhuang Nationality Autonomous Region is an original place for manufacture of ancient pottery in China since Zenpiyan site, dated 9240-10370 years ago, was excavated. Contents of trace elements La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, Lu, U, Th, Sc, Ta, Ba, Cs, Rb, Sr and Zr in 44 pottery shards from Guangxi sites, dated from 1450 B.C. to 200 A.D., were determined by INAA and XRF. The provenances of the 44 samples are postulated by the analyses of geochemical parameters

  14. Neutron activation and statistical analysis of pottery from Thera, Greece

    Kilikoglou, V.; Grimanis, A.P.; Karayannis, M.I.

    1990-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis, in combination with multivariate analysis of the generated data, was used for the chemical characterization of prehistoric pottery from the Greek islands of Thera, Melos (islands with similar geology) and Crete. The statistical procedure which proved that Theran pottery could be distinguished from Melian is described. This discrimination, attained for the first time, was mainly based on the concentrations of the trace elements Sm, Yb, Lu and Cr. Also, Cretan imports to both Thera and Melos were clearly separable from local products. (author) 22 refs.; 1 fig.; 4 tabs

  15. Naturally Occurring Radionuclides in Pottery, Ceramic and Glasswares Produced in Bangladesh

    Chowdhury, M.I.; Reaz, Rafia; Kamal, M.; Alam, M.N.; Mustafa, M.N.

    2005-01-01

    The concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides were measured using gamma spectrometry in the finished products of pottery, glass, ceramic and tiles. Ceramic and pottery utensils, tiles, basin and glassware contained naturally occurring radionuclides. Pottery is produced from local clay materials, but ceramic, tiles, basin and glassware's are made from both local and imported raw materials. Radium and thorium radionuclides are concentrated during the making of pottery from the clay materials due to calcination. Radionuclides concentrated more in the highly calcined pottery products than the low calcined products. Glassware products contained very low quantities of radionuclides comparing with the ceramic and pottery products. Study on radioactivity in the pottery, ceramic and glassware products is important in the assessment of possible radiological hazards to human health. The knowledge is essential for the development of standards and guidelines for the use and management of these materials. (author)

  16. Uus Harry Potteri film noolib rekordeid / Kaarel Kressa

    Kressa, Kaarel, 1983-

    2010-01-01

    19. novembril 2010 esilinastub Eestis Harry Potteri sarja uue filmi "Harry Potter ja surma vägised" (USA, Suurbritannia, 2010) 1. osa, režissöör David Yates. Filmi juba näinud kriitikute arvamusest. Filmi 2. osa linastub 2011. a. juulis

  17. Mineralogical composition and functionality of clays used for pottery ...

    Mineralogical composition and functionality of clays used for pottery education by physically challenged learners at the Ikwezi-Lokusa Educational Centre, Eastern Cape, South Africa. ... The clays were mineralogically characterised using Munsell Soil Color Chart, X-ray powder diffractometry (XRPD) and optical microscopy.

  18. Cuaron : olen Potteri-raamatute ohver / Neeme Korv

    Korv, Neeme, 1974-

    2004-01-01

    J.K. Rowling'u Harry Potteri lugude kolmas film "Harry Potter ja Azkabani vang" ("Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban") : režissöör Alfonso Cuaron : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2004. Filmi režissöörist

  19. Kolmas Potteri-film avab end maailmale / Neeme Korv

    Korv, Neeme, 1974-

    2004-01-01

    J.K. Rowling'u Harry Potteri lugude kolmas film "Harry Potter ja Azkabani vang" ("Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban") pidulik maailma-esilinastus toimus 23. mail New-Yorgis. Filmi režissöör on mehhiklane Alfonso Cuaron

  20. Analysis of radiocarbon dates of an archaeological site in the Russian Far East: The marine reservoir effect as seen on charred remains on pottery

    Kunikita, Dai; Yoshida, Kunio; Miyazaki, Yumiko; Saito, Keita; Endo, Aya; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Ito, Shinji; Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Fujimoto, Tsuyoshi; Kuznetsov, A.M.; Krupyanko, A.A.; Tabarev, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    In order to obtain precise and accurate calibrated radiocarbon chronologies for archaeological sites, it is necessary to determine the provenance of the carbon material being dated. Of particular note is determining the provenance and radiocarbon age of charcoal remains on pottery. In this context, we discuss the decipherment of dates on the Ustinovka-8 site in the Russian Far East. Using δ 13 C, δ 15 N and C:N it is possible to ascribe charcoal provenance to terrestrial and marine origins. Our data show radiocarbon age difference that are clearly associated with carbon origin, and a maximum estimated ΔR of approximately 400 years during the Zaisanovskaya culture, 4400 cal BP. A combination of pottery analysis and 14 C dating at this site determined the Zaisanovskaya cultural period to be 4000-5000 cal BP, the Boismanskaya and the Late Rudninskaya cultural period 5800-6500 cal BP, and the Early Rudninskaya cultural period of 6800-7100 cal BP

  1. Community spaces in the minds of traditional craftsmen in a pottery village in Japan

    Kota Maruya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available At present, the planning for the conservation or development of Japanese traditional crafts is based on administrative districts or water catchment areas. However, the conservation of Japanese traditions relies not only on the access to relevant natural resources but also on artisans׳ ability to manufacture crafts in specific environments. The perspectives of artisans on their work environments have a significant influence on traditional crafts. In this study, we aimed to investigate the changes in natural resource use in a village recognized for Koishiwara-yaki-style pottery. We employed a questionnaire and conducted interview surveys to collect data on the perceptions of the artisans working in the said village. The findings were as follows. 1 The area commonly regarded by the artisans as their place for pottery was identified. The identification of areas that are significant to local tradition can serve as a vital contribution to spatial planning. 2 The birth place of the local ceramics tradition in a local water catchment area was regarded as critically important in the preservation of the traditions of the village. 3 Several potters emphasized the value of their work environment to ver administrative support because of the historical connection between the place and their traditions. Highlighting this connection can attract historical and cultural tourism to this area.

  2. Dating of ancient Egyptian pottery using the thermoluminescence technique

    El-Fiki, S. A.; Abdel-Wahab, M. S.; El-Faramawy, N.; El-Fiki, M. A.

    1994-10-01

    In the course of the dating of Egyptian ancient pottery, pottery sherds were collected from three archaeological tombs in the Nazlet El Samman region in the Giza zone (Egypt). The annual dose was measured by the gamma spectroscopic technique as well as thermoluminescence (TL) measurements. The annual dose results obtained using both methods are in quite good agreement with a consistency of 99.69%. The extracted quartz exhibited TL dating peaks at about (305 ± 5)°C and (375 ± 5)°C. The TL dating result is 4301 ± 100 which belongs to the "fourth dynasty" in the Old Kingdom. The obtained ages show that the uncertainties in TL dating using the additive method are much lower than that of archaeologists.

  3. Pottery from a Chimu Workshop Studied by Moessbauer Spectroscopy

    Tschauner, H.; Wagner, U.

    2003-01-01

    Ceramic finds from a pottery workshop in the Lambayeque valley were studied by neutron activation analysis, Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction in an attempt to assess an advanced division of labour on the North Coast of Peru during the Chimu period (AD 1350-1460). The study suggests that the material was predominantly fired in a reducing environment with partial reoxidation at the end of the firing cycles, although firing in an oxidising atmosphere has taken place occasionally. The observed variation of firing conditions is characteristic for the use of pit kilns. The results of the archaeometric studies confirm the stylistic studies and show that pottery was no status symbol and far less important as a carrier of Chimu style than metal artefacts.

  4. Provenance studies of pottery fragments from medieval Cairo, Egypt

    Beal, J.W.; Olmez, I.

    1997-01-01

    In the analysis of archeological pottery fragments, instrumental neutron activation analysis has been utilized to establish the elemental concentrations of up to 37 chemical elements for each of 53 archeological pottery samples from medieval Cairo, Egypt, and one additional sample of Chinese porcelain. These elemental concentrations have been utilized in a statistical analysis procedure in order to determine similarities and correlations between the various samples. Multivariate analyses have been used to quantitatively determine these interrelationships. This methodology successfully separated the Egyptian samples into two broad categories: polychrome decorated ceramic ware and monochrome celadon ware. In addition the methodology successfully identified the one unique sample of Chinese porcelain. Several samples appeared to be either a mixture of categories or outliers in the data set and were not attributable to any distinct category. (author)

  5. Neolithic pottery at Polgar-10 (Hungary: measuring the habitus

    John Chapman

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available It is self-evidently true that ceramics form the largest component of the artefact assemblages of the Neolithic and Copper Age of Central and Eastern Europe, yet we are still poorly informed about the final stage of the life of most vessels – their ultimate disposal. In this paper, I wish to consider the ways in which pottery can be studied with respect to disposal and deposition. An assessment of ten different kinds of pottery analysis is made, using site single contexts as the main unit of analysis. I propose that these analyses constitute ways of measuring Bourdieu’s term “habitus”. This contextual analysis is based on examples taken from the Neolithic settlement of Polgar-10, in North East Hungary, excavated by the Upper Tisza Project in 1994.

  6. Thermoluminescence authenticity assay of Chinese pottery in Hong Kong

    Tso, W.M.

    1989-01-01

    The method used is similar to the dating of sherd samples with some modification to minimize the damage to the delicate pottery but still produce a reasonable accurate result. During the past year, the author has done 31 samples successfully. Most of them claimed to be 1100-4500 years of age. After testing, nineteen samples showed out to be compatible with the claimed age. The general procedures and the encountered problems for the assay are described

  7. Classifying and Visualising Roman Pottery using Computer-scanned Typologies

    Jacqueline Christmas

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available For many archaeological assemblages and type-series, accurate drawings of standardised pottery vessels have been recorded in consistent styles. This provides the opportunity to extract individual pot drawings and derive from them data that can be used for analysis and visualisation. Starting from PDF scans of the original pages of pot drawings, we have automated much of the process for locating, defining the boundaries, extracting and orientating each individual pot drawing. From these processed images, basic features such as width and height, the volume of the interior, the edges, and the shape of the cross-section outline are extracted and are then used to construct more complex features such as a measure of a pot's 'circularity'. Capturing these traits opens up new possibilities for (a classifying vessel form in a way that is sensitive to the physical characteristics of pots relative to other vessels in an assemblage, and (b visualising the results of quantifying assemblages using standard typologies. A frequently encountered problem when trying to compare pottery from different archaeological sites is that the pottery is classified into forms and labels using different standards. With a set of data from early Roman urban centres and related sites that has been labelled both with forms (e.g. 'platter' and 'bowl' and shape identifiers (based on the Camulodunum type-series, we use the extracted features from images to look both at how the pottery forms cluster for a given set of features, and at how the features may be used to compare finds from different sites.

  8. PIXE and PIGE analysis of pre-colonial pottery from Patanal - MS, Brazil

    Felicissimo, M.P.; Rodrigues-Filho, U.P.; Peixoto, J.L.; Barbosa, M.S.; Demortier, G.; Pireaux, J.J.

    2006-01-01

    PIXE and PIGE were applied to investigate the pottery from two archaeological sites located near the Brazil-Bolivia border in Pantanal, an area of natural preservation. The region was inhabited by ancient Amerindian tribes long before the Latin America colonization period and a deep understanding of their environment, cultural attributes and interconnections can only be achieved based on the study of archaeological findings. Multivariate statistical procedures were used to determine similarities and correlations between the analyzed samples and to indicate possible sources of raw material provenience. The results showed that traces of Cr, Cu and Ti and Na/Si and Mg/Si counting ratios were important to distinguish sherds from the archaeological sites MS-CP-71 and MS-CP-61. (author)

  9. FRAGMENTS' DISCOURSE: SOCIAL COSMOLOGY AND ALTERITY IN PRE-COLONIAL GUARANI POTTERY

    Adriana Schmidt Dias

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the 16th century ethno historical documents, Guarani pottery decoration and formal variability were related to distinct kinds of vessel's use and painted pottery was used mainly in ritual situations. We analyze archaeological pottery collections from Rio Grande do Sul North shore and Norwest region, seeking to explore the relationship between graphic patterns and distinct functional types of vessels, as well the regional and/or chronological stylistic variation of the sample. In the case study here presented, we suggest that painted pottery has high potential for the analysis of issues related to pre-colonial Guarani alterity and their social cosmological universe.

  10. Nutritionally Optimized, Culturally Acceptable, Cost-Minimized Diets for Low Income Ghanaian Families Using Linear Programming.

    Nykänen, Esa-Pekka A; Dunning, Hanna E; Aryeetey, Richmond N O; Robertson, Aileen; Parlesak, Alexandr

    2018-04-07

    The Ghanaian population suffers from a double burden of malnutrition. Cost of food is considered a barrier to achieving a health-promoting diet. Food prices were collected in major cities and in rural areas in southern Ghana. Linear programming (LP) was used to calculate nutritionally optimized diets (food baskets (FBs)) for a low-income Ghanaian family of four that fulfilled energy and nutrient recommendations in both rural and urban settings. Calculations included implementing cultural acceptability for families living in extreme and moderate poverty (food budget under USD 1.9 and 3.1 per day respectively). Energy-appropriate FBs minimized for cost, following Food Balance Sheets (FBS), lacked key micronutrients such as iodine, vitamin B12 and iron for the mothers. Nutritionally adequate FBs were achieved in all settings when optimizing for a diet cheaper than USD 3.1. However, when delimiting cost to USD 1.9 in rural areas, wild foods had to be included in order to meet nutritional adequacy. Optimization suggested to reduce roots, tubers and fruits and to increase cereals, vegetables and oil-bearing crops compared with FBS. LP is a useful tool to design culturally acceptable diets at minimum cost for low-income Ghanaian families to help advise national authorities how to overcome the double burden of malnutrition.

  11. An investigation of pottery production technology for the West Slope wares from Dorylaion (Eski ehir/Turkey)

    Issi, A.; Kara, A.

    2013-02-01

    Researches in the field of pottery production technology in ancient times, done in different settlements during the same period, may contribute to know relationships established within the different cultural communities. In ancient times, Anatolia (Asia Minor) was the crossroads of ancient civilizations. There are several ancient settlements and artifacts belonging to Hellenistic culture (330-30 BC). West Slope wares from Dorylaion (Eski ehir/Turkey) excavations are the main Hellenistic culture findings. In this study, different analytical techniques were employed for the characterization of these findings in order to enlighten the pottery production technology. Wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were employed to study the chemical and mineralogical composition of the bodies, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX) were also performed for the microstructural and microchemical characterization of body and slip layers of the selected potsherds. The raw materials used, firing temperatures and atmosphere and related microstructural characteristics were discussed. (Author) 22 refs.

  12. An investigation of pottery production technology for the West Slope wares from Dorylaion (Eski ehir/Turkey)

    Issi, A.; Kara, A.

    2013-01-01

    Researches in the field of pottery production technology in ancient times, done in different settlements during the same period, may contribute to know relationships established within the different cultural communities. In ancient times, Anatolia (Asia Minor) was the crossroads of ancient civilizations. There are several ancient settlements and artifacts belonging to Hellenistic culture (330-30 BC). West Slope wares from Dorylaion (Eski ehir/Turkey) excavations are the main Hellenistic culture findings. In this study, different analytical techniques were employed for the characterization of these findings in order to enlighten the pottery production technology. Wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were employed to study the chemical and mineralogical composition of the bodies, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX) were also performed for the microstructural and microchemical characterization of body and slip layers of the selected potsherds. The raw materials used, firing temperatures and atmosphere and related microstructural characteristics were discussed. (Author) 22 refs.

  13. A note on the differential thermal analysis of Amazonian archeological pottery

    Enriquez, C.R.; Beltrao, M. da C. de M.C.; Danon, J.

    1979-02-01

    Sherds of archeological pottery of the mouth of the Amazon river are investigated by D.T.A.. These samples have been previously investigated by thermoluminescence (T.L.) and Moessbauer spectroscopy (M.S.). The aim of the study has been to establish possible correlations between the hydration phenomena and the observed charges in the iron oxides of the pottery. (author) [pt

  14. Uus raamat tõstis Potteri-palaviku haripunkti / Mari Rebane

    Rebane, Mari

    2007-01-01

    Eestis esilinastus 20. juulil Harry Potteri viies film "Harry Potter ja Fööniksi ordu" ("Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix"), režissöör David Yates : Ameerika Ühendriigid-Suurbritannia 2007. Alates 21. juulist saab osta seitsmendat ja ühtlasi viimast J. K. Rowlingu Potteri-sarja raamatut "Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows"

  15. Dots close together on a map: Mycenaean pottery in the Jordan valley

    van Wijngaarden, G.J.; Steiner, M.L.; van der Steen, E.J.

    2008-01-01

    Pottery made in the Aegean during the Mycenaean period (ca. 1600-1100 BC) has been found at many sites in the Levant. Since such Mycenaean pottery is classified in detail and easily recognisable, this material is suitable to research long-distance trade and interconnections between the Mycenaean

  16. Pb and Sr isotopic compositions of ancient pottery: a method to discriminate production sites

    Zhang Xun; Chen Jiangfeng; Ma Lin; He Jianfeng; Wang Changsui; Qiu Ping

    2004-01-01

    The discriminating of production sites of ancient pottery samples using multi-isotopic systematics was described. Previous work has proven that Pb isotopic ratios can be used for discriminating the production sites of ancient pottery under certain conditions. The present work suggests that although Nd isotopic ratios are not sensitive to the production sites of ancient pottery, Sr isotopic ratios are important for the purpose. Pb isotopic ratios are indistinguishable for the pottery excavated from the Jiahu relict, Wuyang, Henan Province and for famous Qin Terra-cotta Figures. But, the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios for the former (about 0.715) are significantly lower than that of the latter (0.717-0.718). The authors concluded that a combined use of Pb and Sr isotopes would be a more powerful method for discriminating the production site of ancient pottery. (authors)

  17. Distinguishing of artificial irradiation by α dose: a method of discriminating imitations of ancient pottery

    Wang Weida; Xia Junding; Zhou Zhixin; Leung, P.L.

    2003-01-01

    If a modern pottery is artificially irradiated by γ-rays of 60 Co source, the modern will become ancient when the pottery is dated by the thermoluminescence technique. For distinguishing artificial irradiation a study was made. Meanwhile the 'fine-grain' and 'pre-dose' techniques were used respectively for measurement of the paleodose in a fine-grain sample from the same pottery. If the paleodose measured by the fine-grain technique is greater than that by the pre-dose techniques, we can affirm that the difference between two paleodoses is due to α dose and this paleodose containing α component results from natural radiation, the pottery therefore is ancient. If two paleodoses are equal approximately, i.e. α dose is not included in the paleodose, the paleodose comes from artificial γ irradiation and the pottery is an imitation

  18. CHRONOLOGY AND DYNAMICS OF ANCIENT POTTERY TRADITIONS' DISSEMINATION IN STEPPES OF THE LOWER VOLGA REGION

    Vybornov, Aleksandr A.; Vasilyeva, Irina N.; Kulkova, Marianna A.

    2018-01-01

    The territory of the Lower Volga plays an important role in the study of the Neolithic of Eastern Europe. The leading indicator of this epoch is pottery. Determining the chronology of pottery making is one of the most complex issues. Over the past ten years, a large number of radiocarbon dates (43......) have been obtained on various materials: coal, bones, organic materials in pottery, crusts, humus. They allowed accurate determining of the initial time of appearance of the most ancient crockery in the Lower Volga region - the middle of the 7th millennium BC. The authors determine the chronological...... analysis made it possible to clarify the genesis, the features of the dynamics and the further destiny of pottery in the region. The combination of the latest data allows referring the Neolithic monuments of steppe territory of the Lower Volga to the area of the ancient pottery in Eastern Europe. A...

  19. Microanalytical characterization of surface decoration in Majolica pottery

    Padilla, R.; Schalm, O.; Janssens, K.; Arrazcaeta, R.; Espen, P. van

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the characterization of the surface finishing works in archaeological pottery fragments belonging to several Majolica types. The homogeneity, thickness and inclusions of both ground glaze and color decorations were, among other characteristics, inspected by scanning electron microscopy X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX). The identification of the main constituents in the decoration motifs was performed by means of scanning micro X-ray fluorescence analysis. Additionally, compositional classification based on non-destructive quantitative analysis of the ground glaze was performed

  20. Trace elements measurement by PIXE in the appraisal of the ancient potteries

    Zhang, Z.Q.; Cheng, H.S.; Xia, H.N.; Jiang, J.C.; Gao, M.H.; Yang, F.J.

    2002-01-01

    Fifty pieces of pottery samples were collected from two domains with different types of ancient Sino-civilization. The concentrations of trace elements Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, Rb, Sr, Y and Zr were measured by proton-induced X-ray emission technique. Multivariate statistical processing of the results allows us to locate the provenance of the ancient potteries. The experimental results also show that the relative trace element contents Ni-Rb-Zr are useful for distinguishing these two types of Chinese ancient potteries

  1. Analytical investigations of cooking pottery from Tell Beydar (NE-Syria)

    Broekmans, T.; Adriaens, A.; Pantos, E.

    2004-01-01

    Within the framework of a technological and socio-economical study of pottery production in Tell Beydar (NE-Syria) during the third millennium BC, the chemical composition and mineralogy of cooking pottery from that site has been studied using polarizing microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray detection (SEM-EDX) and X-ray diffraction by means of synchrotron radiation (SR-XRD). The obtained data were used to make inferences concerning the pottery's technology, such as clay preparation and firing techniques

  2. Provenance determination of pottery by trace element analysis. Problems, solutions and applications

    Mommsen, H.

    2001-01-01

    Provenance determinations of pottery by chemical analysis is reviewed and shown to work well. Since pottery is produced from a well homogenized clay paste according to a certain recipe, sharp elemental patterns are expected for a series of products having the same origin. To obtain such patterns when forming compositional groups of pottery, a consideration of experimental errors, a correction for dilution and a choice of only stable elements is necessary. The patterns thus obtained will have low probability of overlap with groups of different origin. Examples for well defined groups of German stonewares and of Mycenaean wares from the Peloponnese are recorded. (author)

  3. Optical dating of potteries excavated from Pungnabtoseong earthen wall, Seoul

    Kim, Myung Jin; Park, Mi Seon [Neosiskorea Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sung Joon; Nah, Hye Rim; Hong, Hyung Woo [National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) emitted from natural crystalline mineral, usually quartz, feldspar, and so on, are mainly used to evaluate the paleodose for the age determination of archaeological and geological sample and the equivalent dose for retrospective dosimetry. TL/OSL age can be calculated as the ratio of paleodose to total annual dose rate which is determined from surrounding soil. In this study, we chemically extracted the quartz samples from potteries excavated in Pungnabtoseong earthen wall and observed the TL/OSL characteristics for paleodose determination. With the converted annual dose rate from the concentration of radioactive isotopes in its surrounding soil, optical date was evaluated and finally illustrated for interpreting the construction stage of Pungnabtoseong

  4. Thermoluminescence authentication of T'ang and Han Dynasty pottery

    Price, D.M.

    1997-01-01

    More than 80 pieces of T'ang Dynasty and 40 Han Dynasty style ceramic wares have been analysed to determine the amount of thermoluminescence (TL) accumulated since the initial firing of the object and the level of the radiation flux which has created the TL. This paper presents a summary of the thermoluminescence analysis results. Approximately 60% of Han ceramics and 45% of the T'ang pottery authenticated have been shown to belong to periods other than that stylistically suggested. Items which have been found not to be of the anticipated antiquity generally fall into distinct age groups. Of the T'ang wares the most commonly copied item is found to be the horse and for the Han pieces, human figures and ewers/pots/vases represent the most frequently reproduced wares

  5. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of pottery for provenience study

    Kuleff, I.; Djingova, R.; Penev, I.

    1986-01-01

    A scheme for INAA of pottery is proposed. The combination of 3 irradiations - epithermal and pile (short and long time) - and 6 measurements (2 times after each irradiation) enables the determination of Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Dy, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Si, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, Ti, U, V and Yb. The accuracy and precision of the method is evaluated by analysis of standard reference materials (USGS-BCR-1, USGS-W-1, ZGI-TB). The applicability of the method is demonstrated by analysis of 15 sgraffito ceramics from XV-XVIII cc. from Tsarevets, Veliko Tirnovo (Bulgaria). The results from the clustering of the analytical data are presented and discussed. (author)

  6. μXRF analysis of decoration motifs on Majolica pottery

    Padilla Lavarez, Roman; Van Espen, Pierr M.; Janssens, K; Schalm, O.

    2001-01-01

    μXRF analysis of decoration motifs on Majolica pottery in fragments corresponding to several Majolica types was carried out using an spectrometer comprising a low power Mo X-ray tube and a elliptic-shape concentration lens with a 60 um spot. Both surface scanning and spot measurements were carried a out, allowing the qualitative identification of the inorganic pigments used for the surface painting decoration and the quantitative analysis of the main glaze composition. The absence of interference signal arising from the excitation on the underlying paste when analysing thin-lead glazing was evaluated, allowing ensuring the suitable of the analytical procedures. A distinction was found between different types of majolica by the composition of the lead tin glaze enamel and by the presence of other elements in the blue, black and orange decoration

  7. Analysis of ancient pottery from the palatine hill in Rome

    De Sena, E.; Landsberger, S.; Wisseman, S.

    1995-01-01

    A program of compositional analysis using neutron activation has been performed on samples of Roman fine ware from the Palatine East excavations in Rome at the University of Illinois' TRIGA reactor. These experiments are ultimately intended to assist the authors in advancing the understanding of the organization of pottery production and distribution in central Italy during the late Roman imperial period (4th-5th c. AD). The objectives of this paper are to present an archaeological background of two regionally-produced fine wares, to discuss the methods of sampling, irradiation and data analyses, and to demonstrate the preliminary results of our investigation, which included the analyses of Plio-Pleistocene clays from the Janiculum Hill in Rome. (author). 5 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  8. Thermoluminescence dating of potteries excavated at Bhagwanpura and Mathura

    Nambi, K.S.V.; Sasidharan, R.; Soman, S.D.

    1979-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) dating attempts were made on sherds of freshly excavated potteries from Bhagwanpura and Mathura sites. TL measurements were generally made from the fine grains of the potsherds; attempts were also made to separate the quartz inclusions from some of the potsherds and evaluate the TL. Dose-rate estimations were made from an analysis of natural radioactivity of the samples; TLD estimation of the environmental gamma dose-rate component was also attempted for the Mathura sites. The TL age estimates ranged between 2000 and 5000 years, B.P. for the Bhagwanpura series and between 1400 and 3000 years, B.P. for the Mathura series. Distinctly different trends were seen in the ages of graywares and redwares from Bhagwanpura: with increasing depth at the site, the grayware ages diminished (upto 1.3 depth beyond which they do not occur) while the redware ages remain the same upto 1.3 m depth and increase regularly beyond. In the case of eight Mathura potsherds for which the archaeologists' expected age values were available, a good to fair (+- 2 to +- 19%) agreement with the TL ages could be seen for four sherds. The estimated accuracies of the TL ages range between +- 9 to +- 19% and such a high value stems from the generous allowance made for all possible values of water content in pottery and soil over the archaeological period; if reasonable values for the actual degree of wetness could be provided, the TL ages can be estimated with accuracies of the order of +- 5%. (auth.)

  9. Characterization of prehistoric pottery from the Tremiti Isles by trace elements determination

    Brandone, A.; Fumo, P.; Giacco, M.; Oddone, M.; Riganti, V.; Baldi, M

    1993-01-01

    The potteries found on the Tremiti Isles (Italy, Adriatic Sea) have been characterized through their trace elements content. The goal of the work was to find out the number of ore deposits that supplied the clay used to manufacture the pottery. Neutron activation analysis has been employed for trace elements content determinations; the results have been statistically evaluated, clusterized and discussed. (author) 13 refs.; 1 fig.; 3 tabs

  10. Moessbauer Study of a Celtic Pottery-Making Kiln in Lower Bavaria

    Gebhard, R.; Guggenbichler, E.; Haeusler, W.; Riederer, J.; Schmotz, K.; Wagner, F. E.; Wagner, U.

    2004-01-01

    In 1995 a well preserved 3rd century BC Celtic kiln for pottery making was excavated at Schmiedorf in Lower Bavaria. The firing chamber and the flue plate of the kiln were preserved, whereas the dome was not found. We report on a study of material from this kiln by neutron activation analysis, thin-section microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Moessbauer spectroscopy, all performed with the aim to learn more about pottery-making procedures in Celtic times.

  11. Cell-cell interactions of isolated and cultured oligodendrocytes: formation of linear occluding junctions and expression of peculiar intramembrane particles.

    Massa, P T; Szuchet, S; Mugnaini, E

    1984-12-01

    Oligodendrocytes were isolated from lamb brain. Freshly isolated cells and cultured cells, either 1- to 4-day-old unattached or 1- to 5-week-old attached, were examined by thin section and freeze-fracture electron microscopy. Freeze-fracture of freshly isolated oligodendrocytes showed globular and elongated intramembrane particles similar to those previously described in oligodendrocytes in situ. Enrichment of these particles was seen at sites of inter-oligodendrocyte contact. Numerous gap junctions and scattered linear tight junctional arrays were apparent. Gap junctions were connected to blebs of astrocytic plasma membrane sheared off during isolation, whereas tight junctions were facing extracellular space or blebs of oligodendrocytic plasma membrane. Thin sections of cultured, unattached oligodendrocytes showed rounded cell bodies touching one another at points without forming specialized cell junctions. Cells plated on polylysine-coated aclar dishes attached, emanated numerous, pleomorphic processes, and expressed galactocerebroside and myelin basic protein, characteristic markers for oligodendrocytes. Thin sections showed typical oligodendrocyte ultrastructure but also intermediate filaments not present in unattached cultures. Freeze-fracture showed intramembrane particles similar to but more numerous, and with a different fracture face repartition, than those seen in oligodendrocytes, freshly isolated or in situ. Gap junctions were small and rare. Apposed oligodendrocyte plasma membrane formed linear tight junctions which became more numerous with time in culture. Thus, cultured oligodendrocytes isolated from ovine brains develop and maintain features characteristic of mature oligodendrocytes in situ and can be used to explore formation and maintenance of tight junctions and possibly other classes of cell-cell interactions important in the process of myelination.

  12. The suitability of EDXRF for compositional classification of archaeological pottery

    Padilla Alvarez, Roman

    2007-01-01

    Many investigations have been carried out trying to enlarge the information that can be gathered through the chemical analysis of archaeological findings. Chemical composition data sets, properly interpreted with multivariate analysis techniques, have been used extensively to supplement investigations involving provenance studies or more complex socio-economic aspects of the past communities. Correct inferences from the gathered compositional data are only possible if well documented background information about the studied samples is available, such as a correct interpretation of the archaeological contexts, knowledge about the nature of the used raw materials or procurement sources (geology of the territories), among others. The combined use of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Scanning Electron Microscopy X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX) has been widely applied to the classification of archaeological pottery. However the need to remove at least a minimal part (invasion) of the sample and the time delay required for radioisotope decay and the high costs involved in INAA often restrict its use. Energy Dispersive x-ray Fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF) is advantageous to perform a completely non-destructive analysis in a relatively fast way, but several problems have restricted its wider use in the past. The highly matrix-dependent attenuation of x-rays in the analysed sample hampers the use of the standard-less quantification procedures as an alternative when suitable certified reference materials are not at hand, and the relatively limited instrumental sensitivity of the conventional spectrometers has not allowed the determination of some trace elements that are relevant for compositional differentiation and provided a comparatively higher uncertainties. This contribution presents the results of several investigations aimed to achieving classification of archaeological pottery using reliable quantitative EDXRF procedures. The main factors affecting the

  13. Carbon extraction methods for radiocarbon dating of pottery

    Delque-Kolic, E.

    1995-01-01

    Pottery is a direct witness of human activity and gives, through its macroscopic and microscopic studies, lots of information about its manufacturers. Nevertheless, radiocarbon dating, currently applied in archaeology to charcoals, wood and bones has only been rarely employed with ceramic. The problem is that many different carbon sources, of different radiocarbon age, may contribute to the potsherd carbon content. So, the aim of all dating projects is to separate carbon related to the period when the potsherd was manufactured and used. In a first time, we have made our own samples with raw materials (clay and temper) known in nature and age. We have fired them with wood of known age under reducing atmosphere. Under these conditions, soot produced by wood burning forms a more or less important deposit on the surface of the pots. It is this source of carbon, present in many archaeological sherds, that we first tried to select. Burning these potsherds at low temperature under an O 2 flow, we have noticed that carbon from kiln wood was preferentially extracted. This treatment applied to a thin lamella cut in a smoked part of the potsherd provides, almost exclusively, carbon from smoke. These techniques, applied to known archaeological sherds, have given encouraging results. We have also explored a new method which consists in oxidizing carbon with a laser beam at the surface of the sample. The use of this process for extracting carbon from smoke seems promising if serious experimental precautions are taken when working with so low carbon content. (author)

  14. Dust exposure and pneumoconiosis in a South African pottery. 1. Study objectives and dust exposure.

    Rees, D; Cronje, R; du Toit, R S

    1992-07-01

    Dust exposure and pneumoconiosis were investigated in a South African pottery that manufactured wall tiles and bathroom fittings. This paper describes the objectives of the investigation and presents dust measurement data. x Ray diffraction showed that the clays used by the pottery had a high quartz content (range 58%-23%, mean 38%). Exposure to respirable dust was measured for 43 workers and was highest (6.6 mg/m3) in a bathroom fitting fettler. Quartz concentrations in excess of 0.1 mg/m3 were found in all sections of the manufacturing process from slip production to biscuit firing and sorting. The proportion of quartz in the respirable dust of these sections was 24% to 33%. This is higher than is usually reported in English potteries. Four hundred and six (80%) of the 509 workers employed at the pottery were potentially at risk of occupational lung disease. The finding of large numbers of pottery workers exposed to unacceptable dust concentrations is not surprising as poor dust control was found in all six wall tile and sanitary ware factories surveyed by the National Centre for Occupational Health between 1973 and 1989. Dust related occupational disease can be expected in potters for many years to come.

  15. First molecular and isotopic evidence of millet processing in prehistoric pottery vessels

    Heron, Carl; Shoda, Shinya; Breu Barcons, Adrià; Czebreszuk, Janusz; Eley, Yvette; Gorton, Marise; Kirleis, Wiebke; Kneisel, Jutta; Lucquin, Alexandre; Müller, Johannes; Nishida, Yastami; Son, Joon-Ho; Craig, Oliver E.

    2016-12-01

    Analysis of organic residues in pottery vessels has been successful in detecting a range of animal and plant products as indicators of food preparation and consumption in the past. However, the identification of plant remains, especially grain crops in pottery, has proved elusive. Extending the spectrum is highly desirable, not only to strengthen our understanding of the dispersal of crops from centres of domestication but also to determine modes of food processing, artefact function and the culinary significance of the crop. Here, we propose a new approach to identify millet in pottery vessels, a crop that spread throughout much of Eurasia during prehistory following its domestication, most likely in northern China. We report the successful identification of miliacin (olean-18-en-3β-ol methyl ether), a pentacyclic triterpene methyl ether that is enriched in grains of common/broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum), in Bronze Age pottery vessels from the Korean Peninsula and northern Europe. The presence of millet is supported by enriched carbon stable isotope values of bulk charred organic matter sampled from pottery vessel surfaces and extracted n-alkanoic acids, consistent with a C4 plant origin. These data represent the first identification of millet in archaeological ceramic vessels, providing a means to track the introduction, spread and consumption of this important crop.

  16. Hard water and old food. The freshwater reservoir effect in radiocarbon dating of food residues on pottery

    Bente Philippsen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the problem of the freshwater reservoir effect in the radiocarbon dating of different sample materials, in particular food crusts on pottery. Charred food residue can be used to directly date of the use of the pottery. However, this material is highly complex, which can lead to various dating errors.  

  17. Beyond Maslow's culture-bound linear theory: a preliminary statement of the double-Y model of basic human needs.

    Yang, Kuo-Shu

    2003-01-01

    Maslow's theory of basic human needs is criticized with respect to two of its major aspects, unidimensional linearity and cross-cultural validity. To replace Maslow's linear theory, a revised Y model is proposed on the base of Y. Yu's original Y model. Arranged on the stem of the Y are Maslow's physiological needs (excluding sexual needs) and safety needs. Satisfaction of these needs is indispensable to genetic survival. On the left arm of the Y are interpersonal and belongingness needs, esteem needs, and the self-actualization need. The thoughts and behaviors required for the fulfillment of these needs lead to genetic expression. Lastly, on the right arm of the Y are sexual needs, childbearing needs, and parenting needs. The thoughts and behaviors entailed in the satisfaction of these needs result in genetic transmission. I contend that needs for genetic survival and transmission are universal and that needs for genetic expression are culture-bound. Two major varieties of culture-specific expression needs are distinguished for each of the three levels of needs on the left arm of the Y model. Collectivistic needs for interpersonal affiliation and belongingness, esteem, and self-actualization prevail in collectivist cultures like those found in East Asian countries. Individualistic needs are dominant in individualist cultures like those in North America and certain European nations. I construct two separate Y models, one for people in collectivist cultures and the other for those in individualist ones. In the first (the Yc model), the three levels of expression needs on the left arm are collectivistic in nature, whereas in the second (the Yi model), the three levels of needs on the left arm are individualistic in nature. Various forms of the double-Y model are formulated by conceptually combining the Yc and Yi models at the cross-cultural, crossgroup, and intra-individual levels. Research directions for testing the various aspects of the double-Y model are

  18. Annual dose measurements and TL-dating of ancient Egyptian pottery

    Abdel-Wahab, M S; El-Fiki, S A; Abdel-Kariem, S; El-Faramawy, N [Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt). Faculty of Science; EL-Fiki, M A [National Institute of Standards, Cairo (Egypt); Gomaa, M [Atomic Energy Establishment, Cairo (Egypt). Nuclear Research Center

    1996-05-01

    In the course of the dating of ancient Egyptian pottery, pottery sherds were collected from three archaeological tombs in Nazlet El Samman region, Giza zone (Egypt). The annual dose from natural background was measured by gamma spectrosocopic technique as well as thermoluminescence (TL) measurements. The results of both methods are in good agreement with a consistency of 99.69%. The extracted quartz exhibited TL dating peaks at about (305 {+-} 5){sup o}C. The TL dating shows an age of 4301 {+-} 100 years for the examined pottery which belongs to the ``Fourth Dynasty`` in the ``OlKingdom`` . The uncertainties in TL dating using the additive method are much lower than that of archaeologists. (author).

  19. Annual dose measurements and TL-dating of ancient Egyptian pottery

    Abdel-Wahab, M. S.; El-Fiki, S. A.; El-Fiki, M. A.; Gomaa, M.; Abdel-Kariem, S.; El-Faramawy, N.

    1996-05-01

    In the course of the dating of ancient Egyptian pottery, pottery sherds were collected from three archaeological tombs in Nazlet El Samman region, Giza zone (Egypt). The annual dose from natural background was measured by gamma spectroscopic technique as well as thermoluminescence (TL) measurements. The results of both methods are in good agreement with a consistency of 99.69%. The extracted quartz exhibited TL dating peaks at about(305 ± 5|4)°C. The TL dating shows an age of 4301 ± 100 years for the examined pottery which belongs to the "Fourth Dynasty" in the "Old Kingdom". The uncertainties in TL dating using the additive method are much lower than that of archeologists.

  20. Annual dose measurements and TL-dating of ancient Egyptian pottery

    Abdel-Wahab, M.S.; El-Fiki, S.A.; Abdel-Kariem, S.; El-Faramawy, N.; Gomaa, M.

    1996-01-01

    In the course of the dating of ancient Egyptian pottery, pottery sherds were collected from three archaeological tombs in Nazlet El Samman region, Giza zone (Egypt). The annual dose from natural background was measured by gamma spectrosocopic technique as well as thermoluminescence (TL) measurements. The results of both methods are in good agreement with a consistency of 99.69%. The extracted quartz exhibited TL dating peaks at about (305 ± 5) o C. The TL dating shows an age of 4301 ± 100 years for the examined pottery which belongs to the ''Fourth Dynasty'' in the ''OlKingdom'' . The uncertainties in TL dating using the additive method are much lower than that of archaeologists. (author)

  1. Archaeometrical analysis of Neolithic pottery from the Divača region, Slovenia

    Andreja Žibrat Gašparič

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of the mineralogical and chemical analyses of pottery from the Neolithic period from the Divača region are presented. Pottery samples from two rock shelters, i.e. Mala Triglavca and Trhlovca, were included in the analyses, as well as sediment samples from other rock shelters, caves and rivers around this area. The mineralogical and chemical composition of the ceramic is uniform in most of the samples; the differences between the clay pastes of the vessels are in the use of a tempering material, mostly calcite grains. The sediment samples, especially from the cave deposits, point to a local production of the Neolithic pottery on the Karst plateau.

  2. Raman spectroscopic study of ancient South African domestic clay pottery

    Legodi, M. A.; de Waal, D.

    2007-01-01

    The technique of Raman spectroscopy was used to examine the composition of ancient African domestic clay pottery of South African origin. One sample from each of four archaeological sites including Rooiwal, Lydenburg, Makahane and Graskop was studied. Normal dispersive Raman spectroscopy was found to be the most effective analytical technique in this study. XRF, XRD and FT-IR spectroscopy were used as complementary techniques. All representative samples contained common features, which were characterised by kaolin (Al 2Si 2O 5(OH) 5), illite (KAl 4(Si 7AlO 20)(OH) 4), feldspar (K- and NaAlSi 3O 8), quartz (α-SiO 2), hematite (α-Fe 2O 3), montmorillonite (Mg 3(Si,Al) 4(OH) 2·4.5H 2O[Mg] 0.35), and calcium silicate (CaSiO 3). Gypsum (CaSO 4·2H 2O) and calcium carbonates (most likely calcite, CaCO 3) were detected by Raman spectroscopy in Lydenburg, Makahane and Graskop shards. Amorphous carbon (with accompanying phosphates) was observed in the Raman spectra of Lydenburg, Rooiwal and Makahane shards, while rutile (TiO 2) appeared only in Makahane shard. The Raman spectra of Lydenburg and Rooiwal shards further showed the presence of anhydrite (CaSO 4). The results showed that South African potters used a mixture of clays as raw materials. The firing temperature for most samples did not exceed 800 °C, which suggests the use of open fire. The reddish brown and grayish black colours were likely due to hematite and amorphous carbon, respectively.

  3. The power of paradigms : examining the evidential basis for Early to Mid-Holocene pigs and pottery in Melanesia

    O'Connor, S.; Barham, A.; Aplin, K.; Dobney, K.; Fairbairn, A.; Richards, M.

    2011-01-01

    The origin and timing of the introduction of pigs and pottery into New Guinea are continuous topics. Arguments have centred on whether domestic pigs and pottery technology entered New Guinea following the 'Austronesian expansion' from southeast Asia into Island Melanesia, c 3300 calBP, or in the Early to Mid-Holocene. We review the history of the debate and present new dates on pig bone and pottery contexts from archaeological sites, including Taora and Lachitu, on the north coast of mainland Papua New Guinea (PNG), where earlier data supported claims for early pig and pottery. We argue that theoretical positions about 'Neolithic' origins in PNG influenced the relative willingness to accept early dates prima facie and conclude that current evidence shows neither pig nor pottery arrived before 3000 calBP in mainland PNG. (author). 96 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Pottery use by early Holocene hunter-gatherers of the Korean peninsula closely linked with the exploitation of marine resources

    Shoda, Shinya; Lucquin, Alexandre; Ahn, Jae-ho; Hwang, Chul-joo; Craig, Oliver E.

    2017-08-01

    The earliest pottery on the Korean peninsula dates to the early Holocene, notably later than other regions of East Asia, such as Japan, the Russian Far East and Southern China. To shed light on the function of such early Korean pottery and to understand the motivations for its adoption, organic residue analysis was conducted on pottery sherds and adhered surface deposit on the wall of pottery vessels (foodcrusts) excavated from the Sejuk shell midden (7.7-6.8ka calBP) on the southeastern coast and the Jukbyeon-ri site (7.9-6.9ka calBP) on the eastern coast of the Korean peninsula, that represents the earliest pottery assemblages with reliable radiocarbon dates. Through chemical and isotopic residue analysis, we conclude that the use of pottery at these sites was oriented towards marine resources, supported by lipid biomarkers typical of aquatic organisms and stable carbon isotope values that matched authentic marine reference fats. The findings contrast with other archaeological evidence, which shows that a wider range of available food resources were exploited. Therefore, we conclude pottery was used selectively for processing aquatic organisms perhaps including the rendering of aquatic oils for storage. Early pottery use in Korea is broadly similar to other prehistoric temperate hunter-gatherers, such as in Japan, northern Europe and northern America. However, it is also notable that elaborately decorated red burnished pottery excavated from isolated location at the Jukbyeon-ri site had a different usage pattern, which indicates that division of pottery use by vessel form was established even at this early stage.

  5. Acute high-dose lead exposure from beverage contaminated by traditional Mexican pottery.

    Matte, T D; Proops, D; Palazuelos, E; Graef, J; Hernandez Avila, M

    1994-10-15

    Screening and follow-up blood lead measurements in a 7-year-old child of a US Embassy official in Mexico City revealed an increase in blood lead concentration from 1.10 to 4.60 mumol/L in less than 4 weeks. The cause was traced to fruit punch contaminated with lead leached from traditional ceramic pottery urns. Consumption of the contaminated punch at a picnic was associated with a 20% increase in blood lead concentrations among embassy staff and dependants who were tested 6 weeks after the exposure. This episode highlights the continued health risk, even from brief exposure, posed by traditional pottery in Mexico.

  6. Raman microscopy: The identification of lapis lazuli on medieval pottery fragments from the south of Italy

    Clark, Robin J. H.; Curri, M. Lucia; Laganara, Caterina

    1997-04-01

    The technique of Raman microscopy has been used to investigate the pigments used in the glazes of fragments of medieval items of pottery dating back to the second half of the 13th century, which were found buried beneath a church in the abandoned village of Castel Fiorentino, near Foggia, in Southern Italy. The research has led to the first identification of lapis lazuli in a blue pigment pottery glaze; the identification was confirmed for six other shards from the same site. The brown—black pigment in these shards could not be identified.

  7. An automated procedure for themoluminescence dating of pottery and burnt stones

    Mejdahl, V.

    1982-01-01

    An automated procedure for dating of quartz and feldspar inclusions in pottery has been developed and tested in a comprehensive programme comprising material from a number of well-dated Danish sites. The results indicate that TL dating of pottery can now be carried out on a routine basis with an accuracy of about 5%. Experiments on dating of large grains of alkali feldspars extracted from burnt stones are described. The results are encouraging and show that the method may enable a reduction of some of the uncertainties associated with the conventional inclusion technique. (author)

  8. Non-linear regime shifts in Holocene Asian monsoon variability: potential impacts on cultural change and migratory patterns

    Donges, J. F.; Donner, R. V.; Marwan, N.; Breitenbach, S. F. M.; Rehfeld, K.; Kurths, J.

    2015-05-01

    The Asian monsoon system is an important tipping element in Earth's climate with a large impact on human societies in the past and present. In light of the potentially severe impacts of present and future anthropogenic climate change on Asian hydrology, it is vital to understand the forcing mechanisms of past climatic regime shifts in the Asian monsoon domain. Here we use novel recurrence network analysis techniques for detecting episodes with pronounced non-linear changes in Holocene Asian monsoon dynamics recorded in speleothems from caves distributed throughout the major branches of the Asian monsoon system. A newly developed multi-proxy methodology explicitly considers dating uncertainties with the COPRA (COnstructing Proxy Records from Age models) approach and allows for detection of continental-scale regime shifts in the complexity of monsoon dynamics. Several epochs are characterised by non-linear regime shifts in Asian monsoon variability, including the periods around 8.5-7.9, 5.7-5.0, 4.1-3.7, and 3.0-2.4 ka BP. The timing of these regime shifts is consistent with known episodes of Holocene rapid climate change (RCC) and high-latitude Bond events. Additionally, we observe a previously rarely reported non-linear regime shift around 7.3 ka BP, a timing that matches the typical 1.0-1.5 ky return intervals of Bond events. A detailed review of previously suggested links between Holocene climatic changes in the Asian monsoon domain and the archaeological record indicates that, in addition to previously considered longer-term changes in mean monsoon intensity and other climatic parameters, regime shifts in monsoon complexity might have played an important role as drivers of migration, pronounced cultural changes, and the collapse of ancient human societies.

  9. Iron coated pottery granules for arsenic removal from drinking water.

    Dong, Liangjie; Zinin, Pavel V; Cowen, James P; Ming, Li Chung

    2009-09-15

    A new media, iron coated pottery granules (ICPG) has been developed for As removal from drinking water. ICPG is a solid phase media that produces a stable Fe-Si surface complex for arsenic adsorption. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to document the physical attributes (grain size, pore size and distribution, surface roughness) of the ICPG media. Several advantages of the ICPG media such as (a) its granular structure, (b) its ability to absorb As via the F(0) coating on the granules' surface; (c) the inexpensive preparation process for the media from clay material make ICPG media a highly effective media for removing arsenic at normal pH. A column filtration test demonstrated that within the stability region (flow rate lower than 15L/h, EBCT >3 min), the concentration of As in the influent was always lower than 50 microg/L. The 2-week system ability test showed that the media consistently removed arsenic from test water to below the 5 microg/L level. The average removal efficiencies for total arsenic, As(III), and As(V) for a 2-week test period were 98%, 97%, and 99%, respectively, at an average flow rate of 4.1L/h and normal pH. Measurements of the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms at normal pH show that the Freundlich constants of the ICPG are very close to those of ferric hydroxide, nanoscale zero-valent iron and much higher than those of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide. The parameter 1/n is smaller than 0.55 indicating a favorable adsorption process [K. Hristovski, A. Baumgardner, P. Westerhoff, Selecting metal oxide nanomaterials for arsenic removal in fixed bed columns: from nanopowders to aggregated nanoparticle media, J. Hazard. Mater. 147 (2007) 265-274]. The maximum adsorption capacity (q(e)) of the ICPG from the Langmuir isotherm is very close to that of nanoscale zero-valent indicating that zero-valent iron is involved in the process of the As removal from the water. The results of the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP

  10. Iron coated pottery granules for arsenic removal from drinking water

    Dong Liangjie; Zinin, Pavel V.; Cowen, James P.; Ming, Li Chung

    2009-01-01

    A new media, iron coated pottery granules (ICPG) has been developed for As removal from drinking water. ICPG is a solid phase media that produces a stable Fe-Si surface complex for arsenic adsorption. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to document the physical attributes (grain size, pore size and distribution, surface roughness) of the ICPG media. Several advantages of the ICPG media such as (a) its granular structure, (b) its ability to absorb As via the F(0) coating on the granules' surface; (c) the inexpensive preparation process for the media from clay material make ICPG media a highly effective media for removing arsenic at normal pH. A column filtration test demonstrated that within the stability region (flow rate lower than 15 L/h, EBCT >3 min), the concentration of As in the influent was always lower than 50 μg/L. The 2-week system ability test showed that the media consistently removed arsenic from test water to below the 5 μg/L level. The average removal efficiencies for total arsenic, As(III), and As(V) for a 2-week test period were 98%, 97%, and 99%, respectively, at an average flow rate of 4.1 L/h and normal pH. Measurements of the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms at normal pH show that the Freundlich constants of the ICPG are very close to those of ferric hydroxide, nanoscale zero-valent iron and much higher than those of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide. The parameter 1/n is smaller than 0.55 indicating a favorable adsorption process [K. Hristovski, A. Baumgardner, P. Westerhoff, Selecting metal oxide nanomaterials for arsenic removal in fixed bed columns: from nanopowders to aggregated nanoparticle media, J. Hazard. Mater. 147 (2007) 265-274]. The maximum adsorption capacity (q e ) of the ICPG from the Langmuir isotherm is very close to that of nanoscale zero-valent indicating that zero-valent iron is involved in the process of the As removal from the water. The results of the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) analysis

  11. Study on the pre-qin pottery and proto-porcelain from boluo county, Guangdong province with INAA

    Wang Jianping; Chen Tiemei

    2003-01-01

    Seventy-seven pottery and proto-porcelain sherds collected from Meihuadun, Yingang and Henglingshan sites of Boluo County, Guangdong Province were studied with INAA. These sherds are of Western Zhou to Warring States Period. Concentrations of 27 elements were measured, then principal component analysis and other statistical procedures were applied to the data set in order to classify these sherds. This study shows: (1) Though these 3 archaeological sites are located close to each other within an area of about 1000 km 2 , ancient potters of these sites might use raw materials of different origins for pottery production, as pottery sherds of these 3 sites show different chemical compositions. Such differentiation is also observed for the proto-porcelain samples, indicating that proto-porcelain samples found at Meihuadun and Henglingshan might be of different provenance; (2) In each site during the Western Zhou to Spring-Autumn Period the same raw material was used for both hard pottery and soft pottery manufacturing, while during the Warring States Period no similarity in chemical compositions was observed between hard pottery and soft pottery samples. It is wondered if this phenomenon means an advancement of ceramic technology

  12. An investigation of pottery production technology for the West Slope wares from Dorylaion (Eskişehir/Turkey

    Kara, A.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Researches in the field of pottery production technology in ancient times, done in different settlements during the same period, may contribute to know relationships established within the different cultural communities. In ancient times, Anatolia (Asia Minor was the crossroads of ancient civilizations. There are several ancient settlements and artifacts belonging to Hellenistic culture (330-30 BC. West Slope wares from Dorylaion (Eskişehir/Turkey excavations are the main Hellenistic culture findings. In this study, different analytical techniques were employed for the characterization of these findings in order to enlighten the pottery production technology. Wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF and X-ray diffraction (XRD were employed to study the chemical and mineralogical composition of the bodies, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX were also performed for the microstructural and microchemical characterization of body and slip layers of the selected potsherds. The raw materials used, firing temperatures and atmosphere and related microstructural characteristics were discussed.La investigación de la tecnología utilizada por distintas civilizaciones en la producción de piezas cerámicas encontradas de un mismo asentamiento arqueológico, puede contribuir al conocimiento de relaciones establecidas entre distintas comunidades culturales. Anatolia (Asia Menor es considerada una importante encrucijada de antiguas civilizaciones que abarcan del Periodo de Bronce al imperio Otomano. Las piezas conocidas como West Slope son los principales restos de la cultura helenística (330-30 A.C. encontrados en las excavaciones de Dorylaion (Eskişehir/ Turquía. En este estudio, diferentes técnicas analíticas han sido empleadas en la caracterización de estas piezas, a fin de dilucidar la tecnología utilizada en su produción.. Fluorescencia de rayos X por onda dispersa (WDXRF y

  13. Elemental analysis of pottery from Cerro de las Ventanas, Zacatecas, by INAA

    Lopez del Rio, H.; Mireles G, F. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Mendez C, R. Y. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Antropologia, Apdo. Postal 555 Suc. C, Zacatecas (Mexico); Nicolas C, M. [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Coordinacion de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades, Av. Industrias 101-A, Fracc. Talleres, 78494 San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Speakman, R. J. [Museum Conservation Institute, Smithsonian Institution, Suitland, 20746 Maryland (United States); Glascock, M. D. [Reactor Center, University of Missouri, Columbia, 65211 Missouri (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Fifteen ceramic fragments samples from Cerro de las Ventanas site, Zacatecas, were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Thirty-two elements were measured: Al, As, Ba, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Dy, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Ta, Tb, Ti, Th, U, V, Yb, Zn, and Zr. Cluster analysis and principal component analysis were performed on the dataset to examine similarities between samples and to establish compositional groups. The statistical analyses of the dataset suggest that the pottery samples form a unique chemically homogeneous group, with the exception of one pottery sample. The compositional data were compared to an existing Meso american ceramic database. It was found that the newly generated data fit best with data from a previous chemical analysis of pottery from the Mal paso Valley. However, despite the apparent similarity, pottery samples from the site of Cerro de las Ventanas represent a new and unique chemical fingerprint in the region. (Author)

  14. Reconstruction of prehistoric pottery use from fatty acid carbon isotope signatures using Bayesian inference

    Fernandes, R.; Eley, Y.; Brabec, Marek; Lucquin, A.; Millard, A.; Craig, O.E.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 117, March (2018), s. 31-42 ISSN 0146-6380 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : Fatty acids * carbon isotopes * pottery use * Bayesian mixing models * FRUITS Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 3.081, year: 2016

  15. Direct dating of archaeological pottery by compound-specific 14C analysis of preserved lipids.

    Stott, Andrew W; Berstan, Robert; Evershed, Richard P; Bronk-Ramsey, Christopher; Hedges, Robert E M; Humm, Martin J

    2003-10-01

    A methodology is described demonstrating the utility of the compound-specific 14C technique as a direct means of dating archaeological pottery. The method uses automated preparative capillary gas chromatography employing wide-bore capillary columns to isolate individual compounds from lipid extracts of archaeological potsherds in high purity (>95%) and amounts (>200 microg) sufficient for radiocarbon dating using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). A protocol was developed and tested on n-alkanes and n-carboxylic acids possessing a broad range of 14C ages. Analytical blanks and controls allowed background 14C measurements to be assessed and potential sources of errors to be detected, i.e., contamination with modern or dead 14C, isotopic fraction effects, etc. A "Russian doll" method was developed to transfer isolated target compounds onto tin powder/capsules prior to combustion and AMS analyses. The major advantage of the compound-specific technique is that 14C dates obtained for individual compounds can be directly linked to the commodities processed in the vessels during their use, e.g., animal fats. The compound-specific 14C dating protocol was validated on a suite of ancient pottery whose predicted ages spanned a 5000-year date range. Initial results indicate that meaningful correlations can be obtained between the predicted date of pottery and that of the preserved lipids. These findings constitute an important step forward to the direct dating of archaeological pottery.

  16. Harry Potteri film tänasest Eesti fännide ees - vanusepiiranguta! / Lauri Birkan

    Birkan, Lauri

    2005-01-01

    Järjekorras neljas Potteri ekraniseering "Harry Potter ja tulepeeker" ("Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire") jõudis Eestisse. Režissöör Mike Newell : Suurbritannia-USA 2005. Lisatud lühike sisukokkuvõte "Harryl mure mure otsa" ning filmi kinoedu tutvustav "Edetabelite tipus"

  17. Potteri-filmile osteti 5000 eelmüügipiletit / Hindrek Riikoja

    Riikoja, Hindrek

    2001-01-01

    Joanne Rowling'u lasteraamatu "Harry Potter ja Tarkade kivi" ekraniseeringu esilinastus Eestis on 21. detsembril Coca-Cola Plazas. Eduka piletimüügi eelduseks on kindlasti ka 4 eesti keelde tõlgitud Potteri-raamatu läbimüük - 43 000 eksemplari

  18. Elemental analysis of pottery from Cerro de las Ventanas, Zacatecas, by INAA

    Lopez del Rio, H.; Mireles G, F.; Mendez C, R. Y.; Nicolas C, M.; Speakman, R. J.; Glascock, M. D.

    2009-10-01

    Fifteen ceramic fragments samples from Cerro de las Ventanas site, Zacatecas, were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Thirty-two elements were measured: Al, As, Ba, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Dy, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Ta, Tb, Ti, Th, U, V, Yb, Zn, and Zr. Cluster analysis and principal component analysis were performed on the dataset to examine similarities between samples and to establish compositional groups. The statistical analyses of the dataset suggest that the pottery samples form a unique chemically homogeneous group, with the exception of one pottery sample. The compositional data were compared to an existing Meso american ceramic database. It was found that the newly generated data fit best with data from a previous chemical analysis of pottery from the Mal paso Valley. However, despite the apparent similarity, pottery samples from the site of Cerro de las Ventanas represent a new and unique chemical fingerprint in the region. (Author)

  19. Potteri-raamatut esitletakse teemakohaste üritustega / Mari Rebane, Helen Uldrich

    Rebane, Mari

    2005-01-01

    26. nov. korraldavad suuremad raamatukauplused Tallinnas, Tartus ja Pärnus Potteri teemalisi üritusi seoses Joanne Kathleen Rowling'i "Harry Potter ja segavereline prints" ilmumisega eesti keeles (tlk. Krista ja Kaisa Kaer). Vt. ka Postimees, 24. nov., lk. 18, SL Õhtuleht, 24. nov., lk. 14

  20. Technology and Organisation of Inka Pottery Production in the Leche Valley. Part I: Study of Clays

    Hayashida, F.; Haeusler, W.; Wagner, U.

    2003-01-01

    We report on an interdisciplinary approach to the study of finds of unfired clay lumps and unfired broken vessels from two workshops in the Leche Valley, north coast of Peru. The material is used as a reference in the study of pottery making at both workshops.

  1. Early Pottery Making in Northern Coastal Peru. Part IV: Moessbauer Study of Ceramics from Huaca Sialupe

    Shimada, I.; Haeusler, W.; Jakob, M.; Montenegro, J.; Riederer, J.; Wagner, U.

    2003-01-01

    We report on an interdisciplinary study of ceramic material excavated in 1999 and 2001 at a 1000-year old ceramic and metal production site, located at Huaca Sialupe in the La Leche valley on the north coast of Peru and dating to the Middle Sican period (AD 900-1100). Sherds of Sican red- and blackware, numerous moulds, several kilns and other evidence of pottery making were found. The pottery, in particular, is famous for its fine texture and perfect black surface finish. In addition, some clay lumps and sherds of unfired Sican pottery were excavated. Within the same workshop several large inverted ceramic urns used as furnaces were found together with Middle Sican metal working tools and debris. Various physical methods were applied to investigate this material. The ancient firing procedures could be elucidated by comparing the spectra observed for the ancient sherds with model spectra of laboratory and field fired clay samples. This shows that the fine ware made at Huaca Sialupe was intentionally fired under strongly reducing conditions at temperatures up to 900 o C. Reoxidation at the end of the reducing firing took place only occasionally. Less care was taken in firing moulds used for pottery making.

  2. Technology and Organisation of Inka Pottery Production in the Leche Valley. Part I: Study of Clays

    Hayashida, F.; Häusler, W.; Wagner, U.

    2003-09-01

    We report on an interdisciplinary approach to the study of finds of unfired clay lumps and unfired broken vessels from two workshops in the Leche Valley, north coast of Peru. The material is used as a reference in the study of pottery making at both workshops.

  3. Potteri filmi režissöör murdis needuse

    2007-01-01

    Harry Potteri viienda filmi "Harry Potter ja Fööniksi ordu" režissöör David Yates on andnud oma nõusoleku jätkata režissöörina ka järgmise, "Harry Potter ja segavereline prints" filmi juures. Esilinastus 21. nov. 2008

  4. Defining pottery use and animal management at the Neolithic site of Bylany (Czech Republic)

    Mátlová, V.; Roffet-Salque, M.; Pavlů, Ivan; Kyselka, J.; Sedlářová, I.; Filip, V.; Evershed, R. P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 14, August (2017), s. 262-274 ISSN 2352-409X Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : LBK pottery * organic residue analysis * gas chromatography * fatty acids * stable carbon isotope analyse * vessel use * porosity Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology OBOR OECD: Archaeology

  5. State of research and research possibilities of early medieval pottery from the Prague production zone

    Boháčová, Ivana

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 1 (2017), s. 17-34 ISSN 0066-5924 R&D Projects: GA MK(CZ) DF13P01OVV014 Keywords : early Middle Ages * archaeology * pottery * Prague * chronology * Ceramic Reference Collection Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology OBOR OECD: Archaeology

  6. A technological study of Hassuna culture ceramics (Yarim Tepe I settlement

    Natalia Yu. Petrova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a comparative technological analysis of Hassuna culture pottery from Yarim Tepe I (6th millennium BC from the lower and middle horizons. The technological stages of selecting the clay and organic materials, the composition of the clay paste and the surface treatment, but also certain issues related to the ornamentation and firing of the pottery are presented in the article.

  7. Analyses of archaeological pottery samples using X-ray fluorescence technique for provenance study

    Tamilarasu, S.; Swain, K.K.; Singhal, R.K; Reddy, A.V.R.; Acharya, R.; Velraj, G.

    2015-01-01

    Archaeological artifacts reveal information on past human activities, artifact preparation technology, art and possible trade. Ceramics are the most stable and abundant material in archaeological context. Pottery is the most abundant tracers in all archaeological excavations. Compared to major elements, elements present at trace concentrations levels are source specific and they maintain same concentration levels in source clay as well as finished products e.g., fired clay potteries. As it is difficult to find out exact source or origin, provenance study is carried out first to establish whether objects under study are from the same or different sources/origin. Various analytical techniques like instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), Ion beam analysis (IBA) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) have been used for obtaining elemental concentrations in archaeological potteries. Portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) spectrometry provides a non-destructive means for elemental characterization of a wide range of archaeological materials. Ten archaeological pottery samples were collected from Kottapuram, Kerala under the supervision of archaeological survey of India. Portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) spectrometry using a handheld Olympus Innov-X Delta XRF device, ACD BARC, has been used for chemical characterization of the pottery samples. The instrument is equipped with the Delta Rhodium (Rh) anode X-Ray tube and uses a Silicon Drift Detector (resolution <200 eV at 5.95 keV Mn Kα X-ray). NIST 2781 SRM was analyzed for quality control purpose. Ten elements namely Fe, Ti, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Pb, Zr, Mo and Se were chosen for cluster analysis and their concentration values were utilized for multivariate statistical analysis using WinSTAT 9.0

  8. Petro-mineralogy and geochemistry as tools of provenance analysis on archaeological pottery: Study of Inka Period ceramics from Paria, Bolivia

    Szilágyi, V.; Gyarmati, J.; Tóth, M.; Taubald, H.; Balla, M.; Kasztovszky, Zs.; Szakmány, Gy.

    2012-07-01

    This paper summarized the results of comprehensive petro-mineralogical and geochemical (archeometrical) investigation of Inka Period ceramics excavated from Inka (A.D. 1438-1535) and Late Intermediate Period (A.D. 1000/1200-1438) sites of the Paria Basin (Dept. Oruro, Bolivia). Applying geological analytical techniques we observed a complex and important archaeological subject of the region and the era, the cultural-economic influence of the conquering Inkas in the provincial region of Paria appearing in the ceramic material. According to our results, continuity and changes of raw material utilization and pottery manufacturing techniques from the Late Intermediate to the Inka Period are characterized by analytical methods. The geological field survey provided efficient basis for the identification of utilized raw material sources. On the one hand, ceramic supply of both eras proved to be based almost entirely on local and near raw material sources. So, imperial handicraft applied local materials but with sophisticated imperial techniques in Paria. On the other hand, Inka Imperial and local-style vessels also show clear differences in their material which suggests that sources and techniques functioned already in the Late Intermediate Period subsisted even after the Inka conquest of the Paria Basin. Based on our geological investigations, pottery supply system of the Paria region proved to be rather complex during the Inka Period.

  9. Human cultural diversity in prehistoric Fiji

    Ethan E. Cochrane

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Remote islands and their human, animal and plant populations have long fascinated archaeologists, biologists and geographers. In this article, the chronology, diversity and interactions of human cultures in some small islands of the Fiji archipelago are explored, particularly through the application of sophisticated chemical analyses of the composition of prehistoric pottery.

  10. Investigation of trace elements in ancient pottery from Jenini, Brong Ahafo region, Ghana by INAA and Compton suppression spectrometry

    Nyarko, B.J.B. [SLOWPOKE-2 Facility, Trace Analysis Research Centre, Department of Chemistry, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 4J3 (Canada); National Nuclear Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box LG 80, Legon-Accra (Ghana)], E-mail: bjbnyarko@yahoo.co.uk; Bredwa-Mensah, Y. [Department of Archaeology, University of Ghana, Legon-Accra (Ghana); Serfor-Armah, Y. [SLOWPOKE-2 Facility, Trace Analysis Research Centre, Department of Chemistry, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 4J3 (Canada); National Nuclear Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box LG 80, Legon-Accra (Ghana); Dampare, S.B. [National Nuclear Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box LG 80, Legon-Accra (Ghana); Department of Earth Sciences, Okayama University, 3-1-1 Tsushima, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Akaho, E.H.K.; Osae, S. [National Nuclear Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box LG 80, Legon-Accra (Ghana); Perbi, A. [Department of Archaeology, University of Ghana, Legon-Accra (Ghana); Chatt, A. [SLOWPOKE-2 Facility, Trace Analysis Research Centre, Department of Chemistry, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 4J3 (Canada)

    2007-10-15

    Concentrations of trace elements in ancient pottery excavated from Jenini in the Brong Ahafo region of Ghana were determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) in conjunction with both conventional and Compton suppression counting. Jenini was a slave Camp of Samory Toure during the indigenous slavery and the Trans-Atlantic slave trade. Pottery fragments found during the excavation of the grave tombs of the slaves who died in the slave camps were analysed. In all, 26 trace elements were determined in 40 pottery fragments. These elemental concentrations were processed using multivariate statistical methods, cluster, factor and discriminant analyses in order to determine similarities and correlation between the various samples. The suitability of the two counting systems for determination of trace elements in pottery objects has been evaluated.

  11. Investigation of trace elements in ancient pottery from Jenini, Brong Ahafo region, Ghana by INAA and Compton suppression spectrometry

    Nyarko, B.J.B.; Bredwa-Mensah, Y.; Serfor-Armah, Y.; Dampare, S.B.; Akaho, E.H.K.; Osae, S.; Perbi, A.; Chatt, A.

    2007-01-01

    Concentrations of trace elements in ancient pottery excavated from Jenini in the Brong Ahafo region of Ghana were determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) in conjunction with both conventional and Compton suppression counting. Jenini was a slave Camp of Samory Toure during the indigenous slavery and the Trans-Atlantic slave trade. Pottery fragments found during the excavation of the grave tombs of the slaves who died in the slave camps were analysed. In all, 26 trace elements were determined in 40 pottery fragments. These elemental concentrations were processed using multivariate statistical methods, cluster, factor and discriminant analyses in order to determine similarities and correlation between the various samples. The suitability of the two counting systems for determination of trace elements in pottery objects has been evaluated

  12. PIXE analysis of pre-colonial pottery from Sambaqui do Panaquatira

    Ikeoka, R.A.; Appoloni, C.R.; Rizzutto, M.A.; Silva, T.F.; Bandeira, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: The study of cultural heritage of ancient people through fossils, monuments and engines has fundamental importance in the construction of the memory of any society. Such knowledge can be acquired by researches in archaeological sites and the detailed study of the different kind of objects which can be found in these places. This work deals with objects from the Sambaqui of Panaquatira located in Sao Luis do Maranhao (Brazil). Ancient civilizations that inhabited that territory were characterized as fishing populations - catchers - hunters and ceramists. From a selection of 95 pottery fragments of surface; 5 to 10 cm; 20 to 30 cm; 40 to 50 cm; 65 to 70 cm; 80 to 90 cm; 90 to 100 cm; 130 to 140 cm and 160 to 170 cm stratigraphic levels, a representative set was analyzed using Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) methodology. PIXE measurements were performed with an external beam setup with ~2.4 MeV proton beam in the LAMFI laboratory using three X-ray detectors, two Si-PIN detectors and one HPGe with standard spectrometry electronics; each spectrum was taken for 600s. The spectra analyses were performed with the Quantitative X-Ray Analysis Software (WinQXAS), distributed by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The elements Si, P, S, CI, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe and Zn were identified in the different fragments. It was analysed the kind of applied treatment on the concave and convex sides in relation to the ceramic paste of the fragments. From the determination of the elemental composition of the fragments, it was possible to identify that the elements Ti, Mn, Fe and Zn are present in the fragments with larger amounts at concave and convex sides, compared to the ceramic paste, indicating a different surface treatment that leads to an enrichment of these elements. One fragment from the 20-25cm stratigraphy has a lighter colour region which is characterized by containing the highest concentration of the elements Ti, Ca, Ti, Cr and Mn. (author)

  13. PIXE analysis of pre-colonial pottery from Sambaqui do Panaquatira

    Ikeoka, R.A.; Appoloni, C.R., E-mail: renatoikeoka@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (CCE/UEL), PR (Brazil). Departamento de Fisica; Rizzutto, M.A.; Silva, T.F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (LAMFI/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica. Laboratorio de Analise de Materiais por Feixes Ionicos; Bandeira, A.M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia

    2013-07-01

    Full text: The study of cultural heritage of ancient people through fossils, monuments and engines has fundamental importance in the construction of the memory of any society. Such knowledge can be acquired by researches in archaeological sites and the detailed study of the different kind of objects which can be found in these places. This work deals with objects from the Sambaqui of Panaquatira located in Sao Luis do Maranhao (Brazil). Ancient civilizations that inhabited that territory were characterized as fishing populations - catchers - hunters and ceramists. From a selection of 95 pottery fragments of surface; 5 to 10 cm; 20 to 30 cm; 40 to 50 cm; 65 to 70 cm; 80 to 90 cm; 90 to 100 cm; 130 to 140 cm and 160 to 170 cm stratigraphic levels, a representative set was analyzed using Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) methodology. PIXE measurements were performed with an external beam setup with ~2.4 MeV proton beam in the LAMFI laboratory using three X-ray detectors, two Si-PIN detectors and one HPGe with standard spectrometry electronics; each spectrum was taken for 600s. The spectra analyses were performed with the Quantitative X-Ray Analysis Software (WinQXAS), distributed by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The elements Si, P, S, CI, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe and Zn were identified in the different fragments. It was analysed the kind of applied treatment on the concave and convex sides in relation to the ceramic paste of the fragments. From the determination of the elemental composition of the fragments, it was possible to identify that the elements Ti, Mn, Fe and Zn are present in the fragments with larger amounts at concave and convex sides, compared to the ceramic paste, indicating a different surface treatment that leads to an enrichment of these elements. One fragment from the 20-25cm stratigraphy has a lighter colour region which is characterized by containing the highest concentration of the elements Ti, Ca, Ti, Cr and Mn. (author)

  14. Archeointensity determinations on Pre-Columbian potteries from La Ceiba and Santa Marta shelter-caves (Chiapas, Mexico).

    Rodriguez-Ceja, Maria; Camps, Pierre; Goguitchaichvili, Avto; Poidras, Thierry; Nicol, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Quite surprisingly, the abundance of archaeological baked clays found in the tropical area of Mesoamerica contrast with the small amount of archeomagnetic data available today for this area [Fanjat et al, EPSL, 2013; Alva-Valdivia et al, PEPI, 2010, Morales et al., EPS, 2009]. It seems especially difficult to try to establish a regional trend in the intensity variations. While they are few, the data are moreover of uneven quality as attested by a large scatter in experimental values during the Mesoamerican classic and post-classic periods (250-1521 AD) that cannot be explained by real fluctuations in the Earth's magnetic field [Fanjat et al, EPSL, 2013]. The present study is part of a large effort to provide reliable and perfectly dated archeointensity data for the tropical area of Mesoamerica. It focuses on Thellier-Thellier archeointensity measurements obtained from 87 small fragments from potsherds of 12 different potteries. These potteries were excavated from sedimentary sequences within two shelter-caves, La Ceiba and Santa Marta, located on the banks of Grijalva and La Venta rivers, respectively. Both are shelter-caves without constructed structures that were inhabited by humans groups. Samples were located in different stratigraphic levels, culturally well identified and well preserved due to long time sedimentation. Only samples with a homogenous color were pre-selected for the rock magnetic study performed prior to any attempt to estimate the archeointensity. This was done in order to assure, as far as possible, a uniform baking during the manufacture, which is supposed to be made in open sky fire, since no kiln construction has been found. The ceramics ages were achieved in 2 ways: for samples with organic material associated, a 14C dating was done. The rest of the samples were dated according to their typological characteristics, comparing with regional ceramic chronological classification. This includes characteristics such as the finishing surface type

  15. Moessbauer studies on ancient pottery from a neolithic site in Tung Wan, Hong Kong

    Zheng Yufang; Tang Chung

    1994-01-01

    Twelve ceramic sherds unearthed from different archaeological layers at a neolithic site in Tung Wan, Hong Kong, were studied by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Moessbauer spectroscopy. The results show that the firing techniques used for ancient pottery wares at different layers were very different. For the oldest sherds (4000-3000 B.C.) from layer No. 4, the original firing temperature was low and craftmanship was inferior. For the sherds (1650-250 B.C.) from layer No. 2, the original firing temperature was above 1000 C. In addition, the results indicate that the ancient pottery wares from the ruins might not have been manufactured in the Tung Wan region. (orig.)

  16. Dataset on elemental concentration and group identification of ancient potteries from Tamil Nadu, India

    A. Chandrasekaran

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The dataset contains concentration of major and trace elements of ancient potteries from Tamilnadu and grouping different potteries from the statistical techniques of factor and cluster analysis (Figs. 2, 3 and 4. The major and trace elemental concentration data generated using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique (EDXRF and factor and cluster analysis data obtained using STATISTICA (10.0 version software. The concentration of major and trace elements determines the type of clay minerals (Calcareous/Non-Calcareous and either low or high refractory and firing atmosphere adopted by the artisans at the time of manufacture. The statistical tool examined graphically the grouping pattern of the samples in terms of chemical composition and extract information about their provenance. The compilation of this data provides a resource for the wider research community in archeology.

  17. Measuring Usewear on Black Gloss Pottery from Rome through 3D Surface Analysis

    Laura M. Banducci

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Still image of 3D model of a representative vessel (Capitoline Museums catalog ID AntCom8626. (Image credit: © Damien Vurpillot/Rachel Opitz. CC BY-NC This project involves the high-resolution 3D laser scanning of a cache of Italian black gloss pottery from the Capitoline Museums in Rome. Our aim is to examine in detail the minute traces of production and use of these vessels and to produce a digital record of their form. We have experimented with several scanning devices in order to determine the optimal methods for capturing abrasions on pottery and are developing digital methods for surface analysis. The purpose of the analysis is to consider how black gloss vessels from ritual contexts (tomb and sanctuary deposits may have been used before they were deposited and to refine our understanding of vessel production methods.

  18. Early Pottery Making in Northern Coastal Peru. Part I: Moessbauer Study of Clays

    Shimada, I.; Haeusler, W.; Hutzelmann, T.; Wagner, U.

    2003-01-01

    We report on an investigation of several ancient clays which were used for pottery making in northern coastal Peru at a kiln site from the Formative period (ca. 2000-800 BC) in the Poma Canal and at a Middle Sican pottery workshop in use between ca. AD 950 and 1050 at Huaca Sialupe in the lower La Leche valley. Neutron activation analysis, 57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction were used for the characterisation of the clays. The changes that occur in iron-bearing compounds in the clays depending on the kiln atmosphere and on the maximum firing temperature were studied by Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Laboratory firing series under varying controlled conditions were performed to obtain a basic understanding of the different reactions taking place in the clays during firing. The results can be used as models in the interpretation of the Moessbauer spectra observed in ancient ceramics from the same context.

  19. Progressive results from the PIXE program for sourcing prehistoric Papuan pottery

    Allen, J.; Duerden, P.

    1982-01-01

    A study with the aim of identifying pottery from Motupore Island, Papua New Guinea, in other local and distant sites is described. PIXE, the analytical technique used, is outlined. Elements selected for sourcing studies were: major elements - Si, Al, K, Ca, Ti, Fe; trace elements - Sr, Rb. From the results so far obtained, it is apparent that the approach is providing the legitimate allocation of prehistoric sherds to source materials on the basis of their chemical composition

  20. Archaeological pottery fragments analysis from Sambaqui do Bacanga (MA-Brazil) with a portable EDXRF system

    Ikeoka, Renato A.; Appoloni, Carlos R.; Parreira, Paulo S.; Lopes, Fabio; Bandeira, Arkley M.

    2009-01-01

    Sambaqui do Bacanga archaeological site is located in the Island of Sao Luis - Maranhao - Brazil, in the region bathed by the Bacanga River. A stratigraphic collection of 68 pottery fragments was collected during the years 2005 and 2006 to perform a qualitative analysis of the chemical elements employing a Portable System of Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (PXRF). The elements K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr and Pb were identified in the different fragments and only Fe, Ca, Sr, Zr, Mn, Ti and Zn were common elements for all of them, indicating that these elements are present in the raw material used in the manufacture of the fragments. Only one fragment presented remains of painting. A larger concentration of Fe was observed in this region compared to other areas. This indicates that a material with iron oxide was used to make the painting. The elements Fe, Sr, Mn, Ti and Zn are present, systematically, with larger intensities on concave and convex sides in relation to the ceramic paste for 43 among the 68 analyzed fragments, indicating a different surface treatment that leads to an enrichment of those elements. Cluster analysis was performed with the pottery fragments at three levels. The fragments were grouped in three different clusters, except for two fragments from the 132 cm level, which grouped with the fragments from 10-20 cm level. This result indicates three different sources of clay for the studied pottery fragments. (author)

  1. Energy efficiency of an innovative vertical axial rotary kiln for pottery production

    Carlos Andrés Forero Núñez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Colombia is a remarkablecoal producer and exporter worldwide; several sectors use this resource for electricity and thermal energy production. Among them, the ceramic industry consumed 118,590 tons in 2011. Most of the pottery production companies in this country arelocated in rural areas and use old coal fired kilns with low energy efficiencies, generating environmental effects to the population nearby. Despite of the importance of these industries to the small rural economies, the government agencies have closed them due to the lack of development on cleaner devices. This work aims to analyze the thermal behavior of an innovative vertical axial rotary kiln for pottery production, and the energy efficiency varying operation mode. The kiln operated during seven hours needed three hours for stabilizing sintering temperature at 800°C. The mean temperatures of the loading, drying, sintering and cooling stage were 204°C, 223°C, 809°C and 321°C respectively. The convection and radiation heat losses were 15 % whereas the flue gas heat losses 18 %.During continuous operation, the kiln energy efficiency was about 60 %. This design proven to reach the temperatures required in the firing stage of the pottery production; moreover, a gas fuel was fuelled making the process cleaner and more efficient than coal-fired systems.

  2. Neutron-activation study of figurines, pottery, and workshop materials from the Athenian Agora, Greece

    Fillieres, D.; Harbottle, G.; Sayre, E.V.

    1983-01-01

    Ceramic specimens from the excavations of the Agora of ancient Athens, Greece, including material from factories, i.e., trial firing pieces, pottery and figurine wasters, datable to the Protogeometric, Subgeometric, and Classical Periods, and stylistically related figurines and pottery were analyzed by neutron activation. The factory material from the three distinct chronological periods separated respectively into three significantly different compositional groups, indicating either that separate sources of clay were used during each of these periods or that some other significant changes in the traditions of fabrication had occurred. Many of the figurines and sherds analyzed coincided in composition with one of these three groups and therefore were shown to be consistent with the output of Athenian workshops. Some specimens of Corinthian style formed a separate compositional group as did some other specimens that agreed in composition with a clay from Aegina. Comparison of these results with previous analyses on file in the Brookhaven Data Bank revealed a number of specimens that corresponded both in style and composition to the Agora material. Most significant was a sizable amount of Classical Greek pottery excavated in southern France, in Israel, and in Cyprus that conformed in composition to the Attic Classical Group. 6 figures, 2 tables

  3. Late neolithic pottery standardization: Application of statistical analyses

    Vuković Jasna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper defines the notion of standardization, presents the methodological approach to analysis, points to the problems and limitation arising in examination of materials from archaeological excavations, and presents the results of the analysis of coefficients of variation of metric parameters of the Late Neolithic vessels recovered at the sites of Vinča and Motel Slatina. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177012: Society, the spiritual and material culture and communications in prehistory and early history of the Balkans

  4. Chemical characterization of archaeological ceramics by neutron activation analysis: A study in the production and distribution of middle horizon pottery from Cuzco, Peru

    Montoya, Eduardo; Mendoza, Pablo; Zapata, Julinho

    2009-01-01

    The k 0 based instrumental neutron activation analysis has been used, as a quantitative characterization tool, to establish the provenience of the Wari pottery found in Middle Horizon archaeological sites at Cuzco, Peru. The results indicate a bidirectional exchange of pottery between Ayacucho and Cuzco along the Middle Horizon Period. Other archaeological inferences from the results of the chemical analysis are discussed. (author).

  5. Undulating Band Style and Fringe Style Matt-Painted Pottery from the Sanctuary on the Timpone della Motta in the Sibaritide Area (CS) Calabria - southern Italy

    De Francesco, Anna Maria; Andaloro, Eliana; Jacobsen, Jan K.

    This paper presents a comparison of two different classes of Matt-Painted pottery attributed to the 8th century B.C. from the sanctuary on the Timpone della Motta in the Sibaritide (CS), Calabria, southern Italy. Matt-Painted pottery was widely produced in southern Italy during the early Iron Age,

  6. Difference in radiocarbon ages of carbonized material from the inner and outer surfaces of pottery from a wetland archaeological site.

    Miyata, Yoshiki; Minami, Masayo; Onbe, Shin; Sakamoto, Minoru; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Toshio; Imamura, Mineo

    2011-01-01

    AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) radiocarbon dates for eight potsherds from a single piece of pottery from a wetland archaeological site indicated that charred material from the inner pottery surfaces (5052 ± 12 BP; N = 5) is about 90 (14)C years older than that from the outer surfaces (4961 ± 22 BP; N = 7). We considered three possible causes of this difference: the old wood effect, reservoir effects, and diagenesis. We concluded that differences in the radiocarbon ages between materials from the inner and outer surfaces of the same pot were caused either by the freshwater reservoir effect or by diagenesis. Moreover, we found that the radiocarbon ages of carbonized material on outer surfaces (soot) of pottery from other wetland archaeological sites were the same as the ages of material on inner surfaces (charred food) of the same pot within error, suggesting absence of freshwater reservoir effect or diagenesis.

  7. Characterization of Byzantine pottery from Oltina (Constanţa County), Romania, using PIXE and Optical Microscopy

    Bugoi, Roxana; Talmaţchi, Cristina; Haitǎ, Constantin; Ceccato, Daniele

    2018-02-01

    An assemblage of 58 ceramic shards discovered in archaeological excavations at Oltina, Romania, dated to the 10th-11th century CE, was subjected to archaeometric investigations in order to reveal the raw materials and manufacturing techniques employed by the potters from the Lower Danube zone during the Byzantine ruling. The initial grouping of the shards according to stylistic criteria was refined by the subsequent petrographic study. Optical Microscopy (OM) detailed the general mineralogy and the pottery fabric, i.e. the textural characteristics, porosity and microstructure, surface treatments and firing. The PIXE analyses of potteries performed at AN2000 accelerator of LNL, INFN, Italy led to the identification of the chemical composition of the ceramic shards. The Hierarchical Cluster Analysis of the PIXE data evidenced several categories of shards with distinct compositional signatures, the main division being the one separating the ceramic fragments made of kaolinitic clays from the rest of the Oltina potteries.

  8. Investigation of ancient pottery from Lefkanti, Greece, by epithermal gamma spectroscopy using loss-free counting technology

    Ochsenkuehn, K.M.; Zouridakis, N.

    1996-01-01

    For the analysis of pottery fragments from ancient Lefkanti, instrumental neutron activation analysis was used. To have a good throughput of samples, a detectable series of short-lived isotopes was selected for the investigation. The problem of the initial high radioactivity, which normally hinders a fast γ-spectroscopic analysis, was eluded by using loss-free counting technology. This technology allows the measurement of pottery samples of about 100 mg size 1 day after a 30 min epithermal irradiation. Up to 15 samples could be analyzed in one day under these working conditions, having the possibility to analyze the elements As, Eu, Ga, Gd, La, Mn, Sb, Sm, Th, U, W and Zn, which are enough to perform statistical characterizations of potteries. (author). 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  9. X-ray fluorescence analyzers for investigating postmediaeval pottery from Southern Moravia

    Trojek, Tomas; Hlozek, Matin; Cechak, Tomas; Musilek, Ladislav

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with an investigation of ceramic archaeological finds with the use of in-situ X-ray fluorescence analysis. Firstly, three configurations of X-ray fluorescence analyzers constructed and used at the Czech Technical University in Prague are described and compared for use in a non-destructive survey of siliceous materials. Detection limits, depth of analysis, the relation of the analyzed area, the homogeneity of the samples, and variations in the element concentrations are discussed. Secondly, many shards of postmediaeval pottery from Southern Moravia are analyzed with X-ray fluorescence analysis and some of them also with electron microprobe analysis. Selected results are described.

  10. Incipient archaeometry in Venezuela. Provenance study of pre-Hispanic pottery figurines

    Sajo Bohus, L.; Greaves, E.D.; Bermudez, J.; Mackowiak de Antczak, Ma. M.; Antczak, A.; Kasztovszky, Zs.; Poirier, T.; Simonits, A.

    2005-01-01

    Application of different analytical techniques contributed with new results to the interpretation and the provenance study of Venezuelan figurines dating from the 12th and 15th centuries. Elements in bulk samples, powdered samples of figurines and soil were determined using total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF), instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA). Results and ceramics macroscopic observations indicate that average elemental composition of the figurines from the mainland significantly differ from those encountered on the Caribbean islands. The multidisciplinary experience de facto formed a group dedicated to archaeometry and provided data for provenance study of pre-Hispanic pottery figurines. (author)

  11. Neolithic longhouse seen as a witness of cultural change in the Post-LBK

    Končelová, Markéta; Květina, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 3 (2015), s. 431-446 ISSN 0323-1119 R&D Projects: GA MK(CZ) DF12P01OVV032 Keywords : Neolithic longhouse * Stroke-ornamented Pottery culture (SBK) * Kolín site * culture change Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  12. Culture.

    Smith, Timothy B; Rodríguez, Melanie Domenech; Bernal, Guillermo

    2011-02-01

    This article summarizes the definitions, means, and research of adapting psychotherapy to clients' cultural backgrounds. We begin by reviewing the prevailing definitions of cultural adaptation and providing a clinical example. We present an original meta-analysis of 65 experimental and quasi-experimental studies involving 8,620 participants. The omnibus effect size of d = .46 indicates that treatments specifically adapted for clients of color were moderately more effective with that clientele than traditional treatments. The most effective treatments tended to be those with greater numbers of cultural adaptations. Mental health services targeted to a specific cultural group were several times more effective than those provided to clients from a variety of cultural backgrounds. We recommend a series of research-supported therapeutic practices that account for clients' culture, with culture-specific treatments being more effective than generally culture-sensitive treatments. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Cultural resource survey report for construction of office building, driveway, and parking lot at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. Part 1

    Perry, M.E.

    1995-01-01

    An Environmental Assessment and associated documentation is reported for the construction of an office building and parking lot in support of environmental management personnel activities. As part of the documentation process, the DOE determined that the proposed project constituted an undertaking as defined in Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. In accordance with the regulations implementing Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act, a records and literature search and historic resource identification effort were carried out on behalf of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). This report summarizes cultural resource literature and record searches and a historic resource identification effort

  14. Architecture, sedentism, and social complexity at Pre-Pottery Neolithic A WF16, Southern Jordan

    Finlayson, Bill; Mithen, Steven J.; Najjar, Mohammad; Smith, Sam; Maričević, Darko; Pankhurst, Nick; Yeomans, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Recent excavations at Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) WF16 in southern Jordan have revealed remarkable evidence of architectural developments in the early Neolithic. This sheds light on both special purpose structures and “domestic” settlement, allowing fresh insights into the development of increasingly sedentary communities and the social systems they supported. The development of sedentary communities is a central part of the Neolithic process in Southwest Asia. Architecture and ideas of homes and households have been important to the debate, although there has also been considerable discussion on the role of communal buildings and the organization of early sedentarizing communities since the discovery of the tower at Jericho. Recently, the focus has been on either northern Levantine PPNA sites, such as Jerf el Ahmar, or the emergence of ritual buildings in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B of the southern Levant. Much of the debate revolves around a division between what is interpreted as domestic space, contrasted with “special purpose” buildings. Our recent evidence allows a fresh examination of the nature of early Neolithic communities. PMID:21536900

  15. A STUDY ON A SPECIFIC TYPE OF POTTERY FROM THE ELAMITE ERA AND TOPONYMY OF ZABSHALI

    Ali Aarab

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available So far, there have been no studies conducted extensively on the regions surrounding Elamite. One of the surrounding regions cover the north of present-day provinces Fars and Khuzestan as Elamite centers in the ancient era. The noteworthy point about these regions is their potentially rich metal mines. This has been mentioned in Mesopotamian inscriptions, mainly explaining the link between the Mesopotamian plain and the highlands of Elam. The present-day provinces, Khuzestan and Fars, have small potentials for metal mines. Hence, they only served as surrounding regions supplying the metals. However, little investigation has been done on the archeological data from the Elamite Era. It is crucial to carry out a historical study on these regions along with the archeological data to enlighten the dark spots in the Elamite Era and ultimately provide a toponymy of the Elamite cities. One instance of such archeological data involve various types of local pottery in Khuzestan (as a central city of Elam, which was compared through petrography against the samples recovered in Isfahan and Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari (as two surrounding regions. Finally, this paper intended to discuss more confidently the era in which this type of pottery was built and its origin in order to provide a toponymy of the Zabshali based on historical and archaeological data.

  16. Analytical study of ancient pottery from the archaeological site of Aiani, northern Greece

    Iordanidis, A.; Garcia-Guinea, J.; Karamitrou-Mentessidi, G.

    2009-01-01

    The present study is a multi-analytical approach on the characterization of several potsherd samples, dated from prehistoric to hellenistic times, from Aiani, ancient Upper Macedonia, northern Greece. In particular, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy, coupled with Energy Dispersive X-ray system (ESEM-EDX) were used for the determination of the morphological, chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the potsherds. The preliminary results indicated a rather local provenance of the analyzed ancient pottery samples and a finer texture and thus better ceramic manufacture as getting to hellenistic era. The use of a silicious or calcerous raw material is probably related to the specific utilization of each ceramic vessel in ancient times. The presence of gehlenite or pyroxene minerals in the ceramic matrix indicated higher firing temperatures, while lower temperatures were deduced when finding phylosilicate minerals. The preliminary results of this study do not necessarily imply that all the pottery of this area, belonging to the same chronological type, have similar physicochemical characteristics

  17. Application of XRF and XRD in the study of ceramics and pottery

    Meor Yusoff Meor Sulaiman

    2004-01-01

    Ceramic artefacts are made from clay-based mineral and their elemental and mineral compositions tend to vary from one locality to another. The elemental and mineral composition data's besides able to verify the originality of the artifact also helps in regard to provenance, fabrication technology and also manufacturing technique. X-ray fluorescence XRF is a non-destructive technique to identify and quantify elements ranging from sodium (atomic number = 11 to uranium atomic number = 92). The paper also looks into recent advances of this technique in the study of ceramics and pottery. Microfocus XRF, besides able to do qualitative and quantitative elemental analysis, it also can perform accurate elemental mapping. Another aspect there is important in this study is the capability to do in-situ analysis. With the recent introduction of the peltiered-cooled silicon detector, in-situ analysis had become more easily available. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis on the other hand, helps to identify correctly the different mineral composition present in the ceramic artifact. This could also help in identifying the type of clay that is used in the manufacturing of these ceramic artifacts as well as its origin. Both x-ray techniques complement each other and are very important tool in the archaeological study of ceramic and pottery samples. (Author)

  18. Nuclear analytical technique for the study of ancient pottery from a Ghanaian archaeological site

    Forson, A.

    2006-01-01

    Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was utilized to determine the elemental concentrations of the archaeological pottery samples from Jenini slave camp in the Brong Ahafo Region, Ghana, employing the 30kW tank-in-pool Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR) at the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC). Jenini was a slave camp of Samory Toure during the indigenous slavery and the Trans-Atlantic slave trade. The samples were obtained during the excavations of the tombs of the slaves who died at the camp. The accuracy of the INAA method was evaluated using IAEA Soil-7 reference material. The precision was calculated as relative standard deviation and was found to be within ±10%. Thirty-two (32) ceramic fragment samples from the archaeological site were analyzed to determine the concentration of 20 elements: Al, As, Ba, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Dy, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Mn, Na, Sc, Sm,Th, U, and V. Two multivariate statistical methods, cluster and factor analyses, were performed on the data set in order to determine similarities and correlations between the various samples. The results of the cluster and factor analyses indicate a considerable overlap in the chemistry of the pottery shards from the three sampling points (i.e. Trench 1, Trench 2 and Pit 1) indicating that the pot shards were made from a single type of clay or clays of similar geochemical signatures. (au)

  19. Early Pottery Making in Northern Coastal Peru. Part I: Mössbauer Study of Clays

    Shimada, I.; Häusler, W.; Hutzelmann, T.; Wagner, U.

    2003-09-01

    We report on an investigation of several ancient clays which were used for pottery making in northern coastal Peru at a kiln site from the Formative period (ca. 2000-800 BC) in the Poma Canal and at a Middle Sicán pottery workshop in use between ca. AD 950 and 1050 at Huaca Sialupe in the lower La Leche valley. Neutron activation analysis, 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction were used for the characterisation of the clays. The changes that occur in iron-bearing compounds in the clays depending on the kiln atmosphere and on the maximum firing temperature were studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Laboratory firing series under varying controlled conditions were performed to obtain a basic understanding of the different reactions taking place in the clays during firing. The results can be used as models in the interpretation of the Mössbauer spectra observed in ancient ceramics from the same context.

  20. Characterization of Iraq-luster painted pottery by XRF and XAFS analysis

    Miura, Sanae; Kato, Norihiro; Nakai, Izumi; Shindo, Yoko

    2009-01-01

    Luster is one of the most interesting Islamic ceramic decorations. Their origins are known to be due to a nanostructured thin layer formed by metallic copper and silver nanocrystals. The chemical composition of the glazes and decorations of Iraq luster potteries stored in IDEMITSU museum of art were studied using XRF quantitative analysis and XRF imaging. Moreover, the local environment of copper and silver dispersed in the glaze were analyzed by means of XAFS analysis. The white glaze of Iraq luster pottery can be classified into alkali-lime glaze and alkali-lead-lime glaze according to their contents of PbO and SnO 2 . The present XRF analysis revealed that the almost all samples belong to alkali-lead-lime glaze. In addition, it is found from XRF imaging that different copper/silver ratios affect the color of decorations. Cu K-edge and Ag K-edge XAFS spectra of these shards were measured to reveal the chemical state of copper and silver. Presence of metallic copper is found in the red luster. In olive green and brown luster, copper is almost present in the Cu (I) state. Also, in dark brown luster, both Cu (I) and Cu (II) states are found, while, silver always exists in the metallic form independent of the color. (author)

  1. Architecture, sedentism, and social complexity at Pre-Pottery Neolithic A WF16, Southern Jordan.

    Finlayson, Bill; Mithen, Steven J; Najjar, Mohammad; Smith, Sam; Maričević, Darko; Pankhurst, Nick; Yeomans, Lisa

    2011-05-17

    Recent excavations at Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) WF16 in southern Jordan have revealed remarkable evidence of architectural developments in the early Neolithic. This sheds light on both special purpose structures and "domestic" settlement, allowing fresh insights into the development of increasingly sedentary communities and the social systems they supported. The development of sedentary communities is a central part of the Neolithic process in Southwest Asia. Architecture and ideas of homes and households have been important to the debate, although there has also been considerable discussion on the role of communal buildings and the organization of early sedentarizing communities since the discovery of the tower at Jericho. Recently, the focus has been on either northern Levantine PPNA sites, such as Jerf el Ahmar, or the emergence of ritual buildings in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B of the southern Levant. Much of the debate revolves around a division between what is interpreted as domestic space, contrasted with "special purpose" buildings. Our recent evidence allows a fresh examination of the nature of early Neolithic communities.

  2. Early Pottery Making in Northern Coastal Peru. Part IV: Mössbauer Study of Ceramics from Huaca Sialupe

    Shimada, I.; Häusler, W.; Jakob, M.; Montenegro, J.; Riederer, J.; Wagner, U.

    2003-09-01

    We report on an interdisciplinary study of ceramic material excavated in 1999 and 2001 at a 1000-year old ceramic and metal production site, located at Huaca Sialupe in the La Leche valley on the north coast of Peru and dating to the Middle Sicán period (AD 900-1100). Sherds of Sicán red- and blackware, numerous moulds, several kilns and other evidence of pottery making were found. The pottery, in particular, is famous for its fine texture and perfect black surface finish. In addition, some clay lumps and sherds of unfired Sicán pottery were excavated. Within the same workshop several large inverted ceramic urns used as furnaces were found together with Middle Sicán metal working tools and debris. Various physical methods were applied to investigate this material. The ancient firing procedures could be elucidated by comparing the spectra observed for the ancient sherds with model spectra of laboratory and field fired clay samples. This shows that the fine ware made at Huaca Sialupe was intentionally fired under strongly reducing conditions at temperatures up to 900°C. Reoxidation at the end of the reducing firing took place only occasionally. Less care was taken in firing moulds used for pottery making.

  3. Use and Appreciation of Mycenaean Pottery in the Levant, Cyprus and Italy : (ca. 1600-1200 BC)

    Wijngaarden, van Gert Jan

    2002-01-01

    Pottery made in the aegean during the Late Bronze Age has been found widely distributed in many parts of the Mediterranean. At some four hundred sites outside Greece, Mycenaean dinner and storage vessels, as well as some figurines have been discovered. As such, this class of archaeological artifacts

  4. 75 FR 71133 - Guidance for Industry: The Safety of Imported Traditional Pottery Intended for Use With Food and...

    2010-11-22

    ... Nutrition (HFS-317), Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint Branch Pkwy., College Park, MD 20740. Send two... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-D-0571] Guidance for Industry: The Safety of Imported Traditional Pottery Intended for Use With Food and the Use of...

  5. Validity of archaeomagnetic field recording: an experimental pottery kiln at Coppengrave, Germany

    Schnepp, Elisabeth; Leonhardt, Roman; Korte, Monika; Klett-Drechsel, Johannes

    2016-04-01

    Palaeomagnetic data obtained from archaeological materials are used for reconstructions of the Earth's magnetic field of the past millennia. While many studies tested the reliability of this recorder for palaeointensity only a few studies did this for direction. The study presents an archaeomagnetic and rock magnetic investigation applied to an experimental pottery kiln, which was operated in 2003 to produce stone ware. This kind of high-quality pottery needs a temperature of at least 1160 °C. Shortly before heating of the kiln direct absolute measurements of the absolute geomagnetic field vector have been carried out close to it. After cooling of the kiln 24 oriented palaeomagnetic samples have been taken. Although Curie temperatures are about 580 °C, that is the typical temperature for magnetite, thermal as well as alternating field demagnetisations reveal also a considerable amount of hematite as magnetic carrier. This mixture of magnetite and hematite is dominated by pseudo-single domain grains. Demagnetisation removed in some cases weak secondary components, but in most cases the specimens carried a single component thermoremanent magnetisation. The mean characteristic remanent magnetisation direction agrees on 95 per cent confidence level with the directly measured field direction. Archaeointensity was obtained from five specimens with the Thellier-Coe method and with the multiple-specimen palaeointensity domain-state corrected method. Six of these specimens also provided a result of the Dekkers-Böhnel method, which overestimated the archaeointensity by about 9 per cent compared to the direct value, while after correction for fraction the value agrees very well. For the multiple-specimen palaeointensity domain-state corrected method only fractions between 25 and 75 per cent have been used and specimens showing alteration have been excluded. Above 450 °C many specimens showed alteration of the magnetic grains. Because median destructive temperatures were

  6. Echo detected EPR as a tool for detecting radiation-induced defect signals in pottery

    Zoleo, Alfonso; Bortolussi, Claudia; Brustolon, Marina

    2011-01-01

    Archaeological fragments of pottery have been investigated by using CW-EPR and Echo Detected EPR (EDEPR). EDEPR allows to remove the CW-EPR dominant Fe(III) background spectrum, hiding much weaker signals potentially useful for dating purpose. EDEPR spectra attributed to a methyl radical and to feldspar defects have been recorded at room and low temperature for an Iron Age cooking ware (700 B.C.). A study on the dependence of EDEPR intensity over absorbed dose on a series of γ-irradiated brick samples (estimated age of 562 ± 140 B.C.) has confirmed the potential efficacy of the proposed method for spotting defect signals out of the strong iron background. - Highlights: → Fe(III) CW-EPR signals cover CW-EPR-detectable defects in ceramics. → Echo detected EPR gets rid of Fe(III) signals, disclosing defect signals. → Echo detected EPR detects defect signals even at relatively low doses.

  7. Phytoliths in pottery reveal the use of spice in European prehistoric cuisine.

    Hayley Saul

    Full Text Available Here we present evidence of phytoliths preserved in carbonised food deposits on prehistoric pottery from the western Baltic dating from 6,100 cal BP to 5750 cal BP. Based on comparisons to over 120 European and Asian species, our observations are consistent with phytolith morphologies observed in modern garlic mustard seed (Alliaria petiolata (M. Bieb Cavara & Grande. As this seed has a strong flavour, little nutritional value, and the phytoliths are found in pots along with terrestrial and marine animal residues, these findings are the first direct evidence for the spicing of food in European prehistoric cuisine. Our evidence suggests a much greater antiquity to the spicing of foods than is evident from the macrofossil record, and challenges the view that plants were exploited by hunter-gatherers and early agriculturalists solely for energy requirements, rather than taste.

  8. Phytoliths in Pottery Reveal the Use of Spice in European Prehistoric Cuisine

    Saul, Hayley; Madella, Marco; Fischer, Anders; Glykou, Aikaterini; Hartz, Sönke; Craig, Oliver E.

    2013-01-01

    Here we present evidence of phytoliths preserved in carbonised food deposits on prehistoric pottery from the western Baltic dating from 6,100 cal BP to 5750 cal BP. Based on comparisons to over 120 European and Asian species, our observations are consistent with phytolith morphologies observed in modern garlic mustard seed (Alliaria petiolata (M. Bieb) Cavara & Grande). As this seed has a strong flavour, little nutritional value, and the phytoliths are found in pots along with terrestrial and marine animal residues, these findings are the first direct evidence for the spicing of food in European prehistoric cuisine. Our evidence suggests a much greater antiquity to the spicing of foods than is evident from the macrofossil record, and challenges the view that plants were exploited by hunter-gatherers and early agriculturalists solely for energy requirements, rather than taste. PMID:23990910

  9. Ceramic petrography, mineralogy and typology of Eneolithic pottery from Krašnja, Slovenia

    Andreja Žibrat Gašparič

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present newly excavated Eneolithic pottery from the site at Krašnja near Lukovica in central Slovenia. The material was AMS 14C dated and is contemporaneous with archaeological sites from the Ljubljansko barje region in Slovenia. The vessels were reconstructed and then various types of pots, dishes, cups, and beakers were analysed using petrography and the X-ray diffraction method. Additionally, the clay remains of walls and the floor of an Eneolithic kiln excavated at the site were also analysed. The results show that Eneolithic potters used different fab- rics to make vessels, and mostly one recipe with added calcite. The raw source material probably came from a nearby valley to the south of the site at Krašnja.

  10. Analysis of Muscle Contraction on Pottery Manufacturing Process Using Electromyography (EMG)

    Soewardi, Hartomo; Azka Rahmayani, Amalia

    2016-01-01

    One of the most common problems in pottery manufacturing process is musculoskeletal disorders on workers. This disorder was caused by uncomfortable posture where the workers sit on the floor with one leg was folded and another was twisted for long duration. Back, waist, buttock, and right knee frequently experience the disorders. The objective of this research is to investigate the muscle contraction at such body part of workers in manufacturing process of pottery. Electromyography is used to investigate the muscle contraction based on the median frequency signal. Focus measurements is conducted on four muscles types. They are lower interscapular muscle on the right and left side, dorsal lumbar muscle, and lateral hamstring muscle. Statistical analysis is conducted to test differences of muscle contraction between female and male. The result of this research showed that the muscle which reached the highest contraction is dorsal lumbar muscle with the average of median frequency is 51,84 Hz. Then followed by lower interscapular muscle on the left side with the average of median frequency is 31,30 hz, lower interscapular muscle on the right side average of median frequency is 31,24 Hz, and lateral hamstring muscle average of median frequency is 21,77 Hz. Based on the statistic analysis result, there were no differences between male and female on left and right lower interscapular muscle and dorsal lumbar muscle but there were differences on lateral hamstring muscle with the significance level is 5%. Besides that, there were differences for all combination muscle types with the level of significance is 5%.

  11. Ancient lipids document continuity in the use of early hunter-gatherer pottery through 9,000 years of Japanese prehistory.

    Lucquin, Alexandre; Gibbs, Kevin; Uchiyama, Junzo; Saul, Hayley; Ajimoto, Mayumi; Eley, Yvette; Radini, Anita; Heron, Carl P; Shoda, Shinya; Nishida, Yastami; Lundy, Jasmine; Jordan, Peter; Isaksson, Sven; Craig, Oliver E

    2016-04-12

    The earliest pots in the world are from East Asia and date to the Late Pleistocene. However, ceramic vessels were only produced in large numbers during the warmer and more stable climatic conditions of the Holocene. It has long been assumed that the expansion of pottery was linked with increased sedentism and exploitation of new resources that became available with the ameliorated climate, but this hypothesis has never been tested. Through chemical analysis of their contents, we herein investigate the use of pottery across an exceptionally long 9,000-y sequence from the Jōmon site of Torihama in western Japan, intermittently occupied from the Late Pleistocene to the mid-Holocene. Molecular and isotopic analyses of lipids from 143 vessels provides clear evidence that pottery across this sequence was predominantly used for cooking marine and freshwater resources, with evidence for diversification in the range of aquatic products processed during the Holocene. Conversely, there is little indication that ruminant animals or plants were processed in pottery, although it is evident from the faunal and macrobotanical remains that these foods were heavily exploited. Supported by other residue analysis data from Japan, our results show that the link between pottery and fishing was established in the Late Paleolithic and lasted well into the Holocene, despite environmental and socio-economic change. Cooking aquatic products in pottery represents an enduring social aspect of East Asian hunter-gatherers, a tradition based on a dependable technology for exploiting a sustainable resource in an uncertain and changing world.

  12. Childhood Blood Lead Reductions Following Removal of Leaded Ceramic Glazes in Artisanal Pottery Production: A Success Story

    Donald E. Jones, MS; Mario Covarrubias Pérez; Bret Ericson; Daniel Estrada Sánchez; Sandra Gualtero; Andrea Smith-Jones, MS; Jack Caravanos, DrPH, CIH

    2013-01-01

    Background. Lead exposure within artisanal ceramics workshop communities in Mexico continues to be a major source of childhood lead poisoning. Artisanal ceramics workshops expose children through direct ingestion, contaminated soil, and food prepared in lead-glazed pottery. Conversion to non-lead glazes alone may not effectively reduce exposure. This paper describes a model comprehensive intervention and environmental remediation of an artisanal ceramics workshop in the state of Hidalgo, Mexi...

  13. A fast atom bombardment study of the lead isotope ratios in early nineteenth century Niagara Peninsula pottery glazes

    Miller, J.M.; Jones, T.R.B.; Kenney, Tina; Rupp, D.W.

    1986-01-01

    The application of fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry to the determination of lead isotope ratios in nineteenth century pottery glazes from the Niagara Peninsula has been investigated with the aim of determining the source of the lead used in the glazes. Methods of sampling have been compared, including direct analysis of glass chips, analysis of powdered glaze scrapings, analysis of acid extracts of the former, and simple acid leaching of the surface of a piece of pottery. The latter method gave the best results. The FAB data, as obtained on an older mass spectrometer, can distinguish lead from igneous vs. sedimentary deposits, but is not adequate to determine specific mining locations. Although newer FAB instrumentation can narrow this range, the overlap of data from the Niagara Peninsula and England precludes a simple answer to the archeological question as to English vs. Canadian origin of the lead used in the Jordan pottery glazes. However, the data do suggest that the potter used a local source for the lead

  14. cultural

    Irene Kreutz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Es un estudio cualitativo que adoptó como referencial teorico-motodológico la antropología y la etnografía. Presenta las experiencias vivenciadas por mujeres de una comunidad en el proceso salud-enfermedad, con el objetivo de comprender los determinantes sócio-culturales e históricos de las prácticas de prevención y tratamiento adoptados por el grupo cultural por medio de la entrevista semi-estructurada. Los temas que emergieron fueron: la relación entre la alimentación y lo proceso salud-enfermedad, las relaciones con el sistema de salud oficial y el proceso salud-enfermedad y lo sobrenatural. Los dados revelaron que los moradores de la comunidad investigada tienen un modo particular de explicar sus procedimientos terapéuticos. Consideramos que es papel de los profesionales de la salud en sus prácticas, la adopción de abordajes o enfoques que consideren al individuo en su dimensión sócio-cultural e histórica, considerando la enorme diversidad cultural en nuestro país.

  15. Chemical process to separate iron oxides particles in pottery sample for EPR dating

    Watanabe, S.; Farias, T. M. B.; Gennari, R. F.; Ferraz, G. M.; Kunzli, R.; Chubaci, J. F. D.

    2008-12-01

    Ancient potteries usually are made of the local clay material, which contains relatively high concentration of iron. The powdered samples are usually quite black, due to magnetite, and, although they can be used for thermoluminescene (TL) dating, it is easiest to obtain better TL reading when clearest natural or pre-treated sample is used. For electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements, the huge signal due to iron spin-spin interaction, promotes an intense interference overlapping any other signal in this range. Sample dating is obtained by dividing the radiation dose, determined by the concentration of paramagnetic species generated by irradiation, by the natural dose so as a consequence, EPR dating cannot be used, since iron signal do not depend on radiation dose. In some cases, the density separation method using hydrated solution of sodium polytungstate [Na 6(H 2W 12O 40)·H 2O] becomes useful. However, the sodium polytungstate is very expensive in Brazil; hence an alternative method for eliminating this interference is proposed. A chemical process to eliminate about 90% of magnetite was developed. A sample of powdered ancient pottery was treated in a mixture (3:1:1) of HCl, HNO 3 and H 2O 2 for 4 h. After that, it was washed several times in distilled water to remove all acid matrixes. The original black sample becomes somewhat clearer. The resulting material was analyzed by plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), with the result that the iron content is reduced by a factor of about 9. In EPR measurements a non-treated natural ceramic sample shows a broad spin-spin interaction signal, the chemically treated sample presents a narrow signal in g = 2.00 region, possibly due to a radical of (SiO 3) 3-, mixed with signal of remaining iron [M. Ikeya, New Applications of Electron Spin Resonance, World Scientific, Singapore, 1993, p. 285]. This signal increases in intensity under γ-irradiation. However, still due to iron influence, the additive method yielded too

  16. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic and isotopic analysis of carbonized residues from subarctic Canadian prehistoric pottery

    Sherriff, B.L.; Tisdale, M.A.; Sayer, B.G.; Schwarcz, H.P.; Knyf, M.

    1995-01-01

    Late prehistoric pottery is found in abundance at archaeological sites around Southern Indian Lake. Black residues, found on the two dominant vessel forms, flat plates and round pots, are presumed to be the remains of prehistoric meals. 13 C cross-polarization magic-angle-spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (CPMAS NMR) and 13 C and 15 N isotopic ratios and C/N ratios are used to reconstruct prehistoric diet and to shed light on possible uses for the plates. Samples of foods were cooked in clay pots, on a wood fire, to simulate the conditions of burning that could have produced the residue. Decomposition of carbohydrates, protein, and fat during cooking is studied with 13 C CPMAS NMR, and the effect of cooking on isotopic and C/N ratios documented. Predominantly fish and fat were cooked in the pots, whereas the residues from plates contain a greater proportion of fat and could have been used as frying pans or possibly as fat-burning lamps placed on the ashes of a wood fire. (Author)

  17. Human Hunting and Nascent Animal Management at Middle Pre-Pottery Neolithic Yiftah'el, Israel.

    Sapir-Hen, Lidar; Dayan, Tamar; Khalaily, Hamoudi; Munro, Natalie D

    2016-01-01

    The current view for the southern Levant is that wild game hunting was replaced by herd management over the course of the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B period, but there is significant debate over the timing, scale and origin of this transition. To date, most relevant studies focus either on wild game exploitation in the periods prior to domestication or on classic markers of domestication of domestic progenitor species over the course of the PPNB. We studied the faunal remains from the 2007-2008 excavations of the Middle PPNB (MPPNB) site of Yiftah'el, Northern Israel. Our analysis included a close examination of the timing and impact of the trade-off between wild game and domestic progenitor taxa that reflects the very beginning of this critical transition in the Mediterranean zone of the southern Levant. Our results reveal a direct trade-off between the intensive hunting of wild ungulates that had been staples for millennia, and domestic progenitor taxa. We suggest that the changes in wild animal use are linked to a region-wide shift in the relationship between humans and domestic progenitor species including goat, pig and cattle.

  18. Silver and copper nanoclusters in the lustre decoration of Italian Renaissance pottery: an EXAFS study

    Padovani, S.; Borgia, I.; Brunetti, B.; Sgamellotti, A.; Giulivi, A.; D'Acapito, F.; Mazzoldi, P.; Sada, C.; Battaglin, G.

    Lustre is one of the most important decorative techniques of the Medieval and Renaissance pottery of the Mediterranean basin, capable of producing brilliant metallic reflections and iridescence. Following the recent finding that the colour of lustre decorations is mainly determined by copper and silver nanoclusters dispersed in the glaze layer, the local environment of copper and silver atoms has been studied by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy on original samples of gold and red lustre. It has been found that, in gold lustre, whose colour is attributed mainly to the silver nanocluster dispersion, silver is only partially present in the metallic form and copper is almost completely oxidised. In the red lustre, whose colour is attributed mainly to the copper nanocluster dispersion, only a fraction of copper is present in the metallic form. EXAFS measurements on red lustre, carried out in the total electron yield mode to probe only the first 150 nm of the glaze layer, indicated that in some cases lustre nanoclusters may be confined in a very thin layer close to the surface.

  19. Glazed clay pottery and lead exposure in Mexico: Current experimental evidence.

    Diaz-Ruiz, Araceli; Tristán-López, Luis Antonio; Medrano-Gómez, Karen Itzel; Torres-Domínguez, Juan Alejandro; Ríos, Camilo; Montes, Sergio

    2017-11-01

    Lead exposure remains a significant environmental problem; lead is neurotoxic, especially in developing humans. In Mexico, lead in human blood is still a concern. Historically, much of the lead exposure is attributed to the use of handcrafted clay pottery for cooking, storing and serving food. However, experimental cause-and-effect demonstration is lacking. The present study explores this issue with a prospective experimental approach. We used handcrafted clay containers to prepare and store lemonade, which was supplied as drinking water to pregnant rats throughout the gestational period. We found that clay pots, jars, and mugs leached on average 200 µg/l lead, and exposure to the lemonade resulted in 2.5 µg/dl of lead in the pregnant rats' blood. Neonates also showed increased lead content in the hippocampus and cerebellum. Caspase-3 activity was found to be statistically increased in the hippocampus in prenatally exposed neonates, suggesting increased apoptosis in that brain region. Glazed ceramics are still an important source of lead exposure in Mexico, and our results confirm that pregnancy is a vulnerable period for brain development.

  20. Neutron Activation Analysis and Moessbauer Correlations of Archaeological Pottery from Amazon Basin for Classification Studies

    Bellido, A. V. B.; Latini, R. M.; Nicoli, I.; Scorzelli, R. B.; Solorzano, P. M.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the correlation between data obtained by means of two analytical methods, instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and Moessbauer Spectroscopy of pottery samples combined with multivariate statistical analysis in order to optimize quantitative analysis in the classification studies. Ceramics recently discovered in archaeological earth circular structures sites in Acre state Brazil. 199 samples were analyzed by INAA, allowing simultaneous determination of twenty elements chemical concentrations, and 44 samples by using Moessbauer Spectroscopy, allowing the determination of fourteen hyperfine parameters. For the correlation study, data were treated by two multivariate statistical methods: cluster analysis for the classification and the principal component analysis for the data correlations. INAA data show that some of REE (rare earth elements) were the discriminating variables for this technique. Mossbauer parameters that exhibit the same behavior are being investigated, remarkable improve can be seem for the combined REE and the Mossbauer variables showing a good results considering the limited number of samples. This data matrix is being used for the understanding in the studies of classification and provenance of ceramics prehistory of the Amazonic basin.

  1. Linear algebra

    Shilov, Georgi E

    1977-01-01

    Covers determinants, linear spaces, systems of linear equations, linear functions of a vector argument, coordinate transformations, the canonical form of the matrix of a linear operator, bilinear and quadratic forms, Euclidean spaces, unitary spaces, quadratic forms in Euclidean and unitary spaces, finite-dimensional space. Problems with hints and answers.

  2. The Source of Volcanic Ash in Late Classic Maya Pottery at El Pilar, Belize

    Catlin, B. L.; Ford, A.; Spera, F. J.

    2007-12-01

    The presence of volcanic ash used as temper in Late Classic Maya pottery (AD 600-900) at El Pilar has been long known although the volcano(s) contributing ash have not been identified. We use geochemical fingerprinting, comparing compositions of glass shards in potsherds with volcanic sources to identify the source(s). El Pilar is located in the Maya carbonate lowlands distant from volcanic sources. It is unlikely Maya transported ash from distant sites: ash volumes are too large, the terrain too rugged, and no draft animals were available. Ash layer mining is unlikely because mine sites have not been found despite intensive surveys. Nearest volcanic sources to El Pilar, Belize and Guatemala, are roughly 450 km to the south and east. The ash found in potsherds has a cuspate morphology. This suggests ash was collected during, or shortly after, an ash airfall event following eruption. Analyses of n=333 ash shards from 20 ceramic (pottery) sherds was conducted by electron microprobe for major elements, and LA-ICPMS for trace elements and Pb isotopes. These analyses can be compared to volcanic materials from candidate volcanoes in the region. The 1982 El Chichon eruption caused airfall deposition (archaeological samples and El Chichon has been made. The atomic ratios of La/Yb, Nb/Ta, Zr/Hf, Sr/Ba and Th/U of n=215 glass shards in the potsherds are 12.2±7.1, 10.9±3.4, 31.2±11.5, 0.09±0.05 and 2.5±0.9, respectively. These ratios for 1982 El Chichon are 15.4±2.1, 26.3, 36.1±5.3, 1.4±0.06 and 3.16, respectively. Data for the 1475 AD El Chichon eruption (Macias et al, 2003) can also be compared; the ratios from are 13.2±2.2, 7.3±1.8, 30.4±9.6, 1.51±0.4 and 2.88±0.23, respectively. The mean 208Pb/206Pb ratio of n=5 potsherds is 2.0523±0.002 compared to 2.0514±0.00074 for n=7 samples from El Chichon. The two most recent eruptions from El Chichon overlap with the potsherd glass data except for Sr/Ba, which might be modified by Sr-Ca exchange during firing. In

  3. Wari influence in southern Peru: provenance study of middle horizon pottery from the archaeological site of La Real using k0-INAA

    Bedregal, P.S.; Mendoza, P.A.; Ubillus, M.S.; Montoya, E.H.; Jennings, J.

    2015-01-01

    Fragments of archaeological pottery from a rescue excavation at the site of La Real in Arequipa, Peru, were studied by instrumental neutron activation analysis, k 0 method. Analytical data were processed by multivariate statistical techniques, comparing the chemical composition of the studied samples versus the information available in our database on the chemical composition of archaeological pottery from Conchopata (Ayacucho), Cotahuasi (Arequipa), Huaro (Cusco) and Tiwanaku (Bolivia). The results obtained revealed that most of the samples were likely made locally at La Real, while others correspond to the chemical composition of the different groups considered, showing evidence of the presence of foreign pottery in the site and a small group which were not classified. (author)

  4. Function and significance of bell beaker pottery according to data from residue analyses

    Guerra Doce, Elisa

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, Bell Beakers have been thought to contain alcoholic beverages which were consumed in the course of male feasting ceremonies. Recent residue analyses have shed some light on the question of their function. However, whilst beer and mead have been identified from certain examples, not all Beakers were drinking cups. Some were used as reduction pots to smelt copper ores, others have some organic residues associated with food, and still others were employed as funerary urns. Yet, while the evidence points to a diversity of uses, it is argued that an ideological connection can be observed. Beakers were probably a special form of pottery with a ritual character, related to activities that imply some kind of transformation.

    Los vasos campaniformes suelen relacionarse con el consumo de bebidas alcohólicas durante la celebración de banquetes ceremoniales de exaltación masculina. Si bien las analíticas de residuos han identificado cerveza e hidromiel en unos cuantos ejemplares, no todos los campaniformes desempeñaron esta misma función. Algunos hicieron las veces de vasijas-horno para reducir el mineral de cobre, en otros se han detectado restos de alimentos y también se emplearon como urnas funerarias. A pesar de esta diversidad de usos, creemos que existe una conexión ideológica entre ellos, de tal manera que habría que considerar a los campaniformes como una cerámica singular con un carácter ritual, destinada a actividades que conllevan algún tipo de transformación.

  5. Application of radioisotope XRF and thermoluminescence (TL) dating in investigation of pottery from Tell AL-Kasra archaeological site, Syria.

    Abboud, R; Issa, H; Abed-Allah, Y D; Bakraji, E H

    2015-11-01

    Statistical analysis based on chemical composition, using radioisotope X-ray fluorescence, have been applied on 39 ancient pottery fragments coming from the excavation at Tell Al-Kasra archaeological site, Syria. Three groups were defined by applying Cluster and Factor analysis statistical methods. Thermoluminescence (TL) dating was investigated on three sherds taken from the bathroom (hammam) on the site. Multiple aliquot additive dose (MAAD) was used to estimate the paleodose value, and the gamma spectrometry was used to estimate the dose rate. The average age was found to be 715±36 year. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Common Roman pottery from the Portus Illicitanus | Cerámica común romana del Portus Illicitanus

    María José Sánchez Fernández

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available We began to study Roman common ceramic forms from Portus Illicitanus. For its classification we have stated two big groups: cook pottery and table-vessel according to their morphology, chronology and functionality, establishing differences between the local and regional forms and the imported ones. | Se inicia el estudio de algunas formas de cerámica común romana procedentes del Portus Illicitanus. Para su clasificación se han establecido dos grandes apartados: vasijas de cocina y vajilla de mesa, agrupadas según su morfología, cronología y funcionalidad, diferenciando las formas locales y regionales de las importadas.

  7. A non-invasive analysis of 'proto-majolica' pottery from southern Italy by TOF neutron diffraction

    Barilaro, D; Crupi, V; Majolino, D; Venuti, V [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Messina, Contrada da Papardo, Salita Sperone 31, PO Box 55, 98166, Sant Agata, Messina (Italy); Barone, G [Dipartmento di Scienze Geologiche, Universita di Catania, Corso Italia 55, 95129 Catania (Italy); Tigano, G [Soprintendenza Beni Culturali ed Ambientali di Messina, Sezione Archeologica, Viale Boccetta 38, 98100 Messina (Italy); Imberti, S [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto Sistemi Complessi: Sezione di Firenze, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Kockelmann, W [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)], E-mail: vvenuti@unime.it

    2008-03-12

    The employment of time-of-flight (TOF) neutron diffraction allowed for the quantitative determination of mineral phase contents of the ceramic bulk of several pottery fragments coming from Milazzo and Messina (Sicily, southern Italy). From an historical-artistic point of view, all the samples were dated back to the 12th to 13th centuries AD and classified as belonging to the 'proto-majolica' ceramic class. The adopted procedure is absolutely non-destructive, so that measurements were performed on the entire fragments without any sampling. The information derived, by applying the Rietveld analysis method, allowed us to formulate hypotheses concerning the fabrication processes of the artefacts.

  8. Chemical characterization of archaeological ceramics using k{sub 0} based INAA: A study in the production and distribution of middle horizon pottery from Cuzco, Peru

    Montoya, E; Glowacki, M; Zapata, J; Mendoza, P [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Lima (Peru)

    2003-08-01

    The objective of this research was to establish, in general terms, the provenance of certain pottery styles that are found in the Peruvian southern highlands, in the Cuzco region. Previous work allowed identification of ceramic influences from outside Cuzco, namely from the Peruvian central highlands, the heartland of the Wari culture, and from the high plateau region of Bolivia and Peru (the Altiplano), the centre of Tiwanaku society. One of the goals was to determine which of these ceramic styles were made in other regions and brought to Cuzco, and which of them were locally manufactured imitations. In addition, an attempt was made to compare their patterns of production and distribution with those of local ceramic styles. These data, in turn, were found helpful in understanding some aspects of the social, economic and political dynamics of the Middle Horizon period at Cuzco. To realize this objective, a set of about 350 ceramic samples was chemically analysed using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and the results processed by multivariate statistical methods. From the pioneering works of Sayre, INAA has become a major tool in multielement compositional characterization of archaeological ceramics. One of the best ways to carry out INAA is the k{sub 0} standardization method, first developed by De Corte et al. [De Corte, F., Habil. Thesis, University of Gent (1987), De Corte, F., et al., J. Radioanal. Chem. 62 (1981) 209 pp.]. It was very effective in accurate multielement analysis of large numbers of samples and has been employed in the Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear (IPEN) laboratory since 1993. Special care was taken in our research to maintain quality control of the analytical results, which were produced in duplicate for every sample, and for repeated analysis of NIST SRM-2704 (Buffalo River Sediment) and other reference materials such as the well known Old Ohio Red Clay. (author)

  9. PEASANT AND SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE ON PLANOSOLS AS A SOURCE OF MATERIALS IN THE MAKING OF NON-INDUSTRIAL POTTERY

    Raiana Lira Cabral

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ethnopedological studies have mainly focused on agricultural land uses and associated practices. Nevertheless, peasant and indigenous populations use soil and land resources for a number of additional purposes, including pottery. In the present study, we describe and analyze folk knowledge related to the use of soils in non-industrial pottery making by peasant potters, in the municipality of Altinho, Pernambuco State, semiarid region at Brazil. Ethnoscientific techniques were used to record local knowledge, with an emphasis on describing the soil materials recognized by the potters, the properties they used to identify those soil materials, and the criteria employed by them to differentiate and relate such materials. The potters recognized three categories of soil materials: “terra” (earth, “barro” (clay and, “piçarro” (soft rock. The multi-layered arrangement of these materials within the soil profiles was similar to the arrangement of the soil horizon described by formal pedologists. “Barro vermelho” (red clay was considered by potters as the principal ceramic resource. The potters followed morphological and utilitarian criteria in distinguishing the different soil materials. Soils from all of these sites were sodium-affected Alfisols and correspond to Typic Albaqualf and Typic Natraqualf in the Soil Taxonomy (Soil Survey Staff, 2010.

  10. Diet and chronology of the neolithic cultures in the low povolzhye

    Vybornov, A. A.; Kulkova, Marianna A.; Kosintsev, Pavel

    . The identification of animal bones allowed the detailed reconstruction of the meat component of the diet. Fish bones indicate the consumption of freshwater. Onager, saiga antelope, red deer, aurochs, wild-boar, corsac fox, wolf, birds and fish were found in Kairshak type sites of the Seroglazovskaya culture (Baybek......-boar were identified. Sheep and goats were determined as domestic animals. This is the first evidence for producing economy in Povolzhye. There are ten radiocarbon dates for this cultural type from 5500 to 4800 calBC. The AMS dates on the bones and organics from pottery have a good correlation...... these context have older ages. The results of lipid analysis of charred food crusts on the pottery from several sites showed that the meat and plant food prevailed in the diet of people in this region. These results allow for the first palaeodietary reconstructions of people of different cultures in the Low...

  11. Gesture Recognition and Sensorimotor Learning-by-Doing of Motor Skills in Manual Professions: A Case Study in the Wheel-Throwing Art of Pottery

    Glushkova, Alina; Manitsaris, Sotiris

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a methodological framework for the use of gesture recognition technologies in the learning/mastery of the gestural skills required in wheel-throwing pottery. In the case of self-instruction or training, learners face difficulties due to the absence of the teacher/expert and the consequent lack of guidance. Motion capture…

  12. Continuity and changes of manufacturing traditions of Bell Beaker and Bronze Age encrusted pottery in the Morava river catchment (Czech Republic)

    Všianský, D.; Kolář, Jan; Petřík, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 49, September 14 (2014), s. 414-422 ISSN 0305-4403 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : encrusted pottery * Copper age * X-ray diffraction Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology OBOR OECD: Archaeology Impact factor: 2.196, year: 2014

  13. A generative inference framework for analysing patterns of cultural change in sparse population data with evidence for fashion trends in LBK culture.

    Kandler, Anne; Shennan, Stephen

    2015-12-06

    Cultural change can be quantified by temporal changes in frequency of different cultural artefacts and it is a central question to identify what underlying cultural transmission processes could have caused the observed frequency changes. Observed changes, however, often describe the dynamics in samples of the population of artefacts, whereas transmission processes act on the whole population. Here we develop a modelling framework aimed at addressing this inference problem. To do so, we firstly generate population structures from which the observed sample could have been drawn randomly and then determine theoretical samples at a later time t2 produced under the assumption that changes in frequencies are caused by a specific transmission process. Thereby we also account for the potential effect of time-averaging processes in the generation of the observed sample. Subsequent statistical comparisons (e.g. using Bayesian inference) of the theoretical and observed samples at t2 can establish which processes could have produced the observed frequency data. In this way, we infer underlying transmission processes directly from available data without any equilibrium assumption. We apply this framework to a dataset describing pottery from settlements of some of the first farmers in Europe (the LBK culture) and conclude that the observed frequency dynamic of different types of decorated pottery is consistent with age-dependent selection, a preference for 'young' pottery types which is potentially indicative of fashion trends. © 2015 The Author(s).

  14. Linear gate

    Suwono.

    1978-01-01

    A linear gate providing a variable gate duration from 0,40μsec to 4μsec was developed. The electronic circuity consists of a linear circuit and an enable circuit. The input signal can be either unipolar or bipolar. If the input signal is bipolar, the negative portion will be filtered. The operation of the linear gate is controlled by the application of a positive enable pulse. (author)

  15. Linear Accelerators

    Vretenar, M

    2014-01-01

    The main features of radio-frequency linear accelerators are introduced, reviewing the different types of accelerating structures and presenting the main characteristics aspects of linac beam dynamics

  16. America, Linearly Cyclical

    2013-05-10

    AND VICTIM- ~ vAP BLAMING 4. AMERICA, LINEARLY CYCUCAL AF IMT 1768, 19840901, V5 PREVIOUS EDITION WILL BE USED. C2C Jessica Adams Dr. Brissett...his desires, his failings, and his aspirations follow the same general trend throughout history and throughout cultures. The founding fathers sought

  17. Linearization Method and Linear Complexity

    Tanaka, Hidema

    We focus on the relationship between the linearization method and linear complexity and show that the linearization method is another effective technique for calculating linear complexity. We analyze its effectiveness by comparing with the logic circuit method. We compare the relevant conditions and necessary computational cost with those of the Berlekamp-Massey algorithm and the Games-Chan algorithm. The significant property of a linearization method is that it needs no output sequence from a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) because it calculates linear complexity using the algebraic expression of its algorithm. When a PRNG has n [bit] stages (registers or internal states), the necessary computational cost is smaller than O(2n). On the other hand, the Berlekamp-Massey algorithm needs O(N2) where N(≅2n) denotes period. Since existing methods calculate using the output sequence, an initial value of PRNG influences a resultant value of linear complexity. Therefore, a linear complexity is generally given as an estimate value. On the other hand, a linearization method calculates from an algorithm of PRNG, it can determine the lower bound of linear complexity.

  18. Linear algebra

    Said-Houari, Belkacem

    2017-01-01

    This self-contained, clearly written textbook on linear algebra is easily accessible for students. It begins with the simple linear equation and generalizes several notions from this equation for the system of linear equations and introduces the main ideas using matrices. It then offers a detailed chapter on determinants and introduces the main ideas with detailed proofs. The third chapter introduces the Euclidean spaces using very simple geometric ideas and discusses various major inequalities and identities. These ideas offer a solid basis for understanding general Hilbert spaces in functional analysis. The following two chapters address general vector spaces, including some rigorous proofs to all the main results, and linear transformation: areas that are ignored or are poorly explained in many textbooks. Chapter 6 introduces the idea of matrices using linear transformation, which is easier to understand than the usual theory of matrices approach. The final two chapters are more advanced, introducing t...

  19. Application of radioisotope XRF and thermoluminescence (TL) dating in investigation of pottery from Tell AL-Kasra archaeological site, Syria

    Abboud, R.; Issa, H.; Abed-Allah, Y.D.; Bakraji, E.H.

    2015-01-01

    Statistical analysis based on chemical composition, using radioisotope X-ray fluorescence, have been applied on 39 ancient pottery fragments coming from the excavation at Tell Al-Kasra archaeological site, Syria. Three groups were defined by applying Cluster and Factor analysis statistical methods. Thermoluminescence (TL) dating was investigated on three sherds taken from the bathroom (hammam) on the site. Multiple aliquot additive dose (MAAD) was used to estimate the paleodose value, and the gamma spectrometry was used to estimate the dose rate. The average age was found to be 715±36 year. - Highlights: • Providing new additional data of Syrian archaeological ceramics. • This work investigates both elemental content and dating of Syrian ceramics. • Elemental analysis and dating were performed by XRF and TL dating respectively.

  20. Dating by thermoluminescence 127 pottery fragments collected from 4 archaeological sites in Taquari valley, Rio grande do Sul state, Brazil

    Watanabe, Shigueo; Cano, Nilo F.; Gennari, R.F.; Goncalves, D.C.; Machado, Neli T.G.

    2011-01-01

    127 fragments of pottery from excavation of four archaeological sites in Taquari Valley, close to Lajeado, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil have been dated by thermoluminescence. After usual crushing, sieving, immersing in HCl solution and then in HF solution, accumulated dose, Dac, (or equivalent or paleodose) has been measured using additive method. The annual dose rate of natural radiation was estimated from uranium, thorium and potassium content in both soil from where these fragments have been collected and in fragments itselves. Cosmic ray contribution was added. The interesting finding is that the glow curves of quartz grains from sites enumerated 101, 110 and 114 indicated rare variety of quartz known as reddish quarts, whereas the glow curves of quartz grains, from the site numbered 107 are equal to these of usual quartz (hyaline). Results of dating and the properties of reddish quartz will be discussed. (author)

  1. Early herding practices revealed through organic residue analysis of pottery from the early Neolithic rock shelter of Mala Triglavca, Slovenia

    Lucija Šoberl

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A collection of pottery from the early Neolithic site of Mala Triglavca was analysed with the aim of obtaining insights into vessel use and early animal domestication and husbandry practices in the Adriatic region. Total lipid extracts were submitted to gas chromatography (GC, GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and GC-combustion-isotope ratio MS (GC-C-IRMS in order to obtain molecular and stable carbon isotope signatures as the basis for determining the nature and origins of the residues. The extracts were dominated by degraded animal fats. The majority (70% of the total lipid extracts displayed intact triacylglycerol distributions attributable to ruminant adipose and dairy fats, which were subsequently confirmed through C16:0 and C18:0 fatty acid δ13C values.

  2. Glancing-incidence X-ray diffraction of Ag nanoparticles in gold lustre decoration of Italian Renaissance pottery

    Bontempi, E.; Colombi, P.; Depero, L. E.; Cartechini, L.; Presciutti, F.; Brunetti, B. G.; Sgamellotti, A.

    2006-06-01

    Lustre is known as one of the most significant decorative techniques of Medieval and Renaissance pottery in the Mediterranean basin, characterized by brilliant gold and red metallic reflections and iridescence effects. Previous studies by various techniques (SEM-EDS and TEM, UV-VIS, XRF, RBS and EXAFS) demonstrated that lustre consists of a heterogeneous metal-glass composite film, formed by Cu and Ag nanoparticles dispersed within the outer layer of a tin-opacified lead glaze. In the present work the investigation of an original gold lustre sample from Deruta has been carried out by means of glancing-incidence X-ray diffraction techniques (GIXRD). The study was aimed at providing information on structure and depth distribution of Ag nanoparticles. Exploiting the capability of controlling X-ray penetration in the glaze by changing the incidence angle, we used GIXRD measurements to estimate non-destructively thickness and depth of silver particles present in the first layers of the glaze.

  3. Buckley Sgraffito: a study of a 17th century pottery industry in North Wales, its production techniques and design influences

    Christine Longworth

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The area around Buckley in north Wales has been associated with the production of pottery since the 13th or 14th centuries. Nineteen different pottery sites have been identified, producing a wide range of ceramic wares in the six-hundred year period up to the mid-20th century. In the 17th and 18th centuries, many of the wares produced were of high quality, on a par with Staffordshire wares of the same date. In the early 17th century, the technique of sgraffito decoration spread to north Devon and Somerset from mainland Europe. Buckley is the only known site to produce early sgraffito wares in northern Britain. This article aims to establish the date of the production and range of early sgraffito wares at Buckley and to examine the derivation of the designs and illustrations on the vessels. An illustrated catalogue has been produced and a comparative study made of sgraffito wares elsewhere to place Buckley into a national and international context. The results show that early sgraffito production at Brookhill pottery, Buckley, was between 1640-1720. Of the excavated pieces, 62% were made between 1640-1680, and the number of sherds by vessel number is also greater within that date range. All the vessels are dishes. The form and designs on the remainder of the sherds, dated up to 1720, are no different from those dated to 1640-1680, which suggests a continuous period of production. The most common themes on the pots – tulips, leaves, mottoes, animals and birds – relate very closely to the designs featured on other objects made in the same period such as textiles, wallpaper, furniture and manuscripts. Some of the designs were available in pattern books for particular groups of objects, for example needlework and pastry decoration. There is an interesting sub-group of pieces with animal and bird motifs and mottoes on the rims. It is possible that the influence for these came from a resurgence of interest in the medieval bestiary texts and

  4. The Destructive/Non-Destructive Identification of Enameled Pottery, Glass Artifacts and Associated Pigments—A Brief Overview

    Philippe Colomban

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The birth of Chemistry can be found in two main practices: (i the Arts du feu (ceramic and glass, metallurgy, i.e., inorganic and solid state chemistry and (ii the preparation of remedies, alcohols and perfumes, dyes, i.e., organic and liquid state chemistry. After a brief survey of the history of (glazed pottery and (enameled glass artifacts, the development of destructive and non-destructive analytical techniques during the last few centuries is reviewed. Emphasis is put on mobile non-destructive Raman microspectroscopy of pigments and their glass/glaze host matrices for chronological/technological expertise. The techniques of white opacification, blue, yellow, green, red, and black coloring, are used as examples to point out the interest of pigments as chronological/technological markers.

  5. Linear algebra

    Stoll, R R

    1968-01-01

    Linear Algebra is intended to be used as a text for a one-semester course in linear algebra at the undergraduate level. The treatment of the subject will be both useful to students of mathematics and those interested primarily in applications of the theory. The major prerequisite for mastering the material is the readiness of the student to reason abstractly. Specifically, this calls for an understanding of the fact that axioms are assumptions and that theorems are logical consequences of one or more axioms. Familiarity with calculus and linear differential equations is required for understand

  6. Squaring the circle. Social and environmental implications of pre-pottery neolithic building technology at Tell Qarassa (South Syria.

    Andrea L Balbo

    Full Text Available We present the results of the microstratigraphic, phytolith and wood charcoal study of the remains of a 10.5 ka roof. The roof is part of a building excavated at Tell Qarassa (South Syria, assigned to the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B period (PPNB. The Pre-Pottery Neolithic (PPN period in the Levant coincides with the emergence of farming. This fundamental change in subsistence strategy implied the shift from mobile to settled aggregated life, and from tents and huts to hard buildings. As settled life spread across the Levant, a generalised transition from round to square buildings occurred, that is a trademark of the PPNB period. The study of these buildings is fundamental for the understanding of the ever-stronger reciprocal socio-ecological relationship humans developed with the local environment since the introduction of sedentism and domestication. Descriptions of buildings in PPN archaeological contexts are usually restricted to the macroscopic observation of wooden elements (posts and beams and mineral components (daub, plaster and stone elements. Reconstructions of microscopic and organic components are frequently based on ethnographic analogy. The direct study of macroscopic and microscopic, organic and mineral, building components performed at Tell Qarassa provides new insights on building conception, maintenance, use and destruction. These elements reflect new emerging paradigms in the relationship between Neolithic societies and the environment. A square building was possibly covered here with a radial roof, providing a glance into a topologic shift in the conception and understanding of volumes, from round-based to square-based geometries. Macroscopic and microscopic roof components indicate buildings were conceived for year-round residence rather than seasonal mobility. This implied performing maintenance and restoration of partially damaged buildings, as well as their adaptation to seasonal variability.

  7. Linear programming

    Solow, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This text covers the basic theory and computation for a first course in linear programming, including substantial material on mathematical proof techniques and sophisticated computation methods. Includes Appendix on using Excel. 1984 edition.

  8. Linear algebra

    Liesen, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    This self-contained textbook takes a matrix-oriented approach to linear algebra and presents a complete theory, including all details and proofs, culminating in the Jordan canonical form and its proof. Throughout the development, the applicability of the results is highlighted. Additionally, the book presents special topics from applied linear algebra including matrix functions, the singular value decomposition, the Kronecker product and linear matrix equations. The matrix-oriented approach to linear algebra leads to a better intuition and a deeper understanding of the abstract concepts, and therefore simplifies their use in real world applications. Some of these applications are presented in detailed examples. In several ‘MATLAB-Minutes’ students can comprehend the concepts and results using computational experiments. Necessary basics for the use of MATLAB are presented in a short introduction. Students can also actively work with the material and practice their mathematical skills in more than 300 exerc...

  9. Linear algebra

    Berberian, Sterling K

    2014-01-01

    Introductory treatment covers basic theory of vector spaces and linear maps - dimension, determinants, eigenvalues, and eigenvectors - plus more advanced topics such as the study of canonical forms for matrices. 1992 edition.

  10. Linear Models

    Searle, Shayle R

    2012-01-01

    This 1971 classic on linear models is once again available--as a Wiley Classics Library Edition. It features material that can be understood by any statistician who understands matrix algebra and basic statistical methods.

  11. LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    Christofilos, N.C.; Polk, I.J.

    1959-02-17

    Improvements in linear particle accelerators are described. A drift tube system for a linear ion accelerator reduces gap capacity between adjacent drift tube ends. This is accomplished by reducing the ratio of the diameter of the drift tube to the diameter of the resonant cavity. Concentration of magnetic field intensity at the longitudinal midpoint of the external sunface of each drift tube is reduced by increasing the external drift tube diameter at the longitudinal center region.

  12. Linear regression

    Olive, David J

    2017-01-01

    This text covers both multiple linear regression and some experimental design models. The text uses the response plot to visualize the model and to detect outliers, does not assume that the error distribution has a known parametric distribution, develops prediction intervals that work when the error distribution is unknown, suggests bootstrap hypothesis tests that may be useful for inference after variable selection, and develops prediction regions and large sample theory for the multivariate linear regression model that has m response variables. A relationship between multivariate prediction regions and confidence regions provides a simple way to bootstrap confidence regions. These confidence regions often provide a practical method for testing hypotheses. There is also a chapter on generalized linear models and generalized additive models. There are many R functions to produce response and residual plots, to simulate prediction intervals and hypothesis tests, to detect outliers, and to choose response trans...

  13. Linear Colliders

    Alcaraz, J.

    2001-01-01

    After several years of study e''+ e''- linear colliders in the TeV range have emerged as the major and optimal high-energy physics projects for the post-LHC era. These notes summarize the present status form the main accelerator and detector features to their physics potential. The LHC era. These notes summarize the present status, from the main accelerator and detector features to their physics potential. The LHC is expected to provide first discoveries in the new energy domain, whereas an e''+ e''- linear collider in the 500 GeV-1 TeV will be able to complement it to an unprecedented level of precision in any possible areas: Higgs, signals beyond the SM and electroweak measurements. It is evident that the Linear Collider program will constitute a major step in the understanding of the nature of the new physics beyond the Standard Model. (Author) 22 refs

  14. Linear algebra

    Edwards, Harold M

    1995-01-01

    In his new undergraduate textbook, Harold M Edwards proposes a radically new and thoroughly algorithmic approach to linear algebra Originally inspired by the constructive philosophy of mathematics championed in the 19th century by Leopold Kronecker, the approach is well suited to students in the computer-dominated late 20th century Each proof is an algorithm described in English that can be translated into the computer language the class is using and put to work solving problems and generating new examples, making the study of linear algebra a truly interactive experience Designed for a one-semester course, this text adopts an algorithmic approach to linear algebra giving the student many examples to work through and copious exercises to test their skills and extend their knowledge of the subject Students at all levels will find much interactive instruction in this text while teachers will find stimulating examples and methods of approach to the subject

  15. Identification of animal fats via compound specific δ13C values of individual fatty acids: assessments of results for reference fats and lipid extracts of archaeological pottery vessels

    Richard P. Evershed

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of obtaining molecular information from lipid residues associated with archaeological pottery has dramatically increased the potential for deriving new information on the use of ancient vessels and the commodities processed therein. Motivated by the high proportion of the archaeological potsherds that have been shown to contain animal fats, a new approach invol- ving compound specific stable isotope analysis of remnant fats has been developed to retrieve infor- mation which will allow new insights into animal exploitation, dietary preferences and vessel use amongst prehistoric peoples. The new approach uses the δ13C values of the major saturated fatty acid (C16:0 and C18:0 determined by gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC–C–IRMS to characterise the origins of animal fat recovered from archaeological pottery.

  16. Dating and classification of Syrian excavated pottery from Tell Saka Site, by means of thermoluminescence analysis, and multivariate statistical methods, based on PIXE analysis

    Bakraji, E.H.; Ahmad, M.; Salman, N.; Haloum, D.; Boutros, N.; Abboud, R.

    2011-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) dating and Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) techniques have been utilized for the study of archaeological pottery fragment samples from Tell Saka Site, which is located at 25 km south east of Damascus city, Syria. Four samples were chosen randomly from the site, two from third level and two from fourth level for dating using TL technique and the results were in good agreement with the date assigned by archaeologists. Twenty-eight sherds were analyzed using PIXE technique in order to identify and characterize the elemental composition of pottery excavated from third and fourth levels, using 3 MV tandem accelerator in Damascus. The analysis provided almost 20 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb). However, only 14 elements as follows: K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb were chosen for statistical analysis and have been processed using two multivariate statistical methods, Cluster and Factor analysis. The studied pottery were classify into two well defined groups. (author)

  17. Study of Syrian archaeological pottery by the combined application of thermoluminescence (TL) dating, X-ray fluorescence analysis and statistical multivariate analysis

    Bakraji, E.H.

    2012-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence method and the technique of thermoluminescence (TL) dating have been utilized for the study of archaeological pottery fragment samples, fairly representative of Romanian period between 1 st century B.C. and 4th century A.D, from Judaidet Yabous site, which is located north-west of Damascus city, Syria. Four samples were chosen randomly among the forty six samples for dating using thermoluminescence technique and the results were in good agreement with the date assigned by archaeologists. The samples were irradiated for 1000 s live time twice, first using a Mo X-ray Tube and second using a 109 Cd radioactive source. Fifteen elements (K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, and Pb) were determined. The elemental concentrations have been processed using two multivariate statistical methods. The purpose of the study was to characterize by means of elements contents the pottery paste from Judaidet Yabous archaeological site and providing new data to the Syrian databases for future studies. From an archaeological point of view the results indicated that most of the potteries, were locally produced. (author)

  18. PIXE multivariate statistics and OSL investigation for the classification and dating of archaeological pottery excavated at Tell Al-Rawda site, Syria

    Bakraji, E.H., E-mail: cscientificl@aec.org.sy [Archaeometry Laboratory, Chemistry Department, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, P. O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Rihawy, M.S. [Archaeometry Laboratory, Chemistry Department, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, P. O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Castel, C. [CNRS – Maison de l’Orient et de la Méditerranée, Laboratoire “Archéorient”, CNRS/Université Lumière-Lyon 2 (France); Abboud, R. [Archaeometry Laboratory, Chemistry Department, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, P. O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: •PIXE and OSL methods were used to classify and date pottery from Tell Al-Rawda site. •Three groups were classified using PIXE, which suggest different sources of the clay. •OSL was used for dating the site and the date found was consistent with typology. -- Abstract: Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique has been utilised to study 48 Syrian ancient pottery fragments taken from excavations at Tell Al-Rawda site. Eighteen elements (Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Y, and Pb) were determined. The elements concentrations have been processed using two multivariate statistical methods, to classify the pottery where one main group and other two small groups were defined. In addition, four samples from different places on the site were subjected to optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating. The average age obtained using a single aliquot regeneration (SAR) protocol was found to be 4350 ± 240 year.

  19. Study of composition and provenance of ancient Mamluk-Ayyubid potteries in Jordan using ICP-MS and synchrotron radiation XRF techniques

    Aldrabee, A.; Wriekat, A.; Abusaleem, K.; Radtke, M.

    2012-12-01

    Multielement analysis of thirty two Ayubid-Mamluk glazed pottery shards were analyzed for determining chemical composition in order to study their provenance. The shards lasted in the present research come from the historical site of Khirbt Far is on the Karat plateau in Jordan. The chemical analysis for sixteen samples was carried out by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and by synchrotron radiation x-rays fluorescence spectrometry (SR-X RF) for all samples. The quantitative analysis for elements Mg, Al, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Mo, Bi, and U has been determined by ICP-MS and the semi-quantitative analysis for the elements Fe, Cu, Zu, Br, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Pd, Ag, Cd, and Pd has been conducted for all samples by SR-X RF. The data were analyzed by using principal component analysis PCA and hierarchical cluster analysis with Bray-Curtis in order to define grouping of different glazed pottery by obtain information about their similarity and clustering. The results of chemical analysis provided persuasive evidence that the Khirbet faribet Faris pottery shards have at least three different sources of provenance. (Author)

  20. PIXE multivariate statistics and OSL investigation for the classification and dating of archaeological pottery excavated at Tell Al-Rawda site, Syria

    Bakraji, E.H.; Rihawy, M.S.; Castel, C.; Abboud, R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: •PIXE and OSL methods were used to classify and date pottery from Tell Al-Rawda site. •Three groups were classified using PIXE, which suggest different sources of the clay. •OSL was used for dating the site and the date found was consistent with typology. -- Abstract: Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique has been utilised to study 48 Syrian ancient pottery fragments taken from excavations at Tell Al-Rawda site. Eighteen elements (Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Y, and Pb) were determined. The elements concentrations have been processed using two multivariate statistical methods, to classify the pottery where one main group and other two small groups were defined. In addition, four samples from different places on the site were subjected to optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating. The average age obtained using a single aliquot regeneration (SAR) protocol was found to be 4350 ± 240 year

  1. Linear programming

    Karloff, Howard

    1991-01-01

    To this reviewer’s knowledge, this is the first book accessible to the upper division undergraduate or beginning graduate student that surveys linear programming from the Simplex Method…via the Ellipsoid algorithm to Karmarkar’s algorithm. Moreover, its point of view is algorithmic and thus it provides both a history and a case history of work in complexity theory. The presentation is admirable; Karloff's style is informal (even humorous at times) without sacrificing anything necessary for understanding. Diagrams (including horizontal brackets that group terms) aid in providing clarity. The end-of-chapter notes are helpful...Recommended highly for acquisition, since it is not only a textbook, but can also be used for independent reading and study. —Choice Reviews The reader will be well served by reading the monograph from cover to cover. The author succeeds in providing a concise, readable, understandable introduction to modern linear programming. —Mathematics of Computing This is a textbook intend...

  2. Adsorption behaviors of Pb(Ⅱ)on white pottery clay%白陶土对Pb(Ⅱ)吸附特性

    史艳婷; 张金利; 杨庆

    2016-01-01

    Batch experiments were conducted to study the adsorption behaviors of Pb(Ⅱ)on white pottery clay.Several experimental conditions,including dosage of adsorbent,initial solution pH, ionic strength,contact time,temperature and initial concentration of lead,were investigated.The experimental results indicate that the lead removal is strongly dependent on dosage of adsorbent,pH and ionic strength.The temperature has a negligible effect on the adsorption capacity of white pottery clay.The maximum adsorption of Pb(Ⅱ)on white pottery clay is 136.33 mg/g at 20 ℃,with an initial concentration of 200 mg/L,pH0 =5.5 and dosage of adsorbent of 1 g/L.The kinetics' experimental results show that the adsorption of Pb(Ⅱ)on white pottery clay is a fast process and could reach equilibrium within 180 minutes.More than 80% of the maximum adsorption capacity can be reached in 10 minutes.The adsorption process of Pb(Ⅱ)on white pottery clay is well described by the pseudo-second order kinetic model.Langmuir model is found to be applicable to the prediction of isothermal adsorption of Pb (Ⅱ)on white pottery clay.The thermodynamics' experimental results show that the adsorption of Pb(Ⅱ)on white pottery clay is a spontaneous and endothermic process. Raising temperature makes for the adsorption process.The adsorption mechanism mainly involves ion exchange,electrostatic interaction and complexation.%采用间歇试验研究白陶土对 Pb(Ⅱ)的吸附特性,考虑了吸附剂用量、初始溶液 pH、离子强度、反应时间、温度及铅初始浓度等因素的影响.间歇试验结果表明,吸附剂用量、pH、离子强度等因素对铅去除影响显著,温度对白陶土吸附能力影响相对较小.在20℃、pH0=5.5、初始浓度200 mg/L、吸附剂用量1 g/L 下,白陶土对 Pb(Ⅱ)的吸附量可达136.33 mg/g.动力学试验结果表明,白陶土对Pb(Ⅱ)的吸附为快速反应,10 min时的吸附量为最大吸附量的80%,180 min内即达到吸附平衡,

  3. Záchranný výzkum při stavbě podzemních garáží u hotelu Bohemia v Chrudimi

    Frolík, Jan; Pecinovská, Monika; Vepřeková, Jana

    Suppl. 93, - (2014), s. 47-48 ISSN 1211-992X. [Archeologické výzkumy v Čechách 2013. Praha, 08.04.2014-09.04.2014] Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : suburb * Middle Ages * mikveh * Linear Pottery Culture * pottery Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  4. Remote Sensing of a Roman Pottery Workshop. Report on a Geophysical Survey Carried out in Crikvenica (Ancient Ad Turres, Croatia

    Welc Fabian

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of a geophysical survey conducted in Crikvenica, a town located at the north-eastern Adriatic Sea coast in Croatia. The main aim was to identify extent of a Roman pottery workshop discovered to the north of the present town, at the site known as “Igralište”. The performed magnetic and GPR surveys within the area of the modern playground in Crikvenica revealed a large number of anomalies that may be connected with anthropogenic activity during different periods, both in modern and ancient times. The first group consists of anomalies generated by remnants of the modern underground infrastructure. Magnetic and ground-penetrating radar maps revealed anomalies in the north-western part of the modern playground that can be very likely interpreted as remains of a large ceramic kiln dated back to the Roman Period, similar to the kiln discovered during the excavations located further to the north. Finally, the survey performed within the Crikvenica football stadium clearly indicates that the integration of different Ground Penetrating Radar and magnetic methods allows for a detailed and effective identification of buried archaeological structures in large areas.

  5. TL dating of pottery sherds and baked soil from the Xian Terracotta Army Site, Shaanxi Province, China

    Lu Yanchou; Zhang Jingzhao; Xie Jun

    1988-01-01

    Six ceramics and two baked soil samples collected from the famous Xian Terracotta Army Site have been dated by using fine grain (2-8 μ) thermoluminescence (TL) technique. Five samples of pottery sherds exhibited peak TL at about 275 0 C and 395 0 C gave the TL age ranges from 2.13 ± 0.14 ka to 2.25 ± 0.14 ka and a mean TL age of 2.20 ± 0.15 ka, with a good plateau in the range of 290-400 0 C. Another sample, however, showed a larger peak at 365 0 C and could not be dated because of serious fading. TL ages of 1.93 ± 0.13 ka and 2.20 ± 0.19 ka have been also obtained from the baked soil samples with a plateau between 300 and 350 0 C. The TL dates of the ceramics and baked soil are consistent with C-14 dates on charcoal samples taken from the same layer in Xian Terracotta Army Site. It is consistent with other evidence that the Terracotta Army figures were made about 2200 yr ago and that the site burned down soon afterwards. (author)

  6. Change of exposure response over time and long-term risk of silicosis among a cohort of Chinese pottery workers.

    Sun, Yi; Bochmann, Frank; Morfeld, Peter; Ulm, Kurt; Liu, Yuewei; Wang, Heijiao; Yang, Lei; Chen, Weihong

    2011-07-01

    An analysis was conducted on a cohort of Chinese pottery workers to estimate the exposure-response relationship between respirable crystalline silica dust exposure and the incidence of radiographically diagnosed silicosis, and to estimate the long-term risk of developing silicosis until the age of 65. The cohort comprised 3,250 employees with a median follow-up duration of around 37 years. Incident cases of silicosis were identified via silicosis registries (Chinese X-ray stage I, similar to International Labor Organisation classification scheme profusion category 1/1). Individual exposure to respirable crystalline silica dust was estimated based on over 100,000 historical dust measurements. The association between dust exposure, incidence and long-time risk of silicosis was quantified by Poisson regression analysis adjusted for age and smoking. The risk of silicosis depended not only on the cumulative respirable crystalline silica dust exposures, but also on the time-dependent respirable crystalline silica dust exposure pattern (long-term average concentration, highest annual concentration ever experienced and time since first exposure). A long-term "excess" risk of silicosis of approximately 1.5/1,000 was estimated among workers with all annual respirable crystalline silica dust concentration estimates less than 0.1 mg/m(3), using the German measurement strategy. This study indicates the importance of proper consideration of exposure information in risk quantification in epidemiological studies.

  7. Change of Exposure Response over Time and Long-Term Risk of Silicosis among a Cohort of Chinese Pottery Workers

    Yuewei Liu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available An analysis was conducted on a cohort of Chinese pottery workers to estimate the exposure-response relationship between respirable crystalline silica dust exposure and the incidence of radiographically diagnosed silicosis, and to estimate the long-term risk of developing silicosis until the age of 65. The cohort comprised 3,250 employees with a median follow-up duration of around 37 years. Incident cases of silicosis were identified via silicosis registries (Chinese X-ray stage I, similar to International Labor Organisation classification scheme profusion category 1/1. Individual exposure to respirable crystalline silica dust was estimated based on over 100,000 historical dust measurements. The association between dust exposure, incidence and long-time risk of silicosis was quantified by Poisson regression analysis adjusted for age and smoking. The risk of silicosis depended not only on the cumulative respirable crystalline silica dust exposures, but also on the time-dependent respirable crystalline silica dust exposure pattern (long-term average concentration, highest annual concentration ever experienced and time since first exposure. A long-term “excess” risk of silicosis of approximately 1.5/1,000 was estimated among workers with all annual respirable crystalline silica dust concentration estimates less than 0.1 mg/m3, using the German measurement strategy. This study indicates the importance of proper consideration of exposure information in risk quantification in epidemiological studies.

  8. Glancing-incidence X-ray diffraction of Ag nanoparticles in gold lustre decoration of Italian Renaissance pottery

    Bontempi, E.; Colombi, P.; Depero, L.E. [Universita di Brescia, Laboratorio di Chimica per le Tecnologie and INSTM, Brescia (Italy); Cartechini, L. [Universita di Perugia, Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari-CNR, Sezione di Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Presciutti, F.; Brunetti, B.G. [Universita di Perugia, INSTM and Centro di Eccellenza SMAArt, Dipartimento di Chimica, Perugia (Italy); Sgamellotti, A. [Universita di Perugia, Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari-CNR, Sezione di Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Universita di Perugia, INSTM and Centro di Eccellenza SMAArt, Dipartimento di Chimica, Perugia (Italy)

    2006-06-15

    Lustre is known as one of the most significant decorative techniques of Medieval and Renaissance pottery in the Mediterranean basin, characterized by brilliant gold and red metallic reflections and iridescence effects. Previous studies by various techniques (SEM-EDS and TEM, UV-VIS, XRF, RBS and EXAFS) demonstrated that lustre consists of a heterogeneous metal-glass composite film, formed by Cu and Ag nanoparticles dispersed within the outer layer of a tin-opacified lead glaze. In the present work the investigation of an original gold lustre sample from Deruta has been carried out by means of glancing-incidence X-ray diffraction techniques (GIXRD). The study was aimed at providing information on structure and depth distribution of Ag nanoparticles. Exploiting the capability of controlling X-ray penetration in the glaze by changing the incidence angle, we used GIXRD measurements to estimate non-destructively thickness and depth of silver particles present in the first layers of the glaze. (orig.)

  9. Glancing-incidence X-ray diffraction of Ag nanoparticles in gold lustre decoration of Italian Renaissance pottery

    Bontempi, E.; Colombi, P.; Depero, L.E.; Cartechini, L.; Presciutti, F.; Brunetti, B.G.; Sgamellotti, A.

    2006-01-01

    Lustre is known as one of the most significant decorative techniques of Medieval and Renaissance pottery in the Mediterranean basin, characterized by brilliant gold and red metallic reflections and iridescence effects. Previous studies by various techniques (SEM-EDS and TEM, UV-VIS, XRF, RBS and EXAFS) demonstrated that lustre consists of a heterogeneous metal-glass composite film, formed by Cu and Ag nanoparticles dispersed within the outer layer of a tin-opacified lead glaze. In the present work the investigation of an original gold lustre sample from Deruta has been carried out by means of glancing-incidence X-ray diffraction techniques (GIXRD). The study was aimed at providing information on structure and depth distribution of Ag nanoparticles. Exploiting the capability of controlling X-ray penetration in the glaze by changing the incidence angle, we used GIXRD measurements to estimate non-destructively thickness and depth of silver particles present in the first layers of the glaze. (orig.)

  10. The use of fan scrapers: Microwear evidence from Late Pottery Neolithic and Early Bronze Age, Ein Zippori, Israel

    Richard W. Yerkes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of a microwear analysis of samples of fan scrapers and fan scrapers spalls from late Pottery Neolithic (PN and Early Bronze Age (EBA occupation layers at Ein Zippori, Lower Galilee, Israel are presented. The goal of the microwear analysis was to determine the function of the fan scrapers and compare the visible usewear on the scrapers found in late PN and EBA lithic assemblages. The results indicate that during both periods most of the fan scrapers were used to skin and butcher animals, while some were also used for hide processing and bone working. The working edges of the fan scrapers had sharp, moderate, or steep edge-angles, and different edges were used for different tasks. Edges with microwear from scraping meat, bone, and hides (including some hides that may have been treated with abrasives had steep edge-angles, while there were moderate or sharp edge-angles on the edges of fan scrapers used for cutting. Two sub-types of fan scrapers were identified, flat cortex fan scrapers (FCFS, and cortical fan scrapers (CFS with convex dorsal faces. The CFS were abundant in PN contexts, while the FCFS were more common in EBA layers. However both of the sub-types had similar microwear traces.

  11. Iron isotope analysis of red and black pigments on pottery in Nasca, Peru

    Eerkens, JW; Barfod, GH; Vaughn, KJ; Williams, PR; Lesher, CE

    2014-01-01

    The Nasca culture of the south coast of Peru developed during the first millennium ad and is known internationally for its elaborately decorated polychrome pots. Despite decades of iconographic analysis, little is known about the more technological aspects of Nasca pigment production and application. We present results from a pilot study on iron isotopes as a potential line of inquiry into the differences between red and black pigments in Nasca pigments. As well, we conduct a small firing exp...

  12. Reduction of Linear Programming to Linear Approximation

    Vaserstein, Leonid N.

    2006-01-01

    It is well known that every Chebyshev linear approximation problem can be reduced to a linear program. In this paper we show that conversely every linear program can be reduced to a Chebyshev linear approximation problem.

  13. Chemical characterization of ancient pottery from the southwest Amazonia using neutron activation analysis

    Carvalho, Patricia R.; Munita, Casimiro S.; Neves, Eduardo G.; Zimpel, Carlos A.; Universidade de Sao Paulo

    2017-01-01

    The analyzes carried out in this work aims to contribute to the discussion about the ceramic objects founded in Monte Castelo's sambaqui located at Southwest Amazonia. The first study accomplished by Miller in 1980 suggests that this archaeological site is inserted in the old contexts of production of ceramics in the Amazon. Until today, there are not any physical and chemical analysis studies in this ceramics and this kind of studies may help archaeological studies performed at the sambaqui. With this purpose, this work presents a preliminary study of chemical characterization of eighty-seven ceramic samples using the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). The analyzed elements were: As, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Sm, U, Yb, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, Rb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th. With the purpose to study the similarity/dissimilarity between the samples cluster and discriminant analysis were used. The results showed the existence of three different chemical groups that are in agreement with the archaeological studies made by Miller which found a sequence of cultural development, with three main occupational components whose dating ranging from 8.400 to 4.000 b.P. In this way, the results of this work are in agreement with miller's studies and suggest Bacabal's phase as the oldest ceramist culture in the Southwest of the Amazon. (author)

  14. Chemical characterization of ancient pottery from the southwest Amazonia using neutron activation analysis

    Carvalho, Patricia R.; Munita, Casimiro S.; Neves, Eduardo G.; Zimpel, Carlos A., E-mail: camunita@ipen.br, E-mail: edgneves@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Universidade de Sao Paulo (MAE/USP), SP (Brazil). Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia

    2017-11-01

    The analyzes carried out in this work aims to contribute to the discussion about the ceramic objects founded in Monte Castelo's sambaqui located at Southwest Amazonia. The first study accomplished by Miller in 1980 suggests that this archaeological site is inserted in the old contexts of production of ceramics in the Amazon. Until today, there are not any physical and chemical analysis studies in this ceramics and this kind of studies may help archaeological studies performed at the sambaqui. With this purpose, this work presents a preliminary study of chemical characterization of eighty-seven ceramic samples using the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). The analyzed elements were: As, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Sm, U, Yb, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, Rb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th. With the purpose to study the similarity/dissimilarity between the samples cluster and discriminant analysis were used. The results showed the existence of three different chemical groups that are in agreement with the archaeological studies made by Miller which found a sequence of cultural development, with three main occupational components whose dating ranging from 8.400 to 4.000 b.P. In this way, the results of this work are in agreement with miller's studies and suggest Bacabal's phase as the oldest ceramist culture in the Southwest of the Amazon. (author)

  15. linear-quadratic-linear model

    Tanwiwat Jaikuna

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To develop an in-house software program that is able to calculate and generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram by physical dose conversion using the linear-quadratic-linear (LQL model. Material and methods : The Isobio software was developed using MATLAB version 2014b to calculate and generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histograms. The physical dose from each voxel in treatment planning was extracted through Computational Environment for Radiotherapy Research (CERR, and the accuracy was verified by the differentiation between the dose volume histogram from CERR and the treatment planning system. An equivalent dose in 2 Gy fraction (EQD2 was calculated using biological effective dose (BED based on the LQL model. The software calculation and the manual calculation were compared for EQD2 verification with pair t-test statistical analysis using IBM SPSS Statistics version 22 (64-bit. Results: Two and three-dimensional biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram were displayed correctly by the Isobio software. Different physical doses were found between CERR and treatment planning system (TPS in Oncentra, with 3.33% in high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV determined by D90%, 0.56% in the bladder, 1.74% in the rectum when determined by D2cc, and less than 1% in Pinnacle. The difference in the EQD2 between the software calculation and the manual calculation was not significantly different with 0.00% at p-values 0.820, 0.095, and 0.593 for external beam radiation therapy (EBRT and 0.240, 0.320, and 0.849 for brachytherapy (BT in HR-CTV, bladder, and rectum, respectively. Conclusions : The Isobio software is a feasible tool to generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram for treatment plan evaluation in both EBRT and BT.

  16. A new light on the evolution and propagation of prehistoric grain pests: the world's oldest maize weevils found in Jomon Potteries, Japan.

    Obata, Hiroki; Manabe, Aya; Nakamura, Naoko; Onishi, Tomokazu; Senba, Yasuko

    2011-03-29

    Three Sitophilus species (S. granarius L., S. oryzae L., and S. zeamais Mots.) are closely related based on DNA analysis of their endosymbionts. All are seed parasites of cereal crops and important economic pest species in stored grain. The Sitophilus species that currently exist, including these three species, are generally believed to be endemic to Asia's forested areas, suggesting that the first infestations of stored grain must have taken place near the forested mountains of southwestern Asia. Previous archaeological data and historical records suggest that the three species may have been diffused by the spread of Neolithic agriculture, but this hypothesis has only been established for granary weevils in European and southwestern Asian archaeological records. There was little archeological evidence for grain pests in East Asia before the discovery of maize weevil impressions in Jomon pottery in 2004 using the "impression replica" method. Our research on Jomon agriculture based on seed and insect impressions in pottery continued to seek additional evidence. In 2010, we discovered older weevil impressions in Jomon pottery dating to ca. 10 500 BP. These specimens are the oldest harmful insects in the world discovered at archaeological sites. Our results provide evidence of harmful insects living in the villages from the Earliest Jomon, when no cereals were cultivated. This suggests we must reconsider previous scenarios for the evolution and propagation of grain pest weevils, especially in eastern Asia. Although details of their biology or the foods they infested remain unclear, we hope future interdisciplinary collaborations among geneticists, entomologists, and archaeologists will provide the missing details.

  17. A new light on the evolution and propagation of prehistoric grain pests: the world's oldest maize weevils found in Jomon Potteries, Japan.

    Hiroki Obata

    Full Text Available Three Sitophilus species (S. granarius L., S. oryzae L., and S. zeamais Mots. are closely related based on DNA analysis of their endosymbionts. All are seed parasites of cereal crops and important economic pest species in stored grain. The Sitophilus species that currently exist, including these three species, are generally believed to be endemic to Asia's forested areas, suggesting that the first infestations of stored grain must have taken place near the forested mountains of southwestern Asia. Previous archaeological data and historical records suggest that the three species may have been diffused by the spread of Neolithic agriculture, but this hypothesis has only been established for granary weevils in European and southwestern Asian archaeological records. There was little archeological evidence for grain pests in East Asia before the discovery of maize weevil impressions in Jomon pottery in 2004 using the "impression replica" method. Our research on Jomon agriculture based on seed and insect impressions in pottery continued to seek additional evidence. In 2010, we discovered older weevil impressions in Jomon pottery dating to ca. 10 500 BP. These specimens are the oldest harmful insects in the world discovered at archaeological sites. Our results provide evidence of harmful insects living in the villages from the Earliest Jomon, when no cereals were cultivated. This suggests we must reconsider previous scenarios for the evolution and propagation of grain pest weevils, especially in eastern Asia. Although details of their biology or the foods they infested remain unclear, we hope future interdisciplinary collaborations among geneticists, entomologists, and archaeologists will provide the missing details.

  18. Neutron Activation Analysis of Archaeological Pottery Samples of Large Size, Including Pieces of Low Symmetry Shape: How to Get Accurate Analytical Results in a Practical Way

    Bedregal, P.S.; Montoya, E.H.; Mendoza, P.; Ubillús, M.; Baltuano, O.; Hernández, Y.; Gago, J.; Cohen, I.M.

    2018-01-01

    The feasibility of the instrumental neutron activation analysis of entire pieces of archaeological pottery, using low thermal neutron fluxes, is examined and a new approach for the non-destructive analysis of entire pottery objects by INAA, using the conventional relative method, is described. The proposed method relies in the preparation of a comparison standard, which is a nominally identical replicate of the original object to be studied. INAA of small samples taken from that replicate allows determining its composition for the elements to be analyzed. Then the intact sample and intact standard are irradiated together with the neutrons from a nuclear reactor neutron beam, using a suitable turntable facility and monitored by neutron flux monitors. Finally, after proper decay times, the induced activities in sample, standard and flux monitors, are successively measured, by high-resolution gamma spectroscopy, using a high-efficiency germanium detector. In this way, several complicating effects such geometrical efficiency, neutron self-shielding and gamma ray attenuation are avoided and the need of complicated mathematical corrections is not needed. A potential advantage of the method is that it can be fully validated. Quantitative experiments using 7 - 13 hours of irradiation of pairs of 750 grams replicates, at low neutron fluxes of 3.9 x10 6 n cm -2 s -1 , followed by 100000 to 200000 seconds of counting in front of a 70% relative efficiency HPGe detector, led to recoveries between 90% and 110% for Sc and La. Another experiment, using pairs of replicates of small solid mud anthropomorphic objects, (weighing about 100 grams each), irradiated by 8 hours at a neutron flux of 10 9 n cm -2 s -1 , led to recoveries better than 90% and 110% for As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Lu, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, Yb and U, showing that the proposed method is suitable for LSNAA of entire pottery or mud archaeological objects. (author)

  19. Application of multivariate statistical methods to classify archaeological pottery from Tel-Alramad site, Syria, based on x-ray fluorescence analysis

    Bakraji, E. H.

    2007-01-01

    Radioisotopic x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis has been utilized to determine the elemental composition of 55 archaeological pottery samples by the determination of 17 chemical elements. Fifty-four of them came from the Tel-Alramad Site in Katana town, near Damascus city, Syria, and one sample came from Brazil. The XRF results have been processed using two multivariate statistical methods, cluster and factor analysis, in order to determine similarities and correlation between the selected samples based on their elemental composition. The methodology successfully separates the samples where four distinct chemical groups were identified. (author)

  20. Osteologická analýza lidských a zvířecích pozůstatků z polykulturní lokality Jevišovka – Nová

    Jurkovičová, L.; Mrázková, R.; Komoróczy, Balázs

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 1 (2017), s. 24-29 ISSN 1804-1876 Institutional support: RVO:68081758 Keywords : anthropological analysis * archaeozoological analysis * Linear pottery culture * Moravian painted pottery culture * Únětice culture * La Tène culture * Roman Age * Migration Period Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology OBOR OECD: Archaeology http://anthropology.cz/wp- content /uploads/2018/02/24-29_Jurkovicova_L_2017_67_1.pdf

  1. Diet in pottery-making societies from Central Chile: The contribution of stable isotope analyses

    Falabella, Fernanda; Planella, M.Teresa; Aspillaga, Eugenio; Sanhueza, Lorena; Tykot, Robert H

    2007-01-01

    This is the first time that stable carbon, nitrogen and oxygen isotope analyses of human bones and teeth have been used to reconstruct subsistence and settlement patterns of prehispanic ceramic societies from Central Chile. Isotope analyses, unlike the evidence from botanical, faunal and artifactual remains from archaeological sites, and from dental and skeletal pathologies, gave information of which resources were really eaten by each individual during the last years of their life. The human data were evaluated against isotopic values of marine and terrestrial resources from central Chile. These results were interpreted taking into consideration different lines of paleodiet evidence. The main contributions are: empirical evidence of dietary differences according to cultural groups; low dependence on marine foods for most people living on the coast; indirect evidence of mobility strategies that show differences between Early and Late Intermediate societies; increased dependence on maize with time, especially among the Aconcagua people; gender differences in maize consumption for the same Aconcagua groups, men showing the greatest levels of maize intake. The results support some hypotheses, such as the difference in dietary patterns between contemporary Bato and Lolleo groups, contradict others, such as the supposed importance of marine diet for coastal inhabitants, and open new research questions for the future [es

  2. Herxheim - odpověď na otázku krizového vývoje na konci kultury s lineární keramikou?

    Končelová, Markéta

    Roč. 8, - ( 2007 ), s. 11-13 ISSN 1213-1628 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : Herxheim * Linear Pottery culture * elliptical system of elongated pits * ritual practices Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  3. A likely late-Roman painted pottery workshop in Tarancuena (Soria | Un probable taller local de cerámica pintada tardorromana en Tarancueña (Soria

    Juan Manuel Abascal Palazón

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of painted pottery in the Roman site of Tarancueña (Soria stand out because of its thematic and chronological homogeneity, and the meeting in only one site of the types which appear in the peripheric counties. The analysis of the material, combined with the information from the excavations, allows us to suggest the existence of a county factory which produced this type of pottery in the second half of the IVth Century A. D. and the first years of the Vth Century A. D. | Los hallazgos de cerámica pintada del yacimiento romano de Tarancueña (Soria, destacan por su homogeneidad temática y cronológica, así como por reunir en un solo enclave los tipos que aparecen en las regiones periféricas. El análisis del material, combinado con la información de las excavaciones, permite sugerir la existencia de un taller comarcal que produjo este tipo de piezas en la segunda mitad del siglo IV y los primeros años del siglo V. d. C.

  4. Linear Algebra and Smarandache Linear Algebra

    Vasantha, Kandasamy

    2003-01-01

    The present book, on Smarandache linear algebra, not only studies the Smarandache analogues of linear algebra and its applications, it also aims to bridge the need for new research topics pertaining to linear algebra, purely in the algebraic sense. We have introduced Smarandache semilinear algebra, Smarandache bilinear algebra and Smarandache anti-linear algebra and their fuzzy equivalents. Moreover, in this book, we have brought out the study of linear algebra and vector spaces over finite p...

  5. The «C» campanian and grey seudocampanian pottery in the province of Seville | La cerámica campaniense «C» y seudocampaniense de pasta gris en la provincia de Sevilla

    Juan José Ventura Martínez

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available We want to make a contribution to the study of the Campanian pottery in the Iberian Peninsula. We analyse a lot of this pottery from various sites of the province of Seville, and carry out the study of the C Campanian pottery, and of the grey-paste pottery connected with it, in this area. | El presente estudio pretende ser una contribución al conocimiento de la cerámica campaniense en el ámbito de la Península Ibérica. En base al material reunido, procedente de diversos yacimientos de la provincia de Sevilla, el planteamiento del trabajo ha girado en torno a la documentación efectiva en dicho ámbito provincial tanto de la cerámica campaniense de tipo C como de una serie de cerámicas caracterizadas básicamente por su pasta gris y que en ocasiones, por sus características técnicas, formales o decorativas apuntan a una inspiración más o menos directa en las producciones propiamente campanienses.

  6. Minyan and Minyanizing Pottery

    Sarri, Kalliopi

    2010-01-01

    courantsidéologiques désormais révolus et des conceptions opposées, ce qui a créé nombre de confusions,de préjugés et d’interprétations erronées. L’une des questions les plus fréquentes est celle de la dis-tinction entre « vrai minyen », variantes locales et imitations. Ce point est encore assez complexecar 1) les...

  7. Large sample NAA of a pottery replica utilizing thermal neutron flux at AHWR critical facility and X-Z rotary scanning unit

    Acharya, R.; Dasari, K.B.; Pujari, P.K.; Swain, K.K.; Shinde, A.D.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2013-01-01

    Large sample neutron activation analysis (LSNAA) of a clay pottery replica from Peru was carried out using low neutron flux graphite reflector position of Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) critical facility. This work was taken up as a part of inter-comparison exercise under IAEA CRP on LSNAA of archaeological objects. Irradiated large size sample, placed on an X-Z rotary scanning unit, was assayed using a 40% relative efficiency HPGe detector. The k 0 -based internal monostandard NAA (IM-NAA) in conjunction with insitu relative detection efficiency was used to calculate concentration ratios of 12 elements with respect to Na. Analyses of both small and large size samples were carried out to check homogeneity and to arrive at absolute concentrations. (author)

  8. Architecture of Lasinja culture settlements in the light of new investigations in northern Croatia

    Minichreiter, Kornelija; Marković, Zorko

    2015-01-01

    The site of Beketinci, Bentež, stands out among Lasinja settlements as the site of the largest uncovered surface – the excavation at 30 900m2 revealed a portion of a Lasinja culture settlement. Its western part (covering 24 700m2) was dedicated to working activities (working features: clay-extraction pits, working pits, self-standing partitions, pottery kilns, and wells), while in the eastern, residential, part (extending over 6200m2 of excavated surface) we uncovered a cluster of 5 rectangul...

  9. Linearly constrained minimax optimization

    Madsen, Kaj; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans

    1978-01-01

    We present an algorithm for nonlinear minimax optimization subject to linear equality and inequality constraints which requires first order partial derivatives. The algorithm is based on successive linear approximations to the functions defining the problem. The resulting linear subproblems...

  10. Foundations of linear and generalized linear models

    Agresti, Alan

    2015-01-01

    A valuable overview of the most important ideas and results in statistical analysis Written by a highly-experienced author, Foundations of Linear and Generalized Linear Models is a clear and comprehensive guide to the key concepts and results of linear statistical models. The book presents a broad, in-depth overview of the most commonly used statistical models by discussing the theory underlying the models, R software applications, and examples with crafted models to elucidate key ideas and promote practical model building. The book begins by illustrating the fundamentals of linear models,

  11. New insights into the subsistence economy of the Eneolithic Dereivka culture of the Ukrainian North-Pontic region through lipid residues analysis of pottery vessels

    Mileto, Simona; Kaiser, Elker; Rassamakin, Yuri; Evershed, Richard

    2017-01-01

    The Dereivka site of the North-Pontic forest-steppe has been widely investigated because of its potential as a centre for horse domestication (Levine, 1990; Telegin, 1986). Despite the significant archaeological evidence available, Dereivka is considered a contradictory and complex site (Rassamakin, 1999: 3) due to a range of challenges connected with reconciling the various lines of available archaeological evidence. Consequently, a generally acceptable subsistence economic model has still t...

  12. Treatment of textile effluent containing indigo blue dye by a UASB reactor coupled with pottery clay adsorption - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i1.13091

    Vinicius Conceição

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the treatment of a synthetic textile wastewater containing the blue indigo dye in a UASB (upflow anaerobic reactor, on a bench scale, followed by pottery clay adsorption. The system monitoring was verified by the following physical and chemical parameters: pH, alkalinity, volatile acids, COD and removal of color. The adsorption tests using pottery clay (construction debris as an alternative adsorbent material were performed on a jar test equipment. The results showed satisfactory effectiveness in removing color and organic matter (COD by the UASB, at the order of 69 and 81.2%, respectively. The color removal using ceramic clay as an alternative adsorbent material was 97% for the concentration of 200 g L-1 of adsorbent, evidencing that the use of pottery clay as adsorbent material had significant and promising results, and may be used as a post-treatment unit for removal of dyes present in textile effluents, and since construction debris currently represents a major environmental problem, its use in wastewater treatment may become an alternative to a proper destination of this waste.  

  13. Vajilla de mesa (terra sigillata y cerámica engobada de la ciudad romana de Los Bañales (Uncastillo, Zaragoza = Roman Pottery (terra sigillata and engobada at the archaeological site of Los Bañales (Uncastillo, Zaragoza

    Elena Lasaosa Pardo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se presenta la vajilla de mesa (terra sigillata y cerámica engobada que consta entre los materiales cerámicos de la ciudad romana de Los Bañales (Uncastillo, Zaragoza, recuperados en los años setenta del siglo pasado por Antonio Beltrán Martínez. Con este trabajo se pretende aportar datos que ayuden en el estudio de la antigua ciudad ubicada en el lugar y enriquezcan la investigación que hay en ella y que ha sido retomada en los últimos años para el mejor conocimiento, conservación, puesta en valor y difusión de la ciudad.In the following pages, the material culture results, specifically terra sigillata and engobada pottery, obtained from a series of archaeological interventions undertaken in the 1970’s by the lecturer Antonio Beltrán, at the archeological site of Los Bañales (Uncastillo, Zaragoza, are presented. The aim of this article is to increase the information available on these ceramics and to provide a contribution towards a greater understanding of the historical city of Los Bañales. This study will also assist recent archaeological investigations on this historic site, by providing better information on the form, chronology and use of these ceramics and by communicating the results of this study to both the researchers and the interested public. It will also contribute to the culture heritage of Uncastillo through the conservation of the ceramic evidence and the public display of this material culture.

  14. Evolution Is Linear: Debunking Life's Little Joke.

    Jenner, Ronald A

    2018-01-01

    Linear depictions of the evolutionary process are ubiquitous in popular culture, but linear evolutionary imagery is strongly rejected by scientists who argue that evolution branches. This point is frequently illustrated by saying that we didn't evolve from monkeys, but that we are related to them as collateral relatives. Yet, we did evolve from monkeys, but our monkey ancestors are extinct, not extant. Influential voices, such as the late Stephen Jay Gould, have misled audiences for decades by falsely portraying the linear and branching aspects of evolution to be in conflict, and by failing to distinguish between the legitimate linearity of evolutionary descent, and the branching relationships among collateral relatives that result when lineages of ancestors diverge. The purpose of this article is to correct the widespread misplaced rejection of linear evolutionary imagery, and to re-emphasize the basic truth that the evolutionary process is fundamentally linear. © 2017 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  15. A linear programming manual

    Tuey, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    Computer solutions of linear programming problems are outlined. Information covers vector spaces, convex sets, and matrix algebra elements for solving simultaneous linear equations. Dual problems, reduced cost analysis, ranges, and error analysis are illustrated.

  16. Linear shaped charge

    Peterson, David; Stofleth, Jerome H.; Saul, Venner W.

    2017-07-11

    Linear shaped charges are described herein. In a general embodiment, the linear shaped charge has an explosive with an elongated arrowhead-shaped profile. The linear shaped charge also has and an elongated v-shaped liner that is inset into a recess of the explosive. Another linear shaped charge includes an explosive that is shaped as a star-shaped prism. Liners are inset into crevices of the explosive, where the explosive acts as a tamper.

  17. Classifying Linear Canonical Relations

    Lorand, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    In this Master's thesis, we consider the problem of classifying, up to conjugation by linear symplectomorphisms, linear canonical relations (lagrangian correspondences) from a finite-dimensional symplectic vector space to itself. We give an elementary introduction to the theory of linear canonical relations and present partial results toward the classification problem. This exposition should be accessible to undergraduate students with a basic familiarity with linear algebra.

  18. Linear-Algebra Programs

    Lawson, C. L.; Krogh, F. T.; Gold, S. S.; Kincaid, D. R.; Sullivan, J.; Williams, E.; Hanson, R. J.; Haskell, K.; Dongarra, J.; Moler, C. B.

    1982-01-01

    The Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS) library is a collection of 38 FORTRAN-callable routines for performing basic operations of numerical linear algebra. BLAS library is portable and efficient source of basic operations for designers of programs involving linear algebriac computations. BLAS library is supplied in portable FORTRAN and Assembler code versions for IBM 370, UNIVAC 1100 and CDC 6000 series computers.

  19. X-ray analysis of cultural heritage at museums by using portable instruments

    Nakai, Izumi; Abe, Yoshinari

    2009-01-01

    We have been developing a portable powder diffractometer and XRF spectrometer since 2001 jointly with two X-ray makers: i.e., Institute of X-ray Technologies Co. Ltd. and OURSTEX Co. Ltd., respectively. The instruments were brought to several museums as well as many archeological sites in Egypt, Turkey, Italy, etc. to characterize the cultural heritage and the results were reflected on their improvement. The instruments thus developed are suitable for on site analyses with enough sensitivity, accuracy, and durability. The latest version of our diffractometer (weight 15 kg) adopted Si-PIN as a detector, which enable us to obtain EDX spectrum of the sample as well as a good powder diffraction pattern with low background. The XRF spectrometer (25 kg) is equipped with SDD detector and monochromatic/white X-ray sources. Recently the Be window of the detector was replaced with MOXTEK AP3 polymer window and vacuum sample chamber was introduced to quantify Na and Mg. The instruments were brought to Archaeological Museum in Zadar, Croatia, Okayama Orient Museum and MIHO Museum in Japan. The samples are glass, pottery, metallic and stone objects dated from second millennium B.C. to modern. We have chemically characterized 109 Roman glass artifacts excavated at a Roman necropolis found in Zadar, and classified based on decolorants, impurity and vessel types. We have studied glass, faience, pottery and metal collections at the Orient Museum. The results include identification of cassiterite in glazed Islamic pottery. At MIHO museum, stone objects from China and Middle East were characterized by the diffractometer. The analyses were made as joint projects with S. Gluscevic (Archaeological Museum), R. Shikaku (Orient Museum), Y. Azuma and Y. Kuwabara (MIHO Museum). (author)

  20. From the Spreadsheet to the Table? Using 'spot-dating' level pottery records from Roman London to explore functional trends among open vessel forms

    Michael Marshall

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Intensive excavation and research over the course of decades have produced a very large dataset relating to Roman pottery from London. Research into the function of specific vessel forms has rarely been undertaken but information about the size, shape, fabric and condition of vessels recorded during routine identification and quantification of assemblages at MOLA (Museum of London Archaeology and its predecessor organisations, has significant potential to inform functional interpretations. This evidence was used to explore the function of a sample of open forms, suggesting considerable variation in use and highlighting areas in which the quality of data needs to be improved to aid further functional analysis in the future. It was possible to use this evidence to show broad distinctions in the use of fine and coarse wares and to identify recurrent wear on a range of forms, mirroring those previously identified elsewhere. More subtle patterns relating to the use of lids in cooking, and a decline in the evidence for heating on similar coarse-ware forms over time, were also identified.

  1. Archaeometric investigation of red-figured pottery fragments from Gioiosa Guardia (Messina, Sicily) by INAA, FT-IR and TOF-ND techniques

    Barilaro, D.; Crupi, V.; Interdonato, S.

    2008-01-01

    The present work is addressed to the study of some precious ancient pottery fragments, coming from the archaeological site of Gioiosa Guardia, in the Tirrenean Coast of Sicily. On the basis of historical and aesthetic considerations, the findings are dated back to 6.-5. Century b.C. and show a surface entirely decorated by red-figured technique, typical of Attic production. Many doubts arise about the real provenance of the artefacts. On one side, they could come directly from Greece, as attested by trading patterns between Greece and Southern Italy, on the other side, they could be produced in Sicily under the Greek artistic influence. In order to obtain a detailed characterization of the samples, a microdistruttive investigation was performed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), Fourier transform infrared absorption (FT-IR) and a non-invasive analysis by time-of-flight neutron diffraction (TOF-ND). Starting from the identification of the mineralogical and geochemical composition, a correct classification of the shards can be achieved.

  2. Spatio-temporal analysis of oak forests (Quercus humboldtii Bonpl.) change and its relationship with pottery at Aguabuena (Raquira-Boyaca)

    Moncada Rasmussen, Dora Maria

    2010-01-01

    This research was conducted at Aguabuena, Raquira-Boyaca, and the main objective was to identify the changes in the settlement patterns and oak - forest cover, due to the development of new technologies and destinies for ceramics production. The study was carried out using aerial photographs from 1985 and 1993 processed in ArcGIS v. 9.0, as well as the application of participatory methods and spatial statistics. The spatio-temporal analysis of the forests allowed the measurement of perimeter and area changes and the number of fragments, where the loss of forest cover was 43.43% for the evaluated years. For analytical purposes related to the ceramics production organization, two different types of workshops can be pointed out: Domestic and Family - Industry. In the Domestic workshops spatial aggregation is due to the forest presence, its relative and different antiquity. The family - indus try- workshops are located along roads, for their relatives and population increment. Each ceramic production system represents different forms of relations with nature; the domestic ones are located in the oaks forests, using high quality fuel in the heating ceramics, while the Industrial-Family looks for the roads with the purpose of centralizing the production and favoring the intermediate relations. These two modes of production reflect the human role in the change and creation of new land scapes from the pottery.

  3. Estudo comparativo das argilas das olarias dos municípios de Alfenas e Areado, MG Comparative study of the clays used in potteries from Alfenas and Areado, MG, Brazil

    L. A. Gaspar Junior

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Os horizontes pedológicos dos perfis de solos desenvolvidos a partir das rochas pré-cambrianas dos municípios de Alfenas, MG e Areado, MG assim como os sedimentos colúvio-aluvionares associados têm sido intensivamente utilizados para fins cerâmicos (em particular em olarias de tijolos sem um estudo detalhado para racionalizar sua utilização na indústria cerâmica. Entretanto apesar da proximidade destes dois municípios, segundo antigos trabalhadores das olarias dessas regiões, as argilas do município de Areado têm apresentado qualidade superior às das argilas do município de Alfenas. Tal fato levou ao desenvolvimento do presente trabalho cujo objetivo foi comparar as propriedades mineralógicas (descrição macroscópica e difração de raios X, químicas (elementos maiores por fluorescência por raios X e análise de carbono orgânico e tecnológicas (distribuição granulométrica de prensagem; granulometria a laser, módulo de ruptura à flexão; absorção de água, porosidade aparente; retração linear de queima; cor de queima, entre outros das argilas destes dois municípios para se conhecer a matéria-prima dessas duas regiões de modo a desenvolver aplicações tecnológicas adequadas. A melhor qualidade da matéria prima originada do município de Areado (Grupo AR é devida à maior presença de argilominerais como a caulinita, illita e esmectita associados a uma granulometria mais fina, que contribuiu para uma melhor sinterização.The pedological horizons of soil profiles developed from pre-cambrian rocks of the municipalities of Alfenas and Areado, MG, Brazil, as well as the alluvial-colluvial sediments associated has been used intensively for ceramic potteries (particularly for bricks but without a detailed study to rationalize their use in the ceramic industry. However, despite the proximity of these cities, according to skilled workers of the brickworks, the raw materials from Areado have shown higher quality than

  4. Intangible cultural heritage as a tourist brand of Serbia

    Bjeljac Željko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Presented as a part of intangible cultural heritage, Serbian national folklore is rich in spiritual and worldly values and it is transposed in customs, celebrations, music, songs, dances, stories and legends. As a part of tourist offer, these elements are presented in numerous festivals and tourist events. In the year 2012, the Network on the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Serbia was formed. The National Centre for Intangible Cultural Heritage registers 27 elements of intangible cultural heritage, among which most representative are the patron saint festivity, St. George's Day ritual, the national dance - kolo, singing accompanied with the musical instrument gusle, Vuk's Parliament, naive painting of Slovak minority, Pirot carpet-making and pottery from Zlakuša village, which reflect the national cultural identity both of Serbian people, and partly of certain ethnic minorities. There are also some elements that are not included in this list, but they also represent a significant tourist value, such as the harvest bread ritual (Dužijanca, Haymaking in Rajac, folk-shoe making (opanak and many others. In this paper, categorization and classification of intangible heritage is made. Those cultural elements that have certain tourist potential and as such may represent a significant factor in the formation of Serbian tourism brand are identified.

  5. Non linear system become linear system

    Petre Bucur

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper refers to the theory and the practice of the systems regarding non-linear systems and their applications. We aimed the integration of these systems to elaborate their response as well as to highlight some outstanding features.

  6. Linear motor coil assembly and linear motor

    2009-01-01

    An ironless linear motor (5) comprising a magnet track (53) and a coil assembly (50) operating in cooperation with said magnet track (53) and having a plurality of concentrated multi-turn coils (31 a-f, 41 a-d, 51 a-k), wherein the end windings (31E) of the coils (31 a-f, 41 a-e) are substantially

  7. Linear collider: a preview

    Wiedemann, H.

    1981-11-01

    Since no linear colliders have been built yet it is difficult to know at what energy the linear cost scaling of linear colliders drops below the quadratic scaling of storage rings. There is, however, no doubt that a linear collider facility for a center of mass energy above say 500 GeV is significantly cheaper than an equivalent storage ring. In order to make the linear collider principle feasible at very high energies a number of problems have to be solved. There are two kinds of problems: one which is related to the feasibility of the principle and the other kind of problems is associated with minimizing the cost of constructing and operating such a facility. This lecture series describes the problems and possible solutions. Since the real test of a principle requires the construction of a prototype I will in the last chapter describe the SLC project at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center.

  8. Basic linear algebra

    Blyth, T S

    2002-01-01

    Basic Linear Algebra is a text for first year students leading from concrete examples to abstract theorems, via tutorial-type exercises. More exercises (of the kind a student may expect in examination papers) are grouped at the end of each section. The book covers the most important basics of any first course on linear algebra, explaining the algebra of matrices with applications to analytic geometry, systems of linear equations, difference equations and complex numbers. Linear equations are treated via Hermite normal forms which provides a successful and concrete explanation of the notion of linear independence. Another important highlight is the connection between linear mappings and matrices leading to the change of basis theorem which opens the door to the notion of similarity. This new and revised edition features additional exercises and coverage of Cramer's rule (omitted from the first edition). However, it is the new, extra chapter on computer assistance that will be of particular interest to readers:...

  9. Linear collider: a preview

    Wiedemann, H.

    1981-11-01

    Since no linear colliders have been built yet it is difficult to know at what energy the linear cost scaling of linear colliders drops below the quadratic scaling of storage rings. There is, however, no doubt that a linear collider facility for a center of mass energy above say 500 GeV is significantly cheaper than an equivalent storage ring. In order to make the linear collider principle feasible at very high energies a number of problems have to be solved. There are two kinds of problems: one which is related to the feasibility of the principle and the other kind of problems is associated with minimizing the cost of constructing and operating such a facility. This lecture series describes the problems and possible solutions. Since the real test of a principle requires the construction of a prototype I will in the last chapter describe the SLC project at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center

  10. Matrices and linear transformations

    Cullen, Charles G

    1990-01-01

    ""Comprehensive . . . an excellent introduction to the subject."" - Electronic Engineer's Design Magazine.This introductory textbook, aimed at sophomore- and junior-level undergraduates in mathematics, engineering, and the physical sciences, offers a smooth, in-depth treatment of linear algebra and matrix theory. The major objects of study are matrices over an arbitrary field. Contents include Matrices and Linear Systems; Vector Spaces; Determinants; Linear Transformations; Similarity: Part I and Part II; Polynomials and Polynomial Matrices; Matrix Analysis; and Numerical Methods. The first

  11. Efficient Non Linear Loudspeakers

    Petersen, Bo R.; Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2006-01-01

    Loudspeakers have traditionally been designed to be as linear as possible. However, as techniques for compensating non linearities are emerging, it becomes possible to use other design criteria. This paper present and examines a new idea for improving the efficiency of loudspeakers at high levels...... by changing the voice coil layout. This deliberate non-linear design has the benefit that a smaller amplifier can be used, which has the benefit of reducing system cost as well as reducing power consumption....

  12. Linear models with R

    Faraway, Julian J

    2014-01-01

    A Hands-On Way to Learning Data AnalysisPart of the core of statistics, linear models are used to make predictions and explain the relationship between the response and the predictors. Understanding linear models is crucial to a broader competence in the practice of statistics. Linear Models with R, Second Edition explains how to use linear models in physical science, engineering, social science, and business applications. The book incorporates several improvements that reflect how the world of R has greatly expanded since the publication of the first edition.New to the Second EditionReorganiz

  13. Linear integrated circuits

    Carr, Joseph

    1996-01-01

    The linear IC market is large and growing, as is the demand for well trained technicians and engineers who understand how these devices work and how to apply them. Linear Integrated Circuits provides in-depth coverage of the devices and their operation, but not at the expense of practical applications in which linear devices figure prominently. This book is written for a wide readership from FE and first degree students, to hobbyists and professionals.Chapter 1 offers a general introduction that will provide students with the foundations of linear IC technology. From chapter 2 onwa

  14. Fault tolerant linear actuator

    Tesar, Delbert

    2004-09-14

    In varying embodiments, the fault tolerant linear actuator of the present invention is a new and improved linear actuator with fault tolerance and positional control that may incorporate velocity summing, force summing, or a combination of the two. In one embodiment, the invention offers a velocity summing arrangement with a differential gear between two prime movers driving a cage, which then drives a linear spindle screw transmission. Other embodiments feature two prime movers driving separate linear spindle screw transmissions, one internal and one external, in a totally concentric and compact integrated module.

  15. Superconducting linear accelerator cryostat

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Elkonin, B.V.; Sokolowski, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    A large vertical cryostat for a superconducting linear accelerator using quarter wave resonators has been developed. The essential technical details, operational experience and performance are described. (author)

  16. Plant macroremains from an early Neolithic site in eastern Kuyavia, central Poland

    Mueller-Bieniek Aldona

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study examined plant remains from the Smólsk 2/10 site, situated on the border of two different landscapes and preserving traces of Neolithic occupation from several cultures: Early Linear Pottery culture (LBK, ca 5300-5200 cal. BC to ca 5000 cal. BC. Stroke Band Pottery culture (SBP, ca 4700-4400 cal. BC, the Brześć Kujawski group of Lengyel culture (BKG, ca 4500-4000/3900 cal. BC, Funnel Beaker culture (TRB, ca 3950-3380 BC, and also some features of the Lusatian culture (Hallstatt C, ca 970-790 cal. BC.

  17. Linearity enigmas in ecology

    Patten, B.C.

    1983-04-01

    Two issues concerning linearity or nonlinearity of natural systems are considered. Each is related to one of the two alternative defining properties of linear systems, superposition and decomposition. Superposition exists when a linear combination of inputs to a system results in the same linear combination of outputs that individually correspond to the original inputs. To demonstrate this property it is necessary that all initial states and inputs of the system which impinge on the output in question be included in the linear combination manipulation. As this is difficult or impossible to do with real systems of any complexity, nature appears nonlinear even though it may be linear. A linear system that displays nonlinear behavior for this reason is termed pseudononlinear. The decomposition property exists when the dynamic response of a system can be partitioned into an input-free portion due to state plus a state-free portion due to input. This is a characteristic of all linear systems, but not of nonlinear systems. Without the decomposition property, it is not possible to distinguish which portions of a system's behavior are due to innate characteristics (self) vs. outside conditions (environment), which is an important class of questions in biology and ecology. Some philosophical aspects of these findings are then considered. It is suggested that those ecologists who hold to the view that organisms and their environments are separate entities are in effect embracing a linear view of nature, even though their belief systems and mathematical models tend to be nonlinear. On the other hand, those who consider that organism-environment complex forms a single inseparable unit are implictly involved in non-linear thought, which may be in conflict with the linear modes and models that some of them use. The need to rectify these ambivalences on the part of both groups is indicated.

  18. Linear colliders - prospects 1985

    Rees, J.

    1985-06-01

    We discuss the scaling laws of linear colliders and their consequences for accelerator design. We then report on the SLAC Linear Collider project and comment on experience gained on that project and its application to future colliders. 9 refs., 2 figs

  19. The SLAC linear collider

    Richter, B.

    1985-01-01

    A report is given on the goals and progress of the SLAC Linear Collider. The author discusses the status of the machine and the detectors and give an overview of the physics which can be done at this new facility. He also gives some ideas on how (and why) large linear colliders of the future should be built

  20. Linear Programming (LP)

    Rogner, H.H.

    1989-01-01

    The submitted sections on linear programming are extracted from 'Theorie und Technik der Planung' (1978) by W. Blaas and P. Henseler and reformulated for presentation at the Workshop. They consider a brief introduction to the theory of linear programming and to some essential aspects of the SIMPLEX solution algorithm for the purposes of economic planning processes. 1 fig

  1. Racetrack linear accelerators

    Rowe, C.H.; Wilton, M.S. de.

    1979-01-01

    An improved recirculating electron beam linear accelerator of the racetrack type is described. The system comprises a beam path of four straight legs with four Pretzel bending magnets at the end of each leg to direct the beam into the next leg of the beam path. At least one of the beam path legs includes a linear accelerator. (UK)

  2. Tourismological valorization of intangible cultural heritage of Serbia according to the Hilary du Cros method

    Željko Bjeljac

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The folk artistry of Serbia is rich in spiritual values tied to customs, celebrations, music, song, dance, games, stories and legends, and this kind of cultural heritage is presented through numerous festivals, events and tourist manifestations. In 2012, the network for the safeguarding of intangible cultural heritage was formed, comprised of the National committee for intangible cultural heritage, the Commission for admission into the registry of intangible cultural heritage, a network of coordinators and the Center for intangible cultural heritage of Serbia. These institutions have chosen 6 elements of intangible cultural heritage, out of 27 suggestions: the slava, the Đurđevdan ritual, the kolo dance, singing accompanied by gusle, Slovakian naive painting, the custom of making and lighting farmers’ candles, Pirot carpet weaving, and Zlakusa pottery as elements of cultural heritage which reflect the national and cultural identity of the Serbian people, and Slavic minorities. These elements of intangible cultural heritage have a certain tourism potential and can represent an important factor in the forming of the tourist brand of Serbia. In order to determine the importance of the 27 suggestions of intangible cultural elements of Serbia, an analysis was conducted, using an adapted form of the Hilary du Cros method of tourist valorization.

  3. Semidefinite linear complementarity problems

    Eckhardt, U.

    1978-04-01

    Semidefinite linear complementarity problems arise by discretization of variational inequalities describing e.g. elastic contact problems, free boundary value problems etc. In the present paper linear complementarity problems are introduced and the theory as well as the numerical treatment of them are described. In the special case of semidefinite linear complementarity problems a numerical method is presented which combines the advantages of elimination and iteration methods without suffering from their drawbacks. This new method has very attractive properties since it has a high degree of invariance with respect to the representation of the set of all feasible solutions of a linear complementarity problem by linear inequalities. By means of some practical applications the properties of the new method are demonstrated. (orig.) [de

  4. Linear algebra done right

    Axler, Sheldon

    2015-01-01

    This best-selling textbook for a second course in linear algebra is aimed at undergrad math majors and graduate students. The novel approach taken here banishes determinants to the end of the book. The text focuses on the central goal of linear algebra: understanding the structure of linear operators on finite-dimensional vector spaces. The author has taken unusual care to motivate concepts and to simplify proofs. A variety of interesting exercises in each chapter helps students understand and manipulate the objects of linear algebra. The third edition contains major improvements and revisions throughout the book. More than 300 new exercises have been added since the previous edition. Many new examples have been added to illustrate the key ideas of linear algebra. New topics covered in the book include product spaces, quotient spaces, and dual spaces. Beautiful new formatting creates pages with an unusually pleasant appearance in both print and electronic versions. No prerequisites are assumed other than the ...

  5. Handbook on linear motor application

    1988-10-01

    This book guides the application for Linear motor. It lists classification and speciality of Linear Motor, terms of linear-induction motor, principle of the Motor, types on one-side linear-induction motor, bilateral linear-induction motor, linear-DC Motor on basic of the motor, linear-DC Motor for moving-coil type, linear-DC motor for permanent-magnet moving type, linear-DC motor for electricity non-utility type, linear-pulse motor for variable motor, linear-pulse motor for permanent magneto type, linear-vibration actuator, linear-vibration actuator for moving-coil type, linear synchronous motor, linear electromagnetic motor, linear electromagnetic solenoid, technical organization and magnetic levitation and linear motor and sensor.

  6. Study of the production and distribution of middle horizon pottery of Cuzco, Peru by k{sub 0}-based instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Montoya, E [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Lima (Peru). Departamento de Quimica; Glowacki, M [Smithsonian Institution, MA (United States); Zapata, J [Universidad Nacional San Antonio Abad, Cuzco (Peru); Mendoza, P [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Lima (Peru). Departamento de Quimica

    2002-07-01

    A very important period of the Andean prehistory known as the Middle Horizon (A.D. 540-900) is associated with the widespread expansion of the Wari state from the region of Ayacucho. During this time, the Wari occupied much of Cuzco, building the large architectural complex of o Pikillacta and a large settlement located in Huaro Valley (southeast of Pikillacta), including the elite cemetery of Batan Urqu and a complex of domestic structures referred to as Ccotocotuyoc. The objective of the present research was to establish, in general terms, the provenience of certain pottery styles dating to the Middle Horizon which are known to the Southern Highlands, Cuzco region. The specific goal was to determine which of these ceramic styles were made in other regions and brought to Cuzco and which were imitations locally manufactured, and to compare their patterns of production and distribution with those of local ceramic styles. These data, in turn, being helpful for understanding some aspects of the social, economic and political dynamics of the Middle Horizon period at Cuzco. To reach the aforementioned objective, a set of 306 ceramic samples (taken from a population of more than 137000 specimens) were chemically analyzed by k{sub 0}-based instrumental neutron activation analysis and the results processed by multivariate statistical methods. Special care was taken in our research to maintain quality control of the analytical results, which were produced in duplicate for every sample, and for repeated analysis of the NIST SRM 2704 (Buffalo River Sediment) and other reference materials as e.g. the well known Old Ohio Red Clay. All of the work was performed within the framework of the IAEA Regional Coordinated Research Program on Nuclear Analytical Techniques In Archaeological Investigations, under the terms of contract PER 9398/R1.

  7. Effect of Modified Red Pottery Clay on the Moisture Absorption Behavior and Weatherability of Polyethylene-Based Wood-Plastic Composites

    Qingde Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Red pottery clay (RPC was modified using a silane coupling agent, and the modified RPC (mRPC was then used to enhance the performance of high-density polyethylene-based wood-plastic composites. The effect of the mRPC content on the performances of the composites was investigated through Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, differential mechanical analysis (DMA and ultraviolet (UV-accelerated aging tests. After adding the mRPC, a moisture adsorption hysteresis was observed. The DMA results indicated that the mRPC effectively enhanced the rigidity and elasticity of the composites. The mRPC affected the thermal gravimetric, leading to a reduction of the thermal degradation rate and a right-shift of the thermal degradation peak; the initial thermal degradation temperature was increased. After 3000 h of UV-accelerated aging, the flexural strength and impact strength both declined. For aging time between 0 and 1000 h, the increase in amplitude of ΔL* (luminescence and ΔE* (color reached a maximum; the surface fading did not became obvious. ΔL* and ΔE* increased more significantly between 1000 and 2000 h. These characterization results indicate that the chromophores of the mRPC became briefly active. However, when the aging times were higher than 2000 h, the photo-degradation reaction was effectively prevented by adding the mRPC. The best overall enhancement was observed for an mRPC mass percentage of 5%, with a storage modulus of 3264 MPa and an increase in loss modulus by 16.8%, the best anti-aging performance and the lowest degree of color fading.

  8. Application of k0-based internal monostandard NAA for large sample analysis of clay pottery. As a part of inter comparison exercise

    Acharya, R.; Dasari, K.B.; Pujari, P.K.; Swain, K.K.; Shinde, A.D.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2014-01-01

    As a part of inter comparison exercise of an IAEA Coordinated Research Project on large sample neutron activation analysis, a large size and non standard geometry size pottery replica (obtained from Peru) was analyzed by k 0 -based internal monostandard neutron activation analysis (IM-NAA). Two large size sub samples (0.40 and 0.25 kg) were irradiated at graphite reflector position of AHWR Critical Facility in BARC, Trombay, Mumbai, India. Small samples (100-200 mg) were also analyzed by IM-NAA for comparison purpose. Radioactive assay was carried out using a 40 % relative efficiency HPGe detector. To examine homogeneity of the sample, counting was also carried out using X-Z rotary scanning unit. In situ relative detection efficiency was evaluated using gamma rays of the activation products in the irradiated sample in the energy range of 122-2,754 keV. Elemental concentration ratios with respect to Na of small size (100 mg mass) as well as large size (15 and 400 g) samples were used to check the homogeneity of the samples. Concentration ratios of 18 elements such as K, Sc, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, As, Rb, Cs, La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Yb, Lu, Hf and Th with respect to Na (internal mono standard) were calculated using IM-NAA. Absolute concentrations were arrived at for both large and small samples using Na concentration, obtained from relative method of NAA. The percentage combined uncertainties at ±1 s confidence limit on the determined values were in the range of 3-9 %. Two IAEA reference materials SL-1 and SL-3 were analyzed by IM-NAA to evaluate accuracy of the method. (author)

  9. Linear ubiquitination in immunity.

    Shimizu, Yutaka; Taraborrelli, Lucia; Walczak, Henning

    2015-07-01

    Linear ubiquitination is a post-translational protein modification recently discovered to be crucial for innate and adaptive immune signaling. The function of linear ubiquitin chains is regulated at multiple levels: generation, recognition, and removal. These chains are generated by the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC), the only known ubiquitin E3 capable of forming the linear ubiquitin linkage de novo. LUBAC is not only relevant for activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in various signaling pathways, but importantly, it also regulates cell death downstream of immune receptors capable of inducing this response. Recognition of the linear ubiquitin linkage is specifically mediated by certain ubiquitin receptors, which is crucial for translation into the intended signaling outputs. LUBAC deficiency results in attenuated gene activation and increased cell death, causing pathologic conditions in both, mice, and humans. Removal of ubiquitin chains is mediated by deubiquitinases (DUBs). Two of them, OTULIN and CYLD, are constitutively associated with LUBAC. Here, we review the current knowledge on linear ubiquitination in immune signaling pathways and the biochemical mechanisms as to how linear polyubiquitin exerts its functions distinctly from those of other ubiquitin linkage types. © 2015 The Authors. Immunological Reviews Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Leveraging organisational cultural capital

    R Scheel

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Organisational culture discourse mandates a linear approach of diagnosis, measurement and gap analysis as standard practice in relation to most culture change initiatives. Therefore, a problem solving framework geared toward “fixing�? and/or realigning an organisation’s culture is usually prescribed. The traditional problem solving model seeks to identify gaps between current and desired organisational cultural states, inhibiting the discovery of an organisation’s unique values and strengths, namely its cultural capital. In pursuit of discovering and leveraging organisational cultural capital, a descriptive case study is used to show how an Appreciative Inquiry process can rejuvenate the spirit of an organisation as a system-wide inquiry mobilises a workforce toward a shared vision.

  11. Linearizing W-algebras

    Krivonos, S.O.; Sorin, A.S.

    1994-06-01

    We show that the Zamolodchikov's and Polyakov-Bershadsky nonlinear algebras W 3 and W (2) 3 can be embedded as subalgebras into some linear algebras with finite set of currents. Using these linear algebras we find new field realizations of W (2) 3 and W 3 which could be a starting point for constructing new versions of W-string theories. We also reveal a number of hidden relationships between W 3 and W (2) 3 . We conjecture that similar linear algebras can exist for other W-algebra as well. (author). 10 refs

  12. Matrices and linear algebra

    Schneider, Hans

    1989-01-01

    Linear algebra is one of the central disciplines in mathematics. A student of pure mathematics must know linear algebra if he is to continue with modern algebra or functional analysis. Much of the mathematics now taught to engineers and physicists requires it.This well-known and highly regarded text makes the subject accessible to undergraduates with little mathematical experience. Written mainly for students in physics, engineering, economics, and other fields outside mathematics, the book gives the theory of matrices and applications to systems of linear equations, as well as many related t

  13. Linearity in Process Languages

    Nygaard, Mikkel; Winskel, Glynn

    2002-01-01

    The meaning and mathematical consequences of linearity (managing without a presumed ability to copy) are studied for a path-based model of processes which is also a model of affine-linear logic. This connection yields an affine-linear language for processes, automatically respecting open......-map bisimulation, in which a range of process operations can be expressed. An operational semantics is provided for the tensor fragment of the language. Different ways to make assemblies of processes lead to different choices of exponential, some of which respect bisimulation....

  14. Elements of linear space

    Amir-Moez, A R; Sneddon, I N

    1962-01-01

    Elements of Linear Space is a detailed treatment of the elements of linear spaces, including real spaces with no more than three dimensions and complex n-dimensional spaces. The geometry of conic sections and quadric surfaces is considered, along with algebraic structures, especially vector spaces and transformations. Problems drawn from various branches of geometry are given.Comprised of 12 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to real Euclidean space, followed by a discussion on linear transformations and matrices. The addition and multiplication of transformations and matrices a

  15. Applied linear regression

    Weisberg, Sanford

    2013-01-01

    Praise for the Third Edition ""...this is an excellent book which could easily be used as a course text...""-International Statistical Institute The Fourth Edition of Applied Linear Regression provides a thorough update of the basic theory and methodology of linear regression modeling. Demonstrating the practical applications of linear regression analysis techniques, the Fourth Edition uses interesting, real-world exercises and examples. Stressing central concepts such as model building, understanding parameters, assessing fit and reliability, and drawing conclusions, the new edition illus

  16. Architecture of Lasinja culture settlements in the light of new investigations in northern Croatia

    Kornelija Minichreiter

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The site of Beketinci, Bentež, stands out among Lasinja settlements as the site of the largest uncovered surface – the excavation at 30 900m2 revealed a portion of a Lasinja culture settlement. Its western part (covering 24 700m2 was dedicated to working activities (working features: clay-extraction pits, working pits, self-standing partitions, pottery kilns, and wells, while in the eastern, residential, part (extending over 6200m2 of excavated surface we uncovered a cluster of 5 rectangular above-ground houses, two residential pit-houses, and five residential or working pit-houses. Absolute dates for this settlement span the period between 3900 and 3300 BC, dating it to the late phase of Lasinja culture.

  17. Linear system theory

    Callier, Frank M.; Desoer, Charles A.

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this book is to provide a systematic and rigorous access to the main topics of linear state-space system theory in both the continuous-time case and the discrete-time case; and the I/O description of linear systems. The main thrusts of the work are the analysis of system descriptions and derivations of their properties, LQ-optimal control, state feedback and state estimation, and MIMO unity-feedback systems.

  18. A non-equilibrium neutral model for analysing cultural change.

    Kandler, Anne; Shennan, Stephen

    2013-08-07

    Neutral evolution is a frequently used model to analyse changes in frequencies of cultural variants over time. Variants are chosen to be copied according to their relative frequency and new variants are introduced by a process of random mutation. Here we present a non-equilibrium neutral model which accounts for temporally varying population sizes and mutation rates and makes it possible to analyse the cultural system under consideration at any point in time. This framework gives an indication whether observed changes in the frequency distributions of a set of cultural variants between two time points are consistent with the random copying hypothesis. We find that the likelihood of the existence of the observed assemblage at the end of the considered time period (expressed by the probability of the observed number of cultural variants present in the population during the whole period under neutral evolution) is a powerful indicator of departures from neutrality. Further, we study the effects of frequency-dependent selection on the evolutionary trajectories and present a case study of change in the decoration of pottery in early Neolithic Central Europe. Based on the framework developed we show that neutral evolution is not an adequate description of the observed changes in frequency. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A production centre of Iberian decorated figurative pottery in the Contestania | Un posible centro productor de cerámica ibérica con decoración figurada en la Contestania

    Ignacio Grau Mira

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we show the pottery coming from one possible pottery production center located at Cocentaina (Alicante. Through the formal and decorative study we identify a comarcal characteristic production of the central-south district in the Valencian Country in Classical Iberian Period III-II century BC, well represented in the Iberian site of La Serreta. The most interesting ceramics of this point are the pieces with decorations in figurative and floral styles, that are documented in different settlements of this regional area. | En este trabajo presentamos las cerámicas procedentes de un posible centro de producción cerámica localizado en Cocentaina (El Comtat. Alicante. A través del estudio de las formas y las decoraciones identificamos una producción característica de las comarcas centro-meridionales valencianas datada en época plena ss. III-II aC y que tiene su mayor representación en el ajuar recuperado en el poblado ibérico de la Serreta. Entre el conjunto de cerámicas estudiado destacamos algunas piezas con decoración de estilo vegetal y figurado producidas en el citado alfar y que aparecen distribuidas en distintos asentamientos del área comarcal.

  20. Further linear algebra

    Blyth, T S

    2002-01-01

    Most of the introductory courses on linear algebra develop the basic theory of finite­ dimensional vector spaces, and in so doing relate the notion of a linear mapping to that of a matrix. Generally speaking, such courses culminate in the diagonalisation of certain matrices and the application of this process to various situations. Such is the case, for example, in our previous SUMS volume Basic Linear Algebra. The present text is a continuation of that volume, and has the objective of introducing the reader to more advanced properties of vector spaces and linear mappings, and consequently of matrices. For readers who are not familiar with the contents of Basic Linear Algebra we provide an introductory chapter that consists of a compact summary of the prerequisites for the present volume. In order to consolidate the student's understanding we have included a large num­ ber of illustrative and worked examples, as well as many exercises that are strategi­ cally placed throughout the text. Solutions to the ex...

  1. Linear mass reflectron

    Mamyrin, B.A.; Shmikk, D.V.

    1979-01-01

    A description and operating principle of a linear mass reflectron with V-form trajectory of ion motion -a new non-magnetic time-of-flight mass spectrometer with high resolution are presented. The ion-optical system of the device consists of an ion source with ionization by electron shock, of accelerating gaps, reflector gaps, a drift space and ion detector. Ions move in the linear mass refraction along the trajectories parallel to the axis of the analyzer chamber. The results of investigations into the experimental device are given. With an ion drift length of 0.6 m the device resolution is 1200 with respect to the peak width at half-height. Small-sized mass spectrometric transducers with high resolution and sensitivity may be designed on the base of the linear mass reflectron principle

  2. Applied linear algebra

    Olver, Peter J

    2018-01-01

    This textbook develops the essential tools of linear algebra, with the goal of imparting technique alongside contextual understanding. Applications go hand-in-hand with theory, each reinforcing and explaining the other. This approach encourages students to develop not only the technical proficiency needed to go on to further study, but an appreciation for when, why, and how the tools of linear algebra can be used across modern applied mathematics. Providing an extensive treatment of essential topics such as Gaussian elimination, inner products and norms, and eigenvalues and singular values, this text can be used for an in-depth first course, or an application-driven second course in linear algebra. In this second edition, applications have been updated and expanded to include numerical methods, dynamical systems, data analysis, and signal processing, while the pedagogical flow of the core material has been improved. Throughout, the text emphasizes the conceptual connections between each application and the un...

  3. Theory of linear operations

    Banach, S

    1987-01-01

    This classic work by the late Stefan Banach has been translated into English so as to reach a yet wider audience. It contains the basics of the algebra of operators, concentrating on the study of linear operators, which corresponds to that of the linear forms a1x1 + a2x2 + ... + anxn of algebra.The book gathers results concerning linear operators defined in general spaces of a certain kind, principally in Banach spaces, examples of which are: the space of continuous functions, that of the pth-power-summable functions, Hilbert space, etc. The general theorems are interpreted in various mathematical areas, such as group theory, differential equations, integral equations, equations with infinitely many unknowns, functions of a real variable, summation methods and orthogonal series.A new fifty-page section (``Some Aspects of the Present Theory of Banach Spaces'''') complements this important monograph.

  4. Dimension of linear models

    Høskuldsson, Agnar

    1996-01-01

    Determination of the proper dimension of a given linear model is one of the most important tasks in the applied modeling work. We consider here eight criteria that can be used to determine the dimension of the model, or equivalently, the number of components to use in the model. Four of these cri......Determination of the proper dimension of a given linear model is one of the most important tasks in the applied modeling work. We consider here eight criteria that can be used to determine the dimension of the model, or equivalently, the number of components to use in the model. Four...... the basic problems in determining the dimension of linear models. Then each of the eight measures are treated. The results are illustrated by examples....

  5. Linear programming using Matlab

    Ploskas, Nikolaos

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a theoretical and computational presentation of a variety of linear programming algorithms and methods with an emphasis on the revised simplex method and its components. A theoretical background and mathematical formulation is included for each algorithm as well as comprehensive numerical examples and corresponding MATLAB® code. The MATLAB® implementations presented in this book  are sophisticated and allow users to find solutions to large-scale benchmark linear programs. Each algorithm is followed by a computational study on benchmark problems that analyze the computational behavior of the presented algorithms. As a solid companion to existing algorithmic-specific literature, this book will be useful to researchers, scientists, mathematical programmers, and students with a basic knowledge of linear algebra and calculus.  The clear presentation enables the reader to understand and utilize all components of simplex-type methods, such as presolve techniques, scaling techniques, pivoting ru...

  6. Linear Colliders TESLA

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of the TESLA (TeV Superconducting Linear Accelerator) collaboration (at present 19 institutions from seven countries) is to establish the technology for a high energy electron-positron linear collider using superconducting radiofrequency cavities to accelerate its beams. Another basic goal is to demonstrate that such a collider can meet its performance goals in a cost effective manner. For this the TESLA collaboration is preparing a 500 MeV superconducting linear test accelerator at the DESY Laboratory in Hamburg. This TTF (TESLA Test Facility) consists of four cryomodules, each approximately 12 m long and containing eight 9-cell solid niobium cavities operating at a frequency of 1.3 GHz

  7. Working conditions and musculoskeletal pain among Brazilian pottery workers Condições de trabalho e dor osteomuscular entre ceramistas brasileiros

    Adriana Cristina de Souza Melzer

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the municipality of Pedreira in São Paulo State, Brazil, a large number of workers from the ceramic industry have left their jobs because of work related musculoskeletal disorders. The objectives of this study were to describe the work conditions pertaining to the ceramic industry, to determine the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain and to identify the associations between symptoms and organizational, biomechanical, psychosocial and individual variables. Nine ceramic manufacturers participated. The activities of 18 individuals were analyzed through direct observation. All workers answered a questionnaire about work and health (n = 235. The results found that the general working conditions in the pottery manufacturers were poor. A 38.5% prevalence of musculoskeletal pain was found. Repetition, tool use, lack of control over decisions, worries regarding work demands, relationship issues, work dissatisfaction and the wish to move on to another function were all associated with pain. We concluded that musculoskeletal pain is one of the outcomes of elevated human requirements resulting from working conditions and organization in the ceramic industry.No Município de Pedreira, São Paulo, Brasil, um grande número de trabalhadores das indústrias cerâmicas se afasta do trabalho em conseqüência de distúrbios osteomusculares relacionados ao trabalho. Os objetivos deste estudo foram descrever as condições de trabalho, determinar a prevalência de dor e identificar associações entre sintomas e variáveis organizacionais, biomecânicas, psicossociais e individuais. Nove indústrias participaram do estudo. As atividades de 18 pessoas foram analisadas através de observações diretas. Todos os trabalhadores responderam a um questionário sobre trabalho e saúde (n = 235. Os resultados indicaram que as condições de trabalho nas indústrias cerâmicas estudadas eram ruins. Foi encontrada uma prevalência de 38,5% de dor. Repetitividade, utiliza

  8. Linearly Adjustable International Portfolios

    Fonseca, R. J.; Kuhn, D.; Rustem, B.

    2010-09-01

    We present an approach to multi-stage international portfolio optimization based on the imposition of a linear structure on the recourse decisions. Multiperiod decision problems are traditionally formulated as stochastic programs. Scenario tree based solutions however can become intractable as the number of stages increases. By restricting the space of decision policies to linear rules, we obtain a conservative tractable approximation to the original problem. Local asset prices and foreign exchange rates are modelled separately, which allows for a direct measure of their impact on the final portfolio value.

  9. Linearly Adjustable International Portfolios

    Fonseca, R. J.; Kuhn, D.; Rustem, B.

    2010-01-01

    We present an approach to multi-stage international portfolio optimization based on the imposition of a linear structure on the recourse decisions. Multiperiod decision problems are traditionally formulated as stochastic programs. Scenario tree based solutions however can become intractable as the number of stages increases. By restricting the space of decision policies to linear rules, we obtain a conservative tractable approximation to the original problem. Local asset prices and foreign exchange rates are modelled separately, which allows for a direct measure of their impact on the final portfolio value.

  10. Linear induction motor

    Barkman, W.E.; Adams, W.Q.; Berrier, B.R.

    1978-01-01

    A linear induction motor has been operated on a test bed with a feedback pulse resolution of 5 nm (0.2 μin). Slewing tests with this slide drive have shown positioning errors less than or equal to 33 nm (1.3 μin) at feedrates between 0 and 25.4 mm/min (0-1 ipm). A 0.86-m (34-in)-stroke linear motor is being investigated, using the SPACO machine as a test bed. Initial results were encouraging, and work is continuing to optimize the servosystem compensation

  11. Handbook of linear algebra

    Hogben, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    With a substantial amount of new material, the Handbook of Linear Algebra, Second Edition provides comprehensive coverage of linear algebra concepts, applications, and computational software packages in an easy-to-use format. It guides you from the very elementary aspects of the subject to the frontiers of current research. Along with revisions and updates throughout, the second edition of this bestseller includes 20 new chapters.New to the Second EditionSeparate chapters on Schur complements, additional types of canonical forms, tensors, matrix polynomials, matrix equations, special types of

  12. Linear Algebra Thoroughly Explained

    Vujičić, Milan

    2008-01-01

    Linear Algebra Thoroughly Explained provides a comprehensive introduction to the subject suitable for adoption as a self-contained text for courses at undergraduate and postgraduate level. The clear and comprehensive presentation of the basic theory is illustrated throughout with an abundance of worked examples. The book is written for teachers and students of linear algebra at all levels and across mathematics and the applied sciences, particularly physics and engineering. It will also be an invaluable addition to research libraries as a comprehensive resource book for the subject.

  13. Stanford's linear collider

    Southworth, B.

    1985-01-01

    The peak of the construction phase of the Stanford Linear Collider, SLC, to achieve 50 GeV electron-positron collisions has now been passed. The work remains on schedule to attempt colliding beams, initially at comparatively low luminosity, early in 1987. (orig./HSI).

  14. Dosimetry of linear sources

    Mafra Neto, F.

    1992-01-01

    The dose of gamma radiation from a linear source of cesium 137 is obtained, presenting two difficulties: oblique filtration of radiation when cross the platinum wall, in different directions, and dose connection due to the scattering by the material mean of propagation. (C.G.C.)

  15. Resistors Improve Ramp Linearity

    Kleinberg, L. L.

    1982-01-01

    Simple modification to bootstrap ramp generator gives more linear output over longer sweep times. New circuit adds just two resistors, one of which is adjustable. Modification cancels nonlinearities due to variations in load on charging capacitor and due to changes in charging current as the voltage across capacitor increases.

  16. LINEAR COLLIDERS: 1992 workshop

    Settles, Ron; Coignet, Guy

    1992-01-01

    As work on designs for future electron-positron linear colliders pushes ahead at major Laboratories throughout the world in a major international collaboration framework, the LC92 workshop held in Garmisch Partenkirchen this summer, attended by 200 machine and particle physicists, provided a timely focus

  17. Linear genetic programming

    Brameier, Markus

    2007-01-01

    Presents a variant of Genetic Programming that evolves imperative computer programs as linear sequences of instructions, in contrast to the more traditional functional expressions or syntax trees. This book serves as a reference for researchers, but also contains sufficient introduction for students and those who are new to the field

  18. On Solving Linear Recurrences

    Dobbs, David E.

    2013-01-01

    A direct method is given for solving first-order linear recurrences with constant coefficients. The limiting value of that solution is studied as "n to infinity." This classroom note could serve as enrichment material for the typical introductory course on discrete mathematics that follows a calculus course.

  19. Review of linear colliders

    Takeda, Seishi

    1992-01-01

    The status of R and D of future e + e - linear colliders proposed by the institutions throughout the world is described including the JLC, NLC, VLEPP, CLIC, DESY/THD and TESLA projects. The parameters and RF sources are discussed. (G.P.) 36 refs.; 1 tab

  20. Urine culture

    Culture and sensitivity - urine ... when urinating. You also may have a urine culture after you have been treated for an infection. ... when bacteria or yeast are found in the culture. This likely means that you have a urinary ...

  1. Finite-dimensional linear algebra

    Gockenbach, Mark S

    2010-01-01

    Some Problems Posed on Vector SpacesLinear equationsBest approximationDiagonalizationSummaryFields and Vector SpacesFields Vector spaces Subspaces Linear combinations and spanning sets Linear independence Basis and dimension Properties of bases Polynomial interpolation and the Lagrange basis Continuous piecewise polynomial functionsLinear OperatorsLinear operatorsMore properties of linear operatorsIsomorphic vector spaces Linear operator equations Existence and uniqueness of solutions The fundamental theorem; inverse operatorsGaussian elimination Newton's method Linear ordinary differential eq

  2. Culture, innovation and periphery: a theoretical sketch and some evidence from different portuguese contexts

    Eduardo Brito Henriques

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper tries to look at the culture-innovation nexus in periphery. Starting with a theoretical discussion on this issue, in which the role of culture in current capitalism is analysed, we raise the question whether the increasing imporance of culture in the present economic context has been creating new opportunities for peripheral regions to innovate, namely by the valorization of tradition.The paper will highlight the results of four case studies from the handicraft pottery sector. These achievements will then be confronted with an exemple of cultural political promotion in an urban area - Lisbon'94, European Cultural Capital, in order to unravel the political logic of cultural and innovation in the periphery. The final section provides a brief conclusion, placing emphasis on the ambivalences which characterise peripherical modernisation processes and their cultural dimension. We argue that the ability of periphery to sustain development strategies based on the valorization of tradition depends primarily upon a successful management of these ambivalences.

  3. Safeguards Culture

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2012-07-01

    The concepts of nuclear safety and security culture are well established; however, a common understanding of safeguards culture is not internationally recognized. Supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration, the authors prepared this report, an analysis of the concept of safeguards culture, and gauged its value to the safeguards community. The authors explored distinctions between safeguards culture, safeguards compliance, and safeguards performance, and evaluated synergies and differences between safeguards culture and safety/security culture. The report concludes with suggested next steps.

  4. Organizational culture

    Schein, Edgar H.

    1988-01-01

    Cultural orientations of an organization can be its greatest strength, providing the basis for problem solving, cooperation, and communication. Culture, however, can also inhibit needed changes. Cultural changes typically happen slowly – but without cultural change, many other organizational changes are doomed to fail. The dominant culture of an organization is a major contributor to its success. But, of course, no organizational culture is purely one type or another. And the existence of sec...

  5. Linearity and Non-linearity of Photorefractive effect in Materials ...

    In this paper we have studied the Linearity and Non-linearity of Photorefractive effect in materials using the band transport model. For low light beam intensities the change in the refractive index is proportional to the electric field for linear optics while for non- linear optics the change in refractive index is directly proportional ...

  6. Linearly Refined Session Types

    Pedro Baltazar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Session types capture precise protocol structure in concurrent programming, but do not specify properties of the exchanged values beyond their basic type. Refinement types are a form of dependent types that can address this limitation, combining types with logical formulae that may refer to program values and can constrain types using arbitrary predicates. We present a pi calculus with assume and assert operations, typed using a session discipline that incorporates refinement formulae written in a fragment of Multiplicative Linear Logic. Our original combination of session and refinement types, together with the well established benefits of linearity, allows very fine-grained specifications of communication protocols in which refinement formulae are treated as logical resources rather than persistent truths.

  7. Linear Water Waves

    Kuznetsov, N.; Maz'ya, V.; Vainberg, B.

    2002-08-01

    This book gives a self-contained and up-to-date account of mathematical results in the linear theory of water waves. The study of waves has many applications, including the prediction of behavior of floating bodies (ships, submarines, tension-leg platforms etc.), the calculation of wave-making resistance in naval architecture, and the description of wave patterns over bottom topography in geophysical hydrodynamics. The first section deals with time-harmonic waves. Three linear boundary value problems serve as the approximate mathematical models for these types of water waves. The next section uses a plethora of mathematical techniques in the investigation of these three problems. The techniques used in the book include integral equations based on Green's functions, various inequalities between the kinetic and potential energy and integral identities which are indispensable for proving the uniqueness theorems. The so-called inverse procedure is applied to constructing examples of non-uniqueness, usually referred to as 'trapped nodes.'

  8. The International Linear Collider

    List Benno

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The International Linear Collider (ILC is a proposed e+e− linear collider with a centre-of-mass energy of 200–500 GeV, based on superconducting RF cavities. The ILC would be an ideal machine for precision studies of a light Higgs boson and the top quark, and would have a discovery potential for new particles that is complementary to that of LHC. The clean experimental conditions would allow the operation of detectors with extremely good performance; two such detectors, ILD and SiD, are currently being designed. Both make use of novel concepts for tracking and calorimetry. The Japanese High Energy Physics community has recently recommended to build the ILC in Japan.

  9. The International Linear Collider

    List, Benno

    2014-04-01

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) is a proposed e+e- linear collider with a centre-of-mass energy of 200-500 GeV, based on superconducting RF cavities. The ILC would be an ideal machine for precision studies of a light Higgs boson and the top quark, and would have a discovery potential for new particles that is complementary to that of LHC. The clean experimental conditions would allow the operation of detectors with extremely good performance; two such detectors, ILD and SiD, are currently being designed. Both make use of novel concepts for tracking and calorimetry. The Japanese High Energy Physics community has recently recommended to build the ILC in Japan.

  10. Dimension of linear models

    Høskuldsson, Agnar

    1996-01-01

    Determination of the proper dimension of a given linear model is one of the most important tasks in the applied modeling work. We consider here eight criteria that can be used to determine the dimension of the model, or equivalently, the number of components to use in the model. Four...... the basic problems in determining the dimension of linear models. Then each of the eight measures are treated. The results are illustrated by examples....... of these criteria are widely used ones, while the remaining four are ones derived from the H-principle of mathematical modeling. Many examples from practice show that the criteria derived from the H-principle function better than the known and popular criteria for the number of components. We shall briefly review...

  11. Reciprocating linear motor

    Goldowsky, Michael P. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A reciprocating linear motor is formed with a pair of ring-shaped permanent magnets having opposite radial polarizations, held axially apart by a nonmagnetic yoke, which serves as an axially displaceable armature assembly. A pair of annularly wound coils having axial lengths which differ from the axial lengths of the permanent magnets are serially coupled together in mutual opposition and positioned with an outer cylindrical core in axial symmetry about the armature assembly. One embodiment includes a second pair of annularly wound coils serially coupled together in mutual opposition and an inner cylindrical core positioned in axial symmetry inside the armature radially opposite to the first pair of coils. Application of a potential difference across a serial connection of the two pairs of coils creates a current flow perpendicular to the magnetic field created by the armature magnets, thereby causing limited linear displacement of the magnets relative to the coils.

  12. Duality in linearized gravity

    Henneaux, Marc; Teitelboim, Claudio

    2005-01-01

    We show that duality transformations of linearized gravity in four dimensions, i.e., rotations of the linearized Riemann tensor and its dual into each other, can be extended to the dynamical fields of the theory so as to be symmetries of the action and not just symmetries of the equations of motion. Our approach relies on the introduction of two superpotentials, one for the spatial components of the spin-2 field and the other for their canonically conjugate momenta. These superpotentials are two-index, symmetric tensors. They can be taken to be the basic dynamical fields and appear locally in the action. They are simply rotated into each other under duality. In terms of the superpotentials, the canonical generator of duality rotations is found to have a Chern-Simons-like structure, as in the Maxwell case

  13. The SLAC linear collider

    Phinney, N.

    1992-01-01

    The SLAC Linear Collider has begun a new era of operation with the SLD detector. During 1991 there was a first engineering run for the SLD in parallel with machine improvements to increase luminosity and reliability. For the 1992 run, a polarized electron source was added and more than 10,000 Zs with an average of 23% polarization have been logged by the SLD. This paper discusses the performance of the SLC in 1991 and 1992 and the technical advances that have produced higher luminosity. Emphasis will be placed on issues relevant to future linear colliders such as producing and maintaining high current, low emittance beams and focusing the beams to the micron scale for collisions. (Author) tab., 2 figs., 18 refs

  14. Linear waves and instabilities

    Bers, A.

    1975-01-01

    The electrodynamic equations for small-amplitude waves and their dispersion relation in a homogeneous plasma are outlined. For such waves, energy and momentum, and their flow and transformation, are described. Perturbation theory of waves is treated and applied to linear coupling of waves, and the resulting instabilities from such interactions between active and passive waves. Linear stability analysis in time and space is described where the time-asymptotic, time-space Green's function for an arbitrary dispersion relation is developed. The perturbation theory of waves is applied to nonlinear coupling, with particular emphasis on pump-driven interactions of waves. Details of the time--space evolution of instabilities due to coupling are given. (U.S.)

  15. Extended linear chain compounds

    Linear chain substances span a large cross section of contemporary chemistry ranging from covalent polymers, to organic charge transfer com­ plexes to nonstoichiometric transition metal coordination complexes. Their commonality, which coalesced intense interest in the theoretical and exper­ imental solid state physics/chemistry communities, was based on the obser­ vation that these inorganic and organic polymeric substrates exhibit striking metal-like electrical and optical properties. Exploitation and extension of these systems has led to the systematic study of both the chemistry and physics of highly and poorly conducting linear chain substances. To gain a salient understanding of these complex materials rich in anomalous aniso­ tropic electrical, optical, magnetic, and mechanical properties, the conver­ gence of diverse skills and talents was required. The constructive blending of traditionally segregated disciplines such as synthetic and physical organic, inorganic, and polymer chemistry, crystallog...

  16. Non-linear osmosis

    Diamond, Jared M.

    1966-01-01

    1. The relation between osmotic gradient and rate of osmotic water flow has been measured in rabbit gall-bladder by a gravimetric procedure and by a rapid method based on streaming potentials. Streaming potentials were directly proportional to gravimetrically measured water fluxes. 2. As in many other tissues, water flow was found to vary with gradient in a markedly non-linear fashion. There was no consistent relation between the water permeability and either the direction or the rate of water flow. 3. Water flow in response to a given gradient decreased at higher osmolarities. The resistance to water flow increased linearly with osmolarity over the range 186-825 m-osM. 4. The resistance to water flow was the same when the gall-bladder separated any two bathing solutions with the same average osmolarity, regardless of the magnitude of the gradient. In other words, the rate of water flow is given by the expression (Om — Os)/[Ro′ + ½k′ (Om + Os)], where Ro′ and k′ are constants and Om and Os are the bathing solution osmolarities. 5. Of the theories advanced to explain non-linear osmosis in other tissues, flow-induced membrane deformations, unstirred layers, asymmetrical series-membrane effects, and non-osmotic effects of solutes could not explain the results. However, experimental measurements of water permeability as a function of osmolarity permitted quantitative reconstruction of the observed water flow—osmotic gradient curves. Hence non-linear osmosis in rabbit gall-bladder is due to a decrease in water permeability with increasing osmolarity. 6. The results suggest that aqueous channels in the cell membrane behave as osmometers, shrinking in concentrated solutions of impermeant molecules and thereby increasing membrane resistance to water flow. A mathematical formulation of such a membrane structure is offered. PMID:5945254

  17. Fundamentals of linear algebra

    Dash, Rajani Ballav

    2008-01-01

    FUNDAMENTALS OF LINEAR ALGEBRA is a comprehensive Text Book, which can be used by students and teachers of All Indian Universities. The Text has easy, understandable form and covers all topics of UGC Curriculum. There are lots of worked out examples which helps the students in solving the problems without anybody's help. The Problem sets have been designed keeping in view of the questions asked in different examinations.

  18. Linear network theory

    Sander, K F

    1964-01-01

    Linear Network Theory covers the significant algebraic aspect of network theory, with minimal reference to practical circuits. The book begins the presentation of network analysis with the exposition of networks containing resistances only, and follows it up with a discussion of networks involving inductance and capacity by way of the differential equations. Classification and description of certain networks, equivalent networks, filter circuits, and network functions are also covered. Electrical engineers, technicians, electronics engineers, electricians, and students learning the intricacies

  19. Non linear viscoelastic models

    Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2011-01-01

    Viscoelastic eects are often present in loudspeaker suspensions, this can be seen in the displacement transfer function which often shows a frequency dependent value below the resonance frequency. In this paper nonlinear versions of the standard linear solid model (SLS) are investigated....... The simulations show that the nonlinear version of the Maxwell SLS model can result in a time dependent small signal stiness while the Kelvin Voight version does not....

  20. Relativistic Linear Restoring Force

    Clark, D.; Franklin, J.; Mann, N.

    2012-01-01

    We consider two different forms for a relativistic version of a linear restoring force. The pair comes from taking Hooke's law to be the force appearing on the right-hand side of the relativistic expressions: d"p"/d"t" or d"p"/d["tau"]. Either formulation recovers Hooke's law in the non-relativistic limit. In addition to these two forces, we…

  1. Superconducting linear colliders

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The advantages of superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) for particle accelerators have been demonstrated by successful operation of systems in the TRISTAN and LEP electron-positron collider rings respectively at the Japanese KEK Laboratory and at CERN. If performance continues to improve and costs can be lowered, this would open an attractive option for a high luminosity TeV (1000 GeV) linear collider

  2. Perturbed asymptotically linear problems

    Bartolo, R.; Candela, A. M.; Salvatore, A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is investigating the existence of solutions of some semilinear elliptic problems on open bounded domains when the nonlinearity is subcritical and asymptotically linear at infinity and there is a perturbation term which is just continuous. Also in the case when the problem has not a variational structure, suitable procedures and estimates allow us to prove that the number of distinct crtitical levels of the functional associated to the unperturbed problem is "stable" unde...

  3. Miniature linear cooler development

    Pruitt, G.R.

    1993-01-01

    An overview is presented of the status of a family of miniature linear coolers currently under development by Hughes Aircraft Co. for use in hand held, volume limited or power limited infrared applications. These coolers, representing the latest additions to the Hughes family of TOP trademark [twin-opposed piston] linear coolers, have been fabricated and tested in three different configurations. Each configuration is designed to utilize a common compressor assembly resulting in reduced manufacturing costs. The baseline compressor has been integrated with two different expander configurations and has been operated with two different levels of input power. These various configuration combinations offer a wide range of performance and interface characteristics which may be tailored to applications requiring limited power and size without significantly compromising cooler capacity or cooldown characteristics. Key cooler characteristics and test data are summarized for three combinations of cooler configurations which are representative of the versatility of this linear cooler design. Configurations reviewed include the shortened coldfinger [1.50 to 1.75 inches long], limited input power [less than 17 Watts] for low power availability applications; the shortened coldfinger with higher input power for lightweight, higher performance applications; and coldfingers compatible with DoD 0.4 Watt Common Module coolers for wider range retrofit capability. Typical weight of these miniature linear coolers is less than 500 grams for the compressor, expander and interconnecting transfer line. Cooling capacity at 80K at room ambient conditions ranges from 400 mW to greater than 550 mW. Steady state power requirements for maintaining a heat load of 150 mW at 80K has been shown to be less than 8 Watts. Ongoing reliability growth testing is summarized including a review of the latest test article results

  4. Linear pneumatic actuator

    Avram Mihai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a linear pneumatic actuator with short working stroke. It consists of a pneumatic motor (a simple stroke cylinder or a membrane chamber, two 2/2 pneumatic distributors “all or nothing” electrically commanded for controlling the intake/outtake flow to/from the active chamber of the motor, a position transducer and a microcontroller. There is also presented the theoretical analysis (mathematical modelling and numerical simulation accomplished.

  5. Linear pneumatic actuator

    Avram Mihai; Niţu Constantin; Bucşan Constantin; Grămescu Bogdan

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents a linear pneumatic actuator with short working stroke. It consists of a pneumatic motor (a simple stroke cylinder or a membrane chamber), two 2/2 pneumatic distributors “all or nothing” electrically commanded for controlling the intake/outtake flow to/from the active chamber of the motor, a position transducer and a microcontroller. There is also presented the theoretical analysis (mathematical modelling and numerical simulation) accomplished.

  6. Linear MHD equilibria

    Scheffel, J.

    1984-03-01

    The linear Grad-Shafranov equation for a toroidal, axisymmetric plasma is solved analytically. Exact solutions are given in terms of confluent hyper-geometric functions. As an alternative, simple and accurate WKBJ solutions are presented. With parabolic pressure profiles, both hollow and peaked toroidal current density profiles are obtained. As an example the equilibrium of a z-pinch with a square-shaped cross section is derived.(author)

  7. Linear induction accelerator

    Buttram, M.T.; Ginn, J.W.

    1988-06-21

    A linear induction accelerator includes a plurality of adder cavities arranged in a series and provided in a structure which is evacuated so that a vacuum inductance is provided between each adder cavity and the structure. An energy storage system for the adder cavities includes a pulsed current source and a respective plurality of bipolar converting networks connected thereto. The bipolar high-voltage, high-repetition-rate square pulse train sets and resets the cavities. 4 figs.

  8. Linear algebraic groups

    Springer, T A

    1998-01-01

    "[The first] ten chapters...are an efficient, accessible, and self-contained introduction to affine algebraic groups over an algebraically closed field. The author includes exercises and the book is certainly usable by graduate students as a text or for self-study...the author [has a] student-friendly style… [The following] seven chapters... would also be a good introduction to rationality issues for algebraic groups. A number of results from the literature…appear for the first time in a text." –Mathematical Reviews (Review of the Second Edition) "This book is a completely new version of the first edition. The aim of the old book was to present the theory of linear algebraic groups over an algebraically closed field. Reading that book, many people entered the research field of linear algebraic groups. The present book has a wider scope. Its aim is to treat the theory of linear algebraic groups over arbitrary fields. Again, the author keeps the treatment of prerequisites self-contained. The material of t...

  9. Parametric Linear Dynamic Logic

    Peter Faymonville

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We introduce Parametric Linear Dynamic Logic (PLDL, which extends Linear Dynamic Logic (LDL by temporal operators equipped with parameters that bound their scope. LDL was proposed as an extension of Linear Temporal Logic (LTL that is able to express all ω-regular specifications while still maintaining many of LTL's desirable properties like an intuitive syntax and a translation into non-deterministic Büchi automata of exponential size. But LDL lacks capabilities to express timing constraints. By adding parameterized operators to LDL, we obtain a logic that is able to express all ω-regular properties and that subsumes parameterized extensions of LTL like Parametric LTL and PROMPT-LTL. Our main technical contribution is a translation of PLDL formulas into non-deterministic Büchi word automata of exponential size via alternating automata. This yields a PSPACE model checking algorithm and a realizability algorithm with doubly-exponential running time. Furthermore, we give tight upper and lower bounds on optimal parameter values for both problems. These results show that PLDL model checking and realizability are not harder than LTL model checking and realizability.

  10. Quantum linear Boltzmann equation

    Vacchini, Bassano; Hornberger, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    We review the quantum version of the linear Boltzmann equation, which describes in a non-perturbative fashion, by means of scattering theory, how the quantum motion of a single test particle is affected by collisions with an ideal background gas. A heuristic derivation of this Lindblad master equation is presented, based on the requirement of translation-covariance and on the relation to the classical linear Boltzmann equation. After analyzing its general symmetry properties and the associated relaxation dynamics, we discuss a quantum Monte Carlo method for its numerical solution. We then review important limiting forms of the quantum linear Boltzmann equation, such as the case of quantum Brownian motion and pure collisional decoherence, as well as the application to matter wave optics. Finally, we point to the incorporation of quantum degeneracies and self-interactions in the gas by relating the equation to the dynamic structure factor of the ambient medium, and we provide an extension of the equation to include internal degrees of freedom.

  11. The Stanford Linear Collider

    Emma, P.

    1995-01-01

    The Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) is the first and only high-energy e + e - linear collider in the world. Its most remarkable features are high intensity, submicron sized, polarized (e - ) beams at a single interaction point. The main challenges posed by these unique characteristics include machine-wide emittance preservation, consistent high intensity operation, polarized electron production and transport, and the achievement of a high degree of beam stability on all time scales. In addition to serving as an important machine for the study of Z 0 boson production and decay using polarized beams, the SLC is also an indispensable source of hands-on experience for future linear colliders. Each new year of operation has been highlighted with a marked improvement in performance. The most significant improvements for the 1994-95 run include new low impedance vacuum chambers for the damping rings, an upgrade to the optics and diagnostics of the final focus systems, and a higher degree of polarization from the electron source. As a result, the average luminosity has nearly doubled over the previous year with peaks approaching 10 30 cm -2 s -1 and an 80% electron polarization at the interaction point. These developments as well as the remaining identifiable performance limitations will be discussed

  12. Caracterização etnopedológica de Planossolos utilizados em cerâmica artesanal no Agreste Paraibano Ethnopedological studies on solonetz and Planosols used in pottery craftwork in the Agreste region, State of Paraiba

    Ângelo Giuseppe Chaves Alves

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Técnicas adaptadas da etnociência clássica foram utilizadas para descrever e avaliar os conhecimentos de um grupo de artesãos camponeses do Agreste Paraibano sobre alguns solos que eles usam como recurso cerâmico. Cinco perfis de solo foram descritos por agrônomos-pesquisadores (abordagem eticista e por camponeses (abordagem emicista, em locais onde a população local extrai material para cerâmica. Amostras coletadas em ambas as abordagens foram usadas para caracterização morfológica e analítica desses solos. Os camponeses pesquisados foram capazes de distinguir, identificar e nomear diversos materiais de solo, arranjados em estratos ao longo dos perfis de solo, de modo comparável ao arranjo dos horizontes pedogenéticos. A visão, o tato e o paladar foram empregados pelos artesãos na avaliação da qualidade do solo para cerâmica. Quatro perfis descritos junto às fontes de material cerâmico foram classificados como Planossolo Nátrico e um como Planossolo Háplico. A realização de pesquisas etnopedológicas em diferentes contextos sociais e pedológicos pode contribuir para o avanço da ciência do solo, sendo também uma oportunidade para melhor compreender as formas camponesas de conhecimento e manejo de solos.Classic ethnoscientific techniques were adapted to describe and analyze the knowledge of peasant potters about soils they use for making pottery in a rural village in the Agreste region, State of Paraiba, northeastern Brazil. Five soil profiles from pits where local people obtain pottery clay were formally described by researchers (etic approach and by peasant artisans (emic approach. Samples collected during both the emic and etic approaches were used for the morphological and analytical soil characterization. The peasant potters were able to distinguish, identify, and name soil materials arranged in layers along the soil profiles, somehow comparable to the arrangement of the pedogenetic horizons. Vision, touch and

  13. Kulturní transformace na neolitickém sídlišti v Kolíně

    Šumberová, Radka; Pavlů, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 1 (2017), s. 73-140 ISSN 1214-3553 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-16963S Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : Neolithic * settlement * Linear Pottery Culture * formative processes * cultural transformations Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology OBOR OECD: Archaeology

  14. Cultural entrepreneurship

    A. Klamer (Arjo)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractCultural entrepreneurship is a new character in the cultural sector. This paper characterizes the cultural entrepreneur paying homage to the hermeneutic approach of Don Lavoie and others. The challenge is to render the "cultural" meaningful. An invention is the highlighting of the

  15. Industrial cultures

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    1996-01-01

    The chapter deals with different paradigms andtheories of cultural development. The problem toexplain change and methods to analyse developmentin different cultures are presented and discussed.......The chapter deals with different paradigms andtheories of cultural development. The problem toexplain change and methods to analyse developmentin different cultures are presented and discussed....

  16. Non linear microtearing modes

    Garbet, X.; Mourgues, F.; Samain, A.

    1987-01-01

    Among the various instabilities which could explain the anomalous electron heat transport observed in tokamaks during additional heating, a microtearing turbulence is a reasonable candidate since it affects directly the magnetic topology. This turbulence may be described in a proper frame rotating around the majors axis by a static potential vector. In strong non linear regimes, the flow of electrons along the stochastic field lines induces a current. The point is to know whether this current can sustain the turbulence. The mechanisms of this self-consistency, involving the combined effects of the thermal diamagnetism and of the electric drift are presented here

  17. RF linear accelerators

    Wangler, Thomas P

    2008-01-01

    Thomas P. Wangler received his B.S. degree in physics from Michigan State University, and his Ph.D. degree in physics and astronomy from the University of Wisconsin. After postdoctoral appointments at the University of Wisconsin and Brookhaven National Laboratory, he joined the staff of Argonne National Laboratory in 1966, working in the fields of experimental high-energy physics and accelerator physics. He joined the Accelerator Technology Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1979, where he specialized in high-current beam physics and linear accelerator design and technology. In 2007

  18. SLAC linear collider

    Richter, B.; Bell, R.A.; Brown, K.L.

    1980-06-01

    The SLAC LINEAR COLLIDER is designed to achieve an energy of 100 GeV in the electron-positron center-of-mass system by accelerating intense bunches of particles in the SLAC linac and transporting the electron and positron bunches in a special magnet system to a point where they are focused to a radius of about 2 microns and made to collide head on. The rationale for this new type of colliding beam system is discussed, the project is described, some of the novel accelerator physics issues involved are discussed, and some of the critical technical components are described

  19. Matlab linear algebra

    Lopez, Cesar

    2014-01-01

    MATLAB is a high-level language and environment for numerical computation, visualization, and programming. Using MATLAB, you can analyze data, develop algorithms, and create models and applications. The language, tools, and built-in math functions enable you to explore multiple approaches and reach a solution faster than with spreadsheets or traditional programming languages, such as C/C++ or Java. MATLAB Linear Algebra introduces you to the MATLAB language with practical hands-on instructions and results, allowing you to quickly achieve your goals. In addition to giving an introduction to

  20. Special set linear algebra and special set fuzzy linear algebra

    Kandasamy, W. B. Vasantha; Smarandache, Florentin; Ilanthenral, K.

    2009-01-01

    The authors in this book introduce the notion of special set linear algebra and special set fuzzy Linear algebra, which is an extension of the notion set linear algebra and set fuzzy linear algebra. These concepts are best suited in the application of multi expert models and cryptology. This book has five chapters. In chapter one the basic concepts about set linear algebra is given in order to make this book a self contained one. The notion of special set linear algebra and their fuzzy analog...

  1. A non-destructive spectroscopic study of the decoration of archaeological pottery: from matt-painted bichrome ceramic sherds (southern Italy, VIII-VII B.C.) to an intact Etruscan cinerary urn

    Bruni, Silvia; Guglielmi, Vittoria; Della Foglia, Elena; Castoldi, Marina; Bagnasco Gianni, Giovanna

    2018-02-01

    A study is presented based on the use of entirely non-destructive spectroscopic techniques to analyze the chemical composition of the painted surface layer of archaeological pottery. This study aims to define both the raw materials and the working technology of ancient potters. Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, micro-Raman spectroscopy, visible and near infrared (NIR) diffuse reflection spectroscopy and external reflection Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were applied to matt-painted bichrome pottery sherds (VIII-VII century B.C.) from the site of Incoronata near Metaponto in southern Italy. Two different raw materials, ochre and iron-rich clay, were recognized for the red decoration, while the dark areas resulted to have been obtained by the so-called manganese black technique. In any case, it was demonstrated that the decoration was applied before firing, in spite of its sometimes grainy aspect that could suggest a post-firing application. For the samples with a more sophisticated decorative pattern a red/black/white polychromy was recognized, as the lighter areas correspond to an ;intentional white; obtained by the firing of a calcium-rich clay. Reflection spectroscopy in the visible-NIR and mid-IR as well as micro-Raman spectroscopy were then employed to characterize the decoration of an intact ceramic urn from the Etruscan town of Chiusi, evidencing a post-firing painting based on the use of red ochre, carbon black and lime, possibly imitating the ;fresco; technique used in wall paintings.

  2. Electrodynamic linear motor

    Munehiro, H

    1980-05-29

    When driving the carriage of a printer through a rotating motor, there are problems regarding the limited accuracy of the carriage position due to rotation or contraction and ageing of the cable. In order to solve the problem, a direct drive system was proposed, in which the printer carriage is driven by a linear motor. If one wants to keep the motor circuit of such a motor compact, then the magnetic flux density in the air gap must be reduced or the motor travel must be reduced. It is the purpose of this invention to create an electrodynamic linear motor, which on the one hand is compact and light and on the other hand has a relatively high constant force over a large travel. The invention is characterised by the fact that magnetic fields of alternating polarity are generated at equal intervals in the magnetic field, and that the coil arrangement has 2 adjacent coils, whose size corresponds to half the length of each magnetic pole. A logic circuit is provided to select one of the two coils and to determine the direction of the current depending on the signals of a magnetic field sensor on the coil arrangement.

  3. Linear wind generator

    Kozarov, A.; Petrov, O.; Antonov, J.; Sotirova, S.; Petrova, B.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the linear wind-power generator described in this article is to decrease the following disadvantages of the common wind-powered turbine: 1) large bending and twisting moments to the blades and the shaft, especially when strong winds and turbulence exist; 2) significant values of the natural oscillation period of the construction result in the possibility of occurrence of destroying resonance oscillations; 3) high velocity of the peripheral parts of the rotor creating a danger for birds; 4) difficulties, connected with the installation and the operation on the mountain ridges and passages where the wind energy potential is the largest. The working surfaces of the generator in questions driven by the wind are not connected with a joint shaft but each moves along a railway track with few oscillations. So the sizes of each component are small and their number can be rather large. The mechanical trajectory is not a circle but a closed outline in a vertical plain, which consists of two rectilinear sectors, one above the other, connected in their ends by semi-circumferences. The mechanical energy of each component turns into electrical on the principle of the linear electrical generator. A regulation is provided when the direction of the wind is perpendicular to the route. A possibility of effectiveness is shown through aiming of additional quantities of air to the movable components by static barriers

  4. ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AND MANAGEMENT CULTURE

    Tudor Hobeanu; Loredana Vacarescu Hobeanu

    2010-01-01

    Communication reveals the importance of organizational culture and management culture supported by the remarkable results in economic and social level of organization. Their functions are presented and specific ways of expression levels of organizational culture and ways of adapting to the requirements of the organization's management culture.

  5. Linearization of the Lorenz system

    Li, Chunbiao; Sprott, Julien Clinton; Thio, Wesley

    2015-01-01

    A partial and complete piecewise linearized version of the Lorenz system is proposed. The linearized versions have an independent total amplitude control parameter. Additional further linearization leads naturally to a piecewise linear version of the diffusionless Lorenz system. A chaotic circuit with a single amplitude controller is then implemented using a new switch element, producing a chaotic oscillation that agrees with the numerical calculation for the piecewise linear diffusionless Lorenz system. - Highlights: • A partial and complete piecewise linearized version of the Lorenz system are addressed. • The linearized versions have an independent total amplitude control parameter. • A piecewise linear version of the diffusionless Lorenz system is derived by further linearization. • A corresponding chaotic circuit without any multiplier is implemented for the chaotic oscillation

  6. Topics in computational linear optimization

    Hultberg, Tim Helge

    2000-01-01

    Linear optimization has been an active area of research ever since the pioneering work of G. Dantzig more than 50 years ago. This research has produced a long sequence of practical as well as theoretical improvements of the solution techniques avilable for solving linear optimization problems...... of high quality solvers and the use of algebraic modelling systems to handle the communication between the modeller and the solver. This dissertation features four topics in computational linear optimization: A) automatic reformulation of mixed 0/1 linear programs, B) direct solution of sparse unsymmetric...... systems of linear equations, C) reduction of linear programs and D) integration of algebraic modelling of linear optimization problems in C++. Each of these topics is treated in a separate paper included in this dissertation. The efficiency of solving mixed 0-1 linear programs by linear programming based...

  7. Linearization of the Lorenz system

    Li, Chunbiao, E-mail: goontry@126.com [School of Electronic & Information Engineering, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Engineering Technology Research and Development Center of Jiangsu Circulation Modernization Sensor Network, Jiangsu Institute of Commerce, Nanjing 211168 (China); Sprott, Julien Clinton [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Thio, Wesley [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2015-05-08

    A partial and complete piecewise linearized version of the Lorenz system is proposed. The linearized versions have an independent total amplitude control parameter. Additional further linearization leads naturally to a piecewise linear version of the diffusionless Lorenz system. A chaotic circuit with a single amplitude controller is then implemented using a new switch element, producing a chaotic oscillation that agrees with the numerical calculation for the piecewise linear diffusionless Lorenz system. - Highlights: • A partial and complete piecewise linearized version of the Lorenz system are addressed. • The linearized versions have an independent total amplitude control parameter. • A piecewise linear version of the diffusionless Lorenz system is derived by further linearization. • A corresponding chaotic circuit without any multiplier is implemented for the chaotic oscillation.

  8. On the linear programming bound for linear Lee codes.

    Astola, Helena; Tabus, Ioan

    2016-01-01

    Based on an invariance-type property of the Lee-compositions of a linear Lee code, additional equality constraints can be introduced to the linear programming problem of linear Lee codes. In this paper, we formulate this property in terms of an action of the multiplicative group of the field [Formula: see text] on the set of Lee-compositions. We show some useful properties of certain sums of Lee-numbers, which are the eigenvalues of the Lee association scheme, appearing in the linear programming problem of linear Lee codes. Using the additional equality constraints, we formulate the linear programming problem of linear Lee codes in a very compact form, leading to a fast execution, which allows to efficiently compute the bounds for large parameter values of the linear codes.

  9. Cultural commons and cultural evolution

    Bravo, Giangiacomo

    2010-01-01

    Culture evolves following a process that is akin to biological evolution, although with some significant differences. At the same time culture has often a collective good value for human groups. This paper studies culture in an evolutionary perspective, with a focus on the implications of group definition for the coexistence of different cultures. A model of cultural evolution is presented where agents interacts in an artificial environment. The belonging to a specific memetic group is a majo...

  10. Análise arqueométrica de cerâmica Tupiguarani da região central do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, usando fluorescência de raios X por dispersão de energia (EDXRF Archaeometric analysis of Tupiguarani pottery from the central region of the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF

    Irene Akemy Tomiyoshi Bona

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence methodology (EDXRF was used to determine Al, Ba, Ca, Cr, Fe, K, Mn, Pb, Rb, S, Si, Sr, Ti, V, Zn in pottery sherds from seven archaeological sites in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The potteries' chemical fingerprints from Ijuí River, Ibicuí Mirim River, Vacacaí Mirim River and Jacuí River were identified. Interactions between sites from the Jacuí River, Vacacaí Mirim River and Ibicui Mirim River could have occurred because some samples from these sites are overlapping in a principal component analysis (PCA graphic. The pottery provenance could be the same.

  11. Introduction to linear elasticity

    Gould, Phillip L

    2013-01-01

    Introduction to Linear Elasticity, 3rd Edition, provides an applications-oriented grounding in the tensor-based theory of elasticity for students in mechanical, civil, aeronautical, and biomedical engineering, as well as materials and earth science. The book is distinct from the traditional text aimed at graduate students in solid mechanics by introducing the subject at a level appropriate for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students. The author's presentation allows students to apply the basic notions of stress analysis and move on to advanced work in continuum mechanics, plasticity, plate and shell theory, composite materials, viscoelasticity and finite method analysis. This book also:  Emphasizes tensor-based approach while still distilling down to explicit notation Provides introduction to theory of plates, theory of shells, wave propagation, viscoelasticity and plasticity accessible to advanced undergraduate students Appropriate for courses following emerging trend of teaching solid mechan...

  12. Linear step drive

    Haniger, L.; Elger, R.; Kocandrle, L.; Zdebor, J.

    1986-01-01

    A linear step drive is described developed in Czechoslovak-Soviet cooperation and intended for driving WWER-1000 control rods. The functional principle is explained of the motor and the mechanical and electrical parts of the drive, power control, and the indicator of position are described. The motor has latches situated in the reactor at a distance of 3 m from magnetic armatures, it has a low structural height above the reactor cover, which suggests its suitability for seismic localities. Its magnetic circuits use counterpoles; the mechanical shocks at the completion of each step are damped using special design features. The position indicator is of a special design and evaluates motor position within ±1% of total travel. A drive diagram and the flow chart of both the control electronics and the position indicator are presented. (author) 4 figs

  13. Linear pulse amplifier

    Tjutju, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    Pulse amplifier is standard significant part of spectrometer. Apart from other type of amplification, it's a combination of amplification and pulse shaping. Because of its special purpose the device should fulfill the following : High resolution is desired to gain a high yield comparable to its actual state of condition. High signal to noise is desired to nhν resolution. High linearity to facilitate calibration. A good overload recovery, in order to the device will capable of analizing a low energy radiation which appear joinly on the high energy fields. Other expections of the device are its economical and practical use its extentive application. For that reason it's built on a standard NIM principle. Taking also into account the above mentioned considerations. High quality component parts are used throughout, while its availability in the domestic market is secured. (author)

  14. Linear Accelerator Laboratory

    1976-01-01

    This report covers the activity of the Linear Accelerator Laboratory during the period June 1974-June 1976. The activity of the Laboratory is essentially centered on high energy physics. The main activities were: experiments performed with the colliding rings (ACO), construction of the new colliding rings and beginning of the work at higher energy (DCI), bubble chamber experiments with the CERN PS neutrino beam, counter experiments with CERN's PS and setting-up of equipment for new experiments with CERN's SPS. During this period a project has also been prepared for an experiment with the new PETRA colliding ring at Hamburg. On the other hand, intense collaboration with the LURE Laboratory, using the electron synchrotron radiation emitted by ACO and DCI, has been developed [fr

  15. HEAVY ION LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    Van Atta, C.M.; Beringer, R.; Smith, L.

    1959-01-01

    A linear accelerator of heavy ions is described. The basic contributions of the invention consist of a method and apparatus for obtaining high energy particles of an element with an increased charge-to-mass ratio. The method comprises the steps of ionizing the atoms of an element, accelerating the resultant ions to an energy substantially equal to one Mev per nucleon, stripping orbital electrons from the accelerated ions by passing the ions through a curtain of elemental vapor disposed transversely of the path of the ions to provide a second charge-to-mass ratio, and finally accelerating the resultant stripped ions to a final energy of at least ten Mev per nucleon.

  16. Linear absorptive dielectrics

    Tip, A.

    1998-06-01

    Starting from Maxwell's equations for a linear, nonconducting, absorptive, and dispersive medium, characterized by the constitutive equations D(x,t)=ɛ1(x)E(x,t)+∫t-∞dsχ(x,t-s)E(x,s) and H(x,t)=B(x,t), a unitary time evolution and canonical formalism is obtained. Given the complex, coordinate, and frequency-dependent, electric permeability ɛ(x,ω), no further assumptions are made. The procedure leads to a proper definition of band gaps in the periodic case and a new continuity equation for energy flow. An S-matrix formalism for scattering from lossy objects is presented in full detail. A quantized version of the formalism is derived and applied to the generation of Čerenkov and transition radiation as well as atomic decay. The last case suggests a useful generalization of the density of states to the absorptive situation.

  17. Computer Program For Linear Algebra

    Krogh, F. T.; Hanson, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    Collection of routines provided for basic vector operations. Basic Linear Algebra Subprogram (BLAS) library is collection from FORTRAN-callable routines for employing standard techniques to perform basic operations of numerical linear algebra.

  18. Quaternion Linear Canonical Transform Application

    Bahri, Mawardi

    2015-01-01

    Quaternion linear canonical transform (QLCT) is a generalization of the classical linear canonical transfom (LCT) using quaternion algebra. The focus of this paper is to introduce an application of the QLCT to study of generalized swept-frequency filter

  19. Recursive Algorithm For Linear Regression

    Varanasi, S. V.

    1988-01-01

    Order of model determined easily. Linear-regression algorithhm includes recursive equations for coefficients of model of increased order. Algorithm eliminates duplicative calculations, facilitates search for minimum order of linear-regression model fitting set of data satisfactory.

  20. Dynamical systems and linear algebra

    Colonius, Fritz (Prof.)

    2007-01-01

    Dynamical systems and linear algebra / F. Colonius, W. Kliemann. - In: Handbook of linear algebra / ed. by Leslie Hogben. - Boca Raton : Chapman & Hall/CRC, 2007. - S. 56,1-56,22. - (Discrete mathematics and its applications)

  1. Linear spaces: history and theory

    Albrecht Beutelspracher

    1990-01-01

    Linear spaces belong to the most fundamental geometric and combinatorial structures. In this paper I would like to give an onerview about the theory of embedding finite linear spaces in finite projective planes.

  2. Linear versus non-linear supersymmetry, in general

    Ferrara, Sergio [Theoretical Physics Department, CERN,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); INFN - Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati,Via Enrico Fermi 40, I-00044 Frascati (Italy); Department of Physics and Astronomy, UniversityC.L.A.,Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Kallosh, Renata [SITP and Department of Physics, Stanford University,Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Proeyen, Antoine Van [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven,Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Wrase, Timm [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Technische Universität Wien,Wiedner Hauptstr. 8-10, A-1040 Vienna (Austria)

    2016-04-12

    We study superconformal and supergravity models with constrained superfields. The underlying version of such models with all unconstrained superfields and linearly realized supersymmetry is presented here, in addition to the physical multiplets there are Lagrange multiplier (LM) superfields. Once the equations of motion for the LM superfields are solved, some of the physical superfields become constrained. The linear supersymmetry of the original models becomes non-linearly realized, its exact form can be deduced from the original linear supersymmetry. Known examples of constrained superfields are shown to require the following LM’s: chiral superfields, linear superfields, general complex superfields, some of them are multiplets with a spin.

  3. Linear versus non-linear supersymmetry, in general

    Ferrara, Sergio; Kallosh, Renata; Proeyen, Antoine Van; Wrase, Timm

    2016-01-01

    We study superconformal and supergravity models with constrained superfields. The underlying version of such models with all unconstrained superfields and linearly realized supersymmetry is presented here, in addition to the physical multiplets there are Lagrange multiplier (LM) superfields. Once the equations of motion for the LM superfields are solved, some of the physical superfields become constrained. The linear supersymmetry of the original models becomes non-linearly realized, its exact form can be deduced from the original linear supersymmetry. Known examples of constrained superfields are shown to require the following LM’s: chiral superfields, linear superfields, general complex superfields, some of them are multiplets with a spin.

  4. Culturing Protozoa.

    Stevenson, Paul

    1980-01-01

    Compares various nutrient media, growth conditions, and stock solutions used in culturing protozoa. A hay infusion in Chalkey's solution maintained at a stable temperature is recommended for producing the most dense and diverse cultures. (WB)

  5. A primer on linear models

    Monahan, John F

    2008-01-01

    Preface Examples of the General Linear Model Introduction One-Sample Problem Simple Linear Regression Multiple Regression One-Way ANOVA First Discussion The Two-Way Nested Model Two-Way Crossed Model Analysis of Covariance Autoregression Discussion The Linear Least Squares Problem The Normal Equations The Geometry of Least Squares Reparameterization Gram-Schmidt Orthonormalization Estimability and Least Squares Estimators Assumptions for the Linear Mean Model Confounding, Identifiability, and Estimability Estimability and Least Squares Estimators F

  6. Safety culture

    Keen, L.J.

    2003-01-01

    Safety culture has become a topic of increasing interest for industry and regulators as issues are raised on safety problems around the world. The keys to safety culture are organizational effectiveness, effective communications, organizational learning, and a culture that encourages the identification and resolution of safety issues. The necessity of a strong safety culture places an onus on all of us to continually question whether the safety measures already in place are sufficient, and are being applied. (author)

  7. ARTEFACTOS DE USO DIARIO REPRESENTADOS EN LA COLECCIÓN CERÁMICA DEL ARROYO LEYES: SU EMPLEO EN LA DETERMINACIÓN DE CRONOLOGÍA / Daily use artifacts represented in the Arroyo de Leyes pottery collection: their use in the determination of chronology

    Carlos Natalio Ceruti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan artefactos de uso diario (implementos para mate, una alcancía, un vaso de cuerno y una “canasta” para el juego del pato representados en la colección cerámica del sitio Los Zapallos, sobre el Arroyo Leyes (departamento Garay, provincia de Santa Fe, Argentina. Se describen los elementos, localizados en un contexto considerado prima facie como obra de individuos esclavizados pertenecientes a vecinos de Santa Fe la Vieja (siglo XVII; pero que también puede contener materiales correspondientes a las culturas indígenas contemporáneas o anteriores a la conquista; a los siglos XVIII-XIX, y “falsificaciones” de comienzos del siglo XX. Se intenta ubicar cada uno de ellos en la escala temporal a partir del análisis de pasta y decoración de la pieza, y de la consistencia argumental derivada de la documentación escrita.   Palabras clave: Arroyo Leyes, arqueología de la esclavitud, Santa Fe la Vieja, cronología Daily use artifacts represented in the Arroyo de Leyes pottery collection: their use in the determination of chronology Abstract The presence of daily-use artifacts (implements for mate infusion, a money box, a horn cup and a “basket” used for the duck game represented in the ceramic collection of Los Zapallos site, Arroyo Leyes (Garay Department, Santa Fe Province, Argentina is analyzed. In this paper different elements are described, placed in a context considered in prima facie as resulting from the labor of enslaved individuals belonging to neighbors of Santa Fe la Vieja (XVIIth century, but that also may contain materials corresponding to contemporary or pre-conquest native cultures, to XVIII-XIXth centuries, and to “falsifications” of the early XXth century. On the basis of paste and piece decoration, and of argumental consistency derived from written documents, an attempt to place each element on the time scale is made. Keywords: Arroyo Leyes, archaeology of slavery, Santa Fe la Vieja, chronology

  8. Revealing patterns of cultural transmission from frequency data: equilibrium and non-equilibrium assumptions

    Crema, Enrico R.; Kandler, Anne; Shennan, Stephen

    2016-12-01

    A long tradition of cultural evolutionary studies has developed a rich repertoire of mathematical models of social learning. Early studies have laid the foundation of more recent endeavours to infer patterns of cultural transmission from observed frequencies of a variety of cultural data, from decorative motifs on potsherds to baby names and musical preferences. While this wide range of applications provides an opportunity for the development of generalisable analytical workflows, archaeological data present new questions and challenges that require further methodological and theoretical discussion. Here we examine the decorative motifs of Neolithic pottery from an archaeological assemblage in Western Germany, and argue that the widely used (and relatively undiscussed) assumption that observed frequencies are the result of a system in equilibrium conditions is unwarranted, and can lead to incorrect conclusions. We analyse our data with a simulation-based inferential framework that can overcome some of the intrinsic limitations in archaeological data, as well as handle both equilibrium conditions and instances where the mode of cultural transmission is time-variant. Results suggest that none of the models examined can produce the observed pattern under equilibrium conditions, and suggest. instead temporal shifts in the patterns of cultural transmission.

  9. Templates for Linear Algebra Problems

    Bai, Z.; Day, D.; Demmel, J.; Dongarra, J.; Gu, M.; Ruhe, A.; Vorst, H.A. van der

    1995-01-01

    The increasing availability of advanced-architecture computers is having a very signicant eect on all spheres of scientic computation, including algorithm research and software development in numerical linear algebra. Linear algebra {in particular, the solution of linear systems of equations and

  10. Linearization of CIF through SOS

    Nadales Agut, D.E.; Reniers, M.A.; Luttik, B.; Valencia, F.

    2011-01-01

    Linearization is the procedure of rewriting a process term into a linear form, which consist only of basic operators of the process language. This procedure is interesting both from a theoretical and a practical point of view. In particular, a linearization algorithm is needed for the Compositional

  11. Linear Logic on Petri Nets

    Engberg, Uffe Henrik; Winskel, Glynn

    This article shows how individual Petri nets form models of Girard's intuitionistic linear logic. It explores questions of expressiveness and completeness of linear logic with respect to this interpretation. An aim is to use Petri nets to give an understanding of linear logic and give some apprai...

  12. Beyond Culture.

    Barron, Daniel D.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the lack of literature relating to cultural differences and school library media programs and reviews the book "Beyond Culture" by Edward T. Hall. Highlights include the population/environment crisis, cultural literacy, the use of technology, and Marshall McLuhan's idea of the global village. (LRW)

  13. Bile culture

    Culture - bile ... is placed in a special dish called a culture medium to see if bacteria, viruses, or fungi ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Body fluid - anaerobic culture. In: ... . 6th ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:225-226. Kim AY, ...

  14. Handling Culture

    Pieter van Nispen tot Pannerden

    2011-01-01

    The article indicates how companies may prepare for and deal with cultural differences. Because the research base is still rather limited an overall perspective may not be realised. After discussing definitions and concepts of culture, as well as values, cultural differences between states are

  15. Linear particle accelerator

    Richards, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    A linear particle accelerator which provides a pulsed beam of charged particles of uniform energy is described. The accelerator is in the form of an evacuated dielectric tube, inside of which a particle source is located at one end of the tube, with a target or window located at the other end of the dielectric tube. Along the length of the tube are externally located pairs of metal plates, each insulated from each other in an insulated housing. Each of the plates of a pair are connected to an electrical source of voltage of opposed polarity, with the polarity of the voltage of the plates oriented so that the plate of a pair, nearer to the particle source, is of the opposed polarity to the charge of the particle emitted by the source. Thus, a first plate about the tube located nearest the particle source, attracts a particle which as it passes through the tube past the first plate is then repelled by the reverse polarity of the second plate of the pair to continue moving towards the target

  16. Generalized Linear Covariance Analysis

    Carpenter, James R.; Markley, F. Landis

    2014-01-01

    This talk presents a comprehensive approach to filter modeling for generalized covariance analysis of both batch least-squares and sequential estimators. We review and extend in two directions the results of prior work that allowed for partitioning of the state space into solve-for'' and consider'' parameters, accounted for differences between the formal values and the true values of the measurement noise, process noise, and textita priori solve-for and consider covariances, and explicitly partitioned the errors into subspaces containing only the influence of the measurement noise, process noise, and solve-for and consider covariances. In this work, we explicitly add sensitivity analysis to this prior work, and relax an implicit assumption that the batch estimator's epoch time occurs prior to the definitive span. We also apply the method to an integrated orbit and attitude problem, in which gyro and accelerometer errors, though not estimated, influence the orbit determination performance. We illustrate our results using two graphical presentations, which we call the variance sandpile'' and the sensitivity mosaic,'' and we compare the linear covariance results to confidence intervals associated with ensemble statistics from a Monte Carlo analysis.

  17. Equipartitioning in linear accelerators

    Jameson, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    Emittance growth has long been a concern in linear accelerators, as has the idea that some kind of energy balance, or equipartitioning, between the degrees of freedom, would ameliorate the growth. M. Prome observed that the average transverse and longitudinal velocity spreads tend to equalize as current in the channel is increased, while the sum of the energy in the system stays nearly constant. However, only recently have we shown that an equipartitioning requirement on a bunched injected beam can indeed produce remarkably small emittance growth. The simple set of equations leading to this condition are outlined. At the same time, Hofmann has investigated collective instabilities in transported beams and has identified thresholds and regions in parameter space where instabilities occur. Evidence is presented that shows transport system boundaries to be quite accurate in computer simulations of accelerating systems. Discussed are preliminary results of efforts to design accelerators that avoid parameter regions where emittance is affected by the instabilities identified by Hofmann. These efforts suggest that other mechanisms are present. The complicated behavior of the RFQ linac in this framework also is shown

  18. Equipartitioning in linear accelerators

    Jameson, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    Emittance growth has long been a concern in linear accelerators, as has the idea that some kind of energy balance, or equipartitioning, between the degrees of freedom, would ameliorate the growth. M. Prome observed that the average transverse and longitudinal velocity spreads tend to equalize as current in the channel is increased, while the sum of the energy in the system stays nearly constant. However, only recently have we shown that an equipartitioning requirement on a bunched injected beam can indeed produce remarkably small emittance growth. The simple set of equations leading to this condition are outlined below. At the same time, Hofmann, using powerful analytical and computational methods, has investigated collective instabilities in transported beams and has identified thresholds and regions in parameter space where instabilities occur. This is an important generalization. Work that he will present at this conference shows that the results are essentially the same in r-z coordinates for transport systems, and evidence is presented that shows transport system boundaries to be quite accurate in computer simulations of accelerating systems also. Discussed are preliminary results of efforts to design accelerators that avoid parameter regions where emittance is affected by the instabilities identified by Hofmann. These efforts suggest that other mechanisms are present. The complicated behavior of the RFQ linac in this framework also is shown

  19. Linear induction accelerators

    Briggs, R.J.

    1986-06-01

    The development of linear induction accelerators has been motivated by applications requiring high-pulsed currents of charged particles at voltages exceeding the capability of single-stage, diode-type accelerators and at currents too high for rf accelerators. In principle, one can accelerate charged particles to arbitrarily high voltages using a multi-stage induction machine, but the 50-MeV, 10-kA Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) at LLNL is the highest voltage machine in existence at this time. The advent of magnetic pulse power systems makes sustained operation at high-repetition rates practical, and this capability for high-average power is very likely to open up many new applications of induction machines in the future. This paper surveys the US induction linac technology with primary emphasis on electron machines. A simplified description of how induction machines couple energy to the electron beam is given, to illustrate many of the general issues that bound the design space of induction linacs

  20. Berkeley Proton Linear Accelerator

    Alvarez, L. W.; Bradner, H.; Franck, J.; Gordon, H.; Gow, J. D.; Marshall, L. C.; Oppenheimer, F. F.; Panofsky, W. K. H.; Richman, C.; Woodyard, J. R.

    1953-10-13

    A linear accelerator, which increases the energy of protons from a 4 Mev Van de Graaff injector, to a final energy of 31.5 Mev, has been constructed. The accelerator consists of a cavity 40 feet long and 39 inches in diameter, excited at resonance in a longitudinal electric mode with a radio-frequency power of about 2.2 x 10{sup 6} watts peak at 202.5 mc. Acceleration is made possible by the introduction of 46 axial "drift tubes" into the cavity, which is designed such that the particles traverse the distance between the centers of successive tubes in one cycle of the r.f. power. The protons are longitudinally stable as in the synchrotron, and are stabilized transversely by the action of converging fields produced by focusing grids. The electrical cavity is constructed like an inverted airplane fuselage and is supported in a vacuum tank. Power is supplied by 9 high powered oscillators fed from a pulse generator of the artificial transmission line type.

  1. The Design Features of Complex Vessels of Malyshev Neolithic Culture of Lower Priamurye (case study: Malyshevo 1 Settlement

    Inga V. Filatova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the author’s opinion, the solution for cultural genesis issues can be tackled through the analysis of structural peculiarities of hollow bodies of vessels of different ceramic complexes. The ceramics of the Malyshev Culture of the Lower Amur is no exception. The article traces the evolution of researchers’ views in regard to Neolithic culture in inner periodization of the region as well as cultural relevance of early complex ceramics by a well known Soviet archeologist academic A.P. Okladnykov – stage of Lower Amur Neolithic culture. Case study: visualization of ceramic collection of one-layer Neolithic settlement Malyshevo-1 (“At the craftsmen”. Here we identify two vessel groups, which differ through their morphological and decorative features. On the ground of technological assessments of manufacturing techniques by I. G. Glushkov (1996, including methodological developments by A. A. Bobrinsky (1978, the program of hollow body design is researched. The manufacturing techniques are identified (methods of fixing, build-up, straps oiling, types of molding, filling program, cutting and bottom fixing. The mixed programs of hollow body vessels are identified and locations of two pottery traditions are found. A competitive analysis for identifying the peculiarities of Malyshev ceramics and Neolithic materials of the Lower Amur and bordering seaside territories. There are similarities are drawn out between ceramic complexes of Osipov culture of early Neolithic (Lower Amur and Rudninsky culture (Rudninsky type, Sergeev type of early Neolithic (seaside territories.

  2. Random linear codes in steganography

    Kamil Kaczyński

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Syndrome coding using linear codes is a technique that allows improvement in the steganographic algorithms parameters. The use of random linear codes gives a great flexibility in choosing the parameters of the linear code. In parallel, it offers easy generation of parity check matrix. In this paper, the modification of LSB algorithm is presented. A random linear code [8, 2] was used as a base for algorithm modification. The implementation of the proposed algorithm, along with practical evaluation of algorithms’ parameters based on the test images was made.[b]Keywords:[/b] steganography, random linear codes, RLC, LSB

  3. 109 bridging the gap between policy and administration of cultural ...

    Prof Alex C Asigbo

    their effect on educational projects and community development. The focus of this paper ... music, drama, pottery, arts and crafts in Nigeria. .... through bodily movements in such societies. Thirdly, the .... The efforts of these children are not put ...

  4. CARACTERIZACIÓN Y PROCEDENCIA DE MATERIAS PRIMAS PARA LA PRODUCCIÓN DE ALFARERÍA PREHISPÁNICA EN LA QUEBRADA DE HUMAHUACA (PROVINCIA DE JUJUY, REPÚBLICA ARGENTINA: FRX, ICP Y PETROGRAFÍA DE PASTAS (Characterization and Provenance of Raw Materials for the Production of Prehispanic Pottery in Quebrada de Humahuaca (Jujuy Province, Argentina: XRF, ICP and Ceramic Petrography

    Nicolás E. Larcher

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un avance en la investigación arqueométrica de la alfarería prehispánica de la Quebrada de Humahuaca, territorio ubicado en el extremo noroeste de Argentina. Se analizaron 72 muestras de cerámicas y arcillas por FRX e ICP en tres laboratorios distintos. La integración de los datos y su procesamiento estadístico permitió identificar 4 grupos con características químicas definidas. La petrografía de pastas aportó información extra que ayudó a corroborar la congruencia de los agrupamientos obtenidos. Los resultados permitieron relacionar arcillas con cerámicas, diferenciar químicamente las arcillas y cerámicas de dos sectores de la Quebrada de Humahuaca estudiados e identificar posibles evidencias de interacción. ENGLISH: This article presents a new archaeometric investigation of prehispanic pottery from Quebrada de Humahuaca, a valley in the northwesternmost region of Argentina. We assayed 72 samples from pottery and clays using X-RF and ICP in three different laboratories. Data integration and statistical processing allowed us to identify 4 groups with defined chemical signatures. Ceramic petrology provided additional information that helped us to corroborate the coherence of the clustering. The results enabled us to correlate clays with pottery, to establish chemical differences between the clays and pottery of two areas of Quebrada de Humahuaca that have been investigated archaeologically, and to identify possible evidence of social interaction.

  5. Linear Algebraic Method for Non-Linear Map Analysis

    Yu, L.; Nash, B.

    2009-01-01

    We present a newly developed method to analyze some non-linear dynamics problems such as the Henon map using a matrix analysis method from linear algebra. Choosing the Henon map as an example, we analyze the spectral structure, the tune-amplitude dependence, the variation of tune and amplitude during the particle motion, etc., using the method of Jordan decomposition which is widely used in conventional linear algebra.

  6. Oriental Elements in the Material Culture of Azaq and the Problem of Migrations of the Golden Horde Urban Population

    Maslovskiy Andrey N.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The data on the emergence of new Oriental material culture elements in the city of Azaq, such as new housing and pottery types, characteristic of the mid-14th-century Golden Horde cities of the Lower Volga region, are provided in the article. Particular attention is paid to the appearance of new types of dwellings with the kang-based system of heating. They make up about 10 per cent of all residential complexes studied in Azaq: mostly ground dwellings, as semi-subterranean dwellings with kangs are rarely met. It has been suggested that in the mid-14th century a considerable group of residents of the Golden Horde Lower Volga towns had migrated to Azaq. The reasons for this relocation can be discussed only hypothetically.

  7. Spatial Culture

    Reeh, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Spatial Culture – A Humanities Perspective Abstract of introductory essay by Henrik Reeh Secured by alliances between socio-political development and cultural practices, a new field of humanistic studies in spatial culture has developed since the 1990s. To focus on links between urban culture...... and modern society is, however, an intellectual practice which has a much longer history. Already in the 1980s, the debate on the modern and the postmodern cited Paris and Los Angeles as spatio-cultural illustrations of these major philosophical concepts. Earlier, in the history of critical studies, the work...... Foucault considered a constitutive feature of 20th-century thinking and one that continues to occupy intellectual and cultural debates in the third millennium. A conceptual framework is, nevertheless, necessary, if the humanities are to adequa-tely address city and space – themes that have long been...

  8. Cultural contrast

    周志

    2016-01-01

    Chinese cultural contains a great number of styles;culture differentiation does not depend on region differentiation.This research would interpret what difference between Hong Kong and Shenzhen.1.Food culture in china Traditional Chinese medicine suggests eating local seasonal fruit and vegetables,as they are most suitable for the body during a particular season.It is also divided food into 3 characteristics:cooling foods,warming foods and balance or

  9. Culture evolves

    Whiten, Andrew; Hinde, Robert A.; Laland, Kevin N.; Stringer, Christopher B.

    2011-01-01

    Culture pervades human lives and has allowed our species to create niches all around the world and its oceans, in ways quite unlike any other primate. Indeed, our cultural nature appears so distinctive that it is often thought to separate humanity from the rest of nature and the Darwinian forces that shape it. A contrary view arises through the recent discoveries of a diverse range of disciplines, here brought together to illustrate the scope of a burgeoning field of cultural evolution and to...

  10. Linear Programming and Network Flows

    Bazaraa, Mokhtar S; Sherali, Hanif D

    2011-01-01

    The authoritative guide to modeling and solving complex problems with linear programming-extensively revised, expanded, and updated The only book to treat both linear programming techniques and network flows under one cover, Linear Programming and Network Flows, Fourth Edition has been completely updated with the latest developments on the topic. This new edition continues to successfully emphasize modeling concepts, the design and analysis of algorithms, and implementation strategies for problems in a variety of fields, including industrial engineering, management science, operations research

  11. Material Culture and Cultural Meanings: Current Studies of Archaeological Ceramics and in Ce­ramic Ethnoarchaeology

    Charles C. Kolb

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Pottery and People: A Dynamic Interaction. James M. Skibo and Gary M. Feinman (editors. Founda­tions of Archaeological Inquiry. Salt Lake City. University of Utah Press. 1999. 260 pp. 91 figures. 30 tables. ISBN 0-87480-576-7. $55.00 (cloth; 0-87489-577-5. $25.00 (paperback. Material Meanings: Critical Approaches to the Interpretation of Material Culture. Elizabeth S. Chilton (editor. Foundations of Archaeological Inquiry. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press. 1999.179pp. 35 figures. 11 tables. ISBN 0-87480-632-1. $55.00 (cloth; 087480-633-X. $35.00 (paperback. The description and interpretation of material culture may be regarded as the essence of archaeology, a discipline that seeks to recover, describe, document, and interpret past human culture. More recently, understanding that actions occur in a material world that is constituted symbolically, archaeological explanations are often framed in sociocultural meanings, the analysis of agencies, practices and behaviors. I shall subsequently return to this issue. Because of their longevity in the archaeological record, lithic and ceramic artifacts are crucial to the endeavor to interpret human culture. Objects fashioned from clay and subjected to intentional artificial sources of heat made their initial appearance in the archaeological record more than 26.000 years ago. Ceramic objects have been created in a seemingly endless variety of shapes and forms, varying from fertility figurines. to cooking and food storage vessels. lamps, smoking pipes, medicinal pastilles, tokens, beehives, and coffins to modern whitewares and pyroceramics.

  12. Manuscript Cultures

    What do Mesoamerica, Greece, Byzantium, Island, Chad, Ethiopia, India, Tibet, China and Japan have in common? Like many other cultures of the world, they share a particular form of cultural heritage: ancient handwritten documents. In 2007, scholars from some20 countries around the world gathered...... at the University of Copenhagen for a workshop on manuscripts to compare notes. This event led to the publication of this volume, which brings together16 articles on philological, cultural, and material aspects of manuscripts in search for a common ground across disciplines and cultures....

  13. LINEAR2007, Linear-Linear Interpolation of ENDF Format Cross-Sections

    2007-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: LINEAR converts evaluated cross sections in the ENDF/B format into a tabular form that is subject to linear-linear interpolation in energy and cross section. The code also thins tables of cross sections already in that form. Codes used subsequently need thus to consider only linear-linear data. IAEA1311/15: This version include the updates up to January 30, 2007. Changes in ENDF/B-VII Format and procedures, as well as the evaluations themselves, make it impossible for versions of the ENDF/B pre-processing codes earlier than PREPRO 2007 (2007 Version) to accurately process current ENDF/B-VII evaluations. The present code can handle all existing ENDF/B-VI evaluations through release 8, which will be the last release of ENDF/B-VI. Modifications from previous versions: - Linear VERS. 2007-1 (JAN. 2007): checked against all ENDF/B-VII; increased page size from 60,000 to 600,000 points 2 - Method of solution: Each section of data is considered separately. Each section of File 3, 23, and 27 data consists of a table of cross section versus energy with any of five interpolation laws. LINEAR will replace each section with a new table of energy versus cross section data in which the interpolation law is always linear in energy and cross section. The histogram (constant cross section between two energies) interpolation law is converted to linear-linear by substituting two points for each initial point. The linear-linear is not altered. For the log-linear, linear-log and log- log laws, the cross section data are converted to linear by an interval halving algorithm. Each interval is divided in half until the value at the middle of the interval can be approximated by linear-linear interpolation to within a given accuracy. The LINEAR program uses a multipoint fractional error thinning algorithm to minimize the size of each cross section table

  14. Elementary linear programming with applications

    Kolman, Bernard

    1995-01-01

    Linear programming finds the least expensive way to meet given needs with available resources. Its results are used in every area of engineering and commerce: agriculture, oil refining, banking, and air transport. Authors Kolman and Beck present the basic notions of linear programming and illustrate how they are used to solve important common problems. The software on the included disk leads students step-by-step through the calculations. The Second Edition is completely revised and provides additional review material on linear algebra as well as complete coverage of elementary linear program

  15. The art of linear electronics

    Hood, John Linsley

    2013-01-01

    The Art of Linear Electronics presents the principal aspects of linear electronics and techniques in linear electronic circuit design. The book provides a wide range of information on the elucidation of the methods and techniques in the design of linear electronic circuits. The text discusses such topics as electronic component symbols and circuit drawing; passive and active semiconductor components; DC and low frequency amplifiers; and the basic effects of feedback. Subjects on frequency response modifying circuits and filters; audio amplifiers; low frequency oscillators and waveform generato

  16. Linearity and Non-linearity of Photorefractive effect in Materials ...

    Linearity and Non-linearity of Photorefractive effect in Materials using the Band transport ... For low light beam intensities the change in the refractive index is ... field is spatially phase shifted by /2 relative to the interference fringe pattern, which ...

  17. The linear programming bound for binary linear codes

    Brouwer, A.E.

    1993-01-01

    Combining Delsarte's (1973) linear programming bound with the information that certain weights cannot occur, new upper bounds for dmin (n,k), the maximum possible minimum distance of a binary linear code with given word length n and dimension k, are derived.

  18. Linear operator inequalities for strongly stable weakly regular linear systems

    Curtain, RF

    2001-01-01

    We consider the question of the existence of solutions to certain linear operator inequalities (Lur'e equations) for strongly stable, weakly regular linear systems with generating operators A, B, C, 0. These operator inequalities are related to the spectral factorization of an associated Popov

  19. Skin or nail culture

    Mucosal culture; Culture - skin; Culture - mucosal; Nail culture; Culture - fingernail; Fingernail culture ... There, it is placed in a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria, ...

  20. Linear and non-linear optics of condensed matter

    McLean, T.P.

    1977-01-01

    Part I - Linear optics: 1. General introduction. 2. Frequency dependence of epsilon(ω, k vector). 3. Wave-vector dependence of epsilon(ω, k vector). 4. Tensor character of epsilon(ω, k vector). Part II - Non-linear optics: 5. Introduction. 6. A classical theory of non-linear response in one dimension. 7. The generalization to three dimensions. 8. General properties of the polarizability tensors. 9. The phase-matching condition. 10. Propagation in a non-linear dielectric. 11. Second harmonic generation. 12. Coupling of three waves. 13. Materials and their non-linearities. 14. Processes involving energy exchange with the medium. 15. Two-photon absorption. 16. Stimulated Raman effect. 17. Electro-optic effects. 18. Limitations of the approach presented here. (author)

  1. Advanced statistics: linear regression, part I: simple linear regression.

    Marill, Keith A

    2004-01-01

    Simple linear regression is a mathematical technique used to model the relationship between a single independent predictor variable and a single dependent outcome variable. In this, the first of a two-part series exploring concepts in linear regression analysis, the four fundamental assumptions and the mechanics of simple linear regression are reviewed. The most common technique used to derive the regression line, the method of least squares, is described. The reader will be acquainted with other important concepts in simple linear regression, including: variable transformations, dummy variables, relationship to inference testing, and leverage. Simplified clinical examples with small datasets and graphic models are used to illustrate the points. This will provide a foundation for the second article in this series: a discussion of multiple linear regression, in which there are multiple predictor variables.

  2. Objekt nejstarších zemědělců z Nových Dvorů 3 podruhé. Výpověď zvířecích kostí a prostorové distribuce artefaktů

    Končelová, Markéta; Kovačiková, L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 33, 1-2 (2016), s. 235-243 ISSN 0231-5432 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-16963S Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : Linear Pottery culture (early stage) * animal remains * spatial distribution Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  3. LA ALFARERÍA DEL TARDÍO PREHISPÁNICO DEL VALLE DEL BOLSÓN (CATAMARCA, ARGENTINA: ¿PRODUCCIÓN LOCAL O ALÓCTONA? / The Late Prehispanic pottery of the Bolsón Valley (Catamarca, Argentine: local or allochthonous production?

    Verónica Puente

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentan los resultados obtenidos en los estudios de procedencia de conjuntos cerámicos recuperados en dos asentamientos conglomerados del valle del Bolsón (Belén, Catamarca, Argentina vinculados a ocupaciones del tardío prehispánico (ca. 900-1600 DC. Las muestras estudiadas corresponden principalmente a cerámica pintada en negro sobre rojo reconocida como de estilo Belén, en menor medida ordinaria y excepcionalmente negro sobre crema y ante. Se complementaron análisis petrológicos y análisis por activación neutrónica instrumental realizados a la alfarería y a materias primas adecuadas para la producción alfarera muestreadas en la región. Se concluye que un grupo mayoritario de piezas fueron elaboradas con arcillas y arenas procedentes de la región bajo estudio. Asimismo, se destacan similitudes composicionales entre la vajilla recuperada en ambos asentamientos a pesar de las diferencias logísticas y estratégicas de emplazamiento. Los resultados generados son un importante aporte al tema de la producción alfarera a escala suprarregional dado que evidencian la coexistencia de distintos locus de producción cerámica en el oeste catamarqueño durante el lapso temporal estudiado.   Palabras clave: cerámica, tardío prehispánico, procedencia, análisis de activación neutrónica, petrografía.   Abstract The results obtained in the study of the provenance of ceramic recovered in two conglomerates settlements of the valley of El Bolsón (Belén, Catamarca, Argentina linked to prehispanic late occupations (ca. 900-1600 AD are given. The samples analyzed correspond mainly to Belén style ceramic, in lesser frequency to ordinary, and exceptionally to black over cream and beige. This study combined petrological and neutron instrumental activation analysis made in both kind of samples, archaeological pottery and local raw materials. It is concluded that a majority of archaeological pottery were made with clay and

  4. Cultural probes

    Madsen, Jacob Østergaard

    The aim of this study was thus to explore cultural probes (Gaver, Boucher et al. 2004), as a possible methodical approach, supporting knowledge production on situated and contextual aspects of occupation.......The aim of this study was thus to explore cultural probes (Gaver, Boucher et al. 2004), as a possible methodical approach, supporting knowledge production on situated and contextual aspects of occupation....

  5. Cultural Communications.

    Armas, Jose

    It is too often taken for granted that the communication process with culturally different children takes place as readily as it might with children from Anglo cultures. Most teachers receive training in verbal and formal communication skills; children come to school with nonverbal and informal communication skills. This initially can create…

  6. Connecting Culture

    Haugegaard, Rikke; Mynster Christensen, Maya

    2017-01-01

    The understanding of cultural dynamics in the area of operations is essential in to the accomplishment of military missions in international operations. The aim of this handbook is to introduce a tool enabling the use of culture as part of the military operational planning process....

  7. Stool Culture

    ... infections and may be identified with a stool culture. Some important examples include: Escherichia coli 0157:H7 and other toxin- ... the toxin-producing C. difficile will be performed. Examples of other less common causes include: ... of stool cultures that are reported as negative usually reflect the ...

  8. Boosting Culture

    2011-01-01

    Culture makes up an indispensable part of our lives, just like material comfort. It is thought of as an important source of a nation’s vitality and creativity, and constitutes a key factor uniting the nation,while making it distinctive from other countries. It is also said culture is a productiv

  9. Para-mixed linear spaces

    Crasmareanu Mircea

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We consider the paracomplex version of the notion of mixed linear spaces introduced by M. Jurchescu in [4] by replacing the complex unit i with the paracomplex unit j, j2 = 1. The linear algebra of these spaces is studied with a special view towards their morphisms.

  10. Linear Algebra and Image Processing

    Allali, Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    We use the computing technology digital image processing (DIP) to enhance the teaching of linear algebra so as to make the course more visual and interesting. Certainly, this visual approach by using technology to link linear algebra to DIP is interesting and unexpected to both students as well as many faculty. (Contains 2 tables and 11 figures.)

  11. Efficient Searching with Linear Constraints

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars Allan; Erickson, Jeff

    2000-01-01

    We show how to preprocess a set S of points in d into an external memory data structure that efficiently supports linear-constraint queries. Each query is in the form of a linear constraint xd a0+∑d−1i=1 aixi; the data structure must report all the points of S that satisfy the constraint. This pr...

  12. Linear Motor With Air Slide

    Johnson, Bruce G.; Gerver, Michael J.; Hawkey, Timothy J.; Fenn, Ralph C.

    1993-01-01

    Improved linear actuator comprises air slide and linear electric motor. Unit exhibits low friction, low backlash, and more nearly even acceleration. Used in machinery in which positions, velocities, and accelerations must be carefully controlled and/or vibrations must be suppressed.

  13. Linear morphoea follows Blaschko's lines.

    Weibel, L; Harper, J I

    2008-07-01

    The aetiology of morphoea (or localized scleroderma) remains unknown. It has previously been suggested that lesions of linear morphoea may follow Blaschko's lines and thus reflect an embryological development. However, the distribution of linear morphoea has never been accurately evaluated. We aimed to identify common patterns of clinical presentation in children with linear morphoea and to establish whether linear morphoea follows the lines of Blaschko. A retrospective chart review of 65 children with linear morphoea was performed. According to clinical photographs the skin lesions of these patients were plotted on to standardized head and body charts. With the aid of Adobe Illustrator a final figure was produced including an overlay of all individual lesions which was used for comparison with the published lines of Blaschko. Thirty-four (53%) patients had the en coup de sabre subtype, 27 (41%) presented with linear morphoea on the trunk and/or limbs and four (6%) children had a combination of the two. In 55 (85%) children the skin lesions were confined to one side of the body, showing no preference for either left or right side. On comparing the overlays of all body and head lesions with the original lines of Blaschko there was an excellent correlation. Our data indicate that linear morphoea follows the lines of Blaschko. We hypothesize that in patients with linear morphoea susceptible cells are present in a mosaic state and that exposure to some trigger factor may result in the development of this condition.

  14. Dynamic Linear Models with R

    Campagnoli, Patrizia; Petris, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    State space models have gained tremendous popularity in as disparate fields as engineering, economics, genetics and ecology. Introducing general state space models, this book focuses on dynamic linear models, emphasizing their Bayesian analysis. It illustrates the fundamental steps needed to use dynamic linear models in practice, using R package.

  15. Linear Programming across the Curriculum

    Yoder, S. Elizabeth; Kurz, M. Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Linear programming (LP) is taught in different departments across college campuses with engineering and management curricula. Modeling an LP problem is taught in every linear programming class. As faculty teaching in Engineering and Management departments, the depth to which teachers should expect students to master this particular type of…

  16. Introduction to RF linear accelerators

    Weiss, M.

    1994-01-01

    The basic features of RF linear accelerators are described. The concept of the 'loaded cavity', essential for the synchronism wave-particle, is introduced, and formulae describing the action of electromagnetic fields on the beam are given. The treatment of intense beams is mentioned, and various existing linear accelerators are presented as examples. (orig.)

  17. Spatial Processes in Linear Ordering

    von Hecker, Ulrich; Klauer, Karl Christoph; Wolf, Lukas; Fazilat-Pour, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Memory performance in linear order reasoning tasks (A > B, B > C, C > D, etc.) shows quicker, and more accurate responses to queries on wider (AD) than narrower (AB) pairs on a hypothetical linear mental model (A -- B -- C -- D). While indicative of an analogue representation, research so far did not provide positive evidence for spatial…

  18. Linear methods in band theory

    Andersen, O. Krogh

    1975-01-01

    of Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker, linear-combination-of-atomic-orbitals, and cellular methods; the secular matrix is linear in energy, the overlap integrals factorize as potential parameters and structure constants, the latter are canonical in the sense that they neither depend on the energy nor the cell volume...

  19. Internet culture

    Porter, David

    2013-01-01

    The internet has recently grown from a fringe cultural phenomenon to a significant site of cultural production and transformation. Internet Culture maps this new domain of language, politics and identity, locating it within the histories of communication and the public sphere. Internet Culture offers a critical interrogation of the sustaining myths of the virtual world and of the implications of the current mass migration onto the electronic frontier. Among the topics discussed in Internet Culture are the virtual spaces and places created by the citizens of the Net and their claims to the hotly contested notion of "virtual community"; the virtual bodies that occupy such spaces; and the desires that animate these bodies. The contributors also examine the communication medium behind theworlds of the Net, analyzing the rhetorical conventions governing online discussion, literary antecedents,and potential pedagogical applications.

  20. Avatar Culture

    Koda, Tomoko; Ishida, Toru; Rehm, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    and Western designers. The goals of the study were: (1) to investigate cultural differences in avatar expression evaluation and apply findings from psychological studies of human facial expression recognition, (2) to identify expressions and design features that cause cultural differences in avatar facial...... expression interpretation. The results of our study confirmed that (1) there are cultural differences in interpreting avatars’ facial expressions, and the psychological theory that suggests physical proximity affects facial expression recognition accuracy is also applicable to avatar facial expressions, (2......Avatars are increasingly used to express our emotions in our online communications. Such avatars are used based on the assumption that avatar expressions are interpreted universally among all cultures. This paper investigated cross-cultural evaluations of avatar expressions designed by Japanese...

  1. CULTURAL TOURISM

    Dana POP

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will try to analyse the cultural tourism. We will start by referring to the complex concepts of tourism and culture and to the synergies existing between them. We will define cultural tourism and present its appearance and evolution as well as its importance as a modern form of tourism. We will present the various types of cultural tourism with their characteristics and the specific features of cultural tourists according to their interests. We will also mention that there are advantages and disadvantages for any kind of tourism depending on the position – local communities, companies or tourists. For the future we will refer to the new partnership between UNWTO and UNESCO.

  2. Introduction to generalized linear models

    Dobson, Annette J

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Background Scope Notation Distributions Related to the Normal Distribution Quadratic Forms Estimation Model Fitting Introduction Examples Some Principles of Statistical Modeling Notation and Coding for Explanatory Variables Exponential Family and Generalized Linear Models Introduction Exponential Family of Distributions Properties of Distributions in the Exponential Family Generalized Linear Models Examples Estimation Introduction Example: Failure Times for Pressure Vessels Maximum Likelihood Estimation Poisson Regression Example Inference Introduction Sampling Distribution for Score Statistics Taylor Series Approximations Sampling Distribution for MLEs Log-Likelihood Ratio Statistic Sampling Distribution for the Deviance Hypothesis Testing Normal Linear Models Introduction Basic Results Multiple Linear Regression Analysis of Variance Analysis of Covariance General Linear Models Binary Variables and Logistic Regression Probability Distributions ...

  3. Acoustic emission linear pulse holography

    Collins, H.D.; Busse, L.J.; Lemon, D.K.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the emission linear pulse holography which produces a chronological linear holographic image of a flaw by utilizing the acoustic energy emitted during crack growth. A thirty two point sampling array is used to construct phase-only linear holograms of simulated acoustic emission sources on large metal plates. The concept behind the AE linear pulse holography is illustrated, and a block diagram of a data acquisition system to implement the concept is given. Array element spacing, synthetic frequency criteria, and lateral depth resolution are specified. A reference timing transducer positioned between the array and the inspection zone and which inititates the time-of-flight measurements is described. The results graphically illustrate the technique using a one-dimensional FFT computer algorithm (ie. linear backward wave) for an AE image reconstruction

  4. Linear and Generalized Linear Mixed Models and Their Applications

    Jiang, Jiming

    2007-01-01

    This book covers two major classes of mixed effects models, linear mixed models and generalized linear mixed models, and it presents an up-to-date account of theory and methods in analysis of these models as well as their applications in various fields. The book offers a systematic approach to inference about non-Gaussian linear mixed models. Furthermore, it has included recently developed methods, such as mixed model diagnostics, mixed model selection, and jackknife method in the context of mixed models. The book is aimed at students, researchers and other practitioners who are interested

  5. Analysis of quality life in two factories of Civita Castellana pottery district (Italy); Percezione delle condizioni ambientali di lavoro e di vita degli addetti di due aziende di manufatti ceramici del comprensorio di Civita Castellana

    Dai Pra`, L.; Delle Fratte, A.; Salerno, S. [ENEA, Casaccia (Italy). Area Energia Ambiente e Salute

    1994-11-01

    The aim of this research is the analysis of job satisfaction and quality of life in two of the most important representative factories of Civita Castellana pottery district located near Rome (Italy). The two factories were before studied by the Method of Organizational Congruences (MOC) and the results obtained published in another technical report (ENEA-RT-AMB--93-24). It is analized worker`s job and life satisfaction by a structured interview with various open questions in such a way to reveal also many hidden feelings. The 103 structured interviews (in-table-ware 17 women and 55 men; in sanitary-ware 30 men and 1 woman) emphasize the experience at work, the opinions and attitudes about it and the style of life. The results obtained confirm the different Organizational Constraint (OC) in the two factories that have various degrees of technology innovation. Nevertheless the workers who were interviewed show high job satisfaction and high degree of life: This incongruence is dealt with in this work.

  6. ALPS: A Linear Program Solver

    Ferencz, Donald C.; Viterna, Larry A.

    1991-01-01

    ALPS is a computer program which can be used to solve general linear program (optimization) problems. ALPS was designed for those who have minimal linear programming (LP) knowledge and features a menu-driven scheme to guide the user through the process of creating and solving LP formulations. Once created, the problems can be edited and stored in standard DOS ASCII files to provide portability to various word processors or even other linear programming packages. Unlike many math-oriented LP solvers, ALPS contains an LP parser that reads through the LP formulation and reports several types of errors to the user. ALPS provides a large amount of solution data which is often useful in problem solving. In addition to pure linear programs, ALPS can solve for integer, mixed integer, and binary type problems. Pure linear programs are solved with the revised simplex method. Integer or mixed integer programs are solved initially with the revised simplex, and the completed using the branch-and-bound technique. Binary programs are solved with the method of implicit enumeration. This manual describes how to use ALPS to create, edit, and solve linear programming problems. Instructions for installing ALPS on a PC compatible computer are included in the appendices along with a general introduction to linear programming. A programmers guide is also included for assistance in modifying and maintaining the program.

  7. Linear and quasi-linear equations of parabolic type

    Ladyženskaja, O A; Ural′ceva, N N; Uralceva, N N

    1968-01-01

    Equations of parabolic type are encountered in many areas of mathematics and mathematical physics, and those encountered most frequently are linear and quasi-linear parabolic equations of the second order. In this volume, boundary value problems for such equations are studied from two points of view: solvability, unique or otherwise, and the effect of smoothness properties of the functions entering the initial and boundary conditions on the smoothness of the solutions.

  8. Safety culture

    Drukraroff, C.

    2010-01-01

    The concept of Safety Culture was defined after Chernobyl's nuclear accident in 1986. It has not been exempt from discussion interpretations, adding riders, etc..., over the last 24 years because it has to do with human behavior and performance in the organizations. Safety Culture is not an easy task to define, assess and monitor. The proof of it is that today we still discussing and writing about it. How has been the evolution of Safety Culture at the Juzbado Factory since 1985 to today?. What is the strategy that we will be following in the future. (Author)

  9. The Theory of Linear Prediction

    Vaidyanathan, PP

    2007-01-01

    Linear prediction theory has had a profound impact in the field of digital signal processing. Although the theory dates back to the early 1940s, its influence can still be seen in applications today. The theory is based on very elegant mathematics and leads to many beautiful insights into statistical signal processing. Although prediction is only a part of the more general topics of linear estimation, filtering, and smoothing, this book focuses on linear prediction. This has enabled detailed discussion of a number of issues that are normally not found in texts. For example, the theory of vecto

  10. Correlation and simple linear regression.

    Zou, Kelly H; Tuncali, Kemal; Silverman, Stuart G

    2003-06-01

    In this tutorial article, the concepts of correlation and regression are reviewed and demonstrated. The authors review and compare two correlation coefficients, the Pearson correlation coefficient and the Spearman rho, for measuring linear and nonlinear relationships between two continuous variables. In the case of measuring the linear relationship between a predictor and an outcome variable, simple linear regression analysis is conducted. These statistical concepts are illustrated by using a data set from published literature to assess a computed tomography-guided interventional technique. These statistical methods are important for exploring the relationships between variables and can be applied to many radiologic studies.

  11. Non-linear optical materials

    Saravanan, R

    2018-01-01

    Non-linear optical materials have widespread and promising applications, but the efforts to understand the local structure, electron density distribution and bonding is still lacking. The present work explores the structural details, the electron density distribution and the local bond length distribution of some non-linear optical materials. It also gives estimation of the optical band gap, the particle size, crystallite size, and the elemental composition from UV-Visible analysis, SEM, XRD and EDS of some non-linear optical materials respectively.

  12. Optimal control linear quadratic methods

    Anderson, Brian D O

    2007-01-01

    This augmented edition of a respected text teaches the reader how to use linear quadratic Gaussian methods effectively for the design of control systems. It explores linear optimal control theory from an engineering viewpoint, with step-by-step explanations that show clearly how to make practical use of the material.The three-part treatment begins with the basic theory of the linear regulator/tracker for time-invariant and time-varying systems. The Hamilton-Jacobi equation is introduced using the Principle of Optimality, and the infinite-time problem is considered. The second part outlines the

  13. Paramilitary Culture.

    Gibson, James William

    1989-01-01

    Identifies the movie, "Rambo," and "Soldier of Fortune" magazine as artifacts of "paramilitary culture." Contends that they are a social phenomenon which helps legitimate the United States government's rapid escalation of military forces. (MS)

  14. Rectal culture

    ... have an infection of the rectum, such as gonorrhea . It may also be done instead of a ... infection. This may be: Bacterial infection Parasitic enterocolitis Gonorrhea Sometimes a culture shows that you are a ...

  15. Reversible gelling culture media for in-vitro cell culture in three-dimensional matrices

    An, Yuehuei H.; Mironov, Vladimir A.; Gutowska, Anna

    2000-01-01

    A gelling cell culture medium useful for forming a three dimensional matrix for cell culture in vitro is prepared by copolymerizing an acrylamide derivative with a hydrophilic comonomer to form a reversible (preferably thermally reversible) gelling linear random copolymer in the form of a plurality of linear chains having a plurality of molecular weights greater than or equal to a minimum gelling molecular weight cutoff, mixing the copolymer with an aqueous solvent to form a reversible gelling solution and adding a cell culture medium to the gelling solution to form the gelling cell culture medium. Cells such as chondrocytes or hepatocytes are added to the culture medium to form a seeded culture medium, and temperature of the medium is raised to gel the seeded culture medium and form a three dimensional matrix containing the cells. After propagating the cells in the matrix, the cells may be recovered by lowering the temperature to dissolve the matrix and centrifuging.

  16. Safety culture

    1991-01-01

    The response to a previous publication by the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG), indicated a broad international interest in expansion of the concept of Safety Culture, in such a way that its effectiveness in particular cases may be judged. This report responds to that need. In its manifestation, Safety Culture has two major components: the framework determined by organizational policy and by managerial action, and the response of individuals in working within and benefiting by the framework. 1 fig

  17. Cellular Automata Rules and Linear Numbers

    Nayak, Birendra Kumar; Sahoo, Sudhakar; Biswal, Sagarika

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, linear Cellular Automta (CA) rules are recursively generated using a binary tree rooted at "0". Some mathematical results on linear as well as non-linear CA rules are derived. Integers associated with linear CA rules are defined as linear numbers and the properties of these linear numbers are studied.

  18. Feedback systems for linear colliders

    Hendrickson, L; Himel, Thomas M; Minty, Michiko G; Phinney, N; Raimondi, Pantaleo; Raubenheimer, T O; Shoaee, H; Tenenbaum, P G

    1999-01-01

    Feedback systems are essential for stable operation of a linear collider, providing a cost-effective method for relaxing tight tolerances. In the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC), feedback controls beam parameters such as trajectory, energy, and intensity throughout the accelerator. A novel dithering optimization system which adjusts final focus parameters to maximize luminosity contributed to achieving record performance in the 1997-98 run. Performance limitations of the steering feedback have been investigated, and improvements have been made. For the Next Linear Collider (NLC), extensive feedback systems are planned as an intregal part of the design. Feedback requiremetns for JLC (the Japanese Linear Collider) are essentially identical to NLC; some of the TESLA requirements are similar but there are significant differences. For NLC, algorithms which incorporate improvements upon the SLC implementation are being prototyped. Specialized systems for the damping rings, rf and interaction point will operate at hi...

  19. An introduction to linear algebra

    Mirsky, L

    2003-01-01

    Rigorous, self-contained coverage of determinants, vectors, matrices and linear equations, quadratic forms, more. Elementary, easily readable account with numerous examples and problems at the end of each chapter.

  20. CLIC: developing a linear collider

    Laurent Guiraud

    1999-01-01

    Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is a CERN project to provide high-energy electron-positron collisions. Instead of conventional radio-frequency klystrons, CLIC will use a low-energy, high-intensity primary beam to produce acceleration.

  1. 1988 linear accelerator conference proceedings

    1989-06-01

    This report contains papers presented at the 1988 Linear Accelerator Conference. A few topics covered are beam dynamics; beam transport; superconducting components; free electron lasers; ion sources; and klystron research

  2. CERN balances linear collider studies

    ILC Newsline

    2011-01-01

    The forces behind the two most mature proposals for a next-generation collider, the International Linear Collider (ILC) and the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) study, have been steadily coming together, with scientists from both communities sharing ideas and information across the technology divide. In a support of cooperation between the two, CERN in Switzerland, where most CLIC research takes place, recently converted the project-specific position of CLIC Study Leader to the concept-based Linear Collider Study Leader.   The scientist who now holds this position, Steinar Stapnes, is charged with making the linear collider a viable option for CERN’s future, one that could include either CLIC or the ILC. The transition to more involve the ILC must be gradual, he said, and the redefinition of his post is a good start. Though not very much involved with superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) technology, where ILC researchers have made significant advances, CERN participates in many aspect...

  3. Linear Methods for Image Interpolation

    Pascal Getreuer

    2011-01-01

    We discuss linear methods for interpolation, including nearest neighbor, bilinear, bicubic, splines, and sinc interpolation. We focus on separable interpolation, so most of what is said applies to one-dimensional interpolation as well as N-dimensional separable interpolation.

  4. Ada Linear-Algebra Program

    Klumpp, A. R.; Lawson, C. L.

    1988-01-01

    Routines provided for common scalar, vector, matrix, and quaternion operations. Computer program extends Ada programming language to include linear-algebra capabilities similar to HAS/S programming language. Designed for such avionics applications as software for Space Station.

  5. Acoustic emission linear pulse holography

    Collins, H.D.; Busse, L.J.; Lemon, D.K.

    1983-10-25

    This device relates to the concept of and means for performing Acoustic Emission Linear Pulse Holography, which combines the advantages of linear holographic imaging and Acoustic Emission into a single non-destructive inspection system. This unique system produces a chronological, linear holographic image of a flaw by utilizing the acoustic energy emitted during crack growth. The innovation is the concept of utilizing the crack-generated acoustic emission energy to generate a chronological series of images of a growing crack by applying linear, pulse holographic processing to the acoustic emission data. The process is implemented by placing on a structure an array of piezoelectric sensors (typically 16 or 32 of them) near the defect location. A reference sensor is placed between the defect and the array.

  6. Functionalized linear and cyclic polyolefins

    Tuba, Robert; Grubbs, Robert H.

    2018-02-13

    This invention relates to methods and compositions for preparing linear and cyclic polyolefins. More particularly, the invention relates to methods and compositions for preparing functionalized linear and cyclic polyolefins via olefin metathesis reactions. Polymer products produced via the olefin metathesis reactions of the invention may be utilized for a wide range of materials applications. The invention has utility in the fields of polymer and materials chemistry and manufacture.

  7. Some new ternary linear codes

    Rumen Daskalov

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Let an $[n,k,d]_q$ code be a linear code of length $n$, dimension $k$ and minimum Hamming distance $d$ over $GF(q$. One of the most important problems in coding theory is to construct codes with optimal minimum distances. In this paper 22 new ternary linear codes are presented. Two of them are optimal. All new codes improve the respective lower bounds in [11].

  8. Explorative methods in linear models

    Høskuldsson, Agnar

    2004-01-01

    The author has developed the H-method of mathematical modeling that builds up the model by parts, where each part is optimized with respect to prediction. Besides providing with better predictions than traditional methods, these methods provide with graphic procedures for analyzing different feat...... features in data. These graphic methods extend the well-known methods and results of Principal Component Analysis to any linear model. Here the graphic procedures are applied to linear regression and Ridge Regression....

  9. Polarized Electrons for Linear Colliders

    Clendenin, J.

    2004-01-01

    Future electron-positron linear colliders require a highly polarized electron beam with a pulse structure that depends primarily on whether the acceleration utilizes warm or superconducting rf structures. The International Linear Collider (ILC) will use cold structures for the main linac. It is shown that a dc-biased polarized photoelectron source such as successfully used for the SLC can meet the charge requirements for the ILC micropulse with a polarization approaching 90%

  10. Advertising and New Narrative: Linearity to Transmediality

    Marisa Avogadro-Thomé

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Our environment has changed. We live in a real and virtual society, where new Information and Communications Technology (ICT offers us various possibilities of information generation and transmission, getting through geographical and cultural barriers and crossing the world in record time. The digital revolution is not over and the media ecosystem as a consequence has not stabilized yet. The increasing use of media and ICT has put traditional media in crisis within the transformation of the Advertising industry context and the alternative funding and business practices. Therefore, this article presents a critical analysis on Advertising and the new narratives, trying to find adequate bibliographical support to study the path from linearity to transmediality.

  11. Urine culture - catheterized specimen

    Culture - urine - catheterized specimen; Urine culture - catheterization; Catheterized urine specimen culture ... urinary tract infections may be found in the culture. This is called a contaminant. You may not ...

  12. Cultural tourism and tourism cultures

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    Presenting a comprehensive and dynamic understanding of cultural tourism, this volume examines cultural mediators and how they help tourists appreciate foreign cultures. It also shows how tourism experiences are strategically crafted by mediators, the complexity of the mediation process, and how...... various products are mediated differently. A number of different products are investigated, including destination brand identities, "living" cultures and everyday life, art and history. The author illustrates his arguments by comparing the tourism strategies of Copenhagen and Singapore, and demonstrates...... how tourism is an agent for social change. The author also offers an original and refreshing way of understanding tourist behaviour through the concept of the "versatile tourist". The book's empirical cases and dialogic framework provide new and deep insights into tourism activities. In his...

  13. Cultured Trash, Not Trash Culture

    Taufiqurrohman Taufiqurrohman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available As civilized creature, human actually can manage trash as well as possible although it is often stereotyped as a vain thing. This article gives the proof that trash can be cultured as well so that a society can take benefits from the existence of it. This article parses ways of orderly managing it at schools, in this case two schools in Jepara. The results say that trash can be cultured by having an organization to manage the Trash Bank at schools and to train students to classify and recycle trash then take advantage of it by selling the collected and the recycled trash. It makes trash have good transformation of values, repelling against the prior stereotype. Finally, by taking example from Trash Bank management at schools, human can have so cultured trash that they would not be trapped by trash culture.

  14. Coumarins and alkaloids in shoot culture of Ruta graveolens L.

    Halina Ekiert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A shoot culture of Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae was maintained in the stationary liquid phase. From the cultured shoots seven compounds were isolated and identified as psoralen, bergapten, xanthotoxin, isopimpinellin (linear furanocoumarins, rutamarin (linear dihydrofuranocoumarin, kokusaginine and skimmianine (furanoquinoline alkaloids by spectral methods. The compounds are known as secondary metabolites of the intact plant, as well as its cell and tissue cultures.

  15. Primordial black holes in linear and non-linear regimes

    Allahyari, Alireza; Abolhasani, Ali Akbar [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Firouzjaee, Javad T., E-mail: allahyari@physics.sharif.edu, E-mail: j.taghizadeh.f@ipm.ir [School of Astronomy, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-06-01

    We revisit the formation of primordial black holes (PBHs) in the radiation-dominated era for both linear and non-linear regimes, elaborating on the concept of an apparent horizon. Contrary to the expectation from vacuum models, we argue that in a cosmological setting a density fluctuation with a high density does not always collapse to a black hole. To this end, we first elaborate on the perturbation theory for spherically symmetric space times in the linear regime. Thereby, we introduce two gauges. This allows to introduce a well defined gauge-invariant quantity for the expansion of null geodesics. Using this quantity, we argue that PBHs do not form in the linear regime irrespective of the density of the background. Finally, we consider the formation of PBHs in non-linear regimes, adopting the spherical collapse picture. In this picture, over-densities are modeled by closed FRW models in the radiation-dominated era. The difference of our approach is that we start by finding an exact solution for a closed radiation-dominated universe. This yields exact results for turn-around time and radius. It is important that we take the initial conditions from the linear perturbation theory. Additionally, instead of using uniform Hubble gauge condition, both density and velocity perturbations are admitted in this approach. Thereby, the matching condition will impose an important constraint on the initial velocity perturbations δ {sup h} {sub 0} = −δ{sub 0}/2. This can be extended to higher orders. Using this constraint, we find that the apparent horizon of a PBH forms when δ > 3 at turn-around time. The corrections also appear from the third order. Moreover, a PBH forms when its apparent horizon is outside the sound horizon at the re-entry time. Applying this condition, we infer that the threshold value of the density perturbations at horizon re-entry should be larger than δ {sub th} > 0.7.

  16. A Cultural Sexuality or a Sexual Culture?

    Vandermeersch, Patrick

    1990-01-01

    P. Vandermeersch, A Cultural Sexuality or a Sexual Culture? In: F. VAN DE VIJVER & G. HUTSCHEMAEKERS (ed.), The Investigation of Culture. Current Issues in Cultural Psychology, Tilburg, Tilburg University Press, 1990, 43-58.

  17. Chronologie neolitu na Moravě : předběžné výsledky

    Kuča, M.; Kovář, J. J.; Nývltová Fišáková, Miriam; Škrdla, Petr; Prokeš, L.; Vaškových, M.; Schenk, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 1 (2012), s. 51-64 ISSN 1211-7250 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80010507 Keywords : Archaeology * linear pottery culture * Moravia * Moravian Painted Ware culture * Neolithic * Stroke-ornamented culture Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology http://dino.iabrno.cz/dokumenty/pv/PV53_1_studie/PV53_1_studie_4.pdf

  18. Cultural Resurrection

    2007-01-01

    "Who are we?Where are we from?"Humans have been pondering these questions since the day they first came into being.One of the ways we preserve memories of the past is through our cul- tural heritage that has been passed on from generation to genera- tion.Intangible cultural heritage,as well as tangible cultural her- itage,is essential to the continuity of human civilization. Since the United Nations Educational,Scientific and Cultural Organization(UNESCO)unveiled the Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity in 2001,China has had Kunqu opera,Guqin and its music,the art of Uygur Muqam of Xinjiang and the traditional Mongolian folk song Long Song added to UNESCO’s protection list.It is now one of the coun-

  19. Japanese Shame Culture and American Guilt Culture

    Lu Weijie

    2016-01-01

    Culture is an important factor contributing to the success of intercultural communication. In the east and west, there are many different cultures, among which Japanese shame culture and American guilt culture are two typical ones. Influenced by different cultures, these two countries have different characteristics, which reminds us that in intercultural communication culture should be paid much attention to.

  20. Mayan Culture

    Hervik, Peter Bent

    1992-01-01

    The social categories « Maya » and « mestizo » habe been applied to denote the Yucatec Mayan people in Mexico. The A. examines the cluster of perceived attributes (schemata) evoked by the terms and how they relate to each other. He shows that there is an incongruency between them along the lines ...... of local and academic categorization, which is an implication of the different social spaces in which they arise. In spite of the incongruency and the cultural plurality evoked by their usage, the A. argues that the people of Yucatec share a single culture....