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Sample records for linear optics measurement

  1. Measurement-induced nonlinearity in linear optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheel, Stefan; Knight, Peter L.; Nemoto, Kae; Munro, William J.

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the generation of nonlinear operators with single-photon sources, linear optical elements, and appropriate measurements of auxiliary modes. We provide a framework for the construction of useful single-mode and two-mode quantum gates necessary for all-optical quantum information processing. We focus our attention generally on using minimal physical resources while providing a transparent and algorithmic way of constructing these operators

  2. McDONALD OBSERVATORY ARCHIVE OF OPTICAL LINEAR POLARIZATION MEASUREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills, Beverley J.; Wills, D.; Breger, M.

    2011-01-01

    We present 990 previously unpublished optical linear polarization measurements of quasars, active galactic nuclei, and some stars observed for interstellar polarization. The observations, covering the period 1981-2000, were made with McDonald Observatory's 2.1 m Struve reflector and the Breger photopolarimeter.

  3. Adaptive phase measurements in linear optical quantum computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ralph, T C; Lund, A P; Wiseman, H M

    2005-01-01

    Photon counting induces an effective non-linear optical phase shift in certain states derived by linear optics from single photons. Although this non-linearity is non-deterministic, it is sufficient in principle to allow scalable linear optics quantum computation (LOQC). The most obvious way to encode a qubit optically is as a superposition of the vacuum and a single photon in one mode-so-called 'single-rail' logic. Until now this approach was thought to be prohibitively expensive (in resources) compared to 'dual-rail' logic where a qubit is stored by a photon across two modes. Here we attack this problem with real-time feedback control, which can realize a quantum-limited phase measurement on a single mode, as has been recently demonstrated experimentally. We show that with this added measurement resource, the resource requirements for single-rail LOQC are not substantially different from those of dual-rail LOQC. In particular, with adaptive phase measurements an arbitrary qubit state α vertical bar 0>+β vertical bar 1> can be prepared deterministically

  4. IR Optics Measurement with Linear Coupling's Action-Angle Parameterization

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Yun; Pilat, Fulvia Caterina; Satogata, Todd; Trbojevic, Dejan

    2005-01-01

    The interaction region (IP) optics are measured with the two DX/BPMs close to the IPs at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The beta functions at IP are measured with the two eigenmodes' phase advances between the two BPMs. And the beta waists are also determined through the beta functions at the two BPMs. The coupling parameters at the IPs are also given through the linear coupling's action-angle parameterization. All the experimental data are taken during the driving oscillations with the AC dipole. The methods to do these measurements are discussed. And the measurement results during the beta*

  5. IR OPTICS MEASUREMENT WITH LINEAR COUPLING'S ACTION-ANGLE PARAMETERIZATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LUO, Y.; BAI, M.; PILAT, R.; SATOGATA, T.; TRBOJEVIC, D.

    2005-01-01

    A parameterization of linear coupling in action-angle coordinates is convenient for analytical calculations and interpretation of turn-by-turn (TBT) beam position monitor (BPM) data. We demonstrate how to use this parameterization to extract the twiss and coupling parameters in interaction regions (IRs), using BPMs on each side of the long IR drift region. The example of TBT BPM analysis was acquired at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), using an AC dipole to excite a single eigenmode. Besides the full treatment, a fast estimate of beta*, the beta function at the interaction point (IP), is provided, along with the phase advance between these BPMs. We also calculate and measure the waist of the beta function and the local optics

  6. Measurement of picometre non-linearity in an optical grating encoder using x-ray interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoot, Andrew; Cross, Nigel

    2003-01-01

    X-ray interferometry has been used to characterize the non-linearity in an optical encoder displacement measuring system. Traceable measurements of the non-linearity have been made and an estimation of the uncertainty associated with the measurements is given. Cyclic errors with a magnitude of up to 50 pm and periodicity of the encoder system (128 nm) have been recorded.

  7. Implementing nonprojective measurements via linear optics: An approach based on optimal quantum-state discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loock, Peter van; Nemoto, Kae; Munro, William J.; Raynal, Philippe; Luetkenhaus, Norbert

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the problem of implementing generalized measurements [positive operator-valued measures (POVMs)] with linear optics, either based upon a static linear array or including conditional dynamics. In our approach, a given POVM shall be identified as a solution to an optimization problem for a chosen cost function. We formulate a general principle: the implementation is only possible if a linear-optics circuit exists for which the quantum mechanical optimum (minimum) is still attainable after dephasing the corresponding quantum states. The general principle enables us, for instance, to derive a set of necessary conditions for the linear-optics implementation of the POVM that realizes the quantum mechanically optimal unambiguous discrimination of two pure nonorthogonal states. This extends our previous results on projection measurements and the exact discrimination of orthogonal states

  8. Arbitrarily complete Bell-state measurement using only linear optical elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grice, W. P. [Computational Sciences and Engineering Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee (United States)

    2011-10-15

    A complete Bell-state measurement is not possible using only linear-optic elements, and most schemes achieve a success rate of no more than 50%, distinguishing, for example, two of the four Bell states but returning degenerate results for the other two. It is shown here that the introduction of a pair of ancillary entangled photons improves the success rate to 75%. More generally, the addition of 2{sup N}-2 ancillary photons yields a linear-optic Bell-state measurement with a success rate of 1-1/2{sup N}.

  9. A Linear Birefringence Measurement Method for an Optical Fiber Current Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shaoyi; Shao, Haiming; Li, Chuansheng; Xing, Fangfang; Wang, Yuqiao; Li, Wei

    2017-07-03

    In this work, a linear birefringence measurement method is proposed for an optical fiber current sensor (OFCS). First, the optical configuration of the measurement system is presented. Then, the elimination method of the effect of the azimuth angles between the sensing fiber and the two polarizers is demonstrated. Moreover, the relationship of the linear birefringence, the Faraday rotation angle and the final output is determined. On these bases, the multi-valued problem on the linear birefringence is simulated and its solution is illustrated when the linear birefringence is unknown. Finally, the experiments are conducted to prove the feasibility of the proposed method. When the numbers of turns of the sensing fiber in the OFCS are about 15, 19, 23, 27, 31, 35, and 39, the measured linear birefringence obtained by the proposed method are about 1.3577, 1.8425, 2.0983, 2.5914, 2.7891, 3.2003 and 3.5198 rad. Two typical methods provide the references for the proposed method. The proposed method is proven to be suitable for the linear birefringence measurement in the full range without the limitation that the linear birefringence must be smaller than π/2.

  10. Linear optics and projective measurements alone suffice to create large-photon-number path entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hwang; Kok, Pieter; Dowling, Jonathan P.; Cerf, Nicolas J.

    2002-01-01

    We propose a method for preparing maximal path entanglement with a definite photon-number N, larger than two, using projective measurements. In contrast with the previously known schemes, our method uses only linear optics. Specifically, we exhibit a way of generating four-photon, path-entangled states of the form vertical bar 4,0>+ vertical bar 0,4>, using only four beam splitters and two detectors. These states are of major interest as a resource for quantum interferometric sensors as well as for optical quantum lithography and quantum holography

  11. Optically stimulated luminescence from quartz measured using the linear modulation technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulur, E.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Murray, A.S.

    2000-01-01

    The optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) from heated natural quartz has been investigated using the linear modulation technique (LMT), in which the excitation light intensity is increased linearly during stimulation. In contrast to conventional stimulation, which usually produces a monotonical...

  12. Optics Studies for the CERN Proton Synchrotron Machine Linear and Nonlinear Modelling using Beam Based Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Cappi, R; Martini, M; Métral, Elias; Métral, G; Steerenberg, R; Müller, A S

    2003-01-01

    The CERN Proton Synchrotron machine is built using combined function magnets. The control of the linear tune as well as the chromaticity in both planes is achieved by means of special coils added to the main magnets, namely two pole-face-windings and one figure-of-eight loop. As a result, the overall magnetic field configuration is rather complex not to mention the saturation effects induced at top-energy. For these reasons a linear model of the PS main magnet does not provide sufficient precision to model particle dynamics. On the other hand, a sophisticated optical model is the key element for the foreseen intensity upgrade and, in particular, for the novel extraction mode based on adiabatic capture of beam particles inside stable islands in transverse phase space. A solution was found by performing accurate measurement of the nonlinear tune as a function of both amplitude and momentum offset so to extract both linear and nonlinear properties of the lattice. In this paper the measurement results are present...

  13. MLAOS: A Multi-Point Linear Array of Optical Sensors for Coniferous Foliage Clumping Index Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghua Qu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The canopy foliage clumping effect is primarily caused by the non-random distribution of canopy foliage. Currently, measurements of clumping index (CI by handheld instruments is typically time- and labor-intensive. We propose a low-cost and low-power automatic measurement system called Multi-point Linear Array of Optical Sensors (MLAOS, which consists of three above-canopy and nine below-canopy optical sensors that capture plant transmittance at different times of the day. Data communication between the MLAOS node is facilitated by using a ZigBee network, and the data are transmitted from the field MLAOS to a remote data server using the Internet. The choice of the electronic element and design of the MLAOS software is aimed at reducing costs and power consumption. A power consumption test showed that, when a 4000 mAH Li-ion battery is used, a maximum of 8–10 months of work can be achieved. A field experiment on a coniferous forest revealed that the CI of MLAOS may reveal a clumping effect that occurs within the canopy. In further work, measurement of the multi-scale clumping effect can be achieved by utilizing a greater number of MLAOS devices to capture the heterogeneity of the plant canopy.

  14. Simultaneous interferometric measurement of linear coefficient of thermal expansion and temperature-dependent refractive index coefficient of optical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsetti, James A; Green, William E; Ellis, Jonathan D; Schmidt, Greg R; Moore, Duncan T

    2016-10-10

    Characterizing the thermal properties of optical materials is necessary for understanding how to design an optical system for changing environmental conditions. A method is presented for simultaneously measuring both the linear coefficient of thermal expansion and the temperature-dependent refractive index coefficient of a sample interferometrically in air. Both the design and fabrication of the interferometer is presented as well as a discussion of the results of measuring both a steel and a CaF2 sample.

  15. Optically stimulated luminescence from quartz measured using the linear modulation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulur, E.; Boetter-Jensen, L.; Murray, A.S.

    2000-01-01

    The optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) from heated natural quartz has been investigated using the linear modulation technique (LMT), in which the excitation light intensity is increased linearly during stimulation. In contrast to conventional stimulation, which usually produces a monotonically decreasing signal, linearly increasing the stimulation power gives peaks in the signal as a function of time. In cases where the OSL signal contains more than one component, the linear increase in power of the stimulation light may result in a curve containing overlapping peaks, where the most easily stimulated component occurs at a shorter time. This allows the separation of the overlapping OSL components, which are assumed to originate from different traps. The LM-OSL curve from quartz shows an initial peak followed by a broad one. Deconvolution using curve fitting has shown that the composite OSL curve from quartz can be approximated well by using a linear combination of first-order peaks. In addition to the three known components, i.e. fast, medium and slow components from continuous-wave-OSL studies, an additional slow component is also identified for the first time. The dose responses and thermal stabilities of the various components are also studied

  16. Optical measurement of the weak non-linearity in the eardrum vibration response to auditory stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Johan

    The mammalian hearing organ consists of the external ear (auricle and ear canal) followed by the middle ear (eardrum and ossicles) and the inner ear (cochlea). Its function is to convert the incoming sound waves and convert them into nerve pulses which are processed in the final stage by the brain. The main task of the external and middle ear is to concentrate the incoming sound waves on a smaller surface to reduce the loss that would normally occur in transmission from air to inner ear fluid. In the past it has been shown that this is a linear process, thus without serious distortions, for sound waves going up to pressures of 130 dB SPL (˜90 Pa). However, at large pressure changes up to several kPa, the middle ear movement clearly shows non-linear behaviour. Thus, it is possible that some small non-linear distortions are also present in the middle ear vibration at lower sound pressures. In this thesis a sensitive measurement set-up is presented to detect this weak non-linear behaviour. Essentially, this set-up consists of a loud-speaker which excites the middle ear, and the resulting vibration is measured with an heterodyne vibrometer. The use of specially designed acoustic excitation signals (odd random phase multisines) enables the separation of the linear and non-linear response. The application of this technique on the middle ear demonstrates that there are already non-linear distortions present in the vibration of the middle ear at a sound pressure of 93 dB SPL. This non-linear component also grows strongly with increasing sound pressure. Knowledge of this non-linear component can contribute to the improvement of modern hearing aids, which operate at higher sound pressures where the non-linearities could distort the signal considerably. It is also important to know the contribution of middle ear non-linearity to otoacoustic emissions. This are non-linearities caused by the active feedback amplifier in the inner ear, and can be detected in the external and

  17. Optical Measurement of Radiocarbon below Unity Fraction Modern by Linear Absorption Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleisher, Adam J; Long, David A; Liu, Qingnan; Gameson, Lyn; Hodges, Joseph T

    2017-09-21

    High-precision measurements of radiocarbon ( 14 C) near or below a fraction modern 14 C of 1 (F 14 C ≤ 1) are challenging and costly. An accurate, ultrasensitive linear absorption approach to detecting 14 C would provide a simple and robust benchtop alternative to off-site accelerator mass spectrometry facilities. Here we report the quantitative measurement of 14 C in gas-phase samples of CO 2 with F 14 C radiocarbon measurement science including the study of biofuels and bioplastics, illicitly traded specimens, bomb dating, and atmospheric transport.

  18. Non-linear optical materials

    CERN Document Server

    Saravanan, R

    2018-01-01

    Non-linear optical materials have widespread and promising applications, but the efforts to understand the local structure, electron density distribution and bonding is still lacking. The present work explores the structural details, the electron density distribution and the local bond length distribution of some non-linear optical materials. It also gives estimation of the optical band gap, the particle size, crystallite size, and the elemental composition from UV-Visible analysis, SEM, XRD and EDS of some non-linear optical materials respectively.

  19. Compact optical system for measuring linear and angular displacement of solid structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, M.L.; Larsen, H.E.; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2004-01-01

    and rotation of the target. The presented free space propagation design can provide a sensor with no direct sensitivity on the working distance. The electrical signals from the sensor are processed with a digital algorithm, based on zero-crossings detection to provide real-time displacement measurements....... The spatial filter of the sensor is characterized here, and the precision of the sensor, integrated with a processor, which applies zero-crossing detection to the signal, is considered. © 2004 COPYRIGHT SPIE--The International Society for Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is permitted...

  20. Measurement of IR optics with linear coupling's action-angle parametrization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Y.; Bai, M.; Pilat, F.; Satogata, T.; Trbojevic, D.

    2005-08-01

    Linear coupling’s action-angle parametrization is convenient for interpretation of turn-by-turn beam position monitor (BPM) data. We demonstrate how to apply this parametrization to extract Twiss and coupling parameters in interaction regions (IRs), using BPMs on each side of a long IR drift region. Example data were acquired at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, using an ac dipole to excite a single transverse eigenmode. We have measured the waist of the β function and its Twiss and coupling parameters.

  1. Measurement of IR optics with linear coupling’s action-angle parametrization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Luo

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Linear coupling’s action-angle parametrization is convenient for interpretation of turn-by-turn beam position monitor (BPM data. We demonstrate how to apply this parametrization to extract Twiss and coupling parameters in interaction regions (IRs, using BPMs on each side of a long IR drift region. Example data were acquired at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, using an ac dipole to excite a single transverse eigenmode. We have measured the waist of the β function and its Twiss and coupling parameters.

  2. Linear rotary optical delay lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerboukha, Hichem; Qu, Hang; Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    2016-03-01

    We present a semi-analytical solution for the design of a high-speed rotary optical delay line that use a combination of two rotating curvilinear reflectors. We demonstrate that it is possible to design an infinite variety of the optical delay lines featuring linear dependence of the optical delay on the rotation angle. This is achieved via shape optimization of the rotating reflector surfaces. Moreover, a convenient spatial separation of the incoming and outgoing beams is possible. For the sake of example, we present blades that fit into a circle of 10cm diameter. Finally, a prototype of a rotary delay line is fabricated using CNC machining, and its optical properties are characterized.

  3. Non-linear optical measurement of the twist elastic constant in thermotropic and DNA lyotropic chiral nematics

    OpenAIRE

    Lucchetti, Liana; Fraccia, Tommaso P.; Ciciulla, Fabrizio; Bellini, Tommaso

    2017-01-01

    Throughout the whole history of liquid crystals science, the balancing of intrinsic elasticity with coupling to external forces has been the key strategy for most application and investigation. While the coupling of the optical field to the nematic director is at the base of a wealth of thoroughly described optical effects, a significant variety of geometries and materials have not been considered yet. Here we show that by adopting a simple cell geometry and measuring the optically induced bi...

  4. Non-linear optical measurement of the twist elastic constant in thermotropic and DNA lyotropic chiral nematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchetti, Liana; Fraccia, Tommaso P; Ciciulla, Fabrizio; Bellini, Tommaso

    2017-07-10

    Throughout the whole history of liquid crystals science, the balancing of intrinsic elasticity with coupling to external forces has been the key strategy for most application and investigation. While the coupling of the optical field to the nematic director is at the base of a wealth of thoroughly described optical effects, a significant variety of geometries and materials have not been considered yet. Here we show that by adopting a simple cell geometry and measuring the optically induced birefringence, we can readily extract the twist elastic coefficient K 22 of thermotropic and lyotropic chiral nematics (N*). The value of K 22 we obtain for chiral doped 5CB thermotropic N* well matches those reported in the literature. With this same strategy, we could determine for the first time K 22 of the N* phase of concentrated aqueous solutions of DNA oligomers, bypassing the limitations that so far prevented measuring the elastic constants of this class of liquid crystalline materials. The present study also enlightens the significant nonlinear optical response of DNA liquid crystals.

  5. Linear and non-linear optics of condensed matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, T.P.

    1977-01-01

    Part I - Linear optics: 1. General introduction. 2. Frequency dependence of epsilon(ω, k vector). 3. Wave-vector dependence of epsilon(ω, k vector). 4. Tensor character of epsilon(ω, k vector). Part II - Non-linear optics: 5. Introduction. 6. A classical theory of non-linear response in one dimension. 7. The generalization to three dimensions. 8. General properties of the polarizability tensors. 9. The phase-matching condition. 10. Propagation in a non-linear dielectric. 11. Second harmonic generation. 12. Coupling of three waves. 13. Materials and their non-linearities. 14. Processes involving energy exchange with the medium. 15. Two-photon absorption. 16. Stimulated Raman effect. 17. Electro-optic effects. 18. Limitations of the approach presented here. (author)

  6. Displacement measurement system for linear array detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Pengchong; Chen Ziyu; Shen Ji

    2011-01-01

    It presents a set of linear displacement measurement system based on encoder. The system includes displacement encoders, optical lens and read out circuit. Displacement read out unit includes linear CCD and its drive circuit, two amplifier circuits, second order Butterworth low-pass filter and the binarization circuit. The coding way is introduced, and various parts of the experimental signal waveforms are given, and finally a linear experimental test results are given. The experimental results are satisfactory. (authors)

  7. Design and construction of a single unit multi-function optical encoder for a six-degree-of-freedom motion error measurement in an ultraprecision linear stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, ChaBum; Kim, Gyu Ha; Lee, Sun-Kyu

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the method of a six-degree-of-freedom (DOF) posture measurement in a linear stage by employing a single unit of an optical encoder. The proposed optical encoder was constructed to simultaneously measure the posture along the traveling axis; angular errors, pitch, yaw and roll; and translational errors, ΔX, ΔY and ΔZ. It consists of a diffractive optical element, a corner cube, four separate two-dimensional position-sensitive detectors, four photodiodes and auxiliary optics components. The circularly polarizing interferometric technique was integrated to measure the displacement of the stage along the traveling axis in a robust manner and the resolution was estimated to be less than 0.4 nm. Two types of stages were employed for the measurement implementation, the piezoelectric transducer-driven and the ballscrew-driven, and they were feedback-controlled for the traveling axis, respectively. With a single travel of the stage, it provided a six-DOF motion error with a high resolution, less than 0.03 arcsec, 20 nm and 0.4 nm for angular errors, ΔY and ΔZ, and ΔX, respectively, at the same time. As a result, it was seen that motion errors of the stage have relevance to the driving mechanism and the whole construction of the stage

  8. Linear optics and quantum maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiello, A.; Puentes, G.; Woerdman, J. P.

    2007-01-01

    We present a theoretical analysis of the connection between classical polarization optics and quantum mechanics of two-level systems. First, we review the matrix formalism of classical polarization optics from a quantum information perspective. In this manner the passage from the Stokes-Jones-Mueller description of classical optical processes to the representation of one- and two-qubit quantum operations, becomes straightforward. Second, as a practical application of our classical-vs-quantum formalism, we show how two-qubit maximally entangled mixed states can be generated by using polarization and spatial modes of photons generated via spontaneous parametric down conversion

  9. Absolute non-linear optical coefficients measurements of CsLiB 6O 10 single crystals by second harmonic generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sifi, A.; Klein, R. S.; Maillard, A.; Kugel, G. E.; Péter, A.; Polgár, K.

    2003-10-01

    We present absolute measurements of the effective non-linear optical coefficients deff of cesium lithium borate crystals (CsLiB 6O 10, CLBO) by second harmonic generation using a continuous Nd-YAG laser source. The experiments were carried out at room temperature, on crystals cut perpendicular to type I or type II phase matching directions, with two different crystal lengths along the propagation direction. The d36 and d14 non-linear coefficients involved in deff developments are deduced and are shown to be equal as it is predicted by the Kleinman symmetry. Two different compositions prepared by the Czochralski technique from melt with compositions of 1:1:6 and 1:1:5.5 molar ratios of Cs 2O, Li 2O and B 2O 3 are comparatively studied.

  10. Light propagation in linear optical media

    CERN Document Server

    Gillen, Glen D; Guha, Shekhar

    2013-01-01

    Light Propagation in Linear Optical Media describes light propagation in linear media by expanding on diffraction theories beyond what is available in classic optics books. In one volume, this book combines the treatment of light propagation through various media, interfaces, and apertures using scalar and vector diffraction theories. After covering the fundamentals of light and physical optics, the authors discuss light traveling within an anisotropic crystal and present mathematical models for light propagation across planar boundaries between different media. They describe the propagation o

  11. Progress in linear optics, non-linear optics and surface alignment of liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, H. L.; Meyer, R. B.; Hurd, A. J.; Karn, A. J.; Arakelian, S. M.; Shen, Y. R.; Sanda, P. N.; Dove, D. B.; Jansen, S. A.; Hoffmann, R.

    We first discuss the progress in linear optics, in particular, the formulation and application of geometrical-optics approximation and its generalization. We then discuss the progress in non-linear optics, in particular, the enhancement of a first-order Freedericksz transition and intrinsic optical bistability in homeotropic and parallel oriented nematic liquid crystal cells. Finally, we discuss the liquid crystal alignment and surface effects on field-induced Freedericksz transition.

  12. Optical surfacing via linear ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Lixiang; Wei, Chaoyang; Shao, Jianda

    2017-01-01

    We present a concept of surface decomposition extended from double Fourier series to nonnegative sinusoidal wave surfaces, on the basis of which linear ion sources apply to the ultra-precision fabrication of complex surfaces and diffractive optics. The modified Fourier series, or sinusoidal wave surfaces, build a relationship between the fabrication process of optical surfaces and the surface characterization based on power spectral density (PSD) analysis. Also, we demonstrate that the one-dimensional scanning of linear ion source is applicable to the removal of mid-spatial frequency (MSF) errors caused by small-tool polishing in raster scan mode as well as the fabrication of beam sampling grating of high diffractive uniformity without a post-processing procedure. The simulation results show that optical fabrication with linear ion source is feasible and even of higher output efficiency compared with the conventional approach.

  13. Optical surfacing via linear ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Lixiang, E-mail: wulx@hdu.edu.cn [Key Lab of RF Circuits and Systems of Ministry of Education, Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab of LSI Design, Microelectronics CAD Center, College of Electronics and Information, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou (China); Wei, Chaoyang, E-mail: siomwei@siom.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials for High Power Laser, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Shao, Jianda, E-mail: jdshao@siom.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials for High Power Laser, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2017-04-15

    We present a concept of surface decomposition extended from double Fourier series to nonnegative sinusoidal wave surfaces, on the basis of which linear ion sources apply to the ultra-precision fabrication of complex surfaces and diffractive optics. The modified Fourier series, or sinusoidal wave surfaces, build a relationship between the fabrication process of optical surfaces and the surface characterization based on power spectral density (PSD) analysis. Also, we demonstrate that the one-dimensional scanning of linear ion source is applicable to the removal of mid-spatial frequency (MSF) errors caused by small-tool polishing in raster scan mode as well as the fabrication of beam sampling grating of high diffractive uniformity without a post-processing procedure. The simulation results show that optical fabrication with linear ion source is feasible and even of higher output efficiency compared with the conventional approach.

  14. Optical absorption measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draggoo, V.G.; Morton, R.G.; Sawicki, R.H.; Bissinger, H.D.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes a non-intrusive method for measuring the temperature rise of optical elements under high laser power optical loading to determine the absorption coefficient. The method comprises irradiating the optical element with a high average power laser beam, viewing the optical element with an infrared camera to determine the temperature across the optical element and calculating the absorption of the optical element from the temperature

  15. Measurement of optical glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolau-Rebigan, S.

    1978-11-01

    The possibilities of measurement of the optical glasses parameters needed in building optical devices especially in lasers devices are presented. In the first chapter the general features of the main optical glasses as well as the modalities of obtaining them are given. Chapter two defines the optical glass parameters, and the third chapter describes the measuring methods of the optical glass parameters. Finally, the conclusions which point out the utilization of this paper are presented. (author)

  16. Noise limitations in optical linear algebra processors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batsell, S G; Jong, T L; Walkup, J F; Krile, T F

    1990-05-10

    A general statistical noise model is presented for optical linear algebra processors. A statistical analysis which includes device noise, the multiplication process, and the addition operation is undertaken. We focus on those processes which are architecturally independent. Finally, experimental results which verify the analytical predictions are also presented.

  17. From linear optical quantum computing to Heisenberg-limited interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hwang; Kok, Pieter; Williams, Colin P; Dowling, Jonathan P

    2004-01-01

    The working principles of linear optical quantum computing are based on photodetection, namely, projective measurements. The use of photodetection can provide efficient nonlinear interactions between photons at the single-photon level, which is technically problematic otherwise. We report an application of such a technique to prepare quantum correlations as an important resource for Heisenberg-limited optical interferometry, where the sensitivity of phase measurements can be improved beyond the usual shot-noise limit. Furthermore, using such nonlinearities, optical quantum non-demolition measurements can now be carried out easily at the single-photon level

  18. Optical linear algebra processors - Architectures and algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasent, David

    1986-01-01

    Attention is given to the component design and optical configuration features of a generic optical linear algebra processor (OLAP) architecture, as well as the large number of OLAP architectures, number representations, algorithms and applications encountered in current literature. Number-representation issues associated with bipolar and complex-valued data representations, high-accuracy (including floating point) performance, and the base or radix to be employed, are discussed, together with case studies on a space-integrating frequency-multiplexed architecture and a hybrid space-integrating and time-integrating multichannel architecture.

  19. The Linearity of Optical Tomography: Sensor Model and Experimental Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Zarina MOHD. MUJI

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show the linearization of optical sensor. Linearity of the sensor response is a must in optical tomography application, which affects the tomogram result. Two types of testing are used namely, testing using voltage parameter and testing with time unit parameter. For the former, the testing is by measuring the voltage when the obstacle is placed between transmitter and receiver. The obstacle diameters are between 0.5 until 3 mm. The latter is also the same testing but the obstacle is bigger than the former which is 59.24 mm and the testing purpose is to measure the time unit spend for the ball when it cut the area of sensing circuit. Both results show a linear relation that proves the optical sensors is suitable for process tomography application.

  20. Fiber optic spectrophotometer with photodiode linear array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, F.; Vernet, P.

    1988-01-01

    Spectrophotometric measurements are used in a great number of industrial processes, in nuclear environment and with optical precision components. Especially the evolution of a chemical process or of an optical coating could be followed by these measurements. Spectrophotometers, using optical fibers to transport the signal out of the instrument make possible the measurement ''in-situ'' and in real time. The advantage of using a diode array to detect the signal is an instantaneous measurement all over the spectral range without moving parts. It allows an excellent reproductibility. The instrument is controlled by a micro computer. The spectrophotometer is described and technical performance presented. An extension using optical fibers on a ''classical'' spectrophotometer (a H.P. one) is also described and technical performance presented

  1. Linear zonal atmospheric prediction for adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Patrick C.; Rhoadarmer, Troy A.; Coy, Hanna A.; Angel, J. Roger P.; Lloyd-Hart, Michael

    2000-07-01

    We compare linear zonal predictors of atmospheric turbulence for adaptive optics. Zonal prediction has the possible advantage of being able to interpret and utilize wind-velocity information from the wavefront sensor better than modal prediction. For simulated open-loop atmospheric data for a 2- meter 16-subaperture AO telescope with 5 millisecond prediction and a lookback of 4 slope-vectors, we find that Widrow-Hoff Delta-Rule training of linear nets and Back- Propagation training of non-linear multilayer neural networks is quite slow, getting stuck on plateaus or in local minima. Recursive Least Squares training of linear predictors is two orders of magnitude faster and it also converges to the solution with global minimum error. We have successfully implemented Amari's Adaptive Natural Gradient Learning (ANGL) technique for a linear zonal predictor, which premultiplies the Delta-Rule gradients with a matrix that orthogonalizes the parameter space and speeds up the training by two orders of magnitude, like the Recursive Least Squares predictor. This shows that the simple Widrow-Hoff Delta-Rule's slow convergence is not a fluke. In the case of bright guidestars, the ANGL, RLS, and standard matrix-inversion least-squares (MILS) algorithms all converge to the same global minimum linear total phase error (approximately 0.18 rad2), which is only approximately 5% higher than the spatial phase error (approximately 0.17 rad2), and is approximately 33% lower than the total 'naive' phase error without prediction (approximately 0.27 rad2). ANGL can, in principle, also be extended to make non-linear neural network training feasible for these large networks, with the potential to lower the predictor error below the linear predictor error. We will soon scale our linear work to the approximately 108-subaperture MMT AO system, both with simulations and real wavefront sensor data from prime focus.

  2. Measurement of the linear thermo-optical coefficient of Ga0.51In0.49P using photonic crystal nanocavities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sokolov, Sergei; Lian, Jin; Combrié, Sylvain; Rossi, Alfredo De; Mosk, Allard. P.

    2017-01-01

    Ga0.51In0.49PGa0.51In0.49P is a promising candidate for thermally tunable nanophotonic devices due to its low thermal conductivity. In this work we study its thermo-optical response. We obtain the linear thermo-optical coefficient 푑푛/푑푇=2.0±0.3·10−4  K−1dn/dT=2.0±0.3·10−4  K−1 by investigating the

  3. Topics in linear optical quantum computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glancy, Scott Charles

    This thesis covers several topics in optical quantum computation. A quantum computer is a computational device which is able to manipulate information by performing unitary operations on some physical system whose state can be described as a vector (or mixture of vectors) in a Hilbert space. The basic unit of information, called the qubit, is considered to be a system with two orthogonal states, which are assigned logical values of 0 and 1. Photons make excellent candidates to serve as qubits. They have little interactions with the environment. Many operations can be performed using very simple linear optical devices such as beam splitters and phase shifters. Photons can easily be processed through circuit-like networks. Operations can be performed in very short times. Photons are ideally suited for the long-distance communication of quantum information. The great difficulty in constructing an optical quantum computer is that photons naturally interact weakly with one another. This thesis first gives a brief review of two early approaches to optical quantum computation. It will describe how any discrete unitary operation can be performed using a single photon and a network of beam splitters, and how the Kerr effect can be used to construct a two photon logic gate. Second, this work provides a thorough introduction to the linear optical quantum computer developed by Knill, Laflamme, and Milburn. It then presents this author's results on the reliability of this scheme when implemented using imperfect photon detectors. This author finds that quantum computers of this sort cannot be built using current technology. Third, this dissertation describes a method for constructing a linear optical quantum computer using nearly orthogonal coherent states of light as the qubits. It shows how a universal set of logic operations can be performed, including calculations of the fidelity with which these operations may be accomplished. It discusses methods for reducing and

  4. Experimental quantum private queries with linear optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Martini, Francesco; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Lloyd, Seth; Maccone, Lorenzo; Nagali, Eleonora; Sansoni, Linda; Sciarrino, Fabio

    2009-01-01

    The quantum private query is a quantum cryptographic protocol to recover information from a database, preserving both user and data privacy: the user can test whether someone has retained information on which query was asked and the database provider can test the amount of information released. Here we discuss a variant of the quantum private query algorithm that admits a simple linear optical implementation: it employs the photon's momentum (or time slot) as address qubits and its polarization as bus qubit. A proof-of-principle experimental realization is implemented.

  5. Method and apparatus of highly linear optical modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRose, Christopher; Watts, Michael R.

    2016-05-03

    In a new optical intensity modulator, a nonlinear change in refractive index is used to balance the nonlinearities in the optical transfer function in a way that leads to highly linear optical intensity modulation.

  6. Optical vibration measurement of mechatronics devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanabe, Shigeo

    1993-09-01

    An optical vibration measuring system which enables to detect both linear and angular displacement of 25 nm and 5 prad was developed. The system is mainly composed of a He-Ne laser, a displacement detecting photo-diode and lenses, and has linear and angular displacement magnification mechanism using two different principles of optical lever. The system was applied to measure vibrational characteristics of magnetic head slider of hard disk drives and to measure stator teeth driving velocities of ultrasonic motor.

  7. Small-scale quantum information processing with linear optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergou, J.A.; Steinberg, A.M.; Mohseni, M.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Photons are the ideal systems for carrying quantum information. Although performing large-scale quantum computation on optical systems is extremely demanding, non scalable linear-optics quantum information processing may prove essential as part of quantum communication networks. In addition efficient (scalable) linear-optical quantum computation proposal relies on the same optical elements. Here, by constructing multirail optical networks, we experimentally study two central problems in quantum information science, namely optimal discrimination between nonorthogonal quantum states, and controlling decoherence in quantum systems. Quantum mechanics forbids deterministic discrimination between nonorthogonal states. This is one of the central features of quantum cryptography, which leads to secure communications. Quantum state discrimination is an important primitive in quantum information processing, since it determines the limitations of a potential eavesdropper, and it has applications in quantum cloning and entanglement concentration. In this work, we experimentally implement generalized measurements in an optical system and demonstrate the first optimal unambiguous discrimination between three non-orthogonal states with a success rate of 55 %, to be compared with the 25 % maximum achievable using projective measurements. Furthermore, we present the first realization of unambiguous discrimination between a pure state and a nonorthogonal mixed state. In a separate experiment, we demonstrate how decoherence-free subspaces (DFSs) may be incorporated into a prototype optical quantum algorithm. Specifically, we present an optical realization of two-qubit Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm in presence of random noise. By introduction of localized turbulent airflow we produce a collective optical dephasing, leading to large error rates and demonstrate that using DFS encoding, the error rate in the presence of decoherence can be reduced from 35 % to essentially its pre

  8. Accuracy Limitations in Optical Linear Algebra Processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batsell, Stephen Gordon

    1990-01-01

    One of the limiting factors in applying optical linear algebra processors (OLAPs) to real-world problems has been the poor achievable accuracy of these processors. Little previous research has been done on determining noise sources from a systems perspective which would include noise generated in the multiplication and addition operations, noise from spatial variations across arrays, and from crosstalk. In this dissertation, we propose a second-order statistical model for an OLAP which incorporates all these system noise sources. We now apply this knowledge to determining upper and lower bounds on the achievable accuracy. This is accomplished by first translating the standard definition of accuracy used in electronic digital processors to analog optical processors. We then employ our second-order statistical model. Having determined a general accuracy equation, we consider limiting cases such as for ideal and noisy components. From the ideal case, we find the fundamental limitations on improving analog processor accuracy. From the noisy case, we determine the practical limitations based on both device and system noise sources. These bounds allow system trade-offs to be made both in the choice of architecture and in individual components in such a way as to maximize the accuracy of the processor. Finally, by determining the fundamental limitations, we show the system engineer when the accuracy desired can be achieved from hardware or architecture improvements and when it must come from signal pre-processing and/or post-processing techniques.

  9. Applied research of quantum information based on linear optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Xiao-Ye

    2016-01-01

    This thesis reports on outstanding work in two main subfields of quantum information science: one involves the quantum measurement problem, and the other concerns quantum simulation. The thesis proposes using a polarization-based displaced Sagnac-type interferometer to achieve partial collapse measurement and its reversal, and presents the first experimental verification of the nonlocality of the partial collapse measurement and its reversal. All of the experiments are carried out in the linear optical system, one of the earliest experimental systems to employ quantum communication and quantum information processing. The thesis argues that quantum measurement can yield quantum entanglement recovery, which is demonstrated by using the frequency freedom to simulate the environment. Based on the weak measurement theory, the author proposes that white light can be used to precisely estimate phase, and effectively demonstrates that the imaginary part of the weak value can be introduced by means of weak measurement evolution. Lastly, a nine-order polarization-based displaced Sagnac-type interferometer employing bulk optics is constructed to perform quantum simulation of the Landau-Zener evolution, and by tuning the system Hamiltonian, the first experiment to research the Kibble-Zurek mechanism in non-equilibrium kinetics processes is carried out in the linear optical system.

  10. Applied research of quantum information based on linear optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Xiao-Ye

    2016-08-01

    This thesis reports on outstanding work in two main subfields of quantum information science: one involves the quantum measurement problem, and the other concerns quantum simulation. The thesis proposes using a polarization-based displaced Sagnac-type interferometer to achieve partial collapse measurement and its reversal, and presents the first experimental verification of the nonlocality of the partial collapse measurement and its reversal. All of the experiments are carried out in the linear optical system, one of the earliest experimental systems to employ quantum communication and quantum information processing. The thesis argues that quantum measurement can yield quantum entanglement recovery, which is demonstrated by using the frequency freedom to simulate the environment. Based on the weak measurement theory, the author proposes that white light can be used to precisely estimate phase, and effectively demonstrates that the imaginary part of the weak value can be introduced by means of weak measurement evolution. Lastly, a nine-order polarization-based displaced Sagnac-type interferometer employing bulk optics is constructed to perform quantum simulation of the Landau-Zener evolution, and by tuning the system Hamiltonian, the first experiment to research the Kibble-Zurek mechanism in non-equilibrium kinetics processes is carried out in the linear optical system.

  11. Covariant electrodynamics in linear media: Optical metric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Robert T.

    2018-03-01

    While the postulate of covariance of Maxwell's equations for all inertial observers led Einstein to special relativity, it was the further demand of general covariance—form invariance under general coordinate transformations, including between accelerating frames—that led to general relativity. Several lines of inquiry over the past two decades, notably the development of metamaterial-based transformation optics, has spurred a greater interest in the role of geometry and space-time covariance for electrodynamics in ponderable media. I develop a generally covariant, coordinate-free framework for electrodynamics in general dielectric media residing in curved background space-times. In particular, I derive a relation for the spatial medium parameters measured by an arbitrary timelike observer. In terms of those medium parameters I derive an explicit expression for the pseudo-Finslerian optical metric of birefringent media and show how it reduces to a pseudo-Riemannian optical metric for nonbirefringent media. This formulation provides a basis for a unified approach to ray and congruence tracing through media in curved space-times that may smoothly vary among positively refracting, negatively refracting, and vacuum.

  12. Improving the precision of linear optics measurements based on turn-by-turn beam position monitor data after a pulsed excitation in lepton storage rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Malina

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Beam optics control is of critical importance for machine performance and protection. Nowadays, turn-by-turn (TbT beam position monitor (BPM data are increasingly exploited as they allow for fast and simultaneous measurement of various optics quantities. Nevertheless, so far the best documented uncertainty of measured β-functions is of about 10‰ rms. In this paper we compare the β-functions of the ESRF storage ring measured from two different TbT techniques—the N-BPM and the Amplitude methods—with the ones inferred from a measurement of the orbit response matrix (ORM. We show how to improve the precision of TbT techniques by refining the Fourier transform of TbT data with properly chosen excitation amplitude. The precision of the N-BPM method is further improved by refining the phase advance measurement. This represents a step forward compared to standard TbT measurements. First experimental results showing the precision of β-functions pushed down to 4‰ both in TbT and ORM techniques are reported and commented.

  13. Optical fuel spray measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillamo, H.

    2011-07-01

    Diesel fuel sprays, including fuel/air mixing and the physics of two-phase jet formation, are discussed in the thesis. The fuel/air mixing strongly affects emissions formation in spray combustion processes where the local combustion conditions dictate the emission formation. This study comprises optical measurements both in pressurized spray test rigs and in a running engine.The studied fuel injection was arranged with a common rail injection system and the injectors were operated with a solenoid-based injection valve. Both marine and heavy-duty diesel engine injectors were used in the study. Optical fuel spray measurements were carried out with a laser-based double-framing camera system. This kind of equipments is usually used for flow field measurements with Particle Image Velocimetry technique (PIV) as well as for backlight imaging. Fundamental fuel spray properties and spray formation were studied in spray test rigs. These measurements involved studies of mixing, atomization, and the flow field. Test rig measurements were used to study the effect of individual injection parameters and component designs. Measurements of the fuel spray flow field, spray penetration, spray tip velocity, spray angle, spray structure, droplet accumulation, and droplet size estimates are shown. Measurement campaign in a running optically accessible large-bore medium-speed engine was also carried out. The results from engine tests were compared with equivalent test rig measurements, as well as computational results, to evaluate the level of understanding of sprays. It was shown that transient spray has an acceleration and a deceleration phase. Successive flow field measurements (PIV) in optically dense diesel spray resulted in local and average velocity data of diesel sprays. Processing fuel spray generates a flow field to surrounding gas and entrainment of surrounding gas into fuel jet was also seen at the sides of the spray. Laser sheet imaging revealed the inner structure of diesel

  14. Resource-efficient generation of linear cluster states by linear optics with postselection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uskov, D B; Alsing, P M; Fanto, M L; Szep, A; Smith, A M; Kaplan, L; Kim, R

    2015-01-01

    We report on theoretical research in photonic cluster-state computing. Finding optimal schemes of generating non-classical photonic states is of critical importance for this field as physically implementable photon–photon entangling operations are currently limited to measurement-assisted stochastic transformations. A critical parameter for assessing the efficiency of such transformations is the success probability of a desired measurement outcome. At present there are several experimental groups that are capable of generating multi-photon cluster states carrying more than eight qubits. Separate photonic qubits or small clusters can be fused into a single cluster state by a probabilistic optical CZ gate conditioned on simultaneous detection of all photons with 1/9 success probability for each gate. This design mechanically follows the original theoretical scheme of cluster state generation proposed more than a decade ago by Raussendorf, Browne and Briegel. The optimality of the destructive CZ gate in application to linear optical cluster state generation has not been analyzed previously. Our results reveal that this method is far from the optimal one. Employing numerical optimization we have identified that the maximal success probability of fusing n unentangled dual-rail optical qubits into a linear cluster state is equal to (1/2) n−1 ; an m-tuple of photonic Bell pair states, commonly generated via spontaneous parametric down-conversion, can be fused into a single cluster with the maximal success probability of (1/4) m−1 . (paper)

  15. Correlation of results obtained by in-vivo optical spectroscopy with measured blood oxygen saturation using a positive linear regression fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Patrick W.; Lewis, Gary D.; Dujovny, Manuel; Ausman, James I.; Stewart, Mick; Widman, Ronald A.

    1992-05-01

    Near infrared light generated by specialized instrumentation was passed through artificially oxygenated human blood during simultaneous sampling by a co-oximeter. Characteristic absorption spectra were analyzed to calculate the ratio of oxygenated to reduced hemoglobin. A positive linear regression fit between diffuse transmission oximetry and measured blood oxygenation over the range 23% to 99% (r2 equals .98, p signal was observed in the patient over time. The procedure was able to be performed clinically without difficulty; rSO2 values recorded continuously demonstrate the usefulness of the technique. Using the same instrumentation, arterial input and cerebral response functions, generated by IV tracer bolus, were deconvoluted to measure mean cerebral transit time. Date collected over time provided a sensitive index of changes in cerebral blood flow as a result of therapeutic maneuvers.

  16. Vector optical fields with bipolar symmetry of linear polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yue; Li, Yongnan; Li, Si-Min; Ren, Zhi-Cheng; Si, Yu; Tu, Chenghou; Wang, Hui-Tian

    2013-09-15

    We focus on a new kind of vector optical field with bipolar symmetry of linear polarization instead of cylindrical and elliptical symmetries, enriching members of family of vector optical fields. We design theoretically and generate experimentally the demanded vector optical fields and then explore some novel tightly focusing properties. The geometric configurations of states of polarization provide additional degrees of freedom assisting in engineering the field distribution at the focus to the specific applications such as lithography, optical trapping, and material processing.

  17. Amplitudes for multiphoton quantum processes in linear optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    UrIas, Jesus

    2011-01-01

    The prominent role that linear optical networks have acquired in the engineering of photon states calls for physically intuitive and automatic methods to compute the probability amplitudes for the multiphoton quantum processes occurring in linear optics. A version of Wick's theorem for the expectation value, on any vector state, of products of linear operators, in general, is proved. We use it to extract the combinatorics of any multiphoton quantum processes in linear optics. The result is presented as a concise rule to write down directly explicit formulae for the probability amplitude of any multiphoton process in linear optics. The rule achieves a considerable simplification and provides an intuitive physical insight about quantum multiphoton processes. The methodology is applied to the generation of high-photon-number entangled states by interferometrically mixing coherent light with spontaneously down-converted light.

  18. Amplitudes for multiphoton quantum processes in linear optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urías, Jesús

    2011-07-01

    The prominent role that linear optical networks have acquired in the engineering of photon states calls for physically intuitive and automatic methods to compute the probability amplitudes for the multiphoton quantum processes occurring in linear optics. A version of Wick's theorem for the expectation value, on any vector state, of products of linear operators, in general, is proved. We use it to extract the combinatorics of any multiphoton quantum processes in linear optics. The result is presented as a concise rule to write down directly explicit formulae for the probability amplitude of any multiphoton process in linear optics. The rule achieves a considerable simplification and provides an intuitive physical insight about quantum multiphoton processes. The methodology is applied to the generation of high-photon-number entangled states by interferometrically mixing coherent light with spontaneously down-converted light.

  19. High-Dimensional Quantum Information Processing with Linear Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Casey A.

    Quantum information processing (QIP) is an interdisciplinary field concerned with the development of computers and information processing systems that utilize quantum mechanical properties of nature to carry out their function. QIP systems have become vastly more practical since the turn of the century. Today, QIP applications span imaging, cryptographic security, computation, and simulation (quantum systems that mimic other quantum systems). Many important strategies improve quantum versions of classical information system hardware, such as single photon detectors and quantum repeaters. Another more abstract strategy engineers high-dimensional quantum state spaces, so that each successful event carries more information than traditional two-level systems allow. Photonic states in particular bring the added advantages of weak environmental coupling and data transmission near the speed of light, allowing for simpler control and lower system design complexity. In this dissertation, numerous novel, scalable designs for practical high-dimensional linear-optical QIP systems are presented. First, a correlated photon imaging scheme using orbital angular momentum (OAM) states to detect rotational symmetries in objects using measurements, as well as building images out of those interactions is reported. Then, a statistical detection method using chains of OAM superpositions distributed according to the Fibonacci sequence is established and expanded upon. It is shown that the approach gives rise to schemes for sorting, detecting, and generating the recursively defined high-dimensional states on which some quantum cryptographic protocols depend. Finally, an ongoing study based on a generalization of the standard optical multiport for applications in quantum computation and simulation is reported upon. The architecture allows photons to reverse momentum inside the device. This in turn enables realistic implementation of controllable linear-optical scattering vertices for

  20. Linear birefringence and optical ativity in a magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuolo, J.H.; Galvao, R.M.O.

    1982-02-01

    Linear birefringence and optical activity are considered separately to electromagnetic wave propagation in magnetized cold plasma, using frequency approximation much bigger than plasma frequency. It's showen that in some interesting cases, those phenomena could be independents. Explicit expressions are obtained for refraction indices to linear birefringency and optical activity. The correspondents indices attenuation aRe obtained in first orden of attenuation. It's showen that the characteristic states for linear dichroism coincide with the characteristic states for linear birefringence. The characteristic states for elliptic dichroism are obtained. (M.A.F.) [pt

  1. Linear Optical Properties of Gold Colloid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingmin XIA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Gold colloid was prepared by reducing HAuCl4·4H2O with Na3C6H5O7·2H2O. The morphology, size of gold nanoparticles and the optical property of colloid were characterized by transmission electron microscope and UV-Vis spectrophotometer, respectively. It shows that the gold nanoparticles are in the shape of spheres with diameters less than 8 nm, and the surface plasmon resonance absorption peak is located at about 438 nm. As the volume fraction of gold particles increases, the intensity of absorption peak strengthens. The optical property of gold colloid was analyzed by Maxwell-Garnett (MG effective medium theory in the company of Drude dispersion model. The results show that the matrix dielectric constant is a main factor, which influences the optical property of gold colloid.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.4.9558

  2. Ultra-high Frequency Linear Fiber Optic Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lau, Kam

    2011-01-01

    This book provides an in-depth treatment of both linear fiber-optic systems and their key enabling devices. It presents a concise but rigorous treatment of the theory and practice of analog (linear) fiber-optics links and systems that constitute the foundation of Hybrid Fiber Coax infrastructure in present-day CATV distribution and cable modem Internet access. Emerging applications in remote fiber-optic feed for free-space millimeter wave enterprise campus networks are also described. Issues such as dispersion and interferometric noise are treated quantitatively, and means for mitigating them are explained. This broad but concise text will thus be invaluable not only to students of fiber-optics communication but also to practicing engineers. To the second edition of this book important new aspects of linear fiber-optic transmission technologies are added, such as high level system architectural issues, algorithms for deriving the optimal frequency assignment, directly modulated or externally modulated laser t...

  3. Microwave Radiometer Linearity Measured by Simple Means

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels

    2002-01-01

    Modern spaceborne radiometer systems feature an almost perfect on-board calibration, hence the primary calibration task to be carried out before launch is a check of radiometer linearity. This paper describes two ways of measuring linearity of microwave radiometers only requiring relatively simple...

  4. State-dependent linear-optical qubit amplifier

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartkiewicz, K.; Černoch, Antonín; Lemr, K.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 6 (2013), "062304-1"-"062304-7" ISSN 1050-2947 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0382 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : linear-optical qubit amplifier * quantum cloning * quantum cryptography Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.991, year: 2013

  5. Linear-optical programmable quantum router

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lemr, K.; Černoch, Antonín

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 300, JUL (2013), s. 282-285 ISSN 0030-4018 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0382 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : quantum router * quantum information processing * photon pairs * quantum communications * programmable phase gate Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.542, year: 2013 http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0030401813002563/1-s2.0-S0030401813002563-main.pdf?_tid=d1f7d17a-66e9-11e3-aa5e-00000aab0f6c&acdnat=1387264198_99aef4d40cf81f69

  6. Linear position sensitive neutron detector using fiber optic encoded scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, P.L.; Wroe, H.

    1983-01-01

    A linear position sensitive slow neutron detector with 3 mm resolution is described. It uses the fiber optic coding principle in which the resolution elements are separate pieces of lithium loaded glass scintillator each coupled by means of flexible polymer optical fibers to a unique combination of 3 photo multipliers (PM's) out of a bank of 12. A decoder circuit repsponds to a triple coincidence between PM outputs and generates a 12 bit work which identifies the scintillator element which stopped the incident neutron. Some details of the construction and decoding electronics are given together with test results obtained using a laboratory isotope neutron source and a monochomated, collimated neutron beam from a reactor. The count rate in the absence of neutron sources is 2 to 3 c min - 1 per element; the element to element variation in response to a uniform flux is a few percent for 95% of the elements; the resolution as measured by a 1 mm wide prode neutron beam is 3 mm; the relative long term stability is about 0.1% over 3 days and the detection efficiency measured by comparison with an end windowed, high pressure gas counter is about 65% at a neutron wavelength of 0.9A 0

  7. Linearization of Positional Response Curve of a Fiber-optic Displacement Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaev, O. G.; Matyunin, S. A.; Paranin, V. D.

    2018-01-01

    Currently, the creation of optical measuring instruments and sensors for measuring linear displacement is one of the most relevant problems in the area of instrumentation. Fiber-optic contactless sensors based on the magneto-optical effect are of special interest. They are essentially contactless, non-electrical and have a closed optical channel not subject to contamination. The main problem of this type of sensors is the non-linearity of their positional response curve due to the hyperbolic nature of the magnetic field intensity variation induced by moving the magnetic source mounted on the controlled object relative to the sensing element. This paper discusses an algorithmic method of linearizing the positional response curve of fiber-optic displacement sensors in any selected range of the displacements to be measured. The method is divided into two stages: 1 - definition of the calibration function, 2 - measurement and linearization of the positional response curve (including its temperature stabilization). The algorithm under consideration significantly reduces the number of points of the calibration function, which is essential for the calibration of temperature dependence, due to the use of the points that randomly deviate from the grid points with uniform spacing. Subsequent interpolation of the deviating points and piecewise linear-plane approximation of the calibration function reduces the microcontroller storage capacity for storing the calibration function and the time required to process the measurement results. The paper also presents experimental results of testing real samples of fiber-optic displacement sensors.

  8. A study on linear and non-linear optical constants of Rhodamine B thin film deposited on FTO glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahia, I. S.; Jilani, Asim; Abutalib, M. M.; AlFaify, S.; Shkir, M.; Abdel-wahab, M. Sh.; Al-Ghamdi, Attieh A.; El-Naggar, A. M.

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this research was to fabricate/deposit the good quality thin film of Rhodamine B dye on fluorine doped tin oxide glass substrate by the low cost spin coating technique and study their linear and nonlinear optical parameters. The thickness of the thin film was measured about 300 nm with alpha step system. The transmittance of the fabricated thin film was found to be above 75% corresponding to the fluorine doped tin oxide layer. The structural analysis was performed with X-rays diffraction spectroscopy. Atomic force microscope showed the topographic image of deposited thin film. Linear optical constant like absorption coefficient, band gap, and extinction index was calculated. The dielectric constant was calculated to know the optical response of Rhodamine B dye over fluorine doped tin oxide substrate. The nonlinear optical constant like linear optical susceptibility χ(1), nonlinear optical susceptibility χ(3), nonlinear refractive index (n2) were calculated by spectroscopic method. This method has advantage over the experimental method like Z-Scan for organic dye base semiconductors for future advance optoelectronics applications like dye synthesis solar cell.

  9. A study on linear and non-linear optical constants of Rhodamine B thin film deposited on FTO glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yahia, I.S. [Nano-Science & Semiconductor Labs, Physics Department, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy, Cairo (Egypt); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha (Saudi Arabia); Jilani, Asim, E-mail: asim.jilane@gmail.com [Centre of Nanotechnology, Physics Department-Faculty of Science-AL Faisaliah Campus, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80200, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Abutalib, M.M. [Centre of Nanotechnology, Physics Department-Faculty of Science-AL Faisaliah Campus, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80200, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); AlFaify, S. [Nano-Science & Semiconductor Labs, Physics Department, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy, Cairo (Egypt); Shkir, M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha (Saudi Arabia); Abdel-wahab, M.Sh.; Al-Ghamdi, Attieh A. [Centre of Nanotechnology, Physics Department-Faculty of Science-AL Faisaliah Campus, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80200, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); El-Naggar, A.M. [Exploitation of Renewable Energy Applications in Saudi Arabia, Physics & Astronomy Department, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O.Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this research was to fabricate/deposit the good quality thin film of Rhodamine B dye on fluorine doped tin oxide glass substrate by the low cost spin coating technique and study their linear and nonlinear optical parameters. The thickness of the thin film was measured about 300 nm with alpha step system. The transmittance of the fabricated thin film was found to be above 75% corresponding to the fluorine doped tin oxide layer. The structural analysis was performed with X-rays diffraction spectroscopy. Atomic force microscope showed the topographic image of deposited thin film. Linear optical constant like absorption coefficient, band gap, and extinction index was calculated. The dielectric constant was calculated to know the optical response of Rhodamine B dye over fluorine doped tin oxide substrate. The nonlinear optical constant like linear optical susceptibility χ{sup (1)}, nonlinear optical susceptibility χ{sup (3)}, nonlinear refractive index (n{sub 2}) were calculated by spectroscopic method. This method has advantage over the experimental method like Z-Scan for organic dye base semiconductors for future advance optoelectronics applications like dye synthesis solar cell.

  10. Enhanced linear photonic nanojet generated by core-shell optical microfibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng-Yang; Yen, Tzu-Ping; Chen, Chien-Wen

    2017-05-01

    The generation of linear photonic nanojet using core-shell optical microfiber is demonstrated numerically and experimentally in the visible light region. The power flow patterns for the core-shell optical microfiber are calculated by using the finite-difference time-domain method. The focusing properties of linear photonic nanojet are evaluated in terms of length and width along propagation and transversal directions. In experiment, the silica optical fiber is etched chemically down to 6 μm diameter and coated with metallic thin film by using glancing angle deposition. We show that the linear photonic nanojet is enhanced clearly by metallic shell due to surface plasmon polaritons. The large-area superresolution imaging can be performed by using a core-shell optical microfiber in the far-field system. The potential applications of this core-shell optical microfiber include micro-fluidics and nano-structure measurements.

  11. Linear quantum optical bare raising operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Jennifer C. J.; Oi, Daniel K. L.; Jeffers, John

    2017-11-01

    We propose a simple implementation of the bare raising operator on coherent states via conditional measurement, which succeeds with high probability and fidelity. This operation works well not only on states with a Poissonian photon number distribution but also for a much wider class of states. As a part of this scheme, we highlight an experimentally testable effect in which a single photon is induced through a highly reflecting beamsplitter by a large amplitude coherent state, with probability 1/e(≈ 37 % ) in the limit of large coherent state amplitude.

  12. Entangling efficiency of linear-optical quantum gates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lemr, Karel; Černoch, Antonín; Soubusta, Jan; Dušek, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 3 (2012), "032321-1"-"032321-5" ISSN 1050-2947 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0382 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : linear-optical quantum gates * quantum physics Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 3.042, year: 2012 http://pra.aps.org/pdf/PRA/v86/i3/e032321

  13. Polarized light and optical measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Clarke, D N; Ter Haar, D

    2013-01-01

    Polarized Light and Optical Measurement is a five-chapter book that begins with a self-consistent conceptual picture of the phenomenon of polarization. Chapter 2 describes a number of interactions of light and matter used in devising optical elements in polarization studies. Specific optical elements are given in Chapter 3. The last two chapters explore the measurement of the state of polarization and the various roles played in optical instrumentation by polarization and polarization-sensitive elements. This book will provide useful information in this field of interest for research workers,

  14. A Linear Algebra Measure of Cluster Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Laura A.

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of models for information retrieval focuses on an application of linear algebra to text clustering, namely, a metric for measuring cluster quality based on the theory that cluster quality is proportional to the number of terms that are disjoint across the clusters. Explains term-document matrices and clustering algorithms. (Author/LRW)

  15. Non-linear optical techniques and optical properties of condensed molecular systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citroni, Margherita

    2013-06-01

    Structure, dynamics, and optical properties of molecular systems can be largely modified by the applied pressure, with remarkable consequences on their chemical stability. Several examples of selective reactions yielding technologically attractive products can be cited, which are particularly efficient when photochemical effects are exploited in conjunction with the structural conditions attained at high density. Non-linear optical techniques are a basic tool to unveil key aspects of the chemical reactivity and dynamic properties of molecules. Their application to high-pressure samples is experimentally challenging, mainly because of the small sample dimensions and of the non-linear effects generated in the anvil materials. In this talk I will present results on the electronic spectra of several aromatic crystals obtained through two-photon induced fluorescence and two-photon excitation profiles measured as a function of pressure (typically up to about 25 GPa), and discuss the relationship between the pressure-induced modifications of the electronic structure and the chemical reactivity at high pressure. I will also present the first successful pump-probe infrared measurement performed as a function of pressure on a condensed molecular system. The system under examination is liquid water, in a sapphire anvil cell, up to 1 GPa along isotherms at 298 and 363 K. These measurements give a new enlightening insight into the dynamical properties of low- and high-density water allowing a definition of the two structures.

  16. Linear systems a measurement based approach

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharyya, S P; Mohsenizadeh, D N

    2014-01-01

    This brief presents recent results obtained on the analysis, synthesis and design of systems described by linear equations. It is well known that linear equations arise in most branches of science and engineering as well as social, biological and economic systems. The novelty of this approach is that no models of the system are assumed to be available, nor are they required. Instead, a few measurements made on the system can be processed strategically to directly extract design values that meet specifications without constructing a model of the system, implicitly or explicitly. These new concepts are illustrated by applying them to linear DC and AC circuits, mechanical, civil and hydraulic systems, signal flow block diagrams and control systems. These applications are preliminary and suggest many open problems. The results presented in this brief are the latest effort in this direction and the authors hope these will lead to attractive alternatives to model-based design of engineering and other systems.

  17. Optical linear algebra processors - Noise and error-source modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasent, D.; Ghosh, A.

    1985-01-01

    The modeling of system and component noise and error sources in optical linear algebra processors (OLAPs) are considered, with attention to the frequency-multiplexed OLAP. General expressions are obtained for the output produced as a function of various component errors and noise. A digital simulator for this model is discussed.

  18. Optical linear algebra processors: noise and error-source modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasent, D; Ghosh, A

    1985-06-01

    The modeling of system and component noise and error sources in optical linear algebra processors (OLAP's) are considered, with attention to the frequency-multiplexed OLAP. General expressions are obtained for the output produced as a function of various component errors and noise. A digital simulator for this model is discussed.

  19. Silver Nanoparticles with Broad Multiband Linear Optical Absorption

    KAUST Repository

    Bakr, Osman M.

    2009-07-06

    A simple one-pot method produces silver nanoparticles coated with aryl thiols that show intense, broad nonplasmonic optical properties. The synthesis works with many aryl-thiol capping ligands, including water-soluble 4-mercaptobenzoic acid. The nanoparticles produced show linear absorption that is broader, stronger, and more structured than most conventional organic and inorganic dyes.

  20. Silver Nanoparticles with Broad Multiband Linear Optical Absorption

    KAUST Repository

    Bakr, Osman M.; Amendola, Vincenzo; Aikens, Christine M.; Wenseleers, Wim; Li, Rui; Dal Negro, Luca; Schatz, George C.; Stellacci, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    A simple one-pot method produces silver nanoparticles coated with aryl thiols that show intense, broad nonplasmonic optical properties. The synthesis works with many aryl-thiol capping ligands, including water-soluble 4-mercaptobenzoic acid. The nanoparticles produced show linear absorption that is broader, stronger, and more structured than most conventional organic and inorganic dyes.

  1. Proposal of Realization Restricted Quantum Game with Linear Optic Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Haijun; Fang Ximing

    2006-01-01

    We present a quantum game with the restricted strategic space and its realization with linear optical system, which can be played by two players who are separated remotely. This game can also be realized on any other quantum computers. We find that the constraint brings some interesting properties that are useful for making game models.

  2. Utilizing encoding in scalable linear optics quantum computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, A J F; Gilchrist, A; Myers, C R; Ralph, T C

    2004-01-01

    We present a scheme which offers a significant reduction in the resources required to implement linear optics quantum computing. The scheme is a variation of the proposal of Knill, Laflamme and Milburn, and makes use of an incremental approach to the error encoding to boost probability of success

  3. Linear and nonlinear optical spectroscopy: Spectral, temporal and spatial resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Jørn Marcher

    1997-01-01

    Selected linear and nonlinear optical spectroscopies are being described with special emphasis on the possibility of obtaining simultaneous spectral, temporal and spatial resolution. The potential of various experimental techniques is being demonstrated by specific examples mostly taken from inve...... investigations of the electronic, and opto-electronic, properties of semiconductor nanostructures....

  4. Instrumentation for Linear and Nonlinear Optical Device Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-31

    distribution is Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The Pl has acquired six pieces of equipment to extend capabilities for linear and nonlinear...optical spectral analysis • Frequency comb generation in mid-infrared Accomplishments Six major pieces of equipment have been ordered and received

  5. Non linear characterisation of optical components of a high power laser chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santran, Stephane

    2000-01-01

    This work concerns the realisation of non linear properties measurement prototypes in glasses in the near infrared and in the visible range. The various devices are time resolved colinear pump probe experiments in which the non linear susceptibility is deduced by the probe beam intensity variations induced by the pump probe coupled in the material. The sensitivity of these experiments allows us to observe unexpected variations, greater than 30%, of several fused silica non linear indexes. As well, this allow us to analyse the origin of the promising oxide glasses non linearity for all optical applications and to understand an d measure non linear processes in the two photons photodiodes. Finally, an original structure for the non linear index measurement in non degenerated configuration by a probe pulse phase measurement approach with a Sagnac interferometer is demonstrated and analysed. (author) [fr

  6. Linear optical response of carbon nanotubes under axial magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradian, Rostam; Chegel, Raad; Behzad, Somayeh

    2010-04-01

    We considered single walled carbon naotubes (SWCNTs) as real three dimensional (3D) systems in a cylindrical coordinate. The optical matrix elements and linear susceptibility, χ(ω), in the tight binding approximation in terms of one-dimensional wave vector, kz and subband index, l are calculated. In an external axial magnetic field optical frequency dependence of linear susceptibility are investigated. We found that axial magnetic field has two effects on the imaginary part of the linear susceptibility spectrum, in agreement with experimental results. The first effect is broadening and the second, splitting. Also we found that for all metallic zigzag and armchair SWCNTs, the axial magnetic field leads to the creation of a peak with energy less than 1.5 eV, contrary to what is observed in the absence of a magnetic field.

  7. Ultra-high Frequency Linear Fiber Optic Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lau, Kam Y

    2009-01-01

    Designed for a one-semester course on fiber-optics systems and communication links, this book provides a concise but rigorous treatment of the theory and practice of analog (linear) fiber-optics links and systems that constitute the foundation of Hybrid Fiber Coax infrastructure in present-day CATV distribution and cable modem Internet access. Emerging applications in remote fiber-optic feed for free-space millimeter wave enterprise campus networks are also described. Issues such as dispersion and interferometric noise are treated quantitatively, and means for mitigating them are explained. This broad but concise text will thus be invaluable not only to students of fiber-optics communication but also to practicing engineers.

  8. Spin and diamagnetism in linear and nonlinear optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Torsten; Keller, Ole; Huebner, Wolfgang; Johansson, Boerje

    2004-01-01

    We present a local-field theory for spin and diamagnetism in linear and nonlinear optics. We examine all the processes contained in the Pauli Hamiltonian and its corresponding microscopic current density, including the terms depending on the electron spin. The resulting general real-space conductivities are presented and discussed. To quantify the implications of including the spin, we study the linear and nonlinear optical properties of free-electron metals, represented by the screened homogeneous electron gas. The real-space formalism is transformed into Fourier space, and the symmetries of the linear and nonlinear optical conductivities in a homogeneous electron gas are discussed. Numerical results are presented for the homogeneous electron gas, in which we treat ω and q as independent variables, thereby opening the theory to near-field optics and the study of evanescent waves. We show that in regions of the ω-q spectrum, the presence of diamagnetism and spin dynamics significantly alters the response in comparison to considering only the paramagnetic response. Additionally, we discuss the effects of screening, and we finish our treatment by a discussion of how to connect the present theory to existing methods in ab initio solid-state physics

  9. Focus measurement of electron linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Zhijun; Xin Jian; Jia Qinglong

    2007-01-01

    Many personal factors would influence the result of the focus measurement of linear accelerator using the conventional sandwich method. This paper presents a modified method which applies a film scanning meter to scan the X-ray image film got by sandwich method for obtaining a greyscale distribution, then the full width at half maximum value of greyscale distribution represents the focus size. The method can eliminates disadvantage influence from accelerator radiant field asymmetry by quadratic polynomial fitting and measures peak width at half height instead of stripe statistic. (authors)

  10. No-go theorem for passive single-rail linear optical quantum computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lian-Ao; Walther, Philip; Lidar, Daniel A

    2013-01-01

    Photonic quantum systems are among the most promising architectures for quantum computers. It is well known that for dual-rail photons effective non-linearities and near-deterministic non-trivial two-qubit gates can be achieved via the measurement process and by introducing ancillary photons. While in principle this opens a legitimate path to scalable linear optical quantum computing, the technical requirements are still very challenging and thus other optical encodings are being actively investigated. One of the alternatives is to use single-rail encoded photons, where entangled states can be deterministically generated. Here we prove that even for such systems universal optical quantum computing using only passive optical elements such as beam splitters and phase shifters is not possible. This no-go theorem proves that photon bunching cannot be passively suppressed even when extra ancilla modes and arbitrary number of photons are used. Our result provides useful guidance for the design of optical quantum computers.

  11. OPTICAL I-BAND LINEAR POLARIMETRY OF THE MAGNETAR 4U 0142+61 WITH SUBARU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhongxiang; Tziamtzis, Anestis [Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Tanaka, Yasuyuki T.; Kawabata, Koji S. [Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Wang, Chen [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, A20 Datun Road, Beijing 100012 (China); Fukazawa, Yasushi; Itoh, Ryosuke [Department of Physical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan)

    2015-12-01

    Magnetars are known to have optical and/or infrared (IR) emission, but the origin of the emission is not well understood. In order to fully study their emission properties, we have carried out for the first time optical linear polarimetry of the magnetar 4U 0142+61, which has been determined from different observations to have a complicated broadband spectrum over optical and IR wavelengths. From our I-band imaging polarimetric observation, conducted with the 8.2-m Subaru telescope, we determine the degree of linear polarization to be P = 1.0 ± 3.4%, or P ≤ 5.6% (90% confidence level). Considering models that were suggested for optical emission from magnetars, we discuss the implications of our result. The upper limit measurement indicates that, differing from radio pulsars, magnetars probably would not have strongly polarized optical emission if the emission arises from their magnetosphere as suggested.

  12. Beam profile measurements using nonimaging gamma optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norem, J.; Dawson, J.; Haberichter, W.; Lam, R.; Reed, L.; Yang, X.F.; Spencer, J.

    1995-01-01

    High energy photons produced from bremsstrahlung foils, Compton scattering or beamstrahlung from high energy e + e - collisions can be used to measure beam profiles using nonimaging optics. We describe the method and its limitations (resolution, backgrounds etc.), as well as the apparatus required to implement it. Data from a low energy test run is described as well as other possible applications, such as a 250+250 GeV linear collider and possible experiments with existing beams. (orig.)

  13. Matrix preconditioning: a robust operation for optical linear algebra processors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, A; Paparao, P

    1987-07-15

    Analog electrooptical processors are best suited for applications demanding high computational throughput with tolerance for inaccuracies. Matrix preconditioning is one such application. Matrix preconditioning is a preprocessing step for reducing the condition number of a matrix and is used extensively with gradient algorithms for increasing the rate of convergence and improving the accuracy of the solution. In this paper, we describe a simple parallel algorithm for matrix preconditioning, which can be implemented efficiently on a pipelined optical linear algebra processor. From the results of our numerical experiments we show that the efficacy of the preconditioning algorithm is affected very little by the errors of the optical system.

  14. Fault tolerance in parity-state linear optical quantum computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, A. J. F.; Ralph, T. C.; Haselgrove, H. L.; Gilchrist, Alexei

    2010-01-01

    We use a combination of analytical and numerical techniques to calculate the noise threshold and resource requirements for a linear optical quantum computing scheme based on parity-state encoding. Parity-state encoding is used at the lowest level of code concatenation in order to efficiently correct errors arising from the inherent nondeterminism of two-qubit linear-optical gates. When combined with teleported error-correction (using either a Steane or Golay code) at higher levels of concatenation, the parity-state scheme is found to achieve a saving of approximately three orders of magnitude in resources when compared to the cluster state scheme, at a cost of a somewhat reduced noise threshold.

  15. One-step deterministic multipartite entanglement purification with linear optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, Yu-Bo [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Long, Gui Lu, E-mail: gllong@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Center for Atomic and Molecular NanoSciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory for Quantum Information and Measurements, Beijing 100084 (China); Deng, Fu-Guo [Department of Physics, Applied Optics Beijing Area Major Laboratory, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2012-01-09

    We present a one-step deterministic multipartite entanglement purification scheme for an N-photon system in a Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger state with linear optical elements. The parties in quantum communication can in principle obtain a maximally entangled state from each N-photon system with a success probability of 100%. That is, it does not consume the less-entangled photon systems largely, which is far different from other multipartite entanglement purification schemes. This feature maybe make this scheme more feasible in practical applications. -- Highlights: ► We proposed a deterministic entanglement purification scheme for GHZ states. ► The scheme uses only linear optical elements and has a success probability of 100%. ► The scheme gives a purified GHZ state in just one-step.

  16. Unconditional quantum cloning of coherent states with linear optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leuchs, G.; Andersen, U.L.; Josse, V.

    2005-01-01

    Intense light pulses with non-classical properties are used to implement protocols for quantum communication. Most of the elements in the tool box needed to assemble the experimental set-ups for these protocols are readily described by Bogoliubov transformations corresponding to Gaussian transformations that map Gaussian states onto Gaussian states. One particularly interesting application is quantum cloning of a coherent state. A scheme for optimal Gaussian cloning of optical coherent states is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Its optical realization is based entirely on simple linear optical elements and homodyne detection. The optimality of the presented scheme is only limited by detection inefficiencies. Experimentally we achieved a cloning fidelity of about 65%, which almost touches the optimal value of 2/3. (author)

  17. Preserving Simplecticity in the Numerical Integration of Linear Beam Optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Christopher K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Presented are mathematical tools and methods for the development of numerical integration techniques that preserve the symplectic condition inherent to mechanics. The intended audience is for beam physicists with backgrounds in numerical modeling and simulation with particular attention to beam optics applications. The paper focuses on Lie methods that are inherently symplectic regardless of the integration accuracy order. Section 2 provides the mathematically tools used in the sequel and necessary for the reader to extend the covered techniques. Section 3 places those tools in the context of charged-particle beam optics; in particular linear beam optics is presented in terms of a Lie algebraic matrix representation. Section 4 presents numerical stepping techniques with particular emphasis on a third-order leapfrog method. Section 5 discusses the modeling of field imperfections with particular attention to the fringe fields of quadrupole focusing magnets. The direct computation of a third order transfer matrix for a fringe field is shown.

  18. Polycarbonate-Based Blends for Optical Non-linear Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanculescu, F.; Stanculescu, A.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents some investigations on the optical and morphological properties of the polymer (matrix):monomer (inclusion) composite materials obtained from blends of bisphenol A polycarbonate and amidic monomers. For the preparation of the composite films, we have selected monomers characterised by a maleamic acid structure and synthesised them starting from maleic anhydride and aniline derivatives with -COOH, -NO2, -N(C2H5)2 functional groups attached to the benzene ring. The composite films have been deposited by spin coating using a mixture of two solutions, one containing the matrix and the other the inclusion, both components of the composite system being dissolved in the same solvent. The optical transmission and photoluminescence properties of the composite films have been investigated in correlation with the morphology of the films. The scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy have revealed a non-uniform morphology characterised by the development of two distinct phases. We have also investigated the generation of some optical non-linear (ONL) phenomena in these composite systems. The composite films containing as inclusions monomers characterised by the presence of one -COOH or two -NO2 substituent groups to the aromatic nucleus have shown the most intense second-harmonic generation (SHG). The second-order optical non-linear coefficients have been evaluated for these films, and the effect of the laser power on the ONL behaviour of these materials has also been emphasised.

  19. Optical sensor for measuring American Lobster vitality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomassetti, Brian R. A.; Vetelino, John F.

    2011-01-01

    The vitality of the American Lobster (Homarus americanus) is correlated to the total hemolymph protein (THP) in lobster hemolymph (blood). The standard technique for determining lobster vitality is to draw blood from a lobster and measure THP with a refractometer. This technique is invasive and endangers the lobster's health since blood must be drawn from the lobster. In the present work an optical sensor is developed to measure a lobster's vitality in vivo. It is comprised of a broadband light source, a monochromator, a fiber optic reflection probe, a spectrometer and a computer. This sensor measures protein concentrations by exciting a lobster with 280 nm and 334 nm wavelength light sources and measuring the corresponding absorbance peaks for THP and the fluorescence peak for hemocyanin (Hc), the majority protein in hemolymph. In this work several lobsters are tested. For each lobster, absorbance and fluorescence peaks are measured using the sensor and compared to protein concentrations measured using a refractometer. It is found that the shell thickness and muscle density, which correspond directly to protein concentration and the molting stage of the lobster have a significant effect on the absorbance and fluorescence measurements. It is also found that within specific molting stages, such as pre-molt and post-molt, protein concentration measured with a refractometer correlates linearly to absorbance and fluorescence measurements with the optical sensor.

  20. Optical Sensor for Measuring American Lobster Vitality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassetti, Brian R. A.; Vetelino, John F.

    2011-06-01

    The vitality of the American Lobster (Homarus americanus) is correlated to the total hemolymph protein (THP) in lobster hemolymph (blood). The standard technique for determining lobster vitality is to draw blood from a lobster and measure THP with a refractometer. This technique is invasive and endangers the lobster's health since blood must be drawn from the lobster. In the present work an optical sensor is developed to measure a lobster's vitality in vivo. It is comprised of a broadband light source, a monochromator, a fiber optic reflection probe, a spectrometer and a computer. This sensor measures protein concentrations by exciting a lobster with 280 nm and 334 nm wavelength light sources and measuring the corresponding absorbance peaks for THP and the fluorescence peak for hemocyanin (Hc), the majority protein in hemolymph. In this work several lobsters are tested. For each lobster, absorbance and fluorescence peaks are measured using the sensor and compared to protein concentrations measured using a refractometer. It is found that the shell thickness and muscle density, which correspond directly to protein concentration and the molting stage of the lobster have a significant effect on the absorbance and fluorescence measurements. It is also found that within specific molting stages, such as pre-molt and post-molt, protein concentration measured with a refractometer correlates linearly to absorbance and fluorescence measurements with the optical sensor.

  1. Linear and Nonlinear Optical Properties of Micrometer-Scale Gold Nanoplates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiao-Lan; Peng Xiao-Niu; Yang Zhong-Jian; Li Min; Zhou Li

    2011-01-01

    Micrometer-scale gold nanoplates have been synthesized in high yield through a polyol process. The morphology, crystal structure and linear optical extinction of the gold nanoplates have been characterized. These gold nanoplates are single-crystalline with triangular, truncated triangular and hexagonal shapes, exhibiting strong surface plasmon resonance (SPR) extinction in the visible and near-infrared (NIR) region. The linear optical properties of gold nanoplates are also investigated by theoretical calculations. We further investigate the nonlinear optical properties of the gold nanoplates in solution by Z-scan technique. The nonlinear absorption (NLA) coefficient and nonlinear refraction (NLR) index are measured to be 1.18×10 2 cm/GW and −1.04×10 −3 cm 2 /GW, respectively. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  2. Luminosity Measurement at the Compact Linear Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartz, Rina; Levy, Aharon

    The compact linear collider (CLIC) is a proposed high energy accelera- tor, planned to collide electrons with positrons at a maximal center-of-mass energy of 3 TeV, and a peak luminosity of 5.9·1034 cm−2s−1. Complementary to the large hadron collider, CLIC is to provide high precision measurements of both known and new physics processes. The required relative precision of luminosity measurement at the CLIC is 10−2. The measurement will be done by the luminosity calorimeter (Lumi- Cal), designed to measure the rate of low angles Bhabha scattering events, a process with well-known cross-section from electroweak theory. Beam-beam effects, which are of unprecedented intensity at the CLIC, influence the lumi- nosity spectrum shape and create a significant amount of background charge deposits in the LumiCal, thus setting a challenge on the requirement for precision. The ability of the LumiCal to provide accurate luminosity mea- surement depends on its ability to perform accurate energy reconstruction of Bhab...

  3. Sfermion Precision Measurements at a Linear Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Freitas, A.; Ananthanarayan, B.; Bartl, A.; Blair, G.A.; Blochinger, C.; Boos, E.; Brandenburg, A.; Datta, A.; Djouadi, A.; Fraas, H.; Guasch, J.; Hesselbach, S.; Hidaka, K.; Hollik, W.; Kernreiter, T.; Maniatis, M.; von Manteuffel, A.; Martyn, H.U.; Miller, D.J.; Moortgat-Pick, Gudrid A.; Muhlleitner, M.; Nauenberg, U.; Kluge, Hannelies; Porod, W.; Sola, J.; Sopczak, A.; Stahl, A.; Weber, M.M.; Zerwas, P.M.

    2002-01-01

    At future e+- e- linear colliders, the event rates and clean signals of scalar fermion production - in particular for the scalar leptons - allow very precise measurements of their masses and couplings and the determination of their quantum numbers. Various methods are proposed for extracting these parameters from the data at the sfermion thresholds and in the continuum. At the same time, NLO radiative corrections and non-zero width effects have been calculated in order to match the experimental accuracy. The substantial mixing expected for the third generation sfermions opens up additional opportunities. Techniques are presented for determining potential CP-violating phases and for extracting tan(beta) from the stau sector, in particular at high values. The consequences of possible large mass differences in the stop and sbottom system are explored in dedicated analyses.

  4. Sfermion precision measurements at a linear collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, A.; Ananthanarayan, B.; Bartl, A.; Blair, G.; Bloechinger, C.; Boos, E.; Brandenburg, A.; Datta, A.; Djouadi, A.; Fraas, H.; Guasch, J.; Hesselbach, S.; Hidaka, K.; Hollik, W.; Kernreiter, T.; Maniatis, M.; Manteuffel, A. von; Martyn, H.-U.; Miller, D.J.; Moortgat-Pick, G.; Muehlleitner, M.; Nauenberg, U.; Nowak, H.; Porod, W.; Sola, J.; Sopczak, A.; Stahl, A.; Weber, M.M.; Zerwas, P.M.

    2003-01-01

    At prospective e ± e - linear colliders, the large cross-sections and clean signals of scalar fermion production--in particular for the scalar leptons - allow very precise measurements of their masses and couplings and the determination of their quantum numbers. Various methods are proposed for extracting these parameters from the data at the sfermion thresholds and in the continuum. At the same time, NLO radiative corrections and non-zero width effects have been calculated in order to match the experimental accuracy. The substantial mixing expected in the third generation opens up additional opportunities. Techniques are presented for determining potential CP-violating phases and for extracting tan β from the stau sector, in particular at high values. The consequences of possible large mass differences in the stop and sbottom system are explored in dedicated analyses

  5. Sfermion precision measurements at a linear collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, A.

    2003-01-01

    At future e + e - linear colliders, the event rates and clean signals of scalar fermion production--in particular for the scalar leptons--allow very precise measurements of their masses and couplings and the determination of their quantum numbers. Various methods are proposed for extracting these parameters from the data at the sfermion thresholds and in the continuum. At the same time, NLO radiative corrections and non-zero width effects have been calculated in order to match the experimental accuracy. The substantial mixing expected for the third generation sfermions opens up additional opportunities. Techniques are presented for determining potential CP-violating phases and for extracting tan β from the stau sector, in particular at high values. The consequences of possible large mass differences in the stop and sbottom system are explored in dedicated analyses

  6. Linear optical absorption spectra of mesoscopic structures in intense THz fields: Free-particle properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Kristinn; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    1998-01-01

    We theoretically study the effect of THz radiation on the linear optical absorption spectra of semiconductor structures. A general theoretical framework, based on nonequilibrium Green functions, is formulated and applied to the calculation of linear optical absorption spectrum for several...

  7. A noble refractive optical scanner with linear response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mega, Yair J.; Lai, Zhenhua; DiMarzio, Charles A.

    2013-03-01

    Many applications in various fields of science and engineering use steered optical beam systems. Currently, many methods utilize mirrors in order to steer the beam. However, this approach is an off-axis solution, which normally increases the total size of the system as well as its error and complexity. Other methods use a "Risely Prisms" based solution, which is on-axis solution, however it poses some difficulties from an engineering standpoint, and therefore isn't widely used. We present here a novel technique for steering a beam on its optical axis with a linear deflection response. We derived the formulation for the profile required of the refractive optical component necessary for preforming the beam steering. The functionality of the device was simulated analytically using Matlab, as well as using a ray-tracing software, Zemax, and showed agreement with the analytical model. An optical element was manufactured based on the proposed design and the device was tested. The results show agreement with our hypothesis. We also present some proposed geometries of the several other devices, all based on the same concept, which can be used for higher performance applications such as two-dimensional scanner, video rate scanner etc.

  8. Linear Optics From Closed Orbits (LOCO): An Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safranek, James

    2009-01-01

    The LOCO code is used to find and correct errors in the linear optics of storage rings. The original FORTRAN code was written to correct the optics of the NSLS X-Ray ring, and was applied soon thereafter to debug problems with the ALS optics. The ideas used in the code were developed from previous work at SLAC. Several years ago, LOCO was rewritten in MATLAB. As described in this newsletter, the MATLAB version includes a user-friendly interface, with many useful fitting and analysis options. LOCO has been used at many accelerators. Presently, a search for LOCO in the text of papers on the Joint Accelerator Conferences Website yields 107 papers. A comprehensive survey of applications will not be included here. Details of recent results at a few light sources are included in this newsletter. In the past, the quality of LOCO fitting results varied significantly, depending on the storage ring. In particular, the results were mixed for colliding beam facilities, where there tend to be fewer BPMs that in light sources. Fitting rings with less BPM data to constrain the fit optics parameters often led to unreasonably large fit quadrupole gradient variations. Recently, modifications have been made to the LOCO fitting algorithm which leads to much better results when the BPM data does not tightly constrain the fit parameters. The modifications are described in this newsletter, and an example of results with this new algorithm is included.

  9. Wavefront Sensing for WFIRST with a Linear Optical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurling, Alden S.; Content, David A.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we develop methods to use a linear optical model to capture the field dependence of wavefront aberrations in a nonlinear optimization-based phase retrieval algorithm for image-based wavefront sensing. The linear optical model is generated from a ray trace model of the system and allows the system state to be described in terms of mechanical alignment parameters rather than wavefront coefficients. This approach allows joint optimization over images taken at different field points and does not require separate convergence of phase retrieval at individual field points. Because the algorithm exploits field diversity, multiple defocused images per field point are not required for robustness. Furthermore, because it is possible to simultaneously fit images of many stars over the field, it is not necessary to use a fixed defocus to achieve adequate signal-to-noise ratio despite having images with high dynamic range. This allows high performance wavefront sensing using in-focus science data. We applied this technique in a simulation model based on the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) Intermediate Design Reference Mission (IDRM) imager using a linear optical model with 25 field points. We demonstrate sub-thousandth-wave wavefront sensing accuracy in the presence of noise and moderate undersampling for both monochromatic and polychromatic images using 25 high-SNR target stars. Using these high-quality wavefront sensing results, we are able to generate upsampled point-spread functions (PSFs) and use them to determine PSF ellipticity to high accuracy in order to reduce the systematic impact of aberrations on the accuracy of galactic ellipticity determination for weak-lensing science.

  10. Negative base encoding in optical linear algebra processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlee, C.; Casasent, D.

    1986-01-01

    In the digital multiplication by analog convolution algorithm, the bits of two encoded numbers are convolved to form the product of the two numbers in mixed binary representation; this output can be easily converted to binary. Attention is presently given to negative base encoding, treating base -2 initially, and then showing that the negative base system can be readily extended to any radix. In general, negative base encoding in optical linear algebra processors represents a more efficient technique than either sign magnitude or 2's complement encoding, when the additions of digitally encoded products are performed in parallel.

  11. Structure/property relationships in non-linear optical materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, J M [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France); [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom); Howard, J A.K. [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom); McIntyre, G J [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    The application of neutrons to the study of structure/property relationships in organic non-linear optical materials (NLOs) is described. In particular, charge-transfer effects and intermolecular interactions are investigated. Charge-transfer effects are studied by charge-density analysis and an example of one such investigation is given. The study of intermolecular interactions concentrates on the effects of hydrogen-bonding and an example is given of two structurally similar molecules with very disparate NLO properties, as a result of different types of hydrogen-bonding. (author). 3 refs.

  12. Accuracy requirements of optical linear algebra processors in adaptive optics imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, John D.; Goodman, Joseph W.

    1989-10-01

    The accuracy requirements of optical processors in adaptive optics systems are determined by estimating the required accuracy in a general optical linear algebra processor (OLAP) that results in a smaller average residual aberration than that achieved with a conventional electronic digital processor with some specific computation speed. Special attention is given to an error analysis of a general OLAP with regard to the residual aberration that is created in an adaptive mirror system by the inaccuracies of the processor, and to the effect of computational speed of an electronic processor on the correction. Results are presented on the ability of an OLAP to compete with a digital processor in various situations.

  13. Integrated all optical transmodulator circuits with non-linear gain elements and tunable optical fibers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuindersma, P.I.; Leijtens, X.J.M.; Zantvoort, van J.H.C.; Waardt, de H.

    2012-01-01

    We characterize integrated InP circuits for high speed ‘all-optical’ signal processing. Single chip circuits act as optical transistors. Transmodulation is performed by non-linear gain sections. Integrated tunable filters give signal equalization in time domain.

  14. Optical measurements on contaminated surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonham, T. E.; Schmitt, R. J.; Linford, R. M. F.

    1975-01-01

    A bidirectional reflectometer system was developed for in situ measurements of the changes in spectral reflectance of surfaces contaminated with films of organic materials. The system permits experiments with films of controlled thickness in an environment that simulates the thermal, radiation, and vacuum conditions of space. The mechanical and optical construction of the reflectometer are discussed in detail, and actual data curves are used to illustrate its operation and performance.

  15. Optical asymmetric cryptography based on elliptical polarized light linear truncation and a numerical reconstruction technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chao; Shen, Xueju; Wang, Zhisong; Zhao, Cheng

    2014-06-20

    We demonstrate a novel optical asymmetric cryptosystem based on the principle of elliptical polarized light linear truncation and a numerical reconstruction technique. The device of an array of linear polarizers is introduced to achieve linear truncation on the spatially resolved elliptical polarization distribution during image encryption. This encoding process can be characterized as confusion-based optical cryptography that involves no Fourier lens and diffusion operation. Based on the Jones matrix formalism, the intensity transmittance for this truncation is deduced to perform elliptical polarized light reconstruction based on two intensity measurements. Use of a quick response code makes the proposed cryptosystem practical, with versatile key sensitivity and fault tolerance. Both simulation and preliminary experimental results that support theoretical analysis are presented. An analysis of the resistance of the proposed method on a known public key attack is also provided.

  16. Regularized linearization for quantum nonlinear optical cavities: application to degenerate optical parametric oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete-Benlloch, Carlos; Roldán, Eugenio; Chang, Yue; Shi, Tao

    2014-10-06

    Nonlinear optical cavities are crucial both in classical and quantum optics; in particular, nowadays optical parametric oscillators are one of the most versatile and tunable sources of coherent light, as well as the sources of the highest quality quantum-correlated light in the continuous variable regime. Being nonlinear systems, they can be driven through critical points in which a solution ceases to exist in favour of a new one, and it is close to these points where quantum correlations are the strongest. The simplest description of such systems consists in writing the quantum fields as the classical part plus some quantum fluctuations, linearizing then the dynamical equations with respect to the latter; however, such an approach breaks down close to critical points, where it provides unphysical predictions such as infinite photon numbers. On the other hand, techniques going beyond the simple linear description become too complicated especially regarding the evaluation of two-time correlators, which are of major importance to compute observables outside the cavity. In this article we provide a regularized linear description of nonlinear cavities, that is, a linearization procedure yielding physical results, taking the degenerate optical parametric oscillator as the guiding example. The method, which we call self-consistent linearization, is shown to be equivalent to a general Gaussian ansatz for the state of the system, and we compare its predictions with those obtained with available exact (or quasi-exact) methods. Apart from its operational value, we believe that our work is valuable also from a fundamental point of view, especially in connection to the question of how far linearized or Gaussian theories can be pushed to describe nonlinear dissipative systems which have access to non-Gaussian states.

  17. Linear and Non-Linear Optical Imaging of Cancer Cells with Silicon Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstik, Elen; Osminkina, Liubov A.; Akimov, Denis; Gongalsky, Maksim B.; Kudryavtsev, Andrew A.; Timoshenko, Victor Yu.; Heintzmann, Rainer; Sivakov, Vladimir; Popp, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    New approaches for visualisation of silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs) in cancer cells are realised by means of the linear and nonlinear optics in vitro. Aqueous colloidal solutions of SiNPs with sizes of about 10–40 nm obtained by ultrasound grinding of silicon nanowires were introduced into breast cancer cells (MCF-7 cell line). Further, the time-varying nanoparticles enclosed in cell structures were visualised by high-resolution structured illumination microscopy (HR-SIM) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Additionally, the nonlinear optical methods of two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) with infrared laser excitation were applied to study the localisation of SiNPs in cells. Advantages of the nonlinear methods, such as rapid imaging, which prevents cells from overheating and larger penetration depth compared to the single-photon excited HR-SIM, are discussed. The obtained results reveal new perspectives of the multimodal visualisation and precise detection of the uptake of biodegradable non-toxic SiNPs by cancer cells and they are discussed in view of future applications for the optical diagnostics of cancer tumours. PMID:27626408

  18. Quantum measurement in quantum optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimble, H.J.

    1993-01-01

    Recent progress in the generation and application of manifestly quantum or nonclassical states of the electromagnetic field is reviewed with emphasis on the research of the Quantum Optics Group at Caltech. In particular, the possibilities for spectroscopy with non-classical light are discussed both in terms of improved quantitative measurement capabilities and for the fundamental alteration of atomic radiative processes. Quantum correlations for spatially extended systems are investigated in a variety of experiments which utilize nondegenerate parametric down conversion. Finally, the prospects for measurement of the position of a free mass with precision beyond the standard quantum limit are briefly considered. (author). 38 refs., 1 fig

  19. Linear optical quantum computing in a single spatial mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Peter C; Metcalf, Benjamin J; Spring, Justin B; Moore, Merritt; Jin, Xian-Min; Barbieri, Marco; Kolthammer, W Steven; Walmsley, Ian A

    2013-10-11

    We present a scheme for linear optical quantum computing using time-bin-encoded qubits in a single spatial mode. We show methods for single-qubit operations and heralded controlled-phase (cphase) gates, providing a sufficient set of operations for universal quantum computing with the Knill-Laflamme-Milburn [Nature (London) 409, 46 (2001)] scheme. Our protocol is suited to currently available photonic devices and ideally allows arbitrary numbers of qubits to be encoded in the same spatial mode, demonstrating the potential for time-frequency modes to dramatically increase the quantum information capacity of fixed spatial resources. As a test of our scheme, we demonstrate the first entirely single spatial mode implementation of a two-qubit quantum gate and show its operation with an average fidelity of 0.84±0.07.

  20. Linear Optical Response of Silicon Nanotubes Under Axial Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chegel, Raad; Behzad, Somayeh

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the optical properties of silicon nanotubes (SiNTs) in the low energy region, E < 0.5 eV, and middle energy region, 1.8 eV < E < 2 eV. The dependence of optical matrix elements and linear susceptibility on radius and magnetic field, in terms of one-dimensional (1-d) wavevector and subband index, is calculated using the tight-binding approximation. It is found that, on increasing the nanotube diameter, the low-energy peaks show red-shift and their intensities are decreased. Also, we found that in the middle energy region all tubes have two distinct peaks, where the energy position of the second peak is approximately constant and independent of the nanotube diameter. Comparing the band structure of these tubes in different magnetic fields, several differences are clearly seen, such as splitting of degenerate bands, creation of additional band-edge states, and bandgap modification. It is found that applying the magnetic field leads to a phase transition in zigzag silicon hexagonal nanotubes (Si h-NTs), unlike in zigzag silicon gear-like nanotubes (Si g-NTs), which remain semiconducting in any magnetic field. We found that the axial magnetic field has two effects on the linear susceptibility spectrum, namely broadening and splitting. The axial magnetic field leads to the creation of a peak with energy less than 0.2 eV in metallic Si h-NTs, whereas in the absence of a magnetic field such a transition is not allowed.

  1. Artefacts for optical surface measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Stuart; Beraldin, J.-Angelo; Brownhill, Andrew; MacDonald, Lindsay

    2011-07-01

    Flexible manufacturing technologies are supporting the routine production of components with freeform surfaces in a wide variety of materials and surface finishes. Such surfaces may be exploited for both aesthetic and performance criteria for a wide range of industries, for example automotive, aircraft, small consumer goods and medial components. In order to ensure conformance between manufactured part and digital design it is necessary to understand, validate and promote best practice of the available measurement technologies. Similar, but currently less quantifiable, measurement requirements also exist in heritage, museum and fine art recording where objects can be individually hand crafted to extremely fine levels of detail. Optical 3D measurement systems designed for close range applications are typified by one or more illumination sources projecting a spot, line or structured light pattern onto a surface or surfaces of interest. Reflections from the projected light are detected in one or more imaging devices and measurements made concerning the location, intensity and optionally colour of the image. Coordinates of locations on the surface may be computed either directly from an understanding of the illumination and imaging geometry or indirectly through analysis of the spatial frequencies of the projected pattern. Regardless of sensing configuration some independent means is necessary to ensure that measurement capability will meet the requirements of a given level of object recording and is consistent for variations in surface properties and structure. As technologies mature, guidelines for best practice are emerging, most prominent at the current time being the German VDI/VDE 2634 and ISO/DIS 10360-8 guidelines. This considers state of the art capabilities for independent validation of optical non-contact measurement systems suited to the close range measurement of table top sized manufactured or crafted objects.

  2. Structural, Linear, and Nonlinear Optical and Mechanical Properties of New Organic L-Serine Crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear optical single crystal of organic amino acid L-Serine (LS was grown by slow evaporation technique. Solubility study of the compound was measured and metastable zone width was found. Single crystal X-ray diffraction study was carried out for the grown crystal. The linear and nonlinear optical properties of the crystal were confirmed by UV-Vis analysis and powder SHG tester. FT-IR spectrum was recorded and functional groups were analyzed. Vickers’ microhardness studies showed the mechanical strength of the grown crystal. Laser damage threshold value of the crystal was calculated. Photoconductivity studies reveal the conductivity of the crystal.

  3. Position and out-of-straightness measurement of a precision linear air-bearing stage by using a two-degree-of-freedom linear encoder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Akihide; Gao, Wei; Lijiang, Zeng

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents measurement of the X-directional position and the Z-directional out-of-straightness of a precision linear air-bearing stage with a two-degree-of-freedom (two-DOF) linear encoder, which is an optical displacement sensor for simultaneous measurement of the two-DOF displacements. The two-DOF linear encoder is composed of a reflective-type one-axis scale grating and an optical sensor head. A reference grating is placed perpendicular to the scale grating in the optical sensor head. Two-DOF displacements can be obtained from interference signals generated by the ±1 order diffracted beams from two gratings. A prototype two-DOF linear encoder employing the scale grating with the grating period of approximately 1.67 µm measured the X-directional position and the Z-directional out-of-straightness of the linear air-bearing stage

  4. NASA's Optical Measurement Program 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowardin, H.; Lederer, S.; Stansbery, G.; Seitzer, P.; Buckalew, B.; Abercromby, K.; Barker, E.

    2014-01-01

    The Optical Measurements Group (OMG) within the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) addresses U.S. National Space Policy goals by monitoring and characterizing debris. Since 2001, the OMG has used the Michigan Orbital Debris Survey Telescope (MODEST) at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) in Chile for general orbital debris survey. The 0.6-m Schmidt MODEST provides calibrated astronomical data of GEO targets, both catalogued and uncatalogued debris, with excellent image quality. The data are utilized by the ODPO modeling group and are included in the Orbital Debris Engineering Model (ORDEM) v. 3.0. MODEST and the CTIO/SMARTS (Small and Moderate Aperture Research Telescope System) 0.9 m both acquire filter photometric data, as well as synchronously observing targets in selected optical filters. This information provides data used in material composition studies as well as longer orbital arc data on the same target, without time delay or bias from a rotating, tumbling, or spinning target. NASA, in collaboration with the University of Michigan, began using the twin 6.5-m Magellan telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory in Chile for deep imaging (Baade) and spectroscopic data (Clay) in 2011. Through the data acquired on Baade, debris have been detected that are 3 magnitudes fainter than detections with MODEST, while the data from Clay provide better resolved information used in material characterization analyses via selected bandpasses. To better characterize and model optical data, the Optical Measurements Center (OMC) at NASA/JSC has been in operation since 2005, resulting in a database of comparison laboratory data. The OMC is designed to emulate illumination conditions in space using equipment and techniques that parallel telescopic observations and source-target-sensor orientations. Lastly, the OMG is building the Meter Class Autonomous Telescope (MCAT) at Ascension Island. The 1.3-m telescope is designed to observe GEO and LEO targets, using a

  5. Superradiance Effects in the Linear and Nonlinear Optical Response of Quantum Dot Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitek, A.; Machnikowski, P.

    2008-11-01

    We calculate the linear optical response from a single quantum dot molecule and the nonlinear, four-wave-mixing response from an inhomogeneously broadened ensemble of such molecules. We show that both optical signals are affected by the coupling-dependent superradiance effect and by optical interference between the two polarizations. As a result, the linear and nonlinear responses are not identical.

  6. Generation of Symmetric Dicke States of Remote Qubits with Linear Optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiel, C.; Zanthier, J. von; Bastin, T.; Solano, E.; Agarwal, G. S.

    2007-01-01

    We propose a method for generating all symmetric Dicke states, either in the long-lived internal levels of N massive particles or in the polarization degrees of freedom of photonic qubits, using linear optical tools only. By means of a suitable multiphoton detection technique, erasing Welcher-Weg information, our proposed scheme allows the generation and measurement of an important class of entangled multiqubit states

  7. Improvement of PEP-II Linear Optics with a MIA-Derived Virtual Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerio, B.; Colgate U.

    2006-01-01

    In several past studies, model independent analysis, in conjunction with a virtual accelerator model, has been successful in improving PEP-II linear geometric optics. In many cases, optics improvement yielded an increase in machine luminosity. In this study, an updated characterization of linear optics is presented. With the PEP-II beam position monitor (BPM) system, four independent beam centroid orbits were extracted and used to determine phase advances and linear Green's functions among BPM locations. A magnetic lattice model was then constructed with a singular value decomposition-enhanced least-square fitting of phase advances and Green's functions, which are functions of quadrupole strengths, sextupole feed-downs, as well as BPM errors, to the corresponding measured quantities. The fitting process yielded a machine model that matched the measured linear optics of the real machine and was therefore deemed the virtual accelerator. High beta beat, as well as linear coupling, was observed in both LER and HER of the virtual accelerator. Since there was higher beta beating in LER, focus was shifted to the improvement of this ring. By adjusting select quadrupoles of the virtual LER and fitting the resulting beta functions and phase advances to those of the desired lattice, the average beta beat of the virtual machine was effectively reduced. The new magnet configuration was dialed into LER on August 10, 2006, and beta beat was reduced by a factor of three. After fine tuning HER to match the improved LER for optimal collision, a record peak luminosity of 12.069 x 10 33 cm -2 s -1 was attained on August 16, 2006

  8. Photoinduced electro-optics measurements of biosilica transformation to cristobalite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, Ido [Department of Chemistry and the Institute of Nanotechnology, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel); Aluma, Yaniv; Ilan, Micha [Department of Zoology, George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 6997801 (Israel); Kityk, Iwan [Institute of Electronic Systems, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czestochowa University, Czestochowa 42-201 (Poland); Mastai, Yitzhak, E-mail: Yitzhak.Mastai@biu.ac.il [Department of Chemistry and the Institute of Nanotechnology, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel)

    2015-03-15

    In this paper we studied the photoinduced electro optics effects in the thermal transformation process of biosilica to cristobalite, at a relatively low temperature and ambient pressure. This process was characterized by a variety of standards techniques with emphasis on linear electro optic effect measurements. Overall we demonstrated that photoinduced electro optics measurements are very sensitive to the transformation from amorphous structure of silica in the natural sponge samples to laminar string morphology of cristobalite. With this technique we could probe the change in the samples chirality from achiral bio silica to chiral cristobalite structure. Furthermore it is shown that natural biosilica have photoinduced linear electro optics respond indicating the chiral natural of biosilica. - Graphical abstract: The phase transformation of biosilica from marine sponges to Cristobalite under thermal treatment was investigated using photoinduced electro optics measurements. The figure shows the changes of the electro-optic coefficient of cristobalite and biosilica. - Highlights: • We examine phase transformation of biosilica. • We report transition from amorphous biosilica to crystalline Cristobalite. • Biosilica transformation to Cristobalite at temperature of 850 °C. • Biosilica transformation is studied with photoinduced measurements. • We examine changes in the photoinduced linear electro optics properties.

  9. Photoinduced electro-optics measurements of biosilica transformation to cristobalite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, Ido; Aluma, Yaniv; Ilan, Micha; Kityk, Iwan; Mastai, Yitzhak

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we studied the photoinduced electro optics effects in the thermal transformation process of biosilica to cristobalite, at a relatively low temperature and ambient pressure. This process was characterized by a variety of standards techniques with emphasis on linear electro optic effect measurements. Overall we demonstrated that photoinduced electro optics measurements are very sensitive to the transformation from amorphous structure of silica in the natural sponge samples to laminar string morphology of cristobalite. With this technique we could probe the change in the samples chirality from achiral bio silica to chiral cristobalite structure. Furthermore it is shown that natural biosilica have photoinduced linear electro optics respond indicating the chiral natural of biosilica. - Graphical abstract: The phase transformation of biosilica from marine sponges to Cristobalite under thermal treatment was investigated using photoinduced electro optics measurements. The figure shows the changes of the electro-optic coefficient of cristobalite and biosilica. - Highlights: • We examine phase transformation of biosilica. • We report transition from amorphous biosilica to crystalline Cristobalite. • Biosilica transformation to Cristobalite at temperature of 850 °C. • Biosilica transformation is studied with photoinduced measurements. • We examine changes in the photoinduced linear electro optics properties

  10. High sensitivity optical measurement of skin gloss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezerskaia, Anna; Ras, Arno; Bloemen, Pascal; Pereira, Silvania F; Urbach, H Paul; Varghese, Babu

    2017-09-01

    We demonstrate a low-cost optical method for measuring the gloss properties with improved sensitivity in the low gloss regime, relevant for skin gloss properties. The gloss estimation method is based on, on the one hand, the slope of the intensity gradient in the transition regime between specular and diffuse reflection and on the other on the sum over the intensities of pixels above threshold, derived from a camera image obtained using unpolarized white light illumination. We demonstrate the improved sensitivity of the two proposed methods using Monte Carlo simulations and experiments performed on ISO gloss calibration standards with an optical prototype. The performance and linearity of the method was compared with different professional gloss measurement devices based on the ratio of specular to diffuse intensity. We demonstrate the feasibility for in-vivo skin gloss measurements by quantifying the temporal evolution of skin gloss after application of standard paraffin cream bases on skin. The presented method opens new possibilities in the fields of cosmetology and dermatopharmacology for measuring the skin gloss and resorption kinetics and the pharmacodynamics of various external agents.

  11. Counter-propagating dual-trap optical tweezers based on linear momentum conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribezzi-Crivellari, M.; Huguet, J. M.; Ritort, F.

    2013-01-01

    We present a dual-trap optical tweezers setup which directly measures forces using linear momentum conservation. The setup uses a counter-propagating geometry, which allows momentum measurement on each beam separately. The experimental advantages of this setup include low drift due to all-optical manipulation, and a robust calibration (independent of the features of the trapped object or buffer medium) due to the force measurement method. Although this design does not attain the high-resolution of some co-propagating setups, we show that it can be used to perform different single molecule measurements: fluctuation-based molecular stiffness characterization at different forces and hopping experiments on molecular hairpins. Remarkably, in our setup it is possible to manipulate very short tethers (such as molecular hairpins with short handles) down to the limit where beads are almost in contact. The setup is used to illustrate a novel method for measuring the stiffness of optical traps and tethers on the basis of equilibrium force fluctuations, i.e., without the need of measuring the force vs molecular extension curve. This method is of general interest for dual trap optical tweezers setups and can be extended to setups which do not directly measure forces.

  12. Counter-propagating dual-trap optical tweezers based on linear momentum conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribezzi-Crivellari, M.; Huguet, J. M. [Small Biosystems Lab, Dept. de Fisica Fonamental, Universitat de Barcelona, Avda. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Ritort, F. [Small Biosystems Lab, Dept. de Fisica Fonamental, Universitat de Barcelona, Avda. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Ciber-BBN de Bioingenieria, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-04-15

    We present a dual-trap optical tweezers setup which directly measures forces using linear momentum conservation. The setup uses a counter-propagating geometry, which allows momentum measurement on each beam separately. The experimental advantages of this setup include low drift due to all-optical manipulation, and a robust calibration (independent of the features of the trapped object or buffer medium) due to the force measurement method. Although this design does not attain the high-resolution of some co-propagating setups, we show that it can be used to perform different single molecule measurements: fluctuation-based molecular stiffness characterization at different forces and hopping experiments on molecular hairpins. Remarkably, in our setup it is possible to manipulate very short tethers (such as molecular hairpins with short handles) down to the limit where beads are almost in contact. The setup is used to illustrate a novel method for measuring the stiffness of optical traps and tethers on the basis of equilibrium force fluctuations, i.e., without the need of measuring the force vs molecular extension curve. This method is of general interest for dual trap optical tweezers setups and can be extended to setups which do not directly measure forces.

  13. One step linear reconstruction method for continuous wave diffuse optical tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukhrowiyah, N.; Yasin, M.

    2017-09-01

    The method one step linear reconstruction method for continuous wave diffuse optical tomography is proposed and demonstrated for polyvinyl chloride based material and breast phantom. Approximation which used in this method is selecting regulation coefficient and evaluating the difference between two states that corresponding to the data acquired without and with a change in optical properties. This method is used to recovery of optical parameters from measured boundary data of light propagation in the object. The research is demonstrated by simulation and experimental data. Numerical object is used to produce simulation data. Chloride based material and breast phantom sample is used to produce experimental data. Comparisons of results between experiment and simulation data are conducted to validate the proposed method. The results of the reconstruction image which is produced by the one step linear reconstruction method show that the image reconstruction almost same as the original object. This approach provides a means of imaging that is sensitive to changes in optical properties, which may be particularly useful for functional imaging used continuous wave diffuse optical tomography of early diagnosis of breast cancer.

  14. Non-linear optical properties of SiO2 with synthesized by implantation copper nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanov, A.L.; Olivares, J.; Requejo-Isidro, J.; Del Coso, R.; De Nalda, R.; Solis, J.; Afonso, C.N.; Hole, D.; Townsend, P.D.; Naudon, A.

    2001-01-01

    In recent years there has been a growing interest in composite dielectrics containing metal nanoparticles for their potential application in wave-guide integrated all-optical non-linear switching devices. In present work, low energy high current ion implantation (50 keV) in silica at a well controlled substrate temperature (20 0 C) at a dose of 8·10 16 ion/cm 2 has been used to produce novel composites containing a large concentration of spherical Cu clusters with an average diameter of 4 nm and a very narrow size distribution. A very large value for the third order optical susceptibility, χ (3) = 10 -7 esu, has been measured in the vicinity of the surface plasmon resonance by degenerate four wave mixing at 585 nm. This value is among the largest values ever reported for Cu nano composites. Additionally, the response time of the non-linearity has been found to be shorter than 2 ps. The superior non-linear optical response of these implants is discussed in terms of the implantation conditions

  15. Linear and nonlinear optical properties of borate crystals as ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    crystal series, with an accuracy acceptable for materials development/design, and answer the questions often ... Optical property; nonlinear optical crystals; first principles calculation. 1. ..... system, and is not in concept suitable to excitation pro-.

  16. Non-linear optical imaging – Introduction and pharmaceutical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fussell, A.L.; Isomaki, Antti; Strachan, Clare J.

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear optical imaging is an emerging technology with much potential in pharmaceutical analysis. The technique encompasses a range of optical phenomena, including coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), second harmonic generation (SHG), and twophoton excited fluorescence (TPEF). The

  17. Traceability of optical roughness measurements on polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Gasparin, Stefania; Carli, Lorenzo

    2008-01-01

    -focus instrument, and a confocal microscope. Using stylus measurements as reference, parameter settings on the optical instruments were optimised and residual noise reduced by low pass filtering. Traceability of optical measurements could be established with expanded measuring uncertainties (k=2) of 4......An experimental investigation on surface roughness measurements on plastics was carried out with the objective of developing a methodology to achieve traceability of optical instruments. A ground steel surface and its replicas were measured using a stylus instrument, an optical auto......% for the auto-focus instrument and 10% for confocal microscope....

  18. Quantitative analysis of eyes and other optical systems in linear optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, William F; Evans, Tanya; van Gool, Radboud D

    2017-05-01

    To show that 14-dimensional spaces of augmented point P and angle Q characteristics, matrices obtained from the ray transference, are suitable for quantitative analysis although only the latter define an inner-product space and only on it can one define distances and angles. The paper examines the nature of the spaces and their relationships to other spaces including symmetric dioptric power space. The paper makes use of linear optics, a three-dimensional generalization of Gaussian optics. Symmetric 2 × 2 dioptric power matrices F define a three-dimensional inner-product space which provides a sound basis for quantitative analysis (calculation of changes, arithmetic means, etc.) of refractive errors and thin systems. For general systems the optical character is defined by the dimensionally-heterogeneous 4 × 4 symplectic matrix S, the transference, or if explicit allowance is made for heterocentricity, the 5 × 5 augmented symplectic matrix T. Ordinary quantitative analysis cannot be performed on them because matrices of neither of these types constitute vector spaces. Suitable transformations have been proposed but because the transforms are dimensionally heterogeneous the spaces are not naturally inner-product spaces. The paper obtains 14-dimensional spaces of augmented point P and angle Q characteristics. The 14-dimensional space defined by the augmented angle characteristics Q is dimensionally homogenous and an inner-product space. A 10-dimensional subspace of the space of augmented point characteristics P is also an inner-product space. The spaces are suitable for quantitative analysis of the optical character of eyes and many other systems. Distances and angles can be defined in the inner-product spaces. The optical systems may have multiple separated astigmatic and decentred refracting elements. © 2017 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2017 The College of Optometrists.

  19. Fiber optics frequency comb enabled linear optical sampling with operation wavelength range extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Ruolin; Wu, Zhichao; Fu, Songnian; Zhu, Shengnan; Yu, Zhe; Tang, Ming; Liu, Deming

    2018-02-01

    Although the linear optical sampling (LOS) technique is powerful enough to characterize various advanced modulation formats with high symbol rates, the central wavelength of a pulsed local oscillator (LO) needs to be carefully set according to that of the signal under test, due to the coherent mixing operation. Here, we experimentally demonstrate wideband LOS enabled by a fiber optics frequency comb (FOFC). Meanwhile, when the broadband FOFC acts as the pulsed LO, we propose a scheme to mitigate the enhanced sampling error arising in the non-ideal response of a balanced photodetector. Finally, precise characterizations of arbitrary 128 Gbps PDM-QPSK wavelength channels from 1550 to 1570 nm are successfully achieved, when a 101.3 MHz frequency spaced comb with a 3 dB spectral power ripple of 20 nm is used.

  20. Linear electro-optic effect in cubic silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiao; Irvine, Kenneth G.; Zhang, Dongping; Spencer, Michael G.

    1991-01-01

    The first observation is reported of the electrooptic effect of cubic silicon carbide (beta-SiC) grown by a low-pressure chemical vapor deposition reactor using the hydrogen, silane, and propane gas system. At a wavelength of 633 nm, the value of the electrooptic coefficient r41 in beta-SiC is determined to be 2.7 +/- 0.5 x 10 (exp-12) m/V, which is 1.7 times larger than that in gallium arsenide measured at 10.6 microns. Also, a half-wave voltage of 6.4 kV for beta-SiC is obtained. Because of this favorable value of electrooptic coefficient, it is believed that silicon carbide may be a promising candidate in electrooptic applications for high optical intensity in the visible region.

  1. Axial linear patellar displacement: a new measurement of patellofemoral congruence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urch, Scott E; Tritle, Benjamin A; Shelbourne, K Donald; Gray, Tinker

    2009-05-01

    The tools for measuring the congruence angle with digital radiography software can be difficult to use; therefore, the authors sought to develop a new, easy, and reliable method for measuring patellofemoral congruence. The abstract goes here and covers two columns. The abstract goes The linear displacement measurement will correlate well with the congruence angle measurement. here and covers two columns. Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. On Merchant view radiographs obtained digitally, the authors measured the congruence angle and a new linear displacement measurement on preoperative and postoperative radiographs of 31 patients who suffered unilateral patellar dislocations and 100 uninjured subjects. The linear displacement measurement was obtained by drawing a reference line across the medial and lateral trochlear facets. Perpendicular lines were drawn from the depth of the sulcus through the reference line and from the apex of the posterior tip of the patella through the reference line. The distance between the perpendicular lines was the linear displacement measurement. The measurements were obtained twice at different sittings. The observer was blinded as to the previous measurements to establish reliability. Measurements were compared to determine whether the linear displacement measurement correlated with congruence angle. Intraobserver reliability was above r(2) = .90 for all measurements. In patients with patellar dislocations, the mean congruence angle preoperatively was 33.5 degrees , compared with 12.1 mm for linear displacement (r(2) = .92). The mean congruence angle postoperatively was 11.2 degrees, compared with 4.0 mm for linear displacement (r(2) = .89). For normal subjects, the mean congruence angle was -3 degrees and the mean linear displacement was 0.2 mm. The linear displacement measurement was found to correlate with congruence angle measurements and may be an easy and useful tool for clinicians to evaluate patellofemoral

  2. Wavefront measurement using computational adaptive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, Fredrick A; Liu, Yuan-Zhi; Bower, Andrew J; Xu, Yang; Carney, P Scott; Boppart, Stephen A

    2018-03-01

    In many optical imaging applications, it is necessary to correct for aberrations to obtain high quality images. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides access to the amplitude and phase of the backscattered optical field for three-dimensional (3D) imaging samples. Computational adaptive optics (CAO) modifies the phase of the OCT data in the spatial frequency domain to correct optical aberrations without using a deformable mirror, as is commonly done in hardware-based adaptive optics (AO). This provides improvement of image quality throughout the 3D volume, enabling imaging across greater depth ranges and in highly aberrated samples. However, the CAO aberration correction has a complicated relation to the imaging pupil and is not a direct measurement of the pupil aberrations. Here we present new methods for recovering the wavefront aberrations directly from the OCT data without the use of hardware adaptive optics. This enables both computational measurement and correction of optical aberrations.

  3. Full-range k-domain linearization in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Mansik; Kim, Jeehyun; Jung, Unsang; Lee, Changho; Jung, Woonggyu; Boppart, Stephen A

    2011-03-10

    A full-bandwidth k-domain linearization method for spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) is demonstrated. The method uses information of the wavenumber-pixel-position provided by a translating-slit-based wavelength filter. For calibration purposes, the filter is placed either after a broadband source or at the end of the sample path, and the filtered spectrum with a narrowed line width (∼0.5 nm) is incident on a line-scan camera in the detection path. The wavelength-swept spectra are co-registered with the pixel positions according to their central wavelengths, which can be automatically measured with an optical spectrum analyzer. For imaging, the method does not require a filter or a software recalibration algorithm; it simply resamples the OCT signal from the detector array without employing rescaling or interpolation methods. The accuracy of k-linearization is maximized by increasing the k-linearization order, which is known to be a crucial parameter for maintaining a narrow point-spread function (PSF) width at increasing depths. The broadening effect is studied by changing the k-linearization order by undersampling to search for the optimal value. The system provides more position information, surpassing the optimum without compromising the imaging speed. The proposed full-range k-domain linearization method can be applied to SD-OCT systems to simplify their hardware/software, increase their speed, and improve the axial image resolution. The experimentally measured width of PSF in air has an FWHM of 8 μm at the edge of the axial measurement range. At an imaging depth of 2.5 mm, the sensitivity of the full-range calibration case drops less than 10 dB compared with the uncompensated case.

  4. Multivariate linear models and repeated measurements revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Methods for generalized analysis of variance based on multivariate normal theory have been known for many years. In a repeated measurements context, it is most often of interest to consider transformed responses, typically within-subject contrasts or averages. Efficiency considerations leads...... to sphericity assumptions, use of F tests and the Greenhouse-Geisser and Huynh-Feldt adjustments to compensate for deviations from sphericity. During a recent implementation of such methods in the R language, the general structure of such transformations was reconsidered, leading to a flexible specification...

  5. Linear electro-optical properties of tetragonal BaTiO 3

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Linear optical susceptibility and clamped linear electro-optical tensor coefficients of tetragonal BaTiO3 are calculated using a formalism based on bond charge theory. Calculated values are in close agreement with experimental data. The covalent Ti–O bonds constituting distorted TiO6 octahedral groups are found to be ...

  6. Software Package for Optics Measurement and Correction in the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Aiba, M; Tomas, R; Vanbavinckhove, G

    2010-01-01

    A software package has been developed for the LHC on-line optics measurement and correction. This package includes several different algorithms to measure phase advance, beta functions, dispersion, coupling parameters and even some non-linear terms. A Graphical User Interface provides visualization tools to compare measurements to model predictions, fit analytical formula, localize error sources and compute and send corrections to the hardware.

  7. Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Sb-doped GeSe2 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen-Ying; Chen, Fen; Lu, Shun-Bin; Wang, Yong-Hui; Shen, Xiang; Dai, Shi-Xun; Nie, Qiu-Hua

    2015-06-01

    Sb-doped GeSe2 chalcogenide thin films are prepared by the magnetron co-sputtering method. The linear optical properties of as-deposited films are derived by analyzing transmission spectra. The refractive index rises and the optical band gap decreases from 2.08 eV to 1.41 eV with increasing the Sb content. X-ray photoelectron spectra further confirm the formation of a covalent Sb-Se bond. The third-order nonlinear optical properties of thin films are investigated under femtosecond laser excitation at 800 nm. The results show that the third-order nonlinear optical properties are enhanced with increasing the concentration of Sb. The nonlinear refraction indices of these thin films are measured to be on the order of 10-18 m2/W with a positive sign and the nonlinear absorption coefficients are obtained to be on the order of 10-10 m/W. These excellent properties indicate that Sb-doped Ge-Se films have a good prospect in the applications of nonlinear optical devices. Project supported by the National Key Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB722703), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61377061), the Young Leaders of Academic Climbing Project of the Education Department of Zhejiang Province, China (Grant No. pd2013092), the Program for Innovative Research Team of Ningbo City, China (Grant No. 2009B217), and the K. C. Wong Magna Fund in Ningbo University, China.

  8. Passive linear-optics 640 Gbit/s logic NOT gate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maram, Reza; Kong, Deming; Galili, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a 640 Gbit/s all-optical NOT gate for high-speed telecommunication on-off-keying (OOK) data signals. We employ linear optical signal processing based on spectral phase-only (all-pass) optical filtering to perform the target logic NOT operation....

  9. Characterization of the International Linear Collider damping ring optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, J.; Rubin, D. L.; Sagan, D.

    2014-10-01

    A method is presented for characterizing the emittance dilution and dynamic aperture for an arbitrary closed lattice that includes guide field magnet errors, multipole errors and misalignments. This method, developed and tested at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring Test Accelerator (CesrTA), has been applied to the damping ring lattice for the International Linear Collider (ILC). The effectiveness of beam based emittance tuning is limited by beam position monitor (BPM) measurement errors, number of corrector magnets and their placement, and correction algorithm. The specifications for damping ring magnet alignment, multipole errors, number of BPMs, and precision in BPM measurements are shown to be consistent with the required emittances and dynamic aperture. The methodology is then used to determine the minimum number of position monitors that is required to achieve the emittance targets, and how that minimum depends on the location of the BPMs. Similarly, the maximum tolerable multipole errors are evaluated. Finally, the robustness of each BPM configuration with respect to random failures is explored.

  10. A fast method for linear waves based on geometrical optics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, C.C.

    2009-01-01

    We develop a fast method for solving the one-dimensional wave equation based on geometrical optics. From geometrical optics (e.g., Fourier integral operator theory or WKB approximation) it is known that high-frequency waves split into forward and backward propagating parts, each propagating with the

  11. Extreme non-linear elasticity and transformation optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gersborg, Allan Roulund; Sigmund, Ole

    2010-01-01

    realizations correspond to minimizers of elastic energy potentials for extreme values of the mechanical Poisson's ratio ν . For TE (Hz) polarized light an incompressible transformation ν = 1/2 is ideal and for TM (E z) polarized light one should use a compressible transformation with negative Poissons's ratio......Transformation optics is a powerful concept for designing novel optical components such as high transmission waveguides and cloaking devices. The selection of specific transformations is a non-unique problem. Here we reveal that transformations which allow for all dielectric and broadband optical...... ν = -1. For the TM polarization the mechanical analogy corresponds to a modified Liao functional known from the transformation optics literature. Finally, the analogy between ideal transformations and solid mechanical material models automates and broadens the concept of transformation optics...

  12. Linearity measurement of the XP 1210 fast photomultiplier tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuze, G.; Sawine, P.

    1969-01-01

    A new X Y method of photomultipliers linearity measurement has been tested which is more suitable for fast photomultiplier tubes. The XP 1210 gives a linearity limit of 70 mA for the gain 10, i.e. 3.5 V for a 50 Ω charge impedance

  13. Linear measure functional differential equations with infinite delay

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, G. (Giselle Antunes); Slavík, A.

    2014-01-01

    We use the theory of generalized linear ordinary differential equations in Banach spaces to study linear measure functional differential equations with infinite delay. We obtain new results concerning the existence, uniqueness, and continuous dependence of solutions. Even for equations with a finite delay, our results are stronger than the existing ones. Finally, we present an application to functional differential equations with impulses.

  14. LHC injection optics measurements at commissioning (2015)

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Tabares Valdivieso, Ana; Coello De Portugal - Martinez Vazquez, Jaime Maria; Garcia-Bonilla, Alba-Carolina; Langner, Andy Sven; Maclean, Ewen Hamish; Malina, Lukas; Mcateer, Meghan Jill; Persson, Tobias Hakan Bjorn; Skowronski, Piotr Krzysztof; Tomas Garcia, Rogelio; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    This report describes the measurement and correction process followed during the 2015 LHC injection optics commissioning which extended into Machine Developments (MDs). Results have been analyzed and compared to the 2012 measurements.

  15. Optical wireless links with enhanced linearity and selectivity [Invited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Roger J.; Sweet, C.; Idrus, S.

    2005-10-01

    Optical wireless is an attractive medium as an alternative to optical fiber communications, and also to RF, because of its high bandwidth and relative ease of use, especially when it comes to deployment in new physical situations. We describe an optical wireless link approach that offers a performance that gives analog transmission with significantly reduced distortion levels and enhanced reception sensitivity by combining a novel hybrid detector-amplifier technique. Reduction of distortion by 40 dB and improvement in sensitivity of 20-30 dB is possible, using the techniques described.

  16. Realization of preconditioned Lanczos and conjugate gradient algorithms on optical linear algebra processors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, A

    1988-08-01

    Lanczos and conjugate gradient algorithms are important in computational linear algebra. In this paper, a parallel pipelined realization of these algorithms on a ring of optical linear algebra processors is described. The flow of data is designed to minimize the idle times of the optical multiprocessor and the redundancy of computations. The effects of optical round-off errors on the solutions obtained by the optical Lanczos and conjugate gradient algorithms are analyzed, and it is shown that optical preconditioning can improve the accuracy of these algorithms substantially. Algorithms for optical preconditioning and results of numerical experiments on solving linear systems of equations arising from partial differential equations are discussed. Since the Lanczos algorithm is used mostly with sparse matrices, a folded storage scheme to represent sparse matrices on spatial light modulators is also described.

  17. TITLE PAGE Linear and nonlinear optical properties of 4 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    57

    optical effects viz. reverse saturable absorption and self-defocusing of laser beam. ... Defect Analysis, Mechanical stability, UV-visible spectroscopy, Refractive index .... for geometry optimization in gas phase and in the solvent phase (ethanol).

  18. Linear Transformation of the Polarization Modes in Coiled Optical Spun-Fibers with Strong Unperturbed Linear Birefringence. I. Nonresonant Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malykin, G. B.; Pozdnyakova, V. I.

    2018-03-01

    A linear transformation of orthogonal polarization modes in coiled optical spun-fibers with strong unperturbed linear birefringence, which causes the emergence of the dependences of the integrated elliptical birefringence and the ellipticity and azimuth of the major axis of the ellipse, as well as the polarization state of radiation (PSR), on the length of optical fiber has been considered. Optical spun-fibers are subjected to a strong mechanical twisting, which is frozen into the structure of the optical fiber upon cooling, in the process of being drawn out from the workpiece. Since the values of the local polarization parameters of coiled spunwaveguides vary according to a rather complex law, the calculations were carried out by numerical modeling of the parameters of the Jones matrices. Since the rotation speed of the axes of the birefringence is constant on a relatively short segment of a coiled optical spun-fiber in the accompanying torsion (helical) coordinate system, the so-called "Ginzburg helical polarization modes" (GHPMs)—two mutually orthogonal ellipses with the opposite directions of traversal, the axis of which rotate relative to the fixed coordinate system uniformly and unidirectionally—are approximately the local normal polarization modes of such optical fiber. It has been shown that, despite the fact that the unperturbed linear birefringence of the spun-fibers significantly exceeds the linear birefringence, which is caused by the winding on a coil, the integral birefringence of an extended segment of such a fiber coincides in order of magnitude with the linear birefringence, which is caused by the winding on the coil, and the integral polarization modes tend asymptotically to circular ones. It has been also shown that the values of the circular birefringence of twisted single-mode fibers, which were calculated in a nonrotating and torsion helical coordinate systems, differ significantly. It has been shown that the polarization phenomena occur

  19. Selective Linear or Quadratic Optomechanical Coupling via Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Vanner

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The ability to engineer both linear and nonlinear coupling with a mechanical resonator is an important goal for the preparation and investigation of macroscopic mechanical quantum behavior. In this work, a measurement based scheme is presented where linear or square mechanical-displacement coupling can be achieved using the optomechanical interaction that is linearly proportional to the mechanical position. The resulting square-displacement measurement strength is compared to that attainable in the dispersive case that has a direct interaction with the mechanical-displacement squared. An experimental protocol and parameter set are discussed for the generation and observation of non-Gaussian states of motion of the mechanical element.

  20. Quantum Optical Realization of Arbitrary Linear Transformations Allowing for Loss and Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischler, N.; Rockstuhl, C.; Słowik, K.

    2018-04-01

    Unitary transformations are routinely modeled and implemented in the field of quantum optics. In contrast, nonunitary transformations, which can involve loss and gain, require a different approach. In this work, we present a universal method to deal with nonunitary networks. An input to the method is an arbitrary linear transformation matrix of optical modes that does not need to adhere to bosonic commutation relations. The method constructs a transformation that includes the network of interest and accounts for full quantum optical effects related to loss and gain. Furthermore, through a decomposition in terms of simple building blocks, it provides a step-by-step implementation recipe, in a manner similar to the decomposition by Reck et al. [Experimental Realization of Any Discrete Unitary Operator, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 58 (1994), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.73.58] but applicable to nonunitary transformations. Applications of the method include the implementation of positive-operator-valued measures and the design of probabilistic optical quantum information protocols.

  1. Optical tuning in the arcs and final focus sections of the Stanford Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bambade, P.S.

    1989-03-01

    In this thesis, we present the experimental tuning procedures developed for the Arcs and for the Final Focus Section of the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). Such tuning is necessary to maximize the luminosity, by minimizing the beam size at the interaction point, and to reduce backgrounds in the experiment. In the final Focus Section, the correction strategy must result from the principles of the optical design, which is based on cancellations between second order aberrations, and on the ability to measure micron-size beams typical of the SLC. In the Arcs, the corrections were designed after the initial commissioning, to make the system more error-tolerant, through a modification in the optical design, and to enable adjustments of the beam phase-space a the injection to the Final Focus System, through a harmonic perturbation technique inspired from circular accelerators. Although the overall optimization of the SLC is not entirely finished, an almost optimal set-up has been achieved for the optics of the Arcs and of the Final Focus Section. Beams with transverse sizes close to the nominal ones, of a few microns, have been obtained at the interaction point. We present and discuss our results and the optical limits to the present performance. 24 refs., 25 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Optical tuning in the arcs and final focus sections of the Stanford Linear Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bambade, P.S.

    1989-03-01

    In this thesis, we present the experimental tuning procedures developed for the Arcs and for the Final Focus Section of the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). Such tuning is necessary to maximize the luminosity, by minimizing the beam size at the interaction point, and to reduce backgrounds in the experiment. In the final Focus Section, the correction strategy must result from the principles of the optical design, which is based on cancellations between second order aberrations, and on the ability to measure micron-size beams typical of the SLC. In the Arcs, the corrections were designed after the initial commissioning, to make the system more error-tolerant, through a modification in the optical design, and to enable adjustments of the beam phase-space a the injection to the Final Focus System, through a harmonic perturbation technique inspired from circular accelerators. Although the overall optimization of the SLC is not entirely finished, an almost optimal set-up has been achieved for the optics of the Arcs and of the Final Focus Section. Beams with transverse sizes close to the nominal ones, of a few microns, have been obtained at the interaction point. We present and discuss our results and the optical limits to the present performance. 24 refs., 25 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Optical tuning of arcs and final focus section of the Standard Linear Collider (SLC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bambade, P.

    1989-03-01

    In this thesis, we present the experimental tuning procedures developed for the Arcs and for the Final Focus Section of the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). Such tuning is necessary to maximize the luminosity, by minimizing the beam size at the interaction point, and to reduce backgrounds in the experiment. In the final Focus Section, the correction strategy must result from the principles of the optical design, which is based on cancellations between second order aberrations, and on the ability to measure micron-size beams typical of the SLC. In the Arcs, the corrections were designed after the initial commissioning, to make the system more error-tolerant, through a modification in the optical design, and to enable adjustements of the beam phase-space at the injection to the Final Focus System, through a harmonic perturbation technique inspired from circular accelerators. Although the overall optimization of the SLC is not entirely finished, an almost optimal set-up has been achieved for the optics of the Arcs and of the Final Focus Section. Beams with transverse sizes close to the nominal ones, of a few microns, have been obtained at the interaction point. We present and discuss our results and the optical limits to the present performance [fr

  4. An investigation on linear and non-linear optical constants of nano-spherical CuPc thin films for optoelectronic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahia, I. S.; Ganesh, V.; Shkir, M.; AlFaify, S.; Zahran, H. Y.; Algarni, H.; Abutalib, M. M.; Al-Ghamdi, Attieh A.; El-Naggar, A. M.; AlBassam, A. M.

    2016-09-01

    In the current work, the authors present the systematic study on linear and nonlinear optical properties of Copper-phathalocyanine thin film deposited by thermal evaporation system for the first time. The thickness of the prepared thin film was measured and found to be ~300 nm. X-ray diffraction and AFM study confirms that the prepared thin film possess good quality. The orientation of the grown thin film is found to be along (100). UV-vis-NIR study shows that the deposited thin film is highly transparent (>80%) in the wavelength range of 700-2500 nm. Further, the recorded optical data was used to determine the various linear and nonlinear optical parameters. The calculated value of refractive index is found to be in the range of 0.4-1.0. The direct and indirect band gap value is found to be 2.9 and 3.25 eV, respectively. The value of linear and nonlinear susceptibilities is found to be in order of 10-12. The higher value of linear and nonlinear parameters makes it suitable for optoelectronic applications.

  5. An investigation on linear and non-linear optical constants of nano-spherical CuPc thin films for optoelectronic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yahia, I.S. [Nano-Science & Semiconductor Labs, Metallurgical Lab., Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy, Cairo (Egypt); Advanced Functional Materials & Optoelectronic Laboratory (AFMOL), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha (Saudi Arabia); Ganesh, V. [Advanced Functional Materials & Optoelectronic Laboratory (AFMOL), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha (Saudi Arabia); Shkir, M., E-mail: shkirphysics@gmail.com [Advanced Functional Materials & Optoelectronic Laboratory (AFMOL), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha (Saudi Arabia); AlFaify, S. [Advanced Functional Materials & Optoelectronic Laboratory (AFMOL), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha (Saudi Arabia); Zahran, H.Y. [Nano-Science & Semiconductor Labs, Metallurgical Lab., Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy, Cairo (Egypt); Advanced Functional Materials & Optoelectronic Laboratory (AFMOL), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha (Saudi Arabia); Algarni, H. [Advanced Functional Materials & Optoelectronic Laboratory (AFMOL), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha (Saudi Arabia); Abutalib, M.M.; Al-Ghamdi, Attieh A. [Centre of Nanotechnology, Physics Department-Faculty of Science-AL Faisaliah Campus, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); El-Naggar, A.M.; AlBassam, A.M. [Research Chair of Exploitation of Renewable Energy Applications in Saudi Arabia, Physics & Astronomy Dept., College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-09-01

    In the current work, the authors present the systematic study on linear and nonlinear optical properties of Copper-phathalocyanine thin film deposited by thermal evaporation system for the first time. The thickness of the prepared thin film was measured and found to be ~300 nm. X-ray diffraction and AFM study confirms that the prepared thin film possess good quality. The orientation of the grown thin film is found to be along (100). UV–vis-NIR study shows that the deposited thin film is highly transparent (>80%) in the wavelength range of 700–2500 nm. Further, the recorded optical data was used to determine the various linear and nonlinear optical parameters. The calculated value of refractive index is found to be in the range of 0.4–1.0. The direct and indirect band gap value is found to be 2.9 and 3.25 eV, respectively. The value of linear and nonlinear susceptibilities is found to be in order of 10{sup −12}. The higher value of linear and nonlinear parameters makes it suitable for optoelectronic applications.

  6. Widely Linear Equalization for IQ Imbalance and Skew Compensation in Optical Coherent Receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porto da Silva, Edson; Zibar, Darko

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an alternative approach to design linear equalization algorithms for optical coherent receivers is introduced. Using widely linear complex analysis, a general analytical model it is shown, where In-phase/quadrature (IQ) imbalances and IQ skew at the coherent receiver front-end are ......In this paper, an alternative approach to design linear equalization algorithms for optical coherent receivers is introduced. Using widely linear complex analysis, a general analytical model it is shown, where In-phase/quadrature (IQ) imbalances and IQ skew at the coherent receiver front...

  7. Construction of a quantum repeater with linear optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kok, Pieter; Williams, Colin P.; Dowling, Jonathan P.

    2003-01-01

    We study the mechanism and complexity of an efficient quantum repeater, employing double-photon guns, for long-distance optical quantum communication. The guns create polarization-entangled photon pairs on demand. One such source might be a semiconducter quantum dot, which has the distinct advantage over parametric down-conversion that the probability of creating a photon pair is close to 1, while the probability of creating multiple pairs vanishes. The swapping and purifying components are implemented by polarizing beam splitters and probabilistic optical controlled-NOT gates. We also show that the bottleneck in the efficiency of this repeater is due to detector losses

  8. Diffuse Optical Tomography for Brain Imaging: Continuous Wave Instrumentation and Linear Analysis Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacometti, Paolo; Diamond, Solomon G.

    Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is a functional brain imaging technique that measures cerebral blood oxygenation and blood volume changes. This technique is particularly useful in human neuroimaging measurements because of the coupling between neural and hemodynamic activity in the brain. DOT is a multichannel imaging extension of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). NIRS uses laser sources and light detectors on the scalp to obtain noninvasive hemodynamic measurements from spectroscopic analysis of the remitted light. This review explains how NIRS data analysis is performed using a combination of the modified Beer-Lambert law (MBLL) and the diffusion approximation to the radiative transport equation (RTE). Laser diodes, photodiode detectors, and optical terminals that contact the scalp are the main components in most NIRS systems. Placing multiple sources and detectors over the surface of the scalp allows for tomographic reconstructions that extend the individual measurements of NIRS into DOT. Mathematically arranging the DOT measurements into a linear system of equations that can be inverted provides a way to obtain tomographic reconstructions of hemodynamics in the brain.

  9. Circularly polarized light to study linear magneto-optics for ferrofluids: θ-scan technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiangshen; Huang, Yan; He, Zhenghong; Lin, Yueqiang; Liu, Xiaodong; Li, Decai; Li, Jian; Qiu, Xiaoyan

    2018-06-01

    Circularly polarized light can be divided into two vertically linearly polarized light beams with  ±π/2 phase differences. In the presence of an external magnetic field, when circularly polarized light travels through a ferrofluid film, whose thickness is no more than that of λ/4 plate, magneto-optical, magnetic birefringence and dichroism effects cause the transmitted light to behave as elliptically polarized light. Using angular scan by a continuously rotating polarizer as analyzer, the angular (θ) distribution curve of relative intensity (T) corresponding to elliptically polarized light can be measured. From the T  ‑  θ curve having ellipsometry, the parameters such as the ratio of short to long axis, and angular orientation of the long axis to the vertical field direction can be obtained. Thus, magnetic birefringence and dichroism can be probed simultaneously by measuring magneto-optical, positive or negative birefringence and dichroism features from the transmission mode. The proposed method is called θ-scan technique, and can accurately determine sample stability, magnetic field direction, and cancel intrinsic light source ellipticity. This study may be helpful to further research done to ferrofluids and other similar colloidal samples with anisotropic optics.

  10. Entanglement-based linear-optical qubit amplifier

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Meyer-Scott, E.; Bula, M.; Bartkiewicz, K.; Černoch, Antonín; Soubusta, Jan; Jennewein, T.; Lemr, Karel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 1 (2013), "012327-1"-"012327-7" ISSN 1050-2947 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0382 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : quantum physics * photonics qubits * qubit amplifier Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.991, year: 2013

  11. Experimental realization of linear-optical partial SWAP gates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Černoch, Antonín; Soubusta, Jan; Bartůšková, L.; Dušek, M.; Fiurášek, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 18 (2008), 180501/1-180501/4 ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : two-qubit gates * Mach-Zehnder interferomeret * quantum information processing Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 7.180, year: 2008

  12. Resource-efficient linear-optical quantum router

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lemr, K.; Bartkiewicz, K.; Černoch, A.; Soubusta, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 6 (2013), "062333-1"-"062333-7" ISSN 1050-2947 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : quantum router * signal qubit * quantum communications Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.991, year: 2013

  13. Ultrabroadband optical chirp linearization for precision metrology applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Peter A; Reibel, Randy R; Berg, Trenton; Kaylor, Brant; Barber, Zeb W; Babbitt, Wm Randall

    2009-12-01

    We demonstrate precise linearization of ultrabroadband laser frequency chirps via a fiber-based self-heterodyne technique to enable extremely high-resolution, frequency-modulated cw laser-radar (LADAR) and a wide range of other metrology applications. Our frequency chirps cover bandwidths up to nearly 5 THz with frequency errors as low as 170 kHz, relative to linearity. We show that this performance enables 31-mum transform-limited LADAR range resolution (FWHM) and 86 nm range precisions over a 1.5 m range baseline. Much longer range baselines are possible but are limited by atmospheric turbulence and fiber dispersion.

  14. Non-linear optical studies of adsorbates: Spectroscopy and dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Xiangdong.

    1989-08-01

    In the first part of this thesis, we have established a systematic procedure to apply the surface optical second-harmonic generation (SHG) technique to study surface dynamics of adsorbates. In particular, we have developed a novel technique for studies of molecular surface diffusions. In this technique, the laser-induced desorption with two interfering laser beams is used to produce a monolayer grating of adsorbates. The monolayer grating is detected with diffractions of optical SHG. By monitoring the first-order second-harmonic diffraction, we can follow the time evolution of the grating modulation from which we are able to deduce the diffusion constant of the adsorbates on the surface. We have successfully applied this technique to investigate the surface diffusion of CO on Ni(111). The unique advantages of this novel technique will enable us to readily study anisotropy of a surface diffusion with variable grating orientation, and to investigate diffusion processes of a large dynamic range with variable grating spacings. In the second part of this work, we demonstrate that optical infrared-visible sum-frequency generation (SFG) from surfaces can be used as a viable surface vibrational spectroscopic technique. We have successfully recorded the first vibrational spectrum of a monolayer of adsorbates using optical infrared-visible SFG. The qualitative and quantitative correlation of optical SFG with infrared absorption and Raman scattering spectroscopies are examined and experimentally demonstrated. We have further investigated the possibility to use transient infrared-visible SFG to probe vibrational transients and ultrafast relaxations on surfaces. 146 refs

  15. Non-linear optical studies of adsorbates: Spectroscopy and dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiangdong.

    1989-08-01

    In the first part of this thesis, we have established a systematic procedure to apply the surface optical second-harmonic generation (SHG) technique to study surface dynamics of adsorbates. In particular, we have developed a novel technique for studies of molecular surface diffusions. In this technique, the laser-induced desorption with two interfering laser beams is used to produce a monolayer grating of adsorbates. The monolayer grating is detected with diffractions of optical SHG. By monitoring the first-order second-harmonic diffraction, we can follow the time evolution of the grating modulation from which we are able to deduce the diffusion constant of the adsorbates on the surface. We have successfully applied this technique to investigate the surface diffusion of CO on Ni(111). The unique advantages of this novel technique will enable us to readily study anisotropy of a surface diffusion with variable grating orientation, and to investigate diffusion processes of a large dynamic range with variable grating spacings. In the second part of this work, we demonstrate that optical infrared-visible sum-frequency generation (SFG) from surfaces can be used as a viable surface vibrational spectroscopic technique. We have successfully recorded the first vibrational spectrum of a monolayer of adsorbates using optical infrared-visible SFG. The qualitative and quantitative correlation of optical SFG with infrared absorption and Raman scattering spectroscopies are examined and experimentally demonstrated. We have further investigated the possibility to use transient infrared-visible SFG to probe vibrational transients and ultrafast relaxations on surfaces. 146 refs.

  16. Comparison of Simulated and Measured Non-linear Ultrasound Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Yigang; Jensen, Henrik; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2011-01-01

    In this paper results from a non-linear AS (angular spectrum) based ultrasound simulation program are compared to water-tank measurements. A circular concave transducer with a diameter of 1 inch (25.4 mm) is used as the emitting source. The measured pulses are rst compared with the linear...... simulation program Field II, which will be used to generate the source for the AS simulation. The generated non-linear ultrasound eld is measured by a hydrophone in the focal plane. The second harmonic component from the measurement is compared with the AS simulation, which is used to calculate both...... fundamental and second harmonic elds. The focused piston transducer with a center frequency of 5 MHz is excited by a waveform generator emitting a 6-cycle sine wave. The hydrophone is mounted in the focal plane 118 mm from the transducer. The point spread functions at the focal depth from Field II...

  17. Onboard Optical Navigation Measurement Processing in GEONS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Optical Navigation (OpNav) measurements derived from spacecraft-based images are a powerful data type in the precision orbit determination process.  OpNav...

  18. Repeatability of Objective Measurements of Linear Udder and Body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to estimates the repeatability of objective measurements on linear udder and body conformation traits and to evaluate the objectivity of the measurements in Friesian x Bunaji cows. Data from 50 (F1) Frisian X Bunaji cows collected between 2007 and 2008 at the Dairy Research Farm of the ...

  19. Linear optical response of finite systems using multishift linear system solvers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hübener, Hannes; Giustino, Feliciano [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-28

    We discuss the application of multishift linear system solvers to linear-response time-dependent density functional theory. Using this technique the complete frequency-dependent electronic density response of finite systems to an external perturbation can be calculated at the cost of a single solution of a linear system via conjugate gradients. We show that multishift time-dependent density functional theory yields excitation energies and oscillator strengths in perfect agreement with the standard diagonalization of the response matrix (Casida's method), while being computationally advantageous. We present test calculations for benzene, porphin, and chlorophyll molecules. We argue that multishift solvers may find broad applicability in the context of excited-state calculations within density-functional theory and beyond.

  20. Optical technologies for measurement and inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mader, D.L.

    1997-01-01

    Ontario Hydro has benefited from specialized optical measurement techniques such as FRILS (fret replica inspection laser system), which permits in-house inspections of pressure tube replicas and has been estimated to save $2M per year. This paper presents a brief overview of (1) FRILS, (2) OPIT (in-reactor Optical Profilometry Inspection Tool), (3) miniature optical probe for steam generator tubes, (4) laser vibrometer used for end-fitting vibration, and (5) computer vision to recognize the ends of fuel bundles and automatically measure their lengths. (author)

  1. Linear and non-linear optical properties of amorphous Se and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of signal transmission that requires high speeds and bit rates. [1]. Optical fibres .... mean coordination number (r) of binary glasses is the bond- .... ))(2mr)3/2) and P an integer ... that, Tauc's model that is based on the electronic transitions.

  2. Experimental implementation of optimal linear-optical controlled-unitary gates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lemr, K.; Bartkiewicz, K.; Černoch, Antonín; Dušek, M.; Soubusta, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 114, č. 15 (2015), "153602-1"-"153602-5" ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0382 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : two-qubit gates * optimal linear-optical controlled-unitary gates * quantum computing Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 7.645, year: 2015

  3. Deterministic linear-optics quantum computing based on a hybrid approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung-Woo; Jeong, Hyunseok

    2014-01-01

    We suggest a scheme for all-optical quantum computation using hybrid qubits. It enables one to efficiently perform universal linear-optical gate operations in a simple and near-deterministic way using hybrid entanglement as off-line resources

  4. Deterministic linear-optics quantum computing based on a hybrid approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung-Woo; Jeong, Hyunseok [Center for Macroscopic Quantum Control, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-04

    We suggest a scheme for all-optical quantum computation using hybrid qubits. It enables one to efficiently perform universal linear-optical gate operations in a simple and near-deterministic way using hybrid entanglement as off-line resources.

  5. Aggregation induced enhancement of linear and nonlinear optical emission from a hexaphenylene derivative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duan, Y.; Ju, C.G.; Yang, G.; Fron, E.; Coutino-Gonzalez, E.; Semin, S.V.; Fan, C.C.; Balok, R.S.; Cremers, J.; Tinnemans, P.T.; Feng, Y.Q.; Li, Y.L.; Hofkens, J.; Rowan, A.E.; Rasing, T.H.M.; Xu, J.L.

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of the phenomenon known as aggregation-induced emission (AIE) has opened the door to a variety of brilliant organic solid-state light-emitting materials. While AIE is well established in linear optics, the development of AIE luminogens (AIEgens) with highly efficient nonlinear optical

  6. Optically-driven red blood cell rotor in linearly polarized laser tweezers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have constructed a dual trap optical tweezers set-up around an inverted microscope where both the traps can be independently controlled and manipulated in all the three dimensions. Here we report our observations on rotation of red blood cells (RBCs) in a linearly polarized optical trap. Red blood cells deform and ...

  7. Sodium flow rate measurement method of annular linear induction pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araseki, Hideo

    2011-01-01

    This report describes a method for measuring sodium flow rate of annular linear induction pumps arranged in parallel and its verification result obtained through an experiment and a numerical analysis. In the method, the leaked magnetic field is measured with measuring coils at the stator end on the outlet side and is correlated with the sodium flow rate. The experimental data and the numerical result indicate that the leaked magnetic field at the stator edge keeps almost constant when the sodium flow rate changes and that the leaked magnetic field change arising from the flow rate change is small compared with the overall leaked magnetic field. It is shown that the correlation between the leaked magnetic field and the sodium flow rate is almost linear due to this feature of the leaked magnetic field, which indicates the applicability of the method to small-scale annular linear induction pumps. (author)

  8. Compressed Sensing with Linear Correlation Between Signal and Measurement Noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arildsen, Thomas; Larsen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    reconstruction algorithms, but is not known in existing literature. The proposed technique reduces reconstruction error considerably in the case of linearly correlated measurements and noise. Numerical experiments confirm the efficacy of the technique. The technique is demonstrated with application to low......Existing convex relaxation-based approaches to reconstruction in compressed sensing assume that noise in the measurements is independent of the signal of interest. We consider the case of noise being linearly correlated with the signal and introduce a simple technique for improving compressed...... sensing reconstruction from such measurements. The technique is based on a linear model of the correlation of additive noise with the signal. The modification of the reconstruction algorithm based on this model is very simple and has negligible additional computational cost compared to standard...

  9. Communication: Symmetrical quasi-classical analysis of linear optical spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provazza, Justin; Coker, David F.

    2018-05-01

    The symmetrical quasi-classical approach for propagation of a many degree of freedom density matrix is explored in the context of computing linear spectra. Calculations on a simple two state model for which exact results are available suggest that the approach gives a qualitative description of peak positions, relative amplitudes, and line broadening. Short time details in the computed dipole autocorrelation function result in exaggerated tails in the spectrum.

  10. Integrated optical measurement system for fluorescence spectroscopy in microfluidic channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hübner, Jörg; Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Jørgensen, Anders Michael

    2001-01-01

    A transportable miniaturized fiber-pigtailed measurement system is presented which allows quantitative fluorescence detection in microliquid handling systems. The microliquid handling chips are made in silica on silicon technology and the optical functionality is monolithically integrated with th...... with two dyes, fluorescein, and Bodipy 650/665 X, showed good linear behavior over a wide range of concentrations. Minimally detected concentrations were 250 pM for fluorescein and 100 nM for Bodipy....

  11. Optical propagation in linear media atmospheric gases and particles, solid-state components, and water

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Michael E

    2006-01-01

    PART I: Background Theory and Measurement. 1. Optical Electromagnetics I. 2. Optical Electromagnetics II. 3. Spectroscopy of Matter. 4. Electrodynamics I: Macroscopic Interaction of Light and Matter. 5. Electrodynamics II: Microscopic Interaction of Light and Matter. 6. Experimental Techniques. PART II: Practical Models for Various Media. 7. Optical Propagation in Gases and the Atmosphere of the Earth. 8. Optical Propagation in Solids. 9. Optical Propagation in Liquids. 10. Particle Absorption and Scatter. 11. Propagation Background and Noise

  12. Fiber Optic Displacement Sensor for Measuring Cholesterol Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Budiyanto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A simple design of a cholesterol concentration detection is proposed and demonstrated using a fiber optic displacement sensor based on an intensity modulation technique. The proposed sensor uses a bundled plastic optical fiber (POF as a probe in conjunction with a flat mirror as a target. It is obtained that the peak voltage reduces with increasing cholesterol concentration. The sensor is capable of measuring the cholesterol concentration ranging from 0 to 300 ppm in a distilled water with a measured sensitivity of 0.01 mV/ppm, a linearity of more than 99.62 % and a resolution of 3.9188 ppm. The proposed sensor also shows a high degree of stability and good repeatability. The simplicity of design, accuracy, flexible dynamic range, and the low cost of fabrication are favorable attributes of the sensor and beneficial for real- field applications. Fiber optic sensors

  13. Deterministic implementations of single-photon multi-qubit Deutsch–Jozsa algorithms with linear optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Hai-Rui, E-mail: hrwei@ustb.edu.cn; Liu, Ji-Zhen

    2017-02-15

    It is very important to seek an efficient and robust quantum algorithm demanding less quantum resources. We propose one-photon three-qubit original and refined Deutsch–Jozsa algorithms with polarization and two linear momentums degrees of freedom (DOFs). Our schemes are constructed by solely using linear optics. Compared to the traditional ones with one DOF, our schemes are more economic and robust because the necessary photons are reduced from three to one. Our linear-optic schemes are working in a determinate way, and they are feasible with current experimental technology.

  14. Non-linear optics of nano-scale pentacene thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahia, I. S.; Alfaify, S.; Jilani, Asim; Abdel-wahab, M. Sh.; Al-Ghamdi, Attieh A.; Abutalib, M. M.; Al-Bassam, A.; El-Naggar, A. M.

    2016-07-01

    We have found the new ways to investigate the linear/non-linear optical properties of nanostructure pentacene thin film deposited by thermal evaporation technique. Pentacene is the key material in organic semiconductor technology. The existence of nano-structured thin film was confirmed by atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The wavelength-dependent transmittance and reflectance were calculated to observe the optical behavior of the pentacene thin film. It has been observed the anomalous dispersion at wavelength λ 800. The non-linear refractive index of the deposited films was investigated. The linear optical susceptibility of pentacene thin film was calculated, and we observed the non-linear optical susceptibility of pentacene thin film at about 6 × 10-13 esu. The advantage of this work is to use of spectroscopic method to calculate the liner and non-liner optical response of pentacene thin films rather than expensive Z-scan. The calculated optical behavior of the pentacene thin films could be used in the organic thin films base advanced optoelectronic devices such as telecommunications devices.

  15. MgII Linear Polarization Measurements Using the MSFC Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Edward; Cirtain, Jonathan; Kobayahsi, Ken; Davis, John; Gary, Allen; Adams, Mitzi

    2011-01-01

    This paper will describe the Marshall Space Flight Center's Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph (SUMI) sounding rocket program, with emphasis on the polarization characteristics of the VUV optics and their spectral, spatial and polarization resolution. SUMI's first flight (7/30/2010) met all of its mission success criteria and this paper will describe the data that was acquired with emphasis on the MgII linear polarization measurements.

  16. Linear algebraic theory of partial coherence: discrete fields and measures of partial coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaktas, Haldun M; Yüksel, Serdar; Kutay, M Alper

    2002-08-01

    A linear algebraic theory of partial coherence is presented that allows precise mathematical definitions of concepts such as coherence and incoherence. This not only provides new perspectives and insights but also allows us to employ the conceptual and algebraic tools of linear algebra in applications. We define several scalar measures of the degree of partial coherence of an optical field that are zero for full incoherence and unity for full coherence. The mathematical definitions are related to our physical understanding of the corresponding concepts by considering them in the context of Young's experiment.

  17. Broadband demonstrations of true-time delay using linear sideband chirped programming and optical coherent transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reibel, R.R.; Barber, Z.W.; Fischer, J.A.; Tian, M.; Babbitt, W.R.

    2004-01-01

    Linear sideband chirped (LSC) programming is introduced as a means of configuring spatial-spectral holographic gratings for optical coherent transient processors. Similar to linear frequency chirped programming, LSC programming allows the use of broadband integrated electro-optic phase modulators to produce chirps instead of using elaborate broadband chirped lasers. This approach has several advantages including the ability to use a stabilized laser for the optical carrier as well as stable, reproducible chirped optical signals when the modulator is driven digitally. Using LSC programming, we experimentally demonstrate broadband true-time delay as a proof of principle for the optical control of phased array radars. Here both cw phase modulated and binary phase shift keyed probe signals are true-time delayed with bandwidths of 1 GHz and delay resolutions better than 60 ps

  18. A high-accuracy optical linear algebra processor for finite element applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasent, D.; Taylor, B. K.

    1984-01-01

    Optical linear processors are computationally efficient computers for solving matrix-matrix and matrix-vector oriented problems. Optical system errors limit their dynamic range to 30-40 dB, which limits their accuray to 9-12 bits. Large problems, such as the finite element problem in structural mechanics (with tens or hundreds of thousands of variables) which can exploit the speed of optical processors, require the 32 bit accuracy obtainable from digital machines. To obtain this required 32 bit accuracy with an optical processor, the data can be digitally encoded, thereby reducing the dynamic range requirements of the optical system (i.e., decreasing the effect of optical errors on the data) while providing increased accuracy. This report describes a new digitally encoded optical linear algebra processor architecture for solving finite element and banded matrix-vector problems. A linear static plate bending case study is described which quantities the processor requirements. Multiplication by digital convolution is explained, and the digitally encoded optical processor architecture is advanced.

  19. Stress Measurement by Geometrical Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, R. S.; Rossnagel, S. M.

    1986-01-01

    Fast, simple technique measures stresses in thin films. Sample disk bowed by stress into approximately spherical shape. Reflected image of disk magnified by amount related to curvature and, therefore, stress. Method requires sample substrate, such as cheap microscope cover slide, two mirrors, laser light beam, and screen.

  20. Modelling and measurement of a moving magnet linear compressor performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Kun; Stone, Richard; Davies, Gareth; Dadd, Mike; Bailey, Paul

    2014-01-01

    A novel moving magnet linear compressor with clearance seals and flexure bearings has been designed and constructed. It is suitable for a refrigeration system with a compact heat exchanger, such as would be needed for CPU cooling. The performance of the compressor has been experimentally evaluated with nitrogen and a mathematical model has been developed to evaluate the performance of the linear compressor. The results from the compressor model and the measurements have been compared in terms of cylinder pressure, the ‘P–V’ loop, stroke, mass flow rate and shaft power. The cylinder pressure was not measured directly but was derived from the compressor dynamics and the motor magnetic force characteristics. The comparisons indicate that the compressor model is well validated and can be used to study the performance of this type of compressor, to help with design optimization and the identification of key parameters affecting the system transients. The electrical and thermodynamic losses were also investigated, particularly for the design point (stroke of 13 mm and pressure ratio of 3.0), since a full understanding of these can lead to an increase in compressor efficiency. - Highlights: • Model predictions of the performance of a novel moving magnet linear compressor. • Prototype linear compressor performance measurements using nitrogen. • Reconstruction of P–V loops using a model of the dynamics and electromagnetics. • Close agreement between the model and measurements for the P–V loops. • The design point motor efficiency was 74%, with potential improvements identified

  1. Force measurements on a shielded coreless linear permanent magnet motor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluk, K.J.W.; Jansen, J.W.; Lomonova, E.A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares force measurements on a shielded coreless linear permanent magnet motor with 2-D models. A 2-D semianalytical modeling method is applied, which is based on Fourier modeling and includes force calculations. The semianalytical modeling correctly predicts the behavior found in the

  2. Estimation Of Body Weight From Linear Body Measurements In Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prediction of body weight from body girth, keel length and thigh length was studied using one hundred Ross and one hundred Anak Titan broilers. Data were collected on the birds from day-old to 9 weeks of age. Body measurement was regressed against body weight at 9 weeks of age using simple linear and ...

  3. Breast meat yield, muscle linear measurements and meat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breast meat yield, chemical composition, mineral profile and linear measurement of the resultant breast meat Supracoracoides and Pectoralis thoracicus of one hundred and eighty (28 days old BUT) male turkeys fed diet containing wheat or sorghum as sole cereal source were studied. One hundred and eighty 28-days old ...

  4. Relationship between pelvic and linear body measurements in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine pelvic height, width and area and to estimate correlations between these measurements and other external linear body parameters, i.e. body height, shoulder height, chest depth, front quarter width, hindquarter width, rump length and rump slope in Dorper ewes. A total of 332 young ...

  5. Comparative study of growth and linear body measurements in Anak ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to compare the performance of two different breeds of broilers (Anak and Hubbard) using body weight and body linear measurements. Data on a total of 200 (100 each) Anak and Hubbard broiler breeds were collected weekly and the experiment lasted for 8 weeks. The parameters investigated ...

  6. Optical Measurement Technology For Aluminium Extrusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moe, Per Thomas; Willa-Hansen, Arnfinn; Stoeren, Sigurd

    2007-01-01

    Optical measurement techniques such as laser scanning, structured light scanning and photogrammetry can be used for accurate shape control for aluminum extrusion and downstream processes. The paper presents the fundamentals of optical shape measurement. Furthermore, it focuses on how full-field in- and off-line shape measurement during pure-bending of aluminum extrusions has been performed with stripe projection (structured light) using white light. Full field shape measurement is difficult to implement industrially, but is very useful as a laboratory tool. For example, it has been clearly shown how moderate internal air pressure (less than 5 bars) can significantly reduce undesirable cross-sectional shape distortions during pure bending, and how buckling of the compressive flange occurs at an early stage. Finally, a stretch-bending set-up with adaptive shape control using internal gas pressure and optical techniques is presented

  7. Optical fibres sensor based in the intensity switch of a linear laser with two Bragg gratings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basurto P, M.A.; Kuzin, E.A.; Archundia B, C.; Marroquin, E.; May A, M.; Cerecedo N, H.H.; Sanchez M, J.J.; Tentori S, D.; Marquez B, I.; Shliagin, M.; Miridonov, S.

    2000-01-01

    In this work we propose a new configuration for an optical fiber temperature sensor, based on a linear type Er-doped fiber laser. The laser cavity consists of an Er-doped fiber and two identical Bragg gratings at the fiber ends (working as reflectors). Temperature changes are detected by measuring, through one of the gratings, the intensity variations at the system's output. When the temperature of one of the Bragg gratings is modified, a wavelength shift of its spectral reflectivity is observed. Hence, the laser emission intensity of the system is modified. We present experimental results of the intensity switch observed when the temperature difference between the gratings detunes their spectral reflectance. Making use of this effect it is possible to develop limit comparators to bound the temperature range for the object under supervision. This limiting work can be performed with a high sensitivity using a very simple interrogation procedure. (Author)

  8. Optical scattering measurement and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Stover, John C

    2012-01-01

    Newly included are scatter models for pits and particles as well as the use of wafer scanners to locate and size isolated surface features. New sections cover the multimillion-dollar wafer scanner business, establishing that microroughness is the noise, not the signal, in these systems. Scatter measurements, now routinely used to determine whether small-surface features are pits or particles and inspiring new technology that provides information on particle material, are also discussed. These new capabilities are now supported by a series of international standards, and a new chapter reviews t

  9. Significant and variable linear polarization during the prompt optical flash of GRB 160625B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troja, E.; Lipunov, V. M.; Mundell, C. G.; Butler, N. R.; Watson, A. M.; Kobayashi, S.; Cenko, S. B.; Marshall, F. E.; Ricci, R.; Fruchter, A.; Wieringa, M. H.; Gorbovskoy, E. S.; Kornilov, V.; Kutyrev, A.; Lee, W. H.; Toy, V.; Tyurina, N. V.; Budnev, N. M.; Buckley, D. A. H.; González, J.; Gress, O.; Horesh, A.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Prochaska, J. X.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Rebolo Lopez, R.; Richer, M. G.; Roman-Zuniga, C.; Serra-Ricart, M.; Yurkov, V.; Gehrels, N.

    2017-07-01

    Newly formed black holes of stellar mass launch collimated outflows (jets) of ionized matter that approach the speed of light. These outflows power prompt, brief and intense flashes of γ-rays known as γ-ray bursts (GRBs), followed by longer-lived afterglow radiation that is detected across the electromagnetic spectrum. Measuring the polarization of the observed GRB radiation provides a direct probe of the magnetic fields in the collimated jets. Rapid-response polarimetric observations of newly discovered bursts have probed the initial afterglow phase, and show that, minutes after the prompt emission has ended, the degree of linear polarization can be as high as 30 per cent - consistent with the idea that a stable, globally ordered magnetic field permeates the jet at large distances from the central source. By contrast, optical and γ-ray observations during the prompt phase have led to discordant and often controversial results, and no definitive conclusions have been reached regarding the origin of the prompt radiation or the configuration of the magnetic field. Here we report the detection of substantial (8.3 ± 0.8 per cent from our most conservative simulation), variable linear polarization of a prompt optical flash that accompanied the extremely energetic and long-lived prompt γ-ray emission from GRB 160625B. Our measurements probe the structure of the magnetic field at an early stage of the jet, closer to its central black hole, and show that the prompt phase is produced via fast-cooling synchrotron radiation in a large-scale magnetic field that is advected from the black hole and distorted by dissipation processes within the jet.

  10. Beyond the borders of classical optical measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, H.; Khoury, G.; Fonseca, E.; Bouwmeester, D.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text: The limits of optical measurements are the subject to many recent works. It has been shown how by using non-classical photonic states, spatial resolution can exceed the diffraction limit [1]. The same states also improve interference measurements beyond the shot noise and up to the quantum Heisenberg limit [2]. On the other hand, a few methods have been suggested that improve the optical resolution by exploiting classical optical nonlinearities [3]. First, we will present a scheme that exploits the non-local quantum correlations of a second order entangled state produced by optical parametric down-conversion [4]. The scheme results with a non-classical state that can be used in quantum limited interferometry. It is also simply extendable to states of any photon number. Another method will be presented, where nonlinear measurements are induced by projecting the state of light onto the Fock space [5]. This process simulated optical nonlinearities up to the 7th order. We used those measurements to characterize the output of a standard polarization interferometer. Improved resolution was demonstrated, but a detailed analysis reveals the differences to the previous nonclassical approach

  11. Dynamic temperature measurements with embedded optical sensors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolan, Daniel H.,; Seagle, Christopher T; Ao, Tommy

    2013-10-01

    This report summarizes LDRD project number 151365, \\Dynamic Temperature Measurements with Embedded Optical Sensors". The purpose of this project was to develop an optical sensor capable of detecting modest temperature states (<1000 K) with nanosecond time resolution, a recurring diagnostic need in dynamic compression experiments at the Sandia Z machine. Gold sensors were selected because the visible re ectance spectrum of gold varies strongly with temperature. A variety of static and dynamic measurements were performed to assess re ectance changes at di erent temperatures and pressures. Using a minimal optical model for gold, a plausible connection between static calibrations and dynamic measurements was found. With re nements to the model and diagnostic upgrades, embedded gold sensors seem capable of detecting minor (<50 K) temperature changes under dynamic compression.

  12. Measurements using optic and RF waves

    CERN Document Server

    De Fornel, Frederique

    2013-01-01

    Scientific and technical knowledge for measurements in modern electromagnetism must be vast as our electromagnetic environment covers all frequencies and wavelengths. These measurements must be applied to fields as varied as nanotechnologies, telecommunications, meteorology, geolocalization, radioastronomy, health, biology, etc. In order to cover the multiple facets of the topic, this book sweeps the entire electromagnetic spectrum, from several hertz to terahertz; considers distances ranging from nanometers to light-years in optics; before extending towards the various measurement techniques

  13. Low power RF measurements of travelling wave type linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, Sivananda; Wanmode, Yashwant; Bhisikar, A.; Shrivastava, Purushottam

    2015-01-01

    RRCAT is engaged in the development of travelling wave (TW) type linear accelerator for irradiation of industrial and agricultural products. TW accelerator designed for 2π/3 mode to operate at frequency of 2856 MHz. It consists of input coupler, buncher cells, regular cells and output coupler. Low power measurement of this structure includes measurement of resonant frequency of the cells for different resonant modes and quality factor, tuning of input-output coupler and measurement of phase advance per cell and electric field in the structure. Steele's non-resonant perturbation technique has been used for measurement of phase advance per cell and electric field in the structure. Kyhl's method has been used for the tuning of input-output coupler. Computer based automated bead pull set-up has been developed for measurement of phase advance per cell and electric field profile in the structure. All the codes are written in Python for interfacing of Vector Network Analyzer (VNA) , stepper motor with computer. These codes also automate the measurement process. This paper describes the test set- up for measurement and results of measurement of travelling wave type linear accelerating structure. (author)

  14. Linear thermal expansion coefficient measurement technology in hot cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Dae Gyu; Choo, Yong Sun; Ahn, Sang Bok; Hong, Kwon Pyo; Lee, K. S.

    1998-06-01

    To establish linear thermal expansion coefficient measurement technology in hot cell, we reviewed and evaluated various measuring technology by paper and these were compared with the data produced with pre-installed dilatometer in hot cell. Detailed contents are as follows; - The theory of test. - Review of characteristics for various measurement technology and compatibility with hot cell. - Review of standard testing regulations(ASTM). - System calibration of pre-installed dilatometer. - Performance test of pre-installed dilatometer. (author). 12 refs., 15 tabs., 8 figs

  15. Design techniques for large scale linear measurement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candy, J.V.

    1979-03-01

    Techniques to design measurement schemes for systems modeled by large scale linear time invariant systems, i.e., physical systems modeled by a large number (> 5) of ordinary differential equations, are described. The techniques are based on transforming the physical system model to a coordinate system facilitating the design and then transforming back to the original coordinates. An example of a three-stage, four-species, extraction column used in the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel elements is presented. The basic ideas are briefly discussed in the case of noisy measurements. An example using a plutonium nitrate storage vessel (reprocessing) with measurement uncertainty is also presented

  16. Linear-Optical Generation of Eigenstates of the Two-Site XY Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Barz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Much of the anticipation accompanying the development of a quantum computer relates to its application to simulating dynamics of another quantum system of interest. Here, we study the building blocks for simulating quantum spin systems with linear optics. We experimentally generate the eigenstates of the XY Hamiltonian under an external magnetic field. The implemented quantum circuit consists of two cnot gates, which are realized experimentally by harnessing entanglement from a photon source and applying a cphase gate. We tune the ratio of coupling constants and the magnetic field by changing local parameters. This implementation of the XY model using linear quantum optics might open the door to future studies of quenching dynamics using linear optics.

  17. Accuracy requirements of optical linear algebra processors in adaptive optics imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, John D.

    1990-01-01

    A ground-based adaptive optics imaging telescope system attempts to improve image quality by detecting and correcting for atmospherically induced wavefront aberrations. The required control computations during each cycle will take a finite amount of time. Longer time delays result in larger values of residual wavefront error variance since the atmosphere continues to change during that time. Thus an optical processor may be well-suited for this task. This paper presents a study of the accuracy requirements in a general optical processor that will make it competitive with, or superior to, a conventional digital computer for the adaptive optics application. An optimization of the adaptive optics correction algorithm with respect to an optical processor's degree of accuracy is also briefly discussed.

  18. Linear optics implementation of weak values in Hardy's paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahnert, S.E.; Payne, M.C.

    2004-01-01

    We propose an experimental setup for the implementation of weak measurements in the context of the gedanken experiment known as Hardy's paradox. As Aharonov et al. [Y. Aharonov, A. Botero, S. Popescu, B. Reznik, and J. Tollaksen, Phys. Lett. A301, 130 (2002)] showed, these weak values form a language with which the paradox can be resolved. Our analysis shows that this language is indeed consistent and experimentally testable. It also reveals exactly how a combination of weak values can give rise to an apparently paradoxical result

  19. Sodium flow rate measurement method of annular linear induction pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araseki, Hideo; Kirillov, Igor R.; Preslitsky, Gennady V.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We found a new method of flow rate monitoring of electromagnetic pump. ► The method is very simple and does not require a large space. ► The method was verified with an experiment and a numerical analysis. ► The experimental data and the numerical results are in good agreement. - Abstract: The present paper proposes a method for measuring sodium flow rate of annular linear induction pumps. The feature of the method lies in measuring the leaked magnetic field with measuring coils near the stator end on the outlet side and in correlating it with the sodium flow rate. This method is verified through an experiment and a numerical analysis. The data obtained in the experiment reveals that the correlation between the leaked magnetic field and the sodium flow rate is almost linear. The result of the numerical analysis agrees with the experimental data. The present method will be particularly effective to sodium flow rate monitoring of each one of plural annular linear induction pumps arranged in parallel in a vessel which forms a large-scale pump unit.

  20. Measuring method for optical fibre sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Fluitman, J.H.J.

    1984-01-01

    A new measuring method for the signal amplitude in intensity modulating fibre optic sensors is described. A reference signal is generated in the time domain. The method is insensitive for the sensitivity fluctuations of the light transmitter and the light receiver. The method is experimentally

  1. High sensitivity optical measurement of skin gloss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ezerskaia, A.; Ras, Arno; Bloemen, Pascal; Pereira, S.F.; Urbach, Paul; Varghese, Babu

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate a low-cost optical method for measuring the gloss properties with improved sensitivity in the low gloss regime, relevant for skin gloss properties. The gloss estimation method is based on, on the one hand, the slope of the intensity gradient in the transition regime between

  2. Is linear distance measured by panoramic radiography reliable?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Keiichi; Wakoh, Mamoru; Sano, Tsukasa; Suehiro, Atsushi; Sekine, Hideshi; Kousuge, Yuuji

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to re-examine the reliability of distance measurements on clinical panoramic radiographs by comparing them with computed tomography (CT) images, from which the most accurate distance measurement is possible. Twenty pairs of images from patients examined both with panoramic radiography and CT for dental implant treatment planning in the premolar and molar regions of the mandible were used. The vertical linear distance between the alveolar crest and the closest mandibular canal was measured by three experienced oral radiologists on both images. The distances measured on panoramic radiographs were corrected for the magnification factor at the focal plane. Double-oblique cross-sectional images were used for CT. Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated between distances obtained from both images. The paired t test was performed for statistical comparison. Error levels with the panoramic radiograph versus the CT image were also calculated. Pearson's correlation coefficient showed a significant strong linear correlation (R=0.90; p<0.01). However, the corrected value of distance measured on panoramic radiographs tended to be too small, and a significant difference was observed (p<0.05). The error level was approximately 10% (9.6±7.3%). Distance measurement on clinical panoramic radiographs is less reliable than CT images and cannot be recommended. (author)

  3. A Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor Interrogation System Based on a Linearly Wavelength-Swept Thermo-Optic Laser Chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyung-Seok; Lee, Hwi Don; Kim, Hyo Jin; Cho, Jae Du; Jeong, Myung Yung; Kim, Chang-Seok

    2014-01-01

    A linearized wavelength-swept thermo-optic laser chip was applied to demonstrate a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor interrogation system. A broad tuning range of 11.8 nm was periodically obtained from the laser chip for a sweep rate of 16 Hz. To measure the linear time response of the reflection signal from the FBG sensor, a programmed driving signal was directly applied to the wavelength-swept laser chip. The linear wavelength response of the applied strain was clearly extracted with an R-squared value of 0.99994. To test the feasibility of the system for dynamic measurements, the dynamic strain was successfully interrogated with a repetition rate of 0.2 Hz by using this FBG sensor interrogation system. PMID:25177803

  4. Precision measurements of linear scattering density using muon tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åström, E.; Bonomi, G.; Calliari, I.; Calvini, P.; Checchia, P.; Donzella, A.; Faraci, E.; Forsberg, F.; Gonella, F.; Hu, X.; Klinger, J.; Sundqvist Ökvist, L.; Pagano, D.; Rigoni, A.; Ramous, E.; Urbani, M.; Vanini, S.; Zenoni, A.; Zumerle, G.

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate that muon tomography can be used to precisely measure the properties of various materials. The materials which have been considered have been extracted from an experimental blast furnace, including carbon (coke) and iron oxides, for which measurements of the linear scattering density relative to the mass density have been performed with an absolute precision of 10%. We report the procedures that are used in order to obtain such precision, and a discussion is presented to address the expected performance of the technique when applied to heavier materials. The results we obtain do not depend on the specific type of material considered and therefore they can be extended to any application.

  5. Linear and nonlinear optical properties of a hydrogenic donor in lens-shaped quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vahdani, M.R.K.; Rezaei, G.

    2009-01-01

    Optical transitions in a Lens-Shaped Quantum Dot (LSD) are investigated in the presence of a hydrogenic impurity. The electronic wave functions are obtained analytically and the energy eigenvalues are calculated numerically. The density matrix formulation with the intersubband relaxation are used to evaluate the (linear and third order nonlinear) absorption coefficient (AC) and the change in the refractive indices (RI) analytically. The effect of the size of the LSD and optical intensity on the AC and RI are investigated. It is found that AC and RI are strongly affected by the optical intensity and the size of the LSD.

  6. Linear and nonlinear optical properties of a hydrogenic donor in lens-shaped quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vahdani, M.R.K. [Department of Physics, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rezaei, G., E-mail: grezaei@mail.yu.ac.i [Department of Physics, College of Sciences, Yasouj University, Yasouj 75914 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-08-17

    Optical transitions in a Lens-Shaped Quantum Dot (LSD) are investigated in the presence of a hydrogenic impurity. The electronic wave functions are obtained analytically and the energy eigenvalues are calculated numerically. The density matrix formulation with the intersubband relaxation are used to evaluate the (linear and third order nonlinear) absorption coefficient (AC) and the change in the refractive indices (RI) analytically. The effect of the size of the LSD and optical intensity on the AC and RI are investigated. It is found that AC and RI are strongly affected by the optical intensity and the size of the LSD.

  7. Linear and non-linear optics of nano-scale 2‧,7‧dichloro-fluorescein/FTO optical system: Bandgap and dielectric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Javed; Yahia, I. S.; Zahran, H. Y.; AlFaify, S.; AlBassam, A. M.; El-Naggar, A. M.

    2016-12-01

    2‧,7‧ dichloro-Fluorescein (DCF) is a promising organic semiconductor material in different technological aspects such as solar cell, photodiode, Schottky diode. DCF thin film/conductive glass (FTO glass) was prepared by a low-cost spin coating technique. The spectrophotometric data such as the absorbance, reflectance and transmittance were cogitated in the 350-2500 nm wavelength range, at the normal incidence. The absorption (n) and linear refractive indices (k) were computed using the Fresnel's equations. The optical band gap was evaluated and it was found that there is two band gap described as follows: (1) It is related to the band gap of FTO/glass which is equal 3.4 eV and (2) the second one is related to the absorption edge of DCF equals 2.25 eV. The non-linear parameters such as the refractive index (n2) and optical susceptibility χ(3) were evaluated by the spectroscopic method based on the refractive index. Both (n2) and χ(3) increased rapidly on increasing the wavelength with redshift absorption. Our work represents a new idea about using FTO glass for a new generation of the optical device and technology.

  8. Coherent versus Measurement Feedback: Linear Systems Theory for Quantum Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Yamamoto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To control a quantum system via feedback, we generally have two options in choosing a control scheme. One is the coherent feedback, which feeds the output field of the system, through a fully quantum device, back to manipulate the system without involving any measurement process. The other one is measurement-based feedback, which measures the output field and performs a real-time manipulation on the system based on the measurement results. Both schemes have advantages and disadvantages, depending on the system and the control goal; hence, their comparison in several situations is important. This paper considers a general open linear quantum system with the following specific control goals: backaction evasion, generation of a quantum nondemolished variable, and generation of a decoherence-free subsystem, all of which have important roles in quantum information science. Some no-go theorems are proven, clarifying that those goals cannot be achieved by any measurement-based feedback control. On the other hand, it is shown that, for each control goal there exists a coherent feedback controller accomplishing the task. The key idea to obtain all the results is system theoretic characterizations of the above three notions in terms of controllability and observability properties or transfer functions of linear systems, which are consistent with their standard definitions.

  9. Linear and nonlinear optical susceptibilities in a laterally coupled quantum-dot–quantum-ring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Zaiping; Garoufalis, Christos S.; Baskoutas, Sotirios

    2014-01-01

    Linear and nonlinear optical susceptibilities in a laterally coupled quantum-dot–quantum-ring system have been theoretically studied. In general, we find that the structure parameters of the coupled system significantly affect the optical susceptibilities. The enhancement of the coupling effects between the dot and ring is found to increase considerably the optical susceptibilities and redshift drastically the transition energies. Comparing to the linear susceptibility, the nonlinear optical susceptibility is found to be more sensitive to the variation of the structure parameters. A comprehensive analysis of the electron probability density movement with respect to the modification of the structure parameters is provided, which offers a unique perspective of the ground-state localization. - Highlights: • Optical susceptibilities in a quantum-dot–quantum-ring system are studied. • The structure parameters significantly affect the optical susceptibilities. • The enhancement of the coupling effects increases the optical susceptibilities. • The nonlinear susceptibility is more sensitive to the change in structure parameters. • A comprehensive analysis of the electron probability density movement is provided

  10. A Differential Monolithically Integrated Inductive Linear Displacement Measurement Microsystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matija Podhraški

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An inductive linear displacement measurement microsystem realized as a monolithic Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC is presented. The system comprises integrated microtransformers as sensing elements, and analog front-end electronics for signal processing and demodulation, both jointly fabricated in a conventional commercially available four-metal 350-nm CMOS process. The key novelty of the presented system is its full integration, straightforward fabrication, and ease of application, requiring no external light or magnetic field source. Such systems therefore have the possibility of substituting certain conventional position encoder types. The microtransformers are excited by an AC signal in MHz range. The displacement information is modulated into the AC signal by a metal grating scale placed over the microsystem, employing a differential measurement principle. Homodyne mixing is used for the demodulation of the scale displacement information, returned by the ASIC as a DC signal in two quadrature channels allowing the determination of linear position of the target scale. The microsystem design, simulations, and characterization are presented. Various system operating conditions such as frequency, phase, target scale material and distance have been experimentally evaluated. The best results have been achieved at 4 MHz, demonstrating a linear resolution of 20 µm with steel and copper scale, having respective sensitivities of 0.71 V/mm and 0.99 V/mm.

  11. Fiber-optic voltage measuring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Miaoyuan; Nie, De-Xin; Li, Yan; Peng, Yu; Lin, Qi-Qing; Wang, Jing-Gang

    1993-09-01

    A new fibre optic voltage measuring system has been developed based on the electrooptic effect of bismuth germanium oxide (Bi4Ge3O12)crystal. It uses the LED as the light source. The light beam emitted from the light source is transmitted to the sensor through the optic fibre and the intensity of the output beam is changed by the applied voltage. This optic signal is transmitted to the PIN detector and converted to an electric signal which is processed by the electronic circuit and 8098 single chip microcomputer the output voltage signal obtained is directly proportional to the applied voltage. This paper describes the principle the configuration and the performance parameters of the system. Test results are evaluated and discussed.

  12. Non-Linear Optical Studies On Sol-Gel Derived Lead Chloride Crystals Using Z-Scan Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Rejeena, I; Lillibai, B; Toms, Roseleena; Nampoori, VP N; Radhakrishnan, P

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we report the preparation, optical characterization and non linear optical behavior of pure lead chloride crystals. Lead chloride samples subjected to UV and IR irradiation and electric and magnetic fields have also been investigated Optical nonlinearity in these lead chloride samples were determined using single beam and high sensitive Z-scan technique. Non linear optical studies of these materials in single distilled water show reverse saturable absorption which makes th...

  13. Measuring Mechanical Properties Of Optical Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Dennis S.; Nichols, Ronald L.

    1989-01-01

    Report discusses mechanical tests measuring parameters of strength and fracture mechanics of optical glasses. To obtain required tables of mechanical properties of each glass of interest, both initial-strength and delayed-fracture techniques used. Modulus of rupture measured by well-known four-point bending method. Initial bending strength measured by lesser-known double-ring method, in which disk of glass supported on one face near edge by larger ring and pressed on its other face by smaller concentric ring. Method maximizes stress near center, making it more likely specimen fractures there, and thereby suppresses edge effects. Data from tests used to predict reliabilities and lifetimes of glass optical components of several proposed spaceborne instruments.

  14. Optical techniques for in-core measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brichard, B.

    2007-01-01

    The in-situ measurement of dimensional changes is a key issue for advanced irradiation programs in Material Test Reactors. It is for example crucial to monitor the changes of the dimensions of nuclear fuel assemblies as well as those of mechanically stressed structural material samples during in-pile irradiations. Different techniques already exist to carry out such measurements but they all come with a number of drawbacks. SCK-CEN and CEA have therefore decided to share the development of a measurement system that was never applied before in the core of a nuclear reactor. It relies on optical dimensional measurements and brings along unprecedented non-intrusiveness combined with high resolution. A clear advantage in using compact optical sensors results in a more efficient occupation of the irradiation volume available for target testings as well as a significant reduction of the gamma-heating associated with the in-pile instrumentation. The objectives of these shared studies are to design, develop, test and qualify an in-pile dimensional measurement system based on optical techniques, with the goal to implement this system in future MTR irradiation experiments. In 2006, we focussed our activities on sensor analysis, selection of the sensor prototypes, procurement and first irradiation experiment

  15. Linearized spectrum correlation analysis for line emission measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizawa, T; Nornberg, M D; Den Hartog, D J; Sarff, J S

    2017-08-01

    A new spectral analysis method, Linearized Spectrum Correlation Analysis (LSCA), for charge exchange and passive ion Doppler spectroscopy is introduced to provide a means of measuring fast spectral line shape changes associated with ion-scale micro-instabilities. This analysis method is designed to resolve the fluctuations in the emission line shape from a stationary ion-scale wave. The method linearizes the fluctuations around a time-averaged line shape (e.g., Gaussian) and subdivides the spectral output channels into two sets to reduce contributions from uncorrelated fluctuations without averaging over the fast time dynamics. In principle, small fluctuations in the parameters used for a line shape model can be measured by evaluating the cross spectrum between different channel groupings to isolate a particular fluctuating quantity. High-frequency ion velocity measurements (100-200 kHz) were made by using this method. We also conducted simulations to compare LSCA with a moment analysis technique under a low photon count condition. Both experimental and synthetic measurements demonstrate the effectiveness of LSCA.

  16. Conditional generation of arbitrary multimode entangled states of light with linear optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiurasek, J.; Massar, S.; Cerf, N. J.

    2003-01-01

    We propose a universal scheme for the probabilistic generation of an arbitrary multimode entangled state of light with finite expansion in Fock basis. The suggested setup involves passive linear optics, single-photon sources, strong coherent laser beams, and photodetectors with single-photon resolution. The efficiency of this setup may be greatly enhanced if, in addition, a quantum memory is available

  17. Space and frequency-multiplexed optical linear algebra processor - Fabrication and initial tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasent, D.; Jackson, J.

    1986-01-01

    A new optical linear algebra processor architecture is described. Space and frequency-multiplexing are used to accommodate bipolar and complex-valued data. A fabricated laboratory version of this processor is described, the electronic support system used is discussed, and initial test data obtained on it are presented.

  18. Linear all-optical signal processing using silicon micro-ring resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yunhong; Ou, Haiyan; Xu, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Silicon micro-ring resonators (MRRs) are compact and versatile devices whose periodic frequency response can be exploited for a wide range of applications. In this paper, we review our recent work on linear all-optical signal processing applications using silicon MRRs as passive filters. We focus...

  19. The fully relativistic foundation of linear transfer theory in electron optics based on the Dirac equation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferwerda, H.A.; Hoenders, B.J.; Slump, C.H.

    The fully relativistic quantum mechanical treatment of paraxial electron-optical image formation initiated in the previous paper (this issue) is worked out and leads to a rigorous foundation of the linear transfer theory. Moreover, the status of the relativistic scaling laws for mass and wavelength,

  20. Ultracompact vibrometry measurement with nanometric accuracy using optical feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Ajit; Azcona, Francisco; Royo, Santiago

    2015-05-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of a semiconductor laser with optical feedback (OF) combined with direct current modulation of the laser is demonstrated to suffice for the measurement of subwavelength changes in the position of a vibrating object. So far, classical Optical Feedback Interferometry (OFI) has been used to measure the vibration of an object given its amplitude is greater than half the wavelength of emission, and the resolution of the measurement limited to some tenths of the wavelength after processing. We present here a methodology which takes advantage of the combination of two different phenomena: continuous wave frequency modulation (CWFM), induced by direct modulation of the laser, and non-linear dynamics inside of the laser cavity subject to optical self-injection (OSI). The methodology we propose shows how to detect vibration amplitudes smaller than half the emission wavelength with resolutions way beyond λ/2, extending the typical performance of OFI setups to very small amplitudes. A detailed mathematical model and simulation results are presented to support the proposed methodology, showing its ability to perform such displacement measurements of frequencies in the MHz range, depending upon the modulation frequency. Such approach makes the technique a suitable candidate, among other applications, to economic laser-based ultrasound measurements, with applications in nondestructive testing of materials (thickness, flaws, density, stresses), among others. The results of simulations of the proposed approach confirm the merit of the figures as detection of amplitudes of vibration below λ/2) with resolutions in the nanometer range.

  1. TiO2 nanorods/PMMA copolymer-based nanocomposites: highly homogeneous linear and nonlinear optical material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciancalepore, C; Agostiano, A; Cassano, T; Valentini, A; Curri, M L; Striccoli, M; Mecerreyes, D; Tommasi, R

    2008-01-01

    Original nanocomposites have been obtained by direct incorporation of pre-synthesized oleic acid capped TiO 2 nanorods into properly functionalized poly(methyl methacrylate) copolymers, carrying carboxylic acid groups on the repeating polymer unit. The presence of carboxylic groups on the alkyl chain of the host functionalized copolymer allows an highly homogeneous dispersion of the nanorods in the organic matrix. The prepared TiO 2 /PMMA-co-MA nanocomposites show high optical transparency in the visible region, even at high TiO 2 nanorod content, and tunable linear refractive index depending on the nanoparticle concentration. Finally measurements of nonlinear optical properties of TiO 2 polymer nanocomposites demonstrate a negligible two-photon absorption and a negative value of nonlinear refractive index, highlighting the potential of the nanocomposite for efficient optical devices operating in the visible region

  2. TiO2 nanorods/PMMA copolymer-based nanocomposites: highly homogeneous linear and nonlinear optical material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciancalepore, C.; Cassano, T.; Curri, M. L.; Mecerreyes, D.; Valentini, A.; Agostiano, A.; Tommasi, R.; Striccoli, M.

    2008-05-01

    Original nanocomposites have been obtained by direct incorporation of pre-synthesized oleic acid capped TiO2 nanorods into properly functionalized poly(methyl methacrylate) copolymers, carrying carboxylic acid groups on the repeating polymer unit. The presence of carboxylic groups on the alkyl chain of the host functionalized copolymer allows an highly homogeneous dispersion of the nanorods in the organic matrix. The prepared TiO2/PMMA-co-MA nanocomposites show high optical transparency in the visible region, even at high TiO2 nanorod content, and tunable linear refractive index depending on the nanoparticle concentration. Finally measurements of nonlinear optical properties of TiO2 polymer nanocomposites demonstrate a negligible two-photon absorption and a negative value of nonlinear refractive index, highlighting the potential of the nanocomposite for efficient optical devices operating in the visible region.

  3. Synthesis of polymeric micro- and nanostructural materials for application in non-linear optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravets, Lyubov; Palistrant, Natalia; Bivol, Valerii; Robu, Stepan; Barba, Nikolai; Orelovitch, Oleg

    2007-01-01

    The present paper describes a new approach developed for the preparation of micro- and nanostructural materials on the basis of polymeric compositions used as a matrix in non-linear optics. This approach consists in filling the pores of poly(ethylene terephthalate) track membranes (PET TM) from polymeric compositions using an impregnation method. It is shown that depending on the concentration of polymeric compositions in the solution it is possible to form a variety of micro- and nanostructural materials (tubules and wires as well as composite membranes) with a wide spectrum of characteristics. The developed method of producing micro- and nanostructural materials provides a possible way for creating polymeric objects with non-linear optic properties which can be used to design electronic micro- and nanodevices and to obtain chemical and optical sensors

  4. A linear ion optics model for extraction from a plasma ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, J.

    1987-01-01

    A linear ion optics model for ion extraction from a plasma ion source is presented, based on the paraxial equations which account for lens effects, space charge and finite source ion temperature. This model is applied to three- and four-electrode extraction systems with circular apertures. The results are compared with experimental data and numerical calculations in the literature. It is shown that the improved calculations of space charge effects and lens effects allow better agreement to be obtained than in earlier linear optics models. A principal result is that the model presented here describes the dependence of the optimum perveance on the aspect ratio in a manner similar to the nonlinear optics theory. (orig.)

  5. Measurements of Rayleigh-Taylor-Induced Magnetic Fields in the Linear and Non-linear Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Mario

    2012-10-01

    Magnetic fields are generated in plasmas by the Biermann-battery, or thermoelectric, source driven by non-collinear temperature and density gradients. The ablation front in laser-irradiated targets is susceptible to Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) growth that produces gradients capable of generating magnetic fields. Measurements of these RT-induced magnetic fields in planar foils have been made using a combination of x-ray and monoenergetic-proton radiography techniques. At a perturbation wavelength of 120 μm, proton radiographs indicate an increase of the magnetic-field strength from ˜1 to ˜10 Tesla during the linear growth phase. A characteristic change in field structure was observed later in time for irradiated foils of different initial surface perturbations. Proton radiographs show a regular cellular configuration initiated at the same time during the drive, independent of the initial foil conditions. This non-linear behavior has been experimentally investigated and the source of these characteristic features will be discussed.

  6. Linear and nonlinear optics, dynamics, and lasing in ZnO bulk and nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klingshirn, C.; Fallert, J.; Gogolin, O.; Wissinger, M.; Hauschild, R.; Hauser, M.; Kalt, H.; Zhou, H.

    2008-01-01

    In linear optics, we report on measurements of the absolute external quantum efficiency of bulk ZnO and powders using an integrating sphere. At low temperature the near band edge emission efficiency can reach 0.15 in the best samples. For deep center luminescence this value may be even higher. When going to room temperature (RT) the quantum efficiency drops by about one order of magnitude. From time resolved luminescence measurements we deduce the lifetime of the free and bound excitons to be in the sub ns regime and find for the latter a systematic increase with increasing binding energy. Concerning lasing, we discuss the role of excitonic processes and the recombination in an inverted electron-hole plasma (EHP). While excitonic processes seem well justified at lower temperatures and densities, doubts arise concerning the concept of excitonic lasing at RT in ZnO. The densities at laser threshold at RT are frequently close to the Mott density or above but below the density at which population inversion in an EHP is reached. We suggest alternative processes which can explain stimulated emission in this density regime in an EHP at RT

  7. Magneto-optic current sensor with Faraday mirror for linear birefringence compensation

    OpenAIRE

    Arroyo Breña, Javier; Rodriguez Horche, Paloma; Martín Minguez, Alfredo

    2012-01-01

    Fiber optic sensors have some advantages in subjects related with electrical current and magnetic field measurement. In spite of the optical fiber utilization advantages we have to take into account undesirable effects, which are present in real non-ideal optical fibers. In telecommunication and sensor application fields the presence of inherent and induced birefringence is crucial. The presence of birefringence may cause an undesirable change in the polarization state. In order to compensate...

  8. Observation of Lorentzian lineshapes in the room temperature optical spectra of strongly coupled Jaggregate/metal hybrid nanostructures by linear two-dimensional optical spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wei; Sommer, Ephraim; De Sio, Antonietta; Gross, Petra; Vogelgesang, Ralf; Lienau, Christoph; Vasa, Parinda

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the linear optical reflectivity spectra of a prototypical, strongly coupled metal/molecular hybrid nanostructure by means of a new experimental approach, linear two-dimensional optical spectroscopy. White-light, broadband spectral interferometry is used to measure amplitude and spectral phase of the sample reflectivity or transmission with high precision and to reconstruct the time structure of the electric field emitted by the sample upon impulsive excitation. A numerical analysis of this time-domain signal provides a two-dimensional representation of the coherent optical response of the sample as a function of excitation and detection frequency. The approach is used to study a nanostructure formed by depositing a thin J-aggregated dye layer on a gold grating. In this structure, strong coupling between excitons and surface plasmon polaritons results in the formation of hybrid polariton modes. In the strong coupling regime, Lorentzian lineshape profiles of different polariton modes are observed at room temperature. This is taken as an indication that the investigated strongly coupled polariton excitations are predominantly homogeneously broadened at room temperature. This new approach presents a versatile, simple and highly precise addition to nonlinear optical spectroscopic techniques for the analysis of line broadening phenomena. (paper)

  9. Accuracy enhancement of point triangulation probes for linear displacement measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-Chan; Kim, Jong-Ahn; Oh, SeBaek; Kim, Soo Hyun; Kwak, Yoon Keun

    2000-03-01

    Point triangulation probes (PTBs) fall into a general category of noncontact height or displacement measurement devices. PTBs are widely used for their simple structure, high resolution, and long operating range. However, there are several factors that must be taken into account in order to obtain high accuracy and reliability; measurement errors from inclinations of an object surface, probe signal fluctuations generated by speckle effects, power variation of a light source, electronic noises, and so on. In this paper, we propose a novel signal processing algorithm, named as EASDF (expanded average square difference function), for a newly designed PTB which is composed of an incoherent source (LED), a line scan array detector, a specially selected diffuse reflecting surface, and several optical components. The EASDF, which is a modified correlation function, is able to calculate displacement between the probe and the object surface effectively even if there are inclinations, power fluctuations, and noises.

  10. Strain measurement using multiplexed fiber optic sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Il Bum; Kim, Chi Yeop; Yoon, Dong Jin; Lee, Seung Seok

    2003-01-01

    FBG(Fiber Bragg grating) sensor, which is one of the fiber optic sensors for the application of smart structures, can not only measure one specific point but also multiple points by multiplexing techniques. We have proposed a novel multiplexing technique of FBG sensor by the intensity modulation of light source. This technique is applicable to WDM(Wavelength Division Multiplexing) technique and number of sensors in this system can be increased by using this technique with WDM technique.

  11. High sensitivity optical measurement of skin gloss

    OpenAIRE

    Ezerskaia, Anna; Ras, Arno; Bloemen, Pascal; Pereira, Silvania F.; Urbach, H. Paul; Varghese, Babu

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate a low-cost optical method for measuring the gloss properties with improved sensitivity in the low gloss regime, relevant for skin gloss properties. The gloss estimation method is based on, on the one hand, the slope of the intensity gradient in the transition regime between specular and diffuse reflection and on the other on the sum over the intensities of pixels above threshold, derived from a camera image obtained using unpolarized white light illumination. We demonstrate the...

  12. Non linear optical investigations of silver nanoparticles synthesised by curcumin reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanya, N. P.

    2017-11-01

    Metal nanoparticles have considerable applications in assorted fields like medicine, biology, photonics, metallurgy etc. Optical applications of Silver nanoparticles are of significant interest among researchers nowadays. In this paper, we report a single step chemical reduction of silver nanoparticles with Curcumin both as a reducing and stabilising agent at room temperature. Structural, plasmonic and non linear optical properties of the prepared nanoparticles are explored using Scanning Electron Microscope, Transmission Electron Microscope, UV absorption spectrometry, Spectroflurometry and Z scan. UV-Vis absorption studies affirm the Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) absorption and spectroflurometric studies announce the emission spectrum of the prepared silvernanoparticles at 520 nm. SEM and TEM images uphold the existence of uniform sized, spherical silvernanoparticles. Nonlinear optical studies are accomplished with the open aperture z scan technique in the nanosecond regime. The nonlinearity is in virtue of saturable absorption, two-photon absorption and excited state absorption. The marked nonlinearity and optical limiting of the Curcumin reduced silvernanoparticles enhances its photonic applications.

  13. Matter-wave two-dimensional solitons in crossed linear and nonlinear optical lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luz, H. L. F. da; Gammal, A.; Abdullaev, F. Kh.; Salerno, M.; Tomio, Lauro

    2010-01-01

    The existence of multidimensional matter-wave solitons in a crossed optical lattice (OL) with a linear optical lattice (LOL) in the x direction and a nonlinear optical lattice (NOL) in the y direction, where the NOL can be generated by a periodic spatial modulation of the scattering length using an optically induced Feshbach resonance is demonstrated. In particular, we show that such crossed LOLs and NOLs allow for stabilizing two-dimensional solitons against decay or collapse for both attractive and repulsive interactions. The solutions for the soliton stability are investigated analytically, by using a multi-Gaussian variational approach, with the Vakhitov-Kolokolov necessary criterion for stability; and numerically, by using the relaxation method and direct numerical time integrations of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. Very good agreement of the results corresponding to both treatments is observed.

  14. Matter-wave two-dimensional solitons in crossed linear and nonlinear optical lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Luz, H. L. F.; Abdullaev, F. Kh.; Gammal, A.; Salerno, M.; Tomio, Lauro

    2010-10-01

    The existence of multidimensional matter-wave solitons in a crossed optical lattice (OL) with a linear optical lattice (LOL) in the x direction and a nonlinear optical lattice (NOL) in the y direction, where the NOL can be generated by a periodic spatial modulation of the scattering length using an optically induced Feshbach resonance is demonstrated. In particular, we show that such crossed LOLs and NOLs allow for stabilizing two-dimensional solitons against decay or collapse for both attractive and repulsive interactions. The solutions for the soliton stability are investigated analytically, by using a multi-Gaussian variational approach, with the Vakhitov-Kolokolov necessary criterion for stability; and numerically, by using the relaxation method and direct numerical time integrations of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. Very good agreement of the results corresponding to both treatments is observed.

  15. Investigations and Simulations of All optical Switches in linear state Based on Photonic Crystal Directional Coupler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Maktoobi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Switching is a principle process in digital computers and signal processing systems. The growth of optical signal processing systems, draws particular attention to design of ultra-fast optical switches. In this paper, All Optical Switches in linear state Based On photonic crystal Directional coupler is analyzed and simulated. Among different methods, the finite difference time domain method (FDTD is a preferable method and is used. We have studied the application of photonic crystal lattices, the physics of optical switching and photonic crystal Directional coupler. In this paper, Electric field intensity and the power output that are two factors to improve the switching performance and the device efficiency are investigated and simulated. All simulations are performed by COMSOL software.

  16. Optical Reflectance Measurements for Commonly Used Reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janecek, Martin; Moses, William W.

    2008-08-01

    When simulating light collection in scintillators, modeling the angular distribution of optical light reflectance from surfaces is very important. Since light reflectance is poorly understood, either purely specular or purely diffuse reflectance is generally assumed. In this paper we measure the optical reflectance distribution for eleven commonly used reflectors. A 440 nm, output power stabilized, un-polarized laser is shone onto a reflector at a fixed angle of incidence. The reflected light's angular distribution is measured by an array of silicon photodiodes. The photodiodes are movable to cover 2pi of solid angle. The light-induced current is, through a multiplexer, read out with a digital multimeter. A LabVIEW program controls the motion of the laser and the photodiode array, the multiplexer, and the data collection. The laser can be positioned at any angle with a position accuracy of 10 arc minutes. Each photodiode subtends 6.3deg, and the photodiode array can be positioned at any angle with up to 10 arc minute angular resolution. The dynamic range for the current measurements is 10 5:1. The measured light reflectance distribution was measured to be specular for several ESR films as well as for aluminum foil, mostly diffuse for polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) tape and titanium dioxide paint, and neither specular nor diffuse for Lumirrorreg, Melinexreg and Tyvekreg. Instead, a more complicated light distribution was measured for these three materials.

  17. Ultrafast all-optical clock recovery based on phase-only linear optical filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maram, Reza; Kong, Deming; Galili, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We report on a novel technique for all-optical clock recovery from RZ OOK data based on phase-only filtering, significantly enhancing the recovered clock quality and energy-efficiency compared to the use of a Fabry-Perot filter....

  18. Heralded linear optical quantum Fredkin gate based on one auxiliary qubit and one single photon detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Chang-Hua; Cao Xin; Quan Dong-Xiao; Pei Chang-Xing

    2014-01-01

    Linear optical quantum Fredkin gate can be applied to quantum computing and quantum multi-user communication networks. In the existing linear optical scheme, two single photon detectors (SPDs) are used to herald the success of the quantum Fredkin gate while they have no photon count. But analysis results show that for non-perfect SPD, the lower the detector efficiency, the higher the heralded success rate by this scheme is. We propose an improved linear optical quantum Fredkin gate by designing a new heralding scheme with an auxiliary qubit and only one SPD, in which the higher the detection efficiency of the heralding detector, the higher the success rate of the gate is. The new heralding scheme can also work efficiently under a non-ideal single photon source. Based on this quantum Fredkin gate, large-scale quantum switching networks can be built. As an example, a quantum Beneš network is shown in which only one SPD is used. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  19. Optical Measurement of Cable and String Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Achkire

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a non contacting measurement technique for the transverse vibration of small cables and strings using an analog position sensing detector. On the one hand, the sensor is used to monitor the cable vibrations of a small scale mock-up of a cable structure in order to validate the nonlinear cable dynamics model. On the other hand, the optical sensor is used to evaluate the performance of an active tendon control algorithm with guaranteed stability properties. It is demonstrated experimentally, that a force feedback control law based on a collocated force sensor measuring the tension in the cable is feasible and provides active damping in the cable.

  20. Laboratory testing & measurement on optical imaging systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Theron, B

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available on Optical Imaging Systems Bertus Theron 27 April 2013 presented at SIECPC 2013, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Overview of Workshop Part 1. Introduction & Context  Some history of Arabic Optics  Context: Global vs Local optical testing... of Arabic Optics 1 See [4]  Arabic records of study of geometrical optics  Traced to Hellenistic (Greek) optics  Translated to Arabic  9th century  Arabic contribution to geometric optics  Not just translation to Arabic  Innovative research...

  1. Classical and quantum non-linear optical applications using the Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescod, Andru

    Mach Zehnder (MZ) modulators are widely employed in a variety of applications, such as optical communications, optical imaging, metrology and encryption. In this dissertation, we explore two non-linear MZ applications; one classified as classical and one as quantum, in which the Mach Zehnder interferometer is used. In the first application, a classical non-linear application, we introduce and study a new electro-optic highly linear (e.g., >130 dB) modulator configuration. This modulator makes use of a phase modulator (PM) in one arm of the MZ interferometer (MZI) and a ring resonator (RR) located on the other arm. The modulator performance is obtained through the control of a combination of internal and external parameters. These parameters include the RR-coupling ratio (internal parameter); the RF power split ratio and the RF phase bias (external parameters). Results show the unique and superior features, such as high linearity (SFDR˜133 dB), modulation bandwidth extension (as much as 70%) over the previously proposed and demonstrated Resonator-Assisted Mach Zehnder (RAMZ) design. Furthermore the proposed electro-optic modulator of this dissertation also provides an inherent SFDR compensation capability, even in cases where a significant waveguide optical loss exists. This design also shows potential for increased flexibility, practicality and ease of use. In the second application, a quantum non-linear application, we experimentally demonstrate quantum optical coherence tomography (QOCT) using a type II non-linear crystal (periodically-poled potassium titanyl phosphate (KTiOPO4) or PPKTP). There have been several publications discussing the merits and disadvantages of QOCT compared to OCT and other imaging techniques. First, we discuss the issues and solutions for increasing the efficiency of the quantum entangled photons. Second, we use a free space QOCT experiment to generate a high flux of these quantum entangled photons in two orthogonal polarizations, by

  2. Strength measurement of optical fibers by bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srubshchik, Leonid S.

    1999-01-01

    A two-point bending technique has been used not only to measure the breaking stress of optical fiber but also to predict its static and dynamic fatigue. The present theory of this test is based on elastica theory of rod. However, within the limits of elastica theory the tensile and shear stresses cannot be determined. In this paper we study dynamic and static problems for optical fiber in the two- point bending test on the base of geometrically exact theory in which rod can suffer flexure, extension, and shear. We obtain the governing partial differential equations taking into account the fact that the lateral motion of the fiber is restrained by the presence of flat parallel plates. We develop the computational methods for solving the initial and equilibrium free-boundary nonlinear planar problems. We derive the formulas for predicting of the tensile strength from strength in the bending and calculate one example.

  3. A review of methods for experimentally determining linear optics in storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safranek, J.

    1995-01-01

    In order to maximize the brightness and provide sufficient dynamic aperture in synchrotron radiation storage rings, one must understand and control the linear optics. Control of the horizontal beta function and dispersion is important for minimizing the horizontal beam size. Control of the skew gradient distribution is important for minimizing the vertical size. In this paper, various methods for experimentally determining the optics in a storage ring will be reviewed. Recent work at the National Synchrotron Light Source X-Ray Ring will be presented as well as work done at laboratories worldwide

  4. Noninvasive measurement of glucose concentration on human fingertip by optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tseng-Lin; Lo, Yu-Lung; Liao, Chia-Chi; Phan, Quoc-Hung

    2018-04-01

    A method is proposed for determining the glucose concentration on the human fingertip by extracting two optical parameters, namely the optical rotation angle and the depolarization index, using a Mueller optical coherence tomography technique and a genetic algorithm. The feasibility of the proposed method is demonstrated by measuring the optical rotation angle and depolarization index of aqueous glucose solutions with low and high scattering, respectively. It is shown that for both solutions, the optical rotation angle and depolarization index vary approximately linearly with the glucose concentration. As a result, the ability of the proposed method to obtain the glucose concentration by means of just two optical parameters is confirmed. The practical applicability of the proposed technique is demonstrated by measuring the optical rotation angle and depolarization index on the human fingertip of healthy volunteers under various glucose conditions.

  5. Active liquid/liquid interfaces: contributions of non linear optics and tensiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gassin, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction processes are widely used in the industrial fields of selective separation. Despite its numerous applications, the microscopic mechanisms which occur during a liquid-liquid extraction processes are really unknown specially at the liquid/liquid interface. Thus, this work deals on the understanding of the phenomena which drive the mass transfer across a liquid/liquid interface. Two experimental techniques were used in this work: dynamic interfacial tension measurement and non-linear optical experiments. Along with the use of this experimental approach, a numerical model describing the mass transfer dynamic has been developed. This model works under the assumption that both diffusion and a chemical step describing adsorption and desorption processes contribute to the global transfer kinetics. Model systems of surfactant molecules, chromophore molecules and complexing molecule were investigated at liquid/liquid and air/liquid interface. Interfacial phenomena like adsorption, surface aggregation and ion complexing were studied. Finally, the methodology developed in this work was applied to studied an extractant molecule with potential industrial application. (author) [fr

  6. Implementation of a controller for linear positioners applicable in optical fiber stretching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castrillo Piedra, Andres Rodolfo

    2014-01-01

    A low cost controller is implemented for linear positioners applicable in optic fiber stretching. The possibility of using a donated equipment is evaluated by the Escuela de Ingenieria Mecanica. The equipment is required by the non-linear photonic research laboratory (NLPR-LAB) for stretching of micro structured fiber. The process has required a slow and precise stretching, so the controllers must be precisely programmed to rotate the motors at different speeds. Donated equipment is evaluated to see if it is possible to use for fiber stretching [es

  7. Lightning Current Measurement with Fiber-Optic Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Ely, Jay J.; Szatkowski, George N.; Mata, Carlos T.; Mata, Angel G.; Snyder, Gary P.

    2014-01-01

    A fiber-optic current sensor is successfully developed with many potential applications for electric current measurement. Originally developed for in-flight lightning measurement, the sensor utilizes Faraday Effect in an optical fiber. The Faraday Effect causes linear light polarization in a fiber to rotate when the fiber is exposed to a magnetic field. The polarization change is detected using a reflective polarimetric scheme. Forming fiber loops and applying Ampere's law, measuring the total light rotation results in the determination of the total current enclosed. The sensor is conformable to complex structure geometry. It is also non-conductive and immune to electromagnetic interference, saturation or hysteresis. Installation is non-intrusive, and the sensor can be safely routed through flammable areas. Two similar sensor systems are described in this paper. The first system operates at 1310nm laser wavelength and is capable of measuring approximately 300 A - 300 kA, a 60 dB range. Laboratory validation results of aircraft lighting direct and in-direct effect current amplitudes are reported for this sensor. The second system operates at 1550nm wavelength and can measure about 400 A - 400 kA. Triggered-lightning measurement data are presented for this system. Good results are achieved in all cases.

  8. Testing the existence of optical linear polarization in young brown dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjavacas, E.; Miles-Páez, P. A.; Zapatero-Osorio, M. R.; Goldman, B.; Buenzli, E.; Henning, T.; Pallé, E.; Fang, M.

    2017-07-01

    Linear polarization can be used as a probe of the existence of atmospheric condensates in ultracool dwarfs. Models predict that the observed linear polarization increases with the degree of oblateness, which is inversely proportional to the surface gravity. We aimed to test the existence of optical linear polarization in a sample of bright young brown dwarfs, with spectral types between M6 and L2, observable from the Calar Alto Observatory, and cataloged previously as low gravity objects using spectroscopy. Linear polarimetric images were collected in I and R band using CAFOS at the 2.2-m telescope in Calar Alto Observatory (Spain). The flux ratio method was employed to determine the linear polarization degrees. With a confidence of 3σ, our data indicate that all targets have a linear polarimetry degree in average below 0.69 per cent in the I band, and below 1.0 per cent in the R band, at the time they were observed. We detected significant (I.e. P/σ ≥ 3) linear polarization for the young M6 dwarf 2MASS J04221413+1530525 in the R band, with a degree of p* = 0.81 ± 0.17 per cent.

  9. On measuring charged particle bunch duration in linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomize, L.G.; Malykh, N.I.; Khizhnyj, V.I.; Yampol'skij, E.S.

    1977-01-01

    The process of measuring short bunches is simulated by means of cavity resonators in which HF fields are excited by both positive and negative ion bunches flying through them. The simulation is aimed to assess optimum operation of a linear accelerator. A set of bunches of chance form and duration is simulated. Then the simulation of the process of restoring the duration and shape of a bunch according to data obtained from a limited number of resonators is realized. The use of 3-4 resonators tuned to 3, 6, 9 and 12-th harmonics of bunch repetition rate is shown to be sufficient for determining bunch duration with an accuracy of several per cent. When data on harmonic phases is available, one can obtain information on beam asymmetry

  10. Generalized prolate spheroidal wave functions for optical finite fractional Fourier and linear canonical transforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Soo-Chang; Ding, Jian-Jiun

    2005-03-01

    Prolate spheroidal wave functions (PSWFs) are known to be useful for analyzing the properties of the finite-extension Fourier transform (fi-FT). We extend the theory of PSWFs for the finite-extension fractional Fourier transform, the finite-extension linear canonical transform, and the finite-extension offset linear canonical transform. These finite transforms are more flexible than the fi-FT and can model much more generalized optical systems. We also illustrate how to use the generalized prolate spheroidal functions we derive to analyze the energy-preservation ratio, the self-imaging phenomenon, and the resonance phenomenon of the finite-sized one-stage or multiple-stage optical systems.

  11. Causal structure and algebraic classification of non-dissipative linear optical media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuller, Frederic P.; Witte, Christof; Wohlfarth, Mattias N.R.

    2010-01-01

    In crystal optics and quantum electrodynamics in gravitational vacua, the propagation of light is not described by a metric, but an area metric geometry. In this article, this prompts us to study conditions for linear electrodynamics on area metric manifolds to be well-posed. This includes an identification of the timelike future cones and their duals associated to an area metric geometry, and thus paves the ground for a discussion of the related local and global causal structures in standard fashion. In order to provide simple algebraic criteria for an area metric manifold to present a consistent spacetime structure, we develop a complete algebraic classification of area metric tensors up to general transformations of frame. This classification, valuable in its own right, is then employed to prove a theorem excluding the majority of algebraic classes of area metrics as viable spacetimes. Physically, these results classify and drastically restrict the viable constitutive tensors of non-dissipative linear optical media.

  12. General linear-optical quantum state generation scheme: Applications to maximally path-entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanMeter, N. M.; Lougovski, P.; Dowling, Jonathan P.; Uskov, D. B.; Kieling, K.; Eisert, J.

    2007-01-01

    We introduce schemes for linear-optical quantum state generation. A quantum state generator is a device that prepares a desired quantum state using product inputs from photon sources, linear-optical networks, and postselection using photon counters. We show that this device can be concisely described in terms of polynomial equations and unitary constraints. We illustrate the power of this language by applying the Groebner-basis technique along with the notion of vacuum extensions to solve the problem of how to construct a quantum state generator analytically for any desired state, and use methods of convex optimization to identify bounds to success probabilities. In particular, we disprove a conjecture concerning the preparation of the maximally path-entangled |n,0>+|0,n> (NOON) state by providing a counterexample using these methods, and we derive a new upper bound on the resources required for NOON-state generation

  13. From linear to generalized linear mixed models: A case study in repeated measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compared to traditional linear mixed models, generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) can offer better correspondence between response variables and explanatory models, yielding more efficient estimates and tests in the analysis of data from designed experiments. Using proportion data from a designed...

  14. Effects of frequency correlation in linear optical entangling gates operated with independent photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbieri, M.

    2007-01-01

    Bose-Einstein coalescence of independent photons at the surface of a beam splitter is the physical process that allows linear optical quantum gates to be built. When distinct parametric down-conversion events are used as an independent photon source, distinguishability arises form the energy correlation of each photon with its twin. We derive upper bound for the entanglement which can be generated under these conditions

  15. Quantum teleportation of an arbitrary two-mode coherent state using only linear optics elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho Ngoc Phien; Nguyen Ba An

    2008-01-01

    We propose a linear optics scheme to teleport an arbitrary two-mode coherent state. The devices used are beam-splitters, phase-shifters and ideal photo-detectors capable of distinguishing between even and odd photon numbers. The scheme achieves faithful teleportation with a probability of 1/4. However, with additional use of an appropriate displacement operator, the teleported state can always be made near-faithful

  16. Measurement and correction of accelerator optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, F.

    1998-06-01

    This report reviews procedures and techniques for measuring, correcting and controlling various optics parameters of an accelerator, including the betatron tune, beta function, betatron coupling, dispersion, chromaticity, momentum compaction factor, and beam orbit. The techniques described are not only indispensable for the basic set-up of an accelerator, but in addition the same methods can be used to study more esoteric questions as, for instance, dynamic aperture limitations or wakefield effects. The different procedures are illustrated by examples from several accelerators, storage rings, as well as linacs and transport lines

  17. Time-Frequency (Wigner Analysis of Linear and Nonlinear Pulse Propagation in Optical Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Azaña

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Time-frequency analysis, and, in particular, Wigner analysis, is applied to the study of picosecond pulse propagation through optical fibers in both the linear and nonlinear regimes. The effects of first- and second-order group velocity dispersion (GVD and self-phase modulation (SPM are first analyzed separately. The phenomena resulting from the interplay between GVD and SPM in fibers (e.g., soliton formation or optical wave breaking are also investigated in detail. Wigner analysis is demonstrated to be an extremely powerful tool for investigating pulse propagation dynamics in nonlinear dispersive systems (e.g., optical fibers, providing a clearer and deeper insight into the physical phenomena that determine the behavior of these systems.

  18. Fast spatial beam shaping by acousto-optic diffraction for 3D non-linear microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akemann, Walther; Léger, Jean-François; Ventalon, Cathie; Mathieu, Benjamin; Dieudonné, Stéphane; Bourdieu, Laurent

    2015-11-02

    Acousto-optic deflection (AOD) devices offer unprecedented fast control of the entire spatial structure of light beams, most notably their phase. AOD light modulation of ultra-short laser pulses, however, is not straightforward to implement because of intrinsic chromatic dispersion and non-stationarity of acousto-optic diffraction. While schemes exist to compensate chromatic dispersion, non-stationarity remains an obstacle. In this work we demonstrate an efficient AOD light modulator for stable phase modulation using time-locked generation of frequency-modulated acoustic waves at the full repetition rate of a high power laser pulse amplifier of 80 kHz. We establish the non-local relationship between the optical phase and the generating acoustic frequency function and verify the system for temporal stability, phase accuracy and generation of non-linear two-dimensional phase functions.

  19. Linearized Optically Phase-Modulated Fiber Optic Links for Microwave Signal Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-03

    detectors (with internal 50- Ohm resistors) capable of 40-mA dc current per detector. With this link, the linearized SFDR would improve to 133 dB/Hz4/5...the IF) limitation on the signal. All calculations consider the 3dB power loss from the hybrid combiner and 6dB loss from parallel 50- Ohm resistors...283. [25] M. Nazarathy, J. Berger, A. Ley , I. Levi, and Y. Kagan, “Externally Modulated 80 Channel Am Catv Fiber-to-feeder Distribution System Over

  20. Optical fibers and their applications for radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakuta, Tsunemi

    1998-01-01

    As a new method of radiation measurements, several optical methods using optical fiber sensors have been developed. One is the application of 'radio-luminescence' from the optical fiber itself such as plastic scintillating fibers. Other researches are made to develop the 'combined-sensors' by combination of optical fibers and scintillating materials. Using the time domain method of optical fiber sensors, the profile of radiation distribution along the optical fiber can be easily determined. A multi-parameter sensing system for measurement of radiation, temperature, stress, etc, are also expected using these optical fiber sensors. (author)

  1. CERN PS Optical Properties Measured with Turn-By-Turn Orbit Data

    CERN Document Server

    Bach, T; Giovannozzi, M; Hernalsteens, C; Lachaize, A; Sterbini, G; Tom´as, R; Wasef, R

    2013-01-01

    The performance of the CERN Proton Synchrotron (PS) has been constantly increasing over the years both in terms of beam parameters (intensity and brightness) and beam manipulations (transverse and longitudinal splitting). This implies a very good knowledge of the linear and non-linear model of the ring. In this paper we report on a detailed campaign of beam measurements based on turn-by-turn orbit data aimed at measuring the optics in several conditions as well as the resonance driving terms.

  2. Linear and nonlinear optical signals in probability and phase-space representations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Man'ko, Margarita A

    2006-01-01

    Review of different representations of signals including the phase-space representations and tomographic representations is presented. The signals under consideration are either linear or nonlinear ones. The linear signals satisfy linear quantumlike Schroedinger and von Neumann equations. Nonlinear signals satisfy nonlinear Schroedinger equations as well as Gross-Pitaevskii equation describing solitons in Bose-Einstein condensate. The Ville-Wigner distributions for solitons are considered in comparison with tomographic-probability densities describing solitons completely. different kinds of tomographies - symplectic tomography, optical tomography and Fresnel tomography are reviewed. New kind of map of the signals onto probability distributions of discrete photon number-like variable is discussed. Mutual relations between different transformations of signal functions are established in explicit form. Such characteristics of the signal-probability distribution as entropy is discussed

  3. Transfer of optical signals around bends in two-dimensional linear photonic networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolopoulos, G M

    2015-01-01

    The ability to navigate light signals in two-dimensional networks of waveguide arrays is a prerequisite for the development of all-optical integrated circuits for information processing and networking. In this article, we present a theoretical analysis of bending losses in linear photonic lattices with engineered couplings, and discuss possible ways for their minimization. In contrast to previous work in the field, the lattices under consideration operate in the linear regime, in the sense that discrete solitons cannot exist. The present results suggest that the functionality of linear waveguide networks can be extended to operations that go beyond the recently demonstrated point-to-point transfer of signals, such as blocking, routing, logic functions, etc. (paper)

  4. Adaptive matching of the iota ring linear optics for space charge compensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanov, A. [Fermilab; Bruhwiler, D. L. [RadiaSoft, Boulder; Cook, N. [RadiaSoft, Boulder; Hall, C. [RadiaSoft, Boulder

    2016-10-09

    Many present and future accelerators must operate with high intensity beams when distortions induced by space charge forces are among major limiting factors. Betatron tune depression of above approximately 0.1 per cell leads to significant distortions of linear optics. Many aspects of machine operation depend on proper relations between lattice functions and phase advances, and can be i proved with proper treatment of space charge effects. We implement an adaptive algorithm for linear lattice re matching with full account of space charge in the linear approximation for the case of Fermilab’s IOTA ring. The method is based on a search for initial second moments that give closed solution and, at the same predefined set of goals for emittances, beta functions, dispersions and phase advances at and between points of interest. Iterative singular value decomposition based technique is used to search for optimum by varying wide array of model parameters

  5. Steady-State Linear and Non-linear Optical Spectroscopy of Organic Chromophores and Bio-macromolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marazzi, Marco; Gattuso, Hugo; Monari, Antonio; Assfeld, Xavier

    2018-01-01

    Bio-macromolecules as DNA, lipid membranes and (poly)peptides are essential compounds at the core of biological systems. The development of techniques and methodologies for their characterization is therefore necessary and of utmost interest, even though difficulties can be experienced due to their intrinsic complex nature. Among these methods, spectroscopies, relying on optical properties are especially important to determine their macromolecular structures and behaviors, as well as the possible interactions and reactivity with external dyes-often drugs or pollutants-that can (photo)sensitize the bio-macromolecule leading to eventual chemical modifications, thus damages. In this review, we will focus on the theoretical simulation of electronic spectroscopies of bio-macromolecules, considering their secondary structure and including their interaction with different kind of (photo)sensitizers. Namely, absorption, emission and electronic circular dichroism (CD) spectra are calculated and compared with the available experimental data. Non-linear properties will be also taken into account by two-photon absorption, a highly promising technique (i) to enhance absorption in the red and infra-red windows and (ii) to enhance spatial resolution. Methodologically, the implications of using implicit and explicit solvent, coupled to quantum and thermal samplings of the phase space, will be addressed. Especially, hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods are explored for a comparison with solely QM methods, in order to address the necessity to consider an accurate description of environmental effects on spectroscopic properties of biological systems.

  6. Steady-State Linear and Non-linear Optical Spectroscopy of Organic Chromophores and Bio-macromolecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Marazzi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Bio-macromolecules as DNA, lipid membranes and (polypeptides are essential compounds at the core of biological systems. The development of techniques and methodologies for their characterization is therefore necessary and of utmost interest, even though difficulties can be experienced due to their intrinsic complex nature. Among these methods, spectroscopies, relying on optical properties are especially important to determine their macromolecular structures and behaviors, as well as the possible interactions and reactivity with external dyes—often drugs or pollutants—that can (photosensitize the bio-macromolecule leading to eventual chemical modifications, thus damages. In this review, we will focus on the theoretical simulation of electronic spectroscopies of bio-macromolecules, considering their secondary structure and including their interaction with different kind of (photosensitizers. Namely, absorption, emission and electronic circular dichroism (CD spectra are calculated and compared with the available experimental data. Non-linear properties will be also taken into account by two-photon absorption, a highly promising technique (i to enhance absorption in the red and infra-red windows and (ii to enhance spatial resolution. Methodologically, the implications of using implicit and explicit solvent, coupled to quantum and thermal samplings of the phase space, will be addressed. Especially, hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM methods are explored for a comparison with solely QM methods, in order to address the necessity to consider an accurate description of environmental effects on spectroscopic properties of biological systems.

  7. Steady-State Linear and Non-linear Optical Spectroscopy of Organic Chromophores and Bio-macromolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marazzi, Marco; Gattuso, Hugo; Monari, Antonio; Assfeld, Xavier

    2018-04-01

    Bio-macromolecules as DNA, lipid membranes and (poly)peptides are essential compounds at the core of biological systems. The development of techniques and methodologies for their characterization is therefore necessary and of utmost interest, even though difficulties can be experienced due to their intrinsic complex nature. Among these methods, spectroscopies, relying on optical properties are especially important to determine their macromolecular structures and behaviors, as well as the possible interactions and reactivity with external dyes – often drugs or pollutants – that can (photo)sensitize the bio-macromolecule leading to eventual chemical modifications, thus damages. In this review, we will focus on the theoretical simulation of electronic spectroscopies of bio-macromolecules, considering their secondary structure and including their interaction with different kind of (photo)sensitizers. Namely, absorption, emission and electronic circular dichroism (CD) spectra are calculated and compared with the available experimental data. Non-linear properties will be also taken into account by two-photon absorption, a highly promising technique (i) to enhance absorption in the red and infra-red windows and (ii) to enhance spatial resolution. Methodologically, the implications of using implicit and explicit solvent, coupled to quantum and thermal samplings of the phase space, will be addressed. Especially, hybrid quantum mechanics/ molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods are explored for a comparison with solely QM methods, in order to address the necessity to consider an accurate description of environmental effects on spectroscopic properties of biological systems.

  8. Proton Linear Energy Transfer measurement using Emulsion Cloud Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jae-ik [Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center (Korea, Republic of); Division of Heavy Ion Clinical Research, Korea Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seyjoon [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University, School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Haksoo; Kim, Meyoung [Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Chiyoung [Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Sungkoo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University, School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Young Kyung; Shin, Dongho [Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Se Byeong, E-mail: sblee@ncc.re.kr [Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center (Korea, Republic of); Morishima, Kunihiro; Naganawa, Naotaka; Sato, Osamu [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Kwak, Jungwon [Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Hyun [Center for Underground Physics, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jung Sook [Department of refinement education, Dongseo University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Jung Keun [Department of Physics, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Hyun; Yoon, Chun Sil [Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Incerti, Sebastien [CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); Université Bordeaux 1, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France)

    2015-04-15

    This study proposes to determine the correlation between the Volume Pulse Height (VPH) measured by nuclear emulsion and Linear Energy Transfer (LET) calculated by Monte Carlo simulation based on Geant4. The nuclear emulsion was irradiated at the National Cancer Center (NCC) with a therapeutic proton beam and was installed at 5.2 m distance from the beam nozzle structure with various thicknesses of water-equivalent material (PMMA) blocks to position with specific positions along the Bragg curve. After the beam exposure and development of the emulsion films, the films were scanned by S-UTS developed in Nagoya University. The proton tracks in the scanned films were reconstructed using the ‘NETSCAN’ method. Through this procedure, the VPH can be derived from each reconstructed proton track at each position along the Bragg curve. The VPH value indicates the magnitude of energy loss in proton track. By comparison with the simulation results obtained using Geant4, we found the correlation between the LET calculated by Monte Carlo simulation and the VPH measured by the nuclear emulsion.

  9. Proton Linear Energy Transfer measurement using Emulsion Cloud Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jae-ik; Park, Seyjoon; Kim, Haksoo; Kim, Meyoung; Jeong, Chiyoung; Cho, Sungkoo; Lim, Young Kyung; Shin, Dongho; Lee, Se Byeong; Morishima, Kunihiro; Naganawa, Naotaka; Sato, Osamu; Kwak, Jungwon; Kim, Sung Hyun; Cho, Jung Sook; Ahn, Jung Keun; Kim, Ji Hyun; Yoon, Chun Sil; Incerti, Sebastien

    2015-01-01

    This study proposes to determine the correlation between the Volume Pulse Height (VPH) measured by nuclear emulsion and Linear Energy Transfer (LET) calculated by Monte Carlo simulation based on Geant4. The nuclear emulsion was irradiated at the National Cancer Center (NCC) with a therapeutic proton beam and was installed at 5.2 m distance from the beam nozzle structure with various thicknesses of water-equivalent material (PMMA) blocks to position with specific positions along the Bragg curve. After the beam exposure and development of the emulsion films, the films were scanned by S-UTS developed in Nagoya University. The proton tracks in the scanned films were reconstructed using the ‘NETSCAN’ method. Through this procedure, the VPH can be derived from each reconstructed proton track at each position along the Bragg curve. The VPH value indicates the magnitude of energy loss in proton track. By comparison with the simulation results obtained using Geant4, we found the correlation between the LET calculated by Monte Carlo simulation and the VPH measured by the nuclear emulsion

  10. Proton Linear Energy Transfer measurement using Emulsion Cloud Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jae-ik; Park, Seyjoon; Kim, Haksoo; Kim, Meyoung; Jeong, Chiyoung; Cho, Sungkoo; Lim, Young Kyung; Shin, Dongho; Lee, Se Byeong; Morishima, Kunihiro; Naganawa, Naotaka; Sato, Osamu; Kwak, Jungwon; Kim, Sung Hyun; Cho, Jung Sook; Ahn, Jung Keun; Kim, Ji Hyun; Yoon, Chun Sil; Incerti, Sebastien

    2015-04-01

    This study proposes to determine the correlation between the Volume Pulse Height (VPH) measured by nuclear emulsion and Linear Energy Transfer (LET) calculated by Monte Carlo simulation based on Geant4. The nuclear emulsion was irradiated at the National Cancer Center (NCC) with a therapeutic proton beam and was installed at 5.2 m distance from the beam nozzle structure with various thicknesses of water-equivalent material (PMMA) blocks to position with specific positions along the Bragg curve. After the beam exposure and development of the emulsion films, the films were scanned by S-UTS developed in Nagoya University. The proton tracks in the scanned films were reconstructed using the 'NETSCAN' method. Through this procedure, the VPH can be derived from each reconstructed proton track at each position along the Bragg curve. The VPH value indicates the magnitude of energy loss in proton track. By comparison with the simulation results obtained using Geant4, we found the correlation between the LET calculated by Monte Carlo simulation and the VPH measured by the nuclear emulsion.

  11. Beam parameter measurements for the SLAC linear collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clendenin, J.E.; Blocker, C.; Breidenbach, M.

    1982-01-01

    A stable, closely-controlled, high-intensity, single-bunch beam will be required for the SLAC Linear Collider. The characteristics of short-pulse, low-intensity beams in the SLAC linac have been studied. A new, high-intensity thermionic gun, subharmonic buncher and S-band buncher/accelerator section were installed recently at SLAC. With these components, up to 10 11 electrons in a single S-band bunch are available for injection into the linac. the first 100-m accelerator sector has been modified to allow control of short-pulse beams by a model-driven computer program. Additional instrumentation, including a computerized energy analyzer and emittance monitor have been added at the end of the 100-m sector. The beam intensity, energy spectrum, emittance, charge distribution and the effect of wake fields in the first accelerator sector have been measured. The new source and beam control system will be described and the most recent results of the beam parameter measurements will be discussed

  12. Universal squash model for optical communications using linear optics and threshold detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fung, Chi-Hang Fred; Chau, H. F.; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2011-01-01

    Transmission of photons through open-air or optical fibers is an important primitive in quantum-information processing. Theoretical descriptions of this process often consider single photons as information carriers and thus fail to accurately describe experimental implementations where any number of photons may enter a detector. It has been a great challenge to bridge this big gap between theory and experiments. One powerful method for achieving this goal is by conceptually squashing the received multiphoton states to single-photon states. However, until now, only a few protocols admit a squash model; furthermore, a recently proven no-go theorem appears to rule out the existence of a universal squash model. Here we show that a necessary condition presumed by all existing squash models is in fact too stringent. By relaxing this condition, we find that, rather surprisingly, a universal squash model actually exists for many protocols, including quantum key distribution, quantum state tomography, Bell's inequality testing, and entanglement verification.

  13. Tear film measurement by optical reflectometry technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hui; Wang, Michael R.; Wang, Jianhua; Shen, Meixiao

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Evaluation of tear film is performed by an optical reflectometer system with alignment guided by a galvanometer scanner. The reflectometer system utilizes optical fibers to deliver illumination light to the tear film and collect the film reflectance as a function of wavelength. Film thickness is determined by best fitting the reflectance-wavelength curve. The spectral reflectance acquisition time is 15 ms, fast enough for detecting film thickness changes. Fast beam alignment of 1 s is achieved by the galvanometer scanner. The reflectometer was first used to evaluate artificial tear film on a model eye with and without a contact lens. The film thickness and thinning rate have been successfully quantified with the minimum measured thickness of about 0.3 μm. Tear films in human eyes, with and without a contact lens, have also been evaluated. A high-contrast spectral reflectance signal from the precontact lens tear film is clearly observed, and the thinning dynamics have been easily recorded from 3.69 to 1.31 μm with lipid layer thickness variation in the range of 41 to 67 nm. The accuracy of the measurement is better than ±0.58% of the film thickness at an estimated tear film refractive index error of ±0.001. The fiber-based reflectometer system is compact and easy to handle. PMID:24500519

  14. Noncontacting Optical Measurement And Inspection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, Jeffrey A.; Jackson, Robert L.

    1986-10-01

    Product inspection continues to play a growing role in the improvement of quality and reduction of scrap. Recent emphasis on precision measurements and in-process inspection have been a driving force for the development of noncontacting sensors. Noncontacting sensors can provide long term, unattended use due to the lack of sensor wear. Further, in applications where, sensor contact can damage or geometrically change the part to be measured or inspected, noncontacting sensors are the only technical approach available. MTI is involved in the development and sale of noncontacting sensors and custom inspection systems. This paper will review the recent advances in noncontacting sensor development. Machine vision and fiber optics sensor systems are finding a wide variety of industrial inspection applications. This paper will provide detailed examples of several state-of-the-art applications for these noncontacting sensors.

  15. Optical measurements in rocket engine liquid sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feikema, Douglas A.

    1994-01-01

    The performance of liquid propellant rocket engines is dependent upon many elements of the entire system. One of the most fundamental and most critical is the performance of the injector elements. Their characterization is an important part of the development of combustion devices. Optical measurements within these environments have proven to be invaluable tools in quantifying the physical environment of two phase flows. The effort reported herein involves the measurement of drop velocity, drop size, and most importantly mass flux using Phase-Doppler Particle Anemometry within a spray generated by a single swirl injector element operating in atmospheric pressure conditions. The mass flux has been determined and validated by mechanical patternation methods and by profile integration of the mass flux.

  16. Fiber optic micro sensor for the measurement of tendon forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrmann Gregory P

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A fiber optic sensor developed for the measurement of tendon forces was designed, numerically modeled, fabricated, and experimentally evaluated. The sensor incorporated fiber Bragg gratings and micro-fabricated stainless steel housings. A fiber Bragg grating is an optical device that is spectrally sensitive to axial strain. Stainless steel housings were designed to convert radial forces applied to the housing into axial forces that could be sensed by the fiber Bragg grating. The metal housings were fabricated by several methods including laser micromachining, swaging, and hydroforming. Designs are presented that allow for simultaneous temperature and force measurements as well as for simultaneous resolution of multi-axis forces. The sensor was experimentally evaluated by hydrostatic loading and in vitro testing. A commercial hydraulic burst tester was used to provide uniform pressures on the sensor in order to establish the linearity, repeatability, and accuracy characteristics of the sensor. The in vitro experiments were performed in excised tendon and in a dynamic gait simulator to simulate biological conditions. In both experimental conditions, the sensor was found to be a sensitive and reliable method for acquiring minimally invasive measurements of soft tissue forces. Our results suggest that this sensor will prove useful in a variety of biomechanical measurements.

  17. Fiber optic micro sensor for the measurement of tendon forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrmann, Gregory P; Hidler, Joseph; Mirotznik, Mark S

    2012-10-03

    A fiber optic sensor developed for the measurement of tendon forces was designed, numerically modeled, fabricated, and experimentally evaluated. The sensor incorporated fiber Bragg gratings and micro-fabricated stainless steel housings. A fiber Bragg grating is an optical device that is spectrally sensitive to axial strain. Stainless steel housings were designed to convert radial forces applied to the housing into axial forces that could be sensed by the fiber Bragg grating. The metal housings were fabricated by several methods including laser micromachining, swaging, and hydroforming. Designs are presented that allow for simultaneous temperature and force measurements as well as for simultaneous resolution of multi-axis forces.The sensor was experimentally evaluated by hydrostatic loading and in vitro testing. A commercial hydraulic burst tester was used to provide uniform pressures on the sensor in order to establish the linearity, repeatability, and accuracy characteristics of the sensor. The in vitro experiments were performed in excised tendon and in a dynamic gait simulator to simulate biological conditions. In both experimental conditions, the sensor was found to be a sensitive and reliable method for acquiring minimally invasive measurements of soft tissue forces. Our results suggest that this sensor will prove useful in a variety of biomechanical measurements.

  18. Linear chirped slope profile for spatial calibration in slope measuring deflectometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siewert, F., E-mail: frank.siewert@helmholtz-berlin.de; Zeschke, T. [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Institut für Nanometer Optik und Technologie, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Arnold, T.; Paetzelt, H. [Leibnitz Institut für Oberflächen Modifizierung Leipzig e.V., IOM, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Yashchuk, V. V. [Lawerence Berkeley National Laboratory, Advanced Light Source, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Slope measuring deflectometry is commonly used by the X-ray optics community to measure the long-spatial-wavelength surface figure error of optical components dedicated to guide and focus X-rays under grazing incidence condition at synchrotron and free electron laser beamlines. The best performing instruments of this kind are capable of absolute accuracy on the level of 30-50 nrad. However, the exact bandwidth of the measurements, determined at the higher spatial frequencies by the instrument’s spatial resolution, or more generally by the instrument’s modulation transfer function (MTF) is hard to determine. An MTF calibration method based on application of a test surface with a one-dimensional (1D) chirped height profile of constant amplitude was suggested in the past. In this work, we propose a new approach to designing the test surfaces with a 2D-chirped topography, specially optimized for MTF characterization of slope measuring instruments. The design of the developed MTF test samples based on the proposed linear chirped slope profiles (LCSPs) is free of the major drawback of the 1D chirped height profiles, where in the slope domain, the amplitude strongly increases with the local spatial frequency of the profile. We provide the details of fabrication of the LCSP samples. The results of first application of the developed test samples to measure the spatial resolution of the BESSY-NOM at different experimental arrangements are also presented and discussed.

  19. Influences of optical elements on the polarization measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, M.; Hayakawa, M.; Atake, M.; Iwamae, A.

    2004-01-01

    An emission line of He I λ 667.8 nm is observed and the Large Helical Device (LHD) with a polarimeter, with which two linearly polarized components if the light from the same line of sight is simultaneously measured. The emission line exhibits splitting due to the normal Zeeman effect and the π and σ lights are respectively observed. The results indicate the polarization state of emission lines is different from our expectation. From two measurements, for the second of which the polarimeter is rotated 45 degrees form the first, the polarization ellipses of all the three polarized lights are determined. Some observations for a reversed magnetic field plasma operation, for different emission lines of different ions, and also for operation with some different magnetic field strengths suggest that the distortion state originates not in the atomic radiation itself or the plasma condition, but in the optical window at the observation port of the vacuum chamber. (author)

  20. Application of a universal optic data link for radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, T.; Takada, E.

    2002-01-01

    Optic Data Link (ODL) is a device to convert electric and optic signals to each other, which is used for the field of optical communications. We examined the possibility to apply ODLs to radiation measurements. The effect of ODLs on energy and timing resolution has been investigated. From the results, fundamental applicability of ODLs to radiation measurements has been demonstrated. (author)

  1. Optical dynamic deformation measurements at translucent materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, Katrin; Koukourakis, Nektarios; Kuschmierz, Robert; Leithold, Christoph; Fischer, Andreas; Czarske, Jürgen

    2015-02-15

    Due to their high stiffness-to-weight ratio, glass fiber-reinforced polymers are an attractive material for rotors, e.g., in the aerospace industry. A fundamental understanding of the material behavior requires non-contact, in-situ dynamic deformation measurements. The high surface speeds and particularly the translucence of the material limit the usability of conventional optical measurement techniques. We demonstrate that the laser Doppler distance sensor provides a powerful and reliable tool for monitoring radial expansion at fast rotating translucent materials. We find that backscattering in material volume does not lead to secondary signals as surface scattering results in degradation of the measurement volume inside the translucent medium. This ensures that the acquired signal contains information of the rotor surface only, as long as the sample surface is rough enough. Dynamic deformation measurements of fast-rotating fiber-reinforced polymer composite rotors with surface speeds of more than 300 m/s underline the potential of the laser Doppler sensor.

  2. Fiber optic strain measurements using an optically-active polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Leonard J.; Neumeister, Gary C.

    1992-03-01

    A study encompassing the use of an optically-active polymer as the strain-sensing medium in an organic matrix composite was performed. Several compounds were synthesized for use as the inner cladding material for silica fiber-optic cores. These materials include a diacetylene containing polyamide. It is possible to dynamically modify the optical properties of these materials through changes in applied strain or temperature. By doing so the characteristic absorption in the visible is reversibly shifted to a higher energy state. The polymer-coated fiber-optic cores were initially studied in epoxy resin. Additionally, one of the polyamide/diacetylene polymers was studied in a spin-fiber form consisting of 15 micron filaments assembled in multifilament tows. The most promising configuration and materials were then investigated further by embedding in graphite/epoxy composite laminates. In each case the shift in the visible absorption peak was monitored as a function of applied mechanical strain.

  3. A Linear Ion Trap with an Expanded Inscribed Diameter to Improve Optical Access for Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, Vaishnavi; Stokes, Chris; Ferzoco, Alessandra

    2018-02-01

    We report a custom-geometry linear ion trap designed for fluorescence spectroscopy of gas-phase ions at ambient to cryogenic temperatures. Laser-induced fluorescence from trapped ions is collected from between the trapping rods, orthogonal to the excitation laser that runs along the axis of the linear ion trap. To increase optical access to the ion cloud, the diameter of the round trapping rods is 80% of the inscribed diameter, rather than the roughly 110% used to approximate purely quadrupolar electric fields. To encompass as much of the ion cloud as possible, the first collection optic has a 25.4 mm diameter and a numerical aperture of 0.6. The choice of geometry and collection optics yields 107 detected photons/s from trapped rhodamine 6G ions. The trap is coupled to a closed-cycle helium refrigerator, which in combination with two 50 Ohm heaters enables temperature control to below 25 K on the rod electrodes. The purpose of the instrument is to broaden the applicability of fluorescence spectroscopy of gas-phase ions to cases where photon emission is a minority relaxation pathway. Such studies are important to understand how the microenvironment of a chromophore influences excited state charge transfer processes.

  4. Growth of KNN thin films for non-linear optical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Shweta; Gupta, Reema; Gupta, Vinay; Tomar, Monika

    2018-01-01

    Two-wave mixing is a remarkable area of research in the field of non-linear optics, finding various applications in the development of opto-electronic devices, photorefractive waveguides, real time holography, etc. Non-linear optical properties of ferroelectric potassium sodium niobate (KNN) thin films have been interrogated using two-wave mixing phenomenon. Regarding this, a-axis oriented K 0.35 Na (1-0.35) NbO 3 thin films were successfully grown on epitaxial matched (100) SrTiO 3 substrate using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. The uniformly distributed Au micro-discs of 200 μm diameter were integrated with KNN/STO thin film to study the plasmonic enhancement in the optical response. Beam amplification has been observed as a result of the two-wave mixing. This is due to the alignment of ferroelectric domains in KNN films and the excitement of plasmons at the metal-dielectric (Au-KNN) interface. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Growth of KNN thin films for non-linear optical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Shweta; Gupta, Reema; Gupta, Vinay [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi (India); Tomar, Monika [Department of Physics, Miranda House University of Delhi (India)

    2018-02-15

    Two-wave mixing is a remarkable area of research in the field of non-linear optics, finding various applications in the development of opto-electronic devices, photorefractive waveguides, real time holography, etc. Non-linear optical properties of ferroelectric potassium sodium niobate (KNN) thin films have been interrogated using two-wave mixing phenomenon. Regarding this, a-axis oriented K{sub 0.35}Na{sub (1-0.35)}NbO{sub 3} thin films were successfully grown on epitaxial matched (100) SrTiO{sub 3} substrate using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. The uniformly distributed Au micro-discs of 200 μm diameter were integrated with KNN/STO thin film to study the plasmonic enhancement in the optical response. Beam amplification has been observed as a result of the two-wave mixing. This is due to the alignment of ferroelectric domains in KNN films and the excitement of plasmons at the metal-dielectric (Au-KNN) interface. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Soft tissue strain measurement using an optical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Siew Lok; Tay, Cho Jui; Goh, Cho Hong James

    2008-11-01

    Digital image correlation (DIC) is a non-contact optical technique that allows the full-field estimation of strains on a surface under an applied deformation. In this project, the application of an optimized DIC technique is applied, which can achieve efficiency and accuracy in the measurement of two-dimensional deformation fields in soft tissue. This technique relies on matching the random patterns recorded in images to directly obtain surface displacements and to get displacement gradients from which the strain field can be determined. Digital image correlation is a well developed technique that has numerous and varied engineering applications, including the application in soft and hard tissue biomechanics. Chicken drumstick ligaments were harvested and used during the experiments. The surface of the ligament was speckled with black paint to allow for correlation to be done. Results show that the stress-strain curve exhibits a bi-linear behavior i.e. a "toe region" and a "linear elastic region". The Young's modulus obtained for the toe region is about 92 MPa and the modulus for the linear elastic region is about 230 MPa. The results are within the values for mammalian anterior cruciate ligaments of 150-300 MPa.

  7. A new fiber optic sensor for inner surface roughness measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaomei; Liu, Shoubin; Hu, Hong

    2009-11-01

    In order to measure inner surface roughness of small holes nondestructively, a new fiber optic sensor is researched and developed. Firstly, a new model for surface roughness measurement is proposed, which is based on intensity-modulated fiber optic sensors and scattering modeling of rough surfaces. Secondly, a fiber optical measurement system is designed and set up. Under the help of new techniques, the fiber optic sensor can be miniaturized. Furthermore, the use of micro prism makes the light turn 90 degree, so the inner side surface roughness of small holes can be measured. Thirdly, the fiber optic sensor is gauged by standard surface roughness specimens, and a series of measurement experiments have been done. The measurement results are compared with those obtained by TR220 Surface Roughness Instrument and Form Talysurf Laser 635, and validity of the developed fiber optic sensor is verified. Finally, precision and influence factors of the fiber optic sensor are analyzed.

  8. Linear image reconstruction for a diffuse optical mammography system in a noncompressed geometry using scattering fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, Tim; Brendel, Bernhard; Ziegler, Ronny; Beek, Michiel van; Uhlemann, Falk; Bontus, Claas; Koehler, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is a potential new imaging modality to detect or monitor breast lesions. Recently, Philips developed a new DOT system capable of transmission and fluorescence imaging, where the investigated breast is hanging freely into the measurement cup containing scattering fluid. We present a fast and robust image reconstruction algorithm that is used for the transmission measurements. The algorithm is based on the Rytov approximation. We show that this algorithm can be used over a wide range of tissue optical properties if the reconstruction is adapted to each patient. We use estimates of the breast shape and average tissue optical properties to initialize the reconstruction, which improves the image quality significantly. We demonstrate the capability of the measurement system and reconstruction to image breast lesions by clinical examples

  9. Study of two examples of non linear interaction of a laser wave with matter: laser-induced damage of dielectrics and non linear optical properties of organometallic molecules in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudry, Jean-Baptiste

    2000-01-01

    This research thesis reports the study of two mechanisms of non linear interaction of a laser wave with matter. More particularly, it reports the experimental investigation of non linear optical properties of organometallic molecules in solution, as well as the damage of perfect silica under laser irradiation by using simulation codes. As far as optical properties are concerned, the author highlights the influence of the electronic configuration of the metal present in the organometallic compound, and the influence of the ligand on the second-order non-linear response. As far as the simulation is concerned, some experimental results have been reproduced. This work can be useful for the investigation of the extrinsic damage of imperfect materials, and for the design of experiments of transient measurements of excited silica [fr

  10. FINAL REPORT "Extreme non-linear optics of plasmas" Pierre Michel (16-LW-022)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, Pierre [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-11-03

    Large laser facilities such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF) are typically limited in performance and physical scale (and thus cost) by optics damage. In this LDRD, we investigated a radically new way to manipulate light at extreme powers and energies, where “traditional” (crystal-based) optical elements are replaced by a medium that is already “broken” and thus does not suffer from optics damage: a plasma. Our method consisted in applying multiple lasers into plasmas to imprint refractive micro-structures with optical properties designed to be similar to those of crystals or dielectric structures used in optics. In particular, we focused our efforts on two elements used to manipulate the polarization of lasers (i.e. the orientation of the light’s electric field vector): i) a polarizer, which only lets a given polarization direction pass and blocks the others, and ii) a “Pockels cell”, which can “rotate” the polarization direction or convert it from linear to elliptical or circular. These two elements are essential building blocks in almost all laser systems – for example, they can be combined to design optical gates. Here, we introduced the new concepts of a “plasma polarizer” and a “plasma Pockels cell”. Both concepts were demonstrated in proof-of-principle laboratory experiments in this LDRD. We also demonstrated that such laser-plasma systems could be used to provide full control of the refractive index of plasmas as well as their dispersion (variation of the index vs. the light wavelength), which constituted the basis for a final experiment aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of “slow light” in plasmas, i.e. the capability to slow down a light pulse almost to a full stop.

  11. On summary measure analysis of linear trend repeated measures data: performance comparison with two competing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vossoughi, Mehrdad; Ayatollahi, S M T; Towhidi, Mina; Ketabchi, Farzaneh

    2012-03-22

    The summary measure approach (SMA) is sometimes the only applicable tool for the analysis of repeated measurements in medical research, especially when the number of measurements is relatively large. This study aimed to describe techniques based on summary measures for the analysis of linear trend repeated measures data and then to compare performances of SMA, linear mixed model (LMM), and unstructured multivariate approach (UMA). Practical guidelines based on the least squares regression slope and mean of response over time for each subject were provided to test time, group, and interaction effects. Through Monte Carlo simulation studies, the efficacy of SMA vs. LMM and traditional UMA, under different types of covariance structures, was illustrated. All the methods were also employed to analyze two real data examples. Based on the simulation and example results, it was found that the SMA completely dominated the traditional UMA and performed convincingly close to the best-fitting LMM in testing all the effects. However, the LMM was not often robust and led to non-sensible results when the covariance structure for errors was misspecified. The results emphasized discarding the UMA which often yielded extremely conservative inferences as to such data. It was shown that summary measure is a simple, safe and powerful approach in which the loss of efficiency compared to the best-fitting LMM was generally negligible. The SMA is recommended as the first choice to reliably analyze the linear trend data with a moderate to large number of measurements and/or small to moderate sample sizes.

  12. Measurement of rotational dynamics by the simultaneous nonlinear analysis of optical and EPR data.

    OpenAIRE

    Hustedt, E J; Cobb, C E; Beth, A H; Beechem, J M

    1993-01-01

    In the preceding companion article in this issue, an optical dye and a nitroxide radical were combined in a new dual function probe, 5-SLE. In this report, it is demonstrated that time-resolved optical anisotropy and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) data can be combined in a single analysis to measure rotational dynamics. Rigid-limit and rotational diffusion models for simulating nitroxide EPR data have been incorporated into a general non-linear least-squares procedure based on the Marq...

  13. An algebraic approach to linear-optical schemes for deterministic quantum computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aniello, Paolo; Cagli, Ruben Coen

    2005-01-01

    Linear-optical passive (LOP) devices and photon counters are sufficient to implement universal quantum computation with single photons, and particular schemes have already been proposed. In this paper we discuss the link between the algebraic structure of LOP transformations and quantum computing. We first show how to decompose the Fock space of N optical modes in finite-dimensional subspaces that are suitable for encoding strings of qubits and invariant under LOP transformations (these subspaces are related to the spaces of irreducible unitary representations of U (N). Next we show how to design in algorithmic fashion LOP circuits which implement any quantum circuit deterministically. We also present some simple examples, such as the circuits implementing a cNOT gate and a Bell state generator/analyser

  14. Linear Optical and SERS Study on Metallic Membranes with Subwavelength Complementary Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qingzhen; Zeng, Yong; Jensen, Lasse; Werner, Douglas; Crespi, Vincent; Huang, Tony Jun; Interdepartmental Collaboration

    2011-03-01

    An efficient technique is developed to fabricate optically thin metallic films with subwavelength patterns and their complements simultaneously. By comparing the spectra of the complementary films, we show that Babinet's principle nearly holds in the optical domain. A discrete-dipole approximation can qualitatively describe their spectral dependence on the geometry of the constituent particles and the illuminating polarization. Using pyridine as probe molecules, we studied surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) from the complementary structure. Although the complementary structure posses closely related linear spectra, they have quite different near-field behaviors. For hole arrays, their averaged local field gains as well as the SERS enhancements are strongly correlated to their transmission spectra. We therefore can use cos 4 θ to approximately describe the dependence of the Raman intensity on the excitation polarization angle θ , while the complementary particle arrays present maximal local field gains at wavelengths generally much bigger than their localized surface plasmonic resonant wavelengths.

  15. Syntheses, structures and third-order non-linear optical properties of homometal clusters containing molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yong; Lu Jing; Cui Xiaobing; Xu Jiqing; Li Kechang; Sun Huaying; Li Guanghua; Pan Lingyun; Yang Qingxin

    2005-01-01

    Both the homometal cluster [P(ph 4 )] 2 [Mo 2 O 2 (μ-S) 2 (S 2 ) 2 ] (1) and [Mo 2 O 2 (μ-S) 2 (Et 2 dtc) 2 ] (2) (Et 2 dtc=diethyl-dithiocarbamate) were successfully synthesized by low-temperature solid-state reactions. X-ray single-crystal diffraction studies suggest that compound (1) is a dinuclear anion cluster, and compound (2) is a dinuclear neutral cluster. The two compounds were characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectra and UV-Vis spectra. The third-order non-linear optical (NLO) properties of the clusters were also investigated and all exhibited nice non-linear absorption and self-defocusing performance with moduli of the hyperpolarizabilities 5.145x10 -30 esu for (1) and 5.428x10 -30 esu for (2)

  16. Linearly interpolated sub-symbol optical phase noise suppression in CO-OFDM system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Xuezhi; Hong, Xiaojian; He, Sailing

    2015-02-23

    An optical phase noise suppression algorithm, LI-SCPEC, based on phase linear interpolation and sub-symbol processing is proposed for CO-OFDM system. By increasing the temporal resolution of carrier phase tracking through dividing one symbol into several sub-blocks, i.e., sub-symbols, inter-carrier-interference (ICI) mitigation is achieved in the proposed algorithm. Linear interpolation is employed to obtain a reliable temporal reference for sub-symbol phase estimation. The new algorithm, with only a few number of sub-symbols (N(B) = 4), can provide a considerably larger laser linewidth tolerance than several other ICI mitigation algorithms as demonstrated by Monte-Carlo simulations. Numerical analysis verifies that the best performance is achieved with an optimal and moderate number of sub-symbols. Complexity analysis shows that the required number of complex-valued multiplications is independent of the number of sub-symbols used in the proposed algorithm.

  17. Splitting of quantum information in travelling wave fields using only linear optical elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, W B; De Almeida, N G; Avelar, A T; Baseia, B [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Goias, 74.001-970, Goiania-GO (Brazil)

    2011-02-28

    In this paper we present a feasible post-selection scheme to split quantum information in the realm of travelling waves with success probability of 50%. Taking advantage of this scheme we have also proposed the generation of a class of W states useful for perfect teleportation and superdense coding. The scheme employs only linear optical elements as beam splitters (BS) and phase shifters, plus two photon counters and a source of two spontaneous parametric down-conversion photons. It is shown that splitting of quantum information with high fidelity is possible, even when using inefficient detectors and photoabsorption BS.

  18. Superconducting resonators as beam splitters for linear-optics quantum computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirolli, Luca; Burkard, Guido; Kumar, Shwetank; Divincenzo, David P

    2010-06-11

    We propose and analyze a technique for producing a beam-splitting quantum gate between two modes of a ring-resonator superconducting cavity. The cavity has two integrated superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) that are modulated by applying an external magnetic field. The gate is accomplished by applying a radio frequency pulse to one of the SQUIDs at the difference of the two mode frequencies. Departures from perfect beam splitting only arise from corrections to the rotating wave approximation; an exact calculation gives a fidelity of >0.9992. Our construction completes the toolkit for linear-optics quantum computing in circuit quantum electrodynamics.

  19. "Real-Time Optical Laboratory Linear Algebra Solution Of Partial Differential Equations"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasent, David; Jackson, James

    1986-03-01

    A Space Integrating (SI) Optical Linear Algebra Processor (OLAP) employing space and frequency-multiplexing, new partitioning and data flow, and achieving high accuracy performance with a non base-2 number system is described. Laboratory data on the performance of this system and the solution of parabolic Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) is provided. A multi-processor OLAP system is also described for the first time. It use in the solution of multiple banded matrices that frequently arise is then discussed. The utility and flexibility of this processor compared to digital systolic architectures should be apparent.

  20. Deconfinement and Phase Diagram of Bosons in a Linear Optical Lattice with a Particle Reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, Kingshuk; Fertig, H.A.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the zero-temperature phases of bosons in a one-dimensional optical lattice with an explicit tunnel coupling to a Bose-condensed particle reservoir. Renormalization group analysis of this system is shown to reveal three phases: one in which the linear system is fully phase locked to the reservoir; one in which Josephson vortices between the one-dimensional system and the particle reservoir deconfine due to quantum fluctuations, leading to a decoupled state in which the one-dimensional system is metallic; and one in which the one-dimensional system is in a Mott insulating state

  1. Generation of concatenated Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-type entangled coherent state based on linear optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rui; Zhou, Lan; Gu, Shi-Pu; Wang, Xing-Fu; Sheng, Yu-Bo

    2017-03-01

    The concatenated Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (C-GHZ) state is a new type of multipartite entangled state, which has potential application in future quantum information. In this paper, we propose a protocol of constructing arbitrary C-GHZ entangled state approximatively. Different from previous protocols, each logic qubit is encoded in the coherent state. This protocol is based on the linear optics, which is feasible in experimental technology. This protocol may be useful in quantum information based on the C-GHZ state.

  2. A Fiber-Optic Aircraft Lightning Current Measurement Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Ely, Jay J.; Szatkowski, George N.

    2013-01-01

    A fiber-optic current sensor based on the Faraday Effect is developed for aircraft installations. It can measure total lightning current amplitudes and waveforms, including continuing current. Additional benefits include being small, lightweight, non-conducting, safe from electromagnetic interference, and free of hysteresis and saturation. The Faraday Effect causes light polarization to rotate in presence of magnetic field in the direction of light propagation. Measuring the total induced light polarization change yields the total current enclosed. The system operates at 1310nm laser wavelength and can measure approximately 300 A - 300 kA, a 60 dB range. A reflective polarimetric scheme is used, where the light polarization change is measured after a round-trip propagation through the fiber. A two-detector setup measures the two orthogonal polarizations for noise subtraction and improved dynamic range. The current response curve is non-linear and requires a simple spline-fit correction. Effects of high current were achieved in laboratory using combinations of multiple fiber and wire loops. Good result comparisons against reference sensors were achieved up to 300 kA. Accurate measurements on a simulated aircraft fuselage and an internal structure illustrate capabilities that maybe difficult with traditional sensors. Also tested at a commercial lightning test facility from 20 kA to 200 kA, accuracy within 3-10% was achieved even with non-optimum setups.

  3. Silicon Photonics: All-Optical Devices for Linear and Nonlinear Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Jeffrey B.

    Silicon photonics has grown rapidly since the first Si electro-optic switch was demonstrated in 1987, and the field has never grown more quickly than it has over the past decade, fueled by milestone achievements in semiconductor processing technologies for low loss waveguides, high-speed Si modulators, Si lasers, Si detectors, and an enormous toolbox of passive and active integrated devices. Silicon photonics is now on the verge of major commercialization breakthroughs, and optical communication links remain the force driving integrated and Si photonics towards the first commercial telecom and datacom transceivers; however other potential and future applications are becoming uncovered and refined as researchers reveal the benefits of manipulating photons on the nanoscale. This thesis documents an exploration into the unique guided-wave and nonlinear properties of deeply-scaled high-index-contrast sub-wavelength Si waveguides. It is found that the tight confinement inherent to single-mode channel waveguides on the silicon-on-insulator platform lead to a rich physics, which can be leveraged for new devices extending well beyond simple passive interconnects and electro-optic devices. The following chapters will concentrate, in detail, on a number of unique physical features of Si waveguides and extend these attributes towards new and interesting devices. Linear optical properties and nonlinear optical properties are investigated, both of which are strongly affected by tight optical confinement of the guided waveguide modes. As will be shown, tight optical confinement directly results in strongly vectoral modal components, where the electric and magnetic fields of the guided modes extend into all spatial dimensions, even along the axis of propagation. In fact, the longitudinal electric and magnetic field components can be just as strong as the transverse fields, directly affecting the modal group velocity and energy transport properties since the longitudinal fields

  4. Measurement of optical activity of honey bee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Gutiérrez, Mauricio; Olivares-Pérez, Arturo; Salgado-Verduzco, Marco Antonio; Ibarra-Torres, Juan Carlos

    2016-03-01

    Optical activity of some substances, such as chiral molecules, often exhibits circular birefringence. Circular birefringence causes rotation of the vibration plane of the plane polarized light as it passes through the substance. In this work we present optical characterization of honey as function of the optical activity when it is placed in a polariscope that consists of a light source and properly arranged polarizing elements.

  5. Aircraft Position Measurement Using Laser Beacon Optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    8217Comparison of Solar Concentrators .’ Solar Energy, Vol. 10, p. 93, 1976. 7. Winston , R., ’Light Collection Within the Framework of Goemetrical Optics ...8217 J. Optical Society of Am., Vol. 60, p. 245, 1970. 8. Welford, W. T., tics of Nonimaging Concentrators . New York, Academic Press, T978. 9. Bracewell...helicopter pilot and the flight engineer on board the YO-3A. This thesis will concentrate on the development of the laser beacon, the detector optics

  6. Electrical, Magnetic, and Optical Measurement Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides tools necessary for electrical, magnetic, and optical characterization of bulk and thin-film materials. This includes the ability to determine the...

  7. Measurement of linear attenuation coefficient of different materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M. M.

    2013-07-01

    In this research we study the linear attenuation coefficient from the materials concrete, brick, mixture concrete and iron. In the secondary standard dosimetry laboratory in Atomic Energy from different distance by use Cs-137 sours, chamber farmer 2675 A-600 cc-S/N 0511, and electrometer 2670 A-S/N 114. Found the value of linear attenuation coefficient of concert in the range 0.167 cm -1 , the brick in the range 0.063 -1 and mixture concrete and iron in the range 0.253cm -1 .(Author)

  8. Optical techniques for sensing and measurement in hostile environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillespie, C.H.; Greenwell, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    These proceedings collect papers on optical sensing and measurement in hostile environments. Topic include: nuclear waste storage facility monitoring, monitoring of nuclear and chemical explosions, exhaust gas monitoring, fiber-optic monitoring, temperature and radiation effects on optical fibers, and interferometers

  9. Optical sensor for measuring humidity, strain and temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to an optical sensor (100) adapted to measure at least three physical parameters, said optical sensor comprising a polymer-based optical waveguide structure comprising a first Bragg grating structure (101) being adapted to provide information about a first, a second...

  10. Noninvasive blood pressure measurement scheme based on optical fiber sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianxuan; Yuan, Xueguang; Zhang, Yangan

    2016-10-01

    Optical fiber sensing has many advantages, such as volume small, light quality, low loss, strong in anti-jamming. Since the invention of the optical fiber sensing technology in 1977, optical fiber sensing technology has been applied in the military, national defense, aerospace, industrial, medical and other fields in recent years, and made a great contribution to parameter measurement in the environment under the limited condition .With the rapid development of computer, network system, the intelligent optical fiber sensing technology, the sensor technology, the combination of computer and communication technology , the detection, diagnosis and analysis can be automatically and efficiently completed. In this work, we proposed a noninvasive blood pressure detection and analysis scheme which uses optical fiber sensor. Optical fiber sensing system mainly includes the light source, optical fiber, optical detector, optical modulator, the signal processing module and so on. wavelength optical signals were led into the optical fiber sensor and the signals reflected by the human body surface were detected. By comparing actual testing data with the data got by traditional way to measure the blood pressure we can establish models for predicting the blood pressure and achieve noninvasive blood pressure measurement by using spectrum analysis technology. Blood pressure measurement method based on optical fiber sensing system is faster and more convenient than traditional way, and it can get accurate analysis results in a shorter period of time than before, so it can efficiently reduce the time cost and manpower cost.

  11. Optical Measurement Techniques Innovations for Industry and the Life Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Peiponen, Kai-Erik; Priezzhev, Alexander V

    2009-01-01

    Devoted to novel optical measurement techniques that are applied both in industry and life sciences, this book contributes a fresh perspective on the development of modern optical sensors. These sensors are often essential in detecting and controlling parameters that are important for both industrial and biomedical applications. The book provides easy access for beginners wishing to gain familiarity with the innovations of modern optics.

  12. Optical measurements for scientists and engineers a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    McClelland, Arthur

    2018-01-01

    With this accessible, introductory guide, you will quickly learn how to use and apply optical spectroscopy and optical microscopy techniques. Focusing on day-to-day implementation and offering practical lab tips throughout, it provides step-by-step instructions on how to select the best technique for a particular application, how to set up and customize new optical systems, and how to analyze optical data. You will gain an intuitive understanding of the full range of standard optical techniques, from fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy to super resolution microscopy. Understand how to navigate around an optics lab with clear descriptions of the most common optical components and tools. Including explanations of basic optics and photonics, and easy-to-understand mathematics, this is an invaluable resource for graduate students, instructors, researchers and professionals who use or teach optical measurements in laboratories.

  13. Optical measurement of acidification of human dental plaque in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jasmine Y.; Nelson, Leonard Y.; Seibel, Eric J.

    2018-02-01

    A pH measurement of oral biofilms is helpful for monitoring the impact of acidogenic bacteria in the caries process. Demineralization of dental enamel is closely related to the time dependent pH of human plaque. Therefore, providing a means to easily measure the local pH of biofilms is a useful clinical diagnostic in the arsenal of caries prevention tools. Optical measurement methods of plaque metabolism can use intrinsic fluorescence or extrinsic fluorescence from added dyes. Autofluorescence spectral features of human oral biofilms at green (500 nm) and red (634 nm) fluorescence wavelengths using 405 nm excitation did not demonstrate a spectral or intensity shift between neutral and acidic conditions. Chlorin e6, an ingredient in chlorophyllin food supplement, exhibited a spectral and intensity shift of fluorescence emission in buffered solutions, but this quantitative pH-dependence was not transferable to a human plaque environment. Finally, a ratiometric quantitative pH measure was achieved by exciting (405 nm laser) a mixture of two dyes, fluorescein and rhodamine B. This two-dye mixture produced two strong fluorescent bands centered at 515 nm (fluorescein) and 580 nm (rhodamine B), where the 515 nm band was pH sensitive and the 580 nm band served as a pH insensitive reference. This dual-dye fluorescence ratio exhibited a linear response over pH 7 to 5 in human oral biofilms during a sugar challenge. We have explored methods to use non-contact, optical measures of local acidity levels in difficult to access dental locations such as occlusal fissures using various pH sensitive fluorescent dye systems.

  14. Sub-wavelength plasmonic readout for direct linear analysis of optically tagged DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varsanik, Jonathan; Teynor, William; LeBlanc, John; Clark, Heather; Krogmeier, Jeffrey; Yang, Tian; Crozier, Kenneth; Bernstein, Jonathan

    2010-02-01

    This work describes the development and fabrication of a novel nanofluidic flow-through sensing chip that utilizes a plasmonic resonator to excite fluorescent tags with sub-wavelength resolution. We cover the design of the microfluidic chip and simulation of the plasmonic resonator using Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) software. The fabrication methods are presented, with testing procedures and preliminary results. This research is aimed at improving the resolution limits of the Direct Linear Analysis (DLA) technique developed by US Genomics [1]. In DLA, intercalating dyes which tag a specific 8 base-pair sequence are inserted in a DNA sample. This sample is pumped though a nano-fluidic channel, where it is stretched into a linear geometry and interrogated with light which excites the fluorescent tags. The resulting sequence of optical pulses produces a characteristic "fingerprint" of the sample which uniquely identifies any sample of DNA. Plasmonic confinement of light to a 100 nm wide metallic nano-stripe enables resolution of a higher tag density compared to free space optics. Prototype devices have been fabricated and are being tested with fluorophore solutions and tagged DNA. Preliminary results show evanescent coupling to the plasmonic resonator is occurring with 0.1 micron resolution, however light scattering limits the S/N of the detector. Two methods to reduce scattered light are presented: index matching and curved waveguides.

  15. Experiment study and FEM simulation on erythrocytes under linear stretching of optical micromanipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Song, Huadong; Zhu, Panpan; Lu, Hao; Tang, Qi

    2017-08-01

    The elasticity of erythrocytes is an important criterion to evaluate the quality of blood. This paper presents a novel research on erythrocytes' elasticity with the application of optical tweezers and the finite element method (FEM) during blood storage. In this work, the erythrocytes with different in vitro times were linearly stretched by trapping force using optical tweezers and the time dependent elasticity of erythrocytes was investigated. The experimental results indicate that the membrane shear moduli of erythrocytes increased with the increasing in vitro time, namely the elasticity was decreasing. Simultaneously, an erythrocyte shell model with two parameters (membrane thickness h and membrane shear modulus H) was built to simulate the linear stretching states of erythrocytes by the FEM, and the simulations conform to the results obtained in the experiment. The evolution process was found that the erythrocytes membrane thicknesses were decreasing. The analysis assumes that the partial proteins and lipid bilayer of erythrocyte membrane were decomposed during the in vitro preservation of blood, which results in thin thickness, weak bending resistance, and losing elasticity of erythrocyte membrane. This study implies that the FEM can be employed to investigate the inward mechanical property changes of erythrocyte in different environments, which also can be a guideline for studying the erythrocyte mechanical state suffered from different diseases.

  16. Structural, electronic, linear, and nonlinear optical properties of ZnCdTe{sub 2} chalcopyrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouahrani, Tarik [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Universite de Tlemcen, B.P. 230, Tlemcen 13000 (Algeria); Reshak, Ali H. [Institute of Physical Biology, South Bohemia University, Nove Hrady 37333 (Czech Republic); School of Microelectronic Engineering, University of Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Block A, Kompleks Pusat Pengajian, 02600 Arau Jejawi, Perlis (Malaysia); Khenata, R. [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique et de Modelisation Mathematique, Universite de Mascara, Mascara 29000 (Algeria); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Faculty of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Baltache, H.; Amrani, B. [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique et de Modelisation Mathematique, Universite de Mascara, Mascara 29000 (Algeria); Bouhemadou, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Faculty of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Faculty of Sciences, Department of Physics, University of Setif, Setif 19000 (Algeria)

    2011-03-15

    We report results of first-principles density functional calculations using the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method. The generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and the Engel-Vosko-GGA (EV-GGA) formalism were used for the exchange-correlation energy to calculate the structural, electronic, linear, and nonlinear optical properties of the chalcopyrite ZnCdTe{sub 2} compound. The valence band maximum and the conduction band minimum are located at the {gamma}-point, resulting in a direct band gap of about 0.71 eV for GGA and 1.29 eV for EV-GGA. The results of bulk properties, such as lattice parameters (a, c, and u), bulk modulus B, and its pressure derivative B' are evaluated. The optical properties of this compound, namely the real and the imaginary parts of the dielectric function, reflectivity, and refractive index, show a considerable anisotropy as a consequence ZnCdTe{sub 2} posseses a strong birefringence. In addition, the extinction coefficient, the electron energy loss function, and the nonlinear susceptibility are calculated and their spectra are analyzed. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. The Recommendations for Linear Measurement Techniques on the Measurements of Nonlinear System Parameters of a Joint.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Scott A [Univ. of Maryland Baltimore County (UMBC), Baltimore, MD (United States); Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Catalfamo, Simone [Univ. of Stuttgart (Germany); Brake, Matthew R. W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Schwingshackl, Christoph W. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Reusb, Pascal [Daimler AG, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2017-01-01

    In the study of the dynamics of nonlinear systems, experimental measurements often convolute the response of the nonlinearity of interest and the effects of the experimental setup. To reduce the influence of the experimental setup on the deduction of the parameters of the nonlinearity, the response of a mechanical joint is investigated under various experimental setups. These experiments first focus on quantifying how support structures and measurement techniques affect the natural frequency and damping of a linear system. The results indicate that support structures created from bungees have negligible influence on the system in terms of frequency and damping ratio variations. The study then focuses on the effects of the excitation technique on the response for a linear system. The findings suggest that thinner stingers should not be used, because under the high force requirements the stinger bending modes are excited adding unwanted torsional coupling. The optimal configuration for testing the linear system is then applied to a nonlinear system in order to assess the robustness of the test configuration. Finally, recommendations are made for conducting experiments on nonlinear systems using conventional/linear testing techniques.

  18. Optics Measurements and Correction Challenges for the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Carlier, Felix Simon; Fartoukh, Stephane; Fol, Elena; Gamba, Davide; Garcia-Tabares Valdivieso, Ana; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Hofer, Michael; Langner, Andy Sven; Maclean, Ewen Hamish; Malina, Lukas; Medina Medrano, Luis Eduardo; Persson, Tobias Hakan Bjorn; Skowronski, Piotr Krzysztof; Tomas Garcia, Rogelio; Van Der Veken, Frederik; Wegscheider, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Optics control in the HL-LHC will be challenged by a very small β* of 15 cm in the two main experiments. HL-LHC physics fills will keep a constant luminosity during several hours via β* leveling. This will require the commissioning of a large number of optical configurations, further challenging the efficiency of the optics measurements and correction tools. We report on the achieved level of optics control in the LHC with simulations and extrapolations for the HL-LHC.

  19. Toward Precision Top Quark Measurements in $e^+e^−$ Collisions at Linear Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Van Der Kolk, Naomi

    2017-01-01

    Linear lepton colliders offer an excellent environment for precision measurements of the top quark. An overview is given of the current prospects on the measurement of the top quark mass, rare top quark decays and top quark couplings at the International Linear Collider (ILC) and the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC).

  20. Measuring heart rate with optical sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barachi, M. (Mitra)

    2014-01-01

    The problem addressed in this report is to verify the possibility of using an optical sensor in the SaxShirt in order to extract the heart rate. There are specifically three questions that we try to address. 1) How is it possible to extract heart rate (BPM) from the optical sensor? 2) Is it

  1. The measurement system of birefringence and Verdet constant of optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi; Chen, Li; Guo, Qiang; Pang, Fufei; Wen, Jianxiang; Shang, Yana; Wang, Tingyun

    2013-12-01

    The Faraday magneto-optical effect of optical fiber has many applications in monitoring magnetic field and electric current. When a linearly polarized light propagates in the direction of a magnetic field, the plane of polarization will rotate linearly proportional to the strength of the applied magnetic field, which following the relationship of θF =VBl. θF is the Faraday rotation angle, which is proportional to the magnetic flux density B and the Verdet constant V . However, when the optical fiber contains the effect of linear birefringence, the detection of Faraday rotation angle will depend on the line birefringence. In order to determine the Verdet constant of an optical fiber under a linear birefringence, the fiber birefringence needs to be accurately measured. In this work, a model is applied to analyze the polarization properties of an optical fiber by using the Jones matrix method. A measurement system based on the lock-in amplifier technology is designed to test the Verdet constant and the birefringence of optical fiber. The magnetic field is produced by a solenoid with a DC current. A tunable laser is intensity modulated with a motorized rotating chopper. The actuator supplies a signal as the phase-locked synchronization reference to the signal of the lock-in amplifier. The measurement accuracy is analyzed and the sensitivity of the system is optimized. In this measurement system, the Verdet constant of the SMF-28 fiber was measured to be 0.56±0.02 rad/T·m at 1550nm. This setup is well suitable for measuring the high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) sensitivity for lock-in amplifier at a low magnetic field strength.

  2. Accuracy evaluation of the optical surface monitoring system on EDGE linear accelerator in a phantom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancosu, Pietro; Fogliata, Antonella; Stravato, Antonella; Tomatis, Stefano; Cozzi, Luca; Scorsetti, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Frameless stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) requires dedicated systems to monitor the patient position during the treatment to avoid target underdosage due to involuntary shift. The optical surface monitoring system (OSMS) is here evaluated in a phantom-based study. The new EDGE linear accelerator from Varian (Varian, Palo Alto, CA) integrates, for cranial lesions, the common cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and kV-MV portal images to the optical surface monitoring system (OSMS), a device able to detect real-time patient׳s face movements in all 6 couch axes (vertical, longitudinal, lateral, rotation along the vertical axis, pitch, and roll). We have evaluated the OSMS imaging capability in checking the phantoms׳ position and monitoring its motion. With this aim, a home-made cranial phantom was developed to evaluate the OSMS accuracy in 4 different experiments: (1) comparison with CBCT in isocenter location, (2) capability to recognize predefined shifts up to 2° or 3cm, (3) evaluation at different couch angles, (4) ability to properly reconstruct the surface when the linac gantry visually block one of the cameras. The OSMS system showed, with a phantom, to be accurate for positioning in respect to the CBCT imaging system with differences of 0.6 ± 0.3mm for linear vector displacement, with a maximum rotational inaccuracy of 0.3°. OSMS presented an accuracy of 0.3mm for displacement up to 1cm and 1°, and 0.5mm for larger displacements. Different couch angles (45° and 90°) induced a mean vector uncertainty < 0.4mm. Coverage of 1 camera produced an uncertainty < 0.5mm. Translations and rotations of a phantom can be accurately detect with the optical surface detector system. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Heralded creation of photonic qudits from parametric down-conversion using linear optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Jun-ichi; Bergmann, Marcel; van Loock, Peter; Fuwa, Maria; Okada, Masanori; Takase, Kan; Toyama, Takeshi; Makino, Kenzo; Takeda, Shuntaro; Furusawa, Akira

    2018-05-01

    We propose an experimental scheme to generate, in a heralded fashion, arbitrary quantum superpositions of two-mode optical states with a fixed total photon number n based on weakly squeezed two-mode squeezed state resources (obtained via weak parametric down-conversion), linear optics, and photon detection. Arbitrary d -level (qudit) states can be created this way where d =n +1 . Furthermore, we experimentally demonstrate our scheme for n =2 . The resulting qutrit states are characterized via optical homodyne tomography. We also discuss possible extensions to more than two modes concluding that, in general, our approach ceases to work in this case. For illustration and with regards to possible applications, we explicitly calculate a few examples such as NOON states and logical qubit states for quantum error correction. In particular, our approach enables one to construct bosonic qubit error-correction codes against amplitude damping (photon loss) with a typical suppression of √{n }-1 losses and spanned by two logical codewords that each correspond to an n -photon superposition for two bosonic modes.

  4. Analogy between optically driven injection-locked laser diodes and driven damped linear oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Atsushi; Shore, K. Alan

    2006-01-01

    An analytical study of optically driven laser diodes (LDs) has been undertaken to meet the requirement for a theoretical treatment for chaotic drive and synchronization occurring in the injection-locked LDs with strong injection. A small-signal analysis is performed for the sets of rate equations for the injection-locked LDs driven by a sinusoidal optical signal. In particular, as a model of chaotic driving signals from LD dynamics, an optical signal caused by direct modulation to the master LD is assumed, oscillating both in field amplitude and phase as is the case with chaotic driving signals. Consequently, we find conditions that allow reduction in the degrees of freedom of the driven LD. Under these conditions, the driven response is approximated to a simple form which is found to be equivalent to driven damped linear oscillators. The validity of the application of this theory to previous work on the synchronization of chaos and related phenomena occurring in the injection-locked LDs is demonstrated

  5. Optical-Path-Difference Linear Mechanism for the Panchromatic Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blavier, Jean-Francois L.; Heverly, Matthew C.; Key, Richard W.; Sander, Stanley P.

    2011-01-01

    A document discusses a mechanism that uses flex-pivots in a parallelogram arrangement to provide frictionless motion with an unlimited lifetime. A voicecoil actuator drives the parallelogram over the required 5-cm travel. An optical position sensor provides feedback for a servo loop that keeps the velocity within 1 percent of expected value. Residual tip/tilt error is compensated for by a piezo actuator that drives the interferometer mirror. This mechanism builds on previous work that targeted ground-based measurements. The main novelty aspects include cryogenic and vacuum operation, high reliability for spaceflight, compactness of the design, optical layout compatible with the needs of an imaging FTS (i.e. wide overall field-of-view), and mirror optical coatings to cover very broad wavelength range (i.e., 0.26 to 15 m).

  6. A method for simultaneous linear optics and coupling correction for storage rings with turn-by-turn beam position monitor data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xi [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, Long Island, NY 11973 (United States); Huang, Xiaobiao, E-mail: xiahuang@slac.stanford.edu [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2016-08-21

    We propose a method to simultaneously correct linear optics errors and linear coupling for storage rings using turn-by-turn (TbT) beam position monitor (BPM) data. The independent component analysis (ICA) method is used to isolate the betatron normal modes from the measured TbT BPM data. The betatron amplitudes and phase advances of the projections of the normal modes on the horizontal and vertical planes are then extracted, which, combined with dispersion measurement, are used to fit the lattice model. The fitting results are used for lattice correction. The method has been successfully demonstrated on the NSLS-II storage ring.

  7. A method for simultaneous linear optics and coupling correction for storage rings with turn-by-turn beam position monitor data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xi [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Huang, Xiaobiao [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2016-08-01

    We propose a method to simultaneously correct linear optics errors and linear coupling for storage rings using turn-by-turn (TbT) beam position monitor (BPM) data. The independent component analysis (ICA) method is used to isolate the betatron normal modes from the measured TbT BPM data. The betatron amplitudes and phase advances of the projections of the normal modes on the horizontal and vertical planes are then extracted, which, combined with dispersion measurement, are used to fit the lattice model. Furthermore, the fitting results are used for lattice correction. Our method has been successfully demonstrated on the NSLS-II storage ring.

  8. A linear laser-driver array for optical transmission in the LHC experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Cervelli, G; Moreira, P; Vasey, F

    2000-01-01

    A 4-way linear laser driver has been designed and implemented in a commercial 0.25 mu m CMOS technology. The full-custom IC is intended for analogue and digital data transmission as part of the 50 000 optical fibre links of the CMS particle tracking system. Intrinsic radiation tolerance and specific design methodologies enable the device to operate over 10 years in the harsh radiation environment of the innermost LHC detectors. Although optimised for analogue operation the driver is compatible with LVDS digital signalling. A combination of linearization methods achieves good analogue performance (8-bit equivalent dynamic range with a bandwidth of 100 MHz), while maintaining wide input common-mode range (+or-350 mV) and limited power dissipation. The linearly amplified signal is added to a DC current, which can be set over a wide range (-60 mA to +60 mA). The latter capability allows tracking of changes in laser threshold due to ageing or radiation damage. The driver gain and bias current are set via a serial ...

  9. Linear and nonlinear optical properties of multilayered spherical quantum dots: Effects of geometrical size, hydrogenic impurity, hydrostatic pressure and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimi, M.J.; Rezaei, G.; Nazari, M.

    2014-01-01

    Based on the effective mass and parabolic one band approximations, simultaneous effects of the geometrical size, hydrogenic impurity, hydrostatic pressure, and temperature on the intersubband optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes in multilayered spherical quantum dots are studied. Energy eigenvalues and eigenvectors are calculated using the fourth-order Runge–Kutta method and optical properties are obtained using the compact density matrix approach. The results indicate that the hydrogenic impurity, hydrostatic pressure, temperature and geometrical parameters such as the well and barrier widths have a great influence on the linear, the third-order nonlinear and the total optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes. -- Highlights: • Hydrogenic impurity effects on the optical properties of a MSQD are investigated. • Hydrostatic pressure and temperature effects are also studied. • Hydrogenic impurity has a great influence on the linear and nonlinear ACs and RICs. • Hydrostatic pressure and temperature change the linear and nonlinear ACs and RICs

  10. Chaos in balance: non-linear measures of postural control predict individual variations in visual illusions of motion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Apthorp

    Full Text Available Visually-induced illusions of self-motion (vection can be compelling for some people, but they are subject to large individual variations in strength. Do these variations depend, at least in part, on the extent to which people rely on vision to maintain their postural stability? We investigated by comparing physical posture measures to subjective vection ratings. Using a Bertec balance plate in a brightly-lit room, we measured 13 participants' excursions of the centre of foot pressure (CoP over a 60-second period with eyes open and with eyes closed during quiet stance. Subsequently, we collected vection strength ratings for large optic flow displays while seated, using both verbal ratings and online throttle measures. We also collected measures of postural sway (changes in anterior-posterior CoP in response to the same visual motion stimuli while standing on the plate. The magnitude of standing sway in response to expanding optic flow (in comparison to blank fixation periods was predictive of both verbal and throttle measures for seated vection. In addition, the ratio between eyes-open and eyes-closed CoP excursions during quiet stance (using the area of postural sway significantly predicted seated vection for both measures. Interestingly, these relationships were weaker for contracting optic flow displays, though these produced both stronger vection and more sway. Next we used a non-linear analysis (recurrence quantification analysis, RQA of the fluctuations in anterior-posterior position during quiet stance (both with eyes closed and eyes open; this was a much stronger predictor of seated vection for both expanding and contracting stimuli. Given the complex multisensory integration involved in postural control, our study adds to the growing evidence that non-linear measures drawn from complexity theory may provide a more informative measure of postural sway than the conventional linear measures.

  11. Simultaneous measurement of group refractive index and thickness of optical samples using optical coherence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Hsu-Chih; Liu, Yi-Cheng

    2010-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT), based on a Michelson interferometer and utilizing low coherence light as the optical source, is a novel technique for the noninvasive imaging of optical scattering media. A simple OCT scheme based on a 3x3 fiber coupler is presented for the simultaneous measurement of the refractive index and thickness of optical samples. The proposed system enables the refractive index and thickness to be determined without any prior knowledge of the sample parameters and is characterized by a simple and compact configuration, a straightforward measurement procedure, and a low cost. The feasibility of the proposed approach is demonstrated experimentally using BK7 and B270 optical glass samples.

  12. Photoinduced non-linear optical effects in the ZnS-Al, In-Sn doped film-glass nanometer-sized interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kityk, I.V.; Makowska-Janusik, M.; Ebothe, J.; El Hichou, A.; El Idrissi, B.; Addou, M.

    2002-01-01

    The effective nanometer-sized thin layer (about 1-2 nm) located between a crystalline ZnS film and glass substrate is studied here using photoinduced optical and second-order non-linear optical (second harmonic generation (SHG) and electrooptics effects) techniques. A photoinduced shift of the effective energy gap is found for the first time in ZnS films doped with the same amount (4 at.%) of different elements, namely, In, Al and Sn. The photoinduced second-order non-linear optical properties (linear electrooptics (LEO) and SHG) of the specimens show a good correlation with the corresponding features of the linear optical susceptibilities, particularly, the imaginary part of dielectric susceptibility near the absorption edge. The maximal response of the photoinduced signal is observed for the pump-probe delaying time of about 20 ps. The performed experimental measurements indicate that the observed effects are stimulated by two factors: the first one is connected with the interface potential gradients at the glass-ZnS film boarder; the second one is a consequence of the additional polarization due to the insertion of Al, In and Sn atoms. The observed phenomenon may be proposed as a sensitive tool for investigation of thin semiconducting-glass interface layer. Moreover, such nanolayers may be applied in quantum electronic devices

  13. Simultaneous measurement of thermo-optic and thermal expansion coefficients with a single arm double interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenegueti, Jose Francisco Miras; Andrade, Acacio A; Pilla, Viviane; Zilio, Sergio Carlos

    2017-01-09

    A low-cost single arm double interferometer was developed for the concurrent measurement of linear thermal expansion (α) and thermo-optic (dn/dT) coefficients of transparent samples with plane and parallel surfaces. Owing to its common-path optical arrangement, the device is compact and stable, and allows the simultaneous measurement of interferences arising from a low-finesse Fabry-Perot etalon and from a Mach-Zehnder-type interferometer. The method was demonstrated with measurements of solid (silica, BK7, SF6) and liquid (water, ethanol and acetone) samples.

  14. Concurrence Measurement for the Two-Qubit Optical and Atomic States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Zhou

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Concurrence provides us an effective approach to quantify entanglement, which is quite important in quantum information processing applications. In the paper, we mainly review some direct concurrence measurement protocols of the two-qubit optical or atomic system. We first introduce the concept of concurrence for a two-qubit system. Second, we explain the approaches of the concurrence measurement in both a linear and a nonlinear optical system. Third, we introduce some protocols for measuring the concurrence of the atomic entanglement system.

  15. Linear and non-linear infrared response of one-dimensional vibrational Holstein polarons in the anti-adiabatic limit: Optical and acoustical phonon models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falvo, Cyril

    2018-02-01

    The theory of linear and non-linear infrared response of vibrational Holstein polarons in one-dimensional lattices is presented in order to identify the spectral signatures of self-trapping phenomena. Using a canonical transformation, the optical response is computed from the small polaron point of view which is valid in the anti-adiabatic limit. Two types of phonon baths are considered: optical phonons and acoustical phonons, and simple expressions are derived for the infrared response. It is shown that for the case of optical phonons, the linear response can directly probe the polaron density of states. The model is used to interpret the experimental spectrum of crystalline acetanilide in the C=O range. For the case of acoustical phonons, it is shown that two bound states can be observed in the two-dimensional infrared spectrum at low temperature. At high temperature, analysis of the time-dependence of the two-dimensional infrared spectrum indicates that bath mediated correlations slow down spectral diffusion. The model is used to interpret the experimental linear-spectroscopy of model α-helix and β-sheet polypeptides. This work shows that the Davydov Hamiltonian cannot explain the observations in the NH stretching range.

  16. Precision Spectroscopy, Diode Lasers, and Optical Frequency Measurement Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollberg, Leo (Editor); Fox, Richard (Editor); Waltman, Steve (Editor); Robinson, Hugh

    1998-01-01

    This compilation is a selected set of reprints from the Optical Frequency Measurement Group of the Time and Frequency Division of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, and consists of work published between 1987 and 1997. The two main programs represented here are (1) development of tunable diode-laser technology for scientific applications and precision measurements, and (2) research toward the goal of realizing optical-frequency measurements and synthesis. The papers are organized chronologically in five, somewhat arbitrarily chosen categories: Diode Laser Technology, Tunable Laser Systems, Laser Spectroscopy, Optical Synthesis and Extended Wavelength Coverage, and Multi-Photon Interactions and Optical Coherences.

  17. Optical metrology techniques for dimensional stability measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, Jonathan David

    2010-01-01

    This thesis work is optical metrology techniques to determine material stability. In addition to displacement interferometry, topics such as periodic nonlinearity, Fabry-Perot interferometry, refractometry, and laser stabilization are covered.

  18. Coordinate Measuring Machine for Characterizing Conformal Optics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jacobs, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    ... Nanotech 150AG Aspharic Grinder and the Nanotecnnologv Systems Nanotech 5OOFG Freeform Generator. The unique and complex nature of these parts prevented them from being characterized with standard optical metrology instrumentation...

  19. Projective measurements in quantum and classical optical systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, FS

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available equally well to both classical and quantum optical systems. A projective measurement, in the context of quantum mechanics, is understood to be the process where a projection operator operates on some input state. Often this projection operator is composed...) Projective measurements in quantum and classical optical systems Filippus S. Roux* and Yingwen Zhang CSIR National Laser Centre, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001, South Africa (Received 3 July 2014; published 22 September 2014) Experimental setups for the optical...

  20. Toward quantum-limited position measurements using optically levitated microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libbrecht, Kenneth G.; Black, Eric D.

    2004-01-01

    We propose the use of optically levitated microspheres as test masses in experiments aimed at reaching and potentially exceeding the standard quantum limit for position measurements. Optically levitated microspheres have low mass and are essentially free of suspension thermal noise, making them well suited for experimentally testing our understanding of quantum-limited measurements

  1. Toward quantum-limited position measurements using optically levitated microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libbrecht, Kenneth G.; Black, Eric D

    2004-01-26

    We propose the use of optically levitated microspheres as test masses in experiments aimed at reaching and potentially exceeding the standard quantum limit for position measurements. Optically levitated microspheres have low mass and are essentially free of suspension thermal noise, making them well suited for experimentally testing our understanding of quantum-limited measurements.

  2. Simplified method for beatlength measurement in optical fibre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, R.; Town, G.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: A simplified technique for measuring beatlength in birefringent optical fibres using magnetic modulation was analysed, and tested experimentally. By avoiding the use of unnecessary optical components and splicing to the fibre under test, the beatlength was measured accurately with good signal-to-noise ratio

  3. Experimental investigation of a four-qubit linear-optical quantum logic circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stárek, R; Mičuda, M; Miková, M; Straka, I; Dušek, M; Ježek, M; Fiurášek, J

    2016-09-20

    We experimentally demonstrate and characterize a four-qubit linear-optical quantum logic circuit. Our robust and versatile scheme exploits encoding of two qubits into polarization and path degrees of single photons and involves two crossed inherently stable interferometers. This approach allows us to design a complex quantum logic circuit that combines a genuine four-qubit C(3)Z gate and several two-qubit and single-qubit gates. The C(3)Z gate introduces a sign flip if and only if all four qubits are in the computational state |1〉. We verify high-fidelity performance of this central four-qubit gate using Hofmann bounds on quantum gate fidelity and Monte Carlo fidelity sampling. We also experimentally demonstrate that the quantum logic circuit can generate genuine multipartite entanglement and we certify the entanglement with the use of suitably tailored entanglement witnesses.

  4. Cosine bend-linear waveguide digital optical switch with parabolic heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulianti, Ian; Supa'at, Abu Sahmah Mohd.; Idrus, Sevia M.; Al-hetar, Abdulaziz M.

    2010-02-01

    A new digital optical switch (DOS) with large branching angle and short device length that exhibits low crosstalk and low power consumption is demonstrated. The Y-branch shape was optimized by introducing constant effective refractive index difference between branches (Δ N eff) along the propagation direction through beam propagation method (BPM) scheme. To provide decreasing local branching angle that results in the improvement of the crosstalk, two modified cosine bend was introduced to form the Y-branch. The modified cosine branch was then connected to a linear branch. The heater electrode was optimized so that the temperature fields induce a constant Δ N eff to satisfy initial assumption in designing the Y-branch shape. With branching angle of 0.299° and device length of only 5 mm, the simulation shows that the device could exhibits crosstalk of -33 dB at calculated required power of only 26 mW.

  5. Post-processing with linear optics for improving the quality of single-photon sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, Dominic W; Scheel, Stefan; Myers, Casey R; Sanders, Barry C; Knight, Peter L; Laflamme, Raymond

    2004-01-01

    Triggered single-photon sources produce the vacuum state with non-negligible probability, but produce a much smaller multiphoton component. It is therefore reasonable to approximate the output of these photon sources as a mixture of the vacuum and single-photon states. We show that it is impossible to increase the probability for a single photon using linear optics and photodetection on fewer than four modes. This impossibility is due to the incoherence of the inputs; if the inputs were pure-state superpositions, it would be possible to obtain a perfect single-photon output. In the more general case, a chain of beam splitters can be used to increase the probability for a single photon, but at the expense of adding an additional multiphoton component. This improvement is robust against detector inefficiencies, but is degraded by distinguishable photons, dark counts or multiphoton components in the input

  6. Spatiotemporal dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensates in linear- and circular-chain optical lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukada, N.

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the spatiotemporal dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensates in optical lattices that have a linear-or a circular-chain configuration with the tunneling couplings between nearest-neighbor lattice sites. A discrete nonlinear Schroedinger equation has been solved for various initial conditions and for a definite range of repulsive and attractive interatomic interactions. It is shown that the diversity of the spatiotemporal dynamics of the atomic population distribution such as a macroscopic self-trapping, bright and dark solitons, and symmetry breaking is derived from the positive and negative interatomic interactions. For the circular-chain configuration, two types of rotational modes are obtained as we introduce a definite relation for the initial phase conditions

  7. Self-error-rejecting photonic qubit transmission in polarization-spatial modes with linear optical elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, YuXiao; Guo, PengLiang; Gao, ChengYan; Wang, HaiBo; Alzahrani, Faris; Hobiny, Aatef; Deng, FuGuo

    2017-12-01

    We present an original self-error-rejecting photonic qubit transmission scheme for both the polarization and spatial states of photon systems transmitted over collective noise channels. In our scheme, we use simple linear-optical elements, including half-wave plates, 50:50 beam splitters, and polarization beam splitters, to convert spatial-polarization modes into different time bins. By using postselection in different time bins, the success probability of obtaining the uncorrupted states approaches 1/4 for single-photon transmission, which is not influenced by the coefficients of noisy channels. Our self-error-rejecting transmission scheme can be generalized to hyperentangled n-photon systems and is useful in practical high-capacity quantum communications with photon systems in two degrees of freedom.

  8. Hyperentanglement concentration for polarization-spatial-time-bin hyperentangled photon systems with linear optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Ren, Bao-Cang; Alzahrani, Faris; Hobiny, Aatef; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2017-10-01

    Hyperentanglement has significant applications in quantum information processing. Here we present an efficient hyperentanglement concentration protocol (hyper-ECP) for partially hyperentangled Bell states simultaneously entangled in polarization, spatial-mode and time-bin degrees of freedom (DOFs) with the parameter-splitting method, where the parameters of the partially hyperentangled Bell states are known to the remote parties. In this hyper-ECP, only one remote party is required to perform some local operations on the three DOFs of a photon, only the linear optical elements are considered, and the success probability can achieve the maximal value. Our hyper-ECP can be easily generalized to concentrate the N-photon partially hyperentangled Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states with known parameters, where the multiple DOFs have largely improved the channel capacity of long-distance quantum communication. All of these make our hyper-ECP more practical and useful in high-capacity long-distance quantum communication.

  9. Simple method for measuring reflectance of optical coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Gui Wang; Yi Sheng Chen

    1995-01-01

    The quality of optical coatings has an important effect on the performance of optical instrument. The last few years, the requirements for super low loss dielectric mirror coatings used in low gain laser systems such as free electron laser and the ring laser etc., have given an impetus to the development of the technology of precise reflectance measurement of optical coatings. A reliable and workable technique is to measure the light intensity decay time of optical resonant cavity. This paper describes a measuring method which is dependent on direct measurement of the light intensity decay time of a resonant cavity comprised of low loss optical components. According to the evolution of a luminous flux stored inside the cavity, this method guarantees not only a quick and precise reflectance measurements of low loss highly reflecting mirror coatings but also transmittance measurements of low loss antireflection coatings and is especially effective with super los loss highly reflecting mirror. From the round-trip path length of the cavity and the speed of light, the light intensity exponential decay time of an optical cavity is easy to obtain and the cavity losses can be deduced. An optical reflectance of low loss highly mirror coatings and antireflection coatings is precisely measured as well. This is highly significant for the discrimination of the coating surface characteristics, the improvement of the performance of optical instrument and the development of high technology

  10. Demonstration of feed-forward control for linear optics quantum computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pittman, T.B.; Jacobs, B.C.; Franson, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    One of the main requirements in linear optics quantum computing is the ability to perform single-qubit operations that are controlled by classical information fed forward from the output of single-photon detectors. These operations correspond to predetermined combinations of phase corrections and bit flips that are applied to the postselected output modes of nondeterministic quantum logic devices. Corrections of this kind are required in order to obtain the correct logical output for certain detection events, and their use can increase the overall success probability of the devices. In this paper, we report on the experimental demonstration of the use of this type of feed-forward system to increase the probability of success of a simple nondeterministic quantum logic operation from approximately (1/4) to (1/2). This logic operation involves the use of one target qubit and one ancilla qubit which, in this experiment, are derived from a parametric down-conversion photon pair. Classical information describing the detection of the ancilla photon is fed forward in real time and used to alter the quantum state of the output photon. A fiber-optic delay line is used to store the output photon until a polarization-dependent phase shift can be applied using a high-speed Pockels cell

  11. X-ray topographic studies of organic and non-linear optical materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halfpenny, P. J.; Sherwood, J. N.; Simpson, G. S.

    1997-01-01

    The flexible and non-destructive nature of X-ray topography is ideally suited to the study of large single crystals for both fundamental research and technological applications as well as the optimisation of crystal growth processes. Three examples are discussed, illustrating the application of X-ray topographic methods to non-linear optical (NLO) crystals. Synchrotron radiation section topography has been applied to the examination of large organic crystals. X-ray topography has been used to examine growth defects and the quality of crystals of m-nitroaniline (mNA) grown by the Bridgeman method. These studies allow evaluation of growth parameters together with their influence on defect density and show that in the case of mNA, remarkably low defect densities can be achieved under optimum growth conditions. Double-crystal reflection topography, with synchrotron radiation has been used to image defects intersecting the (011) faces of the inorganic NLO material potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP). X-ray images have been combined with optical microscopy and interferometry to provide valuable information on the crystal growth process

  12. Electron-related linear and nonlinear optical responses in vertically coupled triangular quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-Orozco, J.C.; Mora-Ramos, M.E.; Duque, C.A.

    2014-01-01

    The conduction band states of GaAs-based vertically coupled double triangular quantum dots in two dimensions are investigated within the effective mass and parabolic approximation, using a diagonalization procedure to solve the corresponding Schrödinger-like equation. The effect of an externally applied static electric field is included in the calculation, and the variation of the lowest confined energy levels as a result of the change of the field strength is reported for different geometrical setups. The linear and nonlinear optical absorptions and the relative change of the refractive index, associated with the energy transition between the ground and the first excited state in the system, are studied as a function of the incident light frequency for distinct configurations of inter-dot distance and electric field intensities. The blueshift of the resonant absorption peaks is detected as a consequence of the increment in the field intensity, whereas the opposite effect is obtained from the increase of inter-dot vertical distance. It is also shown that for large enough values of the electric field there is a quenching of the optical absorption due to field-induced change of symmetry of the first excited state wavefunction, in the case of triangular dots of equal shape and size

  13. Structural, linear and nonlinear optical properties of co-doped ZnO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaaban, E. R.; El-Hagary, M.; Moustafa, El Sayed; Hassan, H. Shokry; Ismail, Yasser A. M.; Emam-Ismail, M.; Ali, A. S.

    2016-01-01

    Different compositions of Co-doped zinc oxide [(Zn(1- x)Co x O) ( x = 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08 and 0.10)] thin films were evaporated onto highly clean glass substrates by thermal evaporation technique using a modified source. The structural properties investigated by X-ray diffraction revealed hexagonal wurtzite ZnO-type structure. The crystallite size of the films was found to decrease with increasing Co content. The optical characterization of the films has been carried out using spectral transmittance and reflectance obtained in the wavelength range from 300 to 2500 nm. The refractive index has been found to increase with increasing Co content. It was further found that optical energy gap decreases from 3.28 to 3.03 eV with increasing Co content from x = 0 to x = 0.10, respectively. The dispersion of refractive index has been analyzed in terms of Wemple-DiDomenico (WDD) single-oscillator model. The oscillator parameters, the single-oscillator energy ( E o), the dispersion energy ( E d), and the static refractive index ( n 0), were determined. The nonlinear refractive index of the Zn(1- x)Co x O thin films was calculated and revealed well correlation with the linear refractive index and WDD parameters which in turn depend on the density and molar volume of the system.

  14. Electron-related linear and nonlinear optical responses in vertically coupled triangular quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Orozco, J.C. [Unidad Académica de Física. Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Calzada Solidaridad esquina con Paseo la Bufa S/N, C.P. 98060. Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Ave. Universidad 1001, CP 62209, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Duque, C.A., E-mail: cduque@fisica.udea.edu.co [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia)

    2014-11-01

    The conduction band states of GaAs-based vertically coupled double triangular quantum dots in two dimensions are investigated within the effective mass and parabolic approximation, using a diagonalization procedure to solve the corresponding Schrödinger-like equation. The effect of an externally applied static electric field is included in the calculation, and the variation of the lowest confined energy levels as a result of the change of the field strength is reported for different geometrical setups. The linear and nonlinear optical absorptions and the relative change of the refractive index, associated with the energy transition between the ground and the first excited state in the system, are studied as a function of the incident light frequency for distinct configurations of inter-dot distance and electric field intensities. The blueshift of the resonant absorption peaks is detected as a consequence of the increment in the field intensity, whereas the opposite effect is obtained from the increase of inter-dot vertical distance. It is also shown that for large enough values of the electric field there is a quenching of the optical absorption due to field-induced change of symmetry of the first excited state wavefunction, in the case of triangular dots of equal shape and size.

  15. Realisation and optical engineering of linear variable bandpass filters in nanoporous anodic alumina photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukarno; Law, Cheryl Suwen; Santos, Abel

    2017-06-08

    We present the first realisation of linear variable bandpass filters in nanoporous anodic alumina (NAA-LVBPFs) photonic crystal structures. NAA gradient-index filters (NAA-GIFs) are produced by sinusoidal pulse anodisation and used as photonic crystal platforms to generate NAA-LVBPFs. The anodisation period of NAA-GIFs is modified from 650 to 850 s to systematically tune the characteristic photonic stopband of these photonic crystals across the UV-visible-NIR spectrum. Then, the nanoporous structure of NAA-GIFs is gradually widened along the surface under controlled conditions by wet chemical etching using a dip coating approach aiming to create NAA-LVBPFs with finely engineered optical properties. We demonstrate that the characteristic photonic stopband and the iridescent interferometric colour displayed by these photonic crystals can be tuned with precision across the surface of NAA-LVBPFs by adjusting the fabrication and etching conditions. Here, we envisage for the first time the combination of the anodisation period and etching conditions as a cost-competitive, facile, and versatile nanofabrication approach that enables the generation of a broad range of unique LVBPFs covering the spectral regions. These photonic crystal structures open new opportunities for multiple applications, including adaptive optics, hyperspectral imaging, fluorescence diagnostics, spectroscopy, and sensing.

  16. Optical colour image watermarking based on phase-truncated linear canonical transform and image decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yonggang; Tang, Chen; Li, Biyuan; Lei, Zhenkun

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a novel optical colour image watermarking scheme based on phase-truncated linear canonical transform (PT-LCT) and image decomposition (ID). In this proposed scheme, a PT-LCT-based asymmetric cryptography is designed to encode the colour watermark into a noise-like pattern, and an ID-based multilevel embedding method is constructed to embed the encoded colour watermark into a colour host image. The PT-LCT-based asymmetric cryptography, which can be optically implemented by double random phase encoding with a quadratic phase system, can provide a higher security to resist various common cryptographic attacks. And the ID-based multilevel embedding method, which can be digitally implemented by a computer, can make the information of the colour watermark disperse better in the colour host image. The proposed colour image watermarking scheme possesses high security and can achieve a higher robustness while preserving the watermark’s invisibility. The good performance of the proposed scheme has been demonstrated by extensive experiments and comparison with other relevant schemes.

  17. Soft-x-ray magneto-optical Kerr effect and element-specific hysteresis measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortright, J.B.; Rice, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Interest in the utilization of x-ray magneto-optical properties to provide element-specific magnetic information, combined with recent development of tunable linear polarizers for spectroscopic polarization measurement, have led the authors to the study of magneto-optical rotation (MOR) near core levels of magnetic atoms in magnetic multilayer and alloy films. Their initial observation of Faraday rotation (in transmission) demonstrated that for Fe MOR is easily measured and is larger at its L{sub 3} resonance than in the near-visible spectral regions. This work also demonstrated that the spectroscopic behavior of the MOR signal in transmission, resulting from the differential reaction of left- and right-circular components of a linearly polarized beam, is related to the magnetic circular dichroism (MCD), or differential absorption, as expected by a Kramers-Kronig transformation. Thus MCD measurements using circular polarization and MOR measurements using linear polarization can provide complementary, and in some cases equivalent, information. On beamline 6.3.2 the authors have begun to investigate soft x-ray MOR in the reflection geometry, the x-ray magneto-optic Kerr effect (XMOKE). Early measurements have demonstrated the ability to measure element-specific hysteresis loops and large rotations compared to analogous near-visible measurements. The authors are investigating the spectral dependence of the XMOKE signal, and have initiated systematic materials studies of sputter-deposited films of Fe, Fe{sub x}Cr{sub 1{minus}x} alloys, and Fe/Cr multilayers.

  18. A non-linear optical ''photograph'' of picosecond pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukhorukova, A.K.; Sukhorukov, A.P.; Telegin, L.S.; Yankina, I.B.

    1981-01-01

    Results are given of experimental and theoretical studies on the conversion of the temporary structure of picosecond pulses into a spatial diagram with noncollinated lasing of the sum frequency. Correlations are found for the crystal parameters, the pumping emission and the interaction geometry, which are needed in measuring durations in a range from 10 /sup -10/ all the way up to 10 /sup -13/ seconds. The proposed optical recording circuit in the relatively simple experiment makes it possible to measure the duration of the super short pulses of weak signals.

  19. X-band rf driven free electron laser driver with optics linearization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yipeng Sun (孙一鹏

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a compact hard X-ray free electron lasers (FEL design is proposed with all X-band rf acceleration and two stage bunch compression. It eliminates the need of a harmonic rf linearization section by employing optics linearization in its first stage bunch compression. Quadrupoles and sextupoles are employed in a bunch compressor one (BC1 design, in such a way that second order longitudinal dispersion of BC1 cancels the second order energy correlation in the electron beam. Start-to-end 6-D simulations are performed with all the collective effects included. Emittance growth in the horizontal plane due to coherent synchrotron radiation is investigated and minimized, to be on a similar level with the successfully operating Linac coherent light source (LCLS. At a FEL radiation wavelength of 0.15 nm, a saturation length of 40 meters can be achieved by employing an undulator with a period of 1.5 cm. Without tapering, a FEL radiation power above 10 GW is achieved with a photon pulse length of 50 fs, which is LCLS-like performance. The overall length of the accelerator plus undulator is around 250 meters which is much shorter than the LCLS length of 1230 meters. That makes it possible to build hard X-ray FEL in a laboratory with limited size.

  20. Bounds on achievable accuracy in analog optical linear-algebra processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batsell, Stephen G.; Walkup, John F.; Krile, Thomas F.

    1990-07-01

    Upper arid lower bounds on the number of bits of accuracy achievable are determined by applying a seconth-ortler statistical model to the linear algebra processor. The use of bounds was found necessary due to the strong signal-dependence of the noise at the output of the optical linear algebra processor (OLAP). 1 1. ACCURACY BOUNDS One of the limiting factors in applying OLAPs to real world problems has been the poor achievable accuracy of these processors. Little previous research has been done on determining noise sources from a systems perspective which would include noise generated in the multiplication ard addition operations spatial variations across arrays and crosstalk. We have previously examined these noise sources and determined a general model for the output noise mean and variance. The model demonstrates a strony signaldependency in the noise at the output of the processor which has been confirmed by our experiments. 1 We define accuracy similar to its definition for an analog signal input to an analog-to-digital (ND) converter. The number of bits of accuracy achievable is related to the log (base 2) of the number of separable levels at the P/D converter output. The number of separable levels is fouri by dividing the dynamic range by m times the standard deviation of the signal a. 2 Here m determines the error rate in the P/D conversion. The dynamic range can be expressed as the

  1. Fiber-Optic Pyrometer with Optically Powered Switch for Temperature Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Carmen; Pérez-Prieto, Sandra; López-Cardona, Juan D; Tapetado, Alberto; Blanco, Enrique; Moreno-López, Jorge; Montero, David S; Lallana, Pedro C

    2018-02-06

    We report the experimental results on a new infrared fiber-optic pyrometer for very localized and high-speed temperature measurements ranging from 170 to 530 °C using low-noise photodetectors and high-gain transimpedance amplifiers with a single gain mode in the whole temperature range. We also report a shutter based on an optical fiber switch which is optically powered to provide a reference signal in an optical fiber pyrometer measuring from 200 to 550 °C. The tests show the potential of remotely powering via optical means a 300 mW power-hungry optical switch at a distance of 100 m, avoiding any electromagnetic interference close to the measuring point.

  2. Fiber-Optic Pyrometer with Optically Powered Switch for Temperature Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Vázquez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We report the experimental results on a new infrared fiber-optic pyrometer for very localized and high-speed temperature measurements ranging from 170 to 530 °C using low-noise photodetectors and high-gain transimpedance amplifiers with a single gain mode in the whole temperature range. We also report a shutter based on an optical fiber switch which is optically powered to provide a reference signal in an optical fiber pyrometer measuring from 200 to 550 °C. The tests show the potential of remotely powering via optical means a 300 mW power-hungry optical switch at a distance of 100 m, avoiding any electromagnetic interference close to the measuring point.

  3. Direct measurements of the extraordinary optical\

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Antognozzi, M.; Bermingham, C.R.; Harniman, R.L.; Simpson, Stephen Hugh; Senior, J.; Hayward, I.R.; Hoerber, H.; Dennis, M.R.; Bekshaev, A.Y.; Bliokh, K.Y.; Nori, F.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 8 (2016), s. 731-735 ISSN 1745-2473 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : radiation-pressure * angular-momentum * microscopy Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 22.806, year: 2016

  4. Invited Review Article: Measurement uncertainty of linear phase-stepping algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hack, Erwin [EMPA, Laboratory Electronics/Metrology/Reliability, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Burke, Jan [Australian Centre for Precision Optics, CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation) Materials Science and Engineering, P.O. Box 218, Lindfield, NSW 2070 (Australia)

    2011-06-15

    Phase retrieval techniques are widely used in optics, imaging and electronics. Originating in signal theory, they were introduced to interferometry around 1970. Over the years, many robust phase-stepping techniques have been developed that minimize specific experimental influence quantities such as phase step errors or higher harmonic components of the signal. However, optimizing a technique for a specific influence quantity can compromise its performance with regard to others. We present a consistent quantitative analysis of phase measurement uncertainty for the generalized linear phase stepping algorithm with nominally equal phase stepping angles thereby reviewing and generalizing several results that have been reported in literature. All influence quantities are treated on equal footing, and correlations between them are described in a consistent way. For the special case of classical N-bucket algorithms, we present analytical formulae that describe the combined variance as a function of the phase angle values. For the general Arctan algorithms, we derive expressions for the measurement uncertainty averaged over the full 2{pi}-range of phase angles. We also give an upper bound for the measurement uncertainty which can be expressed as being proportional to an algorithm specific factor. Tabular compilations help the reader to quickly assess the uncertainties that are involved with his or her technique.

  5. Applied photometry, radiometry, and measurements of optical losses

    CERN Document Server

    Bukshtab, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Applied Photometry, Radiometry, and Measurements of Optical Losses reviews and analyzes physical concepts of radiation transfer, providing quantitative foundation for the means of measurements of optical losses, which affect propagation and distribution of light waves in various media and in diverse optical systems and components. The comprehensive analysis of advanced methodologies for low-loss detection is outlined in comparison with the classic photometric and radiometric observations, having a broad range of techniques examined and summarized: from interferometric and calorimetric, resonator and polarization, phase-shift and ring-down decay, wavelength and frequency modulation to pulse separation and resonant, acousto-optic and emissive - subsequently compared to direct and balancing methods for studying free-space and polarization optics, fibers and waveguides. The material is focused on applying optical methods and procedures for evaluation of transparent, reflecting, scattering, absorbing, and aggregat...

  6. Noise Reduction of Measurement Data using Linear Digital Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitzmann B.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper Butterworth, Chebyshev (Type I and II and Elliptic digital filters are designed for signal noise reduction. On-line data measurements of substrate concentration from E. coli fed-batch cultivation process are used. Application of the designed filters leads to a successful noise reduction of on-line glucose measurements. The digital filters presented here are simple, easy to implement and effective - the used filters allow for a smart compromise between signal information and noise corruption.

  7. Multiparameter estimation with single photons—linearly-optically generated quantum entanglement beats the shotnoise limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Chenglong; Adhikari, Sushovit; Chi, Yuxi; LaBorde, Margarite L.; Matyas, Corey T.; Zhang, Chenyu; Su, Zuen; Byrnes, Tim; Lu, Chaoyang; Dowling, Jonathan P.; Olson, Jonathan P.

    2017-12-01

    It was suggested in (Motes et al 2015 Phys. Rev. Lett. 114 170802) that optical networks with relatively inexpensive overheads—single photon Fock states, passive optical elements, and single photon detection—can show significant improvements over classical strategies for single-parameter estimation, when the number of modes in the network is small (ncompute the quantum Cramér-Rao bound to show these networks can have a constant-factor quantum advantage in multi-parameter estimation for even large number of modes. Additionally, we provide a simplified measurement scheme using only single-photon (on-off) detectors that is capable of approximately obtaining this sensitivity for a small number of modes.

  8. Continuous-variable quantum cloning of coherent states with phase-conjugate input modes using linear optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Haixia; Zhang, Jing

    2007-01-01

    We propose a scheme for continuous-variable quantum cloning of coherent states with phase-conjugate input modes using linear optics. The quantum cloning machine yields M identical optimal clones from N replicas of a coherent state and N replicas of its phase conjugate. This scheme can be straightforwardly implemented with the setups accessible at present since its optical implementation only employs simple linear optical elements and homodyne detection. Compared with the original scheme for continuous-variable quantum cloning with phase-conjugate input modes proposed by Cerf and Iblisdir [Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 247903 (2001)], which utilized a nondegenerate optical parametric amplifier, our scheme loses the output of phase-conjugate clones and is regarded as irreversible quantum cloning

  9. Interfacial characterization of soil-embedded optical fiber for ground deformation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Cheng-Cheng; Zhu, Hong-Hu; Shi, Bin; She, Jun-Kuan

    2014-01-01

    Recently fiber-optic sensing technologies have been applied for performance monitoring of geotechnical structures such as slopes, foundations, and retaining walls. However, the validity of measured data from soil-embedded optical fibers is strongly influenced by the properties of the interface between the sensing fiber and the soil mass. This paper presents a study of the interfacial properties of an optical fiber embedded in soil with an emphasis on the effect of overburden pressure. Laboratory pullout tests were conducted to investigate the load-deformation characteristics of a 0.9 mm tight-buffered optical fiber embedded in soil. Based on a tri-linear interfacial shear stress-displacement relationship, an analytical model was derived to describe the progressive pullout behavior of an optical fiber from soil matrix. A comparison between the experimental and predicted results verified the effectiveness of the proposed pullout model. The test results are further interpreted and discussed. It is found that the interfacial bond between an optical fiber and soil is prominently enhanced under high overburden pressures. The apparent coefficients of friction of the optical fiber/soil interface decrease as the overburden pressure increases, due to the restrained soil dilation around the optical fiber. Furthermore, to facilitate the analysis of strain measurement, three working states of a soil-embedded sensing fiber were defined in terms of two characteristic displacements. (paper)

  10. A comparison of semi-automated volumetric vs linear measurement of small vestibular schwannomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKeith, Samuel; Das, Tilak; Graves, Martin; Patterson, Andrew; Donnelly, Neil; Mannion, Richard; Axon, Patrick; Tysome, James

    2018-04-01

    Accurate and precise measurement of vestibular schwannoma (VS) size is key to clinical management decisions. Linear measurements are used in routine clinical practice but are prone to measurement error. This study aims to compare a semi-automated volume segmentation tool against standard linear method for measuring small VS. This study also examines whether oblique tumour orientation can contribute to linear measurement error. Experimental comparison of observer agreement using two measurement techniques. Tertiary skull base unit. Twenty-four patients with unilateral sporadic small (linear dimension following reformatting to correct for oblique orientation of VS. Intra-observer ICC was higher for semi-automated volumetric when compared with linear measurements, 0.998 (95% CI 0.994-0.999) vs 0.936 (95% CI 0.856-0.972), p linear measurements, 0.989 (95% CI 0.975-0.995) vs 0.946 (95% CI 0.880-0.976), p = 0.0045. The intra-observer %SDD was similar for volumetric and linear measurements, 9.9% vs 11.8%. However, the inter-observer %SDD was greater for volumetric than linear measurements, 20.1% vs 10.6%. Following oblique reformatting to correct tumour angulation, the mean increase in size was 1.14 mm (p = 0.04). Semi-automated volumetric measurements are more repeatable than linear measurements when measuring small VS and should be considered for use in clinical practice. Oblique orientation of VS may contribute to linear measurement error.

  11. Correlation between electrochemical impedance measurements and corrosion rate of magnesium investigated by real-time hydrogen measurement and optical imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Curioni, M.; Scenini, F.; Monetta, T.; Bellucci, F.

    2015-01-01

    The corrosion behaviour of magnesium in chloride-containing aqueous environment was investigated by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) performed simultaneously with real-time hydrogen evolution measurements and optical imaging of the corroding surface. The potentiodynamic investigation revealed substantial deviations from linearity in close proximity of the corrosion potential. In particular, differences in the slope of the current/potential curves w...

  12. Linear measure functional differential equations with infinite delay

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Monteiro, Giselle Antunes; Slavík, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 287, 11-12 (2014), s. 1363-1382 ISSN 0025-584X Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : measure functional differential equations * generalized ordinary differential equations * Kurzweil-Stieltjes integral Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.683, year: 2014 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/mana.201300048/abstract

  13. Fast and precise luminosity measurement at the international linear ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    6. — journal of. December 2007 physics pp. 1151–1157. Fast and precise luminosity measurement ... The fast investigation of the collision quality for intrabunch feedback and the ... consisting of the sensor, the absorber and an interconnection structure. 2. ... outer radius of BeamCal is increased to keep the angular overlap.

  14. Fast and precise luminosity measurement at the international linear

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The detectors of the ILC will feature a calorimeter system in the very forward region. The system comprises mainly two electromagnetic calorimeters: LumiCal, which is dedicated to the measurement of the absolute luminosity with highest precision and BeamCal, which uses the energy deposition from beamstrahlung pairs ...

  15. Small Device For Short-Range Antenna Measurements Using Optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yanakiev, Boyan Radkov; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Christensen, Morten

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives a practical solution for implementing an antenna radiation pattern measurement device using optical fibers. It is suitable for anechoic chambers as well as short range channel sounding. The device is optimized for small size and provides a cheap and easy way to make optical antenna...

  16. Neutron leakage measurements from a medical linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palta, J.R.; Hogstrom, K.R.; Tannanonta, C.

    1984-01-01

    The McCall method has been used to measure neutron leakage from the Mevatron 77, 18- and 15-MV photon beams. Gold foil activation has been used employing a beta counting technique for the 18-MV beam and a gamma counting technique for both the 18- and 15-MV beam. The two counting techniques were used to evaluate their relative merit. The measurements were made at various locations in the patient-treatment plane for different field sizes. The results show that the thermal-neutron dose equivalent contributes only about 1%--2% of the total neutron dose equivalent. At 100 cm, the neutron dose equivalent for the 18-MV beam is approximately six times that of the 15-MV beam, slightly exceeding the 0.1% of the useful beam criteria used by some of the regulatory agencies. In light of the uncertainty in fluence to dose equivalent conversion factors, the increased dose equivalent above 0.1% is insignificant

  17. Comparison of optic area measurement using fundus photography and optical coherence tomography between optic nerve head drusen and control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Rodríguez, Patricia; Gili, Pablo; Martín-Ríos, María Dolores; Grifol-Clar, Eulalia

    2013-03-01

    To compare optic disc area measurement between optic nerve head drusen (ONHD) and control subjects using fundus photography, time-domain optical coherence tomography (TD-OCT) and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). We also made a comparison between each of the three techniques. We performed our study on 66 eyes (66 patients) with ONHD and 70 healthy control subjects (70 controls) with colour ocular fundus photography at 20º (Zeiss FF 450 IR plus), TD-OCT (Stratus OCT) with the Fast Optic Disc protocol and SD-OCT (Cirrus OCT) with the Optic Disc Cube 200 × 200 protocol for measurement of the optic disc area. The measurements were made by two observers and in each measurement a correction of the image magnification factor was performed. Measurement comparison using the Student's t-test/Mann-Whitney U test, the intraclass correlation coefficient, Pearson/Spearman rank correlation coefficient and the Bland-Altman plot was performed in the statistical analysis. Mean and standard deviation (SD) of the optic disc area in ONHD and in controls was 2.38 (0.54) mm(2) and 2.54 (0.42) mm(2), respectively with fundus photography; 2.01 (0.56) mm(2) and 1.66 (0.37) mm(2), respectively with TD-OCT, and 2.03 (0.49) mm(2) and 1.75 (0.38) mm(2), respectively with SD-OCT. In ONHD and controls, repeatability of optic disc area measurement was excellent with fundus photography and optical coherence tomography (TD-OCT and SD-OCT), but with a low degree of agreement between both techniques. Optic disc area measurement is smaller in ONHD compared to healthy subjects with fundus photography, unlike time-domain and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in which the reverse is true. Both techniques offer good repeatability, but a low degree of correlation and agreement, which means that optic disc area measurement is not interchangeable or comparable between techniques. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2013 The College of Optometrists.

  18. Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR Enhancement Comparison of Impulse-, Coding- and Novel Linear-Frequency-Chirp-Based Optical Time Domain Reflectometry (OTDR for Passive Optical Network (PON Monitoring Based on Unique Combinations of Wavelength Selective Mirrors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M. Bentz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We compare optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR techniques based on conventional single impulse, coding and linear frequency chirps concerning their signal to noise ratio (SNR enhancements by measurements in a passive optical network (PON with a maximum one-way attenuation of 36.6 dB. A total of six subscribers, each represented by a unique mirror pair with narrow reflection bandwidths, are installed within a distance of 14 m. The spatial resolution of the OTDR set-up is 3.0 m.

  19. Semiconductor sensor for optically measuring polarization rotation of optical wavefronts using rare earth iron garnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Paul G.

    2002-01-01

    Described are the design of a rare earth iron garnet sensor element, optical methods of interrogating the sensor element, methods of coupling the optical sensor element to a waveguide, and an optical and electrical processing system for monitoring the polarization rotation of a linearly polarized wavefront undergoing external modulation due to magnetic field or electrical current fluctuation. The sensor element uses the Faraday effect, an intrinsic property of certain rare-earth iron garnet materials, to rotate the polarization state of light in the presence of a magnetic field. The sensor element may be coated with a thin-film mirror to effectively double the optical path length, providing twice the sensitivity for a given field strength or temperature change. A semiconductor sensor system using a rare earth iron garnet sensor element is described.

  20. Optical metrology alignment and impact on the measurement performance of the LISA Technology Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirth, M; Fichter, W; Brandt, N; Gerardi, D [iFR, Universitaet Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 7a, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Schleicher, A [Astrium GmbH, 88039 Friedrichshafen (Germany); Wanner, G, E-mail: marc.hirth@ifr.uni-stuttgart.d [Albert Einstein Institut, Callinstrasse 38, 30167 Hannover (Germany)

    2009-03-01

    Aside from LISA Pathfinder's top-level acceleration requirement, there is a stringent independent requirement for the accuracy of the optical metrology system. In case of a perfectly aligned metrology system (optical bench and test masses) it should rather be independent of residual displacement jitter due to control. However, this ideal case will not be achieved as mechanical tolerances and uncertainties lead to a direct impact of test mass and spacecraft displacement jitter on the optical measurement accuracy. In this paper, we present a strategy how to cover these effects for a systematic requirement breakdown. We use a simplified nonlinear geometrical model for the differential distance measurement of the test masses which is linearized and linked to the equations of motion for both the spacecraft and the two test masses. This leads from test mass relative displacement to a formulation in terms of applied force/torque and thus allows to distinguish the absolute motion of each of the three bodies. It further shows how motions in each degree of freedom couple linearly into the optical measurement via DC misalignments of the laser beam and the test masses. This finally allows for deriving requirements on the alignment accuracy of components and on permittable closed-loop acceleration noise. In the last part a budget for the expected measurement performance is compiled from simulations as no measurement data is available yet.

  1. Optical metrology alignment and impact on the measurement performance of the LISA Technology Package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirth, M; Fichter, W; Brandt, N; Gerardi, D; Schleicher, A; Wanner, G

    2009-01-01

    Aside from LISA Pathfinder's top-level acceleration requirement, there is a stringent independent requirement for the accuracy of the optical metrology system. In case of a perfectly aligned metrology system (optical bench and test masses) it should rather be independent of residual displacement jitter due to control. However, this ideal case will not be achieved as mechanical tolerances and uncertainties lead to a direct impact of test mass and spacecraft displacement jitter on the optical measurement accuracy. In this paper, we present a strategy how to cover these effects for a systematic requirement breakdown. We use a simplified nonlinear geometrical model for the differential distance measurement of the test masses which is linearized and linked to the equations of motion for both the spacecraft and the two test masses. This leads from test mass relative displacement to a formulation in terms of applied force/torque and thus allows to distinguish the absolute motion of each of the three bodies. It further shows how motions in each degree of freedom couple linearly into the optical measurement via DC misalignments of the laser beam and the test masses. This finally allows for deriving requirements on the alignment accuracy of components and on permittable closed-loop acceleration noise. In the last part a budget for the expected measurement performance is compiled from simulations as no measurement data is available yet.

  2. Direct optical band gap measurement in polycrystalline semiconductors: A critical look at the Tauc method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgonos, Alex; Mason, Thomas O.; Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R.

    2016-01-01

    The direct optical band gap of semiconductors is traditionally measured by extrapolating the linear region of the square of the absorption curve to the x-axis, and a variation of this method, developed by Tauc, has also been widely used. The application of the Tauc method to crystalline materials is rooted in misconception–and traditional linear extrapolation methods are inappropriate for use on degenerate semiconductors, where the occupation of conduction band energy states cannot be ignored. A new method is proposed for extracting a direct optical band gap from absorption spectra of degenerately-doped bulk semiconductors. This method was applied to pseudo-absorption spectra of Sn-doped In 2 O 3 (ITO)—converted from diffuse-reflectance measurements on bulk specimens. The results of this analysis were corroborated by room-temperature photoluminescence excitation measurements, which yielded values of optical band gap and Burstein–Moss shift that are consistent with previous studies on In 2 O 3 single crystals and thin films. - Highlights: • The Tauc method of band gap measurement is re-evaluated for crystalline materials. • Graphical method proposed for extracting optical band gaps from absorption spectra. • The proposed method incorporates an energy broadening term for energy transitions. • Values for ITO were self-consistent between two different measurement methods.

  3. Improvements for Optics Measurement and Corrections software

    CERN Document Server

    Bach, T

    2013-01-01

    This note presents the improvements for the OMC software during a 14 month technical student internship at CERN. The goal of the work was to improve existing software in terms of maintainability, features and performance. Significant improvements in stability, speed and overall development process were reached. The main software, a Java GUI at the LHC CCC, run for months without noteworthy problems. The overall running time of the software chain used for optics corrections was reduced from nearly half an hour to around two minutes. This was the result of analysing and improving several involved programs and algorithms.

  4. The influence of underwater turbulence on optical phase measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redding, Brandon; Davis, Allen; Kirkendall, Clay; Dandridge, Anthony

    2016-05-01

    Emerging underwater optical imaging and sensing applications rely on phase-sensitive detection to provide added functionality and improved sensitivity. However, underwater turbulence introduces spatio-temporal variations in the refractive index of water which can degrade the performance of these systems. Although the influence of turbulence on traditional, non-interferometric imaging has been investigated, its influence on the optical phase remains poorly understood. Nonetheless, a thorough understanding of the spatio-temporal dynamics of the optical phase of light passing through underwater turbulence are crucial to the design of phase-sensitive imaging and sensing systems. To address this concern, we combined underwater imaging with high speed holography to provide a calibrated characterization of the effects of turbulence on the optical phase. By measuring the modulation transfer function of an underwater imaging system, we were able to calibrate varying levels of optical turbulence intensity using the Simple Underwater Imaging Model (SUIM). We then used high speed holography to measure the temporal dynamics of the optical phase of light passing through varying levels of turbulence. Using this method, we measured the variance in the amplitude and phase of the beam, the temporal correlation of the optical phase, and recorded the turbulence induced phase noise as a function of frequency. By bench marking the effects of varying levels of turbulence on the optical phase, this work provides a basis to evaluate the real-world potential of emerging underwater interferometric sensing modalities.

  5. Measurement of the linear coupling in the Brookhaven AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raka, E.C.

    1975-01-01

    The magnitude and sign of the zeroth harmonic skew quadrupole component of the magnetic field at 28.5 BeV are determined by exciting and normal mode frequencies in part of the debunched beam present during a flat top extraction cycle. Simple rf excitation of the (9-Q) mode is employed. Filtered difference signals from pick-up electrodes are used to measure the frequencies and relative phases of the H and V oscillations. During acceleration when the beam is bunched it is kicked horizontally and the radial position adjusted until the coupled vertical motion in the (9-Q) mode reaches a maximum. Correction quadrupoles are then powered to minimize the observed amplitude. The magnitude of the coupling roughly tracks with the beam momentum. Saturation effects at high fields plus the powering of backleg bumps and tuning quadrupoles on the SEB flat top are possible sources of the somewhat larger coupling observed under these conditions. (U.S.)

  6. Optical-fiber interferometer for velocity measurements with picosecond resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng Jidong; Tan Hua; Wang Xiang; Ma Yun; Hu Shaolou; Wang Xiaosong

    2006-01-01

    The conventional Doppler laser-interference velocimeters are made up of traditional optical elements such as lenses and mirrors and will generally restrict its applications in multipoint velocity measurements. By transfering the light from multimode optical fiber to single-mode optical fiber and using the currently available conventional telecommunications elements, the authors have constructed a velocimeter called all-fiber displacement interferometer system for any reflector. The unique interferometer system is only made up of fibers or fiber-coupled components. The viability of this technique is demonstrated by measuring the velocity of an interface moving at velocity of 2133 m/s with 50 ps time resolution. In addition, the concept of optical-fiber mode conversion would provide a way to develop various optical-fiber sensors

  7. Measurement of inherent optical properties in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suresh, T.; Desa, E.; Kurian, J.; Mascarenhas, A.A.M.Q.

    Inherent optical properties, absorption and began attenuation were measured in situ using a reflective tube absorption meter at nint wavelength, 412, 440, 488, 510, 555, 630, 650, 676 and 715 nm, in the Arabian Sea during March. Since inherent...

  8. Optical System for Atmospheric Particle Measurement, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To measure the broad size range of 0.1 micron to 200 micron, we propose an optical instrument that combines two techniques: Forward scattering light intensity (FSLI)...

  9. Nonlinearity measure and internal model control based linearization in anti-windup design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perev, Kamen [Systems and Control Department, Technical University of Sofia, 8 Cl. Ohridski Blvd., 1756 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2013-12-18

    This paper considers the problem of internal model control based linearization in anti-windup design. The nonlinearity measure concept is used for quantifying the control system degree of nonlinearity. The linearizing effect of a modified internal model control structure is presented by comparing the nonlinearity measures of the open-loop and closed-loop systems. It is shown that the linearization properties are improved by increasing the control system local feedback gain. However, it is emphasized that at the same time the stability of the system deteriorates. The conflicting goals of stability and linearization are resolved by solving the design problem in different frequency ranges.

  10. Brain function measurement using optical topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Hideaki; Maki, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Kawaguchi, Hideo

    2003-01-01

    Optical topography is a completely non-invasive method to image the high brain function with the near infrared spectroscopy, does not need the restriction of human behavior for imaging and thereby is applicable even for infants. The principle is based on irradiation of the near infrared laser beam with the optical-fiber onto the head surface and detection with the fiber of the reflection, of which spectroscopy for blood-borne hemoglobin gives the local cerebral homodynamics related with the nerve activity. The infrared laser beam of 1-10 mW is found safe on direct irradiation to the human body. The topography is applicable in the fields of clinical medicine like internal neurology (an actual image of the activated Broca's and Welnicke's areas at writing is presented), neurosurgery, psychiatry and pedriatric neurology, of developmental cognitive neuroscience, of educational science and of communication. ''MIT Technology Reviews'' mentions that this technique is one of 4 recent promising innovative techniques in the world. (N.I.)

  11. Optical measurements on iron pnictides containing Eu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, David; Baumgartner, Andreas; Merz, Johannes; Zapf, Sina; Dressel, Martin [1. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Stuttgart (Germany); Aswartham, Saicharan [University of Kentucky, Lexington (United States); Wurmehl, Sabine [IFW, Dresden (Germany); Jiao, Wen-He; Cao, Guang-Han [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China)

    2015-07-01

    The interplay of magnetism with superconductivity is a fascinating, highly debated field of research and many questions still remain unsolved. Members of the EuFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} family are a perfectly suited playground for investigations concerning this topic, due to the peculiarity of strong local magnetism of the europium (T{sub N}∼ 20K), which is a unique feature among the 122 iron pnictides. Optical studies of the parent compound have already revealed that the spin density wave formation deviates from the other 122 pnictides. To get more insight into the superconducting properties of the EuFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} family we carried out an optical study on differently doped samples. We compare Eu(Fe{sub 1-x}Ir{sub x}){sub 2}As{sub 2} where electron doping takes place directly in the conducting iron layer, with EuFe{sub 2}(As{sub 1-x}P{sub x}){sub 2} which corresponds to isovalent substitution at atomic positions out of the Fe-plane. The influence of the Eu is furthermore investigated by placing data we obtained on Ba{sub 0.6}Eu{sub 0.4}(Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}){sub 2}As{sub 2} in juxtaposition to the already highly investigated pure Ba analogue.

  12. Linear optical absorption response of poly(vinylidene fluoride - trifluoroethylene) copolymers to high gamma dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, Adriana S.

    2009-01-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) [PVDF] is a semicrystalline linear homopolymer composed by the repetition of CH 2 - CF 2 monomers. The Poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE)] is a copolymer which is obtained with the random introduction of fluorinated CHF-CF 2 monomers in the PVDF main chain. PVDF, and also its copolymers with TrFE contents ranging from 18 to 63 wt. %, have long been studied for their striking ferroelectric properties and their applications in actuators, transducers and ferroelectric memory. Recent research work around the world have demonstrated that, for TrFE contents ranging from with 30 to 50 wt. %, the copolymer can have its ferroelectric properties modified by high doses of ionizing radiation, with the appearing of radio-induced relaxor ferroelectric features. These studies have lead us to investigate the possible use of these copolymers as high dose dosemeters, once the reported amount of induced C=C conjugated bonds after X-ray, UV and gamma irradiation seems to be a function of the delivered radiation dose. In a first investigation for doses ranging from 0.1 to 100 kGy we found out a linear relation between the gamma radiation dose and the absorption peak intensities in the UV region of the spectrum, i.e., at 223 and 274 nm. The absorption peak at 223 nm is the most sensitive to gamma rays and can be used for detecting gamma doses ranging from 0.3 to 75 kGy. Simultaneously, the absorption peak at 274 nm can be used for doses ranging from 1 to 100 kGy. Now, in the present work, we extended the investigation to gamma doses up to 3 MGy. Particularly, this study is focused in the optical absorption peak at 274 nm, corresponding to the radio-induction of triplets of conjugated C=C double bonds. The investigation revealed a linear correlation between the gamma dose and peak intensity at 274 nm for gamma doses ranging from 0.1 to more than 750 KGy, with a huge extension of the original usable dose range. Calorimetric data revealed a

  13. Ultrafast electron, lattice and spin dynamics on rare earth metal surfaces. Investigated with linear and nonlinear optical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radu, I.E.

    2006-03-15

    This thesis presents the femtosecond laser-induced electron, lattice and spin dynamics on two representative rare-earth systems: The ferromagnetic gadolinium Gd(0001) and the paramagnetic yttrium Y(0001) metals. The employed investigation tools are the time-resolved linear reflectivity and second-harmonic generation, which provide complementary information about the bulk and surface/interface dynamics, respectively. The femtosecond laser excitation of the exchange-split surface state of Gd(0001) triggers simultaneously the coherent vibrational dynamics of the lattice and spin subsystems in the surface region at a frequency of 3 THz. The coherent optical phonon corresponds to the vibration of the topmost atomic layer against the underlying bulk along the normal direction to the surface. The coupling mechanism between phonons and magnons is attributed to the modulation of the exchange interaction J between neighbour atoms due to the coherent lattice vibration. This leads to an oscillatory motion of the magnetic moments having the same frequency as the lattice vibration. Thus these results reveal a new type of phonon-magnon coupling mediated by the modulation of the exchange interaction and not by the conventional spin-orbit interaction. Moreover, we show that coherent spin dynamics in the THz frequency domain is achievable, which is at least one order of magnitude faster than previously reported. The laser-induced (de)magnetization dynamics of the ferromagnetic Gd(0001) thin films have been studied. Upon photo-excitation, the nonlinear magneto-optics measurements performed in this work show a sudden drop in the spin polarization of the surface state by more than 50% in a <100 fs time interval. Under comparable experimental conditions, the time-resolved photoemission studies reveal a constant exchange splitting of the surface state. The ultrafast decrease of spin polarization can be explained by the quasi-elastic spin-flip scattering of the hot electrons among spin

  14. Fiber optic pressure sensors in skin-friction measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuomo, F. W.

    1986-01-01

    A fiber optic lever sensing technique that can be used to measure normal pressure as well as shear stresses is discussed. This method uses three unequal fibers combining small size and good sensitivity. Static measurements appear to confirm the theoretical models predicted by geometrical optics and dynamic tests performed at frequencies up to 10 kHz indicate a flat response within this frequency range. These sensors are intended for use in a low speed wind tunnel environment.

  15. A Fast and Robust Method for Measuring Optical Channel Gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harbo, Anders La-Cour; Stoustrup, Jakob; Villemoes, L.F.

    2000-01-01

    We present a numerically stable and computational simple method for fast and robust measurement of optical channel gain. By transmitting adaptively designed signals through the channel, good accuracy is possible even in severe noise conditions......We present a numerically stable and computational simple method for fast and robust measurement of optical channel gain. By transmitting adaptively designed signals through the channel, good accuracy is possible even in severe noise conditions...

  16. Single-shot optical conductivity measurement of dense aluminum plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churina, I. V.; Cho, B.-I.; Bernstein, A.; Stoker, D. S.; Dalton, A.; Symes, D. R.; Ditmire, T.

    2009-01-01

    The optical conductivity of a dense femtosecond laser-heated aluminum plasma heated to 0.1-1.5 eV was measured using frequency-domain interferometry with chirped pulses, permitting simultaneous observation of optical probe reflectivity and probe pulse phase shift. Coupled with published models of bound-electron contributions to the conductivity, these two independent experimental data yielded a direct measurement of both real and imaginary components of the plasma conductivity.

  17. Generation of a multi-photon Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state with linear optical elements and photon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, X B; Pahlke, K; Mathis, W

    2005-01-01

    We present a scheme to generate a multi-photon Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state by using single-photon sources, linear optical elements and photon detectors. Such a maximum entanglement has wide applications in the demonstration of quantum nonlocality and quantum information processing

  18. Physical origin of third order non-linear optical response of porphyrin nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mongwaketsi, N.; Khamlich, S.; Pranaitis, M.; Sahraoui, B.; Khammar, F.; Garab, G.; Sparrow, R.; Maaza, M.

    2012-01-01

    The non-linear optical properties of porphyrin nanorods were studied using Z-scan, Second and Third harmonic generation techniques. We investigated in details the heteroaggregate behaviour formation of [H 4 TPPS 4 ] 2- and [SnTPyP] 2+ mixture by means of the UV-VIS spectroscopy and aggregates structure and morphology by transmission electron microscopy. The porphyrin nanorods under investigation were synthesized by self assembly and molecular recognition method. They have been optimized in view of future application in the construction of the light harvesting system. The focus of this study was geared towards understanding the influence of the type of solvent used on these porphyrins nanorods using spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. Highlights: ► We synthesized porphyrin nanorods by self assembly and molecular recognition method. ► TEM images confirmed solid cylindrical shapes. ► UV-VIS spectroscopy showed the decrease in the absorbance peaks of the precursors. ► The enhanced third-order nonlinearities were observed.

  19. Effect of weak nonsphericity on linear and nonlinear optical properties of small particle composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharenko, A.V.; Popelnukh, V.V.; Venger, E.F.

    2002-01-01

    A small particle composite in which the inclusions are slightly nonspherical and distributed in shape is considered. Within the framework of the mean-field approximation, the functions of linear and nonlinear optical responses are calculated in terms of a nonsphericity parameter specifying the width of the distribution function in shape. To estimate the effect of weak nonsphericity on the functions, their second derivatives with respect to the nonsphericity parameter are computed. The derivatives are shown to be complexly structured surfaces in the coordinates (Re(ε i /ε m ), Im(ε i /ε m )), where ε i and ε m are the inclusion and matrix permittivity, respectively. Based on the results obtained, applicability area of the classical Maxwell Garnett theory is discussed. The main conclusion is that weak nonsphericity is significant only in the close vicinity of a dipole resonance of a single ball made of inclusion material. At the same time, the role of nonsphericity increases with decreasing the imaginary part of inclusion permittivity. (author)

  20. Two-Hierarchy Entanglement Swapping for a Linear Optical Quantum Repeater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ping; Yong, Hai-Lin; Chen, Luo-Kan; Liu, Chang; Xiang, Tong; Yao, Xing-Can; Lu, He; Li, Zheng-Da; Liu, Nai-Le; Li, Li; Yang, Tao; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Zhao, Bo; Chen, Yu-Ao; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2017-10-27

    Quantum repeaters play a significant role in achieving long-distance quantum communication. In the past decades, tremendous effort has been devoted towards constructing a quantum repeater. As one of the crucial elements, entanglement has been created in different memory systems via entanglement swapping. The realization of j-hierarchy entanglement swapping, i.e., connecting quantum memory and further extending the communication distance, is important for implementing a practical quantum repeater. Here, we report the first demonstration of a fault-tolerant two-hierarchy entanglement swapping with linear optics using parametric down-conversion sources. In the experiment, the dominant or most probable noise terms in the one-hierarchy entanglement swapping, which is on the same order of magnitude as the desired state and prevents further entanglement connections, are automatically washed out by a proper design of the detection setting, and the communication distance can be extended. Given suitable quantum memory, our techniques can be directly applied to implementing an atomic ensemble based quantum repeater, and are of significant importance in the scalable quantum information processing.

  1. Two-Hierarchy Entanglement Swapping for a Linear Optical Quantum Repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ping; Yong, Hai-Lin; Chen, Luo-Kan; Liu, Chang; Xiang, Tong; Yao, Xing-Can; Lu, He; Li, Zheng-Da; Liu, Nai-Le; Li, Li; Yang, Tao; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Zhao, Bo; Chen, Yu-Ao; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2017-10-01

    Quantum repeaters play a significant role in achieving long-distance quantum communication. In the past decades, tremendous effort has been devoted towards constructing a quantum repeater. As one of the crucial elements, entanglement has been created in different memory systems via entanglement swapping. The realization of j -hierarchy entanglement swapping, i.e., connecting quantum memory and further extending the communication distance, is important for implementing a practical quantum repeater. Here, we report the first demonstration of a fault-tolerant two-hierarchy entanglement swapping with linear optics using parametric down-conversion sources. In the experiment, the dominant or most probable noise terms in the one-hierarchy entanglement swapping, which is on the same order of magnitude as the desired state and prevents further entanglement connections, are automatically washed out by a proper design of the detection setting, and the communication distance can be extended. Given suitable quantum memory, our techniques can be directly applied to implementing an atomic ensemble based quantum repeater, and are of significant importance in the scalable quantum information processing.

  2. Mechanism of linear and nonlinear optical properties of bis-thiourea cadmium chloride single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, J.T.; Luo, S.J.; Yi, L.; Laref, A.

    2013-01-01

    Within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA), a calculation of the electronic structure of a semiorganic crystal named bis-thiourea cadmium chloride (BTCC) was performed, then the linear and nonlinear optical responses were obtained over a wide energy range, using a scissor energy of 1.30 eV, and our results are in good agreement with the experiments. The accurate full-potential projected augmented wave (FP-PAW) method was used. The prominent spectrum of the second harmonic generation (SHG) was successfully correlated with the dielectric function in terms of single- and double-photon resonances. Both the virtual electron (VE) and virtual hole (VH) processes make contributions to the SHG of BTCC crystal, and the VH process is enhanced by the Cd-centered tetrahedron. The SHG effect of the semiorganic material is attributed to the charge transfer (CT). The CT model for the semiorganic crystal is named as “M-Π O ⋯X”. “M” is a metal atom providing electrons, “Π O ” is a π-conjugated covalent of an organic molecule, and “X” is a high electronegativity atom. The CT across the BTCC molecule is along a π-electron conjugation covalence bond, and the delocalized electrons of sulfur provide an excellent bridge. The strong “pull” effect for the CT is due to the intramolecular hydrogen bonds provided by the chlorine with the high electron affinity.

  3. Fiber-optic evanescent-field sensor for attitude measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Chen, Shimeng; Liu, Zigeng; Guang, Jianye; Peng, Wei

    2017-11-01

    We proposed a new approach to attitude measurement by an evanescent field-based optical fiber sensing device and demonstrated a liquid pendulum. The device consisted of three fiber-optic evanescent-filed sensors which were fabricated by tapered single mode fibers and immersed in liquid. Three fiber Bragg gratings were used to measure the changes in evanescent field. And their reflection peaks were monitored in real time as measurement signals. Because every set of reflection responses corresponded to a unique attitude, the attitude of the device could be measured by the three fiber-optic evanescent-filed sensors. After theoretical analysis, computerized simulation and experimental verification, regular responses were obtained using this device for attitude measurement. The measurement ranges of dihedral angle and direction angle were 0°-50° and 0°-360°. The device is based on cost-effective power-referenced scheme. It can be used in electromagnetic or nuclear radiation environment.

  4. High-speed linear optics quantum computing using active feed-forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevedel, Robert; Walther, Philip; Tiefenbacher, Felix; Böhi, Pascal; Kaltenbaek, Rainer; Jennewein, Thomas; Zeilinger, Anton

    2007-01-04

    As information carriers in quantum computing, photonic qubits have the advantage of undergoing negligible decoherence. However, the absence of any significant photon-photon interaction is problematic for the realization of non-trivial two-qubit gates. One solution is to introduce an effective nonlinearity by measurements resulting in probabilistic gate operations. In one-way quantum computation, the random quantum measurement error can be overcome by applying a feed-forward technique, such that the future measurement basis depends on earlier measurement results. This technique is crucial for achieving deterministic quantum computation once a cluster state (the highly entangled multiparticle state on which one-way quantum computation is based) is prepared. Here we realize a concatenated scheme of measurement and active feed-forward in a one-way quantum computing experiment. We demonstrate that, for a perfect cluster state and no photon loss, our quantum computation scheme would operate with good fidelity and that our feed-forward components function with very high speed and low error for detected photons. With present technology, the individual computational step (in our case the individual feed-forward cycle) can be operated in less than 150 ns using electro-optical modulators. This is an important result for the future development of one-way quantum computers, whose large-scale implementation will depend on advances in the production and detection of the required highly entangled cluster states.

  5. Multiple-capillary measurement of RBC speed, flux, and density with optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonghwan; Wu, Weicheng; Lesage, Frederic; Boas, David A

    2013-11-01

    As capillaries exhibit heterogeneous and fluctuating dynamics even during baseline, a technique measuring red blood cell (RBC) speed and flux over many capillaries at the same time is needed. Here, we report that optical coherence tomography can capture individual RBC passage simultaneously over many capillaries located at different depths. Further, we demonstrate the ability to quantify RBC speed, flux, and linear density. This technique will provide a means to monitor microvascular flow dynamics over many capillaries at different depths at the same time.

  6. Optical density measurements on the examination of colon cancer tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touati, E.; Ajaal, T.; Hamassi, A.

    2015-01-01

    Automated quantitative image analysis can aid in cancer diagnosis and, in general, mange medical treatments managements and improve routine medical diagnosis. Early diagnosis can make big difference between life and death. Microscopic images from two tissue types forty-four normal and fifty-eight cancers, was evaluated based on their ability to identify abnormalities in colon images. Optical density approach is applied to extract parameters that exhibit cancer behavior on colon tissues images. Using statistical toolbox, a significant result of (p<0.0001) for the mean and the variance of the optical density parameter were detected, and only (p<0.001) for skewness optical density. based on linear discrimination method, the obtained result shows 905 accuracy for both sensitivity and specificity, and with an overall accuracy of 90% (author)

  7. Application of nanostructural materials in electro optical measuring sets of big powers based on usage of optical effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihov, Aidar I.; Tljavlin, Anfar Z.; Kusimov, Salavat M.

    2005-06-01

    Optically transparent nanostructural materials show to themselves a heightened interest owing to display in them the new physic mechanical properties. Variation of structure of the materials received by methods of intensive plastic deformation, results in variation of many fundamental parameters. Among them special interest was caused with variations of fundamental magnetic characteristics. One of them is the magnetization of saturation, which is usually structurally tolerant, but reflects changes in an atomic-crystal structure of solids. Even in the first probing of the transparent nanostructures, received by intensive deformation by torsion of samples, was found that the magnetization of saturation was revealed at room temperature in comparison with coarse-grained samples. High-power measuring devices are based on Faraday effect, representing itself rotation of a plane of polarization of linearly polarized light in optical active substances under action of a magnetic field. Application of nanostructural materials in the optical insulator, which is the main part of the measuring device, allows improving the measuring characteristics of instruments qualitatively. Brought losses in Faraday cell make 0,35 -0,89 dB instead of 0,7 - I,2 dB, and value of the backward losses makes not less than 62 dB instead of 55 dB. Undoubtedly, improvement of the given parameters allows making the measuring operations with the greater accuracy, reducing both absolute, and relative errors.

  8. Effect of temperature on the structural, linear, and nonlinear optical properties of MgO-doped graphene oxide nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimiagar, Salimeh; Abrinaei, Fahimeh

    2018-01-01

    Magnesium oxide (MgO)-graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposites were prepared by the hydrothermal method at different temperatures. The effect of growth temperature on the structural, linear, and nonlinear optical (NLO) parameters was investigated. The decoration of MgO on GO sheets was confirmed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared, and UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy analyses. The energy band-gaps of MgO-GO nanocomposites were calculated from UV-vis spectrum using Tauc plot. The NLO parameters of MgO-GO nanocomposites were calculated for the first time by the simple Z-scan technique with nanosecond Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm. The nonlinear absorption coefficient β and nonlinear refractive index n2 for MgO-GO nanocomposites at the laser intensity of 1.1×108 W/cm2 were measured to be in the order of 10-7 cm/W and 10-12 cm2/W, respectively. The third-order NLO susceptibility of MgO-GO nanocomposites was measured in the order of 10-9 esu. The results showed that MgO-GO structures have negative nonlinearity as well as good nonlinear two-photon absorption at 532 nm. Furthermore, the NLO parameters increased by the enhancement of the growth temperature. As the investigation of new materials plays an important role in the advancement of optoelectronics, MgO-GO nanocomposites possess potential applications in NLO devices.

  9. MIMO channel measurements using optical links on small mobile terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yanakiev, Boyan; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2010-01-01

    This paper looks at a novel measurement device for propagation channel measurements using a fiber optic link. Although the idea of using optical links is not new, most of the developments in the area are either too big [5], short range [6] or suitable for anechoic chamber only [7]. The device...... presented here is specifically designed to fit in a very small volume and is optimized for low power consumption (runs on small battery), thus imitating the phone electronics. It can be used for anechoic chamber measurements, however it is designed for long range channel sounding measurements....

  10. Design of offline measuring system for radiation damage effects on linear CCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yong; Tang Benqi; Xiao Zhigang; Wang Zujun; Huang Fang; Huang Shaoyan

    2004-01-01

    The paper discusses the hardware design of offline measuring system for radiation damage effects on linear CCD. Some credible results were achieved by using this system. The test results indicate that the system is available for the study of the radiation damage effects on linear CCD. (authors)

  11. Electro-Optical Method for polarimetric measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda Diaz, L. J.

    2011-01-01

    When passing a pulsing beam of polarized light of an LED or a semiconductor laser thru an optical system and two photodiodes spatially arranged at 900 to each other and both with their detection faces parallel to the transmission shaft of light, and polarization axis oriented at 450 of the vertices of the edges where the photodiodes join, in the outputs of two operational amplifiers, we have two signals with the same shape in time, i.e. a pulse train with the same phase, but when you turn the polarization plane, change the radiance of the light projected onto the photodiodes, being out of phase signals to the outputs of the amplifiers, where the difference between the fronts of the pulses is proportional to the angle of rotation of the plane of polarization of light. In a digital circuit phase discriminator, a pulse is obtained equal to the time difference between two sides of the rise in the output of two amplifiers. The width of this is directly proportional to the value of rotation the plane of polarization of light, that is, the greater the rotation, the greater the width of this pulse. (Author)

  12. Stress measurement in thin films by geometrical optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossnagel, S. M.; Gilstrap, P.; Rujkorakarn, R.

    1982-01-01

    A variation of Newton's rings experiment is proposed for measuring film stress. The procedure described, the geometrical optics method, is used to measure radii of curvature for a series of film depositions with Ta, Al, and Mo films. The method has a sensitivity of 1 x 10 to the 9th dyn/sq cm, corresponding to the practical radius limit of about 50 m, and a repeatability usually within five percent. For the purposes of comparison, radii are also measured by Newton's rings method and the Talysurf method; all results are found to be in general agreement. Measurement times are also compared: the geometrical optics method requires only 1/2-1 minute. It is concluded that the geometrical optics method provides an inexpensive, fast, and a reasonably correct technique with which to measure stresses in film.

  13. Measuring optical properties of a blood vessel model using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitz, David; Hinds, Monica T.; Tran, Noi; Vartanian, Keri; Hanson, Stephen R.; Jacques, Steven L.

    2006-02-01

    In this paper we develop the concept of a tissue-engineered optical phantom that uses engineered tissue as a phantom for calibration and optimization of biomedical optics instrumentation. With this method, the effects of biological processes on measured signals can be studied in a well controlled manner. To demonstrate this concept, we attempted to investigate how the cellular remodeling of a collagen matrix affected the optical properties extracted from optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of the samples. Tissue-engineered optical phantoms of the vascular system were created by seeding smooth muscle cells in a collagen matrix. Four different optical properties were evaluated by fitting the OCT signal to 2 different models: the sample reflectivity ρ and attenuation parameter μ were extracted from the single scattering model, and the scattering coefficient μ s and root-mean-square scattering angle θ rms were extracted from the extended Huygens-Fresnel model. We found that while contraction of the smooth muscle cells was clearly evident macroscopically, on the microscopic scale very few cells were actually embedded in the collagen. Consequently, no significant difference between the cellular and acellular samples in either set of measured optical properties was observed. We believe that further optimization of our tissue-engineering methods is needed in order to make the histology and biochemistry of the cellular samples sufficiently different from the acellular samples on the microscopic level. Once these methods are optimized, we can better verify whether the optical properties of the cellular and acellular collagen samples differ.

  14. A comparative study of linear measurements on facial skeleton with frontal and lateral cephalogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandikota, Chandra Sekhar; Rayapudi, Naveen; Challa, Padma Latha; Juvvadi, Shubhaker Rao; Yudhister, P V; Rao, Gutti Hariprasad

    2012-04-01

    To compare the accuracy of linear measurements on lateral and frontal cephalograms with gold standard skull measurements. Based on the specific criteria including reliable occlusion and condyles fitting in glenoid fossa, 15 dry human skulls were selected from a larger collection. Lateral and frontal cephalograms were taken of each skull by standardized methods. Steel ball bearings were used to identify the anatomic landmarks. Linear measurements in midsagittal plane were made on all three records. Intraclass correlation coefficients, Pearson's correlation coefficient and regression constant were calculated to assess the records simultaneously. The frontal cephalometric measurements showed high correlation to the direct skull measurements (Pearson's coefficient 0.943linear measurements of the lateral cephalometric record are greater than the corresponding frontal cephalometric images. The overall findings of the present study showed that the frontal cephalometric measurements are closely related to the direct skull measures.

  15. A comparative study of linear measurements on facial skeleton with frontal and lateral cephalogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Sekhar Gandikota

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the accuracy of linear measurements on lateral and frontal cephalograms with gold standard skull measurements . Materials and Methods: Based on the specific criteria including reliable occlusion and condyles fitting in glenoid fossa, 15 dry human skulls were selected from a larger collection. Lateral and frontal cephalograms were taken of each skull by standardized methods. Steel ball bearings were used to identify the anatomic landmarks. Linear measurements in midsagittal plane were made on all three records. Intraclass correlation coefficients, Pearson′s correlation coefficient and regression constant were calculated to assess the records simultaneously. Results: The frontal cephalometric measurements showed high correlation to the direct skull measurements (Pearson′s coefficient 0.943linear measurements of the lateral cephalometric record are greater than the corresponding frontal cephalometric images. The overall findings of the present study showed that the frontal cephalometric measurements are closely related to the direct skull measures.

  16. Optical measuring system with an interrogator and a polymer-based single-mode fibre optic sensor system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention relates to an optical measuring system comprising a polymer-based single-mode fibre-optic sensor system (102), an optical interrogator (101), and an optical arrangement (103) interconnecting the optical interrogator (101) and the polymer-based single-mode fibre-optic sensor...... system (102). The invention further relates to an optical interrogator adapted to be connected to a polymer-based single-mode fibre-optic sensor system via an optical arrangement. The interrogator comprises a broadband light source arrangement (104) and a spectrum analysing arrangement which receives...

  17. Measurement of the Asymmetry of Photoproduction of π- Mesons on Linearly Polarized Deuterons by Linearly Polarized Photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauzshtein, V. V.; Zevakov, S. A.; Levchuk, M. I.; Loginov, A. Yu.; Nikolenko, D. M.; Rachek, I. A.; Sadykov, R. Sh.; Toporkov, D. K.; Shestakov, Yu. V.

    2018-05-01

    The first results of a double polarization experiment to extract the asymmetry of the reaction of photoproduction of a π- meson by a linearly polarized photon on a tensor-polarized deuteron in the energy range of the virtual photon (300-700 MeV) are presented. The measurements were performed on an internal tensor-polarized deuterium target in the VEPP-3 electron-positron storage ring for the electron beam energy equal to 2 GeV. The experiment employed the method of recording two protons and the scattered electron in coincidence. The obtained measurement results are compared with the theoretical predictions obtained in the momentum approximation with allowance for πN and NN rescattering in the final state.

  18. Measurement methods to build up the digital optical twin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochnau, Marcel; Holzbrink, Michael; Wang, Wenxin; Holters, Martin; Stollenwerk, Jochen; Loosen, Peter

    2018-02-01

    The realization of the Digital Optical Twin (DOT), which is in short the digital representation of the physical state of an optical system, is particularly useful in the context of an automated assembly process of optical systems. During the assembly process, the physical system status of the optical system is continuously measured and compared with the digital model. In case of deviations between physical state and the digital model, the latter one is adapted to match the physical state. To reach the goal described above, in a first step measurement/characterization technologies concerning their suitability to generate a precise digital twin of an existing optical system have to be identified and evaluated. This paper gives an overview of possible characterization methods and, finally, shows first results of evaluated, compared methods (e.g. spot-radius, MTF, Zernike-polynomials), to create a DOT. The focus initially lies on the unequivocalness of the optimization results as well as on the computational time required for the optimization to reach the characterized system state. Possible sources of error are the measurement accuracy (to characterize the system) , execution time of the measurement, time needed to map the digital to the physical world (optimization step) as well as interface possibilities to integrate the measurement tool into an assembly cell. Moreover, it is to be discussed whether the used measurement methods are suitable for a `seamless' integration into an assembly cell.

  19. Ultra-wide frequency response measurement of an optical system with a DC photo-detector

    KAUST Repository

    Kuntz, Katanya B.; Wheatley, Trevor A.; Song, Hongbin; Webb, James G.; Mabrok, Mohamed; Huntington, Elanor H.; Yonezawa, Hidehiro

    2017-01-01

    Precise knowledge of an optical device's frequency response is crucial for it to be useful in most applications. Traditional methods for determining the frequency response of an optical system (e.g. optical cavity or waveguide modulator) usually rely on calibrated broadband photo-detectors or complicated RF mixdown operations. As the bandwidths of these devices continue to increase, there is a growing need for a characterization method that does not have bandwidth limitations, or require a previously calibrated device. We demonstrate a new calibration technique on an optical system (consisting of an optical cavity and a high-speed waveguide modulator) that is free from limitations imposed by detector bandwidth, and does not require a calibrated photo-detector or modulator. We use a low-frequency (DC) photo-detector to monitor the cavity's optical response as a function of modulation frequency, which is also used to determine the modulator's frequency response. Knowledge of the frequency-dependent modulation depth allows us to more precisely determine the cavity's characteristics (free spectral range and linewidth). The precision and repeatability of our technique is demonstrated by measuring the different resonant frequencies of orthogonal polarization cavity modes caused by the presence of a non-linear crystal. Once the modulator has been characterized using this simple method, the frequency response of any passive optical element can be determined to a fine resolution (e.g. kilohertz) over several gigahertz.

  20. Ultra-wide frequency response measurement of an optical system with a DC photo-detector

    KAUST Repository

    Kuntz, Katanya B.

    2017-01-09

    Precise knowledge of an optical device\\'s frequency response is crucial for it to be useful in most applications. Traditional methods for determining the frequency response of an optical system (e.g. optical cavity or waveguide modulator) usually rely on calibrated broadband photo-detectors or complicated RF mixdown operations. As the bandwidths of these devices continue to increase, there is a growing need for a characterization method that does not have bandwidth limitations, or require a previously calibrated device. We demonstrate a new calibration technique on an optical system (consisting of an optical cavity and a high-speed waveguide modulator) that is free from limitations imposed by detector bandwidth, and does not require a calibrated photo-detector or modulator. We use a low-frequency (DC) photo-detector to monitor the cavity\\'s optical response as a function of modulation frequency, which is also used to determine the modulator\\'s frequency response. Knowledge of the frequency-dependent modulation depth allows us to more precisely determine the cavity\\'s characteristics (free spectral range and linewidth). The precision and repeatability of our technique is demonstrated by measuring the different resonant frequencies of orthogonal polarization cavity modes caused by the presence of a non-linear crystal. Once the modulator has been characterized using this simple method, the frequency response of any passive optical element can be determined to a fine resolution (e.g. kilohertz) over several gigahertz.

  1. Analysis of baseline, average, and longitudinally measured blood pressure data using linear mixed models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Ahmed; Beyene, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    This article compares baseline, average, and longitudinal data analysis methods for identifying genetic variants in genome-wide association study using the Genetic Analysis Workshop 18 data. We apply methods that include (a) linear mixed models with baseline measures, (b) random intercept linear mixed models with mean measures outcome, and (c) random intercept linear mixed models with longitudinal measurements. In the linear mixed models, covariates are included as fixed effects, whereas relatedness among individuals is incorporated as the variance-covariance structure of the random effect for the individuals. The overall strategy of applying linear mixed models decorrelate the data is based on Aulchenko et al.'s GRAMMAR. By analyzing systolic and diastolic blood pressure, which are used separately as outcomes, we compare the 3 methods in identifying a known genetic variant that is associated with blood pressure from chromosome 3 and simulated phenotype data. We also analyze the real phenotype data to illustrate the methods. We conclude that the linear mixed model with longitudinal measurements of diastolic blood pressure is the most accurate at identifying the known single-nucleotide polymorphism among the methods, but linear mixed models with baseline measures perform best with systolic blood pressure as the outcome.

  2. Linearity improvement on wide-range log signal of neutron measurement system for HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young-Ki; Tuetken, Jeffrey S.

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses engineering activities for improving the linearity characteristics of the Log Power signal from the neutron measurement system for HANARO. This neutron measurement system uses a fission chamber based detector which covers 10.3 decade-wide range from 10 -8 % full power(FP) up to 200%FP, The Log Power signal is designed to control the reactor at low power levels where most of the reactor physics tests are carried out. Therefore, the linearity characteristics of the Log Power signal is the major factor for accurate reactor power control. During the commissioning of the neutron measurement system, it was found that the linearity characteristics of the Log Power signal, especially near 10 -2 %FP, were not accurate enough for controlling the reactor during physics testing. Analysis of the system linearity data directly measured with reactor operating determined that the system was not operating per the design characteristics established from previous installations. The linearity data, which were taken as the reactor was increased in power, were sent to manufacturer's engineering group and a follow-up measures based on the analysis were then fed back to the field. Through step by step trouble-shooting activities, which included minor circuit modifications and alignment procedure changes, the linearity characteristics have been successfully improved and now exceed minimum performance requirements. This paper discusses the trouble-shooting techniques applied, the changes in the linearity characteristics, special circumstances in the HANARO application and the final resolution. (author)

  3. Hybrid Optical Unobtrusive Blood Pressure Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangfei Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Blood pressure (BP is critical in diagnosing certain cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension. Some previous studies have proved that BP can be estimated by pulse transit time (PTT calculated by a pair of photoplethysmography (PPG signals at two body sites. Currently, contact PPG (cPPG and imaging PPG (iPPG are two feasible ways to obtain PPG signals. In this study, we proposed a hybrid system (called the ICPPG system employing both methods that can be implemented on a wearable device, facilitating the measurement of BP in an inconspicuous way. The feasibility of the ICPPG system was validated on a dataset with 29 subjects. It has been proved that the ICPPG system is able to estimate PTT values. Moreover, the PTT measured by the new system shows a correlation on average with BP variations for most subjects, which could facilitate a new generation of BP measurement using wearable and mobile devices.

  4. Measurement of Optical Feshbach Resonances in an Ideal Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blatt, S.; Nicholson, T. L.; Bloom, B. J.; Williams, J. R.; Thomsen, J. W.; Ye, J.; Julienne, P. S.

    2011-01-01

    Using a narrow intercombination line in alkaline earth atoms to mitigate large inelastic losses, we explore the optical Feshbach resonance effect in an ultracold gas of bosonic 88 Sr. A systematic measurement of three resonances allows precise determinations of the optical Feshbach resonance strength and scaling law, in agreement with coupled-channel theory. Resonant enhancement of the complex scattering length leads to thermalization mediated by elastic and inelastic collisions in an otherwise ideal gas. Optical Feshbach resonance could be used to control atomic interactions with high spatial and temporal resolution.

  5. Measurement of optical Feshbach resonances in an ideal gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatt, S; Nicholson, T L; Bloom, B J; Williams, J R; Thomsen, J W; Julienne, P S; Ye, J

    2011-08-12

    Using a narrow intercombination line in alkaline earth atoms to mitigate large inelastic losses, we explore the optical Feshbach resonance effect in an ultracold gas of bosonic (88)Sr. A systematic measurement of three resonances allows precise determinations of the optical Feshbach resonance strength and scaling law, in agreement with coupled-channel theory. Resonant enhancement of the complex scattering length leads to thermalization mediated by elastic and inelastic collisions in an otherwise ideal gas. Optical Feshbach resonance could be used to control atomic interactions with high spatial and temporal resolution.

  6. Linear ray and wave optics in phase space bridging ray and wave optics via the Wigner phase-space picture

    CERN Document Server

    Torre, Amalia

    2005-01-01

    Ray, wave and quantum concepts are central to diverse and seemingly incompatible models of light. Each model particularizes a specific ''manifestation'' of light, and then corresponds to adequate physical assumptions and formal approximations, whose domains of applicability are well-established. Accordingly each model comprises its own set of geometric and dynamic postulates with the pertinent mathematical means.At a basic level, the book is a complete introduction to the Wigner optics, which bridges between ray and wave optics, offering the optical phase space as the ambience and the Wigner f

  7. Extrinsic fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometer sensor for refractive index measurement of optical glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jihuan; Zhao Jiarong; Huang Xuguang; Huang Zhenjian

    2010-01-01

    A simple fiber-optic sensor based on Fabry-Perot interference for refractive index measurement of optical glass is investigated both theoretically and experimentally. A broadband light source is coupled into an extrinsic fiber Fabry-Perot cavity formed by the surfaces of a sensing fiber end and the measured sample. The interference signals from the cavity are reflected back into the same fiber. The refractive index of the sample can be obtained by measuring the contrast of the interference fringes. The experimental data meet with the theoretical values very well. The proposed technique is a new method for glass refractive index measurement with a simple, solid, and compact structure.

  8. Measuring the linear heat generation rate of a nuclear reactor fuel pin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.D.

    1981-01-01

    A miniature gamma thermometer is described which is capable of travelling through bores distributed in an array through a nuclear reactor core and measure the linear heat generation rate of the fuel pins. (U.K.)

  9. Histograms of Arecibo World Days Measurements and Linear-H Fits Between 1985 and 1995

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Melendez-Alvira, D

    1998-01-01

    This document presents histograms of linear-H model fits to electron density profiles measured with the incoherent scatter radar of the Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico during the World Days between 1985 and 1995...

  10. Optical measurement of surface roughness in manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodmann, R.

    1984-11-01

    The measuring system described here is based on the light-scattering method, and was developed by Optische Werke G. Rodenstock, Munich. It is especially useful for rapid non-contact monitoring of surface roughness in production-related areas. This paper outlines the differences between this system and the common stylus instrument, including descriptions of some applications in industry.

  11. Growth, spectral, linear and nonlinear optical characteristics of an efficient semiorganic acentric crystal: L-valinium L-valine chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nageshwari, M.; Jayaprakash, P.; Kumari, C. Rathika Thaya [PG & Research Department of Physics, Arignar Anna Govt. Arts College, Cheyyar 604407, Tamil Nadu (India); Vinitha, G. [Department of Physics, School of Advanced Sciences, VIT Chennai, 600127 Tamil Nadu (India); Caroline, M. Lydia, E-mail: lydiacaroline2006@yahoo.co.in [PG & Research Department of Physics, Arignar Anna Govt. Arts College, Cheyyar 604407, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2017-04-15

    An efficient nonlinear optical semiorganic material L-valinium L-valine chloride (LVVCl) was synthesized and grown-up by means of slow evaporation process. Single crystal XRD evince that LVVCl corresponds to monoclinic system having acentric space group P2{sub 1}. The diverse functional groups existing in LVVCl were discovered with FTIR spectral investigation. The UV-Visible and photoluminescence spectrum discloses the optical and electronic properties respectively for the grown crystal. Several optical properties specifically extinction coefficient, reflectance, linear refractive index, electrical and optical conductivity were also determined. The SEM analysis was also carried out and it portrayed the surface morphology of LVVCl. The calculated value of laser damage threshold was 2.59 GW/cm{sup 2}. The mechanical and dielectric property of LVVCl was investigated employing microhardness and dielectric studies. The second and third order nonlinear optical characteristics of LVVCl was characterized utilizing Kurtz Perry and Z scan technique respectively clearly suggest its suitability in the domain of optics and photonics. - Graphical abstract: Good quality transparent single crystals of L-valinium L-valine chloride single crystal was grown by slow evaporation technique. The grown crystals were analyzed using different instrumentation methods to check its usefulness for the device fabrication. The determination of nonlinear refractive index (n{sub 2}), absorption coefficient (β) and third order nonlinear susceptibility was determined by Z scan technique, highlighted that LVVCl can serve as a promising candidate for opto electronic and nonlinear optical applications.

  12. Optical measurement of microroughness of pigment coatings on rough substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elton, N. J.

    2009-02-01

    The optical determination of rms roughness at the sub-wavelength scale by measurement of specular intensity as a function of wavelength or angle of incidence is well known. The method is normally used for specimens that are macroscopically flat. However, important industrial materials such as coated paper and paint consist of microscopically rough pigment coatings on a macroscopically rough substrate. Numerical modelling is used to assess the applicability and limitations of optical measurement of microroughness for such materials. Experimental results are presented for a range of paints on substrates of various macroroughness. Model and data are in fair agreement and show that the presence of substrate macroroughness always leads to an underestimation of microroughness. Generally, optical measurements of microroughness are only comparable for substrates of similar macroroughness and a limiting value exists above which measurements may not be meaningful.

  13. Optical measurement of microroughness of pigment coatings on rough substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elton, N J

    2009-01-01

    The optical determination of rms roughness at the sub-wavelength scale by measurement of specular intensity as a function of wavelength or angle of incidence is well known. The method is normally used for specimens that are macroscopically flat. However, important industrial materials such as coated paper and paint consist of microscopically rough pigment coatings on a macroscopically rough substrate. Numerical modelling is used to assess the applicability and limitations of optical measurement of microroughness for such materials. Experimental results are presented for a range of paints on substrates of various macroroughness. Model and data are in fair agreement and show that the presence of substrate macroroughness always leads to an underestimation of microroughness. Generally, optical measurements of microroughness are only comparable for substrates of similar macroroughness and a limiting value exists above which measurements may not be meaningful

  14. Optical sensor for heat conduction measurement in biological tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez-Arroyo, A; Sanchez-Perez, C; Aleman-Garcia, N

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a heat flux sensor using an optical fiber system to measure heat conduction in biological tissues. This optoelectronic device is based on the photothermal beam deflection of a laser beam travelling in an acrylic slab this deflection is measured with a fiber optic angle sensor. We measure heat conduction in biological samples with high repeatability and sensitivity enough to detect differences in tissues from three chicken organs. This technique could provide important information of vital organ function as well as the detect modifications due to degenerative diseases or physical damage caused by medications or therapies.

  15. Simultaneous optical and infrared polarization measurements of blazars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brindle, C.; Hough, J.H.; Bailey, J.A.; Axon, D.J.; Hyland, A.R.

    1986-01-01

    Measurements are presented of the polarization and flux of a sample of 28 blazars (21 BL Lacs and 7 OVV quasars) at optical and near-infrared wavelengths, with repeated observations for some objects. For 20 objects, these are the first reported polarization measurements in either the optical or infrared, and for most of them the first simultaneous measurements at these wavelengths. Out of a total of 42 observations a spectral dependence of polarization level and position angle is found, although not necessarily occurring together, on 15 occasions. (author)

  16. Comparison of optical coherence tomography and fundus photography for measuring the optic disc size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Aljoscha S; Krieglstein, Tina R; Chryssafis, Christos; Thiel, Martin; Kampik, Anselm

    2006-01-01

    To assess the agreement and repeatability of optic nerve head (ONH) size measurements by optical coherence tomography (OCT) as compared to conventional planimetry of fundus photographs in normal eyes. For comparison with planimetry the absolute size of the ONH of 25 eyes from 25 normal subjects were measured by both OCT and digital fundus photography (Zeiss FF camera 450). Repeatability of automated Stratus OCT measurements were investigated by repeatedly measuring the optic disc in five normal subjects. Mean disc size was 1763 +/- 186 vertically and 1632 +/- 160 microm horizontally on planimetry. On OCT, values of 1772 +/- 317 microm vertically (p = 0.82) and a significantly smaller horizontal diameter of 1492 +/- 302 microm (p = 0.04) were obtained. The 95% limits of agreement were (-546 microm; +527 microm) for vertical and (-502 microm; +782 microm) for horizontal planimetric compared to OCT measurements. In some cases large discrepancies existed. Repeatability of automatic measurements of the optic disc by OCT was moderately good with intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) of 0.78 horizontally and 0.83 vertically. The coefficient of repeatability indicating instrument precision was 80 microm for horizontal and 168 microm for vertical measurements. OCT can be used to determine optic disc margins in moderate agreement with planimetry in normal subjects. However, in some cases significant disagreement with photographic assessment may occur making manual inspection advisable. Automatic disc detection by OCT is moderately repeatable.

  17. Improved measurement linearity and precision for AMCW time-of-flight range imaging cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Andrew D; Dorrington, Adrian A; Cree, Michael J; Carnegie, Dale A

    2010-08-10

    Time-of-flight range imaging systems utilizing the amplitude modulated continuous wave (AMCW) technique often suffer from measurement nonlinearity due to the presence of aliased harmonics within the amplitude modulation signals. Typically a calibration is performed to correct these errors. We demonstrate an alternative phase encoding approach that attenuates the harmonics during the sampling process, thereby improving measurement linearity in the raw measurements. This mitigates the need to measure the system's response or calibrate for environmental changes. In conjunction with improved linearity, we demonstrate that measurement precision can also be increased by reducing the duty cycle of the amplitude modulated illumination source (while maintaining overall illumination power).

  18. Infrared reduction, an efficient method to control the non-linear optical property of graphene oxide in femtosecond regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, S.; Maiti, R.; Saha, S.; Das, A. C.; Mondal, S.; Ray, S. K.; Bhaktha, S. B. N.; Datta, P. K.

    2016-04-01

    Graphene Oxide (GO) has been prepared by modified Hummers method and it has been reduced using an IR bulb (800-2000 nm). Both as grown GO and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) have been characterized using Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Raman spectra shows well documented Dband and G-band for both the samples while blue shift of G-band confirms chemical functionalization of graphene with different oxygen functional group. The XPS result shows that the as-prepared GO contains 52% of sp2 hybridized carbon due to the C=C bonds and 33% of carbon atoms due to the C-O bonds. As for RGO, increment of the atomic % of the sp2 hybridized carbon atom to 83% and rapid decrease in atomic % of C=O bonds confirm an efficient reduction with infrared radiation. UV-Visible absorption spectrum also confirms increment of conjugation with increased reduction. Non-linear optical properties of both GO and RGO are measured using single beam open aperture Z-Scan technique in femtosecond regime. Intensity dependent nonlinear phenomena are observed. Depending upon the intensity, both saturable absorption and two photon absorption contribute to the non-linearity of both the samples. Saturation dominates at low intensity (~ 127 GW/cm2) while two photon absorption become prominent at higher intensities (from 217 GW/cm2 to 302 GW/cm2). We have calculated the two-photon absorption co-efficient and saturation intensity for both the samples. The value of two photon absorption co-efficient (for GO~ 0.0022-0.0037 cm/GW and for RGO~ 0.0128-0.0143 cm/GW) and the saturation intensity (for GO~57 GW/cm2 and for RGO~ 194GW/cm2) is increased with reduction. Increase in two photon absorption coefficient with increasing intensity can also suggest that there may be multi-photon absorption is taking place.

  19. Effects of applied electromagnetic fields on the linear and nonlinear optical properties in an inverse parabolic quantum well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ungan, F.; Yesilgul, U.; Kasapoglu, E.; Sari, H.; Sökmen, I.

    2012-01-01

    In this present work, we have investigated theoretically the effects of applied electric and magnetic fields on the linear and nonlinear optical properties in a GaAs/Al x Ga 1−x As inverse parabolic quantum well for different Al concentrations at the well center. The Al concentration at the barriers was always x max =0.3. The energy levels and wave functions are calculated within the effective mass approximation and the envelope function approach. The analytical expressions of optical properties are obtained by using the compact density-matrix approach. The linear, third-order nonlinear and total absorption and refractive index changes depending on the Al concentration at the well center are investigated as a function of the incident photon energy for the different values of the applied electric and magnetic fields. The results show that the applied electric and magnetic fields have a great effect on these optical quantities. - Highlights: ► The x c concentration has a great effect on the optical characteristics of these structures. ► The EM fields have a great effect on the optical properties of these structures. ► The total absorption coefficients increased as the electric and magnetic field increases. ► The RICs reduced as the electric and magnetic field increases.

  20. Optical fibers and their applications for radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakuta, Tsunemi

    1998-01-01

    When optical fibers are used in a strong radiation field, it is necessary to increase the radiation-resistant capacity. Aiming at the improvement of such property, the characteristics of recent optical fibers made from quartz-glass were reviewed and the newly developed techniques for radiation measurement using those fibers were summarized in this report. Since optical fibers became able to use in the levels near the core conditions, their applications have started in various fields of technologies related to radiation. By combining the optical fibers and a small sensor, it became possible to act as 'Key Component' for measuring wide range radioactivity from a trace activity to a strong radiation field in the reactor core. Presently, the fibers are utilized for investigation of the optical mechanisms related in radiation, evaluation of their validities so on. Further, the optical fibers are expected to utilize in a multi-parametric measuring system which allows to concomitantly determine the radiation, temperature, pressure, flow amount etc. as an incore monitor. (M.N.)

  1. Optical fibers and their applications for radiation measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakuta, Tsunemi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    When optical fibers are used in a strong radiation field, it is necessary to increase the radiation-resistant capacity. Aiming at the improvement of such property, the characteristics of recent optical fibers made from quartz-glass were reviewed and the newly developed techniques for radiation measurement using those fibers were summarized in this report. Since optical fibers became able to use in the levels near the core conditions, their applications have started in various fields of technologies related to radiation. By combining the optical fibers and a small sensor, it became possible to act as `Key Component` for measuring wide range radioactivity from a trace activity to a strong radiation field in the reactor core. Presently, the fibers are utilized for investigation of the optical mechanisms related in radiation, evaluation of their validities so on. Further, the optical fibers are expected to utilize in a multi-parametric measuring system which allows to concomitantly determine the radiation, temperature, pressure, flow amount etc. as an incore monitor. (M.N.)

  2. Distributed strain measurement in perfluorinated polymer optical fibres using optical frequency domain reflectometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liehr, Sascha; Wendt, Mario; Krebber, Katerina

    2010-01-01

    We present the latest advances in distributed strain measurement in perfluorinated polymer optical fibres (POFs) using backscatter techniques. Compared to previously introduced poly(methyl methacrylate) POFs, the measurement length can be extended to more than 500 m at improved spatial resolution of a few centimetres. It is shown that strain in a perfluorinated POF can be measured up to 100%. In parallel to these investigations, the incoherent optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR) technique is introduced to detect strained fibre sections and to measure distributed length change along the fibre with sub-millimetre resolution by applying a cross-correlation algorithm to the backscatter signal. The overall superior performance of the OFDR technique compared to the optical time domain reflectometry in terms of accuracy, dynamic range, spatial resolution and measurement speed is presented. The proposed sensor system is a promising technique for use in structural health monitoring applications where the precise detection of high strain is required

  3. Performance Characteristics and Prediction of Bodyweight using Linear Body Measurements in Four Strains of Broiler Chicken

    OpenAIRE

    I. Udeh; J.O. Isikwenu and G. Ukughere

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare the performance characteristics of four strains of broiler chicken from 2 to 8 weeks of age and predict body weight of the broilers using linear body measurements. The four strains of broiler chicken used were Anak, Arbor Acre, Ross and Marshall. The parameters recorded were bodyweight, weight gain, total feed intake, feed conversion ratio, mortality and some linear body measurements (body length, body width, breast width, drumstick length, shank l...

  4. Spindle vibration and sound field measurement using optical vibrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Tatar, Kourosh

    2008-01-01

    Mechanical systems often produce a considerable amount of vibration and noise. To be able to obtain a complete picture of the dynamic behaviour of these systems, vibration and sound measurements are of significant importance. Optical metrology is well-suited for non-intrusive measurements on complex objects. The development and the use of remote non-contact vibration measurement methods for spindles are described and vibration measurements on thin- walled structures and sound field measuremen...

  5. Optical measurements of lung microvascular filtration coefficient using polysulfone fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaesner, J W; Roselli, R J; Evans, S; Pou, N A; Parker, R E; Tack, G; Parham, M

    1994-01-01

    Lung fluid balance, which is governed by the product of net transvascular pressure difference and lung filtration coefficient, can be altered in pulmonary diseases. A simple measurement of the lung filtration coefficient (Kfc) would be clinically useful and has been examined by several researchers. Current methods of determining Kfc include gravimetric measurement in isolated lungs and lymph node cannulation, neither of which can be extended to human use. Optical measurements of protein concentration changes in venous blood can be combined with pressure measurements to calculate Kfc. Blood, though, contains red corpuscles, which tend to absorb and scatter light, obscuring these optical measurements. In this study, an optical system was developed in which a polysulfone filter cartridge was used to remove red blood cells before the filtrate was passed through a spectrophotometer. Absorbance changes caused by changes in concentration of albumin labeled with Evans Blue were monitored at 620 nm after venous pressure was elevated by about 13 cm H2O. Optical measurements of Kfc averaged 0.401 +/- 0.074 (ml/min cm H2O 100 g DLW) for an isolated canine lung. Optical measurements of Kfc (0.363 +/- 0.120 ml/min cm H2O 100 g DLW) were made for the first time in an intact, closed chest sheep in which pulmonary pressure was altered by inflating a Foley balloon in the left atrium. We conclude that absorbance and scattering artifacts introduced by red blood cells can be eliminated by first filtering the blood through polysulfone fibers. Kfc measurements using the optical method are similar to values obtained by others using gravimetric methods. Finally, we have demonstrated that the technique can be used to estimate Kfc in an intact animal.

  6. Inversion of double-difference measurements from optical levelling for the Groningen gas field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Fokker

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbon extraction lead to compaction of the gas reservoir which is visible as subsidence on the surface. Subsidence measurements can therefore be used to better estimate reservoir parameters. Total subsidence is derived from the result of the measurement of height differences between optical benchmarks. The procedure from optical height difference measurements to absolute subsidence is an inversion, and the result is often used as an input for consequent inversions on the reservoir. We have used the difference measurements directly to invert for compaction of the Groningen gas reservoir in the Netherlands. We have used a linear inversion exercise to update an already existing reservoir compaction model of the field. This procedure yielded areas of increased and decreased levels of compaction compared to the existing compaction model in agreement with observed discrepancies in porosity and aquifer activity.

  7. Optical sensors for the measurement of electric current and voltage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutgers, W R; Hulshof, H J.M.; Laurensse, I J; van der Wey, A H

    1987-01-01

    Optical sensors for the measurement of electrical current and voltage were developed for application in electric power systems. The current sensor, based on the Faraday effect in a monomode glass fiber, and the voltage sensor, based on the transverse Pockels effect in a crystal, are demonstrated in wide-band (10 MHz) interference-free measurements of pulsed currents and impulse voltages.

  8. Uncertainty budget for optical coordinate measurements of circle diameter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morace, Renate Erica; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2004-01-01

    An uncertainty analysis for circle diameter measurements using a coordinate measuring machine (CMM) equipped with an optical probe is presented in this paper. A mathematical model for data evaluation and uncertainty assessment was formulated in accordance with Guide to the Expression of Uncertain...

  9. Measurement of small dispersion values in optical components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peucheret, Christophe; Liu, Fenghai; Pedersen, Rune Johan Skullerud

    1999-01-01

    It is reported that small dispersion values in optical components can be measured using the RF modulation method originally restricted to large dispersions. Using a constant dispersion offset, arbitrarily small dispersion values can be measured with a resolution as good as 1.2 ps/nm....

  10. Transient particle emission measurement with optical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez, Vicente; Luján, José M.; Serrano, José R.; Pla, Benjamín

    2008-06-01

    Particulate matter is responsible for some respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. In addition, it is one of the most important pollutants of high-speed direct injection (HSDI) passenger car engines. Current legislation requires particulate dilution tunnels for particulate matter measuring. However for development work, dilution tunnels are expensive and sometimes not useful since they are not able to quantify real-time particulate emissions during transient operation. In this study, the use of a continuous measurement opacimeter and a fast response HFID is proven to be a good alternative to obtain instantaneous particle mass emissions during transient operation (due to particulate matter consisting mainly of soot and SOF). Some methods and correlations available from literature, but developed for steady conditions, are evaluated during transient operation by comparing with mini-tunnel measurements during the entire MVEG-A transient cycle. A new correlation was also derived from this evaluation. Results for soot and SOF (obtained from the new correlation proposed) are compared with soot and SOF captured with particulate filters, which have been separated by means of an SOF extraction method. Finally, as an example of ECU design strategies using these sort of correlations, the EGR valve opening is optimized during transient operation. The optimization is performed while simultaneously taking into account instantaneous fuel consumption, particulate emissions (calculated with the proposed correlation) and other regulated engine pollutants.

  11. Optics measurements and transfer line matching for the SPS injection of the CERN Multi-Turn Extraction beam

    CERN Document Server

    Benedetto, E; Cettour Cave, S; Follin, F; Gilardoni, S; Giovannozzi, M; Roncarolo, F

    2010-01-01

    Dispersion and beam optics measurements were carried out in the transfer line between the CERN PS and SPS for the new Multi-Turn Extraction beam. Since the extraction conditions of the four islands and the core are different and strongly dependent on the non-linear effects used to split the beam in the transverse plane, a special care was taken during the measurement campaigns. Furthermore, an appropriate strategy was devised to minimize the overall optical mismatch at SPS injection. All this led to a new optical configuration that will be presented in the paper.

  12. Measurement of neutron spectra for photonuclear reaction with linearly polarized photons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirihara Yoichi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Spectra of neutrons produced by a photonuclear reaction from a 197Au target were measured using 16.95 MeV linearly and circularly polarized photon beams at NewSUBARU-BL01 using a time-of-flight method. The difference in the neutron spectra between the cases of a linearly and circularly polarized photon was measured. The difference in the neutron yield increased with the neutron energy and was approximately threefold at the maximum neutron energy. In a direction perpendicular to that of the linear polarization, the neutron yields decreased as the neutron energy increased.

  13. Effects of measurement errors on psychometric measurements in ergonomics studies: Implications for correlations, ANOVA, linear regression, factor analysis, and linear discriminant analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Salvendy, Gavriel

    2009-05-01

    This paper aims to demonstrate the effects of measurement errors on psychometric measurements in ergonomics studies. A variety of sources can cause random measurement errors in ergonomics studies and these errors can distort virtually every statistic computed and lead investigators to erroneous conclusions. The effects of measurement errors on five most widely used statistical analysis tools have been discussed and illustrated: correlation; ANOVA; linear regression; factor analysis; linear discriminant analysis. It has been shown that measurement errors can greatly attenuate correlations between variables, reduce statistical power of ANOVA, distort (overestimate, underestimate or even change the sign of) regression coefficients, underrate the explanation contributions of the most important factors in factor analysis and depreciate the significance of discriminant function and discrimination abilities of individual variables in discrimination analysis. The discussions will be restricted to subjective scales and survey methods and their reliability estimates. Other methods applied in ergonomics research, such as physical and electrophysiological measurements and chemical and biomedical analysis methods, also have issues of measurement errors, but they are beyond the scope of this paper. As there has been increasing interest in the development and testing of theories in ergonomics research, it has become very important for ergonomics researchers to understand the effects of measurement errors on their experiment results, which the authors believe is very critical to research progress in theory development and cumulative knowledge in the ergonomics field.

  14. Electro optical system to measure strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, C. A.; Bhat, G.

    With the advent of the so called speckle interferometry, interferograms of objects can be obtained in real time by using a TV camera as the recording medium. The basic idea of this instrument is to couple the photoelectric registration by a TV camera with the subsequent electronic processing, to develop an efficient device for the measurement of deformations. This paper presents a new and improved instrument, which has a very important feature, portability, that can be operated in different modes and is capable of producing interferograms using holography, speckle, and moire methods. The basic features of the instrument are presented and some of the theoretical points at the foundation of operation of the instrument are analyzed. Examples are given of the application to moire, speckle, and holographic interferometry.

  15. Optical propagation analysis in photobioreactor measurements on cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanjul-Vélez, F.; Arce-Diego, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    Biotechnology applications are nowadays increasing in many areas, from agriculture to biochemistry, or even biomedicine. Knowledge on biological processes is becoming essential in order to be able to adequately estimate and control the production of these elements. Cyanobacteria present the capability of producing oxygen and biomass, from CO2 and light irradiation. Therefore, they could be fundamental for human subsistence in adverse environments, as basic needs of breathing and food would be guaranteed. Cyanobacteria cultivation, as other microorganisms, is carried out in photo-bioreactors. The adequate design of photobioreactors greatly influences elements production throughput. This design includes optical illumination and optical measurement of cyanobacteria growth. In this work an analysis of optical measurement of cyanobacteria growth in a photobioreactor is made. As cyanobacteria are inhomogeneous elements, the influence of light scattering is significant. Several types of cyanobacteria are considered, as long as several spatial profiles and irradiances of the incident light. Depending on cyanobacteria optical properties, optical distribution of transmitted light can be estimated. These results allow an appropriate consideration, in the optical design, of the relationship between detected light and cyanobacteria growth. As a consequence, the most adequate conditions of elements production from cyanobacteria could be estimated.

  16. Sol gel based fiber optic sensor for blook pH measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, S. A.; Glass, R. S.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a fiber-optic pH sensor based upon sol-gel encapsulation of a self-referencing dye, seminaphthorhodamine-1 carboxylate (SNARF-1C). The simple sol-gel fabrication procedure and low coating leachability are ideal for encapsulation and immobilization of dye molecules onto the end of an optical fiber. A miniature bench-top fluorimeter system was developed for use with the optical fiber to obtain pH measurements. Linear and reproducible responses were obtained in human blood in the pH range 6.8 to 8.0, which encompasses the clinically-relevant range. Therefore, this sensor can be considered for in vivo use

  17. Analysis of rocket flight stability based on optical image measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shuhua; Liu, Junhu; Shen, Si; Wang, Min; Liu, Jun

    2018-02-01

    Based on the abundant optical image measurement data from the optical measurement information, this paper puts forward the method of evaluating the rocket flight stability performance by using the measurement data of the characteristics of the carrier rocket in imaging. On the basis of the method of measuring the characteristics of the carrier rocket, the attitude parameters of the rocket body in the coordinate system are calculated by using the measurements data of multiple high-speed television sets, and then the parameters are transferred to the rocket body attack angle and it is assessed whether the rocket has a good flight stability flying with a small attack angle. The measurement method and the mathematical algorithm steps through the data processing test, where you can intuitively observe the rocket flight stability state, and also can visually identify the guidance system or failure analysis.

  18. Ship Effect Measurements With Fiber Optic Neutron Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Kenneth L.; Dean, Rashe A.; Akbar, Shahzad; Kouzes, Richard T.; Woodring, Mitchell L.

    2010-01-01

    The main objectives of this research project was to assemble, operate, test and characterize an innovatively designed scintillating fiber optic neutron radiation detector manufactured by Innovative American Technology with possible application to the Department of Homeland Security screening for potential radiological and nuclear threats at US borders (Kouzes 2004). One goal of this project was to make measurements of the neutron ship effect for several materials. The Virginia State University DOE FaST/NSF summer student-faculty team made measurements with the fiber optic radiation detector at PNNL above ground to characterize the ship effect from cosmic neutrons, and underground to characterize the muon contribution.

  19. Optical fibre sensor for the measurement of ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Keeffe, S; Dooly, G; Fitzpatrick, C; Lewis, E

    2005-01-01

    The use of optical fibres for the measurement of ozone based on the optical absorption of both UV light at 254nm and visible light at 600nm is investigated and tested. Calculations based on the Beer-Lambert Law are also presented to demonstrate the high resolution of the UV based sensor in determining the concentration of ozone in the range of 0 mg/litre to 1mg/litre and the ability of the visible based sensor to measure high concentrations over a wide range

  20. Atmospheric Turbulence Measurements in Support of Adaptive Optics Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-01

    microthermal 2 Cn measurements is also included. In the near future we anticipate completion of the in-depth study of the radar Cn2 applications in the form...temperature fluctuations necessary to use (2) are measured using standard microthermal temperature-resistance sensors and very sensitive - 12...panel is optical Cn computed from microthermal 2measurements of CT assuming negligible water vapor contribution. The middle panel depicts the

  1. Measurement of plasma current in Tokamaks using an optical fibre reflectometry technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuilpart Marc

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An optical time-domain reflectometer sensitive to the polarization of light is proposed for the measurement of plasma current in the Tore Supra fusion reactor. The measurement principle relies on the Faraday effect i.e. on the generation of a circular birefringence along an optical fiber subject to an axial magnetic field. The circular birefringence induces a polarization rotation that can be mapped along the fiber thanks to an opticaltime domain reflectometer followed by an linear polarizer. A proper fitting of the measurement trace then allows determining the applied plasma current. The sensor has been experimentally validated on the Tore Supra tokamak fusion reactor for a plasma current range going from 0.6 to 1.5 MA. A maximum error of 13.50% has been observed for the lowest current.

  2. Sun and aureole spectrometer for airborne measurements to derive aerosol optical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asseng, Hagen; Ruhtz, Thomas; Fischer, Jürgen

    2004-04-01

    We have designed an airborne spectrometer system for the simultaneous measurement of the direct Sun irradiance and aureole radiance. The instrument is based on diffraction grating spectrometers with linear image sensors. It is robust, lightweight, compact, and reliable, characteristics that are important for airborne applications. The multispectral radiation measurements are used to derive optical properties of tropospheric aerosols. We extract the altitude dependence of the aerosol volume scattering function and of the aerosol optical depth by using flight patterns with descents and ascents ranging from the surface level to the top of the boundary layer. The extinction coefficient and the product of single scattering albedo and phase function of separate layers can be derived from the airborne measurements.

  3. Linear and nonlinear intraband optical properties of ZnO quantum dots embedded in SiO2 matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Maikhuri

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work we investigate some optical properties of semiconductor ZnO spherical quantum dot embedded in an amorphous SiO2 dielectric matrix. Using the framework of effective mass approximation, we have studied intraband S-P, and P-D transitions in a singly charged spherical ZnO quantum dot. The optical properties are investigated in terms of the linear and nonlinear photoabsorption coefficient, the change in refractive index, and the third order nonlinear susceptibility and oscillator strengths. Using the parabolic confinement potential of electron in the dot these parameters are studied with the variation of the dot size, and the energy and intensity of incident radiation. The photoionization cross sections are also obtained for the different dot radii from the initial ground state of the dot. It is found that dot size, confinement potential, and incident radiation intensity affects intraband optical properties of the dot significantly.

  4. Linear-regression convolutional neural network for fully automated coronary lumen segmentation in intravascular optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Yan Ling; Tan, Li Kuo; McLaughlin, Robert A; Chee, Kok Han; Liew, Yih Miin

    2017-12-01

    Intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an optical imaging modality commonly used in the assessment of coronary artery diseases during percutaneous coronary intervention. Manual segmentation to assess luminal stenosis from OCT pullback scans is challenging and time consuming. We propose a linear-regression convolutional neural network to automatically perform vessel lumen segmentation, parameterized in terms of radial distances from the catheter centroid in polar space. Benchmarked against gold-standard manual segmentation, our proposed algorithm achieves average locational accuracy of the vessel wall of 22 microns, and 0.985 and 0.970 in Dice coefficient and Jaccard similarity index, respectively. The average absolute error of luminal area estimation is 1.38%. The processing rate is 40.6 ms per image, suggesting the potential to be incorporated into a clinical workflow and to provide quantitative assessment of vessel lumen in an intraoperative time frame. (2017) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  5. Projection-reduction method applied to deriving non-linear optical conductivity for an electron-impurity system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam Lyong Kang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The projection-reduction method introduced by the present authors is known to give a validated theory for optical transitions in the systems of electrons interacting with phonons. In this work, using this method, we derive the linear and first order nonlinear optical conductivites for an electron-impurity system and examine whether the expressions faithfully satisfy the quantum mechanical philosophy, in the same way as for the electron-phonon systems. The result shows that the Fermi distribution function for electrons, energy denominators, and electron-impurity coupling factors are contained properly in organized manners along with absorption of photons for each electron transition process in the final expressions. Furthermore, the result is shown to be represented properly by schematic diagrams, as in the formulation of electron-phonon interaction. Therefore, in conclusion, we claim that this method can be applied in modeling optical transitions of electrons interacting with both impurities and phonons.

  6. Improved axial position detection in optical tweezers measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, Jakob Kisbye; Berg-Sørensen, Kirstine; Oddershede, Lene

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the axial position detection of a trapped microsphere in an optical trap by using a quadrant photodiode. By replacing the photodiode with a CCD camera, we obtain detailed information on the light scattered by the microsphere. The correlation of the interference pattern with the axial...... position displays complex behavior with regions of positive and negative interference. By analyzing the scattered light intensity as a function of the axial position of the trapped sphere, we propose a simple method to increase the sensitivity and control the linear range of axial position detection....

  7. Development of Optical Fiber Detector for Measurement of Fast Neutron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    YAGI, Takahiro; KAWAGUCHI, Shinichi; MISAWA, Tsuyoshi; PYEON, Cheol Ho; UNESAKI, Hironobu; SHIROYA, Seiji; OKAJIMA, Shigeaki; TANI, Kazuhiro

    2008-01-01

    Measurement of fast neutron flux is important for investigation of characteristic of fast reactors. In order to insert a neutron detector in a narrow space such as a gap of between fuel plates and measure the fast neutrons in real time, a neutron detector with an optical fiber has been developed. This detector consists of an optical fiber whose tip is covered with mixture of neutron converter material and scintillator such as ZnS(Ag). The detector for fast neutrons uses ThO 2 as converter material because 232 Th makes fission reaction with fast neutrons. The place where 232 Th can be used is limited by regulations because 232 Th is nuclear fuel material. The purpose of this research is to develop a new optical fiber detector to measure fast neutrons without 232 Th and to investigate the characteristic of the detector. These detectors were used to measure a D-T neutron generator and fast neutron flux distribution at Fast Critical Assembly. The results showed that the fast neutron flux distribution of the new optical fiber detector with ZnS(Ag) was the same as it of the activation method, and the detector are effective for measurement of fast neutrons. (authors)

  8. Nanostructured pyronin Y thin films as a new organic semiconductor: Linear/nonlinear optics, band gap and dielectric properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahran, H.Y. [Metallurgical Lab.1, Nanoscience Laboratory for Environmental and Bio-medical Applications (NLEBA), Semiconductor Lab., Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy, 11757 Cairo (Egypt); Advanced Functional Materials & Optoelectronic Laboratory (AFMOL), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha (Saudi Arabia); Yahia, I.S., E-mail: dr_isyahia@yahoo.com [Metallurgical Lab.1, Nanoscience Laboratory for Environmental and Bio-medical Applications (NLEBA), Semiconductor Lab., Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy, 11757 Cairo (Egypt); Advanced Functional Materials & Optoelectronic Laboratory (AFMOL), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha (Saudi Arabia); Alamri, F.H. [Advanced Functional Materials & Optoelectronic Laboratory (AFMOL), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha (Saudi Arabia)

    2017-05-15

    Pyronin Y dye (PY) is a kind of xanthene derivatives. Thin films of pyronin Y were deposited onto highly cleaned glass substrates using low-cost/spin coating technique. The structure properties of pyronin Y thin films with different thicknesses were investigated by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscope (AFM). PY thin films for all the studied thicknesses have an amorphous structure supporting the short range order of the grain size. AFM supports the nanostructure with spherical/clusters morphologies of the investigated thin films. The optical constants of pyronin Y thin films for various thicknesses were studied by using UV–vis–NIR spectrophotometer in the wavelength range 350–2500 nm. The transmittance T(λ), reflectance R(λ) spectral and absorbance (abs(λ)) were obtained for all film thicknesses at room temperature and the normal light incident. These films showed a high transmittance in the wide scale wavelengths. For different thicknesses of the studied thin films, the optical band gaps were determined and their values around 2 eV. Real and imaginary dielectric constants, dissipation factor and the nonlinear optical parameters were calculated in the wavelengths to the range 300–2500 nm. The pyronin Y is a new organic semiconductor with a good optical absorption in UV–vis regions and it is suitable for nonlinear optical applications. - Highlights: • Pyronin Y (PY) nanostructured thin films were deposited by using spin coating technique. • XRD/AFM were used to study the structure of PY films. • The optical band gap was calculated on the basis of Tauc's model. • Linear/nonlinear optical parameters are calculated and interpreted via the applied optical theories. • PY thin films is a new organic semiconductor for its application in optoelectronic devices.

  9. Fast optical measurements and imaging of flow mixing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Sønnik; Fateev, Alexander; Nielsen, Karsten Lindorff

    Project is focused on fast time-resolved infrared measurements of gas temperature and fast IR-imagining of flames in various combustion environments. The infrared spectrometer system was developed in the project for fast infrared spectral measurements on industrial scale using IR-fibre- optics. F...... engine and visualisation of gas flow behaviour in cylinder.......Project is focused on fast time-resolved infrared measurements of gas temperature and fast IR-imagining of flames in various combustion environments. The infrared spectrometer system was developed in the project for fast infrared spectral measurements on industrial scale using IR-fibre- optics....... Fast time-and spectral-resolved measurements in 1.5-5.1 μm spectral range give information about flame characteristics like gas and particle temperatures, eddies and turbulent gas mixing. Time-resolved gas composition in that spectral range (H2O, CH4, CO2, CO) which is one of the key parameters...

  10. The regression-calibration method for fitting generalized linear models with additive measurement error

    OpenAIRE

    James W. Hardin; Henrik Schmeidiche; Raymond J. Carroll

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses and illustrates the method of regression calibration. This is a straightforward technique for fitting models with additive measurement error. We present this discussion in terms of generalized linear models (GLMs) following the notation defined in Hardin and Carroll (2003). Discussion will include specified measurement error, measurement error estimated by replicate error-prone proxies, and measurement error estimated by instrumental variables. The discussion focuses on s...

  11. Investigation of linear accelerator pulse delivery using fast organic scintillator measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beierholm, Anders Ravnsborg; Andersen, Claus Erik; Lindvold, Lars René

    2010-01-01

    Fiber-coupled organic plastic scintillators present an attractive method for time-resolved dose measurements during radiotherapy. Most organic scintillators exhibit a fast response, making it possible to use them to measure individual high-energy X-ray pulses from a medical linear accelerator...... performed on Varian medical linear accelerators, delivering 6 MV X-ray beams. The dose delivery per radiation pulse was found to agree with expectations within roughly 1%, although minor discrepancies and transients were evident in the measurements....

  12. Methods of measurement of integral and differential linearity distortions of spectrometry sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuan, Jacques; Grimont, Bernard; Marin, Roland; Richard, Jean-Pierre

    1969-05-01

    The objective of this document is to describe different measurement methods, and more particularly to present a software for the processing of obtained results in order to avoid interpretation by the investigator. In a first part, the authors define the parameters of integral and differential linearity, outlines their importance in measurements performed by spectrometry, and describe the use of these parameters. In the second part, they propose various methods of measurement of these linearity parameters, report experimental applications of these methods and compare the obtained results

  13. Effect of temperature on the structural, linear, and nonlinear optical properties of MgO-doped graphene oxide nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimiagar Salimeh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium oxide (MgO-graphene oxide (GO nanocomposites were prepared by the hydrothermal method at different temperatures. The effect of growth temperature on the structural, linear, and nonlinear optical (NLO parameters was investigated. The decoration of MgO on GO sheets was confirmed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared, and UV-visible (UV-vis spectroscopy analyses. The energy band-gaps of MgO-GO nanocomposites were calculated from UV-vis spectrum using Tauc plot. The NLO parameters of MgO-GO nanocomposites were calculated for the first time by the simple Z-scan technique with nanosecond Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm. The nonlinear absorption coefficient β and nonlinear refractive index n2 for MgO-GO nanocomposites at the laser intensity of 1.1×108 W/cm2 were measured to be in the order of 10−7 cm/W and 10−12 cm2/W, respectively. The third-order NLO susceptibility of MgO-GO nanocomposites was measured in the order of 10−9 esu. The results showed that MgO-GO structures have negative nonlinearity as well as good nonlinear two-photon absorption at 532 nm. Furthermore, the NLO parameters increased by the enhancement of the growth temperature. As the investigation of new materials plays an important role in the advancement of optoelectronics, MgO-GO nanocomposites possess potential applications in NLO devices.

  14. Precision PEP-II optics measurement with an SVD-enhanced Least-Square fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Y. T.; Cai, Y.

    2006-03-01

    A singular value decomposition (SVD)-enhanced Least-Square fitting technique is discussed. By automatic identifying, ordering, and selecting dominant SVD modes of the derivative matrix that responds to the variations of the variables, the converging process of the Least-Square fitting is significantly enhanced. Thus the fitting speed can be fast enough for a fairly large system. This technique has been successfully applied to precision PEP-II optics measurement in which we determine all quadrupole strengths (both normal and skew components) and sextupole feed-downs as well as all BPM gains and BPM cross-plane couplings through Least-Square fitting of the phase advances and the Local Green's functions as well as the coupling ellipses among BPMs. The local Green's functions are specified by 4 local transfer matrix components R12, R34, R32, R14. These measurable quantities (the Green's functions, the phase advances and the coupling ellipse tilt angles and axis ratios) are obtained by analyzing turn-by-turn Beam Position Monitor (BPM) data with a high-resolution model-independent analysis (MIA). Once all of the quadrupoles and sextupole feed-downs are determined, we obtain a computer virtual accelerator which matches the real accelerator in linear optics. Thus, beta functions, linear coupling parameters, and interaction point (IP) optics characteristics can be measured and displayed.

  15. Development of a compact, fiber-coupled, six degree-of-freedom measurement system for precision linear stage metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Xiangzhi; Gillmer, Steven R.; Woody, Shane C.; Ellis, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    A compact, fiber-coupled, six degree-of-freedom measurement system which enables fast, accurate calibration, and error mapping of precision linear stages is presented. The novel design has the advantages of simplicity, compactness, and relatively low cost. This proposed sensor can simultaneously measure displacement, two straightness errors, and changes in pitch, yaw, and roll using a single optical beam traveling between the measurement system and a small target. The optical configuration of the system and the working principle for all degrees-of-freedom are presented along with the influence and compensation of crosstalk motions in roll and straightness measurements. Several comparison experiments are conducted to investigate the feasibility and performance of the proposed system in each degree-of-freedom independently. Comparison experiments to a commercial interferometer demonstrate error standard deviations of 0.33 μm in straightness, 0.14 μrad in pitch, 0.44 μradin yaw, and 45.8 μrad in roll.

  16. Development of a compact, fiber-coupled, six degree-of-freedom measurement system for precision linear stage metrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Xiangzhi, E-mail: xiangzhi.yu@rochester.edu; Gillmer, Steven R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Woody, Shane C. [InSituTec Incorporated, 7140 Weddington Road, Concord, North Carolina 28027 (United States); Ellis, Jonathan D. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); The Institute of Optics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    A compact, fiber-coupled, six degree-of-freedom measurement system which enables fast, accurate calibration, and error mapping of precision linear stages is presented. The novel design has the advantages of simplicity, compactness, and relatively low cost. This proposed sensor can simultaneously measure displacement, two straightness errors, and changes in pitch, yaw, and roll using a single optical beam traveling between the measurement system and a small target. The optical configuration of the system and the working principle for all degrees-of-freedom are presented along with the influence and compensation of crosstalk motions in roll and straightness measurements. Several comparison experiments are conducted to investigate the feasibility and performance of the proposed system in each degree-of-freedom independently. Comparison experiments to a commercial interferometer demonstrate error standard deviations of 0.33 μm in straightness, 0.14 μrad in pitch, 0.44 μradin yaw, and 45.8 μrad in roll.

  17. Microscopic optical path length difference and polarization measurement system for cell analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satake, H.; Ikeda, K.; Kowa, H.; Hoshiba, T.; Watanabe, E.

    2018-03-01

    In recent years, noninvasive, nonstaining, and nondestructive quantitative cell measurement techniques have become increasingly important in the medical field. These cell measurement techniques enable the quantitative analysis of living cells, and are therefore applied to various cell identification processes, such as those determining the passage number limit during cell culturing in regenerative medicine. To enable cell measurement, we developed a quantitative microscopic phase imaging system based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer that measures the optical path length difference distribution without phase unwrapping using optical phase locking. The applicability of our phase imaging system was demonstrated by successful identification of breast cancer cells amongst normal cells. However, the cell identification method using this phase imaging system exhibited a false identification rate of approximately 7%. In this study, we implemented a polarimetric imaging system by introducing a polarimetric module to one arm of the Mach-Zehnder interferometer of our conventional phase imaging system. This module was comprised of a quarter wave plate and a rotational polarizer on the illumination side of the sample, and a linear polarizer on the optical detector side. In addition, we developed correction methods for the measurement errors of the optical path length and birefringence phase differences that arose through the influence of elements other than cells, such as the Petri dish. As the Petri dish holding the fluid specimens was transparent, it did not affect the amplitude information; however, the optical path length and birefringence phase differences were affected. Therefore, we proposed correction of the optical path length and birefringence phase for the influence of elements other than cells, as a prerequisite for obtaining highly precise phase and polarimetric images.

  18. Scale of association: hierarchical linear models and the measurement of ecological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sean M. McMahon; Jeffrey M. Diez

    2007-01-01

    A fundamental challenge to understanding patterns in ecological systems lies in employing methods that can analyse, test and draw inference from measured associations between variables across scales. Hierarchical linear models (HLM) use advanced estimation algorithms to measure regression relationships and variance-covariance parameters in hierarchically structured...

  19. Vector-valued measure and the necessary conditions for the optimal control problems of linear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xunjing, L.

    1981-12-01

    The vector-valued measure defined by the well-posed linear boundary value problems is discussed. The maximum principle of the optimal control problem with non-convex constraint is proved by using the vector-valued measure. Especially, the necessary conditions of the optimal control of elliptic systems is derived without the convexity of the control domain and the cost function. (author)

  20. Synthesis, linear and nonlinear optical properties of phosphonato-substituted bithiophenes derived from 2,2'-biphenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Jason L; Zhao, Qun; Zhang, Yuanli; Wang, Jianwei; Lawson, Christopher M; Gray, Gary M

    2013-10-21

    Two new series of phosphonato-substituted bithiophenes, BpP(X)(C4H2S)2H and BpP(X)(C4H2S)2P(X)Bp (Bp = 2,2'-C12H8O2, X = O, S, Se), have been synthesized and characterized using linear absorption and emission spectra, and third-order nonlinear absorption measurements at 430 nm with 27 ps laser pulses. The compounds were synthesized in three steps: (1) reacting lithiated bithiophene with (Et2N)2PCl; (2) reacting the product from the first step with biphenol; and (3) reacting the product from the second step with the appropriate chalcogen. The X-ray crystal structures of two of the compounds, BpP(O)(C4H2S)2P(O)Bp and BpP(Se)(C4H2S)2P(Se)Bp, are reported and show a number of intermolecular π-π interactions. The linear absorption spectra, emission spectra, and emission quantum yields show distinct trends with respect to the chalcogen and the number of phosphorus substituents attached to the 2,2'-bithiophene ring. The compounds show emission maxima at wavelengths ranging from 380-400 nm and, BpP(S)(C4H2S)2H shows a 23-fold increase in fluorescence quantum yield relative to that of 2,2'-bithiophene. Fluorescence lifetimes and radiative and non-radiative decay rate constants for the first singlet excited state have been extracted from the quantum yields using time-dependent DFT calculations. Nonlinear transmission measurements indicate that all of the compounds show nonlinear absorption at 430 nm with 27 ps laser pulses in spite of their low solubilities. Notably, the nonlinear absorption threshold of a 0.16 mol L(-1) CH2Cl2 solution of BpP(Se)(C4H2S)2H is 0.9 J cm(-2). The excellent emission quantum yields and good nonlinear absorptions make these compounds promising candidates for optical power limiting applications and as host materials for violet-blue organic light emitting diodes.