Linear theory radial and nonradial pulsations of DA dwarf stars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Starrfield, S.; Cox, A.N.; Hodson, S.; Pesnell, W.D.
1982-01-01
The Los Alamos stellar envelope and radial linear non-adiabatic computer code, along with a new Los Alamos non-radial code are used to investigate the total hydrogen mass necessary to produce the non-radial instability of DA dwarfs
Nonadiabatic Ponderomotive Potentials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dodin IY, Fisch NJ
2005-01-01
An approximate integral of the Manley-Rowe type is found for a particle moving in a high-frequency field, which may interact resonantly with natural particle oscillations. An effective ponderomotive potential is introduced accordingly and can capture nonadiabatic particle dynamics. We show that nonadiabatic ponderomotive barriers can trap classical particles, produce cooling effect, and generate one-way walls for resonant species. Possible atomic applications are also envisioned
Gyrokinetic analysis of linear microinstabilities for the stellarator Wendelstein 7-X
Xanthopoulos, P.; Jenko, F.
2007-04-01
A linear collisionless gyrokinetic investigation of ion temperature gradient (ITG) modes—considering both adiabatic and full electron dynamics—and trapped electron modes (TEMs) is presented for the stellarator Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) [G. Grieger et al., Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research 1990 (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1991), Vol. 3, p. 525]. The study of ITG modes reveals that in W7-X, microinstabilities of distinct character coexist. The effect of changes in the density gradient and temperature ratio is discussed. Substantial differences with respect to the axisymmetric geometry appear in W7-X, concerning the relative separation of regions with a large fraction of helically trapped particles and those of pronounced bad curvature. For both ITG modes and TEMs, the dependence of their linear growth rates on the background gradients is studied along with their parallel mode structure.
Nonadiabatic transition path sampling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sherman, M. C.; Corcelli, S. A.
2016-01-01
Fewest-switches surface hopping (FSSH) is combined with transition path sampling (TPS) to produce a new method called nonadiabatic path sampling (NAPS). The NAPS method is validated on a model electron transfer system coupled to a Langevin bath. Numerically exact rate constants are computed using the reactive flux (RF) method over a broad range of solvent frictions that span from the energy diffusion (low friction) regime to the spatial diffusion (high friction) regime. The NAPS method is shown to quantitatively reproduce the RF benchmark rate constants over the full range of solvent friction. Integrating FSSH within the TPS framework expands the applicability of both approaches and creates a new method that will be helpful in determining detailed mechanisms for nonadiabatic reactions in the condensed-phase.
Horvath, Sarah; Myers, Sam; Ahlers, Johnathon; Barnes, Jason W.
2017-10-01
Stellar seismic activity produces variations in brightness that introduce oscillations into transit light curves, which can create challenges for traditional fitting models. These oscillations disrupt baseline stellar flux values and potentially mask transits. We develop a model that removes these oscillations from transit light curves by minimizing the significance of each oscillation in frequency space. By removing stellar variability, we prepare each light curve for traditional fitting techniques. We apply our model to $\\delta$-Scuti KOI-976 and demonstrate that our variability subtraction routine successfully allows for measuring bulk system characteristics using traditional light curve fitting. These results open a new window for characterizing bulk system parameters of planets orbiting seismically active stars.
INTRODUCING CAFein, A NEW COMPUTATIONAL TOOL FOR STELLAR PULSATIONS AND DYNAMIC TIDES
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Valsecchi, F.; Farr, W. M.; Willems, B.; Rasio, F. A.; Kalogera, V.
2013-01-01
Here we present CAFein, a new computational tool for investigating radiative dissipation of dynamic tides in close binaries and of non-adiabatic, non-radial stellar oscillations in isolated stars in the linear regime. For the latter, CAFein computes the non-adiabatic eigenfrequencies and eigenfunctions of detailed stellar models. The code is based on the so-called Riccati method, a numerical algorithm that has been successfully applied to a variety of stellar pulsators, and which does not suffer from the major drawbacks of commonly used shooting and relaxation schemes. Here we present an extension of the Riccati method to investigate dynamic tides in close binaries. We demonstrate CAFein's capabilities as a stellar pulsation code both in the adiabatic and non-adiabatic regimes, by reproducing previously published eigenfrequencies of a polytrope, and by successfully identifying the unstable modes of a stellar model in the β Cephei/SPB region of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. Finally, we verify CAFein's behavior in the dynamic tides regime by investigating the effects of dynamic tides on the eigenfunctions and orbital and spin evolution of massive main sequence stars in eccentric binaries, and of hot Jupiter host stars. The plethora of asteroseismic data provided by NASA's Kepler satellite, some of which include the direct detection of tidally excited stellar oscillations, make CAFein quite timely. Furthermore, the increasing number of observed short-period detached double white dwarfs (WDs) and the observed orbital decay in the tightest of such binaries open up a new possibility of investigating WD interiors through the effects of tides on their orbital evolution
Nonadiabatic anharmonic electron transfer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schmidt, P. P. [Molecular Physics Research, 6547 Kristina Ursula Court, Falls Church, Virginia 22044 (United States)
2013-03-28
The effect of an inner sphere, local mode vibration on an electron transfer is modeled using the nonadiabatic transition probability (rate) expression together with both the anharmonic Morse and the harmonic oscillator potential. For an anharmonic inner sphere mode, a variational analysis uses harmonic oscillator basis functions to overcome the difficulties evaluating Morse-model Franck-Condon overlap factors. Individual matrix elements are computed with the use of new, fast, robust, and flexible recurrence relations. The analysis therefore readily addresses changes in frequency and/or displacement of oscillator minimums in the different electron transfer states. Direct summation of the individual Boltzmann weighted Franck-Condon contributions avoids the limitations inherent in the use of the familiar high-temperature, Gaussian form of the rate constant. The effect of harmonic versus anharmonic inner sphere modes on the electron transfer is readily seen, especially in the exoergic, inverted region. The behavior of the transition probability can also be displayed as a surface for all temperatures and values of the driving force/exoergicity {Delta}=-{Delta}G. The temperature insensitivity of the transfer rate is clearly seen when the exoergicity equals the collective reorganization energy ({Delta}={Lambda}{sub s}) along a maximum ln (w) vs. {Delta} ridge of the surface. The surface also reveals additional regions for {Delta} where ln (w) appears to be insensitive to temperature, or effectively activationless, for some kinds of inner sphere contributions.
Nonadiabatic transitions in electrostatically trapped ammonia molecules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kirste, Moritz; Schnell, Melanie; Meijer, Gerard; Sartakov, Boris G.
2009-01-01
Nonadiabatic transitions are known to be major loss channels for atoms in magnetic traps but have thus far not been experimentally reported upon for trapped molecules. We have observed and quantified losses due to nonadiabatic transitions for three isotopologues of ammonia in electrostatic traps by comparing the trapping times in traps with a zero and a nonzero electric field at the center. Nonadiabatic transitions are seen to dominate the overall loss rate even for the present samples that are at relatively high temperatures of 30 mK. It is anticipated that losses due to nonadiabatic transitions in electric fields are omnipresent in ongoing experiments on cold molecules.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Das, R.N.
1980-01-01
The key equation which commonly appears for radiative transfer in a finite stellar atmosphere having ground reflection according to Lambert's law is considered in this paper. The exact solution of this equation is obtained for surface quantities in terms of the X-Y equations of Chandrasekhar by the method of Laplace transform and linear singular operators. This exact method is widely applicable for obtaining the solution for surface quantities in a finite atmosphere. (orig.)
Non-Adiabatic Molecular Dynamics Methods for Materials Discovery
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Furche, Filipp [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Parker, Shane M. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Muuronen, Mikko J. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Roy, Saswata [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)
2017-04-04
The flow of radiative energy in light-driven materials such as photosensitizer dyes or photocatalysts is governed by non-adiabatic transitions between electronic states and cannot be described within the Born-Oppenheimer approximation commonly used in electronic structure theory. The non-adiabatic molecular dynamics (NAMD) methods based on Tully surface hopping and time-dependent density functional theory developed in this project have greatly extended the range of molecular materials that can be tackled by NAMD simulations. New algorithms to compute molecular excited state and response properties efficiently were developed. Fundamental limitations of common non-linear response methods were discovered and characterized. Methods for accurate computations of vibronic spectra of materials such as black absorbers were developed and applied. It was shown that open-shell TDDFT methods capture bond breaking in NAMD simulations, a longstanding challenge for single-reference molecular dynamics simulations. The methods developed in this project were applied to study the photodissociation of acetaldehyde and revealed that non-adiabatic effects are experimentally observable in fragment kinetic energy distributions. Finally, the project enabled the first detailed NAMD simulations of photocatalytic water oxidation by titania nanoclusters, uncovering the mechanism of this fundamentally important reaction for fuel generation and storage.
Quantum-classical correspondence in steady states of nonadiabatic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujii, Mikiya; Yamashita, Koichi
2015-01-01
We first present nonadiabatic path integral which is exact formulation of quantum dynamics in nonadiabatic systems. Then, by applying the stationary phase approximations to the nonadiabatic path integral, a semiclassical quantization condition, i.e., quantum-classical correspondence, for steady states of nonadiabatic systems is presented as a nonadiabatic trace formula. The present quantum-classical correspondence indicates that a set of primitive hopping periodic orbits, which are invariant under time evolution in the phase space of the slow degree of freedom, should be quantized. The semiclassical quantization is then applied to a simple nonadiabatic model and accurately reproduces exact quantum energy levels
Nonadiabatic effects in electronic and nuclear dynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Martin P. Bircher
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Due to their very nature, ultrafast phenomena are often accompanied by the occurrence of nonadiabatic effects. From a theoretical perspective, the treatment of nonadiabatic processes makes it necessary to go beyond the (quasi static picture provided by the time-independent Schrödinger equation within the Born-Oppenheimer approximation and to find ways to tackle instead the full time-dependent electronic and nuclear quantum problem. In this review, we give an overview of different nonadiabatic processes that manifest themselves in electronic and nuclear dynamics ranging from the nonadiabatic phenomena taking place during tunnel ionization of atoms in strong laser fields to the radiationless relaxation through conical intersections and the nonadiabatic coupling of vibrational modes and discuss the computational approaches that have been developed to describe such phenomena. These methods range from the full solution of the combined nuclear-electronic quantum problem to a hierarchy of semiclassical approaches and even purely classical frameworks. The power of these simulation tools is illustrated by representative applications and the direct confrontation with experimental measurements performed in the National Centre of Competence for Molecular Ultrafast Science and Technology.
Nonadiabatic holonomic quantum computation using Rydberg blockade
Kang, Yi-Hao; Chen, Ye-Hong; Shi, Zhi-Cheng; Huang, Bi-Hua; Song, Jie; Xia, Yan
2018-04-01
In this paper, we propose a scheme for realizing nonadiabatic holonomic computation assisted by two atoms and the shortcuts to adiabaticity (STA). The blockade effect induced by strong Rydberg-mediated interaction between two Rydberg atoms provides us the possibility to simplify the dynamics of the system, and the STA helps us design pulses for implementing the holonomic computation with high fidelity. Numerical simulations show the scheme is noise immune and decoherence resistant. Therefore, the current scheme may provide some useful perspectives for realizing nonadiabatic holonomic computation.
Non-adiabatic perturbations in multi-component perfect fluids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koshelev, N.A., E-mail: koshna71@inbox.ru [Ulyanovsk State University, Leo Tolstoy str 42, 432970 (Russian Federation)
2011-04-01
The evolution of non-adiabatic perturbations in models with multiple coupled perfect fluids with non-adiabatic sound speed is considered. Instead of splitting the entropy perturbation into relative and intrinsic parts, we introduce a set of symmetric quantities, which also govern the non-adiabatic pressure perturbation in models with energy transfer. We write the gauge invariant equations for the variables that determine on a large scale the non-adiabatic pressure perturbation and the rate of changes of the comoving curvature perturbation. The analysis of evolution of the non-adiabatic pressure perturbation has been made for several particular models.
Non-adiabatic perturbations in multi-component perfect fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koshelev, N.A.
2011-01-01
The evolution of non-adiabatic perturbations in models with multiple coupled perfect fluids with non-adiabatic sound speed is considered. Instead of splitting the entropy perturbation into relative and intrinsic parts, we introduce a set of symmetric quantities, which also govern the non-adiabatic pressure perturbation in models with energy transfer. We write the gauge invariant equations for the variables that determine on a large scale the non-adiabatic pressure perturbation and the rate of changes of the comoving curvature perturbation. The analysis of evolution of the non-adiabatic pressure perturbation has been made for several particular models
Nonadiabatic electron wavepacket dynamics behind molecular autoionization
Matsuoka, Takahide; Takatsuka, Kazuo
2018-01-01
A theoretical method for real-time dynamics of nonadiabatic reorganization of electronic configurations in molecules is developed, with dual aim that the intramolecular electron dynamics can be probed by means of direct and/or indirect photoionizations and that the physical origins behind photoionization signals attained in the time domain can be identified in terms of the language of time-dependent quantum chemistry. In doing so, we first formulate and implement a new computational scheme for nonadiabatic electron dynamics associated with molecular ionization, which well fits in the general theory of nonadiabatic electron dynamics. In this method, the total nonadiabatic electron wavepackets are propagated in time directly with complex natural orbitals without referring to Hartree-Fock molecular orbitals, and the amount of electron flux from a molecular region leading to ionization is evaluated in terms of the relevant complex natural orbitals. In the second half of this paper, we apply the method to electron dynamics in the elementary processes consisting of the Auger decay to demonstrate the methodological significance. An illustrative example is taken from an Auger decay starting from the 2a1 orbital hole-state of H2O+. The roles of nuclear momentum (kinetic) couplings in electronic-state mixing during the decay process are analyzed in terms of complex natural orbitals, which are schematically represented in the conventional language of molecular symmetry of the Hartree-Fock orbitals.
Nonadiabatic three-neutrino oscillations in matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
DOlivo, J.C.; Oteo, J.A.
1996-01-01
Oscillations of three neutrinos in matter are analyzed by using the Magnus expansion for the time-evolution operator. We derive a simple expression for the electron-neutrino survival probability which is applied to the examination of the effect of a third neutrino on the nonadiabatic flavor transformations. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Nonadiabatic particle motion in magnetic mirror traps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Irie, H.; Otsuka, S.; Varma, R.K.; Watanabe, T.; Nishikawa, Kyoji.
1982-01-01
By numerical integration of the equation of single particle motion, the basic features of the actual nonadiabatic escape of particles are studied. The results are compared with the predictions of two existing theoretical models: ''diffusion'' model derived by B. V. Chirikov and ''tunneling'' model introduced by R. K. Varma. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoshimura, H.; Wang, Z.; Wu, F.
1984-01-01
Differential rotation dependence of the selection mechanism for magnetic parity of solar and stellar cycles is studied by assuming various differential rotation profiles inn the dynamo equation. The parity selection depends on propagation direction of oscillating magnetic fields in the form of dynamo waves which propagate along isorotation surfaces. When there is any radial gradient in the differential rotation, dynamo waves propagate either equatorward or poleward. In the former case, field systems of the two hemispheres approach each other and collide at the equator. Then, odd parity is selected. In the latter case, field systems of the two hemispheres recede from each other and do not collide at the equator, an even parity is selected. Thus the equatorial migration of wings of the butterfly iagram of the solar cycle and its odd parity are intrinsically related. In the case of purely latitudibnal differential rotation, dynamo waves propagate purely radially and growth rates of odd and even modes are nearly the same even when dynamo strength is weak when the parity selection mechanism should work most efficiently. In this case, anisotropy of turbulent diffusivity is a decisive factor to separate odd and even modes. Unlike in the case of radial-gradient-dominated differential rotation in which any difference between diffusivities for poloidal and toroidal fields enhancess the parity selection without changing the parity, the parity selection in the case of latitudinal-gradient-dominated differential rotation depends on the difference of diffusivities for poloidal and toroidal fields. When diffusivity for poloidal fields iss larger than that for toroidal fields, odd parity is selected; and when diffusivity for toroidal fields is larger, even parity is selected
Oscillations in stellar atmospheres
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Costa, A.; Ringuelet, A.E.; Fontenla, J.M.
1989-01-01
Atmospheric excitation and propagation of oscillations are analyzed for typical pulsating stars. The linear, plane-parallel approach for the pulsating atmosphere gives a local description of the phenomenon. From the local analysis of oscillations, the minimum frequencies are obtained for radially propagating waves. The comparison of the minimum frequencies obtained for a variety of stellar types is in good agreement with the observed periods of the oscillations. The role of the atmosphere in the globar stellar pulsations is thus emphasized. 7 refs
Peters, William K.; Tiwari, Vivek; Jonas, David M.
2017-11-01
The nonadiabatic states and dynamics are investigated for a linear vibronic coupling Hamiltonian with a static electronic splitting and weak off-diagonal Jahn-Teller coupling through a single vibration with a vibrational-electronic resonance. With a transformation of the electronic basis, this Hamiltonian is also applicable to the anti-correlated vibration in a symmetric homodimer with marginally strong constant off-diagonal coupling, where the non-adiabatic states and dynamics model electronic excitation energy transfer or self-exchange electron transfer. For parameters modeling a free-base naphthalocyanine, the nonadiabatic couplings are deeply quantum mechanical and depend on wavepacket width; scalar couplings are as important as the derivative couplings that are usually interpreted to depend on vibrational velocity in semiclassical curve crossing or surface hopping theories. A colored visualization scheme that fully characterizes the non-adiabatic states using the exact factorization is developed. The nonadiabatic states in this nested funnel have nodeless vibrational factors with strongly avoided zeroes in their vibrational probability densities. Vibronic dynamics are visualized through the vibrational coordinate dependent density of the time-dependent dipole moment in free induction decay. Vibrational motion is amplified by the nonadiabatic couplings, with asymmetric and anisotropic motions that depend upon the excitation polarization in the molecular frame and can be reversed by a change in polarization. This generates a vibrational quantum beat anisotropy in excess of 2/5. The amplitude of vibrational motion can be larger than that on the uncoupled potentials, and the electronic population transfer is maximized within one vibrational period. Most of these dynamics are missed by the adiabatic approximation, and some electronic and vibrational motions are completely suppressed by the Condon approximation of a coordinate-independent transition dipole between
Observational tests of non-adiabatic Chaplygin gas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carneiro, S.; Pigozzo, C., E-mail: saulo.carneiro@pq.cnpq.br, E-mail: cpigozzo@ufba.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Campus de Ondina, Salvador, BA 40210-340 (Brazil)
2014-10-01
In a previous paper [1] it was shown that any dark sector model can be mapped into a non-adiabatic fluid formed by two interacting components, one with zero pressure and the other with equation-of-state parameter ω = -1. It was also shown that the latter does not cluster and, hence, the former is identified as the observed clustering matter. This guarantees that the dark matter power spectrum does not suffer from oscillations or instabilities. It applies in particular to the generalised Chaplygin gas, which was shown to be equivalent to interacting models at both background and perturbation levels. In the present paper we test the non-adiabatic Chaplygin gas against the Hubble diagram of type Ia supernovae, the position of the first acoustic peak in the anisotropy spectrum of the cosmic microwave background and the linear power spectrum of large scale structures. We consider two different compilations of SNe Ia, namely the Constitution and SDSS samples, both calibrated with the MLCS2k2 fitter, and for the power spectrum we use the 2dFGRS catalogue. The model parameters to be adjusted are the present Hubble parameter, the present matter density and the Chaplygin gas parameter α. The joint analysis best fit gives α ≈ - 0.5, which corresponds to a constant-rate energy flux from dark energy to dark matter, with the dark energy density decaying linearly with the Hubble parameter. The ΛCDM model, equivalent to α = 0, stands outside the 3σ confidence interval.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kanno, Manabu; Kono, Hirohiko; Fujimura, Yuichi; Lin, Sheng H.
2010-01-01
We theoretically investigated the nonadiabatic couplings between optically induced π-electron rotations and molecular vibrations in a chiral aromatic molecule irradiated by a nonhelical, linearly polarized laser pulse. The results of wave packet dynamics simulation show that the vibrational amplitudes strongly depend on the initial rotation direction, clockwise or counterclockwise, which is controlled by the polarization direction of the incident pulse. This suggests that attosecond π-electron rotations can be observed by spectroscopic detection of femtosecond molecular vibrations.
Semiclassical quantization of nonadiabatic systems with hopping periodic orbits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujii, Mikiya; Yamashita, Koichi
2015-01-01
We present a semiclassical quantization condition, i.e., quantum–classical correspondence, for steady states of nonadiabatic systems consisting of fast and slow degrees of freedom (DOFs) by extending Gutzwiller’s trace formula to a nonadiabatic form. The quantum–classical correspondence indicates that a set of primitive hopping periodic orbits, which are invariant under time evolution in the phase space of the slow DOF, should be quantized. The semiclassical quantization is then applied to a simple nonadiabatic model and accurately reproduces exact quantum energy levels. In addition to the semiclassical quantization condition, we also discuss chaotic dynamics involved in the classical limit of nonadiabatic dynamics
Tiwari, Vivek; Peters, William K.; Jonas, David M.
2017-10-01
Non-adiabatic vibrational-electronic resonance in the excited electronic states of natural photosynthetic antennas drastically alters the adiabatic framework, in which electronic energy transfer has been conventionally studied, and suggests the possibility of exploiting non-adiabatic dynamics for directed energy transfer. Here, a generalized dimer model incorporates asymmetries between pigments, coupling to the environment, and the doubly excited state relevant for nonlinear spectroscopy. For this generalized dimer model, the vibrational tuning vector that drives energy transfer is derived and connected to decoherence between singly excited states. A correlation vector is connected to decoherence between the ground state and the doubly excited state. Optical decoherence between the ground and singly excited states involves linear combinations of the correlation and tuning vectors. Excitonic coupling modifies the tuning vector. The correlation and tuning vectors are not always orthogonal, and both can be asymmetric under pigment exchange, which affects energy transfer. For equal pigment vibrational frequencies, the nonadiabatic tuning vector becomes an anti-correlated delocalized linear combination of intramolecular vibrations of the two pigments, and the nonadiabatic energy transfer dynamics become separable. With exchange symmetry, the correlation and tuning vectors become delocalized intramolecular vibrations that are symmetric and antisymmetric under pigment exchange. Diabatic criteria for vibrational-excitonic resonance demonstrate that anti-correlated vibrations increase the range and speed of vibronically resonant energy transfer (the Golden Rule rate is a factor of 2 faster). A partial trace analysis shows that vibronic decoherence for a vibrational-excitonic resonance between two excitons is slower than their purely excitonic decoherence.
Trajectory-based nonadiabatic dynamics with time-dependent density functional theory.
Curchod, Basile F E; Rothlisberger, Ursula; Tavernelli, Ivano
2013-05-10
Understanding the fate of an electronically excited molecule constitutes an important task for theoretical chemistry, and practical implications range from the interpretation of atto- and femtosecond spectroscopy to the development of light-driven molecular machines, the control of photochemical reactions, and the possibility of capturing sunlight energy. However, many challenging conceptual and technical problems are involved in the description of these phenomena such as 1) the failure of the well-known Born-Oppenheimer approximation; 2) the need for accurate electronic properties such as potential energy surfaces, excited nuclear forces, or nonadiabatic coupling terms; and 3) the necessity of describing the dynamics of the photoexcited nuclear wavepacket. This review provides an overview of the current methods to address points 1) and 3) and shows how time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) and its linear-response extension can be used for point 2). First, the derivation of Ehrenfest dynamics and nonadiabatic Bohmian dynamics is discussed and linked to Tully's trajectory surface hopping. Second, the coupling of these trajectory-based nonadiabatic schemes with TDDFT is described in detail with special emphasis on the derivation of the required electronic structure properties. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Modeling non-adiabatic photoexcited reaction dynamics in condensed phases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coker, D.F.
2003-01-01
Reactions of photoexcited molecules, ions, and radicals in condensed phase environments involve non-adiabatic dynamics over coupled electronic surfaces. We focus on how local environmental symmetries can effect non-adiabatic coupling between excited electronic states and thus influence, in a possibly controllable way, the outcome of photo-excited reactions. Semi-classical and mixed quantum-classical non-adiabatic molecular dynamics methods, together with semi-empirical excited state potentials are used to probe the dynamical mixing of electronic states in different environments from molecular clusters, to simple liquids and solids, and photo-excited reactions in complex reaction environments such as zeolites
The nonadiabatic deactivation paths of pyrrole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barbatti, Mario; Vazdar, Mario; Aquino, Adelia J. A.; Eckert-Maksic, Mirjana; Lischka, Hans
2006-01-01
Multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) calculations have been performed for pyrrole with the aim of providing an explanation for the experimentally observed photochemical deactivation processes. Potential energy curves and minima on the crossing seam were determined using the analytic MRCI gradient and nonadiabatic coupling features of the COLUMBUS program system. A new deactivation mechanism based on an out-of-plane ring deformation is presented. This mechanism directly couples the charge transfer 1 ππ* and ground states. It may be responsible for more than 50% of the observed photofragments of ππ*-excited pyrrole. The ring deformation mechanism should act complementary to the previously proposed NH-stretching mechanism, thus offering a more complete interpretation of the pyrrole photodynamics
Theory of fast (nonadiabatic) nuclear rotation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nosov, V.G.; Kamchatnov, A.M.
1977-01-01
The theory of backbending is developed taking into accout the increasing role of nonadiabatic effects, which are concerned with quantum number K violation. Above the transition point, rotation quantum number j (>=) jsub(c) (second-kind transition point), all possible values of the quantity K in the interval -J ( Jsub(c) are obtained. The radius of global nucleon mass distribution in the nucleus is defined from the analysis of the experimental moments of inertia in n-phase. It is in agreement with the radius of distribution of protons alone obtained from electron scattering on nuclei. Assuming the simplest singularity of parametric derivative of the Hamiltonian of the system the general theory of non-temperature (ground state)second-kind phase transitions is developed
Nonadiabatic two-electron transfer mediated by an irregular bridge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petrov, E.G.; Shevchenko, Ye.V.; May, V.
2004-01-01
Nonadiabatic two-electron transfer (TET) mediated by a linear molecular bridge is studied theoretically. Special attention is put on the case of a irregular distribution of bridge site energies as well as on the inter-site Coulomb interaction. Based on the unified description of electron transfer reactions [J. Chem. Phys. 115 (2001) 7107] a closed set of kinetic equations describing the TET process is derived. A reduction of this set to a single exponential donor-acceptor (D-A) TET is performed together with a derivation of an overall D-A TET rate. The latter contains a contribution of the stepwise as well as of the concerted route of D-A TET. The stepwise contribution is determined by two single-electron steps each of them associated with a sequential and a superexchange pathway. A two-electron unistep superexchange transition between the D and A forms the concerted contribution to the overall rate. Both contributions are analyzed in their dependency on the bridge length. The irregular distribution of the bridge site energies as well as the influence of the Coulomb interaction facilitates the D-A TET via a modification of the stepwise and the concerted part of the overall rate. At low temperatures and for short bridges with a single or two units the concerted contribution exceeds the stepwise contribution. If the bridge contains more than two units, the stepwise contribution dominates the overall rate
Zhu, Chaoyuan; Lin, Sheng Hsien
2006-07-28
Unified semiclasical solution for general nonadiabatic tunneling between two adiabatic potential energy surfaces is established by employing unified semiclassical solution for pure nonadiabatic transition [C. Zhu, J. Chem. Phys. 105, 4159 (1996)] with the certain symmetry transformation. This symmetry comes from a detailed analysis of the reduced scattering matrix for Landau-Zener type of crossing as a special case of nonadiabatic transition and nonadiabatic tunneling. Traditional classification of crossing and noncrossing types of nonadiabatic transition can be quantitatively defined by the rotation angle of adiabatic-to-diabatic transformation, and this rotational angle enters the analytical solution for general nonadiabatic tunneling. The certain two-state exponential potential models are employed for numerical tests, and the calculations from the present general nonadiabatic tunneling formula are demonstrated in very good agreement with the results from exact quantum mechanical calculations. The present general nonadiabatic tunneling formula can be incorporated with various mixed quantum-classical methods for modeling electronically nonadiabatic processes in photochemistry.
Reddish, V C
1978-01-01
Stellar Formation brings together knowledge about the formation of stars. In seeking to determine the conditions necessary for star formation, this book examines questions such as how, where, and why stars form, and at what rate and with what properties. This text also considers whether the formation of a star is an accident or an integral part of the physical properties of matter. This book consists of 13 chapters divided into two sections and begins with an overview of theories that explain star formation as well as the state of knowledge of star formation in comparison to stellar structure
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bak, Keld L.; Jørgensen, Poul; Jensen, H.J.A.
1992-01-01
A new scheme for obtaining first-order nonadiabatic coupling matrix elements (FO-NACME) for multiconfigurational self-consistent-field (MCSCF) wave functions is presented. The FO-NACME are evaluated from residues of linear response functions. The residues involve the geometrical response of a ref......A new scheme for obtaining first-order nonadiabatic coupling matrix elements (FO-NACME) for multiconfigurational self-consistent-field (MCSCF) wave functions is presented. The FO-NACME are evaluated from residues of linear response functions. The residues involve the geometrical response...... to the full configuration interaction limit. Comparisons are made with state-averaged MCSCF results for MgH2 and finite-difference configuration interaction by perturbation with multiconfigurational zeroth-order wave function reflected by interactive process (CIPSI) results for BH....
Kawaler, S D; Srinivasan, G
1997-01-01
This volume examines the internal structure, origin and evolution of white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes, all objects at the final stage of stellar evolution. It covers topics such as: pulsation of white dwarfs; millisecond pulsars; and the dynamics around black holes.
Progress Toward Attractive Stellarators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neilson, G.H.; Bromberg, L.; Brown, T.G.; Gates, D.A.; Ku, L.P.; Zarnstorff, M.C.; Boozer, A.H.; Harris, J.H.; Meneghini, O.; Mynick, H.E.; Pomphrey, N.; Reiman, A.H.; Xanthopoulos, P.
2011-01-01
The quasi-axisymmetric stellarator (QAS) concept offers a promising path to a more compact stellarator reactor, closer in linear dimensions to tokamak reactors than previous stellarator designs. Concept improvements are needed, however, to make it more maintainable and more compatible with high plant availability. Using the ARIES-CS design as a starting point, compact stellarator designs with improved maintenance characteristics have been developed. While the ARIES-CS features a through-the-port maintenance scheme, we have investigated configuration changes to enable a sector-maintenance approach, as envisioned for example in ARIES AT. Three approaches are reported. The first is to make tradeoffs within the QAS design space, giving greater emphasis to maintainability criteria. The second approach is to improve the optimization tools to more accurately and efficiently target the physics properties of importance. The third is to employ a hybrid coil topology, so that the plasma shaping functions of the main coils are shared more optimally, either with passive conductors made of high-temperature superconductor or with local compensation coils, allowing the main coils to become simpler. Optimization tools are being improved to test these approaches.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weymann, R.J.
1978-01-01
It is known that a steady outflow of material at comparable rates of mass loss but vastly different speeds is now known to be ubiquitous phenomenon among both the luminous hot stars and the luminous but cool red giants. The flows are probably massive enough in both cases to give rise to significant effects on stellar evolution and the mass balance between stars and the interstellar medium. The possible mechanisms for these phenomena as well as the methods of observation used are described. In particular, the mass-loss processes in stars other than the sun that also involve a steady flow of matter are considered. The evidence for their existence is described, and then the question of whether the process thought to produce the solar wind is also responsible for producing these stellar winds is explored
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1990-07-01
This document consists of the proceedings of the Seventh International Workshop on Stellarators, held in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, 10-14 April, 1989. The document consists of a summary of presentations, an overview of experimental results, and papers presented at the workshop on transport, impurities and divertors, diagnostics, ECH confinement experiments, equilibrium and stability studies, RF heating, confinement, magnetic configurations, and new experiments. Refs, figs and tabs
Linear theory period ratios for surface helium enhanced double-mode Cepheids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cox, A.N.; Hodson, S.W.; King, D.S.
1979-01-01
Linear nonadiabatic theory period ratios for models of double-mode Cepheids with their two periods between 1 and 7 days have been computed, assuming differing amounts and depths of surface helium enhancement. Evolution theory masses and luminosities are found to be consistent with the observed periods. All models give Pi 1 /Pi 0 approx. =0.70 as observed for the 11 known variables, contrary to previous theoretical conclusions. The composition structure that best fits the period ratios has the helium mass fraction in the outer 10 -3 of the stellar mass (T< or =250,000 K) as 0.65, similar to a previous model for the triple-mode pulsator AC And. This enrichment can be established by a Cepheid wind and downward inverted μ gradient instability mixing in the lifetime of these low-mass classical Cepheids
Non-adiabatic perturbations in Ricci dark energy model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karwan, Khamphee; Thitapura, Thiti
2012-01-01
We show that the non-adiabatic perturbations between Ricci dark energy and matter can grow both on superhorizon and subhorizon scales, and these non-adiabatic perturbations on subhorizon scales can lead to instability in this dark energy model. The rapidly growing non-adiabatic modes on subhorizon scales always occur when the equation of state parameter of dark energy starts to drop towards -1 near the end of matter era, except that the parameter α of Ricci dark energy equals to 1/2. In the case where α = 1/2, the rapidly growing non-adiabatic modes disappear when the perturbations in dark energy and matter are adiabatic initially. However, an adiabaticity between dark energy and matter perturbations at early time implies a non-adiabaticity between matter and radiation, this can influence the ordinary Sachs-Wolfe (OSW) effect. Since the amount of Ricci dark energy is not small during matter domination, the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect is greatly modified by density perturbations of dark energy, leading to a wrong shape of CMB power spectrum. The instability in Ricci dark energy is difficult to be alleviated if the effects of coupling between baryon and photon on dark energy perturbations are included
Nonadiabatic effects in the Quantum Hall regime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Page, D.A.; Brown, E.
1993-01-01
The authors consider the effect of a finite electric field on the states of a Bloch electron in two dimensions, with a uniform magnetic field present. They make use of the concept of electric time translation symmetry and treat the electric and magnetic fields symmetrically in a time dependent formalism. In addition to a wave vector k, the states are characterized by a frequency specifying the behavior under electric time translations. An effective Hamiltonian is employed to obtain the splitting of an isolated Bloch band into open-quotes frequencyclose quotes subbands. The time-averaged velocity and energy of the states are expressed in terms of the frequency dispersion. The relationship to the Stark ladder eigenstates in a scalar potential representation of the electric field is examined. This is seen to justify the use of the averaged energy in determining occupation of the states. In the weak electric field (adiabatic) limit, an expression is recovered for the quantized Hall conductivity of a magnetic subband as a topological invariant. A numerical procedure is outlined and results obtained over a range of electric field strengths. A transition between strong and weak field regimes is seen, with level repulsions between the frequencies playing an important role. The numerical results show how the magnetic subband structure and quantized Hall conductivity emerge as the electric field becomes weaker. In this regime, the behavior can be understood by comparison to the predictions of the adiabatic approximation. The latter predicts crossings in the frequencies at certain locations in wave vector space. Nonadiabatic effects are seen to produce gaps in the frequency spectrum at these locations. 35 refs., 14 figs
A design study of non-adiabatic electron guns
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barroso, J.J.; Stellati, C.
1994-01-01
The design of a non-adiabatic gun capable of producing a 10 A, 50 KeV high-quality laminar electron beam is reported. In contrast to the magnetron injection gun with a conical cathode, where the beam is generated initially with a transverse velocity component, in the non-adiabatic gun electrons are extracted in a direction parallel to the axial guide magnetic field. The beam electrons acquire cyclotron motion as result of non-adiabatic processes in a strong non uniform electric field across the modulation anode. Such an extraction method gives rise to favourable features that are explored throughout the work. An extensive numerical simulation study has also been done to minimize velocity and energy spreads. (author). 3 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab
Meadows, A J
2013-01-01
Stellar Evolution, Second Edition covers the significant advances in the understanding of birth, life, and death of stars.This book is divided into nine chapters and begins with a description of the characteristics of stars according to their brightness, distance, size, mass, age, and chemical composition. The next chapters deal with the families, structure, and birth of stars. These topics are followed by discussions of the chemical composition and the evolution of main-sequence stars. A chapter focuses on the unique features of the sun as a star, including its evolution, magnetic fields, act
Intrinsic nonadiabatic topological torque in magnetic skyrmions and vortices
Akosa, Collins Ashu; Ndiaye, Papa Birame; Manchon, Aurelien
2017-01-01
We propose that topological spin currents flowing in topologically nontrivial magnetic textures, such as magnetic skyrmions and vortices, produce an intrinsic nonadiabatic torque of the form Tt∼[(∂xm×∂ym)·m]∂ym. We show that this torque, which is absent in one-dimensional domain walls and/or nontopological textures, is responsible for the enhanced nonadiabaticity parameter observed in magnetic vortices compared to one-dimensional textures. The impact of this torque on the motion of magnetic skyrmions is expected to be crucial, especially to determine their robustness against defects and pinning centers.
Intrinsic nonadiabatic topological torque in magnetic skyrmions and vortices
Akosa, Collins Ashu
2017-03-01
We propose that topological spin currents flowing in topologically nontrivial magnetic textures, such as magnetic skyrmions and vortices, produce an intrinsic nonadiabatic torque of the form Tt∼[(∂xm×∂ym)·m]∂ym. We show that this torque, which is absent in one-dimensional domain walls and/or nontopological textures, is responsible for the enhanced nonadiabaticity parameter observed in magnetic vortices compared to one-dimensional textures. The impact of this torque on the motion of magnetic skyrmions is expected to be crucial, especially to determine their robustness against defects and pinning centers.
Linear series of stellar models. Pt. 4. Helium-carbon stars of 3.5Msub(o) and 1Msub(o)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kozlowski, M.; Paczynski, B.; Popova, K.
1973-01-01
One linear series of models for a star of 3.5Msub(o) and two linear series of models for a star of 1Msub(o) are constructed. Models consist of helium rich envelopes (Y = 0.97, Z = 0.03) and pure carbon cores, and they have a rectangular helium profile, Y(Msub(r)). The linear series for a star of 3.5Msub(o) begins on the normal branch of the helium main sequence and terminates on the normal branch of the carbon main sequence. This series has eight turning points at which the core mass attains a local extremum. One of the two linear series for a star of 1Msub(o) begins on the normal branch of the helium main sequence, terminates on the high density branch of the helium main sequence, and has one turning point. The second linear series for a star of 1Msub(o) begins on the normal branch of the carbon main sequence, terminates on the high density branch of the carbon main sequence, and has three turning points. Two such linear series may have a common bifurcation point for a star of about 1.26Msub(o). (author)
Non-adiabatic rotational excitation of dipolar molecule under the ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
J. Chem. Sci. Vol. 125, No. 5, September 2013, pp. 1213–1221. c Indian Academy of Sciences. ... The rotational wave packets of LiCl molecule excited non-adiabatically by half cycle pulse. (HCP) is .... pared to the intensities required for the ionization of ..... out and with delayed ultrashort HCP at different initial pulse dura-.
Nonadiabatic corrections to a quantum dot quantum computer
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 83; Issue 1. Nonadiabatic corrections to a quantum dot quantum computer working in adiabatic limit. M Ávila ... The time of operation of an adiabatic quantum computer must be less than the decoherence time, otherwise the computer would be nonoperative. So far, the ...
Nonadiabatic geometrical quantum gates in semiconductor quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Solinas, Paolo; Zanghi, Nino; Zanardi, Paolo; Rossi, Fausto
2003-01-01
In this paper, we study the implementation of nonadiabatic geometrical quantum gates with in semiconductor quantum dots. Different quantum information enconding (manipulation) schemes exploiting excitonic degrees of freedom are discussed. By means of the Aharanov-Anandan geometrical phase, one can avoid the limitations of adiabatic schemes relying on adiabatic Berry phase; fast geometrical quantum gates can be, in principle, implemented
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1988-01-01
Enhanced mass loss occurs at critical stages in the evolution of stars over a wide range of stellar mass. Observationally, these stages are difficult to identify because of their short duration and because the star is often obscured by dust which condenses in the ejecta. A study of a G-type star, of which only the outer envelope was directly visible, was undertaken by the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO). The star itself was obscured by dust clouds and its light was only feebly seen by reflection from some of these clouds. Other studies of the galaxy undertaken by the SAAO include observations of the following: the extreme carbon star IRAS 15194-5115; RV Tauri and T Tauri stars; pre-main sequence stars; the properties of circumstellar dust; rotational modulation and flares on RS CVn and BY Dra stars; heavy-element stars; hydrogen-deficient stars; the open cluster NGC6192; stars in Omega Centauri, and lunar occulations of stars. Simultaneous x-ray, radio and optical data of the flare star YZ CMi were also obtained. 1 fig
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Villard, L.; Allfrey, S.J.; Bottino, A.
2003-01-01
The aim of this paper is to report on recent advances made on global gyrokinetic simulations of Ion Temperature Gradient modes (ITG) and other microinstabilities. The nonlinear development and saturation of ITG modes and the role of E x B zonal flows are studied with a global nonlinear δ f formulation that retains parallel nonlinearity and thus allows for a check of the energy conservation property as a means to verify the quality of the numerical simulation. Due to an optimised loading technique the conservation property is satisfied with an unprecedented quality well into the nonlinear stage. The zonal component of the perturbation establishes a quasi-steady state with regions of ITG suppression, strongly reduced radial energy flux and steepened effective temperature profile alternating with regions of higher ITG mode amplitudes, larger radial energy flux and flattened effective temperature profile. A semi-Lagrangian approach free of statistical noise is proposed as an alternative to the nonlinear δf formulation. An ASDEX-Upgrade experiment with an Internal Transport Barrier (ITB) is analysed with a global gyrokinetic code that includes trapped electron dynamics. The weakly destabilizing effect of trapped electron dynamics on ITG modes in an axisymmetric bumpy configuration modelling W7-X is shown in global linear simulations that retain the full electron dynamics. Finite β effects on microinstabilities are investigated with a linear global spectral electromagnetic gyrokinetic formulation. The radial global structure of electromagnetic modes shows a resonant behaviour with rational q values. (author)
Nonadiabatic theory of strong-field atomic effects under elliptical polarization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Xu; Eberly, J. H.
2012-01-01
Elliptically polarized laser fields provide a new channel for access to strong-field processes that are either suppressed or not present under linear polarization. Quantum theory is mostly unavailable for their analysis, and we report here results of a systematic study based on a classical ensemble theory with solution of the relevant ab inito time-dependent Newton equations for selected model atoms. The study's approach is necessarily nonadiabatic, as it follows individual electron trajectories leading to single, double, and triple ionizations. Of particular interest are new results bearing on open questions concerning experimental reports of unexplained species dependences as well as double-electron release times that are badly matched by a conventional adiabatic quantum tunneling theory. We also report the first analysis of electron trajectories for sequential and non-sequential triple ionization.
Spatial non-adiabatic passage using geometric phases
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Benseny, Albert; Busch, Thomas [Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, Quantum Systems Unit, Okinawa (Japan); Kiely, Anthony; Ruschhaupt, Andreas [University College Cork, Department of Physics, Cork (Ireland); Zhang, Yongping [Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, Quantum Systems Unit, Okinawa (Japan); Shanghai University, Department of Physics, Shanghai (China)
2017-12-15
Quantum technologies based on adiabatic techniques can be highly effective, but often at the cost of being very slow. Here we introduce a set of experimentally realistic, non-adiabatic protocols for spatial state preparation, which yield the same fidelity as their adiabatic counterparts, but on fast timescales. In particular, we consider a charged particle in a system of three tunnel-coupled quantum wells, where the presence of a magnetic field can induce a geometric phase during the tunnelling processes. We show that this leads to the appearance of complex tunnelling amplitudes and allows for the implementation of spatial non-adiabatic passage. We demonstrate the ability of such a system to transport a particle between two different wells and to generate a delocalised superposition between the three traps with high fidelity in short times. (orig.)
Vibrational nonadiabaticity and tunneling effects in transition state theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marcus, R.A.
1979-01-01
The usual quantum mechanical derivation of transition state theory is a statistical one (a quasi-equilibrium is assumed) or dynamical. The typical dynamical one defines a set of internal states and assumes vibrational adiabaticity. Effects of nonadiabaticity before and after the transition state are included in the present derivation, assuming a classical treatment of the reaction coordinate. The relation to a dynamical derivation of classical mechanical transition state theory is described, and tunneling effects are considered
Non-adiabatic generator-coordinate calculation of H2+
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tostes, J.G.R.; Para Univ., Belem; Toledo Piza, A.F.R. de
1982-10-01
A non-adiabatic calculation of the few lowest J=O states in the H 2+ molecule done within the framework of the Generator Coordinate Method is reported. Substantial accuracy is achivied with the diagonalization of matrices of very modest dimensions. The resulting wavefunctions are strongly dominated by just a few basis states. The computational scheme is set up so as to take the best advantage of good analytical approximations to existing adiabatic molecular wavefunctions. (Author) [pt
Nonadiabatic effect on the quantum heat flux control.
Uchiyama, Chikako
2014-05-01
We provide a general formula of quantum transfer that includes the nonadiabatic effect under periodic environmental modulation by using full counting statistics in Hilbert-Schmidt space. Applying the formula to an anharmonic junction model that interacts with two bosonic environments within the Markovian approximation, we find that the quantum transfer is divided into the adiabatic (dynamical and geometrical phases) and nonadiabatic contributions. This extension shows the dependence of quantum transfer on the initial condition of the anharmonic junction just before the modulation, as well as the characteristic environmental parameters such as interaction strength and cut-off frequency of spectral density. We show that the nonadiabatic contribution represents the reminiscent effect of past modulation including the transition from the initial condition of the anharmonic junction to a steady state determined by the very beginning of the modulation. This enables us to tune the frequency range of modulation, whereby we can obtain the quantum flux corresponding to the geometrical phase by setting the initial condition of the anharmonic junction.
Nonadiabatic electron response in the Hasegawa-Wakatani equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stoltzfus-Dueck, T.; Scott, B. D.; Krommes, J. A.
2013-01-01
Tokamak edge turbulence is strongly influenced by parallel electron physics, which relaxes density and potential fluctuations towards electron adiabatic response. Beginning with the paradigmatic Hasegawa-Wakatani equations (HWEs) for resistive tokamak edge turbulence, a unique decomposition of the electric potential (φ) into adiabatic (a) and nonadiabatic (b) portions is derived, based on the requirement that a neither drive nor respond to the parallel current j ∥ . The form of the decomposition clarifies that, at perpendicular scales large relative to the sound radius, the electron adiabatic response controls the nonzonal φ, not the fluctuating density n. Simple energy balance arguments allow one to rigorously bound the ratio of rms nonzonal nonadiabatic fluctuations (b(tilde sign)) relative to adiabatic ones (ã). The role of the vorticity nonlinearity in transferring energy between adiabatic and nonadiabatic fluctuations aids intuitive understanding of self-sustained turbulence in the HWEs. When the normalized parallel resistivity is weak, b(tilde sign) becomes effectively slaved, allowing the reduction to an approximate one-field model that remains valid for strong turbulence. In addition to guiding physical intuition, the one-field reduction should greatly ease further analytical manipulations. Direct numerical simulation of the 2D HWEs confirms the convergence of the asymptotic formula for b(tilde sign)
Ab initio multiple cloning algorithm for quantum nonadiabatic molecular dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Makhov, Dmitry V.; Shalashilin, Dmitrii V. [Department of Chemistry, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Glover, William J.; Martinez, Todd J. [Department of Chemistry and The PULSE Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)
2014-08-07
We present a new algorithm for ab initio quantum nonadiabatic molecular dynamics that combines the best features of ab initio Multiple Spawning (AIMS) and Multiconfigurational Ehrenfest (MCE) methods. In this new method, ab initio multiple cloning (AIMC), the individual trajectory basis functions (TBFs) follow Ehrenfest equations of motion (as in MCE). However, the basis set is expanded (as in AIMS) when these TBFs become sufficiently mixed, preventing prolonged evolution on an averaged potential energy surface. We refer to the expansion of the basis set as “cloning,” in analogy to the “spawning” procedure in AIMS. This synthesis of AIMS and MCE allows us to leverage the benefits of mean-field evolution during periods of strong nonadiabatic coupling while simultaneously avoiding mean-field artifacts in Ehrenfest dynamics. We explore the use of time-displaced basis sets, “trains,” as a means of expanding the basis set for little cost. We also introduce a new bra-ket averaged Taylor expansion (BAT) to approximate the necessary potential energy and nonadiabatic coupling matrix elements. The BAT approximation avoids the necessity of computing electronic structure information at intermediate points between TBFs, as is usually done in saddle-point approximations used in AIMS. The efficiency of AIMC is demonstrated on the nonradiative decay of the first excited state of ethylene. The AIMC method has been implemented within the AIMS-MOLPRO package, which was extended to include Ehrenfest basis functions.
2002-01-01
[TOP LEFT AND RIGHT] The Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 has captured images of the birth of two planetary nebulae as they emerge from wrappings of gas and dust, like butterflies breaking out of their cocoons. These images highlight a fleeting phase in the stellar burnout process, occurring just before dying stars are transformed into planetary nebulae. The left-hand image is the Cotton Candy nebula, IRAS 17150-3224; the right-hand image, the Silkworm nebula, IRAS 17441-2411. Called proto-planetary nebulae, these dying stars have been caught in a transition phase between a red giant and a planetary nebula. This phase is only about 1,000 years long, very short in comparison to the 1 billion-year lifetime of a star. These images provide the earliest snapshots of the transition process. Studying images of proto-planetary nebulae is important to understanding the process of star death. A star begins to die when it has exhausted its thermonuclear fuel - hydrogen and helium. The star then becomes bright and cool (red giant phase) and swells to several tens of times its normal size. It begins puffing thin shells of gas off into space. These shells become the star's cocoon. In the Hubble images, the shells are the concentric rings seen around each nebula. But the images also reveal the nebulae breaking out from those shells. The butterfly-like wings of gas and dust are a common shape of planetary nebulae. Such butterfly shapes are created by the 'interacting winds' process, in which a more recent 'fast wind' - material propelled by radiation from the hot central star - punches a hole in the cocoon, allowing the nebula to emerge. (This 'interacting wind' theory was first proposed by Dr. Sun Kwok to explain the origin of planetary nebulae, and has been subsequently proven successful in explaining their shapes.) The nebulae are being illuminated by light from the invisible central star, which is then reflected toward us. We are viewing the nebulae
Enhanced Nonadiabaticity in Vortex Cores due to the Emergent Hall Effect
Bisig, André
2017-01-04
We present a combined theoretical and experimental study, investigating the origin of the enhanced nonadiabaticity of magnetic vortex cores. Scanning transmission x-ray microscopy is used to image the vortex core gyration dynamically to measure the nonadiabaticity with high precision, including a high confidence upper bound. We show theoretically, that the large nonadiabaticity parameter observed experimentally can be explained by the presence of local spin currents arising from a texture induced emergent Hall effect. This study demonstrates that the magnetic damping α and nonadiabaticity parameter β are very sensitive to the topology of the magnetic textures, resulting in an enhanced ratio (β/α>1) in magnetic vortex cores or Skyrmions.
Enhanced Nonadiabaticity in Vortex Cores due to the Emergent Hall Effect
Bisig, André
2017-01-01
We present a combined theoretical and experimental study, investigating the origin of the enhanced nonadiabaticity of magnetic vortex cores. Scanning transmission x-ray microscopy is used to image the vortex core gyration dynamically to measure the nonadiabaticity with high precision, including a high confidence upper bound. We show theoretically, that the large nonadiabaticity parameter observed experimentally can be explained by the presence of local spin currents arising from a texture induced emergent Hall effect. This study demonstrates that the magnetic damping α and nonadiabaticity parameter β are very sensitive to the topology of the magnetic textures, resulting in an enhanced ratio (β/α>1) in magnetic vortex cores or Skyrmions.
Advanced stellarator power plants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miller, R.L.
1994-01-01
The stellarator is a class of helical/toroidal magnetic fusion devices. Recent international progress in stellarator power plant conceptual design is reviewed and comparisons in the areas of physics, engineering, and economics are made with recent tokamak design studies
Geometry Dependence of Stellarator Turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mynick, H.E.; Xanthopoulos, P.; Boozer, A.H.
2009-01-01
Using the nonlinear gyrokinetic code package GENE/GIST, we study the turbulent transport in a broad family of stellarator designs, to understand the geometry-dependence of the microturbulence. By using a set of flux tubes on a given flux surface, we construct a picture of the 2D structure of the microturbulence over that surface, and relate this to relevant geometric quantities, such as the curvature, local shear, and effective potential in the Schrodinger-like equation governing linear drift modes
Binney, James
Gröninger was dissatisfied with his approximate treatment of (141) since it gave poor estimates of the fundamental lines in the waterstuff spectrum. We have even less reason to be satisfied with the Lin-Shu-Kalnajs analysis of (140) which, unaided, is unable to give an adequate account of even the high-frequency normal modes; Personne's programme turns out to involve loosely-wound waves for which the LsK-dispersion relation is not really valid. Obviously more powerful techniques need to be developed for the solution of (140). Meanwhile, is the TWA theory of spiral structure worth bothering with? Quantitatively the TWA theory is not a success. Yet it has played an important role in the study of galaxies by introducing a widely employed conceptual framework. Only after effective machinery for the evaluation of normal modes of disks is available will we know for certain whether this role has been beneficial. In any event one must not underestimate the con- and de-structuve influence on progress in science of the conceptual frameworks that simple models introduce. Two examples will illustrate this point: (i) High-energy physicists think always in terms of particles and interactions and yet these are really just elements (propagators and vertices) introduced during the iterative solution of a set of coupled non-linear integro-differential equations. (ii) Isaac Newton spent vastly more time, thought and experimental effort on chemistry than on either physics or mathematics. Yet his incomparable mind, which both before and after his period as a chemist revolutionized mathematics and first demonstrated the possibility of exact science, achieved nothing of lasting value in Chemistry, whose foundations were to be laid by men of much smaller stature in the mid 18thc. Why did he fail so miserably? Because his conceptual framework was pre-Newtonian; brought up in the mystical, pre-Enlightenment mid 17thc. he thought in terms of the ancient alchemical concepts of corruption and
TEM turbulence optimisation in stellarators
Proll, J. H. E.; Mynick, H. E.; Xanthopoulos, P.; Lazerson, S. A.; Faber, B. J.
2016-01-01
With the advent of neoclassically optimised stellarators, optimising stellarators for turbulent transport is an important next step. The reduction of ion-temperature-gradient-driven turbulence has been achieved via shaping of the magnetic field, and the reduction of trapped-electron mode (TEM) turbulence is addressed in the present paper. Recent analytical and numerical findings suggest TEMs are stabilised when a large fraction of trapped particles experiences favourable bounce-averaged curvature. This is the case for example in Wendelstein 7-X (Beidler et al 1990 Fusion Technol. 17 148) and other Helias-type stellarators. Using this knowledge, a proxy function was designed to estimate the TEM dynamics, allowing optimal configurations for TEM stability to be determined with the STELLOPT (Spong et al 2001 Nucl. Fusion 41 711) code without extensive turbulence simulations. A first proof-of-principle optimised equilibrium stemming from the TEM-dominated stellarator experiment HSX (Anderson et al 1995 Fusion Technol. 27 273) is presented for which a reduction of the linear growth rates is achieved over a broad range of the operational parameter space. As an important consequence of this property, the turbulent heat flux levels are reduced compared with the initial configuration.
Nonadiabatic quantum Vlasov equation for Schwinger pair production
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Sang Pyo; Schubert, Christian
2011-01-01
Using Lewis-Riesenfeld theory, we derive an exact nonadiabatic master equation describing the time evolution of the QED Schwinger pair-production rate for a general time-varying electric field. This equation can be written equivalently as a first-order matrix equation, as a Vlasov-type integral equation, or as a third-order differential equation. In the last version it relates to the Korteweg-de Vries equation, which allows us to construct an exact solution using the well-known one-soliton solution to that equation. The case of timelike delta function pulse fields is also briefly considered.
Non-adiabatic study of the Kepler subgiant KIC 6442183
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Grosjean M.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Thanks to the precision of Kepler observations, [3] were able to measure the linewidth and amplitude of individual modes (including mixed modes in several subgiant power spectra. We perform a forward modelling of a Kepler subgiant based on surface properties and observed frequencies. Non-adiabatic computations including a time- dependent treatment of convection give the lifetimes of radial and non-radial modes. Next, combining the lifetimes and inertias with a stochastic excitation model gives the amplitudes of the modes. We can now directly compare theoretical and observed linewidths and amplitudes of mixed-modes to obtain new constraints on our theoretical models.
ACCELERATED FITTING OF STELLAR SPECTRA
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ting, Yuan-Sen; Conroy, Charlie [Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Rix, Hans-Walter [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)
2016-07-20
Stellar spectra are often modeled and fitted by interpolating within a rectilinear grid of synthetic spectra to derive the stars’ labels: stellar parameters and elemental abundances. However, the number of synthetic spectra needed for a rectilinear grid grows exponentially with the label space dimensions, precluding the simultaneous and self-consistent fitting of more than a few elemental abundances. Shortcuts such as fitting subsets of labels separately can introduce unknown systematics and do not produce correct error covariances in the derived labels. In this paper we present a new approach—Convex Hull Adaptive Tessellation (chat)—which includes several new ideas for inexpensively generating a sufficient stellar synthetic library, using linear algebra and the concept of an adaptive, data-driven grid. A convex hull approximates the region where the data lie in the label space. A variety of tests with mock data sets demonstrate that chat can reduce the number of required synthetic model calculations by three orders of magnitude in an eight-dimensional label space. The reduction will be even larger for higher dimensional label spaces. In chat the computational effort increases only linearly with the number of labels that are fit simultaneously. Around each of these grid points in the label space an approximate synthetic spectrum can be generated through linear expansion using a set of “gradient spectra” that represent flux derivatives at every wavelength point with respect to all labels. These techniques provide new opportunities to fit the full stellar spectra from large surveys with 15–30 labels simultaneously.
Electron-phonon interactions and intrinsic nonadiabatic state of superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Banacky, Pavol
2007-01-01
Study of band structure of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 has shown that electron coupling to A g , B 2g and B 3g modes results in fluctuation of saddle point of one of the CuO plane d-pσ band in Y point of 1st BZ across Fermi level. It represents breakdown of adiabatic Born-Oppenheimer approximation and transition of the system into intrinsic nonadiabatic state, ω > E F . Results show that system is stabilized in this state at distorted nuclear geometry. Stabilization effect is mainly due to strong dependence of the electronic motion on instantaneous nuclear momenta. On the lattice scale, the intrinsic nonadiabatic state is geometrically degenerate at broken translation symmetry - system has fluxional nuclear configuration of O2, O3 atoms in CuO planes. It enables formation of mobile bipolarons that can move in the lattice without dissipation. Described effects are absent in non-superconducting YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6
Electron phonon interactions and intrinsic nonadiabatic state of superconductors
Baňacký, Pavol
2007-09-01
Study of band structure of YBa 2Cu 3O 7 has shown that electron coupling to A g, B 2g and B 3g modes results in fluctuation of saddle point of one of the CuO plane d-pσ band in Y point of 1st BZ across Fermi level. It represents breakdown of adiabatic Born-Oppenheimer approximation and transition of the system into intrinsic nonadiabatic state, ω > EF. Results show that system is stabilized in this state at distorted nuclear geometry. Stabilization effect is mainly due to strong dependence of the electronic motion on instantaneous nuclear momenta. On the lattice scale, the intrinsic nonadiabatic state is geometrically degenerate at broken translation symmetry - system has fluxional nuclear configuration of O2, O3 atoms in CuO planes. It enables formation of mobile bipolarons that can move in the lattice without dissipation. Described effects are absent in non-superconducting YBa 2Cu 3O 6.
Stellar structure and evolution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kippernhahn, R.; Weigert, A.
1990-01-01
This book introduces the theory of the internal structure of stars and their evolution in time. It presents the basic physics of stellar interiors, methods for solving the underlying equations, and the most important results necessary for understanding the wide variety of stellar types and phenomena. The evolution of stars is discussed from their birth through normal evolution to possibly spectacular final stages. Chapters on stellar oscillations and rotation are included
Non-adiabatic quantum evolution: The S matrix as a geometrical phase factor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saadi, Y., E-mail: S_yahiadz@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique et Systèmes Dynamiques, Faculté des Sciences, Université Ferhat Abbas de Sétif, Sétif 19000 (Algeria); Maamache, M. [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique et Systèmes Dynamiques, Faculté des Sciences, Université Ferhat Abbas de Sétif, Sétif 19000 (Algeria)
2012-03-19
We present a complete derivation of the exact evolution of quantum mechanics for the case when the underlying spectrum is continuous. We base our discussion on the use of the Weyl eigendifferentials. We show that a quantum system being in an eigenstate of an invariant will remain in the subspace generated by the eigenstates of the invariant, thereby acquiring a generalized non-adiabatic or Aharonov–Anandan geometric phase linked to the diagonal element of the S matrix. The modified Pöschl–Teller potential and the time-dependent linear potential are worked out as illustrations. -- Highlights: ► In this Letter we study the exact quantum evolution for continuous spectra problems. ► We base our discussion on the use of the Weyl eigendifferentials. ► We give a generalized Lewis and Riesenfeld phase for continuous spectra. ► This generalized phase or Aharonov–Anandan geometric phase is linked to the S matrix. ► The modified Pöschl–Teller and the linear potential are worked out as illustrations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cram, L.E.; Woods, D.T.
1982-01-01
We study the response of certain spectral signatures of stellar flares (such as Balmer line profiles and the broad-band continuum) to changes in atmospheric structure which might result from physical processes akin to those thought to occur in solar flares. While each physical process does not have a unique signature, we can show that some of the observed properties of stellar flares can be explained by a model which involves increased pressures and temperatures in the flaring stellar chromosphere. We suggest that changes in stellar flare area, both with time and with depth in the atmosphere, may play an important role in producing the observed flare spectrum
Stellar Physics 2: Stellar Evolution and Stability
Bisnovatyi-Kogan, Gennady S
2011-01-01
"Stellar Physics" is a an outstanding book in the growing body of literature on star formation and evolution. Not only does the author, a leading expert in the field, very thoroughly present the current state of knowledge on stellar physics, but he handles with equal care the many problems that this field of research still faces. A bibliography with well over 1000 entries makes this book an unparalleled reference source. "Stellar Evolution and Stability" is the second of two volumes and can be read, as can the first volume "Fundamental Concepts and Stellar Equilibrium," as a largely independent work. It traces in great detail the evolution of protostars towards the main sequence and beyond this to the last stage of stellar evolution, with the corresponding vast range from white dwarfs to supernovae explosions, gamma-ray bursts and black hole formation. The book concludes with special chapters on the dynamical, thermal and pulsing stability of stars. This second edition is carefully updated in the areas of pre...
Nonadiabatic optical transitions as a turn-on switch for pulse shaping
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hashmi, F. A.; Bouchene, M. A.
2010-01-01
A strong nonresonant, asymmetric ultrashort pulse drives an atomic transition and causes a complete population inversion because of a sudden nonadiabatic jump. This jump is probed in real time by propagating a weak ultrashort pulse in the system which is resonant on an adjacent transition. The probe at the exit of the medium presents an oscillatory structure with the nonadiabatic jump marked in time by the onset of oscillations. The nonadiabatic jump thus acts as a 'turn-on' switch for the shaping of the probe.
Memory effects in nonadiabatic molecular dynamics at metal surfaces
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olsen, Thomas; Schiøtz, Jakob
2010-01-01
We study the effect of temporal correlation in a Langevin equation describing nonadiabatic dynamics at metal surfaces. For a harmonic oscillator, the Langevin equation preserves the quantum dynamics exactly and it is demonstrated that memory effects are needed in order to conserve the ground state...... energy of the oscillator. We then compare the result of Langevin dynamics in a harmonic potential with a perturbative master equation approach and show that the Langevin equation gives a better description in the nonperturbative range of high temperatures and large friction. Unlike the master equation......, this approach is readily extended to anharmonic potentials. Using density functional theory, we calculate representative Langevin trajectories for associative desorption of N-2 from Ru(0001) and find that memory effects lower the dissipation of energy. Finally, we propose an ab initio scheme to calculate...
Plasma Jet Braking: Energy Dissipation and Nonadiabatic Electrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khotyaintsev, Yu. V.; Cully, C. M.; Vaivads, A.; Andre, M.; Owen, C. J.
2011-01-01
We report in situ observations by the Cluster spacecraft of wave-particle interactions in a magnetic flux pileup region created by a magnetic reconnection outflow jet in Earth's magnetotail. Two distinct regions of wave activity are identified: lower-hybrid drift waves at the front edge and whistler-mode waves inside the pileup region. The whistler-mode waves are locally generated by the electron temperature anisotropy, and provide evidence for ongoing betatron energization caused by magnetic flux pileup. The whistler-mode waves cause fast pitch-angle scattering of electrons and isotropization of the electron distribution, thus making the flow braking process nonadiabatic. The waves strongly affect the electron dynamics and thus play an important role in the energy conversion chain during plasma jet braking.
Nonadiabatic quantum state control of many bosons in few wells
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tichy, Malte C.; Kock Pedersen, Mads; Mølmer, Klaus
2013-01-01
We present a fast scheme for arbitrary unitary control of interacting bosonic atoms in a double well. Assuming fixed interwell tunneling rate and intrawell interaction strength, we control the many-atom state by a discrete sequence of shifts of the single-well energies. For strong interactions......, resonant tunneling transitions implement beam-splitter U(2) rotations among atom number eigenstates, which can be combined and, thus, permit full controllability. By numerically optimizing such sequences of couplings at avoided level crossings, we extend the realm of full controllability to a wide range...... of realistic interaction parameters, while we remain in the simple control space. We demonstrate the efficiency and the high achievable fidelity of our proposal with nonadiabatic population transfer, NOON-state creation, a cnot gate, and a transistorlike, conditional evolution of several atoms....
Stellar photometry and polarimetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Golay, M.; Serkowski, K.
1976-01-01
A critical review of progress made in stellar photometry and polarimetry over the period 1973-1975 is presented. Reports of photometric measurements from various observatories throughout the world are summarized. The summary of work on stellar polarimetry lists the review papers, the catalogues and lists of standard stars, and descriptions of new observing techniques. (B.R.H.)
Compact stellarators as reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lyon, J.F.; Valanju, P.; Zarnstorff, M.C.; Hirshman, S.; Spong, D.A.; Strickler, D.; Williamson, D.E.; Ware, A.
2001-01-01
Two types of compact stellarators are examined as reactors: two- and three-field-period (M=2 and 3) quasi-axisymmetric devices with volume-average =4-5% and M=2 and 3 quasi-poloidal devices with =10-15%. These low-aspect-ratio stellarator-tokamak hybrids differ from conventional stellarators in their use of the plasma-generated bootstrap current to supplement the poloidal field from external coils. Using the ARIES-AT model with B max =12T on the coils gives Compact Stellarator reactors with R=7.3-8.2m, a factor of 2-3 smaller R than other stellarator reactors for the same assumptions, and neutron wall loadings up to 3.7MWm -2 . (author)
Nonequilibrium Green's function theory for nonadiabatic effects in quantum electron transport
Kershaw, Vincent F.; Kosov, Daniel S.
2017-12-01
We develop nonequilibrium Green's function-based transport theory, which includes effects of nonadiabatic nuclear motion in the calculation of the electric current in molecular junctions. Our approach is based on the separation of slow and fast time scales in the equations of motion for Green's functions by means of the Wigner representation. Time derivatives with respect to central time serve as a small parameter in the perturbative expansion enabling the computation of nonadiabatic corrections to molecular Green's functions. Consequently, we produce a series of analytic expressions for non-adiabatic electronic Green's functions (up to the second order in the central time derivatives), which depend not solely on the instantaneous molecular geometry but likewise on nuclear velocities and accelerations. An extended formula for electric current is derived which accounts for the non-adiabatic corrections. This theory is concisely illustrated by the calculations on a model molecular junction.
Comparative studies of stellarator and tokamak transport
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stroth, U; Burhenn, R; Geiger, J; Giannone, L.; Hartfuss, H J; Kuehner, G; Ledl, L; Simmet, E E; Walter, H [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik, IPP-Euratom Association, Garching (Germany); ECRH Team; W7-AS Team
1997-09-01
Transport properties in the W7-AS stellarator and in tokamaks are compared. The parameter dependences and the absolute values of the energy confinement time are similar. Indications are found that the density dependence, which is usually observed in stellarator confinement, can vanish above a critical density. The density dependence in stellarators seems to be similar to that in the linear ohmic confinement regime, which, in small tokamaks, extends to high density values, too. Because of the similarity in the gross confinement properties, transport in stellarators and tokamaks should not be dominated by the parameters which are very different in the two concepts, i.e. magnetic shear, major rational values of the rotational transform and plasma current. A difference in confinement is that there exists evidence for pinches in the particle and, possibly, energy transport channels in tokamaks whereas in stellarators no pinches have been observed, so far. In order to study the effect of plasma current and toroidal electric fields, stellarator discharges were carried out with an increasing amount of plasma current. From these experiments, no clear evidence of a connection of pinches with these parameters is found. The transient response in W7-AS plasmas can be described in terms of a non-local model. As in tokamaks, also cold pulse experiments in W7-AS indicate the importance of non-local transport. (author). 8 refs, 5 figs.
Nonadiabatic semiclassical dynamics in the mixed quantum-classical initial value representation
Church, Matthew S.; Hele, Timothy J. H.; Ezra, Gregory S.; Ananth, Nandini
2018-03-01
We extend the Mixed Quantum-Classical Initial Value Representation (MQC-IVR), a semiclassical method for computing real-time correlation functions, to electronically nonadiabatic systems using the Meyer-Miller-Stock-Thoss (MMST) Hamiltonian in order to treat electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom (dofs) within a consistent dynamic framework. We introduce an efficient symplectic integration scheme, the MInt algorithm, for numerical time evolution of the phase space variables and monodromy matrix under the non-separable MMST Hamiltonian. We then calculate the probability of transmission through a curve crossing in model two-level systems and show that MQC-IVR reproduces quantum-limit semiclassical results in good agreement with exact quantum methods in one limit, and in the other limit yields results that are in keeping with classical limit semiclassical methods like linearized IVR. Finally, exploiting the ability of the MQC-IVR to quantize different dofs to different extents, we present a detailed study of the extents to which quantizing the nuclear and electronic dofs improves numerical convergence properties without significant loss of accuracy.
Nonadiabatic Dynamics for Electrons at Second-Order: Real-Time TDDFT and OSCF2.
Nguyen, Triet S; Parkhill, John
2015-07-14
We develop a new model to simulate nonradiative relaxation and dephasing by combining real-time Hartree-Fock and density functional theory (DFT) with our recent open-systems theory of electronic dynamics. The approach has some key advantages: it has been systematically derived and properly relaxes noninteracting electrons to a Fermi-Dirac distribution. This paper combines the new dissipation theory with an atomistic, all-electron quantum chemistry code and an atom-centered model of the thermal environment. The environment is represented nonempirically and is dependent on molecular structure in a nonlocal way. A production quality, O(N(3)) closed-shell implementation of our theory applicable to realistic molecular systems is presented, including timing information. This scaling implies that the added cost of our nonadiabatic relaxation model, time-dependent open self-consistent field at second order (OSCF2), is computationally inexpensive, relative to adiabatic propagation of real-time time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) or time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). Details of the implementation and numerical algorithm, including factorization and efficiency, are discussed. We demonstrate that OSCF2 approaches the stationary self-consistent field (SCF) ground state when the gap is large relative to k(b)T. The code is used to calculate linear-response spectra including the effects of bath dynamics. Finally, we show how our theory of finite-temperature relaxation can be used to correct ground-state DFT calculations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moroz, P.E.
1997-03-01
A novel concept for magnetic plasma confinement, Stellarator-Spheromak (SSP), is proposed. Numerical analysis with the classical-stellarator-type outboard stellarator windings demonstrates a number of potential advantages of SSP for controlled nuclear fusion. Among the main ones are: simple and compact magnet coil configuration, absence of material structures (e.g. magnet coils or conducting walls) in the center of the torus, high rotational transform, and a possibility of MHD equilibria with very high β (pressure/magnetic pressure) of the confined plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moroz, P.E.
1997-09-01
A new stellarator configuration, the Double-Helix Stellarator (DHS), is introduced. This novel configuration features a double-helix center post as the only helical element of the stellarator coil system. The DHS configuration has many unique characteristics. One of them is the extreme low plasma aspect ratio, A ∼ 1--1.2. Other advantages include a high enclosed volume, appreciable rotational transform, and a possibility of extreme-high-β MHD equilibria. Moreover, the DHS features improved transport characteristics caused by the absence of the magnetic field ripple on the outboard of the torus. Compactness, simplicity and modularity of the coil system add to the DHS advantages for fusion applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bouquet, A.; Salati, P.
1988-01-01
We present the results of an analytic approximation to compute the effects of WIMPs on stellar structures in a self-consistent way. We examine in particular the case of the Sun and of horizontal branch stars
Principles of Stellar Interferometry
Glindemann, Andreas
2011-01-01
Over the last decade, stellar interferometry has developed from a specialist tool to a mainstream observing technique, attracting scientists whose research benefits from milliarcsecond angular resolution. Stellar interferometry has become part of the astronomer’s toolbox, complementing single-telescope observations by providing unique capabilities that will advance astronomical research. This carefully written book is intended to provide a solid understanding of the principles of stellar interferometry to students starting an astronomical research project in this field or to develop instruments and to astronomers using interferometry but who are not interferometrists per se. Illustrated by excellent drawings and calculated graphs the imaging process in stellar interferometers is explained starting from first principles on light propagation and diffraction wave propagation through turbulence is described in detail using Kolmogorov statistics the impact of turbulence on the imaging process is discussed both f...
Convection and stellar oscillations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aarslev, Magnus Johan
2017-01-01
for asteroseismology, because of the challenges inherent in modelling turbulent convection in 1D stellar models. As a result of oversimplifying the physics near the surface, theoretical calculations systematically overestimate the oscillation frequencies. This has become known as the asteroseismic surface effect. Due...... to lacking better options, this frequency difference is typically corrected for with ad-hoc formulae. The topic of this thesis is the improvement of 1D stellar convection models and the effects this has on asteroseismic properties. The source of improvements is 3D simulations of radiation...... atmospheres to replace the outer layers of stellar models. The additional turbulent pressure and asymmetrical opacity effects in the atmosphere model, compared to convection in stellar evolution models, serve to expand the atmosphere. The enlarged acoustic cavity lowers the pulsation frequencies bringing them...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jabran Zahid, H.; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Ho, I-Ting; Conroy, Charlie; Andrews, Brett
2017-01-01
We analyze the optical continuum of star-forming galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey by fitting stacked spectra with stellar population synthesis models to investigate the relation between stellar mass, stellar metallicity, dust attenuation, and star formation rate. We fit models calculated with star formation and chemical evolution histories that are derived empirically from multi-epoch observations of the stellar mass–star formation rate and the stellar mass–gas-phase metallicity relations, respectively. We also fit linear combinations of single-burst models with a range of metallicities and ages. Star formation and chemical evolution histories are unconstrained for these models. The stellar mass–stellar metallicity relations obtained from the two methods agree with the relation measured from individual supergiant stars in nearby galaxies. These relations are also consistent with the relation obtained from emission-line analysis of gas-phase metallicity after accounting for systematic offsets in the gas-phase metallicity. We measure dust attenuation of the stellar continuum and show that its dependence on stellar mass and star formation rate is consistent with previously reported results derived from nebular emission lines. However, stellar continuum attenuation is smaller than nebular emission line attenuation. The continuum-to-nebular attenuation ratio depends on stellar mass and is smaller in more massive galaxies. Our consistent analysis of stellar continuum and nebular emission lines paves the way for a comprehensive investigation of stellar metallicities of star-forming and quiescent galaxies.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jabran Zahid, H. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Ho, I-Ting [University of Hawaii at Manoa, Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Conroy, Charlie [Department of Astronomy, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, 02138 (United States); Andrews, Brett, E-mail: zahid@cfa.harvard.edu [PITT PACC, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, 3941 O’Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States)
2017-09-20
We analyze the optical continuum of star-forming galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey by fitting stacked spectra with stellar population synthesis models to investigate the relation between stellar mass, stellar metallicity, dust attenuation, and star formation rate. We fit models calculated with star formation and chemical evolution histories that are derived empirically from multi-epoch observations of the stellar mass–star formation rate and the stellar mass–gas-phase metallicity relations, respectively. We also fit linear combinations of single-burst models with a range of metallicities and ages. Star formation and chemical evolution histories are unconstrained for these models. The stellar mass–stellar metallicity relations obtained from the two methods agree with the relation measured from individual supergiant stars in nearby galaxies. These relations are also consistent with the relation obtained from emission-line analysis of gas-phase metallicity after accounting for systematic offsets in the gas-phase metallicity. We measure dust attenuation of the stellar continuum and show that its dependence on stellar mass and star formation rate is consistent with previously reported results derived from nebular emission lines. However, stellar continuum attenuation is smaller than nebular emission line attenuation. The continuum-to-nebular attenuation ratio depends on stellar mass and is smaller in more massive galaxies. Our consistent analysis of stellar continuum and nebular emission lines paves the way for a comprehensive investigation of stellar metallicities of star-forming and quiescent galaxies.
Nonadiabatic heating of the central plasma sheet at substorm onset
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang, C.Y.; Frank, L.A.; Rostoker, G.; Fennell, J.; Mitchell, D.G.
1992-01-01
Heating events in the plasma sheet boundary layer and central plasma sheet are found to occur at the onset of expansive phase activity. The main effect is a dramatic increase in plasma temperature, coincident with a partial dipolarization of the magnetic field. Fluxes of energetic particles increase without dispersion during these events which occur at all radial distances up to 23 R E , the apogee of the ISEIE spacecraft. A major difference between these heating events and those observed at geosynchronous distances lies in the heating mechanism which is nonadiabatic beyond 10 R E but may be adiabatic closer to Earth. The energy required to account for the increase in plasma thermal energy is comparable with that required for Joule heating of the ionosphere. The plasma sheet must be considered as a major sink in the energy balance of substorm. The authors estimate lobe magnetic pressures during these events. Changes in lobe pressure are generally not correlated with onsets or intensifications of expansive phase activity
Nonadiabatic charged spherical evolution in the postquasistatic approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosales, L.; Barreto, W.; Peralta, C.; Rodriguez-Mueller, B.
2010-01-01
We apply the postquasistatic approximation, an iterative method for the evolution of self-gravitating spheres of matter, to study the evolution of dissipative and electrically charged distributions in general relativity. The numerical implementation of our approach leads to a solver which is globally second-order convergent. We evolve nonadiabatic distributions assuming an equation of state that accounts for the anisotropy induced by the electric charge. Dissipation is described by streaming-out or diffusion approximations. We match the interior solution, in noncomoving coordinates, with the Vaidya-Reissner-Nordstroem exterior solution. Two models are considered: (i) a Schwarzschild-like shell in the diffusion limit; and (ii) a Schwarzschild-like interior in the free-streaming limit. These toy models tell us something about the nature of the dissipative and electrically charged collapse. Diffusion stabilizes the gravitational collapse producing a spherical shell whose contraction is halted in a short characteristic hydrodynamic time. The streaming-out radiation provides a more efficient mechanism for emission of energy, redistributing the electric charge on the whole sphere, while the distribution collapses indefinitely with a longer hydrodynamic time scale.
Determination of lifetimes and nonadiabatic correlations from measured dipole polarizabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Curtis, Lorenzo J
2007-01-01
In atomic systems for which the total oscillator strength of excitations from the ground state is dominated by the transition to the lowest resonance level, the f-sum rule provides a bracketing inequality connecting the lifetime τ of that level to the dipole polarizability α d . This relationship has been used previously to deduce α d from τ. It is shown here that improved spectroscopic accuracies now permit this procedure to be inverted, with τ deduced from a value for α d obtained spectroscopically using the core polarization model. A similar quantitative relationship exists connecting the nonadiabatic correlation factor β to τ, and thus also to α d . The method is applied to a recent measurement of α d for Kr 6+ to obtain the values τ(4s4p 1 P 1 ) 0.096 ± 0.003 ns and β(Kr 6+ ) = 1.71 ± 0.03a 5 0 . It is shown that the use of this method to make precision lifetime determinations for a small number of ions in an isoelectronic sequence permits the exploitation of observed semiempirical regularities to specify the lifetimes of all ions in that sequence
Generation of helical electron beams by a nonadiabatic gun
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barroso, J.J.; Stellati, C.
1996-01-01
The design of a non-adiabatic gun to produce a 10A, 50kV hollow laminar electron beam for gyrotron applications is reported. The beam is extracted from the emitting ring in a direction parallel to the axial guide magnetic field and then propagates across the radial electric field in the anode gap. The electrons are thereby given a transverse velocity upon passing through the modulation anode region where an electrostatic pumping mechanism takes place, so that a considerable amount of the electron energy is converted to transverse kinetic energy. Such a beam extraction method gives rise to favourable features that are examined throughout the work. The dynamics of hollow electron beams with gyromotion propagating down a cylindrical drift tube are also analysed. Due to the action of the beam's self-space charge field, the transverse velocity spread has an oscillatory behaviour along the drift tube wherein the spatial automodulation period shortens with increasing current. Numerical simulation results indicate that even at a 10A beam current, the resulting transverse velocity spread is still less than the spread for a zero beam current. (UK)
Nonadiabatic dynamics of electron injection into organic molecules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu Li-Ping; Qiu Yu; Tong Guo-Ping
2012-01-01
We numerically investigate the injection process of electrons from metal electrodes to one-dimensional organic molecules by combining the extended Su—Schrieffer—Heeger (SSH) model with a nonadiabatic dynamics method. It is found that a match between the Fermi level of electrodes and the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) or the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of organic molecules can be greatly affected by the length of the organic chains, which has a great impact on electron injection. The correlation between oligomers and electrodes is found to open more efficient channels for electron injection as compared with that in polymer/electrode structures. For oligomer/electrode structures, we show that the Schottky barrier essentially does not affect the electron injection as the electrode work function is smaller than a critical value. This means that the Schottky barrier is pinned for a small work-function electrode. For polymer/electrode structures, we find that it is possible for the Fermi level of electrodes to be pinned to the polaronic level. The condition under which the Fermi level of electrodes exceeds the polaronic level of polymers is shown to not always lead to spontaneous electron transfer from electrodes to polymers. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)
PREFACE: A Stellar Journey A Stellar Journey
Asplund, M.
2008-10-01
The conference A Stellar Journey was held in Uppsala, Sweden, 23 27June 2008, in honour of Professor Bengt Gustafsson's 65th birthday. The choice of Uppsala as the location for this event was obvious given Bengt's long-standing association with the city stemming back to his school days. With the exception of a two-year postdoc stint in Copenhagen, five years as professor at Stockholm University and two years as director of the Sigtuna foundation, Bengt has forged his illustrious professional career at Uppsala University. The symposium venue was Museum Gustavianum, once the main building of the oldest university in Scandinavia. The title of the symposium is a paraphrasing of Bengt's popular astronomy book Kosmisk Resa (in English: Cosmic Journey) written in the early eighties. I think this aptly symbolizes his career that has been an astronomical voyage from near to far, from the distant past to the present. The original book title was modified slightly to reflect that most of his work to date has dealt with stars in one way or another. In addition it also gives credit to Bengt's important role as a guiding light for a very large number of students, colleagues and collaborators, indeed for several generations of astronomers. For me personally, the book Kosmisk Resa bears particular significance as it has shaped my life rather profoundly. Although I had already decided to become an astronomer, when I first read the book as a 14-year-old I made up my mind then and there that I would study under Bengt Gustafsson and work on stars. Indeed I have remained true to this somewhat audacious resolution. I suspect that a great number of us have similar stories how Bengt has had a major influence on our lives, whether on the professional or personal level. Perhaps Bengt's most outstanding characteristic is his enthralling enthusiasm. This is equally true whether he is pondering some scientific conundrum, supervising students or performing in front of an audience, be it an
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schrijver, C.J.
1986-01-01
The stellar emission in the chromospheric Ca II H+K lines is compared with the coronal soft X-ray emission, measuring the effects of non-radiative heating in the outer atmosphere at temperatures differing two orders of magnitude. The comparison of stellar flux densities in Ca II H+K and X-rays is extended to fluxes from the transition-region and the high-temperature chromosphere. The stellar magnetic field is probably generated in the differentially rotating convective envelope. The relation between rotation rate and the stellar level of activity measured in chromospheric, transition-region, and coronal radiative diagnostics is discovered. X-ray observations of the binary λ Andromedae are discussed. The departure of M-type dwarfs from the main relations, and the implications for the structure of the chromospheres of these stars are discussed. Variations of the average surface flux densities of the Sun during the 11-year activity cycle agree with flux-flux relations derived for other cool stars, suggesting that the interpretation of the stellar relations may be furthered by studying the solar analogue in more detail. (Auth.)
Magnetohydrodynamic instabilities in a stellarator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsuoka, K.; Miyamoto, K.; Ohasa, K.; Wakatani, M.
1977-05-01
Numerical studies of stability on kink and resistive tearing modes in a linear stellarator are presented for various current profiles and helical fields. In the case of an l = 2 helical field, a magnetic shear vanishes and the stability diagram is given by the straight lines with iota sup(σ) + iota sup(delta) = const., where iota sup(σ) is a rotational transform due to the plasma current and iota sup(delta) is due to the helical field. In the l = 2 stellarator with chi sup(delta) > 0.5, the m.h.d. stability against kink and tearing modes is improved compared with that in tokamaks. While an l = 3 helical component exists, the magnetic shear plays an important role in the stability properties. The stability diagrams become fairly complex; however, they can be explained by properties of the Euler equation. It should be noted that the internal kink modes become more unstable than in tokamaks by the l = 3 helical field. (auth.)
Introduction to stellar structure
Maciel, Walter J
2016-01-01
In the first part of this book, the author presents the basic properties of the stellar interior and describes them thoroughly, along with deriving the main stellar structure equations of temperature, density, pressure and luminosity, among others. The process and application of solving these equations is explained, as well as linking these results with actual observations. The second part of the text describes what happens to a star over time, and how to determine this by solving the same equations at different points during a star’s lifetime. The fate of various stars is quite different depending on their masses, and this is described in the final parts of the book. This text can be used for an upper level undergraduate course or an introductory graduate course on stellar physics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feltzing, S; Bensby, T
2008-01-01
The study of the Milky Way stellar discs in the context of galaxy formation is discussed. In particular, we explore the properties of the Milky Way disc using a new sample of about 550 dwarf stars for which we have recently obtained elemental abundances and ages based on high-resolution spectroscopy. For all the stars we also have full kinematic information as well as information about their stellar orbits. We confirm results from previous studies that the thin and the thick discs have distinct abundance patterns. But we also explore a larger range of orbital parameters than what has been possible in our previous studies. Several new results are presented. We find that stars that reach high above the Galactic plane and have eccentric orbits show remarkably tight abundance trends. This implies that these stars formed out of well-mixed gas that had been homogenized over large volumes. We find some evidence that suggest that the event that most likely caused the heating of this stellar population happened a few billion years ago. Through a simple, kinematic exploration of stars with super-solar [Fe/H], we show that the solar neighbourhood contains metal-rich, high velocity stars that are very likely associated with the thick disc. Additionally, the HR1614 moving group and the Hercules and Arcturus stellar streams are discussed and it is concluded that, probably, a large fraction of the groups and streams so far identified in the disc are the result of evolution and interactions within the stellar disc rather than being dissolved stellar clusters or engulfed dwarf galaxies.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maassberg, H.; Brakel, R.; Burhenn, R.; Gasparino, U.; Grigull, P.; Kick, M.; Kuehner, G.; Ringler, H.; Sardei, F.; Stroth, U.; Weller, A.
1993-01-01
The local electron and ion heat transport as well as the particle and impurity transport properties in stellarators are reviewed. In this context, neoclassical theory is used as a guideline for the comparison of the experimental results of the quite different confinement concepts. At sufficiently high temperatures depending on the specific magnetic configuration, neoclassical predictions are confirmed by experimental findings. The confinement properties in the LMFP collisionality regime are discussed with respect to the next stellarator generation, for which at higher temperatures the neoclassical transport is expected to become more important. (orig.)
Solar and stellar oscillations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fossat, E.
1981-01-01
We try to explain in simple words what a stellar oscillation is, what kind of restoring forces and excitation mechanisms can be responsible for its occurence, what kind of questions the theoretician asks to the observer and what kind of tools the latter is using to look for the answers. A selected review of the most striking results obtained in the last few years in solar seismology and the present status of their consequences on solar models is presented. A brief discussion on the expected extension towards stellar seismology will end the paper. A selected bibliography on theory as well as observations and recent papers is also included. (orig.)
Classical molecular dynamics simulation of electronically non-adiabatic processes.
Miller, William H; Cotton, Stephen J
2016-12-22
Both classical and quantum mechanics (as well as hybrids thereof, i.e., semiclassical approaches) find widespread use in simulating dynamical processes in molecular systems. For large chemical systems, however, which involve potential energy surfaces (PES) of general/arbitrary form, it is usually the case that only classical molecular dynamics (MD) approaches are feasible, and their use is thus ubiquitous nowadays, at least for chemical processes involving dynamics on a single PES (i.e., within a single Born-Oppenheimer electronic state). This paper reviews recent developments in an approach which extends standard classical MD methods to the treatment of electronically non-adiabatic processes, i.e., those that involve transitions between different electronic states. The approach treats nuclear and electronic degrees of freedom (DOF) equivalently (i.e., by classical mechanics, thereby retaining the simplicity of standard MD), and provides "quantization" of the electronic states through a symmetrical quasi-classical (SQC) windowing model. The approach is seen to be capable of treating extreme regimes of strong and weak coupling between the electronic states, as well as accurately describing coherence effects in the electronic DOF (including the de-coherence of such effects caused by coupling to the nuclear DOF). A survey of recent applications is presented to illustrate the performance of the approach. Also described is a newly developed variation on the original SQC model (found universally superior to the original) and a general extension of the SQC model to obtain the full electronic density matrix (at no additional cost/complexity).
The quantum dynamics of electronically nonadiabatic chemical reactions
Truhlar, Donald G.
1993-01-01
Considerable progress was achieved on the quantum mechanical treatment of electronically nonadiabatic collisions involving energy transfer and chemical reaction in the collision of an electronically excited atom with a molecule. In the first step, a new diabatic representation for the coupled potential energy surfaces was created. A two-state diabatic representation was developed which was designed to realistically reproduce the two lowest adiabatic states of the valence bond model and also to have the following three desirable features: (1) it is more economical to evaluate; (2) it is more portable; and (3) all spline fits are replaced by analytic functions. The new representation consists of a set of two coupled diabatic potential energy surfaces plus a coupling surface. It is suitable for dynamics calculations on both the electronic quenching and reaction processes in collisions of Na(3p2p) with H2. The new two-state representation was obtained by a three-step process from a modified eight-state diatomics-in-molecules (DIM) representation of Blais. The second step required the development of new dynamical methods. A formalism was developed for treating reactions with very general basis functions including electronically excited states. Our formalism is based on the generalized Newton, scattered wave, and outgoing wave variational principles that were used previously for reactive collisions on a single potential energy surface, and it incorporates three new features: (1) the basis functions include electronic degrees of freedom, as required to treat reactions involving electronic excitation and two or more coupled potential energy surfaces; (2) the primitive electronic basis is assumed to be diabatic, and it is not assumed that it diagonalizes the electronic Hamiltonian even asymptotically; and (3) contracted basis functions for vibrational-rotational-orbital degrees of freedom are included in a very general way, similar to previous prescriptions for locally
Matching-pursuit/split-operator Fourier-transform simulations of nonadiabatic quantum dynamics
Wu, Yinghua; Herman, Michael F.; Batista, Victor S.
2005-03-01
A rigorous and practical approach for simulations of nonadiabatic quantum dynamics is introduced. The algorithm involves a natural extension of the matching-pursuit/split-operator Fourier-transform (MP/SOFT) method [Y. Wu and V. S. Batista, J. Chem. Phys. 121, 1676 (2004)] recently developed for simulations of adiabatic quantum dynamics in multidimensional systems. The MP/SOFT propagation scheme, extended to nonadiabatic dynamics, recursively applies the time-evolution operator as defined by the standard perturbation expansion to first-, or second-order, accuracy. The expansion is implemented in dynamically adaptive coherent-state representations, generated by an approach that combines the matching-pursuit algorithm with a gradient-based optimization method. The accuracy and efficiency of the resulting propagation method are demonstrated as applied to the canonical model systems introduced by Tully for testing simulations of dual curve-crossing nonadiabatic dynamics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kondorskiy, A.; Nakamura, H.
2004-01-01
The title theory is developed by combining the Herman-Kluk semiclassical theory for adiabatic propagation on single potential-energy surface and the semiclassical Zhu-Nakamura theory for nonadiabatic transition. The formulation with use of natural mathematical principles leads to a quite simple expression for the propagator based on classical trajectories and simple formulas are derived for overall adiabatic and nonadiabatic processes. The theory is applied to electronically nonadiabatic photodissociation processes: a one-dimensional problem of H 2 + in a cw (continuous wave) laser field and a two-dimensional model problem of H 2 O in a cw laser field. The theory is found to work well for the propagation duration of several molecular vibrational periods and wide energy range. Although the formulation is made for the case of laser induced nonadiabatic processes, it is straightforwardly applicable to ordinary electronically nonadiabatic chemical dynamics
Nonadiabatic production of spinor condensates with a quadrupole-Ioffe-configuration trap
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, P.; Xu, Z.; You, L.
2006-01-01
Motivated by the recent experimental observation of multicomponent spinor condensates via a time-dependent quadrupole-Ioffe-configuration trap, we provide a general framework for the investigation of nonadiabatic Landau-Zener dynamics of a hyperfine spin, e.g., from an atomic magnetic dipole moment coupled to a weak time-dependent magnetic (B-) field. The spin flipped population distribution, or the so-called Majorona formula, is expressed in terms of system parameters and experimental observables; thus, the distribution provides much needed insight into the underlying mechanism for the production of spinor condensates due to nonadiabatic level crossings
Quantum chaos induced by nonadiabatic coupling in wave-packet dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Higuchi, Hisashi; Takatsuka, Kazuo
2002-01-01
The effect of nonadiabatic coupling due to breakdown of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation on chaos is investigated. A couple of measures (indicators) that detect the extent of chaos in wave-packet dynamics on coupled potential functions are devised. Using them, we show that chaos is indeed induced by a nonadiabatic coupling in individual time-dependent wave-packet dynamics. This chaos is genuinely of quantum nature, since it arises from bifurcation and merging of a wave packet at the quasicrossing region of two coupled potential functions
Non-adiabatic effect on Laughlin's argument of the quantum Hall effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maruyama, I; Hatsugai, Y
2009-01-01
We have numerically studied a non-adiabatic charge transport in the quantum Hall system pumped by a magnetic flux, as one of the simplest theoretical realizations of non-adiabatic Thouless pumping. In the adiabatic limit, a pumped charge is quantized, known as Laughlin's argument in a cylindrical lattice. In a uniform electric field, we obtained a formula connecting quantized pumping in the adiabatic limit and no-pumping in the sudden limit. The intermediate region between the two limits is determined by the Landau gap. A randomness or impurity effect is also discussed.
Quantum theory of nonadiabatic heavy-particle transfer processes in polar media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuznetsov, A.M.
1986-01-01
For the probability of nonadiabatic transfer of heavy particles, a calculating procedure is proposed which in the case of certain processes allows the interaction between motion of the particle undergoing transfer and motion along other degrees of freedom to be exactly accounted for. In the case of symmetric systems, explicit expressions are obtained for the free energy of activation of the transition and for the tunneling factor which allow for nonadiabaticity of motion of the particle undergoing transfer, both in the region beneath the barrier and in the region that is classically accessible
The fundamentals of stellar astrophysics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Collins, G.W. II.
1989-01-01
A broad overview of theoretical stellar astrophysics is presented in a textbook intended for graduate students. Chapters are devoted to fundamental principles, assumptions, theorems, and polytropes; energy sources and sinks; the flow of energy through the star and the construction of stellar models; the theory of stellar evolution; relativistic stellar structure; the structure of distorted stars; stellar pulsation and oscillation. Also discussed are the flow of radiation through the stellar atmosphere, the solution of the radiative-transfer equation, the environment of the radiation field, the construction of a stellar model atmosphere, the formation and shape of spectral lines, LTE breakdown, illuminated and extended stellar atmospheres, and the transfer of polarized radiation. Diagrams, graphs, and sample problems are provided. 164 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pickles, A.J.
1989-01-01
The techniques used to derive astrophysically useful information from observations of the integrated light of composite stellar systems are briefly reviewed. A synthesis technique, designed to separate and describe on a standard system the competing effects of age and metallicity variations is introduced, and illustrated by its application to the study of the history of star formation in bright elliptical galaxies in clusters. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Contopoulos, G.
1983-01-01
In this paper, three main areas of relativistic stellar dynamics are reviewed: (a) The dynamics of clusters, or nuclei of galaxies, of very high density; (b) The dynamics of systems containing a massive black hole; and (c) The dynamics of particles (and photons) in an expanding Universe. The emphasis is on the use of orbit perturbations. (Auth.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pomphrey, N.; Berry, L.A.; Boozer, A.H.
2001-01-01
Experimental devices to study the physics of high-beta (β>∼4%), low aspect ratio (A<∼4.5) stellarator plasmas require coils that will produce plasmas satisfying a set of physics goals, provide experimental flexibility, and be practical to construct. In the course of designing a flexible coil set for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment, we have made several innovations that may be useful in future stellarator design efforts. These include: the use of Singular Value Decomposition methods for obtaining families of smooth current potentials on distant coil winding surfaces from which low current density solutions may be identified; the use of a Control Matrix Method for identifying which few of the many detailed elements of the stellarator boundary must be targeted if a coil set is to provide fields to control the essential physics of the plasma; the use of Genetic Algorithms for choosing an optimal set of discrete coils from a continuum of potential contours; the evaluation of alternate coil topologies for balancing the tradeoff between physics objective and engineering constraints; the development of a new coil optimization code for designing modular coils, and the identification of a 'natural' basis for describing current sheet distributions. (author)
Stellar Structure and Evolution
Kippenhahn, Rudolf; Weiss, Achim
2013-01-01
This long-awaited second edition of the classical textbook on Stellar Structure and Evolution by Kippenhahn and Weigert is a thoroughly revised version of the original text. Taking into account modern observational constraints as well as additional physical effects such as mass loss and diffusion, Achim Weiss and Rudolf Kippenhahn have succeeded in bringing the book up to the state-of-the-art with respect to both the presentation of stellar physics and the presentation and interpretation of current sophisticated stellar models. The well-received and proven pedagogical approach of the first edition has been retained. The book provides a comprehensive treatment of the physics of the stellar interior and the underlying fundamental processes and parameters. The models developed to explain the stability, dynamics and evolution of the stars are presented and great care is taken to detail the various stages in a star’s life. Just as the first edition, which remained a standard work for more than 20 years after its...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1991-07-01
The technical reports in this collection of papers were presented at the 8th International Workshop on Stellarators, and International Atomic Energy Agency Technical Committee Meeting. They include presentations on transport, magnetic configurations, fluctuations, equilibrium, stability, edge plasma and wall aspects, heating, diagnostics, new concepts and reactor studies. Refs, figs and tabs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Summers, D.
1980-01-01
The theory of stellar winds as given by the equations of classical fluid dynamics is considered. The equations of momentum and energy describing a steady, spherically symmetric, heat-conducting, viscous stellar wind are cast in a dimensionless form which involves a thermal conduction parameter E and a viscosity parameter γ. An asymptotic analysis is carried out, for fixed γ, in the cases E→O and E→infinity (corresponding to small and large thermal conductivity, respectively), and it is found that it is possible to construct critical solutions for the wind velocity and temperature over the entire flow. The E→O solution represents a wind which emanates from the star at low, subsonic speeds, accelerates through a sonic point, and then approaches a constant asymptotic speed, with its temperature varying as r/sup -4/3/ at large distances r from the star; the E→infinity solution represents a wind which, after reaching an approximately constant speed, with temperature varying as r/sup -2/7/, decelerates through a diffuse shock and approaches a finite pressure at infinity. A categorization is made of all critical stellar wind solutions for given values of γ and E, and actual numerical examples are given. Numerical solutions are obtained by integrating upstream 'from infinity' from initial values of the flow parameters given by appropriate asymptotic expansions. The role of viscosity in stellar wind theory is discussed, viscous and inviscid stellar wind solutions are compared, and it is suggested that with certain limitations, the theory presented may be useful in analyzing winds from solar-type stars
Lahiri, B. B.; Ranoo, Surojit; Philip, John
2017-11-01
Magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) is becoming a viable cancer treatment methodology where the alternating magnetic field induced heating of magnetic fluid is utilized for ablating the cancerous cells or making them more susceptible to the conventional treatments. The heating efficiency in MFH is quantified in terms of specific absorption rate (SAR), which is defined as the heating power generated per unit mass. In majority of the experimental studies, SAR is evaluated from the temperature rise curves, obtained under non-adiabatic experimental conditions, which is prone to various thermodynamic uncertainties. A proper understanding of the experimental uncertainties and its remedies is a prerequisite for obtaining accurate and reproducible SAR. Here, we study the thermodynamic uncertainties associated with peripheral heating, delayed heating, heat loss from the sample and spatial variation in the temperature profile within the sample. Using first order approximations, an adiabatic reconstruction protocol for the measured temperature rise curves is developed for SAR estimation, which is found to be in good agreement with those obtained from the computationally intense slope corrected method. Our experimental findings clearly show that the peripheral and delayed heating are due to radiation heat transfer from the heating coils and slower response time of the sensor, respectively. Our results suggest that the peripheral heating is linearly proportional to the sample area to volume ratio and coil temperature. It is also observed that peripheral heating decreases in presence of a non-magnetic insulating shielding. The delayed heating is found to contribute up to ~25% uncertainties in SAR values. As the SAR values are very sensitive to the initial slope determination method, explicit mention of the range of linear regression analysis is appropriate to reproduce the results. The effect of sample volume to area ratio on linear heat loss rate is systematically studied and the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lahiri, B B; Ranoo, Surojit; Philip, John
2017-01-01
Magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) is becoming a viable cancer treatment methodology where the alternating magnetic field induced heating of magnetic fluid is utilized for ablating the cancerous cells or making them more susceptible to the conventional treatments. The heating efficiency in MFH is quantified in terms of specific absorption rate (SAR), which is defined as the heating power generated per unit mass. In majority of the experimental studies, SAR is evaluated from the temperature rise curves, obtained under non-adiabatic experimental conditions, which is prone to various thermodynamic uncertainties. A proper understanding of the experimental uncertainties and its remedies is a prerequisite for obtaining accurate and reproducible SAR. Here, we study the thermodynamic uncertainties associated with peripheral heating, delayed heating, heat loss from the sample and spatial variation in the temperature profile within the sample. Using first order approximations, an adiabatic reconstruction protocol for the measured temperature rise curves is developed for SAR estimation, which is found to be in good agreement with those obtained from the computationally intense slope corrected method. Our experimental findings clearly show that the peripheral and delayed heating are due to radiation heat transfer from the heating coils and slower response time of the sensor, respectively. Our results suggest that the peripheral heating is linearly proportional to the sample area to volume ratio and coil temperature. It is also observed that peripheral heating decreases in presence of a non-magnetic insulating shielding. The delayed heating is found to contribute up to ∼25% uncertainties in SAR values. As the SAR values are very sensitive to the initial slope determination method, explicit mention of the range of linear regression analysis is appropriate to reproduce the results. The effect of sample volume to area ratio on linear heat loss rate is systematically studied and
Observations of nonadiabatic acceleration of ions in Earth's magnetotail
Frank, L. A.; Paterson, W. R.; Kivelson, M. G.
1994-01-01
We present observations of the three-dimensional velocity distributions of protons in the energy range 20 eV to 52 keV at locations within and near the current sheet of Earth's magnetotail at geocentric radial distances 35 to 87 R(sub E). These measurements were acquired on December 8, 1990, with a set of electrostatic analyzers on board the Galileo spacecraft during its approach to Earth in order to obtain one of its gravitational assists to Jupiter. It is found that the velocity distributions are inadequately described as quasi-Maxwellian distributions such as those found in the central plasma sheet at positions nearer to Earth. Instead the proton velocity distributions can be categorized into two major types. The first type is the 'lima bean' shaped distribution with high-speed bulk flows and high temperatures that are similar to those found nearer to Earth in the plasma sheet boundary layer. The second type consists of colder protons with considerably lesser bulk flow speeds. Examples of velocity distributions are given for the plasma mantle, a region near the magnetic neutral line, positions earthward and tailward of the neutral line, and the plasma sheet boundary layer. At positions near the neutral line, only complex velocity distributions consisting of the colder protons are found, whereas both of the above types of distributions are found in and near the current sheet at earthward and tailward locations. Bulk flows are directed generally earthward and tailward at positions earthward and tailward of the neutral line, respectively. Only the high-speed, hot distribution is present in the plasma sheet boundary layer. The observations are interpreted in terms of the nonadiabatic acceleration of protons that flow into the current sheet from the plasma mantle. For this interpretation the hot, 'lima bean' shaped distributions are associated with meandering, or Speiser, orbits in the current sheet. It is suggested that the colder, lower-speed proton velocity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Franco de Carvalho, F. [Centre Européen de Calcul Atomique et Moléculaire, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland); Tavernelli, I. [IBM Research GmbH, Zurich Research Laboratory, 8803 Ruschlikon (Switzerland)
2015-12-14
In this work, we derive a method to perform trajectory-based nonadiabatic dynamics that is able to describe both nonadiabatic transitions and intersystem crossing events (transitions between states of different spin-multiplicity) at the same level of theory, namely, time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). To this end, we combined our previously developed TDDFT-based trajectory surface hopping scheme with an accurate and efficient algorithm for the calculation of the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) matrix elements. More specifically, we designed two algorithms for the calculation of intersystem crossing transitions, one based on an extended Tully’s surface hopping scheme including SOC and the second based on a Landau-Zener approximation applied to the spin sector of the electronic Hilbert space. This development allows for the design of an efficient on-the-fly nonadiabatic approach that can handle, on an equal footing, nonadiabatic and intersystem crossing transitions. The method is applied to the study of the photophysics of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) in gas and liquid phases.
Between ethylene and polyenes--the non-adiabatic dynamics of cis-dienes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kuhlman, Thomas Scheby; Glover, William J; Mori, Toshifumi
2012-01-01
Using Ab Initio Multiple Spawning (AIMS) with a Multi-State Multi-Reference Perturbation theory (MS-MR-CASPT2) treatment of the electronic structure, we have simulated the non-adiabatic excited state dynamics of cyclopentadiene (CPD) and 1,2,3,4-tetramethyl-cyclopentadiene (Me4-CPD) following exc...
Ideal quantum gas in an expanding cavity: nature of nonadiabatic force.
Nakamura, K; Avazbaev, S K; Sobirov, Z A; Matrasulov, D U; Monnai, T
2011-04-01
We consider a quantum gas of noninteracting particles confined in the expanding cavity and investigate the nature of the nonadiabatic force which is generated from the gas and acts on the cavity wall. First, with use of the time-dependent canonical transformation, which transforms the expanding cavity to the nonexpanding one, we can define the force operator. Second, applying the perturbative theory, which works when the cavity wall begins to move at time origin, we find that the nonadiabatic force is quadratic in the wall velocity and thereby does not break the time-reversal symmetry, in contrast with general belief. Finally, using an assembly of the transitionless quantum states, we obtain the nonadiabatic force exactly. The exact result justifies the validity of both the definition of the force operator and the issue of the perturbative theory. The mysterious mechanism of nonadiabatic transition with the use of transitionless quantum states is also explained. The study is done for both cases of the hard- and soft-wall confinement with the time-dependent confining length. ©2011 American Physical Society
Non-adiabatic molecular dynamic simulations of opening reaction of molecular junctions
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Zobač, Vladimír; Lewis, J.P.; Jelínek, Pavel
2016-01-01
Roč. 27, č. 28 (2016), 1-8, č. článku 285202. ISSN 0957-4484 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-02079S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : non-adiabatic molecular dynamics * molecular junctions * molecular switches * DFT Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.440, year: 2016
TREATMENT OF NONADIABATIC TRANSITIONS BY DENSITY-MATRIX EVOLUTION AND MOLECULAR-DYNAMICS SIMULATIONS
MAVRI, J; BERENDSEN, HJC
1994-01-01
A density matrix evolution (DME) method (H.J.C. Berendsen and J. Mavri, J. Phys. Chem., 97 (1993) 13469) to simulate the dynamics of quantum systems embedded in a classical environment is presented. The DME method allows treatment of nonadiabatic transitions. As numerical examples the collinear
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ho, D.D.M.; Kulsrud, R.M.
1985-09-01
Stellarator ion transport in the low-collisionality regime with a radial electric field is calculated by a systematic expansion of the drift-Boltzmann equation. The shape of the helical well is taken into account in this calculation. It is found that the barely trapped ions with three to four times the thermal energy give the dominant contribution to the diffusion. Expressions for the ion particle and energy fluxes are derived
Structure of stellar hydroxyl masers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reid, M.J.; Muhleman, D.O.; Moran, J.M.; Johnston, K.J.; Schwartz, P.R.
1977-01-01
This paper presents the results of two spectral-line very long baseline (VLB) interferometric experiments on stellar OH masers. These masers are usually associated with long-period variable stars, and exhibit a characteristic double-peaked 1612 MHz OH spectrum. The sources IRC +10011, R Aql, and U Ori were carefully studied in order to determine the spatial structure of their masers. Maser components in these sources exhibited a complex structure which can be interpreted in terms of ''core-halo'' models. For these sources, the emission at any velocity appears to originate from a small (approximately-less-than0.''03) region of brightness approximately-greater-than10 9 K, and from a large (approximately-greater-than0.''5) region of brightness approximately-less-than10 8 K. In IRC+10011, ''core'' components in the two OH peaks probably are separated by less than the apparent size of the ''halos.'' A map of the low-velocity emission of U Ori with a resolution of 0.''01 indicates that the ''cores'' are distributed over a region of only 0.''2. This region is smaller than the apparent sizes of the ''halos.'' Other sources surveyed to determine apparent maser sizes include IRC+50137, OH 1821--12, OH 1837--05, OH 26.5+0.6, W43 A, and VX Sgr at 1612 MHz; and W Hya, R Aql, and IRC--10529 at 1667 MHz. The results of all VLB observations of 1612 MHz stellar OH masers are summarized.The apparent sizes of the strongest components (''halos'') of stellar OH masers typically are approximately-greater-than0.''5, corresponding to linear dimensions of approximately-greater-than3 x 10 15 cm. These surprisingly large sizes imply brightness temperatures much lower than those observed in most other types of astronomical masers. The large sizes rule out models of the 1612 MHz OH masers that require contracting or rotating circumstellar envelopes to explain the double-peaked OH spectra, or that try to explain the apparent maser sizes in terms of interstellar or interplanetary scattering
Status of stellarator research
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wobig, H.
1985-01-01
In recent years main activities in stellarator research were focussed on production and investigation of currentless plasmas. Several heating methods have been applied: electron cyclotron heating, ion cyclotron heating and neutral beam injection. The parameters achieved in HELIOTRON E and W VII-A are: antin 20 m 3 , Tsub(i) <= 1 keV. The confinement is improved as compared with ohmically heated discharges. By ECRH (P = 200 kW) it is possible to heat electrons up to 1.4 keV, confinement in this regime is dominated already by trapped particle effects. Toroidal currents up to 2 kA - either bootstrap currents or externally driven currents - were observed. High β-values (antiβ = 2%) have been obtained in HELIOTRON E, in this regime already pressure driven MHD-modes were observed. Future experiments (ATF-1 and W VII-AS) will extend the parameter regime to temperatures of several keV. These experiments will give important information about critical problems of the stellarator line (β-limit, neoclassical confinement impurity transport). A few reactor studies of stellarators exist, attention is mainly concentrated on technical problems of the modular coil system
A Compact Quasi-axisymmetric Stellarator Reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ku, L.P.
2003-01-01
We report the progress made in assessing the potential of compact, quasi-axisymmetric stellarators as power-producing reactors. Using an aspect ratio A=4.5 configuration derived from NCSX and optimized with respect to the quasi-axisymmetry and MHD stability in the linear regime as an example, we show that a reactor of 1 GW(e) maybe realizable with a major radius *8 m. This is significantly smaller than the designs of stellarator reactors attempted before. We further show the design of modular coils and discuss the optimization of coil aspect ratios in order to accommodate the blanket for tritium breeding and radiation shielding for coil protection. In addition, we discuss the effects of coil aspect ratio on the peak magnetic field in the coils
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, John Leif; Liebe, Carl Christian
1997-01-01
The science objective of the Danish Geomagnetic Research Satellite "Ørsted" is to map the magnetic field of the Earth, with a vector precision of a fraction of a nanotesla. This necessitates an attitude reference instrument with a precision of a few arcseconds onboard the satellite. To meet...... this demand the Advanced Stellar Compass (ASC), a fully autonomous miniature star tracker, was developed. This ASC is capable of both solving the "lost in space" problem and determine the attitude with arcseconds precision. The development, principles of operation and instrument autonomy of the ASC...
Arnett, W. David
2009-05-01
We review recent progress using numerical simulations as a testbed for development of a theory of stellar convection, much as envisaged by John von Newmann. Necessary features of the theory, non-locality and fluctuations, are illustrated by computer movies. It is found that the common approximation of convection as a diffusive process presents the wrong physical picture, and improvements are suggested. New observational results discussed at the conference are gratifying in their validation of some of our theoretical ideas, especially the idea that SNIb and SNIc events are related to the explosion of massive star cores which have been stripped by mass loss and binary interactions [1
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nowakowski, Daniel; Kuster, Markus; Meister, Claudia V.; Fuelbert, Florian; Hoffmann, Dieter H.H. [TU Darmstadt (Germany). Institut fuer Kernphysik; Weiss, Achim [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Garching (Germany)
2010-07-01
An axion helioscope is typically operated to observe the sun as an axion source. Additional pointings at celestial sources, e.g. stars in other galaxies, result in possible detections of axions from distant galactic objects. For the observation of supplementary axion sources we therefore calculate the thereotical axion flux from distant stars by extending axionic flux models for the axion Primakoff effect in the sun to other main sequence stars. The main sequence star models used for our calculations are based on full stellar structure calculations. To deduce the effective axion flux of stellar objects incident on the Earth the All-Sky catalogue was used to obtain the spectral class and distance of the stars treated. Our calculations of the axion flux in the galactic plane show that for a zero age main sequence star an maximum axion flux of {phi}{sub a}=303.43 cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} could be expected. Furthermore we present estimates of axion fluxes from time-evolved stars.
The DEMO Quasisymmetric Stellarator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Geoffrey B. McFadden
2010-02-01
Full Text Available The NSTAB nonlinear stability code solves differential equations in conservation form, and the TRAN Monte Carlo test particle code tracks guiding center orbits in a fixed background, to provide simulations of equilibrium, stability, and transport in tokamaks and stellarators. These codes are well correlated with experimental observations and have been validated by convergence studies. Bifurcated 3D solutions of the 2D tokamak problem have been calculated that model persistent disruptions, neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs and edge localized modes (ELMs occurring in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER, which does not pass the NSTAB simulation test for nonlinear stability. So we have designed a quasiaxially symmetric (QAS stellarator with similar proportions as a candidate for the demonstration (DEMO fusion reactor that does pass the test [1]. The configuration has two field periods and an exceptionally accurate 2D symmetry that furnishes excellent thermal confinement and good control of the prompt loss of alpha particles. Robust coils are found from a filtered form of the Biot-Savart law based on a distribution of current over a control surface for the coils and the current in the plasma defined by the equilibrium calculation. Computational science has addressed the issues of equilibrium, stability, and transport, so it remains to develop an effective plan to construct the coils and build a diverter.
Non-adiabatic molecular dynamics with complex quantum trajectories. I. The diabatic representation.
Zamstein, Noa; Tannor, David J
2012-12-14
We extend a recently developed quantum trajectory method [Y. Goldfarb, I. Degani, and D. J. Tannor, J. Chem. Phys. 125, 231103 (2006)] to treat non-adiabatic transitions. Each trajectory evolves on a single surface according to Newton's laws with complex positions and momenta. The transfer of amplitude between surfaces stems naturally from the equations of motion, without the need for surface hopping. In this paper we derive the equations of motion and show results in the diabatic representation, which is rarely used in trajectory methods for calculating non-adiabatic dynamics. We apply our method to the first two benchmark models introduced by Tully [J. Chem. Phys. 93, 1061 (1990)]. Besides giving the probability branching ratios between the surfaces, the method also allows the reconstruction of the time-dependent wavepacket. Our results are in quantitative agreement with converged quantum mechanical calculations.
Development of a model for dimethyl ether non-adiabatic reactors to improve methanol conversion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nasrollahi, Fatemeh [University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bakeri, Gholamreza; Rahimnejad, Mostafa [Babol Noshirvani University of Technology, Babol (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ismail, Ahmad Fauzi [Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai (Malaysia); Imanian, Mahdi [Mohajer Technical University, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2013-10-15
The modeling of adiabatic and non-adiabatic reactors, using three cooling mediums in the shell side of a shell and tube reactor in cocurrent and countercurrent flow regimes has been conducted. The cooling mediums used in this research are saturated water and methanol feed gas to a reactor which is preheated in the shell side and a special type of oil. The results of adiabatic reactor modeling show good compatibility with the data received from a commercial plant. The results of non-adiabatic reactor modeling showed that more methanol conversion can be achieved in a lower length of reactor, even though in some cases the maximum temperature in the tube side of the reactor is more than the deactivation temperature of the catalyst.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Warehime, Mick [Chemical Physics Program, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742-2021 (United States); Kłos, Jacek; Alexander, Millard H., E-mail: mha@umd.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and Institute of Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742-2021 (United States)
2015-01-21
This is the second in a series of papers detailing a MATLAB based implementation of the finite element method applied to collinear triatomic reactions. Here, we extend our previous work to reactions on coupled potential energy surfaces. The divergence of the probability current density field associated with the two electronically adiabatic states allows us to visualize in a novel way where and how nonadiabaticity occurs. A two-dimensional investigation gives additional insight into nonadiabaticity beyond standard one-dimensional models. We study the F({sup 2}P) + HCl and F({sup 2}P) + H{sub 2} reactions as model applications. Our publicly available code (http://www2.chem.umd.edu/groups/alexander/FEM) is general and easy to use.
A catalog of stellar spectrophotometry
Adelman, S. J.; Pyper, D. M.; Shore, S. N.; White, R. E.; Warren, W. H., Jr.
1989-01-01
A machine-readable catalog of stellar spectrophotometric measurements made with rotating grating scanner is introduced. Consideration is given to the processes by which the stellar data were collected and calibrated with the fluxes of Vega (Hayes and Latham, 1975). A sample page from the spectrophotometric catalog is presented.
Levitation of Bose-Einstein condensates induced by macroscopic non-adiabatic quantum tunneling
Nakamura, Katsuhiro; Kohi, Akihisa; Yamasaki, Hisatsugu; Perez-Garcia, Victor M.
2006-01-01
We study the dynamics of two-component Bose-Einstein condensates trapped in different vertical positions in the presence of an oscillating magnetic field. It is shown here how tuning appropriately the oscillation frequency of the magnetic field leads to the levitation of the system against gravity. This phenomenon is a manifestation of a macroscopic non-adiabatic tunneling in a system with internal degrees of freedom.
Nonadiabatic Spin Torque Investigated Using Thermally Activated Magnetic Domain Wall Dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Eltschka, M.; Woetzel, Mathias; Rhensius, J.
2010-01-01
of the DW as a quasiparticle in a one-dimensional potential landscape. By injecting small currents, the potential is modified, allowing for the determination of the nonadiabatic spin torque: βt=0.010±0.004 for a transverse DW and βv=0.073±0.026 for a vortex DW. The larger value is attributed to the higher...
Søndergaard, Anders Aspegren; Shepperson, Benjamin; Stapelfeldt, Henrik
2017-07-07
We present an efficient, noise-robust method based on Fourier analysis for reconstructing the three-dimensional measure of the alignment degree, ⟨cos 2 θ⟩, directly from its two-dimensional counterpart, ⟨cos 2 θ 2D ⟩. The method applies to nonadiabatic alignment of linear molecules induced by a linearly polarized, nonresonant laser pulse. Our theoretical analysis shows that the Fourier transform of the time-dependent ⟨cos 2 θ 2D ⟩ trace over one molecular rotational period contains additional frequency components compared to the Fourier transform of ⟨cos 2 θ⟩. These additional frequency components can be identified and removed from the Fourier spectrum of ⟨cos 2 θ 2D ⟩. By rescaling of the remaining frequency components, the Fourier spectrum of ⟨cos 2 θ⟩ is obtained and, finally, ⟨cos 2 θ⟩ is reconstructed through inverse Fourier transformation. The method allows the reconstruction of the ⟨cos 2 θ⟩ trace from a measured ⟨cos 2 θ 2D ⟩ trace, which is the typical observable of many experiments, and thereby provides direct comparison to calculated ⟨cos 2 θ⟩ traces, which is the commonly used alignment metric in theoretical descriptions. We illustrate our method by applying it to the measurement of nonadiabatic alignment of I 2 molecules. In addition, we present an efficient algorithm for calculating the matrix elements of cos 2 θ 2D and any other observable in the symmetric top basis. These matrix elements are required in the rescaling step, and they allow for highly efficient numerical calculation of ⟨cos 2 θ 2D ⟩ and ⟨cos 2 θ⟩ in general.
Quasisymmetry equations for conventional stellarators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pustovitov, V.D.
1994-11-01
General quasisymmetry condition, which demands the independence of B 2 on one of the angular Boozer coordinates, is reduced to two equations containing only geometrical characteristics and helical field of a stellarator. The analysis is performed for conventional stellarators with a planar circular axis using standard stellarator expansion. As a basis, the invariant quasisymmetry condition is used. The quasisymmetry equations for stellarators are obtained from this condition also in an invariant form. Simplified analogs of these equations are given for the case when averaged magnetic surfaces are circular shifted torii. It is shown that quasisymmetry condition can be satisfied, in principle, in a conventional stellarator by a proper choice of two satellite harmonics of the helical field in addition to the main harmonic. Besides, there appears a restriction on the shift of magnetic surfaces. Thus, in general, the problem is closely related with that of self-consistent description of a configuration. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Coïsson, M. [INRIM, strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Torino (Italy); Barrera, G. [INRIM, strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Torino (Italy); University of Torino, Chemistry Department, via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Celegato, F.; Martino, L.; Vinai, F. [INRIM, strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Torino (Italy); Martino, P. [Politronica srl, via Livorno 60, 10144 Torino (Italy); Ferraro, G. [Center for Space Human Robotics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia - IIT, corso Trento 21, 10129 Torino (Italy); Tiberto, P. [INRIM, strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Torino (Italy)
2016-10-01
An experimental setup for magnetic hyperthermia operating in non-adiabatic conditions is described. A thermodynamic model that takes into account the heat exchanged by the sample with the surrounding environment is developed. A suitable calibration procedure is proposed that allows the experimental validation of the model. Specific absorption rate can then be accurately determined just from the measurement of the sample temperature at the equilibrium steady state. The setup and the measurement procedure represent a simplification with respect to other systems requiring calorimeters or crucial corrections for heat flow. Two families of magnetic nanoparticles, one superparamagnetic and one characterised by larger sizes and static hysteresis, have been characterised as a function of field intensity, and specific absorption rate and intrinsic loss power have been obtained. - Highlights: • Development and thermodynamic modelling of a hyperthermia setup operating in non-adiabatic conditions. • Calibration of the experimental setup and validation of the model. • Accurate measurement of specific absorption rate and intrinsic loss power in non-adiabatic conditions.
Sequential nonadiabatic excitation of large molecules and ions driven by strong laser fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Markevitch, Alexei N.; Levis, Robert J.; Romanov, Dmitri A.; Smith, Stanley M.; Schlegel, H. Bernhard; Ivanov, Misha Yu.
2004-01-01
Electronic processes leading to dissociative ionization of polyatomic molecules in strong laser fields are investigated experimentally, theoretically, and numerically. Using time-of-flight ion mass spectroscopy, we study the dependence of fragmentation on laser intensity for a series of related molecules and report regular trends in this dependence on the size, symmetry, and electronic structure of a molecule. Based on these data, we develop a model of dissociative ionization of polyatomic molecules in intense laser fields. The model is built on three elements: (i) nonadiabatic population transfer from the ground electronic state to the excited-state manifold via a doorway (charge-transfer) transition; (ii) exponential enhancement of this transition by collective dynamic polarization of all electrons, and (iii) sequential energy deposition in both neutral molecules and resulting molecular ions. The sequential nonadiabatic excitation is accelerated by a counterintuitive increase of a large molecule's polarizability following its ionization. The generic theory of sequential nonadiabatic excitation forms a basis for quantitative description of various nonlinear processes in polyatomic molecules and ions in strong laser fields
Semiclassical Monte Carlo: A first principles approach to non-adiabatic molecular dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
White, Alexander J.; Gorshkov, Vyacheslav N.; Wang, Ruixi; Tretiak, Sergei; Mozyrsky, Dmitry
2014-01-01
Modeling the dynamics of photophysical and (photo)chemical reactions in extended molecular systems is a new frontier for quantum chemistry. Many dynamical phenomena, such as intersystem crossing, non-radiative relaxation, and charge and energy transfer, require a non-adiabatic description which incorporate transitions between electronic states. Additionally, these dynamics are often highly sensitive to quantum coherences and interference effects. Several methods exist to simulate non-adiabatic dynamics; however, they are typically either too expensive to be applied to large molecular systems (10's-100's of atoms), or they are based on ad hoc schemes which may include severe approximations due to inconsistencies in classical and quantum mechanics. We present, in detail, an algorithm based on Monte Carlo sampling of the semiclassical time-dependent wavefunction that involves running simple surface hopping dynamics, followed by a post-processing step which adds little cost. The method requires only a few quantities from quantum chemistry calculations, can systematically be improved, and provides excellent agreement with exact quantum mechanical results. Here we show excellent agreement with exact solutions for scattering results of standard test problems. Additionally, we find that convergence of the wavefunction is controlled by complex valued phase factors, the size of the non-adiabatic coupling region, and the choice of sampling function. These results help in determining the range of applicability of the method, and provide a starting point for further improvement
Nuclear quantum effects on the nonadiabatic decay mechanism of an excited hydrated electron
Borgis, Daniel; Rossky, Peter J.; Turi, László
2007-11-01
We present a kinetic analysis of the nonadiabatic decay mechanism of an excited state hydrated electron to the ground state. The theoretical treatment is based on a quantized, gap dependent golden rule rate constant formula which describes the nonadiabatic transition rate between two quantum states. The rate formula is expressed in terms of quantum time correlation functions of the energy gap and of the nonadiabatic coupling. These gap dependent quantities are evaluated from three different sets of mixed quantum-classical molecular dynamics simulations of a hydrated electron equilibrated (a) in its ground state, (b) in its first excited state, and (c) on a hypothetical mixed potential energy surface which is the average of the ground and the first excited electronic states. The quantized, gap dependent rate results are applied in a phenomenological kinetic equation which provides the survival probability function of the excited state electron. Although the lifetime of the equilibrated excited state electron is computed to be very short (well under 100fs), the survival probability function for the nonequilibrium process in pump-probe experiments yields an effective excited state lifetime of around 300fs, a value that is consistent with the findings of several experimental groups and previous theoretical estimates.
Impact of Turbocharger Non-Adiabatic Operation on Engine Volumetric Efficiency and Turbo Lag
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Shaaban
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Turbocharger performance significantly affects the thermodynamic properties of the working fluid at engine boundaries and hence engine performance. Heat transfer takes place under all circumstances during turbocharger operation. This heat transfer affects the power produced by the turbine, the power consumed by the compressor, and the engine volumetric efficiency. Therefore, non-adiabatic turbocharger performance can restrict the engine charging process and hence engine performance. The present research work investigates the effect of turbocharger non-adiabatic performance on the engine charging process and turbo lag. Two passenger car turbochargers are experimentally and theoretically investigated. The effect of turbine casing insulation is also explored. The present investigation shows that thermal energy is transferred to the compressor under all circumstances. At high rotational speeds, thermal energy is first transferred to the compressor and latter from the compressor to the ambient. Therefore, the compressor appears to be “adiabatic” at high rotational speeds despite the complex heat transfer processes inside the compressor. A tangible effect of turbocharger non-adiabatic performance on the charging process is identified at turbocharger part load operation. The turbine power is the most affected operating parameter, followed by the engine volumetric efficiency. Insulating the turbine is recommended for reducing the turbine size and the turbo lag.
Recent Advances and Perspectives on Nonadiabatic Mixed Quantum-Classical Dynamics.
Crespo-Otero, Rachel; Barbatti, Mario
2018-05-16
Nonadiabatic mixed quantum-classical (NA-MQC) dynamics methods form a class of computational theoretical approaches in quantum chemistry tailored to investigate the time evolution of nonadiabatic phenomena in molecules and supramolecular assemblies. NA-MQC is characterized by a partition of the molecular system into two subsystems: one to be treated quantum mechanically (usually but not restricted to electrons) and another to be dealt with classically (nuclei). The two subsystems are connected through nonadiabatic couplings terms to enforce self-consistency. A local approximation underlies the classical subsystem, implying that direct dynamics can be simulated, without needing precomputed potential energy surfaces. The NA-MQC split allows reducing computational costs, enabling the treatment of realistic molecular systems in diverse fields. Starting from the three most well-established methods-mean-field Ehrenfest, trajectory surface hopping, and multiple spawning-this review focuses on the NA-MQC dynamics methods and programs developed in the last 10 years. It stresses the relations between approaches and their domains of application. The electronic structure methods most commonly used together with NA-MQC dynamics are reviewed as well. The accuracy and precision of NA-MQC simulations are critically discussed, and general guidelines to choose an adequate method for each application are delivered.
Nonadiabatic excited-state molecular dynamics: On-the-fly limiting of essential excited states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nelson, Tammie [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Naumov, Artem [Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, Moscow 143026 (Russian Federation); Fernandez-Alberti, Sebastian [Universidad Nacional de Quilmes, Roque Saenz Pea 352, B1876BXD Bernal (Argentina); Tretiak, Sergei, E-mail: serg@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)
2016-12-20
The simulation of nonadiabatic dynamics in extended molecular systems involving hundreds of atoms and large densities of states is particularly challenging. Nonadiabatic coupling terms (NACTs) represent a significant numerical bottleneck in surface hopping approaches. Rather than using unreliable NACT cutting schemes, here we develop “on-the-fly” state limiting methods to eliminate states that are no longer essential for the non-radiative relaxation dynamics as a trajectory proceeds. We propose a state number criteria and an energy-based state limit. The latter is more physically relevant by requiring a user-imposed energy threshold. For this purpose, we introduce a local kinetic energy gauge by summing contributions from atoms within the spatial localization of the electronic wavefunction to define the energy available for upward hops. The proposed state limiting schemes are implemented within the nonadiabatic excited-state molecular dynamics framework to simulate photoinduced relaxation in poly-phenylene vinylene (PPV) and branched poly-phenylene ethynylene (PPE) oligomers for benchmark evaluation.
Nucleosynthesis in stellar explosions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Woosley, S.E.; Axelrod, T.S.; Weaver, T.A.
1983-01-01
The final evolution and explosion of stars from 10 M/sub solar/ to 10/sup 6/ M/sub solar/ are reviewed with emphasis on factors affecting the expected nucleosynthesis. We order our paper in a sequence of decreasing mass. If, as many suspect, the stellar birth function was peaked towards larger masses at earlier times (see e.g., Silk 1977; but also see Palla, Salpeter, and Stahler 1983), this sequence of masses might also be regarded as a temporal sequence. At each stage of Galactic chemical evolution stars form from the ashes of preceding generations which typically had greater mass. A wide variety of Type I supernova models, most based upon accreting white dwarf stars, are also explored using the expected light curves, spectra, and nucleosynthesis as diagnostics. No clearly favored Type I model emerges that is capable of simultaneously satisfying all three constraints.
Nucleosynthesis in stellar explosions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Woosley, S.E.; Axelrod, T.S.; Weaver, T.A.
1983-01-01
The final evolution and explosion of stars from 10 M/sub solar/ to 10 6 M/sub solar/ are reviewed with emphasis on factors affecting the expected nucleosynthesis. We order our paper in a sequence of decreasing mass. If, as many suspect, the stellar birth function was peaked towards larger masses at earlier times (see e.g., Silk 1977; but also see Palla, Salpeter, and Stahler 1983), this sequence of masses might also be regarded as a temporal sequence. At each stage of Galactic chemical evolution stars form from the ashes of preceding generations which typically had greater mass. A wide variety of Type I supernova models, most based upon accreting white dwarf stars, are also explored using the expected light curves, spectra, and nucleosynthesis as diagnostics. No clearly favored Type I model emerges that is capable of simultaneously satisfying all three constraints
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Teller, E.
1985-01-01
In the following, a few simple remarks on the evolution and properties of stellar clusters will be collected. In particular, globular clusters will be considered. Though details of such clusters are often not known, a few questions can be clarified with the help of primitive arguments. These are:- why are spherical clusters spherical, why do they have high densities, why do they consist of approximately a million stars, how may a black hole of great mass form within them, may they be the origin of gamma-ray bursts, may their invisible remnants account for the missing mass of our galaxy. The available data do not warrant a detailed evaluation. However, it is remarkable that exceedingly simple models can shed some light on the questions enumerated above. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kikuchi, T.; Shiina, S.; Saito, K.; Gesso, H.; Aizawa, M.; Kawakami, I.
1985-01-01
We report the magnetic field configuration of helical magnetic axis stellarator. The magnetic field configuration is composed of large l=1 field and small l=-1 and l=0(bumpy) fields. The large l=1 field (combined with the small l=-1 field) is used to form helical magnetic axis with the helical curvature much larger than the toroidal curvature, which provides the high limiting values of β. The small l=-1 field, furthermore, as well as the large l=1 field reduces the Pfirsch-Schlueter currents by combining with l=0 field. Therefore, the large l=1 field and the combination of three field components may be favourable for the increase of limiting β value
Nonadiabatic effects in C-Br bond scission in the photodissociation of bromoacetyl chloride
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Valero, Rosendo; Truhlar, Donald G.
2006-01-01
Bromoacetyl chloride photodissociation has been interpreted as a paradigmatic example of a process in which nonadiabatic effects play a major role. In molecular beam experiments by Butler and co-workers [J. Chem. Phys. 95, 3848 (1991); J. Chem. Phys. 97, 355 (1992)], BrCH 2 C(O)Cl was prepared in its ground electronic state (S 0 ) and excited with a laser at 248 nm to its first excited singlet state (S 1 ). The two main ensuing photoreactions are the ruptures of the C-Cl bond and of the C-Br bond. A nonadiabatic model was proposed in which the C-Br scission is strongly suppressed due to nonadiabatic recrossing at the barrier formed by the avoided crossing between the S 1 and S 2 states. Recent reduced-dimensional dynamical studies lend support to this model. However, another interpretation that has been given for the experimental results is that the reduced probability of C-Br scission is a consequence of incomplete intramolecular energy redistribution. To provide further insight into this problem, we have studied the energetically lowest six singlet electronic states of bromoacetyl chloride by using an ab initio multiconfigurational perturbative electronic structure method. Stationary points (minima and saddle points) and minimum energy paths have been characterized on the S 0 and S 1 potential energy surfaces. The fourfold way diabatization method has been applied to transform five adiabatic excited electronic states to a diabatic representation. The diabatic potential energy matrix of the first five excited singlet states has been constructed along several cuts of the potential energy hypersurfaces. The thermochemistry of the photodissociation reactions and a comparison with experimental translational energy distributions strongly suggest that nonadiabatic effects dominate the C-Br scission, but that the reaction proceeds along the energetically allowed diabatic pathway to excited-state products instead of being nonadiabatically suppressed. This conclusion is
Zonal flow dynamics and control of turbulent transport in stellarators.
Xanthopoulos, P; Mischchenko, A; Helander, P; Sugama, H; Watanabe, T-H
2011-12-09
The relation between magnetic geometry and the level of ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) driven turbulence in stellarators is explored through gyrokinetic theory and direct linear and nonlinear simulations. It is found that the ITG radial heat flux is sensitive to details of the magnetic configuration that can be understood in terms of the linear behavior of zonal flows. The results throw light on the question of how the optimization of neoclassical confinement is related to the reduction of turbulence.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vader, P.
1981-01-01
The stellar systems of which the evolution will be considered in this thesis, are either galaxies, which contain about 10 11 stars, or binary systems, which consist of only two stars. It is seen that binary systems can give us some insight into the relative age of the nucleus of M31. The positive correlation between the metal content of a galaxy and its mass, first noted for elliptical galaxies, seems to be a general property of galaxies of all types. The observed increase of metallicity with galaxy mass is too large to be accounted for by differences in the evolutionary stage of galaxies. To explain the observed correlation it is proposed that a relatively larger proportion of massive stars is formed in more massive galaxies. The physical basis is that the formation of massive stars seems to be tied to the enhanced gas-dynamical activity in more massive galaxies. A specific aspect of the production of heavy elements by massive stars is investigated in some detail. In 1979 a cluster of 18 point X-ray sources within 400 pc of the centre of M31 was detected with the Einstein satellite. This is a remarkable result since no equivalent of this cluster has been observed in the nucleus of our own Galaxy, which otherwise is very similar to that of M31. An explanation for this phenomenon is proposed, suggesting that X-ray binaries are the products of the long-term evolution of nova systems. (Auth.)
Stellar extreme ultraviolet astronomy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cash, W.C. Jr.
1978-01-01
The design, calibration, and launch of a rocket-borne imaging telescope for extreme ultraviolet astronomy are described. The telescope, which employed diamond-turned grazing incidence optics and a ranicon detector, was launched November 19, 1976, from the White Sands Missile Range. The telescope performed well and returned data on several potential stellar sources of extreme ultraviolet radiation. Upper limits ten to twenty times more sensitive than previously available were obtained for the extreme ultraviolet flux from the white dwarf Sirius B. These limits fall a factor of seven below the flux predicted for the star and demonstrate that the temperature of Sirius B is not 32,000 K as previously measured, but is below 30,000 K. The new upper limits also rule out the photosphere of the white dwarf as the source of the recently reported soft x-rays from Sirius. Two other white dwarf stars, Feige 24 and G191-B2B, were observed. Upper limits on the flux at 300 A were interpreted as lower limits on the interstellar hydrogen column densities to these stars. The lower limits indicate interstellar hydrogen densitites of greater than .02 cm -3 . Four nearby stars (Sirius, Procyon, Capella, and Mirzam) were observed in a search for intense low temperature coronae or extended chromospheres. No extreme ultraviolet radiation from these stars was detected, and upper limits to their coronal emisson measures are derived
Mapping stellar surface features
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Noah, P.V.
1987-01-01
New photometric and spectroscopic observations of the RS Canum Venaticorum binaries Sigma Geminorum and UX Arietis are reported along with details of the Doppler-imaging program SPOTPROF. The observations suggest that the starspot activity on Sigma Gem has decreased to 0.05 magnitude in two years. A photometric spot model for September 1984 to January 1985 found that a single spot covering 2% of the surface and 1000 K cooler than the surrounding photosphere could model the light variations. Equivalent-width observations contemporaneous with the photometric observations did not show any significant variations. Line-profile models from SPOTPROF predict that the variation of the equivalent width of the 6393 A Fe I line should be ∼ 1mA. Photometric observations of UX Ari from January 1984 to March 1985 show an 0.3 magnitude variation indicating a large spot group must cover the surface. Contemporaneous spectroscopic observations show asymmetric line profiles. The Doppler imaging and the photometric light-curve models were used in an iterative method to describe the stellar surface-spot distribution and successfully model both the photometric and the spectroscopic variations
Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Karovska, Margarita
2006-01-01
The ultra-sharp images of the Stellar Imager (SI) will revolutionize our view of many dynamic astrophysical processes: The 0.1 milliarcsec resolution of this deep-space telescope will transform point sources into extended sources, and simple snapshots into spellbinding evolving views. SI s science focuses on the role of magnetism in the Universe, particularly on magnetic activity on the surfaces of stars like the Sun. SI s prime goal is to enable long-term forecasting of solar activity and the space weather that it drives in support of the Living With a Star program in the Exploration Era by imaging a sample of magnetically active stars with enough resolution to map their evolving dynamo patterns and their internal flows. By exploring the Universe at ultra-high resolution, SI will also revolutionize our understanding of the formation of planetary systems, of the habitability and climatology of distant planets, and of many magnetohydrodynamically controlled structures and processes in the Universe.
Stellar Presentations (Abstract)
Young, D.
2015-12-01
(Abstract only) The AAVSO is in the process of expanding its education, outreach and speakers bureau program. powerpoint presentations prepared for specific target audiences such as AAVSO members, educators, students, the general public, and Science Olympiad teams, coaches, event supervisors, and state directors will be available online for members to use. The presentations range from specific and general content relating to stellar evolution and variable stars to specific activities for a workshop environment. A presentation—even with a general topic—that works for high school students will not work for educators, Science Olympiad teams, or the general public. Each audience is unique and requires a different approach. The current environment necessitates presentations that are captivating for a younger generation that is embedded in a highly visual and sound-bite world of social media, twitter and U-Tube, and mobile devices. For educators, presentations and workshops for themselves and their students must support the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), the Common Core Content Standards, and the Science Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) initiative. Current best practices for developing relevant and engaging powerpoint presentations to deliver information to a variety of targeted audiences will be presented along with several examples.
Li, Jiaru; Joubert-Doriol, Loïc; Izmaylov, Artur F.
2017-08-01
We investigate geometric phase (GP) effects in nonadiabatic transitions through a conical intersection (CI) in an N-dimensional linear vibronic coupling (ND-LVC) model. This model allows for the coordinate transformation encompassing all nonadiabatic effects within a two-dimensional (2D) subsystem, while the other N - 2 dimensions form a system of uncoupled harmonic oscillators identical for both electronic states and coupled bi-linearly with the subsystem coordinates. The 2D subsystem governs ultra-fast nonadiabatic dynamics through the CI and provides a convenient model for studying GP effects. Parameters of the original ND-LVC model define the Hamiltonian of the transformed 2D subsystem and thus influence GP effects directly. Our analysis reveals what values of ND-LVC parameters can introduce symmetry breaking in the 2D subsystem that diminishes GP effects.
Du, Likai; Lan, Zhenggang
2015-04-14
Nonadiabatic dynamics simulations have rapidly become an indispensable tool for understanding ultrafast photochemical processes in complex systems. Here, we present our recently developed on-the-fly nonadiabatic dynamics package, JADE, which allows researchers to perform nonadiabatic excited-state dynamics simulations of polyatomic systems at an all-atomic level. The nonadiabatic dynamics is based on Tully's surface-hopping approach. Currently, several electronic structure methods (CIS, TDHF, TDDFT(RPA/TDA), and ADC(2)) are supported, especially TDDFT, aiming at performing nonadiabatic dynamics on medium- to large-sized molecules. The JADE package has been interfaced with several quantum chemistry codes, including Turbomole, Gaussian, and Gamess (US). To consider environmental effects, the Langevin dynamics was introduced as an easy-to-use scheme into the standard surface-hopping dynamics. The JADE package is mainly written in Fortran for greater numerical performance and Python for flexible interface construction, with the intent of providing open-source, easy-to-use, well-modularized, and intuitive software in the field of simulations of photochemical and photophysical processes. To illustrate the possible applications of the JADE package, we present a few applications of excited-state dynamics for various polyatomic systems, such as the methaniminium cation, fullerene (C20), p-dimethylaminobenzonitrile (DMABN) and its primary amino derivative aminobenzonitrile (ABN), and 10-hydroxybenzo[h]quinoline (10-HBQ).
Turbulence optimisation in stellarator experiments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Proll, Josefine H.E. [Max-Planck/Princeton Center for Plasma Physics (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Wendelsteinstr. 1, 17491 Greifswald (Germany); Faber, Benjamin J. [HSX Plasma Laboratory, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Helander, Per; Xanthopoulos, Pavlos [Max-Planck/Princeton Center for Plasma Physics (Germany); Lazerson, Samuel A.; Mynick, Harry E. [Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, P.O. Box 451 Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States)
2015-05-01
Stellarators, the twisted siblings of the axisymmetric fusion experiments called tokamaks, have historically suffered from confining the heat of the plasma insufficiently compared with tokamaks and were therefore considered to be less promising candidates for a fusion reactor. This has changed, however, with the advent of stellarators in which the laminar transport is reduced to levels below that of tokamaks by shaping the magnetic field accordingly. As in tokamaks, the turbulent transport remains as the now dominant transport channel. Recent analytical theory suggests that the large configuration space of stellarators allows for an additional optimisation of the magnetic field to also reduce the turbulent transport. In this talk, the idea behind the turbulence optimisation is explained. We also present how an optimised equilibrium is obtained and how it might differ from the equilibrium field of an already existing device, and we compare experimental turbulence measurements in different configurations of the HSX stellarator in order to test the optimisation procedure.
Optimizing Stellarators for Turbulent Transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mynick, H.E.; Pomphrey, N.; Xanthopoulos, P.
2010-01-01
Up to now, the term 'transport-optimized' stellarators has meant optimized to minimize neoclassical transport, while the task of also mitigating turbulent transport, usually the dominant transport channel in such designs, has not been addressed, due to the complexity of plasma turbulence in stellarators. Here, we demonstrate that stellarators can also be designed to mitigate their turbulent transport, by making use of two powerful numerical tools not available until recently, namely gyrokinetic codes valid for 3D nonlinear simulations, and stellarator optimization codes. A first proof-of-principle configuration is obtained, reducing the level of ion temperature gradient turbulent transport from the NCSX baseline design by a factor of about 2.5.
Stellar magnetic activity and exoplanets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vidotto A.A.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available It has been proposed that magnetic activity could be enhanced due to interactions between close-in massive planets and their host stars. In this article, I present a brief overview of the connection between stellar magnetic activity and exoplanets. Stellar activity can be probed in chromospheric lines, coronal emission, surface spot coverage, etc. Since these are manifestations of stellar magnetism, these measurements are often used as proxies for the magnetic field of stars. Here, instead of focusing on the magnetic proxies, I overview some recent results of magnetic field measurements using spectropolarimetric observations. Firstly, I discuss the general trends found between large-scale magnetism, stellar rotation, and coronal emission and show that magnetism seems to be correlated to the internal structure of the star. Secondly, I overview some works that show evidence that exoplanets could (or not act as to enhance the activity of their host stars.
Soudackov, Alexander V; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon
2015-11-21
Rate constant expressions for vibronically nonadiabatic proton transfer and proton-coupled electron transfer reactions are presented and analyzed. The regimes covered include electronically adiabatic and nonadiabatic reactions, as well as high-frequency and low-frequency proton donor-acceptor vibrational modes. These rate constants differ from previous rate constants derived with the cumulant expansion approach in that the logarithmic expansion of the vibronic coupling in terms of the proton donor-acceptor distance includes a quadratic as well as a linear term. The analysis illustrates that inclusion of this quadratic term in the framework of the cumulant expansion framework may significantly impact the rate constants at high temperatures for proton transfer interfaces with soft proton donor-acceptor modes that are associated with small force constants and weak hydrogen bonds. The effects of the quadratic term may also become significant in these regimes when using the vibronic coupling expansion in conjunction with a thermal averaging procedure for calculating the rate constant. In this case, however, the expansion of the coupling can be avoided entirely by calculating the couplings explicitly for the range of proton donor-acceptor distances sampled. The effects of the quadratic term for weak hydrogen-bonding systems are less significant for more physically realistic models that prevent the sampling of unphysical short proton donor-acceptor distances. Additionally, the rigorous relation between the cumulant expansion and thermal averaging approaches is clarified. In particular, the cumulant expansion rate constant includes effects from dynamical interference between the proton donor-acceptor and solvent motions and becomes equivalent to the thermally averaged rate constant when these dynamical effects are neglected. This analysis identifies the regimes in which each rate constant expression is valid and thus will be important for future applications to proton
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soudackov, Alexander V.; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon
2015-01-01
Rate constant expressions for vibronically nonadiabatic proton transfer and proton-coupled electron transfer reactions are presented and analyzed. The regimes covered include electronically adiabatic and nonadiabatic reactions, as well as high-frequency and low-frequency proton donor-acceptor vibrational modes. These rate constants differ from previous rate constants derived with the cumulant expansion approach in that the logarithmic expansion of the vibronic coupling in terms of the proton donor-acceptor distance includes a quadratic as well as a linear term. The analysis illustrates that inclusion of this quadratic term in the framework of the cumulant expansion framework may significantly impact the rate constants at high temperatures for proton transfer interfaces with soft proton donor-acceptor modes that are associated with small force constants and weak hydrogen bonds. The effects of the quadratic term may also become significant in these regimes when using the vibronic coupling expansion in conjunction with a thermal averaging procedure for calculating the rate constant. In this case, however, the expansion of the coupling can be avoided entirely by calculating the couplings explicitly for the range of proton donor-acceptor distances sampled. The effects of the quadratic term for weak hydrogen-bonding systems are less significant for more physically realistic models that prevent the sampling of unphysical short proton donor-acceptor distances. Additionally, the rigorous relation between the cumulant expansion and thermal averaging approaches is clarified. In particular, the cumulant expansion rate constant includes effects from dynamical interference between the proton donor-acceptor and solvent motions and becomes equivalent to the thermally averaged rate constant when these dynamical effects are neglected. This analysis identifies the regimes in which each rate constant expression is valid and thus will be important for future applications to proton
Superbanana orbits in stellarator geometries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Derr, J.A.; Shohet, J.L.
1979-04-01
The presence of superbanana orbit types localized to either the interior or the exterior of stellarators and torsatrons is numerically investigated for 3.5 MeV alpha particles. The absence of the interior superbanana in both geometries is found to be due to non-conservation of the action. Exterior superbananas are found in the stellarator only, as a consequence of the existence of closed helical magnetic wells. No superbananas of either type are found in the torsatron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tovmasyan, G.M.
1977-01-01
The ratios of the gas component of the mass of young stellar clusters to their stellar mass are considered. They change by more than four orders from one cluster to another. The results are in direct contradiction with the hypothesis of formation of cluster stars from a preliminarily existing gas cloud by its condensation, and they favour the Ambartsumian hypothesis of the joint origin of stars and gas clouds from superdense protostellar matter
Secular instabilities of Keplerian stellar discs
Kaur, Karamveer; Kazandjian, Mher V.; Sridhar, S.; Touma, Jihad R.
2018-05-01
We present idealized models of a razor-thin, axisymmetric, Keplerian stellar disc around a massive black hole, and study non-axisymmetric secular instabilities in the absence of either counter-rotation or loss cones. These discs are prograde mono-energetic waterbags, whose phase-space distribution functions are constant for orbits within a range of eccentricities (e) and zero outside this range. The linear normal modes of waterbags are composed of sinusoidal disturbances of the edges of distribution function in phase space. Waterbags that include circular orbits (polarcaps) have one stable linear normal mode for each azimuthal wavenumber m. The m = 1 mode always has positive pattern speed and, for polarcaps consisting of orbits with e normal modes for each m, which can be stable or unstable. We derive analytical expressions for the instability condition, pattern speeds, growth rates, and normal mode structure. Narrow bands are unstable to modes with a wide range in m. Numerical simulations confirm linear theory and follow the non-linear evolution of instabilities. Long-time integration suggests that instabilities of different m grow, interact non-linearly, and relax collisionlessly to a coarse-grained equilibrium with a wide range of eccentricities.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zareh, Masoud; Heidari, Mohammad Ghorbani [Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2016-07-15
This research represents an experimental investigation of the metastable flow and re-condensation phenomenon through non-adiabatic lateral helical capillary tubes and suction tube heat exchanger. The results show that mass flux ratio has a vital role: It affects metastable flow and also reverse heat transfer phenomenon through non-adiabatic helical capillary tube. Therefore, by increasing of the mass flux ratio, the rate of heat transfer between them decreases. In contrast to the strong rate condition of heat transfer between them, reverse heat transfer or re-condensation maybe happen. Moreover, experimental results show that for R134 flow with mass flux ratio more than 57.84, metastable flow exists in non-adiabatic capillary tube with 0.9144 mm inner diameter, 30 mm coil diameter, 6.18 m length, 4 mm inner diameter of compressor suction tube.
Propagation and diffusion-limited extinction of nonadiabatic heterogeneous flame in the SHS process
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Makino, Atsushi
1994-01-01
Nonadiabatic heterogeneous flame propagation and extinction in self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) are analyzed based on a premixed mode of propagation for the bulk flame supported by the nonpremixed reaction of dispersed nonmetals in the liquid metal. The formulation allows for volumetric heat loss throughout the bulk flame, finite-rate Arrhenius reaction at the particle surface, and temperature-sensitive Arrhenius mass diffusion in the liquid. Results show that, subsequent to melting of the metal, the flame structure consists of a relatively thin diffusion-consumption/convection zone followed by a relatively thick convection-loss zone, that the flame propagation rate decreases with increasing heat loss, that at a critical heat-loss rate the flame extinguishes as indicated by the characteristic turning-point behavior, that the surface reaction is diffusion limited such that the nonlinear, temperature-sensitive nature of the system is actually a consequence of the Arrhenius mass diffusion, and that extinction is sensitively affected by the mixture ratio, the degree of dilution, the initial temperature of the compact, and the size of the nonmetal particles. An explicit expression is derived for the normalized mass burning rate, which exhibits the characteristic turning point and shows that extinction occurs when this value is reduced to e -1/2 , which is the same as that for the nonadiabatic gaseous premixed flame. It is further shown that the theoretical results agree well with available experimental data, indicating that the present formulation captures the essential features of the nonadiabatic heterogeneous SHS processes and its potential for extension to describe other SHS phenomena
Multiple coupled landscapes and non-adiabatic dynamics with applications to self-activating genes.
Chen, Cong; Zhang, Kun; Feng, Haidong; Sasai, Masaki; Wang, Jin
2015-11-21
Many physical, chemical and biochemical systems (e.g. electronic dynamics and gene regulatory networks) are governed by continuous stochastic processes (e.g. electron dynamics on a particular electronic energy surface and protein (gene product) synthesis) coupled with discrete processes (e.g. hopping among different electronic energy surfaces and on and off switching of genes). One can also think of the underlying dynamics as the continuous motion on a particular landscape and discrete hoppings among different landscapes. The main difference of such systems from the intra-landscape dynamics alone is the emergence of the timescale involved in transitions among different landscapes in addition to the timescale involved in a particular landscape. The adiabatic limit when inter-landscape hoppings are fast compared to continuous intra-landscape dynamics has been studied both analytically and numerically, but the analytical treatment of the non-adiabatic regime where the inter-landscape hoppings are slow or comparable to continuous intra-landscape dynamics remains challenging. In this study, we show that there exists mathematical mapping of the dynamics on 2(N) discretely coupled N continuous dimensional landscapes onto one single landscape in 2N dimensional extended continuous space. On this 2N dimensional landscape, eddy current emerges as a sign of non-equilibrium non-adiabatic dynamics and plays an important role in system evolution. Many interesting physical effects such as the enhancement of fluctuations, irreversibility, dissipation and optimal kinetics emerge due to non-adiabaticity manifested by the eddy current illustrated for an N = 1 self-activator. We further generalize our theory to the N-gene network with multiple binding sites and multiple synthesis rates for discretely coupled non-equilibrium stochastic physical and biological systems.
Non-adiabatic description of proton emission from the odd-odd nucleus 130Eu
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Patial Monika
2014-03-01
Full Text Available We discuss the non-adiabatic quasiparticle approach for calculating the rotational spectra and decay width of odd-odd proton emitters. The Coriolis effects are incorporated in both the parent and daughter wave functions. Results for the two probable ground states (1+ and 2+ of the proton emitter 130Eu are discussed. With our calculations, we confirm the proton emitting state to be the Iπ = 1+ state, irrespective of the strength of the Coriolis interaction. This study provides us with an opportunity to look into the details of wave functions of deformed odd-odd nuclei to which the proton emission halflives are quite sensitive.
Wang, Yu; Chou, Chia-Chun
2018-05-01
The coupled complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equations for electronic nonadiabatic transitions are approximately solved by propagating individual quantum trajectories in real space. Equations of motion are derived through use of the derivative propagation method for the complex actions and their spatial derivatives for wave packets moving on each of the coupled electronic potential surfaces. These equations for two surfaces are converted into the moving frame with the same grid point velocities. Excellent wave functions can be obtained by making use of the superposition principle even when nodes develop in wave packet scattering.
Second harmonic electron cyclotron breakdown in stellarators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carter, M.D.; Batchelor, D.B.; England, A.C.
1987-01-01
In linear wave-particle interaction models, the coupling between cold electrons and microwaves with frequency equal to twice the electron gyrofrequency is so weak that the ionization of a significant number of neutral hydrogen atoms would seem impossible in practical applications. However, the non-linear interaction of a cold electron with the wave is very large if the electron becomes trapped near resonance in a shallow, static magnetic well. A model has been developed to describe the breakdown of a neutral gas when these non-linear interactions are considered, and it is in reasonable agreement with the limited amount of available experimental data. For gas pressures that are too large, electron-neutral collisions inhibit the non-linear interaction and prevent breakdown. For gas pressures that are too low, the growth rate of the free electron population is limited because electrons capable of causing ionization are lost before suffering a collision with a neutral. Quantitative growth rate predictions are presented for stellarators, and formulae for rough estimates are given. (author)
Engineering aspects of compact stellarators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nelson, B.E.; Benson, R.D.; Brooks, A.
2003-01-01
Compact stellarators could combine the good confinement and high beta of a tokamak with the inherently steady state, disruption-free characteristics of a stellarator. Two U.S. compact stellarator facilities are now in the conceptual design phase: the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) and the Quasi- Poloidal Stellarator (QPS). NCSX has a major radius of 1.4 m and a toroidal field up to 2 T. The primary feature of both NCSX and QPS is the set of modular coils that provide the basic magnetic configuration. These coils represent a major engineering challenge due to the complex shape, precise geometric accuracy, and high current density of the windings. The winding geometry is too complex for conventional hollow copper conductor construction. Instead, the modular coils will be wound with flexible, multi strand cable conductor that has been compacted to a 75% copper packing fraction. Inside the NCSX coil set and surrounding the plasma is a highly contoured vacuum vessel. The vessel consists of three identical, 120 deg. segments that are bolted together at double sealed joints. The QPS device has a major radius of 0.9 m, a toroidal field of 1 T, and an aspect ratio of only 2.7. Instead of an internal vacuum vessel, the QPS modular coils will operate in an external vacuum tank. (author)
King, Jeremy
1994-04-01
This dissertation addresses several issues concerning stellar oxygen abundances. The 7774 {\\AA} O I triplet equivalent widths of Abia & Rebolo [1989, AJ, 347, 186] for metal-poor dwarfs are found to be systematically too high. I also argue that current effective temperatures used in halo star abundance studies may be ~150 K too low. New color-Teff relations are derived for metal-poor stars. Using the revised Teff values and improved equivalent widths for the 7774A O I triplet, the mean [O/Fe] ratio for a handful of halo stars is found to be +0.52 with no dependence on Teff or [Fe/H]. Possible cosmological implications of the hotter Teff scale are discussed along with additional evidence supporting the need for a higher temperature scale for metal-poor stars. Our Teff scale leads to a Spite Li plateau value of N(Li)=2.28 +/- 0.09. A conservative minimal primordial value of N(Li)=2.35 is inferred. If errors in the observations and models are considered, consistency with standard models of Big Bang nucleosynthesis is still achieved with this larger Li abundance. The revised Teff scale raises the observed B/Be ratio of HD 140283 from 10 to 12, making its value more comfortably consistent with the production of the observed B and Be by ordinary spallation. Our Teff values are found to be in good agreement with values predicted from both the Victoria and Yale isochrone color-Teff relations. Thus, it appears likely that no changes in globular cluster ages would result. Next, we examine the location of the break in the [O/Fe] versus [Fe/H] plane in a quantitative fashion. Analysis of a relatively homogeneous data set does not favor any unique break point in the range -1.7 /= -3), in agreement with the new results for halo dwarfs. We find that the gap in the observed [O/H] distribution, noted by Wheeler et al. [1989, ARAA, 27, 279], persists despite the addition of more O data and may betray the occurrence of a hiatus in star formation between the end of halo formation and
Planets, stars and stellar systems
Bond, Howard; McLean, Ian; Barstow, Martin; Gilmore, Gerard; Keel, William; French, Linda
2013-01-01
This is volume 3 of Planets, Stars and Stellar Systems, a six-volume compendium of modern astronomical research covering subjects of key interest to the main fields of contemporary astronomy. This volume on “Solar and Stellar Planetary Systems” edited by Linda French and Paul Kalas presents accessible review chapters From Disks to Planets, Dynamical Evolution of Planetary Systems, The Terrestrial Planets, Gas and Ice Giant Interiors, Atmospheres of Jovian Planets, Planetary Magnetospheres, Planetary Rings, An Overview of the Asteroids and Meteorites, Dusty Planetary Systems and Exoplanet Detection Methods. All chapters of the handbook were written by practicing professionals. They include sufficient background material and references to the current literature to allow readers to learn enough about a specialty within astronomy, astrophysics and cosmology to get started on their own practical research projects. In the spirit of the series Stars and Stellar Systems published by Chicago University Press in...
Approximations to the non-adiabatic particle response in toroidal geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schep, T.J.; Braams, B.J.
1981-08-01
The non-adiabatic part of the particle response to low-frequency electromagnetic modes with long parallel wavelengths is discussed. Analytic approximations to the kernels of the integrals that relate the amplitudes of the perturbed potentials to the non-adiabatic part of the perturbed density in an axisymmetric toroidal configuration are presented and the results are compared with numerical calculations. It is shown that both in the plane slab and in toroidal geometry the kernel contains a logarithmic singularity. This singularity is associated with particles with vanishing parallel velocity so that, in toroidal geometry, it is related with the behaviour of trapped particles near their turning points. In contrast to the plane slab, in toroidal geometry this logarithmic singularity is mainly real and associated with non-resonant particles. Apart from this logarithmic term, the kernel contains a complex regular part arising from resonant as well as from non-resonant particles. The analytic approximations that will be presented make the dispersion relation of drift-type modes in toroidal geometry amenable to analytic as well as to simpler numerical calculation of the growth rate and of the spatial mode structure
Song, Xiaohong; Lin, Cheng; Sheng, Zhihao; Liu, Peng; Chen, Zhangjin; Yang, Weifeng; Hu, Shilin; Lin, C D; Chen, Jing
2016-06-22
Strong field photoelectron holography has been proposed as a means for interrogating the spatial and temporal information of electrons and ions in a dynamic system. After ionization, part of the electron wave packet may directly go to the detector (the reference wave), while another part may be driven back and scatters off the ion(the signal wave). The interference hologram of the two waves may be used to extract target information embedded in the collision process. Unlike conventional optical holography, however, propagation of the electron wave packet is affected by the Coulomb potential as well as by the laser field. In addition, electrons are emitted over the whole laser pulse duration, thus multiple interferences may occur. In this work, we used a generalized quantum-trajectory Monte Carlo method to investigate the effect of Coulomb potential and the nonadiabatic subcycle ionization on the photoelectron hologram. We showed that photoelectron hologram can be well described only when the effect of nonadiabatic ionization is accounted for, and Coulomb potential can be neglected only in the tunnel ionization regime. Our results help paving the way for establishing photoelectron holography for probing spatial and dynamic properties of atoms and molecules.
Non-adiabatic pressure loss boundary condition for modelling turbocharger turbine pulsating flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chiong, M.S.; Rajoo, S.; Romagnoli, A.; Costall, A.W.; Martinez-Botas, R.F.
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Bespoke non-adiabatic pressure loss boundary for pulse flow turbine modelling. • Predictions show convincing results against experimental and literature data. • Predicted pulse pressure propagation is in good agreement with literature data. • New methodology is time efficient and requires minimal geometrical inputs. - Abstract: This paper presents a simplified methodology of pulse flow turbine modelling, as an alternative over the meanline integrated methodology outlined in previous work, in order to make its application to engine cycle simulation codes much more straight forward. This is enabled through the development of a bespoke non-adiabatic pressure loss boundary to represent the turbine rotor. In this paper, turbocharger turbine pulse flow performance predictions are presented along with a comparison of computation duration against the previously established integrated meanline method. Plots of prediction deviation indicate that the mass flow rate and actual power predictions from both methods are highly comparable and are reasonably close to experimental data. However, the new boundary condition required significantly lower computational time and rotor geometrical inputs. In addition, the pressure wave propagation in this simplified unsteady turbine model at different pulse frequencies has also been found to be in agreement with data from the literature, thereby supporting the confidence in its ability to simulate the wave action encountered in turbine pulse flow operation
Path-integral isomorphic Hamiltonian for including nuclear quantum effects in non-adiabatic dynamics
Tao, Xuecheng; Shushkov, Philip; Miller, Thomas F.
2018-03-01
We describe a path-integral approach for including nuclear quantum effects in non-adiabatic chemical dynamics simulations. For a general physical system with multiple electronic energy levels, a corresponding isomorphic Hamiltonian is introduced such that Boltzmann sampling of the isomorphic Hamiltonian with classical nuclear degrees of freedom yields the exact quantum Boltzmann distribution for the original physical system. In the limit of a single electronic energy level, the isomorphic Hamiltonian reduces to the familiar cases of either ring polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) or centroid molecular dynamics Hamiltonians, depending on the implementation. An advantage of the isomorphic Hamiltonian is that it can easily be combined with existing mixed quantum-classical dynamics methods, such as surface hopping or Ehrenfest dynamics, to enable the simulation of electronically non-adiabatic processes with nuclear quantum effects. We present numerical applications of the isomorphic Hamiltonian to model two- and three-level systems, with encouraging results that include improvement upon a previously reported combination of RPMD with surface hopping in the deep-tunneling regime.
Franck--Condon factors in studies of dynamics of chemical reactions. IV. Nonadiabatic collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zvijac, D.J.; Ross, J.
1978-01-01
We investigate the application of the Franck--Condon approach to nonadiabatic molecular scattering processes. Computationally simple, analytic formulas are developed to describe the energy dependence of quenching of electronically excited atoms by atoms and molecules. These formulas include the dependence of the Franck--Condon factors on the translational wavefunctions as well as the wavefunctions for the internal degrees of freedom. We use these formulas to evaluate the translational energy dependence of the fine structure transition cross sections for F( 2 P/sub 3/2/)+X→F( 2 P/sub 1/2/)+X, where X= Xe, H + , and H 2 . The cross sections generally increase as the initial translational energy increases. Our results agree semiquantiatively (or better) with those obtained from other theoretical techniques. In the case of F+H + we find that the absolute cross section is sensitive to the analytic form used for the nonadiabatic coupling but our model gives the correct energy dependence. At the energies of our calculations we find only a small amount of vibrational excitation of H 2 . Finally, we use our expressions to interpret some trends of available experimental results on the quenching of Hg ( 3 P 2 → 3 P 1 ) by several molecules. We find that collisional excitation of the internal modes of the molecule becomes more important as the initial translational energy increases. However, these modes do not contribute to the quenching cross section in a statistical fashion
Stellar CME candidates: towards a stellar CME-flare relation
Paraskevi Moschou, Sofia; Drake, Jeremy J.; Cohen, Ofer; Alvarado-Gomez, Julian D.; Garraffo, Cecilia
2018-06-01
For decades the Sun has been the only star that allowed for direct CME observations. Recently, with the discovery of multiple extrasolar systems, it has become imperative that the role of stellar CMEs be assessed in the context of exoplanetary habitability. Solar CMEs and flares show a higher association with increasing flaring energy, with strong flares corresponding to large and fast CMEs. As argued in earlier studies, extrasolar environments around active stars are potentially dominated by CMEs, as a result of their extreme flaring activity. This has strong implications for the energy budget of the system and the atmospheric erosion of orbiting planets.Nevertheless, with current instrumentation we are unable to directly observe CMEs in even the closest stars, and thus we have to look for indirect techniques and observational evidence and signatures for the eruption of stellar CMEs. There are three major observational techniques for tracing CME signatures in other stellar systems, namely measuring Type II radio bursts, Doppler shifts in UV/optical lines or transient absorption in the X-ray spectrum. We present observations of the most probable stellar CME candidates captured so far and examine the different observational techniques used together with their levels of uncertainty. Assuming that they were CMEs, we try to asses their kinematic and energetic characteristics and place them in an extension of the well-established solar CME-flare energy scaling law. We finish by discussing future observations for direct measurements.
Tutorial: Asteroseismic Stellar Modelling with AIMS
Lund, Mikkel N.; Reese, Daniel R.
The goal of aims (Asteroseismic Inference on a Massive Scale) is to estimate stellar parameters and credible intervals/error bars in a Bayesian manner from a set of asteroseismic frequency data and so-called classical constraints. To achieve reliable parameter estimates and computational efficiency, it searches through a grid of pre-computed models using an MCMC algorithm—interpolation within the grid of models is performed by first tessellating the grid using a Delaunay triangulation and then doing a linear barycentric interpolation on matching simplexes. Inputs for the modelling consist of individual frequencies from peak-bagging, which can be complemented with classical spectroscopic constraints. aims is mostly written in Python with a modular structure to facilitate contributions from the community. Only a few computationally intensive parts have been rewritten in Fortran in order to speed up calculations.
Stellar pulsations in beyond Horndeski gravity theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sakstein, Jeremy [Center for Particle Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 S. 33rd St., Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Kenna-Allison, Michael; Koyama, Kazuya, E-mail: sakstein@physics.upenn.edu, E-mail: mka1g13@soton.ac.uk, E-mail: kazuya.koyama@port.ac.uk [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 3FX (United Kingdom)
2017-03-01
Theories of gravity in the beyond Horndeski class recover the predictions of general relativity in the solar system whilst admitting novel cosmologies, including late-time de Sitter solutions in the absence of a cosmological constant. Deviations from Newton's law are predicted inside astrophysical bodies, which allow for falsifiable, smoking-gun tests of the theory. In this work we study the pulsations of stars by deriving and solving the wave equation governing linear adiabatic oscillations to find the modified period of pulsation. Using both semi-analytic and numerical models, we perform a preliminary survey of the stellar zoo in an attempt to identify the best candidate objects for testing the theory. Brown dwarfs and Cepheid stars are found to be particularly sensitive objects and we discuss the possibility of using both to test the theory.
Stellar pulsations in beyond Horndeski gravity theories
Sakstein, Jeremy; Kenna-Allison, Michael; Koyama, Kazuya
2017-03-01
Theories of gravity in the beyond Horndeski class recover the predictions of general relativity in the solar system whilst admitting novel cosmologies, including late-time de Sitter solutions in the absence of a cosmological constant. Deviations from Newton's law are predicted inside astrophysical bodies, which allow for falsifiable, smoking-gun tests of the theory. In this work we study the pulsations of stars by deriving and solving the wave equation governing linear adiabatic oscillations to find the modified period of pulsation. Using both semi-analytic and numerical models, we perform a preliminary survey of the stellar zoo in an attempt to identify the best candidate objects for testing the theory. Brown dwarfs and Cepheid stars are found to be particularly sensitive objects and we discuss the possibility of using both to test the theory.
Coulomb Repulsion Effect in Two-electron Non-adiabatic Tunneling through a One-level redox Molecule
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Medvedev, Igor M.; Kuznetsov, Alexander M.; Ulstrup, Jens
2009-01-01
We investigated Coulomb repulsion effects in nonadiabatic (diabatic) two-electron tunneling through a redox molecule with a single electronic level in a symmetric electrochemical contact under ambient conditions, i.e., room temperature and condensed matter environment. The electrochemical contact...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ghosh, Jayanta; Bhattacharya, Atanu, E-mail: atanub@ipc.iisc.ernet.in
2016-01-13
Highlights: • Decomposition mechanisms of model energetic salt, guanidium triazolate, are explored. • Decomposition pathways are electronically nonadiabatic. • CASPT2, CASMP2 and CASSCF methodologies are employed. • N{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} are predicted to be the most possible initial decomposition products. - Abstract: Electronically nonadiabatic decomposition pathways of guanidium triazolate are explored theoretically. Nonadiabatically coupled potential energy surfaces are explored at the complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) level of theory. For better estimation of energies complete active space second order perturbation theories (CASPT2 and CASMP2) are also employed. Density functional theory (DFT) with B3LYP functional and MP2 level of theory are used to explore subsequent ground state decomposition pathways. In comparison with all possible stable decomposition products (such as, N{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, HNC, HCN, NH{sub 2}CN and CH{sub 3}NC), only NH{sub 3} (with NH{sub 2}CN) and N{sub 2} are predicted to be energetically most accessible initial decomposition products. Furthermore, different conical intersections between the S{sub 1} and S{sub 0} surfaces, which are computed at the CASSCF(14,10)/6-31G(d) level of theory, are found to play an essential role in the excited state deactivation process of guanidium triazolate. This is the first report on the electronically nonadiabatic decomposition mechanisms of isolated guanidium triazolate salt.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bochenkova, Anastasia; Andersen, Lars Henrik
2013-01-01
The anionic wild-type Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) chromophore defines the entire class of naturally occurring chromophores, which are based on the oxydized tyrosine side chain. The GFP chromophore exhibits an enriched photoinduced non-adiabatic dynamics in the multiple excited-state decay cha...
Science with Synthetic Stellar Surveys
Sanderson, Robyn Ellyn
2018-04-01
A new generation of observational projects is poised to revolutionize our understanding of the resolved stellar populations of Milky-Way-like galaxies at an unprecedented level of detail, ushering in an era of precision studies of galaxy formation. In the Milky Way itself, astrometric, spectroscopic and photometric surveys will measure three-dimensional positions and velocities and numerous chemical abundances for stars from the disk to the halo, as well as for many satellite dwarf galaxies. In the Local Group and beyond, HST, JWST and eventually WFIRST will deliver pristine views of resolved stars. The groundbreaking scale and dimensionality of this new view of resolved stellar populations in galaxies challenge us to develop new theoretical tools to robustly compare these surveys to simulated galaxies, in order to take full advantage of our new ability to make detailed predictions for stellar populations within a cosmological context. I will describe a framework for generating realistic synthetic star catalogs and mock surveys from state-of-the-art cosmological-hydrodynamical simulations, and present several early scientific results from, and predictions for, resolved stellar surveys of our Galaxy and its neighbors.
Maximum stellar iron core mass
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
An analytical method of estimating the mass of a stellar iron core, just prior to core collapse, is described in this paper. The method employed depends, in part, upon an estimate of the true relativistic mass increase experienced by electrons within a highly compressed iron core, just prior to core collapse, and is signiﬁcantly ...
Maximum stellar iron core mass
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
60, No. 3. — journal of. March 2003 physics pp. 415–422. Maximum stellar iron core mass. F W GIACOBBE. Chicago Research Center/American Air Liquide ... iron core compression due to the weight of non-ferrous matter overlying the iron cores within large .... thermal equilibrium velocities will tend to be non-relativistic.
Integrated Circuit Stellar Magnitude Simulator
Blackburn, James A.
1978-01-01
Describes an electronic circuit which can be used to demonstrate the stellar magnitude scale. Six rectangular light-emitting diodes with independently adjustable duty cycles represent stars of magnitudes 1 through 6. Experimentally verifies the logarithmic response of the eye. (Author/GA)
Stellar dynamics and black holes
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Chandrasekhar's most important contribution to stellar dynamics was the concept of dynamical friction. I brieﬂy review that work, then discuss some implications of Chandrasekhar's theory of gravitational encounters for motion in galactic nuclei. Author Affiliations. David Merritt1. Department of Physics, Rochester Institute ...
Stellar C III Emissions as a New Classification Parameter for (WC) Central Stars
Feibelman, W. A.
1999-01-01
We report detection of stellar C III lambda 1909 emission in International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) echelle spectra of early-type [WC] planetary nebula central stars (CSPNs). Additionally, stellar C III emission at lambda 2297 is observed in early- and late-type [WC) CSPNS. Inclusion of these C III features for abundance determinations may resolve a conflict of underabundance of C/O for early type [WC2] - [WC4] CSPNS. A linear dependence on stellar C III lambda 2297 equivalent widths can be used to indicate a new classification of type [WCUV] central stars.
Glowacki, David
Recently, we outlined an efficient multi-tiered parallel excitonic framework that utilizes time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) to calculate ground/excited state energies and gradients of large supramolecular complexes in atomistic detail. In this paper, we apply our ab initioexciton framework to the 27 coupled bacteriocholorophyll-a chromophores which make up the LH2 complex, using it to compute linear absorption spectra and short-time, on-the-fly nonadiabatic surface-hopping (SH) dynamics of electronically excited LH2. Our ab initio exciton model includes two key parameters whose values are determined by fitting to experiment: d, which is added to the diagonal elements, corrects for the error in TDDFT vertical excitation energies on a single chromophore; and e, which occurs on the off-diagonal matrix elements, describes the average dielectric screening of the inter-chromophore transition-dipole coupling. Using snapshots obtained from equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations (MD) of LH2, best-fit values of both d and e were obtained by fitting to the thermally broadened experimental absorption spectrum within the Frank-Condon approximation, providing a linear absorption spectrum that agrees reasonably well with the experimental observations. We follow the nonadiabatic dynamics using surface hopping to construct time-resolved visualizations of the EET dynamics in the sub-picosecond regime following photoexcitation. This provides some qualitative insight into the excitonic energy transfer (EET) that results from atomically resolved vibrational fluctuations of the chromophores. The dynamical picture that emerges is one of rapidly fluctuating eigenstates that are delocalized over multiple chromophores and undergo frequent crossing on a femtosecond timescale as a result of the underlying chromophore vibrational dynamics. The eigenstate fluctuations arise from disorder in both the diagonal chromophore site energies and the off-diagonal inter
Stellar Parameters for Trappist-1
Van Grootel, Valérie; Fernandes, Catarina S.; Gillon, Michael; Jehin, Emmanuel; Manfroid, Jean; Scuflaire, Richard; Burgasser, Adam J.; Barkaoui, Khalid; Benkhaldoun, Zouhair; Burdanov, Artem; Delrez, Laetitia; Demory, Brice-Olivier; de Wit, Julien; Queloz, Didier; Triaud, Amaury H. M. J.
2018-01-01
TRAPPIST-1 is an ultracool dwarf star transited by seven Earth-sized planets, for which thorough characterization of atmospheric properties, surface conditions encompassing habitability, and internal compositions is possible with current and next-generation telescopes. Accurate modeling of the star is essential to achieve this goal. We aim to obtain updated stellar parameters for TRAPPIST-1 based on new measurements and evolutionary models, compared to those used in discovery studies. We present a new measurement for the parallax of TRAPPIST-1, 82.4 ± 0.8 mas, based on 188 epochs of observations with the TRAPPIST and Liverpool Telescopes from 2013 to 2016. This revised parallax yields an updated luminosity of {L}* =(5.22+/- 0.19)× {10}-4 {L}ȯ , which is very close to the previous estimate but almost two times more precise. We next present an updated estimate for TRAPPIST-1 stellar mass, based on two approaches: mass from stellar evolution modeling, and empirical mass derived from dynamical masses of equivalently classified ultracool dwarfs in astrometric binaries. We combine them using a Monte-Carlo approach to derive a semi-empirical estimate for the mass of TRAPPIST-1. We also derive estimate for the radius by combining this mass with stellar density inferred from transits, as well as an estimate for the effective temperature from our revised luminosity and radius. Our final results are {M}* =0.089+/- 0.006 {M}ȯ , {R}* =0.121+/- 0.003 {R}ȯ , and {T}{eff} = 2516 ± 41 K. Considering the degree to which the TRAPPIST-1 system will be scrutinized in coming years, these revised and more precise stellar parameters should be considered when assessing the properties of TRAPPIST-1 planets.
Targeted Optimization of Quasi-Symmetric Stellarators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hegna, Chris C.; Talmadge, J. N.
2016-01-01
The proposed research focuses on targeted areas of plasma physics dedicated to improving the stellarator concept. Research was pursued in the technical areas of edge/divertor physics in 3D configurations, magnetic island physics in stellarators, the role of 3D shaping on microinstabilities and turbulent transport and energetic ion confinement in stellarators.
Targeted Optimization of Quasi-Symmetric Stellarators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hegna, Chris C. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Engineering Physics; Anderson, D. T. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Talmadge, J. N. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)
2016-10-06
The proposed research focuses on targeted areas of plasma physics dedicated to improving the stellarator concept. Research was pursued in the technical areas of edge/divertor physics in 3D configurations, magnetic island physics in stellarators, the role of 3D shaping on microinstabilities and turbulent transport and energetic ion confinement in stellarators.
On the Magnitude of the Nonadiabatic Error for Highly Coupled Radicals
Stanton, J. F.
2009-06-01
A review is given of recent advances in the construction of (quasi)diabatic model Hamiltonians and their application to analyzing the spectroscopy of molecules with strong vibronic coupling. A numerical application to the vibronic levels of the BNB radical below 0.6 eV is presented, together with corresponding adiabatic (quantum chemistry) calculations. The agreement with the experimental levels is nearly quantitative with the model Hamiltonian, attesting to the power of the approach. On the contrary, it is also revealed that the magnitude of the nonadiabatic contributions to the zero-point energy and the lowest fundamental frequency of the coupling mode are considerably larger than expected, at least by your narrator.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martens, Craig C., E-mail: cmartens@uci.edu
2016-12-20
In this paper, we revisit the semiclassical Liouville approach to describing molecular dynamics with electronic transitions using classical trajectories. Key features of the formalism are highlighted. The locality in phase space and presence of nonclassical terms in the generalized Liouville equations are emphasized and discussed in light of trajectory surface hopping methodology. The representation dependence of the coupled semiclassical Liouville equations in the diabatic and adiabatic bases are discussed and new results for the transformation theory of the Wigner functions representing the corresponding density matrix elements given. We show that the diagonal energies of the state populations are not conserved during electronic transitions, as energy is stored in the electronic coherence. We discuss the implications of this observation for the validity of imposing strict energy conservation in trajectory based methods for simulating nonadiabatic processes.
Nonadiabatic calculations for tdμ relevant for muon catalyzed fusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Szalewicz, K.; Jeziorski, B.
1991-01-01
Due to the mass effect, muonic molecular ions are about 200 times smaller than their electronic counterparts. The proximity of the nuclei in the tdμ ion results in fusion taking place within a picosecond. The properties of this ion are central to understanding the phenomenon of muon catalysis. The authors developed a computational method of solving the nonadiabatic Schroedinger equation for the bound and resonance states of tdμ and its isotopic analogues. The method takes into account both the Coulomb interactions and the strong nuclear forces responsible for the fusion reaction. The wave functions obtained from this method were used to predict very accurately branching ratios and transition rates relevant for various stages of the muon catalytic cycle. Knowledge of these quantities will guide the experiments and help to answer the question of feasibility of net energy production via muon catalysis
Particle pitch angle diffusion due to nonadiabatic effects in the plasma sheet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gray, P.C.; Lee, L.C.
1982-01-01
In order to understand certain aspects of the plasma sheet dynamics, a numerical study of the nonadiabatic behavior of particles in a model field geometry is performed. The particle's magnetic moment as a function of time is calculated for various initial parameters, corresponding to various particle energies and degrees of field curvature. It is shown that the magnetic moment changes as the particle passes through the plasma sheet and that the magnitude of the change is related to the curvature of the field at the middle of the plasma sheet. The relation of the magnitude of the change in magnetic moment to the particle's pitch and phase angles as it passes through the sheet is numerically resolved. The nature of the change may be considered as a mechanism for pitch angle diffusion, and the diffusion coefficient is calculated. This scattering mechanism is significant for plasma sheet ions (1--10 keV) as well as energetic electrons (>100 keV)
Generalization of the geometric optical series approach for nonadiabatic scattering problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herman, M.F.
1982-01-01
The geometric optical series approach of Bremmer is generalized for multisurface nonadiabatic scattering problems. This method yields the formal solution of the Schroedinger equation as an infinite series of multiple integrals. The zeroth order term corresponds to WKB propagation on a single adiabatic surface, while the general Nth order term involves N reflections and/or transitions between surfaces accompanied by ''free,'' single surface semiclassical propagation between the points of reflection and transition. Each term is integrated over all possible transition and reflection points. The adiabatic and diabatic limits of this expression are discussed. Numerical results, in which all reflections are ignored, are presented for curve crossing and noncrossing problems. These results are compared to exact quantum results and are shown to be highly accurate
Nonadiabatic quantum dynamics and laser control of Br2 in solid argon.
Accardi, A; Borowski, A; Kühn, O
2009-07-02
A five-dimensional reaction surface-vibronic coupling model is introduced to describe the B- to C-state predissociation dynamics of Br(2) occupying a double substitutional lattice site in a face-centered cubic argon crystal at low temperatures. The quantum dynamics driven by a Franck-Condon vertical excitation is investigated, revealing the role of matrix cage compression for efficient nonadiabatic transitions. Vibrational preexcitation of the Br(2) bond in the electronic ground state can be used to access a different regime of predissociation which does not require substantial matrix compression because the Franck-Condon window shifts into the energetic range of the B-C level crossing. Using optimal control theory, it is shown how vibrational preexcitation can be achieved via a pump-dump-type mechanism involving the repulsive C state.
TEM-turbulence in stellarators and its optimization
Proll, Josefine H. E.; Helander, Per; Lazerson, Samuel; Mynick, Harry; Xanthopoulos, Pavlos
2014-10-01
Quasi-isodynamic stellarators, which are especially optimized for neoclassical transport, have been shown to be resilient towards trapped-electrons modes (TEMs) in large regions of parameter space. In these configurations, all particles have average ``good curvature.'' It was shown analytically that, thanks to this property, particles that bounce faster than the mode in question draw energy from it near marginal stability, so that the ordinary density-gradient-driven TEM has to be stable in the electrostatic and collisionless limit.This has been confirmed in linear flux-tube simulations that were performed with the GENE code. Several magnetic field configurations were compared and it was found that the growth rates of the TEMs drop with increasing degree of quasi-isodynamicity. These findings can be used to optimize stellarators with respect to TEM turbulence by reducing the fraction of trapped particles with bounce averaged ``bad curvature.'' An appropriate proxy function has therefore been designed to be implemented in STELLOPT, a stellarator optimization tool that can now be used to further explore the configuration space of neoclassically optimized stellarators with the aim to extract designs with improved turbulent transport. This work was facilitated by the Max-Planck/Princeton Center for Plasma Physics.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nelson, Tammie Renee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tretiak, Sergei [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2017-01-06
Understanding and controlling excited state dynamics lies at the heart of all our efforts to design photoactive materials with desired functionality. This tailor-design approach has become the standard for many technological applications (e.g., solar energy harvesting) including the design of organic conjugated electronic materials with applications in photovoltaic and light-emitting devices. Over the years, our team has developed efficient LANL-based codes to model the relevant photophysical processes following photoexcitation (spatial energy transfer, excitation localization/delocalization, and/or charge separation). The developed approach allows the non-radiative relaxation to be followed on up to ~10 ps timescales for large realistic molecules (hundreds of atoms in size) in the realistic solvent dielectric environment. The Collective Electronic Oscillator (CEO) code is used to compute electronic excited states, and the Non-adiabatic Excited State Molecular Dynamics (NA-ESMD) code is used to follow the non-adiabatic dynamics on multiple coupled Born-Oppenheimer potential energy surfaces. Our preliminary NA-ESMD simulations have revealed key photoinduced mechanisms controlling competing interactions and relaxation pathways in complex materials, including organic conjugated polymer materials, and have provided a detailed understanding of photochemical products and intermediates and the internal conversion process during the initiation of energetic materials. This project will be using LANL-based CEO and NA-ESMD codes to model nonradiative relaxation in organic and energetic materials. The NA-ESMD and CEO codes belong to a class of electronic structure/quantum chemistry codes that require large memory, “long-queue-few-core” distribution of resources in order to make useful progress. The NA-ESMD simulations are trivially parallelizable requiring ~300 processors for up to one week runtime to reach a meaningful restart point.
Characterizing stellar and exoplanetary environments
Khodachenko, Maxim
2015-01-01
In this book an international group of specialists discusses studies of exoplanets subjected to extreme stellar radiation and plasma conditions. It is shown that such studies will help us to understand how terrestrial planets and their atmospheres, including the early Venus, Earth and Mars, evolved during the host star’s active early phase. The book presents an analysis of findings from Hubble Space Telescope observations of transiting exoplanets, as well as applications of advanced numerical models for characterizing the upper atmosphere structure and stellar environments of exoplanets. The authors also address detections of atoms and molecules in the atmosphere of “hot Jupiters” by NASA’s Spitzer telescope. The observational and theoretical investigations and discoveries presented are both timely and important in the context of the next generation of space telescopes. The book is divided into four main parts, grouping chapters on exoplanet host star radiation and plasma environments, exoplanet u...
Modular Stellarator Fusion Reactor concept
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miller, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.
1981-08-01
A preliminary conceptual study is made of the Modular Stellarator Reactor (MSR). A steady-state ignited, DT-fueled, magnetic fusion reactor is proposed for use as a central electric-power station. The MSR concept combines the physics of the classic stellarator confinement topology with an innovative, modular-coil design. Parametric tradeoff calculations are described, leading to the selection of an interim design point for a 4-GWt plant based on Alcator transport scaling and an average beta value of 0.04 in an l = 2 system with a plasma aspect ratio of 11. The physics basis of the design point is described together with supporting magnetics, coil-force, and stress computations. The approach and results presented herein will be modified in the course of ongoing work to form a firmer basis for a detailed conceptual design of the MSR
Hydromagnetic instability in a stellarator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kruskal, M D; Gottlieb, M B; Johnson, J L; Goldman, L M [Project Matterhorn, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States)
1958-07-01
It was noted that when there is a uniform externally imposed longitudinal field much larger than the field of the discharge current, one should expect instabilities in the form of a lateral displacement of the plasma column into a helix of large pitch. At the wavelength of fastest growth the e-folding time approximates the time it takes a sound wave in the plasma to traverse the radius of the plasma column. This problem has been re-examines under the conditions which might be expected to occur in the stellarator during ohmic heating, including the presence of external conductors. The theory is applied to the stellarator; and it is shown that the external conductors are in fact unimportant. The important effects due to the finite length of the Machine are discussed and the effects of more general current distributions are considered. The results from the experiments are given.
Humeniuk, Alexander; Mitrić, Roland
2017-12-01
A software package, called DFTBaby, is published, which provides the electronic structure needed for running non-adiabatic molecular dynamics simulations at the level of tight-binding DFT. A long-range correction is incorporated to avoid spurious charge transfer states. Excited state energies, their analytic gradients and scalar non-adiabatic couplings are computed using tight-binding TD-DFT. These quantities are fed into a molecular dynamics code, which integrates Newton's equations of motion for the nuclei together with the electronic Schrödinger equation. Non-adiabatic effects are included by surface hopping. As an example, the program is applied to the optimization of excited states and non-adiabatic dynamics of polyfluorene. The python and Fortran source code is available at http://www.dftbaby.chemie.uni-wuerzburg.de.
Grigori Kuzmin and Stellar Dynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zeeuw P. Tim de
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Grigori Kuzmin was a very gifted dynamicist and one of the towering figures in the distinguished history of the Tartu Observatory. He obtained a number of important results in relative isolation which were later rediscovered in the West. This work laid the foundation for further advances in the theory of stellar systems in dynamical equilibrium, thereby substantially increasing our understanding of galaxy dynamics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Van Albada, T.S.
1986-01-01
Elliptical galaxies consist almost entirely of stars. Sites of recent star formation are rare, and most stars are believed to be several billion years old, perhaps as old as the Universe itself (--10/sup 10/ yrs). Stellar motions in ellipticals show a modest amount of circulation about the center of the system, but most support against the force of gravity is provided by random motions; for this reason ellipticals are called 'hot' stellar systems. Spiral galaxies usually also contain an appreciable amount of gas (--10%, mainly atomic hydrogen) and new stars are continually being formed out of this gas, especially in the spiral arms. In contrast to ellipticals, support against gravity in spiral galaxies comes almost entirely from rotation; random motions of the stars with respect to rotation are small. Consequently, spiral galaxies are called 'cold' stellar systems. Other than in hot systems, in cold systems the collective response of stars to variations in the force field is an essential part of the dynamics. The present overview is limited to mathematical models of hot systems. Computational methods are also discussed
Shilov, Georgi E
1977-01-01
Covers determinants, linear spaces, systems of linear equations, linear functions of a vector argument, coordinate transformations, the canonical form of the matrix of a linear operator, bilinear and quadratic forms, Euclidean spaces, unitary spaces, quadratic forms in Euclidean and unitary spaces, finite-dimensional space. Problems with hints and answers.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Keqiao; Cai, Dehua; Liu, Yue; Jiang, Jingkai; Sun, Wei; He, Guogeng
2017-01-01
Graphical abstract: A novel air-cooled non-adiabatic ejection-absorption refrigeration cycle using R290/refrigeration oil has been thermodynamically analyzed. Influences of the ejector and the non-adiabatic absorber applications on the system performance and other system operation parameters have been investigated. The simulation results will be of great help to the miniaturization and practical application of the air-cooled absorption refrigeration system. - Highlights: • A novel air-cooled non-adiabatic ejection-absorption refrigeration cycle is proposed. • Influences of the ejector and the air-cooled non-adiabatic absorber applications on the system performance are investigated. • Variations of system performance and other system operation parameters are investigated. • R290/refrigeration oil mixture used as working pairs is analyzed. - Abstract: This paper thermodynamically analyzes a novel air-cooled non-adiabatic ejection-absorption refrigeration cycle with R290/oil mixture driven by exhaust heat. An ejector located at the upstream of the non-adiabatic absorber is employed to improve the cycle performance. Variations of COP, circulation ratio and component heat load of the system as a function of generating temperature, pressure ratio, absorption temperature, condensing temperature and evaporating temperature have been investigated in this work. The simulation results show that, compared with the conventional absorption refrigeration cycle, this non-adiabatic ejection-absorption refrigeration cycle has higher absorption efficiency, better performance, wider working condition range and lower total heat load and its COP can reach as high as 0.5297. The implementation of the ejector and the non-adiabatic absorber helps to realize the miniaturization and wider application of the absorption refrigeration system. In addition, R290/oil mixture is a kind of highly potential working pairs for absorption refrigeration.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Habershon, Scott
2013-01-01
We introduce a new approach for calculating quantum time-correlation functions and time-dependent expectation values in many-body thermal systems; both electronically adiabatic and non-adiabatic cases can be treated. Our approach uses a path integral simulation to sample an initial thermal density matrix; subsequent evolution of this density matrix is equivalent to solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation, which we perform using a linear expansion of Gaussian wavepacket basis functions which evolve according to simple classical-like trajectories. Overall, this methodology represents a formally exact approach for calculating time-dependent quantum properties; by introducing approximations into both the imaginary-time and real-time propagations, this approach can be adapted for complex many-particle systems interacting through arbitrary potentials. We demonstrate this method for the spin Boson model, where we find good agreement with numerically exact calculations. We also discuss future directions of improvement for our approach with a view to improving accuracy and efficiency
Kittell, Aaron W.; Camenisch, Theodore G.; Ratke, Joseph J.; Sidabras, Jason W.; Hyde, James S.
2011-01-01
A continuous wave (CW) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum is typically displayed as the first harmonic response to the application of 100 kHz magnetic field modulation, which is used to enhance sensitivity by reducing the level of 1/f noise. However, magnetic field modulation of any amplitude causes spectral broadening and sacrifices EPR spectral intensity by at least a factor of two. In the work presented here, a CW rapid-scan spectroscopic technique that avoids these compromises and also provides a means of avoiding 1/f noise is developed. This technique, termed non-adiabatic rapid sweep (NARS) EPR, consists of repetitively sweeping the polarizing magnetic field in a linear manner over a spectral fragment with a small coil at a repetition rate that is sufficiently high that receiver noise, microwave phase noise, and environmental microphonics, each of which has 1/f characteristics, are overcome. Nevertheless, the rate of sweep is sufficiently slow that adiabatic responses are avoided and the spin system is always close to thermal equilibrium. The repetitively acquired spectra from the spectral fragment are averaged. Under these conditions, undistorted pure absorption spectra are obtained without broadening or loss of signal intensity. A digital filter such as a moving average is applied to remove high frequency noise, which is approximately equivalent in bandwidth to use of an integrating time constant in conventional field modulation with lock-in detection. Nitroxide spectra at L- and X-band are presented. PMID:21741868
Habershon, Scott
2013-09-14
We introduce a new approach for calculating quantum time-correlation functions and time-dependent expectation values in many-body thermal systems; both electronically adiabatic and non-adiabatic cases can be treated. Our approach uses a path integral simulation to sample an initial thermal density matrix; subsequent evolution of this density matrix is equivalent to solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation, which we perform using a linear expansion of Gaussian wavepacket basis functions which evolve according to simple classical-like trajectories. Overall, this methodology represents a formally exact approach for calculating time-dependent quantum properties; by introducing approximations into both the imaginary-time and real-time propagations, this approach can be adapted for complex many-particle systems interacting through arbitrary potentials. We demonstrate this method for the spin Boson model, where we find good agreement with numerically exact calculations. We also discuss future directions of improvement for our approach with a view to improving accuracy and efficiency.
Results of Compact Stellarator Engineering Trade Studies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brown, Tom; Bromberg, L.; Cole, M.
2009-01-01
A number of technical requirements and performance criteria can drive stellarator costs, e.g., tight tolerances, accurate coil positioning, low aspect ratio (compactness), choice of assembly strategy, metrology, and complexity of the stellarator coil geometry. With the completion of a seven-year design and construction effort of the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) it is useful to interject the NCSX experience along with the collective experiences of the NCSX stellarator community to improving the stellarator configuration. Can improvements in maintenance be achieved by altering the stellarator magnet configuration with changes in the coil shape or with the combination of trim coils? Can a mechanical configuration be identified that incorporates a partial set of shaped fixed stellarator coils along with some removable coil set to enhance the overall machine maintenance? Are there other approaches that will simplify the concepts, improve access for maintenance, reduce overall cost and improve the reliability of a stellarator based power plant? Using ARIES-CS and NCSX as reference cases, alternative approaches have been studied and developed to show how these modifications would favorably impact the stellarator power plant and experimental projects. The current status of the alternate stellarator configurations being developed will be described and a comparison made to the recently designed and partially built NCSX device and the ARIES-CS reactor design study
Results of Compact Stellarator Engineering Trade Studies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brown, T.; Bromberg, L.; Cole, M.
2009-01-01
A number of technical requirements and performance criteria can drive stellarator costs, e.g., tight tolerances, accurate coil positioning, low aspect ratio (compactness), choice of assembly strategy, metrology, and complexity of the stellarator coil geometry. With the completion of a seven-year design and construction effort of the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) it is useful to interject the NCSX experience along with the collective experiences of the NCSX stellarator community to improving the stellarator configuration. Can improvements in maintenance be achieved by altering the stellarator magnet configuration with changes in the coil shape or with the combination of trim coils? Can a mechanical configuration be identified that incorporates a partial set of shaped fixed stellarator coils along with some removable coil set to enhance the overall machine maintenance? Are there other approaches that will simplify the concepts, improve access for maintenance, reduce overall cost and improve the reliability of a stellarator based power plant? Using ARIES-CS and NCSX as reference cases, alternative approaches have been studied and developed to show how these modifications would favorably impact the stellarator power plant and experimental projects. The current status of the alternate stellarator configurations being developed will be described and a comparison made to the recently designed and partially built NCSX device and the ARIES-CS reactor design study.
Variable accretion of stellar winds onto Sgr A*
Cuadra, Jorge; Nayakshin, Sergei
2006-12-01
We report a 3-dimensional numerical study of the accretion of stellar winds onto Sgr A*, the super-massive black hole at the centre of our Galaxy. Compared with previous investigations, we allow the stars to be on realistic orbits, include the recently discovered slow wind sources, and allow for optically thin radiative cooling. We frst show the strong inflience of the stellar dynamics on the accretion onto the central black hole. We then present more realistic simulations of Sgr A* accretion and frid that the slow winds shock and rapidly cool, forming cold gas clumps and flaments that coexist with the hot X-ray emitting gas. The accretion rate in this case is highly variable on time-scales of tens to hundreds of years. Such variability can in principle lead to a strongly non-linear response through accretion fbw physics not resolved here, making Sgr A* an important energy source for the Galactic centre.
Variable accretion of stellar winds onto Sgr A*
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cuadra, Jorge [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Nayakshin, Sergei [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, LEI 7RH (United Kingdom)
2006-12-15
We report a 3-dimensional numerical study of the accretion of stellar winds onto Sgr A*, the super-massive black hole at the centre of our Galaxy. Compared with previous investigations, we allow the stars to be on realistic orbits, include the recently discovered slow wind sources, and allow for optically thin radiative cooling. We frst show the strong inflience of the stellar dynamics on the accretion onto the central black hole. We then present more realistic simulations of Sgr A* accretion and frid that the slow winds shock and rapidly cool, forming cold gas clumps and flaments that coexist with the hot X-ray emitting gas. The accretion rate in this case is highly variable on time-scales of tens to hundreds of years. Such variability can in principle lead to a strongly non-linear response through accretion fbw physics not resolved here, making Sgr A* an important energy source for the Galactic centre.
Variable accretion of stellar winds onto Sgr A*
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cuadra, Jorge; Nayakshin, Sergei
2006-01-01
We report a 3-dimensional numerical study of the accretion of stellar winds onto Sgr A*, the super-massive black hole at the centre of our Galaxy. Compared with previous investigations, we allow the stars to be on realistic orbits, include the recently discovered slow wind sources, and allow for optically thin radiative cooling. We frst show the strong inflience of the stellar dynamics on the accretion onto the central black hole. We then present more realistic simulations of Sgr A* accretion and frid that the slow winds shock and rapidly cool, forming cold gas clumps and flaments that coexist with the hot X-ray emitting gas. The accretion rate in this case is highly variable on time-scales of tens to hundreds of years. Such variability can in principle lead to a strongly non-linear response through accretion fbw physics not resolved here, making Sgr A* an important energy source for the Galactic centre
Mendieta-Moreno, Jesús I; Trabada, Daniel G; Mendieta, Jesús; Lewis, James P; Gómez-Puertas, Paulino; Ortega, José
2016-11-03
The absorption of ultraviolet radiation by DNA may result in harmful genetic lesions that affect DNA replication and transcription, ultimately causing mutations, cancer, and/or cell death. We analyze the most abundant photochemical reaction in DNA, the cyclobutane thymine dimer, using hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) techniques and QM/MM nonadiabatic molecular dynamics. We find that, due to its double helix structure, DNA presents a free energy barrier between nonreactive and reactive conformations leading to the photolesion. Moreover, our nonadiabatic simulations show that most of the photoexcited reactive conformations return to standard B-DNA conformations after an ultrafast nonradiative decay to the ground state. This work highlights the importance of dynamical effects (free energy, excited-state dynamics) for the study of photochemical reactions in biological systems.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Denisov, S.; Flach, S.; Ovchinnikov, A. A.
2002-01-01
We consider low-dimensional dynamical systems exposed to a heat bath and to additional ac fields. The presence of these ac fields may lead to a breaking of certain spatial or temporal symmetries, which in turn cause nonzero averages of relevant observables. Nonlinear (non)adiabatic response is em...... is employed to explain the effect. We consider a case of a particle in a periodic potential as an example and discuss the relevant symmetry breakings and the mechanisms of rectification of the current in such a system.......We consider low-dimensional dynamical systems exposed to a heat bath and to additional ac fields. The presence of these ac fields may lead to a breaking of certain spatial or temporal symmetries, which in turn cause nonzero averages of relevant observables. Nonlinear (non)adiabatic response...
Joubert-Doriol, Loïc; Izmaylov, Artur F.
2018-03-01
A new methodology of simulating nonadiabatic dynamics using frozen-width Gaussian wavepackets within the moving crude adiabatic representation with the on-the-fly evaluation of electronic structure is presented. The main feature of the new approach is the elimination of any global or local model representation of electronic potential energy surfaces; instead, the electron-nuclear interaction is treated explicitly using the Gaussian integration. As a result, the new scheme does not introduce any uncontrolled approximations. The employed variational principle ensures the energy conservation and leaves the number of electronic and nuclear basis functions as the only parameter determining the accuracy. To assess performance of the approach, a model with two electronic and two nuclear spacial degrees of freedom containing conical intersections between potential energy surfaces has been considered. Dynamical features associated with nonadiabatic transitions and nontrivial geometric (or Berry) phases were successfully reproduced within a limited basis expansion.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kroeger, J
2008-01-01
Three aspects of electron-phonon coupling at metal surfaces are reviewed. One aspect is the Kohn effect, which describes an anomalous dispersion relation of surface phonons due to quasi-one-dimensional nesting of Fermi surface contours. The combination of electron energy loss spectroscopy and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy allows us to unambiguously characterize Kohn anomaly systems. A second aspect is the nonadiabatic damping of adsorbate vibrations. Characteristic spectroscopic line shapes of vibrational modes allow us to estimate the amount of energy transfer between the vibrational mode and electron-hole pairs. Case studies of a Kohn anomaly and nonadiabatic damping are provided by the hydrogen- and deuterium-covered Mo(110) surface. As a third aspect of interaction between electrons and phonons, local heating of a C 60 molecule adsorbed on Cu(100) and in contact with the tip of a scanning tunnelling microscope is covered
Stellarator fusion neutronics research in Australia
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zimin, S.; Cross, R.C.
1997-01-01
The new status of the H-INF Heliac Stellaralor as a National Facility and the signed international Implementing Agreement on 'Collaboration in the Development of the Stellarator Concept' represents a significant encouragement for further fusion research in Australia. In this report the future of fusion research in Australia is discussed with special attention being paid to the importance of Stellarator power plant studies and in particular stellarator fusion neutronics. The main differences between tokamak and stellarator neutronics analyses are identified, namely the neutron wall loading, geometrical modelling and total heating in in-vessel reactor components including toroidal field (TF) coils. Due to the more complicated nature of stellarator neutronics analyses, simplified approaches to fusion neutronics already developed for tokamaks are expected to be even more important and widely used for designing a Conceptual Stellarator Power Plant
Stokes polarimetry of main-line OH emission from stellar masers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Claussen, M.J.; Fix, J.D.
1982-01-01
Main-line OH emission has been measured in all four Stokes parameters from seven late-type variable stars and the F8 supergiant IRC+10420. Linearly polarized features were detected in UX Cyg, U Ori, and IRC+10420 at 1665 MHz. The linearly polarized features in UX Cyg and IRC +10420, when combined with adjacent circularly polarized features suggest Zeeman patterns. A polarization pattern in IRC+10420 is probably the best example of a complete Zeeman pattern yet observed in stellar masers, although it appears to lack the shifted linear (sigma) components. This study, combined with other recent work, shows that linearly polarized features in stellar sources are uncommon. Only about 10% of the stellar OH sources show linearly polarized features. As an aid in accounting for the observed polarization properties of stellar OH masers, model mass flows were calculated using magnetic field structures similar to that of the solar wind. Conclusions drawn from this model were: (1) unpolarized or weakly circularly polarized emission from sources can arise from the entire circumstellar shell; (2) circular polarization without linear polarization can be produced either by emission from the entire shell or by enhanced OH densities in small regions of the shell provided there are sufficient free electrons present to depolarize the linear components; and (3) Zeeman patterns which include both circular and linear polarizations can be produced in OH density enhancements if electron densities are low. The electron densities required for effective Faraday depolarization yield emission measures of the order of 10 9 pc cm -6 . Given the large distances of stellar OH masers, the thermal continuum emission from such depolarizing electrons would probably be undetectable
Krot, Alexander
In this work, we consider a statistical theory of gravitating spheroidal bodies to derive and develop the universal stellar law for extrasolar systems. Previously, the statistical theory for a cosmogonic body forming (so-called spheroidal body)has been proposed [1-3]. This theory starts from the conception for forming a spheroidal body inside a gas-dust protoplanetary nebula; it permits us to derive the form of distribution functions, mass density, gravitational potentials and strengths both for immovable and rotating spheroidal bodies as well as to find the distribution function of specific angular momentum[1-3]. If we start from the conception for forming a spheroidal body as a protostar (in particular, proto-Sun) inside a prestellar (presolar) nebula then the derived distribution functions of particle (as well as the mass density of an immovable spheroidal body) characterizes the first stage of evolution: from a prestellar molecular cloud (the presolar nebula) to the forming core of protostar (the proto-Sun) together with its shell as a stellar nebula (the solar nebula). This work derives the equation of state of an ideal stellar substance based on conception of gravitating spheroidal body. Using this equation, we obtain the universal stellar law (USL) for the planetary systems connecting temperature, size and mass of each of stars. This work also considers the Solar corona in the connection with USL. Then it is accounting under calculation of the ratio of temperature of the Solar corona to effective temperature of the Sun’ surfaceand modification of USL. To test justice of the modified USLfor different types of stars, the temperature of stellar corona is estimated. The prediction of parameters of stars is carrying out by means of the modified USL,as well as the Hertzsprung-Russell’s dependence [5-7]is derivedby means of USL directly. This paper also shows that knowledge of some characteristics for multi-planet extrasolar systems refines own parameters of
Matsuoka, Takahide; Takatsuka, Kazuo
2017-04-07
A theory for dynamics of molecular photoionization from nonadiabatic electron wavepackets driven by intense pulse lasers is proposed. Time evolution of photoelectron distribution is evaluated in terms of out-going electron flux (current of the probability density of electrons) that has kinetic energy high enough to recede from the molecular system. The relevant electron flux is in turn evaluated with the complex-valued electronic wavefunctions that are time evolved in nonadiabatic electron wavepacket dynamics in laser fields. To uniquely rebuild such wavefunctions with its electronic population being lost by ionization, we adopt the complex-valued natural orbitals emerging from the electron density as building blocks of the total wavefunction. The method has been implemented into a quantum chemistry code, which is based on configuration state mixing for polyatomic molecules. Some of the practical aspects needed for its application will be presented. As a first illustrative example, we show the results of hydrogen molecule and its isotope substitutes (HD and DD), which are photoionized by a two-cycle pulse laser. Photon emission spectrum associated with above threshold ionization is also shown. Another example is taken from photoionization dynamics from an excited state of a water molecule. Qualitatively significant effects of nonadiabatic interaction on the photoelectron spectrum are demonstrated.
Multiplicity in Early Stellar Evolution
Reipurth, B.; Clarke, C. J.; Boss, A. P.; Goodwin, S. P.; Rodríguez, L. F.; Stassun, K. G.; Tokovinin, A.; Zinnecker, H.
Observations from optical to centimeter wavelengths have demonstrated that multiple systems of two or more bodies is the norm at all stellar evolutionary stages. Multiple systems are widely agreed to result from the collapse and fragmentation of cloud cores, despite the inhibiting influence of magnetic fields. Surveys of class 0 protostars with millimeter interferometers have revealed a very high multiplicity frequency of about 2/3, even though there are observational difficulties in resolving close protobinaries, thus supporting the possibility that all stars could be born in multiple systems. Near-infrared adaptive optics observations of class I protostars show a lower binary frequency relative to the class 0 phase, a declining trend that continues through the class II/III stages to the field population. This loss of companions is a natural consequence of dynamical interplay in small multiple systems, leading to ejection of members. We discuss observational consequences of this dynamical evolution, and its influence on circumstellar disks, and we review the evolution of circumbinary disks and their role in defining binary mass ratios. Special attention is paid to eclipsing PMS binaries, which allow for observational tests of evolutionary models of early stellar evolution. Many stars are born in clusters and small groups, and we discuss how interactions in dense stellar environments can significantly alter the distribution of binary separations through dissolution of wider binaries. The binaries and multiples we find in the field are the survivors of these internal and external destructive processes, and we provide a detailed overview of the multiplicity statistics of the field, which form a boundary condition for all models of binary evolution. Finally, we discuss various formation mechanisms for massive binaries, and the properties of massive trapezia.
Physics of Compact Advanced Stellarators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zarnstorff, M.C.; Berry, L.A.; Brooks, A.; Fredrickson, E.; Fu, G.-Y.; Hirshman, S.; Hudson, S.; Ku, L.-P.; Lazarus, E.; Mikkelsen, D.; Monticello, D.; Neilson, G.H.; Pomphrey, N.; Reiman, A.; Spong, D.; Strickler, D.; Boozer, A.; Cooper, W.A.; Goldston, R.; Hatcher, R.; Isaev, M.; Kessel, C.; Lewandowski, J.; Lyon, J.; Merkel, P.; Mynick, H.; Nelson, B.E.; Nuehrenberg, C.; Redi, M.; Reiersen, W.; Rutherford, P.; Sanchez, R.; Schmidt, J.; White, R.B.
2001-01-01
Compact optimized stellarators offer novel solutions for confining high-beta plasmas and developing magnetic confinement fusion. The 3-D plasma shape can be designed to enhance the MHD stability without feedback or nearby conducting structures and provide drift-orbit confinement similar to tokamaks. These configurations offer the possibility of combining the steady-state low-recirculating power, external control, and disruption resilience of previous stellarators with the low-aspect ratio, high beta-limit, and good confinement of advanced tokamaks. Quasi-axisymmetric equilibria have been developed for the proposed National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) with average aspect ratio 4-4.4 and average elongation of approximately 1.8. Even with bootstrap-current consistent profiles, they are passively stable to the ballooning, kink, vertical, Mercier, and neoclassical-tearing modes for beta > 4%, without the need for external feedback or conducting walls. The bootstrap current generates only 1/4 of the magnetic rotational transform at beta = 4% (the rest is from the coils), thus the equilibrium is much less nonlinear and is more controllable than similar advanced tokamaks. The enhanced stability is a result of ''reversed'' global shear, the spatial distribution of local shear, and the large fraction of externally generated transform. Transport simulations show adequate fast-ion confinement and thermal neoclassical transport similar to equivalent tokamaks. Modular coils have been designed which reproduce the physics properties, provide good flux surfaces, and allow flexible variation of the plasma shape to control the predicted MHD stability and transport properties
STELLAR MASS DEPENDENT DISK DISPERSAL
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kennedy, Grant M.; Kenyon, Scott J.
2009-01-01
We use published optical spectral and infrared (IR) excess data from nine young clusters and associations to study the stellar mass dependent dispersal of circumstellar disks. All clusters older than ∼3 Myr show a decrease in disk fraction with increasing stellar mass for solar to higher mass stars. This result is significant at about the 1σ level in each cluster. For the complete set of clusters we reject the null hypothesis-that solar and intermediate-mass stars lose their disks at the same rate-with 95%-99.9% confidence. To interpret this behavior, we investigate the impact of grain growth, binary companions, and photoevaporation on the evolution of disk signatures. Changes in grain growth timescales at fixed disk temperature may explain why early-type stars with IR excesses appear to evolve faster than their later-type counterparts. Little evidence that binary companions affect disk evolution suggests that photoevaporation is the more likely mechanism for disk dispersal. A simple photoevaporation model provides a good fit to the observed disk fractions for solar and intermediate-mass stars. Although the current mass-dependent disk dispersal signal is not strong, larger and more complete samples of clusters with ages of 3-5 Myr can improve the significance and provide better tests of theoretical models. In addition, the orbits of extra-solar planets can constrain models of disk dispersal and migration. We suggest that the signature of stellar mass dependent disk dispersal due to photoevaporation may be present in the orbits of observed extra-solar planets. Planets orbiting hosts more massive than ∼1.6 M sun may have larger orbits because the disks in which they formed were dispersed before they could migrate.
Radiation transfer and stellar atmospheres
Swihart, T. L.
This is a revised and expanded version of the author's Basic Physics of Stellar Atmospheres, published in 1971. The equation of transfer is considered, taking into account the intensity and derived quantities, the absorption coefficient, the emission coefficient, the source function, and special integrals for plane media. The gray atmosphere is discussed along with the nongray atmosphere, and aspects of line formation. Topics related to polarization are explored, giving attention to pure polarized radiation, general polarized radiation, transfer in a magnetic plasma, and Rayleigh scattering and the sunlit sky. Physical and astronomical constants, and a number of problems related to the subjects of the book are presented in an appendix.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhattacharjee, A.; Sedlak, J.E.; Similon, P.L.; Rosenbluth, M.N.; Ross, D.W.
1982-11-01
We investigate the eigenmode structure of drift waves in a straight stellarator using the ballooning mode formalism. The electrons are assumed to be adiabatic and the ions constitute a cold, magnetized fluid. The effective potential has an overall parabolic envelope but is modulated strongly by helical ripples along B. We have found two classes of solutions: those that are strongly localized in local helical wells, and those that are weakly localized and have broad spatial extent. The weakly localized modes decay spatially due to the existence of Mathieu resonances between the periods of the eigenfunction and the effective potential
Helical axis stellarator equilibrium model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koniges, A.E.; Johnson, J.L.
1985-02-01
An asymptotic model is developed to study MHD equilibria in toroidal systems with a helical magnetic axis. Using a characteristic coordinate system based on the vacuum field lines, the equilibrium problem is reduced to a two-dimensional generalized partial differential equation of the Grad-Shafranov type. A stellarator-expansion free-boundary equilibrium code is modified to solve the helical-axis equations. The expansion model is used to predict the equilibrium properties of Asperators NP-3 and NP-4. Numerically determined flux surfaces, magnetic well, transform, and shear are presented. The equilibria show a toroidal Shafranov shift
Neutrino transport in stellar matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Basdevant, J.L.
1985-09-01
We reconsider the neutrino transport problem in dense stellar matter which has a variety of applications among which the participation of neutrinos to the dynamics of type II supernova explosions. We describe the position of the problem and make some critiscism of previously used approximation methods. We then propose a method which is capable of handling simultaneously the optically thick, optically thin, and intermediate regimes, which is of crucial importance in such problems. The method consists in a simulation of the transport process and can be considered exact within numerical accuracy. We, finally exhibit some sample calculations which show the efficiency of the method, and present interesting qualitative physical features
Characterizing Convection in Stellar Atmospheres
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanner, Joel; Basu, Sarbani; Demarque, Pierre; Robinson, Frank
2011-01-01
We perform 3D radiative hydrodynamic simulations to study the properties of convection in the superadiabatic layer of stars. The simulations show differences in both the stratification and turbulent quantities for different types of stars. We extract turbulent pressure and eddy sizes, as well as the T-τ relation for different stars and find that they are sensitive to the energy flux and gravity. We also show that contrary to what is usually assumed in the field of stellar atmospheres, the structure and gas dynamics of simulations of turbulent atmospheres cannot be parameterized with T eff and log(g) alone.
On modular stellarator reactor coils
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rau, F.; Harmeyer, E.; Kisslinger, J.; Wobig, H.
1985-01-01
Modular twisted coils are discussed which produce magnetic fields of the Advanced Stellarator WENDELSTEIN VII-AS type. Reducing the number coils/FP offers advantage for maintenance of coils, but increases the magnetic ripple and B m /B o . Computation of force densities within the coils of ASR and ASB yield local maximum values of about 80 and 180 MN/m 3 , respectively. A system of mutual coil support is being developed. Twisted coils in helical arrangement provide a reactor-sized HELIAC system. In order to reduce the magnetic ripple, a large number of 14 coils/FP in special arrangement is used
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trippe, S; Gillessen, S; Ott, T; Eisenhauer, F; Paumard, T; Martins, F; Genzel, R; Schoedel, R; Eckart, A; Alexander, T
2006-01-01
In this article we present and discuss the latest results from the observations of stars (''S-stars'') orbiting Sgr A* . With improving data quality the number of observed S-stars has increased substantially in the last years. The combination of radial velocity and proper motion information allows an ever more precise determination of orbital parameters and of the mass of and the distance to the supermassive black hole in the centre of the Milky Way. Additionally, the orbital solutions allow us to verify an agreement between the NIR source Sgr A* and the dynamical centre of the stellar orbits to within 2 mas
Recent advances in stellarator optimization
Gates, D. A.; Boozer, A. H.; Brown, T.; Breslau, J.; Curreli, D.; Landreman, M.; Lazerson, S. A.; Lore, J.; Mynick, H.; Neilson, G. H.; Pomphrey, N.; Xanthopoulos, P.; Zolfaghari, A.
2017-12-01
Computational optimization has revolutionized the field of stellarator design. To date, optimizations have focused primarily on optimization of neoclassical confinement and ideal MHD stability, although limited optimization of other parameters has also been performed. The purpose of this paper is to outline a select set of new concepts for stellarator optimization that, when taken as a group, present a significant step forward in the stellarator concept. One of the criticisms that has been leveled at existing methods of design is the complexity of the resultant field coils. Recently, a new coil optimization code—COILOPT++, which uses a spline instead of a Fourier representation of the coils,—was written and included in the STELLOPT suite of codes. The advantage of this method is that it allows the addition of real space constraints on the locations of the coils. The code has been tested by generating coil designs for optimized quasi-axisymmetric stellarator plasma configurations of different aspect ratios. As an initial exercise, a constraint that the windings be vertical was placed on large major radius half of the non-planar coils. Further constraints were also imposed that guaranteed that sector blanket modules could be removed from between the coils, enabling a sector maintenance scheme. Results of this exercise will be presented. New ideas on methods for the optimization of turbulent transport have garnered much attention since these methods have led to design concepts that are calculated to have reduced turbulent heat loss. We have explored possibilities for generating an experimental database to test whether the reduction in transport that is predicted is consistent with experimental observations. To this end, a series of equilibria that can be made in the now latent QUASAR experiment have been identified that will test the predicted transport scalings. Fast particle confinement studies aimed at developing a generalized optimization algorithm are also
Introduction to stellar astrophysics. V. 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boehm-Vitense, E.
1989-01-01
This textbook introduces basic elements of fundamental astronomy and astrophysics which serve as a foundation for understanding the structure, evolution, and observed properties of stars. The first half of the book explains how stellar motions, distances, luminosities, colours, radii, masses and temperatures are measured or derived. The author then shows how data of these sorts can be arranged to classify stars through their spectra. Stellar rotation and stellar magnetic fields are introduced. Stars with peculiar spectra and pulsating stars also merit special attention. The endpoints of stellar evolutions are briefly described. There is a separate chapter on the Sun and a final one on interstellar absorption. (author)
Neoclassical transport simulations for stellarators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turkin, Y.; Beidler, C. D.; Maassberg, H.; Murakami, S.; Wakasa, A.; Tribaldos, V.
2011-01-01
The benchmarking of the thermal neoclassical transport coefficients is described using examples of the Large Helical Device (LHD) and TJ-II stellarators. The thermal coefficients are evaluated by energy convolution of the monoenergetic coefficients obtained by direct interpolation or neural network techniques from the databases precalculated by different codes. The temperature profiles are calculated by a predictive transport code from the energy balance equations with the ambipolar radial electric field estimated from a diffusion equation to guarantee a unique and smooth solution, although several solutions of the ambipolarity condition may exist when root-finding is invoked; the density profiles are fixed. The thermal transport coefficients as well as the ambipolar radial electric field are compared and very reasonable agreement is found for both configurations. Together with an additional W7-X case, these configurations represent very different degrees of neoclassical confinement at low collisionalities. The impact of the neoclassical optimization on the energy confinement time is evaluated and the confinement times for different devices predicted by transport modeling are compared with the standard scaling for stellarators. Finally, all configurations are scaled to the same volume for a direct comparison of the volume-averaged pressure and the neoclassical degree of optimization.
Theoretical and observational studies of stellar activity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmitt, J.H.M.M.
1984-01-01
In the theoretical part of this thesis, doubly-diffusive MHD instabilities are studied as a means of breaking up a diffuse magnetic field at the bottom of the solar convection zone. The analysis is linear and local, and assumes short meridional wavelengths; the effects of rotation and diffusion of vorticity, magnetic fields and heat are included. Results show that the instability depends sensitively on the temperature stratification, but rather insensitively on the assumed magnetic field configuration; instability time scales considerably less than the solar cycle period can be easily obtained. In the observational part of the thesis, results are reported of a survey of the x-ray emission of stars with shallow connection zones to study the onset of convection and dynamo activity along the main sequence. Complications arising from stellar multiplicity are discussed extensively; it is demonstrated that binaries have statistically higher x-ray luminosities; and it is shown that physical parameters can only be deduced from single stars. It is further shown that the x-ray luminosities of stars with spectral type in the color range 0.1 less than or equal to B. V less than or equal to 0.5 increase rapidly, whereas stars with B. V approx. 0.0 appear to have no intrinsic x-ray emission at presently detectable levels
Classical analog for electronic degrees of freedom in nonadiabatic collision processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meyer, H.; Miller, W.H.
1979-01-01
It is shown how a formally exact classical analog can be defined for a finite dimensional (in Hilbert space) quantum mechanical system. This approach is then used to obtain a classical model for the electronic degrees of freedom in a molecular collision system, and the combination of this with the usual classical description of the heavy particle (i.e., nuclear) motion provides a completely classical model for the electronic and heavy particle degrees of freedom. The resulting equations of motion are shown to be equivalent to describing the electronic degrees of freedom by the time-dependent Schroedinger equation, the time dependence arising from the classical motion of the nuclei, the trajectory of which is determined by the quantum mechanical average (i.e., Ehrenfest) force on the nuclei. Quantizing the system via classical S-matrix theory is shown to provide a dynamically consistent description of nonadiabatic collision processes; i.e., different electronic transitions have different heavy particle trajectories and, for example, the total energy of the electronic and heavy particle degrees of freedom is conserved. Application of this classical model for the electronic degrees of freedom (plus classical S-matrix theory) to the two-state model problem shows that the approach provides a good description of the electronic dynamics
Non-adiabatic quantum state preparation and quantum state transport in chains of Rydberg atoms
Ostmann, Maike; Minář, Jiří; Marcuzzi, Matteo; Levi, Emanuele; Lesanovsky, Igor
2017-12-01
Motivated by recent progress in the experimental manipulation of cold atoms in optical lattices, we study three different protocols for non-adiabatic quantum state preparation and state transport in chains of Rydberg atoms. The protocols we discuss are based on the blockade mechanism between atoms which, when excited to a Rydberg state, interact through a van der Waals potential, and rely on single-site addressing. Specifically, we discuss protocols for efficient creation of an antiferromagnetic GHZ state, a class of matrix product states including a so-called Rydberg crystal and for the state transport of a single-qubit quantum state between two ends of a chain of atoms. We identify system parameters allowing for the operation of the protocols on timescales shorter than the lifetime of the Rydberg states while yielding high fidelity output states. We discuss the effect of positional disorder on the resulting states and comment on limitations due to other sources of noise such as radiative decay of the Rydberg states. The proposed protocols provide a testbed for benchmarking the performance of quantum information processing platforms based on Rydberg atoms.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hatcher, Elizabeth; Soudackov, Alexander; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon
2005-01-01
The dynamical aspects of a model proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) reaction in solution are analyzed with molecular dynamics simulations. The rate for nonadiabatic PCET is expressed in terms of a time-dependent probability flux correlation function. The impact of the proton donor-acceptor and solvent dynamics on the probability flux is examined. The dynamical behavior of the probability flux correlation function is dominated by a solvent damping term that depends on the energy gap correlation function. The proton donor-acceptor motion does not impact the dynamical behavior of the probability flux correlation function but does influence the magnitude of the rate. The approximations previously invoked for the calculation of PCET rates are tested. The effects of solvent damping on the proton donor-acceptor vibrational motion are found to be negligible, and the short-time solvent approximation, in which only equilibrium fluctuations of the solvent are considered, is determined to be valid for these types of reactions. The analysis of PCET reactions is compared to previous analyses of single electron and proton transfer reactions. The dynamical behavior is qualitatively similar for all three types of reactions, but the time scale of the decay of the probability flux correlation function is significantly longer for single proton transfer than for PCET and single electron transfer due to a smaller solvent reorganization energy for proton transfer
Two-level system in spin baths: Non-adiabatic dynamics and heat transport
Segal, Dvira
2014-04-01
We study the non-adiabatic dynamics of a two-state subsystem in a bath of independent spins using the non-interacting blip approximation, and derive an exact analytic expression for the relevant memory kernel. We show that in the thermodynamic limit, when the subsystem-bath coupling is diluted (uniformly) over many (infinite) degrees of freedom, our expression reduces to known results, corresponding to the harmonic bath with an effective, temperature-dependent, spectral density function. We then proceed and study the heat current characteristics in the out-of-equilibrium spin-spin-bath model, with a two-state subsystem bridging two thermal spin-baths of different temperatures. We compare the behavior of this model to the case of a spin connecting boson baths, and demonstrate pronounced qualitative differences between the two models. Specifically, we focus on the development of the thermal diode effect, and show that the spin-spin-bath model cannot support it at weak (subsystem-bath) coupling, while in the intermediate-strong coupling regime its rectifying performance outplays the spin-boson model.
Two-level system in spin baths: Non-adiabatic dynamics and heat transport
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Segal, Dvira [Chemical Physics Theory Group, Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, 80 Saint George St., Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H6 (Canada)
2014-04-28
We study the non-adiabatic dynamics of a two-state subsystem in a bath of independent spins using the non-interacting blip approximation, and derive an exact analytic expression for the relevant memory kernel. We show that in the thermodynamic limit, when the subsystem-bath coupling is diluted (uniformly) over many (infinite) degrees of freedom, our expression reduces to known results, corresponding to the harmonic bath with an effective, temperature-dependent, spectral density function. We then proceed and study the heat current characteristics in the out-of-equilibrium spin-spin-bath model, with a two-state subsystem bridging two thermal spin-baths of different temperatures. We compare the behavior of this model to the case of a spin connecting boson baths, and demonstrate pronounced qualitative differences between the two models. Specifically, we focus on the development of the thermal diode effect, and show that the spin-spin-bath model cannot support it at weak (subsystem-bath) coupling, while in the intermediate-strong coupling regime its rectifying performance outplays the spin-boson model.
Greene, Samuel M; Batista, Victor S
2017-09-12
We introduce the "tensor-train split-operator Fourier transform" (TT-SOFT) method for simulations of multidimensional nonadiabatic quantum dynamics. TT-SOFT is essentially the grid-based SOFT method implemented in dynamically adaptive tensor-train representations. In the same spirit of all matrix product states, the tensor-train format enables the representation, propagation, and computation of observables of multidimensional wave functions in terms of the grid-based wavepacket tensor components, bypassing the need of actually computing the wave function in its full-rank tensor product grid space. We demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the TT-SOFT method as applied to propagation of 24-dimensional wave packets, describing the S 1 /S 2 interconversion dynamics of pyrazine after UV photoexcitation to the S 2 state. Our results show that the TT-SOFT method is a powerful computational approach for simulations of quantum dynamics of polyatomic systems since it avoids the exponential scaling problem of full-rank grid-based representations.
Raymond, Neil; Iouchtchenko, Dmitri; Roy, Pierre-Nicholas; Nooijen, Marcel
2018-05-01
We introduce a new path integral Monte Carlo method for investigating nonadiabatic systems in thermal equilibrium and demonstrate an approach to reducing stochastic error. We derive a general path integral expression for the partition function in a product basis of continuous nuclear and discrete electronic degrees of freedom without the use of any mapping schemes. We separate our Hamiltonian into a harmonic portion and a coupling portion; the partition function can then be calculated as the product of a Monte Carlo estimator (of the coupling contribution to the partition function) and a normalization factor (that is evaluated analytically). A Gaussian mixture model is used to evaluate the Monte Carlo estimator in a computationally efficient manner. Using two model systems, we demonstrate our approach to reduce the stochastic error associated with the Monte Carlo estimator. We show that the selection of the harmonic oscillators comprising the sampling distribution directly affects the efficiency of the method. Our results demonstrate that our path integral Monte Carlo method's deviation from exact Trotter calculations is dominated by the choice of the sampling distribution. By improving the sampling distribution, we can drastically reduce the stochastic error leading to lower computational cost.
The effect of nonadiabaticity on the efficiency of quantum memory based on an optical cavity
Veselkova, N. G.; Sokolov, I. V.
2017-07-01
Quantum efficiency is an important characteristic of quantum memory devices that are aimed at recording the quantum state of light signals and its storing and reading. In the case of memory based on an ensemble of cold atoms placed in an optical cavity, the efficiency is restricted, in particular, by relaxation processes in the system of active atomic levels. We show how the effect of the relaxation on the quantum efficiency can be determined in a regime of the memory usage in which the evolution of signals in time is not arbitrarily slow on the scale of the field lifetime in the cavity and when the frequently used approximation of the adiabatic elimination of the quantized cavity mode field cannot be applied. Taking into account the effect of the nonadiabaticity on the memory quality is of interest in view of the fact that, in order to increase the field-medium coupling parameter, a higher cavity quality factor is required, whereas storing and processing of sequences of many signals in the memory implies that their duration is reduced. We consider the applicability of the well-known efficiency estimates via the system cooperativity parameter and estimate a more general form. In connection with the theoretical description of the memory of the given type, we also discuss qualitative differences in the behavior of a random source introduced into the Heisenberg-Langevin equations for atomic variables in the cases of a large and a small number of atoms.
Stellar Spectral Classification with Locality Preserving Projections ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
With the help of computer tools and algorithms, automatic stellar spectral classification has become an area of current interest. The process of stellar spectral classification mainly includes two steps: dimension reduction and classification. As a popular dimensionality reduction technique, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) ...
Enhanced-confinement class of stellarators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mynick, H.E.; Chu, T.K.; Boozer, A.H.
1981-08-01
A class of stellarators has been found in which the transport is reduced by an order of magnitude from transport in conventional stellarators, by localizing the helical ripple to the inside of the torus. The reduction is observed in numerical experiments and explained theoretically
Theories for convection in stellar atmospheres
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nordlund, Aa.
1976-02-01
A discussion of the fundamental differences between laboratory convection in a stellar atmosphere is presented. The shortcomings of laterally homogeneous model atmospheres are analysed, and the extent to which these shortcoming are avoided in the two-component representation is discussed. Finally a qualitative discussion on the scaling properties of stellar granulation is presented. (Auth.)
Stellar dynamics around a massive black hole - II. Resonant relaxation
Sridhar, S.; Touma, Jihad R.
2016-06-01
We present a first-principles theory of resonant relaxation (RR) of a low-mass stellar system orbiting a more massive black hole (MBH). We first extend the kinetic theory of Gilbert to include the Keplerian field of a black hole of mass M•. Specializing to a Keplerian stellar system of mass M ≪ M•, we use the orbit-averaging method of Sridhar & Touma to derive a kinetic equation for RR. This describes the collisional evolution of a system of N ≫ 1 Gaussian rings in a reduced 5-dim space, under the combined actions of self-gravity, 1 post-Newtonian (PN) and 1.5 PN relativistic effects of the MBH and an arbitrary external potential. In general geometries, RR is driven by both apsidal and nodal resonances, so the distinction between scalar RR and vector RR disappears. The system passes through a sequence of quasi-steady secular collisionless equilibria, driven by irreversible two-ring correlations that accrue through gravitational interactions, both direct and collective. This correlation function is related to a `wake function', which is the linear response of the system to the perturbation of a chosen ring. The wake function is easier to appreciate, and satisfies a simpler equation, than the correlation function. We discuss general implications for the interplay of secular dynamics and non-equilibrium statistical mechanics in the evolution of Keplerian stellar systems towards secular thermodynamic equilibria, and set the stage for applications to the RR of axisymmetric discs in Paper III.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suwono.
1978-01-01
A linear gate providing a variable gate duration from 0,40μsec to 4μsec was developed. The electronic circuity consists of a linear circuit and an enable circuit. The input signal can be either unipolar or bipolar. If the input signal is bipolar, the negative portion will be filtered. The operation of the linear gate is controlled by the application of a positive enable pulse. (author)
Wisconsin torsatron/stellarator program, FY 1989
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shohet, J.L.; Anderson, D.T.; Anderson, F.S.B.; Talmadge, J.N.
1988-07-01
This proposal documents recent activities within the University of Wisconsin-Madison Torsatron/Stellarator Laboratory and presents plans for future research activities for a three year period. Research efforts have focused on fundamental stellarator physics issues through experimental investigations on the Interchangeable Module Stellarator (IMS) and the Proto-Cleo Stellarator. Theoretical activities and studies of new configurations are being undertaken to support and broaden the experimental program. Experimental research at the Torsatron Stellarator Laboratory has been primarily concerned with effects induced through electron-cyclotron resonant frequency plasma production and heating in the IMS device. Plasma electric fields have been shown to play a major role in particle transport and confinement in IMS. ECRF heating at 6 kG has produced electron tail populations in agreement with Monte-Carlo models. Electric and magnetic fields have been shown to alter the particle flows to the IMS modular divertors. 48 refs
Astrospheres and Solar-like Stellar Winds
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wood Brian E.
2004-07-01
Full Text Available Stellar analogs for the solar wind have proven to be frustratingly difficult to detect directly. However, these stellar winds can be studied indirectly by observing the interaction regions carved out by the collisions between these winds and the interstellar medium (ISM. These interaction regions are called "astrospheres", analogous to the "heliosphere" surrounding the Sun. The heliosphere and astrospheres contain a population of hydrogen heated by charge exchange processes that can produce enough H I Ly alpha absorption to be detectable in UV spectra of nearby stars from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST. The amount of astrospheric absorption is a diagnostic for the strength of the stellar wind, so these observations have provided the first measurements of solar-like stellar winds. Results from these stellar wind studies and their implications for our understanding of the solar wind are reviewed here. Of particular interest are results concerning the past history of the solar wind and its impact on planetary atmospheres.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vretenar, M
2014-01-01
The main features of radio-frequency linear accelerators are introduced, reviewing the different types of accelerating structures and presenting the main characteristics aspects of linac beam dynamics
Stellarmak a hybrid stellarator: Spheromak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hartman, C.W.
1980-01-01
This paper discusses hybridization of modified Stellarator-like transform windings (T-windings) with a Spheromak or Field-Reversed-Mirror configuration. This configuration, Stellarmak, retains the important topological advantage of the Spheromak or FRM of having no plasma linking conductors or blankets. The T-windings provide rotational transformation in toroidal angle of the outer poloidal field lines, in effect creating a reversed B/sub Toroidal/ Spheromak or adding average B/sub T/ to the FRM producing higher shear, increased limiting β, and possibly greater stability to kinks and tilt. The presence of field ripple in the toroidal direction may be sufficient to inhibit cancellation of directed ion current by electron drag to allow steady state operation with the toroidal as well as poloidal current maintained by neutral beams
Stellar Equilibrium in Semiclassical Gravity.
Carballo-Rubio, Raúl
2018-02-09
The phenomenon of quantum vacuum polarization in the presence of a gravitational field is well understood and is expected to have a physical reality, but studies of its backreaction on the dynamics of spacetime are practically nonexistent outside of the specific context of homogeneous cosmologies. Building on previous results of quantum field theory in curved spacetimes, in this Letter we first derive the semiclassical equations of stellar equilibrium in the s-wave Polyakov approximation. It is highlighted that incorporating the polarization of the quantum vacuum leads to a generalization of the classical Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation. Despite the complexity of the resulting field equations, it is possible to find exact solutions. Aside from being the first known exact solutions that describe relativistic stars including the nonperturbative backreaction of semiclassical effects, these are identified as a nontrivial combination of the black star and gravastar proposals.
On rapid rotation in stellarators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Helander, Per
2008-01-01
The conditions under which rapid plasma rotation may occur in a three-dimensional magnetic field, such as that of a stellarator, are investigated. Rotation velocities comparable to the ion thermal speed are found to be attainable only in magnetic fields which are approximately isometric. In an isometric magnetic field the dependence of the magnetic field strength B on the arc length l along the field is the same for all field lines on each flux surface ψ. Only in fields where the departure from exact isometry, B=B(ψ,l), is of the order of the ion gyroradius divided by the macroscopic length scale are rotation speeds comparable to the ion thermal speed possible. Moreover, it is shown that the rotation must be in the direction of the vector ∇ψx∇B. (author)
Magnetohydodynamics stability of compact stellarators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fu, G.Y.; Ku, L.P.; Cooper, W.A.; Hirshman, S.H.
2000-01-01
Recent stability results of external kink modes and vertical modes in compact stellarators are presented. The vertical mode is found to be stabilized by externally generated poloidal flux. A simple stability criterion is derived in the limit of large aspect ratio and constant current density. For a wall at infinite distance from the plasma, the amount of external flux needed for stabilization is given by Fi = (k2 minus k)=(k2 + 1), where k is the axisymmetric elongation and Fi is the fraction of the external rotational transform. A systematic parameter study shows that the external kink mode in QAS can be stabilized at high beta (approximately 5%) without a conducting wall by magnetic shear via 3D shaping. It is found that external kinks are driven by both parallel current and pressure gradient. The pressure contributes significantly to the overall drive through the curvature term and the Pfirsch-Schluter current
NEMO: A Stellar Dynamics Toolbox
Barnes, Joshua; Hut, Piet; Teuben, Peter
2010-10-01
NEMO is an extendible Stellar Dynamics Toolbox, following an Open-Source Software model. It has various programs to create, integrate, analyze and visualize N-body and SPH like systems, following the pipe and filter architecture. In addition there are various tools to operate on images, tables and orbits, including FITS files to export/import to/from other astronomical data reduction packages. A large growing fraction of NEMO has been contributed by a growing list of authors. The source code consist of a little over 4000 files and a little under 1,000,000 lines of code and documentation, mostly C, and some C++ and Fortran. NEMO development started in 1986 in Princeton (USA) by Barnes, Hut and Teuben. See also ZENO (ascl:1102.027) for the version that Barnes maintains.
Linearization Method and Linear Complexity
Tanaka, Hidema
We focus on the relationship between the linearization method and linear complexity and show that the linearization method is another effective technique for calculating linear complexity. We analyze its effectiveness by comparing with the logic circuit method. We compare the relevant conditions and necessary computational cost with those of the Berlekamp-Massey algorithm and the Games-Chan algorithm. The significant property of a linearization method is that it needs no output sequence from a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) because it calculates linear complexity using the algebraic expression of its algorithm. When a PRNG has n [bit] stages (registers or internal states), the necessary computational cost is smaller than O(2n). On the other hand, the Berlekamp-Massey algorithm needs O(N2) where N(≅2n) denotes period. Since existing methods calculate using the output sequence, an initial value of PRNG influences a resultant value of linear complexity. Therefore, a linear complexity is generally given as an estimate value. On the other hand, a linearization method calculates from an algorithm of PRNG, it can determine the lower bound of linear complexity.
Said-Houari, Belkacem
2017-01-01
This self-contained, clearly written textbook on linear algebra is easily accessible for students. It begins with the simple linear equation and generalizes several notions from this equation for the system of linear equations and introduces the main ideas using matrices. It then offers a detailed chapter on determinants and introduces the main ideas with detailed proofs. The third chapter introduces the Euclidean spaces using very simple geometric ideas and discusses various major inequalities and identities. These ideas offer a solid basis for understanding general Hilbert spaces in functional analysis. The following two chapters address general vector spaces, including some rigorous proofs to all the main results, and linear transformation: areas that are ignored or are poorly explained in many textbooks. Chapter 6 introduces the idea of matrices using linear transformation, which is easier to understand than the usual theory of matrices approach. The final two chapters are more advanced, introducing t...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Beidler, C D [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)
1991-01-01
A general expression for the magnitude of a stellarator's magnetic field, in terms of a Fourier decomposition, is too complicated to lend itself easily to analytic transport calculations. The great majority of stellarator-type devices, however, may be accurately described if one retains only those harmonics with m=0 and m=1. In the long-mean-free-path regime an analytical approximation to the particle's bounce-averaged kinetic equation can then be found. Using a numerical solution of this equation, it is possible to calculate the particle and heat fluxes due to helical-ripple transport in stellarators throughout the entire long-mean-free-path regime. 3 figs.
The role of magnetic field fluctuations in nonadiabatic acceleration of ions during dipolarization
Ono, Y.; Nosé, M.; Christon, S. P.; Lui, A. T. Y.
2009-05-01
We statistically examine changes in the composition of two different ion species, proton and oxygen ions, in the near-Earth plasma sheet (X = -16 R E ˜ -6 R E ) during substorm-associated dipolarization. We use 10 years of energetic (9-212 keV/e) ion data obtained by the suprathermal ion composition spectrometer (STICS) sensor of the energetic particles and ion composition (EPIC) instrument on board the Geotail spacecraft. The results are as follows: (1) Although the percentage increase in the energy density of O+ ions before and after a dipolarization exceeds that of H+ ions in the low-energy range (9-36 keV/e), this property is not evident in the high-energy range (56-212 keV/e); (2) the energy spectrum of H+ and that of O+ become harder after dipolarization in almost all events; and (3) in some events the energy spectrum of O+ becomes harder than that of H+ as reported by previous studies, and, importantly, in other events, the spectrum of H+ becomes harder than that of O+. In order to investigate what mechanism causes these observational results, we focus on magnetic field fluctuations during dipolarization. It is found that the increase of the spectrum slope is positively correlated with the power of waves whose frequencies are close to the gyrofrequency of H+ or O+, respectively (the correlation coefficient is 0.48 for H+ and 0.68 for O+). In conclusion, ions are nonadiabatically accelerated by the electric field induced by the magnetic field fluctuations whose frequencies are close to their gyrofrequencies.
Mandal, Anirban; Hunt, Katharine L. C.
2018-05-01
For a perturbed quantum system initially in the ground state, the coefficient ck(t) of excited state k in the time-dependent wave function separates into adiabatic and nonadiabatic terms. The adiabatic term ak(t) accounts for the adjustment of the original ground state to form the new ground state of the instantaneous Hamiltonian H(t), by incorporating excited states of the unperturbed Hamiltonian H0 without transitions; ak(t) follows the adiabatic theorem of Born and Fock. The nonadiabatic term bk(t) describes excitation into another quantum state k; bk(t) is obtained as an integral containing the time derivative of the perturbation. The true transition probability is given by |bk(t)|2, as first stated by Landau and Lifshitz. In this work, we contrast |bk(t)|2 and |ck(t)|2. The latter is the norm-square of the entire excited-state coefficient which is used for the transition probability within Fermi's golden rule. Calculations are performed for a perturbing pulse consisting of a cosine or sine wave in a Gaussian envelope. When the transition frequency ωk0 is on resonance with the frequency ω of the cosine wave, |bk(t)|2 and |ck(t)|2 rise almost monotonically to the same final value; the two are intertwined, but they are out of phase with each other. Off resonance (when ωk0 ≠ ω), |bk(t)|2 and |ck(t)|2 differ significantly during the pulse. They oscillate out of phase and reach different maxima but then fall off to equal final values after the pulse has ended, when ak(t) ≡ 0. If ωk0 ω. While the transition probability is rising, the midpoints between successive maxima and minima fit Gaussian functions of the form a exp[-b(t - d)2]. To our knowledge, this is the first analysis of nonadiabatic transition probabilities during a perturbing pulse.
Stoll, R R
1968-01-01
Linear Algebra is intended to be used as a text for a one-semester course in linear algebra at the undergraduate level. The treatment of the subject will be both useful to students of mathematics and those interested primarily in applications of the theory. The major prerequisite for mastering the material is the readiness of the student to reason abstractly. Specifically, this calls for an understanding of the fact that axioms are assumptions and that theorems are logical consequences of one or more axioms. Familiarity with calculus and linear differential equations is required for understand
Hydrodynamics and stellar winds an introduction
Maciel, Walter J
2014-01-01
Stellar winds are a common phenomenon in the life of stars, from the dwarfs like the Sun to the red giants and hot supergiants, constituting one of the basic aspects of modern astrophysics. Stellar winds are a hydrodynamic phenomenon in which circumstellar gases expand towards the interstellar medium. This book presents an elementary introduction to the fundamentals of hydrodynamics with an application to the study of stellar winds. The principles of hydrodynamics have many other applications, so that the book can be used as an introduction to hydrodynamics for students of physics, astrophysics and other related areas.
Ultraviolet photometry of stellar populations in galaxies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deharveng, J.M.
1981-01-01
The UV flux of stellar populations, which is essentially emitted by young stars, conveys information on the process of star formation and its recent history. However, the evaluation of the flux arising from the young stellar component may be difficult. In the case of late type galaxies it is hampered by the extinction and the effect of scattered stellar radiation. In the case of early type galaxies, the star formation, if any, has to be disentangled from the contribution of hot evolved stars and of a possible 'active' phenomenon. A review of observations and results relevant two cases is presented [fr
Helical post stellarator. Part 1: Vacuum configuration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moroz, P.E.
1997-08-01
Results on a novel type of stellarator configuration, the Helical Post Stellarator (HPS), are presented. This configuration is different significantly from all previously known stellarators due to its unique geometrical characteristics and unique physical properties. Among those are: the magnetic field has only one toroidal period (M = 1), the plasma has an extremely low aspect ratio, A ∼ 1, and the variation of the magnetic field, B, along field lines features a helical ripple on the inside of the torus. Among the main advantages of a HPS for a fusion program are extremely compact, modular, and simple design compatible with significant rotational transform, large plasma volume, and improved particle transport characteristics
Solow, Daniel
2014-01-01
This text covers the basic theory and computation for a first course in linear programming, including substantial material on mathematical proof techniques and sophisticated computation methods. Includes Appendix on using Excel. 1984 edition.
Liesen, Jörg
2015-01-01
This self-contained textbook takes a matrix-oriented approach to linear algebra and presents a complete theory, including all details and proofs, culminating in the Jordan canonical form and its proof. Throughout the development, the applicability of the results is highlighted. Additionally, the book presents special topics from applied linear algebra including matrix functions, the singular value decomposition, the Kronecker product and linear matrix equations. The matrix-oriented approach to linear algebra leads to a better intuition and a deeper understanding of the abstract concepts, and therefore simplifies their use in real world applications. Some of these applications are presented in detailed examples. In several ‘MATLAB-Minutes’ students can comprehend the concepts and results using computational experiments. Necessary basics for the use of MATLAB are presented in a short introduction. Students can also actively work with the material and practice their mathematical skills in more than 300 exerc...
Berberian, Sterling K
2014-01-01
Introductory treatment covers basic theory of vector spaces and linear maps - dimension, determinants, eigenvalues, and eigenvectors - plus more advanced topics such as the study of canonical forms for matrices. 1992 edition.
Searle, Shayle R
2012-01-01
This 1971 classic on linear models is once again available--as a Wiley Classics Library Edition. It features material that can be understood by any statistician who understands matrix algebra and basic statistical methods.
Christofilos, N.C.; Polk, I.J.
1959-02-17
Improvements in linear particle accelerators are described. A drift tube system for a linear ion accelerator reduces gap capacity between adjacent drift tube ends. This is accomplished by reducing the ratio of the diameter of the drift tube to the diameter of the resonant cavity. Concentration of magnetic field intensity at the longitudinal midpoint of the external sunface of each drift tube is reduced by increasing the external drift tube diameter at the longitudinal center region.
Swank, J.
2011-01-01
Most of the stellar end-state black holes, pulsars, and white dwarfs that are X-ray sources should have polarized X-ray fluxes. The degree will depend on the relative contributions of the unresolved structures. Fluxes from accretion disks and accretion disk corona may be polarized by scattering. Beams and jets may have contributions of polarized emission in strong magnetic fields. The Gravity and Extreme Magnetism Small Explorer (GEMS) will study the effects on polarization of strong gravity of black holes and strong magnetism of neutron stars. Some part of the flux from compact stars accreting from companion stars has been reflected from the companion, its wind, or accretion streams. Polarization of this component is a potential tool for studying the structure of the gas in these binary systems. Polarization due to scattering can also be present in X-ray emission from white dwarf binaries and binary normal stars such as RS CVn stars and colliding wind sources like Eta Car. Normal late type stars may have polarized flux from coronal flares. But X-ray polarization sensitivity is not at the level needed for single early type stars.
Stellar recipes for axion hunters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Giannotti, Maurizio [Physical Sciences, Barry University, 11300 NE 2nd Ave., Miami Shores, FL 33161 (United States); Irastorza, Igor G.; Redondo, Javier [Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad de Zaragoza, Pedro Cerbuna 12, E-50009, Zaragoza (Spain); Ringwald, Andreas; Saikawa, Ken' ichi, E-mail: mgiannotti@barry.edu, E-mail: igor.irastorza@cern.ch, E-mail: jredondo@unizar.es, E-mail: andreas.ringwald@desy.de, E-mail: kenichi.saikawa@desy.de [Theory Group, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestraße 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany)
2017-10-01
There are a number of observational hints from astrophysics which point to the existence of stellar energy losses beyond the ones accounted for by neutrino emission. These excessive energy losses may be explained by the existence of a new sub-keV mass pseudoscalar Nambu-Goldstone boson with tiny couplings to photons, electrons, and nucleons. An attractive possibility is to identify this particle with the axion—the hypothetical pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson predicted by the Peccei-Quinn solution to the strong CP problem. We explore this possibility in terms of a DFSZ-type axion and of a KSVZ-type axion/majoron, respectively. Both models allow a good global fit to the data, prefering an axion mass around 10 meV. We show that future axion experiments—the fifth force experiment ARIADNE and the helioscope IAXO—can attack the preferred mass range from the lower and higher end, respectively. An axion in this mass range can also be the main constituent of dark matter.
Stellar recipes for axion hunters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Giannotti, Maurizio [Barry Univ., Miami Shores, FL (United States). Physical Sciences; Irastorza, Igor G. [Zaragoza Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica; Redondo, Javier [Zaragoza Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Ringwald, Andreas; Saikawa, Ken' ichi [DESY, Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group
2017-08-15
There are a number of observational hints from astrophysics which point to the existence of stellar energy losses beyond the ones accounted for by neutrino emission. These excessive energy losses may be explained by the existence of a new sub-keV mass pseudoscalar Nambu-Goldstone boson with tiny couplings to photons, electrons, and nucleons. An attractive possibility is to identify this particle with the axion - the hypothetical pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson predicted by the Peccei-Quinn solution to the strong CP problem. We explore this possibility in terms of a DFSZ-type axion and of a KSVZ-type axion/majoron, respectively. Both models allow a good global fit to the data, prefering an axion mass around 10 meV. We show that future axion experiments - the fifth force experiment ARIADNE and the helioscope IAXO - can attack the preferred mass range from the lower and higher end, respectively. An axion in this mass range can also be the main constituent of dark matter.
Stellar recipes for axion hunters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giannotti, Maurizio; Ringwald, Andreas; Saikawa, Ken'ichi
2017-08-01
There are a number of observational hints from astrophysics which point to the existence of stellar energy losses beyond the ones accounted for by neutrino emission. These excessive energy losses may be explained by the existence of a new sub-keV mass pseudoscalar Nambu-Goldstone boson with tiny couplings to photons, electrons, and nucleons. An attractive possibility is to identify this particle with the axion - the hypothetical pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson predicted by the Peccei-Quinn solution to the strong CP problem. We explore this possibility in terms of a DFSZ-type axion and of a KSVZ-type axion/majoron, respectively. Both models allow a good global fit to the data, prefering an axion mass around 10 meV. We show that future axion experiments - the fifth force experiment ARIADNE and the helioscope IAXO - can attack the preferred mass range from the lower and higher end, respectively. An axion in this mass range can also be the main constituent of dark matter.
Stellar core collapse and supernova
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wilson, J.R.; Mayle, R.; Woosley, S.E.; Weaver, T.
1985-04-01
Massive stars that end their stable evolution as their iron cores collapse to a neutron star or black hole long been considered good candidates for producing Type II supernovae. For many years the outward propagation of the shock wave produced by the bounce of these iron cores has been studied as a possible mechanism for the explosion. For the most part, the results of these studies have not been particularly encouraging, except, perhaps, in the case of very low mass iron cores or very soft nuclear equations of state. The shock stalls, overwhelmed by photodisintegration and neutrino losses, and the star does not explode. More recently, slow late time heating of the envelope of the incipient neutron star has been found to be capable of rejuvenating the stalled shock and producing an explosion after all. The present paper discusses this late time heating and presents results from numerical calculations of the evolution, core collapse, and subsequent explosion of a number of recent stellar models. For the first time they all, except perhaps the most massive, explode with reasonable choices of input physics. 39 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab
Stellar convection and dynamo theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jennings, R L
1989-10-01
In considering the large scale stellar convection problem the outer layers of a star are modelled as two co-rotating plane layers coupled at a fluid/fluid interface. Heating from below causes only the upper fluid to convect, although this convection can penetrate into the lower fluid. Stability analysis is then used to find the most unstable mode of convection. With parameters appropriate to the Sun the most unstable mode is steady convection in thin cells (aspect ratio {approx equal} 0.2) filling the convection zone. There is negligible vertical motion in the lower fluid, but considerable thermal penetration, and a large jump in helicity at the interface, which has implications for dynamo theory. An {alpha}{omega} dynamo is investigated in isolation from the convection problem. Complexity is included by allowing both latitudinal and time dependence in the magnetic fields. The nonlinear dynamics of the resulting partial differential equations are analysed in considerable detail. On varying the main control parameter D (the dynamo number), many transitions of behaviour are found involving many forms of time dependence, but not chaos. Further, solutions which break equatorial symmetry are common and provide a theoretical explanation of solar observations which have this symmetry. Overall the behaviour was more complicated than expected. In particular, there were multiple stable solutions at fixed D, meaning that similar stars can have very different magnetic patterns, depending upon their history. (author).
Collapsing stellar cores and supernovae
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Epstein, R J [Nordisk Inst. for Teoretisk Atomfysik, Copenhagen (Denmark); Noorgaard, H [Nordisk Inst. for Teoretisk Atomfysik, Copenhagen (Denmark); Chicago Univ., IL (USA). Enrico Fermi Inst.); Bond, J R [Niels Bohr Institutet, Copenhagen (Denmark); California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena (USA). W.K. Kellogg Radiation Lab.)
1979-05-01
The evolution of a stellar core is studied during its final quasi-hydrostatic contraction. The core structure and the (poorly known) properties of neutron rich matter are parametrized to include most plausible cases. It is found that the density-temperature trajectory of the material in the central part of the core (the core-center) is insensitive to nearly all reasonable parameter variations. The central density at the onset of the dynamic phase of the collapse (when the core-center begins to fall away from the rest of the star) and the fraction of the emitted neutrinos which are trapped in the collapsing core-center depend quite sensitively on the properties of neutron rich matter. We estimate that the amount of energy Ecm which is imparted to the core-mantle by the neutrinos which escape from the imploded core-center can span a large range of values. For plausible choices of nuclear and model parameters Ecm can be large enough to yield a supernova event.
Diagnostics for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stratton, B.C.; Johnson, D.; Feder, R.; Fredrickson, E.; Neilson, H.; Takahashi, H.; Zarnstorf, M.; Cole, M.; Goranson, P.; Lazarus, E.; Nelson, B.
2003-01-01
The status of planning of the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) diagnostics is presented, with the emphasis on resolution of diagnostics access issues and on diagnostics required for the early phases of operation
Stellar Spectral Classification with Locality Preserving Projections ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
School of Computer and Control Engineering, North University of China,. Taiyuan 030051 ... (2013) was used to mine the association rules of a stellar ... of the graph, we then compute a transformation matrix which maps the data points to.
The relation between stellar evolution and cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tayler, R.J.
1984-01-01
Observations of star clusters combined with the theory of stellar evolution enable us to estimate the ages of stars while cosmological observations and theories give us a value for the age of the Universe. This is the most important interaction between cosmology and stellar evolution because it is clearly necessary that stars are younger than the Universe. Stellar evolution also plays an important role in relating the present chemical composition of the Universe to its original composition. The author restricts the review to a discussion of the relation between stellar evolution and the big bang cosmological theory because there is such a good qualitative agreement between the hot big bang theory and observations. (Auth.)
Evaluating Stellarator Divertor Designs with EMC3
Bader, Aaron; Anderson, D. T.; Feng, Y.; Hegna, C. C.; Talmadge, J. N.
2013-10-01
In this paper various improvements of stellarator divertor design are explored. Next step stellarator devices require innovative divertor solutions to handle heat flux loads and impurity control. One avenue is to enhance magnetic flux expansion near strike points, somewhat akin to the X-Divertor concept in Tokamaks. The effect of judiciously placed external coils on flux deposition is calculated for configurations based on the HSX stellarator. In addition, we attempt to optimize divertor plate location to facilitate the external coil placement. Alternate areas of focus involve altering edge island size to elucidate the driving physics in the edge. The 3-D nature of stellarators complicates design and necessitates analysis of new divertor structures with appropriate simulation tools. We evaluate the various configurations with the coupled codes EMC3-EIRENE, allowing us to benchmark configurations based on target heat flux, impurity behavior, radiated power, and transitions to high recycling and detached regimes. Work supported by DOE-SC0006103.
Development of the stellarator/heliotron research
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iiyoshi, A.
1991-05-01
The author reviewed the history of the development of the stellarator/heliotron system, and pointed out the important role of the radial electric field in plasma transport in helical devices. (J.P.N.)
Radiative otacity tables for 40 stellar mixtures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cox, A.N.; Tabor, J.E.
1976-01-01
Using improved methods, radiative opacities for 40 mixtures of elements are given for use in calculations of stellar structure, stellar evolution, and stellar pulsation. The major improvements over previous Los Alamos data are increased iron abundance in the composition, better allowance for the continuum depression for bound electrons, and corrections in some bound-electron energy levels. These opacities have already been widely used, and represent a relatively homogeneous set of data for stellar structures. Further improvements to include more bound-bound (line) transitions by a smearing technique and to include molecular absorptions are becoming available, and in a few years these tables, as well as all previous tables, will be outdated. At high densities the conduction of energy will dominate radiation flow, and this effect must be added separately
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Neilson, Hilding R.; Lester, John B. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H4 (Canada); Baron, Fabien; Norris, Ryan; Kloppenborg, Brian, E-mail: neilson@astro.utoronto.ca [Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 5060, Atlanta, GA 30302-5060 (United States)
2016-10-20
One of the great challenges of understanding stars is measuring their masses. The best methods for measuring stellar masses include binary interaction, asteroseismology, and stellar evolution models, but these methods are not ideal for red giant and supergiant stars. In this work, we propose a novel method for inferring stellar masses of evolved red giant and supergiant stars using interferometric and spectrophotometric observations combined with spherical model stellar atmospheres to measure what we call the stellar mass index, defined as the ratio between the stellar radius and mass. The method is based on the correlation between different measurements of angular diameter, used as a proxy for atmospheric extension, and fundamental stellar parameters. For a given star, spectrophotometry measures the Rosseland angular diameter while interferometric observations generally probe a larger limb-darkened angular diameter. The ratio of these two angular diameters is proportional to the relative extension of the stellar atmosphere, which is strongly correlated to the star’s effective temperature, radius, and mass. We show that these correlations are strong and can lead to precise measurements of stellar masses.
Does the stellar distribution flare? A comparison of stellar scale heights with LAB H I data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kalberla, P. M. W.; Kerp, J.; Dedes, L. [Argelander-Institut für Astronomie, Universität Bonn, Auf dem Hügel 71, 53121 Bonn (Germany); Haud, U., E-mail: pkalberla@astro.uni-bonn.de [Tartu Observatory, 61602 Tõravere (Estonia)
2014-10-10
The question of whether the stellar populations in the Milky Way take part in the flaring of scale heights as observed for the H I gas is a matter of debate. Standard mass models for the Milky Way assume a constant scale height for each of the different stellar distributions. However, there is mounting evidence that at least some of the stellar distributions reach, at large galactocentric distances, high altitudes, which are incompatible with a constant scale height. We discuss recent observational evidence for stellar flaring and compare it with H I data from the Leiden/Argentine/Bonn survey. Within the systemic and statistical uncertainties we find a good agreement between both.
The WEGA Stellarator: Results and Prospects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Otte, M.; Andruczyk, D.; Koenig, R.; Laqua, H. P.; Lischtschenko, O.; Marsen, S.; Schacht, J.; Podoba, Y. Y.; Wagner, F.; Warr, G. B.; Holzhauer, E.; Howard, J.; Krupnik, L.; Zhezhera, A.; Urban, J.; Preinhalter, J.
2008-01-01
In this article an overview is given on results from magnetic flux surface measurements, applied ECR heating scenarios for 2.45 GHz and 28 GHz, fluctuation and transport studies and plasma edge biasing experiments performed in the WEGA stellarator. Examples for the development of new diagnostics and the machine control system are given that will be used at Wendelstein 7-X stellarator, which is currently under construction in Greifswald
Cosmic abundances: The impact of stellar duplicity
Jorissen, A.; Van Eck, S.
2004-01-01
The mass-transfer scenario links chemical peculiarities with stellar duplicity for an increasing number of stellar classes (classical and dwarf barium stars, subgiant and giant CH stars, S stars without technetium, yellow symbiotic stars, WIRRING stars, Abell-35-like nuclei of planetary nebulae...). Despite these successes, the mass-transfer scenario still faces several problems: What is the mass-transfer mode? Why orbital elements of dwarf barium stars do not fully match those of the classic...
The Stellar-Dynamical Oeuvre James Binney
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
tribpo
of the eigenvalues of M. The variation of the stellar density from point to point .... of Σ,(ΔΕ)2 , where ∆ Ε is the change in energy that a star suffers during a binary ... could use these results to calculate the relaxation time in a stellar system if he .... the region of enhanced density that tails behind it like a wake behind a ship. By.
Weakly interacting massive particles and stellar structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bouquet, A.
1988-01-01
The existence of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) may solve both the dark matter problem and the solar neutrino problem. Such particles affect the energy transport in the stellar cores and change the stellar structure. We present the results of an analytic approximation to compute these effects in a self-consistent way. These results can be applied to many different stars, but we focus on the decrease of the 8 B neutrino flux in the case of the Sun
Close stellar encounters in globular clusters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bailyn, C.D.
1989-01-01
Stellar encounters are expected to produce a variety of interesting objects in the cores of globular clusters, either through the formation of binaries by tidal capture, or direct collisions. Here, I describe several attempts to observe the products of stellar encounters. In particular, the use of color maps has demonstrated the existence of a color gradient in the core of M15, which seems to be caused by a population of faint blue objects concentrated towards the cluster center. (author)
On plasma radiative properties in stellar conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turck-Chieze, S.; Delahaye, F.; Gilles, D.; Loisel, G.; Piau, L.; Loisel, G.
2009-01-01
The knowledge of stellar evolution is evolving quickly thanks to an increased number of opportunities to scrutinize the stellar internal plasma properties by stellar seismology and by 1D and 3D simulations. These new tools help us to introduce the internal dynamical phenomena in stellar modeling. A proper inclusion of these processes supposes a real confidence in the microscopic physics used, partly checked by solar or stellar acoustic modes. In the present paper we first recall which fundamental physics has been recently verified by helioseismology. Then we recall that opacity is an important ingredient of the secular evolution of stars and we point out why it is necessary to measure absorption coefficients and degrees of ionization in the laboratory for some well identified astrophysical conditions. We examine two specific experimental conditions which are accessible to large laser facilities and are suitable to solve some interesting questions of the stellar community: are the solar internal radiative interactions properly estimated and what is the proper role of the opacity in the excitation of the non-radial modes in the envelop of the β Cepheids and the Be stars? At the end of the paper we point out the difficulties of the experimental approach that we need to overcome. (authors)
Kelly, Aaron; Brackbill, Nora; Markland, Thomas E
2015-03-07
In this article, we show how Ehrenfest mean field theory can be made both a more accurate and efficient method to treat nonadiabatic quantum dynamics by combining it with the generalized quantum master equation framework. The resulting mean field generalized quantum master equation (MF-GQME) approach is a non-perturbative and non-Markovian theory to treat open quantum systems without any restrictions on the form of the Hamiltonian that it can be applied to. By studying relaxation dynamics in a wide range of dynamical regimes, typical of charge and energy transfer, we show that MF-GQME provides a much higher accuracy than a direct application of mean field theory. In addition, these increases in accuracy are accompanied by computational speed-ups of between one and two orders of magnitude that become larger as the system becomes more nonadiabatic. This combination of quantum-classical theory and master equation techniques thus makes it possible to obtain the accuracy of much more computationally expensive approaches at a cost lower than even mean field dynamics, providing the ability to treat the quantum dynamics of atomistic condensed phase systems for long times.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kelly, Aaron; Markland, Thomas E., E-mail: tmarkland@stanford.edu [Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Brackbill, Nora [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)
2015-03-07
In this article, we show how Ehrenfest mean field theory can be made both a more accurate and efficient method to treat nonadiabatic quantum dynamics by combining it with the generalized quantum master equation framework. The resulting mean field generalized quantum master equation (MF-GQME) approach is a non-perturbative and non-Markovian theory to treat open quantum systems without any restrictions on the form of the Hamiltonian that it can be applied to. By studying relaxation dynamics in a wide range of dynamical regimes, typical of charge and energy transfer, we show that MF-GQME provides a much higher accuracy than a direct application of mean field theory. In addition, these increases in accuracy are accompanied by computational speed-ups of between one and two orders of magnitude that become larger as the system becomes more nonadiabatic. This combination of quantum-classical theory and master equation techniques thus makes it possible to obtain the accuracy of much more computationally expensive approaches at a cost lower than even mean field dynamics, providing the ability to treat the quantum dynamics of atomistic condensed phase systems for long times.
Olive, David J
2017-01-01
This text covers both multiple linear regression and some experimental design models. The text uses the response plot to visualize the model and to detect outliers, does not assume that the error distribution has a known parametric distribution, develops prediction intervals that work when the error distribution is unknown, suggests bootstrap hypothesis tests that may be useful for inference after variable selection, and develops prediction regions and large sample theory for the multivariate linear regression model that has m response variables. A relationship between multivariate prediction regions and confidence regions provides a simple way to bootstrap confidence regions. These confidence regions often provide a practical method for testing hypotheses. There is also a chapter on generalized linear models and generalized additive models. There are many R functions to produce response and residual plots, to simulate prediction intervals and hypothesis tests, to detect outliers, and to choose response trans...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alcaraz, J.
2001-01-01
After several years of study e''+ e''- linear colliders in the TeV range have emerged as the major and optimal high-energy physics projects for the post-LHC era. These notes summarize the present status form the main accelerator and detector features to their physics potential. The LHC era. These notes summarize the present status, from the main accelerator and detector features to their physics potential. The LHC is expected to provide first discoveries in the new energy domain, whereas an e''+ e''- linear collider in the 500 GeV-1 TeV will be able to complement it to an unprecedented level of precision in any possible areas: Higgs, signals beyond the SM and electroweak measurements. It is evident that the Linear Collider program will constitute a major step in the understanding of the nature of the new physics beyond the Standard Model. (Author) 22 refs
Edwards, Harold M
1995-01-01
In his new undergraduate textbook, Harold M Edwards proposes a radically new and thoroughly algorithmic approach to linear algebra Originally inspired by the constructive philosophy of mathematics championed in the 19th century by Leopold Kronecker, the approach is well suited to students in the computer-dominated late 20th century Each proof is an algorithm described in English that can be translated into the computer language the class is using and put to work solving problems and generating new examples, making the study of linear algebra a truly interactive experience Designed for a one-semester course, this text adopts an algorithmic approach to linear algebra giving the student many examples to work through and copious exercises to test their skills and extend their knowledge of the subject Students at all levels will find much interactive instruction in this text while teachers will find stimulating examples and methods of approach to the subject
Hydrodynamic stability and stellar oscillations
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
in 1961, is a standard reference on linear stability theory. It gives a ... perturbations about the equilibrium state are constants and the x, y, t dependence of the ..... anism was proposed for the formation of X-ray binaries in globular clusters. They.
Evolution of the Stellar Mass–Metallicity Relation. I. Galaxies in the z ∼ 0.4 Cluster Cl0024
Leethochawalit, Nicha; Kirby, Evan N.; Moran, Sean M.; Ellis, Richard S.; Treu, Tommaso
2018-03-01
We present the stellar mass–stellar metallicity relationship (MZR) in the galaxy cluster Cl0024+1654 at z ∼ 0.4 using full-spectrum stellar population synthesis modeling of individual quiescent galaxies. The lower limit of our stellar mass range is M * = 109.7 M ⊙, the lowest galaxy mass at which individual stellar metallicity has been measured beyond the local universe. We report a detection of an evolution of the stellar MZR with observed redshift at 0.037 ± 0.007 dex per Gyr, consistent with the predictions from hydrodynamical simulations. Additionally, we find that the evolution of the stellar MZR with observed redshift can be explained by an evolution of the stellar MZR with the formation time of galaxies, i.e., when the single stellar population (SSP)-equivalent ages of galaxies are taken into account. This behavior is consistent with stars forming out of gas that also has an MZR with a normalization that decreases with redshift. Lastly, we find that over the observed mass range, the MZR can be described by a linear function with a shallow slope ([{Fe}/{{H}}]\\propto (0.16+/- 0.03){log}{M}* ). The slope suggests that galaxy feedback, in terms of mass-loading factor, might be mass-independent over the observed mass and redshift range.
Use of the stellarator expansion to investigate plasma equilibrium in modular stellarators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anania, G.; Johnson, J.L.; Weimer, K.E.
1982-11-01
A numerical code utilizing a large-aspect ratio, small-helical-distortion expansion is developed and used to investigate the effect of plasma currents on stellarator equilibrium. Application to modular stellarator configurations shows that a large rotational transform, and hence large coil deformation, is needed to achieve high-beta equilibria
Flow of CO2 ethanol and of CO2 methanol in a non-adiabatic microfluidic T-junction at high pressures
Blanch Ojea, R.; Tiggelaar, Roald M.; Pallares, J.; Grau, F.X.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.
2012-01-01
In this work, an experimental investigation of the single- and multiphase flows of two sets of fluids, CO2–ethanol and CO2–methanol, in a non-adiabatic microfluidic T-junction is presented. The operating conditions ranged from 7 to 18 MPa, and from 294 to 474 K. The feed mass fraction of CO2 in the
Stellar Firework in a Whirlwind
2007-09-01
VLT Image of Supernova in Beautiful Spiral Galaxy NGC 1288 Stars do not like to be alone. Indeed, most stars are members of a binary system, in which two stars circle around each other in an apparently never-ending cosmic ballet. But sometimes, things can go wrong. When the dancing stars are too close to each other, one of them can start devouring its partner. If the vampire star is a white dwarf - a burned-out star that was once like our Sun - this greed can lead to a cosmic catastrophe: the white dwarf explodes as a Type Ia supernova. In July 2006, ESO's Very Large Telescope took images of such a stellar firework in the galaxy NGC 1288. The supernova - designated SN 2006dr - was at its peak brightness, shining as bright as the entire galaxy itself, bearing witness to the amount of energy released. ESO PR Photo 39/07 ESO PR Photo 39/07 SN 2006dr in NGC 1288 NGC 1288 is a rather spectacular spiral galaxy, seen almost face-on and showing multiple spiral arms pirouetting around the centre. Bearing a strong resemblance to the beautiful spiral galaxy NGC 1232, it is located 200 million light-years away from our home Galaxy, the Milky Way. Two main arms emerge from the central regions and then progressively split into other arms when moving further away. A small bar of stars and gas runs across the centre of the galaxy. The first images of NGC 1288, obtained during the commissioning period of the FORS instrument on ESO's VLT in 1998, were of such high quality that they have allowed astronomers [1] to carry out a quantitative analysis of the morphology of the galaxy. They found that NGC 1288 is most probably surrounded by a large dark matter halo. The appearance and number of spiral arms are indeed directly related to the amount of dark matter in the galaxy's halo. The supernova was first spotted by amateur astronomer Berto Monard. On the night of 17 July 2006, Monard used his 30-cm telescope in the suburbs of Pretoria in South Africa and discovered the supernova as an
Karloff, Howard
1991-01-01
To this reviewer’s knowledge, this is the first book accessible to the upper division undergraduate or beginning graduate student that surveys linear programming from the Simplex Method…via the Ellipsoid algorithm to Karmarkar’s algorithm. Moreover, its point of view is algorithmic and thus it provides both a history and a case history of work in complexity theory. The presentation is admirable; Karloff's style is informal (even humorous at times) without sacrificing anything necessary for understanding. Diagrams (including horizontal brackets that group terms) aid in providing clarity. The end-of-chapter notes are helpful...Recommended highly for acquisition, since it is not only a textbook, but can also be used for independent reading and study. —Choice Reviews The reader will be well served by reading the monograph from cover to cover. The author succeeds in providing a concise, readable, understandable introduction to modern linear programming. —Mathematics of Computing This is a textbook intend...
Electron cyclotron current drive in the Wendelstein 7-AS stellarator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maassberg, H [Max-Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Rome, M [I.N.F.N., I.N.F.M., Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Erckmann, V [Max-Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Geiger, J [Max-Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Laqua, H P [Max-Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Marushchenko, N B [Max-Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany)
2005-08-01
High power electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) experiments in the W7-AS stellarator are analysed. In these net-current-free discharges, the ECCD and the bootstrap current are feedback controlled by an inductive current. Based on the measured density and temperature profiles, the neoclassical predictions of the bootstrap (with the ambipolar radial electric field taken into account) and the inductive current densities as well as the ECCD from the linear adjoint approach with trapped particles included are calculated. For stationary conditions, the current balance is checked. Launch-angle scans at fixed density as well as density scans at fixed launch-angle are described. Low-frequency MHD mode activity is obtained for strong co-ECCD, and for counter-ECCD a ' {iota}-bar approx.= 0 feature' with complete loss of the central confinement is found. The linear ECCD prediction is in reasonable agreement with the current balance except for low-density discharges with highly peaked on-axis deposition, where the ECCD predicted from linear theory exceeds by a factor of about 2 the one from the current balance. Since the bootstrap current is well balanced by the inductive current without ECCD, the linear ECCD overestimate is compared with nonlinear Fokker-Planck (FP) simulations, where two different power loss models are used to reach steady state. These volume-averaged FP simulations cannot describe the ECCD degradation at the low densities.
Electron cyclotron current drive in the Wendelstein 7-AS stellarator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maassberg, H; Rome, M; Erckmann, V; Geiger, J; Laqua, H P; Marushchenko, N B
2005-01-01
High power electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) experiments in the W7-AS stellarator are analysed. In these net-current-free discharges, the ECCD and the bootstrap current are feedback controlled by an inductive current. Based on the measured density and temperature profiles, the neoclassical predictions of the bootstrap (with the ambipolar radial electric field taken into account) and the inductive current densities as well as the ECCD from the linear adjoint approach with trapped particles included are calculated. For stationary conditions, the current balance is checked. Launch-angle scans at fixed density as well as density scans at fixed launch-angle are described. Low-frequency MHD mode activity is obtained for strong co-ECCD, and for counter-ECCD a ' ι-bar approx.= 0 feature' with complete loss of the central confinement is found. The linear ECCD prediction is in reasonable agreement with the current balance except for low-density discharges with highly peaked on-axis deposition, where the ECCD predicted from linear theory exceeds by a factor of about 2 the one from the current balance. Since the bootstrap current is well balanced by the inductive current without ECCD, the linear ECCD overestimate is compared with nonlinear Fokker-Planck (FP) simulations, where two different power loss models are used to reach steady state. These volume-averaged FP simulations cannot describe the ECCD degradation at the low densities
sunstardb: A Database for the Study of Stellar Magnetism and the Solar-stellar Connection
Egeland, Ricky
2018-05-01
The “solar-stellar connection” began as a relatively small field of research focused on understanding the processes that generate magnetic fields in stars and sometimes lead to a cyclic pattern of long-term variability in activity, as demonstrated by our Sun. This area of study has recently become more broadly pertinent to questions of exoplanet habitability and exo-space weather, as well as stellar evolution. In contrast to other areas of stellar research, individual stars in the solar-stellar connection often have a distinct identity and character in the literature, due primarily to the rarity of the decades-long time-series that are necessary for studying stellar activity cycles. Furthermore, the underlying stellar dynamo is not well understood theoretically, and is thought to be sensitive to several stellar properties, e.g., luminosity, differential rotation, and the depth of the convection zone, which in turn are often parameterized by other more readily available properties. Relevant observations are scattered throughout the literature and existing stellar databases, and consolidating information for new studies is a tedious and laborious exercise. To accelerate research in this area I developed sunstardb, a relational database of stellar properties and magnetic activity proxy time-series keyed by individual named stars. The organization of the data eliminates the need for the problematic catalog cross-matching operations inherent when building an analysis data set from heterogeneous sources. In this article I describe the principles behind sunstardb, the data structures and programming interfaces, as well as use cases from solar-stellar connection research.
Indicators of Mass in Spherical Stellar Atmospheres
Lester, John B.; Dinshaw, Rayomond; Neilson, Hilding R.
2013-04-01
Mass is the most important stellar parameter, but it is not directly observable for a single star. Spherical model stellar atmospheres are explicitly characterized by their luminosity ( L⋆), mass ( M⋆), and radius ( R⋆), and observations can now determine directly L⋆ and R⋆. We computed spherical model atmospheres for red giants and for red supergiants holding L⋆ and R⋆ constant at characteristic values for each type of star but varying M⋆, and we searched the predicted flux spectra and surface-brightness distributions for features that changed with mass. For both stellar classes we found similar signatures of the stars’ mass in both the surface-brightness distribution and the flux spectrum. The spectral features have been use previously to determine log 10(g), and now that the luminosity and radius of a non-binary red giant or red supergiant can be observed, spherical model stellar atmospheres can be used to determine a star’s mass from currently achievable spectroscopy. The surface-brightness variations of mass are slightly smaller than can be resolved by current stellar imaging, but they offer the advantage of being less sensitive to the detailed chemical composition of the atmosphere.
Stellarator Coil Design and Plasma Sensitivity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ku, Long-Poe; Boozer, Allen H.
2010-01-01
The rich information contained in the plasma response to external magnetic perturbations can be used to help design stellarator coils more effectively. We demonstrate the feasibility by first devel oping a simple, direct method to study perturbations in stellarators that do not break stellarator symmetry and periodicity. The method applies a small perturbation to the plasma boundary and evaluates the resulting perturbed free-boundary equilibrium to build up a sensitivity matrix for the important physics attributes of the underlying configuration. Using this sensitivity information, design methods for better stellarator coils are then developed. The procedure and a proof-of-principle application are given that (1) determine the spatial distributions of external normal magnetic field at the location of the unperturbed plasma boundary to which the plasma properties are most sen- sitive, (2) determine the distributions of external normal magnetic field that can be produced most efficiently by distant coils, (3) choose the ratios of the magnitudes of the the efficiently produced magnetic distributions so the sensitive plasma properties can be controlled. Using these methods, sets of modular coils are found for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) that are either smoother or can be located much farther from the plasma boundary than those of the present design.
Development of code PRETOR for stellarator simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dies, J.; Fontanet, J.; Fontdecaba, J.M.; Castejon, F.; Alejandre, C.
1998-01-01
The Department de Fisica i Enginyeria Nuclear (DFEN) of the UPC has some experience in the development of the transport code PRETOR. This code has been validated with shots of DIII-D, JET and TFTR, it has also been used in the simulation of operational scenarios of ITER fast burnt termination. Recently, the association EURATOM-CIEMAT has started the operation of the TJ-II stellarator. Due to the need of validating the results given by others transport codes applied to stellarators and because all of them made some approximations, as a averaging magnitudes in each magnetic surface, it was thought suitable to adapt the PRETOR code to devices without axial symmetry, like stellarators, which is very suitable for the specific needs of the study of TJ-II. Several modifications are required in PRETOR; the main concerns to the models of: magnetic equilibrium, geometry and transport of energy and particles. In order to solve the complex magnetic equilibrium geometry the powerful numerical code VMEC has been used. This code gives the magnetic surface shape as a Fourier series in terms of the harmonics (m,n). Most of the geometric magnitudes are also obtained from the VMEC results file. The energy and particle transport models will be replaced by other phenomenological models that are better adapted to stellarator simulation. Using the proposed models, it is pretended to reproduce experimental data available from present stellarators, given especial attention to the TJ-II of the association EURATOM-CIEMAT. (Author)
ON THE ORIGIN OF STELLAR MASSES
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krumholz, Mark R.
2011-01-01
It has been a longstanding problem to determine, as far as possible, the characteristic masses of stars in terms of fundamental constants; the almost complete invariance of this mass as a function of the star-forming environment suggests that this should be possible. Here I provide such a calculation. The typical stellar mass is set by the characteristic fragment mass in a star-forming cloud, which depends on the cloud's density and temperature structure. Except in the very early universe, the latter is determined mainly by the radiation released as matter falls onto seed protostars. The energy yield from this process is ultimately set by the properties of deuterium burning in protostellar cores, which determines the stars' radii. I show that it is possible to combine these considerations to compute a characteristic stellar mass almost entirely in terms of fundamental constants, with an extremely weak residual dependence on the interstellar pressure and metallicity. This result not only explains the invariance of stellar masses, it resolves a second mystery: why fragmentation of a cold, low-density interstellar cloud, a process with no obvious dependence on the properties of nuclear reactions, happens to select a stellar mass scale such that stellar cores can ignite hydrogen. Finally, the weak residual dependence on the interstellar pressure and metallicity may explain recent observational hints of a smaller characteristic mass in the high-pressure, high-metallicity cores of giant elliptical galaxies.
Collisionless microinstabilities in stellarators. II. Numerical simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Proll, J. H. E.; Xanthopoulos, P.; Helander, P.
2013-01-01
Microinstabilities exhibit a rich variety of behavior in stellarators due to the many degrees of freedom in the magnetic geometry. It has recently been found that certain stellarators (quasi-isodynamic ones with maximum-J geometry) are partly resilient to trapped-particle instabilities, because fast-bouncing particles tend to extract energy from these modes near marginal stability. In reality, stellarators are never perfectly quasi-isodynamic, and the question thus arises whether they still benefit from enhanced stability. Here, the stability properties of Wendelstein 7-X and a more quasi-isodynamic configuration, QIPC, are investigated numerically and compared with the National Compact Stellarator Experiment and the DIII-D tokamak. In gyrokinetic simulations, performed with the gyrokinetic code GENE in the electrostatic and collisionless approximation, ion-temperature-gradient modes, trapped-electron modes, and mixed-type instabilities are studied. Wendelstein 7-X and QIPC exhibit significantly reduced growth rates for all simulations that include kinetic electrons, and the latter are indeed found to be stabilizing in the energy budget. These results suggest that imperfectly optimized stellarators can retain most of the stabilizing properties predicted for perfect maximum-J configurations
Review of stellarator research world wide
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shonet, J.L.
1987-01-01
The world-wide effort in stellarators has evolved considerably during the past few years. Stellarator facilities are located in the Australia, Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, the Soviet Union, Spain, the United Kingdom and the United States. Dimensions of stellarators range from less than 20 centimeters in major radius to more than 2 meters, and magnetic field values between 0.2 Tesla to more than 3.0 Tesla. Stellarators are made in a variety of magnetic configurations with wide ranges of toroidal aspect ratios and methods of generating the stellarator magnetic surfaces. In particular, continuous helical coils, twisted modular coils, or twisted vacuum chambers all provide different means to generate nested toroidal magnetic surfaces without the need for currents flowing in the plasma. The goal of present day experiments is to accumulate a physics data base. This is being done by increasing electron and ion temperatures with non-ohmic heating, by transport and scaling studies considering neoclassical scaling, global scaling, effects of electric fields, the bootstrap current and magnetic islands. Higher betas are being attempted by designing suitable magnetic configurations, pellet injection and/or minimizing transport losses. Plasma-wall interactions and particle control are being examined by divertor, pumped-limiter and carbonization experiments
The Stellar Imager (SI)"Vision Mission"
Carpenter, Ken; Danchi, W.; Leitner, J.; Liu, A.; Lyon, R.; Mazzuca, L.; Moe, R.; Chenette, D.; Karovska, M.; Allen, R.
2004-01-01
The Stellar Imager (SI) is a "Vision" mission in the Sun-Earth Connection (SEC) Roadmap, conceived for the purpose of understanding the effects of stellar magnetic fields, the dynamos that generate them, and the internal structure and dynamics of the stars in which they exist. The ultimate goal is to achieve the best possible forecasting of solar/stellar magnetic activity and its impact on life in the Universe. The science goals of SI require an ultra-high angular resolution, at ultraviolet wavelengths, on the order of 100 micro-arcsec and thus baselines on the order of 0.5 km. These requirements call for a large, multi-spacecraft (less than 20) imaging interferometer, utilizing precision formation flying in a stable environment, such as in a Lissajous orbit around the Sun-Earth L2 point. SI's resolution will make it an invaluable resource for many other areas of astrophysics, including studies of AGN s, supernovae, cataclysmic variables, young stellar objects, QSO's, and stellar black holes. ongoing mission concept and technology development studies for SI. These studies are designed to refine the mission requirements for the science goals, define a Design Reference Mission, perform trade studies of selected major technical and architectural issues, improve the existing technology roadmap, and explore the details of deployment and operations, as well as the possible roles of astronauts and/or robots in construction and servicing of the facility.
Geometric phase modulation for stellar interferometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roy, M.; Boschung, B.; Tango, W.J.; Davis, J.
2002-01-01
Full text: In a long baseline optical interferometer, the fringe visibility is normally measured by modulation of the optical path difference between the two arms of the instruments. To obtain accurate measurements, the spectral bandwidth must be narrow, limiting the sensitivity of the technique. The application of geometric phase modulation technique to stellar interferometry has been proposed by Tango and Davis. Modulation of the geometric phase has the potential for improving the sensitivity of optical interferometers, and specially the Sydney University Stellar Interferometer (SUSI), by allowing broad band modulation of the light signals. This is because a modulator that changes the geometric phase of the signal is, in principle, achromatic. Another advantage of using such a phase modulator is that it can be placed in the common path traversed by the two orthogonally polarized beams emerging from the beam combiner in a stellar interferometer. Thus the optical components of the modulator do not have to be interferometric quality and could be relatively easily introduced into SUSI. We have investigated the proposed application in a laboratory-based experiment using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with white-light source. This can be seen as a small model of an amplitude stellar interferometer where the light source takes the place of the distant star and two corner mirrors replaces the entrance pupils of the stellar interferometer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Castro, A., E-mail: acastro@bifi.es [Institute for Biocomputation and Physics of Complex Systems (BIFI) and Zaragoza Scientific Center for Advanced Modelling (ZCAM), University of Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Isla, M. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Atomica y Optica, Universidad de Valladolid, 47005 Valladolid (Spain); Martinez, Jose I. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, ES-28049 Madrid (Spain); Alonso, J.A. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Atomica y Optica, Universidad de Valladolid, 47005 Valladolid (Spain)
2012-05-03
Graphical abstract: Two trajectories for the collision of a proton with the Lithium tetramer. On the left, the proton is scattered away, and a Li{sub 2} molecule plus two isolated Lithium atoms result. On the right, the proton is captured and a LiH molecule is created. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Scattering of a proton with Lithium clusters described from first principles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Description based on non-adiabatic molecular dynamics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The electronic structure is described with time-dependent density-functional theory. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method allows to discern reaction channels depending on initial parameters. - Abstract: We have employed non-adiabatic molecular dynamics based on time-dependent density-functional theory to characterize the scattering behavior of a proton with the Li{sub 4} cluster. This technique assumes a classical approximation for the nuclei, effectively coupled to the quantum electronic system. This time-dependent theoretical framework accounts, by construction, for possible charge transfer and ionization processes, as well as electronic excitations, which may play a role in the non-adiabatic regime. We have varied the incidence angles in order to analyze the possible reaction patterns. The initial proton kinetic energy of 10 eV is sufficiently high to induce non-adiabatic effects. For all the incidence angles considered the proton is scattered away, except in one interesting case in which one of the Lithium atoms captures it, forming a LiH molecule. This theoretical formalism proves to be a powerful, effective and predictive tool for the analysis of non-adiabatic processes at the nanoscale.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xie, Changjian [Key Laboratory of Mesoscopic Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Institute of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhu, Xiaolei; Yarkony, David R., E-mail: jianyi.m@gmail.com, E-mail: yarkony@jhu.edu, E-mail: dqxie@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: hguo@unm.edu [Department of Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Ma, Jianyi, E-mail: jianyi.m@gmail.com, E-mail: yarkony@jhu.edu, E-mail: dqxie@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: hguo@unm.edu [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610065 (China); Xie, Daiqian, E-mail: jianyi.m@gmail.com, E-mail: yarkony@jhu.edu, E-mail: dqxie@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: hguo@unm.edu [Key Laboratory of Mesoscopic Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Institute of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Guo, Hua, E-mail: jianyi.m@gmail.com, E-mail: yarkony@jhu.edu, E-mail: dqxie@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: hguo@unm.edu [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States)
2015-03-07
Non-adiabatic processes play an important role in photochemistry, but the mechanism for conversion of electronic energy to chemical energy is still poorly understood. To explore the possibility of vibrational control of non-adiabatic dynamics in a prototypical photoreaction, namely, the A-band photodissociation of NH{sub 3}(X{sup ~1}A{sub 1}), full-dimensional state-to-state quantum dynamics of symmetric or antisymmetric stretch excited NH{sub 3}(X{sup ~1}A{sub 1}) is investigated on recently developed coupled diabatic potential energy surfaces. The experimentally observed H atom kinetic energy distributions are reproduced. However, contrary to previous inferences, the NH{sub 2}(A{sup ~2}A{sub 1})/NH{sub 2}(X{sup ~2}B{sub 1}) branching ratio is found to be small regardless of the initial preparation of NH{sub 3}(X{sup ~1}A{sub 1}), while the internal state distribution of the preeminent fragment, NH{sub 2}(X{sup ~2}B{sub 1}), is found to depend strongly on the initial vibrational excitation of NH{sub 3}(X{sup ~1}A{sub 1}). The slow H atoms in photodissociation mediated by the antisymmetric stretch fundamental state are due to energy sequestered in the internally excited NH{sub 2}(X{sup ~2}B{sub 1}) fragment, rather than in NH{sub 2}(A{sup ~2}A{sub 1}) as previously proposed. The high internal excitation of the NH{sub 2}(X{sup ~2}B{sub 1}) fragment is attributed to the torques exerted on the molecule as it passes through the conical intersection seam to the ground electronic state of NH{sub 3}. Thus in this system, contrary to previous assertions, the control of electronic state branching by selective excitation of ground state vibrational modes is concluded to be ineffective. The juxtaposition of precise quantum mechanical results with complementary results based on quasi-classical surface hopping trajectories provides significant insights into the non-adiabatic process.
Stellar Wakes from Dark Matter Subhalos.
Buschmann, Malte; Kopp, Joachim; Safdi, Benjamin R; Wu, Chih-Liang
2018-05-25
We propose a novel method utilizing stellar kinematic data to detect low-mass substructure in the Milky Way's dark matter halo. By probing characteristic wakes that a passing dark matter subhalo leaves in the phase-space distribution of ambient halo stars, we estimate sensitivities down to subhalo masses of ∼10^{7} M_{⊙} or below. The detection of such subhalos would have implications for dark matter and cosmological models that predict modifications to the halo-mass function at low halo masses. We develop an analytic formalism for describing the perturbed stellar phase-space distributions, and we demonstrate through idealized simulations the ability to detect subhalos using the phase-space model and a likelihood framework. Our method complements existing methods for low-mass subhalo searches, such as searches for gaps in stellar streams, in that we can localize the positions and velocities of the subhalos today.
Stellar Wakes from Dark Matter Subhalos
Buschmann, Malte; Kopp, Joachim; Safdi, Benjamin R.; Wu, Chih-Liang
2018-05-01
We propose a novel method utilizing stellar kinematic data to detect low-mass substructure in the Milky Way's dark matter halo. By probing characteristic wakes that a passing dark matter subhalo leaves in the phase-space distribution of ambient halo stars, we estimate sensitivities down to subhalo masses of ˜107 M⊙ or below. The detection of such subhalos would have implications for dark matter and cosmological models that predict modifications to the halo-mass function at low halo masses. We develop an analytic formalism for describing the perturbed stellar phase-space distributions, and we demonstrate through idealized simulations the ability to detect subhalos using the phase-space model and a likelihood framework. Our method complements existing methods for low-mass subhalo searches, such as searches for gaps in stellar streams, in that we can localize the positions and velocities of the subhalos today.
Effect of finite β on stellarator transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mynick, H.E.
1984-04-01
A theory of the modification of stellarator transport due to the presence of finite plasma pressure is developed, and applied to a range of stellarator configurations. For many configurations of interest, plasma transport can change by more than an order of magnitude in the progression from zero pressure to the equilibrium β limit of the device. Thus, a stellarator with transport-optimized vacuum fields can have poor confinement at the desired operating β. Without an external compensating field, increasing β tends to degrade confinement, unless the initial field structure is very carefully chosen. The theory permits one to correctly determine this vacuum structure, in terms of the desired structure of the field at a prescribed operating β. With a compensating external field, the deleterious effect of finite β on transport can be partially eliminated
Recent advances in modeling stellar interiors (u)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guzik, Joyce Ann [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2010-01-01
Advances in stellar interior modeling are being driven by new data from large-scale surveys and high-precision photometric and spectroscopic observations. Here we focus on single stars in normal evolutionary phases; we will not discuss the many advances in modeling star formation, interacting binaries, supernovae, or neutron stars. We review briefly: (1) updates to input physics of stellar models; (2) progress in two and three-dimensional evolution and hydrodynamic models; (3) insights from oscillation data used to infer stellar interior structure and validate model predictions (asteroseismology). We close by highlighting a few outstanding problems, e.g., the driving mechanisms for hybrid {gamma} Dor/{delta} Sct star pulsations, the cause of giant eruptions seen in luminous blue variables such as {eta} Car and P Cyg, and the solar abundance problem.
Electron Capture Cross Sections for Stellar Nucleosynthesis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. G. Giannaka
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In the first stage of this work, we perform detailed calculations for the cross sections of the electron capture on nuclei under laboratory conditions. Towards this aim we exploit the advantages of a refined version of the proton-neutron quasiparticle random-phase approximation (pn-QRPA and carry out state-by-state evaluations of the rates of exclusive processes that lead to any of the accessible transitions within the chosen model space. In the second stage of our present study, we translate the abovementioned e--capture cross sections to the stellar environment ones by inserting the temperature dependence through a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution describing the stellar electron gas. As a concrete nuclear target we use the 66Zn isotope, which belongs to the iron group nuclei and plays prominent role in stellar nucleosynthesis at core collapse supernovae environment.
Equilibrium reconstruction in stellarators: V3FIT
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hanson, J.D.; Knowlton, S.F. [Physics Department, Auburn University, Auburn, AL (United States); Hirshman, S.P.; Lazarus, E.A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lao, L.L. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)
2003-07-01
The first section describes a general response function formalism for computing stellarator magnetic diagnostic signals, which is the first step in developing a reconstruction capability. The approach parallels that used in the EFIT two-dimensional (2-D) equilibrium reconstruction code. The second section describes the two codes we have written, V3RFUN and V3POST. V3RFUN computes the response functions for a specified magnetic diagnostic coil, and V3POST uses the response functions calculated by V3RFUN, along with the plasma current information supplied by the equilibrium code VMEC, to compute the expected magnetic diagnostic signals. These two codes are currently being used to design magnetic diagnostic for the NCSX stellarator (at PPPL) and the CTH toroidal hybrid stellarator (at Auburn University). The last section of the paper describes plans for the V3FIT code. (orig.)
The low-luminosity stellar mass function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kroupa, Pavel; Tout, C.A.; Gilmore, Gerard
1990-01-01
The stellar mass function for low-mass stars is constrained using the stellar luminosity function and the slope of the mass-luminosity relation. We investigate the range of mass functions for stars with absolute visual magnitude fainter than M V ≅ +5 which are consistent with both the local luminosity function and the rather poorly determined mass-absolute visual magnitude relation. Points of inflexion in the mass-luminosity relation exist because of the effects of H - , H 2 and of other molecules on the opacity and equation of state. The first two of these correspond to absolute magnitudes M V ≅ +7 and M V ≅ +12, respectively, at which structure is evident in the stellar luminosity function (a flattening and a maximum, respectively). Combining the mass-luminosity relation which shows these inflexion points with a peaked luminosity function, we test smooth mass functions in the mass range 0.9-0.1 the solar mass. (author)
2005-03-01
Summary Super star clusters are groups of hundreds of thousands of very young stars packed into an unbelievably small volume. They represent the most extreme environments in which stars and planets can form. Until now, super star clusters were only known to exist very far away, mostly in pairs or groups of interacting galaxies. Now, however, a team of European astronomers [1] have used ESO's telescopes to uncover such a monster object within our own Galaxy, the Milky Way, almost, but not quite, in our own backyard! The newly found massive structure is hidden behind a large cloud of dust and gas and this is why it took so long to unveil its true nature. It is known as "Westerlund 1" and is a thousand times closer than any other super star cluster known so far. It is close enough that astronomers may now probe its structure in some detail. Westerlund 1 contains hundreds of very massive stars, some shining with a brilliance of almost one million suns and some two-thousand times larger than the Sun (as large as the orbit of Saturn)! Indeed, if the Sun were located at the heart of this remarkable cluster, our sky would be full of hundreds of stars as bright as the full Moon. Westerlund 1 is a most unique natural laboratory for the study of extreme stellar physics, helping astronomers to find out how the most massive stars in our Galaxy live and die. From their observations, the astronomers conclude that this extreme cluster most probably contains no less than 100,000 times the mass of the Sun, and all of its stars are located within a region less than 6 light-years across. Westerlund 1 thus appears to be the most massive compact young cluster yet identified in the Milky Way Galaxy. PR Photo 09a/05: The Super Star Cluster Westerlund 1 (2.2m MPG/ESO + WFI) PR Photo 09b/05: Properties of Young Massive Clusters Super Star Clusters Stars are generally born in small groups, mostly in so-called "open clusters" that typically contain a few hundred stars. From a wide range of
The Stellar IMF from Isothermal MHD Turbulence
Haugbølle, Troels; Padoan, Paolo; Nordlund, Åke
2018-02-01
We address the turbulent fragmentation scenario for the origin of the stellar initial mass function (IMF), using a large set of numerical simulations of randomly driven supersonic MHD turbulence. The turbulent fragmentation model successfully predicts the main features of the observed stellar IMF assuming an isothermal equation of state without any stellar feedback. As a test of the model, we focus on the case of a magnetized isothermal gas, neglecting stellar feedback, while pursuing a large dynamic range in both space and timescales covering the full spectrum of stellar masses from brown dwarfs to massive stars. Our simulations represent a generic 4 pc region within a typical Galactic molecular cloud, with a mass of 3000 M ⊙ and an rms velocity 10 times the isothermal sound speed and 5 times the average Alfvén velocity, in agreement with observations. We achieve a maximum resolution of 50 au and a maximum duration of star formation of 4.0 Myr, forming up to a thousand sink particles whose mass distribution closely matches the observed stellar IMF. A large set of medium-size simulations is used to test the sink particle algorithm, while larger simulations are used to test the numerical convergence of the IMF and the dependence of the IMF turnover on physical parameters predicted by the turbulent fragmentation model. We find a clear trend toward numerical convergence and strong support for the model predictions, including the initial time evolution of the IMF. We conclude that the physics of isothermal MHD turbulence is sufficient to explain the origin of the IMF.
Students Excited by Stellar Discovery
2011-02-01
In the constellation of Ophiuchus, above the disk of our Milky Way Galaxy, there lurks a stellar corpse spinning 30 times per second -- an exotic star known as a radio pulsar. This object was unknown until it was discovered last week by three high school students. These students are part of the Pulsar Search Collaboratory (PSC) project, run by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, WV, and West Virginia University (WVU). The pulsar, which may be a rare kind of neutron star called a recycled pulsar, was discovered independently by Virginia students Alexander Snider and Casey Thompson, on January 20, and a day later by Kentucky student Hannah Mabry. "Every day, I told myself, 'I have to find a pulsar. I better find a pulsar before this class ends,'" said Mabry. When she actually made the discovery, she could barely contain her excitement. "I started screaming and jumping up and down." Thompson was similarly expressive. "After three years of searching, I hadn't found a single thing," he said, "but when I did, I threw my hands up in the air and said, 'Yes!'." Snider said, "It actually feels really neat to be the first person to ever see something like that. It's an uplifting feeling." As part of the PSC, the students analyze real data from NRAO's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) to find pulsars. The students' teachers -- Debra Edwards of Sherando High School, Leah Lorton of James River High School, and Jennifer Carter of Rowan County Senior High School -- all introduced the PSC in their classes, and interested students formed teams to continue the work. Even before the discovery, Mabry simply enjoyed the search. "It just feels like you're actually doing something," she said. "It's a good feeling." Once the pulsar candidate was reported to NRAO, Project Director Rachel Rosen took a look and agreed with the young scientists. A followup observing session was scheduled on the GBT. Snider and Mabry traveled to West Virginia to assist in the
Near-Field Cosmology with Resolved Stellar Populations Around Local Volume LMC Stellar-Mass Galaxies
Carlin, Jeffrey L.; Sand, David J.; Willman, Beth; Brodie, Jean P.; Crnojevic, Denija; Forbes, Duncan; Hargis, Jonathan R.; Peter, Annika; Pucha, Ragadeepika; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Spekkens, Kristine; Strader, Jay
2018-06-01
We discuss our ongoing observational program to comprehensively map the entire virial volumes of roughly LMC stellar mass galaxies at distances of ~2-4 Mpc. The MADCASH (Magellanic Analog Dwarf Companions And Stellar Halos) survey will deliver the first census of the dwarf satellite populations and stellar halo properties within LMC-like environments in the Local Volume. Our results will inform our understanding of the recent DES discoveries of dwarf satellites tentatively affiliated with the LMC/SMC system. This program has already yielded the discovery of the faintest known dwarf galaxy satellite of an LMC stellar-mass host beyond the Local Group, based on deep Subaru+HyperSuprimeCam imaging reaching ~2 magnitudes below its TRGB, and at least two additional candidate satellites. We will summarize the survey results and status to date, highlighting some challenges encountered and lessons learned as we process the data for this program through a prototype LSST pipeline. Our program will examine whether LMC stellar mass dwarfs have extended stellar halos, allowing us to assess the relative contributions of in-situ stars vs. merger debris to their stellar populations and halo density profiles. We outline the constraints on galaxy formation models that will be provided by our observations of low-mass galaxy halos and their satellites.
Optimisation of stellarator systems: Possible ways
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cooper, W.A.; Isaev, M.; Leneva, A.E.; Mikhailov, M.; Shafranov, V.D.; Subbotin, A.A.
2001-01-01
The results of our search for advanced helical (stellarator) systems with a small number of field periods over the last five years are presented. The comparison of stellarator systems with toroidal (helical or axial) and poloidal directions of the contours with B = constant on the magnetic surface as well as systems with Helias and Heliac-like orientation of the magnetic surfaces cross-sections with respect to the principal normal to the magnetic axis is undertaken. Particular attention is paid to some attractive features of the systems with constant B-lines in the poloidal direction. (author)
Optimisation of stellarator systems: Possible ways
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cooper, W.A.; Isaev, M.Yu.; Leneva, A.E.; Mikhailov, M.I.; Sharfranov, V.D.; Subbotin, A.A.
1999-01-01
The results of our search for advanced helical (stellarator) systems with a small number of field periods over the last five years are presented. The comparison of stellarator systems with toroidal (helical or axial) and poloidal directions of the contours with B = constant on the magnetic surface as well as systems with Helias and Heliac-like orientation of the magnetic surfaces cross-sections with respect to the principal normal to the magnetic axis is undertaken. Particular attention is paid to some attractive features of the systems with constant B-lines in the poloidal direction. (author)
3D radiative transfer in stellar atmospheres
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carlsson, M
2008-01-01
Three-dimensional (3D) radiative transfer in stellar atmospheres is reviewed with special emphasis on the atmospheres of cool stars and applications. A short review of methods in 3D radiative transfer shows that mature methods exist, both for taking into account radiation as an energy transport mechanism in 3D (magneto-) hydrodynamical simulations of stellar atmospheres and for the diagnostic problem of calculating the emergent spectrum in more detail from such models, both assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and in non-LTE. Such methods have been implemented in several codes, and examples of applications are given.
Stellar compass for the Clementine Mission
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wilson, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)
1994-11-15
A CCD sensor with 42 x 28 degrees FOV and 576 x 384 pixels was built by the Advanced Technology Program (ATP) in the Physics Department at LLNL. That sensor, called the StarTracker camera, is used on the Clementine Lunar Mapping mission between January and May, 1994. Together with the Stellar Compass software, the StarTracker camera provided a way of identifying its orientation to within about 150 microradians in camera body pitch and yaw. This presentation will be an overview of basically how the Stellar Compass software works, along with showing some of its performance results.
Overdense Plasma Operation in the WEGA Stellarator
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Otte, M.; Laqua, H.P.; Marsen, S.; Podoba, Y.; Preinhaelter, Josef; Stange, T.; Urban, Jakub; Wagner, F.; Zhang, D.
2010-01-01
Roč. 50, č. 8 (2010), s. 785-789 ISSN 0863-1042. [International Stellarator/Heliotron Workshop/17th./. Princeton, 12.10.2009-16.10.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/08/0419; GA MŠk 7G09042 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Stellarator * Bernstein waves * overdense plasma * supra -thermal electrons Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.006, year: 2010 http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ctpp.200900053
176Lu: Cosmic clock or stellar thermometer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ward, R.A.; Beer, H.; Kaeppeler, F.; Wisshak, K.
1980-12-01
We quantitatively examine the various experimental and theoretical aspects of the stellar synthesis of the long-lived ground state of 176 Lu (3.6 x 10 10 y). We discuss the various regimes of stellar temperature and free-neutron density in which either: (i) the internal electromagnetic couplings between 176 Lusup(o) and 176 Lusup(m) (3.68 hours) are sufficiently slow that they may be treated as separate nuclei, or (ii) the internal couplings are rapidly able to establish thermal equilibrium between 176 Lusup(o) and 176 Lusup(m). (orig.)
Xie, Changjian; Guo, Hua
2018-01-01
The choice of the active degrees of freedom (DOFs) is a pivotal issue in a reduced-dimensional model of quantum dynamics when a full-dimensional one is not feasible. Here, several five-dimensional (5D) models are used to investigate the nonadiabatic photodissociation dynamics of the hydroxymethyl (CH2OH) radical, which possesses nine internal DOFs, in its lowest absorption band. A normal-mode based scheme is used to identify the active and spectator modes, and its predictions are confirmed by 5D quantum dynamical calculations. Our results underscore the important role of the CO stretching mode in the photodissociation dynamics of CH2OH, originating from the photo-induced promotion of an electron from the half-occupied π*CO antibonding orbital to a carbon Rydberg orbital.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Taioli, Simone [Interdisciplinary Laboratory for Computational Science, FBK-Center for Materials and Microsystems and University of Trento, Trento (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Trento, Trento (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia (Italy); Department of Chemistry, University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Garberoglio, Giovanni [Interdisciplinary Laboratory for Computational Science, FBK-Center for Materials and Microsystems and University of Trento, Trento (Italy); Simonucci, Stefano [Interdisciplinary Laboratory for Computational Science, FBK-Center for Materials and Microsystems and University of Trento, Trento (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Camerino, Camerino (Italy); Beccara, Silvio a [Interdisciplinary Laboratory for Computational Science, FBK-Center for Materials and Microsystems and University of Trento, Trento (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Trento, Trento (Italy); Aversa, Lucrezia [Institute of Materials for Electronics and Magnetism, IMEM-CNR, Trento (Italy); Nardi, Marco [Institute of Materials for Electronics and Magnetism, IMEM-CNR, Trento (Italy); Institut fuer Physik, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Verucchi, Roberto [Institute of Materials for Electronics and Magnetism, FBK-CNR, Trento (Italy); Iannotta, Salvatore [Institute of Materials for Electronics and Magnetism, IMEM-CNR, Parma (Italy); Dapor, Maurizio [Interdisciplinary Laboratory for Computational Science, FBK-Center for Materials and Microsystems and University of Trento, Trento (Italy); Department of Materials Engineering and Industrial Technologies, University of Trento, Trento (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova (Italy); and others
2013-01-28
In this work, we investigate the processes leading to the room-temperature growth of silicon carbide thin films by supersonic molecular beam epitaxy technique. We present experimental data showing that the collision of fullerene on a silicon surface induces strong chemical-physical perturbations and, for sufficient velocity, disruption of molecular bonds, and cage breaking with formation of nanostructures with different stoichiometric character. We show that in these out-of-equilibrium conditions, it is necessary to go beyond the standard implementations of density functional theory, as ab initio methods based on the Born-Oppenheimer approximation fail to capture the excited-state dynamics. In particular, we analyse the Si-C{sub 60} collision within the non-adiabatic nuclear dynamics framework, where stochastic hops occur between adiabatic surfaces calculated with time-dependent density functional theory. This theoretical description of the C{sub 60} impact on the Si surface is in good agreement with our experimental findings.
Comparison of Microinstability Properties for Stellarator Magnetic Geometries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rewoldt, G.; Ku, L.-P.; Tang, W.M.
2005-01-01
The microinstability properties of seven distinct magnetic geometries corresponding to different operating and planned stellarators with differing symmetry properties are compared. Specifically, the kinetic stability properties (linear growth rates and real frequencies) of toroidal microinstabilities (driven by ion temperature gradients and trapped-electron dynamics) are compared, as parameters are varied. The familiar ballooning representation is used to enable efficient treatment of the spatial variations along the equilibrium magnetic field lines. These studies provide useful insights for understanding the differences in the relative strengths of the instabilities caused by the differing localizations of good and bad magnetic curvature and of the presence of trapped particles. The associated differences in growth rates due to magnetic geometry are large for small values of the temperature gradient parameter n identical to d ln T/d ln n, whereas for large values of n, the mode is strongly unstable for all of the different magnetic geometries
New advanced operational regime on the W7-AS stellarator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McCormick, K.; Grigull, P.; Burhenn, R.; Brakel, R.; Ehmler, H.; Feng, Y.; Gadelmeier, F.; Giannone, L.; Hildebrandt, D.; Hirsch, M.; Jaenicke, R.; Kisslinger, J.; Klinger, T.; Klose, S.; Knauer, J. P.; Koenig, R.; Kuehner, G.; Laqua, H. P.; Naujoks, D.; Niedermeyer, H.
2002-01-01
A promising new plasma operational regime on the Wendelstein stellarator W7-AS has been discovered. It is extant above a threshold density and characterized by flat density profiles, high energy and low impurity confinement times, and edge-localized radiation. Impurity accumulation is avoided. Quasistationary discharges with line-averaged densities n-bar e to 4x10 20 m -3 , radiation levels to 90% , and partial plasma detachment at the divertor target plates can be simultaneously realized. Energy confinement is up to twice that of a standard scaling. At B t =0.9 T , an average β value of 3.1% is achieved. The high n-bar e values allow demonstration of electron Bernstein wave heating using linear mode conversion
Drift wave instability and turbulence in advanced stellarator configurations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kendl, A.
2001-08-01
In the following chapter, an overview and references on the physics and geometry of helical advanced stellarators is given. On the basis of this configuration, the influence of magnetic field geometry is then discussed in a basic model of drift-Alfven wave turbulence which contains the necessary physics that applies to the plasma edge. By means of linear models, core physics in the form of ITG and dissipative trapped electron modes is further included in our survey. These models are, of course, by far not comprehensive in order to cover the complex physics of plasma turbulence in three-dimensional fusion devices, where a large range of parameter and mode regimes is present. Optimization criteria for a possible systematic minimization of turbulent transport in Helias configurations therefore still have to be regarded as tentative. The results presented here should, however, encourage for more detailed future computations. (orig.)
Trapped-particle instabilities in quasi-isodynamic stellarators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Proll, Josefine Henriette Elise
2014-01-28
approximately in quasi-isodynamic stellarators, for example Wendelstein 7-X. In such configurations the precessional drift of the trapped particles is in the opposite direction from the direction of propagation of drift waves. Instabilities that are driven by the trapped particles usually rely on a resonance between these two frequencies. Here it is shown analytically by analysing the electrostatic energy transfer between the particles and the instability that, thanks to the absence of the resonance, a particle species draws energy from the mode if the frequency of the mode is well below the characteristic bounce frequency. Due to the low electron mass and the fast bounce motion, electrons are almost always found to be stabilising. Most of the trapped-particle instabilities are therefore predicted to be absent in maximum- J configurations in large parts of parameter space. Analytical theory thus predicts enhanced linear stability of trapped-particle modes in quasi-isodynamic stellarators compared with tokamaks. Moreover, since the electrons are expected to be stabilising, or at least less destabilising, for all instabilities whose frequency lies below the trapped-electron bounce frequency, other modes might benefit from the enhanced stability as well. In reality, however, stellarators are never perfectly quasi-isodynamic, and the question thus arises whether they still benefit from enhanced stability. Here the stability properties of Wendelstein 7-X and a more quasi-isodynamic configuration, QIPC, are investigated numerically and compared with another, non-quasiisodynamic stellarator, the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) and a typical tokamak. In gyrokinetic simulations, performed with the gyrokinetic code GENE in the electrostatic and collisionless approximation, several microinstabilities, driven by the density as well as both ion and electron temperature gradients, are studied. Wendelstein 7-X and QIPC exhibit significantly reduced growth rates for all
Trapped-particle instabilities in quasi-isodynamic stellarators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Proll, Josefine Henriette Elise
2014-01-01
approximately in quasi-isodynamic stellarators, for example Wendelstein 7-X. In such configurations the precessional drift of the trapped particles is in the opposite direction from the direction of propagation of drift waves. Instabilities that are driven by the trapped particles usually rely on a resonance between these two frequencies. Here it is shown analytically by analysing the electrostatic energy transfer between the particles and the instability that, thanks to the absence of the resonance, a particle species draws energy from the mode if the frequency of the mode is well below the characteristic bounce frequency. Due to the low electron mass and the fast bounce motion, electrons are almost always found to be stabilising. Most of the trapped-particle instabilities are therefore predicted to be absent in maximum- J configurations in large parts of parameter space. Analytical theory thus predicts enhanced linear stability of trapped-particle modes in quasi-isodynamic stellarators compared with tokamaks. Moreover, since the electrons are expected to be stabilising, or at least less destabilising, for all instabilities whose frequency lies below the trapped-electron bounce frequency, other modes might benefit from the enhanced stability as well. In reality, however, stellarators are never perfectly quasi-isodynamic, and the question thus arises whether they still benefit from enhanced stability. Here the stability properties of Wendelstein 7-X and a more quasi-isodynamic configuration, QIPC, are investigated numerically and compared with another, non-quasiisodynamic stellarator, the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) and a typical tokamak. In gyrokinetic simulations, performed with the gyrokinetic code GENE in the electrostatic and collisionless approximation, several microinstabilities, driven by the density as well as both ion and electron temperature gradients, are studied. Wendelstein 7-X and QIPC exhibit significantly reduced growth rates for all
Reduction of Linear Programming to Linear Approximation
Vaserstein, Leonid N.
2006-01-01
It is well known that every Chebyshev linear approximation problem can be reduced to a linear program. In this paper we show that conversely every linear program can be reduced to a Chebyshev linear approximation problem.
Ambitious Survey Spots Stellar Nurseries
2010-08-01
-dimensional geometry of the Magellanic system. Chris Evans from the VMC team adds: "The VISTA images will allow us to extend our studies beyond the inner regions of the Tarantula into the multitude of smaller stellar nurseries nearby, which also harbour a rich population of young and massive stars. Armed with the new, exquisite infrared images, we will be able to probe the cocoons in which massive stars are still forming today, while also looking at their interaction with older stars in the wider region." The wide-field image shows a host of different objects. The bright area above the centre is the Tarantula Nebula itself, with the RMC 136 cluster of massive stars in its core. To the left is the NGC 2100 star cluster. To the right is the tiny remnant of the supernova SN1987A (eso1032). Below the centre are a series of star-forming regions including NGC 2080 - nicknamed the "Ghost Head Nebula" - and the NGC 2083 star cluster. The VISTA Magellanic Cloud Survey is one of six huge near-infrared surveys of the southern sky that will take up most of the first five years of operations of VISTA. Notes [1] VISTA ― the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy ― is the newest telescope at ESO's Paranal Observatory in northern Chile. VISTA is a survey telescope working at near-infrared wavelengths and is the world's largest survey telescope. Its large mirror, wide field of view and very sensitive detectors will reveal a completely new view of the southern sky. The telescope is housed on the peak adjacent to the one hosting ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) and shares the same exceptional observing conditions. VISTA has a main mirror that is 4.1 m across. In photographic terms it can be thought of as a 67-megapixel digital camera with a 13 000 mm f/3.25 mirror lens. More information ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries
The “Building Blocks” of Stellar Halos
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kyle A. Oman
2017-08-01
Full Text Available The stellar halos of galaxies encode their accretion histories. In particular, the median metallicity of a halo is determined primarily by the mass of the most massive accreted object. We use hydrodynamical cosmological simulations from the apostle project to study the connection between the stellar mass, the metallicity distribution, and the stellar age distribution of a halo and the identity of its most massive progenitor. We find that the stellar populations in an accreted halo typically resemble the old stellar populations in a present-day dwarf galaxy with a stellar mass ∼0.2–0.5 dex greater than that of the stellar halo. This suggests that had they not been accreted, the primary progenitors of stellar halos would have evolved to resemble typical nearby dwarf irregulars.
Deriving stellar parameters with the SME software package
Piskunov, N.
2017-09-01
Photometry and spectroscopy are complementary tools for deriving accurate stellar parameters. Here I present one of the popular packages for stellar spectroscopy called SME with the emphasis on the latest developments and error assessment for the derived parameters.
The application of a Bessel transform to the determination of stellar rotational velocities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deeming, T.J.
1977-01-01
A method for analysing line profiles by means of a transform using Bessel functions is described. This yields the stellar rotational velocity γ sin i, to an accuracy of about +-1 km s -1 for rotational velocities greater than about 5 km s -1 , provided that rotation is the major source of line broadening. The theory of the method is a special case of a general theory of linear transforms in data analysis, which is outlined in an appendix. (Auth.)
Stellar chemical signatures and hierarchical galaxy formation
Venn, KA; Irwin, M; Shetrone, MD; Tout, CA; Hill, [No Value; Tolstoy, E
To compare the chemistries of stars in the Milky Way dwarf spheroidal (dSph) satellite galaxies with stars in the Galaxy, we have compiled a large sample of Galactic stellar abundances from the literature. When kinematic information is available, we have assigned the stars to standard Galactic
Equilibrium 𝛽-limits in classical stellarators
Loizu, J.; Hudson, S. R.; Nührenberg, C.; Geiger, J.; Helander, P.
2017-12-01
A numerical investigation is carried out to understand the equilibrium -limit in a classical stellarator. The stepped-pressure equilibrium code (Hudson et al., Phys. Plasmas, vol. 19 (11), 2012) is used in order to assess whether or not magnetic islands and stochastic field-lines can emerge at high . Two modes of operation are considered: a zero-net-current stellarator and a fixed-iota stellarator. Despite the fact that relaxation is allowed (Taylor, Rev. Mod. Phys., vol. 58 (3), 1986, pp. 741-763), the former is shown to maintain good flux surfaces up to the equilibrium -limit predicted by ideal-magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), above which a separatrix forms. The latter, which has no ideal equilibrium -limit, is shown to develop regions of magnetic islands and chaos at sufficiently high , thereby providing a `non-ideal -limit'. Perhaps surprisingly, however, the value of at which the Shafranov shift of the axis reaches a fraction of the minor radius follows in all cases the scaling laws predicted by ideal-MHD. We compare our results to the High-Beta-Stellarator theory of Freidberg (Ideal MHD, 2014, Cambridge University Press) and derive a new prediction for the non-ideal equilibrium -limit above which chaos emerges.
Stellar Sources of Gamma-ray Bursts
Luchkov, B. I.
2011-01-01
Correlation analysis of Swift gamma-ray burst coordinates and nearby star locations (catalog Gliese) reveals 4 coincidences with good angular accuracy. The random probability is 4\\times 10^{-5}, so evidencing that coincident stars are indeed gamma-ray burst sources. Some additional search of stellar gamma-ray bursts is discussed.
Benchmarking the Multidimensional Stellar Implicit Code MUSIC
Goffrey, T.; Pratt, J.; Viallet, M.; Baraffe, I.; Popov, M. V.; Walder, R.; Folini, D.; Geroux, C.; Constantino, T.
2017-04-01
We present the results of a numerical benchmark study for the MUltidimensional Stellar Implicit Code (MUSIC) based on widely applicable two- and three-dimensional compressible hydrodynamics problems relevant to stellar interiors. MUSIC is an implicit large eddy simulation code that uses implicit time integration, implemented as a Jacobian-free Newton Krylov method. A physics based preconditioning technique which can be adjusted to target varying physics is used to improve the performance of the solver. The problems used for this benchmark study include the Rayleigh-Taylor and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities, and the decay of the Taylor-Green vortex. Additionally we show a test of hydrostatic equilibrium, in a stellar environment which is dominated by radiative effects. In this setting the flexibility of the preconditioning technique is demonstrated. This work aims to bridge the gap between the hydrodynamic test problems typically used during development of numerical methods and the complex flows of stellar interiors. A series of multidimensional tests were performed and analysed. Each of these test cases was analysed with a simple, scalar diagnostic, with the aim of enabling direct code comparisons. As the tests performed do not have analytic solutions, we verify MUSIC by comparing it to established codes including ATHENA and the PENCIL code. MUSIC is able to both reproduce behaviour from established and widely-used codes as well as results expected from theoretical predictions. This benchmarking study concludes a series of papers describing the development of the MUSIC code and provides confidence in future applications.
Microlensing and the physics of stellar atmospheres
Sackett, PD; Menzies, JW; Sackett, PD
2001-01-01
The simple physics of microlensing provides a well understood tool with which to probe the atmospheres of distant stars in the Galaxy and Local Group with high magnification and resolution. Recent results in measuring stellar surface structure through broad band photometry and spectroscopy of high
Evolution and seismic tools for stellar astrophysics
Monteiro, Mario JPFG
2008-01-01
A collection of articles published by the journal "Astrophysics and Space Science, Volume 316, Number 1-4", August 2008. This work covers 10 evolution codes and 9 oscillation codes. It is suitable for researchers and research students working on the modeling of stars and on the implementation of seismic test of stellar models.
STELLAR TRANSITS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Béky, Bence; Kocsis, Bence
2013-01-01
Supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are typically surrounded by a dense stellar population in galactic nuclei. Stars crossing the line of site in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) produce a characteristic transit light curve, just like extrasolar planets do when they transit their host star. We examine the possibility of finding such AGN transits in deep optical, UV, and X-ray surveys. We calculate transit light curves using the Novikov-Thorne thin accretion disk model, including general relativistic effects. Based on the expected properties of stellar cusps, we find that around 10 6 solar mass SMBHs, transits of red giants are most common for stars on close orbits with transit durations of a few weeks and orbital periods of a few years. We find that detecting AGN transits requires repeated observations of thousands of low-mass AGNs to 1% photometric accuracy in optical, or ∼10% in UV bands or soft X-ray. It may be possible to identify stellar transits in the Pan-STARRS and LSST optical and the eROSITA X-ray surveys. Such observations could be used to constrain black hole mass, spin, inclination, and accretion rate. Transit rates and durations could give valuable information on the circumnuclear stellar clusters as well. Transit light curves could be used to image accretion disks with unprecedented resolution, allowing us to resolve the SMBH silhouette in distant AGNs.
Robust Modeling of Stellar Triples in PHOEBE
Conroy, Kyle E.; Prsa, Andrej; Horvat, Martin; Stassun, Keivan G.
2017-01-01
The number of known mutually-eclipsing stellar triple and multiple systems has increased greatly during the Kepler era. These systems provide significant opportunities to both determine fundamental stellar parameters of benchmark systems to unprecedented precision as well as to study the dynamical interaction and formation mechanisms of stellar and planetary systems. Modeling these systems to their full potential, however, has not been feasible until recently. Most existing available codes are restricted to the two-body binary case and those that do provide N-body support for more components make sacrifices in precision by assuming no stellar surface distortion. We have completely redesigned and rewritten the PHOEBE binary modeling code to incorporate support for triple and higher-order systems while also robustly modeling data with Kepler precision. Here we present our approach, demonstrate several test cases based on real data, and discuss the current status of PHOEBE's support for modeling these types of systems. PHOEBE is funded in part by NSF grant #1517474.
On the collapse of iron stellar cores
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barkat, Z.; Rakavy, G.; Reiss, Y.; Wilson, J.R.
1975-01-01
The collapse of iron stellar cores is investigated to see whether the outward shock produced by the bounce at neutron star density is sufficient to burn appreciable amounts of the envelope around the iron core. Several models were tried, and in all cases no appreciable burn took place; hence no explosion results from the collapse of these models
Modular Stellarator Reactor conceptual design study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miller, R.L.; Bathke, C.G.
1983-01-01
A conceptual design study of the Modular Stellarator Reactor is summarized. The physics basis of the approach is elucidated with emphasis on magnetics performance optimization. Key engineering features of the fusion power core are described. Comparisons with an analogous continuous-helical-coil (torsatron) system are made as the basis of a technical and economic assessment
Summary of the Advanced Stellar Compass
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, John Leif
1997-01-01
The current version of the Advanced Stellar Compass (ASC) is an improved implementation of the instrument developed for the Danish Geomagnetic Research Satellite Ørsted. The Ørsted version was successfully tested in space on the NASA sounding rocket "Thunderstorm III", that was launched September 2...
Neutrino confinement in collapsing stellar cores
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chung, K.C.
1987-01-01
Neutrino confinement is expected to occur in the core of highly evolved stars, leading to the formation of a degenerate neutrino gas. The main neutrino sources are briefly reviewed and the neutrino processes relevant to the neutrino opacity in the stellar matter are discussed. Implications for the equation of state of neutrino-trapped matter are examined. (author) [pt
Survey of the MAgellanic Stellar History -- SMASH
Nidever, David; Olsen, Knut; Besla, Gurtina; Gruendl, Robert; Saha, Abhijit; Gallart, Carme; Olszewski, Edward W.; Munoz, Ricardo; Monelli, Matteo; Kunder, Andrea; Kaleida, Catherine; Walker, Alistair; Stringfellow, Guy; Zaritsky, Dennis; van der Marel, Roeland; Blum, Robert; Vivas, Kathy; Chu, You-Hua; Martin, Nicolas; Conn, Blair; Noel, Noelia; Majewski, Steven; Jin, Shoko; Kim, Hwihyun; Cioni, Maria-Rosa; Bell, Eric; Monachesi, Antonela; de Boer, Thomas
Over the last several years, various discoveries have drastically altered our view of the iconic Magellanic Clouds (MCs), the nearest interacting galaxy system. The best evidence is now that they are on first infall into the Milky Way, that their stellar populations extend much further than
The evolution of stellar exponential discs
Ferguson, AMN; Clarke, CJ
2001-01-01
Models of disc galaxies which invoke viscosity-driven radial flows have long been known to provide a natural explanation for the origin of stellar exponential discs, under the assumption that the star formation and viscous time-scales are comparable. We present models which invoke simultaneous star
Modular stellarator reactor conceptual design study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miller, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.; Bathke, C.G.
1983-01-01
A conceptual design study of the Modular Stellarator Reactor is summarized. The physics basis of the approach is elucidated with emphasis on magnetics performance optimization. Key engineering features of the fusion power core are described. Comparisons with an analogous continuous-helical-coil (torsatron) system are made as the basis of a technical and economic assessment
The Stellar Imager (SI) Mission Concept
Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Lyon, Richard G.; Mundy, Lee G.; Allen, Ronald J.; Armstrong, Thomas; Danchi, William C.; Karovska, Margarita; Marzouk, Joe; Mazzuca, Lisa M.;
2002-01-01
The Stellar Imager (SI) is envisioned as a space-based, UV-optical interferometer composed of 10 or more one-meter class elements distributed with a maximum baseline of 0.5 km. It is designed to image stars and binaries with sufficient resolution to enable long-term studies of stellar magnetic activity patterns, for comparison with those on the sun. It will also support asteroseismology (acoustic imaging) to probe stellar internal structure, differential rotation, and large-scale circulations. SI will enable us to understand the various effects of the magnetic fields of stars, the dynamos that generate these fields, and the internal structure and dynamics of the stars. The ultimate goal of the mission is to achieve the best-possible forecasting of solar activity as a driver of climate and space weather on time scales ranging from months up to decades, and an understanding of the impact of stellar magnetic activity on life in the Universe. In this paper we describe the scientific goals of the mission, the performance requirements needed to address these goals, the "enabling technology" development efforts being pursued, and the design concepts now under study for the full mission and a possible pathfinder mission.
The Space Stellar Photometry Mission COROT: Asteroseismology ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
tribpo
detect giant extra solar planets (detectable by spectroscopy from the ground) and determine their albedo. As COROT is devoted to stellar photometry, aiming at both a high precision and a long observation time, the search for exoplanets by the transit method can easily be integrated in the payload and in the mission profile.
Teaching stellar interferometry with polymer optical fibers
Illarramendi, M. A.; Arregui, L.; Zubia, J.; Hueso, R.; Sanchez-Lavega, A.
2017-08-01
In this manuscript we show the design of a simple experiment that reproduces the operation of the Michelson stellar interferometer by using step-index polymer optical fibers. The emission of stellar sources, single or binary stars, has been simulated by the laser light emerging from the output surface of the 2 meter-long polymer optical fiber. This light has an emission pattern that is similar to the emission pattern of stellar sources - circular, uniform, spatially incoherent, and quasi-monochromatic. Light coming from the fiber end faces passes through two identical pinholes located on a lid covering the objective of a small telescope, thus producing interference. Interference fringes have been acquired using a camera that is coupled to a telescope. The experiments have been carried out both outdoors in the daytime and indoors. By measuring the fringe visibilities, we have determined the size of our artificial stellar sources and the distance between them, when placing them at distances of 54 m from the telescope in the indoor measurements and of 75 m in the outdoor ones.
Plea for stellarator funding raps tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blake, M.
1992-01-01
The funding crunch in magnetic confinement fusion development has moved the editor of a largely technical publication to speak out on a policy issue. James A. Rome, who edits Stellarator News from the Fusion Energy Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, wrote an editorial that appeared on the front page of the May 1992 issue. It was titled open-quotes The US Stellarator Program: A Time for Renewal,close quotes and while it focused chiefly on that subject (and lamented the lack of funding for the operation of the existing ATF stellarator at Oak Ridge), it also cited some of the problems inherent in the mainline MCF approach--the tokamak--and stated that if the money can be found for further tokamak design upgrades, it should also be found for stellarators. Rome wrote, open-quotes There is growing recognition in the US, and elsewhere, that the conventional tokamak does not extrapolate to a commercially competitive energy source except with very high field coils ( 1000 MWe).close quotes He pointed up open-quotes the difficulty of simultaneously satisfying conflicting tokamak requirements for efficient current drive, high bootstrap-current fraction, complete avoidance of disruptions, adequate beta limits, and edge-plasma properties compatible with improved (H-mode) confinement and acceptable erosion of divertor plates.close quotes He then called for support for the stellarator as open-quotes the only concept that has performance comparable to that achieved in tokamaks without the plasma-current-related limitations listed above.close quotes
The Quasi-Toroidal Stellarator: An Innovative Confinement Experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Knowlton, S. F.
2001-01-01
To develop a new class of stellarators that exhibit improved confinement compared to conventional stellarators. This approach generally makes use of a designed symmetry of the magnetic field strength along a particular coordinate axis in the toroidal geometry of the stellarator, and is referred to as quasi-symmetry
Constraining the Stellar Mass Function in the Galactic Center via Mass Loss from Stellar Collisions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Douglas Rubin
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The dense concentration of stars and high-velocity dispersions in the Galactic center imply that stellar collisions frequently occur. Stellar collisions could therefore result in significant mass loss rates. We calculate the amount of stellar mass lost due to indirect and direct stellar collisions and find its dependence on the present-day mass function of stars. We find that the total mass loss rate in the Galactic center due to stellar collisions is sensitive to the present-day mass function adopted. We use the observed diffuse X-ray luminosity in the Galactic center to preclude any present-day mass functions that result in mass loss rates >10-5M⨀yr−1 in the vicinity of ~1″. For present-day mass functions of the form, dN/dM∝M-α, we constrain the present-day mass function to have a minimum stellar mass ≲7M⨀ and a power-law slope ≳1.25. We also use this result to constrain the initial mass function in the Galactic center by considering different star formation scenarios.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tanwiwat Jaikuna
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Purpose: To develop an in-house software program that is able to calculate and generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram by physical dose conversion using the linear-quadratic-linear (LQL model. Material and methods : The Isobio software was developed using MATLAB version 2014b to calculate and generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histograms. The physical dose from each voxel in treatment planning was extracted through Computational Environment for Radiotherapy Research (CERR, and the accuracy was verified by the differentiation between the dose volume histogram from CERR and the treatment planning system. An equivalent dose in 2 Gy fraction (EQD2 was calculated using biological effective dose (BED based on the LQL model. The software calculation and the manual calculation were compared for EQD2 verification with pair t-test statistical analysis using IBM SPSS Statistics version 22 (64-bit. Results: Two and three-dimensional biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram were displayed correctly by the Isobio software. Different physical doses were found between CERR and treatment planning system (TPS in Oncentra, with 3.33% in high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV determined by D90%, 0.56% in the bladder, 1.74% in the rectum when determined by D2cc, and less than 1% in Pinnacle. The difference in the EQD2 between the software calculation and the manual calculation was not significantly different with 0.00% at p-values 0.820, 0.095, and 0.593 for external beam radiation therapy (EBRT and 0.240, 0.320, and 0.849 for brachytherapy (BT in HR-CTV, bladder, and rectum, respectively. Conclusions : The Isobio software is a feasible tool to generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram for treatment plan evaluation in both EBRT and BT.
Calculation of decay widths of pp{mu}{sub {nu}}{sub ,J}{sup *} ion in non-adiabatic approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gheisari, R. [Persian Gulf Univ., Physics Dept., Bushehr (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2009-06-15
We calculate decay widths of the metastable pp{mu}{sub {nu}}{sub ,J}{sup *} molecular ion in non-adiabatic approach. The muonic molecular ion can be formed in collision of the excited p{mu}(2s) atoms with H{sub 2}. Then, the decay of the pp{mu}{sub {nu}}{sub ,J}{sup *} system opens a path for the muon from p{mu}(2s) to p{mu}(1s). We employ trial wave function which includes non-adiabatic terms to calculate some radiationless decay widths. The present results of the widths do not agree well with those given in our previous work, however they are more close to recent data of other researchers. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohta, Ayumi; Kobayashi, Osamu; Danielache, Sebastian O.; Nanbu, Shinkoh
2015-01-01
Highlights: • The photoisomerization between cyclohexadiene and hexatriene was simulated. • Nonadiabatic ab initio MD simulations were employed to elucidate the mechanism. • Each excitations to S_1 and S_2 were simulated using full-dimensional model. • Specific molecular motions at CoIns and molecular vibrations on S_1 PES were found. • The one-sided product branching ratio was obtained at the photoexcitation to S_2. - Abstract: The photoisomerization process between 1,3-cyclohexadiene (CHD) and 1,3,5-cis-hexatriene (HT) has been studied by nonadiabatic ab initio molecular dynamics based on trajectory surface-hopping approach with a full-dimensional reaction model. The quantum chemical calculations were treated at MS-MR-CASPT2 level for 8 electrons in 8 orbitals with the cc-pVDZ basis set. The Zhu–Nakamura formula was employed to evaluate nonadiabatic transition probabilities. S_1 and S_2 states were included in the photoisomerization dynamics. Lifetimes and CHD:HT branching ratios were computationally estimated on the basis of statistical analysis of multiple executed trajectories. The analysis of trajectories suggested that the nonadiabatic transitions at the S_0/S_1 and S_1/S_2 conical intersections (CoIn) are correlated to the Kekulé-type vibration and the C3–C4–C5 bending motion, respectively. The one-sided branching ratio was obtained by excitations to the S_2 state; 70:30. The critical branching process was found to be dominated by the location of CoIn in potential energy hypersurface of the excited state.
Mizuno, Yuta; Arasaki, Yasuki; Takatsuka, Kazuo
2016-11-14
We propose a theoretical principle to directly monitor the bifurcation of quantum wavepackets passing through nonadiabatic regions of a molecule that is placed in intense continuous wave (CW) laser fields. This idea makes use of the phenomenon of laser-driven photon emission from molecules that can undergo nonadiabatic transitions between ionic and covalent potential energy surfaces like Li + F - and LiF. The resultant photon emission spectra are of anomalous yet characteristic frequency and intensity, if pumped to an energy level in which the nonadiabatic region is accessible and placed in a CW laser field. The proposed method is designed to take the time-frequency spectrogram with an appropriate time-window from this photon emission to detect the time evolution of the frequency and intensity, which depends on the dynamics and location of the relevant nuclear wavepackets. This method is specifically designed for the study of dynamics in intense CW laser fields and is rather limited in scope than other techniques for femtosecond chemical dynamics in vacuum. The following characteristic features of dynamics can be mapped onto the spectrogram: (1) the period of driven vibrational motion (temporally confined vibrational states in otherwise dissociative channels, the period and other states of which dramatically vary depending on the CW driving lasers applied), (2) the existence of multiple nuclear wavepackets running individually on the field-dressed potential energy surfaces, (3) the time scale of coherent interaction between the nuclear wavepackets running on ionic and covalent electronic states after their branching (the so-called coherence time in the terminology of the theory of nonadiabatic interaction), and so on.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martínez-Mesa, Aliezer [Departmento de Física Teórica, Universidad de la Habana, San Lázaro y L, La Habana 10400 (Cuba); Institut für Chemie, Universität Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Strasse 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam-Golm (Germany); Saalfrank, Peter [Institut für Chemie, Universität Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Strasse 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam-Golm (Germany)
2015-05-21
Femtosecond-laser pulse driven non-adiabatic spectroscopy and dynamics in molecular and condensed phase systems continue to be a challenge for theoretical modelling. One of the main obstacles is the “curse of dimensionality” encountered in non-adiabatic, exact wavepacket propagation. A possible route towards treating complex molecular systems is via semiclassical surface-hopping schemes, in particular if they account not only for non-adiabatic post-excitation dynamics but also for the initial optical excitation. One such approach, based on initial condition filtering, will be put forward in what follows. As a simple test case which can be compared with exact wavepacket dynamics, we investigate the influence of the different parameters determining the shape of a laser pulse (e.g., its finite width and a possible chirp) on the predissociation dynamics of a NaI molecule, upon photoexcitation of the A(0{sup +}) state. The finite-pulse effects are mapped into the initial conditions for semiclassical surface-hopping simulations. The simulated surface-hopping diabatic populations are in qualitative agreement with the quantum mechanical results, especially concerning the subpicosend photoinduced dynamics, the main deviations being the relative delay of the non-adiabatic transitions in the semiclassical picture. Likewise, these differences in the time-dependent electronic populations calculated via the semiclassical and the quantum methods are found to have a mild influence on the overall probability density distribution. As a result, the branching ratios between the bound and the dissociative reaction channels and the time-evolution of the molecular wavepacket predicted by the semiclassical method agree with those computed using quantum wavepacket propagation. Implications for more challenging molecular systems are given.
Stellar Streams Discovered in the Dark Energy Survey
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shipp, N.; et al.
2018-01-09
We perform a search for stellar streams around the Milky Way using the first three years of multi-band optical imaging data from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We use DES data covering $\\sim 5000$ sq. deg. to a depth of $g > 23.5$ with a relative photometric calibration uncertainty of $< 1 \\%$. This data set yields unprecedented sensitivity to the stellar density field in the southern celestial hemisphere, enabling the detection of faint stellar streams to a heliocentric distance of $\\sim 50$ kpc. We search for stellar streams using a matched-filter in color-magnitude space derived from a synthetic isochrone of an old, metal-poor stellar population. Our detection technique recovers four previously known thin stellar streams: Phoenix, ATLAS, Tucana III, and a possible extension of Molonglo. In addition, we report the discovery of eleven new stellar streams. In general, the new streams detected by DES are fainter, more distant, and lower surface brightness than streams detected by similar techniques in previous photometric surveys. As a by-product of our stellar stream search, we find evidence for extra-tidal stellar structure associated with four globular clusters: NGC 288, NGC 1261, NGC 1851, and NGC 1904. The ever-growing sample of stellar streams will provide insight into the formation of the Galactic stellar halo, the Milky Way gravitational potential, as well as the large- and small-scale distribution of dark matter around the Milky Way.
Modular Stellarator Fusion Reactor (MSR) concept
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miller, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.
1981-01-01
A preliminary conceptual study has been made of the Modulator Stellarator Reactor (MSR) as a stedy-state, ignited, DT-fueled, magnetic fusion reactor. The MSR concept combines the physics of classic stellarator confinement with an innovative, modular-coil design. Parametric tradeoff calculations are described, leading to the selection of an interim design point for a 4.8-GWt plant based on Alcator transport scaling and an average beta value of 0.04 in an l = 2 system with a plasma aspect ratio of 11. Neither an economic analysis nor a detailed conceptual engineering design is presented here, as the primary intent of this scoping study is the elucidation of key physics tradeoffs, constraints, and uncertainties for the ultimate power-reactor embodiment
Time variations of stellar water masers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cox, G.G.; Parker, E.A.
1979-01-01
The 22-GHz H 2 O spectra of the stars RS Vir, RT Vir, R Aql, W Hya, U Her, S Cr B, Rx Boo, R Crt and VY CMa have been observed at intervals during the period 1974 September -1977 May. Optical and infrared measurements have also been made. New components have been observed in the H 2 O spectra of most of the stars, and the flux density of W Hya reached 2000 Jy near Jd 2442700. The intensities of the three main groups of components in VY CMa varied in phase consistent with a central pump source. In several stars the intensities were very different from those found by earlier observers, showing that stellar H 2 O masers are often not stable for more than a few cycles of the stellar luminosity. For part of the time the H 2 O and infrared intensities of R Aql and RS Vir were anticorrelated. (author)
Excitation of solar and stellar oscillations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baudin, Frederic
2009-01-01
In this report for an Accreditation to Supervise Research (HDR), and after an introduction which outlines the potential of helio-seismology, the author addresses the problem of excitation and amplitude of stellar oscillations with respect to their most important aspects, i.e. the theoretical framework of the present understanding of excitation mechanisms, and instrumental influences on measurements which are used to assess excitation rates, the difficulty to perform these measurements, and their analysis in some various cases. Thus, the author addresses excitation mechanisms of stellar oscillation (stochastic excitation, opacity- related excitation, and other excitation mechanisms), the excitation of solar modes (observation and theoretical predictions, influence of magnetic phenomena, solar g modes), and the excitation of modes in other stars (solar-type pulsators, red giants, and not so conventional pulsators such as HD180642 and Be stars like HD49330)
Stellar evolution as seen by mixed modes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mosser Benoît
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The detection of mixed modes in subgiants and red giants allows us to monitor stellar evolution from the main sequence to the asymptotic giant branch and draw seismic evolutionary tracks. Quantified asteroseismic definitions that characterize the change in the evolutionary stages have been defined. This seismic information can now be used for stellar modelling, especially for studying the energy transport in the helium burning core or for specifying the inner properties of stars all along their evolution. Modelling will also allow us to study stars identified in the helium subflash stage, high-mass stars either arriving or quitting the secondary clump, or stars that could be in the blue-loop stage.
Physics of stellar evolution and cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goldberg, H.S.; Scadron, M.D.
1981-01-01
Astrophysical phenomena are examined on a fundamental level, stressing basic physical laws, in a textbook suitable for a one-semester intermediate course. The ideal gas law, the meaning of temperature, black-body radiation, discrete spectra, and the Doppler effect are introduced and used to study such features of the interstellar medium as 21-cm radiation, nebulae and dust, and the galactic magnetic field. The phases of stellar evolution are discussed, including stellar collapse, quasi-hydrostatic equilibrium, the main sequence, red giants, white dwarves, neutron stars, supernovae, pulsars, and black holes. Among the cosmological topics covered are the implications of Hubble's constant, the red-shift curve, the steady-state universe, the evolution of the big bang (thermal equilibrium, hadron era, lepton era, primordial nucleosynthesis, hydrogen recombination, galaxy formation, and the cosmic fireball), and the future (cold end or big crunch). 72 references
Stellar physics with the ALHAMBRA photometric system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Villegas, T Aparicio; Alfaro, E J; Moles, M; Benítez, N; Perea, J; Olmo, A del; Cristóbal-Hornillos, D; Cervio, M; Delgado, R M González; Márquez, I; Masegosa, J; Prada, F; Cabrera-Caño, J; Fernández-Soto, A; Aguerri, J A L; Cepa, J; Broadhurst, T; Castander, F J; Infante, L; Martínez, V J
2011-01-01
The ALHAMBRA photometric system was specifically designed to perform a tomography of the Universe in some selected areas. Although mainly designed for extragalactic purposes, its 20 contiguous, equal-width, medium-band photometric system in the optical wavelength range, shows a great capacity for stellar classification. In this contribution we propose a methodology for stellar classification and physical parameter estimation (T eff , log g, [Fe/H], and color excess E(B – V)) based on 18 independent reddening-free Q-values from the ALHAMBRA photometry. Based on the theoretical Spectral library BaSeL 2.2, and applied to 288 stars from the Next Generation spectral Library (NGSL), we discuss the reliability of the method and its dependence on the extinction law used.
Isotope ratio in stellar atmospheres and nucleosynthesis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barbuy, B.L.S.
1987-01-01
The determination of isotopic ratios in stellar atmospheres is studied. The isotopic shift of atomic and molecular lines of different species of a certain element is examined. CH and MgH lines are observed in order to obtain the 12 C: 13 C and 24 Mg: 25 Mg: 26 Mg isotpic ratios. The formation of lines in stellar atmospheres is computed and the resulting synthetic spectra are employed to determine the isotopic abundances. The results obtained for the isotopic ratios are compared to predictions of nucleosynthesis theories. Finally, the concept of primary and secondary element is discussed, and these definitions are applied to the observed variations in the abundance of elements as a function of metallicity. (author) [pt
STELLTRANS: A Transport Analysis Suite for Stellarators
Mittelstaedt, Joseph; Lazerson, Samuel; Pablant, Novimir; Weir, Gavin; W7-X Team
2016-10-01
The stellarator transport code STELLTRANS allows us to better analyze the power balance in W7-X. Although profiles of temperature and density are measured experimentally, geometrical factors are needed in conjunction with these measurements to properly analyze heat flux densities in stellarators. The STELLTRANS code interfaces with VMEC to find an equilibrium flux surface configuration and with TRAVIS to determine the RF heating and current drive in the plasma. Stationary transport equations are then considered which are solved using a boundary value differential equation solver. The equations and quantities considered are averaged over flux surfaces to reduce the system to an essentially one dimensional problem. We have applied this code to data from W-7X and were able to calculate the heat flux coefficients. We will also present extensions of the code to a predictive capacity which would utilize DKES to find neoclassical transport coefficients to update the temperature and density profiles.
Energetic Particle Estimates for Stellar Flares
Youngblood, Allison; Chamberlin, Phil; Woods, Tom
2018-01-01
In the heliosphere, energetic particles are accelerated away from the Sun during solar flares and/or coronal mass ejections where they frequently impact the Earth and other solar system bodies. Solar (or stellar) energetic particles (SEPs) not only affect technological assets, but also influence mass loss and chemistry in planetary atmospheres (e.g., depletion of ozone). SEPs are increasingly recognized as an important factor in assessing exoplanet habitability, but we do not yet have constraints on SEP emission from any stars other than the Sun. Until indirect measurements are available, we must assume solar-like particle production and apply correlations between solar flares and SEPs detected near Earth to stellar flares. We present improved scaling relations between solar far-UV flare flux and >10 MeV proton flux near Earth. We apply these solar scaling relations to far-UV flares from exoplanet host stars and discuss the implications for modeling chemistry and mass loss in exoplanet atmospheres.
On Utmost Multiplicity of Hierarchical Stellar Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gebrehiwot Y. M.
2016-12-01
Full Text Available According to theoretical considerations, multiplicity of hierarchical stellar systems can reach, depending on masses and orbital parameters, several hundred, while observational data confirm the existence of at most septuple (seven-component systems. In this study, we cross-match the stellar systems of very high multiplicity (six and more components in modern catalogues of visual double and multiple stars to find among them the candidates to hierarchical systems. After cross-matching the catalogues of closer binaries (eclipsing, spectroscopic, etc., some of their components were found to be binary/multiple themselves, what increases the system's degree of multiplicity. Optical pairs, known from literature or filtered by the authors, were flagged and excluded from the statistics. We compiled a list of hierarchical systems with potentially very high multiplicity that contains ten objects. Their multiplicity does not exceed 12, and we discuss a number of ways to explain the lack of extremely high multiplicity systems.
Stellar clusters in the Gaia era
Bragaglia, Angela
2018-04-01
Stellar clusters are important for astrophysics in many ways, for instance as optimal tracers of the Galactic populations to which they belong or as one of the best test bench for stellar evolutionary models. Gaia DR1, with TGAS, is just skimming the wealth of exquisite information we are expecting from the more advanced catalogues, but already offers good opportunities and indicates the vast potentialities. Gaia results can be efficiently complemented by ground-based data, in particular by large spectroscopic and photometric surveys. Examples of some scientific results of the Gaia-ESO survey are presented, as a teaser for what will be possible once advanced Gaia releases and ground-based data will be combined.
Clustering in the stellar abundance space
Boesso, R.; Rocha-Pinto, H. J.
2018-03-01
We have studied the chemical enrichment history of the interstellar medium through an analysis of the n-dimensional stellar abundance space. This work is a non-parametric analysis of the stellar chemical abundance space. The main goal is to study the stars from their organization within this abundance space. Within this space, we seek to find clusters (in a statistical sense), that is, stars likely to share similar chemo-evolutionary history, using two methods: the hierarchical clustering and the principal component analysis. We analysed some selected abundance surveys available in the literature. For each sample, we labelled the group of stars according to its average abundance curve. In all samples, we identify the existence of a main enrichment pattern of the stars, which we call chemical enrichment flow. This flow is set by the structured and well-defined mean rate at which the abundances of the interstellar medium increase, resulting from the mixture of the material ejected from the stars and stellar mass-loss and interstellar medium gas. One of the main results of our analysis is the identification of subgroups of stars with peculiar chemistry. These stars are situated in regions outside of the enrichment flow in the abundance space. These peculiar stars show a mismatch in the enrichment rate of a few elements, such as Mg, Si, Sc and V, when compared to the mean enrichment rate of the other elements of the same stars. We believe that the existence of these groups of stars with peculiar chemistry may be related to the accretion of planetary material on to stellar surfaces or may be due to production of the same chemical element by different nucleosynthetic sites.
Compact stellar object: the formation and structure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Duarte, S.B. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF/MCT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2012-07-01
Full text: The formation of compact objects is viewed at the final stages of stellar evolution. The supernova explosion events are then focalized to explain the formation of pulsars, hybrid neutron star and the limit case of the latter, the quark stars. We discuss the stability and structure of these objects in connection with the properties of the hadron and quark-gluon plasma equation of state. The hadron-quark phase transition in deep interior of these objects is discussed taking into account the implications on the density distribution of matter along the radial direction. The role of neutrinos confinement in the ultradense stellar medium in the early stages of pulsar formation is another interesting aspect to be mentioned in this presentation. Recent results for maximum mass of compact stellar objects for different forms of equations of state will be shown, presenting some theoretical predictions for maximum mass of neutron stars allowed by different equations of state assigned to dense stellar medium. Although a density greater than few times the nuclear equilibrium density appears in deep interior of the core, at the crust the density decreases by several orders of magnitude where a variety of hadronic states appears, the 'pasta'-states of hadrons. More externally, a lattice of nuclei can be formed permeated not only by electrons but also by a large amount of free neutrons and protons. These are possible structure of neutron star crust to have the density and pressures with null values at the neutron star surface. The ultimate goal of this talk is to give a short view of the compact star area for students and those who are introducing in this subject. (author)
Future prospects for stellar intensity interferometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lake, R.J.W.
2002-01-01
Full text: The technique of Stellar Intensity lnterferometry (SII) was first successfully demonstrated by Hanbury-Brown in 1956 at Jodrell Bank. SII uses the correlation in intensity fluctuations of starlight as a function of observational baseline to determine angular diameters and other gross features of main sequence stars. In 1962 an observatory was established by Hanbury-Brown in Narrabri NSW. Between 1965 and 1972 the angular diameters of 32 stars covering the spectral range O to F were measured. Orbital parameters of several unresolved binary stars were also determined and attempts were made by the author to directly measure the limb darkening of Sirius and the rotational distortion of Altair. Following the success of the Narrabri SII the Australian Federal Government provided a grant to Sydney University to develop a Very Large SII capable of making observational measurements on about a thousand stars. The development of this VLSII was however shelved in preference to the development of a potentially more sensitive long baseline Michelson Stellar Interferometer. This latter instrument known as SUSI (Sydney University Stellar Interferometer) has been in operation at Narrabri since 1995. Encouraged by the early results of SUSI and their own efforts in the use of active optics to reduce the effects of atmospheric scintillation a number of international observatories are now active in the development of long baseline or large aperture Michelson Stellar Interferometers. However SII while sacrificing sensitivity has a number of technical advantages over MSI as SII is far less sensitive to atmospheric effects and can be readily developed to work over very long baselines. This paper through technical review and theoretical modeling examines how a modern VLSII could be constructed and operated and addresses the limitations to its sensitivity. In particular it examines how existing Australian industry could contribute to the development of a VLSII with sufficient
Detection of stellar oscillations in HWVir
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Baran Andrzej S.
2016-08-01
Full Text Available We present our analysis of K2 observations of the binary system, HWVir. We processed the raw Kepler data and used Fourier analysis to search for periodic signals that could be associated with pulsations. We detect the binary frequency and its harmonic and discovered tens of peaks at both low and high frequencies. We interpreted those to be caused by stellar pulsations. Our discovery means we can apply the tools of asteroseismology to the HWVir system.
Stellarator approach to toroidal plasma confinement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnson, J.L.
1981-12-01
An overview is presented of the development and current status of the stellarator approach to controlled thermonuclear confinement. Recent experimental, theoretical, and systems developments have made this concept a viable option for the evolution of the toroidal confinement program. Some experimental study of specific problems associated with departure from two-dimensional symmetry must be undertaken before the full advantages and opportunities of steady-state, net-current-free operation can be realized
SMASH: Survey of the MAgellanic Stellar History
Nidever, David L.; Olsen, Knut; Walker, Alistair R.; Vivas, A. Katherina; Blum, Robert D.; Kaleida, Catherine; Choi, Yumi; Conn, Blair C.; Gruendl, Robert A.; Bell, Eric F.; Besla, Gurtina; Muñoz, Ricardo R.; Gallart, Carme; Martin, Nicolas F.; Olszewski, Edward W.; Saha, Abhijit; Monachesi, Antonela; Monelli, Matteo; de Boer, Thomas J. L.; Johnson, L. Clifton; Zaritsky, Dennis; Stringfellow, Guy S.; van der Marel, Roeland P.; Cioni, Maria-Rosa L.; Jin, Shoko; Majewski, Steven R.; Martinez-Delgado, David; Monteagudo, Lara; Noël, Noelia E. D.; Bernard, Edouard J.; Kunder, Andrea; Chu, You-Hua; Bell, Cameron P. M.; Santana, Felipe; Frechem, Joshua; Medina, Gustavo E.; Parkash, Vaishali; Serón Navarrete, J. C.; Hayes, Christian
2017-11-01
The Large and Small Magellanic Clouds are unique local laboratories for studying the formation and evolution of small galaxies in exquisite detail. The Survey of the MAgellanic Stellar History (SMASH) is an NOAO community Dark Energy Camera (DECam) survey of the Clouds mapping 480 deg2 (distributed over ˜2400 square degrees at ˜20% filling factor) to ˜24th mag in ugriz. The primary goals of SMASH are to identify low surface brightness stellar populations associated with the stellar halos and tidal debris of the Clouds, and to derive spatially resolved star formation histories. Here, we present a summary of the survey, its data reduction, and a description of the first public Data Release (DR1). The SMASH DECam data have been reduced with a combination of the NOAO Community Pipeline, the PHOTRED automated point-spread-function photometry pipeline, and custom calibration software. The astrometric precision is ˜15 mas and the accuracy is ˜2 mas with respect to the Gaia reference frame. The photometric precision is ˜0.5%-0.7% in griz and ˜1% in u with a calibration accuracy of ˜1.3% in all bands. The median 5σ point source depths in ugriz are 23.9, 24.8, 24.5, 24.2, and 23.5 mag. The SMASH data have already been used to discover the Hydra II Milky Way satellite, the SMASH 1 old globular cluster likely associated with the LMC, and extended stellar populations around the LMC out to R ˜ 18.4 kpc. SMASH DR1 contains measurements of ˜100 million objects distributed in 61 fields. A prototype version of the NOAO Data Lab provides data access and exploration tools.
Rate of stellar collapses in the Galaxy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lande, K.; Stephens, W.E.
1977-01-01
From an analysis of pulsar spatial and luminosity distributions, the number density of observed pulsars in the local region is determined to be 1.1+-0.4x10 -7 pulsar pc -3 . Multiplication by the detection factor and by the ratio of Galaxy mass to local matter density and division by a mean lifetime of pulsars of 3x10 6 yr suggests a pulsar birth every 4 yr. A stellar collapse might occur even more often. (Auth.)
SMASH: Survey of the MAgellanic Stellar History
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nidever, David L.; Olsen, Knut; Blum, Robert D.; Saha, Abhijit [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Walker, Alistair R.; Vivas, A. Katherina [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Kaleida, Catherine [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Choi, Yumi; Besla, Gurtina; Olszewski, Edward W. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson AZ, 85721 (United States); Conn, Blair C. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Gruendl, Robert A. [National Center for Supercomputing Applications, 1205 West Clark Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Bell, Eric F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 S. University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1107 (United States); Muñoz, Ricardo R. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Camino del Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Gallart, Carme; Monelli, Matteo [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Martin, Nicolas F. [Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, Observatoire astronomique de Strasbourg, UMR 7550, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Monachesi, Antonela [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); De Boer, Thomas J. L. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Johnson, L. Clifton, E-mail: dnidever@noao.edu [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, UC San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA, 92093-0424 (United States); and others
2017-11-01
The Large and Small Magellanic Clouds are unique local laboratories for studying the formation and evolution of small galaxies in exquisite detail. The Survey of the MAgellanic Stellar History (SMASH) is an NOAO community Dark Energy Camera (DECam) survey of the Clouds mapping 480 deg{sup 2} (distributed over ∼2400 square degrees at ∼20% filling factor) to ∼24th mag in ugriz . The primary goals of SMASH are to identify low surface brightness stellar populations associated with the stellar halos and tidal debris of the Clouds, and to derive spatially resolved star formation histories. Here, we present a summary of the survey, its data reduction, and a description of the first public Data Release (DR1). The SMASH DECam data have been reduced with a combination of the NOAO Community Pipeline, the PHOTRED automated point-spread-function photometry pipeline, and custom calibration software. The astrometric precision is ∼15 mas and the accuracy is ∼2 mas with respect to the Gaia reference frame. The photometric precision is ∼0.5%–0.7% in griz and ∼1% in u with a calibration accuracy of ∼1.3% in all bands. The median 5 σ point source depths in ugriz are 23.9, 24.8, 24.5, 24.2, and 23.5 mag. The SMASH data have already been used to discover the Hydra II Milky Way satellite, the SMASH 1 old globular cluster likely associated with the LMC, and extended stellar populations around the LMC out to R ∼ 18.4 kpc. SMASH DR1 contains measurements of ∼100 million objects distributed in 61 fields. A prototype version of the NOAO Data Lab provides data access and exploration tools.
Bera, Anupam; Ghosh, Jayanta; Bhattacharya, Atanu
2017-07-28
Conical intersections are now firmly established to be the key features in the excited electronic state processes of polyatomic energetic molecules. In the present work, we have explored conical intersection-mediated nonadiabatic chemical dynamics of a simple analogue nitramine molecule, dimethylnitramine (DMNA, containing one N-NO 2 energetic group), and its complex with an iron atom (DMNA-Fe). For this task, we have used the ab initio multiple spawning (AIMS) dynamics simulation at the state averaged-complete active space self-consistent field(8,5)/6-31G(d) level of theory. We have found that DMNA relaxes back to the ground (S 0 ) state following electronic excitation to the S 1 excited state [which is an (n,π*) excited state] with a time constant of approximately 40 fs. This AIMS result is in very good agreement with the previous surface hopping-result and femtosecond laser spectroscopy result. DMNA does not dissociate during this fast internal conversion from the S 1 to the S 0 state. DMNA-Fe also undergoes extremely fast relaxation from the upper S 1 state to the S 0 state; however, this relaxation pathway is dissociative in nature. DMNA-Fe undergoes initial Fe-O, N-O, and N-N bond dissociations during relaxation from the upper S 1 state to the ground S 0 state through the respective conical intersection. The AIMS simulation reveals the branching ratio of these three channels as N-N:Fe-O:N-O = 6:3:1 (based on 100 independent simulations). Furthermore, the AIMS simulation reveals that the Fe-O bond dissociation channel exhibits the fastest (time constant 24 fs) relaxation, while the N-N bond dissociation pathway features the slowest (time constant 128 fs) relaxation. An intermediate time constant (30 fs) is found for the N-O bond dissociation channel. This is the first nonadiabatic chemical dynamics study of metal-contained energetic molecules through conical intersections.
Bera, Anupam; Ghosh, Jayanta; Bhattacharya, Atanu
2017-07-01
Conical intersections are now firmly established to be the key features in the excited electronic state processes of polyatomic energetic molecules. In the present work, we have explored conical intersection-mediated nonadiabatic chemical dynamics of a simple analogue nitramine molecule, dimethylnitramine (DMNA, containing one N-NO2 energetic group), and its complex with an iron atom (DMNA-Fe). For this task, we have used the ab initio multiple spawning (AIMS) dynamics simulation at the state averaged-complete active space self-consistent field(8,5)/6-31G(d) level of theory. We have found that DMNA relaxes back to the ground (S0) state following electronic excitation to the S1 excited state [which is an (n,π*) excited state] with a time constant of approximately 40 fs. This AIMS result is in very good agreement with the previous surface hopping-result and femtosecond laser spectroscopy result. DMNA does not dissociate during this fast internal conversion from the S1 to the S0 state. DMNA-Fe also undergoes extremely fast relaxation from the upper S1 state to the S0 state; however, this relaxation pathway is dissociative in nature. DMNA-Fe undergoes initial Fe-O, N-O, and N-N bond dissociations during relaxation from the upper S1 state to the ground S0 state through the respective conical intersection. The AIMS simulation reveals the branching ratio of these three channels as N-N:Fe-O:N-O = 6:3:1 (based on 100 independent simulations). Furthermore, the AIMS simulation reveals that the Fe-O bond dissociation channel exhibits the fastest (time constant 24 fs) relaxation, while the N-N bond dissociation pathway features the slowest (time constant 128 fs) relaxation. An intermediate time constant (30 fs) is found for the N-O bond dissociation channel. This is the first nonadiabatic chemical dynamics study of metal-contained energetic molecules through conical intersections.
Stellar Atmospheric Modelling for the ACCESS Program
Morris, Matthew; Kaiser, Mary Elizabeth; Bohlin, Ralph; Kurucz, Robert; ACCESS Team
2018-01-01
A goal of the ACCESS program (Absolute Color Calibration Experiment for Standard Stars) is to enable greater discrimination between theoretical astrophysical models and observations, where the comparison is limited by systematic errors associated with the relative flux calibration of the targets. To achieve these goals, ACCESS has been designed as a sub-orbital rocket borne payload and ground calibration program, to establish absolute flux calibration of stellar targets at flight candidates, as well as a selection of A and G stars from the CALSPEC database. Stellar atmosphere models were generated using Atlas 9 and Atlas 12 Kurucz stellar atmosphere software. The effective temperature, log(g), metallicity, and redenning were varied and the chi-squared statistic was minimized to obtain a best-fit model. A comparison of these models and the results from interpolation between grids of existing models will be presented. The impact of the flexibility of the Atlas 12 input parameters (e.g. solar metallicity fraction, abundances, microturbulent velocity) is being explored.
The formation of stellar black holes
Mirabel, Félix
2017-08-01
It is believed that stellar black holes (BHs) can be formed in two different ways: Either a massive star collapses directly into a BH without a supernova (SN) explosion, or an explosion occurs in a proto-neutron star, but the energy is too low to completely unbind the stellar envelope, and a large fraction of it falls back onto the short-lived neutron star (NS), leading to the delayed formation of a BH. Theoretical models set progenitor masses for BH formation by implosion, namely, by complete or almost complete collapse, but observational evidences have been elusive. Here are reviewed the observational insights on BHs formed by implosion without large natal kicks from: (1) the kinematics in three dimensions of space of five Galactic BH X-ray binaries (BH-XRBs), (2) the diversity of optical and infrared observations of massive stars that collapse in the dark, with no luminous SN explosions, possibly leading to the formation of BHs, and (3) the sources of gravitational waves (GWs) produced by mergers of stellar BHs so far detected with LIGO. Multiple indications of BH formation without ejection of a significant amount of matter and with no natal kicks obtained from these different areas of observational astrophysics, and the recent observational confirmation of the expected dependence of BH formation on metallicity and redshift, are qualitatively consistent with the high merger rates of binary black holes (BBHs) inferred from the first detections with LIGO.
The Resolved Stellar Population of Leo A
Tolstoy, Eline
1996-05-01
New observations of the resolved stellar population of the extremely metal-poor Magellanic dwarf irregular galaxy Leo A in Thuan-Gunn r, g, i, and narrowband Hα filters are presented. Using the recent Cepheid variable star distance determination to Leo A by Hoessel et al., we are able to create an accurate color-magnitude diagram (CMD). We have used the Bavesian inference method described by Tolstoy & Saha to calculate the likelihood of a Monte Carlo simulation of the stellar population of Leo A being a good match to the data within the well understood errors in the data. The magnitude limits on our data are sensitive enough to look back at ~1 Gyr of star formation history at the distance of Leo A. To explain the observed ratio of red to blue stars in the observed CMD, it is necessary to invoke either a steadily decreasing star formation rate toward the present time or gaps in the star formation history. We also compare the properties of the observed stellar population with the known spatial distribution of the H I gas and H II regions to support the conclusions from CMD modeling. We consider the possibility that currently there is a period of diminished star formation in Leo A, as evidenced by the lack of very young stars in the CMD and the faint H II regions. How the chaotic H I distribution, with no observable rotation, fits into our picture of the evolution of Leo A is as yet unclear.
The doubling of stellar black hole nuclei
Kazandjian, Mher V.; Touma, J. R.
2013-04-01
It is strongly believed that Andromeda's double nucleus signals a disc of stars revolving around its central supermassive black hole on eccentric Keplerian orbits with nearly aligned apsides. A self-consistent stellar dynamical origin for such apparently long-lived alignment has so far been lacking, with indications that cluster self-gravity is capable of sustaining such lopsided configurations if and when stimulated by external perturbations. Here, we present results of N-body simulations which show unstable counter-rotating stellar clusters around supermassive black holes saturating into uniformly precessing lopsided nuclei. The double nucleus in our featured experiment decomposes naturally into a thick eccentric disc of apo-apse aligned stars which is embedded in a lighter triaxial cluster. The eccentric disc reproduces key features of Keplerian disc models of Andromeda's double nucleus; the triaxial cluster has a distinctive kinematic signature which is evident in Hubble Space Telescope observations of Andromeda's double nucleus, and has been difficult to reproduce with Keplerian discs alone. Our simulations demonstrate how the combination of an eccentric disc and a triaxial cluster arises naturally when a star cluster accreted over a preexisting and counter-rotating disc of stars drives disc and cluster into a mutually destabilizing dance. Such accretion events are inherent to standard galaxy formation scenarios. They are here shown to double stellar black hole nuclei as they feed them.
Intrinsic Turbulence Stabilization in a Stellarator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Xanthopoulos
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The magnetic surfaces of modern stellarators are characterized by complex, carefully optimized shaping and exhibit locally compressed regions of strong turbulence drive. Massively parallel computer simulations of plasma turbulence reveal, however, that stellarators also possess two intrinsic mechanisms to mitigate the effect of this drive. In the regime where the length scale of the turbulence is very small compared to the equilibrium scale set by the variation of the magnetic field, the strongest fluctuations form narrow bandlike structures on the magnetic surfaces. Thanks to this localization, the average transport through the surface is significantly smaller than that predicted at locations of peak turbulence. This feature results in a numerically observed upshift of the onset of turbulence on the surface towards higher ion temperature gradients as compared with the prediction from the most unstable regions. In a second regime lacking scale separation, the localization is lost and the fluctuations spread out on the magnetic surface. Nonetheless, stabilization persists through the suppression of the large eddies (relative to the equilibrium scale, leading to a reduced stiffness for the heat flux dependence on the ion temperature gradient. These fundamental differences with tokamak turbulence are exemplified for the QUASAR stellarator [G. H. Neilson et al., IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 42, 489 (2014].
Solar and Stellar X-ray Cycles
Martens, P. C. H.; SADE Team
2004-05-01
Stern et al. have shown that Yohkoh-SXT full disk X-ray irradiance shows an 11 year cycle with an max/min amplitude ratio of a factor 30. Similar cyclic X-ray variation in Sun-like stars observed by ROSAT and its predecessors is observed in only a few cases and limited to a factor two or three. We will show, by means of detailed bandpass comparisons, that this discrepancy cannot be ascribed to the differences in energy response between SXT and the stellar soft X-ray detectors. Is the Sun exceptional? After centuries of geocentric and heliocentric worldviews we find this a difficult proposition to entertain. But perhaps the Sun is a member of a small class of late-type stars with large amplitudes in their X-ray cycles. The stellar X-ray observations listed in the HEASARC catalog are too sparse to verify this hypothesis. To resolve these and related questions we have proposed a small low-cost stellar X-ray spectroscopic imager originally called SADE to obtain regular time series from late and early-type stars and accretion disks. This instrument is complimentary to the much more advanced Chandra and XMM-Newton observatories, and allows them to focus on those sources that require their full spatial and spectral resolution. We will describe the basic design and spectroscopic capability of SADE and show it meets the mission requirements.
STELLAR: fast and exact local alignments
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Weese David
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Large-scale comparison of genomic sequences requires reliable tools for the search of local alignments. Practical local aligners are in general fast, but heuristic, and hence sometimes miss significant matches. Results We present here the local pairwise aligner STELLAR that has full sensitivity for ε-alignments, i.e. guarantees to report all local alignments of a given minimal length and maximal error rate. The aligner is composed of two steps, filtering and verification. We apply the SWIFT algorithm for lossless filtering, and have developed a new verification strategy that we prove to be exact. Our results on simulated and real genomic data confirm and quantify the conjecture that heuristic tools like BLAST or BLAT miss a large percentage of significant local alignments. Conclusions STELLAR is very practical and fast on very long sequences which makes it a suitable new tool for finding local alignments between genomic sequences under the edit distance model. Binaries are freely available for Linux, Windows, and Mac OS X at http://www.seqan.de/projects/stellar. The source code is freely distributed with the SeqAn C++ library version 1.3 and later at http://www.seqan.de.
Plasma equilibrium and stability in stellarators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pustovitov, V.D.; Shafranov, V.D.
1987-01-01
A review of theoretical methods of investigating plasma equilibrium and stability in stellarators is given. Principles forming the basis of toroidal plasma equilibrium and its stabilization, and the main results of analytical theory and numerical calculations are presented. Configurations with spiral symmetry and usual stellarators with plane axis and spiral fields are considered in detail. Derivation of scalar two-dimensional equations, describing equilibrium in these systems is given. These equations were used to obtain one-dimensional equations for displacement and ellipticity of magnetic surfaces. The model of weak-elliptic displaced surfaces was used to consider the evolution of plasma equilibrium in stellarators after elevation of its pressure: change of profile of rotational transformation after change of plasma pressure, current generation during its fast heating and its successive damping due to finite plasma conductivity were described. The derivation of equations of small oscillations in the form, suitable for local disturbance investigation is presented. These equations were used to obtain Mercier criteria and ballon model equations. General sufficient conditions of plasma stability in systems with magnetic confinement were derived
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beidler, C.D.; Hitchon, W.N.G.
1993-08-01
Calculations of the neoclassical transport rates due to particles trapped in the helical ripples of a stellarator's magnetic field are carried out, based on solutions of the bounce-averaged kinetic equation. These calculations employ a model for the magnetic field strength, B, which is an accurate approximation to the actual B for a wide variety of stellarator-type devices, among which are Helical-Axis Advanced Stellarators (Helias) as well as conventional stellarators and torsatrons. Comparisons are carried out in which it is shown that the Helias concept leads to significant reductions in neoclassical transport rates throughout the entire long-mean-free-path regime, with the reduction being particularly dramatic in the ν -1 regime. These findings are confirmed by numerical simulations. Further, it is shown that the behavior of deeply trapped particles in Helias can be fundamentally different from that in classical stellarator/torsatrons; as a consequence, the beneficial effects of a radial electric field on the transport make themselves felt at lower collision frequency than is usual. (orig.)
BOOK REVIEW: Stellarator and Heliotron Devices
Johnson, John L.
1999-02-01
Stellarators and tokamaks are the most advanced devices that have been developed for magnetic fusion applications. The two approaches have much in common; tokamaks have received the most attention because their axisymmetry justifies the use of simpler models and provides a more forgiving geometry. However, recent advances in treating more complicated three dimensional systems have made it possible to design stellarators that are not susceptible to disruptions and do not need plasma current control. This has excited interest recently. The two largest new magnetic experiments in the world are the LHD device, which commenced operation in Toki, Japan, in 1998 and W7-X, which should become operational in Greifswald, Germany, in 2004. Other recently commissioned stellarators, including H-1 in Canberra, Australia, TJ-II in Madrid, Spain, and IMS in Madison, Wisconsin, have joined these in rejuvenating the stellarator programme. Thus, it is most appropriate that the author has made the lecture material that he presents to his students in the Graduate School of Energy Science at Kyoto University available to everyone. Stellarator and Heliotron Devices provides an excellent treatment of stellarator theory. It is aimed at graduate students who have a good understanding of classical mechanics and mathematical techniques. It contains good descriptions and derivations of essentially every aspect of fusion theory. The author provides an excellent qualitative introduction to each subject, pointing out the strengths and weaknesses of the models that are being used and describing our present understanding. He judiciously uses simple models which illustrate the similarities and differences between stellarators and tokamaks. To some extent the treatment is uneven, rigorous derivations starting with basic principles being given in some cases and relations and equations taken from the original papers being used as a starting point in others. This technique provides an excellent training
The Stellar Imager (SI) Project: Resolving Stellar Surfaces, Interiors, and Magnetic Activity
Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Schrijver, K.; Karovska, M.
2007-01-01
The Stellar Imager (SI) is a UV/Optical. Space-Based Interferometer designed to enable 0.1 milli-arcsec (mas) spectral imaging of stellar surfaces and, via asteroseismology, stellar interiors and of the Universe in general. The ultra-sharp images of SI will revolutionize our view of many dynamic astrophysical processes by transforming point sources into extended sources, and snapshots into evolving views. The science of SI focuses on the role of magnetism in the Universe, particularly on magnetic activity on the surfaces of stars like the Sun. Its prime goal is to enable long-term forecasting of solar activity and the space weather that it drives. SI will also revolutionize our understanding of the formation of planetary systems, of the habitability and climatology of distant planets, and of many magneto-hydrodynamically controlled processes in the Universe. In this paper we discuss the science goals, technology needs, and baseline design of the SI mission.
Estimating precise metallicity and stellar mass evolution of galaxies
Mosby, Gregory
2018-01-01
The evolution of galaxies can be conveniently broken down into the evolution of their contents. The changing dust, gas, and stellar content in addition to the changing dark matter potential and periodic feedback from a super-massive blackhole are some of the key ingredients. We focus on the stellar content that can be observed, as the stars reflect information about the galaxy when they were formed. We approximate the stellar content and star formation histories of unresolved galaxies using stellar population modeling. Though simplistic, this approach allows us to reconstruct the star formation histories of galaxies that can be used to test models of galaxy formation and evolution. These models, however, suffer from degeneracies at large lookback times (t > 1 Gyr) as red, low luminosity stars begin to dominate a galaxy’s spectrum. Additionally, degeneracies between stellar populations at different ages and metallicities often make stellar population modeling less precise. The machine learning technique diffusion k-means has been shown to increase the precision in stellar population modeling using a mono-metallicity basis set. However, as galaxies evolve, we expect the metallicity of stellar populations to vary. We use diffusion k-means to generate a multi-metallicity basis set to estimate the stellar mass and chemical evolution of unresolved galaxies. Two basis sets are formed from the Bruzual & Charlot 2003 and MILES stellar population models. We then compare the accuracy and precision of these models in recovering complete (stellar mass and metallicity) histories of mock data. Similarities in the groupings of stellar population spectra in the diffusion maps for each metallicity hint at fundamental age transitions common to both basis sets that can be used to identify stellar populations in a given age range.
Habitability in different Milky Way stellar environments: a stellar interaction dynamical approach.
Jiménez-Torres, Juan J; Pichardo, Bárbara; Lake, George; Segura, Antígona
2013-05-01
Every Galactic environment is characterized by a stellar density and a velocity dispersion. With this information from literature, we simulated flyby encounters for several Galactic regions, numerically calculating stellar trajectories as well as orbits for particles in disks; our aim was to understand the effect of typical stellar flybys on planetary (debris) disks in the Milky Way Galaxy. For the solar neighborhood, we examined nearby stars with known distance, proper motions, and radial velocities. We found occurrence of a disturbing impact to the solar planetary disk within the next 8 Myr to be highly unlikely; perturbations to the Oort cloud seem unlikely as well. Current knowledge of the full phase space of stars in the solar neighborhood, however, is rather poor; thus we cannot rule out the existence of a star that is more likely to approach than those for which we have complete kinematic information. We studied the effect of stellar encounters on planetary orbits within the habitable zones of stars in more crowded stellar environments, such as stellar clusters. We found that in open clusters habitable zones are not readily disrupted; this is true if they evaporate in less than 10(8) yr. For older clusters the results may not be the same. We specifically studied the case of Messier 67, one of the oldest open clusters known, and show the effect of this environment on debris disks. We also considered the conditions in globular clusters, the Galactic nucleus, and the Galactic bulge-bar. We calculated the probability of whether Oort clouds exist in these Galactic environments.
Stellarator Research Opportunities: A report of the National Stellarator Coordinating Committee
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gates, David A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Anderson, David [University of Wisconsin-Madison
2017-06-01
This document is the product of a stellarator community workshop, organized by the National Stellarator Coordinating Committee and referred to as Stellcon, that was held in Cambridge, Massachusetts in February 2016, hosted by MIT. The workshop was widely advertised, and was attended by 40 scientists from 12 different institutions including national labs, universities and private industry, as well as a representative from the Department of Energy. The final section of this document describes areas of community wide consensus that were developed as a result of the discussions held at that workshop. Areas where further study would be helpful to generate a consensus path forward for the US stellarator program are also discussed. The program outlined in this document is directly responsive to many of the strategic priorities of FES as articulated in “Fusion Energy Sciences: A Ten-Year Perspective (2015-2025)” [2]. The natural disruption immunity of the stellarator directly addresses “Elimination of transient events that can be deleterious to toroidal fusion plasma confinement devices” an area of critical importance for the U.S. fusion energy sciences enterprise over the next decade. Another critical area of research “Strengthening our partnerships with international research facilities,” is being significantly advanced on the W7-X stellarator in Germany and serves as a test-bed for development of successful international collaboration on ITER. This report also outlines how materials science as it relates to plasma and fusion sciences, another critical research area, can be carried out effectively in a stellarator. Additionally, significant advances along two of the Research Directions outlined in the report; “Burning Plasma Science: Foundations - Next-generation research capabilities”, and “Burning Plasma Science: Long pulse - Sustainment of Long-Pulse Plasma Equilibria” are proposed.
Stellarator Research Opportunities: A Report of the National Stellarator Coordinating Committee
Gates, D. A.; Anderson, D.; Anderson, S.; Zarnstorff, M.; Spong, D. A.; Weitzner, H.; Neilson, G. H.; Ruzic, D.; Andruczyk, D.; Harris, J. H.; Mynick, H.; Hegna, C. C.; Schmitz, O.; Talmadge, J. N.; Curreli, D.; Maurer, D.; Boozer, A. H.; Knowlton, S.; Allain, J. P.; Ennis, D.; Wurden, G.; Reiman, A.; Lore, J. D.; Landreman, M.; Freidberg, J. P.; Hudson, S. R.; Porkolab, M.; Demers, D.; Terry, J.; Edlund, E.; Lazerson, S. A.; Pablant, N.; Fonck, R.; Volpe, F.; Canik, J.; Granetz, R.; Ware, A.; Hanson, J. D.; Kumar, S.; Deng, C.; Likin, K.; Cerfon, A.; Ram, A.; Hassam, A.; Prager, S.; Paz-Soldan, C.; Pueschel, M. J.; Joseph, I.; Glasser, A. H.
2018-02-01
This document is the product of a stellarator community workshop, organized by the National Stellarator Coordinating Committee and referred to as Stellcon, that was held in Cambridge, Massachusetts in February 2016, hosted by MIT. The workshop was widely advertised, and was attended by 40 scientists from 12 different institutions including national labs, universities and private industry, as well as a representative from the Department of Energy. The final section of this document describes areas of community wide consensus that were developed as a result of the discussions held at that workshop. Areas where further study would be helpful to generate a consensus path forward for the US stellarator program are also discussed. The program outlined in this document is directly responsive to many of the strategic priorities of FES as articulated in "Fusion Energy Sciences: A Ten-Year Perspective (2015-2025)" [1]. The natural disruption immunity of the stellarator directly addresses "Elimination of transient events that can be deleterious to toroidal fusion plasma confinement devices" an area of critical importance for the US fusion energy sciences enterprise over the next decade. Another critical area of research "Strengthening our partnerships with international research facilities," is being significantly advanced on the W7-X stellarator in Germany and serves as a test-bed for development of successful international collaboration on ITER. This report also outlines how materials science as it relates to plasma and fusion sciences, another critical research area, can be carried out effectively in a stellarator. Additionally, significant advances along two of the Research Directions outlined in the report; "Burning Plasma Science: Foundations - Next-generation research capabilities", and "Burning Plasma Science: Long pulse - Sustainment of Long-Pulse Plasma Equilibria" are proposed.
Panholzer, Martin; Gatti, Matteo; Reining, Lucia
2018-04-01
The charge-density response of extended materials is usually dominated by the collective oscillation of electrons, the plasmons. Beyond this feature, however, intriguing many-body effects are observed. They cannot be described by one of the most widely used approaches for the calculation of dielectric functions, which is time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) in the adiabatic local density approximation (ALDA). Here, we propose an approximation to the TDDFT exchange-correlation kernel which is nonadiabatic and nonlocal. It is extracted from correlated calculations in the homogeneous electron gas, where we have tabulated it for a wide range of wave vectors and frequencies. A simple mean density approximation allows one to use it in inhomogeneous materials where the density varies on a scale of 1.6 rs or faster. This kernel contains effects that are completely absent in the ALDA; in particular, it correctly describes the double plasmon in the dynamic structure factor of sodium, and it shows the characteristic low-energy peak that appears in systems with low electronic density. It also leads to an overall quantitative improvement of spectra.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shit, Anindita [Department of Chemistry, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, Howrah 711103 (India); Chattopadhyay, Sudip, E-mail: sudip_chattopadhyay@rediffmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, Howrah 711103 (India); Ray Chaudhuri, Jyotipratim, E-mail: jprc_8@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Katwa College, Katwa, Burdwan 713130 (India)
2014-03-18
Highlights: • Nonadiabatic dynamics of quantum particle under the impact of high-frequency force. • Formulation of time-independent dynamics via Floquet and Kapitza schemes. • Manipulation of external force parameters allows us to control the escape rate. • Increase of (amplitudes/frequency) causes the system to decay faster, in general. • Crossover temperature increases in the presence of the field. - Abstract: Escape under the action of the external modulation constitutes a nontrivial generalization of an conventional Kramers rate because the system is away from thermal equilibrium. A derivation of this result from the point of view of Langevin dynamics in the frame of Floquet theorem in conjunction with the Kapitza–Landau time window (that leads to an attractive description of the time-dependent quantum dynamics in terms of time-independent one) has been provided. The quantum escape rate in the intermediate-to-high and very-high damping regime so obtained analytically using the phase space formalism associated with the Wigner distribution and path-integral formalism bears a quantum correction that depends strongly on the barrier height. It is shown that an increase of (amplitude/frequency) ratio causes the system to decay faster, in general. The crossover temperature between tunneling and thermal activation increases in the presence of field so that quantum effects in the escape are relevant at higher temperatures.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Beck P. G.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The unparalleled photometric data obtained by NASA’s Kepler Space Telescope has led to an improved understanding of stellar structure and evolution - in particular for solar-like oscillators in this context. Binary stars are fascinating objects. Because they were formed together, binary systems provide a set of two stars with very well constrained parameters. Those can be used to study properties and physical processes, such as the stellar rotation, dynamics and rotational mixing of elements and allows us to learn from the differences we find between the two components. In this work, we discussed a detailed study of the binary system KIC 9163796, discovered through Kepler photometry. The ground-based follow-up spectroscopy showed that this system is a double-lined spectroscopic binary, with a mass ratio close to unity. However, the fundamental parameters of the components of this system as well as their lithium abundances differ substantially. Kepler photometry of this system allows to perform a detailed seismic analysis as well as to derive the orbital period and the surface rotation rate of the primary component of the system. Indications of the seismic signature of the secondary are found. The differing parameters are best explained with both components located in the early and the late phase of the first dredge up at the bottom of the red-giant branch. Observed lithium abundances in both components are in good agreement with prediction of stellar models including rotational mixing. By combining observations and theory, a comprehensive picture of the system can be drawn.
The Effects of Stellar Dynamics on the Evolution of Young, Dense Stellar Systems
Belkus, H.; van Bever, J.; Vanbeveren, D.
In this paper, we report on first results of a project in Brussels in which we study the effects of stellar dynamics on the evolution of young dense stellar systems using 3 decades of expertise in massive-star evolution and our population (number and spectral) synthesis code. We highlight an unconventionally formed object scenario (UFO-scenario) for Wolf Rayet binaries and study the effects of a luminous blue variable-type instability wind mass-loss formalism on the formation of intermediate-mass black holes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Errea, L.F.; Mendez, L.; Mo, O.; Riera, A.
1986-01-01
A previous study of charge exchange processes taking place through ionic--covalent transitions is extended to the case of Na+H and Na + +H - collisions. A five-state molecular expansion, with the inclusion of two-electron translation factors, is employed to calculate the charge exchange and neutralization cross sections. Transitions at the first two pseudocrossings between the energy curves, practically determine the cross sections in the energy range 0.16--5 keV amu -1 . We also show that the widely used multichannel Landau--Zener theory is totally inadequate, to treat these transitions
MOIRCS DEEP SURVEY. V. A UNIVERSAL RELATION FOR STELLAR MASS AND SURFACE BRIGHTNESS OF GALAXIES
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ichikawa, Takashi; Kajisawa, Masaru; Yamada, Toru; Akiyama, Masayuki; Yoshikawa, Tomohiro; Onodera, Masato; Konishi, Masahiro
2010-01-01
We present a universal linear correlation between the stellar mass and surface brightness (SB) of galaxies at 0.3 -2.0∼-0.8 , in addition to dimming as (1 + z) 4 by the cosmological expansion effect. The brightening depends on galaxy color and stellar mass. The blue population (rest-frame U - V -0.8±0.3 in the rest-V band. On the other hand, the red population (U - V>0) and the massive galaxies (M * >10 10 M sun ) show stronger brightening, (1 + z) -1.5±0.1 . By comparison with galaxy evolution models, the phenomena are well understood by the pure luminosity evolution of galaxies out to z ∼ 3.
Linear Algebra and Smarandache Linear Algebra
Vasantha, Kandasamy
2003-01-01
The present book, on Smarandache linear algebra, not only studies the Smarandache analogues of linear algebra and its applications, it also aims to bridge the need for new research topics pertaining to linear algebra, purely in the algebraic sense. We have introduced Smarandache semilinear algebra, Smarandache bilinear algebra and Smarandache anti-linear algebra and their fuzzy equivalents. Moreover, in this book, we have brought out the study of linear algebra and vector spaces over finite p...
Near-term directions in the World Stellarator Program
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lyon, J.F.
1990-01-01
Interest in stellarators has increased because of the progress being made in the development of this concept and the inherent advantages of stellarators as candidates for an attractive, steady-state fusion reactor. Three new stellarator experiments started operation in 1988, and three more are scheduled to start in the next few years. In addition, design studies have started on large next-generation stellarator experiments for the mid-1990s. These devices are designed to test four basic approaches to stellarator configuration optimization. Ways in which these devices complement each other in exploring the potential of the stellarator concept and the main issues that they will address during the next decade are described
Multiple Stellar Populations in Star Clusters
Piotto, G.
2013-09-01
For half a century it had been astronomical dogma that a globular cluster (GC) consists of stars born at the same time out of the same material, and this doctrine has borne rich fruits. In recent years, high resolution spectroscopy and high precision photometry (from space and ground-based observations) have shattered this paradigm, and the study of GC populations has acquired a new life that is now moving it in new directions. Evidence of multiple stellar populations have been identified in the color-magnitude diagrams of several Galactic and Magellanic Cloud GCs where they had never been imagined before.
A Toolbox for Imaging Stellar Surfaces
Young, John
2018-04-01
In this talk I will review the available algorithms for synthesis imaging at visible and infrared wavelengths, including both gray and polychromatic methods. I will explain state-of-the-art approaches to constraining the ill-posed image reconstruction problem, and selecting an appropriate regularisation function and strength of regularisation. The reconstruction biases that can follow from non-optimal choices will be discussed, including their potential impact on the physical interpretation of the results. This discussion will be illustrated with example stellar surface imaging results from real VLTI and COAST datasets.
Variance in binary stellar population synthesis
Breivik, Katelyn; Larson, Shane L.
2016-03-01
In the years preceding LISA, Milky Way compact binary population simulations can be used to inform the science capabilities of the mission. Galactic population simulation efforts generally focus on high fidelity models that require extensive computational power to produce a single simulated population for each model. Each simulated population represents an incomplete sample of the functions governing compact binary evolution, thus introducing variance from one simulation to another. We present a rapid Monte Carlo population simulation technique that can simulate thousands of populations in less than a week, thus allowing a full exploration of the variance associated with a binary stellar evolution model.
The Advanced Stellar Compass, Development and Operations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, John Leif; Liebe, Carl Christian
1996-01-01
The science objective of the Danish Geomagnetic Research Satellite "Ørsted" is to map the magnetic field of the Earth, with a vector precision of a fraction of a nanotesla. This necessitates an attitude reference instrument with a precision of a few arcseconds onboard the satellite. To meet...... this demand the Advanced Stellar Compass (ASC), a fully autonomous miniature star tracker, was developed. This ASC is capable of both solving the "lost in space" problem and determine the attitude with arcseconds precision. The development, principles of operation and instrument autonomy of the ASC...
A large stellarator based on modular coils
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hamberger, S.M.; Sharp, L.E.; Petersen, L.F.
1979-06-01
Although stellarators offer some considerable advantages over tokamaks, difficulties arise in designing large devices due, for instance, to poor plasma access as well as to constructional electromechanical and maintenance problems associated with continous helical windings. This paper describes a design for a fairly large device (major radius 2.1m), based on a set of discrete coil modules arranged in a toroidal configuration to provide the required closed magnetic surfaces, having gaps for unobstructed access to the plasma for diagnostics, etc, and allowing for easy removal for maintenance
ECR heating in L-2M stellarator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grebenshchikov, S.E.; Batanov, G.M.; Fedyanin, O.I.
1995-01-01
The first results of ECH experiments in the L-2M stellarator are presented. The main goal of the experiments is to investigate the physics of ECH and plasma confinement at very high values of the volume heating power density. A current free plasma is produced and heated by extraordinary waves at the second harmonic of the electron cyclotron frequency. The experimental results are compared with the numerical simulations of plasma confinement and heating processes based on neoclassical theory using the full matrix of transport coefficients and with LHD-scaling. 4 refs., 2 figs
Advanced Stellar Compass - ROCSAT 2 - Proposal
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Riis, Troels; Betto, Maurizio; Jørgensen, John Leif
1998-01-01
System Integration is supposed to take place at NSPO facilities.The ASC is a highly advanced and autonomous Stellar Reference Unit designed, developed and produced by the Space Instrumentation Group of the Department of Automation of the Technical University of Denmark.The document is structured...... and in section 7 the mechanical and electrical interfaces are given. In section 8 and 9 we address issues like manufacturing, transportation and storage and to conclude in section 10 the requirements imposed by the ASC on the system are given....
Generating physically realizable stellar structures via embedding
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maurya, S.K. [University of Nizwa, Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, College of Arts and Science, Nizwa (Oman); Govender, M. [Durban University of Technology, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Durban (South Africa)
2017-05-15
In this work we present an exact solution of the Einstein-Maxwell field equations describing compact charged objects within the framework of classical general relativity. Our model is constructed by embedding a four-dimensional spherically symmetric static metric into a five-dimensional flat metric. The source term for the matter field is composed of a perfect fluid distribution with charge. We show that our model obeys all the physical requirements and stability conditions necessary for a realistic stellar model. Our theoretical model approximates observations of neutron stars and pulsars to a very good degree of accuracy. (orig.)
Equilibrium calculations for helical axis stellarators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hender, T.C.; Carreras, B.A.
1984-04-01
An average method based on a vacuum flux coordinate system is presented. This average method permits the study of helical axis stellarators with toroidally dominated shifts. An ordering is introduced, and to lowest order the toroidally averaged equilibrium equations are reduced to a Grad-Shafranov equation. Also, to lowest order, a Poisson-type equation is obtained for the toroidally varying corrections to the equilibium. By including these corrections, systems that are toroidally dominated, but with significant helical distortion to the equilibrium, may be studied. Numerical solutions of the average method equations are shown to agree well with three-dimensional calculations
Nonlocal and collective relaxation in stellar systems
Weinberg, Martin D.
1993-01-01
The modal response of stellar systems to fluctuations at large scales is presently investigated by means of analytic theory and n-body simulation; the stochastic excitation of these modes is shown to increase the relaxation rate even for a system which is moderately far from instability. The n-body simulations, when designed to suppress relaxation at small scales, clearly show the effects of large-scale fluctuations. It is predicted that large-scale fluctuations will be largest for such marginally bound systems as forming star clusters and associations.
Stellar Disk Truncations: HI Density and Dynamics
Trujillo, Ignacio; Bakos, Judit
2010-06-01
Using HI Nearby Galaxy Survey (THINGS) 21-cm observations of a sample of nearby (nearly face-on) galaxies we explore whether the stellar disk truncation phenomenon produces any signature either in the HI gas density and/or in the gas dynamics. Recent cosmological simulations suggest that the origin of the break on the surface brightness distribution is produced by the appearance of a warp at the truncation position. This warp should produce a flaring on the gas distribution increasing the velocity dispersion of the HI component beyond the break. We do not find, however, any evidence of this increase in the gas velocity dispersion profile.
Global Clusters as Laboratories for Stellar Evolution
Catelan, Marcio; Valcarce, Aldo A. R.; Sweigart, Allen V.
2010-01-01
Globular clusters have long been considered the closest approximation to a physicist's laboratory in astrophysics, and as such a near-ideal laboratory for (low-mass) stellar evolution, However, recent observations have cast a shadow on this long-standing paradigm, suggesting the presence of multiple populations with widely different abundance patterns, and - crucially - with widely different helium abundances as welL In this review we discuss which features of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram may be used as helium abundance indicators, and present an overview of available constraints on the helium abundance in globular clusters,
Equilibrium studies of helical axis stellarators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hender, T.C.; Carreras, B.A.; Garcia, L.; Harris, J.H.; Rome, J.A.; Cantrell, J.L.; Lynch, V.E.
1984-01-01
The equilibrium properties of helical axis stellarators are studied with a 3-D equilibrium code and with an average method (2-D). The helical axis ATF is shown to have a toroidally dominated equilibrium shift and good equilibria up to at least 10% peak beta. Low aspect ratio heliacs, with relatively large toroidal shifts, are shown to have low equilibrium beta limits (approx. 5%). Increasing the aspect ratio and number of field periods proportionally is found to improve the equilibrium beta limit. Alternatively, increasing the number of field periods at fixed aspect ratio which raises and lowers the toroidal shift improves the equilibrium beta limit
The Resolved Stellar Populations Early Release Science Program
Gilbert, Karoline; Weisz, Daniel; Resolved Stellar Populations ERS Program Team
2018-06-01
The Resolved Stellar Populations Early Release Science Program (PI D. Weisz) will observe Local Group targets covering a range of stellar density and star formation histories, including a globular cluster, and ultra-faint dwarf galaxy, and a star-forming dwarf galaxy. Using observations of these diverse targets we will explore a broad science program: we will measure star formation histories, the sub-solar stellar initial mass function, and proper motions, perform studies of evolved stars, and map extinction in the target fields. Our observations will be of high archival value for other science such as calibrating stellar evolution models, studying variable stars, and searching for metal-poor stars. We will determine optimal observational setups and develop data reduction techniques that will be common to JWST studies of resolved stellar populations. We will also design, test, and release point spread function (PSF) fitting software specific to NIRCam and NIRISS, required for the crowded stellar regime. Prior to the Cycle 2 Call for Proposals, we will release PSF fitting software, matched HST and JWST catalogs, and clear documentation and step-by-step tutorials (such as Jupyter notebooks) for reducing crowded stellar field data and producing resolved stellar photometry catalogs, as well as for specific resolved stellar photometry science applications.
ESTIMATION OF DISTANCES TO STARS WITH STELLAR PARAMETERS FROM LAMOST
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carlin, Jeffrey L.; Newberg, Heidi Jo [Department of Physics, Applied Physics and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 (United States); Liu, Chao; Deng, Licai; Li, Guangwei; Luo, A-Li; Wu, Yue; Yang, Ming; Zhang, Haotong [Key Lab of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Beers, Timothy C. [Department of Physics and JINA: Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Chen, Li; Hou, Jinliang; Smith, Martin C. [Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Guhathakurta, Puragra [UCO/Lick Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Hou, Yonghui [Nanjing Institute of Astronomical Optics and Technology, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210042 (China); Lépine, Sébastien [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, 25 Park Place, Suite 605, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Yanny, Brian [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Zheng, Zheng, E-mail: jeffreylcarlin@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, UT 84112 (United States)
2015-07-15
We present a method to estimate distances to stars with spectroscopically derived stellar parameters. The technique is a Bayesian approach with likelihood estimated via comparison of measured parameters to a grid of stellar isochrones, and returns a posterior probability density function for each star’s absolute magnitude. This technique is tailored specifically to data from the Large Sky Area Multi-object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) survey. Because LAMOST obtains roughly 3000 stellar spectra simultaneously within each ∼5° diameter “plate” that is observed, we can use the stellar parameters of the observed stars to account for the stellar luminosity function and target selection effects. This removes biasing assumptions about the underlying populations, both due to predictions of the luminosity function from stellar evolution modeling, and from Galactic models of stellar populations along each line of sight. Using calibration data of stars with known distances and stellar parameters, we show that our method recovers distances for most stars within ∼20%, but with some systematic overestimation of distances to halo giants. We apply our code to the LAMOST database, and show that the current precision of LAMOST stellar parameters permits measurements of distances with ∼40% error bars. This precision should improve as the LAMOST data pipelines continue to be refined.
The Stellar Imager (SI) - A Mission to Resolve Stellar Surfaces, Interiors, and Magnetic Activity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Christensen-Dalsgaard, Joergen; Carpenter, Kenneth G; Schrijver, Carolus J; Karovska, Margarita
2011-01-01
The Stellar Imager (SI) is a space-based, UV/Optical Interferometer (UVOI) designed to enable 0.1 milli-arcsecond (mas) spectral imaging of stellar surfaces and of the Universe in general. It will also probe via asteroseismology flows and structures in stellar interiors. SI will enable the development and testing of a predictive dynamo model for the Sun, by observing patterns of surface activity and imaging of the structure and differential rotation of stellar interiors in a population study of Sun-like stars to determine the dependence of dynamo action on mass, internal structure and flows, and time. SI's science focuses on the role of magnetism in the Universe and will revolutionize our understanding of the formation of planetary systems, of the habitability and climatology of distant planets, and of many magneto-hydrodynamically controlled processes in the Universe. SI is a 'Landmark/Discovery Mission' in the 2005 Heliophysics Roadmap, an implementation of the UVOI in the 2006 Astrophysics Strategic Plan, and a NASA Vision Mission ('NASA Space Science Vision Missions' (2008), ed. M. Allen). We present here the science goals of the SI Mission, a mission architecture that could meet those goals, and the technology development needed to enable this mission. Additional information on SI can be found at: http://hires.gsfc.nasa.gov/si/.
Direct Imaging of Stellar Surfaces: Results from the Stellar Imager (SI) Vision Mission Study
Carpenter, Kenneth; Schrijver, Carolus; Karovska, Margarita
2006-01-01
The Stellar Imager (SI) is a UV-Optical, Space-Based Interferometer designed to enable 0.1 milli-arcsecond (mas) spectral imaging of stellar surfaces and stellar interiors (via asteroseismology) and of the Universe in general. SI is identified as a "Flagship and Landmark Discovery Mission'' in the 2005 Sun Solar System Connection (SSSC) Roadmap and as a candidate for a "Pathways to Life Observatory'' in the Exploration of the Universe Division (EUD) Roadmap (May, 2005). The ultra-sharp images of the Stellar Imager will revolutionize our view of many dynamic astrophysical processes: The 0.1 mas resolution of this deep-space telescope will transform point sources into extended sources, and snapshots into evolving views. SI's science focuses on the role of magnetism in the Universe, particularly on magnetic activity on the surfaces of stars like the Sun. SI's prime goal is to enable long-term forecasting of solar activity and the space weather that it drives in support of the Living With a Star program in the Exploration Era. SI will also revolutionize our understanding of the formation of planetary systems, of the habitability and climatology of distant planets, and of many magneto-hydrodynamically controlled processes in the Universe. In this paper we will discuss the results of the SI Vision Mission Study, elaborating on the science goals of the SI Mission and a mission architecture that could meet those goals.
The Stellar Imager (SI) - A Mission to Resolve Stellar Surfaces, Interiors, and Magnetic Activity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Christensen-Dalsgaard, Joergen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University (Denmark); Carpenter, Kenneth G [Code 667 NASA-GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Schrijver, Carolus J [LMATC 3251 Hanover St., Bldg. 252, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Karovska, Margarita, E-mail: jcd@phys.au.d, E-mail: Kenneth.G.Carpenter@nasa.gov, E-mail: schryver@lmsal.com, E-mail: karovska@head.cfa.harvard.edu [60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)
2011-01-01
The Stellar Imager (SI) is a space-based, UV/Optical Interferometer (UVOI) designed to enable 0.1 milli-arcsecond (mas) spectral imaging of stellar surfaces and of the Universe in general. It will also probe via asteroseismology flows and structures in stellar interiors. SI will enable the development and testing of a predictive dynamo model for the Sun, by observing patterns of surface activity and imaging of the structure and differential rotation of stellar interiors in a population study of Sun-like stars to determine the dependence of dynamo action on mass, internal structure and flows, and time. SI's science focuses on the role of magnetism in the Universe and will revolutionize our understanding of the formation of planetary systems, of the habitability and climatology of distant planets, and of many magneto-hydrodynamically controlled processes in the Universe. SI is a 'Landmark/Discovery Mission' in the 2005 Heliophysics Roadmap, an implementation of the UVOI in the 2006 Astrophysics Strategic Plan, and a NASA Vision Mission ('NASA Space Science Vision Missions' (2008), ed. M. Allen). We present here the science goals of the SI Mission, a mission architecture that could meet those goals, and the technology development needed to enable this mission. Additional information on SI can be found at: http://hires.gsfc.nasa.gov/si/.
The Stellar Imager (SI) - A Mission to Resolve Stellar Surfaces, Interiors, and Magnetic Activity
Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen; Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Karovska, Margarita; Si Team
2011-01-01
The Stellar Imager (SI) is a space-based, UV/Optical Interferometer (UVOI) designed to enable 0.1 milli-arcsecond (mas) spectral imaging of stellar surfaces and of the Universe in general. It will also probe via asteroseismology flows and structures in stellar interiors. SI will enable the development and testing of a predictive dynamo model for the Sun, by observing patterns of surface activity and imaging of the structure and differential rotation of stellar interiors in a population study of Sun-like stars to determine the dependence of dynamo action on mass, internal structure and flows, and time. SI's science focuses on the role of magnetism in the Universe and will revolutionize our understanding of the formation of planetary systems, of the habitability and climatology of distant planets, and of many magneto-hydrodynamically controlled processes in the Universe. SI is a "Landmark/Discovery Mission" in the 2005 Heliophysics Roadmap, an implementation of the UVOI in the 2006 Astrophysics Strategic Plan, and a NASA Vision Mission ("NASA Space Science Vision Missions" (2008), ed. M. Allen). We present here the science goals of the SI Mission, a mission architecture that could meet those goals, and the technology development needed to enable this mission. Additional information on SI can be found at: http://hires.gsfc.nasa.gov/si/.
The Stellar Imager (SI) - A Mission to Resolve Stellar Surfaces, Interiors, and Magnetic Activity
Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jorgen; Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Karovska, Margarita
2012-01-01
The Stellar Imager (SI) is a space-based, UV/Optical Interferometer (UVOI) designed to enable 0.1 milli-arcsecond (mas) spectral imaging of stellar surfaces and of the Universe in general. It will also probe via asteroseismology flows and structures in stellar interiors. SI will enable the development and testing of a predictive dynamo model for the Sun, by observing patterns of surface activity and imaging of the structure and differential rotation of stellar interiors in a population study of Sun-like stars to determine the dependence of dynamo action on mass, internal structure and flows, and time. SI's science focuses on the role of magnetism in the Universe and will revolutionize our understanding of the formation of planetary systems, of the habitability and climatology of distant planets, and of many magnetohydrodynamically controlled processes in the Universe. SI is a "LandmarklDiscovery Mission" in the 2005 Heliophysics Roadmap, an implementation of the UVOI in the 2006 Astrophysics Strategic Plan, and a NASA Vision Mission ("NASA Space Science Vision Missions" (2008), ed. M. Allen). We present here the science goals of the SI Mission, a mission architecture that could meet those goals, and the technology development needed to enable this mission
Sarbadhicary, Sumit; Badenes, Carles; Chomiuk, Laura; Maldonado, Jessica; Caprioli, Damiano; Heger, Mairead; Huizenga, Daniel
2018-01-01
Our understanding of the progenitors of many stellar species, such as supernovae, massive and low-mass He-burning stars, is limited because of many poorly constrained aspects of stellar evolution theory. For my dissertation, I have focused on using Local Group galaxy surveys to constrain stellar evolution scenarios by measuring delay-time distributions (DTD). The DTD is the hypothetical occurrence rate of a stellar object per elapsed time after a brief burst of star formation. It is the measured distribution of timescales on which stars evolve, and therefore serves as a powerful observational constraint on theoretical progenitor models. The DTD can be measured from a survey of stellar objects and a set of star-formation histories of the host galaxy, and is particularly effective in the Local Group, where high-quality star-formation histories are available from resolved stellar populations. I am currently calculating a SN DTD with supernova remnants (SNRs) in order to provide the strongest constraints on the progenitors of thermonuclear and core-collapse supernovae. However, most SNRs do not have reliable age measurements and their evolution depends on the ambient environment. For this reason, I wrote a radio light curve model of an SNR population to extract the visibility times and rates of supernovae - crucial ingredients for the DTD - from an SNR survey. The model uses observational constraints on the local environments from multi-wavelength surveys, accounts for missing SNRs and employs the latest models of shock-driven particle acceleration. The final calculation of the SN DTD in the Local Group is awaiting completion of a systematic SNR catalog from deep radio-continuum images, now in preparation by a group led by Dr. Laura Chomiuk. I have also calculated DTDs for the LMC population of RR Lyrae and Cepheid variables, which serve as important distance calibrators and stellar population tracers. We find that Cepheids can have delay-times between 10 Myrs - 1 Gyr
SUB-STELLAR COMPANIONS AND STELLAR MULTIPLICITY IN THE TAURUS STAR-FORMING REGION
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Daemgen, Sebastian; Bonavita, Mariangela; Jayawardhana, Ray; Lafrenière, David; Janson, Markus
2015-01-01
We present results from a large, high-spatial-resolution near-infrared imaging search for stellar and sub-stellar companions in the Taurus-Auriga star-forming region. The sample covers 64 stars with masses between those of the most massive Taurus members at ∼3 M ☉ and low-mass stars at ∼0.2 M ☉ . We detected 74 companion candidates, 34 of these reported for the first time. Twenty-five companions are likely physically bound, partly confirmed by follow-up observations. Four candidate companions are likely unrelated field stars. Assuming physical association with their host star, estimated companion masses are as low as ∼2 M Jup . The inferred multiplicity frequency within our sensitivity limits between ∼10-1500 AU is 26.3 −4.9 +6.6 %. Applying a completeness correction, 62% ± 14% of all Taurus stars between 0.7 and 1.4 M ☉ appear to be multiple. Higher order multiples were found in 1.8 −1.5 +4.2 % of the cases, in agreement with previous observations of the field. We estimate a sub-stellar companion frequency of ∼3.5%-8.8% within our sensitivity limits from the discovery of two likely bound and three other tentative very low-mass companions. This frequency appears to be in agreement with what is expected from the tail of the stellar companion mass ratio distribution, suggesting that stellar and brown dwarf companions share the same dominant formation mechanism. Further, we find evidence for possible evolution of binary parameters between two identified sub-populations in Taurus with ages of ∼2 Myr and ∼20 Myr, respectively
SUB-STELLAR COMPANIONS AND STELLAR MULTIPLICITY IN THE TAURUS STAR-FORMING REGION
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Daemgen, Sebastian [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5H 3H4 (Canada); Bonavita, Mariangela [The University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Jayawardhana, Ray [Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto, Ontario L3T 3R1 (Canada); Lafrenière, David [Department of Physics, University of Montréal, Montréal, QC (Canada); Janson, Markus, E-mail: daemgen@astro.utoronto.ca [Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden)
2015-02-01
We present results from a large, high-spatial-resolution near-infrared imaging search for stellar and sub-stellar companions in the Taurus-Auriga star-forming region. The sample covers 64 stars with masses between those of the most massive Taurus members at ∼3 M {sub ☉} and low-mass stars at ∼0.2 M {sub ☉}. We detected 74 companion candidates, 34 of these reported for the first time. Twenty-five companions are likely physically bound, partly confirmed by follow-up observations. Four candidate companions are likely unrelated field stars. Assuming physical association with their host star, estimated companion masses are as low as ∼2 M {sub Jup}. The inferred multiplicity frequency within our sensitivity limits between ∼10-1500 AU is 26.3{sub −4.9}{sup +6.6}%. Applying a completeness correction, 62% ± 14% of all Taurus stars between 0.7 and 1.4 M {sub ☉} appear to be multiple. Higher order multiples were found in 1.8{sub −1.5}{sup +4.2}% of the cases, in agreement with previous observations of the field. We estimate a sub-stellar companion frequency of ∼3.5%-8.8% within our sensitivity limits from the discovery of two likely bound and three other tentative very low-mass companions. This frequency appears to be in agreement with what is expected from the tail of the stellar companion mass ratio distribution, suggesting that stellar and brown dwarf companions share the same dominant formation mechanism. Further, we find evidence for possible evolution of binary parameters between two identified sub-populations in Taurus with ages of ∼2 Myr and ∼20 Myr, respectively.
Carlin, Jeffrey L.; Sand, David J.; Willman, Beth; Brodie, Jean P.; Crnojevic, Denija; Peter, Annika; Price, Paul A.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Spekkens, Kristine; Strader, Jay
2017-01-01
We discuss the first results of our observational program to comprehensively map nearly the entire virial volumes of roughly LMC stellar mass galaxies at distances of ~2-4 Mpc. The MADCASH (Magellanic Analog Dwarf Companions And Stellar Halos) survey will deliver the first census of the dwarf satellite populations and stellar halo properties within LMC-like environments in the Local Volume. These will inform our understanding of the recent DES discoveries of dwarf satellites tentatively affiliated with the LMC/SMC system. We will detail our discovery of the faintest known dwarf galaxy satellite of an LMC stellar-mass host beyond the Local Group, based on deep Subaru+HyperSuprimeCam imaging reaching ~2 magnitudes below its TRGB. We will summarize the survey results and status to date, highlighting some challenges encountered and lessons learned as we process the data for this program through a prototype LSST pipeline. Our program will examine whether LMC stellar mass dwarfs have extended stellar halos, allowing us to assess the relative contributions of in-situ stars vs. merger debris to their stellar populations and halo density profiles. We outline the constraints on galaxy formation models that will be provided by our observations of low-mass galaxy halos and their satellites.
Optical Monitoring of Young Stellar Objects
Kar, Aman; Jang-Condell, Hannah; Kasper, David; Findlay, Joseph; Kobulnicky, Henry A.
2018-06-01
Observing Young Stellar Objects (YSOs) for variability in different wavelengths enables us to understand the evolution and structure of the protoplanetary disks around stars. The stars observed in this project are known YSOs that show variability in the Infrared. Targets were selected from the Spitzer Space Telescope Young Stellar Object Variability (YSOVAR) Program, which monitored star-forming regions in the mid-infrared. The goal of our project is to investigate any correlation between the variability in the infrared versus the optical. Infrared variability of YSOs is associated with the heating of the protoplanetary disk while accretion signatures are observed in the H-alpha region. We used the University of Wyoming’s Red Buttes Observatory to monitor these stars for signs of accretion using an H-alpha narrowband filter and the Johnson-Cousins filter set, over the Summer of 2017. We perform relative photometry and inspect for an image-to-image variation by observing these targets for a period of four months every two to three nights. The study helps us better understand the link between accretion and H-alpha activity and establish a disk-star connection.
Stellar populations in medium redshift clusters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pickles, A.J.; van der Kruit, P.C.; Pickles, A.J.
1990-01-01
We present a set of model isochrone spectra formed by combining stellar spectra in the proportions appropriate to the isochrone tabulations of VandenBerg, together with a Miller-Scalo mass function. The model spectra cover the wave-length range 3000-10000 A and have been constructed for metallicities in the range - 1.0 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤ 0.5, and for isochrone ages of 2 to 15 billion years. The model spectra follow the isochrone tabulations by including contributions from stars along the main sequence and subgiant branch to the base of the giant branch, fully constraining the main sequence turnoff and early post main sequence evolutionary phases. They are useful for deconvolving the competing effects of age and metallicity dispersion in composite systems. Other important components such as Horizontal branch, red giant and asymptotic branch stars are not included explicitly because they are not yet tabulated by VandenBerg, and because their fractional contributions to a composite population are less certain. These components should be added as extra parameters from a stellar library when fitting real composite spectra
Bootstrap currents in stellarators and tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Okamoto, Masao; Nakajima, Noriyoshi.
1990-09-01
The remarkable feature of the bootstrap current in stellarators is it's strong dependence on the magnetic field configuration. Neoclassical bootstrap currents in a large helical device of torsatron/heliotron type (L = 2, M = 10, R = 4 m, B = 4 T) is evaluated in the banana (1/ν) and the plateau regime. Various vacuum magnetic field configurations are studied with a view to minimizing the bootstrap current. It is found that in the banana regime, shifting of the magnetic axis and shaping of magnetic surfaces have a remarkable influence on the bootstrap current; a small outward shift of the magnetic axis and vertically elongated magnetic surfaces are favourable for a reduction of the bootstrap current. It is noted, however, that the ripple diffusion in the 1/ν regime has opposite tendency to the bootstrap current; it increases with the outward shift and increases as the plasma cross section is vertically elongated. The comparison will be made between bootstrap currents in stellarators and tokamaks. (author)
A multi-institutional Stellarator Configuration Study
Gates, David
2017-10-01
A multi-institutional study aimed at mapping the space of quasi-axisymmetric stellarators has begun. The goal is to gain improved understanding of the dependence of important physics and engineering parameters (e.g. bootstrap current, stability, coil complexity, etc.) on plasma shape (average elongation, aspect ratio, number of periods). In addition, the stellarator optimization code STELLOPT will be upgraded with new capabilities such as improved coil design algorithms such as COILOPT + + and REGCOIL, divertor optimization options, equilibria with islands using the SPEC code, and improved bootstrap current calculations with the SFINCS code. An effort is underway to develop metrics for divertor optimization. STELLOPT has also had numerous improvements to numerical algorithms and parallelization capabilities. Simultaneously, we also are pursuing the optimization of turbulent transport according to the method of proxy functions. Progress made to date includes an elongation scan on quasi-axisymmetric equilibria and an initial comparison between the SFINCS code and the BOOTSJ calculation of bootstrap current currently available in STELLOPT. Further progress on shape scans and subsequent physics analysis will be reported. The status of the STELLOPT upgrades will be described. The eventual goal of this exercise is to identify attractive configurations for future US experimental facilities.. This work is supported by US DoE Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466.
Color superconductivity in compact stellar hybrid configurations
Ranea-Sandoval, Ignacio F.; Orsaria, Milva G.; Han, Sophia; Weber, Fridolin; Spinella, William M.
2017-12-01
The discovery of pulsars PSR J1614-2230 and PSR J0348+0432 with masses of around 2 M⊙ imposes strong constraints on the equations of state of cold, ultradense matter. If a phase transition from hadronic matter to quark matter were to occur in the inner cores of such massive neutron stars, the energetically favorable state of quark matter would be a color superconductor. In this study, we analyze the stability and maximum mass of such neutron stars. The hadronic phase is described by nonlinear relativistic mean-field models, and the local Nambu-Jona Lasinio model is used to describe quark matter in the 2SC+s quark phase. The phase transition is treated as a Maxwell transition, assuming a sharp hadron-quark interface, and the "constant-sound-speed" (CSS) parametrization is employed to discuss the existence of stellar twin configurations. We find that massive neutron stars such as J1614-2230 and J0348+0432 can only exist on the connected stellar branch but not on the disconnected twin-star branch. The latter can only support stars with masses that are strictly below 2 M⊙ .
Photodissociation dynamics of CH3C(O)SH in argon matrix: A QM/MM nonadiabatic dynamics simulation
Xia, Shu-Hua; Liu, Xiang-Yang; Fang, Qiu; Cui, Ganglong
2015-11-01
In this work, we have first employed the combined quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) method to study the photodissociation mechanism of thioacetic acid CH3C(O)SH in the S1, T1, and S0 states in argon matrix. CH3C(O)SH is treated quantum mechanically using the complete active space self-consistent field and complete active space second-order perturbation theory methods; argon matrix is described classically using Lennard-Jones potentials. We find that the C-S bond fission is predominant due to its small barriers of ca. 3.0 and 1.0 kcal/mol in the S1 and T1 states. It completely suppresses the nearby C—C bond fission. After the bond fission, the S1 radical pair of CH3CO and SH can decay to the S0 and T1 states via internal conversion and intersystem crossing, respectively. In the S0 state, the radical pair can either recombine to form CH3C(O)SH or proceed to form molecular products of CH2CO and H2S. We have further employed our recently developed QM/MM generalized trajectory-based surface-hopping method to simulate the photodissociation dynamics of CH3C(O)SH. In 1 ps dynamics simulation, 56% trajectories stay at the Franck-Condon region; the S1 C—S bond fission takes place in the remaining 44% trajectories. Among all nonadiabatic transitions, the S1 → S0 internal conversion is major (55%) but the S1 → T1 intersystem crossing is still comparable and cannot be ignored, which accounts for 28%. Finally, we have found a radical channel generating the molecular products of CH2CO and H2S, which is complementary to the concerted molecular channel. The present work sets the stage for simulating photodissociation dynamics of similar thio-carbonyl systems in matrix.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schwerdtfeger, Christine A.; Soudackov, Alexander V.; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon
2014-01-01
The development of efficient theoretical methods for describing electron transfer (ET) reactions in condensed phases is important for a variety of chemical and biological applications. Previously, dynamical dielectric continuum theory was used to derive Langevin equations for a single collective solvent coordinate describing ET in a polar solvent. In this theory, the parameters are directly related to the physical properties of the system and can be determined from experimental data or explicit molecular dynamics simulations. Herein, we combine these Langevin equations with surface hopping nonadiabatic dynamics methods to calculate the rate constants for thermal ET reactions in polar solvents for a wide range of electronic couplings and reaction free energies. Comparison of explicit and implicit solvent calculations illustrates that the mapping from explicit to implicit solvent models is valid even for solvents exhibiting complex relaxation behavior with multiple relaxation time scales and a short-time inertial response. The rate constants calculated for implicit solvent models with a single solvent relaxation time scale corresponding to water, acetonitrile, and methanol agree well with analytical theories in the Golden rule and solvent-controlled regimes, as well as in the intermediate regime. The implicit solvent models with two relaxation time scales are in qualitative agreement with the analytical theories but quantitatively overestimate the rate constants compared to these theories. Analysis of these simulations elucidates the importance of multiple relaxation time scales and the inertial component of the solvent response, as well as potential shortcomings of the analytical theories based on single time scale solvent relaxation models. This implicit solvent approach will enable the simulation of a wide range of ET reactions via the stochastic dynamics of a single collective solvent coordinate with parameters that are relevant to experimentally accessible
Glover, William J; Mori, Toshifumi; Schuurman, Michael S; Boguslavskiy, Andrey E; Schalk, Oliver; Stolow, Albert; Martínez, Todd J
2018-04-28
The excited state non-adiabatic dynamics of the smallest polyene, trans 1,3-butadiene (BD), has long been the subject of controversy due to its strong coupling, ultrafast time scales and the difficulties that theory faces in describing the relevant electronic states in a balanced fashion. Here we apply Ab Initio Multiple Spawning (AIMS) using state-averaged complete active space multistate second order perturbation theory [SA-3-CAS(4/4)-MSPT2] which describes both static and dynamic electron correlation effects, providing a balanced description of both the initially prepared bright 1 1 B u (ππ*) state and non-adiabatically coupled dark 2 1 A g state of BD. Importantly, AIMS allows for on-the-fly calculations of experimental observables. We validate our approach by directly simulating the time resolved photoelectron-photoion coincidence spectroscopy results presented in Paper I [A. E. Boguslavskiy et al., J. Chem. Phys. 148, 164302 (2018)], demonstrating excellent agreement with experiment. Our simulations reveal that the initial excitation to the 1 1 B u state rapidly evolves via wavepacket dynamics that follow both bright- and dark-state pathways as well as mixtures of these. In order to test the sensitivity of the AIMS results to the relative ordering of states, we considered two hypothetical scenarios biased toward either the bright 1 B u or the dark 2 1 A g state. In contrast with AIMS/SA-3-CAS(4/4)-MSPT2 simulations, neither of these scenarios yields favorable agreement with experiment. Thus, we conclude that the excited state non-adiabatic dynamics in BD involves both of these ultrafast pathways.
Golibrzuch, Kai; Shirhatti, Pranav R; Altschäffel, Jan; Rahinov, Igor; Auerbach, Daniel J; Wodtke, Alec M; Bartels, Christof
2013-09-12
Translational motion is believed to be a spectator degree of freedom in electronically nonadiabatic vibrational energy transfer between molecules and metal surfaces, but the experimental evidence available to support this view is limited. In this work, we have experimentally determined the translational inelasticity in collisions of NO molecules with a single-crystal Au(111) surface-a system with strong electronic nonadiabaticity. State-to-state molecular beam surface scattering was combined with an IR-UV double resonance scheme to obtain high-resolution time-of-flight data. The measurements include vibrationally elastic collisions (v = 3→3, 2→2) as well as collisions where one or two quanta of molecular vibration are excited (2→3, 2→4) or de-excited (2→1, 3→2, 3→1). In addition, we have carried out comprehensive measurements of the effects of rotational excitation on the translational energy of the scattered molecules. We find that under all conditions of this work, the NO molecules lose a large fraction (∼0.45) of their incidence translational energy to the surface. Those molecules that undergo vibrational excitation (relaxation) during the collision recoil slightly slower (faster) than vibrationally elastically scattered molecules. The amount of translational energy change depends on the surface temperature. The translation-to-rotation coupling, which is well-known for v = 0→0 collisions, is found to be significantly weaker for vibrationally inelastic than elastic channels. Our results clearly show that the spectator view of the translational motion in electronically nonadiabatic vibrational energy transfer between NO and Au(111) is only approximately correct.
Glover, William J.; Mori, Toshifumi; Schuurman, Michael S.; Boguslavskiy, Andrey E.; Schalk, Oliver; Stolow, Albert; Martínez, Todd J.
2018-04-01
The excited state non-adiabatic dynamics of the smallest polyene, trans 1,3-butadiene (BD), has long been the subject of controversy due to its strong coupling, ultrafast time scales and the difficulties that theory faces in describing the relevant electronic states in a balanced fashion. Here we apply Ab Initio Multiple Spawning (AIMS) using state-averaged complete active space multistate second order perturbation theory [SA-3-CAS(4/4)-MSPT2] which describes both static and dynamic electron correlation effects, providing a balanced description of both the initially prepared bright 11Bu (ππ*) state and non-adiabatically coupled dark 21Ag state of BD. Importantly, AIMS allows for on-the-fly calculations of experimental observables. We validate our approach by directly simulating the time resolved photoelectron-photoion coincidence spectroscopy results presented in Paper I [A. E. Boguslavskiy et al., J. Chem. Phys. 148, 164302 (2018)], demonstrating excellent agreement with experiment. Our simulations reveal that the initial excitation to the 11Bu state rapidly evolves via wavepacket dynamics that follow both bright- and dark-state pathways as well as mixtures of these. In order to test the sensitivity of the AIMS results to the relative ordering of states, we considered two hypothetical scenarios biased toward either the bright 1Bu or the dark 21Ag state. In contrast with AIMS/SA-3-CAS(4/4)-MSPT2 simulations, neither of these scenarios yields favorable agreement with experiment. Thus, we conclude that the excited state non-adiabatic dynamics in BD involves both of these ultrafast pathways.
PROBING THE ROSETTE NEBULA STELLAR BUBBLE WITH FARADAY ROTATION
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Savage, Allison H.; Spangler, Steven R.; Fischer, Patrick D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)
2013-03-01
We report the results of Faraday rotation measurements of 23 background radio sources whose lines of sight pass through or close to the Rosette Nebula. We made linear polarization measurements with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) at frequencies of 4.4 GHz, 4.9 GHz, and 7.6 GHz. We find the background Galactic contribution to the rotation measure in this part of the sky to be +147 rad m{sup -2}. Sources whose lines of sight pass through the nebula have an excess rotation measure of 50-750 rad m{sup -2}, which we attribute to the plasma shell of the Rosette Nebula. We consider two simple plasma shell models and how they reproduce the magnitude and sign of the rotation measure, and its dependence on distance from the center of the nebula. These two models represent different modes of interaction of the Rosette Nebula star cluster with the surrounding interstellar medium. Both can reproduce the magnitude and spatial extent of the rotation measure enhancement, given plausible free parameters. We contend that the model based on a stellar bubble more closely reproduces the observed dependence of rotation measure on distance from the center of the nebula.
The Local Stellar Velocity Field via Vector Spherical Harmonics
Markarov, V. V.; Murphy, D. W.
2007-01-01
We analyze the local field of stellar tangential velocities for a sample of 42,339 nonbinary Hipparcos stars with accurate parallaxes, using a vector spherical harmonic formalism. We derive simple relations between the parameters of the classical linear model (Ogorodnikov-Milne) of the local systemic field and low-degree terms of the general vector harmonic decomposition. Taking advantage of these relationships, we determine the solar velocity with respect to the local stars of (V(sub X), V(sub Y), V(sub Z)) (10.5, 18.5, 7.3) +/- 0.1 km s(exp -1) not corrected for the asymmetric drift with respect to the local standard of rest. If only stars more distant than 100 pc are considered, the peculiar solar motion is (V(sub X), V(sub Y), V(sub Z)) (9.9, 15.6, 6.9) +/- 0.2 km s(exp -1). The adverse effects of harmonic leakage, which occurs between the reflex solar motion represented by the three electric vector harmonics in the velocity space and higher degree harmonics in the proper-motion space, are eliminated in our analysis by direct subtraction of the reflex solar velocity in its tangential components for each star. The Oort parameters determined by a straightforward least-squares adjustment in vector spherical harmonics are A=14.0 +/- 1.4, B=13.1 +/- 1.2, K=1.1 +/- 1.8, and C=2.9 +/- 1.4 km s(exp -1) kpc(exp -1). The physical meaning and the implications of these parameters are discussed in the framework of a general linear model of the velocity field. We find a few statistically significant higher degree harmonic terms that do not correspond to any parameters in the classical linear model. One of them, a third-degree electric harmonic, is tentatively explained as the response to a negative linear gradient of rotation velocity with distance from the Galactic plane, which we estimate at approximately -20 km s(exp -1) kpc(exp -1). A similar vertical gradient of rotation velocity has been detected for more distant stars representing the thick disk (z greater than 1 kpc
Deformation of the Galactic Centre stellar cusp due to the gravity of a growing gas disc
Kaur, Karamveer; Sridhar, S.
2018-06-01
The nuclear star cluster surrounding the massive black hole at the Galactic Centre consists of young and old stars, with most of the stellar mass in an extended, cuspy distribution of old stars. The compact cluster of young stars was probably born in situ in a massive accretion disc around the black hole. We investigate the effect of the growing gravity of the disc on the orbits of the old stars, using an integrable model of the deformation of a spherical star cluster with anisotropic velocity dispersions. A formula for the perturbed phase-space distribution function is derived using linear theory, and new density and surface density profiles are computed. The cusp undergoes a spheroidal deformation with the flattening increasing strongly at smaller distances from the black hole; the intrinsic axis ratio ˜0.8 at ˜0.15 pc. Stellar orbits are deformed such that they spend more time near the disc plane and sample the dense inner parts of the disc; this could result in enhanced stripping of the envelopes of red giant stars. Linear theory accounts only for orbits whose apsides circulate. The non-linear theory of adiabatic capture into resonance is needed to understand orbits whose apsides librate. The mechanism is a generic dynamical process, and it may be common in galactic nuclei.
Stellar oscillations in planet-hosting giant stars
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hatzes, Artie P; Zechmeister, Mathias [Thueringer Landessternwarte, Sternwarte 5, D-07778 (Germany)], E-mail: artie@tls-tautenburg.de
2008-10-15
Recently a number of giant extrasolar planets have been discovered around giant stars. These discoveries are important because many of these giant stars have intermediate masses in the range 1.2-3 Msun. Early-type main sequence stars of this mass range have been avoided by radial velocity planet search surveys due the difficulty of getting the requisite radial velocity precision needed for planet discoveries. Thus, giant stars can tell us about planet formation for stars more massive than the sun. However, the determination of stellar masses for giant stars is difficult due to the fact that evolutionary tracks for stars covering a wide range of masses converge to the same region of the H-R diagram. We report here on stellar oscillations in three planet-hosting giant stars: HD 13189, {beta} Gem, and {iota} Dra. Precise stellar radial velocity measurements for these stars show variations whose periods and amplitudes are consistent with solar-like p-mode oscillations. The implied stellar masses for these objects based on the characteristics of the stellar oscillations are consistent with the predictions of stellar isochrones. An investigation of stellar oscillations in planet hosting giant stars offers us the possibility of getting an independent determination of the stellar mass for these objects which is of crucial importance for extrasolar planet studies.
First results from stellar occultations in the "GAIA era"
Benedetti-Rossi, G.; Vieira-Martins, R.; Sicardy, B.
2017-09-01
Stellar occultation is a powerful technique to study distant solar system bodies. It allows high angular resolution of the occulting body from the analysis of a light curve acquired with high temporal resolution with uncertainties comparable as probes. In the "GAIA era", stellar occultations is now able to obtain even more impressive results such as the presence of atmosphere, rings and topographic features.
Recent advances in non-LTE stellar atmosphere models
Sander, Andreas A. C.
2017-11-01
In the last decades, stellar atmosphere models have become a key tool in understanding massive stars. Applied for spectroscopic analysis, these models provide quantitative information on stellar wind properties as well as fundamental stellar parameters. The intricate non-LTE conditions in stellar winds dictate the development of adequate sophisticated model atmosphere codes. The increase in both, the computational power and our understanding of physical processes in stellar atmospheres, led to an increasing complexity in the models. As a result, codes emerged that can tackle a wide range of stellar and wind parameters. After a brief address of the fundamentals of stellar atmosphere modeling, the current stage of clumped and line-blanketed model atmospheres will be discussed. Finally, the path for the next generation of stellar atmosphere models will be outlined. Apart from discussing multi-dimensional approaches, I will emphasize on the coupling of hydrodynamics with a sophisticated treatment of the radiative transfer. This next generation of models will be able to predict wind parameters from first principles, which could open new doors for our understanding of the various facets of massive star physics, evolution, and death.
Proton Testing of Advanced Stellar Compass Digital Processing Unit
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thuesen, Gøsta; Denver, Troelz; Jørgensen, Finn E
1999-01-01
The Advanced Stellar Compass Digital Processing Unit was radiation tested with 300 MeV protons at Proton Irradiation Facility (PIF), Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland.......The Advanced Stellar Compass Digital Processing Unit was radiation tested with 300 MeV protons at Proton Irradiation Facility (PIF), Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland....
The Advanced Stellar Compass onboard the Oersted satellite
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, John Leif; Eisenman, Allan R.; Liebe, Carl Christian
1997-01-01
In 1997 the first Danish satellite will be launched. The primarily scientific objective of the satellite is to map the magnetic field of the Earth. The attitude of the satellite is determined by an advanced stellar compass (star tracker). An advanced stellar compass consists of a CCD camera...
Variation of galactic cold gas reservoirs with stellar mass
Maddox, Natasha; Hess, Kelley M.; Obreschkow, Danail; Blyth, S.-L.; Jarvis, Matt J.
The stellar and neutral hydrogen (H I) mass functions at z ˜ 0 are fundamental benchmarks for current models of galaxy evolution. A natural extension of these benchmarks is the two-dimensional distribution of galaxies in the plane spanned by stellar and H I mass, which provides a more stringent test
Stellar Relics from the Early Galaxy T. Sivarani
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
metal-poor stars is used to study the chemical history of the galaxy. Apart from this,. 5 .... They fit a color-magnitude diagram in order to trace different stellar population and derived a ... distinctly different stellar population with a different origin.
Is the Mercier criterion relevant to stellarator stability?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carreras, B.A.; Lynch, V.E.; Ichiguchi, K.; Wakatani, M.; Tatsuno, T.
2001-01-01
Local flattening of the pressure profile at the resonant surfaces may significantly change the stellarator stability properties. This flattening may be an intrinsic consequence of the three-dimensional nature of the equilibrium and may invalidate the local stability criteria often used in stellarator design. (author)
Operations of a non-stellar object tracker in space
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Riis, Troels; Jørgensen, John Leif; Betto, Maurizio
1999-01-01
The ability to detect and track non-stellar objects by utilizing a star tracker may seem rather straight forward, as any bright object, not recognized as a star by the system is a non stellar object. However, several pitfalls and errors exist, if a reliable and robust detection is required. To te...
SOAP. A tool for the fast computation of photometry and radial velocity induced by stellar spots
Boisse, I.; Bonfils, X.; Santos, N. C.
2012-09-01
We define and put at the disposal of the community SOAP, Spot Oscillation And Planet, a software tool that simulates the effect of stellar spots and plages on radial velocimetry and photometry. This paper describes the tool release and provides instructions for its use. We present detailed tests with previous computations and real data to assess the code's performance and to validate its suitability. We characterize the variations of the radial velocity, line bisector, and photometric amplitude as a function of the main variables: projected stellar rotational velocity, filling factor of the spot, resolution of the spectrograph, linear limb-darkening coefficient, latitude of the spot, and inclination of the star. Finally, we model the spot distributions on the active stars HD 166435, TW Hya and HD 189733, which reproduce the observations. We show that the software is remarkably fast, allowing several evolutions in its capabilities that could be performed to study the next challenges in the exoplanetary field connected with the stellar variability. The tool is available at http://www.astro.up.pt/soap
Mathematical method for the study and teaching of stellar and protostellar structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doorish, J.F.
1988-01-01
The purpose of this thesis is to develop a relatively simple yet effective method of teaching stellar and protostellar structure. There are four differential equations describing the structure of a star. These equations are linearly approximated in the following form: W = W 0 (1 ± wx). Here, W represents the pressure (P), temperature (T), mass (M), and/or luminosity (L) gradients within the star; W represents some initial value of these parameters expanded inwardly or outwardly from an initial point, r 0 ; and w represents what is called the Motz Dimensionless Variables (MDV) which are directly derivable from the above set of equations. They are dimensionless, so, in the expansion, W has the same units as w 0 . In the set of equations describing the MDV, if the surface of the star is expanded to larger values, representing earlier, and therefore, protostellar stages of the star, by theoretically halting accretion, no dynamical factors need to be considered. The set of equations describing a stellar structure in static equilibrium may then be used. This method was designed for college and early graduate students who have never before encountered the topic of stellar structure
Accretion-induced variability links young stellar objects, white dwarfs, and black holes.
Scaringi, Simone; Maccarone, Thomas J; Körding, Elmar; Knigge, Christian; Vaughan, Simon; Marsh, Thomas R; Aranzana, Ester; Dhillon, Vikram S; Barros, Susana C C
2015-10-01
The central engines of disc-accreting stellar-mass black holes appear to be scaled down versions of the supermassive black holes that power active galactic nuclei. However, if the physics of accretion is universal, it should also be possible to extend this scaling to other types of accreting systems, irrespective of accretor mass, size, or type. We examine new observations, obtained with Kepler/K2 and ULTRACAM, regarding accreting white dwarfs and young stellar objects. Every object in the sample displays the same linear correlation between the brightness of the source and its amplitude of variability (rms-flux relation) and obeys the same quantitative scaling relation as stellar-mass black holes and active galactic nuclei. We also show that the most important parameter in this scaling relation is the physical size of the accreting object. This establishes the universality of accretion physics from proto-stars still in the star-forming process to the supermassive black holes at the centers of galaxies.
GAMA/H-ATLAS: THE DUST OPACITY-STELLAR MASS SURFACE DENSITY RELATION FOR SPIRAL GALAXIES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grootes, M. W.; Tuffs, R. J.; Andrae, E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Popescu, C. C.; Pastrav, B. [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Gunawardhana, M.; Taylor, E. N. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 206 (Australia); Kelvin, L. S.; Driver, S. P. [Scottish Universities' Physics Alliance (SUPA), School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Liske, J. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild Str. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Seibert, M. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Graham, Alister W. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Baes, M. [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281 S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Baldry, I. K. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Twelve Quays House, Egerton Wharf, Birkenhead CH41 1LD (United Kingdom); Bourne, N. [Centre for Astronomy and Particle Theory, The School of Physics and Astronomy, Nottingham University, University Park Campus, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Brough, S. [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 296, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Cooray, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Dariush, A. [Physics Department, Imperial College, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); De Zotti, G. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Dunne, L., E-mail: meiert.grootes@mpi-hd.mpg.de [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); and others
2013-03-20
We report the discovery of a well-defined correlation between B-band face-on central optical depth due to dust, {tau}{sup f}{sub B}, and the stellar mass surface density, {mu}{sub *}, of nearby (z {<=} 0.13) spiral galaxies. This relation was derived from a sample of spiral galaxies taken from the Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey, which were detected in the FIR/submillimeter (submm) in the Herschel-ATLAS science demonstration phase field. Using a quantitative analysis of the NUV attenuation-inclination relation for complete samples of GAMA spirals categorized according to stellar mass surface density, we demonstrate that this correlation can be used to statistically correct for dust attenuation purely on the basis of optical photometry and Sersic-profile morphological fits. Considered together with previously established empirical relationships of stellar mass to metallicity and gas mass, the near linearity and high constant of proportionality of the {tau}{sub B}{sup f} - {mu}{sub *} relation disfavors a stellar origin for the bulk of refractory grains in spiral galaxies, instead being consistent with the existence of a ubiquitous and very rapid mechanism for the growth of dust in the interstellar medium. We use the {tau}{sub B}{sup f} - {mu}{sub *} relation in conjunction with the radiation transfer model for spiral galaxies of Popescu and Tuffs to derive intrinsic scaling relations between specific star formation rate (SFR), stellar mass, and stellar surface density, in which attenuation of the UV light used for the measurement of SFR is corrected on an object-to-object basis. A marked reduction in scatter in these relations is achieved which we demonstrate is due to correction of both the inclination-dependent and face-on components of attenuation. Our results are consistent with a general picture of spiral galaxies in which most of the submm emission originates from grains residing in translucent structures, exposed to UV in the diffuse interstellar
Linear radial pulsation theory. Lecture 5
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cox, A.N.
1983-01-01
We describe a method for getting an equilibrium stellar envelope model using as input the total mass, the envelope mass, the surface effective temperature, the total surface luminosity, and the composition of the envelope. Then wih the structure of the envelope model known, we present a method for obtaining the raidal pulsation periods and growth rates for low order modes. The large amplitude pulsations observed for the yellow and red giants and supergiants are always these radial models, but for the stars nearer the main sequence, as for all of our stars and for the white dwarfs, there frequently are nonradial modes occuring also. Application of linear theory radial pulsation theory is made to the giant star sigma Scuti variables, while the linear nonradial theory will be used for the B stars in later lectures
Instabilities of line-driven stellar winds. V. Effect of an optically thick continuum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Owocki, S.P.; Rybicki, G.B.
1991-01-01
Earlier analyses of the linear instability of line-driven stellar winds are extended to the case, relevant to Wolf-Rayet stars, in which the continuum remains optically thick well above the sonic point. It is found that an optically thick flow driven by pure scattering lines is stabilized by the drag effect of the diffuse, scattered radiation. However, even a relatively small photon destruction probability can cause a flow with continuum optical thickness much greater than 1 to remain unstable, with a given growth rate. The implications of these results for the variability characteristics of winds from Wolf-Rayet stars are briefly discussed. 16 refs
Low Mach and Peclet number limit for a model of stellar tachocline and upper radiative zones
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Donatella Donatelli
2016-09-01
Full Text Available We study a hydrodynamical model describing the motion of internal stellar layers based on compressible Navier-Stokes-Fourier-Poisson system. We suppose that the medium is electrically charged, we include energy exchanges through radiative transfer and we assume that the system is rotating. We analyze the singular limit of this system when the Mach number, the Alfven number, the Peclet number and the Froude number approache zero in a certain way and prove convergence to a 3D incompressible MHD system with a stationary linear transport equation for transport of radiation intensity. Finally, we show that the energy equation reduces to a steady equation for the temperature corrector.
Improving 1D Stellar Models with 3D Atmospheres
Rørsted Mosumgaard, Jakob; Silva Aguirre, Víctor; Weiss, Achim; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen; Trampedach, Regner
2017-10-01
Stellar evolution codes play a major role in present-day astrophysics, yet they share common issues. In this work we seek to remedy some of those by the use of results from realistic and highly detailed 3D hydrodynamical simulations of stellar atmospheres. We have implemented a new temperature stratification extracted directly from the 3D simulations into the Garching Stellar Evolution Code to replace the simplified atmosphere normally used. Secondly, we have implemented the use of a variable mixing-length parameter, which changes as a function of the stellar surface gravity and temperature - also derived from the 3D simulations. Furthermore, to make our models consistent, we have calculated new opacity tables to match the atmospheric simulations. Here, we present the modified code and initial results on stellar evolution using it.
Linearly constrained minimax optimization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Kaj; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans
1978-01-01
We present an algorithm for nonlinear minimax optimization subject to linear equality and inequality constraints which requires first order partial derivatives. The algorithm is based on successive linear approximations to the functions defining the problem. The resulting linear subproblems...
Spectrum of ballooning instabilities in a stellarator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cooper, W A [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). Centre de Recherche en Physique des Plasma (CRPP); Singleton, D B [Australian National Univ., ANU Supercomputing Facility, Canberra (Australia); Dewar, R L [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Research School of Physical Sciences
1995-08-01
The recent revival of interest in the application of the `ballooning formalism` to low-frequency plasma instabilities has prompted a comparison of the Wentzel-Brillouin-Kramers (WKB) ballooning approximation with an (in principle) exact normal mode calculation for a three-dimensional plasma equilibrium. Semiclassical quantization, using the ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) ballooning eigenvalue to provide a local dispersion relation, is applied to a ten-field period stellarator test case. Excellent qualitative agreement, and good quantitative agreement is found with predictions from the TERPSICHORE code for toroidal mode numbers from 1 to 14 and radial mode numbers from 0 to 2. The continuum bands predicted from three-dimensional WKB theory are too narrow to resolve. (author) 3 figs., 24 refs.
Spectrum of ballooning instabilities in a stellarator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cooper, W.A.; Singleton, D.B.; Dewar, R.L.
1995-08-01
The recent revival of interest in the application of the 'ballooning formalism' to low-frequency plasma instabilities has prompted a comparison of the Wentzel-Brillouin-Kramers (WKB) ballooning approximation with an (in principle) exact normal mode calculation for a three-dimensional plasma equilibrium. Semiclassical quantization, using the ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) ballooning eigenvalue to provide a local dispersion relation, is applied to a ten-field period stellarator test case. Excellent qualitative agreement, and good quantitative agreement is found with predictions from the TERPSICHORE code for toroidal mode numbers from 1 to 14 and radial mode numbers from 0 to 2. The continuum bands predicted from three-dimensional WKB theory are too narrow to resolve. (author) 3 figs., 24 refs
Constraints on stellar evolution from pulsations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cox, A.N.
1984-01-01
Consideration of the many types of intrinsic variable stars, that is, those that pulsate, reveals that perhaps a dozen classes can indicate some constraints that affect the results of stellar evolution calculations, or some interpretations of observations. Many of these constraints are not very strong or may not even be well defined yet. The author discusses the case for six classes: classical Cepheids with their measured Wesselink radii, the observed surface effective temperatures of the known eleven double-mode Cepheids, the pulsation periods and measured surface effective temperatures of three R CrB variables, the delta Scuti variable VZ Cnc with a very large ratio of its two observed periods, the nonradial oscillations of the Sun, and the period ratios of the newly discovered double-mode RR Lyrae variables. (Auth.)
Status of the US stellarator reactor study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lyon, J.F.; Gulec, K.; Miller, R.L.; El-Guebaly, L.
1994-01-01
Stellarators have significant operational advantages over tokamaks as ignited steady-state reactors. This scoping study, which uses an integrated cost-minimization code that incorporates costing and reactor component models self-consistently with a 1-D energy transport calculation, shows that a torsatron reactor could also be competitive with a tokamak reactor. The projected cost of electricity (COE) estimated using the ARIES costing algorithms is 62.5 mill/kW(e)h in constant 1992 dollars for a 1-GW(e) Compact Torsatron reactor reference case. The COE is relatively insensitive (< 10% variation) over a wide range of assumptions including variations in the maximum field allowed on the coils, the coil elongation, the shape of the density profile, the beta limit, the confinement multiplier, and the presence of a large loss region for alpha particles. The largest variations in the COE occur for variations in the electrical power output demanded and the plasma-coil separation ratio
Quasiaxially symmetric stellarators with three field periods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garabedian, P.; Ku, L.
1999-01-01
Compact hybrid configurations with two field periods have been studied recently as candidates for a proof of principle experiment at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. This project has led us to the discovery of a family of quasiaxially symmetric stellarators with three field periods that have significant advantages, although their aspect ratios are a little larger. They have reversed shear and perform better in a local analysis of ballooning modes. Nonlinear equilibrium and stability calculations predict that the average beta limit will be at least as high as 4% if the bootstrap current turns out to be as big as that expected in comparable tokamaks. The concept relies on a combination of helical fields and bootstrap current to achieve adequate rotational transform at low aspect ratio. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics
Planck scale still safe from stellar images
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coule, D H
2003-01-01
The recent paper of Lieu and Hillman (2003 Astrophys. J. Lett. 585 L77) suggesting that a possible (birefringence-like) phase difference ambiguity coming from Planck effects would alter stellar images of distant sources is questioned. Instead for division of wavefront interference and diffraction phenomena, initial (lateral) coherence is developed simply by propagation of rays (cf the van Cittert-Zernike theorem). This case is strongly immune to quantum gravity influences that could tend to reduce phase coherence. The phase ambiguity, if actually present, could reduce any underlying polarization of the light rays. However, we argue that, as expected since any inherent quantum discreteness of space should become increasingly negligible over larger distances, such a phase ambiguity is rapidly cancelled if a more realistic constantly fluctuating quantum 'buffeting' occurs
Recent progress in stellarator reactor conceptual design
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miller, R.L.
1985-01-01
The Stellarator/Torsatron/Heliotron (S/T/H) class of toroidal magnetic fusion reactor designs continues to offer a distinct and in several ways superior approach to eventual commercial competitiveness. Although no major, integrated conceptual reactor design activity is presently underway, a number of international research efforts suggest avenues for the substantial improvement of the S/T/H reactor embodiment, which derive from recent experimental and theoretical progress and are responsive to current trends in fusion-reactor projection to set the stage for a third generation of designs. Recent S/T/H reactor design activity is reviewed and the impact of the changing technical and programmatic context on the direction of future S/T/H reactor design studies is outlined
Energy balance in solar and stellar chromospheres
Avrett, E. H.
1981-01-01
Net radiative cooling rates for quiet and active regions of the solar chromosphere and for two stellar chromospheres are calculated from corresponding atmospheric models. Models of chromospheric temperature and microvelocity distributions are derived from observed spectra of a dark point within a cell, the average sun and a very bright network element on the quiet sun, a solar plage and flare, and the stars Alpha Boo and Lambda And. Net radiative cooling rates due to the transitions of various atoms and ions are then calculated from the models as a function of depth. Large values of the net radiative cooling rate are found at the base of the chromosphere-corona transition region which are due primarily to Lyman alpha emission, and a temperature plateau is obtained in the transition region itself. In the chromospheric regions, the calculated cooling rate is equal to the mechanical energy input as a function of height and thus provides a direct constraint on theories of chromospheric heating.
Comparison between stellarator and tokamak divertor transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feng, Y.; Lunt, T.; Kobayashi, M.; Reiter, D.
2010-11-01
The paper compares the essential divertor transport features of the poloidal divertor, which is well-developed for tokamaks, and the non-axisymmetric divertors currently investigated on helical devices. It aims at surveying the fundamental similarities and differences in divertor concept and geometry, and their consequences for how the divertor functions. In particular, the importance of various transport terms governing axisymmetric and helical scrape-off-layers (SOLs) is examined, with special attention being paid to energy, momentum and impurity transport. Tokamak and stellarator SOLs are compared by identifying key geometric parameters through which the governing physics can be illustrated by simple models and estimates. More quantitative assessments rely nevertheless on the modeling using EMC3-EIRENE code. Most of the theoretical results are discussed in conjunction with experimental observations. (author)
A new class of relativistic stellar models
Haggag, Salah
1995-03-01
Einstein field equations for a static and spherically symmetric perfect fluid are considered. A formulation given by Patino and Rago is used to obtain a class of nine solutions, two of them are Tolman solutions I, IV and the remaining seven are new. The solutions are the correct ones corresponding to expressions derived by Patino and Rago which have been shown by Knutsen to be incorrect. Similar to Tolan solution IV each of the new solutions satisfies energy conditions inside a sphere in some range of two independent parameters. Besides, each solution could be matched to the exterior Schwarzschild solution at a boundary where the pressure vanishes and thus the solutions constitute a class of new physically reasonable stellar models.
Stellar parametrization from Gaia RVS spectra
Recio-Blanco, A.; de Laverny, P.; Allende Prieto, C.; Fustes, D.; Manteiga, M.; Arcay, B.; Bijaoui, A.; Dafonte, C.; Ordenovic, C.; Ordoñez Blanco, D.
2016-01-01
Context. Among the myriad of data collected by the ESA Gaia satellite, about 150 million spectra will be delivered by the Radial Velocity Spectrometer (RVS) for stars as faint as GRVS~ 16. A specific stellar parametrization will be performed on most of these RVS spectra, I.e. those with enough high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N), which should correspond to single stars that have a magnitude in the RVS band brighter than ~14.5. Some individual chemical abundances will also be estimated for the brightest targets. Aims: We describe the different parametrization codes that have been specifically developed or adapted for RVS spectra within the GSP-Spec working group of the analysis consortium. The tested codes are based on optimisation (FERRE and GAUGUIN), projection (MATISSE), or pattern-recognition methods (Artificial Neural Networks). We present and discuss each of their expected performances in the recovered stellar atmospheric parameters (effective temperature, surface gravity, overall metallicity) for B- to K-type stars. The performances for determining of [α/Fe] ratios are also presented for cool stars. Methods: Each code has been homogeneously tested with a large grid of RVS simulated synthetic spectra of BAFGK-spectral types (dwarfs and giants), with metallicities varying from 10-2.5 to 10+ 0.5 the solar metallicity, and taking variations of ±0.4 dex in the composition of the α-elements into consideration. The tests were performed for S/N ranging from ten to 350. Results: For all the stellar types we considered, stars brighter than GRVS~ 12.5 are very efficiently parametrized by the GSP-Spec pipeline, including reliable estimations of [α/Fe]. Typical internal errors for FGK metal-rich and metal-intermediate stars are around 40 K in Teff, 0.10 dex in log(g), 0.04 dex in [M/H], and 0.03 dex in [α/Fe] at GRVS = 10.3. They degrade to 155 K in Teff, 0.15 dex in log(g), 0.10 dex in [M/H], and 0.1 dex in [α/Fe] at GRVS~ 12. Similar accuracies in Teff and [M/H] are
STRESS - STEREO TRansiting Exoplanet and Stellar Survey
Sangaralingam, Vinothini; Stevens, Ian R.; Spreckley, Steve; Debosscher, Jonas
2010-02-01
The Heliospheric Imager (HI) instruments on board the two STEREO (Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory) spacecraft provides an excellent opportunity for space based stellar photometry. The HI instruments provide a wide area coverage (20° × 20° for the two HI-1 instruments and 70° × 70° for the two HI-2 instruments) and long continuous periods of observations (20 days and 70 days respectively). Using HI-1A which has a pass band of 6500Å to 7500Å and a cadence of 40 minutes, we have gathered photometric information for more than a million stars brighter than 12th magnitude for a period of two years. Here we present some early results from this study on a range of variable stars and the future prospects for the data.
Habitable zone dependence on stellar parameter uncertainties
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kane, Stephen R.
2014-01-01
An important property of exoplanetary systems is the extent of the Habitable Zone (HZ), defined as that region where water can exist in a liquid state on the surface of a planet with sufficient atmospheric pressure. Both ground- and space-based observations have revealed a plethora of confirmed exoplanets and exoplanetary candidates, most notably from the Kepler mission using the transit detection technique. Many of these detected planets lie within the predicted HZ of their host star. However, as is the case with the derived properties of the planets themselves, the HZ boundaries depend on how well we understand the host star. Here we quantify the uncertainties of HZ boundaries on the parameter uncertainties of the host star. We examine the distribution of stellar parameter uncertainties from confirmed exoplanet hosts and Kepler candidate hosts and translate these into HZ boundary uncertainties. We apply this to several known systems with an HZ planet to determine the uncertainty in their HZ status.
Habitable zone dependence on stellar parameter uncertainties
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kane, Stephen R., E-mail: skane@sfsu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94132 (United States)
2014-02-20
An important property of exoplanetary systems is the extent of the Habitable Zone (HZ), defined as that region where water can exist in a liquid state on the surface of a planet with sufficient atmospheric pressure. Both ground- and space-based observations have revealed a plethora of confirmed exoplanets and exoplanetary candidates, most notably from the Kepler mission using the transit detection technique. Many of these detected planets lie within the predicted HZ of their host star. However, as is the case with the derived properties of the planets themselves, the HZ boundaries depend on how well we understand the host star. Here we quantify the uncertainties of HZ boundaries on the parameter uncertainties of the host star. We examine the distribution of stellar parameter uncertainties from confirmed exoplanet hosts and Kepler candidate hosts and translate these into HZ boundary uncertainties. We apply this to several known systems with an HZ planet to determine the uncertainty in their HZ status.
Physics issues of compact drift optimized stellarators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spong, D.A.; Hirshman, S.; Berry, L.A.
2001-01-01
Physics issues are discussed for compact stellarator configurations which achieve good confinement by the fact that the magnetic field modulus, vertical bar B vertical bar, in magnetic coordinates is dominated by poloidally symmetric components. Two distinct configuration types are considered: (1) those which achieve their drift optimization and rotational transform at low β and low bootstrap current by appropriate plasma shaping; and (2) those which have a greater reliance on plasma β and bootstrap currents for supplying the transform and obtaining quasi poloidal symmetry. Stability analysis of the latter group of devices against ballooning, kink and vertical displacement modes has indicated that stable 's on the order of 15% are possible. The first class of devices is being considered for a low β near-term experiment that could explore some of the confinement features of the high beta configurations. (author)
Free-boundary stability of straight stellarators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barnes, D.C.; Cary, J.R.
1984-02-01
The sharp-boundary model is used to investigate the stability of straight stellarators to free-boundary, long-wavelength modes. To correctly analyze the heliac configuration, previous theory is generalized to the case of arbitrary helical aspect ratio (ratio of plasma radius to periodicity lengths). A simple low-β criterion involving the vacuum field and the normalized axial current is derived and used to investigate a large variety of configurations. The predictions of this low-β theory are verified by numerical minimization of deltaW at arbitrary β. The heliac configuration is found to be remarkably stable, with a critical β of over 15% determined by the lack of equilibrium rather than the onset of instability. In addition, other previously studied systems are found to be stabilized by net axial plasma current
Global gyrokinetic and fluid hybrid simulations of tokamaks and stellarators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cole, Michael David John
2016-07-15
simulations in this TAE case have been performed confirming the analytical prediction of a quadratic relationship between the linear growth rate of the TAE and the saturated amplitude of the TAE for a range of moderate values of the linear growth rate. At higher linear growth rate, a slower scaling of saturated amplitude with linear growth rate is observed. This analysis has been extended to include the non-linear wave-wave coupling between multiple TAE modes. It has been shown that wave-wave coupling results in a significant reduction in the saturated amplitude. It has been demonstrated that both plasma elongation and ion kinetic effects can exert a stabilising influence on the internal kink mode. A population of energetic particles can also exert a stabilising influence at low normalised pressure. At high normalised fast particle pressure the stabilised kink mode has been shown to give way to the m=1 EPM, which has been simulated both linearly and non-linearly (the 'fishbone' mode). The first self-consistent simulations of global modes in the magnetic geometry of the optimised stellarator Wendelstein 7-X have been performed both linearly and non-linearly. Limitations have been encountered in performing simulations in 3D geometry. A hypothesis for the cause of these problems is outlined and ideas for mitigation are briefly described. In addition to the hybrid model simulations, some of the first utilisations of a new scheme for mitigating the cancellation problem in the fully gyrokinetic regime have been carried out in the framework of this thesis. This scheme, which was developed separately, is concisely described in this work. The new scheme has been benchmarked with existing gyrokinetic and hybrid results. The linear Wendelstein 7-X simulations and linear and single mode non-linear TAE simulations have been repeated with the new model. It is shown that bulk plasma kinetics can suppress the growth rate of global modes in Wendelstein 7-X. The results of fully
Global gyrokinetic and fluid hybrid simulations of tokamaks and stellarators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cole, Michael David John
2016-01-01
in this TAE case have been performed confirming the analytical prediction of a quadratic relationship between the linear growth rate of the TAE and the saturated amplitude of the TAE for a range of moderate values of the linear growth rate. At higher linear growth rate, a slower scaling of saturated amplitude with linear growth rate is observed. This analysis has been extended to include the non-linear wave-wave coupling between multiple TAE modes. It has been shown that wave-wave coupling results in a significant reduction in the saturated amplitude. It has been demonstrated that both plasma elongation and ion kinetic effects can exert a stabilising influence on the internal kink mode. A population of energetic particles can also exert a stabilising influence at low normalised pressure. At high normalised fast particle pressure the stabilised kink mode has been shown to give way to the m=1 EPM, which has been simulated both linearly and non-linearly (the 'fishbone' mode). The first self-consistent simulations of global modes in the magnetic geometry of the optimised stellarator Wendelstein 7-X have been performed both linearly and non-linearly. Limitations have been encountered in performing simulations in 3D geometry. A hypothesis for the cause of these problems is outlined and ideas for mitigation are briefly described. In addition to the hybrid model simulations, some of the first utilisations of a new scheme for mitigating the cancellation problem in the fully gyrokinetic regime have been carried out in the framework of this thesis. This scheme, which was developed separately, is concisely described in this work. The new scheme has been benchmarked with existing gyrokinetic and hybrid results. The linear Wendelstein 7-X simulations and linear and single mode non-linear TAE simulations have been repeated with the new model. It is shown that bulk plasma kinetics can suppress the growth rate of global modes in Wendelstein 7-X. The results of fully gyrokinetic TAE
Retrieving cirrus microphysical properties from stellar aureoles
DeVore, J. G.; Kristl, J. A.; Rappaport, S. A.
2013-06-01
The aureoles around stars caused by thin cirrus limit nighttime measurement opportunities for ground-based astronomy, but can provide information on high-altitude ice crystals for climate research. In this paper we attempt to demonstrate quantitatively how this works. Aureole profiles can be followed out to ~0.2° from stars and ~0.5° from Jupiter. Interpretation of diffracted starlight is similar to that for sunlight, but emphasizes larger particles. Stellar diffraction profiles are very distinctive, typically being approximately flat out to a critical angle followed by gradually steepening power-law falloff with slope less steep than -3. Using the relationship between the phase function for diffraction and the average Fourier transform of the projected area of complex ice crystals, we show that defining particle size in terms of average projected area normal to the propagation direction of the starlight leads to a simple, analytic approximation representing large-particle diffraction that is nearly independent of crystal habit. A similar analytic approximation for the diffraction aureole allows it to be separated from the point spread function and the sky background. Multiple scattering is deconvolved using the Hankel transform leading to the diffraction phase function. Application of constrained numerical inversion to the phase function then yields a solution for the particle size distribution in the range between ~50 μm and ~400 μm. Stellar aureole measurements can provide one of the very few, as well as least expensive, methods for retrieving cirrus microphysical properties from ground-based observations.