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Sample records for linear mean-square stability

  1. Mean square exponential stability of stochastic delayed Hopfield neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Li; Sun Jianhua

    2005-01-01

    Stochastic effects to the stability property of Hopfield neural networks (HNN) with discrete and continuously distributed delay are considered. By using the method of variation parameter, inequality technique and stochastic analysis, the sufficient conditions to guarantee the mean square exponential stability of an equilibrium solution are given. Two examples are also given to demonstrate our results

  2. Mean square stabilization and mean square exponential stabilization of stochastic BAM neural networks with Markovian jumping parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Zhiyong; Zhang, He; Zhang, Hongyu; Zhang, Hua; Lu, Guichen

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: •This paper introduces a non-conservative Lyapunov functional. •The achieved results impose non-conservative and can be widely used. •The conditions are easily checked by the Matlab LMI Tool Box. The desired state feedback controller can be well represented by the conditions. -- Abstract: This paper addresses the mean square exponential stabilization problem of stochastic bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks with Markovian jumping parameters and time-varying delays. By establishing a proper Lyapunov–Krasovskii functional and combining with LMIs technique, several sufficient conditions are derived for ensuring exponential stabilization in the mean square sense of such stochastic BAM neural networks. In addition, the achieved results are not difficult to verify for determining the mean square exponential stabilization of delayed BAM neural networks with Markovian jumping parameters and impose less restrictive and less conservative than the ones in previous papers. Finally, numerical results are given to show the effectiveness and applicability of the achieved results

  3. Mean Square Exponential Stability of Stochastic Switched System with Interval Time-Varying Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manlika Rajchakit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with mean square exponential stability of switched stochastic system with interval time-varying delays. The time delay is any continuous function belonging to a given interval, but not necessary to be differentiable. By constructing a suitable augmented Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional combined with Leibniz-Newton’s formula, a switching rule for the mean square exponential stability of switched stochastic system with interval time-varying delays and new delay-dependent sufficient conditions for the mean square exponential stability of the switched stochastic system are first established in terms of LMIs. Numerical example is given to show the effectiveness of the obtained result.

  4. Exponential mean-square stability of two classes of theta Milstein methods for stochastic delay differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouz, Omid Farkhondeh; Ahmadian, Davood; Milev, Mariyan

    2017-12-01

    This paper establishes exponential mean square stability of two classes of theta Milstein methods, namely split-step theta Milstein (SSTM) method and stochastic theta Milstein (STM) method, for stochastic differential delay equations (SDDEs). We consider the SDDEs problem under a coupled monotone condition on drift and diffusion coefficients, as well as a necessary linear growth condition on the last term of theta Milstein method. It is proved that the SSTM method with θ ∈ [0, ½] can recover the exponential mean square stability of the exact solution with some restrictive conditions on stepsize, but for θ ∈ (½, 1], we proved that the stability results hold for any stepsize. Then, based on the stability results of SSTM method, we examine the exponential mean square stability of the STM method and obtain the similar stability results to that of the SSTM method. In the numerical section the figures show thevalidity of our claims.

  5. Penalized linear regression for discrete ill-posed problems: A hybrid least-squares and mean-squared error approach

    KAUST Repository

    Suliman, Mohamed Abdalla Elhag

    2016-12-19

    This paper proposes a new approach to find the regularization parameter for linear least-squares discrete ill-posed problems. In the proposed approach, an artificial perturbation matrix with a bounded norm is forced into the discrete ill-posed model matrix. This perturbation is introduced to enhance the singular-value (SV) structure of the matrix and hence to provide a better solution. The proposed approach is derived to select the regularization parameter in a way that minimizes the mean-squared error (MSE) of the estimator. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed approach outperforms a set of benchmark methods in most cases when applied to different scenarios of discrete ill-posed problems. Jointly, the proposed approach enjoys the lowest run-time and offers the highest level of robustness amongst all the tested methods.

  6. On the generalization of linear least mean squares estimation to quantum systems with non-commutative outputs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amini, Nina H. [Stanford University, Edward L. Ginzton Laboratory, Stanford, CA (United States); CNRS, Laboratoire des Signaux et Systemes (L2S) CentraleSupelec, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Miao, Zibo; Pan, Yu; James, Matthew R. [Australian National University, ARC Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, Research School of Engineering, Canberra, ACT (Australia); Mabuchi, Hideo [Stanford University, Edward L. Ginzton Laboratory, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2015-12-15

    The purpose of this paper is to study the problem of generalizing the Belavkin-Kalman filter to the case where the classical measurement signal is replaced by a fully quantum non-commutative output signal. We formulate a least mean squares estimation problem that involves a non-commutative system as the filter processing the non-commutative output signal. We solve this estimation problem within the framework of non-commutative probability. Also, we find the necessary and sufficient conditions which make these non-commutative estimators physically realizable. These conditions are restrictive in practice. (orig.)

  7. An Adaptive Noise Cancellation System Based on Linear and Widely Linear Complex Valued Least Mean Square Algorithms for Removing Electrooculography Artifacts from Electroencephalography Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Cemal MENGÜÇ

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an adaptive noise cancellation (ANC system based on linear and widely linear (WL complex valued least mean square (LMS algorithms is designed for removing electrooculography (EOG artifacts from electroencephalography (EEG signals. The real valued EOG and EEG signals (Fp1 and Fp2 given in dataset are primarily expressed as a complex valued signal in the complex domain. Then, using the proposed ANC system, the EOG artifacts are eliminated in the complex domain from the EEG signals. Expression of these signals in the complex domain allows us to remove EOG artifacts from two EEG channels simultaneously. Moreover, in this study, it has been shown that the complex valued EEG signal exhibits noncircular behavior, and in the case, the WL-CLMS algorithm enhances the performance of the ANC system compared to real-valued LMS and CLMS algorithms. Simulation results support the proposed approach.

  8. Penalized linear regression for discrete ill-posed problems: A hybrid least-squares and mean-squared error approach

    KAUST Repository

    Suliman, Mohamed Abdalla Elhag; Ballal, Tarig; Kammoun, Abla; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a new approach to find the regularization parameter for linear least-squares discrete ill-posed problems. In the proposed approach, an artificial perturbation matrix with a bounded norm is forced into the discrete ill-posed model

  9. On root mean square approximation by exponential functions

    OpenAIRE

    Sharipov, Ruslan

    2014-01-01

    The problem of root mean square approximation of a square integrable function by finite linear combinations of exponential functions is considered. It is subdivided into linear and nonlinear parts. The linear approximation problem is solved. Then the nonlinear problem is studied in some particular example.

  10. Quantized kernel least mean square algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Badong; Zhao, Songlin; Zhu, Pingping; Príncipe, José C

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a quantization approach, as an alternative of sparsification, to curb the growth of the radial basis function structure in kernel adaptive filtering. The basic idea behind this method is to quantize and hence compress the input (or feature) space. Different from sparsification, the new approach uses the "redundant" data to update the coefficient of the closest center. In particular, a quantized kernel least mean square (QKLMS) algorithm is developed, which is based on a simple online vector quantization method. The analytical study of the mean square convergence has been carried out. The energy conservation relation for QKLMS is established, and on this basis we arrive at a sufficient condition for mean square convergence, and a lower and upper bound on the theoretical value of the steady-state excess mean square error. Static function estimation and short-term chaotic time-series prediction examples are presented to demonstrate the excellent performance.

  11. The mean squared writhe of alternating random knot diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diao, Y; Hinson, K [Department of Mathematics and Statistics University of North Carolina at Charlotte, NC 28223 (United States); Ernst, C; Ziegler, U, E-mail: ydiao@uncc.ed [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY 42101 (United States)

    2010-12-10

    The writhe of a knot diagram is a simple geometric measure of the complexity of the knot diagram. It plays an important role not only in knot theory itself, but also in various applications of knot theory to fields such as molecular biology and polymer physics. The mean squared writhe of any sample of knot diagrams with n crossings is n when for each diagram at each crossing one of the two strands is chosen as the overpass at random with probability one-half. However, such a diagram is usually not minimal. If we restrict ourselves to a minimal knot diagram, then the choice of which strand is the over- or under-strand at each crossing is no longer independent of the neighboring crossings and a larger mean squared writhe is expected for minimal diagrams. This paper explores the effect on the correlation between the mean squared writhe and the diagrams imposed by the condition that diagrams are minimal by studying the writhe of classes of reduced, alternating knot diagrams. We demonstrate that the behavior of the mean squared writhe heavily depends on the underlying space of diagram templates. In particular this is true when the sample space contains only diagrams of a special structure. When the sample space is large enough to contain not only diagrams of a special type, then the mean squared writhe for n crossing diagrams tends to grow linearly with n, but at a faster rate than n, indicating an intrinsic property of alternating knot diagrams. Studying the mean squared writhe of alternating random knot diagrams also provides some insight into the properties of the diagram generating methods used, which is an important area of study in the applications of random knot theory.

  12. Stability of numerical method for semi-linear stochastic pantograph differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As a particular expression of stochastic delay differential equations, stochastic pantograph differential equations have been widely used in nonlinear dynamics, quantum mechanics, and electrodynamics. In this paper, we mainly study the stability of analytical solutions and numerical solutions of semi-linear stochastic pantograph differential equations. Some suitable conditions for the mean-square stability of an analytical solution are obtained. Then we proved the general mean-square stability of the exponential Euler method for a numerical solution of semi-linear stochastic pantograph differential equations, that is, if an analytical solution is stable, then the exponential Euler method applied to the system is mean-square stable for arbitrary step-size h > 0 $h>0$ . Numerical examples further illustrate the obtained theoretical results.

  13. Convergence and stability of the exponential Euler method for semi-linear stochastic delay differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the strong convergence and exponential stability in mean square of the exponential Euler method to semi-linear stochastic delay differential equations (SLSDDEs). It is proved that the exponential Euler approximation solution converges to the analytic solution with the strong order [Formula: see text] to SLSDDEs. On the one hand, the classical stability theorem to SLSDDEs is given by the Lyapunov functions. However, in this paper we study the exponential stability in mean square of the exact solution to SLSDDEs by using the definition of logarithmic norm. On the other hand, the implicit Euler scheme to SLSDDEs is known to be exponentially stable in mean square for any step size. However, in this article we propose an explicit method to show that the exponential Euler method to SLSDDEs is proved to share the same stability for any step size by the property of logarithmic norm.

  14. Convergence and stability of the exponential Euler method for semi-linear stochastic delay differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the strong convergence and exponential stability in mean square of the exponential Euler method to semi-linear stochastic delay differential equations (SLSDDEs. It is proved that the exponential Euler approximation solution converges to the analytic solution with the strong order 1 2 $\\frac{1}{2}$ to SLSDDEs. On the one hand, the classical stability theorem to SLSDDEs is given by the Lyapunov functions. However, in this paper we study the exponential stability in mean square of the exact solution to SLSDDEs by using the definition of logarithmic norm. On the other hand, the implicit Euler scheme to SLSDDEs is known to be exponentially stable in mean square for any step size. However, in this article we propose an explicit method to show that the exponential Euler method to SLSDDEs is proved to share the same stability for any step size by the property of logarithmic norm.

  15. Mean Square Synchronization of Stochastic Nonlinear Delayed Coupled Complex Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengrong Xie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the problem of adaptive mean square synchronization for nonlinear delayed coupled complex networks with stochastic perturbation. Based on the LaSalle invariance principle and the properties of the Weiner process, the controller and adaptive laws are designed to ensure achieving stochastic synchronization and topology identification of complex networks. Sufficient conditions are given to ensure the complex networks to be mean square synchronization. Furthermore, numerical simulations are also given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  16. Proportionate-type normalized last mean square algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    The topic of this book is proportionate-type normalized least mean squares (PtNLMS) adaptive filtering algorithms, which attempt to estimate an unknown impulse response by adaptively giving gains proportionate to an estimate of the impulse response and the current measured error. These algorithms offer low computational complexity and fast convergence times for sparse impulse responses in network and acoustic echo cancellation applications. New PtNLMS algorithms are developed by choosing gains that optimize user-defined criteria, such as mean square error, at all times. PtNLMS algorithms ar

  17. Table of nuclear root mean square charge radii. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paviotti-Corcuera, R.; McLaughlin, P.K.

    1999-01-01

    This document describes a table of nuclear root-mean-square (rms) charge radii evaluated by two different procedures. The data are available from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section via INTERNET or on PC diskettes upon request. This document supersedes the previous IAEA-NDS-163, 1990, 'Nuclear Charge Radii'. (author)

  18. Least-mean-square spatial filter for IR sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takken, E H; Friedman, D; Milton, A F; Nitzberg, R

    1979-12-15

    A new least-mean-square filter is defined for signal-detection problems. The technique is proposed for scanning IR surveillance systems operating in poorly characterized but primarily low-frequency clutter interference. Near-optimal detection of point-source targets is predicted both for continuous-time and sampled-data systems.

  19. Some Results on Mean Square Error for Factor Score Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krijnen, Wim P.

    2006-01-01

    For the confirmatory factor model a series of inequalities is given with respect to the mean square error (MSE) of three main factor score predictors. The eigenvalues of these MSE matrices are a monotonic function of the eigenvalues of the matrix gamma[subscript rho] = theta[superscript 1/2] lambda[subscript rho] 'psi[subscript rho] [superscript…

  20. Adaptive Noise Canceling Menggunakan Algoritma Least Mean Square (Lms)

    OpenAIRE

    Nardiana, Anita; Sumaryono, Sari Sujoko

    2011-01-01

    Noise is inevitable in communication system. In some cases, noise can disturb signal. It is veryannoying as the received signal is jumbled with the noise itself. To reduce or remove noise, filter lowpass,highpass or bandpass can solve the problems, but this method cannot reach a maximum standard. One ofthe alternatives to solve the problem is by using adaptive filter. Adaptive algorithm frequently used is LeastMean Square (LMS) Algorithm which is compatible to Finite Impulse Response (FIR). T...

  1. Hydromagnetic thin film flow: Linear stability

    KAUST Repository

    Amaouche, Mustapha; Ait Abderrahmane, Hamid; Bourdache, Lamia

    2013-01-01

    . The linear stability of the problem is investigated, and the influence of electromagnetic field on the flow stability is analyzed. Two cases are considered: the applied magnetic field is either normal or parallel to the fluid flow direction, while

  2. Block Least Mean Squares Algorithm over Distributed Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Panigrahi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In a distributed parameter estimation problem, during each sampling instant, a typical sensor node communicates its estimate either by the diffusion algorithm or by the incremental algorithm. Both these conventional distributed algorithms involve significant communication overheads and, consequently, defeat the basic purpose of wireless sensor networks. In the present paper, we therefore propose two new distributed algorithms, namely, block diffusion least mean square (BDLMS and block incremental least mean square (BILMS by extending the concept of block adaptive filtering techniques to the distributed adaptation scenario. The performance analysis of the proposed BDLMS and BILMS algorithms has been carried out and found to have similar performances to those offered by conventional diffusion LMS and incremental LMS algorithms, respectively. The convergence analyses of the proposed algorithms obtained from the simulation study are also found to be in agreement with the theoretical analysis. The remarkable and interesting aspect of the proposed block-based algorithms is that their communication overheads per node and latencies are less than those of the conventional algorithms by a factor as high as the block size used in the algorithms.

  3. Linear stability of tearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowley, S.C.; Kulsrud, R.M.; Hahm, T.S.

    1986-05-01

    This paper examines the stability of tearing modes in a sheared slab when the width of the tearing layer is much smaller than the ion Larmor radius. The ion response is nonlocal, and the quasineutrality retains its full integal form. An expansion procedure is introduced to solve the quasineutrality equation in powers of the width of the tearing layer over the ion Larmor radius. The expansion procedure is applied to the collisionless and semi-collisional tearing modes. The first order terms in the expansion we find to be strongly stabilizing. The physics of the mode and of the stabilization is discussed. Tearing modes are observed in experiments even though the slab theory predicts stability. It is proposed that these modes grow from an equilibrium with islands at the rational surfaces. If the equilibrium islands are wider than the ion Larmor radius, the mode is unstable when Δ' is positive

  4. Universal time-dependence of the mean-square displacement in extremely rugged energy landscapes with equal minima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe; Jacobsen, Jacob M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a calculation of the time dependence of the mean-square displacement for symmetric random energy barrier hopping models at low temperatures, where the frequency dependence of the normalized diffusion constant D-tilde becomes universal, i.e., independent of the energy barrier...... probability distribution [J. C. Dyre, Phys. Rev. B 49, 11 709 (1994)]. The universal time dependence of the mean-square displacement is calculated from the effective medium approximation (EMA) universality equation, D-tilde lnD-tilde=s-tilde, where s-tilde is the dimensionless imaginary frequency, as well...... as for the approximation to the EMA universality equation D-tilde~=s-tilde/ln(1+s-tilde). At long times the universal mean-square displacement is linear in time, corresponding to ordinary diffusion, whereas the mean-square displacement at short times t in dimensionless units varies as 2/ln(t-1)....

  5. The linearization method in hydrodynamical stability theory

    CERN Document Server

    Yudovich, V I

    1989-01-01

    This book presents the theory of the linearization method as applied to the problem of steady-state and periodic motions of continuous media. The author proves infinite-dimensional analogues of Lyapunov's theorems on stability, instability, and conditional stability for a large class of continuous media. In addition, semigroup properties for the linearized Navier-Stokes equations in the case of an incompressible fluid are studied, and coercivity inequalities and completeness of a system of small oscillations are proved.

  6. Stability problems for linear hyperbolic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckhoff, K.S.

    1975-05-01

    The stability properties for the trivial solution of a general linear hyperbolic system of partial differential equations of the first order are studied. It is shown that results may be obtained by studying the stability properties of certain systems of ordinary differential equations which can be constructed from the hyperbolic system (the so-called transport equations). In some cases the associated stability problem for the transport equations can in fact be shown to be equivalent to the stability problem for the hyperbolic system, but in general the transport equations will only give the necessary conditions for stability. (Auth.)

  7. Neutron diffraction determination of mean-square atomic displacements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tibballs, J.E.; Feteris, S.M.; Barnea, Z.

    1981-01-01

    Integrated intensities for Bragg reflection of neutrons from single crystals of the III-V compounds, InAs and GaSb, have been measured at room temperature. The data were collected at two wavelengths, 0.947 A and 1.241 A, in order to establish the adequacy of a correction for moderate to severe anisotropic extinction. Data were also obtained for InAs at four temperatures from 408 K to 933 K. Corrections for thermal diffuse scattering were applied. The results were analysed in the one-particle potential approximation with terms to fourth-order in the atomic displacements u = (u 1 , u 2 , u 3 ). At 296 K, the mean-square components were determined for In, 0.0116(2)A 2 and As, 0.0102 (1)A 2 ; for Ga, 0.0120(3)A 2 and Sb, 0.0107(3)A 2 . The third-order coefficients for InAs are comparable with those for Si and Ge, those for GaSb with those for zinc chalcogenides. Non-harmonic behaviour in InAs is observed below 400 K

  8. Antena Cerdas untuk Mitigasi Interferensi dengan Algoritma Least Mean Square

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmad Hidayat

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Antena cerdas pada dasarnya merupakan susunan antena dengan kemampuan pemrosesan sinyal untuk mengirim/menerima informasi secara adaptif. Kemampuan ini harus terus didalami untuk dicarikan algoritma adaptif terbaik bagi kemampuan beamforming yang diinginkan. Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk memberikan kajian dan analisis pengaruh algoritma Least Mean Square (LMS pada pengaturan nulling beam pola radiasi susunan antena cerdas dalam perannya terhadap mitigasi interferensi. Simulasi kinerja beamformer untuk sebanyak 250 iterasi dilakukan dengan tool Matlab pada kanal AWGN (Additional White Noise Gaussian dan parameter simulasi diubah untuk membandingkan dua buah harga step size m pada algoritma LMS untuk beberapa jumlah elemen antena. Pengaruh nilai step size m, terlihat pada jumlah iterasi yang dilangsungkan sebelum error noise minimum diperoleh, dimana dengan naiknya nilai step size ini maka semakin mengurangi jumlah iterasi, rata-rata menjadi 60. Dari pola respon amplitudo setelah proses beamforming , posisi sinyal utama (0 dB tepat di sudut 30° dan dihasilkan 15 posisi nulling untuk 16 elemen antena. Sumber interferensi dihilangkan / ditutup dengan menempatkan ’nulls’ dalam arah sumber interferensi tersebut di posisi 60° dan -40° dengan masing-masing level diperoleh berkisar sebesar -115 dB

  9. STABILITY OF LINEAR SYSTEMS WITH MARKOVIAN JUMPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Enrique Mayta Guillermo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we will analyze the stability of linear systems governed by a Markov chain, this family is known in the specialized literature as linear systems with Markov jumps or by its acronyms in English MJLS as it is denoted in [1]. Linear systems governed by a Markov chain are dynamic systems with abrupt changes. We give some denitions of stability for the MJLS system, where these types of stability are equivalent as long as the state space of the Markov chain is nite. Finally we present a theorem that characterizes the stochastic stability by means of an equation of the Lyapunov type. The result is a generalization of a theorem in classical theory.

  10. Linear ideal MHD stability calculations for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, J.T.

    1988-01-01

    A survey of MHD stability limits has been made to address issues arising from the MHD--poloidal field design task of the US ITER project. This is a summary report on the results obtained to date. The study evaluates the dependence of ballooning, Mercier and low-n ideal linear MHD stability on key system parameters to estimate overall MHD constraints for ITER. 17 refs., 27 figs

  11. Linear stability analysis of supersonic axisymmetric jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhua Wan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Stabilities of supersonic jets are examined with different velocities, momentum thicknesses, and core temperatures. Amplification rates of instability waves at inlet are evaluated by linear stability theory (LST. It is found that increased velocity and core temperature would increase amplification rates substantially and such influence varies for different azimuthal wavenumbers. The most unstable modes in thin momentum thickness cases usually have higher frequencies and azimuthal wavenumbers. Mode switching is observed for low azimuthal wavenumbers, but it appears merely in high velocity cases. In addition, the results provided by linear parabolized stability equations show that the mean-flow divergence affects the spatial evolution of instability waves greatly. The most amplified instability waves globally are sometimes found to be different from that given by LST.

  12. Stability analysis and stabilization strategies for linear supply chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi; Helbing, Dirk

    2004-04-01

    Due to delays in the adaptation of production or delivery rates, supply chains can be dynamically unstable with respect to perturbations in the consumption rate, which is known as “bull-whip effect”. Here, we study several conceivable production strategies to stabilize supply chains, which is expressed by different specifications of the management function controlling the production speed in dependence of the stock levels. In particular, we will investigate, whether the reaction to stock levels of other producers or suppliers has a stabilizing effect. We will also demonstrate that the anticipation of future stock levels can stabilize the supply system, given the forecast horizon τ is long enough. To show this, we derive linear stability conditions and carry out simulations for different control strategies. The results indicate that the linear stability analysis is a helpful tool for the judgement of the stabilization effect, although unexpected deviations can occur in the non-linear regime. There are also signs of phase transitions and chaotic behavior, but this remains to be investigated more thoroughly in the future.

  13. Linear stability analysis of heated parallel channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nourbakhsh, H.P.; Isbin, H.S.

    1982-01-01

    An analyis is presented of thermal hydraulic stability of flow in parallel channels covering the range from inlet subcooling to exit superheat. The model is based on a one-dimensional drift velocity formulation of the two phase flow conservation equations. The system of equations is linearized by assuming small disturbances about the steady state. The dynamic response of the system to an inlet flow perturbation is derived yielding the characteristic equation which predicts the onset of instabilities. A specific application is carried out for homogeneous and regional uniformly heated systems. The particular case of equal characteristic frequencies of two-phase and single phase vapor region is studied in detail. The D-partition method and the Mikhailov stability criterion are used for determining the marginal stability boundary. Stability predictions from the present analysis are compared with the experimental data from the solar test facility. 8 references

  14. Optical pattern recognition architecture implementing the mean-square error correlation algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molley, Perry A.

    1991-01-01

    An optical architecture implementing the mean-square error correlation algorithm, MSE=.SIGMA.[I-R].sup.2 for discriminating the presence of a reference image R in an input image scene I by computing the mean-square-error between a time-varying reference image signal s.sub.1 (t) and a time-varying input image signal s.sub.2 (t) includes a laser diode light source which is temporally modulated by a double-sideband suppressed-carrier source modulation signal I.sub.1 (t) having the form I.sub.1 (t)=A.sub.1 [1+.sqroot.2m.sub.1 s.sub.1 (t)cos (2.pi.f.sub.o t)] and the modulated light output from the laser diode source is diffracted by an acousto-optic deflector. The resultant intensity of the +1 diffracted order from the acousto-optic device is given by: I.sub.2 (t)=A.sub.2 [+2m.sub.2.sup.2 s.sub.2.sup.2 (t)-2.sqroot.2m.sub.2 (t) cos (2.pi.f.sub.o t] The time integration of the two signals I.sub.1 (t) and I.sub.2 (t) on the CCD deflector plane produces the result R(.tau.) of the mean-square error having the form: R(.tau.)=A.sub.1 A.sub.2 {[T]+[2m.sub.2.sup.2.multidot..intg.s.sub.2.sup.2 (t-.tau.)dt]-[2m.sub.1 m.sub.2 cos (2.tau.f.sub.o .tau.).multidot..intg.s.sub.1 (t)s.sub.2 (t-.tau.)dt]} where: s.sub.1 (t) is the signal input to the diode modulation source: s.sub.2 (t) is the signal input to the AOD modulation source; A.sub.1 is the light intensity; A.sub.2 is the diffraction efficiency; m.sub.1 and m.sub.2 are constants that determine the signal-to-bias ratio; f.sub.o is the frequency offset between the oscillator at f.sub.c and the modulation at f.sub.c +f.sub.o ; and a.sub.o and a.sub.1 are constant chosen to bias the diode source and the acousto-optic deflector into their respective linear operating regions so that the diode source exhibits a linear intensity characteristic and the AOD exhibits a linear amplitude characteristic.

  15. Quantifying Stability in Complex Networks: From Linear to Basin Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurths, Jürgen

    The human brain, power grids, arrays of coupled lasers and the Amazon rainforest are all characterized by multistability. The likelihood that these systems will remain in the most desirable of their many stable states depends on their stability against significant perturbations, particularly in a state space populated by undesirable states. Here we claim that the traditional linearization-based approach to stability is in several cases too local to adequately assess how stable a state is. Instead, we quantify it in terms of basin stability, a new measure related to the volume of the basin of attraction. Basin stability is non-local, nonlinear and easily applicable, even to high-dimensional systems. It provides a long-sought-after explanation for the surprisingly regular topologies of neural networks and power grids, which have eluded theoretical description based solely on linear stability. Specifically, we employ a component-wise version of basin stability, a nonlinear inspection scheme, to investigate how a grid's degree of stability is influenced by certain patterns in the wiring topology. Various statistics from our ensemble simulations all support one main finding: The widespread and cheapest of all connection schemes, namely dead ends and dead trees, strongly diminish stability. For the Northern European power system we demonstrate that the inverse is also true: `Healing' dead ends by addition of transmission lines substantially enhances stability. This indicates a crucial smart-design principle for tomorrow's sustainable power grids: add just a few more lines to avoid dead ends. Further, we analyse the particular function of certain network motifs to promote the stability of the system. Here we uncover the impact of so-called detour motifs on the appearance of nodes with a poor stability score and discuss the implications for power grid design. Moreover, it will be shown that basin stability enables uncovering the mechanism for explosive synchronization and

  16. Airfoil stall interpreted through linear stability analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquet, Denis; Juniper, Matthew; Richez, Francois; Marquet, Olivier; Sipp, Denis

    2017-11-01

    Although airfoil stall has been widely investigated, the origin of this phenomenon, which manifests as a sudden drop of lift, is still not clearly understood. In the specific case of static stall, multiple steady solutions have been identified experimentally and numerically around the stall angle. We are interested here in investigating the stability of these steady solutions so as to first model and then control the dynamics. The study is performed on a 2D helicopter blade airfoil OA209 at low Mach number, M 0.2 and high Reynolds number, Re 1.8 ×106 . Steady RANS computation using a Spalart-Allmaras model is coupled with continuation methods (pseudo-arclength and Newton's method) to obtain steady states for several angles of incidence. The results show one upper branch (high lift), one lower branch (low lift) connected by a middle branch, characterizing an hysteresis phenomenon. A linear stability analysis performed around these equilibrium states highlights a mode responsible for stall, which starts with a low frequency oscillation. A bifurcation scenario is deduced from the behaviour of this mode. To shed light on the nonlinear behavior, a low order nonlinear model is created with the same linear stability behavior as that observed for that airfoil.

  17. Linear stability of microtearing modes in ASDEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannone, L.

    1987-12-01

    The linear stability of microtearing modes in typical ASDEX discharges have been calculated. In the case of Ohmic discharges it was found that unstable modes are predicted to be located towards the centre of the plasma. For L and H discharges the zone of instability shifts towards the plasma edge. The interpretation of an increase or decrease in the amplitude of broadband magnetic fluctuations during L and H discharges must be interpreted with caution, since the amplitude observed is strongly dependent on the radial position of the instability. (orig./GG)

  18. Integrability and Linear Stability of Nonlinear Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degasperis, Antonio; Lombardo, Sara; Sommacal, Matteo

    2018-03-01

    It is well known that the linear stability of solutions of 1+1 partial differential equations which are integrable can be very efficiently investigated by means of spectral methods. We present here a direct construction of the eigenmodes of the linearized equation which makes use only of the associated Lax pair with no reference to spectral data and boundary conditions. This local construction is given in the general N× N matrix scheme so as to be applicable to a large class of integrable equations, including the multicomponent nonlinear Schrödinger system and the multiwave resonant interaction system. The analytical and numerical computations involved in this general approach are detailed as an example for N=3 for the particular system of two coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations in the defocusing, focusing and mixed regimes. The instabilities of the continuous wave solutions are fully discussed in the entire parameter space of their amplitudes and wave numbers. By defining and computing the spectrum in the complex plane of the spectral variable, the eigenfrequencies are explicitly expressed. According to their topological properties, the complete classification of these spectra in the parameter space is presented and graphically displayed. The continuous wave solutions are linearly unstable for a generic choice of the coupling constants.

  19. Approximate calculation method for integral of mean square value of nonstationary response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Shigeru; Fukano, Azusa

    2010-01-01

    The response of the structure subjected to nonstationary random vibration such as earthquake excitation is nonstationary random vibration. Calculating method for statistical characteristics of such a response is complicated. Mean square value of the response is usually used to evaluate random response. Integral of mean square value of the response corresponds to total energy of the response. In this paper, a simplified calculation method to obtain integral of mean square value of the response is proposed. As input excitation, nonstationary white noise and nonstationary filtered white noise are used. Integrals of mean square value of the response are calculated for various values of parameters. It is found that the proposed method gives exact value of integral of mean square value of the response.

  20. Numerical stability in problems of linear algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babuska, I.

    1972-01-01

    Mathematical problems are introduced as mappings from the space of input data to that of the desired output information. Then a numerical process is defined as a prescribed recurrence of elementary operations creating the mapping of the underlying mathematical problem. The ratio of the error committed by executing the operations of the numerical process (the roundoff errors) to the error introduced by perturbations of the input data (initial error) gives rise to the concept of lambda-stability. As examples, several processes are analyzed from this point of view, including, especially, old and new processes for solving systems of linear algebraic equations with tridiagonal matrices. In particular, it is shown how such a priori information can be utilized as, for instance, a knowledge of the row sums of the matrix. Information of this type is frequently available where the system arises in connection with the numerical solution of differential equations.

  1. Hydromagnetic thin film flow: Linear stability

    KAUST Repository

    Amaouche, Mustapha

    2013-08-30

    This paper deals with the long wave instability of an electroconductor fluid film, flowing down an inclined plane at small to moderate Reynolds numbers, under the action of electromagnetic fields. A coherent second order long wave model and two simplified versions of it, referred to as first and second reduced models (FRM and SRM), are proposed to describe the nonlinear behavior of the flow. The modeling procedure consists of a combination of the lubrication theory and the weighted residual approach using an appropriate projection basis. A suitable choice of weighting functions allows a significant reduction of the dimension of the problem. The full model is naturally unique, i.e., independent of the particular form of the trial functions. The linear stability of the problem is investigated, and the influence of electromagnetic field on the flow stability is analyzed. Two cases are considered: the applied magnetic field is either normal or parallel to the fluid flow direction, while the electric field is transversal. The numerical solution of the Orr-Sommerfeld (OS) eigenvalue problem and those of the depth averaging model are used to assess the accuracy of the reduced models. It is found that the current models have the advantage of the Benney-like model, which is known to asymptote the exact solution near criticality. Moreover, far from the instability threshold, the current reduced models continue to follow the OS solution up to moderate Reynolds numbers, while the averaging model diverges rapidly. The model SRM gives better results than FRM beyond sufficiently high Reynolds numbers.

  2. Study of Nuclear Moments and Mean Square Charge Radii by Collinear Fast-Beam Laser Spectroscopy

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The collinear fast-beam laser technique is used to measure atomic hyperfine structures and isotope shifts of unstable nuclides produced at ISOLDE. This gives access to basic nuclear ground-state and isomeric-state properties such as spins, magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments, and the variation of the nuclear mean square charge radius within a sequence of isotopes. \\\\ \\\\ Among the various techniques used for this purpose, the present approach is of greatest versatility, due to the direct use of the beams from the isotope separator. Their phase-space properties are exploited to achieve high sensitivity and resolution. The optical spectra of neutral atoms are made accessible by converting the ion beams into fast atomic beams. This is accomplished in the charge-exchange cell which is kept at variable potential ($\\pm$10~kV) for Doppler-tuning of the effective laser wavelength. The basic optical resolution of 10$^{-8}$ requires a 10$^{-5}$ stability of the 60~kV main acceleration voltage and low energy ...

  3. Stability Criterion of Linear Stochastic Systems Subject to Mixed H2/Passivity Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheung-Chieh Ku

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The H2 control scheme and passivity theory are applied to investigate the stability criterion of continuous-time linear stochastic system subject to mixed performance. Based on the stochastic differential equation, the stochastic behaviors can be described as multiplicative noise terms. For the considered system, the H2 control scheme is applied to deal with the problem on minimizing output energy. And the asymptotical stability of the system can be guaranteed under desired initial conditions. Besides, the passivity theory is employed to constrain the effect of external disturbance on the system. Moreover, the Itô formula and Lyapunov function are used to derive the sufficient conditions which are converted into linear matrix inequality (LMI form for applying convex optimization algorithm. Via solving the sufficient conditions, the state feedback controller can be established such that the asymptotical stability and mixed performance of the system are achieved in the mean square. Finally, the synchronous generator system is used to verify the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed design method.

  4. Optimal design of minimum mean-square error noise reduction algorithms using the simulated annealing technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Mingsian R; Hsieh, Ping-Ju; Hur, Kur-Nan

    2009-02-01

    The performance of the minimum mean-square error noise reduction (MMSE-NR) algorithm in conjunction with time-recursive averaging (TRA) for noise estimation is found to be very sensitive to the choice of two recursion parameters. To address this problem in a more systematic manner, this paper proposes an optimization method to efficiently search the optimal parameters of the MMSE-TRA-NR algorithms. The objective function is based on a regression model, whereas the optimization process is carried out with the simulated annealing algorithm that is well suited for problems with many local optima. Another NR algorithm proposed in the paper employs linear prediction coding as a preprocessor for extracting the correlated portion of human speech. Objective and subjective tests were undertaken to compare the optimized MMSE-TRA-NR algorithm with several conventional NR algorithms. The results of subjective tests were processed by using analysis of variance to justify the statistic significance. A post hoc test, Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference, was conducted to further assess the pairwise difference between the NR algorithms.

  5. On the mean squared error of the ridge estimator of the covariance and precision matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wieringen, Wessel N.

    2017-01-01

    For a suitably chosen ridge penalty parameter, the ridge regression estimator uniformly dominates the maximum likelihood regression estimator in terms of the mean squared error. Analogous results for the ridge maximum likelihood estimators of covariance and precision matrix are presented.

  6. Stability of Linear Equations--Algebraic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherif, Chokri; Goldstein, Avraham; Prado, Lucio M. G.

    2012-01-01

    This article could be of interest to teachers of applied mathematics as well as to people who are interested in applications of linear algebra. We give a comprehensive study of linear systems from an application point of view. Specifically, we give an overview of linear systems and problems that can occur with the computed solution when the…

  7. X-ray determination of mean square amplitudes of lattice oscillations in compounds with ZnS structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deus, P.; Schneider, H.A.; Voland, U.

    1980-01-01

    A general method of determination of the mean square amplitudes of lattice oscillations (MSA) for crystals with sphalerite structure is described and applied to InP. The linearity of suitable functions of the measured integral BRAGG intensities of sin 2 theta/lambda 2 is used for the verification of the parameters selected for the correction of extinction and DTS. In this way the accuracy of the results is increased. The MSAs of the InP-sublattices are evaluated. According to theoretical expectations the MSAs of the P-sublattice are larger because of the greater contributions of optical phonons. (author)

  8. Linear and nonlinear stability in resistive magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasso, H.

    1994-01-01

    A sufficient stability condition with respect to purely growing modes is derived for resistive magnetohydrodynamics. Its open-quotes nearnessclose quotes to necessity is analysed. It is found that for physically reasonable approximations the condition is in some sense necessary and sufficient for stability against all modes. This, together with hermiticity makes its analytical and numerical evaluation worthwhile for the optimization of magnetic configurations. Physically motivated test functions are introduced. This leads to simplified versions of the stability functional, which makes its evaluation and minimization more tractable. In the case of special force-free fields the simplified functional reduces to a good approximation of the exact stability functional derived by other means. It turns out that in this case the condition is also sufficient for nonlinear stability. Nonlinear stability in hydrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics is discussed especially in connection with open-quotes unconditionalclose quotes stability and with severe limitations on the Reynolds number. Two examples in magnetohydrodynamics show that the limitations on the Reynolds numbers can be removed but unconditional stability is preserved. Practical stability needs to be treated for limited levels of perturbations or for conditional stability. This implies some knowledge of the basin of attraction of the unperturbed solution, which is a very difficult problem. Finally, a special inertia-caused Hopf bifurcation is identified and the nature of the resulting attractors is discussed. 23 refs

  9. Augmented GNSS Differential Corrections Minimum Mean Square Error Estimation Sensitivity to Spatial Correlation Modeling Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazelie Kassabian

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Railway signaling is a safety system that has evolved over the last couple of centuries towards autonomous functionality. Recently, great effort is being devoted in this field, towards the use and exploitation of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS signals and GNSS augmentation systems in view of lower railway track equipments and maintenance costs, that is a priority to sustain the investments for modernizing the local and regional lines most of which lack automatic train protection systems and are still manually operated. The objective of this paper is to assess the sensitivity of the Linear Minimum Mean Square Error (LMMSE algorithm to modeling errors in the spatial correlation function that characterizes true pseudorange Differential Corrections (DCs. This study is inspired by the railway application; however, it applies to all transportation systems, including the road sector, that need to be complemented by an augmentation system in order to deliver accurate and reliable positioning with integrity specifications. A vector of noisy pseudorange DC measurements are simulated, assuming a Gauss-Markov model with a decay rate parameter inversely proportional to the correlation distance that exists between two points of a certain environment. The LMMSE algorithm is applied on this vector to estimate the true DC, and the estimation error is compared to the noise added during simulation. The results show that for large enough correlation distance to Reference Stations (RSs distance separation ratio values, the LMMSE brings considerable advantage in terms of estimation error accuracy and precision. Conversely, the LMMSE algorithm may deteriorate the quality of the DC measurements whenever the ratio falls below a certain threshold.

  10. Linear and nonlinear stability analysis, associated to experimental fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorim, E.S. do; Moura Neto, C. de; Rosa, M.A.P.

    1980-07-01

    Phenomena associated to the physics of fast neutrons were analysed by linear and nonlinear Kinetics with arbitrary feedback. The theoretical foundations of linear kinetics and transfer functions aiming at the analysis of fast reactors stability, are established. These stability conditions were analitically proposed and investigated by digital and analogic programs. (E.G.) [pt

  11. Study of the convergence behavior of the complex kernel least mean square algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Thomas K; Ogunfunmi, Tokunbo

    2013-09-01

    The complex kernel least mean square (CKLMS) algorithm is recently derived and allows for online kernel adaptive learning for complex data. Kernel adaptive methods can be used in finding solutions for neural network and machine learning applications. The derivation of CKLMS involved the development of a modified Wirtinger calculus for Hilbert spaces to obtain the cost function gradient. We analyze the convergence of the CKLMS with different kernel forms for complex data. The expressions obtained enable us to generate theory-predicted mean-square error curves considering the circularity of the complex input signals and their effect on nonlinear learning. Simulations are used for verifying the analysis results.

  12. Analysis of stability for stochastic delay integro-differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Li, Longsuo

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we concern stability of numerical methods applied to stochastic delay integro-differential equations. For linear stochastic delay integro-differential equations, it is shown that the mean-square stability is derived by the split-step backward Euler method without any restriction on step-size, while the Euler-Maruyama method could reproduce the mean-square stability under a step-size constraint. We also confirm the mean-square stability of the split-step backward Euler method for nonlinear stochastic delay integro-differential equations. The numerical experiments further verify the theoretical results.

  13. Stability and response bounds of non-conservative linear systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommer, Christian

    2003-01-01

    For a linear system of second order differential equations the stability is studied by Lyapunov's direct method. The Lyapunov matrix equation is solved and a sufficient condition for stability is expressed by the system matrices. For a system which satisfies the condition for stability the Lyapunov...

  14. Calculation of the mean scattering angle, the logarithmic decrement and its mean square

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bersillon, O.; Caput, B.

    1984-06-01

    The calculation of the mean scattering angle, the logarithmic decrement and its mean square, starting from the Legendre polynomial expansion coefficients of the relevant elastic scattering angular distribution, is numerically studied with different methods, one of which is proposed for the usual determination of these quantities which are present in the evaluated data files ENDF [fr

  15. Goldberger-treiman relation and nucleon's mean square radius of strong interaction in the Skyrme model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Bingan

    1988-01-01

    In this letter it is shown that even in m π ≠ 0 case the Goldberger-Treiman relation is still hold in the Skyrme model. The mean square radius of strong interaction of nucleon 2 > s 1/2 is computed in the Skyrme model

  16. Mean-square performance of a convex combination of two adaptive filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Jeronimo; Figueiras-Vidal, A.R.; Sayed, A.H.

    2006-01-01

    Combination approaches provide an interesting way to improve adaptive filter performance. In this paper, we study the mean-square performance of a convex combination of two transversal filters. The individual filters are independently adapted using their own error signals, while the combination i...

  17. Periodic feedback stabilization for linear periodic evolution equations

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Gengsheng

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces a number of recent advances regarding periodic feedback stabilization for linear and time periodic evolution equations. First, it presents selected connections between linear quadratic optimal control theory and feedback stabilization theory for linear periodic evolution equations. Secondly, it identifies several criteria for the periodic feedback stabilization from the perspective of geometry, algebra and analyses respectively. Next, it describes several ways to design periodic feedback laws. Lastly, the book introduces readers to key methods for designing the control machines. Given its coverage and scope, it offers a helpful guide for graduate students and researchers in the areas of control theory and applied mathematics.

  18. Nuclear moments and isotopic variation of the mean square charge radii of strontium nuclei by atomic beam laser spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chongkum, S.

    1987-10-01

    Hyperfine structure and optical isotope shift measurements have been performed on a series of stable and radioactive strontium isotopes (A = 80 to 90), including two isomers 85m and 87m. The spectroscopy applied continuous wave dye laser induced fluorescence of free atoms at λ=293.2 nm in a well collimated atomic beam. The 293.2 nm ultraviolet light was generated by frequency doubling the output of a dye laser in either a temperature tuned Ammonium Dihydrogen Arsenate (ADA) crystal or an angle tuned Lithium Iodate crystal. A special radio frequency (rf) technique was used to tune the dye laser frequency with long term stability. Radioactive Sr isotopes were produced either by neutron capture of stable strontium or by (α,xn) reactions from krypton gas. The samples were purified by an electromagnetic mass separator and their sizes were of order 100 pg, which corresponds to 10 11 atoms. The observed results of the hyperfine structure components are evaluated in terms of nuclear magnetic dipole moments and electric quadrupole moments. Changes in mean square charge radii of strontium nuclei which were extracted from the isotope shift measurements, exhibit a distinct shell effect at the neutron magic number N=50. The experimental data are analysed and compared with some theoretical nuclear model predictions. The strong increase of the nuclear charge radii with decreasing neutron number of isotopes below N=50 is in agreement with the variation of the mean square deformation extracted from measured B(E2) values. (orig.) [de

  19. Decentralized linear quadratic power system stabilizers for multi ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Introduction. Modern excitation systems considerably enhance the overall transient stability of power systems ..... to the local bus rather than the angle δ measured with respect to the remote bus. ... With this in view, the linear and nonlinear per-.

  20. Strong-stability-preserving additive linear multistep methods

    KAUST Repository

    Hadjimichael, Yiannis; Ketcheson, David I.

    2018-01-01

    The analysis of strong-stability-preserving (SSP) linear multistep methods is extended to semi-discretized problems for which different terms on the right-hand side satisfy different forward Euler (or circle) conditions. Optimal perturbed

  1. Stability and stabilization of linear systems with saturating actuators

    CERN Document Server

    Tarbouriech, Sophie; Gomes da Silva Jr, João Manoel; Queinnec, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    Gives the reader an in-depth understanding of the phenomena caused by the more-or-less ubiquitous problem of actuator saturation. Proposes methods and algorithms designed to avoid, manage or overcome the effects of actuator saturation. Uses a state-space approach to ensure local and global stability of the systems considered. Compilation of fifteen years' worth of research results.

  2. Nonparallel linear stability analysis of unconfined vortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrada, M. A.; Barrero, A.

    2004-10-01

    Parabolized stability equations [F. P. Bertolotti, Th. Herbert, and P. R. Spalart, J. Fluid. Mech. 242, 441 (1992)] have been used to study the stability of a family of swirling jets at high Reynolds numbers whose velocity and pressure fields decay far from the axis as rm-2 and r2(m-2), respectively [M. Pérez-Saborid, M. A. Herrada, A. Gómez-Barea, and A. Barrero, J. Fluid. Mech. 471, 51 (2002)]; r is the radial distance and m is a real number in the interval 0

  3. Linear waves and stability in ideal magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckhoff, K.S.

    1987-05-01

    Linear waves superimposed on an arbitrary basic state in ideal magnetohydrodynamics are studied by an asymptotic expansion valid for short wavelenghts. The theory allows for a gravitational potential, and it may therefore be applied both in astrophysics and in problems related to thermonuclear fusion. The linearized equations for the perturbations of the basic state are found in the form of a symmetric hyperbolic system. This symmetric hyperbolic system is shown to possess characteristics of nonuniform multiplicity, which implies that waves of different types may interact. In particular it is shown that the mass waves, the Alf-n waves, and the slow magnetoacoustic waves will persistently interact in the exceptional case where the local wave number vector is perpendicular to the magnetic field. The equations describing this interaction are found in the form of a weakly coupled hyperbolic system. This weakly coupled hyperbloc system is studied in a number of special cases, and detailed analytic results are obtained for some such cases. The results show that the interaction of the waves may be one of the major causes of instability of the basic state. It seems beyond doubt that the interacting waves contain the physically relevant parts of the waves, which often are referred to as ballooning modes, including Suydam modes and Mercier modes

  4. ON THE STABILIZATION OF THE LINEAR HYBRID SYSTEM STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirillov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The linear control hybrid system, consisting of a fi- nite set of subsystems (modes having different dimensions, is considered. The moments of reset time are determined by some complementary function – evolutionary time. This function satisfies the special complementary ordinary differential equation. The mode stabilization problem is solved for some class of piecewise linear controls. The method of stabilization relies on the set of invariant planes, the existence of which is due to the special form of the hybrid system.

  5. An on-line modified least-mean-square algorithm for training neurofuzzy controllers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Woei Wan

    2007-04-01

    The problem hindering the use of data-driven modelling methods for training controllers on-line is the lack of control over the amount by which the plant is excited. As the operating schedule determines the information available on-line, the knowledge of the process may degrade if the setpoint remains constant for an extended period. This paper proposes an identification algorithm that alleviates "learning interference" by incorporating fuzzy theory into the normalized least-mean-square update rule. The ability of the proposed methodology to achieve faster learning is examined by employing the algorithm to train a neurofuzzy feedforward controller for controlling a liquid level process. Since the proposed identification strategy has similarities with the normalized least-mean-square update rule and the recursive least-square estimator, the on-line learning rates of these algorithms are also compared.

  6. Prediction on long-term mean and mean square pollutant concentrations in an urban atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S; Lamb, R G; Seinfeld, J H

    1976-01-01

    The general problem of predicting long-term average (say yearly) pollutant concentrations in an urban atmosphere is formulated. The pollutant concentration can be viewed as a random process, the complete description of which requires knowledge of its probability density function, which is unknown. The mean concentration is the first moment of the concentration distribution, and at present there exist a number of models for predicting the long-term mean concentration of an inert pollutant. The second moment, or mean square concentration, indicates additional features of the distribution, such as the level of fluctuations about the mean. In the paper a model proposed by Lamb for the long-term mean concentration is reviewed, and a new model for prediction of the long-term mean square concentration of an inert air pollutant is derived. The properties and uses of the model are discussed, and the equations defining the model are presented in a form for direct application to an urban area.

  7. Decentralized linear quadratic power system stabilizers for multi ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Linear quadratic stabilizers are well-known for their superior control capabilities when compared to the conventional lead–lag power system stabilizers. However, they have not seen much of practical importance as the state variables are generally not measurable; especially the generator rotor angle measurement is not ...

  8. Mathematical modelling and linear stability analysis of laser fusion cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermanns, Torsten; Schulz, Wolfgang; Vossen, Georg; Thombansen, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    A model for laser fusion cutting is presented and investigated by linear stability analysis in order to study the tendency for dynamic behavior and subsequent ripple formation. The result is a so called stability function that describes the correlation of the setting values of the process and the process’ amount of dynamic behavior.

  9. Mathematical modelling and linear stability analysis of laser fusion cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermanns, Torsten; Schulz, Wolfgang [RWTH Aachen University, Chair for Nonlinear Dynamics, Steinbachstr. 15, 52047 Aachen (Germany); Vossen, Georg [Niederrhein University of Applied Sciences, Chair for Applied Mathematics and Numerical Simulations, Reinarzstr.. 49, 47805 Krefeld (Germany); Thombansen, Ulrich [RWTH Aachen University, Chair for Laser Technology, Steinbachstr. 15, 52047 Aachen (Germany)

    2016-06-08

    A model for laser fusion cutting is presented and investigated by linear stability analysis in order to study the tendency for dynamic behavior and subsequent ripple formation. The result is a so called stability function that describes the correlation of the setting values of the process and the process’ amount of dynamic behavior.

  10. Minimum Mean-Square Error Estimation of Mel-Frequency Cepstral Features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper; Tan, Zheng-Hua

    2015-01-01

    In this work we consider the problem of feature enhancement for noise-robust automatic speech recognition (ASR). We propose a method for minimum mean-square error (MMSE) estimation of mel-frequency cepstral features, which is based on a minimum number of well-established, theoretically consistent......-of-the-art MFCC feature enhancement algorithms within this class of algorithms, while theoretically suboptimal or based on theoretically inconsistent assumptions, perform close to optimally in the MMSE sense....

  11. On the mean square displacements (MSD) of Hg and Te in HgTe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhavan, Y.; Ramachandran, K.

    1989-01-01

    The mean square displacements (MSD) of Hg and Te in the perfect system of HgTe are worked out in the modified rigid ion model of Plumelle and Vandevyver. Also the MSD of Hg and Te neighbours around anion and cation vacancies in HgTe are worked out giving an active role for the vacancy following the theory of Maradudin et al. The results are compared with experimental values. (author)

  12. Asymptotic behavior of the mean square displacement of the Brownian parametric oscillator near the singular point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashiro, Tohru

    2009-01-01

    A parametric oscillator with damping driven by white noise is studied. The mean square displacement (MSD) in the long-time limit is derived analytically for the case that the static force vanishes, which was not treated in the past work (Tashiro and Morita 2007 Physica A 377 401). The formula is asymptotic but is applicable to a general periodic function. On the basis of this formula, some periodic functions reducing MSD remarkably are proposed

  13. Variation of the mean square amplitude with concentration in Hg1-xCdxTe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadaiyandi, K.; Ramachandran, K.

    1989-01-01

    The mean square displacements (MSD) of Hg and Te in the mixed system Hg 1-x Cd x Te have been calculated for various concentrations of Cd atoms (x = 0.20, 0.40, 0.60, 0.80, 1.00) at 4, 77, and 300 K by means of the virtual crystal approximation. An unusual trend in MSD is found for x below 0.2: the higher mass has higher value of MS amplitude

  14. [Study on retention and stability of linear occlusal complete dentures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ping; Xu, Jun

    2003-01-01

    To learn retention and stability of linear occlusal complete dentures by investigating the subjective feelings of patient and the value of retention force. Static retention forces of maxillary and mandibular dentures were measured for 25 patients wearing linear occlusal dentures by using Hz-1 retention dynamometer. The subjective feelings of patients in functional state were gained simultaneously through questionnaire. Linear occlusal dentures demonstrate good retention in static and dynamic state. Among patients with severe resorption of residual ridge (RRR), mandibular linear occlusal dentures (shown good retentive subjective feelings) demonstrate significantly smaller retention force than those with slight or medium degree of RRR. There is no correlation between the subjective feelings and the values of retention forces of mandibular dentures. The subjective feelings of patients wearing new linear occlusal dentures are much better than that of old anatomic occlusal dentures. Linear occlusal dentures improve the performances of dentures by enhancing their stability during mastication movement.

  15. Linear stability analysis in a solid-propellant rocket motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K.M.; Kang, K.T.; Yoon, J.K. [Agency for Defense Development, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-10-01

    Combustion instability in solid-propellant rocket motors depends on the balance between acoustic energy gains and losses of the system. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the capability of the program which predicts the standard longitudinal stability using acoustic modes based on linear stability analysis and T-burner test results of propellants. Commercial ANSYS 5.0A program can be used to calculate the acoustic characteristic of a rocket motor. The linear stability prediction was compared with the static firing test results of rocket motors. (author). 11 refs., 17 figs.

  16. On the stability of non-linear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guelman, M.

    1968-09-01

    A study is made of the absolute stability of nonlinear systems, using Liapounov's second method and taking into account the results obtained from V.M. Popov's work. The results already established are first presented, in particular concerning the frequency domain criterions for absolute stability of automatic control systems containing one single non linearity. The results have been extended to show the existence of a limiting parabola. New use is then made of the methods studied for deriving absolute stability criterions for a system containing a different type of non linearity. Finally, the results obtained are considered from the point of view of Aizerman's conjecture. (author) [fr

  17. A Theoretically Consistent Method for Minimum Mean-Square Error Estimation of Mel-Frequency Cepstral Features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper; Tan, Zheng-Hua

    2014-01-01

    We propose a method for minimum mean-square error (MMSE) estimation of mel-frequency cepstral features for noise robust automatic speech recognition (ASR). The method is based on a minimum number of well-established statistical assumptions; no assumptions are made which are inconsistent with others....... The strength of the proposed method is that it allows MMSE estimation of mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC's), cepstral mean-subtracted MFCC's (CMS-MFCC's), velocity, and acceleration coefficients. Furthermore, the method is easily modified to take into account other compressive non-linearities than...... the logarithmic which is usually used for MFCC computation. The proposed method shows estimation performance which is identical to or better than state-of-the-art methods. It further shows comparable ASR performance, where the advantage of being able to use mel-frequency speech features based on a power non...

  18. Non linear stability analysis of parallel channels with natural circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Ashish Mani; Singh, Suneet, E-mail: suneet.singh@iitb.ac.in

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • Nonlinear instabilities in natural circulation loop are studied. • Generalized Hopf points, Sub and Supercritical Hopf bifurcations are identified. • Bogdanov–Taken Point (BT Point) is observed by nonlinear stability analysis. • Effect of parameters on stability of system is studied. - Abstract: Linear stability analysis of two-phase flow in natural circulation loop is quite extensively studied by many researchers in past few years. It can be noted that linear stability analysis is limited to the small perturbations only. It is pointed out that such systems typically undergo Hopf bifurcation. If the Hopf bifurcation is subcritical, then for relatively large perturbation, the system has unstable limit cycles in the (linearly) stable region in the parameter space. Hence, linear stability analysis capturing only infinitesimally small perturbations is not sufficient. In this paper, bifurcation analysis is carried out to capture the non-linear instability of the dynamical system and both subcritical and supercritical bifurcations are observed. The regions in the parameter space for which subcritical and supercritical bifurcations exist are identified. These regions are verified by numerical simulation of the time-dependent, nonlinear ODEs for the selected points in the operating parameter space using MATLAB ODE solver.

  19. Analysis of S-box in Image Encryption Using Root Mean Square Error Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Iqtadar; Shah, Tariq; Gondal, Muhammad Asif; Mahmood, Hasan

    2012-07-01

    The use of substitution boxes (S-boxes) in encryption applications has proven to be an effective nonlinear component in creating confusion and randomness. The S-box is evolving and many variants appear in literature, which include advanced encryption standard (AES) S-box, affine power affine (APA) S-box, Skipjack S-box, Gray S-box, Lui J S-box, residue prime number S-box, Xyi S-box, and S8 S-box. These S-boxes have algebraic and statistical properties which distinguish them from each other in terms of encryption strength. In some circumstances, the parameters from algebraic and statistical analysis yield results which do not provide clear evidence in distinguishing an S-box for an application to a particular set of data. In image encryption applications, the use of S-boxes needs special care because the visual analysis and perception of a viewer can sometimes identify artifacts embedded in the image. In addition to existing algebraic and statistical analysis already used for image encryption applications, we propose an application of root mean square error technique, which further elaborates the results and enables the analyst to vividly distinguish between the performances of various S-boxes. While the use of the root mean square error analysis in statistics has proven to be effective in determining the difference in original data and the processed data, its use in image encryption has shown promising results in estimating the strength of the encryption method. In this paper, we show the application of the root mean square error analysis to S-box image encryption. The parameters from this analysis are used in determining the strength of S-boxes

  20. On mean square displacement behaviors of anomalous diffusions with variable and random orders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Hongguang; Chen Wen; Sheng Hu; Chen Yangquan

    2010-01-01

    Mean square displacement (MSD) is used to characterize anomalous diffusion. Recently, models of anomalous diffusion with variable-order and random-order were proposed, but no MSD analysis has been given so far. The purpose of this Letter is to offer a concise derivation of MSD functions for the variable-order model and the random-order model. Numerical results are presented to illustrate the analytical results. In addition, we show how to establish a variable-random-order model for a given MSD function which has clear application potentials.

  1. Least mean square fourth based microgrid state estimation algorithm using the internet of things technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Md Masud

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes an innovative internet of things (IoT) based communication framework for monitoring microgrid under the condition of packet dropouts in measurements. First of all, the microgrid incorporating the renewable distributed energy resources is represented by a state-space model. The IoT embedded wireless sensor network is adopted to sense the system states. Afterwards, the information is transmitted to the energy management system using the communication network. Finally, the least mean square fourth algorithm is explored for estimating the system states. The effectiveness of the developed approach is verified through numerical simulations.

  2. Least mean square fourth based microgrid state estimation algorithm using the internet of things technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Masud Rana

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an innovative internet of things (IoT based communication framework for monitoring microgrid under the condition of packet dropouts in measurements. First of all, the microgrid incorporating the renewable distributed energy resources is represented by a state-space model. The IoT embedded wireless sensor network is adopted to sense the system states. Afterwards, the information is transmitted to the energy management system using the communication network. Finally, the least mean square fourth algorithm is explored for estimating the system states. The effectiveness of the developed approach is verified through numerical simulations.

  3. Relevance of Linear Stability Results to Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xueru; Daripa, Prabir

    2012-11-01

    How relevant can the results based on linear stability theory for any problem for that matter be to full scale simulation results? Put it differently, is the optimal design of a system based on linear stability results is optimal or even near optimal for the complex nonlinear system with certain objectives of interest in mind? We will address these issues in the context of enhanced oil recovery by chemical flooding. This will be based on an ongoing work. Supported by Qatar National Research Fund (a member of the Qatar Foundation).

  4. Stability analysis of linear switching systems with time delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ping; Zhong Shouming; Cui Jinzhong

    2009-01-01

    The issue of stability analysis of linear switching system with discrete and distributed time delays is studied in this paper. An appropriate switching rule is applied to guarantee the stability of the whole switching system. Our results use a Riccati-type Lyapunov functional under a condition on the time delay. So, switching systems with mixed delays are developed. A numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of our results.

  5. An active interferometer-stabilization scheme with linear phase control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Esben Ravn; Krishnamachari, v v; Potma, E O

    2006-01-01

    We report a simple and robust computer-based active interferometer stabilization scheme which does not require modulation of the interfering beams and relies on an error signal which is linearly related to the optical path difference. In this setup, a non-collinearly propagating reference laser...... beam stabilizes the interference output of the laser light propagating collinearly through the interferometer. This stabilization scheme enables adjustable phase control with 20 ms switching times in the range from 0.02π radians to 6π radians at 632.8 nm....

  6. Strong-stability-preserving additive linear multistep methods

    KAUST Repository

    Hadjimichael, Yiannis

    2018-02-20

    The analysis of strong-stability-preserving (SSP) linear multistep methods is extended to semi-discretized problems for which different terms on the right-hand side satisfy different forward Euler (or circle) conditions. Optimal perturbed and additive monotonicity-preserving linear multistep methods are studied in the context of such problems. Optimal perturbed methods attain larger monotonicity-preserving step sizes when the different forward Euler conditions are taken into account. On the other hand, we show that optimal SSP additive methods achieve a monotonicity-preserving step-size restriction no better than that of the corresponding nonadditive SSP linear multistep methods.

  7. Linear local stability of electrostatic drift modes in helical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagishi, O.; Nakajima, N.; Sugama, H.; Nakamura, Y.

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the stability of the drift wave in helical systems. For this purpose, we solve the linear local gyrokinetic-Poisson equation, in the electrostatic regime. As a model of helical plasmas, Large helical Device (LHD) is considered. The equation we apply is rather exact in the framework of linear gyrokinetic theory, where only the approximation is the ballooning representation. In this paper, we consider only collisionless cases. All the frequency regime can be naturally reated without any assumptions, and in such cases, ion temperature gradient modes (ITG), trapped electron modes (TEM), and electron temperature gradient modes (ETG) are expected to become unstable linearly independently. (orig.)

  8. Stability analysis of switched linear systems defined by graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Athanasopoulos, N.; Lazar, M.

    2014-01-01

    We present necessary and sufficient conditions for global exponential stability for switched discrete-time linear systems, under arbitrary switching, which is constrained within a set of admissible transitions. The class of systems studied includes the family of systems under arbitrary switching,

  9. Stability Analysis for Multi-Parameter Linear Periodic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seyranian, A.P.; Solem, Frederik; Pedersen, Pauli

    1999-01-01

    This paper is devoted to stability analysis of general linear periodic systems depending on real parameters. The Floquet method and perturbation technique are the basis of the development. We start out with the first and higher-order derivatives of the Floquet matrix with respect to problem...

  10. Criteria for stability of linear dynamical systems with multiple delays ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study we considered a linear Dynamical system with multiple delays and find suitable conditions on the systems parameters such that for a given initial function, we can define a mapping in a carefully chosen complete metric space on which the mapping has a unique fixed point. An asymptotic stability theory for the ...

  11. Three caveats for linear stability theory: Rayleigh-Benard convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenside, H.S.

    1984-06-01

    Recent theories and experiments challenge the applicability of linear stability theory near the onset of buoyancy-driven (Rayleigh-Benard) convection. This stability theory, based on small perturbations of infinite parallel rolls, is found to miss several important features of the convective flow. The reason is that the lateral boundaries have a profound influence on the possible wave numbers and flow patterns even for the largest cells studied. Also, the nonlinear growth of incoherent unstable modes distorts the rolls, leading to a spatially disordered and sometimes temporally nonperiodic flow. Finally, the relation of the skewed varicose instability to the onset of turbulence (nonperiodic time dependence) is examined. Linear stability theory may not suffice to predict the onset of time dependence in large cells close to threshold

  12. Stability of non-linear constitutive formulations for viscoelastic fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Siginer, Dennis A

    2014-01-01

    Stability of Non-linear Constitutive Formulations for Viscoelastic Fluids provides a complete and up-to-date view of the field of constitutive equations for flowing viscoelastic fluids, in particular on their non-linear behavior, the stability of these constitutive equations that is their predictive power, and the impact of these constitutive equations on the dynamics of viscoelastic fluid flow in tubes. This book gives an overall view of the theories and attendant methodologies developed independently of thermodynamic considerations as well as those set within a thermodynamic framework to derive non-linear rheological constitutive equations for viscoelastic fluids. Developments in formulating Maxwell-like constitutive differential equations as well as single integral constitutive formulations are discussed in the light of Hadamard and dissipative type of instabilities.

  13. Strong practical stability and stabilization of uncertain discrete linear repetitive processes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dabkowski, Pavel; Galkowski, K.; Bachelier, O.; Rogers, E.; Kummert, A.; Lam, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 2 (2013), s. 220-233 ISSN 1070-5325 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0567 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : strong practical stability * stabilization * uncertain discrete linear repetitive processes * linear matrix inequality Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 1.424, year: 2013 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/nla.812/abstract

  14. Guidelines for the fitting of anomalous diffusion mean square displacement graphs from single particle tracking experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldad Kepten

    Full Text Available Single particle tracking is an essential tool in the study of complex systems and biophysics and it is commonly analyzed by the time-averaged mean square displacement (MSD of the diffusive trajectories. However, past work has shown that MSDs are susceptible to significant errors and biases, preventing the comparison and assessment of experimental studies. Here, we attempt to extract practical guidelines for the estimation of anomalous time averaged MSDs through the simulation of multiple scenarios with fractional Brownian motion as a representative of a large class of fractional ergodic processes. We extract the precision and accuracy of the fitted MSD for various anomalous exponents and measurement errors with respect to measurement length and maximum time lags. Based on the calculated precision maps, we present guidelines to improve accuracy in single particle studies. Importantly, we find that in some experimental conditions, the time averaged MSD should not be used as an estimator.

  15. Nuclear moments and the change of the mean square charge radius of neutron deficient thallium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menges, R.; Dinger, U.; Boos, N.; Huber, G.; Schroeder, S.

    1992-01-01

    The hyperfine structure, isotope and isomeric shifts in the atomic transition 6p 2 P 3/2 -7s 2 S 1/2 , λ=535 nm have been measured for the I=7 and I=2 states of 190,192,194,196 Tl, the I=1/2 and I=9/2 states of 191 Tl and the I=7 isomer of 188 Tl. The thallium isotopes were prepared as fast atomic beams at the GSI on-line mass separator following fusion reactions and - in some cases - subsequent β-decay. The nuclear dipole moments, electric quadrupole moments and the change in the nuclear mean square charge radius are evaluated. The uu-isotopes show an isomeric shift which changes sign between 192 Tl and 194 Tl. (orig.)

  16. Mean-squared displacements for normal and anomalous diffusion of grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trigger, S A; Heijst, G J F van; Schram, P P J M

    2005-01-01

    The problem of normal and anomalous space difiusion is formulated on the basis of the integral equations with various type of the probability transition functions for difiusion (PTD functions). For the cases of stationary and time-independent PTD functions the method of fractional differentiation is avoided to construct the correct probability distributions for arbitrary distances, what is important for applications to different stochastic problems. A new general integral equation for the particle distribution, which contains the time-dependent PTD function with one or, for more complicated physical situations, with two times, is formulated and discussed. On this basis fractional differentiation in time is also avoided and a wide class of time dependent PTD functions can be investigated. Calculations of the mean-squared displacements for the various cases are performed on the basis of formulated approach. The particular problems for the PTD functions, dependable from one and for two times, are solved

  17. Atomic mean-square displacements and the critical-voltage effect in cubic solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirley, C.G.; Fisher, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    The critical-voltage phenomena observed in high-voltage electron microscope images of bend contours as well as in corresponding Kikuchi or convergent-beam diffraction patterns provide sensitive methods of determining submicroscopic alloy parameters such as Debye temperatures, short-range order, and atomic scattering factors. Only a very limited number of critical voltages can be observed in metal crystals in the voltage range usually available, 100 to 1200 kV, so that quantitative interpretation of the data must be based on a few-parameter model which incorporates all the pertinent factors. A satisfactory two-parameter model has been developed which can be used to interpret or compute the critical voltages of substitutional solid solutions as functions of composition, temperature and short-range order. In the alloy systems Fe-Cr, Ni-Au, Cu-Au and Cu-Al, sufficient critical voltage data are available to derive the model parameters which pertain to atomic bonding in the lattice. In addition to atomic scattering amplitudes, the critical voltage depends strongly on the atomic mean-square displacements. The static contribution to the mean-square displacements is large in alloys with large atomic-radius disparity, and is especially sensitive to short-range order in f.c.c. solid solutions. Well-defined best estimates for the model parameters are used to predict the critical voltage and its sensitivity to composition, temperature and short-range order for a large number of solid solutions. Systems for which critical-voltage studies may be of considerable interest are indicated. (author)

  18. On the Stability of Three-Dimensional Boundary Layers. Part 1; Linear and Nonlinear Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Erik; Balakumar, Ponnampalam

    1999-01-01

    The primary stability of incompressible three-dimensional boundary layers is investigated using the Parabolized Stability Equations (PSE). We compute the evolution of stationary and traveling disturbances in the linear and nonlinear region prior to transition. As model problems, we choose Swept Hiemenz Flow and the DLR Transition Experiment. The primary stability results for Swept Hiemenz Flow agree very well with computations by Malik et al. For the DLR Experiment, the mean flow profiles are obtained by solving the boundary layer equations for the measured pressure distribution. Both linear and nonlinear results show very good agreement with the experiment.

  19. Linear and nonlinear kinetic-stability studies in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, W.M.; Chance, M.S.; Chen, L.; Krommes, J.A.; Lee, W.W.; Rewoldt, G.

    1982-09-01

    This paper presents results of theoretical investigations on important linear kinetic properties of low frequency instabilities in toroidal systems and on nonlinear processes which could significantly influence their impact on anomalous transport. Analytical and numerical methods and also particle simulations have been employed to carry out these studies. In particular, the following subjects are considered: (1) linear stability analysis of kinetic instabilities for realistic tokamak equilibria and the application of such calculations to the PDX and PLT tokamak experiments including the influence of a hot beam-ion component; (2) determination of nonlinearly saturated, statistically steady states of three interacting drift modes; and (3) gyrokinetic particle simulation of drift instabilities

  20. Linear Stability of Binary Alloy Solidification for Unsteady Growth Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazuruk, K.; Volz, M. P.

    2010-01-01

    An extension of the Mullins and Sekerka (MS) linear stability analysis to the unsteady growth rate case is considered for dilute binary alloys. In particular, the stability of the planar interface during the initial solidification transient is studied in detail numerically. The rapid solidification case, when the system is traversing through the unstable region defined by the MS criterion, has also been treated. It has been observed that the onset of instability is quite accurately defined by the "quasi-stationary MS criterion", when the growth rate and other process parameters are taken as constants at a particular time of the growth process. A singular behavior of the governing equations for the perturbed quantities at the constitutional supercooling demarcation line has been observed. However, when the solidification process, during its transient, crosses this demarcation line, a planar interface is stable according to the linear analysis performed.

  1. Stability analysis of switched linear systems defined by graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Athanasopoulos, Nikolaos; Lazar, Mircea

    2015-01-01

    We present necessary and sufficient conditions for global exponential stability for switched discrete-time linear systems, under arbitrary switching, which is constrained within a set of admissible transitions. The class of systems studied includes the family of systems under arbitrary switching, periodic systems, and systems with minimum and maximum dwell time specifications. To reach the result, we describe the set of rules that define the admissible transitions with a weighted directed gra...

  2. Linear Quantum Systems: Non-Classical States and Robust Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-29

    modulation and entanglement in a compound gradient echo memory, Physical Review A 93(2) 023809 2016. We present a theoretical model for a Kerr...Carvalho, M. Hedges and M R James, Analysis of the operation of gradient echo memories using a quantum input-output model, New Journal of Physics , 15...new structured uncertainty methods that ensure robust stability of quantum systems based on nominal linear models, and (v) physical realizability

  3. On Numerical Stability in Large Scale Linear Algebraic Computations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strakoš, Zdeněk; Liesen, J.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 5 (2005), s. 307-325 ISSN 0044-2267 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET400300415 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : linear algebraic systems * eigenvalue problems * convergence * numerical stability * backward error * accuracy * Lanczos method * conjugate gradient method * GMRES method Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.351, year: 2005

  4. Statistical properties of the anomalous scaling exponent estimator based on time-averaged mean-square displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Grzegorz; Teuerle, Marek; Wyłomańska, Agnieszka; Grebenkov, Denis

    2017-08-01

    The most common way of estimating the anomalous scaling exponent from single-particle trajectories consists of a linear fit of the dependence of the time-averaged mean-square displacement on the lag time at the log-log scale. We investigate the statistical properties of this estimator in the case of fractional Brownian motion (FBM). We determine the mean value, the variance, and the distribution of the estimator. Our theoretical results are confirmed by Monte Carlo simulations. In the limit of long trajectories, the estimator is shown to be asymptotically unbiased, consistent, and with vanishing variance. These properties ensure an accurate estimation of the scaling exponent even from a single (long enough) trajectory. As a consequence, we prove that the usual way to estimate the diffusion exponent of FBM is correct from the statistical point of view. Moreover, the knowledge of the estimator distribution is the first step toward new statistical tests of FBM and toward a more reliable interpretation of the experimental histograms of scaling exponents in microbiology.

  5. Linear Dimensional Stability of Irreversible Hydrocolloid Materials Over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrofé, Analía B; Ferrari, Beatriz A; Picca, Mariana; Kaplan, Andrea E

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the linear dimensional stability of different irreversible hydrocolloid materials over time. A metal mold was designed with custom trays made of thermoplastic sheets (Sabilex, sheets 0.125 mm thick). Perforations were made in order to improve retention of the material. Five impressions were taken with each of the following: Kromopan 100 (LASCOD) [AlKr], which has dimensional stability of 100 hours, and Phase Plus (ZHERMACK) [AlPh], which has dimensional stability of 48 hours. Standardized digital photographs were taken at different time intervals (0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 120 minutes; 12, 24 and 96 hours), using an "ad-hoc" device. The images were analyzed with software (UTHSCSA Image Tool) by measuring the distance between intersection of the lines previously made at the top of the mold. The results were analyzed by ANOVA for repeated measures. Initial and final values were (mean and standard deviation): AlKr: 16.44 (0.22) and 16.34 (0.11), AlPh: 16.40 (0.06) and 16.18 (0.06). Statistical evaluation showed significant effect of material and time factors. Under the conditions in this study, time significantly affects the linear dimensional stability of irreversible hydrocolloid materials. Sociedad Argentina de Investigación Odontológica.

  6. Stochastic modeling of mode interactions via linear parabolized stability equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Wei; Zare, Armin; Hack, M. J. Philipp; Jovanovic, Mihailo

    2017-11-01

    Low-complexity approximations of the Navier-Stokes equations have been widely used in the analysis of wall-bounded shear flows. In particular, the parabolized stability equations (PSE) and Floquet theory have been employed to capture the evolution of primary and secondary instabilities in spatially-evolving flows. We augment linear PSE with Floquet analysis to formally treat modal interactions and the evolution of secondary instabilities in the transitional boundary layer via a linear progression. To this end, we leverage Floquet theory by incorporating the primary instability into the base flow and accounting for different harmonics in the flow state. A stochastic forcing is introduced into the resulting linear dynamics to model the effect of nonlinear interactions on the evolution of modes. We examine the H-type transition scenario to demonstrate how our approach can be used to model nonlinear effects and capture the growth of the fundamental and subharmonic modes observed in direct numerical simulations and experiments.

  7. Mean square hydrogen fluctuations in chitosan/lecithin nanoparticles from elastic neutron scattering experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonvico, Fabio; Teresa Di Bari, Maria; Bove, Livia; Deriu, Antonio; Cavatorta, Fabrizio; Albanese, Gianfranco

    2006-11-01

    Recently, we have started a systematic study of the structure and dynamics of nano- and microparticles of interest as highly biocompatible drug carriers. For these particles, that are composed of polymeric and lipid material, a detailed understanding of the particle-solvent interactions is of key importance in order to tailor their characteristics for delivering drugs with specific chemical properties. Here we report results of elastic neutron scattering (ENS) investigations on lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles. They were first prepared by autoassembling the two components in aqueous solution; the samples were then freeze-dried and re-hydrated in a D 2O atmosphere. The experiments were performed in the temperature range of 20-50 K using the backscattering spectrometer IN13 at ILL (Grenoble, France). The comparison of samples in the dry state with similar ones at an hydration level of about 0.3-0.4 (g D 2O/g hydrated sample), indicates that the presence of an outer chitosan ‘‘coating’’ reduces the mean square fluctuations of the hydrogens in the lipid component, leading thus to a stiffer nanoparticle structure.

  8. Classification of Ultrasonic NDE Signals Using the Expectation Maximization (EM) and Least Mean Square (LMS) Algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae Won

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasonic inspection methods are widely used for detecting flaws in materials. The signal analysis step plays a crucial part in the data interpretation process. A number of signal processing methods have been proposed to classify ultrasonic flaw signals. One of the more popular methods involves the extraction of an appropriate set of features followed by the use of a neural network for the classification of the signals in the feature spare. This paper describes an alternative approach which uses the least mean square (LMS) method and exportation maximization (EM) algorithm with the model based deconvolution which is employed for classifying nondestructive evaluation (NDE) signals from steam generator tubes in a nuclear power plant. The signals due to cracks and deposits are not significantly different. These signals must be discriminated to prevent from happening a huge disaster such as contamination of water or explosion. A model based deconvolution has been described to facilitate comparison of classification results. The method uses the space alternating generalized expectation maximiBation (SAGE) algorithm ill conjunction with the Newton-Raphson method which uses the Hessian parameter resulting in fast convergence to estimate the time of flight and the distance between the tube wall and the ultrasonic sensor. Results using these schemes for the classification of ultrasonic signals from cracks and deposits within steam generator tubes are presented and showed a reasonable performances

  9. Moments and mean square charge radii of short-lived argon isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, A; Georg, U; Keim, M; Lievens, P; Neugart, R; Neuroth, M; Silverans, R E; Vermeeren, L

    1996-01-01

    We report on the measurement of optical isotope shifts for $^{32-40}$Ar and for $^{46}$Ar from which the changes in mean square nuclear charge radii across the N = 20 neutron shell closure are deducted. The investigations were carried out by collinear laser spectroscopy in fast beams of neutral argon atoms. The ultra-sensitive detection combines optical pumping, state-selective collisional ionization and counting of $\\beta$-radioactivity. By reaching far into the sd-shell, the results add new information to the systematics of radii in the calcium region (Z $\\approx$ 20). Contrary to all major neutron shell closures with N $\\geq$ 28, the N = 20 shell closure causes no significant slope change in the development of the radii. Information from the hyperfine structure of the odd-A isotopes includes includes the magnetic moments of $^{33}$Ar (I=1/2) and $^{39}$Ar (I=7/2), and the quadrupole moments of $^{35}$Ar, $^{37}$Ar (I=3/2) and $^{39}$Ar. The electromagnetic moments are compared to shell-model predictions fo...

  10. Decomposition of the Mean Squared Error and NSE Performance Criteria: Implications for Improving Hydrological Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Hoshin V.; Kling, Harald; Yilmaz, Koray K.; Martinez-Baquero, Guillermo F.

    2009-01-01

    The mean squared error (MSE) and the related normalization, the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), are the two criteria most widely used for calibration and evaluation of hydrological models with observed data. Here, we present a diagnostically interesting decomposition of NSE (and hence MSE), which facilitates analysis of the relative importance of its different components in the context of hydrological modelling, and show how model calibration problems can arise due to interactions among these components. The analysis is illustrated by calibrating a simple conceptual precipitation-runoff model to daily data for a number of Austrian basins having a broad range of hydro-meteorological characteristics. Evaluation of the results clearly demonstrates the problems that can be associated with any calibration based on the NSE (or MSE) criterion. While we propose and test an alternative criterion that can help to reduce model calibration problems, the primary purpose of this study is not to present an improved measure of model performance. Instead, we seek to show that there are systematic problems inherent with any optimization based on formulations related to the MSE. The analysis and results have implications to the manner in which we calibrate and evaluate environmental models; we discuss these and suggest possible ways forward that may move us towards an improved and diagnostically meaningful approach to model performance evaluation and identification.

  11. Mean-square displacement of atomic complex in titanium carbonitrides TiCxNy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khidirov, I.; Sultanova, S.Kh.; Mukhtarova, N.N.; Tokhtashev, B.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The atomic mean-square displacement (MSD) is one of important characteristics of solids, and one can use it for determination of a number of other characteristics of substances. In this work the MSD of atomic complex were determined for a number of compositions of the cubic titanium carbonitrides TiC x N y using the neutron powder diffraction data. The error of MSD determination was less than 3 %. When determining intensity of diffraction maximum a correction for the thermal diffusion dispersion (TDD) was included in the neutron diffraction patterns. The contribution of TDD in the intensity of diffraction maxima was found to be less than the experiment error (no more than 1,5 %). Such small value of the TDD correction is explained by refractory of materials. The values of MSD in titanium carbonitrides for a number of compositions, determined by the neutron powder diffraction measurements, are given. It is shown, that the dependence of MSD on the concentration (C+N)/Ti has a complex character. With decrease of the total content of metalloids MSD decreases at first, reaching a minimum about concentration (C+N)/Ti≅0.80, and then increases. MSD consists of dynamic and static distortions, where the static distortions in the compounds with variable composition increase with increasing of deviation from stoichiometry. The above anomaly in the dependence of MSD on the total concentration of metalloids, apparently, point to prevalence of dynamic distortions over static ones and to complex character of concentration dependence of interatomic interactions in the titanium carbonitrides. This work was supported by the Supporting Fund for Fundamental Researches of Uzbekistan Academy of Sciences (Grant No. 6-04)

  12. Resolution Effects on the Mean Square Displacement as Obtained by the Self-Distribution-Function Procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedetto, A; Magazù, S; Migliardo, F; Mondelli, C; Gonzalez, M A

    2012-01-01

    In the present contribution, a procedure for molecular motion characterization based on the evaluation of the Mean Square Displacement (MSD), through the Self-Distribution Function (SDF), is presented. It is shown how MSD, which represents an important observable for the characterization of dynamical properties, can be decomposed into different partial contributions associated to system dynamical processes within a specific spatial scale. It is also shown how the SDF procedure allows us to evaluate both total MSD and partial MSDs through total and partial SDFs. As a result, total MSD is the weighed sum of partial MSDs in which the weights are obtained by the fitting procedure of measured Elastic Incoherent Neutron Scattering (EINS) intensity. We apply SDF procedure to data collected,by IN13, IN10 and IN4 spectrometers (Institute Laue Langevin), on aqueous mixtures of two homologous disaccharides (sucrose and trehalose) and on dry and hydrated (H 2 O and D 2 O) lysozyme with and without disaccharides. It emerges that the hydrogen bond imposed network of the water-trehalose mixture appears to be stronger with respect to that of the water-sucrose mixture. This result can justify the higher bioprotectant effectiveness of trehalose. Furthermore, it emerges that partial MSDs of sucrose and trehalose are equivalent in the low Q domain (0÷1.7) Å −1 whereas they are different in the high Q domain (1.7÷4) Å −1 . This suggests that the higher structure sensitivity of sucrose should be related to the small spatial observation windows. Moreover, the role of the instrumental resolution in EINS is considered. The nature of the dynamical transition is highlighted and it is shown that it occurs when the system relaxation time becomes shorter than the instrumental energy time. Finally, the bioprotectants effect on protein dynamics and the amplitude of vibrations in lysozyme are presented.

  13. A theorem for non-linear stability to tearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avinash, K.

    1992-12-01

    Within the reduced MHD approximation it is shown that dJ z /dΨ≤0 [J z is z component of the current density and Ψ is the helical flux] is a sufficient condition for the equilibrium to be non-linearly stable to tearing mode. It is further shown that this is also a sufficient condition for an equilibrium to be axisymmetric, hence helical equilibrium consistent with this condition cannot be constructed. However a class of axisymmetric equilibrium with hollow current profile is shown to satisfy the stability criterion. (author). 16 refs, 2 figs

  14. Outcome analysis after helmet therapy using 3D photogrammetry in patients with deformational plagiocephaly: the role of root mean square.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Mahsa Bidgoli; Brown, Trevor M; Clausen, April; DaSilva, Trevor; Ho, Emily; Forrest, Christopher R

    2014-02-01

    Deformational plagiocephaly (DP) is a multifactorial non-synostotic cranial deformity with a reported incidence as high as 1 in 7 infants in North America. Treatment options have focused on non-operative interventions including head repositioning and the use of an orthotic helmet device. Previous studies have used linear and two dimensional outcome measures to assess changes in cranial symmetry after helmet therapy. Our objective was to demonstrate improvement in head shape after treatment with a cranial molding helmet by using Root Mean Square (RMS), a measure unique to 3D photogrammetry, which takes into account both changes in volume and shape over time. Three dimensional photographs were obtained before and after molding helmet treatment in 40 infants (4-10 months old) with deformational plagiocephaly. Anatomical reference planes and measurements were recorded using the 3dMD Vultus(®) analysis software. RMS was used to quantify symmetry by superimposing left and right quadrants and calculating the mean value of aggregate distances between surfaces. Over 95% of the patients demonstrated an improvement in symmetry with helmet therapy. Furthermore, when the sample of infants was divided into two treatment subgroups, a statistically significant correlation was found between the age at the beginning of treatment and the change in the RMS value. When helmet therapy was started before 7 months of age a greater improvement in symmetry was seen. This work represents application of the technique of RMS analysis to demonstrate the efficacy of treatment of deformational plagiocephaly with a cranial molding helmet. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Modeling of Soil Aggregate Stability using Support Vector Machines and Multiple Linear Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asghar Besalatpour

    2016-02-01

    by 20-m digital elevation model (DEM. The data set was divided into two subsets of training and testing. The training subset was randomly chosen from 70% of the total set of the data and the remaining samples (30% of the data were used as the testing set. The correlation coefficient (r, mean square error (MSE, and error percentage (ERROR% between the measured and the predicted GMD values were used to evaluate the performance of the models. Results and Discussion: The description statistics showed that there was little variability in the sample distributions of the variables used in this study to develop the GMD prediction models, indicating that their values were all normally distributed. The constructed SVM model had better performance in predicting GMD compared to the traditional multiple linear regression model. The obtained MSE and r values for the developed SVM model for soil aggregate stability prediction were 0.005 and 0.86, respectively. The obtained ERROR% value for soil aggregate stability prediction using the SVM model was 10.7% while it was 15.7% for the regression model. The scatter plot figures also showed that the SVM model was more accurate in GMD estimation than the MLR model, since the predicted GMD values were closer in agreement with the measured values for most of the samples. The worse performance of the MLR model might be due to the larger amount of data that is required for developing a sustainable regression model compared to intelligent systems. Furthermore, only the linear effects of the predictors on the dependent variable can be extracted by linear models while in many cases the effects may not be linear in nature. Meanwhile, the SVM model is suitable for modelling nonlinear relationships and its major advantage is that the method can be developed without knowing the exact form of the analytical function on which the model should be built. All these indicate that the SVM approach would be a better choice for predicting soil aggregate

  16. Stability and complexity of small random linear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Harold

    2010-03-01

    We explore the stability of the small random linear systems, typically involving 10-20 variables, motivated by dynamics of the world trade network and the US and Canadian power grid. This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the US Government. Neither the US Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the US Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the US Government or any agency thereof.

  17. Minimum mean square error estimation and approximation of the Bayesian update

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander; Matthies, Hermann G.; Zander, Elmar

    2015-01-01

    Given: a physical system modeled by a PDE or ODE with uncertain coefficient q(w), a measurement operator Y (u(q); q), where u(q; w) uncertain solution. Aim: to identify q(w). The mapping from parameters to observations is usually not invertible, hence this inverse identification problem is generally ill-posed. To identify q(w) we derived non-linear Bayesian update from the variational problem associated with conditional expectation. To reduce cost of the Bayesian update we offer a functional approximation, e.g. polynomial chaos expansion (PCE). New: We derive linear, quadratic etc approximation of full Bayesian update.

  18. Minimum mean square error estimation and approximation of the Bayesian update

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander

    2015-01-07

    Given: a physical system modeled by a PDE or ODE with uncertain coefficient q(w), a measurement operator Y (u(q); q), where u(q; w) uncertain solution. Aim: to identify q(w). The mapping from parameters to observations is usually not invertible, hence this inverse identification problem is generally ill-posed. To identify q(w) we derived non-linear Bayesian update from the variational problem associated with conditional expectation. To reduce cost of the Bayesian update we offer a functional approximation, e.g. polynomial chaos expansion (PCE). New: We derive linear, quadratic etc approximation of full Bayesian update.

  19. Linear and nonlinear stability of periodic orbits in annular billiards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmann, Carl P.; Fain, Vitaly

    2017-04-01

    An annular billiard is a dynamical system in which a particle moves freely in a disk except for elastic collisions with the boundary and also a circular scatterer in the interior of the disk. We investigate the stability properties of some periodic orbits in annular billiards in which the scatterer is touching or close to the boundary. We analytically show that there exist linearly stable periodic orbits of an arbitrary period for scatterers with decreasing radii that are located near the boundary of the disk. As the position of the scatterer moves away from a symmetry line of a periodic orbit, the stability of periodic orbits changes from elliptic to hyperbolic, corresponding to a saddle-center bifurcation. When the scatterer is tangent to the boundary, the periodic orbit is parabolic. We prove that slightly changing the reflection angle of the orbit in the tangential situation leads to the existence of Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser islands. Thus, we show that there exists a decreasing to zero sequence of open intervals of scatterer radii, along which the billiard table is not ergodic.

  20. Linear model applied to the evaluation of pharmaceutical stability data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Cesar Souza

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The expiry date on the packaging of a product gives the consumer the confidence that the product will retain its identity, content, quality and purity throughout the period of validity of the drug. The definition of this term in the pharmaceutical industry is based on stability data obtained during the product registration. By the above, this work aims to apply the linear regression according to the guideline ICH Q1E, 2003, to evaluate some aspects of a product undergoing in a registration phase in Brazil. With this propose, the evaluation was realized with the development center of a multinational company in Brazil, with samples of three different batches composed by two active principal ingredients in two different packages. Based on the preliminary results obtained, it was possible to observe the difference of degradation tendency of the product in two different packages and the relationship between the variables studied, added knowledge so new models of linear equations can be applied and developed for other products.

  1. Linear Stability Analysis of an Acoustically Vaporized Droplet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Junaid; Qamar, Adnan; Samtaney, Ravi

    2015-11-01

    Acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV) is a phase transition phenomena of a superheat liquid (Dodecafluoropentane, C5F12) droplet to a gaseous bubble, instigated by a high-intensity acoustic pulse. This approach was first studied in imaging applications, and applicable in several therapeutic areas such as gas embolotherapy, thrombus dissolution, and drug delivery. High-speed imaging and theoretical modeling of ADV has elucidated several physical aspects, ranging from bubble nucleation to its subsequent growth. Surface instabilities are known to exist and considered responsible for evolving bubble shapes (non-spherical growth, bubble splitting and bubble droplet encapsulation). We present a linear stability analysis of the dynamically evolving interfaces of an acoustically vaporized micro-droplet (liquid A) in an infinite pool of a second liquid (liquid B). We propose a thermal ADV model for the base state. The linear analysis utilizes spherical harmonics (Ynm, of degree m and order n) and under various physical assumptions results in a time-dependent ODE of the perturbed interface amplitudes (one at the vapor/liquid A interface and the other at the liquid A/liquid B interface). The perturbation amplitudes are found to grow exponentially and do not depend on m. Supported by KAUST Baseline Research Funds.

  2. Root mean square radii of heavy flavoured mesons in a quantum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We explicitly consider the following two quantum mechanical aspects in the analysis: (a) The scale factor c in the potential should not effect the wave function of the system even while applying the perturbation theory. (b) Choice of perturbative piece of the Hamiltonian (confinement or linear) should determine the effective ...

  3. Examining the Reliability of Interval Level Data Using Root Mean Square Differences and Concordance Correlation Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchard, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces new statistics for evaluating score consistency. Psychologists usually use correlations to measure the degree of linear relationship between 2 sets of scores, ignoring differences in means and standard deviations. In medicine, biology, chemistry, and physics, a more stringent criterion is often used: the extent to which…

  4. Linear dimensional stability of elastomeric impression materials over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrofé, Analía B; Ferrari, Beatriz A; Picca, Mariana; Kaplan, Andrea E

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the linear dimensional stability of different elastomeric impression materials over time. A metal mold was designed with its custom trays, which were made of thermoplastic sheets (Sabilex sheets 0.125 mm thick). Three impressions were taken of it with each of the following: the polyvinylsiloxane Examix-GC-(AdEx), Aquasil-Dentsply-(AdAq) and Panasil-Kettenbach-(AdPa), and the polydimethylsiloxane Densell-Dental Medrano-(CoDe), Speedex-Coltene-(CoSp) and Lastic-Kettenbach-(CoLa). All impressions were taken with putty and light-body materials using a one-step technique. Standardized digital photographs were taken at different time intervals (0, 15, 30, 60, 120 minutes; 24 hours; 7 and 14 days), using an "ad-hoc" device, and analyzed using software (Image Tool) by measuring the distance between lines previously made at the top of the mold. The results were analyzed by ANOVA for repeated measures. The initial and final values for mean and SD were: AdEx: 1.32 (0.01) and 1.31 (0.00); AdAq: 1.32 (0.00) and 1.32 (0.00), AdPa: 1.327 (0.006) and 1.31 (0.00); CoDe: 1.32 (0.00) and 1.32 (0.01); CoSp: 1.327 (0.006) and 1.31 (0.00), CoLa: 1.327 (0.006) and 1.303 (0.006). Statistical evaluation showed that both material and time have significant effects. Under the conditions in this study we conclude that time would significantly affect the lineal dimensional stability of elastomeric impression materials.

  5. Application of linearized model to the stability analysis of the pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Haipeng; Huang Xiaojin; Zhang Liangju

    2008-01-01

    A Linear Time-Invariant model of the Pressurized Water Reactor is formulated through the linearization of the nonlinear model. The model simulation results show that the linearized model agrees well with the nonlinear model under small perturbation. Based upon the Lyapunov's First Method, the linearized model is applied to the stability analysis of the Pressurized Water Reactor. The calculation results show that the methodology of linearization to stability analysis is conveniently feasible. (authors)

  6. Frequency prediction by linear stability analysis around mean flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengana, Yacine; Tuckerman, Laurette

    2017-11-01

    The frequency of certain limit cycles resulting from a Hopf bifurcation, such as the von Karman vortex street, can be predicted by linear stability analysis around their mean flows. Barkley (2006) has shown this to yield an eigenvalue whose real part is zero and whose imaginary part matches the nonlinear frequency. This property was named RZIF by Turton et al. (2015); moreover they found that the traveling waves (TW) of thermosolutal convection have the RZIF property. They explained this as a consequence of the fact that the temporal Fourier spectrum is dominated by the mean flow and first harmonic. We could therefore consider that only the first mode is important in the saturation of the mean flow as presented in the Self-Consistent Model (SCM) of Mantic-Lugo et al. (2014). We have implemented a full Newton's method to solve the SCM for thermosolutal convection. We show that while the RZIF property is satisfied far from the threshold, the SCM model reproduces the exact frequency only very close to the threshold. Thus, the nonlinear interaction of only the first mode with itself is insufficiently accurate to estimate the mean flow. Our next step will be to take into account higher harmonics and to apply this analysis to the standing waves, for which RZIF does not hold.

  7. Linear and non-linear stability analysis for finite difference discretizations of high-order Boussinesq equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuhrman, David R.; Bingham, Harry B.; Madsen, Per A.

    2004-01-01

    of rotational and irrotational formulations in two horizontal dimensions provides evidence that the irrotational formulation has significantly better stability properties when the deep-water non-linearity is high, particularly on refined grids. Computation of matrix pseudospectra shows that the system is only...... insight into the numerical behaviour of this rather complicated system of non-linear PDEs....

  8. Stability Tests of Positive Fractional Continuous-time Linear Systems with Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Kaczorek

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Necessary and sufficient conditions for the asymptotic stability of positive fractional continuous-time linear systems with many delays are established. It is shown that: 1 the asymptotic stability of the positive fractional system is independent of their delays, 2 the checking of the asymptotic stability of the positive fractional systems with delays can be reduced to checking of the asymptotic stability of positive standard linear systems without delays.

  9. Connection between fragility, mean-squared displacement and shear modulus in two van der Waals bonded glass-forming liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henriette Wase; Frick, Bernhard; Hecksher, Tina

    2017-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the high-frequency shear modulus measured in the kHz range is compared with the mean-squared displacement measured in the nanosecond range for the two van der Waals bonded glass-forming liquids cumene and 5-polyphenyl ether. This provides an experimental test for the...... for the assumption connecting two versions of the shoving model for the non-Arrhenius temperature dependence of the relaxation time in glass formers. The two versions of the model are also tested directly and both are shown to work well for these liquids....

  10. Survey of linear MHD stability in tokamak configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakatani, M.

    1977-01-01

    The results found by MHD stability studies for both low-beta and high-beta tokamaks are reviewed. The stability against kink-ballooning modes in equilibria surrounded by vacuum or a layer of force free currents is considered. Internal kink modes and the relation to interchange modes, which should be considered after external kink modes are suppressed, are surveyed

  11. Non-Linear Aeroelastic Stability of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zili; Sichani, Mahdi Teimouri; Li, Jie

    2013-01-01

    trigger off internal resonances. Further, the rotational speed of the rotor is not constant due to the stochastic turbulence, which may also influence the stability. In this paper, a robust measure of the dynamic stability of wind turbines is suggested, which takes the collective blade pitch control...

  12. Classifying spaces with virtually cyclic stabilizers for linear groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degrijse, Dieter Dries; Köhl, Ralf; Petrosyan, Nansen

    2015-01-01

    We show that every discrete subgroup of GL(n, ℝ) admits a finite-dimensional classifying space with virtually cyclic stabilizers. Applying our methods to SL(3, ℤ), we obtain a four-dimensional classifying space with virtually cyclic stabilizers and a decomposition of the algebraic K-theory of its...

  13. On stabilization of linear systems with stochastic disturbances and input saturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoorvogel, A.A.; Weiland, S.; Saberi, A.

    2004-01-01

    It is well-known that for linear systems internal asymptotic stability implies external stability in the sense that when the external input is in Lp then also the state will be in Lp. However, for the control of linear systems with saturation where the controlled system is nonlinear this implication

  14. A New Hybrid Approach for Wind Speed Prediction Using Fast Block Least Mean Square Algorithm and Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ummuhan Basaran Filik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new hybrid wind speed prediction approach, which uses fast block least mean square (FBLMS algorithm and artificial neural network (ANN method, is proposed. FBLMS is an adaptive algorithm which has reduced complexity with a very fast convergence rate. A hybrid approach is proposed which uses two powerful methods: FBLMS and ANN method. In order to show the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed approach, seven-year real hourly collected wind speed data sets belonging to Turkish State Meteorological Service of Bozcaada and Eskisehir regions are used. Two different ANN structures are used to compare with this approach. The first six-year data is handled as a train set; the remaining one-year hourly data is handled as test data. Mean absolute error (MAE and root mean square error (RMSE are used for performance evaluations. It is shown for various cases that the performance of the new hybrid approach gives better results than the different conventional ANN structure.

  15. Estimasi Kanal Akustik Bawah Air Untuk Perairan Dangkal Menggunakan Metode Least Square (LS dan Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardawia M Panrereng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dalam beberapa tahun terakhir, sistem komunikasi akustik bawah air banyak dikembangkan oleh beberapa peneliti. Besarnya tantangan yang dihadapi membuat para peneliti semakin tertarik untuk mengembangkan penelitian dibidang ini. Kanal bawah air merupakan media komunikasi yang sulit karena adanya attenuasi, absorption, dan multipath yang disebabkan oleh gerakan gelombang air setiap saat. Untuk perairan dangkal, multipath disebabkan adanya pantulan dari permukaan dan dasar laut. Kebutuhan pengiriman data cepat dengan bandwidth terbatas menjadikan Ortogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM sebagai solusi untuk komunikasi transmisi tinggi dengan modulasi menggunakan Binary Phase-Shift Keying (BPSK. Estimasi kanal bertujuan untuk mengetahui karakteristik respon impuls kanal propagasi dengan mengirimkan pilot simbol. Pada estimasi kanal menggunakan metode Least Square (LS nilai Mean Square Error (MSE yang diperoleh cenderung lebih besar dari metode estimasi kanal menggunakan metode Minimum Mean Square (MMSE. Hasil kinerja estimasi kanal berdasarkan perhitungan Bit Error Rate (BER untuk estimasi kanal menggunakan metode LS dan metode MMSE tidak menunjukkan perbedaan yang signifikan yaitu berselisih satu SNR untuk setiap metode estimasi kanal yang digunakan.

  16. Stability and Linear Quadratic Differential Games of Discrete-Time Markovian Jump Linear Systems with State-Dependent Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiying Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We mainly consider the stability of discrete-time Markovian jump linear systems with state-dependent noise as well as its linear quadratic (LQ differential games. A necessary and sufficient condition involved with the connection between stochastic Tn-stability of Markovian jump linear systems with state-dependent noise and Lyapunov equation is proposed. And using the theory of stochastic Tn-stability, we give the optimal strategies and the optimal cost values for infinite horizon LQ stochastic differential games. It is demonstrated that the solutions of infinite horizon LQ stochastic differential games are concerned with four coupled generalized algebraic Riccati equations (GAREs. Finally, an iterative algorithm is presented to solve the four coupled GAREs and a simulation example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of it.

  17. Kinetic Effects on the Stability Properties of Field-reversed Configurations: I. Linear Stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elena V. Belova; Ronald C. Davidson; Hantao Ji; Masaaki Yamada

    2003-01-28

    New computational results are presented which advance the understanding of the stability properties of the Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC). We present results of hybrid and two-fluid (Hall-MHD) simulations of prolate FRCs. The n = 1 tilt instability mechanism and growth rate reduction mechanisms are investigated in detail including resonant particle effects, finite Larmor radius and Hall stabilization, and profile effects. It is shown that the Hall effect determines the mode rotation and the change in the linear mode structure in the kinetic regime; however, the reduction in the growth rate is mostly due to finite Larmor radius effects. Resonant wave-particle interactions are studied as a function of (a) elongation, (b) the kinetic parameter S*, which is proportional to the ratio of the separatrix radius to the thermal ion Larmor radius, and (c) the separatrix shape. It is demonstrated that, contrary to the usually assumed stochasticity of the ion orbits in the FRC, a large fraction of the orbits are regular in long configurations when S* is small. A stochasticity condition is found, and a scaling with the S* parameter is presented. Resonant particle effects are shown to maintain the instability in the large gyroradius regime regardless of the separatrix shape.

  18. SPORTS - a simple non-linear thermalhydraulic stability code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatoorgoon, V.

    1986-01-01

    A simple code, called SPORTS, has been developed for two-phase stability studies. A novel method of solution of the finite difference equations was deviced and incorporated, and many of the approximations that are common in other stability codes are avoided. SPORTS is believed to be accurate and efficient, as small and large time-steps are permitted, and hence suitable for micro-computers. (orig.)

  19. Vibration Stabilization of a Mechanical Model of a X-Band Linear Collider Final Focus Magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Frisch, J; Decker, V; Hendrickson, L; Markiewicz, T W; Partridge, R; Seryi, Andrei

    2004-01-01

    The small beam sizes at the interaction point of a X-band linear collider require mechanical stabilization of the final focus magnets at the nanometer level. While passive systems provide adequate performance at many potential sites, active mechanical stabilization is useful if the natural or cultural ground vibration is higher than expected. A mechanical model of a room temperature linear collider final focus magnet has been constructed and actively stabilized with an accelerometer based system.

  20. Vibration Stabilization of a Mechanical Model of a X-Band Linear Collider Final Focus Magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisch, Josef; Chang, Allison; Decker, Valentin; Doyle, Eric; Eriksson, Leif; Hendrickson, Linda; Himel, Thomas; Markiewicz, Thomas; Partridge, Richard; Seryi, Andrei; SLAC

    2006-01-01

    The small beam sizes at the interaction point of a X-band linear collider require mechanical stabilization of the final focus magnets at the nanometer level. While passive systems provide adequate performance at many potential sites, active mechanical stabilization is useful if the natural or cultural ground vibration is higher than expected. A mechanical model of a room temperature linear collider final focus magnet has been constructed and actively stabilized with an accelerometer based system

  1. Linear stability analysis of collective neutrino oscillations without spurious modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morinaga, Taiki; Yamada, Shoichi

    2018-01-01

    Collective neutrino oscillations are induced by the presence of neutrinos themselves. As such, they are intrinsically nonlinear phenomena and are much more complex than linear counterparts such as the vacuum or Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein oscillations. They obey integro-differential equations, for which it is also very challenging to obtain numerical solutions. If one focuses on the onset of collective oscillations, on the other hand, the equations can be linearized and the technique of linear analysis can be employed. Unfortunately, however, it is well known that such an analysis, when applied with discretizations of continuous angular distributions, suffers from the appearance of so-called spurious modes: unphysical eigenmodes of the discretized linear equations. In this paper, we analyze in detail the origin of these unphysical modes and present a simple solution to this annoying problem. We find that the spurious modes originate from the artificial production of pole singularities instead of a branch cut on the Riemann surface by the discretizations. The branching point singularities on the Riemann surface for the original nondiscretized equations can be recovered by approximating the angular distributions with polynomials and then performing the integrals analytically. We demonstrate for some examples that this simple prescription does remove the spurious modes. We also propose an even simpler method: a piecewise linear approximation to the angular distribution. It is shown that the same methodology is applicable to the multienergy case as well as to the dispersion relation approach that was proposed very recently.

  2. Comparison Study of Airway Reactivity Outcomes due to a Pharmacologic Challenge Test: Impulse Oscillometry versus Least Mean Squared Analysis Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Rodriguez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The technique of measuring transpulmonary pressure and respiratory airflow with manometry and pneumotachography using the least mean squared analysis (LMS has been used broadly in both preclinical and clinical settings for the evaluation of neonatal respiratory function during tidal volume breathing for lung tissue and airway frictional mechanical properties measurements. Whereas the technique of measuring respiratory function using the impulse oscillation technique (IOS involves the assessment of the relationship between pressure and flow using an impulse signal with a range of frequencies, requires less cooperation and provides more information on total respiratory system resistance (chest wall, lung tissue, and airways. The present study represents a preclinical animal study to determine whether these respiratory function techniques (LMS and IOS are comparable in detecting changes in respiratory resistance derived from a direct pharmacological challenge.

  3. Construction of a Mean Square Error Adaptive Euler–Maruyama Method With Applications in Multilevel Monte Carlo

    KAUST Repository

    Hoel, Hakon

    2016-06-13

    A formal mean square error expansion (MSE) is derived for Euler-Maruyama numerical solutions of stochastic differential equations (SDE). The error expansion is used to construct a pathwise, a posteriori, adaptive time-stepping Euler-Maruyama algorithm for numerical solutions of SDE, and the resulting algorithm is incorporated into a multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) algorithm for weak approximations of SDE. This gives an efficient MSE adaptive MLMC algorithm for handling a number of low-regularity approximation problems. In low-regularity numerical example problems, the developed adaptive MLMC algorithm is shown to outperform the uniform time-stepping MLMC algorithm by orders of magnitude, producing output whose error with high probability is bounded by TOL > 0 at the near-optimal MLMC cost rate б(TOL log(TOL)) that is achieved when the cost of sample generation is б(1).

  4. Microscopic 57 Fe electric-field-gradient and anisotropic mean-squared-displacement tensors: ferrous chloride tetrahydrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bull, James N.; Fitchett, Christopher M.; Tennant, W. Craighead

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the determination of the electric-field-gradient and mean-squared-displacement tensors in 57 Fe symmetry-related sites of 1-bar Laue class in monoclinic FeCl 2 .4H 2 O at room temperature by single-crystal Mössbauer spectroscopy. Contrary to all previous work, the mean-squared-displacement matrix (tensor), , is not constrained to be isotropic resulting in the determination of physically meaningful estimates of microscopic (local) electric-field gradient (efg) and tensors. As a consequence of anisotropy in the tensor the absorber recoilless fractions are also anisotropic. As expected of a low-symmetry site, Laue class 1-bar in this case, no two principal axes of the efg and tensors are coaxial, within the combined errors in the two. Further, no principal direction of the efg tensor seems related to bond directions in the unit cell. Within error, and in agreement with an earlier study of sodium nitroprusside, it appears that the tensor principal directions lie close to the crystallographic axes suggesting that they are determined by long wavelength (phonon) vibrations in the crystal rather than by approximate local symmetry about the 57 Fe nucleus. Concurrent with the Mössbauer measurements, we determined as part of a new X-ray structural determination, precise atomic displacement parameters (ADPs) leading to an alternative determination of the matrix (tensor). The average of the eigenvalues of the Mössbauer-determined exceeds that of the average of the X-ray-determined eigenvalues by a factor of around 2.2. Assuming isotropic absorber recoilless fractions leads to substantially the same (macroscopic) efg tensor as had been determined in earlier work. Taking 1/3 x the trace of the anisotropic absorber recoilless fractions leads to an isotropic value of 0.304 in good agreement with earlier single crystal studies where isotropy was assumed.

  5. STABILITY, BIFURCATIONS AND CHAOS IN UNEMPLOYMENT NON-LINEAR DYNAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pagliari Carmen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The traditional analysis of unemployment in relation to real output dynamics is based on some empirical evidences deducted from Okun’s studies. In particular the so called Okun’s Law is expressed in a linear mathematical formulation, which cannot explain the fluctuation of the variables involved. Linearity is an heavy limit for macroeconomic analysis and especially for every economic growth study which would consider the unemployment rate among the endogenous variables. This paper deals with an introductive study about the role of non-linearity in the investigation of unemployment dynamics. The main idea is the existence of a non-linear relation between the unemployment rate and the gap of GDP growth rate from its trend. The macroeconomic motivation of this idea moves from the consideration of two concatenate effects caused by a variation of the unemployment rate on the real output growth rate. These two effects are concatenate because there is a first effect that generates a secondary one on the same variable. When the unemployment rate changes, the first effect is the variation in the level of production in consequence of the variation in the level of such an important factor as labour force; the secondary effect is a consecutive variation in the level of production caused by the variation in the aggregate demand in consequence of the change of the individual disposal income originated by the previous variation of production itself. In this paper the analysis of unemployment dynamics is carried out by the use of the logistic map and the conditions for the existence of bifurcations (cycles are determined. The study also allows to find the range of variability of some characteristic parameters that might be avoided for not having an absolute unpredictability of unemployment dynamics (deterministic chaos: unpredictability is equivalent to uncontrollability because of the total absence of information about the future value of the variable to

  6. Ionization effects and linear stability in a coaxial plasma device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Erol; Kurt, Hilal; Bayhan, Ulku

    2009-03-01

    A 2-D computer simulation of a coaxial plasma device depending on the conservation equations of electrons, ions and excited atoms together with the Poisson equation for a plasma gun is carried out. Some characteristics of the plasma focus device (PF) such as critical wave numbers a c and voltages U c in the cases of various pressures Pare estimated in order to satisfy the necessary conditions of traveling particle densities ( i.e. plasma patterns) via a linear analysis. Oscillatory solutions are characterized by a nonzero imaginary part of the growth rate Im ( σ) for all cases. The model also predicts the minimal voltage ranges of the system for certain pressure intervals.

  7. Strong Stability Preserving Explicit Linear Multistep Methods with Variable Step Size

    KAUST Repository

    Hadjimichael, Yiannis; Ketcheson, David I.; Loczi, Lajos; Né meth, Adriá n

    2016-01-01

    Strong stability preserving (SSP) methods are designed primarily for time integration of nonlinear hyperbolic PDEs, for which the permissible SSP step size varies from one step to the next. We develop the first SSP linear multistep methods (of order

  8. Automated finder for the critical condition on the linear stability of fluid motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimura, Kaoru

    1990-03-01

    An automated finder routine for the critical condition on the linear stability of fluid motions is proposed. The Newton-Raphson method was utilized for an iteration to solve nonlinear eigenvalue problems appeared in the analysis. The routine was applied to linear stability problem of a free convection between vertical parallel plates with different non-uniform temperatures as well as a plane Poiseuille flow. An efficiency of the finder routine is demonstrated for several parameter sets, numerically. (author)

  9. Mean-Square Convergence of Drift-Implicit One-Step Methods for Neutral Stochastic Delay Differential Equations with Jump Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Hu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A class of drift-implicit one-step schemes are proposed for the neutral stochastic delay differential equations (NSDDEs driven by Poisson processes. A general framework for mean-square convergence of the methods is provided. It is shown that under certain conditions global error estimates for a method can be inferred from estimates on its local error. The applicability of the mean-square convergence theory is illustrated by the stochastic θ-methods and the balanced implicit methods. It is derived from Theorem 3.1 that the order of the mean-square convergence of both of them for NSDDEs with jumps is 1/2. Numerical experiments illustrate the theoretical results. It is worth noting that the results of mean-square convergence of the stochastic θ-methods and the balanced implicit methods are also new.

  10. Exponential stability of switched linear systems with time-varying delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satiracoo Pairote

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available We use a Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional approach to establish the exponential stability of linear systems with time-varying delay. Our delay-dependent condition allows to compute simultaneously the two bounds that characterize the exponential stability rate of the solution. A simple procedure for constructing switching rule is also presented.

  11. The JPL Hg(sup +) Extended Linear Ion Trap Frequency Standard: Status, Stability, and Accuracy Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjoelker, R. L.; Prestage, J. D.; Maleki, L.

    1996-01-01

    Microwave frequency standards based on room temperature (sup 199)Hg(sup +) ions in a Linear Ion Trap (LITS) presently achieve a Signal to Noise and line Q inferred short frequency stability. Long term stability has been measured for averaging intervals up to 5 months with apparent sensitivity to variations in ion number/temperature limiting the flicker floor.

  12. Asymptotic stability of linearly evolving non-stationary modes in a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    attention and it is believed to shed important light on the unresolved .... number assumption and is termed as the triple-deck theory. Having ... to analyse asymptotically the linear and weakly non-linear stability features of the station- ..... A numerical integration of equations (7–9) was implemented first to obtain the basic flow.

  13. Stability Analysis for Fractional-Order Linear Singular Delay Differential Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the delay-independently asymptotic stability of fractional-order linear singular delay differential systems. Based on the algebraic approach, the sufficient conditions are presented to ensure the asymptotic stability for any delay parameter. By applying the stability criteria, one can avoid solving the roots of transcendental equations. An example is also provided to illustrate the effectiveness and applicability of the theoretical results.

  14. The application of root mean square electrocardiography (RMS ECG) for the detection of acquired and congenital long QT syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, Robert L; Sower, Christopher Todd; Allen, Nancy; Etheridge, Susan P; Tristani-Firouzi, Martin; Saarel, Elizabeth V

    2014-01-01

    Precise measurement of the QT interval is often hampered by difficulty determining the end of the low amplitude T wave. Root mean square electrocardiography (RMS ECG) provides a novel alternative measure of ventricular repolarization. Experimental data have shown that the interval between the RMS ECG QRS and T wave peaks (RTPK) closely reflects the mean ventricular action potential duration while the RMS T wave width (TW) tracks the dispersion of repolarization timing. Here, we tested the precision of RMS ECG to assess ventricular repolarization in humans in the setting of drug-induced and congenital Long QT Syndrome (LQTS). RMS ECG signals were derived from high-resolution 24 hour Holter monitor recordings from 68 subjects after receiving placebo and moxifloxacin and from standard 12 lead ECGs obtained in 97 subjects with LQTS and 97 age- and sex-matched controls. RTPK, QTRMS and RMS TW intervals were automatically measured using custom software and compared to traditional QT measures using lead II. All measures of repolarization were prolonged during moxifloxacin administration and in LQTS subjects, but the variance of RMS intervals was significantly smaller than traditional lead II measurements. TW was prolonged during moxifloxacin and in subjects with LQT-2, but not LQT-1 or LQT-3. These data validate the application of RMS ECG for the detection of drug-induced and congenital LQTS. RMS ECG measurements are more precise than the current standard of care lead II measurements.

  15. Accurate human limb angle measurement: sensor fusion through Kalman, least mean squares and recursive least-squares adaptive filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, A.; Górriz, J. M.; Ramírez, J.; Olivares, G.

    2011-02-01

    Inertial sensors are widely used in human body motion monitoring systems since they permit us to determine the position of the subject's limbs. Limb angle measurement is carried out through the integration of the angular velocity measured by a rate sensor and the decomposition of the components of static gravity acceleration measured by an accelerometer. Different factors derived from the sensors' nature, such as the angle random walk and dynamic bias, lead to erroneous measurements. Dynamic bias effects can be reduced through the use of adaptive filtering based on sensor fusion concepts. Most existing published works use a Kalman filtering sensor fusion approach. Our aim is to perform a comparative study among different adaptive filters. Several least mean squares (LMS), recursive least squares (RLS) and Kalman filtering variations are tested for the purpose of finding the best method leading to a more accurate and robust limb angle measurement. A new angle wander compensation sensor fusion approach based on LMS and RLS filters has been developed.

  16. Accurate human limb angle measurement: sensor fusion through Kalman, least mean squares and recursive least-squares adaptive filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivares, A; Olivares, G; Górriz, J M; Ramírez, J

    2011-01-01

    Inertial sensors are widely used in human body motion monitoring systems since they permit us to determine the position of the subject's limbs. Limb angle measurement is carried out through the integration of the angular velocity measured by a rate sensor and the decomposition of the components of static gravity acceleration measured by an accelerometer. Different factors derived from the sensors' nature, such as the angle random walk and dynamic bias, lead to erroneous measurements. Dynamic bias effects can be reduced through the use of adaptive filtering based on sensor fusion concepts. Most existing published works use a Kalman filtering sensor fusion approach. Our aim is to perform a comparative study among different adaptive filters. Several least mean squares (LMS), recursive least squares (RLS) and Kalman filtering variations are tested for the purpose of finding the best method leading to a more accurate and robust limb angle measurement. A new angle wander compensation sensor fusion approach based on LMS and RLS filters has been developed

  17. A generalized mean-squared displacement from inelastic fixed window scans of incoherent neutron scattering as a model-free indicator of anomalous diffusion confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roosen-Runge, F.; Seydel, T.

    2015-01-01

    Elastic fixed window scans of incoherent neutron scattering are an established and frequently employed method to study dynamical changes, usually over a broad temperature range or during a process such as a conformational change in the sample. In particular, the apparent mean-squared displacement can be extracted via a model-free analysis based on a solid physical interpretation as an effective amplitude of molecular motions. Here, we provide a new account of elastic and inelastic fixed window scans, defining a generalized mean-squared displacement for all fixed energy transfers. We show that this generalized mean-squared displacement in principle contains all information on the real mean-square displacement accessible in the instrumental time window. The derived formula provides a clear understanding of the effects of instrumental resolution on the apparent mean-squared displacement. Finally, we show that the generalized mean-square displacement can be used as a model-free indicator on confinement effects within the instrumental time window. (authors)

  18. Parameter-dependent PWQ Lyapunov function stability criteria for uncertain piecewise linear systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Hovd

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The calculation of piecewise quadratic (PWQ Lyapunov functions is addressed in view of stability analysis of uncertain piecewise linear dynamics. As main contribution, the linear matrix inequality (LMI approach proposed in (Johansson and Rantzer, 1998 for the stability analysis of PWL and PWA dynamics is extended to account for parametric uncertainty based on a improved relaxation technique. The results are applied for the analysis of a Phase Locked Loop (PLL benchmark and the ability to guarantee a stability region in the parameter space well beyond the state of the art is demonstrated.

  19. Simulation and linear stability of traffic jams; Kotsu jutai no senkei anteisei to simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muramatsu, M. [Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan); Nagatani, T. [Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1999-05-25

    A traffic jam induced by slowing down is investigated using simulation techniques of molecular dynamics. When cars are decelerated by the presence of hindrance, two typical traffic jams occur behind the hindrance: one is an oscillating jam and the other is a homogeneous jam. When the slowing down is small, the oscillating jam occurs. If the slowing down is large, the jam is homogeneous over space and time. Also, a backward propagating soliton-like jam is observed. The linear stability theory is applied to the traffic flow. The phase boundary between the oscillating and homogeneous jams is compared with the neutral stability line obtained by the linear stability theory. (author)

  20. Stability and linearity control of spectrometric channels of the Cherenkov counters using controllable units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kollar, D.; Kollarova, L.; Khorvat, P.

    1976-01-01

    A system is elaborated to control stability and linearity of the Cherenkov counter spectrometric channels in an experiment on a magnetic monopole search. Linearity of a light characteristic of a photoelectric multiplier is checked with the help of the calibrated light-strikings of light emitting diodes with flare intensity adjusted by controlling generator voltage across the mercury body. A program algorithm is presented for checking stability and linearity of the Cherenkov counter spectrometric channels which helps to consider the fatigue effects of the photoelectric multiplier resulting from the considerable loads

  1. Dose linearity and monitor unit stability of a G4 type cyberknife robotic stereotactic radiosurgery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudahar, H.; Kurup, P.G.G.; Murali, V.; Velmurugan, J.

    2012-01-01

    Dose linearity studies on conventional linear accelerators show a linearity error at low monitor units (MUs). The purpose of this study was to establish the dose linearity and MU stability characteristics of a cyberknife (Accuracy Inc., USA) stereotactic radiosurgery system. Measurements were done at a depth of 5 cm in a stereotactic dose verification phantom with a source to surface distance of 75 cm in a Generation 4 (G4) type cyberknife system. All the 12 fixed-type collimators starting from 5 to 60 mm were used for the dose linearity study. The dose linearity was examined in small (1-10), medium (15-100) and large (125-1000) MU ranges. The MU stability test was performed with 60 mm collimator for 10 MU and 20 MU with different combinations. The maximum dose linearity error of -38.8% was observed for 1 MU with 5 mm collimator. Dose linearity error in the small MU range was considerably higher than in the medium and large MU ranges. The maximum error in the medium range was -2.4%. In the large MU range, the linearity error varied between -0.7% and 1.2%. The maximum deviation in the MU stability was -3.03%. (author)

  2. Robust Stability and H∞ Control of Uncertain Piecewise Linear Switched Systems with Filippov Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmadi, Mohamadreza; Mojallali, Hamed; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the robust stability and control problem of uncertain piecewise linear switched systems where, instead of the conventional Carathe ́odory solutions, we allow for Filippov solutions. In other words, in contrast to the previous studies, solutions with infinite switching in fini...... algorithm is proposed to surmount the aforementioned matrix inequality conditions....... time along the facets and on faces of arbitrary dimensions are also taken into account. Firstly, based on earlier results, the stability problem of piecewise linear systems with Filippov solutions is translated into a number of linear matrix inequality feasibility tests. Subsequently, a set of matrix...... inequalities are brought forward, which determines the asymptotic stability of the Filippov solutions of a given uncertain piecewise linear system. Afterwards, bilinear matrix inequality conditions for synthesizing a robust controller with a guaranteed H∞ per- formance are formulated. Finally, a V-K iteration...

  3. Linear stability analysis of a levitated nanomagnet in a static magnetic field: Quantum spin stabilized magnetic levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusconi, C. C.; Pöchhacker, V.; Cirac, J. I.; Romero-Isart, O.

    2017-10-01

    We theoretically study the levitation of a single magnetic domain nanosphere in an external static magnetic field. We show that, apart from the stability provided by the mechanical rotation of the nanomagnet (as in the classical Levitron), the quantum spin origin of its magnetization provides two additional mechanisms to stably levitate the system. Despite the Earnshaw theorem, such stable phases are present even in the absence of mechanical rotation. For large magnetic fields, the Larmor precession of the quantum magnetic moment stabilizes the system in full analogy with magnetic trapping of a neutral atom. For low magnetic fields, the magnetic anisotropy stabilizes the system via the Einstein-de Haas effect. These results are obtained with a linear stability analysis of a single magnetic domain rigid nanosphere with uniaxial anisotropy in a Ioffe-Pritchard magnetic field.

  4. Stability of the trivial solution for linear stochastic differential equations with Poisson white noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoriu, Mircea; Samorodnitsky, Gennady

    2004-01-01

    Two methods are considered for assessing the asymptotic stability of the trivial solution of linear stochastic differential equations driven by Poisson white noise, interpreted as the formal derivative of a compound Poisson process. The first method attempts to extend a result for diffusion processes satisfying linear stochastic differential equations to the case of linear equations with Poisson white noise. The developments for the method are based on Ito's formula for semimartingales and Lyapunov exponents. The second method is based on a geometric ergodic theorem for Markov chains providing a criterion for the asymptotic stability of the solution of linear stochastic differential equations with Poisson white noise. Two examples are presented to illustrate the use and evaluate the potential of the two methods. The examples demonstrate limitations of the first method and the generality of the second method

  5. Determination Of The QUART Ion Chamber Stability By Using Medical Linear Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasukha.

    1990-01-01

    The Quality Assurance Radiation Therapy (QUART) ion chamber was designed for quality assurance measurements of the medical linear accelerator at the Department of Radiation Oncology, Westmead Hospital in Sydney-Australia. The ion chamber has been calibrated by using the 6 MV medical linear accelerator against the farmer dosimeter. The Medical Physics Department Protocol, Westmead Hospital, Sydney (Australia) was used to check the stability of QUART ion chamber by determination of calibration factor for a period of time. It was found that the stability of the seven chambers were less than 2% for more than 125 days. (author). 4 refs, 7 figs

  6. Asymptotic Stabilization of Continuous-Time Linear Systems with Input and State Quantizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Wook Yun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the asymptotic stabilization problem of linear systems with input and state quantizations. In order to achieve asymptotic stabilization of such systems, we propose a state-feedback controller comprising two control parts: the main part is used to determine the fundamental characteristics of the system associated with the cost, and the additional part is employed to eliminate the effects of input and state quanizations. In particular, in order to implement the additional part, we introduce a quantizer with a region-decision making process (RDMP for a certain linear switching surface. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed controller.

  7. Linear stability analysis of detonations via numerical computation and dynamic mode decomposition

    KAUST Repository

    Kabanov, Dmitry; Kasimov, Aslan R.

    2018-01-01

    We introduce a new method to investigate linear stability of gaseous detonations that is based on an accurate shock-fitting numerical integration of the linearized reactive Euler equations with a subsequent analysis of the computed solution via the dynamic mode decomposition. The method is applied to the detonation models based on both the standard one-step Arrhenius kinetics and two-step exothermic-endothermic reaction kinetics. Stability spectra for all cases are computed and analyzed. The new approach is shown to be a viable alternative to the traditional normal-mode analysis used in detonation theory.

  8. Linear stability analysis of detonations via numerical computation and dynamic mode decomposition

    KAUST Repository

    Kabanov, Dmitry I.

    2017-12-08

    We introduce a new method to investigate linear stability of gaseous detonations that is based on an accurate shock-fitting numerical integration of the linearized reactive Euler equations with a subsequent analysis of the computed solution via the dynamic mode decomposition. The method is applied to the detonation models based on both the standard one-step Arrhenius kinetics and two-step exothermic-endothermic reaction kinetics. Stability spectra for all cases are computed and analyzed. The new approach is shown to be a viable alternative to the traditional normal-mode analysis used in detonation theory.

  9. Linear stability analysis of detonations via numerical computation and dynamic mode decomposition

    KAUST Repository

    Kabanov, Dmitry

    2018-03-20

    We introduce a new method to investigate linear stability of gaseous detonations that is based on an accurate shock-fitting numerical integration of the linearized reactive Euler equations with a subsequent analysis of the computed solution via the dynamic mode decomposition. The method is applied to the detonation models based on both the standard one-step Arrhenius kinetics and two-step exothermic-endothermic reaction kinetics. Stability spectra for all cases are computed and analyzed. The new approach is shown to be a viable alternative to the traditional normal-mode analysis used in detonation theory.

  10. Finite-Time Stability Analysis of Discrete-Time Linear Singular Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songlin Wo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The finite-time stability (FTS problem of discrete-time linear singular systems (DTLSS is considered in this paper. A necessary and sufficient condition for FTS is obtained, which can be expressed in terms of matrix inequalities. Then, another form of the necessary and sufficient condition for FTS is also given by using matrix-null space technology. In order to solve the stability problem expediently, a sufficient condition for FTS is given via linear matrix inequality (LMI approach; this condition can be expressed in terms of LMIs. Finally, an illustrating example is also given to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  11. Quasi-stability of a vector trajectorial problem with non-linear partial criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir A. Emelichev

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Multi-objective (vector combinatorial problem of finding the Pareto set with four kinds of non-linear partial criteria is considered. Necessary and sufficient conditions of that kind of stability of the problem (quasi-stability are obtained. The problem is a discrete analogue of the lower semicontinuity by Hausdorff of the optimal mapping. Mathematics Subject Classification 2000: 90C10, 90C05, 90C29, 90C31.

  12. Global stabilization of linear continuous time-varying systems with bounded controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phat, V.N.

    2004-08-01

    This paper deals with the problem of global stabilization of a class of linear continuous time-varying systems with bounded controls. Based on the controllability of the nominal system, a sufficient condition for the global stabilizability is proposed without solving any Riccati differential equation. Moreover, we give sufficient conditions for the robust stabilizability of perturbation/uncertain linear time-varying systems with bounded controls. (author)

  13. General methods for determining the linear stability of coronal magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, I. J. D.; Sneyd, A. D.; Mcclymont, A. N.

    1988-01-01

    A time integration of a linearized plasma equation of motion has been performed to calculate the ideal linear stability of arbitrary three-dimensional magnetic fields. The convergence rates of the explicit and implicit power methods employed are speeded up by using sequences of cyclic shifts. Growth rates are obtained for Gold-Hoyle force-free equilibria, and the corkscrew-kink instability is found to be very weak.

  14. The linear stability of the Schwarzschild solution to gravitational perturbations in the generalised wave gauge

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    In a recent seminal paper \\cite{D--H--R} of Dafermos, Holzegel and Rodnianski the linear stability of the Schwarzschild family of black hole solutions to the Einstein vacuum equations was established by imposing a double null gauge. In this paper we shall prove that the Schwarzschild family is linearly stable as solutions to the Einstein vacuum equations by imposing instead a generalised wave gauge: all sufficiently regular solutions to the system of equations that result from linearising the...

  15. The Linear Stability Properties of Medium- to High- n TAEs in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorelenkov, N N; Budny, R V; Kessel, C E; Kramer, G J; McCune, D; Manickam, J; Nazikian, R

    2008-02-14

    This document provides a detailed report on the successful completion of the DOE OFES Theory Milestone for FY2007: Improve the simulation resolution of linear stability properties of Toroidal Alfvén Eigenmodes (TAE) driven by energetic particles and neutral beams in ITER by increasing the numbers of toroidal modes used to 15.

  16. The linear stability analysis of MHD models in axisymmetric toroidal geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manickam, J.; Grimm, R.C.; Dewar, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    A computational model to analyze the linear stability properties of general toroidal systems in the ideal magnetohydrodynamic limits is presented. This model includes an explicit treatment of the asymptotic singular behaviour at rational surfaces. It is verified through applications to internal kink modes. (orig.)

  17. Hyers-Ulam stability for second-order linear differential equations with boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasc Gavruta

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We prove the Hyers-Ulam stability of linear differential equations of second-order with boundary conditions or with initial conditions. That is, if y is an approximate solution of the differential equation $y''+ eta (x y = 0$ with $y(a = y(b =0$, then there exists an exact solution of the differential equation, near y.

  18. The Effects of Radiation on the Linear Stability of a horizontal layer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of radiation on the onset of Rayleigh-Benard convection is studied in the case of a radiating Newtonian fluid in a fluid-saturated horizontal porous layer heated from below. The radiative heat transfer is treated using the differential approximation for optically thin limiting case. The linear stability theory is employed ...

  19. Lyapunov stability robust analysis and robustness design for linear continuous-time systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, J.S.; Johnson, A.; Bosch, van den P.P.J.

    1995-01-01

    The linear continuous-time systems to be discussed are described by state space models with structured time-varying uncertainties. First, the explicit maximal perturbation bound for maintaining quadratic Lyapunov stability of the closed-loop systems is presented. Then, a robust design method is

  20. Modeling the influence of storms on sand wave formation : A linear stability approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campmans, G.H.P.; Roos, P.C.; de Vriend, H.J.; Hulscher, S.J.M.H.

    2017-01-01

    We present an idealized process-based morphodynamic model to study the effect of storms on sand wave formation. To this end, we include wind waves, wind-driven flow and, in addition to bed load transport, suspended load sediment transport. A linear stability analysis is applied to systematically

  1. Linear time delay methods and stability analyses of the human spine. Effects of neuromuscular reflex response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Timothy C; Granata, Kevin P; Madigan, Michael L; Hendricks, Scott L

    2008-08-01

    Linear stability methods were applied to a biomechanical model of the human musculoskeletal spine to investigate effects of reflex gain and reflex delay on stability. Equations of motion represented a dynamic 18 degrees-of-freedom rigid-body model with time-delayed reflexes. Optimal muscle activation levels were identified by minimizing metabolic power with the constraints of equilibrium and stability with zero reflex time delay. Muscle activation levels and associated muscle forces were used to find the delay margin, i.e., the maximum reflex delay for which the system was stable. Results demonstrated that stiffness due to antagonistic co-contraction necessary for stability declined with increased proportional reflex gain. Reflex delay limited the maximum acceptable proportional reflex gain, i.e., long reflex delay required smaller maximum reflex gain to avoid instability. As differential reflex gain increased, there was a small increase in acceptable reflex delay. However, differential reflex gain with values near intrinsic damping caused the delay margin to approach zero. Forward-dynamic simulations of the fully nonlinear time-delayed system verified the linear results. The linear methods accurately found the delay margin below which the nonlinear system was asymptotically stable. These methods may aid future investigations in the role of reflexes in musculoskeletal stability.

  2. Stability of Coulomb crystals in a linear Paul trap with storage-ring-like confinement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Niels; Mølhave, Kristian; Drewsen, Michael

    2002-01-01

    We report experiments on the stability of ion Coulomb crystals in a linear Paul trap with storage-ring-like confinement. The transverse dynamics of charged particles in a trap of this type is analogous to that of a fast beam traveling through a channel with periodic, magnetic alternating gradient...... confinement. The experimentally observed stability conditions for stationary crystals comply remarkably well with current theory of crystalline plasmas and beams.......We report experiments on the stability of ion Coulomb crystals in a linear Paul trap with storage-ring-like confinement. The transverse dynamics of charged particles in a trap of this type is analogous to that of a fast beam traveling through a channel with periodic, magnetic alternating gradient...

  3. Rigorous derivation of the perimeter generating functions for the mean-squared radius of gyration of rectangular, Ferrers and pyramid polygons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Keh Ying

    2006-01-01

    We have derived rigorously the perimeter generating functions for the mean-squared radius of gyration of rectangular, Ferrers and pyramid polygons. These functions were found by Jensen recently. His nonrigorous results are based on the analysis of the long series expansions. (comment)

  4. Steady state and linear stability analysis of a supercritical water natural circulation loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Manish; Pilkhwal, D.S.; Vijayan, P.K.; Saha, D.; Sinha, R.K.

    2010-01-01

    Supercritical water (SCW) has excellent heat transfer characteristics as a coolant for nuclear reactors. Besides it results in high thermal efficiency of the plant. However, the flow can experience instabilities in supercritical water reactors, as the density change is very large for the supercritical fluids. A computer code SUCLIN using supercritical water properties has been developed to carry out the steady state and linear stability analysis of a SCW natural circulation loop. The conservation equations of mass, momentum and energy have been linearized by imposing small perturbation in flow rate, enthalpy, pressure and specific volume. The equations have been solved analytically to generate the characteristic equation. The roots of the equation determine the stability of the system. The code has been qualitatively assessed with published results and has been extensively used for studying the effect of diameter, height, heater inlet temperature, pressure and local loss coefficients on steady state and stability behavior of a Supercritical Water Natural Circulation Loop (SCWNCL). The present paper describes the linear stability analysis model and the results obtained in detail.

  5. On the Linear Stability of the Fifth-Order WENO Discretization

    KAUST Repository

    Motamed, Mohammad

    2010-10-03

    We study the linear stability of the fifth-order Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory spatial discretization (WENO5) combined with explicit time stepping applied to the one-dimensional advection equation. We show that it is not necessary for the stability domain of the time integrator to include a part of the imaginary axis. In particular, we show that the combination of WENO5 with either the forward Euler method or a two-stage, second-order Runge-Kutta method is linearly stable provided very small time step-sizes are taken. We also consider fifth-order multistep time discretizations whose stability domains do not include the imaginary axis. These are found to be linearly stable with moderate time steps when combined with WENO5. In particular, the fifth-order extrapolated BDF scheme gave superior results in practice to high-order Runge-Kutta methods whose stability domain includes the imaginary axis. Numerical tests are presented which confirm the analysis. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010.

  6. Classical linear-control analysis applied to business-cycle dynamics and stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingrove, R. C.

    1983-01-01

    Linear control analysis is applied as an aid in understanding the fluctuations of business cycles in the past, and to examine monetary policies that might improve stabilization. The analysis shows how different policies change the frequency and damping of the economic system dynamics, and how they modify the amplitude of the fluctuations that are caused by random disturbances. Examples are used to show how policy feedbacks and policy lags can be incorporated, and how different monetary strategies for stabilization can be analytically compared. Representative numerical results are used to illustrate the main points.

  7. Stability margin of linear systems with parameters described by fuzzy numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husek, Petr

    2011-10-01

    This paper deals with the linear systems with uncertain parameters described by fuzzy numbers. The problem of determining the stability margin of those systems with linear affine dependence of the coefficients of a characteristic polynomial on system parameters is studied. Fuzzy numbers describing the system parameters are allowed to be characterized by arbitrary nonsymmetric membership functions. An elegant solution, graphical in nature, based on generalization of the Tsypkin-Polyak plot is presented. The advantage of the presented approach over the classical robust concept is demonstrated on a control of the Fiat Dedra engine model and a control of the quarter car suspension model.

  8. Study of vibrations and stabilization of linear collider final doublets at the sub-nanometer scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolzon, B.

    2007-11-01

    CLIC is one of the current projects of high energy linear colliders. Vertical beam sizes of 0.7 nm at the time of the collision and fast ground motion of a few nanometers impose an active stabilization of the final doublets at a fifth of nanometer above 4 Hz. The majority of my work concerned vibrations and active stabilization study of cantilever and slim beams in order to be representative of the final doublets of CLIC. In a first part, measured performances of different types of vibration sensors associated to an appropriate instrumentation showed that accurate measurements of ground motion are possible from 0.1 Hz up to 2000 Hz on a quiet site. Also, electrochemical sensors answering a priori the specifications of CLIC can be incorporated in the active stabilization at a fifth of nanometer. In a second part, an experimental and numerical study of beam vibrations enabled to validate the efficiency of the numerical prediction incorporated then in the simulation of the active stabilization. Also, a study of the impact of ground motion and of acoustic noise on beam vibrations showed that an active stabilization is necessary at least up to 1000 Hz. In a third part, results on the active stabilization of a beam at its two first resonances are shown down to amplitudes of a tenth of nanometer above 4 Hz by using in parallel a commercial system performing passive and active stabilization of the clamping. The last part is related to a study of a support for the final doublets of a linear collider prototype in phase of finalization, the ATF2 prototype. This work showed that relative motion between this support and the ground is below imposed tolerances (6 nm above 0.1 Hz) with appropriate boundary conditions. (author)

  9. Strong Stability Preserving Explicit Linear Multistep Methods with Variable Step Size

    KAUST Repository

    Hadjimichael, Yiannis

    2016-09-08

    Strong stability preserving (SSP) methods are designed primarily for time integration of nonlinear hyperbolic PDEs, for which the permissible SSP step size varies from one step to the next. We develop the first SSP linear multistep methods (of order two and three) with variable step size, and prove their optimality, stability, and convergence. The choice of step size for multistep SSP methods is an interesting problem because the allowable step size depends on the SSP coefficient, which in turn depends on the chosen step sizes. The description of the methods includes an optimal step-size strategy. We prove sharp upper bounds on the allowable step size for explicit SSP linear multistep methods and show the existence of methods with arbitrarily high order of accuracy. The effectiveness of the methods is demonstrated through numerical examples.

  10. An improved direct feedback linearization technique for transient stability enhancement and voltage regulation of power generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenne, Godpromesse [Laboratoire d' Automatique et d' Informatique Appliquee (LAIA), Departement de Genie Electrique, Universite de Dschang, B.P. 134 Bandjoun, Cameroun; Goma, Raphael; Lamnabhi-Lagarrigue, Francoise [Laboratoire des Signaux et Systemes (L2S), CNRS-SUPELEC, Universite Paris XI, 3 Rue Joliot Curie, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Nkwawo, Homere [Departement GEII, Universite Paris XIII, IUT Villetaneuse, 99 Avenue Jean Baptiste Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Arzande, Amir; Vannier, Jean Claude [Departement Energie, Ecole Superieure d' Electricite-SUPELEC, 3 Rue Joliot Curie, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2010-09-15

    In this paper, a simple improved direct feedback linearization design method for transient stability and voltage regulation of power systems is discussed. Starting with the classical direct feedback linearization technique currently applied to power systems, an adaptive nonlinear excitation control of synchronous generators is proposed, which is new and effective for engineering. The power angle and mechanical power input are not assumed to be available. The proposed method is based on a standard third-order model of a synchronous generator which requires only information about the physical available measurements of angular speed, active electric power and generator terminal voltage. Experimental results of a practical power system show that fast response, robustness, damping, steady-state and transient stability as well as voltage regulation are all achieved satisfactorily. (author)

  11. Numerical computation of the linear stability of the diffusion model for crystal growth simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, C.; Sorensen, D.C. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Meiron, D.I.; Wedeman, B. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    We consider a computational scheme for determining the linear stability of a diffusion model arising from the simulation of crystal growth. The process of a needle crystal solidifying into some undercooled liquid can be described by the dual diffusion equations with appropriate initial and boundary conditions. Here U{sub t} and U{sub a} denote the temperature of the liquid and solid respectively, and {alpha} represents the thermal diffusivity. At the solid-liquid interface, the motion of the interface denoted by r and the temperature field are related by the conservation relation where n is the unit outward pointing normal to the interface. A basic stationary solution to this free boundary problem can be obtained by writing the equations of motion in a moving frame and transforming the problem to parabolic coordinates. This is known as the Ivantsov parabola solution. Linear stability theory applied to this stationary solution gives rise to an eigenvalue problem of the form.

  12. Stability, performance and sensitivity analysis of I.I.D. jump linear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez Fuentes, Jorge R.; González, Oscar R.; Gray, W. Steven

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents a symmetric Kronecker product analysis of independent and identically distributed jump linear systems to develop new, lower dimensional equations for the stability and performance analysis of this type of systems than what is currently available. In addition, new closed form expressions characterising multi-parameter relative sensitivity functions for performance metrics are introduced. The analysis technique is illustrated with a distributed fault-tolerant flight control example where the communication links are allowed to fail randomly.

  13. Stability Analysis of Periodic Orbits in a Class of Duffing-Like Piecewise Linear Vibrators

    KAUST Repository

    El Aroudi, A.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we study the dynamical behavior of a Duffing-like piecewise linear (PWL) springmass-damper system for vibration-based energy harvesting applications. First, we present a continuous time single degree of freedom PWL dynamical model of the system. From this PWL model, numerical simulations are carried out by computing frequency response and bifurcation diagram under a deterministic harmonic excitation for different sets of system parameter values. Stability analysis is performed using Floquet theory combined with Fillipov method.

  14. Mathematical considerations regarding the stability of the trace element systems by linear regressions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihai, Maria; Popescu, I.V.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we present a mathematical model that would describe the stability and instability conditions, respectively of the organs of human body assumed as a living cybernetic system with feedback. We tested the theoretical model on the following trace elements: Mn, Zn and As. The trace elements were determined from the nose-pharyngeal carcinoma. We utilise the linear approximation to describe the dependencies between the trace elements determined in the hair of the patient. We present the results graphically. (authors)

  15. Dynamic stability of a vertically excited non-linear continuous system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Náprstek, Jiří; Fischer, Cyril

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 155, July (2015), s. 106-114 ISSN 0045-7949 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-01035S Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : non-linear systems * auto-parametric systems * semi-trivial solution * dynamic stability * system recovery * post- critical response Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering Impact factor: 2.425, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0045794915000024

  16. On the internal stability of non-linear dynamic inversion: application to flight control

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alam, M.; Čelikovský, Sergej

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 12 (2017), s. 1849-1861 ISSN 1751-8644 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-04682S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : flight control * non-linear dynamic inversion * stability Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory OBOR OECD: Automation and control systems Impact factor: 2.536, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2017/TR/celikovsky-0476150.pdf

  17. Hyers-Ulam stability of linear second-order differential equations in complex Banach spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjin Li

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We prove the Hyers-Ulam stability of linear second-order differential equations in complex Banach spaces. That is, if y is an approximate solution of the differential equation $y''+ alpha y'(t +eta y = 0$ or $y''+ alpha y'(t +eta y = f(t$, then there exists an exact solution of the differential equation near to y.

  18. Stability Analysis of Periodic Orbits in a Class of Duffing-Like Piecewise Linear Vibrators

    KAUST Repository

    El Aroudi, A.; Benadero, L.; Ouakad, H.; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we study the dynamical behavior of a Duffing-like piecewise linear (PWL) springmass-damper system for vibration-based energy harvesting applications. First, we present a continuous time single degree of freedom PWL dynamical model of the system. From this PWL model, numerical simulations are carried out by computing frequency response and bifurcation diagram under a deterministic harmonic excitation for different sets of system parameter values. Stability analysis is performed using Floquet theory combined with Fillipov method.

  19. Maximizing mandibular prosthesis stability utilizing linear occlusion, occlusal plane selection, and centric recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Richard A; Williamson, Anne E; Bowley, John; Toothaker, Randy

    2004-03-01

    The stability of mandibular complete dentures may be improved by reducing the transverse forces on the denture base through linear (noninterceptive) occlusion, selecting an occlusal plane that reduces horizontal vectors of force at occlusal contact, and utilizing a central bearing intraoral gothic arch tracing to record jaw relations. This article is intended to acquaint the reader with one technique for providing stable complete denture prostheses using the aforementioned materials, devices, and procedures.

  20. Linear stability analysis of double ablation fronts in direct-drive inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanez, C.; Sanz, J.; Ibanez, L. F.; Olazabal-Loume, M.

    2011-01-01

    A linear stability theory of double ablation fronts is developed for direct-drive inertial confinement fusion targets. The so-called electron radiative ablation front [S. Fujioka et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 195001 (2004)] is studied with a self-consistent model. Numerical results are presented as well as an analytical approach for the radiation dominated regime of very steep double ablation front structure. Dispersion relation formula is tackled by means of a sharp boundary model.

  1. On the linear stability of sheared and magnetized jets without current sheets - relativistic case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinho; Balsara, Dinshaw S.; Lyutikov, Maxim; Komissarov, Serguei S.

    2018-03-01

    In our prior series of papers, we studied the non-relativistic and relativistic linear stability analysis of magnetized jets that do not have current sheets. In this paper, we extend our analysis to relativistic jets with a velocity shear and a similar current sheet free structure. The jets that we study are realistic because we include a velocity shear, a current sheet free magnetic structure, a relativistic velocity and a realistic thermal pressure so as to achieve overall pressure balance in the unperturbed jet. In order to parametrize the velocity shear, we apply a parabolic profile to the jets' 4-velocity. We find that the velocity shear significantly improves the stability of relativistic magnetized jets. This fact is completely consistent with our prior stability analysis of non-relativistic, sheared jets. The velocity shear mainly plays a role in stabilizing the short wavelength unstable modes for the pinch as well as the kink instability modes. In addition, it also stabilizes the long wavelength fundamental pinch instability mode. We also visualize the pressure fluctuations of each unstable mode to provide a better physical understanding of the enhanced stabilization by the velocity shear. Our overall conclusion is that combining velocity shear with a strong and realistic magnetic field makes relativistic jets even more stable.

  2. Linear stability of liquid films with phase change at the interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spindler, Bertrand

    1980-01-01

    The objective of this research thesis is to study the linear stability of the flow of a liquid film on an inclined plane with a heat flow on the wall and an interfacial phase change, and to highlight the influence of the phase change on the flow stability. In order to do so, the author first proposed a rational simplification of equations by studying the order of magnitude of different terms, and based on some simple hypotheses regarding flow physics. Two stability studies are then addressed, one regarding a flow with a pre-existing film, and the other regarding the flow of a condensation film. In both cases, it is assumed that there is no imposed heat flow, but that the driving effect of vapour by the liquid film is taken into account [fr

  3. Experimental root mean square charge radii, isotope shifts, ground state magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments of 1≤A≤ 239 nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antony, M.S.; Britz, J.

    1986-01-01

    A compilation of experimental root-mean square radii, isotope shifts, ground-state magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments of nuclei 1≤A≤239 is presented. Shell, sub-subshell closures and changes in nuclear deformations discernible from data are displayed graphically. The nuclear charge distribution, for 1≤A≤ 239 nuclei deduced from Coulomb displacement energies is shown for comparison

  4. Quantized, piecewise linear filter network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Aasted

    1993-01-01

    A quantization based piecewise linear filter network is defined. A method for the training of this network based on local approximation in the input space is devised. The training is carried out by repeatedly alternating between vector quantization of the training set into quantization classes...... and equalization of the quantization classes linear filter mean square training errors. The equalization of the mean square training errors is carried out by adapting the boundaries between neighbor quantization classes such that the differences in mean square training errors are reduced...

  5. Linear stability of a fuel channel uniformly heated considering retrofeeding by vacuum. Theoretical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez M, V.; Salinas H, J.G.; Espinosa P, G.

    2000-01-01

    The Technology, Regulation and Services Management of the National Commission of Nuclear Safety and Safeguards in coordinated form with the IPH Department of the Metropolitan Autonomous-Iztapalapa University, developed the present project to study the linear stability in a fuel channel uniformly heated with effects of retrofeeding by vacuums. In this study the methodology used in the analysis of linear stability of the nuclear reactor unit 1 at Laguna Verde power plant is described which represented by an average channel uniformly heated. The conceptual model consists of two cells which represent the two regions in which is divided the channel according to the cooling is in one and two phases, considering the boiling length dependent in the time. It is used the homogeneous flux models for describing the thermohydraulic behavior of the cooling in the two phases region. The neutron processes with the punctual model of the neutron kinetics with a group of retarded neutrons precursors are described. It is studied the behavior of the system in the frequency domain with the transfer functions obtained and it is characterized in four operation states corresponding to the four corners of the low stability zone in the map power-flow Laguna Verde power plant. For these operation states the characteristic frequency is determined and the corresponding Nyquist diagrams are obtained. The results show that the system stability depends on the power-flow relation and that the operations which implicate a reduction of this relation improve the stability of the system (reducing the power introducing control bars with constant cooling flow or increase cooling flow with bars pattern established). The obtained results with effects of retrofeeding by vacuums show that the value of the characteristic frequency is modified very little with respect to the model without retrofeeding, therefore the thermohydraulic processes seem to determine the response of the stability of the system

  6. Linear stability analysis of the gas injection augmented natural circulation of STAR-LM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeon-Jong Yoo; Qiao Wu; James J Sienicki

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: A linear stability analysis has been performed for the gas injection augmented natural circulation of the Secure Transportable Autonomous Reactor - Liquid Metal (STAR-LM). Natural circulation is of great interest for the development of Generation-IV nuclear energy systems due to its vital role in the area of passive safety and reliability. One of such systems is STAR-LM under development by Argonne National Laboratory. STAR-LM is a 400 MWt class modular, proliferation-resistant, and passively safe liquid metal-cooled fast reactor system that uses inert lead (Pb) coolant and the advanced power conversion system that consists of a gas turbine Brayton cycle utilizing supercritical carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) to obtain higher plant efficiency. The primary loop of STAR-LM relies only on the natural circulation to eliminate the use of circulation pumps for passive safety consideration. To enhance the natural circulation of the primary coolant, STAR-LM optionally incorporates the additional driving force provided by the injection of noncondensable gas into the primary coolant above the reactor core, which is effective in removing heat from the core and transferring it to the secondary working fluid without the attainment of excessive coolant temperature at nominal operating power. Therefore, it naturally raises the concern about the natural circulation instability due to the relatively high temperature change in the core and the two-phase flow condition in the hot leg above the core. For the ease of analysis, the flow path of the loop was partitioned into five thermal-hydraulically distinct sections, i.e., heated core, unheated core, hot leg, heat exchanger, and cold leg. The one-dimensional single-phase flow field equations governing the natural circulation, i.e., continuity, momentum, and energy equations, were used for each section except the hot leg. For the hot leg, the one-dimensional homogeneous equilibrium two-phase flow field

  7. Linear stability analysis of flow instabilities with a nodalized reduced order model in heated channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Subhanker; Singh, Suneet

    2015-01-01

    The prime objective of the presented work is to develop a Nodalized Reduced Order Model (NROM) to carry linear stability analysis of flow instabilities in a two-phase flow system. The model is developed by dividing the single phase and two-phase region of a uniformly heated channel into N number of nodes followed by time dependent spatial linear approximations for single phase enthalpy and two-phase quality between the consecutive nodes. Moving boundary scheme has been adopted in the model, where all the node boundaries vary with time due to the variation of boiling boundary inside the heated channel. Using a state space approach, the instability thresholds are delineated by stability maps plotted in parameter planes of phase change number (N pch ) and subcooling number (N sub ). The prime feature of the present model is that, though the model equations are simpler due to presence of linear-linear approximations for single phase enthalpy and two-phase quality, yet the results are in good agreement with the existing models (Karve [33]; Dokhane [34]) where the model equations run for several pages and experimental data (Solberg [41]). Unlike the existing ROMs, different two-phase friction factor multiplier correlations have been incorporated in the model. The applicability of various two-phase friction factor multipliers and their effects on stability behaviour have been depicted by carrying a comparative study. It is also observed that the Friedel model for friction factor calculations produces the most accurate results with respect to the available experimental data. (authors)

  8. Stability analysis for stochastic BAM nonlinear neural network with delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Z. W.; Shu, H. S.; Wei, G. L.

    2008-02-01

    In this paper, stochastic bidirectional associative memory neural networks with constant or time-varying delays is considered. Based on a Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and the stochastic stability analysis theory, we derive several sufficient conditions in order to guarantee the global asymptotically stable in the mean square. Our investigation shows that the stochastic bidirectional associative memory neural networks are globally asymptotically stable in the mean square if there are solutions to some linear matrix inequalities(LMIs). Hence, the global asymptotic stability of the stochastic bidirectional associative memory neural networks can be easily checked by the Matlab LMI toolbox. A numerical example is given to demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed global asymptotic stability criteria.

  9. Stability analysis for stochastic BAM nonlinear neural network with delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv, Z W; Shu, H S; Wei, G L

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, stochastic bidirectional associative memory neural networks with constant or time-varying delays is considered. Based on a Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and the stochastic stability analysis theory, we derive several sufficient conditions in order to guarantee the global asymptotically stable in the mean square. Our investigation shows that the stochastic bidirectional associative memory neural networks are globally asymptotically stable in the mean square if there are solutions to some linear matrix inequalities(LMIs). Hence, the global asymptotic stability of the stochastic bidirectional associative memory neural networks can be easily checked by the Matlab LMI toolbox. A numerical example is given to demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed global asymptotic stability criteria

  10. Convergence and Stability of the Split-Step θ-Milstein Method for Stochastic Delay Hopfield Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Guo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new splitting method designed for the numerical solutions of stochastic delay Hopfield neural networks is introduced and analysed. Under Lipschitz and linear growth conditions, this split-step θ-Milstein method is proved to have a strong convergence of order 1 in mean-square sense, which is higher than that of existing split-step θ-method. Further, mean-square stability of the proposed method is investigated. Numerical experiments and comparisons with existing methods illustrate the computational efficiency of our method.

  11. On the stability of non-linear systems; Sur la stabilite des systemes non-lineaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guelman, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 91 - Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, services scientifiques

    1968-09-01

    A study is made of the absolute stability of nonlinear systems, using Liapounov's second method and taking into account the results obtained from V.M. Popov's work. The results already established are first presented, in particular concerning the frequency domain criterions for absolute stability of automatic control systems containing one single non linearity. The results have been extended to show the existence of a limiting parabola. New use is then made of the methods studied for deriving absolute stability criterions for a system containing a different type of non linearity. Finally, the results obtained are considered from the point of view of Aizerman's conjecture. (author) [French] Dans ce travail, on etudie la stabilite absolue des systemes non lineaires utilisant la deuxieme methode de Liapounov en tenant compte des resultats acquis a partir des travaux de V.M. Popov. On fait d'abord un expose des resultats deja etablis, en particulier en ce qui concerne les criteres frequentiels de stabilite absolue pour le cas d'un systeme de commande automatique comportant une seule non linearite. On a prolonge ces resultats jusqu'a l'etablissement de l'existence d'une parabole limite. On fait ensuite une nouvelle utilisation des methodes etudiees, etablissant des criteres de stabilite absolue pour un systeme comportant un type different de non linearite. On etudie enfin les resultats obtenus, dans l'optique de la conjecture de Aizerman. (auteur)

  12. Impact of Crack on Stability of Slope with Linearly Increasing Undrained Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a procedure for assessment of the impact of tension crack on stability of slope in clays with linearly increasing undrained strength. The procedure is based on the limit equilibrium method with variational extremization. The distribution of the normal stress over slip surface is mathematically obtained for slopes in clays with the linearly increasing undrained strength and then used to determine the tension crack for clays with zero tensile strength. The seismic effect is also included using the pseudostatic approach. Closed-form solutions to the minimum safety factor and the maximum crack depth can be derived and given in the form of chart for convenient use. The results demonstrate a significant effect of the tension crack on the stability of steep slopes, especially for strong seismic conditions. In this situation, neglecting the impact of tension crack in traditional ϕ=0 analyses may overestimate the slope safety. The most adverse location of the tension crack can be also determined and presented in the charts, which may be useful in designing reinforcements and remedial measures for slope stabilization.

  13. Real time computer control of a nonlinear Multivariable System via Linearization and Stability Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raza, K.S.M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that if a complicated nonlinear, non-square, state-coupled multi variable system is smartly linearized and subjected to a thorough stability analysis then we can achieve our design objectives via a controller which will be quite simple (in term of resource usage and execution time) and very efficient (in terms of robustness). Further the aim is to implement this controller via computer in a real time environment. Therefore first a nonlinear mathematical model of the system is achieved. An intelligent work is done to decouple the multivariable system. Linearization and stability analysis techniques are employed for the development of a linearized and mathematically sound control law. Nonlinearities like the saturation in actuators are also been catered. The controller is then discretized using Runge-Kutta integration. Finally the discretized control law is programmed in a computer in a real time environment. The programme is done in RT -Linux using GNU C for the real time realization of the control scheme. The real time processes, like sampling and controlled actuation, and the non real time processes, like graphical user interface and display, are programmed as different tasks. The issue of inter process communication, between real time and non real time task is addressed quite carefully. The results of this research pursuit are presented graphically. (author)

  14. Linear analysis of sheared flow stabilization of global magnetohydrodynamic instabilities based on the Hall fluid model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotnikov, V.I.; Paraschiv, I.; Makhin, V.; Bauer, B.S.; Leboeuf, J.N.; Dawson, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    A systematic study of the linear stage of sheared flow stabilization of Z-pinch plasmas based on the Hall fluid model with equilibrium that contains sheared flow and an axial magnetic field is presented. In the study we begin with the derivation of a general set of equations that permits the evaluation of the combined effect of sheared flow and axial magnetic field on the development of the azimuthal mode number m=0 sausage and m=1 kink magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities, with the Hall term included in the model. The incorporation of sheared flow, axial magnetic field, and the Hall term allows the Z-pinch system to be taken away from the region in parameter space where ideal MHD is applicable to a regime where nonideal effects tend to govern stability. The problem is then treated numerically by following the linear development in time of an initial perturbation. The numerical results for linear growth rates as a function of axial sheared flow, an axial magnetic field, and the Hall term are reported

  15. Analysis of the Covered Electrode Welding Process Stability on the Basis of Linear Regression Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Słania J.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the process of production of coated electrodes and their welding properties. The factors concerning the welding properties and the currently applied method of assessing are given. The methodology of the testing based on the measuring and recording of instantaneous values of welding current and welding arc voltage is discussed. Algorithm for creation of reference data base of the expert system is shown, aiding the assessment of covered electrodes welding properties. The stability of voltage–current characteristics was discussed. Statistical factors of instantaneous values of welding current and welding arc voltage waveforms used for determining of welding process stability are presented. The results of coated electrodes welding properties are compared. The article presents the results of linear regression as well as the impact of the independent variables on the welding process performance. Finally the conclusions drawn from the research are given.

  16. Linear kinetic stability of a field-reversed configuration with two ion components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staudenmeier, J.L.; Barnes, D.C.; Lewis, H.R.

    1990-01-01

    It has been suggested that a small fraction of non-axis encircling high energy ions may be sufficient to stabilize the tilt mode in a large s FRC. Experimental alteration of the ion distribution function in this manner might be achieved by rf heating the tail of the distribution function or by neutral beam injection. A linear Vlasov-fluid eigenfunction-eigenfrequency approach was used to investigate possible stabilization of the tilt mode by a high energy component. The ion distribution function is modeled as the sum of two Maxwellians with separate temperatures and no ion flow velocity. The cold component has a thermal s = 7, where s is the approximate number of ion gyroradii contained between the field null and the separatrix. The temperature ratio of the hot component to the cold component (T H /T T ) was varied from 2 to 100. Global hot particle fractions (n H ) up to ∼ .5 were used in the computations

  17. Linear and nonlinear stability criteria for compressible MHD flows in a gravitational field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moawad, S. M.; Moawad

    2013-10-01

    The equilibrium and stability properties of ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) of compressible flow in a gravitational field with a translational symmetry are investigated. Variational principles for the steady-state equations are formulated. The MHD equilibrium equations are obtained as critical points of a conserved Lyapunov functional. This functional consists of the sum of the total energy, the mass, the circulation along field lines (cross helicity), the momentum, and the magnetic helicity. In the unperturbed case, the equilibrium states satisfy a nonlinear second-order partial differential equation (PDE) associated with hydrodynamic Bernoulli law. The PDE can be an elliptic or a parabolic equation depending on increasing the poloidal flow speed. Linear and nonlinear Lyapunov stability conditions under translational symmetric perturbations are established for the equilibrium states.

  18. Removal Efficiency of Linear Alkyl Benzene Sulfonate (LAS in Yazd Stabilization Pond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Ebrahimi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Surfactants are organic chemicals with wide applications as detergents. Linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS is an anionic surfactant most commonly used. Discharge of raw or treated wastewater containing this chemical into the environment causes major public health problems. In this study, 64 samples were taken from the effluent of Yazd Wastewater  Treatment Plant over a period of one year. The samples were analyzed according to standard methods. The results obtained from the samples taken in different seasons showed that the highest efficiency of anionic surfactant removal was achieved in the summer in the secondary facultative stabilization pond. The least efficiency was observed in the autumn in samples from the anaerobic stabilization pond. It was also found that treated wastewater discharged into surface waters, reused for agricultural irrigation, or discharged into absorbent wells had significant differences with Pvalue

  19. Linear systems with unstructured multiplicative uncertainty: Modeling and robust stability analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Matušů

    Full Text Available This article deals with continuous-time Linear Time-Invariant (LTI Single-Input Single-Output (SISO systems affected by unstructured multiplicative uncertainty. More specifically, its aim is to present an approach to the construction of uncertain models based on the appropriate selection of a nominal system and a weight function and to apply the fundamentals of robust stability investigation for considered sort of systems. The initial theoretical parts are followed by three extensive illustrative examples in which the first order time-delay, second order and third order plants with parametric uncertainty are modeled as systems with unstructured multiplicative uncertainty and subsequently, the robust stability of selected feedback loops containing constructed models and chosen controllers is analyzed and obtained results are discussed.

  20. Uniform stability for time-varying infinite-dimensional discrete linear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubrusly, C.S.

    1988-09-01

    Stability for time-varying discrete linear systems in a Banach space is investigated. On the one hand, it established a fairly complete collection of necessary and sufficient conditions for uniform asymptotic equistability for input-free systems. This includes uniform and strong power equistability, and uniform and strong l p -equistability, among other technical conditions which also play essential role in stability theory. On other hand, it is shown that uniform asymptotic equistability for input-free systems is equivalent to each of the following concepts of uniform stability for forced systems: l p -input l p -state, c o -input c o -state, bounded-input bounded-state, l p>1 -input bounded-state, c sub (o)-input bounded-state, and convergent-input bounded-state; which are also equivalent to their nonuniform counterparts. For time-varying convergent systems, the above is also equivalent to convergent-input convergent-state stability. The proofs presented here are all ''elementary'' in the sense that they are based essentially only on the Banach-Steinhaus theorem. (autor) [pt

  1. Linear-stability theory of thermocapillary convection in a model of float-zone crystal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitzel, G. P.; Chang, K.-T.; Jankowski, D. F.; Mittelmann, H. D.

    1992-01-01

    Linear-stability theory has been applied to a basic state of thermocapillary convection in a model half-zone to determine values of the Marangoni number above which instability is guaranteed. The basic state must be determined numerically since the half-zone is of finite, O(1) aspect ratio with two-dimensional flow and temperature fields. This, in turn, means that the governing equations for disturbance quantities will remain partial differential equations. The disturbance equations are treated by a staggered-grid discretization scheme. Results are presented for a variety of parameters of interest in the problem, including both terrestrial and microgravity cases.

  2. Stability Analysis of Periodic Orbits in a Class of Duffing-Like Piecewise Linear Vibrators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Aroudi A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the dynamical behavior of a Duffing-like piecewise linear (PWL springmass-damper system for vibration-based energy harvesting applications. First, we present a continuous time single degree of freedom PWL dynamical model of the system. From this PWL model, numerical simulations are carried out by computing frequency response and bifurcation diagram under a deterministic harmonic excitation for different sets of system parameter values. Stability analysis is performed using Floquet theory combined with Fillipov method.

  3. Estimates of emittance dilution and stability in high-energy linear accelerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. O. Raubenheimer

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a series of analytic expressions to predict the beam dynamics in a long linear accelerator. These expressions can be used to model the linac optics, calculate the magnitude of the wakefields, estimate the emittance dilution due to misaligned accelerator components, and estimate the stability and jitter limitations. The analytic expressions are based on the results of simple physics models and are useful to understand the parameter sensitivities. They are also useful when using simple codes or spreadsheets to optimize a linac system.

  4. Stabilization of Hypersonic Boundary Layers by Linear and Nonlinear Optimal Perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Pedro; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Li, Fei

    2017-01-01

    The effect of stationary, finite-amplitude, linear and nonlinear optimal perturbations on the modal disturbance growth in a Mach 6 axisymmetric flow over a 7 deg. half-angle cone with 0:126 mm nose radius and 0:305 m length is investigated. The freestream parameters (M = 6, Re(exp 1) = 18 x 10(exp. 6) /m) are selected to match the flow conditions of a previous experiment in the VKI H3 hypersonic tunnel. Plane-marching parabolized stability equations are used in conjunction with a partial-differential equation based planar eigenvalue analysis to characterize the boundary layer instability in the presence of azimuthally periodic streaks. The streaks are observed to stabilize nominally planar Mack mode instabilities, although oblique Mack mode and first-mode disturbances are destabilized. Experimentally measured transition onset in the absence of any streaks correlates with an amplification factor of N = 6 for the planar Mack modes. For high enough streak amplitudes, the transition threshold of N = 6 is not reached by the Mack mode instabilities within the length of the cone; however, subharmonic first-mode instabilities, which are destabilized by the presence of the streaks, do reach N = 6 near the end of the cone. The highest stabilization is observed at streak amplitudes of approximately 20 percent of the freestream velocity. Because the use of initial disturbance profiles based on linear optimal growth theory may yield suboptimal control in the context of nonlinear streaks, the computational predictions are extended to nonlinear optimal growth theory. Results show that by using nonlinearly optimal perturbation leads to slightly enhanced stabilization of plane Mack mode disturbances as well as reduced destabilization of subharmonic first-mode disturbances.

  5. Performance comparison of weighted sum-minimum mean square error and virtual signal-to-interference plus noise ratio algorithms in simulated and measured channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahimi, Maryam; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Pedersen, Troels

    2014-01-01

    A comparison in data achievement between two well-known algorithms with simulated and real measured data is presented. The algorithms maximise the data rate in cooperative base stations (BS) multiple-input-single-output scenario. Weighted sum-minimum mean square error algorithm could be used...... in multiple-input-multiple-output scenarios, but it has lower performance than virtual signal-to-interference plus noise ratio algorithm in theory and practice. A real measurement environment consisting of two BS and two users have been studied to evaluate the simulation results....

  6. Determination of the root-mean-square radius of the deuteron from present-day experimental data on neutron-proton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babenko, V. A.; Petrov, N. M.

    2008-01-01

    The correlation between the root-mean-square matter radius of the deuteron, r m , and its effective radius, ρ, is investigated. A parabolic relationship between these two quantities makes it possible to determine the root-mean-square radius r m to within 0.01% if the effective radius ρ is known. The matter (r m ), structural (r d ), and charge (r ch ) radii of the deuteron are found with the aid of modern experimental results for phase shifts from the SAID nucleon-nucleon database, and their values are fully consistent with their counterparts deduced by using the experimental value of the effective deuteron radius due to Borbely and his coauthors. The charge-radius value of 2.124(6) fm, which was obtained with the aid of the SAID nucleon-nucleon database, and the charge-radius value of 2.126(12) fm, which was obtained with the aid of the experimental value of the effective radius ρ, are in very good agreement with the present-day chargeradius value of 2.128(11) fm, which was deduced by Sick and Trautmann by processing world-average experimental data on elastic electron scattering by deuterons with allowance for Coulomb distortions.

  7. Global Uniform Asymptotic Stability of a Class of Switched Linear Systems with an Infinite Number of Subsystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. F. Araghi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Stability of switching systems with an infinite number of subsystems is important in some structure of systems, like fuzzy systems, neural networks, and so forth. Because of the relationship between stability of a set of matrices and switching systems, this paper first studies the stability of a set of matrices, then and the results are applied for stability of switching systems. Some new conditions for globally uniformly asymptotically stability (GUAS of discrete-time switched linear systems with an infinite number of subsystems are proposed. The paper considers some examples and simulation results.

  8. Stability of multi-objective bi-level linear programming problems under fuzziness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abo-Sinna Mahmoud A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with multi-objective bi-level linear programming problems under fuzzy environment. In the proposed method, tentative solutions are obtained and evaluated by using the partial information on preference of the decision-makers at each level. The existing results concerning the qualitative analysis of some basic notions in parametric linear programming problems are reformulated to study the stability of multi-objective bi-level linear programming problems. An algorithm for obtaining any subset of the parametric space, which has the same corresponding Pareto optimal solution, is presented. Also, this paper established the model for the supply-demand interaction in the age of electronic commerce (EC. First of all, the study uses the individual objectives of both parties as the foundation of the supply-demand interaction. Subsequently, it divides the interaction, in the age of electronic commerce, into the following two classifications: (i Market transactions, with the primary focus on the supply demand relationship in the marketplace; and (ii Information service, with the primary focus on the provider and the user of information service. By applying the bi-level programming technique of interaction process, the study will develop an analytical process to explain how supply-demand interaction achieves a compromise or why the process fails. Finally, a numerical example of information service is provided for the sake of illustration.

  9. Black hole nonmodal linear stability under odd perturbations: The Reissner-Nordström case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Tío, Julián M.; Dotti, Gustavo

    2017-06-01

    Following a program on black hole nonmodal linear stability initiated by one of the authors [Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 191101 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.191101], we study odd linear perturbations of the Einstein-Maxwell equations around a Reissner-Nordström anti-de Sitter black hole. We show that all the gauge invariant information in the metric and Maxwell field perturbations is encoded in the spacetime scalars F =δ (Fαβ *Fα β) and Q =δ (1/48 Cαβ γ δ *Cα β γ δ), where Cα β γ δ is the Weyl tensor, Fα β is the Maxwell field, a star denotes Hodge dual, and δ means first order variation, and that the linearized Einstein-Maxwell equations are equivalent to a coupled system of wave equations for F and Q . For a non-negative cosmological constant we prove that F and Q are pointwise bounded on the outer static region. The fields are shown to diverge as the Cauchy horizon is approached from the inner dynamical region, providing evidence supporting strong cosmic censorship. In the asymptotically anti-de Sitter case the dynamics depends on the boundary condition at the conformal timelike boundary, and there are instabilities if Robin boundary conditions are chosen.

  10. Equilibrium, stability and heating of plasmas in linear and toroidal Extrap pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnevier, B.; Drake, J.R.; Dalhed, H.E.

    1983-01-01

    The Extrap scheme consists of a Z-pinch immersed in an octupole field. The total magnetic field has no component along the pinch axis. Globally stable Z-pinch equilibria with a distributed plasma current density and a duration of about 100 Alfven transit times have been observed in linear and toroidal sector experiments. Theoretical studies indicate that this stability can be the result of constraints introduced by the octupole field and the resulting separatrix of the total field, in combination with finite-Larmor-radius effects. A scheme for ICRF heating of the plasma in configurations with a magnetic neutral line, being applicable to Extrap and FRC, is analysed. Wave propagation arises owing to the Hall effect. Particle resonances are responsible for the absorption, owing to a high parallel wavenumber and a weak magnetic field. (author)

  11. Novel algorithm and MATLAB-based program for automated power law analysis of single particle, time-dependent mean-square displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umansky, Moti; Weihs, Daphne

    2012-08-01

    In many physical and biophysical studies, single-particle tracking is utilized to reveal interactions, diffusion coefficients, active modes of driving motion, dynamic local structure, micromechanics, and microrheology. The basic analysis applied to those data is to determine the time-dependent mean-square displacement (MSD) of particle trajectories and perform time- and ensemble-averaging of similar motions. The motion of particles typically exhibits time-dependent power-law scaling, and only trajectories with qualitatively and quantitatively comparable MSD should be ensembled. Ensemble averaging trajectories that arise from different mechanisms, e.g., actively driven and diffusive, is incorrect and can result inaccurate correlations between structure, mechanics, and activity. We have developed an algorithm to automatically and accurately determine power-law scaling of experimentally measured single-particle MSD. Trajectories can then categorized and grouped according to user defined cutoffs of time, amplitudes, scaling exponent values, or combinations. Power-law fits are then provided for each trajectory alongside categorized groups of trajectories, histograms of power laws, and the ensemble-averaged MSD of each group. The codes are designed to be easily incorporated into existing user codes. We expect that this algorithm and program will be invaluable to anyone performing single-particle tracking, be it in physical or biophysical systems. Catalogue identifier: AEMD_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEMD_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 25 892 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 5 572 780 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: MATLAB (MathWorks Inc.) version 7.11 (2010b) or higher, program

  12. Over-Sampling Codebook-Based Hybrid Minimum Sum-Mean-Square-Error Precoding for Millimeter-Wave 3D-MIMO

    KAUST Repository

    Mao, Jiening; Gao, Zhen; Wu, Yongpeng; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2018-01-01

    Hybrid precoding design is challenging for millimeter-wave (mmWave) massive MIMO. Most prior hybrid precoding schemes are designed to maximize the sum spectral efficiency (SSE), while seldom investigate the bit-error-rate (BER). Therefore, this letter designs an over-sampling codebook (OSC)-based hybrid minimum sum-mean-square-error (min-SMSE) precoding to optimize the BER. Specifically, given the effective baseband channel consisting of the real channel and analog precoding, we first design the digital precoder/combiner based on min-SMSE criterion to optimize the BER. To further reduce the SMSE between the transmit and receive signals, we propose an OSC-based joint analog precoder/combiner (JAPC) design. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme can achieve the better performance than its conventional counterparts.

  13. Over-Sampling Codebook-Based Hybrid Minimum Sum-Mean-Square-Error Precoding for Millimeter-Wave 3D-MIMO

    KAUST Repository

    Mao, Jiening

    2018-05-23

    Abstract: Hybrid precoding design is challenging for millimeter-wave (mmWave) massive MIMO. Most prior hybrid precoding schemes are designed to maximize the sum spectral efficiency (SSE), while seldom investigate the bit-error-rate (BER). Therefore, this letter designs an over-sampling codebook (OSC)-based hybrid minimum sum-mean-square-error (min-SMSE) precoding to optimize the BER. Specifically, given the effective baseband channel consisting of the real channel and analog precoding, we first design the digital precoder/combiner based on min-SMSE criterion to optimize the BER. To further reduce the SMSE between the transmit and receive signals, we propose an OSC-based joint analog precoder/combiner (JAPC) design. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme can achieve the better performance than its conventional counterparts.

  14. Neutron diffraction determination of atomic mean-square displacements in cubic compounds of Ni-Al and Ni-Al-Cu systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khidirov, I.; Mukhtarova, N.N.

    2002-01-01

    The atomic mean-square displacements (AMSD) are some of important characteristics of the solid and can be the main information for determination of a number of other characteristics of substances. In the work AMSD is determined for a number of cubic compounds of Ni-Al, Ni-Al-Cu systems immediately from intensities of neutron diffraction maxima. It is shown by the offered method that in all NiAl x and NiAlCu x compounds with the CsCl - type structure AMSD are near each other and they are practically constant. Therefore it is possible to assume that within the homogeneity region of these compounds the interatomic bond forces are changed insignificantly

  15. Comment on "Relative variance of the mean squared pressure in multimode media: rehabilitating former approaches" [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 136, 2621-2629 (2014)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, John L; Weaver, Richard L

    2015-03-01

    Models for the statistics of responses in finite reverberant structures, and in particular, for the variance of the mean square pressure in reverberation rooms, have been studied for decades. It is therefore surprising that a recent communication has claimed that the literature has gotten the simplest of such calculations very wrong. Monsef, Cozza, Rodrigues, Cellard, and Durocher [(2014). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 136, 2621-2629] have derived a modal-based expression for the relative variance that differs significantly from expressions that have been accepted since 1969. This Comment points out that the Monsef formula is clearly incorrect, and then for the interested reader, points out the subtle place where they made their mistake.

  16. Stabilized linear semi-implicit schemes for the nonlocal Cahn-Hilliard equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Qiang; Ju, Lili; Li, Xiao; Qiao, Zhonghua

    2018-06-01

    Comparing with the well-known classic Cahn-Hilliard equation, the nonlocal Cahn-Hilliard equation is equipped with a nonlocal diffusion operator and can describe more practical phenomena for modeling phase transitions of microstructures in materials. On the other hand, it evidently brings more computational costs in numerical simulations, thus efficient and accurate time integration schemes are highly desired. In this paper, we propose two energy-stable linear semi-implicit methods with first and second order temporal accuracies respectively for solving the nonlocal Cahn-Hilliard equation. The temporal discretization is done by using the stabilization technique with the nonlocal diffusion term treated implicitly, while the spatial discretization is carried out by the Fourier collocation method with FFT-based fast implementations. The energy stabilities are rigorously established for both methods in the fully discrete sense. Numerical experiments are conducted for a typical case involving Gaussian kernels. We test the temporal convergence rates of the proposed schemes and make a comparison of the nonlocal phase transition process with the corresponding local one. In addition, long-time simulations of the coarsening dynamics are also performed to predict the power law of the energy decay.

  17. Linearized stability analysis of thin-shell wormholes with a cosmological constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo, Francisco S N; Crawford, Paulo

    2004-01-01

    Spherically symmetric thin-shell wormholes in the presence of a cosmological constant are constructed applying the cut-and-paste technique implemented by Visser. Using the Darmois-Israel formalism the surface stresses, which are concentrated at the wormhole throat, are determined. This construction allows us to apply a dynamical analysis to the throat, considering linearized radial perturbations around static solutions. For a large positive cosmological constant, i.e., for the Schwarzschild-de Sitter solution, the region of stability is significantly increased, relatively to the null cosmological constant case, analysed by Poisson and Visser. With a negative cosmological constant, i.e., the Schwarzschild-anti de Sitter solution, the region of stability is decreased. In particular, considering static solutions with a generic cosmological constant, the weak and dominant energy conditions are violated, while for a 0 ≤ 3M the null and strong energy conditions are satisfied. The surface pressure of the static solution is strictly positive for the Schwarzschild and Schwarzschild-anti de Sitter spacetimes, but takes negative values, assuming a surface tension in the Schwarzschild-de Sitter solution, for high values of the cosmological constant and the wormhole throat radius

  18. Linear Stability Analysis of Flow in an Internally Heated Rectangular Duct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhlmann, M.

    2004-07-01

    The linear stability of flow in a vertical rectangular duct subject to homogeneous internal heating, constant-temperature no-slip walls and a driving pressure gradient is investigated numerically. A full Chebyshevbased Galerkin method is found to be more reliable than a collocation method, both including the elimination of the pressure and the stream wise velocity from the system of equations and making use of the full symmetry properties. A classification of the mean flow-obtained as a function of Grashof and Reynolds numbers and the geometrical aspect ratio in terms of its inflectional properties is proposed. It is found that the flow loses stability at all aspects rations for a combination of finite thermal buoyancy and pressure forces with opposed sings. In the square duct, the unstable region coincides with the range where additional inflection lines are observed the mean velocity profile. Unstable eigenfunctions are obtained for all basic symmetry modes and their structure can be described as slightly elongated pockets of cross-stream-vertical motion, training each other along the stream wise direction. (Author) 22 refs.

  19. Linear and nonlinear stability of a thermally stratified magnetically driven rotating flow in a cylinder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grants, Ilmars; Gerbeth, Gunter

    2010-07-01

    The stability of a thermally stratified liquid metal flow is considered numerically. The flow is driven by a rotating magnetic field in a cylinder heated from above and cooled from below. The stable thermal stratification turns out to destabilize the flow. This is explained by the fact that a stable stratification suppresses the secondary meridional flow, thus indirectly enhancing the primary rotation. The instability in the form of Taylor-Görtler rolls is consequently promoted. These rolls can only be excited by finite disturbances in the isothermal flow. A sufficiently strong thermal stratification transforms this nonlinear bypass instability into a linear one reducing, thus, the critical value of the magnetic driving force. A weaker temperature gradient delays the linear instability but makes the bypass transition more likely. We quantify the non-normal and nonlinear components of this transition by direct numerical simulation of the flow response to noise. It is observed that the flow sensitivity to finite disturbances increases considerably under the action of a stable thermal stratification. The capabilities of the random forcing approach to identify disconnected coherent states in a general case are discussed.

  20. Optimal explicit strong stability preserving Runge–Kutta methods with high linear order and optimal nonlinear order

    KAUST Repository

    Gottlieb, Sigal

    2015-04-10

    High order spatial discretizations with monotonicity properties are often desirable for the solution of hyperbolic PDEs. These methods can advantageously be coupled with high order strong stability preserving time discretizations. The search for high order strong stability time-stepping methods with large allowable strong stability coefficient has been an active area of research over the last two decades. This research has shown that explicit SSP Runge-Kutta methods exist only up to fourth order. However, if we restrict ourselves to solving only linear autonomous problems, the order conditions simplify and this order barrier is lifted: explicit SSP Runge-Kutta methods of any linear order exist. These methods reduce to second order when applied to nonlinear problems. In the current work we aim to find explicit SSP Runge-Kutta methods with large allowable time-step, that feature high linear order and simultaneously have the optimal fourth order nonlinear order. These methods have strong stability coefficients that approach those of the linear methods as the number of stages and the linear order is increased. This work shows that when a high linear order method is desired, it may still be worthwhile to use methods with higher nonlinear order.

  1. A non-linear reduced order methodology applicable to boiling water reactor stability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prill, Dennis Paul

    2013-01-01

    Thermal-hydraulic coupling between power, flow rate and density, intensified by neutronics feedback are the main drivers of boiling water reactor (BWR) stability behavior. High-power low-flow conditions in connection with unfavorable power distributions can lead the BWR system into unstable regions where power oscillations can be triggered. This important threat to operational safety requires careful analysis for proper understanding. Analyzing an exhaustive parameter space of the non-linear BWR system becomes feasible with methodologies based on reduced order models (ROMs), saving computational cost and improving the physical understanding. Presently within reactor dynamics, no general and automatic prediction of high-dimensional ROMs based on detailed BWR models are available. In this thesis a systematic self-contained model order reduction (MOR) technique is derived which is applicable for several classes of dynamical problems, and in particular to BWRs of any degree of details. Expert knowledge can be given by operational, experimental or numerical transient data and is transfered into an optimal basis function representation. The methodology is mostly automated and provides the framework for the reduction of various different systems of any level of complexity. Only little effort is necessary to attain a reduced version within this self-written code which is based on coupling of sophisticated commercial software. The methodology reduces a complex system in a grid-free manner to a small system able to capture even non-linear dynamics. It is based on an optimal choice of basis functions given by the so-called proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). Required steps to achieve reliable and numerical stable ROM are given by a distinct calibration road-map. In validation and verification steps, a wide spectrum of representative test examples is systematically studied regarding a later BWR application. The first example is non-linear and has a dispersive character

  2. Different ELM regimes at ASDEX upgrade and their linear stability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burckhart, Andreas O.

    2013-01-01

    Edge localised modes (ELMs) are magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities that occur at the edge of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. They periodically expel particles and energy from the confined region. In addition to limiting the confinement, they cause high heat fluxes to the walls of the tokamak which may not be manageable in larger, next-generation devices. However, the exact nature of the instabilities that drive ELMs is still unknown. The most commonly invoked theory to explain the occurrence of ELMs is the peeling-ballooning model which posits a critical edge pressure gradient and current density. In this thesis, this model is tested against experimental data gathered at the ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) tokamak. For the first time, a broad selection of ELM scenarios is analysed with respect to ideal MHD stability using the same methodology. The comparison of experiment and theory is performed using a stability analysis chain, which consists of combining kinetic and magnetic measurements to generate self-consistent plasma equilibria with the Grad-Shafranov solver CLISTE, refining this equilibrium with the HELENA code, and, finally, determining its stability using ILSA, a linear MHD stability code. In theory the peeling ballooning model should apply to all type-I ELM scenarios. Therefore, the stability of several different type-I ELMy H-mode plasmas is analysed with respect to peeling ballooning modes. While some of them are consistent with the model, in others ELMs occur well below or above the ideal MHD stability limit. The standard type-I ELMy H-mode regime exhibits considerable variations with equilibria both well below and at the stability limit depending on the discharge. In addition, a nitrogen-seeded case in which the edge pressure gradient greatly exceeds the stability limit is identified. In another discharge, the edge pressure gradient and current density, which are on the threshold for marginal stability, relax when edge heating is applied. Contrary to

  3. Different ELM regimes at ASDEX upgrade and their linear stability analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burckhart, Andreas O.

    2013-12-16

    Edge localised modes (ELMs) are magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities that occur at the edge of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. They periodically expel particles and energy from the confined region. In addition to limiting the confinement, they cause high heat fluxes to the walls of the tokamak which may not be manageable in larger, next-generation devices. However, the exact nature of the instabilities that drive ELMs is still unknown. The most commonly invoked theory to explain the occurrence of ELMs is the peeling-ballooning model which posits a critical edge pressure gradient and current density. In this thesis, this model is tested against experimental data gathered at the ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) tokamak. For the first time, a broad selection of ELM scenarios is analysed with respect to ideal MHD stability using the same methodology. The comparison of experiment and theory is performed using a stability analysis chain, which consists of combining kinetic and magnetic measurements to generate self-consistent plasma equilibria with the Grad-Shafranov solver CLISTE, refining this equilibrium with the HELENA code, and, finally, determining its stability using ILSA, a linear MHD stability code. In theory the peeling ballooning model should apply to all type-I ELM scenarios. Therefore, the stability of several different type-I ELMy H-mode plasmas is analysed with respect to peeling ballooning modes. While some of them are consistent with the model, in others ELMs occur well below or above the ideal MHD stability limit. The standard type-I ELMy H-mode regime exhibits considerable variations with equilibria both well below and at the stability limit depending on the discharge. In addition, a nitrogen-seeded case in which the edge pressure gradient greatly exceeds the stability limit is identified. In another discharge, the edge pressure gradient and current density, which are on the threshold for marginal stability, relax when edge heating is applied. Contrary to

  4. EFFECTIVENESS OF WASTE STABILIZATION PONDS IN REMOVAL OF LINEAR ALKYL BENZENE SALFONATE (LAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed. M. Abdel-Rahman

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Detergents contain synthetic or organic surface active agents called surfactants, which are derived from petroleum product precursors. They have the common property of lowering the surface tensions of water thus allowing dirt or grease adhered to various articles to be washed off. Linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS is a most commonly used anionic surfactant. Discharge of raw or treated wastewater containing this chemical substance into the environment causes major public health and enviromental problems. In this study, samples were taken from raw wastewater and effluents of treatment ponds of Elzaraby waste stabilization ponds over a period of one year. The treated effluent is either discharged into surface waters or re-used in agricultural irrigation. The samples were analyzed according to the standard methods. The results obtained from the samples taken in different seasons showed that the highest overall removal efficiency of LAS was achieved in summer season (77%, and the least efficiency was observed in Winter season (55%, while the maximum overall efficiency of BOD5 was in summer (88% and minimum efficiency was (73% in winter season. The Dissolved oxygen concentrations along the pond series (DO ranged from 0.18 to 4.8 mg/l.

  5. Linear stability and nonlinear dynamics of the fishbone mode in spherical tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Feng; Liu, J. Y. [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Fu, G. Y.; Breslau, J. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Extensive linear and nonlinear simulations have been carried out to investigate the energetic particle-driven fishbone instability in spherical tokamak plasmas with weakly reversed q profile and the q{sub min} slightly above unity. The global kinetic-MHD hybrid code M3D-K is used. Numerical results show that a fishbone instability is excited by energetic beam ions preferentially at higher q{sub min} values, consistent with the observed appearance of the fishbone before the “long-lived mode” in MAST and NSTX experiments. In contrast, at lower q{sub min} values, the fishbone tends to be stable. In this case, the beam ion effects are strongly stabilizing for the non-resonant kink mode. Nonlinear simulations show that the fishbone saturates with strong downward frequency chirping as well as radial flattening of the beam ion distribution. An (m, n) = (2, 1) magnetic island is found to be driven nonlinearly by the fishbone instability, which could provide a trigger for the (2, 1) neoclassical tearing mode sometimes observed after the fishbone instability in NSTX.

  6. Inviscid linear stability analysis of two fluid columns of different densities subject to gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prathama, Aditya; Pantano, Carlos

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the inviscid linear stability of vertical interface between two fluid columns of different densities under the influence of gravity. In this flow arrangement, the two free streams are continuously accelerating, in contrast to the canonical Kelvin-Helmholtz or Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities whose base flows are stationary (or weakly time dependent). In these classical cases, the temporal evolution of the interface can be expressed as Fourier or Laplace solutions in time. This is not possible in our case; instead, we employ the initial value problem method to solve the equations analytically. The results, expressed in terms of the well-known parabolic cylinder function, indicate that the instability grows as the exponential of a quadratic function of time. The analysis shows that in this accelerating Kelvin-Helmholtz configuration, the interface is unconditionally unstable at all wave modes, despite the presence of surface tension. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration (Award No. DE-NA0002382) and the California Institute of Technology.

  7. Stabilizing inverse problems by internal data. II: non-local internal data and generic linearized uniqueness

    KAUST Repository

    Kuchment, Peter

    2015-05-10

    © 2015, Springer Basel. In the previous paper (Kuchment and Steinhauer in Inverse Probl 28(8):084007, 2012), the authors introduced a simple procedure that allows one to detect whether and explain why internal information arising in several novel coupled physics (hybrid) imaging modalities could turn extremely unstable techniques, such as optical tomography or electrical impedance tomography, into stable, good-resolution procedures. It was shown that in all cases of interest, the Fréchet derivative of the forward mapping is a pseudo-differential operator with an explicitly computable principal symbol. If one can set up the imaging procedure in such a way that the symbol is elliptic, this would indicate that the problem was stabilized. In the cases when the symbol is not elliptic, the technique suggests how to change the procedure (e.g., by adding extra measurements) to achieve ellipticity. In this article, we consider the situation arising in acousto-optical tomography (also called ultrasound modulated optical tomography), where the internal data available involves the Green’s function, and thus depends globally on the unknown parameter(s) of the equation and its solution. It is shown that the technique of (Kuchment and Steinhauer in Inverse Probl 28(8):084007, 2012) can be successfully adopted to this situation as well. A significant part of the article is devoted to results on generic uniqueness for the linearized problem in a variety of situations, including those arising in acousto-electric and quantitative photoacoustic tomography.

  8. Stability and performance analysis of a jump linear control system subject to digital upsets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Sun, Hui; Ma, Zhen-Yang

    2015-04-01

    This paper focuses on the methodology analysis for the stability and the corresponding tracking performance of a closed-loop digital jump linear control system with a stochastic switching signal. The method is applied to a flight control system. A distributed recoverable platform is implemented on the flight control system and subject to independent digital upsets. The upset processes are used to stimulate electromagnetic environments. Specifically, the paper presents the scenarios that the upset process is directly injected into the distributed flight control system, which is modeled by independent Markov upset processes and independent and identically distributed (IID) processes. A theoretical performance analysis and simulation modelling are both presented in detail for a more complete independent digital upset injection. The specific examples are proposed to verify the methodology of tracking performance analysis. The general analyses for different configurations are also proposed. Comparisons among different configurations are conducted to demonstrate the availability and the characteristics of the design. Project supported by the Young Scientists Fund of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61403395), the Natural Science Foundation of Tianjin, China (Grant No. 13JCYBJC39000), the Scientific Research Foundation for the Returned Overseas Chinese Scholars, State Education Ministry, China, the Tianjin Key Laboratory of Civil Aircraft Airworthiness and Maintenance in Civil Aviation of China (Grant No. 104003020106), and the Fund for Scholars of Civil Aviation University of China (Grant No. 2012QD21x).

  9. Kovasznay modes in the linear stability analysis of self-similar ablation flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombard, V.

    2008-12-01

    Exact self-similar solutions of gas dynamics equations with nonlinear heat conduction for semi-infinite slabs of perfect gases are used for studying the stability of ablative flows in inertial confinement fusion, when a shock wave propagates in front of a thermal front. Both the similarity solutions and their linear perturbations are numerically computed with a dynamical multi-domain Chebyshev pseudo-spectral method. Laser-imprint results, showing that maximum amplification occurs for a laser-intensity modulation of zero transverse wavenumber have thus been obtained (Abeguile et al. (2006); Clarisse et al. (2008)). Here we pursue this approach by proceeding for the first time to an analysis of perturbations in terms of Kovasznay modes. Based on the analysis of two compressible and incompressible flows, evolution equations of vorticity, acoustic and entropy modes are proposed for each flow region and mode couplings are assessed. For short times, perturbations are transferred from the external surface to the ablation front by diffusion and propagate as acoustic waves up to the shock wave. For long times, the shock region is governed by the free propagation of acoustic waves. A study of perturbations and associated sources allows us to identify strong mode couplings in the conduction and ablation regions. Moreover, the maximum instability depends on compressibility. Finally, a comparison with experiments of flows subjected to initial surface defects is initiated. (author)

  10. EFFECTIVENESS OF WASTE STABILIZATION PONDS IN REMOVAL OF LINEAR ALKYL BENZENE SALFONATE (LAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed. M. Abdel-Rahman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Detergents contain synthetic or organic surface active agents called surfactants, which are derived from petroleum product precursors. They have the common property of lowering the surface tensions of water thus allowing dirt or grease adhered to various articles to be washed off. Linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS is a most commonly used anionic surfactant. Discharge of raw or treated wastewater containing this chemical substance into the environment causes major public health and enviromental problems. In this study, samples were taken from raw wastewater and effluents of treatment ponds of Elzaraby waste stabilization ponds over a period of one year. The treated effluent is either discharged into surface waters or re-used in agricultural irrigation. The samples were analyzed according to the standard methods. The results obtained from the samples taken in different seasons showed that the highest overall removal efficiency of LAS was achieved in summer season (77%, and the least efficiency was observed in Winter season (55%, while the maximum overall efficiency of BOD5 was in summer (88% and minimum efficiency was (73% in winter season. The Dissolved oxygen concentrations along the pond series (DO ranged from 0.18 to 4.8 mg/l.

  11. Multiple Linear Regression Modeling To Predict the Stability of Polymer-Drug Solid Dispersions: Comparison of the Effects of Polymers and Manufacturing Methods on Solid Dispersion Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridgeirsdottir, Gudrun A; Harris, Robert J; Dryden, Ian L; Fischer, Peter M; Roberts, Clive J

    2018-03-29

    Solid dispersions can be a successful way to enhance the bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. Here 60 solid dispersion formulations were produced using ten chemically diverse, neutral, poorly soluble drugs, three commonly used polymers, and two manufacturing techniques, spray-drying and melt extrusion. Each formulation underwent a six-month stability study at accelerated conditions, 40 °C and 75% relative humidity (RH). Significant differences in times to crystallization (onset of crystallization) were observed between both the different polymers and the two processing methods. Stability from zero days to over one year was observed. The extensive experimental data set obtained from this stability study was used to build multiple linear regression models to correlate physicochemical properties of the active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) with the stability data. The purpose of these models is to indicate which combination of processing method and polymer carrier is most likely to give a stable solid dispersion. Six quantitative mathematical multiple linear regression-based models were produced based on selection of the most influential independent physical and chemical parameters from a set of 33 possible factors, one model for each combination of polymer and processing method, with good predictability of stability. Three general rules are proposed from these models for the formulation development of suitably stable solid dispersions. Namely, increased stability is correlated with increased glass transition temperature ( T g ) of solid dispersions, as well as decreased number of H-bond donors and increased molecular flexibility (such as rotatable bonds and ring count) of the drug molecule.

  12. A Two-Stage Approach for Improving the Convergence of Least-Mean-Square Adaptive Decision-Feedback Equalizers in the Presence of Severe Narrowband Interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Arun; Zeidler, James R.; Beex, A. A. Louis

    2007-12-01

    It has previously been shown that a least-mean-square (LMS) decision-feedback filter can mitigate the effect of narrowband interference (L.-M. Li and L. Milstein, 1983). An adaptive implementation of the filter was shown to converge relatively quickly for mild interference. It is shown here, however, that in the case of severe narrowband interference, the LMS decision-feedback equalizer (DFE) requires a very large number of training symbols for convergence, making it unsuitable for some types of communication systems. This paper investigates the introduction of an LMS prediction-error filter (PEF) as a prefilter to the equalizer and demonstrates that it reduces the convergence time of the two-stage system by as much as two orders of magnitude. It is also shown that the steady-state bit-error rate (BER) performance of the proposed system is still approximately equal to that attained in steady-state by the LMS DFE-only. Finally, it is shown that the two-stage system can be implemented without the use of training symbols. This two-stage structure lowers the complexity of the overall system by reducing the number of filter taps that need to be adapted, while incurring a slight loss in the steady-state BER.

  13. A Two-Stage Approach for Improving the Convergence of Least-Mean-Square Adaptive Decision-Feedback Equalizers in the Presence of Severe Narrowband Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. (Louis Beex

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available It has previously been shown that a least-mean-square (LMS decision-feedback filter can mitigate the effect of narrowband interference (L.-M. Li and L. Milstein, 1983. An adaptive implementation of the filter was shown to converge relatively quickly for mild interference. It is shown here, however, that in the case of severe narrowband interference, the LMS decision-feedback equalizer (DFE requires a very large number of training symbols for convergence, making it unsuitable for some types of communication systems. This paper investigates the introduction of an LMS prediction-error filter (PEF as a prefilter to the equalizer and demonstrates that it reduces the convergence time of the two-stage system by as much as two orders of magnitude. It is also shown that the steady-state bit-error rate (BER performance of the proposed system is still approximately equal to that attained in steady-state by the LMS DFE-only. Finally, it is shown that the two-stage system can be implemented without the use of training symbols. This two-stage structure lowers the complexity of the overall system by reducing the number of filter taps that need to be adapted, while incurring a slight loss in the steady-state BER.

  14. Zero-Forcing and Minimum Mean-Square Error Multiuser Detection in Generalized Multicarrier DS-CDMA Systems for Cognitive Radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lie-Liang Yang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In wireless communications, multicarrier direct-sequence code-division multiple access (MC DS-CDMA constitutes one of the highly flexible multiple access schemes. MC DS-CDMA employs a high number of degrees-of-freedom, which are beneficial to design and reconfiguration for communications in dynamic communications environments, such as in the cognitive radios. In this contribution, we consider the multiuser detection (MUD in MC DS-CDMA, which motivates lowcomplexity, high flexibility, and robustness so that the MUD schemes are suitable for deployment in dynamic communications environments. Specifically, a range of low-complexity MUDs are derived based on the zero-forcing (ZF, minimum mean-square error (MMSE, and interference cancellation (IC principles. The bit-error rate (BER performance of the MC DS-CDMA aided by the proposed MUDs is investigated by simulation approaches. Our study shows that, in addition to the advantages provided by a general ZF, MMSE, or IC-assisted MUD, the proposed MUD schemes can be implemented using modular structures, where most modules are independent of each other. Due to the independent modular structure, in the proposed MUDs one module may be reconfigured without yielding impact on the others. Therefore, the MC DS-CDMA, in conjunction with the proposed MUDs, constitutes one of the promising multiple access schemes for communications in the dynamic communications environments such as in the cognitive radios.

  15. Zero-Forcing and Minimum Mean-Square Error Multiuser Detection in Generalized Multicarrier DS-CDMA Systems for Cognitive Radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Li-Chun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In wireless communications, multicarrier direct-sequence code-division multiple access (MC DS-CDMA constitutes one of the highly flexible multiple access schemes. MC DS-CDMA employs a high number of degrees-of-freedom, which are beneficial to design and reconfiguration for communications in dynamic communications environments, such as in the cognitive radios. In this contribution, we consider the multiuser detection (MUD in MC DS-CDMA, which motivates lowcomplexity, high flexibility, and robustness so that the MUD schemes are suitable for deployment in dynamic communications environments. Specifically, a range of low-complexity MUDs are derived based on the zero-forcing (ZF, minimum mean-square error (MMSE, and interference cancellation (IC principles. The bit-error rate (BER performance of the MC DS-CDMA aided by the proposed MUDs is investigated by simulation approaches. Our study shows that, in addition to the advantages provided by a general ZF, MMSE, or IC-assisted MUD, the proposed MUD schemes can be implemented using modular structures, where most modules are independent of each other. Due to the independent modular structure, in the proposed MUDs one module may be reconfigured without yielding impact on the others. Therefore, the MC DS-CDMA, in conjunction with the proposed MUDs, constitutes one of the promising multiple access schemes for communications in the dynamic communications environments such as in the cognitive radios.

  16. Elucidating fluctuating diffusivity in center-of-mass motion of polymer models with time-averaged mean-square-displacement tensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaguchi, Tomoshige

    2017-10-01

    There have been increasing reports that the diffusion coefficient of macromolecules depends on time and fluctuates randomly. Here a method is developed to elucidate this fluctuating diffusivity from trajectory data. Time-averaged mean-square displacement (MSD), a common tool in single-particle-tracking (SPT) experiments, is generalized to a second-order tensor with which both magnitude and orientation fluctuations of the diffusivity can be clearly detected. This method is used to analyze the center-of-mass motion of four fundamental polymer models: the Rouse model, the Zimm model, a reptation model, and a rigid rodlike polymer. It is found that these models exhibit distinctly different types of magnitude and orientation fluctuations of diffusivity. This is an advantage of the present method over previous ones, such as the ergodicity-breaking parameter and a non-Gaussian parameter, because with either of these parameters it is difficult to distinguish the dynamics of the four polymer models. Also, the present method of a time-averaged MSD tensor could be used to analyze trajectory data obtained in SPT experiments.

  17. Stochastic exponential stability of the delayed reaction-diffusion recurrent neural networks with Markovian jumping parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Linshan; Zhang Zhe; Wang Yangfan

    2008-01-01

    Some criteria for the global stochastic exponential stability of the delayed reaction-diffusion recurrent neural networks with Markovian jumping parameters are presented. The jumping parameters considered here are generated from a continuous-time discrete-state homogeneous Markov process, which are governed by a Markov process with discrete and finite state space. By employing a new Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, a linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach is developed to establish some easy-to-test criteria of global exponential stability in the mean square for the stochastic neural networks. The criteria are computationally efficient, since they are in the forms of some linear matrix inequalities

  18. On parametric domain for asymptotic stability with probability one of zero solution of linear Ito stochastic differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phan Thanh An; Phan Le Na; Ngo Quoc Chung

    2004-05-01

    We describe a practical implementation for finding parametric domain for asymptotic stability with probability one of zero solution of linear Ito stochastic differential equations based on Korenevskij and Mitropolskij's sufficient condition and our sufficient conditions. Numerical results show that all of these sufficient conditions are crucial in the implementation. (author)

  19. Non-linear effects in electron cyclotron current drive applied for the stabilization of neoclassical tearing modes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayten, B.; Westerhof, E.; ASDEX Upgrade team,

    2014-01-01

    Due to the smallness of the volumes associated with the flux surfaces around the O-point of a magnetic island, the electron cyclotron power density applied inside the island for the stabilization of neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) can exceed the threshold for non-linear effects as derived

  20. Dynamic Average Consensus and Consensusability of General Linear Multiagent Systems with Random Packet Dropout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Min Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the consensus problem of general linear discrete-time multiagent systems (MASs with random packet dropout that happens during information exchange between agents. The packet dropout phenomenon is characterized as being a Bernoulli random process. A distributed consensus protocol with weighted graph is proposed to address the packet dropout phenomenon. Through introducing a new disagreement vector, a new framework is established to solve the consensus problem. Based on the control theory, the perturbation argument, and the matrix theory, the necessary and sufficient condition for MASs to reach mean-square consensus is derived in terms of stability of an array of low-dimensional matrices. Moreover, mean-square consensusable conditions with regard to network topology and agent dynamic structure are also provided. Finally, the effectiveness of the theoretical results is demonstrated through an illustrative example.

  1. Development of an image Mean Square Displacement (iMSD)-based method as a novel approach to study the intracellular trafficking of nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digiacomo, Luca; Digman, Michelle A; Gratton, Enrico; Caracciolo, Giulio

    2016-09-15

    Fluorescence microscopy and spectroscopy techniques are commonly used to investigate complex and interacting biological systems (e.g. proteins and nanoparticles in living cells), since these techniques can explore intracellular dynamics with high time resolution at the nanoscale. Here we extended one of the Image Correlation Spectroscopy (ICS) methods, i.e. the image Mean Square Displacement, in order to study 2-dimensional diffusive and flow motion in confined systems, whose driving speed is uniformly distributed in a variable angular range. Although these conditions are not deeply investigated in the current literature, they can be commonly found in the intracellular trafficking of nanocarriers, which diffuse in the cytoplasm and/or may move along the cytoskeleton in different directions. The proposed approach could reveal the underlying system's symmetry using methods derived from fluorescence correlation concepts and could recover dynamic and geometric features which are commonly done by single particle analyses. Furthermore, it improves the characterization of low-speed flow motions, when compared to SpatioTemporal Image Correlation Spectroscopy (STICS). Although we present a specific example (lipoplexes in living cells), the emphasis is in the discussion of the method, its basic assumptions and its validation on numeric simulations. Recent advances in nanoparticle-based drug and gene delivery systems have pointed out the interactions at cellular and subcellular levels as key-factors for the efficiency of the adopted biomaterials. Such biochemical and biophysical interactions drive and affect the intracellular dynamics, that is commonly characterized by means of fluorescence microscopy and spectroscopy techniques. Here we present a novel Image Correlation Spectroscopy (ICS) method as a promising tool to capture the intracellular behavior of nanoparticles with high resolution and low background's sensitivity. This study overcomes some of the approximations

  2. On the calculation of linear stability with the aid of asymptotic solutions of Orr-Sommerfeld equation, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimura, Kaoru

    1980-11-01

    The numerical treatment of Orr-Sommerfeld equation which is the fundamental equation of linear hydrodynamic stability theory is described. Present calculation procedure is applied to the two-dimensional quasi-parallel flow for which linearized disturbance equation (Orr-Sommerfeld equation) contains one simple turning point and αR >> 1. The numerical procedure for this problem and one numerical example for Jeffery-Hamel flow (J-H III 1 ) are presented. These treatment can be extended to the other velocity profiles by slight midifications. (author)

  3. Railway Timetable Stability Analysis Using Stochastic Max-Plus Linear Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goverde, R.M.P.; Heidergott, B.; Merlet, G.

    2010-01-01

    Stability and robustness of a railway timetable are essential properties for punctual and reliable operations. Timetable performance evaluation is therefore an important aspect in the timetable design process. In particular, the stability and recoverability properties of a timetable with respect to

  4. Existence and Linear Stability of Equilibrium Points in the Robe’s Restricted Three-Body Problem with Oblateness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagadish Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the positions and linear stability of an infinitesimal body around the equilibrium points in the framework of the Robe’s circular restricted three-body problem, with assumptions that the hydrostatic equilibrium figure of the first primary is an oblate spheroid and the second primary is an oblate body as well. It is found that equilibrium point exists near the centre of the first primary. Further, there can be one more equilibrium point on the line joining the centers of both primaries. Points on the circle within the first primary are also equilibrium points under certain conditions and the existence of two out-of-plane points is also observed. The linear stability of this configuration is examined and it is found that points near the center of the first primary are conditionally stable, while the circular and out of plane equilibrium points are unstable.

  5. Adjustment of Adaptive Gain with Bounded Linear Stability Analysis to Improve Time-Delay Margin for Metrics-Driven Adaptive Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiari-Nejad, Maryam; Nguyen, Nhan T.; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje Srinvas

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the application of Bounded Linear Stability Analysis (BLSA) method for metrics driven adaptive control. The bounded linear stability analysis method is used for analyzing stability of adaptive control models, without linearizing the adaptive laws. Metrics-driven adaptive control introduces a notion that adaptation should be driven by some stability metrics to achieve robustness. By the application of bounded linear stability analysis method the adaptive gain is adjusted during the adaptation in order to meet certain phase margin requirements. Analysis of metrics-driven adaptive control is evaluated for a linear damaged twin-engine generic transport model of aircraft. The analysis shows that the system with the adjusted adaptive gain becomes more robust to unmodeled dynamics or time delay.

  6. Stability Analysis of Continuous-Time and Discrete-Time Quaternion-Valued Neural Networks With Linear Threshold Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaofeng; Song, Qiankun; Li, Zhongshan; Zhao, Zhenjiang; Liu, Yurong

    2018-07-01

    This paper addresses the problem of stability for continuous-time and discrete-time quaternion-valued neural networks (QVNNs) with linear threshold neurons. Applying the semidiscretization technique to the continuous-time QVNNs, the discrete-time analogs are obtained, which preserve the dynamical characteristics of their continuous-time counterparts. Via the plural decomposition method of quaternion, homeomorphic mapping theorem, as well as Lyapunov theorem, some sufficient conditions on the existence, uniqueness, and global asymptotical stability of the equilibrium point are derived for the continuous-time QVNNs and their discrete-time analogs, respectively. Furthermore, a uniform sufficient condition on the existence, uniqueness, and global asymptotical stability of the equilibrium point is obtained for both continuous-time QVNNs and their discrete-time version. Finally, two numerical examples are provided to substantiate the effectiveness of the proposed results.

  7. Energy principles for linear dissipative systems with application to resistive MHD stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pletzer, A.

    1997-04-01

    A formalism for the construction of energy principles for dissipative systems is presented. It is shown that dissipative systems satisfy a conservation law for the bilinear Hamiltonian provided the Lagrangian is time invariant. The energy on the other hand, differs from the Hamiltonian by being quadratic and by having a negative definite time derivative (positive power dissipation). The energy is a Lyapunov functional whose definiteness yields necessary and sufficient stability criteria. The stability problem of resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) is addressed: the energy principle for ideal MHD is generalized and the stability criterion by Tasso is shown to be necessary in addition to sufficient for real growth rates. An energy principle is found for the inner layer equations that yields the resistive stability criterion D R <0 in the incompressible limit, whereas the tearing mode criterion Δ'<0 is shown to result from the conservation law of the bilinear concomitant in the resistive layer. (author) 1 fig., 25 refs

  8. Stability analysis of explicit entropy viscosity methods for non-linear scalar conservation equations

    KAUST Repository

    Bonito, Andrea; Guermond, Jean-Luc; Popov, Bojan

    2013-01-01

    We establish the L2-stability of an entropy viscosity technique applied to nonlinear scalar conservation equations. First-and second-order explicit time-stepping techniques using continuous finite elements in space are considered. The method

  9. ON THE BOUNDEDNESS AND THE STABILITY OF SOLUTION TO THIRD ORDER NON-LINEAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the global asymptotic stability,boundedness as well as the ultimate boundedness of solutions to a general third order nonlinear differential equation,using complete Lyapunov function.

  10. Combined influence of inertia, gravity, and surface tension on the linear stability of Newtonian fiber spinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechert, M.; Scheid, B.

    2017-11-01

    The draw resonance effect appears in fiber spinning processes if the ratio of take-up to inlet velocity, the so-called draw ratio, exceeds a critical value and manifests itself in steady oscillations of flow velocity and fiber diameter. We study the effect of surface tension on the draw resonance behavior of Newtonian fiber spinning in the presence of inertia and gravity. Utilizing an alternative scaling makes it possible to visualize the results in stability maps of highly practical relevance. The interplay of the destabilizing effect of surface tension and the stabilizing effects of inertia and gravity lead to nonmonotonic stability behavior and local stability maxima with respect to the dimensionless fluidity and the dimensionless inlet velocity. A region of unconditional instability caused by the influence of surface tension is found in addition to the region of unconditional stability caused by inertia, which was described in previous works [M. Bechert, D. W. Schubert, and B. Scheid, Eur. J. Mech B 52, 68 (2015), 10.1016/j.euromechflu.2015.02.005; Phys. Fluids 28, 024109 (2016), 10.1063/1.4941762]. Due to its importance for a particular group of fiber spinning applications, a viscous-gravity-surface-tension regime, i.e., negligible effect of inertia, is analyzed separately. The mechanism underlying the destabilizing effect of surface tension is discussed and established stability criteria are tested for validity in the presence of surface tension.

  11. Controllability of non-linear systems: generic singularities and their stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davydov, Alexey A; Zakalyukin, Vladimir M

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the state of the art in applications of singularity theory to the analysis of generic singularities of controllability of non-linear systems on manifolds. Bibliography: 40 titles.

  12. Theoretical explanation of present mirror experiments and linear stability of larger scaled machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berk, H.L.; Baldwin, D.E.; Cutler, T.A.; Lodestro, L.L.; Maron, N.; Pearlstein, L.D.; Rognlien, T.D.; Stewart, J.J.; Watson, D.C.

    1976-01-01

    A quasilinear model for the evolution of the 2XIIB mirror experiment is presented and shown to reproduce the time evolution of the experiment. From quasilinear theory it follows that the energy lifetime is the Spitzer electron drag time for T/sub e/ approximately less than 0.1T/sub i/. By computing the stability boundary of the DCLC mode, with warm plasma stabilization, the electron temperature is predicted as a function of radial scale length. In addition, the effect of finite length corrections to the Alfven cyclotron mode is assessed

  13. Input-to-State Stabilizing MPC for Neutrally Stable Linear Systems subject to Input Constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, Jung-Su; Yoon, Tae-Woong; Jadbabaie, Ali; Persis, Claudio De

    2004-01-01

    MPC(Model Predictive Control) is representative of control methods which are able to handle physical constraints. Closed-loop stability can therefore be ensured only locally in the presence of constraints of this type. However, if the system is neutrally stable, and if the constraints are imposed

  14. On the Linear Stability of the Fifth-Order WENO Discretization

    KAUST Repository

    Motamed, Mohammad; Macdonald, Colin B.; Ruuth, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    , the fifth-order extrapolated BDF scheme gave superior results in practice to high-order Runge-Kutta methods whose stability domain includes the imaginary axis. Numerical tests are presented which confirm the analysis. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC

  15. Numerical simulations and linear stability analysis of a boundary layer developed on wavy surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siconolfi, Lorenzo; Camarri, Simone; Fransson, Jens H. M.

    2015-11-01

    The development of passive methods leading to a laminar to turbulent transition delay in a boundary layer (BL) is a topic of great interest both for applications and academic research. In literature it has been shown that a proper and stable spanwise velocity modulation can reduce the growth rate of Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) waves and delay transition. In this study, we investigate numerically the possibility of obtaining a stabilizing effect of the TS waves through the use of a spanwise sinusoidal modulation of a flat plate. This type of control has been already successfully investigated experimentally. An extensive set of direct numerical simulations is carried out to study the evolution of a BL flow developed on wavy surfaces with different geometric characteristics, and the results will be presented here. Moreover, since this configuration is characterized by a slowly-varying flow field in streamwise direction, a local stability analysis is applied to define the neutral stability curves for the BL flow controlled by this type of wall modifications. These results give the possibility of investigating this control strategy and understanding the effect of the free parameters on the stabilization mechanism.

  16. Stability analysis of explicit entropy viscosity methods for non-linear scalar conservation equations

    KAUST Repository

    Bonito, Andrea

    2013-10-03

    We establish the L2-stability of an entropy viscosity technique applied to nonlinear scalar conservation equations. First-and second-order explicit time-stepping techniques using continuous finite elements in space are considered. The method is shown to be stable independently of the polynomial degree of the space approximation under the standard CFL condition. © 2013 American Mathematical Society.

  17. Linear and nonlinear Stability analysis for finite difference discretizations of higher order Boussinesq equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuhrmann, David R.; Bingham, Harry B.; Madsen, Per A.

    2004-01-01

    of rotational and irrotational formulations in two horizontal dimensions provides evidence that the irrotational formulation has significantly better stability properties when the deep-water nonlinearity is high, particularly on refined grids. Computation of matrix pseudospectra shows that the system is only...... insight into into the numerical behavior of this rather complicated system of nonlinear PDEs....

  18. Linear and nonlinear stability analysis in BWRs applying a reduced order model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olvera G, O. A.; Espinosa P, G.; Prieto G, A., E-mail: omar_olverag@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, San Rafael Atlixco No. 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

    2016-09-15

    Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) stability studies are generally conducted through nonlinear reduced order models (Rom) employing various techniques such as bifurcation analysis and time domain numerical integration. One of those models used for these studies is the March-Leuba Rom. Such model represents qualitatively the dynamic behavior of a BWR through a one-point reactor kinetics, a one node representation of the heat transfer process in fuel, and a two node representation of the channel Thermal hydraulics to account for the void reactivity feedback. Here, we study the effect of this higher order model on the overall stability of the BWR. The change in the stability boundaries is determined by evaluating the eigenvalues of the Jacobian matrix. The nonlinear model is also integrated numerically to show that in the nonlinear region, the system evolves to stable limit cycles when operating close to the stability boundary. We also applied a new technique based on the Empirical Mode Decomposition (Emd) to estimate a parameter linked with stability in a BWR. This instability parameter is not exactly the classical Decay Ratio (Dr), but it will be linked with it. The proposed method allows decomposing the analyzed signal in different levels or mono-component functions known as intrinsic mode functions (Imf). One or more of these different modes can be associated to the instability problem in BWRs. By tracking the instantaneous frequencies (calculated through Hilbert Huang Transform (HHT) and the autocorrelation function (Acf) of the Imf linked to instability. The estimation of the proposed parameter can be achieved. The current methodology was validated with simulated signals of the studied model. (Author)

  19. Linear and nonlinear stability analysis in BWRs applying a reduced order model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olvera G, O. A.; Espinosa P, G.; Prieto G, A.

    2016-09-01

    Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) stability studies are generally conducted through nonlinear reduced order models (Rom) employing various techniques such as bifurcation analysis and time domain numerical integration. One of those models used for these studies is the March-Leuba Rom. Such model represents qualitatively the dynamic behavior of a BWR through a one-point reactor kinetics, a one node representation of the heat transfer process in fuel, and a two node representation of the channel Thermal hydraulics to account for the void reactivity feedback. Here, we study the effect of this higher order model on the overall stability of the BWR. The change in the stability boundaries is determined by evaluating the eigenvalues of the Jacobian matrix. The nonlinear model is also integrated numerically to show that in the nonlinear region, the system evolves to stable limit cycles when operating close to the stability boundary. We also applied a new technique based on the Empirical Mode Decomposition (Emd) to estimate a parameter linked with stability in a BWR. This instability parameter is not exactly the classical Decay Ratio (Dr), but it will be linked with it. The proposed method allows decomposing the analyzed signal in different levels or mono-component functions known as intrinsic mode functions (Imf). One or more of these different modes can be associated to the instability problem in BWRs. By tracking the instantaneous frequencies (calculated through Hilbert Huang Transform (HHT) and the autocorrelation function (Acf) of the Imf linked to instability. The estimation of the proposed parameter can be achieved. The current methodology was validated with simulated signals of the studied model. (Author)

  20. Recent results on stability and response bounds of linear systems - a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommer, Christian; Kliem, Wolfhard

    2006-01-01

    The literature on linear systems emerging from second order differential equations is extensive because such systems are ubiquitous in modeling, particularly modeling of mechanical systems. This paper offers an overview of some of the recent research in this field, in particular on the subject...

  1. STABILITY OF LINEAR MULTIAGENT SCALAR SYSTEMS AND ITS DEPENDENCE ON CONNECTIVITY GRAPH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Tomashevich

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Multiagent systems are now finding increasingly wide applications in various engineering fields such as energy, transportation, robotics, aviation and others. There are two main aspects to be focused on when organizing multiagent systems: the dynamics of the agents themselves and the ways of their interaction. This interaction is determined by the structure of information connections between agents. Thus, there are several key points of multiagent systems study: the dynamics of individual agents and shape of the information graph. Formation dynamics, in general, is determined by a set of properties of agents and connectivity graph. The paper deals with the relationship between dynamics of agents and Laplace matrix, which is used to set the graph connections. The present research is based on the results given in the known paper by A. Fax and R. Murray (IEEE Trans. AC, 2004. An illustrative example is given, and the application problem of studying the formation dynamics consisting of the group of quadrocopters is presented. Information exchange between agents is determined in the paper by means of the conventional set of graphs. The paper presents an interpretation of the stability conditions and the method of system performance improvement based on these conditions. Motion of quadrocopters group along the flight height is used as an example for methodology application. The simulation results demonstrate the basic dependencies between the information graph shape (and, consequently, the eigenvalues of the Laplacian, which describes this graph and formation stability. Simulation and consideration of Nyquist diagram connection with the key points give an indication of the system stability and take steps to change the control laws. Necessary conditions for the formation stability are obtained on the basis of this research method. Research result makes it possible to create local control laws for agents to ensure the stability of motion in the selected

  2. Numerical simulation and global linear stability analysis of low-Re flow past a heated circular cylinder

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Wei

    2016-03-31

    We perform two-dimensional unsteady Navier-Stokes simulation and global linear stability analysis of flow past a heated circular cylinder to investigate the effect of aided buoyancy on the stabilization of the flow. The Reynolds number of the incoming flow is fixed at 100, and the Richardson number characterizing the buoyancy is varied from 0.00 (buoyancy-free case) to 0.10 at which the flow is still unsteady. We investigate the effect of aided buoyancy in stabilizing the wake flow, identify the temporal and spatial characteristics of the growth of the perturbation, and quantify the contributions from various terms comprising the perturbed kinetic energy budget. Numerical results reveal that the increasing Ri decreases the fluctuation magnitude of the characteristic quantities monotonically, and the momentum deficit in the wake flow decays rapidly so that the flow velocity recovers to that of the free-stream; the strain on the wake flow is reduced in the region where the perturbation is the most greatly amplified. Global stability analysis shows that the temporal growth rate of the perturbation decreases monotonically with Ri, reflecting the stabilization of the flow due to aided buoyancy. The perturbation grows most significantly in the free shear layer separated from the cylinder. As Ri increases, the location of maximum perturbation growth moves closer to the cylinder and the perturbation decays more rapidly in the far wake. The introduction of the aided buoyancy alters the base flow, and destabilizes the near wake shear layer mainly through the strain-induced transfer term and the pressure term of the perturbed kinetic energy, whereas the flow is stabilized in the far wake as the strain is alleviated. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Numerical simulation and global linear stability analysis of low-Re flow past a heated circular cylinder

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Wei; Samtaney, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    We perform two-dimensional unsteady Navier-Stokes simulation and global linear stability analysis of flow past a heated circular cylinder to investigate the effect of aided buoyancy on the stabilization of the flow. The Reynolds number of the incoming flow is fixed at 100, and the Richardson number characterizing the buoyancy is varied from 0.00 (buoyancy-free case) to 0.10 at which the flow is still unsteady. We investigate the effect of aided buoyancy in stabilizing the wake flow, identify the temporal and spatial characteristics of the growth of the perturbation, and quantify the contributions from various terms comprising the perturbed kinetic energy budget. Numerical results reveal that the increasing Ri decreases the fluctuation magnitude of the characteristic quantities monotonically, and the momentum deficit in the wake flow decays rapidly so that the flow velocity recovers to that of the free-stream; the strain on the wake flow is reduced in the region where the perturbation is the most greatly amplified. Global stability analysis shows that the temporal growth rate of the perturbation decreases monotonically with Ri, reflecting the stabilization of the flow due to aided buoyancy. The perturbation grows most significantly in the free shear layer separated from the cylinder. As Ri increases, the location of maximum perturbation growth moves closer to the cylinder and the perturbation decays more rapidly in the far wake. The introduction of the aided buoyancy alters the base flow, and destabilizes the near wake shear layer mainly through the strain-induced transfer term and the pressure term of the perturbed kinetic energy, whereas the flow is stabilized in the far wake as the strain is alleviated. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Linear stability theory as an early warning sign for transitions in high dimensional complex systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piovani, Duccio; Grujić, Jelena; Jensen, Henrik Jeldtoft

    2016-01-01

    We analyse in detail a new approach to the monitoring and forecasting of the onset of transitions in high dimensional complex systems by application to the Tangled Nature model of evolutionary ecology and high dimensional replicator systems with a stochastic element. A high dimensional stability matrix is derived in the mean field approximation to the stochastic dynamics. This allows us to determine the stability spectrum about the observed quasi-stable configurations. From overlap of the instantaneous configuration vector of the full stochastic system with the eigenvectors of the unstable directions of the deterministic mean field approximation, we are able to construct a good early-warning indicator of the transitions occurring intermittently. (paper)

  5. Robust Adaptive Stabilization of Linear Time-Invariant Dynamic Systems by Using Fractional-Order Holds and Multirate Sampling Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Alonso-Quesada

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a strategy for designing a robust discrete-time adaptive controller for stabilizing linear time-invariant (LTI continuous-time dynamic systems. Such systems may be unstable and noninversely stable in the worst case. A reduced-order model is considered to design the adaptive controller. The control design is based on the discretization of the system with the use of a multirate sampling device with fast-sampled control signal. A suitable on-line adaptation of the multirate gains guarantees the stability of the inverse of the discretized estimated model, which is used to parameterize the adaptive controller. A dead zone is included in the parameters estimation algorithm for robustness purposes under the presence of unmodeled dynamics in the controlled dynamic system. The adaptive controller guarantees the boundedness of the system measured signal for all time. Some examples illustrate the efficacy of this control strategy.

  6. Linear and nonlinear stability analysis, associated to experimental fast reactors. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorim, E.S. do; Moura Neto, C. de; Rosa, M.A.P.

    1980-07-01

    The nonlinear effects in fast reactors kinetics and their stability are studied. The Lyapunov criteria and the Lurie-Letov functions for nonlinear systems were established and simulated. Small oscillations were studied by a Fourier analysis to clarify particular aspects of feedback and load functions in fast reactor at zero power, or/and in normal power level. The results were in agreement with the experimental data existing in the literature. (E.G.) [pt

  7. Stability of a mobile electron linear accelerator system for intraoperative radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beddar, A. Sam

    2005-01-01

    The flexibility of mobile electron accelerators, which are designed to be transported to an operating room and plugged into a normal 3-phase outlet, make them ideal for use in intraoperative radiation therapy. However, their transportability may cause trepidation among potential users, who may question the stability of such an accelerator over a period of use. In order to address this issue, we have studied the short-term stability of the Mobetron system over 20 daily quality assurance trials. Variations in output generally varied within ±2% for the four energies produced by the unit (4, 6, 9, and 12 MeV) and changes in energy produced an equivalent shift of less than 1 mm on the depth-dose curve. Hours of inactivity, with the Mobetron powered on for use either throughout the day or overnight, led to variations in output of about 1%. Finally, we have tested the long-term stability of the absolute dose output of the Mobetron, which showed a change of about 1% per year

  8. Linear Stability Analysis of Laminar Premixed Fuel-Rich Double-Spray Flames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noam Weinberg

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the stability of a double-spray premixed flame formed when both fuel and oxidizer are initially present in the form of sprays of evaporating liquid droplets. To simplify the inherent complexity that characterizes the analytic solution of multi-phase combustion processes, the analysis is restricted to fuel-rich laminar premixed double-spray flames, and assumes a single-step global chemical reaction mechanism. Steady-state solutions are obtained and the sensitivity of the flame temperature and the flame propagating velocity to the initial liquid fuel and/or oxidizer loads are established. The stability analysis revealed an increased proneness to cellular instability induced by the presence of the two sprays, and for the fuel-rich case considered here the influence of the liquid oxidizer was found to be more pronounced than that of the liquid fuel. Similar effects were noted for the neutral pulsating stability boundaries. The impact of unequal latent heats of vaporization is also investigated and found to be in keeping with the destabilizing influence of heat loss due to droplet evaporation. It should be noted that as far as the authors are aware no experimental evidence is available for (at least validation of the predictions. However, they do concur in a general and reasonable fashion with independent experimental evidence in the literature of the behavior of single fuel spray laminar premixed flames.

  9. Sufficient condition for the linearization stability of N = 1 supergravity: A preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, D.

    1984-01-01

    This paper outlines how the methods developed by Fischer, Marsden, and Moncrief (A. Fischer and J. Marsden, ''Isolated Gravitating Systems in General Relativity,'' (J. Ehlers, Ed.), Proceedings of the International School of Physics Enrico Fermi Course XVII, North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1979; A. Fischer, J. Marsden, and V. Moncrief, Ann. Inst. Henri Poincare 33 (1980), 147-194) for general relativity are being used to show that classical N = 1 supergravity, as a non-linear system of partial differential equtions, is linearization stable at any solution which lacks Killing symmetry. It is assumed (for convenience) throughout that the underlying spacetime is topologically Σ 0 x R, where Σ 0 is a compact, spacelike, and boundaryless 3-dimensional hypersurface

  10. Global Stability of Polytopic Linear Time-Varying Dynamic Systems under Time-Varying Point Delays and Impulsive Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. de la Sen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the stability properties of a class of dynamic linear systems possessing several linear time-invariant parameterizations (or configurations which conform a linear time-varying polytopic dynamic system with a finite number of time-varying time-differentiable point delays. The parameterizations may be timevarying and with bounded discontinuities and they can be subject to mixed regular plus impulsive controls within a sequence of time instants of zero measure. The polytopic parameterization for the dynamics associated with each delay is specific, so that (q+1 polytopic parameterizations are considered for a system with q delays being also subject to delay-free dynamics. The considered general dynamic system includes, as particular cases, a wide class of switched linear systems whose individual parameterizations are timeinvariant which are governed by a switching rule. However, the dynamic system under consideration is viewed as much more general since it is time-varying with timevarying delays and the bounded discontinuous changes of active parameterizations are generated by impulsive controls in the dynamics and, at the same time, there is not a prescribed set of candidate potential parameterizations.

  11. New exponential stability conditions for linear delayed systems of differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid Berezansky

    2016-08-01

    where $t\\ge 0$, $m$ and $r_{ij}$, $i,j=1,\\dots,m$ are natural numbers, $a_{ij}^{k}\\colon [0,\\infty\\to\\mathbb{R}$ are measurable coefficients, and $h_{ij}^{k}\\colon [0,\\infty\\to\\mathbb{R}$ are measurable delays. The progress was achieved by using a new technique making it possible to replace the constant $1$ by the constant $1+{1}/{\\mathrm{e}}$ on the right-hand sides of crucial inequalities ensuring exponential stability.

  12. Stability of the particle transverse motion in an electron linear accelerator with beam recirculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volodin, V.A.

    1979-01-01

    Conditions, under which beam transverse instabilities appear in the electron linear accelerator (ELA) with a double particle acceleration due to excitation of asymmetric stray waves in the accelerating waveguide, and their peculiarities have been investigated. It is shown that in the ELA with beam recirculation the conditions under which the beam transverse instability appears can be determined with the help of the ''interaction function'' which depends on both the accelerating structure and the focusing in the beam transport channel. Comparison is made with characteristics of this phenomenon in conventional ELA, and possible reasons for the decrease of a starting current in ELA with recirculation are shown

  13. Linear stability analysis of laminar flow near a stagnation point in the slip flow regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essaghir, E.; Oubarra, A.; Lahjomri, J.

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the present contribution is to analyze the effect of slip parameter on the stability of a laminar incompressible flow near a stagnation point in the slip flow regime. The analysis is based on the traditional normal mode approach and assumes parallel flow approximation. The Orr-Sommerfeld equation that governs the infinitesimal disturbance of stream function imposed to the steady main flow, which is an exact solution of the Navier-Stokes equation satisfying slip boundary conditions, is obtained by using the powerful spectral Chebyshev collocation method. The results of the effect of slip parameter K on the hydrodynamic characteristics of the base flow, namely the velocity profile, the shear stress profile, the boundary layer, displacement and momentum thicknesses are illustrated and discussed. The numerical data for these characteristics, as well as those of the eigenvalues and the corresponding wave numbers recover the results of the special case of no-slip boundary conditions. They are found to be in good agreement with previous numerical calculations. The effects of slip parameter on the neutral curves of stability, for two-dimensional disturbances in the Reynolds-wave number plane, are then obtained for the first time in the slip flow regime for stagnation point flow. Furthermore, the evolution of the critical Reynolds number against the slip parameter is established. The results show that the critical Reynolds number for instability is significantly increased with the slip parameter and the flow turn out to be more stable when the effect of rarefaction becomes important.

  14. Linear stability analysis of retrieval state in associative memory neural networks of spiking neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Masahiko

    2002-01-01

    We study associative memory neural networks of the Hodgkin-Huxley type of spiking neurons in which multiple periodic spatiotemporal patterns of spike timing are memorized as limit-cycle-type attractors. In encoding the spatiotemporal patterns, we assume the spike-timing-dependent synaptic plasticity with the asymmetric time window. Analysis for periodic solution of retrieval state reveals that if the area of the negative part of the time window is equivalent to the positive part, then crosstalk among encoded patterns vanishes. Phase transition due to the loss of the stability of periodic solution is observed when we assume fast α function for direct interaction among neurons. In order to evaluate the critical point of this phase transition, we employ Floquet theory in which the stability problem of the infinite number of spiking neurons interacting with α function is reduced to the eigenvalue problem with the finite size of matrix. Numerical integration of the single-body dynamics yields the explicit value of the matrix, which enables us to determine the critical point of the phase transition with a high degree of precision

  15. Non-linear analysis and the design of Pumpkin Balloons: stress, stability and viscoelasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, J. L.; Wakefield, D. S.

    Tensys have a long-established background in the shape generation and load analysis of architectural stressed membrane structures Founded upon their inTENS finite element analysis suite these activities have broadened to encompass lighter than air structures such as aerostats hybrid air-vehicles and stratospheric balloons Winzen Engineering couple many years of practical balloon design and fabrication experience with both academic and practical knowledge of the characterisation of the non-linear viscoelastic response of the polymeric films typically used for high-altitude scientific balloons Both companies have provided consulting services to the NASA Ultra Long Duration Balloon ULDB Program Early implementations of pumpkin balloons have shown problems of geometric instability characterised by improper deployment and these difficulties have been reproduced numerically using inTENS The solution lies in both the shapes of the membrane lobes and also the need to generate a biaxial stress field in order to mobilise in-plane shear stiffness Balloons undergo significant temperature and pressure variations in flight The different thermal characteristics between tendons and film can lead to significant meridional stress Fabrication tolerances can lead to significant local hoop stress concentrations particularly adjacent to the base and apex end fittings The non-linear viscoelastic response of the envelope film acts positively to help dissipate stress concentrations However creep over time may produce lobe geometry variations that may

  16. Linear Aspects of Stability in Flow Induced Oscillations of Cantilever Pipes: Application of a Popular Heuristic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbar, Ullhas; Krishnan, Abilash; Kadoli, Ravikiran

    2017-11-01

    This work studied linear aspects of flow induced oscillations in cantilever pipes, with an emphasis on the numerical method of solution adopted for the system of governing equations. The complex frequencies of vibration of the different characteristic modes of the system were computed as a function of the flow velocity, wherein multi-variable minimization was performed using the popular Nelder-Mead heuristic algorithm. Results for a canonical fluid-to-pipe mass ratio (β) were validated with literature, and the evolution of frequencies was studied for different mass ratios. Additionally, the numerical scheme was implemented to compute critical conditions of stability for the cantilever system as a function of β. Finally, interesting aspects of the dynamics of the system were analyzed: the supposed `mode exchange' behavior, and an explanation for discontinuities observed in the critical conditions plotted as a function of β. In conclusion, the heuristic optimization based solution used in this study can be used to analyze various aspects of linear stability in pipes conveying fluid. Part of the submitted work was completed at the author's previous affiliation - National Institute of Technology Karnataka, India.

  17. Standing Wave Linear Accelerators: An Investigation of the Fundamental Field Stability and Tuning Characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The first accelerators were designed as a tool in high-energy particle physics. Their development has given rise to numerous applications in industry, such as materials processing, sterilization, food preservation, and radiopharmaceutical product generation (Barbalat, 1994). Modern day linear accelerators for particle physics accelerate multiple bunches of electrons and positrons up to 50 GeV. Accelerators of the next generation, such as the Next Linear Collider (NLC), aim to accelerate the bunches initially to a center of mass of 500GeV and later to 1.5 TeV (Decking 2001, Miyamoto 2002, Phinney 2002). The NLC will operate under gradient fields on the order of 70 MV/m (Phinney, 2002). For all accelerators, two issues are fundamental for their construction: maximizing the efficiency of acceleration while, at the same time, preserving the luminosity of the beam. These issues are critically important in the design of the NLC. A linear accelerator operates as follows: An electron gun fires electrons into a structure that bunches the electrons and tightly focuses the beam. At the same time, a radiofrequency wave is fed into the accelerating structure. The electron bunches enter the accelerating structure in phase with the crest of the radiofrequency wave in order to achieve maximum energy. There are two principal types of accelerating structures: traveling wave (TW) and standing wave (SW). The electromagnetic wave in a TW structure travels in one direction; the electromagnetic wave in a SW structure travels in two directions. Many TW structures have been designed for the NLC, but recent experiments indicate that TW structures suffer from electrical breakdown at high gradients (Miller et. al., 2001). To address this problem, SW structures are being considered as the alternative for the NLC (Jones and Miller et. al., 2002). The input power required for an accelerating cavity increases with the length of the cavity (Miller et. al., 2001). Since SW structures can be made

  18. Vlasov Fluid stability of a 2-D plasma with a linear magnetic field null

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    Vlasov Fluid stability of a 2-dimensional plasma near an O type magnetic null is investigated. Specifically, an elongated Z-pinch is considered, and applied to Field Reversed Configurations at Los Alamos National Laboratory by making a cylindrical approximation of the compact torus. The orbits near an elliptical O type null are found to be very complicated; the orbits are large and some are stochastic. The kinetic corrections to magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) are investigated by evaluating the expectation values of the growth rates of a Vlasov Fluid dispersion functional by using a set of trial functions based on ideal MHD. The dispersion functional involves fluid parts and orbit dependent parts. The latter involves phase integral of two time correlations. The phase integral is replaced by the time integral both for the regular and for the stochastic orbits. Two trial functions are used; one has a large displacement near the null and the other away from the null

  19. Assessment of beam stability of high energy and low energy Varian medical linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayesh, K.; Mohan, R.; Joshi, R.C.; Ganesh, T.; Hegazy, M.; Oubaye, A.J.; AI Idrisi, Maha

    2008-01-01

    An accurate measurement of the dose delivered to the tumor in external beam radiotherapy is one of the primary responsibilities of a medical physicist. In general, such measurements have been based on the application of a dosimetry protocol and quality assurance procedures. Clinically one must be able to assess the beam quality, flatness and symmetry and variation in the output on daily basis. Flatness and symmetry are the main parameters for determining the pattern of a photon and electron beam produced by linear accelerators. The quality assurance in routine clinical practice of radiotherapy and consequently the treatment-outcome depends definitely on the physical parameters of treatment-delivery. Several recommendations from national and international associations are reported to define the limits for the beam parameters. The review of literature and various reports on quality assurance in radiotherapy show that for flatness, symmetry and output constancy the optimal level of deviation should be within ±3%

  20. Linear stability of resistive MHD modes: axisymmetric toroidal computation of the outer region matching data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pletzer, A.; Bondeson, A.; Dewar, R.L.

    1993-11-01

    The quest to determine accurately the stability of tearing and resistive interchange modes in two-dimensional toroidal geometry led to the development of the PEST-3 code, which is based on solving the singular, zero-frequency ideal MHD equation in the plasma bulk and determining the outer data Δ', Γ' and A' needed to match the outer region solutions to those arising in the inner layers. No assumption regarding the aspect ratio, the number of rational surfaces or the pressure are made a priori. This approach is numerically less demanding than solving the full set of resistive equations, and has the major advantage of non-MHD theories of the non-ideal layers. Good convergence is ensured by the variational Galerkin scheme used to compute the outer matching data. To validate the code, we focus on the growth rate calculations of resistive kink modes which are reproduced in good agreement with those obtained by the full resistive MHD code MARS. (author) 11 figs., 27 refs

  1. Linear stability of toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes in the Chinese Fusion Engineering Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Wenjun [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Li, Guoqiang, E-mail: ligq@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Hu, Youjun; Gao, Xiang [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

    2017-01-15

    The Chinese Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) is under design. It aims to fill the gaps between ITER and DEMO. In the reactor, the deuterium-tritium fusion reaction and the auxiliary heating will generate a lot of energetic particles. It is possible that these energetic particles will drive toroidal Alfvén eigenmode (TAE) instabilities under the conditions of CFETR plasma parameters. These instabilities can result in energetic particles redistribution or loss, so it’s vital to study TAE instabilities in CFETR. The aim of this paper is to study the possibility of reducing TAE instabilities by changing safety factor profiles in CFETR. NOVA and NOVA-K codes are used to study TAE stability. The equilibria are constructed using the CORSICA code. Safety factor profiles are selected as the three typical profiles of ITER scenarios. For the three different safety factor profiles, we use NOVA to scan and calculate their continuum spectrum and eigenmode structures, then use NOVA-K to calculate the different damping and driving mechanisms for different toroidal mode numbers. The numerical calculations show that if the safety factor profiles are chosen appropriately, then all the TAEs can be stable. Thus, it’s possible to reduce the TAE instabilities by changing safety factor profiles in CFETR. We also scan the temperature and density profiles to see their effects on the TAE instabilities. It shows that the TAE instabilities keep unchanged for a wide range of profiles.

  2. Geometric method for stability of non-linear elastic thin shells

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanova, Jordanka

    2002-01-01

    PREFACE This book deals with the new developments and applications of the geometric method to the nonlinear stability problem for thin non-elastic shells. There are no other published books on this subject except the basic ones of A. V. Pogorelov (1966,1967,1986), where variational principles defined over isometric surfaces, are postulated, and applied mainly to static and dynamic problems of elastic isotropic thin shells. A. V. Pogorelov (Harkov, Ukraine) was the first to provide in his monographs the geometric construction of the deformed shell surface in a post-critical stage and deriving explicitely the asymptotic formulas for the upper and lower critical loads. In most cases, these formulas were presented in a closed analytical form, and confirmed by experimental data. The geometric method by Pogorelov is one of the most important analytical methods developed during the last century. Its power consists in its ability to provide a clear geometric picture of the postcritical form of a deformed shell surfac...

  3. Simulation and characterization of the RF system and global stability analysis at the REGAE linear electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayet, Frank

    2012-12-01

    LAOLA (LAboratory for Laser- and beam-driven plasma Acceleration), is a collaboration between groups from DESY and the University of Hamburg. Its mission is to complement basic research in the relatively new field of plasma wakefield acceleration (PWA) by an explicit combination with DESY's conventional, modern accelerators. The linear electron accelerator REGAE is designed to produce sub 10 fs low charge electron bunches with ultra-low emittance at a repetition rate of 50 Hz. The planned experiments include femtosecond electron diffraction (R.J. Dwayne Miller), as well as the probing of laser induced plasma wakefields with well characterized bunches (LAOLA). They all require high bunch time of flight stability down to 10 fs. The REGAE machine consists of two RF cavities, both fed by a single klystron. While the first one - the gun cavity - is used for acceleration of the electrons, the second one - the buncher cavity - can be used to reduce the electron bunch length. This scheme only works for a specific RF phase relation between the two cavities. This thesis is split into two parts. In the first one the implications of the unique two cavity design on day-to-day machine operation are analyzed. To this end an analytical model of the RF system is developed, which is necessary for understanding how to individually adjust the cavity phases. In the second part the influence of the setup on time of flight stability is discussed with an emphasis on phase jitter compensation. RF phase stability measurements reveal that the current machine setup allows for a time of flight stability down to 50 fs right after the gun.

  4. Simulation and characterization of the RF system and global stability analysis at the REGAE linear electron accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayet, Frank

    2012-12-15

    LAOLA (LAboratory for Laser- and beam-driven plasma Acceleration), is a collaboration between groups from DESY and the University of Hamburg. Its mission is to complement basic research in the relatively new field of plasma wakefield acceleration (PWA) by an explicit combination with DESY's conventional, modern accelerators. The linear electron accelerator REGAE is designed to produce sub 10 fs low charge electron bunches with ultra-low emittance at a repetition rate of 50 Hz. The planned experiments include femtosecond electron diffraction (R.J. Dwayne Miller), as well as the probing of laser induced plasma wakefields with well characterized bunches (LAOLA). They all require high bunch time of flight stability down to 10 fs. The REGAE machine consists of two RF cavities, both fed by a single klystron. While the first one - the gun cavity - is used for acceleration of the electrons, the second one - the buncher cavity - can be used to reduce the electron bunch length. This scheme only works for a specific RF phase relation between the two cavities. This thesis is split into two parts. In the first one the implications of the unique two cavity design on day-to-day machine operation are analyzed. To this end an analytical model of the RF system is developed, which is necessary for understanding how to individually adjust the cavity phases. In the second part the influence of the setup on time of flight stability is discussed with an emphasis on phase jitter compensation. RF phase stability measurements reveal that the current machine setup allows for a time of flight stability down to 50 fs right after the gun.

  5. Environmental protection stability of river bed and banks using convex, concave, and linear bed sills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzi, Alireza; Noori, Lila Khaje

    2010-12-01

    River bed scourings are a major environmental problem for fish and aquatic habitat resources. In this study, to prevent river bed and banks from scouring, different types of bed sills including convex, concave and linear patterns were installed in a movable channel bed in a laboratory flume. The bed sills were tested with nine different arrangements and under different flow conditions. To find the most effective bed sill pattern, the scouring depth was measured downstream of the bed sill for a long experimental duration. The scour depth was measured at the middle and at the end of each experimental test for different ratios of the arch radius to the channel width [r/w]. The experimental results indicated that the convex pattern with r/w=0.35 produced minimum bed scouring depth at the center line whereas the concave pattern with r/w=0.23 produced the minimum scour depth at the wall banks. Therefore, the convex pattern was the most effective configuration for prevention of scouring at the center line of the river while the concave pattern was very effective to prevent scouring at the river banks. These findings can be suggested to be used in practical applications.

  6. Effective Surfactants Blend Concentration Determination for O/W Emulsion Stabilization by Two Nonionic Surfactants by Simple Linear Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, A K

    2015-01-01

    In this work, O/W emulsion sets were prepared by using different concentrations of two nonionic surfactants. The two surfactants, tween 80(HLB=15.0) and span 80(HLB=4.3) were used in a fixed proportions equal to 0.55:0.45 respectively. HLB value of the surfactants blends were fixed at 10.185. The surfactants blend concentration is starting from 3% up to 19%. For each O/W emulsion set the conductivity was measured at room temperature (25±2°), 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80°. Applying the simple linear regression least squares method statistical analysis to the temperature-conductivity obtained data determines the effective surfactants blend concentration required for preparing the most stable O/W emulsion. These results were confirmed by applying the physical stability centrifugation testing and the phase inversion temperature range measurements. The results indicated that, the relation which represents the most stable O/W emulsion has the strongest direct linear relationship between temperature and conductivity. This relationship is linear up to 80°. This work proves that, the most stable O/W emulsion is determined via the determination of the maximum R² value by applying of the simple linear regression least squares method to the temperature-conductivity obtained data up to 80°, in addition to, the true maximum slope is represented by the equation which has the maximum R² value. Because the conditions would be changed in a more complex formulation, the method of the determination of the effective surfactants blend concentration was verified by applying it for more complex formulations of 2% O/W miconazole nitrate cream and the results indicate its reproducibility.

  7. A Method to Simulate Linear Stability of Impulsively Accelerated Density Interfaces in Ideal-MHD and Gas Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samtaney, Ravi

    2009-01-01

    We present a numerical method to solve the linear stability of impulsively accelerated density interfaces in two dimensions such as those arising in the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability. The method uses an Eulerian approach, and is based on an unwind method to compute the temporally evolving base state and a flux vector splitting method for the perturbations. The method is applicable to either gas dynamics or magnetohydrodynamics. Numerical examples are presented for cases in which a hydrodynamic shock interacts with a single or double density interface, and a doubly shocked single density interface. Convergence tests show that the method is spatially second order accurate for smooth flows, and between first and second order accurate for flows with shocks

  8. Conditions and Linear Stability Analysis at the Transition to Synchronization of Three Coupled Phase Oscillators in a Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nashar, Hassan F.

    2017-06-01

    We consider a system of three nonidentical coupled phase oscillators in a ring topology. We explore the conditions that must be satisfied in order to obtain the phases at the transition to a synchrony state. These conditions lead to the correct mathematical expressions of phases that aid to find a simple analytic formula for critical coupling when the oscillators transit to a synchronization state having a common frequency value. The finding of a simple expression for the critical coupling allows us to perform a linear stability analysis at the transition to the synchronization stage. The obtained analytic forms of the eigenvalues show that the three coupled phase oscillators with periodic boundary conditions transit to a synchrony state when a saddle-node bifurcation occurs.

  9. Linear stability analysis and nonlinear simulation of the channeling effect on viscous fingering instability in miscible displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahnazari, M. R.; Maleka Ashtiani, I.; Saberi, A.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, the effect of channeling on viscous fingering instability of miscible displacement in porous media is studied. In fact, channeling is introduced as a solution to stabilize the viscous fingering instability. In this solution, narrow channels were placed next to the walls, and by considering an exponential function to model the channeling effect, a heterogeneous media is assumed. In linear stability analysis, the governing equations are transferred to Fourier space, and by introducing a novel numerical method, the transferred equations are analyzed. The growth rate based on the wave number diagram has been drawn up in three sections of the medium. It is found that the flow becomes more stable at the center and unstable along the walls when the permeability ratio is increased. Also when the permeability ratio is approximately equal to one, the channeling has no significant effect. In nonlinear simulations, by using stream function and vortices, new equations have been rewritten and it is shown that channeling has a profound effect on the growth of the fingers and mechanisms. In addition to the superposition of velocity vectors and concentration contours, the development of instability is investigated using the mixing length and sweep efficiency diagram. The results show that although channeling reduces instability, it increases the displacement process time.

  10. Towards the prediction of multiple necking during dynamic extension of round bar: linear stability approach versus finite element calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maï, S El; Petit, J; Mercier, S; Molinari, A

    2014-01-01

    The fragmentation of structures subject to dynamic conditions is a matter of interest for civil industries as well as for Defence institutions. Dynamic expansions of structures, such as cylinders or rings, have been performed to obtain crucial information on fragment distributions. Many authors have proposed to capture by FEA the experimental distribution of fragment size by introducing in the FE model a perturbation. Stability and bifurcation analyses have also been proposed to describe the evolution of the perturbation growth rate. In the proposed contribution, the multiple necking of a round bar in dynamic tensile loading is analysed by the FE method. A perturbation on the initial flow stress is introduced in the numerical model to trigger instabilities. The onset time and the dominant mode of necking have been characterized precisely and showed power law evolutions, with the loading velocities and moderately with the amplitudes and the cell sizes of the perturbations. In the second part of the paper, the development of linear stability analysis and the use of salient criteria in terms of the growth rate of perturbations enabled comparisons with the numerical results. A good correlation in terms of onset time of instabilities and of number of necks is shown.

  11. In-Flight Aeroelastic Stability of the Thermal Protection System on the NASA HIAD, Part I: Linear Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Benjamin D.; Dowell, Earl H.; Scott, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    Conical shell theory and piston theory aerodynamics are used to study the aeroelastic stability of the thermal protection system (TPS) on the NASA Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD). Structural models of the TPS consist of single or multiple orthotropic conical shell systems resting on several circumferential linear elastic supports. The shells in each model may have pinned (simply-supported) or elastically-supported edges. The Lagrangian is formulated in terms of the generalized coordinates for all displacements and the Rayleigh-Ritz method is used to derive the equations of motion. The natural modes of vibration and aeroelastic stability boundaries are found by calculating the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a large coefficient matrix. When the in-flight configuration of the TPS is approximated as a single shell without elastic supports, asymmetric flutter in many circumferential waves is observed. When the elastic supports are included, the shell flutters symmetrically in zero circumferential waves. Structural damping is found to be important in this case. Aeroelastic models that consider the individual TPS layers as separate shells tend to flutter asymmetrically at high dynamic pressures relative to the single shell models. Several parameter studies also examine the effects of tension, orthotropicity, and elastic support stiffness.

  12. Stability analysis of stochastic delayed cellular neural networks by LMI approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Wenli; Hu Jin

    2006-01-01

    Some sufficient mean square exponential stability conditions for a class of stochastic DCNN model are obtained via the LMI approach. These conditions improve and generalize some existing global asymptotic stability conditions for DCNN model

  13. Linearity stabilizes discrete breathers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    themselves and with the boundaries leading to the eventual formation of an ... explored where these fascinating entities are being studied as, for example, ... Josephson-junction arrays, layered silicates, micromechanical cantilever ... velocities at late times (an expected result based on the Central Limit Theorem) and the.

  14. Existence and Stability of the Periodic Solution with an Interior Transitional Layer in the Problem with a Weak Linear Advection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay N. Nefedov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, we study a singularly perturbed periodic in time problem for the parabolic reaction-advection-diffusion equation with a weak linear advection. The case of the reactive term in the form of a cubic nonlinearity is considered. On the basis of already known results, a more general formulation of the problem is investigated, with weaker sufficient conditions for the existence of a solution with an internal transition layer to be provided than in previous studies. For convenience, the known results are given, which ensure the fulfillment of the existence theorem of the contrast structure. The justification for the existence of a solution with an internal transition layer is based on the use of an asymptotic method of differential inequalities based on the modification of the terms of the constructed asymptotic expansion. Further, sufficient conditions are established to fulfill these requirements, and they have simple and concise formulations in the form of the algebraic equation w(x0,t = 0 and the condition wx(x0,t < 0, which is essentially a condition of simplicity of the root x0(t and ensuring the stability of the solution found. The function w is a function of the known functions appearing in the reactive and advective terms of the original problem. The equation w(x0,t = 0 is a problem for finding the zero approximation x0(t to determine the localization region of the inner transition layer. In addition, the asymptotic Lyapunov stability of the found periodic solution is investigated, based on the application of the so-called compressible barrier method. The main result of the paper is formulated as a theorem. 

  15. BiGlobal linear stability analysis on low-Re flow past an airfoil at high angle of attack

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Wei

    2016-04-04

    We perform BiGlobal linear stability analysis on flow past a NACA0012 airfoil at 16° angle of attack and Reynolds number ranging from 400 to 1000. The steady-state two-dimensional base flows are computed using a well-tested finite difference code in combination with the selective frequency damping method. The base flow is characterized by two asymmetric recirculation bubbles downstream of the airfoil whose streamwise extent and the maximum reverse flow velocity increase with the Reynolds number. The stability analysis of the flow past the airfoil is carried out under very small spanwise wavenumber β = 10−4 to approximate the two-dimensional perturbation, and medium and large spanwise wavenumbers (β = 1–8) to account for the three-dimensional perturbation. Numerical results reveal that under small spanwise wavenumber, there are at most two oscillatory unstable modes corresponding to the near wake and far wake instabilities; the growth rate and frequency of the perturbation agree well with the two-dimensional direct numerical simulation results under all Reynolds numbers. For a larger spanwise wavenumber β = 1, there is only one oscillatory unstable mode associated with the wake instability at Re = 400 and 600, while at Re = 800 and 1000 there are two oscillatory unstable modes for the near wake and far wake instabilities, and one stationary unstable mode for the monotonically growing perturbation within the recirculation bubble via the centrifugal instability mechanism. All the unstable modes are weakened or even suppressed as the spanwise wavenumber further increases, among which the stationary mode persists until β = 4.

  16. BiGlobal linear stability analysis on low-Re flow past an airfoil at high angle of attack

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Wei; Samtaney, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    We perform BiGlobal linear stability analysis on flow past a NACA0012 airfoil at 16° angle of attack and Reynolds number ranging from 400 to 1000. The steady-state two-dimensional base flows are computed using a well-tested finite difference code in combination with the selective frequency damping method. The base flow is characterized by two asymmetric recirculation bubbles downstream of the airfoil whose streamwise extent and the maximum reverse flow velocity increase with the Reynolds number. The stability analysis of the flow past the airfoil is carried out under very small spanwise wavenumber β = 10−4 to approximate the two-dimensional perturbation, and medium and large spanwise wavenumbers (β = 1–8) to account for the three-dimensional perturbation. Numerical results reveal that under small spanwise wavenumber, there are at most two oscillatory unstable modes corresponding to the near wake and far wake instabilities; the growth rate and frequency of the perturbation agree well with the two-dimensional direct numerical simulation results under all Reynolds numbers. For a larger spanwise wavenumber β = 1, there is only one oscillatory unstable mode associated with the wake instability at Re = 400 and 600, while at Re = 800 and 1000 there are two oscillatory unstable modes for the near wake and far wake instabilities, and one stationary unstable mode for the monotonically growing perturbation within the recirculation bubble via the centrifugal instability mechanism. All the unstable modes are weakened or even suppressed as the spanwise wavenumber further increases, among which the stationary mode persists until β = 4.

  17. Existence, stability, and dynamics of harmonically trapped one-dimensional multi-component solitary waves: The near-linear limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Kapitula, T.

    2017-06-01

    In the present work, we consider a variety of two-component, one-dimensional states in nonlinear Schrödinger equations in the presence of a parabolic trap, inspired by the atomic physics context of Bose-Einstein condensates. The use of Lyapunov-Schmidt reduction methods allows us to identify persistence criteria for the different families of solutions which we classify as (m, n), in accordance with the number of zeros in each component. Upon developing the existence theory, we turn to a stability analysis of the different configurations, using the Krein signature and the Hamiltonian-Krein index as topological tools identifying the number of potentially unstable eigendirections for each branch. A perturbation expansion for the eigenvalue problems associated with nonlinear states found near the linear limit permits us to obtain explicit asymptotic expressions for the eigenvalues. Finally, when the states are found to be unstable, typically by virtue of Hamiltonian Hopf bifurcations, their dynamics is studied in order to identify the nature of the respective instability. The dynamics is generally found to lead to a vibrational evolution over long time scales.

  18. Some Schrödinger-type inequalities for stabilization of discrete linear systems associated with the stationary Schrödinger operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongcai Jiang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract By applying some Schrödinger-type inequalities developed by Huang (Int. J. Math. 27(2:1650009, 2016, we are concerned with stabilization of discrete linear systems associated with the Schrödinger operator. Our first aim is to prove a state-dependent switching law associated with the Schrödinger operator, which is based on a convex combination. Next, we derive sufficient conditions associated with the Schrödinger operator that guarantee the uniform exponential stability of the system. Finally, we propose a necessary and sufficient condition for the stability of a system with two Schrödinger subsystems.

  19. The Langley Stability and Transition Analysis Code (LASTRAC) : LST, Linear and Nonlinear PSE for 2-D, Axisymmetric, and Infinite Swept Wing Boundary Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chau-Lyan

    2003-01-01

    During the past two decades, our understanding of laminar-turbulent transition flow physics has advanced significantly owing to, in a large part, the NASA program support such as the National Aerospace Plane (NASP), High-speed Civil Transport (HSCT), and Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST). Experimental, theoretical, as well as computational efforts on various issues such as receptivity and linear and nonlinear evolution of instability waves take part in broadening our knowledge base for this intricate flow phenomenon. Despite all these advances, transition prediction remains a nontrivial task for engineers due to the lack of a widely available, robust, and efficient prediction tool. The design and development of the LASTRAC code is aimed at providing one such engineering tool that is easy to use and yet capable of dealing with a broad range of transition related issues. LASTRAC was written from scratch based on the state-of-the-art numerical methods for stability analysis and modem software technologies. At low fidelity, it allows users to perform linear stability analysis and N-factor transition correlation for a broad range of flow regimes and configurations by using either the linear stability theory (LST) or linear parabolized stability equations (LPSE) method. At high fidelity, users may use nonlinear PSE to track finite-amplitude disturbances until the skin friction rise. Coupled with the built-in receptivity model that is currently under development, the nonlinear PSE method offers a synergistic approach to predict transition onset for a given disturbance environment based on first principles. This paper describes the governing equations, numerical methods, code development, and case studies for the current release of LASTRAC. Practical applications of LASTRAC are demonstrated for linear stability calculations, N-factor transition correlation, non-linear breakdown simulations, and controls of stationary crossflow instability in supersonic swept wing boundary

  20. Exponential stability of uncertain stochastic neural networks with mixed time-delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zidong; Lauria, Stanislao; Fang Jian'an; Liu Xiaohui

    2007-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the global exponential stability analysis problem for a class of stochastic neural networks with mixed time-delays and parameter uncertainties. The mixed delays comprise discrete and distributed time-delays, the parameter uncertainties are norm-bounded, and the neural networks are subjected to stochastic disturbances described in terms of a Brownian motion. The purpose of the stability analysis problem is to derive easy-to-test criteria under which the delayed stochastic neural network is globally, robustly, exponentially stable in the mean square for all admissible parameter uncertainties. By resorting to the Lyapunov-Krasovskii stability theory and the stochastic analysis tools, sufficient stability conditions are established by using an efficient linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach. The proposed criteria can be checked readily by using recently developed numerical packages, where no tuning of parameters is required. An example is provided to demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed criteria

  1. Improved linear least squares estimation using bounded data uncertainty

    KAUST Repository

    Ballal, Tarig

    2015-04-01

    This paper addresses the problemof linear least squares (LS) estimation of a vector x from linearly related observations. In spite of being unbiased, the original LS estimator suffers from high mean squared error, especially at low signal-to-noise ratios. The mean squared error (MSE) of the LS estimator can be improved by introducing some form of regularization based on certain constraints. We propose an improved LS (ILS) estimator that approximately minimizes the MSE, without imposing any constraints. To achieve this, we allow for perturbation in the measurement matrix. Then we utilize a bounded data uncertainty (BDU) framework to derive a simple iterative procedure to estimate the regularization parameter. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed BDU-ILS estimator is superior to the original LS estimator, and it converges to the best linear estimator, the linear-minimum-mean-squared error estimator (LMMSE), when the elements of x are statistically white.

  2. Improved linear least squares estimation using bounded data uncertainty

    KAUST Repository

    Ballal, Tarig; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the problemof linear least squares (LS) estimation of a vector x from linearly related observations. In spite of being unbiased, the original LS estimator suffers from high mean squared error, especially at low signal-to-noise ratios. The mean squared error (MSE) of the LS estimator can be improved by introducing some form of regularization based on certain constraints. We propose an improved LS (ILS) estimator that approximately minimizes the MSE, without imposing any constraints. To achieve this, we allow for perturbation in the measurement matrix. Then we utilize a bounded data uncertainty (BDU) framework to derive a simple iterative procedure to estimate the regularization parameter. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed BDU-ILS estimator is superior to the original LS estimator, and it converges to the best linear estimator, the linear-minimum-mean-squared error estimator (LMMSE), when the elements of x are statistically white.

  3. The investigation of the phase-locking stability in linear arrays of Josephson junctions and arrays closed into a superconducting loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darula, M.; Seidel, P.; Misanik, B.; Busse, F.; Heinz, E.; Benacka, S.

    1994-01-01

    The phase-locking stability is investigated theoretically in two structures: linear arrays of Josephson junctions shunted by resistive load and arrays closed into superconducting loop. In both cases the quasi-identical junctions are supposed to be in arrays. The stability as a function of spread in Josephson junction parameters as well as a function of other circuit parameters is investigated. Using Floquet theory it is shown that spread in critical currents of Josephson junction limit the stability of phase-locking state. From the simulations it follows that the phase-locking in arrays closed into superconducting loop is more stable against the spread in junction parameters than in the case of linear array of Josephson junctions. (orig.)

  4. Linear temporal and spatio-temporal stability analysis of a binary liquid film flowing down an inclined uniformly heated plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jun; Hadid, Hamda Ben; Henry, Daniel; Mojtabi, Abdelkader

    Temporal and spatio-temporal instabilities of binary liquid films flowing down an inclined uniformly heated plate with Soret effect are investigated by using the Chebyshev collocation method to solve the full system of linear stability equations. Seven dimensionless parameters, i.e. the Kapitza, Galileo, Prandtl, Lewis, Soret, Marangoni, and Biot numbers (Ka, G, Pr, L, ) are used to control the flow system. In the case of pure spanwise perturbations, thermocapillary S- and P-modes are obtained. It is found that the most dangerous modes are stationary for positive Soret numbers (0), and oscillatory for =0 remains so for >0 and even merges with the long-wave S-mode. In the case of streamwise perturbations, a long-wave surface mode (H-mode) is also obtained. From the neutral curves, it is found that larger Soret numbers make the film flow more unstable as do larger Marangoni numbers. The increase of these parameters leads to the merging of the long-wave H- and S-modes, making the situation long-wave unstable for any Galileo number. It also strongly influences the short-wave P-mode which becomes the most critical for large enough Galileo numbers. Furthermore, from the boundary curves between absolute and convective instabilities (AI/CI) calculated for both the long-wave instability (S- and H-modes) and the short-wave instability (P-mode), it is shown that for small Galileo numbers the AI/CI boundary curves are determined by the long-wave instability, while for large Galileo numbers they are determined by the short-wave instability.

  5. Analysis on Accuracy of Bias, Linearity and Stability of Measurement System in Ball screw Processes by Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan-Yun Pai

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To consistently produce high quality products, a quality management system, such as the ISO9001, 2000 or TS 16949 must be practically implemented. One core instrument of the TS16949 MSA (Measurement System Analysis is to rank the capability of a measurement system and ensure the quality characteristics of the product would likely be transformed through the whole manufacturing process. It is important to reduce the risk of Type I errors (acceptable goods are misjudged as defective parts and Type II errors (defective parts are misjudged as good parts. An ideal measuring system would have the statistical characteristic of zero error, but such a system could hardly exist. Hence, to maintain better control of the variance that might occur in the manufacturing process, MSA is necessary for better quality control. Ball screws, which are a key component in precision machines, have significant attributes with respect to positioning and transmitting. Failures of lead accuracy and axial-gap of a ball screw can cause negative and expensive effects in machine positioning accuracy. Consequently, a functional measurement system can incur great savings by detecting Type I and Type II errors. If the measurement system fails with respect to specification of the product, it will likely misjudge Type I and Type II errors. Inspectors normally follow the MSA regulations for accuracy measurement, but the choice of measuring system does not merely depend on some simple indices. In this paper, we examine the stability of a measuring system by using a Monte Carlo simulation to establish bias, linearity variance of the normal distribution, and the probability density function. Further, we forecast the possible area distribution in the real case. After the simulation, the measurement capability will be improved, which helps the user classify the measurement system and establish measurement regulations for better performance and monitoring of the precision of the ball screw.

  6. A model for the linear stability of the interface between aqueous humor and vitreous substitutes after vitreoretinal surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isakova, Krystyna; Pralits, Jan O.; Repetto, Rodolfo; Romano, Mario R.

    2014-12-01

    We consider the motion of two immiscible viscous fluids induced by periodic oscillations of a flat solid surface along its plane. The interface between the two fluids is parallel to the solid wall; one fluid occupies the region between the wall and the interface and the other extends from the interface to infinity. We study numerically the linear stability of the interface with respect to two-dimensional perturbations using the normal mode analysis and assuming quasi-steady flow conditions. The analysis is motivated by the need of understanding the behavior of vitreous substitutes inserted in the vitreous chamber of the eye after vitrectomy. This is a common surgical procedure adopted to treat retinal detachments, whereby the vitreous humor is removed from the eye and replaced by fluids immiscible with water. Owing to their hydrophobic nature, vitreous substitutes coexist in the vitreous chamber with a certain amount of aqueous humor (the fluid produced in the anterior part of the eye) and, typically, a thin layer of aqueous separates the tamponade fluid from the retina. A common problem with this treatment is that, in some cases, the interface between the two fluids breaks down and this might eventually lead to the generation of an emulsion. It is believed that mechanics plays an important role in this process but the problem remains very poorly understood. We find that instability of the interface is possible in a range of parameters that is relevant for the problem that motivated the present analysis. This suggests that shear instability is likely a possible mechanism triggering the onset of vitreous substitutes-aqueous interface instability.

  7. Novel delay-distribution-dependent stability analysis for continuous-time recurrent neural networks with stochastic delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shen-Quan; Feng Jian; Zhao Qing

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of delay-distribution-dependent stability is investigated for continuous-time recurrent neural networks (CRNNs) with stochastic delay. Different from the common assumptions on time delays, it is assumed that the probability distribution of the delay taking values in some intervals is known a priori. By making full use of the information concerning the probability distribution of the delay and by using a tighter bounding technique (the reciprocally convex combination method), less conservative asymptotic mean-square stable sufficient conditions are derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Two numerical examples show that our results are better than the existing ones. (general)

  8. Propagation and stability characteristics of a 500-m-long laser-based fiducial line for high-precision alignment of long-distance linear accelerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwada, Tsuyoshi; Satoh, Masanori; Telada, Souichi; Minoshima, Kaoru

    2013-09-01

    A laser-based alignment system with a He-Ne laser has been newly developed in order to precisely align accelerator units at the KEKB injector linac. The laser beam was first implemented as a 500-m-long fiducial straight line for alignment measurements. We experimentally investigated the propagation and stability characteristics of the laser beam passing through laser pipes in vacuum. The pointing stability at the last fiducial point was successfully obtained with the transverse displacements of ±40 μm level in one standard deviation by applying a feedback control. This pointing stability corresponds to an angle of ±0.08 μrad. This report contains a detailed description of the experimental investigation for the propagation and stability characteristics of the laser beam in the laser-based alignment system for long-distance linear accelerators.

  9. Medium-Term Stability of the Photon Beam Energy of An Elekta CompactTM Linear Accelerator Based on Daily Measurements of Beam Quality Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Amin Mosleh-Shirazi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In this study, we aimed to assess the medium-term energy stability of a 6MV Elekta CompactTM linear accelerator. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first published article to evaluate this linear accelerator in terms of energy stability. As well as investigating the stability of the linear accelerator energy over a period of several weeks, the results will be useful for estimation of the required tolerance values for the beam quality factor (BQF of the PTW QUICKCHECK weblineTM (QCW daily checking device. Materials and Methods Over a 13 week period of routine clinical service, 52 daily readings of BQF were taken and then analyzed for a 10×10 cm2 field. Results No decreasing or increasing trend in BQF was observed over the study period. The mean BQF value was estimated at 5.4483 with a standard deviation (SD of 0.0459 (0.8%. The mean value was only 0.1% different from the baseline value. Conclusion The results of this medium-term stability study of the Elekta Compact linear accelerator energy showed that 96.2% of the observed BQF values were within ±1.3% of the baseline value. This can be considered to be within the recommended tolerance for linear accelerator photon beam energy. If an approach of applying ±3 SD is taken, the tolerance level for BQF may be suggested to be set at ±2.5%. However, further research is required to establish a relationship between BQF value and the actual changes in beam energy and penetrative quality.

  10. Electronic structure, stability and non-linear optical properties of aza-fullerenes C60-2nN2n(n=1–12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Srinivasu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Through ab initio based density functional theory calculations, we have investigated the electronic structure, stability and non-linear optical properties of a series of nitrogen substituted fullerenes (azafullerenes with the general formula C60-2nN2n (n=1–12. For each system, we have considered different possible isomers and the minimum energy isomer is subjected to further detailed investigations. We have calculated different properties such as HOMO-LUMO gaps, vertical ionization potentials, vertical electron affinities, etc. to verify the stability of the considered fullerenes. From the Hessian calculations, it is observed that all the fullerenes are not only associated with real vibrational frequencies, but the minimum frequencies are also found to be considerably large which further confirms the stability of the considered fullerenes. We find that the presence of unperturbed C6 rings enhances the stability of the fullerene whereas, the -N-C-N- fragments are found to destabilize the structure. At lower doping concentration, the stabilization due to C6 is more predominant and as the doping concentration is increased, the destabilization due to nitrogen-nitrogen repulsion plays a more important role. Our calculated polarizability and hyperpolarizability parameters of C60 are found to be in good agreement with the earlier reported results. On nitrogen doping, considerable variation is observed in the non-linear optical coefficients, which can be helpful in designing new photonic devices.

  11. On Some Sufficiency-Type Stability and Linear State-Feedback Stabilization Conditions for a Class of Multirate Discrete-Time Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. De la Sen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and discusses the stability of a discrete multirate sampling system whose sets of sampling rates (or sampling periods are the integer multiple of those operating on all the preceding substates. Each of such substates is associated with a particular sampling rate. The sufficiency-type stability conditions are derived based on simple conditions on the norm, spectral radius and numerical radius of the matrix of the dynamics of a system parameterized at the largest sampling period.

  12. A geometric criterion for the stability of forced oscillations in non-linear mechanics (1961); Un critere geometrique de stabilite des oscillations forcees en mecanique non lineaire (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaquiere, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    The author completes the two-parameter diagram theory which he has previously explained, by giving a geometric criterion of stability for a non-linear system under forced conditions. After two simple geometric transformations of the diagram he obtains the separators which are the boundary conditions for the zones of stability. (author) [French] L'auteur complete la theorie du diagramme a deux parametres, qu'il a anterieurement exposee, par l'enonce d'un critere geometrique de stabilite, relatif aux regimes forces d'un systeme non lineaire. Il obtient, par deux transformations geometriques simples du diagramme, les separatrices qui delimitent les zones de stabilite. (auteur)

  13. Assortative mating and directional or stabilizing selection for a non-linear function of traits in Tribolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, J L; Gil, M G

    1993-01-12

    Assortative or random mating following selection in either direction on a non-linear index (experiment 1) or stabilizing selection for pupal length (experiment 2) were carried out for five generations in two lines of Tribolium castaneum (A and R, respectively), with three replicates each. The selected proportion was 25% in all lines. In experiment 1, the selection criterion was designed to increase the aggregate value of adult weight and the first- and second-order powers of pupal length. The A and R lines gave significant responses for the aggregate value (184 ± 6 and 161 ± 14, respectively), pupal length (0.74 ± 0.02 and 0.64 ± 0.05, respectively), and adult weight (0.79 ± 0.03 and 0.78 ± 0.12, respectively). Although the A line was not significantly better than the R line, there was a consistent advantage for assortative mating over random mating, the mean response for aggregate value and pupal length being approximately 1.15 times greater for the A line. In experiment 2 the selection criterion was the square of the deviation from the mean pupal length (stabilizing selection); both lines did not show any change for pupal length. The phenotypic variance showed a significant decrease in the A and R lines, due to a decrease in between-family variance. The assortatively and randomly mated lines were similar for these changes in phenotypic variation. RESUMEN: Aparemiento clasificado y selección direccional o estabilizante para una función no lineal en Tribolium. Dos líneas de Tribolium castaneum fueron seleccionadas direccionalmente para un índice no lineal (experimento 1) o estabilizantemente para longitud de pupa (experimento 2), apareando los animales seleccionados clasificadamente (A) o aleatoriamente (R). Había tres repeticiones por experimento y línea, siendo la proporción de selección el 25%. En el experimento 1, el objetivo de selección incluía el peso adulto así como la longitud de pupa y su cuadrado. Ambas líneas dieron respuesta

  14. Application of “Boomerang” Linear Polystyrene-Stabilized Pd Nanoparticles to a Series of C-C Coupling Reactions in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Ohtaka

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The application of a catch-and-release system for soluble Pd species between water (reaction medium and polystyrene (polymer support was examined in the Suzuki coupling reaction with 2-bromothiophene and the Heck reaction with styrene or bromobenzene. Although a slight increase in particle size was observed by TEM after re-stabilization of the Pd species on linear polystyrene, no agglomeration was observed.

  15. Global stability of stochastic high-order neural networks with discrete and distributed delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zidong; Fang Jianan; Liu Xiaohui

    2008-01-01

    High-order neural networks can be considered as an expansion of Hopfield neural networks, and have stronger approximation property, faster convergence rate, greater storage capacity, and higher fault tolerance than lower-order neural networks. In this paper, the global asymptotic stability analysis problem is considered for a class of stochastic high-order neural networks with discrete and distributed time-delays. Based on an Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and the stochastic stability analysis theory, several sufficient conditions are derived, which guarantee the global asymptotic convergence of the equilibrium point in the mean square. It is shown that the stochastic high-order delayed neural networks under consideration are globally asymptotically stable in the mean square if two linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) are feasible, where the feasibility of LMIs can be readily checked by the Matlab LMI toolbox. It is also shown that the main results in this paper cover some recently published works. A numerical example is given to demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed global stability criteria

  16. Exponential stability of delayed recurrent neural networks with Markovian jumping parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zidong; Liu Yurong; Yu Li; Liu Xiaohui

    2006-01-01

    In this Letter, the global exponential stability analysis problem is considered for a class of recurrent neural networks (RNNs) with time delays and Markovian jumping parameters. The jumping parameters considered here are generated from a continuous-time discrete-state homogeneous Markov process, which are governed by a Markov process with discrete and finite state space. The purpose of the problem addressed is to derive some easy-to-test conditions such that the dynamics of the neural network is stochastically exponentially stable in the mean square, independent of the time delay. By employing a new Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, a linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach is developed to establish the desired sufficient conditions, and therefore the global exponential stability in the mean square for the delayed RNNs can be easily checked by utilizing the numerically efficient Matlab LMI toolbox, and no tuning of parameters is required. A numerical example is exploited to show the usefulness of the derived LMI-based stability conditions

  17. Stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad H. Al-Malack

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fuel oil flyash (FFA produced in power and water desalination plants firing crude oils in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is being disposed in landfills, which increases the burden on the environment, therefore, FFA utilization must be encouraged. In the current research, the effect of adding FFA on the engineering properties of two indigenous soils, namely sand and marl, was investigated. FFA was added at concentrations of 5%, 10% and 15% to both soils with and without the addition of Portland cement. Mixtures of the stabilized soils were thoroughly evaluated using compaction, California Bearing Ratio (CBR, unconfined compressive strength (USC and durability tests. Results of these tests indicated that stabilized sand mixtures could not attain the ACI strength requirements. However, marl was found to satisfy the ACI strength requirement when only 5% of FFA was added together with 5% of cement. When the FFA was increased to 10% and 15%, the mixture’s strength was found to decrease to values below the ACI requirements. Results of the Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP, which was performed on samples that passed the ACI requirements, indicated that FFA must be cautiously used in soil stabilization.

  18. Optimal explicit strong stability preserving Runge–Kutta methods with high linear order and optimal nonlinear order

    KAUST Repository

    Gottlieb, Sigal; Grant, Zachary; Higgs, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    High order spatial discretizations with monotonicity properties are often desirable for the solution of hyperbolic PDEs. These methods can advantageously be coupled with high order strong stability preserving time discretizations. The search

  19. Linear stability of a fuel channel uniformly heated considering retrofeeding by vacuum. Theoretical study; Estabilidad lineal de un canal combustible uniformemente calentado considerando retroalimentacion por vacios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez M, V. [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, 03000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Salinas H, J.G.; Espinosa P, G. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, 09000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The Technology, Regulation and Services Management of the National Commission of Nuclear Safety and Safeguards in coordinated form with the IPH Department of the Metropolitan Autonomous-Iztapalapa University, developed the present project to study the linear stability in a fuel channel uniformly heated with effects of retrofeeding by vacuums. In this study the methodology used in the analysis of linear stability of the nuclear reactor unit 1 at Laguna Verde power plant is described which represented by an average channel uniformly heated. The conceptual model consists of two cells which represent the two regions in which is divided the channel according to the cooling is in one and two phases, considering the boiling length dependent in the time. It is used the homogeneous flux models for describing the thermohydraulic behavior of the cooling in the two phases region. The neutron processes with the punctual model of the neutron kinetics with a group of retarded neutrons precursors are described. It is studied the behavior of the system in the frequency domain with the transfer functions obtained and it is characterized in four operation states corresponding to the four corners of the low stability zone in the map power-flow Laguna Verde power plant. For these operation states the characteristic frequency is determined and the corresponding Nyquist diagrams are obtained. The results show that the system stability depends on the power-flow relation and that the operations which implicate a reduction of this relation improve the stability of the system (reducing the power introducing control bars with constant cooling flow or increase cooling flow with bars pattern established). The obtained results with effects of retrofeeding by vacuums show that the value of the characteristic frequency is modified very little with respect to the model without retrofeeding, therefore the thermohydraulic processes seem to determine the response of the stability of the system

  20. On the stability, the periodic solutions and the resolution of certain types of non linear equations, and of non linearly coupled systems of these equations, appearing in betatronic oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valat, J.

    1960-12-01

    Universal stability diagrams have been calculated and experimentally checked for Hill-Meissner type equations with square-wave coefficients. The study of these equations in the phase-plane has then made it possible to extend the periodic solution calculations to the case of non-linear differential equations with periodic square-wave coefficients. This theory has been checked experimentally. For non-linear coupled systems with constant coefficients, a search was first made for solutions giving an algebraic motion. The elliptical and Fuchs's functions solve such motions. The study of non-algebraic motions is more delicate, apart from the study of nonlinear Lissajous's motions. A functional analysis shows that it is possible however in certain cases to decouple the system and to find general solutions. For non-linear coupled systems with periodic square-wave coefficients it is then possible to calculate the conditions leading to periodic solutions, if the two non-linear associated systems with constant coefficients fall into one of the categories of the above paragraph. (author) [fr

  1. Stability analysis for neutral stochastic differential equation of second order driven by Poisson jumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, Alka; Bora, Swaroop Nandan

    2017-11-01

    This paper studies the existence, uniqueness, and exponential stability in mean square for the mild solution of neutral second order stochastic partial differential equations with infinite delay and Poisson jumps. By utilizing the Banach fixed point theorem, first the existence and uniqueness of the mild solution of neutral second order stochastic differential equations is established. Then, the mean square exponential stability for the mild solution of the stochastic system with Poisson jumps is obtained with the help of an established integral inequality.

  2. Global exponential stability of neutral high-order stochastic Hopfield neural networks with Markovian jump parameters and mixed time delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haiying; Du, Qiaosheng; Kang, Xibing

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, a class of neutral high-order stochastic Hopfield neural networks with Markovian jump parameters and mixed time delays is investigated. The jumping parameters are modeled as a continuous-time finite-state Markov chain. At first, the existence of equilibrium point for the addressed neural networks is studied. By utilizing the Lyapunov stability theory, stochastic analysis theory and linear matrix inequality (LMI) technique, new delay-dependent stability criteria are presented in terms of linear matrix inequalities to guarantee the neural networks to be globally exponentially stable in the mean square. Numerical simulations are carried out to illustrate the main results. © 2013 ISA. Published by ISA. All rights reserved.

  3. Mononuclear Clusterfullerene Single-Molecule Magnet Containing Strained Fused-Pentagons Stabilized by a Nearly Linear Metal Cyanide Cluster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Fupin; Wang, Song; Gao, Cong Li

    2017-01-01

    Fused-pentagons results in an increase of local steric strain according to the isolated pentagon rule (IPR), and for all reported non-IPR clusterfullerenes multiple (two or three) metals are required to stabilize the strained fused-pentagons, making it difficult to access the single-atom properti...... (SMM)....

  4. Stabilization of the outputs of pulse amplifiers utilizing non-linear feedback networks. Application to nuclear spectrometer amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henein, K.L.

    1978-02-01

    In nuclear spectroscopy, baseline instability and random fluctuations at the output of the amplifier create imperfectly solved problems mainly at high counting rates. After a critical examination of current systems, solutions are proposed which surpass existing ones. It is shown that restorers and stabilizers of baselines have their own preferential application. Considering natural limits of performance the proposed solutions give entirely satisfactory results [fr

  5. Thermodynamic stabilities of linear and crinkled tapes and cyclic rosettes in melamine-cyanurate assemblies: a model description

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bielejewska, A.G.; Marjo, Christopher E.; Prins, L.J.; Timmerman, P.; de Jong, Feike; Reinhoudt, David

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we describe model calculations for the self-assembly of N,N-disubstituted melamines 1 and N-substituted cyanuric acid or 5,5-disubstituted barbituric acid derivatives 2 into linear or crinkled tapes and cyclic rosettes via cooperative hydrogen bond formation. The model description

  6. Analysis of linear stability in nuclear systems associated to two-phase fluid flow and in thermodynamic balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvao, O.B.; Amorim, E.S. do; D'Oliveira, A.B.

    1981-03-01

    Under special conditions a water-cooled reactor or other multiphase process can be subject to instabilities as the so called density-wave oscillations phenomenon. The purpose of this investigation is to derive the stability limits of a boiling channel for the dynamic response to an inlet velocity perturbation. The solution scheme allowed a coupling for the single and two-phase regions together with a model for the dynamic thermal response of the heated surface. The frequency response of a rational transfer function is obtained and a Nyquist plot is used for stability analysis. The model is, although simplified, quite capable of predicting the threshold for self-excited system or the trends given by more exact solution. (Author) [pt

  7. Investigation of cellular detonation structure formation via linear stability theory and 2D and 3D numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisov, S. P.; Kudryavtsev, A. N.

    2017-10-01

    Linear and nonlinear stages of the instability of a plane detonation wave (DW) and the subsequent process of formation of cellular detonation structure are investigated. A simple model with one-step irreversible chemical reaction is used. The linear analysis is employed to predict the DW front structure at the early stages of its formation. An emerging eigenvalue problem is solved with a global method using a Chebyshev pseudospectral method and the LAPACK software library. A local iterative shooting procedure is used for eigenvalue refinement. Numerical simulations of a propagation of a DW in plane and rectangular channels are performed with a shock capturing WENO scheme of 5th order. A special method of a computational domain shift is implemented in order to maintain the DW in the domain. It is shown that the linear analysis gives certain predictions about the DW structure that are in agreement with the numerical simulations of early stages of DW propagation. However, at later stages, a merger of detonation cells occurs so that their number is approximately halved. Computations of DW propagation in a square channel reveal two different types of spatial structure of the DW front, "rectangular" and "diagonal" types. A spontaneous transition from the rectangular to diagonal type of structure is observed during propagation of the DW.

  8. Robust stability analysis of uncertain stochastic neural networks with interval time-varying delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Wei; Yang, Simon X.; Fu Wei; Wu Haixia

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the stability analysis problem for uncertain stochastic neural networks with interval time-varying delays. The parameter uncertainties are assumed to be norm bounded, and the delay factor is assumed to be time-varying and belong to a given interval, which means that the lower and upper bounds of interval time-varying delays are available. A sufficient condition is derived such that for all admissible uncertainties, the considered neural network is robustly, globally, asymptotically stable in the mean square. Some stability criteria are formulated by means of the feasibility of a linear matrix inequality (LMI), which can be effectively solved by some standard numerical packages. Finally, numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed criteria.

  9. Robust stability for stochastic bidirectional associative memory neural networks with time delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, H. S.; Lv, Z. W.; Wei, G. L.

    2008-02-01

    In this paper, the asymptotic stability is considered for a class of uncertain stochastic bidirectional associative memory neural networks with time delays and parameter uncertainties. The delays are time-invariant and the uncertainties are norm-bounded that enter into all network parameters. The aim of this paper is to establish easily verifiable conditions under which the delayed neural network is robustly asymptotically stable in the mean square for all admissible parameter uncertainties. By employing a Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and conducting the stochastic analysis, a linear matrix inequality matrix inequality (LMI) approach is developed to derive the stability criteria. The proposed criteria can be easily checked by the Matlab LMI toolbox. A numerical example is given to demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed criteria.

  10. Otimização do processo de soldagem FCAW usando o erro quadrático médio multivariado FCAW welding process optimization using the multivariate mean square error

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson José de Paiva

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Encontrar um conjunto ótimo de parâmetros para um processo de soldagem é uma tarefa pouco trivial, face às múltiplas características exigíveis ou desejáveis que devem ser analisadas. Além disso, a negligência da estrutura de variância-covariância destas características na otimização pode conduzir a ótimos inadequados. Com o intuito de auxiliar na busca desses parâmetros, um método para otimização multiobjetiva, desenvolvido para o estudo do processo de soldagem FCAW (do inglês Flux Cored Arc Welding, utilizando-se arames tubulares, baseado no conceito de Erro Quadrático Médio Multivariado, será apresentado. Trata-se de uma abordagem combinada da Metodologia de Superfície de Resposta, Projeto de Experimentos e Análise de Componentes Principais, na tentativa de localizar valores próximos a alvos especificados, para cada uma das características estudadas (Penetração, Taxa de deposição, Rendimento, Índice de convexidade e Diluição, considerando-se as variáveis de processo expressas em função da tensão (V, velocidade de alimentação do arame (Va e da distância do bico de contato-peça (d. Os resultados obtidos apontam para uma boa adequação desta proposta.The optimization of welding processes is not a trivial task, mainly due to the great number of exigible and desirable characteristics that must be analyzed. Moreover, the optimization of a welding process with multiple characteristics without to consider the variance-covariance structure, may lead to inadequate optimum. To help in this task, a method of multiobjective optimization based in the Multivariate Mean Square Error applied in the study of multiple correlated characteristics of a FCAW (Flux Cored Arc Welding welding process will be presented. This method characterized by a combined approach based in the Response Surface Methodology, Design of Experiments and Principal Components Analysis consisted in an attempt to achieve the nearest values to

  11. Optimal linear detectors for nonorthogonal amplify-and-forward protocol

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Qasim Zeeshan; Park, Kihong; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Aissa, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we propose optimal linear detectors for non-orthogonal amplify-and-forward cooperative protocol when considering a single-relay scenario. Two types of detectors are proposed based on the principles of minimum mean square error (MMSE) and minimum bit error rate (MBER). The MMSE detector minimizes the mean square error, while the MBER minimizes the system bit error rate (BER). Both detectors exhibit excellent BER performance with relatively low complexity as compared to the maximal likelihood (ML) detector. The BER performance of both detectors is superior to the channel inversion, the maximal ratio combining, and the biased ML detectors. © 2013 IEEE.

  12. Optimal linear detectors for nonorthogonal amplify-and-forward protocol

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Qasim Zeeshan

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we propose optimal linear detectors for non-orthogonal amplify-and-forward cooperative protocol when considering a single-relay scenario. Two types of detectors are proposed based on the principles of minimum mean square error (MMSE) and minimum bit error rate (MBER). The MMSE detector minimizes the mean square error, while the MBER minimizes the system bit error rate (BER). Both detectors exhibit excellent BER performance with relatively low complexity as compared to the maximal likelihood (ML) detector. The BER performance of both detectors is superior to the channel inversion, the maximal ratio combining, and the biased ML detectors. © 2013 IEEE.

  13. The stability of mechanical calibration for a kV cone beam computed tomography system integrated with linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpe, Michael B.; Moseley, Douglas J.; Purdie, Thomas G.

    2006-01-01

    The geometric accuracy and precision of an image-guided treatment system were assessed. Image guidance is performed using an x-ray volume imaging (XVI) system integrated with a linear accelerator and treatment planning system. Using an amorphous silicon detector and x-ray tube, volumetric computed tomography images are reconstructed from kilovoltage radiographs by filtered backprojection. Image fusion and assessment of geometric targeting are supported by the treatment planning system. To assess the limiting accuracy and precision of image-guided treatment delivery, a rigid spherical target embedded in an opaque phantom was subjected to 21 treatment sessions over a three-month period. For each session, a volumetric data set was acquired and loaded directly into an active treatment planning session. Image fusion was used to ascertain the couch correction required to position the target at the prescribed iso-center. Corrections were validated independently using megavoltage electronic portal imaging to record the target position with respect to symmetric treatment beam apertures. An initial calibration cycle followed by repeated image-guidance sessions demonstrated the XVI system could be used to relocate an unambiguous object to within less than 1 mm of the prescribed location. Treatment could then proceed within the mechanical accuracy and precision of the delivery system. The calibration procedure maintained excellent spatial resolution and delivery precision over the duration of this study, while the linear accelerator was in routine clinical use. Based on these results, the mechanical accuracy and precision of the system are ideal for supporting high-precision localization and treatment of soft-tissue targets

  14. STABILITY OF STOCHASTIC DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS WITH UNBOUNDED DELAY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In this paper,we obtain suffcient conditions for the stability in p-th moment of the analytical solutions and the mean square stability of a stochastic differential equation with unbounded delay proposed in [6,10] using the explicit Euler method.

  15. An Evaluation of Five Linear Equating Methods for the NEAT Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroch, Andrew A.; Suh, Youngsuk; Kane, Michael T.; Ripkey, Douglas R.

    2009-01-01

    This study uses the results of two previous papers (Kane, Mroch, Suh, & Ripkey, this issue; Suh, Mroch, Kane, & Ripkey, this issue) and the literature on linear equating to evaluate five linear equating methods along several dimensions, including the plausibility of their assumptions and their levels of bias and root mean squared difference…

  16. Onset of Convection in the Presence of a Precipitation Reaction in a Porous Medium: A Comparison of Linear Stability and Numerical Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parama Ghoshal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Reactive convection in a porous medium has received recent interest in the context of the geological storage of carbon dioxide in saline formations. We study theoretically and numerically the gravitational instability of a diffusive boundary layer in the presence of a first-order precipitation reaction. We compare the predictions from normal mode, linear stability analysis, and nonlinear numerical simulations, and discuss the relative deviations. The application of our findings to the storage of carbon dioxide in a siliciclastic aquifer shows that while the reactive-diffusive layer can become unstable within a timescale of 1 to 1.5 months after the injection of carbon dioxide, it can take almost 10 months for sufficiently vigorous convection to produce a considerable increase in the dissolution flux of carbon dioxide.

  17. Emerging synthetic strategies for core cross-linked star (CCS) polymers and applications as interfacial stabilizers: bridging linear polymers and nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qijing; Cao, Xueteng; Xu, Yuanyuan; An, Zesheng

    2013-10-01

    Core cross-linked star (CCS) polymers become increasingly important in polymer science and are evaluated in many value-added applications. However, limitations exist to varied degrees for different synthetic methods. It is clear that improvement in synthetic efficiency is fundamental in driving this field moving even further. Here, the most recent advances are highlighted in synthetic strategies, including cross-linking with cross-linkers of low solubility, polymerization-induced self-assembly in aqueous-based heterogeneous media, and cross-linking via dynamic covalent bonds. The understanding of CCS polymers is also further refined to advocate their role as an intermediate between linear polymers and polymeric nanoparticles, and their use as interfacial stabilizers is rationalized within this context. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Current linearity and operation stability in Al2O3-gate AlGaN/GaN MOS high electron mobility transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiguchi, Kenya; Kaneki, Syota; Ozaki, Shiro; Hashizume, Tamotsu

    2017-10-01

    To investigate current linearity and operation stability of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs), we have fabricated and characterized the Al2O3-gate MOS-HEMTs without and with a bias annealing in air at 300 °C. Compared with the as-fabricated (unannealed) MOS HEMTs, the bias-annealed devices showed improved linearity of I D-V G curves even in the forward bias regime, resulting in increased maximum drain current. Lower subthreshold slope was also observed after bias annealing. From the precise capacitance-voltage analysis on a MOS diode fabricated on the AlGaN/GaN heterostructure, it was found that the bias annealing effectively reduced the state density at the Al2O3/AlGaN interface. This led to efficient modulation of the AlGaN surface potential close to the conduction band edge, resulting in good gate control of two-dimensional electron gas density even at forward bias. In addition, the bias-annealed MOS HEMT showed small threshold voltage shift after applying forward bias stress and stable operation even at high temperatures.

  19. Effects of linear and nonlinear time-delayed feedback on the noise-enhanced stability phenomenon in a periodically driven bistable system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Zheng-Lin; Mei, Dong-Cheng

    2011-01-01

    We investigate numerically the effects of time delay on the phenomenon of noise-enhanced stability (NES) in a periodically modulated bistable system. Three types of time-delayed feedback, including linear delayed feedback, nonlinear delayed feedback and global delayed feedback, are considered. We find a non-monotonic behaviour of the mean first-passage time (MFPT) as a function of the delay time τ, with a maximum in the case of linear delayed feedback and with a minimum in the case of nonlinear delayed feedback. There are two peculiar values of τ around which the NES phenomenon is enhanced or weakened. For the case of global delayed feedback, the increase of τ always weakens the NES phenomenon. Moreover, we also show that the amplitude A and the frequency Ω of the periodic forcing play an opposite role in the NES phenomenon, i.e. the increase of A weakens the NES effect while the increase of Ω enhances it. These observations demonstrate that the time-delayed feedback can be used as a feasible control scheme for the NES phenomenon

  20. Validation of three-dimensional incompressible spatial direct numerical simulation code: A comparison with linear stability and parabolic stability equation theories for boundary-layer transition on a flat plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joslin, Ronald D.; Streett, Craig L.; Chang, Chau-Lyan

    1992-01-01

    Spatially evolving instabilities in a boundary layer on a flat plate are computed by direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. In a truncated physical domain, a nonstaggered mesh is used for the grid. A Chebyshev-collocation method is used normal to the wall; finite difference and compact difference methods are used in the streamwise direction; and a Fourier series is used in the spanwise direction. For time stepping, implicit Crank-Nicolson and explicit Runge-Kutta schemes are used to the time-splitting method. The influence-matrix technique is used to solve the pressure equation. At the outflow boundary, the buffer-domain technique is used to prevent convective wave reflection or upstream propagation of information from the boundary. Results of the DNS are compared with those from both linear stability theory (LST) and parabolized stability equation (PSE) theory. Computed disturbance amplitudes and phases are in very good agreement with those of LST (for small inflow disturbance amplitudes). A measure of the sensitivity of the inflow condition is demonstrated with both LST and PSE theory used to approximate inflows. Although the DNS numerics are very different than those of PSE theory, the results are in good agreement. A small discrepancy in the results that does occur is likely a result of the variation in PSE boundary condition treatment in the far field. Finally, a small-amplitude wave triad is forced at the inflow, and simulation results are compared with those of LST. Again, very good agreement is found between DNS and LST results for the 3-D simulations, the implication being that the disturbance amplitudes are sufficiently small that nonlinear interactions are negligible.

  1. Self-driven particles in linear flows and trapped in a harmonic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Mario; Hidalgo-Gonzalez, Julio C.; Jimenez-Aquino, Jose I.

    2018-03-01

    We present analytical expressions for the mean-square displacement of self-driven particles in general linear flows and trapped in a harmonic potential. The general expressions are applied to three types of linear flows, namely, shear flow, solid-body rotation flow, and extensional flow. By using Brownian dynamics simulations, the effect of trapping and external linear flows on the particles' distribution is also elucidated. These simulations also enabled us to validate our theoretical results.

  2. State Estimation for Linear Systems Driven Simultaneously by Wiener and Poisson Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-12-01

    The state estimation problem of linear stochastic systems driven simultaneously by Wiener and Poisson processes is considered, especially the case...where the incident intensities of the Poisson processes are low and the system is observed in an additive white Gaussian noise. The minimum mean squared

  3. Non-fragile robust stabilization and H{sub {infinity}} control for uncertain stochastic nonlinear time-delay systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Jinhui [Department of Automatic Control, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)], E-mail: jinhuizhang82@gmail.com; Shi Peng [Faculty of Advanced Technology, University of Glamorgan, Pontypridd CF37 1DL (United Kingdom); ILSCM, School of Science and Engineering, Victoria University, Melbourne, Vic. 8001 (Australia); School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia)], E-mail: pshi@glam.ac.uk; Yang Hongjiu [Department of Automatic Control, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)], E-mail: yanghongjiu@gmail.com

    2009-12-15

    This paper deals with the problem of non-fragile robust stabilization and H{sub {infinity}} control for a class of uncertain stochastic nonlinear time-delay systems. The parametric uncertainties are real time-varying as well as norm bounded. The time-delay factors are unknown and time-varying with known bounds. The aim is to design a memoryless non-fragile state feedback control law such that the closed-loop system is stochastically asymptotically stable in the mean square and the effect of the disturbance input on the controlled output is less than a prescribed level for all admissible parameter uncertainties. New sufficient conditions for the existence of such controllers are presented based on the linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) approach. Numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the developed techniques.

  4. Study of vibrations and stabilization of linear collider final doublets at the sub-nanometer scale; Etude des vibrations et de la stabilisation a l'echelle sous-nanometrique des doublets finaux d'un collisionneur lineaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolzon, B

    2007-11-15

    CLIC is one of the current projects of high energy linear colliders. Vertical beam sizes of 0.7 nm at the time of the collision and fast ground motion of a few nanometers impose an active stabilization of the final doublets at a fifth of nanometer above 4 Hz. The majority of my work concerned vibrations and active stabilization study of cantilever and slim beams in order to be representative of the final doublets of CLIC. In a first part, measured performances of different types of vibration sensors associated to an appropriate instrumentation showed that accurate measurements of ground motion are possible from 0.1 Hz up to 2000 Hz on a quiet site. Also, electrochemical sensors answering a priori the specifications of CLIC can be incorporated in the active stabilization at a fifth of nanometer. In a second part, an experimental and numerical study of beam vibrations enabled to validate the efficiency of the numerical prediction incorporated then in the simulation of the active stabilization. Also, a study of the impact of ground motion and of acoustic noise on beam vibrations showed that an active stabilization is necessary at least up to 1000 Hz. In a third part, results on the active stabilization of a beam at its two first resonances are shown down to amplitudes of a tenth of nanometer above 4 Hz by using in parallel a commercial system performing passive and active stabilization of the clamping. The last part is related to a study of a support for the final doublets of a linear collider prototype in phase of finalization, the ATF2 prototype. This work showed that relative motion between this support and the ground is below imposed tolerances (6 nm above 0.1 Hz) with appropriate boundary conditions. (author)

  5. Video enhancement using content-adaptive least mean square filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, M.

    2006-01-01

    The current television system is evolving towards an entirely digital, high resolution and high picture rate broadcasting system. As compatibility with the past weights heavily for a popular consumer service, this evolution progresses rather slowly. The progress is particularly slow compared to the

  6. Minimum Mean-Square Error Single-Channel Signal Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beierholm, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    This topic of this thesis is MMSE signal estimation for hearing aids when only one microphone is available. The research is relevant for noise reduction systems in hearing aids. To fully benefit from the amplification provided by a hearing aid, noise reduction functionality is important as hearin...... algorithm. Although performance of the two algorithms is found comparable then the particle filter algorithm is doing a much better job tracking the noise.......-impaired persons in some noisy situations need a higher signal to noise ratio for speech to be intelligible when compared to normal-hearing persons. In this thesis two different methods to approach the MMSE signal estimation problem is examined. The methods differ in the way that models for the signal and noise...... inference is performed by particle filtering. The speech model is a time-varying auto-regressive model reparameterized by formant frequencies and bandwidths. The noise is assumed non-stationary and white. Compared to the case of using the AR coefficients directly then it is found very beneficial to perform...

  7. Mean-Square Error Due to Gradiometer Field Measuring Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    convolving the gradiometer data with the inverse transform of I /T(a, 13), applying an ap- Hence (2) may be expressed in the transform domain as propriate... inverse transform of I / T(ot, 1) will not be possible quency measurements," Superconductor Applications: SQUID’s and because its inverse does not exist...and because it is a high- Machines, B. B. Schwartz and S. Foner, Eds. New York: Plenum pass function its use in an inverse transform technique Press

  8. Mean square number fluctuation for a fermion source and its ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the standard Big-Bang model of cosmology [3], which is supported by the observation of the cosmic .... described in the next section that even for the scaled distribution function (Nν(k)), the relations (Nν) = ∑k ∑σ(Nν(k)) and (∆ ... One thing we must keep in mind is that if the distribution at the present epoch turns out to be ...

  9. A new look at the robust control of discrete-time Markov jump linear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, M. G.; Fragoso, M. D.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we make a foray in the role played by a set of four operators on the study of robust H2 and mixed H2/H∞ control problems for discrete-time Markov jump linear systems. These operators appear in the study of mean square stability for this class of systems. By means of new linear matrix inequality (LMI) characterisations of controllers, which include slack variables that, to some extent, separate the robustness and performance objectives, we introduce four alternative approaches to the design of controllers which are robustly stabilising and at the same time provide a guaranteed level of H2 performance. Since each operator provides a different degree of conservatism, the results are unified in the form of an iterative LMI technique for designing robust H2 controllers, whose convergence is attained in a finite number of steps. The method yields a new way of computing mixed H2/H∞ controllers, whose conservatism decreases with iteration. Two numerical examples illustrate the applicability of the proposed results for the control of a small unmanned aerial vehicle, and for an underactuated robotic arm.

  10. Regularization Techniques for Linear Least-Squares Problems

    KAUST Repository

    Suliman, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    Linear estimation is a fundamental branch of signal processing that deals with estimating the values of parameters from a corrupted measured data. Throughout the years, several optimization criteria have been used to achieve this task. The most astonishing attempt among theses is the linear least-squares. Although this criterion enjoyed a wide popularity in many areas due to its attractive properties, it appeared to suffer from some shortcomings. Alternative optimization criteria, as a result, have been proposed. These new criteria allowed, in one way or another, the incorporation of further prior information to the desired problem. Among theses alternative criteria is the regularized least-squares (RLS). In this thesis, we propose two new algorithms to find the regularization parameter for linear least-squares problems. In the constrained perturbation regularization algorithm (COPRA) for random matrices and COPRA for linear discrete ill-posed problems, an artificial perturbation matrix with a bounded norm is forced into the model matrix. This perturbation is introduced to enhance the singular value structure of the matrix. As a result, the new modified model is expected to provide a better stabilize substantial solution when used to estimate the original signal through minimizing the worst-case residual error function. Unlike many other regularization algorithms that go in search of minimizing the estimated data error, the two new proposed algorithms are developed mainly to select the artifcial perturbation bound and the regularization parameter in a way that approximately minimizes the mean-squared error (MSE) between the original signal and its estimate under various conditions. The first proposed COPRA method is developed mainly to estimate the regularization parameter when the measurement matrix is complex Gaussian, with centered unit variance (standard), and independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) entries. Furthermore, the second proposed COPRA

  11. Development of a numerical code for the analysis of the linear stability of the U1 and U2 reactors of the CNLV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa P, G.; Estrada P, C.E.; Nunez C, A.; Amador G, R.

    2001-01-01

    The computer code ANESLI-1 developed by the CNSNS and UAM-I, has the main goal of making stability analysis of nuclear reactors of the BWR type, more specifically, the reactors of the U1 and U2 of the CNLV. However it can be used for another kind of applications. Its capacity of real time simulator, allows the prediction of operational transients, and conditions of dynamic steady states. ANESLI-1 was developed under a modular scheme, which allows to extend or/and to improve its scope. The lineal stability analysis predicts the instabilities produced by the wave density phenomenon. (Author)

  12. Comparison between Two Linear Supervised Learning Machines' Methods with Principle Component Based Methods for the Spectrofluorimetric Determination of Agomelatine and Its Degradants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkhoudary, Mahmoud M; Naguib, Ibrahim A; Abdel Salam, Randa A; Hadad, Ghada M

    2017-05-01

    Four accurate, sensitive and reliable stability indicating chemometric methods were developed for the quantitative determination of Agomelatine (AGM) whether in pure form or in pharmaceutical formulations. Two supervised learning machines' methods; linear artificial neural networks (PC-linANN) preceded by principle component analysis and linear support vector regression (linSVR), were compared with two principle component based methods; principle component regression (PCR) as well as partial least squares (PLS) for the spectrofluorimetric determination of AGM and its degradants. The results showed the benefits behind using linear learning machines' methods and the inherent merits of their algorithms in handling overlapped noisy spectral data especially during the challenging determination of AGM alkaline and acidic degradants (DG1 and DG2). Relative mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP) for the proposed models in the determination of AGM were 1.68, 1.72, 0.68 and 0.22 for PCR, PLS, SVR and PC-linANN; respectively. The results showed the superiority of supervised learning machines' methods over principle component based methods. Besides, the results suggested that linANN is the method of choice for determination of components in low amounts with similar overlapped spectra and narrow linearity range. Comparison between the proposed chemometric models and a reported HPLC method revealed the comparable performance and quantification power of the proposed models.

  13. A linear stability analysis of thermal convection in spherical shells with variable radial gravity based on the Tau-Chebyshev method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila, Ruben; Cabello-González, Ares; Ramos, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The Tau-Chebyshev method solves the linear fluid flow equations in spherical shells. • The fluid motion is driven by a central force proportional to the radial position. • The full Navier–Stokes equations are solved by the spectral element method. • The linear results are verified with the solution of the Navier–Stokes equations. • The solution of the linear problems is used to initiate non-linear calculations. -- Abstract: The onset of thermal convection in a non-rotating spherical shell is investigated using linear theory. The Tau-Chebyshev spectral method is used to integrate the linearized equations. We investigate the onset of thermal convection by considering two cases of the radial gravitational field (i) a local acceleration, acting radially inward, that is proportional to the distance from the center r, and (ii) a radial gravitational central force that is proportional to r −n . The former case has been widely analyzed in the literature, because it constitutes a simplified model that is usually used, in astrophysics and geophysics, and is studied here to validate the numerical method. The latter case was analyzed since the case n = 5 has been experimentally realized (by means of the dielectrophoretic effect) under microgravity condition, in the experimental container called GeoFlow, inside the International Space Station. Our study is aimed to clarify the role of (i) a radially inward central force (either proportional to r or to r −n ), (ii) a base conductive temperature distribution provided by either a uniform heat source or an imposed temperature difference between outer and inner spheres, and (iii) the aspect ratio η (ratio of the radii of the inner and outer spheres), on the critical Rayleigh number. In all cases the surface of the spheres has been assumed to be rigid. The results obtained with the linear theory based on the Tau-Chebyshev spectral method are compared with those of the integration of the full non-linear

  14. Effects of noxious stimulation to the back or calf muscles on gait stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hoorn, Wolbert; Hug, François; Hodges, Paul W; Bruijn, Sjoerd M; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2015-11-26

    Gait stability is the ability to deal with small perturbations that naturally occur during walking. Changes in motor control caused by pain could affect this ability. This study investigated whether nociceptive stimulation (hypertonic saline injection) in a low back (LBP) or calf (CalfP) muscle affects gait stability. Sixteen participants walked on a treadmill at 0.94ms(-1) and 1.67ms(-1), while thorax kinematics were recorded using 3D-motion capture. From 110 strides, stability (local divergence exponent, LDE), stride-to-stride variability and root mean squares (RMS) of thorax linear velocities were calculated along the three movement axes. At 0.94ms(-1), independent of movement axes, gait stability was lower (higher LDE) and stride-to-stride variability was higher, during LBP and CalfP than no pain. This was more pronounced during CalfP, likely explained by the biomechanical function of calf muscles in gait, as supported by greater mediolateral RMS and stance time asymmetry than in LBP and no pain. At 1.67ms(-1), independent of movement axes, gait stability was greater and stride-to-stride variability was smaller with LBP than no pain and CalfP, whereas CalfP was not different from no pain. Opposite effects of LBP on gait stability between speeds suggests a more protective strategy at the faster speed. Although mediolateral RMS was greater and participants had more asymmetric stance times with CalfP than LBP and no pain, limited effect of CalfP at the faster speed could relate to greater kinematic constraints and smaller effects of calf muscle activity on propulsion at this speed. In conclusion, pain effects on gait stability depend on pain location and walking speed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Shilov, Georgi E

    1977-01-01

    Covers determinants, linear spaces, systems of linear equations, linear functions of a vector argument, coordinate transformations, the canonical form of the matrix of a linear operator, bilinear and quadratic forms, Euclidean spaces, unitary spaces, quadratic forms in Euclidean and unitary spaces, finite-dimensional space. Problems with hints and answers.

  16. Local dynamic stability during treadmill walking can detect children with developmental coordination disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Speedtsberg, Merete Brink; Christensen, Sofie Bouschinger; Stenum, Jan

    2018-01-01

    -posterior directions were recorded with a sternum mounted accelerometer at 256Hz. Short term local dynamic stability (λs), root mean square (RMS) and relative root mean square (RMSR) were calculated from measures of orthogonal trunk accelerations. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis was performed...... between children with DCD and TD children in any direction. The ROC analysis of λs in separate directions and in two dimensions showed an excellent accuracy of discriminating between children with DCD and TD children. Anterior-posterior direction in combination with medio-lateral or vertical showed best...

  17. Identifying the most promising genotypes in lentil for cultivation in a wide range of environments of Pakistan using various yield stability measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.; Zahid, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was aimed to identify the most promising high yielding lentil genotype for a wide range of environments of Pakistan using 8 stability measures. The experiment consisted of 12 lentil genotypes grown at 11 locations falling in different agro-ecological zones of Pakistan for 2 years during 2006/07 and 2007/08 under national uniform yield testing. The General Linear Model (GLM) of MINITAB (version 15) was used for two-way analysis of variance for lentil yield data to examine the total variation into genotypes, environments and genotype x environment interaction. The percent variation of 2 major contributors, environment and GxE interaction, was permissible to perform stability analysis to evaluate stable genotypes across the environments. The genotype x environment interaction means were used for eight stability measures (genotype mean, genotype variance, coefficient of variation, ecovalence, interaction variance, regression slope, deviation mean square, coefficient of determination). The stability measures depicted that the genotype NARC-06-1 with high mean yield (1140 kg/ha -1/), regression slope (1.09) close to unity and less statistics of remaining stability measures except high value of R/sup 2/ for yield proved to be the best within the pool of studied genotypes. The results clearly suggest that the genotype NARC-06-1 may prove to be a widely adapted high yielding stable variety for a broad spectrum of environments of Pakistan. (author)

  18. Perturbation-Based Regularization for Signal Estimation in Linear Discrete Ill-posed Problems

    KAUST Repository

    Suliman, Mohamed Abdalla Elhag; Ballal, Tarig; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.

    2016-01-01

    Estimating the values of unknown parameters from corrupted measured data faces a lot of challenges in ill-posed problems. In such problems, many fundamental estimation methods fail to provide a meaningful stabilized solution. In this work, we propose a new regularization approach and a new regularization parameter selection approach for linear least-squares discrete ill-posed problems. The proposed approach is based on enhancing the singular-value structure of the ill-posed model matrix to acquire a better solution. Unlike many other regularization algorithms that seek to minimize the estimated data error, the proposed approach is developed to minimize the mean-squared error of the estimator which is the objective in many typical estimation scenarios. The performance of the proposed approach is demonstrated by applying it to a large set of real-world discrete ill-posed problems. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed approach outperforms a set of benchmark regularization methods in most cases. In addition, the approach also enjoys the lowest runtime and offers the highest level of robustness amongst all the tested benchmark regularization methods.

  19. Perturbation-Based Regularization for Signal Estimation in Linear Discrete Ill-posed Problems

    KAUST Repository

    Suliman, Mohamed Abdalla Elhag

    2016-11-29

    Estimating the values of unknown parameters from corrupted measured data faces a lot of challenges in ill-posed problems. In such problems, many fundamental estimation methods fail to provide a meaningful stabilized solution. In this work, we propose a new regularization approach and a new regularization parameter selection approach for linear least-squares discrete ill-posed problems. The proposed approach is based on enhancing the singular-value structure of the ill-posed model matrix to acquire a better solution. Unlike many other regularization algorithms that seek to minimize the estimated data error, the proposed approach is developed to minimize the mean-squared error of the estimator which is the objective in many typical estimation scenarios. The performance of the proposed approach is demonstrated by applying it to a large set of real-world discrete ill-posed problems. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed approach outperforms a set of benchmark regularization methods in most cases. In addition, the approach also enjoys the lowest runtime and offers the highest level of robustness amongst all the tested benchmark regularization methods.

  20. Modular injector integrated linear apparatus with motion profile optimization for spatial atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolei; Li, Yun; Lin, Jilong; Shan, Bin; Chen, Rong

    2017-11-01

    A spatial atomic layer deposition apparatus integrated with a modular injector and a linear motor has been designed. It consists of four parts: a precursor delivery manifold, a modular injector, a reaction zone, and a driving unit. An injector with multi-layer structured channels is designed to help improve precursor distribution homogeneity. During the back and forth movement of the substrate at high speed, the inertial impact caused by jerk and sudden changes of acceleration will degrade the film deposition quality. Such residual vibration caused by inertial impact will aggravate the fluctuation of the gap distance between the injector and the substrate in the deposition process. Thus, an S-curve motion profile is implemented to reduce the large inertial impact, and the maximum position error could be reduced by 84%. The microstructure of the film under the S-curve motion profile shows smaller root-mean-square and scanning voltage amplitude under an atomic force microscope, which verifies the effectiveness of the S-curve motion profile in reducing the residual vibration and stabilizing the gap distance between the injector and the substrate. The film deposition rate could reach 100 nm/min while maintaining good uniformity without obvious periodic patterns on the surface.

  1. Genetic analyses using GGE model and a mixed linear model approach, and stability analyses using AMMI bi-plot for late-maturity alpha-amylase activity in bread wheat genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasul, Golam; Glover, Karl D; Krishnan, Padmanaban G; Wu, Jixiang; Berzonsky, William A; Fofana, Bourlaye

    2017-06-01

    Low falling number and discounting grain when it is downgraded in class are the consequences of excessive late-maturity α-amylase activity (LMAA) in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Grain expressing high LMAA produces poorer quality bread products. To effectively breed for low LMAA, it is necessary to understand what genes control it and how they are expressed, particularly when genotypes are grown in different environments. In this study, an International Collection (IC) of 18 spring wheat genotypes and another set of 15 spring wheat cultivars adapted to South Dakota (SD), USA were assessed to characterize the genetic component of LMAA over 5 and 13 environments, respectively. The data were analysed using a GGE model with a mixed linear model approach and stability analysis was presented using an AMMI bi-plot on R software. All estimated variance components and their proportions to the total phenotypic variance were highly significant for both sets of genotypes, which were validated by the AMMI model analysis. Broad-sense heritability for LMAA was higher in SD adapted cultivars (53%) compared to that in IC (49%). Significant genetic effects and stability analyses showed some genotypes, e.g. 'Lancer', 'Chester' and 'LoSprout' from IC, and 'Alsen', 'Traverse' and 'Forefront' from SD cultivars could be used as parents to develop new cultivars expressing low levels of LMAA. Stability analysis using an AMMI bi-plot revealed that 'Chester', 'Lancer' and 'Advance' were the most stable across environments, while in contrast, 'Kinsman', 'Lerma52' and 'Traverse' exhibited the lowest stability for LMAA across environments.

  2. Forecasting Volatility of Dhaka Stock Exchange: Linear Vs Non-linear models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masudul Islam

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Prior information about a financial market is very essential for investor to invest money on parches share from the stock market which can strengthen the economy. The study examines the relative ability of various models to forecast daily stock indexes future volatility. The forecasting models that employed from simple to relatively complex ARCH-class models. It is found that among linear models of stock indexes volatility, the moving average model ranks first using root mean square error, mean absolute percent error, Theil-U and Linex loss function  criteria. We also examine five nonlinear models. These models are ARCH, GARCH, EGARCH, TGARCH and restricted GARCH models. We find that nonlinear models failed to dominate linear models utilizing different error measurement criteria and moving average model appears to be the best. Then we forecast the next two months future stock index price volatility by the best (moving average model.

  3. Postural stability in the elderly during sensory perturbations and dual tasking: the influence of refractive blur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Vijay; Buckley, John G; Scally, Andy; Elliott, David B

    2003-07-01

    To determine the influence of refractive blur on postural stability during somatosensory and vestibular system perturbation and dual tasking. Fifteen healthy, elderly subjects (mean age, 71 +/- 5 years), who had no history of falls and had normal vision, were recruited. Postural stability during standing was assessed using a force platform, and was determined as the root mean square (RMS) of the center of pressure (COP) signal in the anterior-posterior (A-P) and medial-lateral directions collected over a 30-second period. Data were collected under normal standing conditions and with somatosensory and vestibular system perturbations. Measurements were repeated with an additional physical and/or cognitive task. Postural stability was measured under conditions of binocular refractive blur of 0, 1, 2, 4, and 8 D and with eyes closed. The data were analyzed with a population-averaged linear model. The greatest increases in postural instability were due to disruptions of the somatosensory and vestibular systems. Increasing refractive blur caused increasing postural instability, and its effect was greater when the input from the other sensory systems was disrupted. Performing an additional cognitive and physical task increased A-P RMS COP further. All these detrimental effects on postural stability were cumulative. The findings highlight the multifactorial nature of postural stability and indicate why the elderly, many of whom have poor vision and musculoskeletal and central nervous system degeneration, are at greater risk of falling. The findings also highlight that standing instability in both normal and perturbed conditions was significantly increased with refractive blur. Correcting visual impairment caused by uncorrected refractive error could be a useful intervention strategy to help prevent falls and fall-related injuries in the elderly.

  4. Linear gate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwono.

    1978-01-01

    A linear gate providing a variable gate duration from 0,40μsec to 4μsec was developed. The electronic circuity consists of a linear circuit and an enable circuit. The input signal can be either unipolar or bipolar. If the input signal is bipolar, the negative portion will be filtered. The operation of the linear gate is controlled by the application of a positive enable pulse. (author)

  5. June Solstice Equatorial Spread F in the American Sector: A Numerical Assessment of Linear Stability Aided by Incoherent Scatter Radar Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Weijia; S. Rodrigues, Fabiano

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that weakening downward plasma drifts can produce favorable conditions for the ionospheric Generalized Rayleigh-Taylor (GRT) instability and explain the occurrence of postmidnight equatorial spread F (ESF). We evaluated this hypothesis using numerical simulations aided by measurements and attempted to explain ESF events observed in the American sector during June solstice, low solar flux conditions. We analyzed plasma drifts and ESF measurements made by the incoherent scatter radar of the Jicamarca Radio Observatory (11.95° S, 76.87° W, ˜1° dip). We found adequate measurements during a prototypical, quiet time event on 4-5 June 2008 when the downward drifts weakened and a fully developed ESF appeared. The measured drifts were used as input for the SAMI2 model. SAMI2 reproduced an "apparent" uplift of the ionosphere based on h'F measurements that was consistent with expectations and observations. SAMI2 also provided parameters for estimation of the flux tube linear growth rates of GRT instability associated with the weakening drift event. We found that the weakening drifts did produce unstable conditions with positive growth rates. The growth rates, however, were slower than those obtained for typical, premidnight ESF events and those obtained for similar drift conditions in other longitude sectors. We show, however, that departures in the wind pattern, from climatological model predictions, can produce favorable conditions for instability development. Following the hypothesis of Huba and Krall (2013) and using SAMI2 simulations, we show that equatorward winds, when combined with weakening drifts, could have contributed to the unstable conditions responsible for the postmidnight ESF events.

  6. Linear Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vretenar, M

    2014-01-01

    The main features of radio-frequency linear accelerators are introduced, reviewing the different types of accelerating structures and presenting the main characteristics aspects of linac beam dynamics

  7. Discrete linear canonical transform computation by adaptive method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Tao, Ran; Wang, Yue

    2013-07-29

    The linear canonical transform (LCT) describes the effect of quadratic phase systems on a wavefield and generalizes many optical transforms. In this paper, the computation method for the discrete LCT using the adaptive least-mean-square (LMS) algorithm is presented. The computation approaches of the block-based discrete LCT and the stream-based discrete LCT using the LMS algorithm are derived, and the implementation structures of these approaches by the adaptive filter system are considered. The proposed computation approaches have the inherent parallel structures which make them suitable for efficient VLSI implementations, and are robust to the propagation of possible errors in the computation process.

  8. Linearization Method and Linear Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hidema

    We focus on the relationship between the linearization method and linear complexity and show that the linearization method is another effective technique for calculating linear complexity. We analyze its effectiveness by comparing with the logic circuit method. We compare the relevant conditions and necessary computational cost with those of the Berlekamp-Massey algorithm and the Games-Chan algorithm. The significant property of a linearization method is that it needs no output sequence from a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) because it calculates linear complexity using the algebraic expression of its algorithm. When a PRNG has n [bit] stages (registers or internal states), the necessary computational cost is smaller than O(2n). On the other hand, the Berlekamp-Massey algorithm needs O(N2) where N(≅2n) denotes period. Since existing methods calculate using the output sequence, an initial value of PRNG influences a resultant value of linear complexity. Therefore, a linear complexity is generally given as an estimate value. On the other hand, a linearization method calculates from an algorithm of PRNG, it can determine the lower bound of linear complexity.

  9. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Said-Houari, Belkacem

    2017-01-01

    This self-contained, clearly written textbook on linear algebra is easily accessible for students. It begins with the simple linear equation and generalizes several notions from this equation for the system of linear equations and introduces the main ideas using matrices. It then offers a detailed chapter on determinants and introduces the main ideas with detailed proofs. The third chapter introduces the Euclidean spaces using very simple geometric ideas and discusses various major inequalities and identities. These ideas offer a solid basis for understanding general Hilbert spaces in functional analysis. The following two chapters address general vector spaces, including some rigorous proofs to all the main results, and linear transformation: areas that are ignored or are poorly explained in many textbooks. Chapter 6 introduces the idea of matrices using linear transformation, which is easier to understand than the usual theory of matrices approach. The final two chapters are more advanced, introducing t...

  10. Effect of liner non-uniformity on plasma instabilities in an inverse Z-pinch magnetized target fusion system: liner-on-plasma simulations and comparison with linear stability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subhash, P V; Madhavan, S; Chaturvedi, S

    2008-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) liner-on-plasma computations have been performed to study the growth of instabilities in a magnetized target fusion system involving the cylindrical compression of an inverse Z-pinch target plasma by a metallic liner. The growth of modes in the plasma can be divided into two phases. During the first phase, the plasma continues to be Kadomtsev stable. The dominant mode in the liner instability is imposed upon the plasma in the form of a growing perturbation. This mode further transfers part of its energy to its harmonics. During the second phase, however, non-uniform implosion of the liner leads to axial variations in plasma quantities near the liner-plasma interface, such that certain regions of the plasma locally violate the Kadomtsev criteria. Further growth ofthe plasma modes is then due to plasma instability. The above numerical study has been complemented with a linear stability analysis for the plasma, the boundary conditions for this analysis being obtained from the liner-on-plasma simulation. The stability of axisymmetric modes in the first phase is found to satisfy the Kadomtsev condition Q 0 1 modes, using equilibrium profiles from the 2D MHD study, shows that their growth rates can exceed those for m=0 by as much as an order of magnitude

  11. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Stoll, R R

    1968-01-01

    Linear Algebra is intended to be used as a text for a one-semester course in linear algebra at the undergraduate level. The treatment of the subject will be both useful to students of mathematics and those interested primarily in applications of the theory. The major prerequisite for mastering the material is the readiness of the student to reason abstractly. Specifically, this calls for an understanding of the fact that axioms are assumptions and that theorems are logical consequences of one or more axioms. Familiarity with calculus and linear differential equations is required for understand

  12. Linear programming

    CERN Document Server

    Solow, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This text covers the basic theory and computation for a first course in linear programming, including substantial material on mathematical proof techniques and sophisticated computation methods. Includes Appendix on using Excel. 1984 edition.

  13. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Liesen, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    This self-contained textbook takes a matrix-oriented approach to linear algebra and presents a complete theory, including all details and proofs, culminating in the Jordan canonical form and its proof. Throughout the development, the applicability of the results is highlighted. Additionally, the book presents special topics from applied linear algebra including matrix functions, the singular value decomposition, the Kronecker product and linear matrix equations. The matrix-oriented approach to linear algebra leads to a better intuition and a deeper understanding of the abstract concepts, and therefore simplifies their use in real world applications. Some of these applications are presented in detailed examples. In several ‘MATLAB-Minutes’ students can comprehend the concepts and results using computational experiments. Necessary basics for the use of MATLAB are presented in a short introduction. Students can also actively work with the material and practice their mathematical skills in more than 300 exerc...

  14. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Berberian, Sterling K

    2014-01-01

    Introductory treatment covers basic theory of vector spaces and linear maps - dimension, determinants, eigenvalues, and eigenvectors - plus more advanced topics such as the study of canonical forms for matrices. 1992 edition.

  15. Linear Models

    CERN Document Server

    Searle, Shayle R

    2012-01-01

    This 1971 classic on linear models is once again available--as a Wiley Classics Library Edition. It features material that can be understood by any statistician who understands matrix algebra and basic statistical methods.

  16. LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofilos, N.C.; Polk, I.J.

    1959-02-17

    Improvements in linear particle accelerators are described. A drift tube system for a linear ion accelerator reduces gap capacity between adjacent drift tube ends. This is accomplished by reducing the ratio of the diameter of the drift tube to the diameter of the resonant cavity. Concentration of magnetic field intensity at the longitudinal midpoint of the external sunface of each drift tube is reduced by increasing the external drift tube diameter at the longitudinal center region.

  17. Optimal difference-based estimation for partially linear models

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Yuejin; Cheng, Yebin; Dai, Wenlin; Tong, Tiejun

    2017-01-01

    Difference-based methods have attracted increasing attention for analyzing partially linear models in the recent literature. In this paper, we first propose to solve the optimal sequence selection problem in difference-based estimation for the linear component. To achieve the goal, a family of new sequences and a cross-validation method for selecting the adaptive sequence are proposed. We demonstrate that the existing sequences are only extreme cases in the proposed family. Secondly, we propose a new estimator for the residual variance by fitting a linear regression method to some difference-based estimators. Our proposed estimator achieves the asymptotic optimal rate of mean squared error. Simulation studies also demonstrate that our proposed estimator performs better than the existing estimator, especially when the sample size is small and the nonparametric function is rough.

  18. Conserved linear dynamics of single-molecule Brownian motion

    KAUST Repository

    Serag, Maged F.

    2017-06-06

    Macromolecular diffusion in homogeneous fluid at length scales greater than the size of the molecule is regarded as a random process. The mean-squared displacement (MSD) of molecules in this regime increases linearly with time. Here we show that non-random motion of DNA molecules in this regime that is undetectable by the MSD analysis can be quantified by characterizing the molecular motion relative to a latticed frame of reference. Our lattice occupancy analysis reveals unexpected sub-modes of motion of DNA that deviate from expected random motion in the linear, diffusive regime. We demonstrate that a subtle interplay between these sub-modes causes the overall diffusive motion of DNA to appear to conform to the linear regime. Our results show that apparently random motion of macromolecules could be governed by non-random dynamics that are detectable only by their relative motion. Our analytical approach should advance broad understanding of diffusion processes of fundamental relevance.

  19. Conserved linear dynamics of single-molecule Brownian motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serag, Maged F.; Habuchi, Satoshi

    2017-06-01

    Macromolecular diffusion in homogeneous fluid at length scales greater than the size of the molecule is regarded as a random process. The mean-squared displacement (MSD) of molecules in this regime increases linearly with time. Here we show that non-random motion of DNA molecules in this regime that is undetectable by the MSD analysis can be quantified by characterizing the molecular motion relative to a latticed frame of reference. Our lattice occupancy analysis reveals unexpected sub-modes of motion of DNA that deviate from expected random motion in the linear, diffusive regime. We demonstrate that a subtle interplay between these sub-modes causes the overall diffusive motion of DNA to appear to conform to the linear regime. Our results show that apparently random motion of macromolecules could be governed by non-random dynamics that are detectable only by their relative motion. Our analytical approach should advance broad understanding of diffusion processes of fundamental relevance.

  20. Conserved linear dynamics of single-molecule Brownian motion

    KAUST Repository

    Serag, Maged F.; Habuchi, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    Macromolecular diffusion in homogeneous fluid at length scales greater than the size of the molecule is regarded as a random process. The mean-squared displacement (MSD) of molecules in this regime increases linearly with time. Here we show that non-random motion of DNA molecules in this regime that is undetectable by the MSD analysis can be quantified by characterizing the molecular motion relative to a latticed frame of reference. Our lattice occupancy analysis reveals unexpected sub-modes of motion of DNA that deviate from expected random motion in the linear, diffusive regime. We demonstrate that a subtle interplay between these sub-modes causes the overall diffusive motion of DNA to appear to conform to the linear regime. Our results show that apparently random motion of macromolecules could be governed by non-random dynamics that are detectable only by their relative motion. Our analytical approach should advance broad understanding of diffusion processes of fundamental relevance.

  1. Optimal difference-based estimation for partially linear models

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Yuejin

    2017-12-16

    Difference-based methods have attracted increasing attention for analyzing partially linear models in the recent literature. In this paper, we first propose to solve the optimal sequence selection problem in difference-based estimation for the linear component. To achieve the goal, a family of new sequences and a cross-validation method for selecting the adaptive sequence are proposed. We demonstrate that the existing sequences are only extreme cases in the proposed family. Secondly, we propose a new estimator for the residual variance by fitting a linear regression method to some difference-based estimators. Our proposed estimator achieves the asymptotic optimal rate of mean squared error. Simulation studies also demonstrate that our proposed estimator performs better than the existing estimator, especially when the sample size is small and the nonparametric function is rough.

  2. Networked control of discrete-time linear systems over lossy digital communication channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Fang; Zhao, Guang-Rong; Liu, Qing-Quan

    2013-12-01

    This article addresses networked control problems for linear time-invariant systems. The insertion of the digital communication network inevitably leads to packet dropout, time delay and quantisation error. Due to data rate limitations, quantisation error is not neglected. In particular, the case where the sensors and controllers are geographically separated and connected via noisy, bandwidth-limited digital communication channels is considered. A fundamental limitation on the data rate of the channel for mean-square stabilisation of the closed-loop system is established. Sufficient conditions for mean-square stabilisation are derived. It is shown that there exists a quantisation, coding and control scheme to stabilise the unstable system over packet dropout communication channels if the data rate is larger than the lower bound proposed in our result. An illustrative example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed conditions.

  3. Linear regression

    CERN Document Server

    Olive, David J

    2017-01-01

    This text covers both multiple linear regression and some experimental design models. The text uses the response plot to visualize the model and to detect outliers, does not assume that the error distribution has a known parametric distribution, develops prediction intervals that work when the error distribution is unknown, suggests bootstrap hypothesis tests that may be useful for inference after variable selection, and develops prediction regions and large sample theory for the multivariate linear regression model that has m response variables. A relationship between multivariate prediction regions and confidence regions provides a simple way to bootstrap confidence regions. These confidence regions often provide a practical method for testing hypotheses. There is also a chapter on generalized linear models and generalized additive models. There are many R functions to produce response and residual plots, to simulate prediction intervals and hypothesis tests, to detect outliers, and to choose response trans...

  4. Linear Colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaraz, J.

    2001-01-01

    After several years of study e''+ e''- linear colliders in the TeV range have emerged as the major and optimal high-energy physics projects for the post-LHC era. These notes summarize the present status form the main accelerator and detector features to their physics potential. The LHC era. These notes summarize the present status, from the main accelerator and detector features to their physics potential. The LHC is expected to provide first discoveries in the new energy domain, whereas an e''+ e''- linear collider in the 500 GeV-1 TeV will be able to complement it to an unprecedented level of precision in any possible areas: Higgs, signals beyond the SM and electroweak measurements. It is evident that the Linear Collider program will constitute a major step in the understanding of the nature of the new physics beyond the Standard Model. (Author) 22 refs

  5. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Edwards, Harold M

    1995-01-01

    In his new undergraduate textbook, Harold M Edwards proposes a radically new and thoroughly algorithmic approach to linear algebra Originally inspired by the constructive philosophy of mathematics championed in the 19th century by Leopold Kronecker, the approach is well suited to students in the computer-dominated late 20th century Each proof is an algorithm described in English that can be translated into the computer language the class is using and put to work solving problems and generating new examples, making the study of linear algebra a truly interactive experience Designed for a one-semester course, this text adopts an algorithmic approach to linear algebra giving the student many examples to work through and copious exercises to test their skills and extend their knowledge of the subject Students at all levels will find much interactive instruction in this text while teachers will find stimulating examples and methods of approach to the subject

  6. On the stability, the periodic solutions and the resolution of certain types of non linear equations, and of non linearly coupled systems of these equations, appearing in betatronic oscillations; Sur la stabilite, les solutions periodiques et la resolution de certaines categories d'equations et systemes d'equations differentielles couplees non lineaires apparaissant dans les oscillations betatroniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valat, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-12-15

    Universal stability diagrams have been calculated and experimentally checked for Hill-Meissner type equations with square-wave coefficients. The study of these equations in the phase-plane has then made it possible to extend the periodic solution calculations to the case of non-linear differential equations with periodic square-wave coefficients. This theory has been checked experimentally. For non-linear coupled systems with constant coefficients, a search was first made for solutions giving an algebraic motion. The elliptical and Fuchs's functions solve such motions. The study of non-algebraic motions is more delicate, apart from the study of nonlinear Lissajous's motions. A functional analysis shows that it is possible however in certain cases to decouple the system and to find general solutions. For non-linear coupled systems with periodic square-wave coefficients it is then possible to calculate the conditions leading to periodic solutions, if the two non-linear associated systems with constant coefficients fall into one of the categories of the above paragraph. (author) [French] Pour les equations du genre de Hill-Meissner a coefficients creneles, on a calcule des diagrammes universels de stabilite et ceux-ci ont ete verifies experimentalement. L'etude de ces equations dans le plan de phase a permis ensuite d'etendre le calcul des solutions periodiques au cas des equations differentielles non lineaires a coefficients periodiques creneles. Cette theorie a ete verifiee experimentalement. Pour Jes systemes couples non lineaires a coefficients constants, on a d'abord cherche les solutions menant a des mouvements algebriques. Les fonctions elliptiques et fuchsiennes uniformisent de tels mouvements. L'etude de mouvements non algebriques est plus delicate, a part l'etude des mouvements de Lissajous non lineaires. Une analyse fonctionnelle montre qu'il est toutefois possible dans certains cas de decoupler le systeme et de trouver des solutions generales. Pour les

  7. Accurate Stabilities of Laccase Mutants Predicted with a Modified FoldX Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Niels Johan; Kepp, Kasper Planeta

    2012-01-01

    ) with up to 11 simultaneously mutated sites with good correlation against experimental stability trends. Molecular dynamics simulations of the two laccases show that FoldX is very structure-sensitive, since all mutants and the wild-type must share structural configuration to avoid artifacts of local...... sampling. However, using the average of 50 MD snapshots of the equilibrated trajectories restores correlation (r ~0.7-0.9, r2 ~0.49-0.81) and provides a root-mean-square accuracy of ~1.2 kcal/mol for ∆∆G or 3.5 ○C for T50, suggesting that the time-average of the crystal structure is recovered. MD......-averaged input also reduces the spread in ∆∆G, suggesting that local FoldX sampling overestimates free energy changes because of neglected protein relaxation. FoldX can be viewed as a simple “linear interaction energy” method using sampling of wild-type and mutant and a parameterized relative free energy...

  8. The importance of Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical couplings and microstructure to strain localization in 3D continua with application to seismic faults. Part I: Theory and linear stability analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattez, Hadrien; Stefanou, Ioannis; Sulem, Jean

    2018-06-01

    A Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical (THM) model for Cosserat continua is developed to explore the influence of frictional heating and thermal pore fluid pressurization on the strain localization phenomenon. A general framework is presented to conduct a bifurcation analysis for elasto-plastic Cosserat continua with THM couplings and predict the onset of instability. The presence of internal lengths in Cosserat continua enables to estimate the thickness of the localization zone. This is done by performing a linear stability analysis of the system and looking for the selected wavelength corresponding to the instability mode with fastest finite growth coefficient. These concepts are applied to the study of fault zones under fast shearing. For doing so, we consider a model of a sheared saturated infinite granular layer. The influence of THM couplings on the bifurcation state and the shear band width is investigated. Taking representative parameters for a centroidal fault gouge, the evolution of the thickness of the localized zone under continuous shear is studied. Furthermore, the effect of grain crushing inside the shear band is explored by varying the internal length of the constitutive law.

  9. Linear programming

    CERN Document Server

    Karloff, Howard

    1991-01-01

    To this reviewer’s knowledge, this is the first book accessible to the upper division undergraduate or beginning graduate student that surveys linear programming from the Simplex Method…via the Ellipsoid algorithm to Karmarkar’s algorithm. Moreover, its point of view is algorithmic and thus it provides both a history and a case history of work in complexity theory. The presentation is admirable; Karloff's style is informal (even humorous at times) without sacrificing anything necessary for understanding. Diagrams (including horizontal brackets that group terms) aid in providing clarity. The end-of-chapter notes are helpful...Recommended highly for acquisition, since it is not only a textbook, but can also be used for independent reading and study. —Choice Reviews The reader will be well served by reading the monograph from cover to cover. The author succeeds in providing a concise, readable, understandable introduction to modern linear programming. —Mathematics of Computing This is a textbook intend...

  10. Window observers for linear systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utkin Vadim

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Given a linear system x ˙ = A x + B u with output y = C x and a window function ω ( t , i.e., ∀ t , ω ( t ∈ {0,1 }, and assuming that the window function is Lebesgue measurable, we refer to the following observer, x ˆ = A x + B u + ω ( t L C ( x − x ˆ as a window observer. The stability issue is treated in this paper. It is proven that for linear time-invariant systems, the window observer can be stabilized by an appropriate design under a very mild condition on the window functions, albeit for linear time-varying system, some regularity of the window functions is required to achieve observer designs with the asymptotic stability. The corresponding design methods are developed. An example is included to illustrate the possible applications

  11. Comparison of linear and non-linear models for predicting energy expenditure from raw accelerometer data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoye, Alexander H K; Begum, Munni; Henning, Zachary; Pfeiffer, Karin A

    2017-02-01

    This study had three purposes, all related to evaluating energy expenditure (EE) prediction accuracy from body-worn accelerometers: (1) compare linear regression to linear mixed models, (2) compare linear models to artificial neural network models, and (3) compare accuracy of accelerometers placed on the hip, thigh, and wrists. Forty individuals performed 13 activities in a 90 min semi-structured, laboratory-based protocol. Participants wore accelerometers on the right hip, right thigh, and both wrists and a portable metabolic analyzer (EE criterion). Four EE prediction models were developed for each accelerometer: linear regression, linear mixed, and two ANN models. EE prediction accuracy was assessed using correlations, root mean square error (RMSE), and bias and was compared across models and accelerometers using repeated-measures analysis of variance. For all accelerometer placements, there were no significant differences for correlations or RMSE between linear regression and linear mixed models (correlations: r  =  0.71-0.88, RMSE: 1.11-1.61 METs; p  >  0.05). For the thigh-worn accelerometer, there were no differences in correlations or RMSE between linear and ANN models (ANN-correlations: r  =  0.89, RMSE: 1.07-1.08 METs. Linear models-correlations: r  =  0.88, RMSE: 1.10-1.11 METs; p  >  0.05). Conversely, one ANN had higher correlations and lower RMSE than both linear models for the hip (ANN-correlation: r  =  0.88, RMSE: 1.12 METs. Linear models-correlations: r  =  0.86, RMSE: 1.18-1.19 METs; p  linear models for the wrist-worn accelerometers (ANN-correlations: r  =  0.82-0.84, RMSE: 1.26-1.32 METs. Linear models-correlations: r  =  0.71-0.73, RMSE: 1.55-1.61 METs; p  models offer a significant improvement in EE prediction accuracy over linear models. Conversely, linear models showed similar EE prediction accuracy to machine learning models for hip- and thigh

  12. Reduction of Linear Programming to Linear Approximation

    OpenAIRE

    Vaserstein, Leonid N.

    2006-01-01

    It is well known that every Chebyshev linear approximation problem can be reduced to a linear program. In this paper we show that conversely every linear program can be reduced to a Chebyshev linear approximation problem.

  13. Selecting the correct weighting factors for linear and quadratic calibration curves with least-squares regression algorithm in bioanalytical LC-MS/MS assays and impacts of using incorrect weighting factors on curve stability, data quality, and assay performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Huidong; Liu, Guowen; Wang, Jian; Aubry, Anne-Françoise; Arnold, Mark E

    2014-09-16

    A simple procedure for selecting the correct weighting factors for linear and quadratic calibration curves with least-squares regression algorithm in bioanalytical LC-MS/MS assays is reported. The correct weighting factor is determined by the relationship between the standard deviation of instrument responses (σ) and the concentrations (x). The weighting factor of 1, 1/x, or 1/x(2) should be selected if, over the entire concentration range, σ is a constant, σ(2) is proportional to x, or σ is proportional to x, respectively. For the first time, we demonstrated with detailed scientific reasoning, solid historical data, and convincing justification that 1/x(2) should always be used as the weighting factor for all bioanalytical LC-MS/MS assays. The impacts of using incorrect weighting factors on curve stability, data quality, and assay performance were thoroughly investigated. It was found that the most stable curve could be obtained when the correct weighting factor was used, whereas other curves using incorrect weighting factors were unstable. It was also found that there was a very insignificant impact on the concentrations reported with calibration curves using incorrect weighting factors as the concentrations were always reported with the passing curves which actually overlapped with or were very close to the curves using the correct weighting factor. However, the use of incorrect weighting factors did impact the assay performance significantly. Finally, the difference between the weighting factors of 1/x(2) and 1/y(2) was discussed. All of the findings can be generalized and applied into other quantitative analysis techniques using calibration curves with weighted least-squares regression algorithm.

  14. The SXT conjugative element and linear prophage N15 encode toxin-antitoxin-stabilizing systems homologous to the tad-ata module of the Paracoccus aminophilus plasmid pAMI2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziewit, Lukasz; Jazurek, Magdalena; Drewniak, Lukasz; Baj, Jadwiga; Bartosik, Dariusz

    2007-03-01

    A group of proteic toxin-antitoxin (TA) cassettes whose representatives are widely distributed among bacterial genomes has been identified. These cassettes occur in chromosomes, plasmids, bacteriophages, and noncomposite transposons, as well as in the SXT conjugative element of Vibrio cholerae. The following four homologous loci were subjected to detailed comparative studies: (i) tad-ata from plasmid pAMI2 of Paracoccus aminophilus (the prototype of this group), (ii) gp49-gp48 from the linear bacteriophage N15 of Escherichia coli, (iii) s045-s044 from SXT, and (iv) Z3230-Z3231 from the genomic island of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain EDL933. Functional analysis revealed that all but one of these loci (Z3230-Z3231) are able to stabilize heterologous replicons, although the host ranges varied. The TA cassettes analyzed have the following common features: (i) the toxins are encoded by the first gene of each operon; (ii) the antitoxins contain a predicted helix-turn-helix motif of the XRE family; and (iii) the cassettes have two promoters that are different strengths, one which is located upstream of the toxin gene and one which is located upstream of the antitoxin gene. All four toxins tested are functional in E. coli; overexpression of the toxins (in the absence of antitoxin) results in a bacteriostatic effect manifested by elongation of bacterial cells and growth arrest. The toxins have various effects on cell viability, which suggests that they may recognize different intracellular targets. Preliminary data suggest that different cellular proteases are involved in degradation of antitoxins encoded by the loci analyzed.

  15. Linear waves and instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bers, A.

    1975-01-01

    The electrodynamic equations for small-amplitude waves and their dispersion relation in a homogeneous plasma are outlined. For such waves, energy and momentum, and their flow and transformation, are described. Perturbation theory of waves is treated and applied to linear coupling of waves, and the resulting instabilities from such interactions between active and passive waves. Linear stability analysis in time and space is described where the time-asymptotic, time-space Green's function for an arbitrary dispersion relation is developed. The perturbation theory of waves is applied to nonlinear coupling, with particular emphasis on pump-driven interactions of waves. Details of the time--space evolution of instabilities due to coupling are given. (U.S.)

  16. Slope Estimation in Noisy Piecewise Linear Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingle, Atul; Bucklew, James; Sethares, William; Varghese, Tomy

    2015-03-01

    This paper discusses the development of a slope estimation algorithm called MAPSlope for piecewise linear data that is corrupted by Gaussian noise. The number and locations of slope change points (also known as breakpoints) are assumed to be unknown a priori though it is assumed that the possible range of slope values lies within known bounds. A stochastic hidden Markov model that is general enough to encompass real world sources of piecewise linear data is used to model the transitions between slope values and the problem of slope estimation is addressed using a Bayesian maximum a posteriori approach. The set of possible slope values is discretized, enabling the design of a dynamic programming algorithm for posterior density maximization. Numerical simulations are used to justify choice of a reasonable number of quantization levels and also to analyze mean squared error performance of the proposed algorithm. An alternating maximization algorithm is proposed for estimation of unknown model parameters and a convergence result for the method is provided. Finally, results using data from political science, finance and medical imaging applications are presented to demonstrate the practical utility of this procedure.

  17. Linear resonance acceleration of pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, R.G.

    1978-01-01

    A possible requirement for the acceleration of macroscopic pellets to velocities exceeding 10 4 meters per second implies the development of new apparatus. A satisfactory approach might be the linear resonance accelerator. Such apparatus would require the charging of pellets to very high values not yet demonstrated. The incompatibility of phase stability with radial stability in these machines may require abandoning phase stability and adopting feedback control of the accelerating voltage to accommodate statistical fluctuations in the charge to mass ratio of successive pellets

  18. linear-quadratic-linear model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanwiwat Jaikuna

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To develop an in-house software program that is able to calculate and generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram by physical dose conversion using the linear-quadratic-linear (LQL model. Material and methods : The Isobio software was developed using MATLAB version 2014b to calculate and generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histograms. The physical dose from each voxel in treatment planning was extracted through Computational Environment for Radiotherapy Research (CERR, and the accuracy was verified by the differentiation between the dose volume histogram from CERR and the treatment planning system. An equivalent dose in 2 Gy fraction (EQD2 was calculated using biological effective dose (BED based on the LQL model. The software calculation and the manual calculation were compared for EQD2 verification with pair t-test statistical analysis using IBM SPSS Statistics version 22 (64-bit. Results: Two and three-dimensional biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram were displayed correctly by the Isobio software. Different physical doses were found between CERR and treatment planning system (TPS in Oncentra, with 3.33% in high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV determined by D90%, 0.56% in the bladder, 1.74% in the rectum when determined by D2cc, and less than 1% in Pinnacle. The difference in the EQD2 between the software calculation and the manual calculation was not significantly different with 0.00% at p-values 0.820, 0.095, and 0.593 for external beam radiation therapy (EBRT and 0.240, 0.320, and 0.849 for brachytherapy (BT in HR-CTV, bladder, and rectum, respectively. Conclusions : The Isobio software is a feasible tool to generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram for treatment plan evaluation in both EBRT and BT.

  19. Elements of magnetohydrodynamic stability theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spies, G.O.

    1976-11-01

    The nonlinear equations of ideal magnetohydrodynamics are discussed along with the following topics: (1) static equilibrium, (2) strict linear theory, (3) stability of a system with one degree of freedom, (4) spectrum and variational principles in magnetohydrodynamics, (5) elementary proof of the modified energy principle, (6) sufficient stability criteria, (7) local stability, and (8) normal modes

  20. Linear and non-linear autoregressive models for short-term wind speed forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lydia, M.; Suresh Kumar, S.; Immanuel Selvakumar, A.; Edwin Prem Kumar, G.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Models for wind speed prediction at 10-min intervals up to 1 h built on time-series wind speed data. • Four different multivariate models for wind speed built based on exogenous variables. • Non-linear models built using three data mining algorithms outperform the linear models. • Autoregressive models based on wind direction perform better than other models. - Abstract: Wind speed forecasting aids in estimating the energy produced from wind farms. The soaring energy demands of the world and minimal availability of conventional energy sources have significantly increased the role of non-conventional sources of energy like solar, wind, etc. Development of models for wind speed forecasting with higher reliability and greater accuracy is the need of the hour. In this paper, models for predicting wind speed at 10-min intervals up to 1 h have been built based on linear and non-linear autoregressive moving average models with and without external variables. The autoregressive moving average models based on wind direction and annual trends have been built using data obtained from Sotavento Galicia Plc. and autoregressive moving average models based on wind direction, wind shear and temperature have been built on data obtained from Centre for Wind Energy Technology, Chennai, India. While the parameters of the linear models are obtained using the Gauss–Newton algorithm, the non-linear autoregressive models are developed using three different data mining algorithms. The accuracy of the models has been measured using three performance metrics namely, the Mean Absolute Error, Root Mean Squared Error and Mean Absolute Percentage Error.

  1. The Stanford Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emma, P.

    1995-01-01

    The Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) is the first and only high-energy e + e - linear collider in the world. Its most remarkable features are high intensity, submicron sized, polarized (e - ) beams at a single interaction point. The main challenges posed by these unique characteristics include machine-wide emittance preservation, consistent high intensity operation, polarized electron production and transport, and the achievement of a high degree of beam stability on all time scales. In addition to serving as an important machine for the study of Z 0 boson production and decay using polarized beams, the SLC is also an indispensable source of hands-on experience for future linear colliders. Each new year of operation has been highlighted with a marked improvement in performance. The most significant improvements for the 1994-95 run include new low impedance vacuum chambers for the damping rings, an upgrade to the optics and diagnostics of the final focus systems, and a higher degree of polarization from the electron source. As a result, the average luminosity has nearly doubled over the previous year with peaks approaching 10 30 cm -2 s -1 and an 80% electron polarization at the interaction point. These developments as well as the remaining identifiable performance limitations will be discussed

  2. Alternate MIMO AF relaying networks with interference alignment: Spectral efficient protocol and linear filter design

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Kihong

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, we study a two-hop relaying network consisting of one source, one destination, and three amplify-and-forward (AF) relays with multiple antennas. To compensate for the capacity prelog factor loss of 1/2$ due to the half-duplex relaying, alternate transmission is performed among three relays, and the inter-relay interference due to the alternate relaying is aligned to make additional degrees of freedom. In addition, suboptimal linear filter designs at the nodes are proposed to maximize the achievable sum rate for different fading scenarios when the destination utilizes a minimum mean-square error filter. © 1967-2012 IEEE.

  3. Using the Ridge Regression Procedures to Estimate the Multiple Linear Regression Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgees, HazimMansoor; Mahdi, FatimahAssim

    2018-05-01

    This article concerns with comparing the performance of different types of ordinary ridge regression estimators that have been already proposed to estimate the regression parameters when the near exact linear relationships among the explanatory variables is presented. For this situations we employ the data obtained from tagi gas filling company during the period (2008-2010). The main result we reached is that the method based on the condition number performs better than other methods since it has smaller mean square error (MSE) than the other stated methods.

  4. Construction of the Courant-Snyder invariants for the non-linear equations of motion and criterion for the long-term stability of the beam in a storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garczynski, V.

    1993-01-01

    The Courant-Snyder invariants become Lyapunov functions when the β-functions admit non-zero lower, and finite upper bounds. The long-term stability of motion then follows. This alternative criterion for the long-term stability of motion can be generalized to the nonlinear case. A single particle subjected to an arbitrary static magnetic field is considered in some detail, as an example

  5. Postural stability changes in the elderly with cataract simulation and refractive blur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Vijay; Buckley, John G; Scally, Andy; Elliott, David B

    2003-11-01

    To determine the influence of cataractous and refractive blur on postural stability and limb-load asymmetry (LLA) and to establish how postural stability changes with the spatial frequency and contrast of the visual stimulus. Thirteen elderly subjects (mean age, 70.76 +/- 4.14 [SD] years) with no history of falls and normal vision were recruited. Postural stability was determined as the root mean square [RMS] of the center of pressure (COP) signal in the anterior-posterior (A-P) and medial-lateral directions and LLA was determined as the ratio of the average body weight placed on the more-loaded limb to the less-loaded limb, recorded during a 30-second period. Data were collected under normal standing conditions and with somatosensory system input disrupted. Measurements were repeated with four visual targets with high (8 cyc/deg) or low (2 cyc/deg) spatial frequency and high (Weber contrast, approximately 95%) or low (Weber contrast, approximately 25%) contrast. Postural stability was measured under conditions of binocular refractive blur of 0, 1, 2, 4, and 8 D and with cataract simulation. The data were analyzed in a population-averaged linear model. The cataract simulation caused significant increases in postural instability equivalent to that caused by 8-D blur conditions, and its effect was greater when the input from the somatosensory system was disrupted. High spatial frequency targets increased postural instability. Refractive blur, cataract simulation, or eye closure had no effect on LLA. Findings indicate that cataractous and refractive blur increase postural instability, and show why the elderly, many of whom have poor vision along with musculoskeletal and central nervous system degeneration, are at greater risk of falling. Findings also highlight that changes in contrast sensitivity rather than resolution changes are responsible for increasing postural instability. Providing low spatial frequency information in certain environments may be useful in

  6. Linear Algebra and Smarandache Linear Algebra

    OpenAIRE

    Vasantha, Kandasamy

    2003-01-01

    The present book, on Smarandache linear algebra, not only studies the Smarandache analogues of linear algebra and its applications, it also aims to bridge the need for new research topics pertaining to linear algebra, purely in the algebraic sense. We have introduced Smarandache semilinear algebra, Smarandache bilinear algebra and Smarandache anti-linear algebra and their fuzzy equivalents. Moreover, in this book, we have brought out the study of linear algebra and vector spaces over finite p...

  7. Predicting the multi-domain progression of Parkinson's disease: a Bayesian multivariate generalized linear mixed-effect model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming; Li, Zheng; Lee, Eun Young; Lewis, Mechelle M; Zhang, Lijun; Sterling, Nicholas W; Wagner, Daymond; Eslinger, Paul; Du, Guangwei; Huang, Xuemei

    2017-09-25

    It is challenging for current statistical models to predict clinical progression of Parkinson's disease (PD) because of the involvement of multi-domains and longitudinal data. Past univariate longitudinal or multivariate analyses from cross-sectional trials have limited power to predict individual outcomes or a single moment. The multivariate generalized linear mixed-effect model (GLMM) under the Bayesian framework was proposed to study multi-domain longitudinal outcomes obtained at baseline, 18-, and 36-month. The outcomes included motor, non-motor, and postural instability scores from the MDS-UPDRS, and demographic and standardized clinical data were utilized as covariates. The dynamic prediction was performed for both internal and external subjects using the samples from the posterior distributions of the parameter estimates and random effects, and also the predictive accuracy was evaluated based on the root of mean square error (RMSE), absolute bias (AB) and the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. First, our prediction model identified clinical data that were differentially associated with motor, non-motor, and postural stability scores. Second, the predictive accuracy of our model for the training data was assessed, and improved prediction was gained in particularly for non-motor (RMSE and AB: 2.89 and 2.20) compared to univariate analysis (RMSE and AB: 3.04 and 2.35). Third, the individual-level predictions of longitudinal trajectories for the testing data were performed, with ~80% observed values falling within the 95% credible intervals. Multivariate general mixed models hold promise to predict clinical progression of individual outcomes in PD. The data was obtained from Dr. Xuemei Huang's NIH grant R01 NS060722 , part of NINDS PD Biomarker Program (PDBP). All data was entered within 24 h of collection to the Data Management Repository (DMR), which is publically available ( https://pdbp.ninds.nih.gov/data-management ).

  8. Emittance control in linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruth, R.D.

    1991-01-01

    Before completing a realistic design of a next-generation linear collider, the authors must first learn the lessons taught by the first generation, the SLC. Given that, they must make designs fault tolerant by including correction and compensation in the basic design. They must also try to eliminate these faults by improved alignment and stability of components. When these two efforts cross, they have a realistic design. The techniques of generation and control of emittance reviewed here provide a foundation for a design which can obtain the necessary luminosity in a next-generation linear collider

  9. Linear minimax estimation for random vectors with parametric uncertainty

    KAUST Repository

    Bitar, E

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, we take a minimax approach to the problem of computing a worst-case linear mean squared error (MSE) estimate of X given Y , where X and Y are jointly distributed random vectors with parametric uncertainty in their distribution. We consider two uncertainty models, PA and PB. Model PA represents X and Y as jointly Gaussian whose covariance matrix Λ belongs to the convex hull of a set of m known covariance matrices. Model PB characterizes X and Y as jointly distributed according to a Gaussian mixture model with m known zero-mean components, but unknown component weights. We show: (a) the linear minimax estimator computed under model PA is identical to that computed under model PB when the vertices of the uncertain covariance set in PA are the same as the component covariances in model PB, and (b) the problem of computing the linear minimax estimator under either model reduces to a semidefinite program (SDP). We also consider the dynamic situation where x(t) and y(t) evolve according to a discrete-time LTI state space model driven by white noise, the statistics of which is modeled by PA and PB as before. We derive a recursive linear minimax filter for x(t) given y(t).

  10. Watt steam governor stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2002-05-01

    The physics of the fly-ball governor, introduced to regulate the speed of steam engines, is here analysed anew. The original analysis is generalized to arbitrary governor geometry. The well-known stability criterion for the linearized system breaks down for large excursions from equilibrium; we show approximately how this criterion changes.

  11. Cable Stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottura, L [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2014-07-01

    Superconductor stability is at the core of the design of any successful cable and magnet application. This chapter reviews the initial understanding of the stability mechanism, and reviews matters of importance for stability such as the nature and magnitude of the perturbation spectrum and the cooling mechanisms. Various stability strategies are studied, providing criteria that depend on the desired design and operating conditions.

  12. Dynamics of unsymmetric piecewise-linear/non-linear systems using finite elements in time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu

    1995-08-01

    The dynamic response and stability of a single-degree-of-freedom system with unsymmetric piecewise-linear/non-linear stiffness are analyzed using the finite element method in the time domain. Based on a Hamilton's weak principle, this method provides a simple and efficient approach for predicting all possible fundamental and sub-periodic responses. The stability of the steady state response is determined by using Floquet's theory without any special effort for calculating transition matrices. This method is applied to a number of examples, demonstrating its effectiveness even for a strongly non-linear problem involving both clearance and continuous stiffness non-linearities. Close agreement is found between available published findings and the predictions of the finite element in time approach, which appears to be an efficient and reliable alternative technique for non-linear dynamic response and stability analysis of periodic systems.

  13. Linearly constrained minimax optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kaj; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans

    1978-01-01

    We present an algorithm for nonlinear minimax optimization subject to linear equality and inequality constraints which requires first order partial derivatives. The algorithm is based on successive linear approximations to the functions defining the problem. The resulting linear subproblems...

  14. New stability and stabilization for switched neutral control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Lianglin; Zhong Shouming; Ye Mao; Wu Shiliang

    2009-01-01

    This paper concerns stability and stabilization issues for switched neutral systems and presents new classes of piecewise Lyapunov functionals and multiple Lyapunov functionals, based on which, two new switching rules are introduced to stabilize the neutral systems. One switching rule is designed from the solution of the so-called Lyapunov-Metzler linear matrix inequalities. The other is based on the determination of average dwell time computed from a new class of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). And then, state-feedback control is derived for the switched neutral control system mainly based on the state switching rules. Finally, three examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  15. Foundations of linear and generalized linear models

    CERN Document Server

    Agresti, Alan

    2015-01-01

    A valuable overview of the most important ideas and results in statistical analysis Written by a highly-experienced author, Foundations of Linear and Generalized Linear Models is a clear and comprehensive guide to the key concepts and results of linear statistical models. The book presents a broad, in-depth overview of the most commonly used statistical models by discussing the theory underlying the models, R software applications, and examples with crafted models to elucidate key ideas and promote practical model building. The book begins by illustrating the fundamentals of linear models,

  16. Berkeley Proton Linear Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, L. W.; Bradner, H.; Franck, J.; Gordon, H.; Gow, J. D.; Marshall, L. C.; Oppenheimer, F. F.; Panofsky, W. K. H.; Richman, C.; Woodyard, J. R.

    1953-10-13

    A linear accelerator, which increases the energy of protons from a 4 Mev Van de Graaff injector, to a final energy of 31.5 Mev, has been constructed. The accelerator consists of a cavity 40 feet long and 39 inches in diameter, excited at resonance in a longitudinal electric mode with a radio-frequency power of about 2.2 x 10{sup 6} watts peak at 202.5 mc. Acceleration is made possible by the introduction of 46 axial "drift tubes" into the cavity, which is designed such that the particles traverse the distance between the centers of successive tubes in one cycle of the r.f. power. The protons are longitudinally stable as in the synchrotron, and are stabilized transversely by the action of converging fields produced by focusing grids. The electrical cavity is constructed like an inverted airplane fuselage and is supported in a vacuum tank. Power is supplied by 9 high powered oscillators fed from a pulse generator of the artificial transmission line type.

  17. Use and Subtleties of Saddlepoint Approximation for Minimum Mean-Square Error Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beierholm, Thomas; Nuttall, Albert H.; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2008-01-01

    integral representation. However, the examples also demonstrate that when two saddle points are close or coalesce, then saddle-point approximation based on isolated saddle points is not valid. A saddle-point approximation based on two close or coalesced saddle points is derived and in the examples......, the validity and accuracy of the derivation is demonstrated...

  18. Perimeter generating functions for the mean-squared radius of gyration of convex polygons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, Iwan

    2005-01-01

    We have derived long series expansions for the perimeter generating functions of the radius of gyration of various polygons with a convexity constraint. Using the series we numerically find simple (algebraic) exact solutions for the generating functions. In all cases the size exponent ν 1. (letter to the editor)

  19. Measured results of polarization crosstalk cancellation using LMS control. [Least Mean Square

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, C. A.; Rassweiler, G. G.

    1977-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of wideband decoupling networks for the cancellation of polarization crosstalk in dual-polarized communication links. Measured cancellation performance for an all-electronic IF network and an RF electro-mechanical waveguide network are presented. Each of these networks utilizes LMS-type adaptive control techniques to adjust the cancellation network.

  20. Root mean square radii of heavy flavoured mesons in a quantum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-09-09

    Sep 9, 2016 ... capturing the salient features of QCD in this regime, ... tion theory to be compatible with quantum mechanical ..... lated values of quantities which involves the integration .... ematical Institute (CMI) for bringing his attention to.

  1. Calculation of the mean-square velocities of atom oscillations in the Moessbauer experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenov, Ya.S.; Lebedev, M.P.

    2005-01-01

    To study mechanical and physical properties of solid bodies, it is important to know the behavior of rms velocities of atomic oscillations. Binary iron alloys in the vicinity of phase transition temperatures were investigated using the Moessbauer spectroscopy. The rms velocities of atomic oscillations demonstrate that 3d-3p direct chemical bonds for Si and 3d-4p direct chemical bonds for Ge are broken (formed) at the phase transition temperature; as a consequence, the velocities of atomic oscillations increase abruptly [ru

  2. Progressive decrement PWM algorithm for minimum mean square error inverter output voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaeb, J.A.; Smadi, M.A.; Ababneh, M.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The main contribution of this work is to provide a better performance for the power inverter operation. → The proposed technique splits the determined original pulse-width of an inverter operation in to many pulses. → The new approach extends the central pulse and shrinks the exterior pulses. → This is leading to an inverter output cycle close to the sinusoidal form of fewer harmonics. - Abstract: The paper proposes two modulation techniques for the power inverter. These new techniques are named progressive decrement PWM algorithm (PDPA) and progressive increment PWM algorithm (PIPA). Both techniques take the determined original pulse-width of an inverter operation and split it to many pulses. In the PDPA technique, the largest width is given to the middle pulse and the width of the boundary pulses is reduced progressively starting from the first boundary-pulse toward the last boundary-pulse. In the PIPA technique, there is a gradual increment instead of decrement. The two techniques have been proved that it can maintain the original pulse-width of the inverter operation. The new approach PDPA extends the central pulse and shrinks the exterior pulses, leading to an inverter output cycle close to the sinusoidal form of fewer harmonic contents. Simulation results are performed to evaluate the performances of the proposed techniques: PDPA and PIPA and to compare them with the well known methods. The main contribution of the proposed PDPA technique is that it provides a better performance for the most harmonic orders compared to the well established sinusoidal PWM technique.

  3. Relative variance of the mean-squared pressure in multimode media: rehabilitating former approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsef, Florian; Cozza, Andrea; Rodrigues, Dominique; Cellard, Patrick; Durocher, Jean-Noel

    2014-11-01

    The commonly accepted model for the relative variance of transmission functions in room acoustics, derived by Weaver, aims at including the effects of correlation between eigenfrequencies. This model is based on an analytical expression of the relative variance derived by means of an approximated correlation function. The relevance of the approximation used for modeling such correlation is questioned here. Weaver's model was motivated by the fact that earlier models derived by Davy and Lyon assumed independent eigenfrequencies and led to an overestimation with respect to relative variances found in practice. It is shown here that this overestimation is due to an inadequate truncation of the modal expansion, and to an improper choice of the frequency range over which ensemble averages of the eigenfrequencies is defined. An alternative definition is proposed, settling the inconsistency; predicted relative variances are found to be in good agreement with experimental data. These results rehabilitate former approaches that were based on independence assumptions between eigenfrequencies. Some former studies showed that simpler correlation models could be used to predict the statistics of some field-related physical quantity at low modal overlap. The present work confirms that this is also the case when dealing with transmission functions.

  4. LINEAR KERNEL SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINES FOR MODELING PORE-WATER PRESSURE RESPONSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KHAMARUZAMAN W. YUSOF

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Pore-water pressure responses are vital in many aspects of slope management, design and monitoring. Its measurement however, is difficult, expensive and time consuming. Studies on its predictions are lacking. Support vector machines with linear kernel was used here to predict the responses of pore-water pressure to rainfall. Pore-water pressure response data was collected from slope instrumentation program. Support vector machine meta-parameter calibration and model development was carried out using grid search and k-fold cross validation. The mean square error for the model on scaled test data is 0.0015 and the coefficient of determination is 0.9321. Although pore-water pressure response to rainfall is a complex nonlinear process, the use of linear kernel support vector machine can be employed where high accuracy can be sacrificed for computational ease and time.

  5. Magnetohydrodynamic stability of tokamaks

    CERN Document Server

    Zohm, Hartmut

    2014-01-01

    This book bridges the gap between general plasma physics lectures and the real world problems in MHD stability. In order to support the understanding of concepts and their implication, it refers to real world problems such as toroidal mode coupling or nonlinear evolution in a conceptual and phenomenological approach. Detailed mathematical treatment will involve classical linear stability analysis and an outline of more recent concepts such as the ballooning formalism. The book is based on lectures that the author has given to Master and PhD students in Fusion Plasma Physics. Due its strong lin

  6. Tikhonov theorem for linear hyperbolic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Tang , Ying; Prieur , Christophe; Girard , Antoine

    2015-01-01

    International audience; A class of linear systems of conservation laws with a small perturbation parameter is introduced. By setting the perturbation parameter to zero, two subsystems, the reduced system standing for the slow dynamics and the boundary-layer system representing the fast dynamics, are computed. It is first proved that the exponential stability of the full system implies the stability of both subsystems. Secondly, a counter example is given to indicate that the converse is not t...

  7. Introduction to linear systems of differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Adrianova, L Ya

    1995-01-01

    The theory of linear systems of differential equations is one of the cornerstones of the whole theory of differential equations. At its root is the concept of the Lyapunov characteristic exponent. In this book, Adrianova presents introductory material and further detailed discussions of Lyapunov exponents. She also discusses the structure of the space of solutions of linear systems. Classes of linear systems examined are from the narrowest to widest: 1)�autonomous, 2)�periodic, 3)�reducible to autonomous, 4)�nearly reducible to autonomous, 5)�regular. In addition, Adrianova considers the following: stability of linear systems and the influence of perturbations of the coefficients on the stability the criteria of uniform stability and of uniform asymptotic stability in terms of properties of the solutions several estimates of the growth rate of solutions of a linear system in terms of its coefficients How perturbations of the coefficients change all the elements of the spectrum of the system is defin...

  8. Single Particle Linear and Nonlinear Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Y

    2004-06-25

    I will give a comprehensive review of existing particle tracking tools to assess long-term particle stability for small and large accelerators in the presence of realistic magnetic imperfections and machine misalignments. The emphasis will be on the tracking and analysis tools based upon the differential algebra, Lie operator, and ''polymorphism''. Using these tools, a uniform linear and non-linear analysis will be outlined as an application of the normal form.

  9. Single Particle Linear and Nonlinear Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Y

    2004-01-01

    I will give a comprehensive review of existing particle tracking tools to assess long-term particle stability for small and large accelerators in the presence of realistic magnetic imperfections and machine misalignments. The emphasis will be on the tracking and analysis tools based upon the differential algebra, Lie operator, and ''polymorphism''. Using these tools, a uniform linear and non-linear analysis will be outlined as an application of the normal form

  10. Existence, uniqueness, and stability of stochastic neutral functional differential equations of Sobolev-type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xuetao; Zhu, Quanxin, E-mail: zqx22@126.com [School of Mathematical Sciences and Institute of Mathematics, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023, Jiangsu (China)

    2015-12-15

    In this paper, we are mainly concerned with a class of stochastic neutral functional differential equations of Sobolev-type with Poisson jumps. Under two different sets of conditions, we establish the existence of the mild solution by applying the Leray-Schauder alternative theory and the Sadakovskii’s fixed point theorem, respectively. Furthermore, we use the Bihari’s inequality to prove the Osgood type uniqueness. Also, the mean square exponential stability is investigated by applying the Gronwall inequality. Finally, two examples are given to illustrate the theory results.

  11. Study of the stability of the gallium isotopes beyond the N = 50 neutron shell closure

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to study the stability of the nuclear structure beyond N = 50 and Z = 28 with beams of neutron-rich gallium isotopes at the CRIS experiment at ISOLDE. The study of their hyperne structure and isotope shift will provide spins, magnetic dipole moments, electric quadrupole moments and changes in the mean-square charge radii. The $\\beta$-decay of $^{80}$Ga will be unambiguously measured using the technique of Laser Assisted Nuclear Decay Spectroscopy (LANDS). The half-lives of the very neutron-rich isotopes with N > 54 will be measured for their impact on the astrophysical ${r}$-process.

  12. Fast feedback for linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrickson, L.; Adolphsen, C.; Allison, S.; Gromme, T.; Grossberg, P.; Himel, T.; Krauter, K.; MacKenzie, R.; Minty, M.; Sass, R.

    1995-01-01

    A fast feedback system provides beam stabilization for the SLC. As the SLC is in some sense a prototype for future linear colliders, this system may be a prototype for future feedbacks. The SLC provides a good base of experience for feedback requirements and capabilities as well as a testing ground for performance characteristics. The feedback system controls a wide variety of machine parameters throughout the SLC and associated experiments, including regulation of beam position, angle, energy, intensity and timing parameters. The design and applications of the system are described, in addition to results of recent performance studies

  13. Rectification of aerial images using piecewise linear transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liew, L H; Lee, B Y; Wang, Y C; Cheah, W S

    2014-01-01

    Aerial images are widely used in various activities by providing visual records. This type of remotely sensed image is helpful in generating digital maps, managing ecology, monitoring crop growth and region surveying. Such images could provide insight into areas of interest that have lower altitude, particularly in regions where optical satellite imaging is prevented due to cloudiness. Aerial images captured using a non-metric cameras contain real details of the images as well as unexpected distortions. Distortions would affect the actual length, direction and shape of objects in the images. There are many sources that could cause distortions such as lens, earth curvature, topographic relief and the attitude of the aircraft that is used to carry the camera. These distortions occur differently, collectively and irregularly in the entire image. Image rectification is an essential image pre-processing step to eliminate or at least reduce the effect of distortions. In this paper, a non-parametric approach with piecewise linear transformation is investigated in rectifying distorted aerial images. The non-parametric approach requires a set of corresponding control points obtained from a reference image and a distorted image. The corresponding control points are then applied with piecewise linear transformation as geometric transformation. Piecewise linear transformation divides the image into regions by triangulation. Different linear transformations are employed separately to triangular regions instead of using a single transformation as the rectification model for the entire image. The result of rectification is evaluated using total root mean square error (RMSE). Experiments show that piecewise linear transformation could assist in improving the limitation of using global transformation to rectify images

  14. Parameterized Linear Longitudinal Airship Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulczycki, Eric; Elfes, Alberto; Bayard, David; Quadrelli, Marco; Johnson, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    A parameterized linear mathematical model of the longitudinal dynamics of an airship is undergoing development. This model is intended to be used in designing control systems for future airships that would operate in the atmospheres of Earth and remote planets. Heretofore, the development of linearized models of the longitudinal dynamics of airships has been costly in that it has been necessary to perform extensive flight testing and to use system-identification techniques to construct models that fit the flight-test data. The present model is a generic one that can be relatively easily specialized to approximate the dynamics of specific airships at specific operating points, without need for further system identification, and with significantly less flight testing. The approach taken in the present development is to merge the linearized dynamical equations of an airship with techniques for estimation of aircraft stability derivatives, and to thereby make it possible to construct a linearized dynamical model of the longitudinal dynamics of a specific airship from geometric and aerodynamic data pertaining to that airship. (It is also planned to develop a model of the lateral dynamics by use of the same methods.) All of the aerodynamic data needed to construct the model of a specific airship can be obtained from wind-tunnel testing and computational fluid dynamics

  15. Bounded Perturbation Regularization for Linear Least Squares Estimation

    KAUST Repository

    Ballal, Tarig

    2017-10-18

    This paper addresses the problem of selecting the regularization parameter for linear least-squares estimation. We propose a new technique called bounded perturbation regularization (BPR). In the proposed BPR method, a perturbation with a bounded norm is allowed into the linear transformation matrix to improve the singular-value structure. Following this, the problem is formulated as a min-max optimization problem. Next, the min-max problem is converted to an equivalent minimization problem to estimate the unknown vector quantity. The solution of the minimization problem is shown to converge to that of the ℓ2 -regularized least squares problem, with the unknown regularizer related to the norm bound of the introduced perturbation through a nonlinear constraint. A procedure is proposed that combines the constraint equation with the mean squared error (MSE) criterion to develop an approximately optimal regularization parameter selection algorithm. Both direct and indirect applications of the proposed method are considered. Comparisons with different Tikhonov regularization parameter selection methods, as well as with other relevant methods, are carried out. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed method provides significant improvement over state-of-the-art methods.

  16. A novel highly parallel algorithm for linearly unmixing hyperspectral images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Raúl; López, Sebastián.; Callico, Gustavo M.; López, Jose F.; Sarmiento, Roberto

    2014-10-01

    Endmember extraction and abundances calculation represent critical steps within the process of linearly unmixing a given hyperspectral image because of two main reasons. The first one is due to the need of computing a set of accurate endmembers in order to further obtain confident abundance maps. The second one refers to the huge amount of operations involved in these time-consuming processes. This work proposes an algorithm to estimate the endmembers of a hyperspectral image under analysis and its abundances at the same time. The main advantage of this algorithm is its high parallelization degree and the mathematical simplicity of the operations implemented. This algorithm estimates the endmembers as virtual pixels. In particular, the proposed algorithm performs the descent gradient method to iteratively refine the endmembers and the abundances, reducing the mean square error, according with the linear unmixing model. Some mathematical restrictions must be added so the method converges in a unique and realistic solution. According with the algorithm nature, these restrictions can be easily implemented. The results obtained with synthetic images demonstrate the well behavior of the algorithm proposed. Moreover, the results obtained with the well-known Cuprite dataset also corroborate the benefits of our proposal.

  17. A linear programming manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuey, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    Computer solutions of linear programming problems are outlined. Information covers vector spaces, convex sets, and matrix algebra elements for solving simultaneous linear equations. Dual problems, reduced cost analysis, ranges, and error analysis are illustrated.

  18. Non-Linear Detection for Joint Space-Frequency Block Coding and Spatial Multiplexing in OFDM-MIMO Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahman, Imadur Mohamed; Marchetti, Nicola; Fitzek, Frank

    2005-01-01

    (SIC) receiver where the detection is done on subcarrier by sub-carrier basis based on both Zero Forcing (ZF) and Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE) nulling criterion for the system. In terms of Frame Error Rate (FER), MMSE based SIC receiver performs better than all other receivers compared......In this work, we have analyzed a joint spatial diversity and multiplexing transmission structure for MIMO-OFDM system, where Orthogonal Space-Frequency Block Coding (OSFBC) is used across all spatial multiplexing branches. We have derived a BLAST-like non-linear Successive Interference Cancellation...... in this paper. We have found that a linear two-stage receiver for the proposed system [1] performs very close to the non-linear receiver studied in this work. Finally, we compared the system performance in spatially correlated scenario. It is found that higher amount of spatial correlation at the transmitter...

  19. Linear shaped charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, David; Stofleth, Jerome H.; Saul, Venner W.

    2017-07-11

    Linear shaped charges are described herein. In a general embodiment, the linear shaped charge has an explosive with an elongated arrowhead-shaped profile. The linear shaped charge also has and an elongated v-shaped liner that is inset into a recess of the explosive. Another linear shaped charge includes an explosive that is shaped as a star-shaped prism. Liners are inset into crevices of the explosive, where the explosive acts as a tamper.

  20. Classifying Linear Canonical Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Lorand, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    In this Master's thesis, we consider the problem of classifying, up to conjugation by linear symplectomorphisms, linear canonical relations (lagrangian correspondences) from a finite-dimensional symplectic vector space to itself. We give an elementary introduction to the theory of linear canonical relations and present partial results toward the classification problem. This exposition should be accessible to undergraduate students with a basic familiarity with linear algebra.

  1. Linear-Algebra Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, C. L.; Krogh, F. T.; Gold, S. S.; Kincaid, D. R.; Sullivan, J.; Williams, E.; Hanson, R. J.; Haskell, K.; Dongarra, J.; Moler, C. B.

    1982-01-01

    The Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS) library is a collection of 38 FORTRAN-callable routines for performing basic operations of numerical linear algebra. BLAS library is portable and efficient source of basic operations for designers of programs involving linear algebriac computations. BLAS library is supplied in portable FORTRAN and Assembler code versions for IBM 370, UNIVAC 1100 and CDC 6000 series computers.

  2. A Technique of Fuzzy C-Mean in Multiple Linear Regression Model toward Paddy Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syazwan Wahab, Nur; Saifullah Rusiman, Mohd; Mohamad, Mahathir; Amira Azmi, Nur; Che Him, Norziha; Ghazali Kamardan, M.; Ali, Maselan

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a hybrid model which is a combination of multiple linear regression model and fuzzy c-means method. This research involved a relationship between 20 variates of the top soil that are analyzed prior to planting of paddy yields at standard fertilizer rates. Data used were from the multi-location trials for rice carried out by MARDI at major paddy granary in Peninsular Malaysia during the period from 2009 to 2012. Missing observations were estimated using mean estimation techniques. The data were analyzed using multiple linear regression model and a combination of multiple linear regression model and fuzzy c-means method. Analysis of normality and multicollinearity indicate that the data is normally scattered without multicollinearity among independent variables. Analysis of fuzzy c-means cluster the yield of paddy into two clusters before the multiple linear regression model can be used. The comparison between two method indicate that the hybrid of multiple linear regression model and fuzzy c-means method outperform the multiple linear regression model with lower value of mean square error.

  3. Final focus systems for linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helm, R.; Irwin, J.

    1992-08-01

    Final focus systems for linear colliders present many exacting challenges in beam optics, component design, and beam quality. Efforts to resolve these problems as they relate to a new generation of linear colliders are under way at several laboratories around the world. We will outline criteria for final focus systems and discuss the current state of understanding and resolution of the outstanding problems. We will discuss tolerances on alignment, field quality and stability for optical elements, and the implications for beam parameters such as emittance, energy spread, bunch length, and stability in position and energy. Beam-based correction procedures, which in principle can alleviate many of the tolerances, will be described. Preliminary results from the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) under construction at SLAC will be given. Finally, we mention conclusions from operating experience at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC)

  4. Final focus systems for linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helm, R.; Irwing, J.

    1992-01-01

    Final focus systems for linear colliders present many exacting challenges in beam optics, component design, and beam quality. Efforts to resolve these problems as they relate to a new generation of linear colliders are under way at several laboratories around the world. We outline criteria for final focus systems and discuss the current state of understanding and resolution of the outstanding problems. We discuss tolerances on alignment, field quality and stability for optical elements, and the implications for beam parameters such as emittance, energy spread , bunch length, and stability in position and energy. Beam-based correction procedures, which in principle can alleviate many of the tolerances, are described. Preliminary results from the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) under construction at SLAC are given. Finally, we mention conclusions from operating experience at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). (Author) 16 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs

  5. Optimization of linear Monte Carlo calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troubetzkoy, E.S.

    1991-01-01

    The variance of the calculation is minimized on the basis of parameters generated by a learning technique. The optimum is obtained if sampling is biased proportionally to the expected root-mean-square score. In this paper, the method is compared with existing methods, which bias proportionally to the expected score

  6. Non linear system become linear system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre Bucur

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper refers to the theory and the practice of the systems regarding non-linear systems and their applications. We aimed the integration of these systems to elaborate their response as well as to highlight some outstanding features.

  7. Linear motor coil assembly and linear motor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    An ironless linear motor (5) comprising a magnet track (53) and a coil assembly (50) operating in cooperation with said magnet track (53) and having a plurality of concentrated multi-turn coils (31 a-f, 41 a-d, 51 a-k), wherein the end windings (31E) of the coils (31 a-f, 41 a-e) are substantially

  8. A Combination of PD Controller and PIAFC for Stabilization of “x” Configuration Quadcopter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni’am Tamami

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a stabilization control method for “x” configuration quadcopter. The control method used the combination of PD (Proportional Derivative controller and PIAFC (Proportional Integral Active Force Control. PD is used to stabilize quadcopter, and PIAFC is used to reject uncertainty disturbance (e.g. wind by estimating disturbance torque value of quadcopter. The PD with PIAFC provided better result where PIAFC could minimize uncertain disturbance effect. The simulation has successfully give comparation about controller performance (PD, PD-AFC, PD-PIAFC by calculate RMS (Root Mean Square value. PD with AFC gives better result than PD. AFC optimization using PI (PD-PIAFC give best result if compared with PD or PD-AFC. PD-PIAFC has lowest RMS value of result control signal, 0.0389 for constant disturbance and 0.1008 for fluctuated disturbance. Keywords:“x” configuration quadcopter, stability, PD, PIAFC.

  9. New definitions of pointing stability - ac and dc effects. [constant and time-dependent pointing error effects on image sensor performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucke, Robert L.; Sirlin, Samuel W.; San Martin, A. M.

    1992-01-01

    For most imaging sensors, a constant (dc) pointing error is unimportant (unless large), but time-dependent (ac) errors degrade performance by either distorting or smearing the image. When properly quantified, the separation of the root-mean-square effects of random line-of-sight motions into dc and ac components can be used to obtain the minimum necessary line-of-sight stability specifications. The relation between stability requirements and sensor resolution is discussed, with a view to improving communication between the data analyst and the control systems engineer.

  10. Linear collider: a preview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedemann, H.

    1981-11-01

    Since no linear colliders have been built yet it is difficult to know at what energy the linear cost scaling of linear colliders drops below the quadratic scaling of storage rings. There is, however, no doubt that a linear collider facility for a center of mass energy above say 500 GeV is significantly cheaper than an equivalent storage ring. In order to make the linear collider principle feasible at very high energies a number of problems have to be solved. There are two kinds of problems: one which is related to the feasibility of the principle and the other kind of problems is associated with minimizing the cost of constructing and operating such a facility. This lecture series describes the problems and possible solutions. Since the real test of a principle requires the construction of a prototype I will in the last chapter describe the SLC project at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center.

  11. Basic linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Blyth, T S

    2002-01-01

    Basic Linear Algebra is a text for first year students leading from concrete examples to abstract theorems, via tutorial-type exercises. More exercises (of the kind a student may expect in examination papers) are grouped at the end of each section. The book covers the most important basics of any first course on linear algebra, explaining the algebra of matrices with applications to analytic geometry, systems of linear equations, difference equations and complex numbers. Linear equations are treated via Hermite normal forms which provides a successful and concrete explanation of the notion of linear independence. Another important highlight is the connection between linear mappings and matrices leading to the change of basis theorem which opens the door to the notion of similarity. This new and revised edition features additional exercises and coverage of Cramer's rule (omitted from the first edition). However, it is the new, extra chapter on computer assistance that will be of particular interest to readers:...

  12. Linear collider: a preview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedemann, H.

    1981-11-01

    Since no linear colliders have been built yet it is difficult to know at what energy the linear cost scaling of linear colliders drops below the quadratic scaling of storage rings. There is, however, no doubt that a linear collider facility for a center of mass energy above say 500 GeV is significantly cheaper than an equivalent storage ring. In order to make the linear collider principle feasible at very high energies a number of problems have to be solved. There are two kinds of problems: one which is related to the feasibility of the principle and the other kind of problems is associated with minimizing the cost of constructing and operating such a facility. This lecture series describes the problems and possible solutions. Since the real test of a principle requires the construction of a prototype I will in the last chapter describe the SLC project at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center

  13. Matrices and linear transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Cullen, Charles G

    1990-01-01

    ""Comprehensive . . . an excellent introduction to the subject."" - Electronic Engineer's Design Magazine.This introductory textbook, aimed at sophomore- and junior-level undergraduates in mathematics, engineering, and the physical sciences, offers a smooth, in-depth treatment of linear algebra and matrix theory. The major objects of study are matrices over an arbitrary field. Contents include Matrices and Linear Systems; Vector Spaces; Determinants; Linear Transformations; Similarity: Part I and Part II; Polynomials and Polynomial Matrices; Matrix Analysis; and Numerical Methods. The first

  14. Efficient Non Linear Loudspeakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bo R.; Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2006-01-01

    Loudspeakers have traditionally been designed to be as linear as possible. However, as techniques for compensating non linearities are emerging, it becomes possible to use other design criteria. This paper present and examines a new idea for improving the efficiency of loudspeakers at high levels...... by changing the voice coil layout. This deliberate non-linear design has the benefit that a smaller amplifier can be used, which has the benefit of reducing system cost as well as reducing power consumption....

  15. Impact self-excited vibrations of linear motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravlev, V. Ph.

    2010-08-01

    Impact self-exciting vibration modes in a linear motor of a monorail car are studied. Existence and stability conditions of self-exciting vibrations are found. Ways of avoiding the vibrations are discussed.

  16. Lag synchronization of chaotic systems with time-delayed linear ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    delayed linear terms via impulsive control is investigated. Based on the stability theory of impulsive delayed differen- tial equations, some sufficient conditions are obtained guaranteeing the synchronized behaviours between two delayed chaotic ...

  17. Linear and nonlinear analysis of high-power rf amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puglisi, M.

    1983-01-01

    After a survey of the state variable analysis method the final amplifier for the CBA is analyzed taking into account the real beam waveshape. An empirical method for checking the stability of a non-linear system is also considered

  18. Linear models with R

    CERN Document Server

    Faraway, Julian J

    2014-01-01

    A Hands-On Way to Learning Data AnalysisPart of the core of statistics, linear models are used to make predictions and explain the relationship between the response and the predictors. Understanding linear models is crucial to a broader competence in the practice of statistics. Linear Models with R, Second Edition explains how to use linear models in physical science, engineering, social science, and business applications. The book incorporates several improvements that reflect how the world of R has greatly expanded since the publication of the first edition.New to the Second EditionReorganiz

  19. Linear integrated circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Carr, Joseph

    1996-01-01

    The linear IC market is large and growing, as is the demand for well trained technicians and engineers who understand how these devices work and how to apply them. Linear Integrated Circuits provides in-depth coverage of the devices and their operation, but not at the expense of practical applications in which linear devices figure prominently. This book is written for a wide readership from FE and first degree students, to hobbyists and professionals.Chapter 1 offers a general introduction that will provide students with the foundations of linear IC technology. From chapter 2 onwa

  20. Fault tolerant linear actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesar, Delbert

    2004-09-14

    In varying embodiments, the fault tolerant linear actuator of the present invention is a new and improved linear actuator with fault tolerance and positional control that may incorporate velocity summing, force summing, or a combination of the two. In one embodiment, the invention offers a velocity summing arrangement with a differential gear between two prime movers driving a cage, which then drives a linear spindle screw transmission. Other embodiments feature two prime movers driving separate linear spindle screw transmissions, one internal and one external, in a totally concentric and compact integrated module.

  1. Superconducting linear accelerator cryostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Elkonin, B.V.; Sokolowski, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    A large vertical cryostat for a superconducting linear accelerator using quarter wave resonators has been developed. The essential technical details, operational experience and performance are described. (author)

  2. Estimation of perceptible water vapor of atmosphere using artificial neural network, support vector machine and multiple linear regression algorithm and their comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastri, Niket; Pathak, Kamlesh

    2018-05-01

    The water vapor content in atmosphere plays very important role in climate. In this paper the application of GPS signal in meteorology is discussed, which is useful technique that is used to estimate the perceptible water vapor of atmosphere. In this paper various algorithms like artificial neural network, support vector machine and multiple linear regression are use to predict perceptible water vapor. The comparative studies in terms of root mean square error and mean absolute errors are also carried out for all the algorithms.

  3. Stabilizing Niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahonou, Eric Komlavi

    international intervention in Niger. Their main objective is to secure their own strategic, economic and political interests by strengthening the Nigerien authorities through direct intervention and capacity building activities. For western states reinforcing state security institutions and stabilizing elite...

  4. New Sufficient LMI Conditions for Static Output Stabilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegas, Fabiano Daher

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents new linear matrix inequality conditions to the static output feedback stabilization problem. Although the conditions are only sufficient, numerical experiments show excellent success rates in finding a stabilizing controller....

  5. Robustness of Linear Systems towards Multi-Dissipative Pertubations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    1997-01-01

    We consider the question of robust stability of a linear time invariant plant subject to dynamic perturbations, which are dissipative in the sense of Willems with respect to several quadratic supply rates. For instance, parasitic dynamics are often both small gain and passive. We reduce several...... robustness analysis questions to linear matrix inequalities: robust stability, robust H2 performance and robust performance in presence of disturbances with finite signal-to-noise ratios...

  6. Linearity enigmas in ecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patten, B.C.

    1983-04-01

    Two issues concerning linearity or nonlinearity of natural systems are considered. Each is related to one of the two alternative defining properties of linear systems, superposition and decomposition. Superposition exists when a linear combination of inputs to a system results in the same linear combination of outputs that individually correspond to the original inputs. To demonstrate this property it is necessary that all initial states and inputs of the system which impinge on the output in question be included in the linear combination manipulation. As this is difficult or impossible to do with real systems of any complexity, nature appears nonlinear even though it may be linear. A linear system that displays nonlinear behavior for this reason is termed pseudononlinear. The decomposition property exists when the dynamic response of a system can be partitioned into an input-free portion due to state plus a state-free portion due to input. This is a characteristic of all linear systems, but not of nonlinear systems. Without the decomposition property, it is not possible to distinguish which portions of a system's behavior are due to innate characteristics (self) vs. outside conditions (environment), which is an important class of questions in biology and ecology. Some philosophical aspects of these findings are then considered. It is suggested that those ecologists who hold to the view that organisms and their environments are separate entities are in effect embracing a linear view of nature, even though their belief systems and mathematical models tend to be nonlinear. On the other hand, those who consider that organism-environment complex forms a single inseparable unit are implictly involved in non-linear thought, which may be in conflict with the linear modes and models that some of them use. The need to rectify these ambivalences on the part of both groups is indicated.

  7. Adaptive Linear and Normalized Combination of Radial Basis Function Networks for Function Approximation and Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfeng Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel adaptive linear and normalized combination (ALNC method that can be used to combine the component radial basis function networks (RBFNs to implement better function approximation and regression tasks. The optimization of the fusion weights is obtained by solving a constrained quadratic programming problem. According to the instantaneous errors generated by the component RBFNs, the ALNC is able to perform the selective ensemble of multiple leaners by adaptively adjusting the fusion weights from one instance to another. The results of the experiments on eight synthetic function approximation and six benchmark regression data sets show that the ALNC method can effectively help the ensemble system achieve a higher accuracy (measured in terms of mean-squared error and the better fidelity (characterized by normalized correlation coefficient of approximation, in relation to the popular simple average, weighted average, and the Bagging methods.

  8. Adaptive Digital Predistortion Schemes to Linearize RF Power Amplifiers with Memory Effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Peng; WU Si-liang; ZHANG Qin

    2008-01-01

    To compensate for nonlinear distortion introduced by RF power amplifiers (PAs) with memory effects, two correlated models, namely an extended memory polynomial (EMP) model and a memory lookup table (LUT) model, are proposed for predistorter design. Two adaptive digital predistortion (ADPD) schemes with indirect learning architecture are presented. One adopts the EMP model and the recursive least square (RLS) algorithm, and the other utilizes the memory LUT model and the least mean square (LMS) algorithm. Simulation results demonstrate that the EMP-based ADPD yields the best linearization performance in terms of suppressing spectral regrowth. It is also shown that the ADPD based on memory LUT makes optimum tradeoff between performance and computational complexity.

  9. A Robust Non-Gaussian Data Assimilation Method for Highly Non-Linear Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias D. Nino-Ruiz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an efficient EnKF implementation for non-Gaussian data assimilation based on Gaussian Mixture Models and Markov-Chain-Monte-Carlo (MCMC methods. The proposed method works as follows: based on an ensemble of model realizations, prior errors are estimated via a Gaussian Mixture density whose parameters are approximated by means of an Expectation Maximization method. Then, by using an iterative method, observation operators are linearized about current solutions and posterior modes are estimated via a MCMC implementation. The acceptance/rejection criterion is similar to that of the Metropolis-Hastings rule. Experimental tests are performed on the Lorenz 96 model. The results show that the proposed method can decrease prior errors by several order of magnitudes in a root-mean-square-error sense for nearly sparse or dense observational networks.

  10. Stochastic Response of an Inclined Shallow Cable with Linear Viscous Dampers under Stochastic Excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Qiang; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Qu, Weilian

    2010-01-01

    Considering the coupling between the in-plane and out-of-plane vibration, the stochastic response of an inclined shallow cable with linear viscous dampers subjected to Gaussian white noise excitation is investigated in this paper. Selecting the static deflection shape due to a concentrated force...... together with the C-type Gram-Charlier expansion with a fourth-order closure are applied to obtain statistical moments, power spectral density and probabilistic density function of the cable response, whose availability is verified by Monte Carlo method. Taking a typical cable as an example, the influence...... of several factors, which include excitation level and direction as well as damper size, on the dynamic response of the cable is extensively investigated. It is found that the sum of mean square in-plane and out-of-plane displacement is primarily independent of the load direction when the excitation level...

  11. Nonlinear aeroacoustic characterization of Helmholtz resonators with a local-linear neuro-fuzzy network model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förner, K.; Polifke, W.

    2017-10-01

    The nonlinear acoustic behavior of Helmholtz resonators is characterized by a data-based reduced-order model, which is obtained by a combination of high-resolution CFD simulation and system identification. It is shown that even in the nonlinear regime, a linear model is capable of describing the reflection behavior at a particular amplitude with quantitative accuracy. This observation motivates to choose a local-linear model structure for this study, which consists of a network of parallel linear submodels. A so-called fuzzy-neuron layer distributes the input signal over the linear submodels, depending on the root mean square of the particle velocity at the resonator surface. The resulting model structure is referred to as an local-linear neuro-fuzzy network. System identification techniques are used to estimate the free parameters of this model from training data. The training data are generated by CFD simulations of the resonator, with persistent acoustic excitation over a wide range of frequencies and sound pressure levels. The estimated nonlinear, reduced-order models show good agreement with CFD and experimental data over a wide range of amplitudes for several test cases.

  12. Linear colliders - prospects 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, J.

    1985-06-01

    We discuss the scaling laws of linear colliders and their consequences for accelerator design. We then report on the SLAC Linear Collider project and comment on experience gained on that project and its application to future colliders. 9 refs., 2 figs

  13. The SLAC linear collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.

    1985-01-01

    A report is given on the goals and progress of the SLAC Linear Collider. The author discusses the status of the machine and the detectors and give an overview of the physics which can be done at this new facility. He also gives some ideas on how (and why) large linear colliders of the future should be built

  14. Linear Programming (LP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogner, H.H.

    1989-01-01

    The submitted sections on linear programming are extracted from 'Theorie und Technik der Planung' (1978) by W. Blaas and P. Henseler and reformulated for presentation at the Workshop. They consider a brief introduction to the theory of linear programming and to some essential aspects of the SIMPLEX solution algorithm for the purposes of economic planning processes. 1 fig

  15. Racetrack linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, C.H.; Wilton, M.S. de.

    1979-01-01

    An improved recirculating electron beam linear accelerator of the racetrack type is described. The system comprises a beam path of four straight legs with four Pretzel bending magnets at the end of each leg to direct the beam into the next leg of the beam path. At least one of the beam path legs includes a linear accelerator. (UK)

  16. Offset linear scaling for H-mode confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Yukitoshi; Tamai, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Norio; Mori, Masahiro; Matsuda, Toshiaki; Maeda, Hikosuke; Takizuka, Tomonori; Itoh, Sanae; Itoh, Kimitaka.

    1992-01-01

    An offset linear scaling for the H-mode confinement time is examined based on single parameter scans on the JFT-2M experiment. Regression study is done for various devices with open divertor configuration such as JET, DIII-D, JFT-2M. The scaling law of the thermal energy is given in the MKSA unit as W th =0.0046R 1.9 I P 1.1 B T 0.91 √A+2.9x10 -8 I P 1.0 R 0.87 P√AP, where R is the major radius, I P is the plasma current, B T is the toroidal magnetic field, A is the average mass number of plasma and neutral beam particles, and P is the heating power. This fitting has a similar root mean square error (RMSE) compared to the power law scaling. The result is also compared with the H-mode in other configurations. The W th of closed divertor H-mode on ASDEX shows a little better values than that of open divertor H-mode. (author)

  17. Semidefinite linear complementarity problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckhardt, U.

    1978-04-01

    Semidefinite linear complementarity problems arise by discretization of variational inequalities describing e.g. elastic contact problems, free boundary value problems etc. In the present paper linear complementarity problems are introduced and the theory as well as the numerical treatment of them are described. In the special case of semidefinite linear complementarity problems a numerical method is presented which combines the advantages of elimination and iteration methods without suffering from their drawbacks. This new method has very attractive properties since it has a high degree of invariance with respect to the representation of the set of all feasible solutions of a linear complementarity problem by linear inequalities. By means of some practical applications the properties of the new method are demonstrated. (orig.) [de

  18. Linear algebra done right

    CERN Document Server

    Axler, Sheldon

    2015-01-01

    This best-selling textbook for a second course in linear algebra is aimed at undergrad math majors and graduate students. The novel approach taken here banishes determinants to the end of the book. The text focuses on the central goal of linear algebra: understanding the structure of linear operators on finite-dimensional vector spaces. The author has taken unusual care to motivate concepts and to simplify proofs. A variety of interesting exercises in each chapter helps students understand and manipulate the objects of linear algebra. The third edition contains major improvements and revisions throughout the book. More than 300 new exercises have been added since the previous edition. Many new examples have been added to illustrate the key ideas of linear algebra. New topics covered in the book include product spaces, quotient spaces, and dual spaces. Beautiful new formatting creates pages with an unusually pleasant appearance in both print and electronic versions. No prerequisites are assumed other than the ...

  19. Linear and non-linear amplification of high-mode perturbations at the ablation front in HiPER targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olazabal-Loume, M; Breil, J; Hallo, L; Ribeyre, X [CELIA, UMR 5107 Universite Bordeaux 1-CNRS-CEA, 351 cours de la Liberation, 33405 Talence (France); Sanz, J, E-mail: olazabal@celia.u-bordeaux1.f [ETSI Aeronauticos, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2011-01-15

    The linear and non-linear sensitivity of the 180 kJ baseline HiPER target to high-mode perturbations, i.e. surface roughness, is addressed using two-dimensional simulations and a complementary analysis by linear and non-linear ablative Rayleigh-Taylor models. Simulations provide an assessment of an early non-linear stage leading to a significant deformation of the ablation surface for modes of maximum linear growth factor. A design using a picket prepulse evidences an improvement in the target stability inducing a delay of the non-linear behavior. Perturbation evolution and shape, evidenced by simulations of the non-linear stage, are analyzed with existing self-consistent non-linear theory.

  20. Decentralized control of discrete-time linear time invariant systems with input saturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deliu, Ciprian; Deliu, C.; Malek, Babak; Roy, Sandip; Saberi, Ali; Stoorvogel, Antonie Arij

    2009-01-01

    We study decentralized stabilization of discrete time linear time invariant (LTI) systems subject to actuator saturation, using LTI controllers. The requirement of stabilization under both saturation constraints and decentralization impose obvious necessary conditions on the open-loop plant, namely