Linear birefringence and optical ativity in a magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vuolo, J.H.; Galvao, R.M.O.
1982-02-01
Linear birefringence and optical activity are considered separately to electromagnetic wave propagation in magnetized cold plasma, using frequency approximation much bigger than plasma frequency. It's showen that in some interesting cases, those phenomena could be independents. Explicit expressions are obtained for refraction indices to linear birefringency and optical activity. The correspondents indices attenuation aRe obtained in first orden of attenuation. It's showen that the characteristic states for linear dichroism coincide with the characteristic states for linear birefringence. The characteristic states for elliptic dichroism are obtained. (M.A.F.) [pt
Linear relativistic gyrokinetic equation in general magnetically confined plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsai, S.T.; Van Dam, J.W.; Chen, L.
1983-08-01
The gyrokinetic formalism for linear electromagnetic waves of arbitrary frequency in general magnetic-field configurations is extended to include full relativistic effects. The derivation employs the small adiabaticity parameter rho/L 0 where rho is the Larmor radius and L 0 the equilibrium scale length. The effects of the plasma and magnetic field inhomogeneities and finite Larmor-radii effects are also contained
Spectrum of a linear antenna in a cold magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eldridge, O.; Kritz, A.H.
1975-04-01
The fields radiated by a linear antenna in a cold magnetized plasma are calculated. The principal results are expressed in the input impedance and power spectrum of the near field, expressed as a function of the wavenumber or index of refraction parallel to the field. For frequencies below the electron plasma frequency and above the lower hybrid frequency the spectrum shows a broad maximum for short parallel wavelengths. The parallel index of refraction at this maximum is approximately the ratio of free space wavelength to antenna length. A spectrum of this sort is required by the accessibility conditions for heating at the lower hybrid resonance from a wave launched in a region of lower density. The impedance of a short antenna in this region is capacitive and a few hundred ohms in magnitude. (U.S.)
Dispersion of linearly polarized electromagnetic wave in magnetized quantum plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, Abhisek Kumar; Kumar, Punit
2015-01-01
The generation of harmonic radiation is significant in terms of laser-plasma interaction and has brought interesting notice due to the diversity of its applications. The odd harmonics of laser frequency are generated in the majority of laser interactions with homogenous plasma. It has been remarked that second harmonic generation takes place in the presence of density gradient which gives rise to perturbation in the electron density at the laser frequency. The density perturbation coupled with the quiver motion of the electrons produces a source current at the second harmonic frequency. Second harmonic generation has also been related with filamentation. In the present paper, a study of second harmonic generation by propagation of a linearly polarized electromagnetic wave through homogeneous high density quantum plasma in the presence of transverse magnetic field. The nonlinear current density and dispersion relations for the fundamental and second harmonic frequencies have been obtained using the recently developed quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) model. The effect of quantum Bohm potential, Fermi pressure and the electron spin have been taken into account. The second harmonic is found to be less dispersed than the first. (author)
Global numerical modeling of magnetized plasma in a linear device
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Magnussen, Michael Løiten
Understanding the turbulent transport in the plasma-edge in fusion devices is of utmost importance in order to make precise predictions for future fusion devices. The plasma turbulence observed in linear devices shares many important features with the turbulence observed in the edge of fusion dev...... with simulations performed at different ionization levels, using a simple model for plasma interaction with neutrals. It is found that the steady state and the saturated state of the system bifurcates when the neutral interaction dominates the electron-ion collisions.......Understanding the turbulent transport in the plasma-edge in fusion devices is of utmost importance in order to make precise predictions for future fusion devices. The plasma turbulence observed in linear devices shares many important features with the turbulence observed in the edge of fusion...... devices, and are easier to diagnose due to lower temperatures and a better access to the plasma. In order to gain greater insight into this complex turbulent behavior, numerical simulations of plasma in a linear device are performed in this thesis. Here, a three-dimensional drift-fluid model is derived...
Linear and nonlinear electrostatic modes in a nonuniform magnetized electron plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vranjes, J.; Shukla, P.K.; Kono, M.; Poedts, S.
2001-01-01
Linear and nonlinear low-frequency modes in a magnetized electron plasma are studied, taking into account a proper description of the equilibrium plasma state that is inhomogeneous. Assuming a homogeneous magnetic field and sheared plasma flows, flute-like perturbations are studied in the presence of density and potential gradients. Linear analysis reveals the presence of a streaming instability and depicts conditions for global linear spiral mode. In the nonlinear domain, a tripolar vortex, which is driven and carried by the flow, is found. Also investigated are the consequences of a magnetic shear as well as nonuniformities along the magnetic field lines, which are shown to be responsible for the possible annulment of the magnetic shear effects. Streaming along the lines of the sheared magnetic field is also studied. A variety of nonlinear structures (viz. global multipolar vortices, local vortex chains, and tripolar vortices) is shown to be the consequence of the simultaneous action of the parallel and perpendicular flows
Non linear dynamics of magnetic islands in fusion plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meshcheriakov, D.
2012-10-01
In this thesis we investigate the issues of linear stability of the tearing modes in a presence of both curvature and diamagnetic rotation using the non linear full-MHD toroidal code XTOR-2F, which includes anisotropic heat transport, diamagnetic and geometrical effects. This analysis is applied to one of the fully non-inductive discharges on Tore-Supra. Such experiments are crucially important to demonstrate reactor scale steady state operation for the tokamak. The possibility of a full linear stabilization of the tearing modes by diamagnetic rotation in the presence of toroidal curvature is shown. The stabilization threshold does not follow the classical scaling law connecting the growth rate of islands to plasma conductivity, measured here by the Lundquist number (S). However, for numerical reasons, the conductivity used in the simulations is lower than that of the experiment, which raises the question of extrapolation of the obtained results to the experimental situation. The extrapolation of the obtained results requires simulations with several different conductivities. It predicts that the mode at q = 2 surface to be stable at value of diamagnetic frequency consistent with the experimental one at S = S(exp). In the linearly stable domain, the mode is metastable: saturation level depends on the seed island size. In the non linear regime, the saturation of n=1, m=2 mode is found to be strongly reduced by diamagnetic rotation and by Lundquist number. However, the extrapolation to the experimental situation shows that if the island is destabilized, it will saturate at a detectable level for the Tore Supra diagnostic. For a large plasma aspect ratio (i.e. weak curvature effects), the reduction of the saturated width by diamagnetic frequency takes the form of a jump reminiscent of multiple states evidenced in slab geometry case. The question of extrapolation of the obtained results towards future generation of fusion devices is also addressed. In particular, for
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Misguich, J.H.
2004-04-01
As a first step toward a nonlinear renormalized description of turbulence phenomena in magnetized plasmas, the lowest order quasi-linear description is presented here from a unified point of view for collisionless as well as for collisional plasmas in a constant magnetic field. The quasi-linear approximation is applied to a general kinetic equation obtained previously from the Klimontovich exact equation, by means of a generalised Dupree-Weinstock method. The so-obtained quasi-linear description of electromagnetic turbulence in a magnetoplasma is applied to three separate physical cases: -) weak electrostatic turbulence, -) purely magnetic field fluctuations (the classical quasi-linear results are obtained for cosmic ray diffusion in the 'slab model' of magnetostatic turbulence in the solar wind), and -) collisional kinetic equations of magnetized plasmas. This mathematical technique has allowed us to derive basic kinetic equations for turbulent plasmas and collisional plasmas, respectively in the quasi-linear and Landau approximation. In presence of a magnetic field we have shown that the systematic use of rotation matrices describing the helical particle motion allows for a much more compact derivation than usually performed. Moreover, from the formal analogy between turbulent and collisional plasmas, the results derived here in detail for the turbulent plasmas, can be immediately translated to obtain explicit results for the Landau kinetic equation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Misguich, J.H
2004-04-01
As a first step toward a nonlinear renormalized description of turbulence phenomena in magnetized plasmas, the lowest order quasi-linear description is presented here from a unified point of view for collisionless as well as for collisional plasmas in a constant magnetic field. The quasi-linear approximation is applied to a general kinetic equation obtained previously from the Klimontovich exact equation, by means of a generalised Dupree-Weinstock method. The so-obtained quasi-linear description of electromagnetic turbulence in a magnetoplasma is applied to three separate physical cases: -) weak electrostatic turbulence, -) purely magnetic field fluctuations (the classical quasi-linear results are obtained for cosmic ray diffusion in the 'slab model' of magnetostatic turbulence in the solar wind), and -) collisional kinetic equations of magnetized plasmas. This mathematical technique has allowed us to derive basic kinetic equations for turbulent plasmas and collisional plasmas, respectively in the quasi-linear and Landau approximation. In presence of a magnetic field we have shown that the systematic use of rotation matrices describing the helical particle motion allows for a much more compact derivation than usually performed. Moreover, from the formal analogy between turbulent and collisional plasmas, the results derived here in detail for the turbulent plasmas, can be immediately translated to obtain explicit results for the Landau kinetic equation.
Linear theory of a cold relativistic beam in a strongly magnetized finite-geometry plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gagne, R.R.J.; Shoucri, M.M.
1976-01-01
The linear theory of a finite-geometry cold relativistic beam propagating in a cold homogeneous finite-geometry plasma, is investigated in the case of a strongly magnetized plasma. The beam is assumed to propagate parallel to the external magnetic field. It is shown that the instability which takes place at the Cherenkov resonance ωapprox. =k/subz/v/subb/ is of the convective type. The effect of the finite geometry on the instability growth rate is studied and is shown to decrease the growth rate, with respect to the infinite geometry, by a factor depending on the ratio of the beam-to-plasma radius
A Revised Piecewise Linear Recursive Convolution FDTD Method for Magnetized Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Song; Zhong Shuangying; Liu Shaobin
2005-01-01
The piecewise linear recursive convolution (PLRC) finite-different time-domain (FDTD) method improves accuracy over the original recursive convolution (RC) FDTD approach and current density convolution (JEC) but retains their advantages in speed and efficiency. This paper describes a revised piecewise linear recursive convolution PLRC-FDTD formulation for magnetized plasma which incorporates both anisotropy and frequency dispersion at the same time, enabling the transient analysis of magnetized plasma media. The technique is illustrated by numerical simulations of the reflection and transmission coefficients through a magnetized plasma layer. The results show that the revised PLRC-FDTD method has improved the accuracy over the original RC FDTD method and JEC FDTD method
Characterization of high flux magnetized helium plasma in SCU-PSI linear device
Xiaochun, MA; Xiaogang, CAO; Lei, HAN; Zhiyan, ZHANG; Jianjun, WEI; Fujun, GOU
2018-02-01
A high-flux linear plasma device in Sichuan University plasma-surface interaction (SCU-PSI) based on a cascaded arc source has been established to simulate the interactions between helium and hydrogen plasma with the plasma-facing components in fusion reactors. In this paper, the helium plasma has been characterized by a double-pin Langmuir probe. The results show that the stable helium plasma beam with a diameter of 26 mm was constrained very well at a magnetic field strength of 0.3 T. The core density and ion flux of helium plasma have a strong dependence on the applied current, magnetic field strength and gas flow rate. It could reach an electron density of 1.2 × 1019 m-3 and helium ion flux of 3.2 × 1022 m-2 s-1, with a gas flow rate of 4 standard liter per minute, magnetic field strength of 0.2 T and input power of 11 kW. With the addition of -80 V applied to the target to increase the helium ion energy and the exposure time of 2 h, the flat top temperature reached about 530 °C. The different sizes of nanostructured fuzz on irradiated tungsten and molybdenum samples surfaces under the bombardment of helium ions were observed by scanning electron microscopy. These results measured in the SCU-PSI linear device provide a reference for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor related PSI research.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silva, Filipe da; Pinto, Martin Campos; Després, Bruno; Heuraux, Stéphane
2015-01-01
This work analyzes the stability of the Yee scheme for non-stationary Maxwell's equations coupled with a linear current model with density fluctuations. We show that the usual procedure may yield unstable scheme for physical situations that correspond to strongly magnetized plasmas in X-mode (TE) polarization. We propose to use first order clustered discretization of the vectorial product that gives back a stable coupling. We validate the schemes on some test cases representative of direct numerical simulations of X-mode in a magnetic fusion plasma including turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lazar, M.; Schlickeiser, R.
2006-01-01
The properties of transverse waves parallel propagating in magnetized plasmas with arbitrary composition and thermally anisotropic, are investigated on the basis of relativistic Vlasov-Maxwell equations. The transverse dispersion relations for plasmas with arbitrary distribution functions are derived. These dispersion relations describe the linear response of the system to the initial perturbations and thus define all existing linear (transverse) plasma modes in the system. By analytic continuation the dispersion relations in the whole complex frequency plane are constructed. Further analysis is restricted to the important case of anisotropic bi-Maxwellian equilibrium plasma distribution functions. Explicit forms of the relativistically correct transverse dispersion relations are derived that hold for any values of the plasma temperatures and the temperature anisotropy. In the limit of nonrelativistic plasma temperatures the dispersion relations are expressed in terms of plasma dispersion function, however, the dependence on frequency and wave numbers is markedly different from the standard noncovariant nonrelativistic analysis. Only in the strictly unphysical formal limit of an infinitely large speed of light, c→∞, does the nonrelativistic dispersion relations reduce to the standard noncovariant dispersion relations
Sheared-flow induced confinement transition in a linear magnetized plasma
Zhou, S.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Boehmer, H.; McWilliams, R.; Carter, T. A.; Vincena, S.; Friedman, B.; Schaffner, D.
2012-01-01
A magnetized plasma cylinder (12 cm in diameter) is induced by an annular shape obstacle at the Large Plasma Device [W. Gekelman, H. Pfister, Z. Lucky, J. Bamber, D. Leneman, and J. Maggs, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 2875 (1991)]. Sheared azimuthal flow is driven at the edge of the plasma cylinder through edge biasing. Strong fluctuations of density and potential (δn /n~eδφ/kTe~0.5) are observed at the plasma edge, accompanied by a large density gradient (Ln=|∇lnn |-1~2cm) and shearing rate (γ ~300kHz). Edge turbulence and cross-field transport are modified by changing the bias voltage (Vbias) on the obstacle and the axial magnetic field (Bz) strength. In cases with low Vbias and large Bz, improved plasma confinement is observed, along with steeper edge density gradients. The radially sheared flow induced by E ×B drift dramatically changes the cross-phase between density and potential fluctuations, which causes the wave-induced particle flux to reverse its direction across the shear layer. In cases with higher bias voltage or smaller Bz, large radial transport and rapid depletion of the central plasma density are observed. Two-dimensional cross-correlation measurement shows that a mode with azimuthal mode number m =1 and large radial correlation length dominates the outward transport in these cases. Linear analysis based on a two-fluid Braginskii model suggests that the fluctuations are driven by both density gradient (drift wave like) and flow shear (Kelvin-Helmholtz like) at the plasma edge.
Sheared-flow induced confinement transition in a linear magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou, S.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Boehmer, H.; McWilliams, R.; Carter, T. A.; Vincena, S.; Friedman, B.; Schaffner, D.
2012-01-01
A magnetized plasma cylinder (12 cm in diameter) is induced by an annular shape obstacle at the Large Plasma Device [W. Gekelman, H. Pfister, Z. Lucky, J. Bamber, D. Leneman, and J. Maggs, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 2875 (1991)]. Sheared azimuthal flow is driven at the edge of the plasma cylinder through edge biasing. Strong fluctuations of density and potential (δn/n∼eδφ/kT e ∼0.5) are observed at the plasma edge, accompanied by a large density gradient (L n =∇lnn -1 ∼2cm) and shearing rate (γ∼300kHz). Edge turbulence and cross-field transport are modified by changing the bias voltage (V bias ) on the obstacle and the axial magnetic field (B z ) strength. In cases with low V bias and large B z , improved plasma confinement is observed, along with steeper edge density gradients. The radially sheared flow induced by ExB drift dramatically changes the cross-phase between density and potential fluctuations, which causes the wave-induced particle flux to reverse its direction across the shear layer. In cases with higher bias voltage or smaller B z , large radial transport and rapid depletion of the central plasma density are observed. Two-dimensional cross-correlation measurement shows that a mode with azimuthal mode number m=1 and large radial correlation length dominates the outward transport in these cases. Linear analysis based on a two-fluid Braginskii model suggests that the fluctuations are driven by both density gradient (drift wave like) and flow shear (Kelvin-Helmholtz like) at the plasma edge.
Non-linear magnetohydrodynamic modeling of plasma response to resonant magnetic perturbations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Orain, F.; Bécoulet, M.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Nardon, E.; Passeron, C.; Latu, G.; Grandgirard, V.; Fil, A.; Ratnani, A. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Huijsmans, G. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon, F-13115 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Pamela, S. [IIFS-PIIM. Aix Marseille Université - CNRS, 13397 Marseille Cedex20 (France); Chapman, I.; Kirk, A.; Thornton, A. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Hoelzl, M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany); Cahyna, P. [Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Prague (Czech Republic)
2013-10-15
The interaction of static Resonant Magnetic Perturbations (RMPs) with the plasma flows is modeled in toroidal geometry, using the non-linear resistive MHD code JOREK, which includes the X-point and the scrape-off-layer. Two-fluid diamagnetic effects, the neoclassical poloidal friction and a source of toroidal rotation are introduced in the model to describe realistic plasma flows. RMP penetration is studied taking self-consistently into account the effects of these flows and the radial electric field evolution. JET-like, MAST, and ITER parameters are used in modeling. For JET-like parameters, three regimes of plasma response are found depending on the plasma resistivity and the diamagnetic rotation: at high resistivity and slow rotation, the islands generated by the RMPs at the edge resonant surfaces rotate in the ion diamagnetic direction and their size oscillates. At faster rotation, the generated islands are static and are more screened by the plasma. An intermediate regime with static islands which slightly oscillate is found at lower resistivity. In ITER simulations, the RMPs generate static islands, which forms an ergodic layer at the very edge (ψ≥0.96) characterized by lobe structures near the X-point and results in a small strike point splitting on the divertor targets. In MAST Double Null Divertor geometry, lobes are also found near the X-point and the 3D-deformation of the density and temperature profiles is observed.
Linear and nonlinear waves with orbital angular momentum in magnetized plasma
Ali, Shahid; Kant Shukla, Padma; Tito Mendonca, José.
2009-11-01
Here we discuss the concept of orbital angular momentum (OAM) for electromagnetic waves in a magnetized plasma. Nonlinear effects of photons with spin and OAM will be considered. In particular, we examine the case of parametric interactions between circularly polarized electromagnetic waves and Langmuir and ion acoustic waves, including the ponderomotive force of light with OAM in magnetized plasma (Shukla & Stenflo, PRA). This will be a generalization of recent results published in PRL by J.T. Mendonca and B. Thide. We also examine the influence of OAM on the magnetic field generation by the inverse Faraday effect.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lu, LingFeng
2016-01-01
Ion Cyclotron Resonant Heating (ICRH) by waves in 30-80 MHz range is currently used in magnetic fusion plasmas. Excited by phased arrays of current straps at the plasma periphery, these waves exist under two polarizations. The Fast Wave tunnels through the tenuous plasma edge and propagates to its center where it is absorbed. The parasitically emitted Slow Wave only exists close to the launchers. How much power can be coupled to the center with 1 A current on the straps? How do the emitted radiofrequency (RF) near and far fields interact parasitically with the edge plasma via RF sheath rectification at plasma-wall interfaces? To address these two issues simultaneously, in realistic geometry over the size of ICRH antennas, this thesis upgraded and tested the Self-consistent Sheaths and Waves for ICH (SSWICH) code. SSWICH couples self-consistently RF wave propagation and Direct Current (DC) plasma biasing via non-linear RF and DC sheath boundary conditions (SBCs) at plasma/wall interfaces. Its upgrade is full wave and was implemented in two dimensions (toroidal/radial). New SBCs coupling the two polarizations were derived and implemented along shaped walls tilted with respect to the confinement magnetic field. Using this new tool in the absence of SBCs, we studied the impact of a density decaying continuously inside the antenna box and across the Lower Hybrid (LH) resonance. Up to the memory limits of our workstation, the RF fields below the LH resonance changed with the grid size. However the coupled power spectrum hardly evolved and was only weakly affected by the density inside the box. In presence of SBCs, SSWICH-FW simulations have identified the role of the fast wave on RF sheath excitation and reproduced some key experimental observations. SSWICH-FW was finally adapted to conduct the first electromagnetic and RF-sheath 2D simulations of the cylindrical magnetized plasma device ALINE. (author) [fr
On the balance of a linear plasma column confined in a transverse magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lehnert, B.
1978-08-01
The equilibrium features are investigated of a straight plasma column being confined in a purely transverse magnetic field, part of which is being generated by external conductors. Provided that stability can be secured at high beta values, the reduced transport of particles and heat in the axial direction should allow for large axial temperature gradients. It is then expected that temperatures even leading to ignition can be achieved in a pure plasma, at technically realistic column lengths. (author)
Lee, S. H.; Shulika, Olga.; Kim, K. N.; Yeom, G. Y.; Lee, J. K.
2004-09-01
As the technology of plasma processing progresses, there is a continuing demand for higher plasma density, uniformity over large areas and greater control over plasma parameters to optimize the processes of etching, deposition and surface treatment. Traditionally, the external planar ICP sources with low pressure high density plasma have limited scale-up capabilities due to its high impedance accompanied by the large antenna size. Also due to the cost and thickness of their dielectric material in order to generate uniform plasma. In this study the novel internal-type linear inductive antenna system (1,020mm¡¿830mm¡¿437mm) with permanent magnet arrays are investigated to improve both the plasma density and the uniformity of LAPS (Large Area Plasma Source) for FPD processing. Generally plasma discharges are enhanced because the inductance of the novel antenna (termed as the double comb antenna) is lower than that of the serpentine-type antenna and also the magnetic confinement of electron increases the power absorption efficiency. The uniformity is improved by reducing the standing wave effect. The total length of antenna is comparable to the driving rf wavelength to cause the plasma nonuniformity. To describe the discharge phenomenon we have developed a magnetized two-dimensional fluid simulation. This work was supported by National Research Laboratory (NRL) Program of the Korea Ministry of Science and Technology. [References] 1. J.K.Lee, Lin Meng, Y.K.Shin, H,J,Lee and T.H.Chung, ¡°Modeling and Simulation of a Large-Area Plasma Source¡±, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Vol.36(1997) pp. 5714-5723 2. S.E.Park, B.U.Cho, Y.J.Lee*, and G.Y.Yeom*, and J.K.Lee, ¡°The Characteristics of Large Area Processing Plasmas¡±, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., Vol.31 ,No.4(2003) pp. 628-637
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aggarwal, Munish; Vij, Shivani; Kant, Niti
2015-01-01
The propagation of quadruple Gaussian laser beam in a plasma characterized by axial inhomogeneity and nonlinearity due to ponderomotive force in the paraxial ray approximation is investigated. An appropriate expression for the nonlinear dielectric constant has been developed in the presence of external magnetic field, with linear absorption and due to saturation effects for arbitrary large intensity. The effects of different types of plasma axial inhomogeneities on self-focusing of laser beam have been studied with the typical laser and plasma parameters. Self-focusing of quadruple Gaussian laser beam in the presence of externally applied magnetic field and saturating parameter is found significantly improved in the case of extraordinary mode. Our results reveal that initially converging beam shows oscillatory convergence whereas initially diverging beam shows oscillatory divergence. The beam is more focussed at lower intensity in both cases viz. extraordinary and ordinary mode. (paper)
Study of wave-particle interaction from the linear regime to dynamical chaos in a magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fasoli, A.
1993-10-01
Deterministic chaos generated by the interaction between charged particles and electrostatic plasma waves has been observed in a linear magnetized plasma. The target plasma is created by a barium Q-source, guaranteeing low fluctuation levels and a high degree of uniformity over an extended plasma volume. Characteristics of the background plasma are investigated by a variety of diagnostic techniques, including laser induced fluorescence (LIF) and optical tagging (OT). Particular tagging schemes and specific theoretical approaches to data interpretation (both for LIF and OT) have been developed during this work. As part of these background plasma studies, special attention has been devoted to an investigation of test-ion cross-field transport under different conditions. Test-ions are created and followed in their motion across the magnetic field lines via spin state tagging. In the unperturbed plasma this motion is found to be a diffusive process, supported by classical mechanisms, even in the presence of relatively high pressures of non-reactive neutral gases injected into the plasma volume. Electrostatic waves are excited using a ring antenna structure encircling the plasma column and electrically isolated from it. This system has been chosen on the basis of a comparative analysis of different ion wave launching methods, including the use of grids, inductive coils coupled electromagnetically to the plasma and modulated high frequency electron waves. Two modes propagating parallel to the magnetic field, one of which has two perpendicular components (ion Bernstein and ion acoustic-like waves), characterize the spectrum excited by the electrostatic ring antenna for a single frequency, f, chosen in the range f ci ci . (author) figs., tabs., 134 refs
Study of ICRF wave propagation and plasma coupling efficiency in a linear magnetic mirror device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peng, S.Y.
1991-07-01
Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) wave propagation in an inhomogeneous axial magnetic field in a cylindrical plasma-vacuum system has historically been inadequately modelled. Previous works either sacrifice the cylindrical geometry in favor of a simpler slab geometry, concentrate on the resonance region, use a single mode to represent the entire field structure, or examine only radial propagation. This thesis performs both analytical and computational studies to model the ICRF wave-plasma coupling and propagation problem. Experimental analysis is also conducted to compare experimental results with theoretical predictions. Both theoretical as well as experimental analysis are undertaken as part of the thesis. The theoretical studies simulate the propagation of ICRF waves in an axially inhomogeneous magnetic field and in cylindrical geometry. Two theoretical analysis are undertaken - an analytical study and a computational study. The analytical study treats the inhomogeneous magnetic field by transforming the (r,z) coordinate into another coordinate system (ρ,ξ) that allows the solution of the fields with much simpler boundaries. The plasma fields are then Fourier transformed into two coupled convolution-integral equations which are then differenced and solved for both the perpendicular mode number α as well as the complete EM fields. The computational study involves a multiple eigenmode computational analysis of the fields that exist within the plasma-vacuum system. The inhomogeneous axial field is treated by dividing the geometry into a series of transverse axial slices and using a constant dielectric tensor in each individual slice. The slices are then connected by longitudinal boundary conditions
Vlasov Fluid stability of a 2-D plasma with a linear magnetic field null
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, J.S.
1984-01-01
Vlasov Fluid stability of a 2-dimensional plasma near an O type magnetic null is investigated. Specifically, an elongated Z-pinch is considered, and applied to Field Reversed Configurations at Los Alamos National Laboratory by making a cylindrical approximation of the compact torus. The orbits near an elliptical O type null are found to be very complicated; the orbits are large and some are stochastic. The kinetic corrections to magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) are investigated by evaluating the expectation values of the growth rates of a Vlasov Fluid dispersion functional by using a set of trial functions based on ideal MHD. The dispersion functional involves fluid parts and orbit dependent parts. The latter involves phase integral of two time correlations. The phase integral is replaced by the time integral both for the regular and for the stochastic orbits. Two trial functions are used; one has a large displacement near the null and the other away from the null
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saitou, Y.; Yonesu, A.; Shinohara, S.; Ignatenko, M. V.; Kasuya, N.; Kawaguchi, M.; Terasaka, K.; Nishijima, T.; Nagashima, Y.; Kawai, Y.; Yagi, M.; Itoh, S.-I.; Azumi, M.; Itoh, K.
2007-01-01
The importance of reducing the neutral density to reach strong drift wave turbulence is clarified from the results of the extended magnetohydrodynamics and Monte Carlo simulations in a linear magnetized plasma. An upper bound of the neutral density relating to the ion-neutral collision frequency for the excitation of drift wave instability is shown, and the necessary flow velocity to excite this instability is also estimated from the neutral distributions. Measurements of the Mach number and the electron density distributions using Mach probe in the large mirror device (LMD) of Kyushu University [S. Shinohara et al., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 37, 1015 (1995)] are reported as well. The obtained results show a controllability of the neutral density and provide the basis for neutral density reduction and a possibility to excite strong drift wave turbulence in the LMD
Gyro-viscosity and linear dispersion relations in pair-ion magnetized plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kono, M. [Faculty of Policy Studies, Chuo University, Tokyo 192-0393 (Japan); Vranjes, J. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, Tenerife E38205 (Spain); Departamento de Astrofisica, Universidad de La Laguna, Tenerife E38205 (Spain)
2015-11-15
A fluid theory has been developed by taking account of gyro-viscosity to study wave propagation characteristics in a homogeneous pair-ion magnetized plasma with a cylindrical symmetry. The exact dispersion relations derived by the Hankel-Fourier transformation are shown comparable with those observed in the experiment by Oohara and co-workers. The gyro-viscosity is responsible for the change in propagation characteristics of the ion cyclotron wave from forward to backward by suppressing the effect of the thermal pressure which normally causes the forward nature of dispersion. Although the experiment has been already explained by a kinetic theory by the present authors, the kinetic derivations are so involved because of exact particle orbits in phase space, finite Lamor radius effects, and higher order ion cyclotron resonances. The present fluid theory provides a simple and transparent structure to the dispersion relations since the gyro-viscosity is renormalized into the ion cyclotron frequency which itself indicates the backward nature of dispersion. The usual disadvantage of a fluid theory, which treats only fundamental modes of eigen-waves excited in a system and is not able to describe higher harmonics that a kinetic theory does, is compensated by simple derivations and clear picture based on the renormalization of the gyro-viscosity.
Non-linear magnetohydrodynamic modeling of plasma response to resonant magnetic perturbations
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Orain, F.; Bécoulet, M.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Huijsmans, G.; Pamela, S.; Nardon, E.; Passeron, C.; Latu, G.; Grandgirard, V.; Fil, A.; Ratnani, A.; Chapman, I.; Kirk, A.; Thornton, A.; Hoelzl, M.; Cahyna, Pavel
2013-01-01
Roč. 20, č. 10 (2013), s. 102510-102510 ISSN 1070-664X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/11/2341 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : tokamak * edge localized mode * magnetohydrodynamics Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.249, year: 2013 http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/journal/pop/20/10/10.1063/1.4824820
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thomas, E.
2004-01-01
The rotation of a plasma is one of the most fundamental global modes of plasma behavior. It is the zeroth order plasma response to a transverse electric field. In its simplest kinetic form, the so-called E x B drift (here, E is the electric field vector and B is the magnetic field vector), both the ions and the electrons will undergo a drift in the same direction. This motion is considered a universal mode of a plasma since the mechanism of the E x B drift is, to zero-order, independent of both the mass and the charge of the particles
Metastability in Magnetically Confined Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fong, B.H.; Cowley, S.C.; Hurricane, O.A.
1999-01-01
The parameter space of magnetically confined plasmas near marginal instability for interchange-type modes is divided into three regions according to qualitative stability properties. Region I is linearly stable though nonlinearly unstable to large excitations. Region II is linearly unstable, nonlinearly stable to small excitations, and nonlinearly unstable to large excitations. Region III is linearly and nonlinearly unstable. For an equilibrium evolving through marginal stability, region III and therefore explosive instability are inevitably encountered. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Subhash, P V; Madhavan, S; Chaturvedi, S
2008-01-01
Two-dimensional (2D) magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) liner-on-plasma computations have been performed to study the growth of instabilities in a magnetized target fusion system involving the cylindrical compression of an inverse Z-pinch target plasma by a metallic liner. The growth of modes in the plasma can be divided into two phases. During the first phase, the plasma continues to be Kadomtsev stable. The dominant mode in the liner instability is imposed upon the plasma in the form of a growing perturbation. This mode further transfers part of its energy to its harmonics. During the second phase, however, non-uniform implosion of the liner leads to axial variations in plasma quantities near the liner-plasma interface, such that certain regions of the plasma locally violate the Kadomtsev criteria. Further growth ofthe plasma modes is then due to plasma instability. The above numerical study has been complemented with a linear stability analysis for the plasma, the boundary conditions for this analysis being obtained from the liner-on-plasma simulation. The stability of axisymmetric modes in the first phase is found to satisfy the Kadomtsev condition Q 0 1 modes, using equilibrium profiles from the 2D MHD study, shows that their growth rates can exceed those for m=0 by as much as an order of magnitude
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Castejon M, F.
1989-01-01
The study of the Linear Theory microwave propagation and absorption in the the frequency range of electron cyclotron resonance, in a magnetized plasma, is developed. This study is particularized to the flexible heliac TJ-II, whose main characteristics are dsetailed in a memory chapter, as an interesting case example for its peculiar magnetic configuration. As a preliminary phase, a cold plasma model is useds to analyze the resonance accessibility and the approximated density limits which will be obtainable in each electron cyclotron resonance harmonic. This analysis was used to find the suitable positions for the microwave injection in TJ-II. An analytical weakly relativistic model for the dielectric tensor is developed, valid for oblique propagation, that takes account of the effect of superthermal electrons. Second order Larmor radius effects are included, so that the Quasi-Electrostatic branch of X mode can be studied. A numerical study is then presented on the absorption properties of TJ-II. Since the TJ-II geometry is complex and its magnetic field distribution is very different from that of a tokamak, ray tracing calculations are necessary to consider refraction effects. The ray tracing codse RAYS, developed in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (U.S.A.), was take and adapted to the helical magnetic configuration of the TJ-II. The absorption model described above was then included in RAYS. For completeness, an introduction to the Quasi Linear Theory, natural prolongation of this work, is included at the end of the memory, ands the effects of taking into account the quasi linear evolution of the distribution function are described. (Author)
Linear magnetic fusion: summary of Seattle workshop
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1977-12-01
The linear-geometry magnetic confinement concept is among the oldest used in the study of high-temperature plasmas. However, it has generally been discounted as a suitable approach for demonstrating controlled thermonuclear fusion because rapid losses from the plasma column ends necessitate very long devices. Further, the losses and how to overcome them have not yet received parametric experimental study, nor do facilities exist with which such definitive experiments could be performed. Nonetheless, the important positive attribute, simplicity, together with the appearance of several ideas for reducing end losses have provided motivation for continued research on linear magnetic fusion (LMF). These motivations led to the LMF workshop, held in Seattle, March 9--11, 1977, which explored the potential of LMF as an alternate approach to fusion. A broad range of LMF aspects were addressed, including radial and axial losses, stability and equilibrium, heating, technology, and reactor considerations. The conclusions drawn at the workshop are summarized
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Colunga S, S.
1990-07-01
In this report the simplified analysis of a method to detect the movement of the plasma column of a tokamak in the vertical direction and of the biggest radius is given. The peculiar case of the Tokamak Novillo of the Plasma Physics Laboratory of the ININ is studied. (Author)
Plasma heating by non-linear wave-Plasma interaction | Echi ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
We simulate the non-linear interaction of waves with magnetized tritium plasma with the aim of determining the parameter values that characterize the response of the plasma. The wave-plasma interaction has a non-conservative Hamiltonian description. The resulting system of Hamilton's equations is integrated numerically ...
Stanford Linear Collider magnet positioning
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wand, B.T.
1991-08-01
For the installation of the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) the positioning and alignment of the beam line components was performed in several individual steps. In the following the general procedures for each step are outlined. The calculation of ideal coordinates for the magnets in the entire SLC will be discussed in detail. Special emphasis was given to the mathematical algorithms and geometry used in the programs to calculate these ideal positions. 35 refs., 21 figs
Super-high magnetic fields in spatially inhomogeneous plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nastoyashchiy, Anatoly F.
2012-01-01
The new phenomenon of a spontaneous magnetic field in spatially inhomogeneous plasma is found. The criteria for instability are determined, and both the linear and nonlinear stages of the magnetic field growth are considered; it is shown that the magnetic field can reach a considerable magnitude, namely, its pressure can be comparable with the plasma pressure. Especially large magnetic fields can arise in hot plasma with a high electron density, for example, in laser-heated plasma. In steady-state plasma, the magnetic field can be self-sustaining. The considered magnetic fields may play an important role in thermal insulation of the plasma. (author)
Magnetized plasma kinetic theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hassan, M.H.A.; Watson, C.J.H.
1977-01-01
The magnetized Balescu-Lenard Collision integral for a multi-species plasma in the form derived by Hassan and Watson (1976) is approximated by ignoring wave effects. The resulting collision integral is put in Fokker-Planck form and most of the integrals occurring in the coefficients are performed analytically. The remaining integral is evaluated approximately in various limits for ion-electron, electron-electron and electron-ion interactions. (author)
Dust in flowing magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pandey, Birendra P.; Samarian, Alex A.; Vladimirov, Sergey V.
2009-01-01
Plasma flows occur in almost every laboratory device and interactions of flowing plasmas with near-wall impurities and/or dust significantly affects the efficiency and lifetime of such devices. The charged dust inside the magnetized flowing plasma moves primarily under the influence of the plasma drag and electric forces. Here, the charge on the dust, plasma potential, and plasma density are calculated self-consistently. The electrons are assumed non-Boltzmannian and the effect of electron magnetization and electron-atom collisions on the dust charge is calculated in a self-consistent fashion. For various plasma magnetization parameters viz. the ratio of the electron and ion cyclotron frequencies to their respective collision frequencies, plasma-atom and ionization frequencies, the evolution of the plasma potential and density in the flow region is investigated. The variation of the dust charge profile is shown to be a sensitive function of plasma parameters. (author)
Transport of high fluxes of hydrogen plasma in a linear plasma generator
Vijvers, W.A.J.; Al, R.S.; Lopes Cardozo, N.J.; Goedheer, W.J.; Groot, de B.; Kleyn, A.W.; Meiden, van der H.J.; Peppel, van de R.J.E.; Schram, D.C.; Shumack, A.E.; Westerhout, J.; Rooij, van G.J.; Schmidt, J.; Simek, M.; Pekarek, S.; Prukner, V.
2007-01-01
A study was made to quantify the losses during the convective hydrogen plasma transport in the linear plasma generator Pilot-PSI due to volume recombination. A transport efficiency of 35% was achieved at neutral background pressures below ~7 Pa in a magnetic field of 1.2 T. This efficiency decreased
Nonlinear electron transport in magnetized laser plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kho, T.H.; Haines, M.G.
1986-01-01
Electron transport in a magnetized plasma heated by inverse bremsstrahlung is studied numerically using a nonlinear Fokker--Planck model with self-consistent E and B fields. The numerical scheme is described. Nonlocal transport is found to alter many of the transport coefficients derived from linear transport theory, in particular, the Nernst and Righi--Leduc effects, in addition to the perpendicular heat flux q/sub perpendicular/, are substantially reduced near critical surface. The magnetic field, however, remains strongly coupled to the nonlinear q/sub perpendicular/ and, as has been found in hydrosimulations, convective amplification of the magnetic field occurs in the overdense plasma
Magnetic reconnection in nontoroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boozer, Allen H.
2005-01-01
Magnetic reconnection is a major issue in solar and astrophysical plasmas. The mathematical result that the evolution of a magnetic field with only point nulls is always locally ideal limits the nature of reconnection in nontoroidal plasmas. Here it is shown that the exponentially increasing separation of neighboring magnetic field lines, which is generic, tends to produce rapid magnetic reconnection if the length of the field lines is greater than about 20 times the exponentiation, or Lyapunov, length
Possible limits of plasma linear colliders
Zimmermann, F.
2017-07-01
Plasma linear colliders have been proposed as next or next-next generation energy-frontier machines for high-energy physics. I investigate possible fundamental limits on energy and luminosity of such type of colliders, considering acceleration, multiple scattering off plasma ions, intrabeam scattering, bremsstrahlung, and betatron radiation. The question of energy efficiency is also addressed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Edery, D.; Pellat, R.; Soule, J.L.
1981-01-01
The resistive MHD equations have been handled in toroidal geometry following the tokamak ordering, in order to obtain a simplified set of non-linear equations. This system of equations is compact, closed, consistent and exact to the first two orders in the expansion in the inverse aspect ratio. Studies of the non-linear evolution of tearing modes in the real geometry of tokamak discharges are now in progress, and quite significant results have been obtained from the numerical code REVE of Fontenay based on our above model. From the analytical results, strong linear coupling between neighbouring modes is expected as is demonstrated by the numerical results in the linear, and non-linear regimes. Moreover, coupling exhibits a stochastic structure of the magnetic field lines, the threshold of which is seen to be easily computed by a simple analytical criterion. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jacquot, Jonathan
2013-01-01
A correct understanding of the interactions between the edge plasma and the ion cyclotron (IC) waves (40-80 MHz) is needed to inject reliably large amount of power required for self-sustainable fusion plasmas. These thesis objectives were to model separately, with Comsol Multiphysics, but in compatible approaches the wave coupling and the radio-frequency (RF) sheath formation to anticipate development of a single code combining both. Modelling of fast wave coupling requires a detailed description of the antenna (2D or 3D) and of the plasma environment by a full wave approach for a cold plasma. Absorption of outgoing waves is emulated by perfectly matched layers, rendered compatible with a plasma dielectric tensor. Experimental trends for the coupling resistance of the antennas of Tore Supra are qualitatively reproduced but the coupling efficiency is overestimated. In parallel a novel self-consistent description, including RF sheaths, of the interplay between the cold wave propagation and DC biasing of the magnetized edge plasma of a tokamak was developed with the minimum set of physics ingredients. For Tore Supra antenna cases, the code coupled with TOPICA allowed to unveil qualitatively some unexpected observations on the latest design of Tore Supra Faraday screens whose electrical design was supposed to minimize RF sheaths. From simulations, a DC (Direct Current) current transport appears necessary to explain the radial structures of measurements. Cantilevered bars have been identified as the design element in the antenna structure enhancing the plasma potential. (author) [fr
Turbulent transport in magnetized plasmas
Horton, Wendell
2012-01-01
This book explains how magnetized plasmas self-organize in states of electromagnetic turbulence that transports particles and energy out of the core plasma faster than anticipated by the fusion scientists designing magnetic confinement systems in the 20th century. It describes theory, experiments and simulations in a unified and up-to-date presentation of the issues of achieving nuclear fusion power.
Intrinsic suppression of turbulence in linear plasma devices
Leddy, J.; Dudson, B.
2017-12-01
Plasma turbulence is the dominant transport mechanism for heat and particles in magnetised plasmas in linear devices and tokamaks, so the study of turbulence is important in limiting and controlling this transport. Linear devices provide an axial magnetic field that serves to confine a plasma in cylindrical geometry as it travels along the magnetic field from the source to the strike point. Due to perpendicular transport, the plasma density and temperature have a roughly Gaussian radial profile with gradients that drive instabilities, such as resistive drift-waves and Kelvin-Helmholtz. If unstable, these instabilities cause perturbations to grow resulting in saturated turbulence, increasing the cross-field transport of heat and particles. When the plasma emerges from the source, there is a time, {τ }\\parallel , that describes the lifetime of the plasma based on parallel velocity and length of the device. As the plasma moves down the device, it also moves azimuthally according to E × B and diamagnetic velocities. There is a balance point in these parallel and perpendicular times that sets the stabilisation threshold. We simulate plasmas with a variety of parallel lengths and magnetic fields to vary the parallel and perpendicular lifetimes, respectively, and find that there is a clear correlation between the saturated RMS density perturbation level and the balance between these lifetimes. The threshold of marginal stability is seen to exist where {τ }\\parallel ≈ 11{τ }\\perp . This is also associated with the product {τ }\\parallel {γ }* , where {γ }* is the drift-wave linear growth rate, indicating that the instability must exist for roughly 100 times the growth time for the instability to enter the nonlinear growth phase. We explore the root of this correlation and the implications for linear device design.
Linear and Nonlinear MHD Wave Processes in Plasmas. Final Report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tataronis, J. A.
2004-01-01
This program treats theoretically low frequency linear and nonlinear wave processes in magnetized plasmas. A primary objective has been to evaluate the effectiveness of MHD waves to heat plasma and drive current in toroidal configurations. The research covers the following topics: (1) the existence and properties of the MHD continua in plasma equilibria without spatial symmetry; (2) low frequency nonresonant current drive and nonlinear Alfven wave effects; and (3) nonlinear electron acceleration by rf and random plasma waves. Results have contributed to the fundamental knowledge base of MHD activity in symmetric and asymmetric toroidal plasmas. Among the accomplishments of this research effort, the following are highlighted: Identification of the MHD continuum mode singularities in toroidal geometry. Derivation of a third order ordinary differential equation that governs nonlinear current drive in the singular layers of the Alfven continuum modes in axisymmetric toroidal geometry. Bounded solutions of this ODE implies a net average current parallel to the toroidal equilibrium magnetic field. Discovery of a new unstable continuum of the linearized MHD equation in axially periodic circular plasma cylinders with shear and incompressibility. This continuum, which we named ''accumulation continuum'' and which is related to ballooning modes, arises as discrete unstable eigenfrequency accumulate on the imaginary frequency axis in the limit of large mode numbers. Development of techniques to control nonlinear electron acceleration through the action of multiple coherent and random plasmas waves. Two important elements of this program aye student participation and student training in plasma theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sosenko, P.; Pierre, Th.; Zagorodny, A.
2004-01-01
The linear and non-linear properties of global low-frequency oscillations in cylindrical weakly ionized magnetized plasmas are investigated analytically for the conditions of equilibrium plasma rotation. The theoretical results are compared with the experimental observations of rotating plasmas in laboratory devices, such as Mistral and Mirabelle in France, and KIWI in Germany. (authors)
Extreme hydrogen plasma densities achieved in a linear plasma generator
Rooij, van G.J.; Veremiyenko, V.P.; Goedheer, W.J.; Groot, de B.; Kleyn, A.W.; Smeets, P.H.M.; Versloot, T.W.; Whyte, D.G.; Engeln, R.A.H.; Schram, D.C.; Lopes Cardozo, N.J.
2007-01-01
A magnetized hydrogen plasma beam was generated with a cascaded arc, expanding in a vacuum vessel at an axial magnetic field of up to 1.6 T. Its characteristics were measured at a distance of 4 cm from the nozzle: up to a 2 cm beam diameter, 7.5×1020 m-3 electron density, ~2 eV electron and ion
Laboratory beam-plasma interactions: linear and nonlinear
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Christiansen, P.J.; Jain, V.K.; Bond, J.W.
1982-01-01
The present investigation is concerned with the configuration of a cool plasma (often magnetized axially) penetrated by an injected electron beam. The attempt is made to demonstrate that despite unavoidable scaling limitations, laboratory experiments can illuminate, in a controlled fashion, details of beam plasma interaction processes in a way which will never be possible in the space plasma physics. In view of the increasing interest in high frequency instabilities in the auroral zone, the possibilities for interesting cross fertilizations of the two fields appear to be extensive. The linear theory is considered along with low frequency couplings and indirect effects. Attention is given to the evidence for the existence of exponentially growing instabilities in beam plasma interactions. The consequences of such instabilities are also explored and some processes of nonlinear processes are discussed, taking into account quasi-linear effects, trapping effects, nonlinear effects, trapping effects, nonlinear wave-wave interactions, and self-modulation and cavitation. 80 references
Magnetic shielding for coreless linear permanent magnet motors
Pluk, K.J.W.; Jansen, J.W.; Lomonova, E.
2013-01-01
This paper concerns the local reduction of the magnetic flux density by means of magnetic shielding. Using a spatial frequency description, a 2-D semi-analytical periodic model is obtained for a coreless single-sided linear permanent magnet motor. The magnetic shield is included in the modeling
Nonlinear magnetic reconnection in low collisionality plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ottaviani, M [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Porcelli, F [Politecnico di Torino, Turin (Italy)
1994-07-01
The magnetic reconnection in collisionless regimes, where electron inertia is responsible for the decoupling of the plasma motion from that of the field lines, is discussed. Since the linear theory of m=1 modes breaks down for very small magnetic island widths, a non linear analysis is called for. Thus, the behaviour of a collisionless, 2-D fluid slab model in the limit {rho}/d -> 0, is analyzed. The main result is that, when the island size is larger than the linear layer but smaller than the equilibrium scale length, the reconnection rate exhibits a quasi-explosive time behaviour, during which a current density sub-layer narrower than the skin depth is formed. It is believed that the inclusion of the electron initial term in Ohm`s law opens the possibility to understand the rapidity of relaxation process observed in low collisionality plasmas. 7 refs., 6 figs.
Current filaments in turbulent magnetized plasmas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Martines, E.; Vianello, N.; Sundkvist, D.
2009-01-01
gradient region of a fusion plasma confined in reversed field pinch configuration and in a density gradient region in the Earth magnetosphere are measured and compared, showing that in both environments they can be attributed to drift-Alfvén vortices. Current structures associated with reconnection events......Direct measurements of current density perturbations associated with non-linear phenomena in magnetized plasmas can be carried out using in situ magnetic measurements. In this paper we report such measurements for three different kinds of phenomena. Current density fluctuations in the edge density...... measured in a reversed field pinch plasma and in the magnetosheath are detected and compared. Evidence of current filaments occurring during ELMs in an H-mode tokamak plasma is displayed....
Wave turbulence in magnetized plasmas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Galtier
2009-02-01
Full Text Available The paper reviews the recent progress on wave turbulence for magnetized plasmas (MHD, Hall MHD and electron MHD in the incompressible and compressible cases. The emphasis is made on homogeneous and anisotropic turbulence which usually provides the best theoretical framework to investigate space and laboratory plasmas. The solar wind and the coronal heating problems are presented as two examples of application of anisotropic wave turbulence. The most important results of wave turbulence are reported and discussed in the context of natural and simulated magnetized plasmas. Important issues and possible spurious interpretations are also discussed.
Nernst Effect in Magnetized Plasmas
Joglekar, Archis S.; Thomas, Alexander G. R.; Ridgers, Christopher P.; Kingham, Robert J.
2015-01-01
We present nanosecond timescale Vlasov-Fokker-Planck-Maxwell modeling of magnetized plasma transport and dynamics in a hohlraum with an applied external magnetic field, under conditions similar to recent experiments. Self-consistent modeling of the kinetic electron momentum equation allows for a complete treatment of the heat flow equation and Ohm's Law, including Nernst advection of magnetic fields. In addition to showing the prevalence of non-local behavior, we demonstrate that effects such...
Reconnection Scaling Experiment (RSX): Magnetic Reconnection in Linear Geometry
Intrator, T.; Sovinec, C.; Begay, D.; Wurden, G.; Furno, I.; Werley, C.; Fisher, M.; Vermare, L.; Fienup, W.
2001-10-01
The linear Reconnection Scaling Experiment (RSX) at LANL is a new experiment that can create MHD relevant plasmas to look at the physics of magnetic reconnection. This experiment can scale many relevant parameters because the guns that generate the plasma and current channels do not depend on equilibrium or force balance for startup. We describe the experiment and initial electrostatic and magnetic probe data. Two parallel current channels sweep down a long plasma column and probe data accumulated over many shots gives 3D movies of magnetic reconnection. Our first data tries to define an operating regime free from kink instabilities that might otherwise confuse the data and shot repeatability. We compare this with MHD 2 fluid NIMROD simulations of the single current channel kink stability boundary for a variety of experimental conditions.
A linear magnetic motor and generator
Studer, P. A.
1980-01-01
In linear magnetic motor and generator suitable for remote and hostile environments, magnetic forces drive reciprocating shaft along its axis. Actuator shaft is located in center of cylindrical body and may be supported by either contacting or noncontacting bearings. When device operates as bidirectional motor, drive coil selectively adds and subtracts magnetic flux to and from flux paths, producing forces that drive actuator along axis. When actuator is driven by external reciprocating engine, device becomes ac generator.
Linear theory of plasma Čerenkov masers
Birau, M.
1996-11-01
A different theoretical model of Čerenkov instability in the linear amplification regime of plasma Čerenkov masers is developed. The model assumes a cold relativistic annular electron beam propagating through a column of cold dense plasma, the two bodies being immersed in an infinite magnetic guiding field inside a perfect cylindrical waveguide. In order to simplify the calculations, a radial rectangular distribution of plasma and beam density is assumed and only azimuthal symmetric modes are under investigation. The model's difference consists of taking into account the whole plasma and beam electromagnetic structures in the interpretation of the Čerenkov instability. This model leads to alternative results such as the possibility of emission at several frequencies. In addition, the electric field is calculated taking into account its radial phase dependence, so that a map of the field in the interaction region can be presented.
Magnetic-flutter-induced pedestal plasma transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Callen, J.D.; Hegna, C.C.; Cole, A.J.
2013-01-01
Plasma toroidal rotation can limit reconnection of externally applied resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) fields δB on rational magnetic flux surfaces. Hence it causes the induced radial perturbations δB ρ to be small there, thereby inhibiting magnetic island formation and stochasticity at the top of pedestals in high (H-mode) confinement tokamak plasmas. However, the δB ρ s induced by RMPs increase away from rational surfaces and are shown to induce significant sinusoidal radial motion (flutter) of magnetic field lines with a radial extent that varies linearly with δB ρ and inversely with distance from the rational surface because of the magnetic shear. This produces a radial electron thermal diffusivity that is (1/2)(δB ρ /B 0 ) 2 times a kinetically derived, electron-collision-induced, magnetic-shear-reduced, effective parallel electron thermal diffusivity in the absence of magnetic stochasticity. These low collisionality flutter-induced transport processes and thin magnetic island effects are shown to be highly peaked in the vicinity of rational surfaces at the top of low collisionality pedestals. However, the smaller but finite level of magnetic-flutter-induced electron heat transport midway between rational surfaces is the primary factor that determines the electron temperature difference between rational surfaces at the pedestal top. The magnetic-flutter-induced non-ambipolar electron density transport can be large enough to push the plasma toward an electron density transport root. Requiring ambipolar density transport is shown to determine the radial electric field, the plasma toroidal rotation (via radial force balance), a reduced electron thermal diffusivity and increased ambipolar density transport in the pedestal. At high collisionality the various flutter effects are less strongly peaked at rational surfaces and generally less significant. They are thus less likely to exhibit flutter-induced resonant behaviour and transition toward an
Magnetic-flutter-induced pedestal plasma transport
Callen, J. D.; Hegna, C. C.; Cole, A. J.
2013-11-01
Plasma toroidal rotation can limit reconnection of externally applied resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) fields δB on rational magnetic flux surfaces. Hence it causes the induced radial perturbations δBρ to be small there, thereby inhibiting magnetic island formation and stochasticity at the top of pedestals in high (H-mode) confinement tokamak plasmas. However, the δBρs induced by RMPs increase away from rational surfaces and are shown to induce significant sinusoidal radial motion (flutter) of magnetic field lines with a radial extent that varies linearly with δBρ and inversely with distance from the rational surface because of the magnetic shear. This produces a radial electron thermal diffusivity that is (1/2)(δBρ/B0)2 times a kinetically derived, electron-collision-induced, magnetic-shear-reduced, effective parallel electron thermal diffusivity in the absence of magnetic stochasticity. These low collisionality flutter-induced transport processes and thin magnetic island effects are shown to be highly peaked in the vicinity of rational surfaces at the top of low collisionality pedestals. However, the smaller but finite level of magnetic-flutter-induced electron heat transport midway between rational surfaces is the primary factor that determines the electron temperature difference between rational surfaces at the pedestal top. The magnetic-flutter-induced non-ambipolar electron density transport can be large enough to push the plasma toward an electron density transport root. Requiring ambipolar density transport is shown to determine the radial electric field, the plasma toroidal rotation (via radial force balance), a reduced electron thermal diffusivity and increased ambipolar density transport in the pedestal. At high collisionality the various flutter effects are less strongly peaked at rational surfaces and generally less significant. They are thus less likely to exhibit flutter-induced resonant behaviour and transition toward an electron
Wakefield generation in magnetized plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holkundkar, Amol; Brodin, Gert; Marklund, Mattias
2011-01-01
We consider wakefield generation in plasmas by electromagnetic pulses propagating perpendicular to a strong magnetic field, in the regime where the electron cyclotron frequency is equal to or larger than the plasma frequency. Particle-in-cell simulations reveal that for moderate magnetic field strengths previous results are reproduced, and the wakefield wave number spectrum has a clear peak at the inverse skin depth. However, when the cyclotron frequency is significantly larger than the plasma frequency, the wakefield spectrum becomes broadband, and simultaneously the loss rate of the driving pulse is much enhanced. A set of equations for the scalar and vector potentials reproducing these results are derived, using only the assumption of a weakly nonlinear interaction.
Gyergyek, T.; Čerček, M.; Jelić, N.; Stanojević, M.
1993-05-01
A potential relaxation instability (PRI) is modulated by an external signal using an additional grid to modulate the radial plasma potential profile in a magnetized plasma column in a linear magnetized discharge plasma device. It is observed that the electrode current oscillations follow the van der Pol equation with an external forcing term, and the linear growth rate of the instability is measured.
Linear mode conversion in a toroidal plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hellsten, T.
1980-05-01
Linear mode conversion at the perpendicular ion cyclotron resonance has been treated for an axially symmetric toroidal plasma. The mode conversion appears between a fast electromagnetic wave and a slow-quasi electrostatic wave, due to finite electron inertia. The problem reduces to the Orr-Sommerfeld equation where the coefficients determining the reflectron, transmission and conversion are functions of the arc length along a poloidal intersection of the resonance surface. These coefficients can be determined from eigenfunctions of an ordinary differential equation. (author)
Lasers plasmas and magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Albertazzi, Bruno
2014-01-01
We studied the coupling between a laser produced plasmas and a magnetic field in two cases: 1) in the context of Inertial Fusion Confinement (ICF), we first studied how magnetic fields are self generated during the interaction between a target and a laser, then 2) to progress in the understanding of the large-scale shaping of astrophysical jets, we studied the influence of an externally applied magnetic field on the dynamics of a laser-produced plasma expanding into vacuum. The first part of this thesis is thus dedicated to a numerical and experimental study of the self generated magnetic fields that are produced following the irradiation of a solid target by a high power laser (having pulse duration in the nanosecond and picosecond regimes). These fields play an important role in the frame of ICF since they influence the dynamics of the electrons produced during the laser-matter interaction, and thus condition the success of ICF experiments. The second part of this thesis is a numerical and experimental study of the influence of an externally applied magnetic field on the morphology of a laser produced plasma freely otherwise expanding into vacuum. This work aims at better understanding the observed large-scale collimation of astrophysical jets which cannot be understood in the frame of existing models. We notably show that a purely axial magnetic field can force an initially isotropic laboratory flow, scaled to be representative of a flow emerging from a Young Star Object, in a re-collimation shock, from which emerges a narrow, well collimated jet. We also show that the plasma heating induced at the re-collimation point could explain the 'puzzling' observations of stationary X ray emission zones embedded within astrophysical jets. (author) [fr
Linear Magnetoelectric Effect by Orbital Magnetism
Scaramucci, A.; Bousquet, E.; Fechner, M.; Mostovoy, M.; Spaldin, N. A.
2012-01-01
We use symmetry analysis and first-principles calculations to show that the linear magnetoelectric effect can originate from the response of orbital magnetic moments to the polar distortions induced by an applied electric field. Using LiFePO4 as a model compound we show that spin-orbit coupling
Linearized models for a new magnetic control in MAST
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Artaserse, G., E-mail: giovanni.artaserse@enea.it [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, Via Enrico Fermi 45, I-00044 Frascati (RM) (Italy); Maviglia, F.; Albanese, R. [Associazione Euratom-ENEA-CREATE sulla Fusione, Via Claudio 21, I-80125 Napoli (Italy); McArdle, G.J.; Pangione, L. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)
2013-10-15
Highlights: ► We applied linearized models for a new magnetic control on MAST tokamak. ► A suite of procedures, conceived to be machine independent, have been used. ► We carried out model-based simulations, taking into account eddy currents effects. ► Comparison with the EFIT flux maps and the experimental magnetic signals are shown. ► A current driven model for the dynamic simulations of the experimental data have been performed. -- Abstract: The aim of this work is to provide reliable linearized models for the design and assessment of a new magnetic control system for MAST (Mega Ampère Spherical Tokamak) using rtEFIT, which can easily be exported to MAST Upgrade. Linearized models for magnetic control have been obtained using the 2D axisymmetric finite element code CREATE L. MAST linearized models include equivalent 2D axisymmetric schematization of poloidal field (PF) coils, vacuum vessel, and other conducting structures. A plasmaless and a double null configuration have been chosen as benchmark cases for the comparison with experimental data and EFIT reconstructions. Good agreement has been found with the EFIT flux map and the experimental signals coming from magnetic probes with only few mismatches probably due to broken sensors. A suite of procedures (equipped with a user friendly interface to be run even remotely) to provide linearized models for magnetic control is now available on the MAST linux machines. A new current driven model has been used to obtain a state space model having the PF coil currents as inputs. Dynamic simulations of experimental data have been carried out using linearized models, including modelling of the effects of the passive structures, showing a fair agreement. The modelling activity has been useful also to reproduce accurately the interaction between plasma current and radial position control loops.
Linearized models for a new magnetic control in MAST
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Artaserse, G.; Maviglia, F.; Albanese, R.; McArdle, G.J.; Pangione, L.
2013-01-01
Highlights: ► We applied linearized models for a new magnetic control on MAST tokamak. ► A suite of procedures, conceived to be machine independent, have been used. ► We carried out model-based simulations, taking into account eddy currents effects. ► Comparison with the EFIT flux maps and the experimental magnetic signals are shown. ► A current driven model for the dynamic simulations of the experimental data have been performed. -- Abstract: The aim of this work is to provide reliable linearized models for the design and assessment of a new magnetic control system for MAST (Mega Ampère Spherical Tokamak) using rtEFIT, which can easily be exported to MAST Upgrade. Linearized models for magnetic control have been obtained using the 2D axisymmetric finite element code CREATE L. MAST linearized models include equivalent 2D axisymmetric schematization of poloidal field (PF) coils, vacuum vessel, and other conducting structures. A plasmaless and a double null configuration have been chosen as benchmark cases for the comparison with experimental data and EFIT reconstructions. Good agreement has been found with the EFIT flux map and the experimental signals coming from magnetic probes with only few mismatches probably due to broken sensors. A suite of procedures (equipped with a user friendly interface to be run even remotely) to provide linearized models for magnetic control is now available on the MAST linux machines. A new current driven model has been used to obtain a state space model having the PF coil currents as inputs. Dynamic simulations of experimental data have been carried out using linearized models, including modelling of the effects of the passive structures, showing a fair agreement. The modelling activity has been useful also to reproduce accurately the interaction between plasma current and radial position control loops
A new linear plasma device for various edge plasma studies at SWIP
Xu, Min; Zheng, Pengfei; Tynan, George; Che, Tong; Wang, Zhanhui; Guo, Dong; Wei, Ran
2017-10-01
To facilitate the plasma-material interactions (PMI) studies, Southwestern Institute of Physics (SWIP) has constructed a linear plasma device. It is comprised of a source chamber (Φ 0.4 m), a target chamber (Φ 0.9 m), 15 magnets with different sizes, and power supplies with the total power of a few hundred kilowatts, etc. A maximum magnetic field of 0.3 Tesla along the axial direction can be produced. The current of each of the 15 magnets can be independently controlled. More than 60 ports are available for diagnostics, with the sizes vary from Φ 50 mm to Φ 150 mm. Rectangular ports of 190 mm × 270 mm are also available. 12 ports looking at the sample holder are specially designed for ion beam injection, of which the axes are 25 to the chamber axis. The device is equipped with a LaB6 hot cathode plasma source, which is able to generate steady-state H/D/He plasmas with a diameter of Φ 100 mm, density of 1x1019 /m3 , and a particle flux of 1022 1023 n/m2 .s. The electron temperature is usually a few eV. Further, a Helicon RF plasma source is also planned for plasma transport studies. Int'l Sci & Tech Cooperation Program of China (No. 2015DFA61760).
Zhang, Yue; Lynn, Alan; Gilmore, Mark; Hsu, Scott; University of New Mexico Collaboration; Los Alamos National Laboratory Collaboration
2013-10-01
A compact coaxial plasma gun is employed for experimental studies of plasma relaxation in a low density background plasma. Experiments are being conducted in the linear HelCat device at UNM. These studies will advance the knowledge of basic plasma physics in the areas of magnetic relaxation and space and astrophysical plasmas, including the evolution of active galactic jets/radio lobes within the intergalactic medium. The gun is powered by a 120pF ignitron-switched capacitor bank which is operated in a range of 5-10 kV and ~100 kA. Multiple diagnostics are employed to investigate plasma relaxation process. Magnetized Argon plasma bubbles with velocities ~1.2Cs and densities ~1020 m-3 have been achieved. Different distinct regimes of operation with qualitatively different dynamics are identified by fast CCD camera images, with the parameter determining the operation regime. Additionally, a B-dot probe array is employed to measure the spatial toroidal and poloidal magnetic flux evolution to identify detached plasma bubble configurations. Experimental data and analysis will be presented.
Linear instability and nonlinear motion of rotating plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, J.
1985-01-01
Two coupled nonlinear equations describing the flute dynamics of the magnetically confined low-β collisionless rotating plasma are derived. The linear instability and nonlinear dynamics of the rotating column are analyzed theoretically. In the linear stability analysis, a new sufficient condition of stability is obtained. From the exact solution of eigenvalue equation for Gaussian density profile and uniform rotation of the plasma, the stability of the system strongly depends on the direction of plasma rotation, FLR effect and the location of the conducting wall. An analytic expression showing the finite wall effect on different normal modes is obtained and it explains the different behavior of (1,0) normal mode from other modes. The sheared rotation driven instability is investigated by using three model equilibrium profiles, and the analytic expressions of eigenvalues which includes the wall effect are obtained. The analogy between shear rotation driven instability and the instability driven by sheared plane parallel flow in the inviscid fluid is analyzed. Applying the linear analysis to the central cell of tandem mirror system, the trapped particle instability with only passing electronics is analyzed. For uniform rotation and Gaussian density profile, an analytic expression that determines the stability boundary is found. The nonlinear analysis shows that the nonlinear equations have a solitary vortex solution which is very similar to the vortex solution of nonlinear Rossby wave equation
Plasma transport through magnetic boundaries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Treumann, R.A.
1992-01-01
We examine the overall plasma diffusion processes across tangential discontinuities of which the best known example is the Earth's magnetopause during northward interplanetary magnetic field conditions. The existence of the low latitude boundary layer (LLBL) adjacent to the magnetopause during those periods is ample evidence for the presence of so far poorly defined and understood entry processes acting at the magnetopause. We conclude that microscopic instabilities are probably not efficient enough to account for the LLBL. They affect only a small number of resonant particles. It is argued that macroscopic nonresonant turbulence is the most probable mechanism for plasma transport
Zhang, Yue; Fisher, Dustin M.; Gilmore, Mark; Hsu, Scott C.; Lynn, Alan G.
2017-01-01
Injection of coaxial-gun-formed magnetized plasmas into a background transverse vacuum magnetic field or into a background magnetized plasma has been studied in the helicon-cathode (HelCat) linear plasma device at the University of New Mexico [M. Gilmore et al., J. Plasma Phys.81, 345810104 (2015)]. Magnetized plasma jet launched into a background transverse magnetic field shows emergent kink stabilization of the jet due to the formation of a sheared flow in the jet above the kink-stabilizati...
Magnetic well for plasma confinement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Valfells, A.; Chiu, Y.C.
1977-01-01
A multipole magnetic well for plasma confinement includes a plurality of current-carrying coils placed on planes corresponding to the facets of a regular polyhedron that can be symmetrically circumscribed about a sphere. The direction of current in the coils is such as to minimize the flux density at the center of the polyhedron, thereby providing a confinement well with three-dimensional symmetry having an increasing flux density in all directions from the center. 16 claims, 18 figures
Magnetic tearing in plasma focus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharkawy, W.
1994-01-01
A plasma focus device used is Mather type filled with hydrogen gas at pressure between 0.1 and 1 torr. When connected to a large capacitor ≤10 KV a discharge is started with peak current 100 KA. Under the influence of the radial electric field E r , due to the potential between electrodes, and B φ the plasma will drift in the axial direction with velocity cE r /B φ . An induced axial magnetic field B z has been detected which due to sheath velocity. A propagation of magnetosonic wave has been observed with velocity ≅10 3 m sec -1 . Such a wave might be excited when the magnetic pressure is much greater than the plasma kinetic pressure B 2 /8π>nKT. Assuming (MHD) to be stable, Tearing model was driven which generally has smaller growth rates than (MHD) modes. Using the designed theoretical model and the plasma parameters the electron energy dΦ/dt=Ba 2 /τ R was calculated to be 2.22 KeV, which is comparable with that detected from X-ray measurements. (author)
Software architecture for control and data acquisition of linear plasma generator Magnum-PSI
Groen, P. W. C.; van Beveren, V.; Broekema, A.; Busch, P. J.; Genuit, J. W.; Kaas, G.; Poelman, A. J.; Scholten, J.; van Emmichoven, P. A. Zeijlma
2013-01-01
The FOM Institute DIFFER – Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research has completed the construction phase of Magnum-PSI, a magnetized, steady-state, large area, high-flux linear plasma beam generator to study plasma surface interactions under ITER divertor conditions. Magnum-PSI consists of
Intrinsic electromagnetic solitary vortices in magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, J.; Horton, W.
1986-01-01
Several Rossby type vortex solutions constructed for electromagnetic perturbations in magnetized plasma encounter the difficulty that the perturbed magnetic field and the parallel current are not continuous on the boundary between two regions. We find that fourth order differential equations must be solved to remove this discontinuity. Special solutions for two types of boundary value problems for the fourth order partial differential equations are presented. By applying these solutions to different nonlinear equations in magnetized plasma, the intrinsic electromagnetic solitary drift-Alfven vortex (along with solitary Alfven vortex) and the intrinsic electromagnetic solitary electron vortex (along with short-wavelength drift vortex) are constructed. While still keeping a localized dipole structure, these new vortices have more complicated radial structures in the inner and outer regions than the usual Rossby wave vortex. The new type of vortices guarantees the continuity of the perturbed magnetic field deltaB/sub perpendicular/ and the parallel current j/sub parallel/ on the boundary between inner and outer regions of the vortex. The allowed regions of propagation speeds for these vortices are analyzed, and we find that the complementary relation between the vortex propagating speeds and the corresponding phase velocities of the linear modes no longer exists
Whistleron gas in magnetized plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Martino, Salvatore; Falanga, Mariarosaria; Tzenov, Stephan I.
2005-01-01
The nonlinear dynamics of whistler waves in magnetized plasmas is studied. Since the plasmas and beam-plasma systems considered here are assumed to be weakly collisional, the point of reference for the analysis performed in the present paper is the system of hydrodynamic and field equations. The renormalization group method is applied to obtain dynamical equations for the slowly varying amplitudes of whistler waves. Further, it has been shown that the amplitudes of eigenmodes satisfy an infinite system of coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equations. In this sense, the whistler eigenmodes form a sort of a gas of interacting quasiparticles, while the slowly varying amplitudes can be considered as dynamical variables heralding the relevant information about the system. An important feature of the approach is that whistler waves do not perturb the initial uniform density of plasma electrons. The plasma response to the induced whistler waves consists in velocity redistribution which follows exactly the behavior of the whistlers. In addition, selection rules governing the nonlinear mode coupling have been derived, which represent another interesting peculiarity of the description presented here
Implicit Methods for the Magnetohydrodynamic Description of Magnetically Confined Plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jardin, S C
2010-09-28
Implicit algorithms are essential for predicting the slow growth and saturation of global instabilities in today’s magnetically confined fusion plasma experiments. Present day algorithms for obtaining implicit solutions to the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations for highly magnetized plasma have their roots in algorithms used in the 1960s and 1970s. However, today’s computers and modern linear and non-linear solver techniques make practical much more comprehensive implicit algorithms than were previously possible. Combining these advanced implicit algorithms with highly accurate spatial representations of the vector fields describing the plasma flow and magnetic fields and with improved methods of calculating anisotropic thermal conduction now makes possible simulations of fusion experiments using realistic values of plasma parameters and actual configuration geometry.
Implicit Methods for the Magnetohydrodynamic Description of Magnetically Confined Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jardin, S.C.
2010-01-01
Implicit algorithms are essential for predicting the slow growth and saturation of global instabilities in today's magnetically confined fusion plasma experiments. Present day algorithms for obtaining implicit solutions to the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations for highly magnetized plasma have their roots in algorithms used in the 1960s and 1970s. However, today's computers and modern linear and non-linear solver techniques make practical much more comprehensive implicit algorithms than were previously possible. Combining these advanced implicit algorithms with highly accurate spatial representations of the vector fields describing the plasma flow and magnetic fields and with improved methods of calculating anisotropic thermal conduction now makes possible simulations of fusion experiments using realistic values of plasma parameters and actual configuration geometry.
Magnetic Detachment and Plume Control in Escaping Magnetized Plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmit, P.F.; Fisch, N.J.
2008-01-01
The model of two-fluid, axisymmetric, ambipolar magnetized plasma detachment from thruster guide fields is extended to include plasmas with non-zero injection angular velocity profiles. Certain plasma injection angular velocity profiles are shown to narrow the plasma plume, thereby increasing exhaust efficiency. As an example, we consider a magnetic guide field arising from a simple current ring and demonstrate plasma injection schemes that more than double the fraction of useful exhaust aperture area, more than halve the exhaust plume angle, and enhance magnetized plasma detachment
Fluid model of the magnetic presheath in a turbulent plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stanojevic, M; Duhovnik, J; Jelic, N; Kendl, A; Kuhn, S
2005-01-01
A fluid model of the magnetic presheath in a turbulent boundary plasma is presented. Turbulent transport corrections of the classical three-dimensional fluid transport equations, which can be used to study magnetic presheaths in various geometries, are derived by means of the ensemble averaging procedure from the statistical theory of plasma turbulence. Then, the magnetic presheath in front of an infinite plane surface is analysed in detail. The linearized planar magnetic presheath equations are applied to the plasma-presheath-magnetic-presheath boundary (i.e. the magnetic presheath edge), whereas the original non-linear planar magnetic presheath equations are used for the entire magnetic presheath, allowing for various sets of experimentally relevant free model parameters to be applied. Important new results of this study are, among others, new expressions for the fluid Bohm criterion at the Debye sheath edge and for the ion flux density perpendicular to the wall. These new results, which exhibit corrections due to the turbulent charged particle transport, can qualitatively explain the fact that whenever the angle between the magnetic field and the wall is very small (i.e. several degrees) or zero, electric currents, measured by Langmuir probes in the boundary regions of nuclear fusion devices and in various low-temperature plasmas, are anomalously enhanced in comparison with those expected or predicted by other theoretical models
Runaway tails in magnetized plasmas
Moghaddam-Taaheri, E.; Vlahos, L.; Rowland, H. L.; Papadopoulos, K.
1985-01-01
The evolution of a runaway tail driven by a dc electric field in a magnetized plasma is analyzed. Depending on the strength of the electric field and the ratio of plasma to gyrofrequency, there are three different regimes in the evolution of the tail. The tail can be (1) stable with electrons accelerated to large parallel velocities, (2) unstable to Cerenkov resonance because of the depletion of the bulk and the formation of a positive slope, (3) unstable to the anomalous Doppler resonance instability driven by the large velocity anisotropy in the tail. Once an instability is triggered (Cerenkov or anomalous Doppler resonance) the tail relaxes into an isotropic distribution. The role of a convection type loss term is also discussed.
Magnetic reconnection in magnetotail and solar plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Xiaogang.
1991-01-01
The formation of current sheets which dominates the heating of the solar corona and the onset of substorms due to collisionless tearing instability in the magnetotail are investigated in the context of magnetic field line reconnection in space plasmas. In Chapters 2 and 3 of this thesis, the collisionless tearing instability and current disruption of the magnetotail are considered. The linear collisionless tearing instability, with wavelengths of the order of 10 R E , and with a growth rate γ ∼ 10 -2 /sec, is identified as a possible mechanism for the growth phase of a substorm. The linear analysis is carried out in the presence of an equilibrium B y -field, neglected in other theories. The nonlinear theory of collisionless tearing mode is dominated by mode coupling effects. From the evolution equations for electro-magnetic field perturbations, the author derived a nonlinear growth rate by generalizing the boundary layer techniques of linear theory. He finds that the nonlinear growth is of the order of 1 sec, much faster than the linear growth. It is proposed that collisionless tearing modes provide a mechanism for current disruption observed by spacecrafts. The electrical field generated during the nonlinear evolution can cause particle acceleration in the earth-tail direction. His estimates indicate ion energies up to 0.7 MeV and electron energies up to 8.1 MeV, which is not inconsistent with the observations. In the Chapter 4 it is shown that current sheets can be formed in Parker's model of the solar corona in the presence of smooth photospheric flows, despite van Ballegooijen and Field's proof that in an ideal plasma current sheets doe not occur unless the boundary velocity field is discontinuous
Magnetic configuration control of ITER plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Albanese, R.; Mattei, M.; Portone, A.; Ambrosino, G.; Artaserse, G.; Crisanti, F.; De Tommasi, G.; Fresa, R.; Sartori, F.; Villone, F.
2007-01-01
The aim of this paper is to present some new tools used to review the capability of the ITER Poloidal Field (PF) system in controlling the broad range of plasma configurations presently forecasted during ITER operation. The attention is focused on the axi-symmetric aspects of plasma magnetic configuration control since they pose the greatest challenges in terms of control power and they have the largest impact on machine capital cost. Some preliminary results obtained during ongoing activities in collaboration between ENEA/CREATE and EFDA are presented. The paper is divided in two main parts devoted, respectively, to the presentation of a procedure for the PF current optimisation during the scenario, and of a software environment for the study of the PF system capabilities using the plasma linearized response. The proposed PF current optimisation procedure is then used to assess Scenario 2 design, also taking into account the presence of axisymmetric eddy currents and possible variations of poloidal beta and internal inductance. The numerical linear model based tool derived from the JET oriented eXtreme Shape Controller (XSC) tools is finally used to obtain results on the strike point sweeping in ITER
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dolgachev, G. I.; Maslennikov, D. D.; Ushakov, A. G.; Fedotkin, A. S.; Khodeev, I. A.; Shvedov, A. A.
2011-01-01
A method is proposed to increase the linear charge density transferred through a plasma opening switch (POS) and, accordingly, reduce the POS diameter by enhancing the external magnetic field in the POS gap. Results are presented from experimental studies of the dynamics of the plasma injected into the POS gap across a strong magnetic field. The possibility of closing the POS gap by the plasma injected across an external magnetic field of up to 60 kG is demonstrated.
Zhang, Yue; Gilmore, Mark; Hsu, Scott C.; Fisher, Dustin M.; Lynn, Alan G.
2017-11-01
We report experimental results on the injection of a magnetized plasma jet into a transverse background magnetic field in the HelCat linear plasma device at the University of New Mexico [M. Gilmore et al., J. Plasma Phys. 81(1), 345810104 (2015)]. After the plasma jet leaves the plasma-gun muzzle, a tension force arising from an increasing curvature of the background magnetic field induces in the jet a sheared axial-flow gradient above the theoretical kink-stabilization threshold. We observe that this emergent sheared axial flow stabilizes the n = 1 kink mode in the jet, whereas a kink instability is observed in the jet when there is no background magnetic field present.
Measurements of Rayleigh-Taylor-Induced Magnetic Fields in the Linear and Non-linear Regimes
Manuel, Mario
2012-10-01
Magnetic fields are generated in plasmas by the Biermann-battery, or thermoelectric, source driven by non-collinear temperature and density gradients. The ablation front in laser-irradiated targets is susceptible to Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) growth that produces gradients capable of generating magnetic fields. Measurements of these RT-induced magnetic fields in planar foils have been made using a combination of x-ray and monoenergetic-proton radiography techniques. At a perturbation wavelength of 120 μm, proton radiographs indicate an increase of the magnetic-field strength from ˜1 to ˜10 Tesla during the linear growth phase. A characteristic change in field structure was observed later in time for irradiated foils of different initial surface perturbations. Proton radiographs show a regular cellular configuration initiated at the same time during the drive, independent of the initial foil conditions. This non-linear behavior has been experimentally investigated and the source of these characteristic features will be discussed.
Reduced energy conservation law for magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sosenko, P.P.; Decyk, V.K.
1994-01-01
A global energy conservation law for a magnetized plasma is studied within the context of a quasiparticle description. A reduced energy conservation law is derived for low-frequency, as compared to the gyromagnetic frequency, plasma motions with regard to both non-uniform mean flows and fluctuations in the plasma. The mean value of plasma energy is calculated and sufficient stability conditions for non-equilibrium plasmas are derived. (orig.)
Radio frequency conductivity of plasma in inhomogeneous magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Itoh, Sanae; Nishikawa, Kyoji; Fukuyama, Atsushi; Itoh, Kimitaka.
1985-01-01
Nonlocal conductivity tensor is obtained to study the kinetic effects on propagation and absorption of radio frequency (rf) waves in dispersive plasmas. Generalized linear propagator in the presence of the inhomogeneity of magnetic field strength along the field line is calculated. The influence of the inhomogeneity to the rf wave-energy deposition is found to be appreciable. Application to toroidal plasmas is shown. (author)
Linear and Nonlinear Electrostatic Waves in Unmagnetized Dusty Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mamun, A. A.; Shukla, P. K.
2010-01-01
A rigorous and systematic theoretical study has been made of linear and nonlinear electrostatic waves propagating in unmagnetized dusty plasmas. The basic features of linear and nonlinear electrostatic waves (particularly, dust-ion-acoustic and dust-acoustic waves) for different space and laboratory dusty plasma conditions are described. The experimental observations of such linear and nonlinear features of dust-ion-acoustic and dust-acoustic waves are briefly discussed.
Vortex dynamics in magnetized plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kono, M.; Krane, B.; Pecseli, H.L.; Trulsen, J.
1998-01-01
Low frequency dynamics of electrostatic fluctuations in strongly magnetized plasmas have been studied. It was found that perturbations in density and potential can be very localized, indicating the applicability of an approximate description based on a finite number of vortices. A model based on a few isolated vortical structures is discussed, with particular attention to vortex collapse, where three vortices merge together within a finite time, or to the converse process, i.e. a vortex explosion. Details of these particular types of vortex dynamics depend on the actual model used for describing the electrons, the presence of a Debye shielding in particular. A ''boomerang''-type of evolution was found, where three shielded vortices expand initially, just as their unshielded counterparts, but eventually the expansion is arrested, and they start converging to collapse ultimately. The study is extended by a numerical simulation where the point model is relaxed to a continuous, but localized, vorticity distribution with finite size vortices. (orig.)
Plasma heating by radio frequency in the LISA linear machine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cunha Raposo, C. da.
1985-05-01
The characteristics of an experimental apparatus to produce helium plasma by radio frequency and to study its behavior when confined by a magnetic field with mirrors is shown. The plasma was produced by a microwave source of 2.45 GHz and 800 Watts, operating in steady and pulsed state. The plasma parameters were studied as a function of an external magnetic field, for large and small resonance regions. The axial and radial magnetic fields were mapped for each region in order to verify the spatial distribution, particle orbits, and energy confinement time according to the energy balance equation. As a consequence of the influence of the radio frequency (RF) voltage in the plasma the Bohm theory of plasma prob was modified. The diagnostic was done with plane movable electrostatic probe, Hall probe, magnetic probe, diamagnetic coil and spectrography. (Author) [pt
Magnetized relativistic electron-ion plasma expansion
Benkhelifa, El-Amine; Djebli, Mourad
2016-03-01
The dynamics of relativistic laser-produced plasma expansion across a transverse magnetic field is investigated. Based on a one dimensional two-fluid model that includes pressure, enthalpy, and rest mass energy, the expansion is studied in the limit of λD (Debye length) ≤RL (Larmor radius) for magnetized electrons and ions. Numerical investigation conducted for a quasi-neutral plasma showed that the σ parameter describing the initial plasma magnetization, and the plasma β parameter, which is the ratio of kinetic to magnetic pressure are the key parameters governing the expansion dynamics. For σ ≪ 1, ion's front shows oscillations associated to the break-down of quasi-neutrality. This is due to the strong constraining effect and confinement of the magnetic field, which acts as a retarding medium slowing the plasma expansion.
Three Dimensional Double Layers in Magnetized Plasmas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jovanovic, D.; Lynov, Jens-Peter; Michelsen, Poul
1982-01-01
Experimental results are presented which demonstrate the formation of fully three dimensional double layers in a magnetized plasma. The measurements are performed in a magnetized stationary plasma column with radius 1.5 cm. Double layers are produced by introducing an electron beam with radius 0.......4 cm along the magnetic field from one end of the column. The voltage drop across the double layer is found to be determined by the energy of the incoming electron beam. In general we find that the width of the double layer along the external magnetic field is determined by plasma density and beam...
Automatic plasma control in magnetic traps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Samojlenko, Y.; Chuyanov, V.
1984-01-01
Hot plasma is essentially in thermodynamic non-steady state. Automatic plasma control basically means monitoring deviations from steady state and producing a suitable magnetic or electric field which brings the plasma back to its original state. Briefly described are two systems of automatic plasma control: control with a magnetic field using a negative impedance circuit, and control using an electric field. It appears that systems of automatic plasma stabilization will be an indispensable component of the fusion reactor and its possibilities will in many ways determine the reactor economy. (Ha)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cros, Brigitte
1989-01-01
This research thesis reports the study of the non linear evolution of plasma waves excited by mode conversion in a non homogeneous, non collisional, and free-of-external-magnetic-field plasma. Experiments performed in the microwave domain in a plasma created by means of a multi-polar device show that the evolution of plasma waves displays a transition between a non linear quasi-steady regime and a stochastic regime when the power of incident electromagnetic waves or plasma gradient length is increased. These regimes are characterized through a numerical resolution of Zakharov equations which describe the coupled evolution of plasma wave envelope and low frequency density perturbations [fr
A new linear plasma device for the study of plasma waves in the electron magnetohydrodynamics regime
Joshi, Garima; Ravi, G.; Mukherjee, S.
2018-06-01
A new, user-friendly, linear plasma device has been developed in our laboratory where a quiescent (Δ n/n ≈ 1%), low temperature (1-10 eV), pulsed (3-10 ms) plasma can be produced over a large uniform region of 30-40 cm diameter and 40 cm length. Salient features of the device include the flexibility of tuning the plasma density in the range of 10^{10} to 10^{12} cm^{-3} and capability of scanning the plasma and field parameters in two dimensions with a precision of electromagnetic field parameters by miniature magnetic probes and Rogowski coils. The plasma produced is uniform and essentially unbounded for performing experiments on waves and turbulence. The whole device can be operated single-handedly by undergraduate or graduate students. The device can be opened, serviced, new antennas/probes installed and ready for operation in a matter of hours. Some results on the excitation of electromagnetic structures in the context of electron magnetohydrodynamics (EMHD) are also presented to demonstrate the suitability of the device for carrying out such experiments.
Magnetic Field Effects on Plasma Plumes
Ebersohn, F.; Shebalin, J.; Girimaji, S.; Staack, D.
2012-01-01
Here, we will discuss our numerical studies of plasma jets and loops, of basic interest for plasma propulsion and plasma astrophysics. Space plasma propulsion systems require strong guiding magnetic fields known as magnetic nozzles to control plasma flow and produce thrust. Propulsion methods currently being developed that require magnetic nozzles include the VAriable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR) [1] and magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters. Magnetic nozzles are functionally similar to de Laval nozzles, but are inherently more complex due to electromagnetic field interactions. The two crucial physical phenomenon are thrust production and plasma detachment. Thrust production encompasses the energy conversion within the nozzle and momentum transfer to a spacecraft. Plasma detachment through magnetic reconnection addresses the problem of the fluid separating efficiently from the magnetic field lines to produce maximum thrust. Plasma jets similar to those of VASIMR will be studied with particular interest in dual jet configurations, which begin as a plasma loops between two nozzles. This research strives to fulfill a need for computational study of these systems and should culminate with a greater understanding of the crucial physics of magnetic nozzles with dual jet plasma thrusters, as well as astrophysics problems such as magnetic reconnection and dynamics of coronal loops.[2] To study this problem a novel, hybrid kinetic theory and single fluid magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) solver known as the Magneto-Gas Kinetic Method is used.[3] The solver is comprised of a "hydrodynamic" portion based on the Gas Kinetic Method and a "magnetic" portion that accounts for the electromagnetic behaviour of the fluid through source terms based on the resistive MHD equations. This method is being further developed to include additional physics such as the Hall effect. Here, we will discuss the current level of code development, as well as numerical simulation results
Magnetic filtered plasma deposition and implantation technique
Zhang Hui Xing; Wu Xian Ying
2002-01-01
A high dense metal plasma can be produced by using cathodic vacuum arc discharge technique. The microparticles emitted from the cathode in the metal plasma can be removed when the metal plasma passes through the magnetic filter. It is a new technique for making high quality, fine and close thin films which have very widespread applications. The authors describe the applications of cathodic vacuum arc technique, and then a filtered plasma deposition and ion implantation system as well as its applications
Tomography of a simply magnetized toroidal plasma
Ruggero, BARNI; Stefano, CALDIROLA; Luca, FATTORINI; Claudia, RICCARDI
2018-02-01
Optical emission spectroscopy is a passive diagnostic technique, which does not perturb the plasma state. In particular, in a hydrogen plasma, Balmer-alpha (H α ) emission can be easily measured in the visible range along a line of sight from outside the plasma vessel. Other emission lines in the visible spectral range from hydrogen atoms and molecules can be exploited too, in order to gather complementary pieces of information on the plasma state. Tomography allows us to capture bi-dimensional structures. We propose to adopt an emission spectroscopy tomography for studying the transverse profiles of magnetized plasmas when Abel inversion is not exploitable. An experimental campaign was carried out at the Thorello device, a simple magnetized torus. The characteristics of the profile extraction method, which we implemented for this purpose are discussed, together with a few results concerning the plasma profiles in a simply magnetized torus configuration.
Magnetic Field Measurements In Magnetized Plasmas Using Zeeman Broadening Diagnostics
Haque, Showera; Wallace, Matthew; Presura, Radu; Neill, Paul
2017-10-01
The Zeeman effect has been used to measure the magnetic field in high energy density plasmas. This method is limited when plasma conditions are such that the line broadening due to the high plasma density and temperature surpasses the Zeeman splitting. We have measured magnetic fields in magnetized laser plasmas under conditions where the Zeeman splitting was not spectrally resolved. The magnetic field strength was determined from the difference in widths of two doublet components, using an idea proposed by Tessarin et al. (2011). Time-gated spectra with one-dimensional space-resolution were obtained at the Nevada Terawatt Facility for laser plasmas created by 20 J, 1 ns Leopard laser pulses, and expanding in the azimuthal magnetic field produced by the 0.6 MA Zebra pulsed power generator. We explore the response of the Al III 4s 2S1/2 - 4p 2P1 / 2 , 3 / 2 doublet components to the external magnetic field spatially along the plasma. Radial magnetic field and electron density profiles were measured within the plasma plume. This work was supported by the DOE/OFES Grant DE-SC0008829 and DOE/NNSA contract DE-FC52-06NA27616.
Linear waves in a resistive plasma with Hall current
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Almaguer, J.A.
1992-01-01
Dispersion relations for the case of a magnetized plasma are determined taking into account the Hall current and a constant resistivity, η, in Ohm's law. It is found that the Hall effect is relevant only for parallel (to the equilibrium magnetic field) wave numbers in the case of uniform plasmas, giving place to a dispersive behavior. In particular, the cases of η→0 and small (nonzero) resistivity are discussed
Plasma heating in a variable magnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kichigin, G. N., E-mail: king@iszf.irk.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics (Russian Federation)
2013-05-15
The problem of particle acceleration in a periodically variable magnetic field that either takes a zero value or passes through zero is considered. It is shown that, each time the field [0]passes through zero, the particle energy increases abruptly. This process can be regarded as heating in the course of which plasma particles acquire significant energy within one field period. This mechanism of plasma heating takes place in the absence of collisions between plasma particles and is analogous to the mechanism of magnetic pumping in collisional plasma considered by Alfven.
Design, analysis and fabrication of a linear permanent magnet ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
MONOJIT SEAL
Linear permanent magnet synchronous machine; LPMSM—fabrication; design optimisation; finite-element ... induction motor (LIM) prototype was patented in 1890 [1]. Since then, linear ..... Also, for manual winding, more slot area is allotted to ...
The linear plasma generator Magnum-PSI
Eck, van H.J.N.
2013-01-01
The Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research (DIFFER) has built the new experimental research facility Magnum-PSI. In Magnum-PSI, Plasma Surface Interaction (PSI) research for the nuclear fusion reactor ITER and reactors beyond ITER will be carried out. As such, it is essential that the
Dynamics of a rarefied plasma in a magnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sagdeyev, R S; Kadomtsev, B B; Rudakov, L I; Vedyonov, A A
1958-07-01
The nature of the motion and properties of high temperature plasma in a magnetic field is of particular interest for the problem of producing controlled thermonuclear reactions. The most general theoretical approach to such problems lies in the description of the plasma by the Boltzmann and Maxwell equations that connect the self-consistent electric and magnetic fields with the ion and electron distribution functions. The exact equations for the motion of plasma in an electromagnetic field can only be solved in certain simple cases especially because the fields are influenced by the collective motion of all the particles. For a certain class of problems it is possible to work out a procedure for decreasing the number of variables and thus simplify the characteristic equations. In this work the following cases are considered and equations derived: equations for the macroscopic motion of the plasma; hydrodynamics of a low pressure plasma; instability of plasma in a magnetic field with an anisotropic ion velocity distribution; stability of a pinched cylindrical plasma using the kinetic equation; non-linear one-dimensional motion of a rarefied plasma.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Colunga S, S
1990-07-15
In this report the simplified analysis of a method to detect the movement of the plasma column of a tokamak in the vertical direction and of the biggest radius is given. The peculiar case of the Tokamak Novillo of the Plasma Physics Laboratory of the ININ is studied. (Author)
Linear Vlasov plasma oscillations in the Fourier transformed velocity space
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Sedláček, Zdeněk; Nocera, L.
2002-01-01
Roč. 296, - (2002), s. 117-124 ISSN 0375-9601 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : linear Vlasov plasma Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.483, year: 2002
Velocity space ring-plasma instability, magnetized, Part I: Theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, J.K.; Birdsall, C.K.
1979-01-01
The interaction of magnetized monoenergetic ions (a ring in velocity space) with a homogeneous Maxwellian target plasma is studied numerically using linear Vlasov theory. The ring may be produced when an energetic beam is injected perpendicular to a uniform magnetic field. In addition to yielding the previously known results, the present study classifies this flute-like instability into three distinct regimes based on the beam density relative to the plasma density, where many features such as physical mechanisms, dispersion diagrams, and maximum growth rates are quite different. The effects of electron dynamics, plasma or ring thermal spread, the ratio of ω/sub p//ω/sub c/ for plasma ions, and electromagnetic modifications are also considered
Plasma diffusion due to magnetic field fluctuations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Okuda, H.; Lee, W.W.; Lin, A.T.
1979-01-01
Plasma diffusion due to magnetic field fluctuations has been studied in two dimensions for a plasma near thermal equilibrium and when the fluctuations are suprathermal. It is found that near thermal equilibrium electron diffusion varies as B -2 when the collisionless skin depth is greater than the thermal electron gyroradius and is generally smaller than the diffusion due to collisions or electrostatic fluctuations for a low-β plasma. When the suprathermal magnetic fluctuation exists because of macroscopic plasma currents, electron diffusion is enhanced due to the coalescence of current filaments and magnetic islands. Magnetic field energy is found to condense to the longest wavelength available in the system and stays there longer than the electron diffusion time scale
Magnetic stresses in ideal MHD plasmas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, V.O.
1995-01-01
The concept of magnetic stresses in ideal MHD plasma theory is reviewed and revisited with the aim of demonstrating its advantages as a basis for calculating and understanding plasma equilibria. Expressions are derived for the various stresses that transmit forces in a magnetized plasma...... and it is shown that the resulting magnetic forces on a finite volume element can be obtained by integrating the magnetic stresses over the surface of the element. The concept is used to rederive and discuss the equilibrium conditions for axisymmetric toroidal plasmas, including the virial theorem...... and the Shafranov shift. The method had pedagogical merits as it simplifies the calculations, improves the physical understanding and facilitates an assessment of the approximations made in the calculations....
On the scaling of magnetic plasma confinement under classical conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lehnert, B.
1979-04-01
Present magnetic confinement schemes based on tokamaks and similar devices are characterized by relatively large losses and low beta values. As a consequence, thermonuclear conditions can only be reached in such devices at large linear dimensions or by means of very strong magnetic fields, in combination with large heating powers. This does not rule out the possibility of realizing the same conditions on a smaller scale, i.e. by finding alternative schemes which provide classical and stable confinement of a pure plasma in a closed magnetic bottle. (author)
Nonlinear Electrostatic Wave Equations for Magnetized Plasmas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dysthe, K.B.; Mjølhus, E.; Pécseli, Hans
1984-01-01
The lowest order kinetic effects are included in the equations for nonlinear electrostatic electron waves in a magnetized plasma. The modifications of the authors' previous analysis based on a fluid model are discussed.......The lowest order kinetic effects are included in the equations for nonlinear electrostatic electron waves in a magnetized plasma. The modifications of the authors' previous analysis based on a fluid model are discussed....
Stationary quenching wave in magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alikhanov, S.G.; Glushkov, I.S.
1976-01-01
The interaction of a magnetized hot plasma (ωsub(e)tau sub(e)>>1) with cold plasma or a gas leads to the appearanci of a cooling wave. The transition layer between hot and cold plasma is the main source of radiation losses which should be compensated by a heat flow from the hot region. A stationary state is considered, equations are written in the system in which temperature and magnetic field profiles are steady, and the plasma flux with magnetic field passes through the cooling wave. Calculations, have been carried out on a computer. The dependence of the magnetized plasma flux velocity Vsub(r) on the ratio p/Hsub(r) is shown, where p is the pressure, Hsub(r) is the magnetic field in the hot reqion. The dependence of the characteristic dimension of the cooling wave on the magnetic field is determined for the hot plasma region. A considerable fraction of the rediation losses is shown to fall to the region of (ωsub(e)tausub(e)< or approximately)1
Parametric analysis of a magnetized cylindrical plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahedo, Eduardo
2009-01-01
The relevant macroscopic model, the spatial structure, and the parametric regimes of a low-pressure plasma confined by a cylinder and an axial magnetic field is discussed for the small-Debye length limit, making use of asymptotic techniques. The plasma response is fully characterized by three-dimensionless parameters, related to the electron gyroradius, and the electron and ion collision mean-free-paths. There are the unmagnetized regime, the main magnetized regime, and, for a low electron-collisionality plasma, an intermediate-magnetization regime. In the magnetized regimes, electron azimuthal inertia is shown to be a dominant phenomenon in part of the quasineutral plasma region and to set up before ion radial inertia. In the main magnetized regime, the plasma structure consists of a bulk diffusive region, a thin layer governed by electron inertia, a thinner sublayer controlled by ion inertia, and the non-neutral Debye sheath. The solution of the main inertial layer yields that the electron azimuthal energy near the wall is larger than the electron thermal energy, making electron resistivity effects non-negligible. The electron Boltzmann relation is satisfied only in the very vicinity of the Debye sheath edge. Ion collisionality effects are irrelevant in the magnetized regime. Simple scaling laws for plasma production and particle and energy fluxes to the wall are derived.
Experimental investigation of magnetically confined plasma loops
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tenfelde, Jan
2012-01-01
Arch-shaped magnetic flux tubes generated in a pulsed-power plasma experiment were investigated with a variety of diagnostics concerning their expansion properties. Specifically, the expansion velocity was of interest, which is observed as constant for a wide range of experimental parameters. An MHD transport mechanism is investigated as possible cause of a uniform arch cross section: Axial transport of poloidal magnetic flux along the plasma may cause a pinch force leading to a uniform diameter along the arch. Despite numerous experimental findings at a very similar experimental setup, no indication for the relevance of this process could be found. Instead, magnetic probe data showed that the plasma current in the apex region is constant. A constant expansion velocity was observed for considerably different experimental conditions. This included different plasma source designs with fundamentally different toroidal magnetic field topology and variation of the working gas, which lead to plasma densities lower by an order of magnitude. Inside the current channel of the arch, Alfven velocities were estimated. To this end, plasma density profiles obtained from interferometry were inverted to obtain local densities, which were in turn verified by means of Stark broadening of hydrogen Balmer lines. Furthermore, measurements of multiple components of the magnetic field of the plasma arch were performed. An estimate for the conductivity was obtained from Spitzer's formula for fully ionized plasma using electron temperatures obtained from elementary optical emission spectroscopy. From the presented data of ccd imaging, magnetic field probes, and to lesser extent, interferometry, the underlying assumption of residual plasma (and considerable plasma currents through it) below the actual arch structure is very plausible. Rough estimates of the electric field strength along the arch and results of the magnetic field measurements showed, that the detected expansion
Experimental investigation of magnetically confined plasma loops
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tenfelde, Jan
2012-12-11
Arch-shaped magnetic flux tubes generated in a pulsed-power plasma experiment were investigated with a variety of diagnostics concerning their expansion properties. Specifically, the expansion velocity was of interest, which is observed as constant for a wide range of experimental parameters. An MHD transport mechanism is investigated as possible cause of a uniform arch cross section: Axial transport of poloidal magnetic flux along the plasma may cause a pinch force leading to a uniform diameter along the arch. Despite numerous experimental findings at a very similar experimental setup, no indication for the relevance of this process could be found. Instead, magnetic probe data showed that the plasma current in the apex region is constant. A constant expansion velocity was observed for considerably different experimental conditions. This included different plasma source designs with fundamentally different toroidal magnetic field topology and variation of the working gas, which lead to plasma densities lower by an order of magnitude. Inside the current channel of the arch, Alfven velocities were estimated. To this end, plasma density profiles obtained from interferometry were inverted to obtain local densities, which were in turn verified by means of Stark broadening of hydrogen Balmer lines. Furthermore, measurements of multiple components of the magnetic field of the plasma arch were performed. An estimate for the conductivity was obtained from Spitzer's formula for fully ionized plasma using electron temperatures obtained from elementary optical emission spectroscopy. From the presented data of ccd imaging, magnetic field probes, and to lesser extent, interferometry, the underlying assumption of residual plasma (and considerable plasma currents through it) below the actual arch structure is very plausible. Rough estimates of the electric field strength along the arch and results of the magnetic field measurements showed, that the detected expansion
Linear electrostatic waves in a three-component electron-positron-ion plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mugemana, A., E-mail: mugemanaa@gmail.com; Moolla, S. [School of Chemistry and Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4000 (South Africa); Lazarus, I. J. [Department of Mathematics, Statistics and Physics, Durban University of Technology, Durban 4000 (South Africa)
2014-12-15
Analytical linear electrostatic waves in a magnetized three-component electron-positron-ion plasma are studied in the low-frequency limit. By using the continuity and momentum equations with Poisson's equation, the dispersion relation for the electron-positron-ion plasma consisting of cool ions, and hot Boltzmann electrons and positrons is derived. In the linear regime, the propagation of two possible modes and their evolution are studied. In the cases of parallel and perpendicular propagation, it is shown that these two possible modes are always stable. The present investigation contributes to nonlinear propagation of electrostatic waves in space and the laboratory.
Modelling a linear PM motor including magnetic saturation
Polinder, H.; Slootweg, J.G.; Compter, J.C.; Hoeijmakers, M.J.
2002-01-01
The use of linear permanent-magnet (PM) actuators increases in a wide variety of applications because of the high force density, robustness and accuracy. The paper describes the modelling of a linear PM motor applied in, for example, wafer steppers, including magnetic saturation. This is important
Ionization effects and linear stability in a coaxial plasma device
Kurt, Erol; Kurt, Hilal; Bayhan, Ulku
2009-03-01
A 2-D computer simulation of a coaxial plasma device depending on the conservation equations of electrons, ions and excited atoms together with the Poisson equation for a plasma gun is carried out. Some characteristics of the plasma focus device (PF) such as critical wave numbers a c and voltages U c in the cases of various pressures Pare estimated in order to satisfy the necessary conditions of traveling particle densities ( i.e. plasma patterns) via a linear analysis. Oscillatory solutions are characterized by a nonzero imaginary part of the growth rate Im ( σ) for all cases. The model also predicts the minimal voltage ranges of the system for certain pressure intervals.
Plasma transport across a braided magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stix, T.H.
1978-01-01
Simple fluid and particle models are used to estimate the transport of density, current, and electron heat for a plasma immersed in a region through which magnetic lines of force meander in a stochastic fashion and in which magnetic surfaces are destroyed. (author)
Dynamo Effects in Magnetized Ideal Plasma Cosmologies
Kleidis, Kostas; Kuiroukidis, Apostolos; Papadopoulos, Demetrios; Vlahos, Loukas
The excitation of cosmological perturbations in an anisotropic cosmological model and in the presence of a homogeneous magnetic field has been studied, using the ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations. In this case, the system of partial differential equations which governs the evolution of the magnetized cosmological perturbations can be solved analytically. Our results verify that fast-magnetosonic modes propagating normal to the magnetic field, are excited. But, what is most important, is that, at late times, the magnetic-induction contrast (δB/B) grows, resulting in the enhancement of the ambient magnetic field. This process can be particularly favored by condensations, formed within the plasma fluid due to gravitational instabilities.
Overview of NASA Magnet and Linear Alternator Research Efforts
Geng, Steven M.; Niedra, Janis M.; Schwarze, Gene E.
2005-02-01
The Department of Energy, Lockheed Martin, Stirling Technology Company, and NASA Glenn Research Center are developing a high-efficiency, 110 watt Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG110) for NASA Space Science missions. NASA Glenn is conducting in-house research on rare earth permanent magnets and on linear alternators to assist in developing a free-piston Stirling convertor for the SRG110 and for developing advanced technology. The permanent magnet research efforts include magnet characterization, short-term magnet aging tests, and long-term magnet aging tests. Linear alternator research efforts have begun just recently at GRC with the characterization of a moving iron type linear alternator using GRC's alternator test rig. This paper reports on the progress and future plans of GRC's magnet and linear alternator research efforts.
Exponential Frequency Spectrum in Magnetized Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pace, D. C.; Shi, M.; Maggs, J. E.; Morales, G. J.; Carter, T. A.
2008-01-01
Measurements of a magnetized plasma with a controlled electron temperature gradient show the development of a broadband spectrum of density and temperature fluctuations having an exponential frequency dependence at frequencies below the ion cyclotron frequency. The origin of the exponential frequency behavior is traced to temporal pulses of Lorentzian shape. Similar exponential frequency spectra are also found in limiter-edge plasma turbulence associated with blob transport. This finding suggests a universal feature of magnetized plasma turbulence leading to nondiffusive, cross-field transport, namely, the presence of Lorentzian shaped pulses
Production of a large, quiescent, magnetized plasma
Landt, D. L.; Ajmera, R. C.
1976-01-01
An experimental device is described which produces a large homogeneous quiescent magnetized plasma. In this device, the plasma is created in an evacuated brass cylinder by ionizing collisions between electrons emitted from a large-diameter electron gun and argon atoms in the chamber. Typical experimentally measured values of the electron temperature and density are presented which were obtained with a glass-insulated planar Langmuir probe. It is noted that the present device facilitates the study of phenomena such as waves and diffusion in magnetized plasmas.
Laser propagation and soliton generation in strongly magnetized plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Feng, W.; Li, J. Q.; Kishimoto, Y. [Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)
2016-03-15
The propagation characteristics of various laser modes with different polarization, as well as the soliton generation in strongly magnetized plasmas are studied numerically through one-dimensional (1D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations and analytically by solving the laser wave equation. PIC simulations show that the laser heating efficiency substantially depends on the magnetic field strength, the propagation modes of the laser pulse and their intensities. Generally, large amplitude laser can efficiently heat the plasma with strong magnetic field. Theoretical analyses on the linear propagation of the laser pulse in both under-dense and over-dense magnetized plasmas are well confirmed by the numerical observations. Most interestingly, it is found that a standing or moving soliton with frequency lower than the laser frequency is generated in certain magnetic field strength and laser intensity range, which can greatly enhance the laser heating efficiency. The range of magnetic field strength for the right-hand circularly polarized (RCP) soliton formation with high and low frequencies is identified by solving the soliton equations including the contribution of ion's motion and the finite temperature effects under the quasi-neutral approximation. In the limit of immobile ions, the RCP soliton tends to be peaked and stronger as the magnetic field increases, while the enhanced soliton becomes broader as the temperature increases. These findings in 1D model are well validated by 2D simulations.
Quasiparticles in non-uniformly magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sosenko, P.P.
1994-01-01
A quasiparticle concept is generalized for the case of non-uniformly magnetized plasma. Exact and reduced continuity equations for the microscopic density in the quasiparticle phase space are derived, and the nature of quasiparticles is analyzed. The theory is developed for the general case of relativistic particles in electromagnetic fields, besides non-uniform but stationary magnetic fields. Effects of non-stationary magnetic fields are briefly investigated also. 26 refs
Local thermodynamics of a magnetized, anisotropic plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hazeltine, R. D.; Mahajan, S. M.; Morrison, P. J.
2013-01-01
An expression for the internal energy of a fluid element in a weakly coupled, magnetized, anisotropic plasma is derived from first principles. The result is a function of entropy, particle density and magnetic field, and as such plays the role of a thermodynamic potential: it determines in principle all thermodynamic properties of the fluid element. In particular it provides equations of state for the magnetized plasma. The derivation uses familiar fluid equations, a few elements of kinetic theory, the MHD version of Faraday's law, and certain familiar stability and regularity conditions.
Magnetic levitation configuration incorporating levitation, guidance and linear synchronous motor
Coffey, Howard T.
1993-01-01
A propulsion and suspension system for an inductive repulsion type magnetically levitated vehicle which is propelled and suspended by a system which includes propulsion windings which form a linear synchronous motor and conductive guideways, adjacent to the propulsion windings, where both combine to partially encircling the vehicle-borne superconducting magnets. A three phase power source is used with the linear synchronous motor to produce a traveling magnetic wave which in conjunction with the magnets propel the vehicle. The conductive guideway combines with the superconducting magnets to provide for vehicle leviation.
Magnetic levitation configuration incorporating levitation, guidance and linear synchronous motor
Coffey, H.T.
1993-10-19
A propulsion and suspension system for an inductive repulsion type magnetically levitated vehicle which is propelled and suspended by a system which includes propulsion windings which form a linear synchronous motor and conductive guideways, adjacent to the propulsion windings, where both combine to partially encircling the vehicle-borne superconducting magnets. A three phase power source is used with the linear synchronous motor to produce a traveling magnetic wave which in conjunction with the magnets propel the vehicle. The conductive guideway combines with the superconducting magnets to provide for vehicle levitation. 3 figures.
Superstrong Adjustable Permanent Magnet for a Linear Collider Final Focus
Iwashita, Y
2004-01-01
Super-strong permanent magnets are being considered as one of the candidates for the final focus quadrupole magnets in a linear collider. A short prototype with temperature compensation included and variable strength capability has been designed and fabricated. Fabrication details and some magnetic measurement results will be presented.
Dipolar vortex structures in magnetized rotating plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Jixing
1990-01-01
Dipolar solitary vortices of both electrostatic and electromagnetic character in low-β, in homogeneous rotating plasma confined in a constant external magnetic field were systematically presented. The main stimulus to this investigation is the expectation to apply this coherent structure as a candidate constituent of plasma turbulance to understand the anomalous transport phenomena in confined plasma. The electrostatic vortices have similar structure and properties as the Rossby vortices in rotating fluids, the electromagnetic vortices obtained here have no analogy in hydrodynamics and hence are intrinsic to magnetized plasma. It is valuably remarked that the intrinsic electromagnetic vortices presented here have no discontinuity of perturbed magnetic field δB and parallel current j(parallel) on the border of vortex core. The existence region of the new type of vortex is found much narrower than the Rossby type one. (M.T.)
Laser-plasma interactions in magnetized environment
Shi, Yuan; Qin, Hong; Fisch, Nathaniel J.
2018-05-01
Propagation and scattering of lasers present new phenomena and applications when the plasma medium becomes strongly magnetized. With mega-Gauss magnetic fields, scattering of optical lasers already becomes manifestly anisotropic. Special angles exist where coherent laser scattering is either enhanced or suppressed, as we demonstrate using a cold-fluid model. Consequently, by aiming laser beams at special angles, one may be able to optimize laser-plasma coupling in magnetized implosion experiments. In addition, magnetized scattering can be exploited to improve the performance of plasma-based laser pulse amplifiers. Using the magnetic field as an extra control variable, it is possible to produce optical pulses of higher intensity, as well as compress UV and soft x-ray pulses beyond the reach of other methods. In even stronger giga-Gauss magnetic fields, laser-plasma interaction enters a relativistic-quantum regime. Using quantum electrodynamics, we compute a modified wave dispersion relation, which enables correct interpretation of Faraday rotation measurements of strong magnetic fields.
Momentum transfer to rotating magnetized plasma from gun plasma injection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shamim, Imran; Hassam, A. B.; Ellis, R. F.; Witherspoon, F. D.; Phillips, M. W.
2006-01-01
Numerical simulations are carried out to investigate the penetration and momentum coupling of a gun-injected plasma slug into a rotating magnetized plasma. An experiment along these lines is envisioned for the Maryland Centrifugal Experiment (MCX) [R. F. Ellis et al., Phys. Plasmas 8, 2057 (2001)] using a coaxial plasma accelerator gun developed by HyperV Technologies Corp. [F. D. Witherspoon et al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 50, LP1 87 (2005)]. The plasma gun would be located in the axial midplane and fired off-axis into the rotating MCX plasma annulus. The numerical simulation is set up so that the initial momentum in the injected plasma slug is of the order of the initial momentum of the target plasma. Several numerical firings are done into the cylindrical rotating plasma. Axial symmetry is assumed. The slug is seen to penetrate readily and deform into a mushroom, characteristic of interchange deformations. It is found that up to 25% of the momentum in the slug can be transferred to the background plasma in one pass across a cylindrical chord. For the same initial momentum, a high-speed low density slug gives more momentum transfer than a low-speed high density slug. Details of the numerical simulations and a scaling study are presented
General methods for determining the linear stability of coronal magnetic fields
Craig, I. J. D.; Sneyd, A. D.; Mcclymont, A. N.
1988-01-01
A time integration of a linearized plasma equation of motion has been performed to calculate the ideal linear stability of arbitrary three-dimensional magnetic fields. The convergence rates of the explicit and implicit power methods employed are speeded up by using sequences of cyclic shifts. Growth rates are obtained for Gold-Hoyle force-free equilibria, and the corkscrew-kink instability is found to be very weak.
Novel Approach to Linear Accelerator Superconducting Magnet System
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kashikhin, Vladimir
2011-01-01
Superconducting Linear Accelerators include a superconducting magnet system for particle beam transportation that provides the beam focusing and steering. This system consists of a large number of quadrupole magnets and dipole correctors mounted inside or between cryomodules with SCRF cavities. Each magnet has current leads and powered from its own power supply. The paper proposes a novel approach to magnet powering based on using superconducting persistent current switches. A group of magnets is powered from the same power supply through the common, for the group of cryomodules, electrical bus and pair of current leads. Superconducting switches direct the current to the chosen magnet and close the circuit providing the magnet operation in a persistent current mode. Two persistent current switches were fabricated and tested. In the paper also presented the results of magnetic field simulations, decay time constants analysis, and a way of improving quadrupole magnetic center stability. Such approach substantially reduces the magnet system cost and increases the reliability.
Explosive X-point collapse in relativistic magnetically dominated plasma
Lyutikov, Maxim; Sironi, Lorenzo; Komissarov, Serguei S.; Porth, Oliver
2017-12-01
The extreme properties of the gamma-ray flares in the Crab nebula present a clear challenge to our ideas on the nature of particle acceleration in relativistic astrophysical plasma. It seems highly unlikely that standard mechanisms of stochastic type are at work here and hence the attention of theorists has switched to linear acceleration in magnetic reconnection events. In this series of papers, we attempt to develop a theory of explosive magnetic reconnection in highly magnetized relativistic plasma which can explain the extreme parameters of the Crab flares. In the first paper, we focus on the properties of the X-point collapse. Using analytical and numerical methods (fluid and particle-in-cell simulations) we extend Syrovatsky's classical model of such collapse to the relativistic regime. We find that the collapse can lead to the reconnection rate approaching the speed of light on macroscopic scales. During the collapse, the plasma particles are accelerated by charge-starved electric fields, which can reach (and even exceed) values of the local magnetic field. The explosive stage of reconnection produces non-thermal power-law tails with slopes that depend on the average magnetization . For sufficiently high magnetizations and vanishing guide field, the non-thermal particle spectrum consists of two components: a low-energy population with soft spectrum that dominates the number census; and a high-energy population with hard spectrum that possesses all the properties needed to explain the Crab flares.
Injection of a coaxial-gun-produced magnetized plasma into a background helicon plasma
Zhang, Yue; Lynn, Alan; Gilmore, Mark; Hsu, Scott
2014-10-01
A compact coaxial plasma gun is employed for experimental investigation of plasma bubble relaxation into a lower density background plasma. Experiments are being conducted in the linear device HelCat at UNM. The gun is powered by a 120-uF ignitron-switched capacitor bank, which is operated in a range of 5 to 10 kV and 100 kA. Multiple diagnostics are employed to investigate the plasma relaxation process. Magnetized argon plasma bubbles with velocities 1.2Cs, densities 1020 m-3 and electron temperature 13eV have been achieved. The background helicon plasma has density 1013 m-3, magnetic field from 200 to 500 Gauss and electron temperature 1eV. Several distinct operational regimes with qualitatively different dynamics are identified by fast CCD camera images. Additionally a B-dot probe array has been employed to measure the spatial toroidal and poloidal magnetic flux evolution to identify plasma bubble configurations. Experimental data and analysis will be presented.
Plasma transport in mixed magnetic topologies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hegna, C.C.; Callen, J.D.
1992-12-01
A simple model is introduced to illustrate some features concerning anomalous transport associated with magnetic turbulence. For magnetic topologies that are described as bands of stochasticity separated by regions with good flux surfaces, the transport coefficients deviate significantly from those describing completely stochastic magnetic fields. It is possible to have the electron heat diffusivity exceed a runaway electron diffusion coefficient, despite the existence of widespread magnetic stochasticity. Comparing the ratios of transport coefficients is not an accurate way to determine whether anomalous plasma transport is controlled by electrostatic or electromagnetic fluctuations
Magnetized whirls in plasma focus discharges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Witalis, E.
1979-05-01
The plasma focus is briefly described with emphasis on its capabilities as a neutron source. The filamentary whirl structures observed in the discharge plasma are described. Starting with a simple, early and particularly well established case of vorticity imparted by a rotational electric field to the plasma in MHD generators, a general derivation is then outlined proving that such magnetically induced rotation is a general feature for the normally Hall-conducting magnetized plasma. Physical interpretations of the effect are given and objections to it are critically reviewed as is also a theory proposing radiation cooling as the cause of plasma filamentation. A more detailed derivation based essentially on the consistent description of the motion and the field generation of the charged plasma particles yields a theoretical model where the specific features of magnetically compressed plasmas are found. In particular, the ion collisionless skin depth is obtained as the key length parameter. This length is identified as roughly the whirl radius. In conjunction with a generalized Bennett relation theoretical whirl properties are predicted and found to agree with observations. Mechanisms that relate the whirls to nuclear fusion reaction conditions are tentatively indicated. (author)
Zhang, Yue; Fisher, Dustin M.; Gilmore, Mark; Hsu, Scott C.; Lynn, Alan G.
2018-05-01
Injection of coaxial-gun-formed magnetized plasmas into a background transverse vacuum magnetic field or into a background magnetized plasma has been studied in the helicon-cathode (HelCat) linear plasma device at the University of New Mexico [M. Gilmore et al., J. Plasma Phys. 81, 345810104 (2015)]. A magnetized plasma jet launched into a background transverse magnetic field shows emergent kink stabilization of the jet due to the formation of a sheared flow in the jet above the kink stabilization threshold 0.1kVA [Y. Zhang et al., Phys. Plasmas 24, 110702 (2017)]. Injection of a spheromak-like plasma into a transverse background magnetic field led to the observation of finger-like structures on the side with a stronger magnetic field null between the spheromak and the background field. The finger-like structures are consistent with magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Jets or spheromaks launched into a background, low-β magnetized plasma show similar behavior as above, respectively, in both cases.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kunz, W
1979-01-01
This study examines the poloidal magnetic field distribution of tokamak plasma, and the elucidation of the radial distribution of the toroidal plasma flow. A numerical and experimental determination of the poloidal field based on the Faraday effect is presented. A method is discussed for measuring the rotation of the polarization plane linear polarized electromagnetic radiation, by passing through a plasma magnetized in the direction of the radiation. The polarization behavior of a linear polarized wave passing through a tokamak plasma is presented theoretically for various wavelengths, along with the experimental investigation of a ferrite modulation procedure through the use of different far infrared detectors.
Plasma sprayed samarium--cobalt permanent magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Willson, M.C.; Janowiecki, R.J.
1975-01-01
Samarium--cobalt permanent magnets were fabricated by arc plasma spraying. This process involves the injection of relatively coarse powder particles into a high-temperature gas for melting and spraying onto a substrate. The technique is being investigated as an economical method for fabricating cobalt--rare earth magnets for advanced traveling wave tubes and cross-field amplifiers. Plasma spraying permits deposition of material at high rates over large areas with optional direct bonding to the substrate, and offers the ability to fabricate magnets in a variety of shapes and sizes. Isotropic magnets were produced with high coercivity and good reproducibility in magnetic properties. Post-spray thermal treatments were used to enhance the magnetic properties of sprayed deposits. Samarium--cobalt magnets, sprayed from samarium-rich powder and subjected to post-spray heat treatment, displayed energy products in excess of 9 million gauss-oersteds and coercive forces of approximately 6000 oersteds. Bar magnet arrays were constructed by depositing magnets on ceramic substrates. (auth)
Plasma sprayed samarium--cobalt permanent magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Willson, M.C.; Janowiecki, R.J.
1975-01-01
Samarium--Co permanent magnets were fabricated by arc plasma spraying. This process involves the injection of relatively coarse powder particles into a high temperature gas for melting and spraying onto a substrate. The technique is being investigated as an economical method for fabricating Co--rare earth magnets for advanced traveling wave tubes and cross-field amplifiers. Plasma spraying permits deposition of material at high rates over large areas with optional direct bonding to the substrate, and offers the ability to fabricate magnets in a variety of shapes and sizes. Isotropic magnets were produced with high coercivity and good reproducibility in magnetic properties. Post-spray thermal treatments were used to enhance the magnetic properties of sprayed deposits. Samarium--Co magnets, sprayed from Sm-rich powder and subjected to post-spray heat treatment, displayed energy products in excess of 9 million G-Oe and coercive forces of approximately 6000 Oe. Bar magnet arrays were constructed by depositing magnets on ceramic substrates
Non-linear collective phenomena in dusty plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsytovich, V N; Morfill, G E
2004-01-01
Dusty plasmas are unusual states of matter where the interactions between the dust grains can be collective and are not a sum of all pair particle interactions. This state of matter is appropriate to form non-linear dissipative collective self-organized structures. It is found that the potential around the grains can be over-screened leading to a new phenomenon-collective attraction of pairs of large charge grains of equal sign. The grain clouds can self-contract and their collapse is terminated at distances where the interaction becomes repulsive. The homogeneous dusty plasma distribution is universally unstable to form structures. The potential of the collective attraction is proportional to the square of the dimensionless parameter P = n d Z d /n i , where n d and n i are the average dust and ion densities, respectively, and Z d is the dust charge in units of electron charge. The collective attraction is determined by finite grain size and by the presence of absorption of plasma flux on grains. The physics of attraction is related to the space charge accumulation caused by collective flux disturbances. The collective attraction operates for systems with size larger than the mean free path for ion-dust absorption, the condition met in many existing low temperature dusty plasma experiments, in edge plasmas of fusion devices and in space dusty plasmas. The collective attraction exceeds the previously known non-collective attraction such as shadow attraction or wake attraction. The collective attraction can be responsible for pairing of dust grains (this process is completely classical in contrast to the known pairing in superconductivity) and can serve as the main process for the formation of more complicated dust complexes up to dust-plasma crystals. The equilibrium structures formed by collective attraction have universal properties and can exist in a limited domain of parameters (similar to the equilibrium balance known for stars). The balance conditions for
Diamond films deposited by oxygen-enhanced linear plasma chemistry
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kromka, Alexander; Babchenko, Oleg; Ižák, Tibor; Varga, Marián; Davydova, Marina; Krátká, Marie; Rezek, Bohuslav
2013-01-01
Roč. 5, č. 6 (2013), s. 509-514 ISSN 2164-6627 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA ČR GAP108/12/0996 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : diamond films * process gas chemistry * pulsed microwave plasma * surface conductivity of diamond Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism
Fisher, Dustin; Zhang, Yue; Wallace, Ben; Gilmore, Mark; Manchester, Ward; Arge, C. Nick
2016-10-01
The Plasma Bubble Expansion Experiment (PBEX) at the University of New Mexico uses a coaxial plasma gun to launch jet and spheromak magnetic plasma configurations into the Helicon-Cathode (HelCat) plasma device. Plasma structures launched from the gun drag frozen-in magnetic flux into the background magnetic field of the chamber providing a rich set of dynamics to study magnetic turbulence, force-free magnetic spheromaks, and shocks. Preliminary modeling is presented using the highly-developed 3-D, MHD, BATS-R-US code developed at the University of Michigan. BATS-R-US employs an adaptive mesh refinement grid that enables the capture and resolution of shock structures and current sheets, and is particularly suited to model the parameter regime under investigation. CCD images and magnetic field data from the experiment suggest the stabilization of an m =1 kink mode trailing a plasma jet launched into a background magnetic field. Results from a linear stability code investigating the effect of shear-flow as a cause of this stabilization from magnetic tension forces on the jet will be presented. Initial analyses of a possible magnetic Rayleigh Taylor instability seen at the interface between launched spheromaks and their entraining background magnetic field will also be presented. Work supported by the Army Research Office Award No. W911NF1510480.
Electromagnetic wave in a relativistic magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krasovitskiy, V. B.
2009-01-01
Results are presented from a theoretical investigation of the dispersion properties of a relativistic plasma in which an electromagnetic wave propagates along an external magnetic field. The dielectric tensor in integral form is simplified by separating its imaginary and real parts. A dispersion relation for an electromagnetic wave is obtained that makes it possible to analyze the dispersion and collisionless damping of electromagnetic perturbations over a broad parameter range for both nonrelativistic and ultrarelativistic plasmas.
Nonlinear Electron Waves in Strongly Magnetized Plasmas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens
1980-01-01
Weakly nonlinear dispersive electron waves in strongly magnetized plasma are considered. A modified nonlinear Schrodinger equation is derived taking into account the effect of particles resonating with the group velocity of the waves (nonlinear Landau damping). The possibility of including the ion...... dynamics in the analysis is also demonstrated. As a particular case the authors investigate nonlinear waves in a strongly magnetized plasma filled wave-guide, where the effects of finite geometry are important. The relevance of this problem to laboratory experiments is discussed....
Relaxed plasmas in external magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spies, G.O.; Li, J.
1991-08-01
The well-known theory of relaxed plasmas (Taylor states) is extended to external magnetic fields whose field lines intersect the conducting toroidal boundary. Application to an axially symmetric, large-aspect-ratio torus with circular cross section shows that the maximum pinch ratio, and hence the phenomenon of current saturation, is independent of the external field. The relaxed state is explicitly given for an external octupole field. In this case, field reversal is inhibited near parts of the boundary if the octupole generates magnetic x-points within the plasma. (orig.)
Novel magnetic controlled plasma sputtering method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Axelevich, A.; Rabinovich, E.; Golan, G.
1996-01-01
A novel method to improve thin film vacuum sputtering is presented. This method is capable of controlling the sputtering plasma via an external set of magnets, in a similar fashion to the tetrode sputtering method. The main advantage of the Magnetic Controlled Plasma Sputtering (MCPS) is its ability to independently control all deposition parameters without any interference or cross-talk. Deposition rate, using the MCPS, is found to be almost twice the rate of triode and tetrode sputtering techniques. Experimental results using the MCPS to deposit Ni layers are described. It was demonstrated that using the MCPS method the ion beam intensity at the target is a result of the interaction of a homogeneous external magnetic field and the controlling magnetic fields. The MCPS method was therefore found to be beneficial for the production of pure stoichiometric thin solid films with high reproducibility. This method could be used for the production of compound thin films as well. (authors)
Spin and magnetization effects in plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brodin, G; Marklund, M; Zamanian, J; Stefan, M
2011-01-01
Quantum effects in plasmas are of interest for a diverse set of systems, and have thus as a field been revived and attracted a lot of attention from a wide community over the past decade. In models of quantum plasmas, the effects studied mostly are due to the quantum particle dispersion and tunnelling. Such effects can be of importance in dense systems and on short length scales. There are also a number of effects related to spin and statistics. However, up to recently the magnetization effect in plasmas due to the intrinsic electron spin has been largely ignored. The magnetization dynamics of e.g. solids has many important applications, such as components for memory storage, but has also been discussed in more 'proper' plasma environments, such as fusion plasmas. Furthermore, also from a basic science point-of-view the effects of intrinsic spin and gyromagnetic effects are of considerable interest. Here we give a short review of a number of different models for treating magnetization effects in plasmas, with a focus on recent results. In particular, the transition between kinetic models and fluid models is discussed. We also give a number of examples of applications of such theories, as well as an outlook for possible future work.
Transient growth of a Vlasov plasma in a weakly inhomogeneous magnetic field
Ratushnaya, Valeria
2016-12-17
We investigate the stability properties of a collisionless Vlasov plasma in a weakly inhomogeneous magnetic field using non-modal stability analysis. This is an important topic in a physics of tokamak plasma rich in various types of instabilities. We consider a thin tokamak plasma in a Maxwellian equilibrium, subjected to a small arbitrary perturbation. Within the framework of kinetic theory, we demonstrate the emergence of short time scale algebraic instabilities evolving in a stable magnetized plasma. We show that the linearized governing operator (Vlasov operator) is non-normal leading to the transient growth of the perturbations on the time scale of several plasma periods that is subsequently followed by Landau damping. We calculate the first-order distribution function and the electric field and study the dependence of the transient growth characteristics on the magnetic field strength and perturbation parameters of the system. We compare our results with uniformly magnetized plasma and field-free Vlasov plasma.
Transient growth of a Vlasov plasma in a weakly inhomogeneous magnetic field
Ratushnaya, Valeria; Samtaney, Ravi
2016-01-01
We investigate the stability properties of a collisionless Vlasov plasma in a weakly inhomogeneous magnetic field using non-modal stability analysis. This is an important topic in a physics of tokamak plasma rich in various types of instabilities. We consider a thin tokamak plasma in a Maxwellian equilibrium, subjected to a small arbitrary perturbation. Within the framework of kinetic theory, we demonstrate the emergence of short time scale algebraic instabilities evolving in a stable magnetized plasma. We show that the linearized governing operator (Vlasov operator) is non-normal leading to the transient growth of the perturbations on the time scale of several plasma periods that is subsequently followed by Landau damping. We calculate the first-order distribution function and the electric field and study the dependence of the transient growth characteristics on the magnetic field strength and perturbation parameters of the system. We compare our results with uniformly magnetized plasma and field-free Vlasov plasma.
Linear theory of plasma filled backward wave oscillator
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
An analytical and numerical study of backward wave oscillator (BWO) in linear regime is presented to get an insight into the excitation of electromagnetic waves as a result of the interaction of the relativistic electron beam with a slow wave structure. The effect of background plasma on the BWO instability is also presented.
Linear Plasma Oscillation Described by Superposition of Normal Modes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pécseli, Hans
1974-01-01
The existence of steady‐state solutions to the linearized ion and electron Vlasov equation is demonstrated for longitudinal waves in an initially stable plasma. The evolution of an arbitrary initial perturbation can be described by superposition of these solutions. Some common approximations...
Magnetic confinement in plasmas in nuclear devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tull, C.G.
1979-01-01
The main emphasis of the magnetic fusion energy research program today lies in the development of two types of confinement schemes: magnetic mirrors and tokamaks. Experimental programs for both of these confinement schemes have shown steady progress toward achieving fusion power breakeven. The scaling of the current machines to a reactor operating regime and newly developed methods for plasma heating will very likely produce power breakeven within the next decade. Predictions are that the efficiency in a fusion power plant should exceed 32%
Constant force linear permanent magnet actuators
Paulides, J.J.H.; Encica, L.; Meessen, K.J.; Lomonova, E.A.
2009-01-01
In applications, such as vibration isolation, gravity compensation, pick-and-place machines, etc., there is a need for (long-stroke) passive constant force actuators combined with tubular permanent magnet actuators to minimize the power consumption, hence, passively counteract the gravitational
Alternative lines with magnetic plasma confinement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wobig, H.
1981-01-01
Plasma confinement with the aid of a magnetic field is the most common and also the most frequently investigated principle on the way to controlled nuclear fusion. Apart from the Tokamak principle, which is the most advanced principle as far as fusion-relevant plasma parameters are concerned, also other approaches are being investigated, e.g. the mirror device, the bumpy tons, and the stellarator. In principle, all three concepts permit 'stationary' plasma confinement in a stationary fusion reactor. Compared with the pulsed Tokamak reactor, this is a considerable advantage. (orig./GG) [de
Magnetized Target Fusion Driven by Plasma Liners
Thio, Y. C. Francis; Cassibry, Jason; Eskridge, Richard; Kirkpatrick, Ronald C.; Knapp, Charles E.; Lee, Michael; Martin, Adam; Smith, James; Wu, S. T.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
For practical applications of magnetized target fusion, standoff drivers to deliver the imploding momentum flux to the target plasma remotely are required. Quasi-spherically converging plasma jets have been proposed as standoff drivers for this purpose. The concept involves the dynamic formation of a quasi-spherical plasma liner by the merging of plasma jets, and the use of the liner so formed to compress a spheromak or a field reversed configuration (FRC). Theoretical analysis and computer modeling of the concept are presented. It is shown that, with the appropriate choice of the flow parameters in the liner and the target, the impact between the liner and the target plasma can be made to be shockless in the liner or to generate at most a very weak shock in the liner. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.
Studer, P. A. (Inventor)
1982-01-01
A linear magnetic motor/generator is disclosed which uses magnetic flux to provide mechanical motion or electrical energy. The linear magnetic motor/generator includes an axially movable actuator mechanism. A permament magnet mechanism defines a first magnetic flux path which passes through a first end portion of the actuator mechanism. Another permament magnet mechanism defines a second magnetic flux path which passes through a second end portion of the actuator mechanism. A drive coil defines a third magnetic flux path passing through a third central portion of the actuator mechanism. A drive coil selectively adds magnetic flux to and subtracts magnetic flux from magnetic flux flowing in the first and second magnetic flux path.
Instabilities, turbulence and transport in a magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garbet, X.
2001-06-01
The purpose of this work is to introduce the main processes that occur in a magnetized plasma. During the last 2 decades, the understanding of turbulence has made great progress but analytical formulas and simulations are far to produce reliable predictions. The values of transport coefficients in a tokamak plasma exceed by far those predicted by the theory of collisional transport. This phenomenon is called abnormal transport and might be due to plasma fluctuations. An estimation of turbulent fluxes derived from the levels of fluctuations, is proposed. A flow description of plasma allows the understanding of most micro-instabilities. The ballooning representation deals with instabilities in a toric geometry. 3 factors play an important role to stabilize plasmas: density pinch, magnetic shear and speed shear. The flow model of plasma gives an erroneous value for the stability threshold, this is due to a bad description of the resonant interaction between wave and particle. As for dynamics, flow models can be improved by adding dissipative terms so that the linear response nears the kinetic response. The kinetic approach is more accurate but is complex because of the great number of dimensions involved. (A.C.)
Equilibrium, stability and heating of plasmas in linear and toroidal Extrap pinches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bonnevier, B.; Drake, J.R.; Dalhed, H.E.
1983-01-01
The Extrap scheme consists of a Z-pinch immersed in an octupole field. The total magnetic field has no component along the pinch axis. Globally stable Z-pinch equilibria with a distributed plasma current density and a duration of about 100 Alfven transit times have been observed in linear and toroidal sector experiments. Theoretical studies indicate that this stability can be the result of constraints introduced by the octupole field and the resulting separatrix of the total field, in combination with finite-Larmor-radius effects. A scheme for ICRF heating of the plasma in configurations with a magnetic neutral line, being applicable to Extrap and FRC, is analysed. Wave propagation arises owing to the Hall effect. Particle resonances are responsible for the absorption, owing to a high parallel wavenumber and a weak magnetic field. (author)
Electron cyclotron resonance breakdown studies in a linear plasma ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
linear cylindrical system with four different gases – hydrogen, helium, argon and ... The axial magnetic field required for ECR in the system is such that the fundamental .... p being the operating pressure in mbar. λe for various gases at different ...
Electromagnetic wave propagation in relativistic magnetized plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weiss, I.
1985-01-01
An improved mathematical technique and a new code for deriving the conductivity tensor for collisionless plasmas have been developed. The method is applicable to a very general case, including both hot (relativistic) and cold magnetized plasmas, with only isotropic equilibrium distributions being considered here. The usual derivation starts from the relativistic Vlasov equation and leads to an integration over an infinite sum of Bessel functions which has to be done numerically. In the new solution the integration is carried out over a product of two Bessel functions only. This reduces the computing time very significantly. An added advantage over existing codes is our capability to perform the computations for waves propagating obliquely to the magnetic field. Both improvements greatly facilitate investigations of properties of the plasma under conditions hitherto unexplored
Parametric instabilities in magnetized bi-ion and dusty plasmas
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
-ion or dusty plasma with parametric pumping of the magnetic field is analysed. The equation of motion governing the perturbed plasma is derived and parametrically excited transverse modes propagating along the magnetic field are found.
Relativistic degenerate electron plasma in an intense magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Delsante, A.E.; Frankel, N.E.
1978-01-01
The dielectric response function for a dense, ultra-degenerate relativistic electron plasma in an intense uniform magnetic field is presented. Dispersion relations for plasma oscillations parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field are obtained
Linear optical response of carbon nanotubes under axial magnetic field
Moradian, Rostam; Chegel, Raad; Behzad, Somayeh
2010-04-01
We considered single walled carbon naotubes (SWCNTs) as real three dimensional (3D) systems in a cylindrical coordinate. The optical matrix elements and linear susceptibility, χ(ω), in the tight binding approximation in terms of one-dimensional wave vector, kz and subband index, l are calculated. In an external axial magnetic field optical frequency dependence of linear susceptibility are investigated. We found that axial magnetic field has two effects on the imaginary part of the linear susceptibility spectrum, in agreement with experimental results. The first effect is broadening and the second, splitting. Also we found that for all metallic zigzag and armchair SWCNTs, the axial magnetic field leads to the creation of a peak with energy less than 1.5 eV, contrary to what is observed in the absence of a magnetic field.
Transparency of Magnetized Plasma at Cyclotron Frequency
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
G. Shvets; J.S. Wurtele
2002-03-01
Electromagnetic radiation is strongly absorbed by a magnetized plasma if the radiation frequency equals the cyclotron frequency of plasma electrons. It is demonstrated that absorption can be completely canceled in the presence of a magnetostatic field of an undulator or a second radiation beam, resulting in plasma transparency at the cyclotron frequency. This effect is reminiscent of the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) of the three-level atomic systems, except that it occurs in a completely classical plasma. Unlike the atomic systems, where all the excited levels required for EIT exist in each atom, this classical EIT requires the excitation of the nonlocal plasma oscillation. The complexity of the plasma system results in an index of refraction at the cyclotron frequency that differs from unity. Lagrangian description was used to elucidate the physics and enable numerical simulation of the plasma transparency and control of group and phase velocity. This control naturally leads to applications for electromagnetic pulse compression in the plasma and electron/ion acceleration
Equations for the non linear evolution of the resistive tearing modes in toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Edery, D.; Pellat, R.; Soule, J.L.
1979-09-01
Following the tokamak ordering, we simplify the resistive MHD equations in toroidal geometry. We obtain a closed system of non linear equations for two scalar potentials of the magnetic and velocity fields and for plasma density and temperature. If we expand these equations in the inverse of aspect ratio they are exact to the two first orders. Our formalism should correctly describe the mode coupling by curvature effects /1/ and the toroidal displacement of magnetic surfaces /2/. It provides a natural extension of the well known cylindrical model /3/ and is now being solved on computer
The development of plasma lenses for linear colliders
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Norem, J.; Cole, B.; Gai, W.
1989-01-01
The plasma lens, first proposed by Chen, can in principle raise the luminosity of a linear collider with minimal interaction with the accelerator systems, nevertheless the short focal length lens design does interact strongly with the design of the particle detector at the interaction point. We have thus considered a of number options for using the lens and have begun to test plasma focusing experimentally. This paper briefly reviews constraints on use of the lens and its proposed operating modes, and then describes tests of a prototype valve/nozzle system and experimental tests of focusing. 10 refs., 3 figs
Nonlinear magnetic electron tripolar vortices in streaming plasmas.
Vranjes, J; Marić, G; Shukla, P K
2000-06-01
Magnetic electron modes in nonuniform magnetized and unmagnetized streaming plasmas, with characteristic frequencies between the ion and electron plasma frequencies and at spatial scales of the order of the collisionless skin depth, are studied. Two coupled equations, for the perturbed (in the case of magnetized plasma) or self-generated (for the unmagnetized plasma case) magnetic field, and the temperature, are solved in the strongly nonlinear regime and stationary traveling solutions in the form of tripolar vortices are found.
Interaction between laser-produced plasma and guiding magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hasegawa, Jun; Takahashi, Kazumasa; Ikeda, Shunsuke; Nakajima, Mitsuo; Horioka, Kazuhiko
2013-01-01
Transportation properties of laser-produced plasma through a guiding magnetic field were examined. A drifting dense plasma produced by a KrF laser was injected into an axisymmetric magnetic field induced by permanent ring magnets. The plasma ion flux in the guiding magnetic field was measured by a Faraday cup at various distances from the laser target. Numerical analyses based on a collective focusing model were performed to simulate plasma particle trajectories and then compared with the experimental results. (author)
Non linear permanent magnets modelling with the finite element method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chavanne, J.; Meunier, G.; Sabonnadiere, J.C.
1989-01-01
In order to perform the calculation of permanent magnets with the finite element method, it is necessary to take into account the anisotropic behaviour of hard magnetic materials (Ferrites, NdFeB, SmCo5). In linear cases, the permeability of permanent magnets is a tensor. This one is fully described with the permeabilities parallel and perpendicular to the easy axis of the magnet. In non linear cases, the model uses a texture function which represents the distribution of the local easy axis of the cristallytes of the magnet. This function allows a good representation of the angular dependance of the coercitive field of the magnet. As a result, it is possible to express the magnetic induction B and the tensor as functions of the field and the texture parameter. This model has been implemented in the software FLUX3D where the tensor is used for the Newton-Raphson procedure. 3D demagnetization of a ferrite magnet by a NdFeB magnet is a suitable representative example. They analyze the results obtained for an ideally oriented ferrite magnet and a real one using a measured texture parameter
Toroidal plasma reactor with low external magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beklemishev, A.D.; Khayrutdinov, R.R.; Petviashvili, V.I.; Tajima, T.; Gordin, V.A.; Tajima, T.
1991-01-01
A toroidal pinch configuration with safety factor q < 0.5 decreasing from the center to periphery without field reversal is proposed. This is capable of containing high pressure plasma with only small toroidal external magnetic field. Sufficient conditions for magnetohydrodynamic stability are fulfilled in this configuration. The stability is studied by constructing the Lyapunov functional and investigating its extrema both analytically and numerically. Comparison of the Lyapunov stability conditions with the conventional linear theory is carried out. Stable configurations are found with average β near 15%, with magnetic field associated mainly with plasma current. The β value calculated with the external magnetic field can be over 100%. Fast charged particles produced by fusion reactions are asymmetrically confined by the poloidal magnetic field (and due to the lack of strong toroidal field). They thus generate a current in the noncentral part of plasma to reinforce the poloidal field. This current drive can sustain the monotonic decrease of q with radius. 20 refs., 9 figs
Non-Linear Instabilities in an Inhomogeneous Plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coppi, B.; Laval, G.; Pellat, R.; Khiet, Tu
1969-01-01
The low-frequency drift modes of a low-pressure isothermal inhomogeneous plasma can be stabilized if the shear of the magnetic field lines exceeds a critical value given by the expression r/L s = (1/2 √2) (a/r), where L s is the shear length, r the characteristic length of density variation, and a the ion Larmor radius. The authors first show that, even if r/L s [fr
Non-linear spin transport in magnetic semiconductor superlattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bejar, Manuel; Sanchez, David; Platero, Gloria; MacDonald, A.H.
2004-01-01
The electronic spin dynamics in DC-biased n-doped II-VI semiconductor multiquantum wells doped with magnetic impurities is presented. Under certain range of electronic doping, conventional semiconductor superlattices present self-sustained oscillations. Magnetically doped wells (Mn) present large spin splittings due to the exchange interaction. The interplay between non-linear interwell transport, the electron-electron interaction and the exchange between electrons and the magnetic impurities produces interesting time-dependent features in the spin polarization current tuned by an external magnetic field
Ion-acoustic cnoidal wave and associated non-linear ion flux in dusty plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jain, S. L. [Poornima Group of Institution, Sitapura, Jaipur 302022 (India); Tiwari, R. S. [Regional College for Education, Research and Technology, Jaipur 302022 (India); Mishra, M. K. [Department of Physics, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur 302004 (India)
2012-10-15
Using reductive perturbation method with appropriate boundary conditions, coupled evolution equations for first and second order potentials are derived for ion-acoustic waves in a collisionless, un-magnetized plasma consisting of hot isothermal electrons, cold ions, and massive mobile charged dust grains. The boundary conditions give rise to renormalization term, which enable us to eliminate secular contribution in higher order terms. Determining the non secular solution of these coupled equations, expressions for wave phase velocity and averaged non-linear ion flux associated with ion-acoustic cnoidal wave are obtained. Variation of the wave phase velocity and averaged non-linear ion flux as a function of modulus (k{sup 2}) dependent wave amplitude are numerically examined for different values of dust concentration, charge on dust grains, and mass ratio of dust grains with plasma ions. It is found that for a given amplitude, the presence of positively (negatively) charged dust grains in plasma decreases (increases) the wave phase velocity. This behavior is more pronounced with increase in dust concentrations or increase in charge on dust grains or decrease in mass ratio of dust grains. The averaged non-linear ion flux associated with wave is positive (negative) for negatively (positively) charged dust grains in the plasma and increases (decreases) with modulus (k{sup 2}) dependent wave amplitude. For given amplitude, it increases (decreases) as dust concentration or charge of negatively (positively) charged dust grains increases in the plasma.
On the self-trapping of an electromagnetic wave in magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El-Ashry, M.Y.; Berezhiani, V.I.; Pichkhadze, Sh.D.
1987-06-01
The possibility of relativistic self-trapping of an electromagnetic wave in magnetized plasma is studied. It is shown that in the case of propagation of fast wave packet of electromagnetic wave in plasma, self-trapping is possible due to the effect of relativistic non-linearity, which is effective even for small amplitudes of the pumping wave. (author). 7 refs
Laboratory beam-plasma interactions linear and nonlinear
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Christiansen, P.J.; Bond, J.W.; Jain, V.K.
1982-01-01
This chapter attempts to demonstrate that despite unavoidable scaling limitations, laboratory experiments can uncover details of beam plasma interaction processes which could never be revealed through space plasma physics. Topics covered include linear theory, low frequency couplings, indirect effects, nonlinear effects, quasi-linear effects, trapping effects, nonlinear wave-wave interactions, and self modulation and cavitation. Unstable electrostatic waves arising from an exchange of energy with the ''free energy'' beam features are considered as kinetic and as hydrodynamic, or fluid, instabilities. The consequences of such instabilities (e.g. when the waves have grown to a finite level) are examined and some studies are reviewed which have attempted to understand how the free energy originally available in the beam is redistributed to produce a final state of equilibrium turbulence
Perpendicular relativistic shocks in magnetized pair plasma
Plotnikov, Illya; Grassi, Anna; Grech, Mickael
2018-04-01
Perpendicular relativistic (γ0 = 10) shocks in magnetized pair plasmas are investigated using two dimensional Particle-in-Cell simulations. A systematic survey, from unmagnetized to strongly magnetized shocks, is presented accurately capturing the transition from Weibel-mediated to magnetic-reflection-shaped shocks. This transition is found to occur for upstream flow magnetizations 10-3 10-2, it leaves place to a purely electromagnetic precursor following from the strong emission of electromagnetic waves at the shock front. Particle acceleration is found to be efficient in weakly magnetized perpendicular shocks in agreement with previous works, and is fully suppressed for σ > 10-2. Diffusive Shock Acceleration is observed only in weakly magnetized shocks, while a dominant contribution of Shock Drift Acceleration is evidenced at intermediate magnetizations. The spatial diffusion coefficients are extracted from the simulations allowing for a deeper insight into the self-consistent particle kinematics and scale with the square of the particle energy in weakly magnetized shocks. These results have implications for particle acceleration in the internal shocks of AGN jets and in the termination shocks of Pulsar Wind Nebulae.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
X. Jiang
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS is a strong candidate for detecting and monitoring the H/D/T content on the surface of plasma facing components (PFCs due to its capability of fast direct in situ measurement in extreme environment (e.g., vacuum, magnetic field, long distance, complex geometry. To study the feasibilities and encounter the challenges of LIBS on plasma devices, a LIBS system has been set up on the linear plasma device PSI-2. A number of key parameters including laser energy, the influence of magnetic field and the persistence of laser induced plasma are studied. Real-time measurements of deuterium outgassing on tungsten samples exposed to deuterium plasma of 1025 D/m2 are performed in the first 40–130 min after plasma exposure. The experimental results are compared to the calculations in the literature.
Plasma flow in a curved magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lindberg, L.
1977-09-01
A beam of collisionless plasma is injected along a longitudinal magnetic field into a region of curved magnetic field. Two unpredicted phenomena are observed: The beam becomes deflected in the direction opposite to that in which the field is curved, and it contracts to a flat slab in the plane of curvature of the magnetic field. The phenomenon is of a general character and can be expected to occur in a very wide range of densities. The lower density limit is set by the condition for self-polarization, nm sub(i)/epsilon 0 B 2 >> 1 or, which is equivalent, c 2 /v 2 sub(A) >> 1, where c is the velocity of light, and v sup(A) the Alfven velocity. The upper limit is presumably set by the requirement ωsub(e)tau(e) >> 1. The phenomenon is likely to be of importance e.g. for injection of plasma into magnetic bottles and in space and solar physics. The paper illustrates the comlexity of plasma flow phenomena and the importance of close contact between experimental and theoretical work. (author)
Non linear excitation of waves at the vicinity of plasma resonance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chiron, Arnaud
1992-01-01
This research thesis reports the study of the non linear evolution of ionic acoustic and plasma waves excited by resonant absorption of an electromagnetic wave, in a non collisional plasma, without external magnetic field, and with a parabolic density profile. The plasma resonance occurs about the density profile peak. The numerical resolution of the Zakharov equation system is performed to describe the coupled evolution of the plasma wave electric field envelope, and low frequency density disturbances. Experiments performed in the microwave domain show the existence of a new effect related to the modification of the electromagnetic wave propagation under the influence of plasma density disturbances created by the ponderomotive force. This effect which results in a collisional relaxation of plasma waves trapped in the cavity formed at resonance, cannot be taken into account by a numerical simulation using a capacitive pump field. Measurements showed that plasma waves were trapped and relaxing in a cavity with characteristic dimensions of some thousands of Debye lengths, and that the plasma wave in the cavity was stationary. A new turbulence regime is thus highlighted [fr
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garbet, X
2001-06-01
The purpose of this work is to introduce the main processes that occur in a magnetized plasma. During the last 2 decades, the understanding of turbulence has made great progress but analytical formulas and simulations are far to produce reliable predictions. The values of transport coefficients in a tokamak plasma exceed by far those predicted by the theory of collisional transport. This phenomenon is called abnormal transport and might be due to plasma fluctuations. An estimation of turbulent fluxes derived from the levels of fluctuations, is proposed. A flow description of plasma allows the understanding of most micro-instabilities. The ballooning representation deals with instabilities in a toric geometry. 3 factors play an important role to stabilize plasmas: density pinch, magnetic shear and speed shear. The flow model of plasma gives an erroneous value for the stability threshold, this is due to a bad description of the resonant interaction between wave and particle. As for dynamics, flow models can be improved by adding dissipative terms so that the linear response nears the kinetic response. The kinetic approach is more accurate but is complex because of the great number of dimensions involved. (A.C.)
Formation of compact toroidal configurations for magnetic confinement of high temperature plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fuentes, N.O.; Rodrigo, A.B.
1986-01-01
The formation stage of inverted magnetic field toroidal configurations (FRC) for hot plasmas confinement using a low energy linear theta pinch is studied. The diagnostic techniques used are based on optical spectroscopy, ultrarapid photography, magnetic probes and excluded flux compensated bonds. The generalities of the present research program, the used diagnostic techniques and the results obtained are discussed. (Author)
Linear magnetic spring and spring/motor combination
Patt, Paul J. (Inventor); Stolfi, Fred R. (Inventor)
1991-01-01
A magnetic spring, or a spring and motor combination, providing a linear spring force characteristic in each direction from a neutral position, in which the spring action may occur for any desired coordinate of a typical orthogonal coordinate system. A set of magnets are disposed, preferably symmetrically about a coordinate axis, poled orthogonally to the desired force direction. A second set of magnets, respectively poled opposite the first set, are arranged on the sprung article. The magnets of one of the sets are spaced a greater distance apart than those of the other, such that an end magnet from each set forms a pair having preferably planar faces parallel to the direction of spring force, the faces being offset so that in a neutral position the outer edge of the closer spaced magnet set is aligned with the inner edge of the greater spaced magnet set. For use as a motor, a coil can be arranged with conductors orthogonal to both the magnet pole directions and the direction of desired spring force, located across from the magnets of one set and fixed with respect to the magnets of the other set. In a cylindrical coordinate system having axial spring force, the magnets are radially poled and motor coils are concentric with the cylinder axis.
Dynamics of Magnetized Plasma Jets and Bubbles Launched into a Background Magnetized Plasma
Wallace, B.; Zhang, Y.; Fisher, D. M.; Gilmore, M.
2016-10-01
The propagation of dense magnetized plasma, either collimated with mainly azimuthal B-field (jet) or toroidal with closed B-field (bubble), in a background plasma occurs in a number of solar and astrophysical cases. Such cases include coronal mass ejections moving in the background solar wind and extragalactic radio lobes expanding into the extragalactic medium. Understanding the detailed MHD behavior is crucial for correctly modeling these events. In order to further the understanding of such systems, we are investigating the injection of dense magnetized jets and bubbles into a lower density background magnetized plasma using a coaxial plasma gun and a background helicon or cathode plasma. In both jet and bubble cases, the MHD dynamics are found to be very different when launched into background plasma or magnetic field, as compared to vacuum. In the jet case, it is found that the inherent kink instability is stabilized by velocity shear developed due to added magnetic tension from the background field. In the bubble case, rather than directly relaxing to a minimum energy Taylor state (spheromak) as in vacuum, there is an expansion asymmetry and the bubble becomes Rayleigh-Taylor unstable on one side. Recent results will be presented. Work supported by the Army Research Office Award No. W911NF1510480.
Chaotic magnetic field line in toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hatori, Tadatsugu; Abe, Yoshihiko; Urata, Kazuhiro; Irie, Haruyuki.
1989-05-01
This is an introductory review of chaotic magnetic field line in plasmas, together with some new results, with emphasis on the long-time tail and the fractional Brownian motion of the magnetic field line. The chaotic magnetic field line in toroidal plasmas is a typical chaotic phenomena in the Hamiltonian dynamical systems. The onset of stochasticity induced by a major magnetic perturbation is thought to cause a macroscopic rapid phenomena called the current disruption in the tokamak discharges. Numerical simulations on the basis of magnetohydrodynamics reveal in fact the disruptive phenomena. Some dynamical models which include the area-preserving mapping such as the standard mapping, and the two-wave Hamiltonian system can model the stochastic magnetic field. Theoretical results with use of the functional integral representation are given regarding the long-time tail on the basis of the radial twist mapping. It is shown that application of renormalization group technique to chaotic orbit in the two-wave Hamiltonian system proves decay of the velocity autocorrelation function with the power law. Some new numerical results are presented which supports these theoretical results. (author)
Multi-scale interaction between magnetic islands and microturbulence in magnetized plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Muraglia, M.
2009-10-01
In a tokamak, it exists many kinds of instability at the origin of a damage of the confinement and worst of a lost of a confinement. This work presents a study of the dynamics of a magnetic island in presence of turbulence in magnetized plasmas. More precisely, the goal is to understand the multi-scales interaction between turbulence, generated by a pressure gradient and the magnetic field curvature, and a magnetic island formed thanks to a tearing mode. Thanks to the derivation of a 2-dimensional slab model taking into account both tearing and interchange instabilities, theoretical and numerical linear studies show the pressure effect on the magnetic island linear formation and show interchange modes are stabilized in presence of a strong magnetic field. Then, a numerical nonlinear study is presented in order to understand how the interchange mechanism affects the nonlinear dynamics of a magnetic island. It is shown that the pressure gradient and the magnetic field curvature affect strongly the nonlinear evolution of a magnetic island through dynamics bifurcations. The nature of these bifurcations should be characterized in function of the linear situation. Finally, the last part of this work is devoted to the study of the origin of the nonlinear poloidal rotation of the magnetic island. A model giving the different contributions to the rotation is derived. It is shown, thanks to the model and to the numerical studies, that the nonlinear rotation of the island is mainly governed by the ExB poloidal flow and/or by the nonlinear diamagnetic drift. (author)
Role of Magnetic Interaction in Dense Plasma
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Sarkar
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Quasiparticle excitations and associated phenomena of energy and momentum transfer rates have been calculated in terms of the drag and the diffusion coefficients exposing clearly the dominance of the magnetic interaction over its electric counterpart. The results have been compared with the finite temperature results highlighting the similarities and dissimilarities in the two extreme regimes of temperature and density. Non-Fermi-liquid behavior of various physical quantities like neutrino mean free path and thermal relaxation time due to the inclusion of magnetic interaction has clearly been revealed. All the results presented in the current review are pertinent to the degenerate and ultradegenerate plasma.
Magnetic field compression using pinch-plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koyama, K.; Tanimoto, M.; Matsumoto, Y.; Veno, I.
1987-01-01
In a previous report, the method for ultra-high magnetic field compression by using the pinchplasma was discussed. It is summarized as follows. The experiment is performed with the Mather-type plasma focus device tau/sub 1/4/ = 2 μs, I=880 kA at V=20 kV). An initial DC magnetic field is fed by an electromagnet embedded in the inner electrode. The axial component of the magnetic field diverges from the maximum field of 1 kG on the surface of the inner electrode. The density profile deduced from a Mach-Zehnder interferogram with a 2-ns N/sub 2/-laser shows a density dip lasting for 30 ns along the axes. Using the measured density of 8 x 10/sup 18/ cm/sup -3/, the temperature of 1.5 keV and the pressure balance relation, the magnitude of the trapped magnetic field is estimated to be 1.0 MG. The magnitude of the compressed magnetic field is also measured by Faraday rotation in a single-mode quartz fiber and a magnetic pickup soil. A protective polyethylene tube (3-mm o.d.) is used along the central axis through the inner electrode and the discharge chamber. The peak value of the compressed field range from 150 to 190 kG. No signal of the magnetic field appears up to the instance of the maximum pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lim, Jong Hyeuk; Kim, Kyong Nam; Park, Jung Kyun; Yeom, Geun Young
2008-01-01
This study examined the effect of the antenna capacitance of an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source, which was varied using an internal linear antenna, on the electrical and plasma characteristics of the ICP source. The inductive coupling at a given rf current increased with decreasing antenna capacitance. This was caused by a decrease in the inner copper diameter of the antenna made from coaxial copper/quartz tubing, which resulted in a higher plasma density and lower plasma potential. By decreasing the diameter of the copper tube from 25 to 10 mm, the plasma density of a plasma source size of 2750x2350 mm 2 was increased from approximately 8x10 10 /cm 3 to 1.5x10 11 /cm 3 at 15 mTorr Ar and 9 kW of rf power
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G.M. Golenkov
2014-03-01
Full Text Available The paper presents results of computer simulation and experimental study of magnetic induction distribution in a coaxial linear motor air gap throughout the length of the runner active part at different heights of the air gap between the runner and the inductor magnetic core for motors with axial and radial direction of the permanent magnets magnetization.
MAGNETIC INDUCTION DISTRIBUTION IN A LINEAR SYNCHRONUS MOTOR WITH MAGNETIC SUSPENSION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D.I. Parkhomenko
2013-02-01
Full Text Available Results of computer simulation and experimental investigations of magnetic induction distribution in a coaxial linear synchronous motor with magnetic suspension are presented. The magnetic induction distribution has been studied both in the motor air gap and on the runner surface.
Lexan Linear Shaped Charge Holder with Magnets and Backing Plate
Maples, Matthew W.; Dutton, Maureen L.; Hacker, Scott C.; Dean, Richard J.; Kidd, Nicholas; Long, Chris; Hicks, Robert C.
2013-01-01
A method was developed for cutting a fabric structural member in an inflatable module, without damaging the internal structure of the module, using linear shaped charge. Lexan and magnets are used in a charge holder to precisely position the linear shaped charge over the desired cut area. Two types of charge holders have been designed, each with its own backing plate. One holder cuts fabric straps in the vertical configuration, and the other charge holder cuts fabric straps in the horizontal configuration.
Magnetic pulse compression circuits for plasma devices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Georgescu, N; Zoita, V; Presura, R [Inst. of Physics and Technology of Radiation Devices, Bucharest (Romania)
1997-12-31
Two magnetic pulse compression circuits (MPCC), for two different plasma devices, are presented. The first is a 20 J/pulse, 3-stage circuit designed to trigger a low pressure discharge. The circuit has 16-18 kV working voltage, and 200 nF in each stage. The saturable inductors are realized with toroidal 25 {mu}m strip-wound cores, made of a Fe-Ni alloy, with 1.5 T saturation induction. The total magnetic volume is around 290 cm{sup 3}. By using a 25 kV/1 A thyratron as a primary switch, the time compression is from 3.5 {mu}s to 450 ns, in a short-circuit load. The second magnetic pulser is a 200 J/pulse circuit, designed to drive a high average power plasma focus soft X-ray source, for X-ray microlithography as the main application. The 3-stage pulser should supply a maximum load current of 100 kA with a rise-time of 250 - 300 ns. The maximum pulse voltage applied on the plasma discharge chamber is around 20 - 25 kV. The three saturable inductors in the circuit are made of toroidal strip-wound cores with METGLAS 2605 CO amorphous alloy as the magnetic material. The total, optimized mass of the magnetic material is 34 kg. The maximum repetition rate is limited at 100 Hz by the thyratron used in the first stage of the circuit, the driver supplying to the load about 20 kW average power. (author). 1 tab., 3 figs., 3 refs.
Plasma opening switch with extrinsic magnetic field
Dolgachev, G; Maslennikov, D
2001-01-01
Summary form only given, as follows. We have demonstrated in series of experiments that plasma opening switch (POS) switching voltage (UPOS) is defined by energy density (w) deposited in the POS plasma. If we then consider a plasma erosion mainly responsible for the effect of POS switching (the erosion effect could be described by Hall or Child-Langmuir models) the energy density (w) could be measured as a function of a system "macro-parameter" such as the initial charging voltage of the capacity storage system (the Marx pulsed voltage generator) UMarx. The POS voltage in this case could be given by UPOS"aw=aUMarx4/7, where a is a constant. This report demonstrates that for the high-impedance POS which has limited charge density transferred through the POS plasma a"2.5 (MV3/7) with no external magnetic field applied. The use of the extrinsic magnetic field allows to increase a up to 3.6 (MV3/7) and to achieve higher voltages at the opening phase - UPOS=3.6UMarx4/7. To verify this approach set of experimental ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joshi A.S.
2013-11-01
Full Text Available Self generated magnetic fields (SGMF in laser produced plasmas are conventionally determined by measuring the Faraday rotation angle of a linearly polarized laser probe beam passing through the plasma along with the interferogram for obtaining plasma density. In this paper, we propose a new method to obtain the plasma density and the SGMF distribution from two simultaneous measurements of Cotton Mouton polarimetry of two linearly polarized probe beams of different colors that pass through plasma in a direction normal to the planar target. It is shown that this technique allows us to determine the distribution of SGMF and the plasma density without doing interferometry of laser produced plasmas.
Self-compression of intense short laser pulses in relativistic magnetized plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Olumi, M.; Maraghechi, B., E-mail: behrouz@aut.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, Post code 15916-34311 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2014-11-15
The compression of a relativistic Gaussian laser pulse in a magnetized plasma is investigated. By considering relativistic nonlinearity and using non-linear Schrödinger equation with paraxial approximation, a second-order differential equation is obtained for the pulse width parameter (in time) to demonstrate the longitudinal pulse compression. The compression of laser pulse in a magnetized plasma can be observed by the numerical solution of the equation for the pulse width parameter. The effects of magnetic field and chirping are investigated. It is shown that in the presence of magnetic field and negative initial chirp, compression of pulse is significantly enhanced.
Effect of magnetic reconnection in stellar plasma
Hammoud, M.; El Eid, M.; Darwish, M.
2017-06-01
An important phenomenon in Astrophysics is the process of magnetic reconnection (MGR), which is envisaged to understand the solar flares, coronal mass ejection, interaction of the solar wind with the Earth’s magnetic field (so called geomagnetic storm) and other phenomena. In addition, it plays a role in the formation of stars. MGR involves topological change of a set of magnetic field lines leading to a new equilibrium configuration of lower magnetic energy. The MGR is basically described in the framework of the Maxwell’s equations linked to Navier-Stockes equations. Nevertheless, many details are still not understood. In this paper, we investigate the MGR process in the framework of the Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model of a single conducting fluid using a modern powerful computational tool (OpenFOAM). We will show that the MGR process takes place only if resistivity exists. However, despite the high conductivity of the plasma, resistivity becomes effective in a very thin layer generating sharp gradients of the magnetic field, and thus accelerating the reconnection process. The net effect of MGR is that magnetic energy is converted into thermal and kinetic energies leading to heating and acceleration of charged particles. The Sun’s coronal ejection is an example of the MGR process.
Magnetic fields in laser heated plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amiranoff, F.; Brackbill, J.; Colombant, D.; Grandjouan, N.
1984-01-01
With a fixed-ion code for the study of self-generated magentic fields in laser heated plasmas, the inhibition of thermal transport and the effect of the Nernst term are modeled for a KrF laser. For various values of the flux limiter, the response of a foil to a focused laser is calculated without a magnetic field and compared with the response calculated with a magnetic field. The results are: The Nernst term convects the magnetic field to densities above critical as found by Nishiguchi et al. (1984), but the field does not strongly inhibit transport into the foil. The field is also transported to sub-critical densities, where it inhibits thermal diffusion and enhance lateral transport by convection
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Potocký, Štěpán; Babchenko, Oleg; Davydova, Marina; Ižák, Tibor; Čada, Martin; Kromka, Alexander
2014-01-01
Roč. 53, č. 5 (2014), "05FP04-1"-"05FP04-3" ISSN 0021-4922 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01011740; GA ČR GAP205/12/0908 Grant - others:AVČR(CZ) M100100902 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : antenna linear * CVD system * plasma Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.127, year: 2014
Linear and nonlinear dynamics of current-driven waves in dusty plasmas
Ahmad, Ali; Ali Shan, S.; Haque, Q.; Saleem, H.
2012-09-01
The linear and nonlinear dynamics of a recently proposed plasma mode of dusty plasma is studied using kappa distribution for electrons. This electrostatic wave can propagate in the plasma due to the sheared flow of electrons and ions parallel to the external magnetic field in the presence of stationary dust. The coupling of this wave with the usual drift wave and ion acoustic wave is investigated. D'Angelo's mode is also modified in the presence of superthermal electrons. In the nonlinear regime, the wave can give rise to dipolar vortex structures if the shear in flow is weaker and tripolar vortices if the flow has steeper gradient. The results have been applied to Saturn's magnetosphere corresponding to negatively charged dust grains. But the theoretical model is applicable for positively charged dust as well. This work will be useful for future observations and studies of dusty environments of planets and comets.
Linear and nonlinear dynamics of current-driven waves in dusty plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ahmad, Ali [National Centre for Physics (NCP), Shahdara Valley Road, 44000 Islamabad (Pakistan); Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (CIIT), Islamabad (Pakistan); Theoretical Plasma Physics Division, PINSTECH, P. O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ali Shan, S.; Haque, Q. [National Centre for Physics (NCP), Shahdara Valley Road, 44000 Islamabad (Pakistan); Theoretical Plasma Physics Division, PINSTECH, P. O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Saleem, H. [National Centre for Physics (NCP), Shahdara Valley Road, 44000 Islamabad (Pakistan); Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (CIIT), Islamabad (Pakistan)
2012-09-15
The linear and nonlinear dynamics of a recently proposed plasma mode of dusty plasma is studied using kappa distribution for electrons. This electrostatic wave can propagate in the plasma due to the sheared flow of electrons and ions parallel to the external magnetic field in the presence of stationary dust. The coupling of this wave with the usual drift wave and ion acoustic wave is investigated. D'Angelo's mode is also modified in the presence of superthermal electrons. In the nonlinear regime, the wave can give rise to dipolar vortex structures if the shear in flow is weaker and tripolar vortices if the flow has steeper gradient. The results have been applied to Saturn's magnetosphere corresponding to negatively charged dust grains. But the theoretical model is applicable for positively charged dust as well. This work will be useful for future observations and studies of dusty environments of planets and comets.
A quasi-linear gyrokinetic transport model for tokamak plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Casati, A.
2009-10-01
After a presentation of some basics around nuclear fusion, this research thesis introduces the framework of the tokamak strategy to deal with confinement, hence the main plasma instabilities which are responsible for turbulent transport of energy and matter in such a system. The author also briefly introduces the two principal plasma representations, the fluid and the kinetic ones. He explains why the gyro-kinetic approach has been preferred. A tokamak relevant case is presented in order to highlight the relevance of a correct accounting of the kinetic wave-particle resonance. He discusses the issue of the quasi-linear response. Firstly, the derivation of the model, called QuaLiKiz, and its underlying hypotheses to get the energy and the particle turbulent flux are presented. Secondly, the validity of the quasi-linear response is verified against the nonlinear gyro-kinetic simulations. The saturation model that is assumed in QuaLiKiz, is presented and discussed. Then, the author qualifies the global outcomes of QuaLiKiz. Both the quasi-linear energy and the particle flux are compared to the expectations from the nonlinear simulations, across a wide scan of tokamak relevant parameters. Therefore, the coupling of QuaLiKiz within the integrated transport solver CRONOS is presented: this procedure allows the time-dependent transport problem to be solved, hence the direct application of the model to the experiment. The first preliminary results regarding the experimental analysis are finally discussed
Linear wave propagation in a hot axisymmetric toroidal plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jaun, A.
1995-03-01
Kinetic effects on the propagation of the Alfven wave are studied for the first time in a toroidal plasma relevant for experiments. This requires the resolution of a set of coupled partial differential equations whose coefficients depend locally on the plasma parameters. For this purpose, a numerical wave propagation code called PENN has been developed using either a bilinear or a bicubic Hermite finite element discretization. It solves Maxwell's equations in toroidal geometry, with a dielectric tensor operator that takes into account the linear response of the plasma. Two different models have been implemented and can be used comparatively to describe the same physical case: the first treats the plasma as resistive fluids and gives results which are in good agreement with toroidal fluid codes. The second is a kinetic model and takes into account the finite size of the Larmor radii; it has successfully been tested against a kinetic plasma model in cylindrical geometry. New results have been obtained when studying kinetic effects in toroidal geometry. Two different conversion mechanisms to the kinetic Alfven wave have been described: one occurs at toroidally coupled resonant surfaces and is the kinetic counterpart of the fluid models' resonance absorption. The other has no such correspondence and results directly from the toroidal coupling between the kinetic Alfven wave and the global wavefield. An analysis of a heating scenario suggests that it might be difficult to heat a plasma with Alfven waves up to temperatures that are relevant for a tokamak reactor. Kinetic effects are studied for three types of global Alfven modes (GAE, TAE, BAE) and a new class of kinetic eigenmodes is described which appear inside the fluid gap: it could be related to recent observations in the JET (Joint European Torus) tokamak. (author) 56 figs., 6 tabs., 58 refs
Linear wave propagation in a hot axisymmetric toroidal plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jaun, A [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). Centre de Recherche en Physique des Plasma (CRPP)
1995-03-01
Kinetic effects on the propagation of the Alfven wave are studied for the first time in a toroidal plasma relevant for experiments. This requires the resolution of a set of coupled partial differential equations whose coefficients depend locally on the plasma parameters. For this purpose, a numerical wave propagation code called PENN has been developed using either a bilinear or a bicubic Hermite finite element discretization. It solves Maxwell`s equations in toroidal geometry, with a dielectric tensor operator that takes into account the linear response of the plasma. Two different models have been implemented and can be used comparatively to describe the same physical case: the first treats the plasma as resistive fluids and gives results which are in good agreement with toroidal fluid codes. The second is a kinetic model and takes into account the finite size of the Larmor radii; it has successfully been tested against a kinetic plasma model in cylindrical geometry. New results have been obtained when studying kinetic effects in toroidal geometry. Two different conversion mechanisms to the kinetic Alfven wave have been described: one occurs at toroidally coupled resonant surfaces and is the kinetic counterpart of the fluid models` resonance absorption. The other has no such correspondence and results directly from the toroidal coupling between the kinetic Alfven wave and the global wavefield. An analysis of a heating scenario suggests that it might be difficult to heat a plasma with Alfven waves up to temperatures that are relevant for a tokamak reactor. Kinetic effects are studied for three types of global Alfven modes (GAE, TAE, BAE) and a new class of kinetic eigenmodes is described which appear inside the fluid gap: it could be related to recent observations in the JET (Joint European Torus) tokamak. (author) 56 figs., 6 tabs., 58 refs.
Magnetic Field Analysis of Plasma Guide in Galathea Trimyx
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jin Xianji
2016-01-01
Full Text Available You Galathea Trimyx is a kind of small size, multipole magnetic confinement devices in controlled thermonuclear fusion. Plasma guide is one of important part in Galathea Trimyx which is responsible for transporting fast and slow plasma bunches ejected from plasma gun. The distribution and uniformity of magnetic field in completed plasma guide is analyzed in detail, including in x -axis direction and in z-axis direction. On the basis, the motion of plasma in the guide is discussed.
Broad-band linear polarization and magnetic intensification in rotating magnetic stars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Degl'Innocenti, M.L.; Calamai, G.; Degl'Innocenti, E.L.; Patriarchi, P.
1981-01-01
Magnetic intensification is proposed as a mechanism to explain the general features of the variable broad-band linear polarization emerging from rotating magnetic stars. This mechanism is studied in detail, and some efforts are made to investigate the wide variety of polarization diagrams that can result from it. Theoretical results are compared with direct observations of the variable magnetic star 53 Cam to determine its geometric and magnetic configuration
Force analysis of linear induction motor for magnetic levitation system
Kuijpers, A.A.; Nemlioglu, C.; Sahin, F.; Verdel, A.J.D.; Compter, J.C.; Lomonova, E.
2010-01-01
This paper presents the analyses of thrust and normal forces of linear induction motor (LIM) segments which are implemented in a rotating ring system. To obtain magnetic levitation in a cost effective and sustainable way, decoupled control of thrust and normal forces is required. This study includes
Force measurements on a shielded coreless linear permanent magnet motor
Pluk, K.J.W.; Jansen, J.W.; Lomonova, E.A.
2014-01-01
This paper compares force measurements on a shielded coreless linear permanent magnet motor with 2-D models. A 2-D semianalytical modeling method is applied, which is based on Fourier modeling and includes force calculations. The semianalytical modeling correctly predicts the behavior found in the
A non-linear dissipative model of magnetism
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Durand, P.; Paidarová, Ivana
2010-01-01
Roč. 89, č. 6 (2010), s. 67004 ISSN 1286-4854 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100400501 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : non-linear dissipative model of magnetism * thermodynamics * physical chemistry Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry http://epljournal.edpsciences.org/
Instabilities and vortex dynamics in shear flow of magnetized plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tajima, T.; Horton, W.; Morrison, P.J.; Schutkeker, J.; Kamimura, T.; Mima, K.; Abe, Y.
1990-03-01
Gradient-driven instabilities and the subsequent nonlinear evolution of generated vortices in sheared E x B flows are investigated for magnetized plasmas with and without gravity (magnetic curvature) and magnetic shear by using theory and implicit particle simulations. In the linear eigenmode analysis, the instabilities considered are the Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) instability and the resistive interchange instability. The presence of the shear flow can stabilize these instabilities. The dynamics of the K-H instability and the vortex dynamics can be uniformly described by the initial flow pattern with a vorticity localization parameter ε. The observed growth of the K-H modes is exponential in time for linearly unstable modes, secular for marginal mode, and absent until driven nonlinearly for linearly stable modes. The distance between two vortex centers experiences rapid merging while the angle θ between the axis of vortices and the external shear flow increases. These vortices proceed toward their overall coalescence, while shedding small-scale vortices and waves. The main features of vortex dynamics of the nonlinear coalescence and the tilt or the rotational instabilities of vortices are shown to be given by using a low dimension Hamiltonian representation for interacting vortex cores in the shear flow. 24 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab
Zhang, Y.; Fisher, D. M.; Wallace, B.; Gilmore, M.; Hsu, S. C.
2016-10-01
A compact coaxial plasma gun is employed for experimental investigation of launching plasma into a lower density background magnetized plasma. Experiments are being conducted in the linear device HelCat at UNM. Four distinct operational regimes with qualitatively different dynamics are identified by fast CCD camera images. For regime I plasma jet formation, a global helical magnetic configuration is determined by a B-dot probe array data. Also the m =1 kink instability is observed and verified. Furthermore, when the jet is propagating into background magnetic field, a longer length and lifetime jet is formed. Axial shear flow caused by the background magnetic tension force contributes to the increased stability of the jet body. In regime II, a spheromak-like plasma bubble formation is identified when the gun plasma is injected into vacuum. In contrast, when the bubble propagates into a background magnetic field, the closed magnetic field configuration does not hold anymore and a lateral side, Reilgh-Taylor instability develops. Detailed experimental data and analysis will be presented for these cases.
Geometry optimization of linear and annular plasma synthetic jet actuators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neretti, G; Seri, P; Taglioli, M; Borghi, C A; Shaw, A; Iza, F
2017-01-01
The electrohydrodynamic (EHD) interaction induced in atmospheric air pressure by a surface dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) actuator has been experimentally investigated. Plasma synthetic jet actuators (PSJAs) are DBD actuators able to induce an air stream perpendicular to the actuator surface. These devices can be used in the field of aerodynamics to prevent or induce flow separation, modify the laminar to turbulent transition inside the boundary layer, and stabilize or mix air flows. They can also be used to enhance indirect plasma treatment effects, increasing the reactive species delivery rate onto surfaces and liquids. This can play a major role in plasma processing and chemical kinetics modelling, where often only diffusive mechanisms are considered. This paper reports on the importance that different electrode geometries can have on the performance of different PSJAs. A series of DBD aerodynamic actuators designed to produce perpendicular jets has been fabricated on two-layer printed circuit boards (PCBs). Both linear and annular geometries were considered, testing different upper electrode distances in the linear case and different diameters in the annular one. An AC voltage supplied at a peak of 11.5 kV and a frequency of 5 kHz was used. Lower electrodes were connected to the ground and buried in epoxy resin to avoid undesired plasma generation on the lower actuator surface. Voltage and current measurements were carried out to evaluate the active power delivered to the discharges. Schlieren imaging allowed the induced jets to be visualized and gave an estimate of their evolution and geometry. Pitot tube measurements were performed to obtain the velocity profiles of the PSJAs and to estimate the mechanical power delivered to the fluid. The optimal values of the inter-electrode distance and diameter were found in order to maximize jet velocity, mechanical power or efficiency. Annular geometries were found to achieve the best performance. (paper)
Novel ocean energy permanent magnet linear generator buoy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rhinefrank, K.; Agamloh, E.B.; Jouanne, A. von; Wallace, A.K.; Prudell, J.; Kimble, K.; Aills, J.; Schmidt, E.; Schacher, A. [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-3211 (United States); Chan, P.; Sweeny, B. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-3211 (United States)
2006-07-15
This paper describes the research, design, construction and prototype testing process of a novel ocean energy direct drive permanent magnet linear generator buoy. The buoy employs the vertical component of the motion of ocean waves to power a linear generator. The generator consists of a permanent magnet field system (mounted on the central translator shaft) and an armature, in which the power is generated (mounted on the buoy). The translator shaft is anchored to the sea floor, and the buoy/floater moves armature coils relative to the permanent magnet translator to induce voltages. The electrical and mechanical structures of the buoy generator are provided, along with performance characteristics, including voltage, current and developed power. (author)
Linear kinetic enlightenment of a slab of nonuniform plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Revenchuk, S.M.
1996-01-01
A phenomenon of linear kinetic regeneration of a harmonic electric-field perturbation beyond the nonuniform opacity barrier due to electrons trapped by a potential well is investigated. Such electrons are reflected by the well walls without loss of phase memory about the external perturbation, which is rehabilitated on the other side of the barrier. The incidence of the electromagnetic wave polarized in the plane of incidence on a plasma slab. Analytic expressions for the regenerated electric field and regeneration coefficient are obtained in the ballistic approximation. The dependence of the regeneration coefficient on shape of the electrostatic potential confining the wave barrier is discussed
Linear and non-linear ion acoustic phenomena in magnetic multi-dipole discharges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferreira, J.L.
1986-12-01
An experimental study of ion acoustic phenomena in a multi-magnetic-dipole plasma device is presented. The plasma is uniform and free from external field, permitting good observation of space and laboratory plasma phenomena. The major interest was in the observtion of the propagation characterics of solitions and ion acoustic waves in a double plasma configuration. In this experiment plane waves were studied in a plasma composed by a mixture of negative and positive ions. The most important result was the first observation of solitary waves with negative potential, that means rarefaction ion acoustic solitions. The formation of non neutral regions inside the plasma and its relations with the inhibition of electron thermal flux were studied. A bootstrap action enhances the ion acoustic instability which generates an anomalous resistivity self consistently with a potential step. It was observed that this is the mechanism of cold electron thermalization during diffusion through a warn collisionless plasma. The importance of the bootstrap action in ion acoustic double layer formation was experimentally verified by ion acoustic instability inhibition, obtained via induced Landau damping of the ion acoustic spectrum of the instability. (author) [pt
A new linear plasma device for the study of plasma waves in the ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Garima Joshi
2018-05-16
May 16, 2018 ... magnetic field by Helmholtz coils, both designed and constructed in-house. The plasma .... Vacuum-compatible permanent mag- nets (NdFeB) are ..... ing of the stepper is decided by the motor driver which is controlled by a ...
Ion Motion in a Plasma Interacting with Strong Magnetic Fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weingarten, A.; Grabowski, C.; Chakrabarti, N.; Maron, Y.; Fruchtmant, A.
1999-01-01
The interaction of a plasma with strong magnetic fields takes place in many laboratory experiments and astrophysical plasmas. Applying a strong magnetic field to the plasma may result in plasma displacement, magnetization, or the formation of instabilities. Important phenomena in plasma, such as the energy transport and the momentum balance, take a different form in each case. We study this interaction in a plasma that carries a short-duration (80-ns) current pulse, generating a magnetic field of up to 17 kG. The evolution of the magnetic field, plasma density, ion velocities, and electric fields are determined before and during the current pulse. The dependence of the plasma limiting current on the plasma density and composition are studied and compared to theoretical models based on the different phenomena. When the plasma collisionality is low, three typical velocities should be taken into consideration: the proton and heavier-ion Alfven velocities (v A p and v A h , respectively) and the EMHD magnetic-field penetration velocity into the plasma (v EMHD ). If both Alfven velocities are larger than v EMHD the plasma is pushed ahead of the magnetic piston and the magnetic field energy is dissipated into ion kinetic energy. If v EMHD is the largest of three velocities, the plasma become magnetized and the ions acquire a small axial momentum only. Different ion species may drift in different directions along the current lines. In this case, the magnetic field energy is probably dissipated into electron thermal energy. When vs > V EMHD > vi, as in the case of one of our experiments, ion mass separation occurs. The protons are pushed ahead of the piston while the heavier-ions become magnetized. Since the plasma electrons are unmagnetized they cannot cross the piston, and the heavy ions are probably charge-neutralized by electrons originating from the cathode that are 'born' magnetized
Preliminary experimental results from a linear reciprocating magnetic refrigerator prototype
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tagliafico, Luca Antonio; Scarpa, Federico; Valsuani, Federico; Tagliafico, Giulio
2013-01-01
A linear reciprocating magnetic refrigerator prototype was designed and built with the aid of an industrial partner. The refrigerator is based on the Active Magnetic Regenerative cycle, and exploits two regenerators working in parallel. The active material is Gadolinium in plates, 0.8 mm thick, for a total mass of 0.36 kg. The device is described and results about magnetic field and temperature span measurements are presented. The designed permanent magnet structure, based on an improved cross-type arrangement, generates a maximum magnetic field intensity of 1.55 T in air, over a gap of (13 × 50 × 100) mm 3 . The maximum temperature span achieved is 5.0 K, in a free run condition. -- Highlights: ► We give preliminary results from a linear reciprocating magnetic refrigerator prototype. ► The design is intended to process visualization and investigation. ► The prototype behavior gives us various suggestions to improve its general performance
Penetration of magnetic fields into plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bengtson, R.D.
1976-01-01
A pulsed plasma experiment was constructed to study the penetration of a fast-rising magnetic pulse into an initially unmagnetized, weakly ionized plasma of density 10 11 to 10 13 cm -3 . Magnetic probe data was analyzed using a magnetohydrodynamic approach to obtain detailed information about the dynamics of the penetration mechanism. In particular it is possible to obtain the local resistivity and thus the collision frequency from this data. These collision frequencies compare favorably with theoretical estimates of turbulent collision frequencies. The data indicates that sufficient energy is absorbed to heat the bulk of the plasma to temeratures in excess of 1 keV. A differential rotation of a collisionless theta-pinch column during implosion has been observed and explained by a model in which the driving mechanism is the off-diagonal element p/sub r theta/ of the pressure tensor. Rotational motion was detected by directional probes and spectroscopic techniques. Experimental data were modeled by a one-dimensional hybrid code which included ionization and charge exchange of protons with neutral H atoms
Radiative properties of strongly magnetized plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weisheit, J.C.
1993-11-01
The influence of strong magnetic fields on quantum phenomena continues to be a topic of much interest to physicists and astronomers investigating a wide array of problems - the formation of high energy-density plasmas in pulsed power experiments, the crustal structure and radiative properties of neutron stars, transport coefficients of matter irradiated by subpicosecond lasers, the spectroscopy of magnetic white dwarf stars, the quantum Hall effect, etc. The passage of time finds more questions being asked than being answered in this subject, where even the hydrogen atom open-quotes paradigmclose quotes remains a major challenge. This theoretical program consists of two distinct parts: (1) investigation into the structure and transport properties of many-electron atoms in fields B > 10 8 Gauss; and (2) extension of spectral lineshape methods for diagnosing fields in strongly magnetized plasmas. Research during the past year continued to be focused on the first topic, primarily because of the interest and skills of Dr. E.P. Lief, the postdoctoral research associate who was hired to work on the proposal
Kinetic approach to plasma end loss from linear devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dreicer, H.
1976-01-01
A first step in the direction of a kinetic approach to end loss has been presented. This approach brings to light some fundamental processes not uncovered by the magnetohydrodynamic or guiding center approach. Attention was focused on the basically transient phenomenon in a way that describes the quite different behavior of collision dominated and collisionless ions, but ignores the magnetic nozzle effects near the ends of the system. The treatment illuminates some of the roles played by the parameter l/sub ii//L, and suggests the direction for more detailed investigations. End loss from linear systems is a very many faceted problem. Kinetic effects, magnetic effects, heat flow, etc. are all intermixed, and it will require a strong long term experimental and theoretical program to unravel all of its mysteries
Experimental study of intrinsic stochasticity in magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anderegg, F.
1988-12-01
We present experimental results testing the application of the use of single particle hamiltonian theory to describe wave-particle interactions in a magnetized plasma. This work has been performed in a magnetized column of argon and barium. Neutralized ion Bernstein waves and electrostatic ion cyclotron waves are excited by external antenna and are obliquely propagating. Laser induced fluorescence and optical tagging are used to measure directly the ion distribution function and to track the ion motion. The linear ion response to electrostatic waves creates a perturbation of the ion distribution function. This perturbation is directly measured by the laser induced fluorescence technique allowing a direct measurement of the wave electric field, with the resonable assumption that the Vlasov theory is applicable. The nonlinear ion response to electrostatic waves, which occurs if the wave amplitude exceeds a threshold, is observed through a broadening of the ion distribution function and a fast diffusion in p z and in azimutal direction. Many predictions of the single particle theory are observed in the experiment. We have reported the first observation of a stochastic ion heating in a plasma. The threshold, the final form of the distribution function and the time scale are in good agreement with theoretical predictions. Moreover the existence of three constants of motion has been experimentally observed. Although many observations of particles nonlinear response agree with the nonselfconsistent theory, we have observed evidence for selfconsistent effects. The wavelength and the coupling of the excited wave change when the particles response is stochastic. One would have expected that the linear wave could be destructed by the particle chaotic motion nevertheless linear waves still exist in the plasma when particles follow chaotic trajectories. (author) 65 figs., 13 tabs., 77 refs
Magnetic Configuration Control of ITER Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Albanese, R.; Artaserse, G.; Mattei, M.; Ambrosino, G.; Crisanti, F.; Tommasi, G. de; Fresa, R.; Portone, A.; Sartori, F.; Villone, F.
2006-01-01
The aim of this paper is to review the capability of the ITER Poloidal Field (PF) system of controlling the broad range of plasma configurations presently forecasted during ITER operation. The attention is focused on the axi-symmetric aspects of plasma magnetic configuration control since they pose the greatest challenges in terms of control power and they have the largest impact on machine capital cost. The paper is broadly divided in two main sections devoted, respectively, to open loop (feed-forward) and closed loop (feedback) control. In the first part of the study the PF system is assessed with respect to the initiation, ramp-up, sustained burn, ramp-down phases of the main plasma inductive scenario. The limiter-to-divertor configuration transition phase is considered in detail with the aim of assessing the PF capability to form an X-point at the lowest possible current and, therefore, to relax the thermal load on the limiter surfaces. Moreover, during the sustained burn it is important to control plasmas with a broad range of current density profiles. In the second part of the study the plasma vertical feedback control requirements are assessed in details, in particular for the high elongation configurations achievable during the early limiter-to-X point transition phase. Non-rigid plasma displacement models are used to assess the control system voltage and current requirements of different radial field control circuits obtained, for example, by connecting the outermost PF coils, some CS coils, coils sub-sections etc. At last, the main 3D effects of the vessel ports are modeled and their impact of vertical stabilization evaluated. (author)
The non-linear growth of the magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability
Carlyle, Jack; Hillier, Andrew
2017-09-01
This work examines the effect of the embedded magnetic field strength on the non-linear development of the magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) (with a field-aligned interface) in an ideal gas close to the incompressible limit in three dimensions. Numerical experiments are conducted in a domain sufficiently large so as to allow the predicted critical modes to develop in a physically realistic manner. The ratio between gravity, which drives the instability in this case (as well as in several of the corresponding observations), and magnetic field strength is taken up to a ratio which accurately reflects that of observed astrophysical plasma, in order to allow comparison between the results of the simulations and the observational data which served as inspiration for this work. This study finds reduced non-linear growth of the rising bubbles of the RTI for stronger magnetic fields, and that this is directly due to the change in magnetic field strength, rather than the indirect effect of altering characteristic length scales with respect to domain size. By examining the growth of the falling spikes, the growth rate appears to be enhanced for the strongest magnetic field strengths, suggesting that rather than affecting the development of the system as a whole, increased magnetic field strengths in fact introduce an asymmetry to the system. Further investigation of this effect also revealed that the greater this asymmetry, the less efficiently the gravitational energy is released. By better understanding the under-studied regime of such a major phenomenon in astrophysics, deeper explanations for observations may be sought, and this work illustrates that the strength of magnetic fields in astrophysical plasmas influences observed RTI in subtle and complex ways.
Intense Magnetized Plasma-Wall Interaction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bauer, Bruno S. [UNR; Fuelling, Stephan [UNR
2013-11-30
This research project studied wall-plasma interactions relevant to fusion science. Such interactions are a critical aspect of Magneto-Inertial Fusion (MIF) because flux compression by a pusher material, in particular the metal for the liner approach to MIF, involves strong eddy current heating on the surface of the pusher, and probably interactions and mixing of the pusher with the interior fuel during the time when fusion fuel is being burned. When the pusher material is a metal liner, high-energy-density conditions result in fascinating behavior. For example, "warm dense matter" is produced, for which material properties such as resistivity and opacity are not well known. In this project, the transformation into plasma of metal walls subjected to pulsed megagauss magnetic fields was studied with an experiment driven by the UNR 1 MA Zebra generator. The experiment was numerically simulated with using the MHRDR code. This simple, fundamental high-energy-density physics experiment, in a regime appropriate to MIF, has stimulated an important and fascinating comparison of numerical modeling codes and tables with experiment. In addition, we participated in developing the FRCHX experiment to compress a field-reversed-configuration (FRC) plasma with a liner, in collaboration with researchers from Air Force Research Laboratory and Los Alamos National Lab, and we helped develop diagnostics for the Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX) at LANL. Last, but not least, this project served to train students in high-energy-density physics.
Bashyam, Ashvin; Li, Matthew; Cima, Michael J
2018-07-01
Single-sided NMR has the potential for broad utility and has found applications in healthcare, materials analysis, food quality assurance, and the oil and gas industry. These sensors require a remote, strong, uniform magnetic field to perform high sensitivity measurements. We demonstrate a new permanent magnet geometry, the Unilateral Linear Halbach, that combines design principles from "sweet-spot" and linear Halbach magnets to achieve this goal through more efficient use of magnetic flux. We perform sensitivity analysis using numerical simulations to produce a framework for Unilateral Linear Halbach design and assess tradeoffs between design parameters. Additionally, the use of hundreds of small, discrete magnets within the assembly allows for a tunable design, improved robustness to variability in magnetization strength, and increased safety during construction. Experimental validation using a prototype magnet shows close agreement with the simulated magnetic field. The Unilateral Linear Halbach magnet increases the sensitivity, portability, and versatility of single-sided NMR. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Electrostatic turbulence in strongly magnetized plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nielsen, A.H.
1993-01-01
Turbulence in plasmas has been investigated experimentally and numerically. On the experimental side the turbulent nature of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability has been studied in a single-ended Q-machine. The development of coherent structures in the background of the turbulent flow has been demonstrated and the capability of structures of transporting plasma across the magnetic field-lines is explained in detail. The numerical investigations are divided into two parts: Numerical simulations of the dynamics from the Q-machine experiments using spectral methods to solve the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations in a cylindrical geometry. A numerical study of the Eulerian-Lagrangian transformation in a two-dimensional flow. Here the flow is made up by a large number of structures, where each individual structure is convected by the superposed flow field of all the others. (au) (33 ills., 67 refs.)
Magnetic confinement fusion plasma theory, Task 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Callen, J.D.
1991-07-01
The research performed under this grant during the current year has concentrated on a few key tokamak plasma confinement and heating theory issues: extensive development of a new Chapman-Enskog-like fluid/kinetic hybrid approach to deriving rigorously valid fluid moment equations; applications (neoclassical viscous force, instabilities in the banana-plateau collisionality regime, nonlinear gyroviscous force, unified plasma microinstability equations and their implications, semi-collisional presheath modeling, etc.) of this new formalism; interactions of fluctuating bootstrap-current-driven magnetic islands; determination of net transport processes and equations for a tokamak; and some other topics (extracting more information from heat-pulse-propagation data, modeling of BES fluctuation data, exploring sawtooth effects on energy confinement in DIII-D, divertor X-point modeling). Recent progress and publications in these areas, and in the management of the local NERSC node and fusion theory DECstation 5000 at UW-Madison are summarized briefly in this report
Electromagnetic solitary waves in magnetized plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hazeltine, R.D.; Holm, D.D.; Morrison, P.J.
1985-03-01
A Hamiltonian formulation, in terms of noncanonical Poisson bracket, is presented for a nonlinear fluid system that includes reduced magnetohydrodynamics and the Hasegawa-Mima equation as limiting cases. The single-helicity and axisymmetric versions possess three nonlinear Casimir invariants, from which a generalized potential can be constructed. Variation of the generalized potential yields a description of exact nonlinear stationary states. The new equilibria, allowing for plasma flow as well as partial electron adiabaticity, are distinct from those found in conventional magnetohydrodynamic theory. They differ from electrostatic stationary states in containing plasma current and magnetic field excitation. One class of steady-state solutions is shown to provide a simple electromagnetic generalization of drift-solitary waves
Confinement of laser plasma expansion with strong external magnetic field
Tang, Hui-bo; Hu, Guang-yue; Liang, Yi-han; Tao, Tao; Wang, Yu-lin; Hu, Peng; Zhao, Bin; Zheng, Jian
2018-05-01
The evolutions of laser ablation plasma, expanding in strong (∼10 T) transverse external magnetic field, were investigated in experiments and simulations. The experimental results show that the magnetic field pressure causes the plasma decelerate and accumulate at the plasma-field interface, and then form a low-density plasma bubble. The saturation size of the plasma bubble has a scaling law on laser energy and magnetic field intensity. Magnetohydrodynamic simulation results support the observation and find that the scaling law (V max ∝ E p /B 2, where V max is the maximum volume of the plasma bubble, E p is the absorbed laser energy, and B is the magnetic field intensity) is effective in a broad laser energy range from several joules to kilo-joules, since the plasma is always in the state of magnetic field frozen while expanding. About 15% absorbed laser energy converts into magnetic field energy stored in compressed and curved magnetic field lines. The duration that the plasma bubble comes to maximum size has another scaling law t max ∝ E p 1/2/B 2. The plasma expanding dynamics in external magnetic field have a similar character with that in underdense gas, which indicates that the external magnetic field may be a feasible approach to replace the gas filled in hohlraum to suppress the wall plasma expansion and mitigate the stimulated scattering process in indirect drive ignition.
Modelling and measurement of a moving magnet linear compressor performance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liang, Kun; Stone, Richard; Davies, Gareth; Dadd, Mike; Bailey, Paul
2014-01-01
A novel moving magnet linear compressor with clearance seals and flexure bearings has been designed and constructed. It is suitable for a refrigeration system with a compact heat exchanger, such as would be needed for CPU cooling. The performance of the compressor has been experimentally evaluated with nitrogen and a mathematical model has been developed to evaluate the performance of the linear compressor. The results from the compressor model and the measurements have been compared in terms of cylinder pressure, the ‘P–V’ loop, stroke, mass flow rate and shaft power. The cylinder pressure was not measured directly but was derived from the compressor dynamics and the motor magnetic force characteristics. The comparisons indicate that the compressor model is well validated and can be used to study the performance of this type of compressor, to help with design optimization and the identification of key parameters affecting the system transients. The electrical and thermodynamic losses were also investigated, particularly for the design point (stroke of 13 mm and pressure ratio of 3.0), since a full understanding of these can lead to an increase in compressor efficiency. - Highlights: • Model predictions of the performance of a novel moving magnet linear compressor. • Prototype linear compressor performance measurements using nitrogen. • Reconstruction of P–V loops using a model of the dynamics and electromagnetics. • Close agreement between the model and measurements for the P–V loops. • The design point motor efficiency was 74%, with potential improvements identified
Thermodynamic theory of transport in magnetized plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Misguich, J.H.
1990-10-01
Transport laws relating thermodynamic flows to forces by means of transport coefficients in a magnetized plasma are derived here from basic plasmadynamics and nonequilibrium thermodynamics. Macroscopic balance equations are derived in the first part, taking into account the energy of relative diffusion between species in an exact way. The resulting plasmadynamical equations appear to be more general than the usual ones. In the second part, the particular features of a two-temperature diffusing plasma are taken into account in deriving the balance equation for the entropy density, the differences with thermodynamics of neutral fluid mixtures or metals are explained. The general expressions obtained for the entropy production rate are used in part III to derive transport laws. Onsager symmetry relations are applied to interrelate crossed transport coefficients. Basic transport coefficients are the electrical conductivity, the thermo-electric coefficient, along with the thermal conductivities and the viscosities for each species. The slight difference between thermo-electric effect and thermo-diffusion is explained. An important resistive thermo-electric effect appears which describes crossed transport coefficients between thermal and electric flows. Because of the anisotropy introduced by the magnetic field, the transport coefficients are tensors, with non diagonal elements associated with the Hall, Nernst and Ettinghausen effects in the plasma. The field geometry and applications to several particular cases are treated explicitly in part IV, namely the neo-classical transport laws. The Ettinghausen effect appears to play an important role in the transport laws for radial electron heat flow and particle flow in confined plasmas. Practical prescriptions are given to apply the Onsager symmetry relations in a correct way
Microscopic description of magnetized plasma: quasiparticle concept
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sosenko, P.P.; Decyk, V.K.
1993-01-01
A quasiparticle concept is developed systematically, from first principles, within the context of microscopic description of magnetized plasma. It is argued that the zeroth velocity-gyroangle harmonic of the microscopic particle distribution function under the gyrokinetic change of variables can be taken as a microscopic quasi-particle density in a reduced phase space. The nature of quasiparticles is discussed and equations of their motion are derived within both exact and reduced microscopic descriptions. The reduced one employs explicitly the separation of interesting time scales. (orig.)
Design and analysis of tubular permanent magnet linear wave generator.
Si, Jikai; Feng, Haichao; Su, Peng; Zhang, Lufeng
2014-01-01
Due to the lack of mature design program for the tubular permanent magnet linear wave generator (TPMLWG) and poor sinusoidal characteristics of the air gap flux density for the traditional surface-mounted TPMLWG, a design method and a new secondary structure of TPMLWG are proposed. An equivalent mathematical model of TPMLWG is established to adopt the transformation relationship between the linear velocity of permanent magnet rotary generator and the operating speed of TPMLWG, to determine the structure parameters of the TPMLWG. The new secondary structure of the TPMLWG contains surface-mounted permanent magnets and the interior permanent magnets, which form a series-parallel hybrid magnetic circuit, and their reasonable structure parameters are designed to get the optimum pole-arc coefficient. The electromagnetic field and temperature field of TPMLWG are analyzed using finite element method. It can be included that the sinusoidal characteristics of air gap flux density of the new secondary structure TPMLWG are improved, the cogging force as well as mechanical vibration is reduced in the process of operation, and the stable temperature rise of generator meets the design requirements when adopting the new secondary structure of the TPMLWG.
Design and Analysis of Tubular Permanent Magnet Linear Wave Generator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jikai Si
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Due to the lack of mature design program for the tubular permanent magnet linear wave generator (TPMLWG and poor sinusoidal characteristics of the air gap flux density for the traditional surface-mounted TPMLWG, a design method and a new secondary structure of TPMLWG are proposed. An equivalent mathematical model of TPMLWG is established to adopt the transformation relationship between the linear velocity of permanent magnet rotary generator and the operating speed of TPMLWG, to determine the structure parameters of the TPMLWG. The new secondary structure of the TPMLWG contains surface-mounted permanent magnets and the interior permanent magnets, which form a series-parallel hybrid magnetic circuit, and their reasonable structure parameters are designed to get the optimum pole-arc coefficient. The electromagnetic field and temperature field of TPMLWG are analyzed using finite element method. It can be included that the sinusoidal characteristics of air gap flux density of the new secondary structure TPMLWG are improved, the cogging force as well as mechanical vibration is reduced in the process of operation, and the stable temperature rise of generator meets the design requirements when adopting the new secondary structure of the TPMLWG.
Design and Analysis of Tubular Permanent Magnet Linear Wave Generator
Si, Jikai; Feng, Haichao; Su, Peng; Zhang, Lufeng
2014-01-01
Due to the lack of mature design program for the tubular permanent magnet linear wave generator (TPMLWG) and poor sinusoidal characteristics of the air gap flux density for the traditional surface-mounted TPMLWG, a design method and a new secondary structure of TPMLWG are proposed. An equivalent mathematical model of TPMLWG is established to adopt the transformation relationship between the linear velocity of permanent magnet rotary generator and the operating speed of TPMLWG, to determine the structure parameters of the TPMLWG. The new secondary structure of the TPMLWG contains surface-mounted permanent magnets and the interior permanent magnets, which form a series-parallel hybrid magnetic circuit, and their reasonable structure parameters are designed to get the optimum pole-arc coefficient. The electromagnetic field and temperature field of TPMLWG are analyzed using finite element method. It can be included that the sinusoidal characteristics of air gap flux density of the new secondary structure TPMLWG are improved, the cogging force as well as mechanical vibration is reduced in the process of operation, and the stable temperature rise of generator meets the design requirements when adopting the new secondary structure of the TPMLWG. PMID:25050388
Bhakta, S.; Prajapati, R. P.; Dolai, B.
2017-08-01
The small amplitude quantum magnetohydrodynamic (QMHD) waves and linear firehose and mirror instabilities in uniformly rotating dense quantum plasma have been investigated using generalized polytropic pressure laws. The QMHD model and Chew-Goldberger-Low (CGL) set of equations are used to formulate the basic equations of the problem. The general dispersion relation is derived using normal mode analysis which is discussed in parallel, transverse, and oblique wave propagations. The fast, slow, and intermediate QMHD wave modes and linear firehose and mirror instabilities are analyzed for isotropic MHD and CGL quantum fluid plasmas. The firehose instability remains unaffected while the mirror instability is modified by polytropic exponents and quantum diffraction parameter. The graphical illustrations show that quantum corrections have a stabilizing influence on the mirror instability. The presence of uniform rotation stabilizes while quantum corrections destabilize the growth rate of the system. It is also observed that the growth rate stabilizes much faster in parallel wave propagation in comparison to the transverse mode of propagation. The quantum corrections and polytropic exponents also modify the pseudo-MHD and reverse-MHD modes in dense quantum plasma. The phase speed (Friedrichs) diagrams of slow, fast, and intermediate wave modes are illustrated for isotropic MHD and double adiabatic MHD or CGL quantum plasmas, where the significant role of magnetic field and quantum diffraction parameters on the phase speed is observed.
Transformation of QSPA plasma streams in longitudinal magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Makhlaj, V.A.; Bandura, A.N.; Chebotarev, V.V.; Kulik, N.V.; Wuerz, H.
2002-01-01
The main aim of this work is analysis of efficiency of QSPA powerful plasma streams transportation in longitudinal magnetic field in dependence on operational mode of accelerator and plasma stream parameters
Nonlinear modulation of ion acoustic waves in a magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bharuthram, R.; Shukla, P.K.
1987-01-01
The quasistatic plasma slow response to coherent ion acoustic waves in a magnetized plasma is considered. A multidimensional cubic nonlinear Schroedinger equation is derived. It is found that the ion acoustic waves remain modulationally stable against oblique perturbations
Linear spin-wave theory of incommensurably modulated magnets
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ziman, Timothy; Lindgård, Per-Anker
1986-01-01
Calculations of linearized theories of spin dynamics encounter difficulties when applied to incommensurable magnetic phases: lack of translational invariance leads to an infinite coupled system of equations. The authors resolve this for the case of a `single-Q' structure by mapping onto the problem......: at higher frequency there appear bands of response sharply defined in frequency, but broad in momentum transfer; at low frequencies there is a response maximum at the q vector corresponding to the modulation vector. They discuss generalizations necessary for application to rare-earth magnets...
Influence of external resonant magnetic perturbation field on edge plasma of small tokamak HYBTOK-II
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hayashi, Y., E-mail: hayashi-yuki13@ees.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan); Suzuki, Y.; Ohno, N. [Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan); Okamoto, M. [Ishikawa National College of Technology, Kitachujo, Tsubata-cho, Kahoku-gun, Ishikawa 929-0392 (Japan); Kikuchi, Y. [University of Hyogo, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2280 (Japan); Sakakibara, S.; Watanabe, K.; Takemura, Y. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan)
2015-08-15
Radial profile of externally applied resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) field with mode numbers of m = 6 and n = 2 in a small tokamak device HYBTOK-II have been investigated using a magnetic probe array, which is able to measure the radial profile of magnetic field perturbation induced by applying RMP. Results of RMP penetration into the plasma show that the RMP decreased toward the plasma center, while they were amplified around the resonant surface with a safety factor q = 3 due to the formation of magnetic islands. This suggests that RMP fields for controlling edge plasmas may trigger some kind of MHD instabilities. In addition, simulation results, based on a linearized four-field model, which agrees with the experimental ones, indicates that the penetration and amplification process of RMP strongly depend on a Doppler-shifted frequency between the RMP and plasma rotation.
Plasma transport in the Scrape-off-Layer of magnetically confined plasma and the plasma exhaust
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Jens Juul; Naulin, Volker; Nielsen, Anders Henry
An overview of the plasma dynamics in the Scrape-off-Layer (SOL) of magnetically confined plasma is presented. The SOL is the exhaust channel of the warm plasma from the core, and the understanding of the SOL plasma dynamics is one of the key issues in contemporary fusion research. It is essential...... for operation of fusion experiments and ultimately fusion power plants. Recent results clearly demonstrate that the plasma transport through the SOL is dominated by turbulent intermittent fluctuations organized into filamentary structures convecting particles, energy, and momentum through the SOL region. Thus......, the transport cannot be described and parametrized by simple diffusive type models. The transport leads to strong localized power loads on the first wall and the plasma facing components, which have serious lasting influence....
The low-field permanent magnet electrostatic plasma lens
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goncharov, A.; Gorshkov, V.; Maslov, V.; Zadorozhny, V.; Brown, I.
2004-01-01
We describe the status of ongoing research and development of the electrostatic plasma lens as used for the manipulation of high current broad beams of heavy ions of moderate energy. In some collaborative work at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory the lens was used to good effect for carrying out high dose ion implantation processing. In the process of this work a very narrow range of low magnetic field was found for which the ion-optical characteristics of the lens improved markedly. Subsequent theoretical analysis and computer modeling has led to an understanding of this phenomenon. These serendipitous results open up some attractive possibilities for the development of a new compact and low cost plasma lens based on permanent magnets rather than on current-driven field coils surrounding the lens volume. The development of this kind of lens, including both very low noise and minimal spherical aberration effects, may lead to a tool suitable for use in the injection beam lines of high current heavy ion linear accelerators. Here we briefly review the lens fundamentals, some characteristics of focusing heavy ion beams at low magnetic fields, and summarize recent theoretical and experimental developments, with emphasis on the relevance and suitability of the lens for accelerator injection application
Linear Optical Response of Silicon Nanotubes Under Axial Magnetic Field
Chegel, Raad; Behzad, Somayeh
2013-01-01
We investigated the optical properties of silicon nanotubes (SiNTs) in the low energy region, E < 0.5 eV, and middle energy region, 1.8 eV < E < 2 eV. The dependence of optical matrix elements and linear susceptibility on radius and magnetic field, in terms of one-dimensional (1-d) wavevector and subband index, is calculated using the tight-binding approximation. It is found that, on increasing the nanotube diameter, the low-energy peaks show red-shift and their intensities are decreased. Also, we found that in the middle energy region all tubes have two distinct peaks, where the energy position of the second peak is approximately constant and independent of the nanotube diameter. Comparing the band structure of these tubes in different magnetic fields, several differences are clearly seen, such as splitting of degenerate bands, creation of additional band-edge states, and bandgap modification. It is found that applying the magnetic field leads to a phase transition in zigzag silicon hexagonal nanotubes (Si h-NTs), unlike in zigzag silicon gear-like nanotubes (Si g-NTs), which remain semiconducting in any magnetic field. We found that the axial magnetic field has two effects on the linear susceptibility spectrum, namely broadening and splitting. The axial magnetic field leads to the creation of a peak with energy less than 0.2 eV in metallic Si h-NTs, whereas in the absence of a magnetic field such a transition is not allowed.
METHOD FOR EXCHANGING ENERGY WITH A PLASMA BY MAGNETIC PUMPING
Hall, L.S.
1963-12-31
A method of heating a plasma confined by a static magnetic field is presented. A time-varying magnetic field having a rise time to a predetermined value substantially less than its fall time is applied to a portion of the plasma. Because of the much shorter rise time, the plasma is reversibly heated. This cycle is repeated until the desired plasma temperature is reached. (AEC)
Magnetic microstructure and magnetic properties of spark plasma sintered NdFeB magnets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huang, Y.L., E-mail: hyl1019_lin@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); Wang, Y.; Hou, Y.H.; Wang, Y.L.; Wu, Y.; Ma, S.C. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); Liu, Z.W.; Zeng, D.C. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Tian, Y.; Xia, W.X. [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices, Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Zhong, Z.C., E-mail: zzhong2014@sina.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China)
2016-02-01
Nanocrystalline NdFeB magnets were prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique using melt-spun ribbons as starting materials. A distinct two-zone structure with coarse grain zone and fine grain zone was formed in the SPSed magnets. Multi-domain particle in coarse grain zone and exchange interaction domain for fine grain zone were observed. Intergranular non-magnetic phase was favorable to improve the coercivity due to the enhancement of domain wall pinning effects and increased exchange-decouple. The remanent polarization of 0.83 T, coercivity of 1516 kA/m, and maximum energy product of 118 kJ/m{sup 3} are obtained for an isotropic magnet. - Highlights: • Nanocrystalline NdFeB magnets were prepared by spark plasma sintering technique. • Multi-domain particle and exchange interaction domain were observed. • Magnetic microstructure and their relation to the properties were investigated.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cottier, Pierre
2013-01-01
The magnetic confinement in tokamaks is for now the most advanced way towards energy production by nuclear fusion. Both theoretical and experimental studies showed that rotation generation can increase its performance by reducing the turbulent transport in tokamak plasmas. The rotation influence on the heat and particle fluxes is studied along with the angular momentum transport with the quasi-linear gyro-kinetic eigenvalue code QuaLiKiz. For this purpose, the QuaLiKiz code is modified in order to take the plasma rotation into account and compute the angular momentum flux. It is shown that QuaLiKiz framework is able to correctly predict the angular momentum flux including the E*B shear induced residual stress as well as the influence of rotation on the heat and particle fluxes. The major approximations of QuaLiKiz formalisms are reviewed, in particular the ballooning representation at its lowest order and the eigenfunctions calculated in the hydrodynamic limit. The construction of the quasi-linear fluxes is also reviewed in details and the quasi-linear angular momentum flux is derived. The different contributions to the turbulent momentum flux are studied and successfully compared both against non-linear gyro-kinetic simulations and experimental data. (author) [fr
Linear response theory for magnetic Schrodinger operators in disordered media
Bouclet, J M; Klein, A; Schenker, J
2004-01-01
We justify the linear response theory for an ergodic Schrodinger operator with magnetic field within the non-interacting particle approximation, and derive a Kubo formula for the electric conductivity tensor. To achieve that, we construct suitable normed spaces of measurable covariant operators where the Liouville equation can be solved uniquely. If the Fermi level falls into a region of localization, we recover the well-known Kubo-Streda formula for the quantum Hall conductivity at zero temperature.
Simulation of dynamics of a permanent magnet linear actuator
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yatchev, Ivan; Ritchie, Ewen
2010-01-01
Comparison of two approaches for the simulation of the dynamic behaviour of a permanent magnet linear actuator is presented. These are full coupled model, where the electromagnetic field, electric circuit and mechanical motion problems are solved simultaneously, and decoupled model, where first...... flexibility when the actuator response is required to be estimated for different external conditions, e.g. external circuit parameters or mechanical loads....
Electrostatic instabilities and turbulence in a toroidal magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Poli, F. M.
2007-06-01
This Thesis aims at characterizing the linear properties of electrostatic drift instabilities arising in a toroidal plasma and the mechanisms leading to their development into turbulence. The experiments are performed on the TORoidal Plasma EXperiment (TORPEX) at CRPP-EPFL, Lausanne. The first part of the Thesis focuses on the identification of the nature of the instabilities observed in TORPEX, using a set of electrostatic probes, designed and built for this purpose. The global features of fluctuations, analyzed for different values of control parameters such as the magnetic field, the neutral gas pressure and the injected microwave power, are qualitatively similar in different experimental scenarios. The maximum of fluctuations is observed on the low field side, where the pressure gradient and the gradient of the magnetic field are co-linear, indicating that the curvature of the magnetic field lines has an important role in the destabilization of the waves. The power spectrum is dominated by electrostatic fluctuations with frequencies much lower than the ion cyclotron frequency. Taking advantage of the extended diagnostics coverage, the spectral properties of fluctuations are measured over the whole poloidal cross-section. Both drift and interchange instabilities develop and propagate on TORPEX, with the stability of both being affected by the curvature of the magnetic field. It is shown that modes of different nature are driven at separate locations over the plasma cross-section and that the wavenumber and frequency spectra, narrow at the location where the instabilities are generated, broaden during convection, suggesting an increase in the degree of turbulence. The transition from coherent to turbulent spectral features and the role of nonlinear coupling between modes in the development of turbulence are treated in the second part of this work. It is found that nonlinear mode-mode coupling is responsible for the redistribution of spectral energy from the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mahmood, S.; Sadiq, Safeer; Haque, Q.
2013-01-01
Linear and nonlinear electrostatic waves in magnetized dense electron-ion plasmas are studied with nonrelativistic and ultra-relativistic degenerate and singly, doubly charged helium (He + , He ++ ) and hydrogen (H + ) ions, respectively. The dispersion relation of electrostatic waves in magnetized dense plasmas is obtained under both the energy limits of degenerate electrons. Using reductive perturbation method, the Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation for nonlinear propagation of electrostatic solitons in magnetized dense plasmas is derived for both nonrelativistic and ultra-relativistic degenerate electrons. It is found that variations in plasma density, magnetic field intensity, different mass, and charge number of ions play significant role in the formation of electrostatic solitons in magnetized dense plasmas. The numerical plots are also presented for illustration using the parameters of dense astrophysical plasma situations such as white dwarfs and neutron stars exist in the literature. The present investigation is important for understanding the electrostatic waves propagation in the outer periphery of compact stars which mostly consists of hydrogen and helium ions with degenerate electrons in dense magnetized plasmas
Three-wave scattering in magnetized plasmas: From cold fluid to quantized Lagrangian.
Shi, Yuan; Qin, Hong; Fisch, Nathaniel J
2017-08-01
Large amplitude waves in magnetized plasmas, generated either by external pumps or internal instabilities, can scatter via three-wave interactions. While three-wave scattering is well known in collimated geometry, what happens when waves propagate at angles with one another in magnetized plasmas remains largely unknown, mainly due to the analytical difficulty of this problem. In this paper, we overcome this analytical difficulty and find a convenient formula for three-wave coupling coefficient in cold, uniform, magnetized, and collisionless plasmas in the most general geometry. This is achieved by systematically solving the fluid-Maxwell model to second order using a multiscale perturbative expansion. The general formula for the coupling coefficient becomes transparent when we reformulate it as the scattering matrix element of a quantized Lagrangian. Using the quantized Lagrangian, it is possible to bypass the perturbative solution and directly obtain the nonlinear coupling coefficient from the linear response of the plasma. To illustrate how to evaluate the cold coupling coefficient, we give a set of examples where the participating waves are either quasitransverse or quasilongitudinal. In these examples, we determine the angular dependence of three-wave scattering, and demonstrate that backscattering is not necessarily the strongest scattering channel in magnetized plasmas, in contrast to what happens in unmagnetized plasmas. Our approach gives a more complete picture, beyond the simple collimated geometry, of how injected waves can decay in magnetic confinement devices, as well as how lasers can be scattered in magnetized plasma targets.
Lazer-produced plasma in a strong magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaitmazov, S.D.; Shklovskij, E.I.
1978-01-01
Investigations on interaction of laser plasma with the magnetic field in the range of 100-300 kOe are surveyed. Problems associated with the effect of the field on the optical breakdown threshold in gases, the geometry (kinetics) of laser plasma and its radiation are mainly considered. It is noted that the magnetic field may reduce the o tical breakdown threshold in gases, promote the spreading of plasma predominantly in the direction of tice magnetic field, and also affect (increase in the visible range) the radiation intensity of the laser plasma. The effect of the magnetic field on the temperature of the laser plasma is not completely understood yet, but the very fact of existence of this dependence is important; it enables one to search for conditions under which the magnetic field would promote the increase at the temperature of laser plasma
Plasma simulation of electron avalanche in a linear thyratron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kushner, M.J.
1985-01-01
Thyratrons typically operate at sufficiently small PD (pressure x electrode separation) that holdoff is obtained by operating on the near side of the Paschen curve, and by shielding the slot in the control grid so there is no straight line path for electrons to reach the anode from the cathode. Electron avalanche is initiated by pulsing the control grid to a high voltage. Upon collapse of voltage in the cathode-control grid space, the discharge is sustained by penetration of potential through the control grid slot into the cathode-control grid region. To better understand the electron avalanche process in multi-grid and slotted structures such as thyratrons, a plasma simulation code has been constructed. This effort is in support of a companion program in which a linear thyratron is being electrically and spectroscopically characterized
Magnetic field in expanding quark-gluon plasma
Stewart, Evan; Tuchin, Kirill
2018-04-01
Intense electromagnetic fields are created in the quark-gluon plasma by the external ultrarelativistic valence charges. The time evolution and the strength of this field are strongly affected by the electrical conductivity of the plasma. Yet, it has recently been observed that the effect of the magnetic field on the plasma flow is small. We compute the effect of plasma flow on magnetic field and demonstrate that it is less than 10%. These observations indicate that the plasma hydrodynamics and the dynamics of electromagnetic field decouple. Thus, it is a very good approximation, on the one hand, to study QGP in the background electromagnetic field generated by external sources and, on the other hand, to investigate the dynamics of magnetic field in the background plasma. We also argue that the wake induced by the magnetic field in plasma is negligible.
Influence of pinches on magnetic reconnection in turbulent space plasmas
Olshevsky, Vyacheslav; Lapenta, Giovanni; Markidis, Stefano; Divin, Andrey
A generally accepted scenario of magnetic reconnection in space plasmas is the breakage of magnetic field lines in X-points. In laboratory, reconnection is widely studied in pinches, current channels embedded into twisted magnetic fields. No model of magnetic reconnection in space plasmas considers both null-points and pinches as peers. We have performed a particle-in-cell simulation of magnetic reconnection in a three-dimensional configuration where null-points are present nitially, and Z-pinches are formed during the simulation. The X-points are relatively stable, and no substantial energy dissipation is associated with them. On contrary, turbulent magnetic reconnection in the pinches causes the magnetic energy to decay at a rate of approximately 1.5 percent per ion gyro period. Current channels and twisted magnetic fields are ubiquitous in turbulent space plasmas, so pinches can be responsible for the observed high magnetic reconnection rates.
Effects of 3D Magnetic Perturbations on Toroidal Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Callen, J.D.
2010-01-01
Full text: To lowest order tokamaks are two-dimensional (2D) axisymmetric magnetic systems. But small 3D magnetic perturbations (both externally applied and from plasma instabilities) have many interesting and useful effects on tokamak (and quasi-symmetric stellarator) plasmas. Plasma transport equations that include these effects, especially on diamagnetic-level toroidal plasma rotation, have recently been developed. The 3D magnetic perturbations and their plasma effects can be classified according to their toroidal mode number n: low n (1 to 5) resonant (q = m/n in plasma) and non-resonant fields, medium n (due to toroidal field ripple), and high n (due to microturbulence). This paper concentrates on low and medium n perturbations. Low n non-resonant magnetic fields induce a neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV) that damps toroidal plasma rotation throughout the plasma toward an offset flow in the counter-I p direction; recent tokamak experiments have confirmed and exploited these predictions by applying external low n non-resonant magnetic perturbations. Medium n perturbations have similar effects plus possible ripple trapping and resultant edge ion losses. A low n resonant magnetic field induces a toroidal plasma torque in the vicinity of the rational surface; when large enough it can stop plasma rotation there and lead to a locked mode, which often causes a plasma disruption. Externally applied 3D magnetic perturbations usually have many components; in the plasma their lowest n components are amplified by plasma responses, particularly at high beta. Low n plasma instabilities (e.g., NTMs, RWMs) cause additional 3D magnetic perturbations in tokamak plasmas; tearing modes can bifurcate the topology and form magnetic islands. Finally, multiple resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) can cause local magnetic stochasticity and influence H-mode edge pedestal transport. These various effects of 3D magnetic perturbations can be used to control the toroidal plasma
Low-frequency fluctuations in a pure toroidal magnetized plasma
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A magnetized, low- plasma in pure toroidal configuration is formed and extensively studied with ion mass as control parameter. Xenon, krypton and argon plasmas are formed at a fixed toroidal magnetic field of 0.024 T, with a peak density of ∼ 1011 cm-3, ∼ 4 × 1010 cm-3 and ∼ 2 × 1010 cm−3 respectively.
Counterstreaming magnetized plasmas. II. Perpendicular wave propagation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tautz, R.C.; Schlickeiser, R.
2006-01-01
The properties of longitudinal and transverse oscillations in magnetized symmetric counterstreaming Maxwellian plasmas with equal thermal velocities for waves propagating perpendicular to the stream direction are investigated on the basis of Maxwell equations and the nonrelativistic Vlasov equation. With the constraint of vanishing particle flux in the stream direction, three distinct dispersion relations are known, which are the ordinary-wave mode, the Bernstein wave mode, and the extraordinary electromagnetic wave mode, where the latter two are only approximations. In this article, all three dispersion relations are evaluated for a counterstreaming Maxwellian distribution function in terms of the hypergeometric function 2 F 2 . The growth rates for the ordinary-wave mode are compared to earlier results by Bornatici and Lee [Phys. Fluids 13, 3007 (1970)], who derived approximate results, whereas in this article the exact dispersion relation is solved numerically. The original results are therefore improved and show differences of up to 21% to the results obtained in this article
Polarization transfer in relativistic magnetized plasmas
Heyvaerts, Jean; Pichon, Christophe; Prunet, Simon; Thiébaut, Jérôme
2013-04-01
The polarization transfer coefficients of a relativistic magnetized plasma are derived. These results apply to any momentum distribution function of the particles, isotropic or anisotropic. Particles interact with the radiation either in a non-resonant mode when the frequency of the radiation exceeds their characteristic synchrotron emission frequency or quasi-resonantly otherwise. These two classes of particles contribute differently to the polarization transfer coefficients. For a given frequency, this dichotomy corresponds to a regime change in the dependence of the transfer coefficients on the parameters of the particle's population, since these parameters control the relative weight of the contribution of each class of particles. Our results apply to either regimes as well as the intermediate one. The derivation of the transfer coefficients involves an exact expression of the conductivity tensor of the relativistic magnetized plasma that has not been used hitherto in this context. Suitable expansions valid at frequencies much larger than the cyclotron frequency allow us to analytically perform the summation over all resonances at high harmonics of the relativistic gyrofrequency. The transfer coefficients are represented in the form of two-variable integrals that can be conveniently computed for any set of parameters by using Olver's expansion of high-order Bessel functions. We particularize our results to a number of distribution functions, isotropic, thermal or power law, with different multipolar anisotropies of low order, or strongly beamed. Specifically, earlier exact results for thermal distributions are recovered. For isotropic distributions, the Faraday coefficients are expressed in the form of a one-variable quadrature over energy, for which we provide the kernels in the high-frequency limit and in the asymptotic low-frequency limit. An interpolation formula extending over the full energy range is proposed for these kernels. A similar reduction to a
The electron cyclotron instabiity of a beam-plasma system immersed in a magnetic beach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Varandas, C.A.F.; Cabral, J.A.C.
1982-01-01
The linear development of the electron cyclotron instability of a beam-plasma system in a magnetic beach is studied. Beaches of positive as well as negative B-field gradients are considered. The experimental results concerning the excited instability spectra are interpreted in terms of local dispersion analysis. (Author) [pt
Analysis of plasma behavior in a magnetic nozzle of laser fusion rocket
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagamine, Yoshihiko; Yoshimi, Naofumi; Nakama, Yuji; Muranaka, Takanobu; Mayumi, Takao; Nakashima, Hideki
1997-01-01
A magnetic nozzle concept in a laser fusion rocket is suitable for controlling the fusion plasma flow and it has an advantage that thermalization with wall structures in a thrust chamber can be avoided. Rayleigh-Taylor instability would occur at the surface of expanding plasma and it would lead to the degradation of thrust efficiency, due to diffusion of the plasma through ambient decelerating magnetic field. A 3D hybrid particle-in-cell code has been developed to analyze the plasma instability in the magnetic nozzle. The resultant linear growth rate γ of the instability is found to be 2.96 x 10 6 and it is in good agreement with the theoretical value from conventional Rayleigh Taylor instability. (author)
Linear and Nonlinear Response of a Rotating Tokamak Plasma to a Resonant Error-Field
Fitzpatrick, Richard
2014-10-01
An in-depth investigation of the effect of a resonant error-field on a rotating, quasi-cylindrical, tokamak plasma is preformed within the context of resistive-MHD theory. General expressions for the response of the plasma at the rational surface to the error-field are derived in both the linear and nonlinear regimes, and the extents of these regimes mapped out in parameter space. Torque-balance equations are also obtained in both regimes. These equations are used to determine the steady-state plasma rotation at the rational surface in the presence of the error-field. It is found that, provided the intrinsic plasma rotation is sufficiently large, the torque-balance equations possess dynamically stable low-rotation and high-rotation solution branches, separated by a forbidden band of dynamically unstable solutions. Moreover, bifurcations between the two stable solution branches are triggered as the amplitude of the error-field is varied. A low- to high-rotation bifurcation is invariably associated with a significant reduction in the width of the magnetic island chain driven at the rational surface, and vice versa. General expressions for the bifurcation thresholds are derived, and their domains of validity mapped out in parameter space. This research was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-FG02-04ER-54742.
Theory of electromagnetic fluctuations for magnetized multi-species plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Navarro, Roberto E., E-mail: roberto.navarro@ug.uchile.cl; Muñoz, Víctor [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago (Chile); Araneda, Jaime [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción 4070386 (Chile); Moya, Pablo S. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Heliophysics Science Division, Geospace Physics Laboratory, Mail Code 673, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States); Department of Physics, Catholic University of America, Washington, D. C. 20064 (United States); Viñas, Adolfo F. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Heliophysics Science Division, Geospace Physics Laboratory, Mail Code 673, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States); Valdivia, Juan A. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago (Chile); Centro de Estudios Interdisciplinarios Básicos y Aplicados en Complejidad, CEIBA complejidad, Bogotá (Colombia)
2014-09-15
Analysis of electromagnetic fluctuations in plasma provides relevant information about the plasma state and its macroscopic properties. In particular, the solar wind persistently sustains a small but detectable level of magnetic fluctuation power even near thermal equilibrium. These fluctuations may be related to spontaneous electromagnetic fluctuations arising from the discreteness of charged particles. Here, we derive general expressions for the plasma fluctuations in a multi-species plasma following arbitrary distribution functions. This formalism, which generalizes and includes previous works on the subject, is then applied to the generation of electromagnetic fluctuations propagating along a background magnetic field in a plasma of two proton populations described by drifting bi-Maxwellians.
Dual-function magnetic structure for toroidal plasma devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brown, R.L.
1978-01-01
This invention relates to a support system wherein the iron core and yoke of the plasma current system of a tokamak plasma containment device is redesigned to support the forces of the magnet coils. The containment rings, which occupy very valuable space around the magnet coils, are utilized to serve as yokes for the core such that the conventional yoke is eliminated. The overall result is an improved aspect ratio, reduction in structure, smaller overall size, and improved access to the plasma ring
Plasma cluster acceleration by means of external magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kracik, J.; Maloch, J.; Sobra, K.
1975-01-01
The electromagnetic shock tubes are used not only for shock wave creation and study but also for pulse plasma acceleration. By applying the rail acceleration the external magnetic field perpendicular to the plasma cluster velocity can be increased. In the present work is theoretically and experimentally confirmed the external magnetic field influence on the plasma cluster acceleration when the 'snow plough' model is used. (Auth.)
Neutral beam injection and plasma convection in a magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Okuda, H.; Hiroe, S.
1988-06-01
Injection of a neutral beam into a plasma in a magnetic field has been studied by means of numerical plasma simulations. It is found that, in the absence of a rotational transform, the convection electric field arising from the polarization charges at the edges of the beam is dissipated by turbulent plasma convection, leading to anomalous plasma diffusion across the magnetic field. The convection electric field increases with the beam density and beam energy. In the presence of a rotational transform, polarization charges can be neutralized by the electron motion along the magnetic field. Even in the presence of a rotational transform, a steady-state convection electric field and, hence, anomalous plasma diffusion can develop when a neutral beam is constantly injected into a plasma. Theoretical investigations on the convection electric field are described for a plasma in the presence of rotational transform. 11 refs., 19 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frank, A.G.; Bogdanov, S.Yu.; Burilina, V.B.; Kyrie, N.P.
1997-01-01
Laboratory experiments are reported, in which we studied the possibilities of the formation of current sheets (CS) in different magnetic configurations, as well as the magnetic reconnection phenomena. In 2D magnetic fields with null-lines the CS formation was shown to be a typical process in both linear and nonlinear regimes. The problem of CS formation is of a fundamental importance in the general case of 3D magnetic configurations. We have revealed experimentally, that the formation of CS occurs in the various 3D configurations, both containing magnetic null-points and without them. At the same time, the CS parameters essentially depend on the local characteristics of the configuration. We may conclude therefore, that the self-organization of CS represents the universal process for the plasma dynamics in the nonuniform magnetic fields. (author)
Effects of 3D magnetic perturbations on toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Callen, J.D.
2011-01-01
Small three-dimensional (3D) magnetic field perturbations have many interesting and possibly useful effects on tokamak and quasi-symmetric stellarator plasmas. Plasma transport equations that include these effects, most notably on diamagnetic-level toroidal plasma flows, have recently been developed. The 3D field perturbations and their plasma effects can be classified according to their toroidal mode number n: low n (say 1-5) resonant (with field line pitch, q = m/n) and non-resonant fields, medium n (∼20, due to toroidal field ripple) and high n (due to microturbulence). Low n non-resonant fields induce a neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV) that damps toroidal rotation throughout the plasma towards an offset rotation in the counter-current direction. Recent tokamak experiments have generally confirmed and exploited these predictions by applying external low n non-resonant magnetic perturbations. Medium n toroidal field ripple produces similar effects plus possible ripple-trapping NTV effects and ion direct losses in the edge. A low n (e.g. n = 1) resonant field is mostly shielded by the toroidally rotating plasma at and inside the resonant (rational) surface. If it is large enough it can stop plasma rotation at the rational surface, facilitate magnetic reconnection there and lead to a growing stationary magnetic island (locked mode), which often causes a plasma disruption. Externally applied 3D magnetic perturbations usually have many components. In the plasma their lowest n (e.g. n = 1) externally resonant components can be amplified by kink-type plasma responses, particularly at high β. Low n plasma instabilities (e.g. resistive wall modes, neoclassical tearing modes) cause additional 3D magnetic perturbations in tokamak plasmas. Tearing modes in their nonlinear (Rutherford) regime bifurcate the topology and form magnetic islands. Finally, multiple resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) can, if not shielded by plasma rotation effects, cause local magnetic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ni Zhipeng; Wang Liangbin; Li Jiangang; Chen Zhiyou; Zhang Yong; Wang Futang
2008-01-01
An electromagnetic calculation and the parameters of the magnet system of the magnetically confined plasma rocket were established. By using ANSYS code, it was found that the leakage rate depends on the current intensity of the magnet and the change of the magnet position.
Experiments on helical modes in magnetized thin foil-plasmas
Yager-Elorriaga, David
2017-10-01
This paper gives an in-depth experimental study of helical features on magnetized, ultrathin foil-plasmas driven by the 1-MA linear transformer driver at University of Michigan. Three types of cylindrical liner loads were designed to produce: (a) pure magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) modes (defined as being void of the acceleration-driven magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability, MRT) using a non-imploding geometry, (b) pure kink modes using a non-imploding, kink-seeded geometry, and (c) MRT-MHD coupled modes in an unseeded, imploding geometry. For each configuration, we applied relatively small axial magnetic fields of Bz = 0.2-2.0 T (compared to peak azimuthal fields of 30-40 T). The resulting liner-plasmas and instabilities were imaged using 12-frame laser shadowgraphy and visible self-emission on a fast framing camera. The azimuthal mode number was carefully identified with a tracking algorithm of self-emission minima. Our experiments show that the helical structures are a manifestation of discrete eigenmodes. The pitch angle of the helix is simply m / kR , from implosion to explosion, where m, k, and R are the azimuthal mode number, axial wavenumber, and radius of the helical instability. Thus, the pitch angle increases (decreases) during implosion (explosion) as R becomes smaller (larger). We found that there are one, or at most two, discrete helical modes that arise for magnetized liners, with no apparent threshold on the applied Bz for the appearance of helical modes; increasing the axial magnetic field from zero to 0.5 T changes the relative weight between the m = 0 and m = 1 modes. Further increasing the applied axial magnetic fields yield higher m modes. Finally, the seeded kink instability overwhelms the intrinsic instability modes of the plasma. These results are corroborated with our analytic theory on the effects of radial acceleration on the classical sausage, kink, and higher m modes. Work supported by US DOE award DE-SC0012328, Sandia National Laboratories
Computation of magnetic field in DC brushless linear motors built with NdFeB magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Basak, A.; Shirkoohi, G.H.
1990-01-01
A software package based on finite element technique has been used to compute three-dimensional magnetic fields and static forces developed in brushless d.c. linear motors. As the field flux-source two different types of permanent magnets, one of them being the high energy neodymium- iron-boron type, has been used in computer models. Motors with the same specifications as the computer models were built and experimental results obtained from them are compared with the computed results
Revisiting linear plasma waves for finite value of the plasma parameter
Grismayer, Thomas; Fahlen, Jay; Decyk, Viktor; Mori, Warren
2010-11-01
We investigate through theory and PIC simulations the Landau-damping of plasma waves with finite plasma parameter. We concentrate on the linear regime, γφB, where the waves are typically small and below the thermal noise. We simulate these condition using 1,2,3D electrostatic PIC codes (BEPS), noting that modern computers now allow us to simulate cases where (nλD^3 = [1e2;1e6]). We study these waves by using a subtraction technique in which two simulations are carried out. In the first, a small wave is initialized or driven, in the second no wave is excited. The results are subtracted to provide a clean signal that can be studied. As nλD^3 is decreased, the number of resonant electrons can be small for linear waves. We show how the damping changes as a result of having few resonant particles. We also find that for small nλD^3 fluctuations can cause the electrons to undergo collisions that eventually destroy the initial wave. A quantity of interest is the the life time of a particular mode which depends on the plasma parameter and the wave number. The life time is estimated and then compared with the numerical results. A surprising result is that even for large values of nλD^3 some non-Vlasov discreteness effects appear to be important.
Plasma membrane isolation using immobilized concanavalin A magnetic beads.
Lee, Yu-Chen; Srajer Gajdosik, Martina; Josic, Djuro; Lin, Sue-Hwa
2012-01-01
Isolation of highly purified plasma membranes is the key step in constructing the plasma membrane proteome. Traditional plasma membrane isolation method takes advantage of the differential density of organelles. While differential centrifugation methods are sufficient to enrich for plasma membranes, the procedure is lengthy and results in low recovery of the membrane fraction. Importantly, there is significant contamination of the plasma membranes with other organelles. The traditional agarose affinity matrix is suitable for isolating proteins but has limitation in separating organelles due to the density of agarose. Immobilization of affinity ligands to magnetic beads allows separation of affinity matrix from organelles through magnets and could be developed for the isolation of organelles. We have developed a simple method for isolating plasma membranes using lectin concanavalin A (ConA) magnetic beads. ConA is immobilized onto magnetic beads by binding biotinylated ConA to streptavidin magnetic beads. The ConA magnetic beads are used to bind glycosylated proteins present in the membranes. The bound membranes are solubilized from the magnetic beads with a detergent containing the competing sugar alpha methyl mannoside. In this study, we describe the procedure of isolating rat liver plasma membranes using sucrose density gradient centrifugation as described by Neville. We then further purify the membrane fraction by using ConA magnetic beads. After this purification step, main liver plasma membrane proteins, especially the highly glycosylated ones and proteins containing transmembrane domains could be identified by LC-ESI-MS/MS. While not described here, the magnetic bead method can also be used to isolate plasma membranes from cell lysates. This membrane purification method should expedite the cataloging of plasma membrane proteome.
On the axially symmetric equilibrium of a magnetically confined plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lehnert, B.
1975-01-01
The axially symmetric equilibrium of a magnetically confined plasma is reconsidered, with the special purpose of studying high-beta schemes with a purely poloidal magnetic field. A number of special solutions of the pressure and magnetic flux functions are shown to exist, the obtained results may form starting-points in a further analysis of physically relevant configurations. (Auth.)
Three dimensional simulation study of spheromak injection into magnetized plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suzuki, Y.; Watanabe, T.H.; Sato, T.; Hayashi, T.
2000-01-01
The three dimensional dynamics of a spheromak-like compact toroid (SCT) plasmoid, which is injected into a magnetized target plasma region, is investigated by using MHD numerical simulations. It is found that the process of SCT penetration into this region is much more complicated than that which has been analysed so far by using a conducting sphere (CS) model. The injected SCT suffers from a tilting instability, which grows with a similar timescale to that of the SCT penetration. The instability is accompanied by magnetic reconnection between the SCT magnetic field and the target magnetic field, which disrupts the magnetic configuration of the SCT. Magnetic reconnection plays a role in supplying the high density plasma, initially confined in the SCT magnetic field, to the target region. The penetration depth of the SCT high density plasma is also examined. It is shown to be shorter than that estimated from the CS model. The SCT high density plasma is decelerated mainly by the Lorentz force of the target magnetic field, which includes not only the magnetic pressure force but also the magnetic tension force. Furthermore, by comparing the SCT plasmoid injection with the bare plasmoid injection, magnetic reconnection is considered to relax the magnetic tension force, i.e. the deceleration of the SCT plasmoid. (author)
Resonant absorption of radar waves by a magnetized collisional plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun Aiping; Tong Honghui; Shen Liru; Tang Deli; Qiu Xiaoming
2001-01-01
The propagation of radar waves in a magnetized collisional plasma slab is studied numerically. It is found for uniform plasma that: first, the wave attenuation and absorbed power show a peak value, i.e., resonant absorption when the collision frequency f en = 0.1, 0.5, 1 GHz and the wave frequency nears upper hybrid frequency. Secondly, the attenuation, absorbed, and transmitted power curves become flat at f en = 5, 10 Ghz. thirdly, the attenuation and absorbed power increase with plasma density, and the attenuation and the proportion of absorbed power can reach 100 dB and 80%, respectively, at the plasma density n = 10 11 cm -3 . For nonuniform plasma, the peak value of reflected power is larger than that in uniform plasma. So, uniform magnetized plasma is of more benefit to plasma cloaking
Dynamics of Plasma Jets and Bubbles Launched into a Transverse Background Magnetic Field
Zhang, Yue
2017-10-01
A coaxial magnetized plasma gun has been utilized to launch both plasma jets (open B-field) and plasma bubbles (closed B-field) into a transverse background magnetic field in the HelCat (Helicon-Cathode) linear device at the University of New Mexico. These situations may have bearing on fusion plasmas (e.g. plasma injection for tokamak fueling, ELM pacing, or disruption mitigation) and astrophysical settings (e.g. astrophysical jet stability, coronal mass ejections, etc.). The magnetic Reynolds number of the gun plasma is 100 , so that magnetic advection dominates over magnetic diffusion. The gun plasma ram pressure, ρjetVjet2 >B02 / 2μ0 , the background magnetic pressure, so that the jet or bubble can easily penetrate the background B-field, B0. When the gun axial B-field is weak compared to the gun azimuthal field, a current-driven jet is formed with a global helical magnetic configuration. Applying the transverse background magnetic field, it is observed that the n = 1 kink mode is stabilized, while magnetic probe measurements show contrarily that the safety factor q(a) drops below unity. At the same time, a sheared axial jet velocity is measured. We conclude that the tension force arising from increasing curvature of the background magnetic field induces the measured sheared flow gradient above the theoretical kink-stabilization threshold, resulting in the emergent kink stabilization of the injected plasma jet. In the case of injected bubbles, spheromak-like plasma formation is verified. However, when the spheromak plasma propagates into the transverse background magnetic field, the typical self-closed global symmetry magnetic configuration does not hold any more. In the region where the bubble toroidal field opposed the background B-field, the magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) instability has been observed. Details of the experiment setup, diagnostics, experimental results and theoretical analysis will be presented. Supported by the National Science Foundation
Dynamic identification of plasma magnetic contour in fusion machines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bettini, P.; Trevisan, F.; Cavinato, M.
2005-01-01
The paper presents a method to identify the plasma magnetic contour in fusion machines, when eddy currents are present in the conducting structures surrounding the plasma. The approach presented is based on the integration of an electromagnetic model of the plasma with a lumped parameters model of the conducting structures around the plasma. This approach has been validated against experimental data from RFX, a reversed field pinch machine. (author)
Progress In Magnetized Target Fusion Driven by Plasma Liners
Thio, Francis Y. C.; Kirkpatrick, Ronald C.; Knapp, Charles E.; Cassibry, Jason; Eskridge, Richard; Lee, Michael; Smith, James; Martin, Adam; Wu, S. T.; Schmidt, George;
2001-01-01
Magnetized target fusion (MTF) attempts to combine the favorable attributes of magnetic confinement fusion (MCF) for energy confinement with the attributes of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) for efficient compression heating and wall-free containment of the fusing plasma. It uses a material liner to compress and contain a magnetized plasma. For practical applications, standoff drivers to deliver the imploding momentum flux to the target plasma remotely are required. Spherically converging plasma jets have been proposed as standoff drivers for this purpose. The concept involves the dynamic formation of a spherical plasma liner by the merging of plasma jets, and the use of the liner so formed to compress a spheromak or a field reversed configuration (FRC).
Upper Hybrid Resonance of Microwaves with a Large Magnetized Plasma Sheet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huo Wenqing; Guo Shijie; Ding Liang; Xu Yuemin
2013-01-01
A large magnetized plasma sheet with size of 60 cm × 60 cm × 2 cm was generated by a linear hollow cathode discharge under the confinement of a uniform magnetic field generated by a Helmholtz Coil. The microwave transmission characteristic of the plasma sheet was measured for different incident frequencies, in cases with the electric field polarization of the incident microwave either perpendicular or parallel to the magnetic field. In this measurement, parameters of the plasma sheet were changed by varying the discharge current and magnetic field intensity. In the experiment, upper hybrid resonance phenomena were observed when the electric field polarization of the incident wave was perpendicular to the magnetic field. These resonance phenomena cannot be found in the case of parallel polarization incidence. This result is consistent with theoretical consideration. According to the resonance condition, the electron density values at the resonance points are calculated under various experimental conditions. This kind of resonance phenomena can be used to develop a specific method to diagnose the electron density of this magnetized plasma sheet apparatus. Moreover, it is pointed out that the operating parameters of the large plasma sheet in practical applications should be selected to keep away from the upper hybrid resonance point to prevent signals from polarization distortion
Analysis of plasma behavior and electro-magnetic interaction between plasma and device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kobayashi, Tomofumi
1980-01-01
A simulation program for the analysis of plasma behavior and the electromagnetic interaction between plasma and device has been developed. The program consists of a part for the analysis of plasma behavior (plasma system) and a part for the analysis of the electro-magnetic interaction between plasma and devices (circuit system). The parameters which connect the plasma system and the circuit system are the electric resistance of plasma, the internal inductance, and the plasma current. For the plasma system, the simultaneous equations which describe the density distribution of plasma particles, the temperature distribution of electrons and ions, and the space-time variation of current density distribution were derived. The one-dimensional plasma column in γ-direction was considered. The electric resistance and the internal inductance can be deduced. The circuit components are a current transformer, a vertical field coil, a quadrupole field coil, a vacuum chamber and others. An equation which describes plasma position and the shape of cross section is introduced. The plasma position can be known by solving the Mukhavatov's formula of equilibrium. By using this program, the build-up process of plasma current in JT-60 was analysed. It was found that the expansion of plasma sub radius and the control of current distribution by gas injection are the effective methods to obtain high temperature and high density plasma. The eddy current induced in a vacuum vessel shields 40 percent of magnetic field made in the plasma region by a vertical field coil. (Kato, T.)
Non-linear free streaming in Vlasov plasma
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Sedláček, Zdeněk
2004-01-01
Roč. 54, suppl.C (2004), C82-C88 ISSN 0011-4626. [Symposium on Plasma Physics and Technology/21th./. Prague, 14.06.2004-17.06.2004] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : plasma oscillations * Vlasov equation Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.292, year: 2004
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tang, Deli; Chu, Paul K.
2003-01-01
The enhancement of planar radio frequency (RF) inductively coupled argon plasma is studied in the presence of an assistant anode and an external magnetic field at low pressure. The influence of the assistant anode and magnetic field on the efficiency of RF power absorption and plasma parameters is investigated. An external axial magnetic field is coupled into the plasma discharge region by an external electromagnetic coil outside the discharge chamber and an assistant cylindrical anode is inserted into the discharge chamber to enhance the plasma discharge. The plasma parameters and density profile are measured by an electrostatic Langmuir probe at different magnetic fields and anode voltages. The RF power absorption by the plasma can be effectively enhanced by the external magnetic field compared with the nonmagnetized discharge. The plasma density can be further increased by the application of a voltage to the assistant anode. Owing to the effective power absorption and enhanced plasma discharge by the assistant anode in a longitudinal magnetic field, the plasma density can be enhanced by more than a factor of two. Meanwhile, the nonuniformity of the plasma density is less than 10% and it can be achieved in a process chamber with a diameter of 600 mm
Spectral line intensity irreversibility in circulatory plasma magnetization processes
Qu, Z. Q.; Dun, G. T.
2012-01-01
Spectral line intensity variation is found to be irreversible in circulatory plasma magnetization process by experiments described in this paper, i.e., the curves illustrating spectral line photon fluxes irradiated from a light source immerged in a magnetic field by increasing the magnetic induction cannot be reproduced by decreasing the magnetic induction within the errors. There are two plasma magnetization patterns found. One shows that the intensities are greater at the same magnetic inductions during the magnetic induction decreasing process after the increasing, and the other gives the opposite effect. This reveals that the magneto-induced excitation and de-excitation process is irreversible like ferromagnetic magnetization. But the two irreversible processes are very different in many aspects stated in the text.
Andreev, Pavel A.
2018-04-01
Two kinds of quantum electrodynamic radiative corrections to electromagnetic interactions and their influence on the properties of highly dense quantum plasmas are considered. Linear radiative correction to the Coulomb interaction is considered. Its contribution in the spectrum of the Langmuir waves is presented. The second kind of radiative corrections are related to the nonlinearity of the Maxwell equations for the strong electromagnetic field. Their contribution in the spectrum of transverse waves of magnetized plasmas is briefly discussed. At the consideration of the Langmuir wave spectrum, we included the effect of different distributions of the spin-up and spin-down electrons revealing in the Fermi pressure shift.
Observations of dusty plasmas with magnetized dust grains
Luo, Q.-Z.; D'Angelo, N.
2000-11-01
We report a newly observed phenomenon in a dusty plasma device of the \\mbox{Q-machine} type. At low plasma densities the time required by the plasma to return to its no-dust conditions, after the dust dispenser is turned off, can be as long as many tens of seconds or longer. A tentative interpretation of this observation in terms of magnetized dust grains is advanced. It appears that an important loss mechanism of fine dust grains is by ion drag along the magnetic field lines. The effect of ion drag is somewhat counteracted by the -µ∇B force present when the magnetic field has a mirror geometry.
Relaxational dissipation of magnetic field energy in a rarefied plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vekshtejn, G.E.
1987-01-01
A mechanism of solar corona plasma heating connected with relaxation of a magnetic configuration in the corona to the state of the magnetic energy minimum at restrictions imposed by high conductivity of a medium is considered. Photospheric plasma pulsations leading to generation of longitudinal currents in the corona are in this case energy sources. The excess magnetic energy of these currents is dissipated as a result of reclosing of force lines of the magnetic field in narrow current layers. Plasmaturbulence related to the process of magnetic reclosing is phenomenologically described in this case by introducing certain characteristic time of relaxation. Such an approach permits to relate the plasma heating energy with parameters of photospheric motions in the framework of a simple model of the magnetic field
Plasma diffusion in systems with disrupted magnetic surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morozov, D.K.; Pogutse, O.P.
1982-01-01
Plasma diffusion is analyzed in the case in which the system of magnetic surfaces is disrupted by a stochastic perturbation of the magnetic field. The diffusion coefficient is related to the statistical properties of the field. The statistical characteristics of the field are found when the magnetic surfaces near the separatrix are disrupted by an external perturbation. The diffusion coefficient is evaluated in the region in which the magnetic surfaces are disrupted. In this region the diffusion coefficient is of the Bohm form
High magnetic field generation for laser-plasma experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pollock, B. B.; Froula, D. H.; Davis, P. F.; Ross, J. S.; Fulkerson, S.; Bower, J.; Satariano, J.; Price, D.; Krushelnick, K.; Glenzer, S. H.
2006-01-01
An electromagnetic solenoid was developed to study the effect of magnetic fields on electron thermal transport in laser plasmas. The solenoid, which is driven by a pulsed power system supplying 30 kJ, achieves magnetic fields of 13 T. The field strength was measured on the solenoid axis with a magnetic probe and optical Zeeman splitting. The measurements agree well with analytical estimates. A method for optimizing the solenoid design to achieve magnetic fields exceeding 20 T is presented
Parametrically induced low-frequency waves in weakly inhomogeneous magnetized plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pesic, S.
1981-01-01
The linear dispersion relation governing the parametric interaction of a lower hybrid pump wave with a weakly-inhomogeneous current carrying hot plasma confined by a helical magnetic field is derived and solved numerically. The stability boundaries are delineated over a wide range in the k-space. The frequency and growth rate of decay instabilities are calculated for plasma parameters relevant to lower hybrid plasma heating experiments. The parametric excitation of drift waves and ion cyclotron current instabilities is discussed. In the low-density plasma region low minimum thresholds and high growth rates are obtained for the pump decay into ion cyclotron and nonresonant quasimodes. The spatial amplification of hot ion Bernstein waves and nonresonant quasimodes dominate in the plasma core (ω 0 /ωsub(LH) < 2). The presented theoretical results are in qualitative agreement with current LH plasma heating experiments. (author)
Magnetic diagnostic plasma position in the TCA/BR tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galvao, R.M.O.; Kuznetsov, Yu.K.; Nascimento, I.C.
1996-01-01
The cross-section of the plasma column is TCA/BR has a nearly circular plasma shape. This allows implementation of simplified methods of magnetic diagnostics. Although these methods were in may tokamaks and are well described, their accuracies are not clearly defined because the very simplified theoretical model of plasma equilibrium on which they are based differs from the real conditions in tokamaks like TCA/BR. In this paper we present the methods of plasma position diagnostics in TCA/BR from external magnetic measurements with an error analysis. (author). 4 refs., 3 figs
Magnetized Target Fusion Propulsion: Plasma Injectors for MTF Guns
Griffin, Steven T.
2003-01-01
To achieve increased payload size and decreased trip time for interplanetary travel, a low mass, high specific impulse, high thrust propulsion system is required. This suggests the need for research into fusion as a source of power and high temperature plasma. The plasma would be deflected by magnetic fields to provide thrust. Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) research consists of several related investigations into these topics. These include the orientation and timing of the plasma guns and the convergence and interface development of the "pusher" plasma. Computer simulations of the gun as it relates to plasma initiation and repeatability are under investigation. One of the items under development is the plasma injector. This is a surface breakdown driven plasma generator designed to function at very low pressures. The performance, operating conditions and limitations of these injectors need to be determined.
Khan, Shahab Ullah; Adnan, Muhammad; Qamar, Anisa; Mahmood, Shahzad
2016-07-01
The propagation of linear and nonlinear electrostatic waves is investigated in magnetized dusty plasma with stationary negatively or positively charged dust, cold mobile ions and non-extensive electrons. Two normal modes are predicted in the linear regime, whose characteristics are investigated parametrically, focusing on the effect of electrons non-extensivity, dust charge polarity, concentration of dust and magnetic field strength. Using the reductive perturbation technique, a Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) type equation is derived which governs the dynamics of small-amplitude solitary waves in magnetized dusty plasma. The properties of the solitary wave structures are analyzed numerically with the system parameters i.e. electrons non-extensivity, concentration of dust, polarity of dust and magnetic field strength. Following Allen and Rowlands (J. Plasma Phys. 53:63, 1995), we have shown that the pulse soliton solution of the ZK equation is unstable, and have analytically traced the dependence of the instability growth rate on the nonextensive parameter q for electrons, dust charge polarity and magnetic field strength. The results should be useful for understanding the nonlinear propagation of DIA solitary waves in laboratory and space plasmas.
Teodorescu, C; Young, W C; Swan, G W S; Ellis, R F; Hassam, A B; Romero-Talamas, C A
2010-08-20
Interferometric density measurements in plasmas rotating in shaped, open magnetic fields demonstrate strong confinement of plasma parallel to the magnetic field, with density drops of more than a factor of 10. Taken together with spectroscopic measurements of supersonic E × B rotation of sonic Mach 2, these measurements are in agreement with ideal MHD theory which predicts large parallel pressure drops balanced by centrifugal forces in supersonically rotating plasmas.
Magnetic dynamics of simple collective modes in a two-sphere plasma model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Essen, Hanno
2005-01-01
A plasma blob is modeled as consisting of two homogeneous spheres of equal radius and equal but opposite charge densities that can move relative to each other. Relative translational and rotational motion are considered separately. Magnetic effects from the current density caused by the relative motion are included. Magnetic interaction is seen to cause an inductive inertia. In the relative translation case the Coulomb attraction, approximately a linear force for small amplitudes, causes an oscillation. For a large number of particles, the corresponding oscillation frequency will not be the Langmuir plasma frequency, because of the large inductive inertia. For rotation an external magnetic field is included and the energy and diamagnetism of the plasma in the model is calculated. Finally, it is noted how the neglect of resistivity is motivated by the results
Turbulence simulations of blob formation and radial propagation in toroidally magnetized plasmas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Garcia, O.E.; Naulin, V.; Nielsen, A.H.
2006-01-01
the presence of long- range correlations in the particle density fluctuations. Finally, conditional statistics of the particle flux demonstrates the intermittency of the turbulent plasma transport and the quasi-periodic apparency of blob structures due to bursting in the global turbulence level....... of particles and heat, which is coupled to a scrape-off layer with linear damping terms for all dependent variables corresponding to transport along open magnetic field lines. The formation of blob structures is related to profile variations caused by bursting in the global turbulence level, which is due...... to a dynamical regulation by self- sustained differential rotation of the plasma layer. Radial propagation of the blob structures follows from a vertical charge polarization due to magnetic guiding centre drifts in the toroidally magnetized plasma. Statistical analysis of the particle density, radial electric...
Propulsion of plasma by magnetic means
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bostick, W H [Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ (United States)
1958-07-01
It has been demonstrated that a small button gun can project plasma consisting of metallic ions, deuterium ions, and electrons at speeds up to 2 x 10{sup 7} cm/sec. These speeds are measured in a vacuum chamber by time-of-flight methods, using a probe and an oscilloscope. From the point of view of projecting high speed plasma in a given direction these button guns suffer from the certain weaknesses. A more efficient arrangement is to accelerate a sample of plasma by passing a current through the plasma as it rides on rails. Series plasma motor and a combination series-shunt plasma motor are analysed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Belyakov, V.; Kavin, A.; Rumyantsev, E.; Kharitonov, V.; Misenov, B.; Ovsyannikov, A.; Ovsyannikov, D.; Veremei, E.; Zhabko, A.; Mitrishkin, Y.
1999-01-01
This paper is focused on the linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) controller synthesis methodology for the ITER plasma current, position and shape control system as well as power derivative management system. It has been shown that some poloidal field (PF) coils have less influence on reference plasma-wall gaps control during plasma disturbances and hence they have been used to reduce total control power derivative by means of the additional non-linear feedback. The design has been done on the basis of linear models. Simulation was provided for non-linear model and results are presented and discussed. (orig.)
Magnetic pressure effects in a plasma-liner interface
García-Rubio, F.; Sanz, J.
2018-04-01
A theoretical analysis of magnetic pressure effects in a magnetized liner inertial fusion-like plasma is presented. In previous publications [F. García-Rubio and J. Sanz, Phys. Plasmas 24, 072710 (2017)], the evolution of a hot magnetized plasma in contact with a cold unmagnetized plasma, aiming to represent the hot spot and liner, respectively, was investigated in planar geometry. The analysis was made in a double limit low Mach and high thermal to magnetic pressure ratio β. In this paper, the analysis is extended to an arbitrary pressure ratio. Nernst, Ettingshausen, and Joule effects come into play in the energy balance. The region close to the liner is governed by thermal conduction, while the Joule dissipation becomes predominant far from it when the pressure ratio is low. Mass ablation, thermal energy, and magnetic flux losses are reduced with plasma magnetization, characterized by the electron Hall parameter ω e τ e , until β values of order unity are reached. From this point forward, increasing the electron Hall parameter no longer improves the magnetic flux conservation, and mass ablation is enhanced due to the magnetic pressure gradients. A thoughtful simplification of the problem that allows to reduce the order of the system of governing equations while still retaining the finite β effects is presented and compared to the exact case.
A double-sided linear primary permanent magnet vernier machine.
Du, Yi; Zou, Chunhua; Liu, Xianxing
2015-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to present a new double-sided linear primary permanent magnet (PM) vernier (DSLPPMV) machine, which can offer high thrust force, low detent force, and improved power factor. Both PMs and windings of the proposed machine are on the short translator, while the long stator is designed as a double-sided simple iron core with salient teeth so that it is very robust to transmit high thrust force. The key of this new machine is the introduction of double stator and the elimination of translator yoke, so that the inductance and the volume of the machine can be reduced. Hence, the proposed machine offers improved power factor and thrust force density. The electromagnetic performances of the proposed machine are analyzed including flux, no-load EMF, thrust force density, and inductance. Based on using the finite element analysis, the characteristics and performances of the proposed machine are assessed.
Non-linear radial spinwave modes in thin magnetic disks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Helsen, M.; De Clercq, J.; Vansteenkiste, A.; Van Waeyenberge, B.; Gangwar, A.; Back, C. H.; Weigand, M.
2015-01-01
We present an experimental investigation of radial spin-wave modes in magnetic nano-disks with a vortex ground state. The spin-wave amplitude was measured using a frequency-resolved magneto-optical spectrum analyzer, allowing for high-resolution resonance curves to be recorded. It was found that with increasing excitation amplitude up to about 10 mT, the lowest-order mode behaves strongly non-linearly as the mode frequency redshifts and the resonance peak strongly deforms. This behavior was quantitatively reproduced by micromagnetic simulations. Micromagnetic simulations showed that at higher excitation amplitudes, the spinwaves are transformed into a soliton by self-focusing, and collapse onto the vortex core, dispersing the energy in short-wavelength spinwaves. Additionally, this process can lead to switching of the vortex polarization through the injection of a Bloch point
A tubular hybrid Halbach/axially-magnetized permanent-magnet linear machine
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yi Sui
2017-05-01
Full Text Available A single-phase tubular permanent-magnet linear machine (PMLM with hybrid Halbach/axially-magnetized PM arrays is proposed for free-piston Stirling power generation system. Machine topology and operating principle are elaborately illustrated. With the sinusoidal speed characteristic of the free-piston Stirling engine considered, the proposed machine is designed and calculated by finite-element analysis (FEA. The main structural parameters, such as outer radius of the mover, radial length of both the axially-magnetized PMs and ferromagnetic poles, axial length of both the middle and end radially-magnetized PMs, etc., are optimized to improve both the force capability and power density. Compared with the conventional PMLMs, the proposed machine features high mass and volume power density, and has the advantages of simple control and low converter cost. The proposed machine topology is applicable to tubular PMLMs with any phases.
A tubular hybrid Halbach/axially-magnetized permanent-magnet linear machine
Sui, Yi; Liu, Yong; Cheng, Luming; Liu, Jiaqi; Zheng, Ping
2017-05-01
A single-phase tubular permanent-magnet linear machine (PMLM) with hybrid Halbach/axially-magnetized PM arrays is proposed for free-piston Stirling power generation system. Machine topology and operating principle are elaborately illustrated. With the sinusoidal speed characteristic of the free-piston Stirling engine considered, the proposed machine is designed and calculated by finite-element analysis (FEA). The main structural parameters, such as outer radius of the mover, radial length of both the axially-magnetized PMs and ferromagnetic poles, axial length of both the middle and end radially-magnetized PMs, etc., are optimized to improve both the force capability and power density. Compared with the conventional PMLMs, the proposed machine features high mass and volume power density, and has the advantages of simple control and low converter cost. The proposed machine topology is applicable to tubular PMLMs with any phases.
Plasma oscillations in a stationary external magnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ciulli, S [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Moscow (USSR); Micu, M [Institute of Atomic Physics, Bucharest (Romania)
1958-07-01
The stationary distribution function as well as the small deviations from the stationary state of a gas discharge using the Boltzmann equation is studied as a basis for the calculations. The stationary problem which is discussed corresponds to plasma with cylindrical symmetry. It leads to a Maxwell velocity distribution and to a spatial distribution function which has the asymptotic form 1/r{sup 4}. The plasma perturbations are estimated by the deviations of the first order moments from their Maxwell values. A homogeneous system of differential equations is derived for the Fourier amplitudes of the magnetic field and their asymptotic form is studied. The dispersion relation is obtained by joining smoothly a solution regular at the origin with the regular asymptotic one.A number of idealizations and approximations have been made in the present analysis which limit the utility of the formulae obtained. For example, if the collision term is included in the Boltzmann equation additional quantities appear in the final results, i.e., viscosity, thermal and electrical conductivity, etc. Furthermore, the finite dimensions of linear discharge tubes or the toroidal form of some discharges strongly modify the present results. Taking into account these additional effects, exact solutions are to be obtained numerically for different values of the experimental parameters.
Comparisons of linear and nonlinear plasma response models for non-axisymmetric perturbations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Turnbull, A. D.; Ferraro, N. M.; Lao, L. L.; Lanctot, M. J. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Izzo, V. A. [University of California-San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, California 92093-0417 (United States); Lazarus, E. A.; Hirshman, S. P. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Park, J.-K.; Lazerson, S.; Reiman, A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States); Cooper, W. A. [Association Euratom-Confederation Suisse, Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland); Liu, Y. Q. [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Turco, F. [Columbia University, 116th St and Broadway, New York, New York 10027 (United States)
2013-05-15
With the installation of non-axisymmetric coil systems on major tokamaks for the purpose of studying the prospects of ELM-free operation, understanding the plasma response to the applied fields is a crucial issue. Application of different response models, using standard tools, to DIII-D discharges with applied non-axisymmetric fields from internal coils, is shown to yield qualitatively different results. The plasma response can be treated as an initial value problem, following the system dynamically from an initial unperturbed state, or from a nearby perturbed equilibrium approach, and using both linear and nonlinear models [A. D. Turnbull, Nucl. Fusion 52, 054016 (2012)]. Criteria are discussed under which each of the approaches can yield a valid response. In the DIII-D cases studied, these criteria show a breakdown in the linear theory despite the small 10{sup −3} relative magnitude of the applied magnetic field perturbations in this case. For nonlinear dynamical evolution simulations to reach a saturated nonlinear steady state, appropriate damping mechanisms need to be provided for each normal mode comprising the response. Other issues arise in the technical construction of perturbed flux surfaces from a displacement and from the presence of near nullspace normal modes. For the nearby equilibrium approach, in the absence of a full 3D equilibrium reconstruction with a controlled comparison, constraints relating the 2D system profiles to the final profiles in the 3D system also need to be imposed to assure accessibility. The magnetic helicity profile has been proposed as an appropriate input to a 3D equilibrium calculation and tests of this show the anticipated qualitative behavior.
Occurrence of Equatorial Plasma Bubbles during Intense Magnetic Storms
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chao-Song Huang
2011-01-01
Full Text Available An important issue in low-latitude ionospheric space weather is how magnetic storms affect the generation of equatorial plasma bubbles. In this study, we present the measurements of the ion density and velocity in the evening equatorial ionosphere by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP satellites during 22 intense magnetic storms. The DMSP measurements show that deep ion density depletions (plasma bubbles are generated after the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF turns southward. The time delay between the IMF southward turning and the first DMSP detection of plasma depletions decreases with the minimum value of the IMF Bz, the maximum value of the interplanetary electric field (IEF Ey, and the magnitude of the Dst index. The results of this study provide strong evidence that penetration electric field associated with southward IMF during the main phase of magnetic storms increases the generation of equatorial plasma bubbles in the evening sector.
Modulational instability of electric helicons in a magnetized collisional plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El-Ashry, M.Y.; Papuashvili, N.A.
1987-06-01
The interaction of a rf electromagnetic wave with a magnetized collisional plasma in the ultra-relativistic case has been investigated to show the effect of the collisions on the modulational instability growth rate. (author). 5 refs
Advancements of microwave diagnostics in magnetically confined plasmas
Mase, A.; Kogi, Y.; Ito, N.; Yokota, Y.; Akaki, K.; Kawahata, K.; Nagayama, Y.; Tokuzawa, T.; Yamaguchi, S.; Hojo, H.; Oyama, N.; N C Luhmann Jr.,; Park, H. K.; Donne, A. J. H.
2009-01-01
Microwave to millimeter-wave diagnostic techniques such as interferometry, reflectometry, scattering and radiometry have been powerful tools for diagnosing magnetically confined plasmas. Recent advances in electronic devices and components together with computer technology have enabled the
Electromagnetic modes in cold magnetized strongly coupled plasmas
Tkachenko, I. M.; Ortner, J.; Rylyuk, V. M.
1999-01-01
The spectrum of electromagnetic waves propagating in a strongly coupled magnetized fully ionized hydrogen plasma is found. The ion motion and damping being neglected, the influence of the Coulomb coupling on the electromagnetic spectrum is analyzed.
Langmuir probe characteristic in a current - carrying magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stanojevic, M.; Cercek, M.; Gyergyek, T.
1995-01-01
Experimental investigation of the Langmuir probe characteristic is a magnetized plasma with an electron current along the magnetic field direction shows that the standard procedure for determination of the electron temperature and plasma density, which is applicable in a current - free magnetized plasma, gives erroneous results for these plasma parameters. However, more precise values of the plasma parameters can be calculated from the ion saturation currents and electron temperatures obtained with that procedure for two opposite orientations of the one - sided planar probe collecting surface with respect to the direction of the electron drift. With the existing theoretical models only the order of magnitude of the electron drift velocity can be accurately determined from the measured electron saturation currents for the two probe orientations. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faghihi-Nik, M.; Ghorbanalilu, M.; Shokri, B.
2010-01-01
Complete text of publication follows. Generation of harmonic radiation is an important subject of laser plasma interaction and attracts great attention due to a wide range of applications. It has been seen that intense electromagnetic and quasi-static transverse magnetic fields are generated in laser plasma interaction. An extremely intense magnetic field (up to hundreds of MG) has been observed by experimental measurements in interaction of short laser pulses with plasma. These self-generated or applied magnetic fields affect the propagation of the laser pulses. In most laser interactions with homogeneous plasma, odd harmonics of laser frequency are generated. In this paper, we point out the possibility of even harmonics generation when a linearly polarized laser beam propagates in homogeneous plasma in the presence of a transverse magnetic field. It is shown that applying external field induces a transverse current density oscillating twice of the laser field which leds to generation of second harmonic radiation. This current density is derived using the perturbation method, and the steady state amplitude of the second harmonic obtained by solution of the wave equation. By the same procedure the current density and then the steady state amplitude of higher order harmonics are calculated. The efficiency of harmonic generation (the ratio of harmonic power to incident power) is a drastically function of the strength of external magnetic field. It is found that the efficiency of even harmonics is zero in the absence of magnetic field and increases as the magnetic field is increased. For odd harmonics, applying the external magnetic field enhances the generated harmonics as well. The conversion efficiency also increases with increase in plasma density and intensity of the laser beam.
An auxiliary differential equation FDTD method for anisotropic magnetized plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Shaobin; Mo Jinjun; Yuan Naichang
2004-01-01
An auxiliary differential equation finite-difference time-domain (ADE-FDTD) methodology for anisotropic magnetized plasmas is derived. The method is based on a difference approximation of the auxiliary differential equation. A comparison with the JEC method is included. The CPU time saving by several times and accuracy of the method are confirmed by computing the reflection and transmission through a magnetized plasma layer with the direction of propagation parallel to the direction of the biasing field
Generation of zonal flows in rotating fluids and magnetized plasmas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Juul Rasmussen, J.; Garcia, O.E.; Naulin, V.
2006-01-01
The spontaneous generation of large-scale flows by the rectification of small-scale turbulent fluctuations is of great importance both in geophysical flows and in magnetically confined plasmas. These flows regulate the turbulence and may set up effective transport barriers. In the present....... The analogy to large-scale flow generation in drift-wave turbulence dynamics in magnetized plasma is briefly discussed....
Thermal fluctuations and critical behavior in a magnetized, anisotropic plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hazeltine, R. D.; Mahajan, S. M.
2013-01-01
Thermal fluctuations in a magnetized, anisotropic plasma are studied by applying standard methods, based on the Einstein rule, to the known thermodynamic potential of the system. It is found in particular that magnetic fluctuations become critical when the anisotropy p ∥ −p ⊥ changes sign. By examining the critical region, additional insight on the equations of state for near-critical anisotropic plasma is obtained
Theory of plasma confinement in non-axisymmetric magnetic fields.
Helander, Per
2014-08-01
The theory of plasma confinement by non-axisymmetric magnetic fields is reviewed. Such fields are used to confine fusion plasmas in stellarators, where in contrast to tokamaks and reversed-field pinches the magnetic field generally does not possess any continuous symmetry. The discussion is focussed on magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium conditions, collisionless particle orbits, and the kinetic theory of equilbrium and transport. Each of these topics is fundamentally affected by the absence of symmetry in the magnetic field: the field lines need not trace out nested flux surfaces, the particle orbits may not be confined, and the cross-field transport can be very large. Nevertheless, by tailoring the magnetic field appropriately, well-behaved equilibria with good confinement can be constructed, potentially offering an attractive route to magnetic fusion. In this article, the mathematical apparatus to describe stellarator plasmas is developed from first principles and basic elements underlying confinement optimization are introduced.
Linear field demagnetisation of artificial magnetic square ice
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jason Phillip Morgan
2013-12-01
Full Text Available We have studied experimentally the states formed in artificial square ice nanomagnet systems following demagnetisation in a rotating in-plane applied magnetic field that reduces to zero in a manner that is linear in time. The final states are found to be controlled via the system's lattice constant, which determines the strength of the magnetostatic interactions between the elements, as well as the field ramping rate. We understand these effects as a requirement that the system undergoes a sufficiently large number of active rotations within the critical field window in which elements may be reversed, such that the interactions are allowed to locally exert their influence if the ground state is to be approached. On the other hand, if quenched disorder is too strong when compared to the interaction strength, any close approach to the ground state is impossible. These results show that it is not necessary for there to be any ac component to the field amplitude that is applied to the system during demagnetisation, which is the method almost exclusively employed in field protocols reported to date. Furthermore, by optimising the parameters of our linear demagnetisation protocol, the largest field-generated ground state domains yet reported are found.
Asymptotic kinetic theory of magnetized plasmas: quasi-particle concept
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sosenko, P.P.; Zagorodny, A.H.
2004-01-01
The asymptotic kinetic theory of magnetized plasmas is elaborated within the context of general statistical approach and asymptotic methods, developed by M. Krylov and M. Bohol'ubov, for linear and non-linear dynamic systems with a rapidly rotating phase. The quasi-particles are introduced already on the microscopic level. Asymptotic expansions enable to close the description for slow processes, and to relate consistently particles and guiding centres to quasi-particles. The kinetic equation for quasi-particles is derived. It makes a basis for the reduced description of slow collective phenomena in the medium. The kinetic equation for quasi-particles takes into account self-consistent interaction fields, quasi-particle collisions and collective-fluctuation-induced relaxation of quasi-particle distribution function. The relationships between the distribution functions for particles, guiding centres and quasi-particles are derived taking into account fluctuations, which can be especially important in turbulent states. In this way macroscopic (statistical) particle properties can be obtained from those of quasi-particles in the general case of non-equilibrium. (authors)
Flute instability growth on a magnetized plasma column
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rose, D. V.; Genoni, T. C.; Welch, D. R.; Mehlhorn, T. A.; Porter, J. L.; Ditmire, T.
2006-01-01
The growth of the flute-type instability for a field-aligned plasma column immersed in a uniform magnetic field is studied. Particle-in-cell simulations are compared with a semi-analytic dispersion analysis of the drift cyclotron instability in cylindrical geometry with a Gaussian density profile in the radial direction. For the parameters considered here, the dispersion analysis gives a local maximum for the peak growth rates as a function of R/r i , where R is the Gaussian characteristic radius and r i is the ion gyroradius. The electrostatic and electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulation results give azimuthal and radial mode numbers that are in reasonable agreement with the dispersion analysis. The electrostatic simulations give linear growth rates that are in good agreement with the dispersion analysis results, while the electromagnetic simulations yield growth rate trends that are similar to the dispersion analysis but that are not in quantitative agreement. These differences are ascribed to higher initial field fluctuation levels in the electromagnetic field solver. Overall, the simulations allow the examination of both the linear and nonlinear evolution of the instability in this physical system up to and beyond the point of wave energy saturation
Liu, Wei; Hsu, Scott C.
2010-01-01
We present results from three-dimensional ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations of unmagnetized dense plasma jet injection into a uniform hot strongly magnetized plasma, with the aim of providing insight into core fueling of a tokamak with parameters relevant for ITER and NSTX (National Spherical Torus Experiment). Unmagnetized dense plasma jet injection is similar to compact toroid injection but with much higher plasma density and total mass, and consequently lower required injection velocit...
Magnetic Flux Distribution of Linear Machines with Novel Three-Dimensional Hybrid Magnet Arrays
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nan Yao
2017-11-01
Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to propose a novel tubular linear machine with hybrid permanent magnet arrays and multiple movers, which could be employed for either actuation or sensing technology. The hybrid magnet array produces flux distribution on both sides of windings, and thus helps to increase the signal strength in the windings. The multiple movers are important for airspace technology, because they can improve the system’s redundancy and reliability. The proposed design concept is presented, and the governing equations are obtained based on source free property and Maxwell equations. The magnetic field distribution in the linear machine is thus analytically formulated by using Bessel functions and harmonic expansion of magnetization vector. Numerical simulation is then conducted to validate the analytical solutions of the magnetic flux field. It is proved that the analytical model agrees with the numerical results well. Therefore, it can be utilized for the formulation of signal or force output subsequently, depending on its particular implementation.
Variational theory of cyclotron emission from nonuniformly magnetized plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shvets, V.F.; Swanson, D.G.
1992-01-01
Whereas direct calculations of emission from a source model in both homogeneous and weakly inhomogeneous media have been previously executed, there are no previous theories of the source distribution function from nonuniformly magnetized plasmas where mode conversion phenomena must be taken into account. Whenever the emitting layer is localized due to gradients of the external magnetic field, mode conversion leads to the Generalized Kirchhoff's Law (GKL) E 1 /A 1 = E 2 /A 2 = E 3 /A 3 , where A j represents the absorbed fraction on the j-th wave branch and E j is the corresponding emitted energy along j-th branch. Recently integral expressions for A j and E j in terms of arbitrary localized sink and source distributions have been obtained. The GKL relating absorption to emission along each branch of coexisting in the inhomogeneous mode conversion layer affects the shape of source distribution through a functional of the emissivity. Moreover, E j /A j ≡ I bb , where I bb is a black body radiated power. Accordingly, the distributed emission source function should be an extremal of the emissivity functional. The authors have developed the corresponding variational analysis with nontrivial GKL constraints. As a result they have discovered the correct representation of the ratio of source and sink distributions in the form of an expansion in linearly independent adjoint wave solutions of the absorption problem. Finally, unknown coefficients have been found numerically by further maximization taking account of both source boundedness and the GKL constraints. Calculations performed for a broad variety of plasma parameters will be presented
Cesario, Roberto; Cardinali, Alessandro; Castaldo, Carmine; Amicucci, Luca; Ceccuzzi, Silvio; Galli, Alessandro; Napoli, Francesco; Panaccione, Luigi; Santini, Franco; Schettini, Giuseppe; Tuccillo, Angelo Antonio
2017-10-01
The main research on the energy from thermonuclear fusion uses deuterium plasmas magnetically trapped in toroidal devices. To suppress the turbulent eddies that impair thermal insulation and pressure tight of the plasma, current drive (CD) is necessary, but tools envisaged so far are unable accomplishing this task while efficiently and flexibly matching the natural current profiles self-generated at large radii of the plasma column [1-5]. The lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) [6] can satisfy this important need of a reactor [1], but the LHCD system has been unexpectedly mothballed on JET. The problematic extrapolation of the LHCD tool at reactor graded high values of, respectively, density and temperatures of plasma has been now solved. The high density problem is solved by the FTU (Frascati Tokamak Upgrade) method [7], and solution of the high temperature one is presented here. Model results based on quasi-linear (QL) theory evidence the capability, w.r.t linear theory, of suitable operating parameters of reducing the wave damping in hot reactor plasmas. Namely, using higher RF power densities [8], or a narrower antenna power spectrum in refractive index [9,10], the obstacle for LHCD represented by too high temperature of reactor plasmas should be overcome. The former method cannot be used for routinely, safe antenna operations, Thus, only the latter key is really exploitable in a reactor. The proposed solutions are ultimately necessary for viability of an economic reactor.
Self-similar compression of a magnetized plasma filled liner
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Felber, F.S.; Liberman, M.A.; Velikovich, A.L.
1985-01-01
New analytic, one-dimensional, self-similar solutions of magnetohydrodynamic equations describing the compression of a magnetized plasma by a thin cylindrical liner are presented. The solutions include several features that have not been included in an earlier self-similar solution of the equations of ideal magnetohydrodynamics. These features are the effects of finite plasma electrical conductivity, induction heating, thermal conductivity and related thermogalvanomagnetic effects, plasma turbulence, and plasma boundary effects. These solutions have been motivated by recent suggestions for production of ultrahigh magnetic fields by new methods. The methods involve radially imploding plasmas in which axial magnetic fields have been entrained. These methods may be capable of producing controlled magnetic fields up to approx. = 100 MG. Specific methods of implosion suggested were by ablative radial acceleration of a liner by a laser and by a gas-puff Z pinch. The model presented here addresses the first of these methods. The solutions derived here are used to estimate magnetic flux losses out of the compression volume, and to indicate conditions under which an impulsively-accelerated, plasma-filled liner may compress an axial magnetic field to large magnitude
Analysis and Design of Double-sided Air core Linear Servo Motor with Trapezoidal Permanent Magnets
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, Yuqiu; Yang, Zilong; Yu, Minghu
2011-01-01
In order to reduce the thrust ripple of linear servo system, a double-sided air core permanent magnet linear servo motor with trapezoidal shape permanent magnets (TDAPMLSM) is proposed in this paper. An analytical model of the motor for predicting the magnetic field in the air-gap at no...
MAGNETIC END CLOSURES FOR PLASMA CONFINING AND HEATING DEVICES
Post, R.F.
1963-08-20
More effective magnetic closure field regions for various open-ended containment magnetic fields used in fusion reactor devices are provided by several spaced, coaxially-aligned solenoids utilized to produce a series of nodal field regions of uniform or, preferably, of incrementally increasing intensity separated by lower intensity regions outwardly from the ends of said containment zone. Plasma sources may also be provided to inject plasma into said lower intensity areas to increase plasma density therein. Plasma may then be transported, by plasma diffusion mechanisms provided by the nodal fields, into the containment field. With correlated plasma densities and nodal field spacings approximating the mean free partl cle collision path length in the zones between the nodal fields, optimum closure effectiveness is obtained. (AEC)
Plasma automatic control in magnetic traps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Samojlenko, Yu.I.; Chuyanov, V.A.
1983-01-01
Principles of constructing the systems providing a plasma equilibrium and stability in thermonuctear devices are laid down. Operation of the servo system to maintain a plasma equilibrium is described using the tokamak plasma filament as an example. Operation of the system to suppress a flute instability is also described. This system measures electric disturbances on the plasma body surface and controls charge distribution on external electrodes. It is pointed out that systems of automatic control of plasma equilibrium and stability become an essential element of a future thermonuclear reactor and the system potentialities would much determine the reactor economic efficiency
Plasma behavior and plasma-wall interaction in magnetic fusion divices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohtsuka, Hideo
1984-10-01
To study the fundamental behavior of plasma in magnetic field is the main subject in the early stage of the magnetic fusion research. At the next stage, it is necessary to overcome some actual problems in order to attain reactor grade plasmas. One of them is to control impurities in the plasma. In these points of view, we carried out several experiments or theoretical analyses. Firstly, anomalous loss mechanisms in magnetic field were investigated in a toroidal multipole device JFT-1 and the role of motions of charged particles in the magnetic field was exhibited. Various measurements of plasma in the scrape-off layer were made in a divertor tokamak JFT-2a and in an ordinary tokamak JFT-2. The former study demonstrated the first successful divertor operation of the tokamak device and the latter one clarified the mechanism of arcing on the tokamak first wall. As to arcing, a new theory which describes the retrograde motion, the well known strange motion of arcs in a magnetic field, was proposed. Good agreement with the experimental results was shown. Finally, by considering a zero-dimensional sputtering model a self-consistent relation between light and metal impurities in tokamak plasmas was obtained. It was shown that the relation well describes some fundamental aspects of the plasma-wall interaction. As a conclusion, the importance of simple behavior of charged particles in magnetic fields was pointed out not only for the plasma confinement but also for the plasma-wall interaction. (author)
Study of the linear and non-linear coupling of the LH wave to the tokamak plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Preynas, M.
2012-10-01
In order to achieve long pulse operation with a tokamak, additional heating and current drive systems are necessary. High frequency antennas, which deliver several megawatts of power to the plasma, are currently used in several tokamaks. Moreover, a good control of the coupling of the wave launched by the antenna to the edge plasma is required to optimize the efficiency of heating and current drive LH systems. However, non-linear effects which depend on the level of injected power in the plasma strongly damage the coupling of the LH wave at particular edge parameters (density and temperature profiles). Results presented in the manuscript deal with the study of the linear and non-linear coupling of the LH wave to the plasma. In the framework of the commissioning of the Passive Active Multijunction antenna in 2009 on the Tore Supra tokamak aiming at validating the LH system suggested for ITER, the characterisation of its coupling properties was realized from low power experiments. The experimental results, which are compared with the linear coupling code ALOHA, have validated the theoretical predictions of good coupling at edge plasma density around the cut-off density. Besides, the ponderomotive effect is clearly identified as responsible for the deterioration in the coupling of the wave, which is measured under particular edge plasma conditions. A theoretical model combining the coupling of the LH wave with the ponderomotive force is suggested to explain the experimental observations. Thus, a new full wave code (named PICCOLO-2D) was developed and results from simulations validate the working hypothesis of the contribution of the ponderomotive effect in the non-linear observations of LHCD coupling on Tore Supra. (author)
Simulating Magnetized Laboratory Plasmas with Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Johnson, Jeffrey N. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)
2009-01-01
The creation of plasmas in the laboratory continues to generate excitement in the physics community. Despite the best efforts of the intrepid plasma diagnostics community, the dynamics of these plasmas remains a difficult challenge to both the theorist and the experimentalist. This dissertation describes the simulation of strongly magnetized laboratory plasmas with Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH), a method born of astrophysics but gaining broad support in the engineering community. We describe the mathematical formulation that best characterizes a strongly magnetized plasma under our circumstances of interest, and we review the SPH method and its application to astrophysical plasmas based on research by Phillips [1], Buerve [2], and Price and Monaghan [3]. Some modifications and extensions to this method are necessary to simulate terrestrial plasmas, such as a treatment of magnetic diffusion based on work by Brookshaw [4] and by Atluri [5]; we describe these changes as we turn our attention toward laboratory experiments. Test problems that verify the method are provided throughout the discussion. Finally, we apply our method to the compression of a magnetized plasma performed by the Compact Toroid Injection eXperiment (CTIX) [6] and show that the experimental results support our computed predictions.
Non-modal stability analysis and transient growth in a magnetized Vlasov plasma
Ratushnaya, V.
2014-12-01
Collisionless plasmas, such as those encountered in tokamaks, exhibit a rich variety of instabilities. The physical origin, triggering mechanisms and fundamental understanding of many plasma instabilities, however, are still open problems. We investigate the stability properties of a 3-dimensional collisionless Vlasov plasma in a stationary homogeneous magnetic field. We narrow the scope of our investigation to the case of Maxwellian plasma and examine its evolution with an electrostatic approximation. For the first time using a fully kinetic approach we show the emergence of the local instability, a transient growth, followed by classical Landau damping in a stable magnetized plasma. We show that the linearized Vlasov operator is non-normal leading to the algebraic growth of the perturbations using non-modal stability theory. The typical time scales of the obtained instabilities are of the order of several plasma periods. The first-order distribution function and the corresponding electric field are calculated and the dependence on the magnetic field and perturbation parameters is studied. Our results offer a new scenario of the emergence and development of plasma instabilities on the kinetic scale.
Non-modal stability analysis and transient growth in a magnetized Vlasov plasma
Ratushnaya, V.; Samtaney, Ravi
2014-01-01
Collisionless plasmas, such as those encountered in tokamaks, exhibit a rich variety of instabilities. The physical origin, triggering mechanisms and fundamental understanding of many plasma instabilities, however, are still open problems. We investigate the stability properties of a 3-dimensional collisionless Vlasov plasma in a stationary homogeneous magnetic field. We narrow the scope of our investigation to the case of Maxwellian plasma and examine its evolution with an electrostatic approximation. For the first time using a fully kinetic approach we show the emergence of the local instability, a transient growth, followed by classical Landau damping in a stable magnetized plasma. We show that the linearized Vlasov operator is non-normal leading to the algebraic growth of the perturbations using non-modal stability theory. The typical time scales of the obtained instabilities are of the order of several plasma periods. The first-order distribution function and the corresponding electric field are calculated and the dependence on the magnetic field and perturbation parameters is studied. Our results offer a new scenario of the emergence and development of plasma instabilities on the kinetic scale.
On the theory of stochastic dynamics of magnetically confined plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
El-Sharif, R.N.; El-Atoy, N.S. [Plasma and Nuclear Fusion Dept., N.R.C, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)]|[Physics Dept., Girls Colleges, KSA (Saudi Arabia)
2004-07-01
This work is devoted to a study of the motion of plasma electrons in a system of two fields, a magnetic field along z-axis and wave-packet field, which propagates in the x-z plane. The strongest interaction between plasma electrons and both fields is due to their resonance with these fields. The motion of plasma electrons become stochastic when a set of resonance overlapping. Conditions for stochasticity are obtained. (orig.)
On the theory of stochastic dynamics of magnetically confined plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El-Sharif, R.N.; El-Atoy, N.S.
2004-01-01
This work is devoted to a study of the motion of plasma electrons in a system of two fields, a magnetic field along z-axis and wave-packet field, which propagates in the x-z plane. The strongest interaction between plasma electrons and both fields is due to their resonance with these fields. The motion of plasma electrons become stochastic when a set of resonance overlapping. Conditions for stochasticity are obtained. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toi, Kazuo
2002-01-01
Experimental evidence and underlying physical processes of nonlocal characters and structural formation in magnetically confined toroidal plasmas are reviewed. Radial profiles of the plasmas exhibit characteristic structures, depending on the various confinement regimes. Profile stiffness subjected to some global constraint and rapid plasma responses to applied plasma perturbation result from nonlocal transport. Once the plasma is free from the constraint, the plasma state can be changed to a new state exhibiting various types of prominent structural formation such as an internal transport barrier. (author)
Mass ablation and magnetic flux losses through a magnetized plasma-liner wall interface
García-Rubio, F.; Sanz, J.
2017-07-01
The understanding of energy and magnetic flux losses in a magnetized plasma medium confined by a cold wall is of great interest in the success of magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF). In a MagLIF scheme, the fuel is magnetized and subsonically compressed by a cylindrical liner. Magnetic flux conservation is degraded by the presence of gradient-driven transport processes such as thermoelectric effects (Nernst) and magnetic field diffusion. In previous publications [Velikovich et al., Phys. Plasmas 22, 042702 (2015)], the evolution of a hot magnetized plasma in contact with a cold solid wall (liner) was studied using the classical collisional Braginskii's plasma transport equations in one dimension. The Nernst term degraded the magnetic flux conservation, while both thermal energy and magnetic flux losses were reduced with the electron Hall parameter ωeτe with a power-law asymptotic scaling (ωeτe)-1/2. In the analysis made in the present paper, we consider a similar situation, but with the liner being treated differently. Instead of a cold solid wall acting as a heat sink, we model the liner as a cold dense plasma with low thermal conduction (that could represent the cryogenic fuel layer added on the inner surface of the liner in a high-gain MagLIF configuration). Mass ablation comes into play, which adds notably differences to the previous analysis. The direction of the plasma motion is inverted, but the Nernst term still convects the magnetic field towards the liner. Magnetization suppresses the Nernst velocity and improves the magnetic flux conservation. Thermal energy in the hot plasma is lost in heating the ablated material. When the electron Hall parameter is large, mass ablation scales as (ωeτe)-3/10, while both the energy and magnetic flux losses are reduced with a power-law asymptotic scaling (ωeτe)-7/10.
Tang, Junjie; Li, Jing; Li, Xiang; Han, Le
2018-03-01
High temperature superconductor (HTS) bulks have significant potential use in linear motor application act as quasi-permanent magnet to replace traditional magnets. Force characteristic between HTS bulk magnet and traveling magnetic field was investigated with numerical simulation and experimental measurement in this paper. Influences of bulk height and number on the force characteristic were studied by the finite element model considering the nonlinear E-J relationship. Study was also made on addition of a back iron plate to the bulk magnet. Besides, force characteristic of bulk was compared with the permanent magnet results. The small initial decrease of the thrust could be explained by inside superconducting current redistribution. It was found that efficiency of linear motor did not increase by adding more bulk magnets. The bulk magnet will be remagnetized instead of erasing trapped field with the increase of the traveling magnetic field strength. The conclusions are helpful in prediction and design the linear motor with HTS bulk magnet.
Fusion Plasma Theory: Task 1, Magnetic confinement Fusion Plasma Theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Callen, J.D.
1993-01-01
The research performed under this grant during the current year has concentrated on few tokamak plasma confinement issues: applications of our new Chapman-Enskog-like approach for developing hybrid fluid/kinetic descriptions of tokamak plasmas; multi-faceted studies as part of our development of a new interacting island paradigm for the tokamak equilibrium'' and transport; investigations of the resolution power of BES and ECE diagnostics for measuring core plasma fluctuations; and studies of net transport in the presence of fluctuating surfaces. Recent progress and publications in these areas, and in the management of the NERSC node and the fusion theory workstations are summarized briefly in this report
Gebhart, T. E.; Martinez-Rodriguez, R. A.; Baylor, L. R.; Rapp, J.; Winfrey, A. L.
2017-08-01
To produce a realistic tokamak-like plasma environment in linear plasma device, a transient source is needed to deliver heat and particle fluxes similar to those seen in an edge localized mode (ELM). ELMs in future large tokamaks will deliver heat fluxes of ˜1 GW/m2 to the divertor plasma facing components at a few Hz. An electrothermal plasma source can deliver heat fluxes of this magnitude. These sources operate in an ablative arc regime which is driven by a DC capacitive discharge. An electrothermal source was configured with two pulse lengths and tested under a solenoidal magnetic field to determine the resulting impact on liner ablation, plasma parameters, and delivered heat flux. The arc travels through and ablates a boron nitride liner and strikes a tungsten plate. The tungsten target plate is analyzed for surface damage using a scanning electron microscope.
Collective fluctuations in magnetized plasma: Transition probability approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sosenko, P.P.
1997-01-01
Statistical plasma electrodynamics is elaborated with special emphasis on the transition probability approach and quasi-particles, and on modern applications to magnetized plasmas. Fluctuation spectra in the magnetized plasma are calculated in the range of low frequencies (with respect to the cyclotron one), and the conditions for the transition from incoherent to collective fluctuations are established. The role of finite-Larmor-radius effects and particle polarization drift in such a transition is explained. The ion collective features in fluctuation spectra are studied. 63 refs., 30 figs
Instabilities responsible for magnetic turbulence in laboratory rotating plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mikhailovskii, A.B.; Lominadze, J.G.; Churikov, A.P.; Erokhin, N.N.; Pustovitov, V.D.; Konovalov, S.V.
2008-01-01
Instabilities responsible for magnetic turbulence in laboratory rotating plasma are investigated. It is shown that the plasma compressibility gives a new driving mechanism in addition to the known Velikhov effect due to the negative rotation frequency gradient. This new mechanism is related to the perpendicular plasma pressure gradient, while the density gradient gives an additional drive depending also on the pressure gradient. It is shown that these new effects can manifest themselves even in the absence of the equilibrium magnetic field, which corresponds to nonmagnetic instabilities
Dynamics of Dust in a Plasma Sheath with Magnetic Field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duan Ping; Liu Jinyuan; Gon Ye; Liu Yue; Wang Xiaogang
2007-01-01
Dynamics of dust in a plasma sheath with a magnetic field was investigated using a single particle model. The result shows that the radius, initial position, initial velocity of the dust particles and the magnetic field do effect their movement and equilibrium position in the plasma sheath. Generally, the dust particles with the same size, whatever original velocity and position they have, will locate at the same position in the end under the net actions of electrostatic, gravitational, neutral collisional, and Lorentz forces. But the dust particles will not locate in the plasma sheath if their radius is beyond a certain value
Study of Complex Plasmas with Magnetic Dipoles
2017-10-10
Electro-Energetic Physics Annual Program Review , Basic Research Innovation and Collaboration Center, Arlington VA USA, November 29-30, 2016 (6) The...and O. Ishihara, Electromagnetic band structure due to surface plasmon resonances in a complex plasma, Physical Review E, 94, 013202- 1~8 (2016). 7...Novel Features in Complex Plasmas, 2016 Plasma & Electro-Energetic Physics Annual Program Review , Basic Research Innovation and Collaboration Center
Theory of neutron spectra from d-d-reactions in the linear z-pinch and the plasma focus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deutsch, R.; Kaeppeler, H.J.
1982-05-01
Because of a finite gyroradius effect, the equilibrium probability density function of the ions in the azimuthal magnetic field of a linear z-pinch becomes anisotropic. This density function was derived by solving the Vlasov equation and used to determine the neutron spectra produced in the deuterium plasma of a z-pinch. The neutron spectra were calculated for two models, differing in the energy distribution of the fast ions. A background plasma with 'slow' ions was also considered. The interactions of the fast ions with the slow ions and 'beam-beam' interactions between fast ions were considered. Typical spectra for arbitrary directions to the cylindrical axis are given. The anisotropy factors were calculated. Considering the influence of the azimuthal magnetic field on the equilibrium density function of the deuterons, the well known particularities of the neutron spectra are obtained without any of the contradictions typical of the traditional models. (orig.)
Endogenous magnetic reconnection and associated high energy plasma processes
Coppi, B.; Basu, B.
2018-02-01
An endogenous reconnection process involves a driving factor that lays inside the layer where a drastic change of magnetic field topology occurs. A process of this kind is shown to take place when an electron temperature gradient is present in a magnetically confined plasma and the evolving electron temperature fluctuations are anisotropic. The width of the reconnecting layer remains significant even when large macroscopic distances are considered. In view of the fact that there are plasmas in the Universe with considerable electron thermal energy contents this feature can be relied upon in order to produce generation or conversion of magnetic energy, high energy particle populations and momentum and angular momentum transport.
Modified Debye screening potential in a magnetized quantum plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salimullah, M.; Hussain, A.; Sara, I.; Murtaza, G.; Shah, H.A.
2009-01-01
The effects of quantum mechanical influence and uniform static magnetic field on the Shukla-Nambu-Salimullah potential in an ultracold homogeneous electron-ion Fermi plasma have been examined in detail. It is noticed that the strong quantum effect arising through the Bohm potential and the ion polarization effect can give rise to a new oscillatory behavior of the screening potential beyond the shielding cloud which could explain a new type of possible robust ordered structure formation in the quantum magnetoplasma. However, the magnetic field enhances the Debye length perpendicular to the magnetic field in the weak quantum limit of the quantum plasma.
Classical impurity ion confinement in a toroidal magnetized fusion plasma.
Kumar, S T A; Den Hartog, D J; Caspary, K J; Magee, R M; Mirnov, V V; Chapman, B E; Craig, D; Fiksel, G; Sarff, J S
2012-03-23
High-resolution measurements of impurity ion dynamics provide first-time evidence of classical ion confinement in a toroidal, magnetically confined plasma. The density profile evolution of fully stripped carbon is measured in MST reversed-field pinch plasmas with reduced magnetic turbulence to assess Coulomb-collisional transport without the neoclassical enhancement from particle drift effects. The impurity density profile evolves to a hollow shape, consistent with the temperature screening mechanism of classical transport. Corroborating methane pellet injection experiments expose the sensitivity of the impurity particle confinement time to the residual magnetic fluctuation amplitude.
Periodical plasma structures controlled by external magnetic field
Schweigert, I. V.; Keidar, M.
2017-06-01
The characteristics of two-dimensional periodical structures in a magnetized plasma are studied using kinetic simulations. Ridges (i.e. spikes in electron and ion density) are formed and became more pronounced with an increase of magnetic field incidence angle in the plasma volume in the cylindrical chamber. These ridges are shifted relative to each other, which results in the formation of a two-dimensional double-layer structure. Depending on Larmor radius and Debye length up to 19 potential steps appear across the oblique magnetic field. The electrical current gathered into the channels is associated with the electron and ion density ridges.
Plasma sprayed Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Willson, M.; Bauser, S.; Liu, S.; Huang, M.
2003-01-01
This study demonstrated that the plasma spray deposition method is an alternative process for producing Nd-Fe-B magnets in addition to the two existing principal processes: the powder metallurgy process for producing sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets and the melt spinning process for bonded Nd-Fe-B magnets. Plasma spray is a potentially better process for producing magnetic parts with complicated shape, large area, thin thickness, small dimension, or unusual geometry. High intrinsic coercivity greater than 15 kOe was readily obtained for Nd 16 Dy 1 Fe 76 B 7 even in the as-deposited condition when the substrate was preheated. The plasma spray process contains only three steps: melting, crushing, and plasma spray, which is much simpler than the powder metallurgy and melt spinning processes. Without preheating the substrate, the coercivity was usually very low (∼0.1 kOe) in the as-deposited condition and it increased to 10 to >15 kOe after anneal. Evidence of magnetocrystalline anisotropy was observed in plasma sprayed Nd 15 Dy 1 Fe 77 B 7 magnets when the substrate was not preheated. It is believed that a crystal texture was developed during the plasma spray as a result of the existence of a temperature gradient in the solidifying melt
Spontaneous magnetic fluctuations and collisionless regulation of the Earth's plasma sheet
Moya, P. S.; Espinoza, C.; Stepanova, M. V.; Antonova, E. E.; Valdivia, J. A.
2017-12-01
Even in the absence of instabilities, plasmas often exhibit inherent electromagnetic fluctuations which are present due to the thermal motion of charged particles, sometimes called thermal (quasi-thermal) noise. One of the fundamental and challenging problems of laboratory, space, and astrophysical plasma physics is the understanding of the relaxation processes of nearly collisionless plasmas, and the resultant state of electromagnetic plasma turbulence. The study of thermal fluctuations can be elegantly addressed by using the Fluctuation-Dissipation Theorem that describes the average amplitude of the fluctuations through correlations of the linear response of the media with the perturbations of the equilibrium state (the dissipation). Recently, it has been shown that solar wind plasma beta and temperature anisotropy observations are bounded by kinetic instabilities such as the ion cyclotron, mirror, and firehose instabilities. The magnetic fluctuations observed within the bounded area are consistent with the predictions of the Fluctuation-Dissipation theorem even far below the kinetic instability thresholds, with an enhancement of the fluctuation level near the thresholds. Here, for the very first time, using in-situ magnetic field and plasma data from the THEMIS spacecraft, we show that such regulation also occurs in the Earth's plasma sheet at the ion scales and that, regardless of the clear differences between the solar wind and the magnetosphere environments, spontaneous fluctuation and their collisionless regulation seem to be fundamental features of space and astrophysical plasmas, suggesting the universality of the processes.
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF SHOCK WAVE DYNAMICS IN MAGNETIZED PLASMAS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Podder, Nirmol K.
2009-01-01
In this four-year project (including one-year extension), the project director and his research team built a shock-wave-plasma apparatus to study shock wave dynamics in glow discharge plasmas in nitrogen and argon at medium pressure (1-20 Torr), carried out various plasma and shock diagnostics and measurements that lead to increased understanding of the shock wave acceleration phenomena in plasmas. The measurements clearly show that in the steady-state dc glow discharge plasma, at fixed gas pressure the shock wave velocity increases, its amplitude decreases, and the shock wave disperses non-linearly as a function of the plasma current. In the pulsed discharge plasma, at fixed gas pressure the shock wave dispersion width and velocity increase as a function of the delay between the switch-on of the plasma and shock-launch. In the afterglow plasma, at fixed gas pressure the shock wave dispersion width and velocity decrease as a function of the delay between the plasma switch-off and shock-launch. These changes are found to be opposite and reversing towards the room temperature value which is the initial condition for plasma ignition case. The observed shock wave properties in both igniting and afterglow plasmas correlate well with the inferred temperature changes in the two plasmas
13th International Conference on Magnetically Levitated Systems and Linear Drives
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1993-01-01
This report contains short papers on research being conducted throughout the world on magnetically levitated systems, mainly consisting of trains, and magnetic linear drives. These papers have been index separately elsewhere on the data base
13th International Conference on Magnetically Levitated Systems and Linear Drives
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1993-09-01
This report contains short papers on research being conducted throughout the world on magnetically levitated systems, mainly consisting of trains, and magnetic linear drives. These papers have been index separately elsewhere on the data base.
Force prediction in permanent magnet flat linear motors (abstract)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eastham, J.F.; Akmese, R.
1991-01-01
The advent of neodymium iron boron rare-earth permanent magnet material has afforded the opportunity to construct linear machines of high force to weight ratio. The paper describes the design and construction of an axial flux machine and rotating drum test rig. The machine occupies an arc of 45 degree on a drum 1.22 m in diameter. The excitation is provided by blocks of NdFeB material which are skewed in order to minimize the force variations due to slotting. The stator carries a three-phase short-chorded double-layer winding of four poles. The machine is supplied by a PWM inverter the fundamental component of which is phase locked to the rotor position so that a ''dc brushless'' drive system is produced. Electromagnetic forces including ripple forces are measured at supply frequencies up to 100 Hz. They are compared with finite-element analysis which calculates the force variation over the time period. The paper then considers some of the causes of ripple torque. In particular, the force production due solely to the permanent magnet excitation is considered. This has two important components each acting along the line of motion of the machine, one is due to slotting and the other is due to the finite length of the primary. In the practical machine the excitation poles are skewed to minimize the slotting force and the effectiveness of this is confirmed by both results from the experiments and the finite-element analysis. The end effect force is shown to have a space period of twice that of the excitation. The amplitude of this force and its period are again confirmed by practical results
Performance Comparison of Permanent Magnet Linear Actuators of Different Mover Types
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ritchie, Ewen; Hinov, K.; Yatchev, I.
2006-01-01
A comparative study of permanent magnet linear actuators with different location of the permanent magnet is reported. Three mover types are considered - soft magnetic mover, permanent magnet mover and hybrid mover. Force-stroke characteristics are obtained with the help of finite element models...
Nakaiwa, K; Yamada, A; Tashiro, K; Wakiwaka, H
2009-01-01
From a strong demand on the miniaturization of a chip mounter or a semiconductor device, the thrust improvement considering the magnets arrangement is studied. We accept a core stator with a Halbach type magnet array for a current linear motor. The thrust characteristics are compared with two kinds of mover, a NS magnet array and a Halbach magnet array.
Passive Spectroscopic Diagnostics for Magnetically-confined Fusion Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stratton, B.C.; Bitter, M.; Hill, K.W.; Hillis, D.L.; Hogan, J.T.
2007-01-01
Spectroscopy of radiation emitted by impurities and hydrogen isotopes plays an important role in the study of magnetically-confined fusion plasmas, both in determining the effects of impurities on plasma behavior and in measurements of plasma parameters such as electron and ion temperatures and densities, particle transport, and particle influx rates. This paper reviews spectroscopic diagnostics of plasma radiation that are excited by collisional processes in the plasma, which are termed 'passive' spectroscopic diagnostics to distinguish them from 'active' spectroscopic diagnostics involving injected particle and laser beams. A brief overview of the ionization balance in hot plasmas and the relevant line and continuum radiation excitation mechanisms is given. Instrumentation in the soft X-ray, vacuum ultraviolet, ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared regions of the spectrum is described and examples of measurements are given. Paths for further development of these measurements and issues for their implementation in a burning plasma environment are discussed.
Passive Spectroscopic Diagnostics for Magnetically-confined Fusion Plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stratton, B. C.; Biter, M.; Hill, K. W.; Hillis, D. L.; Hogan, J. T.
2007-07-18
Spectroscopy of radiation emitted by impurities and hydrogen isotopes plays an important role in the study of magnetically-confined fusion plasmas, both in determining the effects of impurities on plasma behavior and in measurements of plasma parameters such as electron and ion temperatures and densities, particle transport, and particle influx rates. This paper reviews spectroscopic diagnostics of plasma radiation that are excited by collisional processes in the plasma, which are termed 'passive' spectroscopic diagnostics to distinguish them from 'active' spectroscopic diagnostics involving injected particle and laser beams. A brief overview of the ionization balance in hot plasmas and the relevant line and continuum radiation excitation mechanisms is given. Instrumentation in the soft X-ray, vacuum ultraviolet, ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared regions of the spectrum is described and examples of measurements are given. Paths for further development of these measurements and issues for their implementation in a burning plasma environment are discussed.
Analysis of a 3-phase tubular permanent magnet linear generator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nor, K.M.; Arof, H.; Wijono [Malaya Univ., Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia). Faculty of Engineering
2005-07-01
A 3-phase tubular permanent linear generator design was described. The generator was designed to be driven by a single or a double 2-stroke combustion linear engine. Combustion took place alternately between 2 opposed chambers. In the single combustion engine, one of the combustion chambers was replaced by a kickback mechanism. The force on the translator generated by the explosion in the combustion chamber was used to compress the air in the kickback chamber. The pressed air was then used to release the stored energy to push back the translator in the opposite direction. The generator was modelled as a 2D object. A parametric simulation was performed to give a series of discrete data required to calculate machine electrical parameters; flux distribution; coil flux linkage; and, cogging force. Fringing flux was evaluated through the application of a magnetic boundary condition. The infinity boundary was used to include the zero electromagnetic potential in the surface boundary. A complete simulation was run for each step of the translator's motion, which was considered as sinusoidal. The simplification was further corrected using the real engine speed curve. The EMF was derived from the flux linkage difference in the coils at every consecutive translator position. Force was calculated in the translator and stator using a virtual work method. Optimization was performed using a subproblem strategy. It was concluded that the generator can be used to supply electric power as a stand-alone system, emergency power supply, or as part of an integrated system. 11 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.
Jeans instability of self-gravitating magnetized strongly coupled plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prajapati, R P; Sharma, P K; Sanghvi, R K; Chhajlani, R K
2012-01-01
We investigate the Jeans instability of self-gravitating magnetized strongly coupled plasma. The equations of the problem are formulated using the generalized hydrodynamic model and a general dispersion relation is obtained using the normal mode analysis. This dispersion relation is discussed for transverse and longitudinal mode of propagations. The modified condition of Jeans instability is obtained for magnetized strongly coupled plasma. We find that strong coupling of plasma particles modify the fundamental criterion of Jeans gravitational instability. In transverse mode it is found that Jeans instability criterion gets modified due to the presence of magnetic field, shear viscosity and fluid viscosity but in longitudinal mode it is unaffected due to the presence of magnetic field. From the curves we found that all these parameters have stabilizing influence on the growth rate of Jeans instability.
Expansion of dense particle clouds in magnetically confined plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lengyel, L.L.
1988-01-01
A single-cell Lagrangian model has been developed for calculating the ionization and expansion dynamics of high-density clouds in magnetic fields or in magnetically confined plasmas. The model was tested by means of data from magnetospheric barium cloud experiments and approximately reproduced such global characteristics as expansion rate, stopping radius, stopping time, and magnetic cavity lifetime. Detailed calculations were performed for hydrogen clouds associated with the injection of frozen hydrogen pellets into tokamak plasmas. The dynamic characteristics of the cloud expansion, such as ionization radius, stopping time, lifetime, oscillation frequencies, and amplitudes, etc., are computed as functions of the magnetic field strength, the background plasma temperature, and the cloud mass. The results are analyzed and compared with experimental observations
Periodical plasma structures controlled by external magnetic field
Schweigert, I. V.; Keidar, M.
2017-11-01
The plasma of Hall thruster type in external magnetic field is studied in 2D3V kinetic simulations using PIC MCC method. The periodical structure with maxima of electron and ion densities is formed and becomes more pronounced with increase of magnetic field incidence angle in the plasma. These ridges of electron and ion densities are aligned with the magnetic field vector and shifted relative each other. This leads to formation of two-dimensional double-layers structure in cylindrical plasma chamber. Depending on Larmor radius and Debye length up to nineteen potential steps appear across the oblique magnetic field. The electrical current gathered on the wall is associated with the electron and ion density ridges.
Apparatus for magnetic and electrostatic confinement of plasma
Rostoker, Norman; Binderbauer, Michl
2013-06-11
An apparatus and method for containing plasma and forming a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) magnetic topology are described in which plasma ions are contained magnetically in stable, non-adiabatic orbits in the FRC. Further, the electrons are contained electrostatically in a deep energy well, created by tuning an externally applied magnetic field. The simultaneous electrostatic confinement of electrons and magnetic confinement of ions avoids anomalous transport and facilitates classical containment of both electrons and ions. In this configuration, ions and electrons may have adequate density and temperature so that upon collisions ions are fused together by nuclear force, thus releasing fusion energy. Moreover, the fusion fuel plasmas that can be used with the present confinement system and method are not limited to neutronic fuels only, but also advantageously include advanced fuels.
Software architecture for control and data acquisition of linear plasma generator Magnum-PSI
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Groen, P.W.C.; Beveren, V. van; Broekema, A.; Busch, P.J.; Genuit, J.W.; Kaas, G.; Poelman, A.J.; Scholten, J.; Zeijlmans van Emmichoven, P.A.
2013-01-01
Highlights: ► An architecture based on a modular design. ► The design offers flexibility and extendability. ► The design covers the overall software architecture. ► It also covers its (sub)systems’ internal structure. -- Abstract: The FOM Institute DIFFER – Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research has completed the construction phase of Magnum-PSI, a magnetized, steady-state, large area, high-flux linear plasma beam generator to study plasma surface interactions under ITER divertor conditions. Magnum-PSI consists of several hardware subsystems, and a variety of diagnostic systems. The COntrol, Data Acquisition and Communication (CODAC) system integrates these subsystems and provides a complete interface for the Magnum-PSI users. Integrating it all, from the lowest hardware level of sensors and actuators, via the level of networked PLCs and computer systems, up to functions and classes in programming languages, demands a sound and modular software architecture, which is extendable and scalable for future changes. This paper describes this architecture, and the modular design of the software subsystems. The design is implemented in the CODAC system at the level of services and subsystems (the overall software architecture), as well as internally in the software subsystems
A new multi-line cusp magnetic field plasma device (MPD) with variable magnetic field
Patel, A. D.; Sharma, M.; Ramasubramanian, N.; Ganesh, R.; Chattopadhyay, P. K.
2018-04-01
A new multi-line cusp magnetic field plasma device consisting of electromagnets with core material has been constructed with a capability to experimentally control the relative volume fractions of magnetized to unmagnetized plasma volume as well as accurate control on the gradient length scales of mean density and temperature profiles. Argon plasma has been produced using a hot tungsten cathode over a wide range of pressures 5 × 10-5 -1 × 10-3 mbar, achieving plasma densities ranging from 109 to 1011 cm-3 and the electron temperature in the range 1-8 eV. The radial profiles of plasma parameters measured along the non-cusp region (in between two consecutive magnets) show a finite region with uniform and quiescent plasma, where the magnetic field is very low such that the ions are unmagnetized. Beyond that region, both plasma species are magnetized and the profiles show gradients both in temperature and density. The electrostatic fluctuation measured using a Langmuir probe radially along the non-cusp region shows less than 1% (δIisat/Iisat physics parameter space relevant to both laboratory multi-scale plasmas and astrophysical plasmas.
Effect of solenoidal magnetic field on drifting laser plasma
Takahashi, Kazumasa; Okamura, Masahiro; Sekine, Megumi; Cushing, Eric; Jandovitz, Peter
2013-04-01
An ion source for accelerators requires to provide a stable waveform with a certain pulse length appropriate to the application. The pulse length of laser ion source is easy to control because it is expected to be proportional to plasma drifting distance. However, current density decay is proportional to the cube of the drifting distance, so large current loss will occur under unconfined drift. We investigated the stability and current decay of a Nd:YAG laser generated copper plasma confined by a solenoidal field using a Faraday cup to measure the current waveform. It was found that the plasma was unstable at certain magnetic field strengths, so a baffle was introduced to limit the plasma diameter at injection and improve the stability. Magnetic field, solenoid length, and plasma diameter were varied in order to find the conditions that minimize current decay and maximize stability.
Effect of solenoidal magnetic field on drifting laser plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takahashi, Kazumasa; Sekine, Megumi; Okamura, Masahiro; Cushing, Eric; Jandovitz, Peter
2013-01-01
An ion source for accelerators requires to provide a stable waveform with a certain pulse length appropriate to the application. The pulse length of laser ion source is easy to control because it is expected to be proportional to plasma drifting distance. However, current density decay is proportional to the cube of the drifting distance, so large current loss will occur under unconfined drift. We investigated the stability and current decay of a Nd:YAG laser generated copper plasma confined by a solenoidal field using a Faraday cup to measure the current waveform. It was found that the plasma was unstable at certain magnetic field strengths, so a baffle was introduced to limit the plasma diameter at injection and improve the stability. Magnetic field, solenoid length, and plasma diameter were varied in order to find the conditions that minimize current decay and maximize stability.
Effect of solenoidal magnetic field on drifting laser plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Takahashi, Kazumasa; Sekine, Megumi [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Okamura, Masahiro [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States) and RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (United States); Cushing, Eric [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Jandovitz, Peter [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)
2013-04-19
An ion source for accelerators requires to provide a stable waveform with a certain pulse length appropriate to the application. The pulse length of laser ion source is easy to control because it is expected to be proportional to plasma drifting distance. However, current density decay is proportional to the cube of the drifting distance, so large current loss will occur under unconfined drift. We investigated the stability and current decay of a Nd:YAG laser generated copper plasma confined by a solenoidal field using a Faraday cup to measure the current waveform. It was found that the plasma was unstable at certain magnetic field strengths, so a baffle was introduced to limit the plasma diameter at injection and improve the stability. Magnetic field, solenoid length, and plasma diameter were varied in order to find the conditions that minimize current decay and maximize stability.
Collective scattering of electromagnetic waves from a relativistic magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lu Quankang
1998-01-01
Recently, laser and microwave scattering has become one of the important diagnostic means for plasma. Laser and microwave correlative scattering spectrum is determined by particle-density fluctuations in a weak turbulent plasma. In a relativistic plasma, on the basis of complete electromagnetic-interaction between particles, a general expression for particle density fluctuations and spectrums of laser and microwave scattering from a magnetized plasma are derived. The laser and microwave scattering spectrums provide informations on electron density and temperature, ion temperature, resonance and nonresonance effects. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martin, Pablo; Castro, Enrique; Puerta, Julio
2009-01-01
Non-linear plasma diffusion effects due to hole currents in tokamaks is analyzed in this work. Since the recent discovery of hole currents in tokamaks, this matter has become very important in confinement and instabilities in tokamaks plasmas. The analysis here presented includes non-linear flows as well as hole currents. In the case of low vorticity plasmas our treatment is performed using MHD equations, an it is more suitable for plasmas with very low levels of turbulence, as in the H-mode. The present treatment follows the lines of previous works, and some of the equations and results look like those obtained on these papers. However, the form of the family of the magnetic surfaces is very different to previous treatment, since the hole current modifies those families in a very important way. Elliptic plasmas with triangularity are considered. Pfirsch-Schlueter type currents are obtained for these generalized cases. Diffusion with and without holes are calculated and compared for several values of ellipticity and triangularity. Negative and positive triangularities are considered. In most of the calculations triangularity improves confinement, but the results are different for the positive than for the negative case.
Direct torque control via feedback linearization for permanent magnet synchronous motor drives
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lascu, Cristian; Boldea, Ion; Blaabjerg, Frede
2012-01-01
The paper describes a direct torque controlled (DTC) permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) drive that employs feedback linearization and uses sliding-mode and linear controllers. We introduce a new feedback linearization approach that yields a decoupled linear PMSM model with two state...
A review on ion–ion plasmas created in weakly magnetized electronegative plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aanesland, A; Bredin, J; Chabert, P
2014-01-01
Ion–Ion plasmas are electronegative plasmas where the electron density is several orders of magnitude lower than the negative ion density. These plasmas have been scarcely observed and investigated since the 1960s and are formed as a transient state of pulsed plasmas or in separate regions in magnetized plasmas. In this review we focus on the latter case of continuous formation of ion–ion plasmas created at the periphery of magnetized plasma columns or downstream localized magnetic barriers. We bring together and review experimental results already published elsewhere and complement them with new results to illustrate the physics important in ion–ion plasma formation and highlight in particular unanswered questions. We show that with a good design the density in the ion–ion region is dropping only by a factor of 2–3 from the initial plasma density. These plasmas can therefore be well suited for various ion source applications when both fluxes or beams of positive and negative ions are desired, and when electrons can cause harmful effects. (paper)
Plasma acceleration by magnetic nozzles and shock waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hattori, Kunihiko; Murakami, Fumitake; Miyazaki, Hiroyuki; Imasaki, Atsushi; Yoshinuma, Mikirou; Ando, Akira; Inutake, Masaaki
2001-01-01
We have measured axial profiles of ion acoustic Mach number, M i , of a plasma flow blowing off from an MPD (magneto-plasma-dynamic) arc-jet in various magnetic configurations. It is found that the Mach number increases in a divergent nozzle up to 3, while it stays at about unity in a uniform magnetic channel. When a magnetic bump is added in the exit of the divergent magnetic nozzle, the Mach number suddenly decreases below unity, due to an occurrence of shock wave. The subsonic flow after the shock wave is re-accelerated to a supersonic flow through a magnetic Laval nozzle. This behavior is explained well by the one-dimensional isotropic flow model. The shock wave is discussed in relation to the Rankine-Hugoniot relation. (author)
Optimal Design of Magnetic ComponentsinPlasma Cutting Power Supply
Jiang, J. F.; Zhu, B. R.; Zhao, W. N.; Yang, X. J.; Tang, H. J.
2017-10-01
Phase-shifted transformer and DC reactor are usually needed in chopper plasma cutting power supply. Because of high power rate, the loss of magnetic components may reach to several kilowatts, which seriously affects the conversion efficiency. Therefore, it is necessary to research and design low loss magnetic components by means of efficient magnetic materials and optimal design methods. The main task in this paper is to compare the core loss of different magnetic material, to analyze the influence of transformer structure, winding arrangement and wire structure on the characteristics of magnetic component. Then another task is to select suitable magnetic material, structure and wire in order to reduce the loss and volume of magnetic components. Based on the above outcome, the optimization design process of transformer and dc reactor are proposed in chopper plasma cutting power supply with a lot of solutions. These solutions are analyzed and compared before the determination of the optimal solution in order to reduce the volume and power loss of the two magnetic components and improve the conversion efficiency of plasma cutting power supply.
Modeling of magnetically enhanced capacitively coupled plasma sources: Ar discharges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kushner, Mark J.
2003-01-01
Magnetically enhanced capacitively coupled plasma sources use transverse static magnetic fields to modify the performance of low pressure radio frequency discharges. Magnetically enhanced reactive ion etching (MERIE) sources typically use magnetic fields of tens to hundreds of Gauss parallel to the substrate to increase the plasma density at a given pressure or to lower the operating pressure. In this article results from a two-dimensional hybrid-fluid computational investigation of MERIE reactors with plasmas sustained in argon are discussed for an industrially relevant geometry. The reduction in electron cross field mobility as the magnetic field increases produces a systematic decrease in the dc bias (becoming more positive). This decrease is accompanied by a decrease in the energy and increase in angular spread of the ion flux to the substrate. Similar trends are observed when decreasing pressure for a constant magnetic field. Although for constant power the magnitudes of ion fluxes to the substrate increase with moderate magnetic fields, the fluxes decreased at larger magnetic fields. These trends are due, in part, to a reduction in the contributions of more efficient multistep ionization
Transport of plasma across a braided magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stix, T.H.
1976-10-01
Transport rates are calculated for a plasma immersed in a region through which magnetic lines of force meander in a stochastic fashion and in which the magnetic surfaces are destroyed. Such a magnetic condition, termed magnetic braiding, may be brought about by asymmetric magnetic perturbations, perhaps quite weak, which typically produce overlap of two sets of magnetic islands. Plasma transport is calculated for this environment, using both a fluid and a kinetic drift model. The latter gives an appreciably higher rate, namely, a fast-particle diffusion coefficient equal to ( 1 / 2 )D/sub M/ [absolute value of v/sub ''/], where D/sub M/ is the coefficient of spatial diffusion for the magnetic lines of force. Correction terms, due to polarization-associated E/sub ''/ fields, are small unless components of the braiding field resonate with ion-acoustic or drift waves. Insertion of a Bhatnager--Gross--Krook collision term shows the diffusion rate is unaffected by weak collisions. Diffusion due to magnetic braiding is of interest for tokamaks, particularly with respect to enhanced electron heat transport, enhanced current penetration, plasma disruption, and internal sawtooth oscillations
MHD simulation study of compact toroid injection into magnetized plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suzuki, Yoshio; Kishimoto, Yasuaki
2000-01-01
To understand the fuelling process in a fusion device by a compact toroid (CT) plasmoid injection method, we have carried out MHD numerical simulations where a spheromak-like CT (SCT) is injected into a magnetized target plasma region. So far, we revealed that the penetration depth of the SCT plasma becomes shorter than that estimated from the conducting sphere (CS) model, because in the simulation the Lorentz force of the target magnetic field sequentially decelerates the injected SCT while in the CS model only the magnetic pressure force acts as the deceleration mechanism. In this study, we represent the new theoretical model where the injected SCT is decelerated by both the magnetic pressure force and the magnetic tension force (we call it the non-slipping sphere (NS) model) and investigate in detail the deceleration mechanism of the SCT by comparison with simulation results. As a result, it is found that the decrease of the SCT kinetic energy in the simulation coincides with that in the NS model more than in the CS model. It means that not only the magnetic pressure force but also the magnetic tension force acts as the deceleration mechanism of the SCT. Furthermore, it is revealed that magnetic reconnection between the SCT magnetic field and the target magnetic field plays a role to relax the SCT deceleration. (author)
Longitudinal and radial MHD linear induction accelerator with hot conducting plasma core
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Denno, K.
1985-01-01
Conceptual design of linear induction accelerator is presented using for the core continuum a highly conductive plasma with sustained pumping velocity. Karlovitz criterion of boundary theory is employed in the process of design
Strong magnetic field generation in laser plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakarmi, J.J.; Jha, L.N.
1996-12-01
An attempt has been made to solve the magnetic field evolution equation by using Green function and taking convective, diffusion and nabla n x nabla T as a dominant source term. The maximum magnetic field is obtained to be an order of megagauss. (author). 14 refs, 1 fig
Perfectly matched layers for radio wave propagation in inhomogeneous magnetized plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gondarenko, Natalia A.; Guzdar, Parvez N.; Ossakow, Sidney L.; Bernhardt, Paul A.
2004-01-01
We present 1D and 2D numerical models of the propagation of high-frequency (HF) radio waves in inhomogeneous magnetized plasmas. The simulations allow one to describe the process of linear conversion of HF electromagnetic waves into electrostatic waves. The waves, launched from the lower boundary normally or at a specified angle on a layer of a magnetoactive plasma, can undergo linear conversion of the incident O-mode into a Z-mode at appropriate locations in an inhomogeneous prescribed plasma density. The numerical scheme for solving 2D HF wave propagation equations is described. The model employed the Maxwellian perfectly matched layers (PML) technique for approximating nonreflecting boundary conditions. Our numerical studies demonstrate the effectiveness of the PML technique for transparent boundary conditions for an open-domain problem
Low frequency electrostatic modes in a magnetized dusty plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salimullah, M.; Hassan, M.H.A.
1991-09-01
The dispersion properties of low frequency electrostatic modes in a dusty plasma in the presence of a static homogeneous magnetic field are examined. It is found that the presence of the dust particles and the static magnetic field have significant effects on the dispersion relations. For the parallel propagation the electrostatic mode is slightly modified by the magnetic field for the ion acoustic branch. A new longitudinal mode arises at the extreme low frequency limit, which is unaffected by the magnetic field for the parallel propagation. For the transverse propagation the ion acoustic mode is not affected by the magnetic field. However, the undamped extreme low frequency mode is significantly modified by the presence of the magnetic field for the propagation transverse to the direction of the magnetic field. (author). 23 refs
Investigation and Calculation of Magnetic Field in Tubular Linear Reluctance Motor Using FEM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
MOSALLANEJAD, A.
2010-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper the magnetic flux density of tubular linear reluctance motor (TLRM in open type magnetic circuit is studied. Also, all magnetic flux density calculation methods in winding of tubular linear reluctance motor are described. The effect of structure parameters on magnetic flux density is also discussed. Electromagnetic finite-element analysis is used for simulation of magnetic field, and simulation results of the magnetic field analysis with DC voltage excitation are compared with results obtained from calculation methods. The comparison yields a good agreement.
ICTP-IAEA Workshop on Dense Magnetized Plasma and Plasma Diagnostics: an executive summary
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gribkov, V.A.; Mank, G.; Markowicz, A.; Miklaszewski, R.; Tuniz, C.; Crespo, M.L.
2011-01-01
The Workshop on Dense Magnetized Plasma and Plasma Diagnostics was held from 15 to 26 November 2010 at the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Trieste, Italy. It was attended by 60 participants, including 15 lecturers, 2 tutors and 37 trainees, representing 25 countries. (conference report)
ICTP-IAEA Workshop on Dense Magnetized Plasma and Plasma Diagnostics: an executive summary
Gribkov, V. A.; Mank, G.; Markowicz, A.; Miklaszewski, R.; Tuniz, C.; Crespo, M. L.
2011-12-01
The Workshop on Dense Magnetized Plasma and Plasma Diagnostics was held from 15 to 26 November 2010 at the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Trieste, Italy. It was attended by 60 participants, including 15 lecturers, 2 tutors and 37 trainees, representing 25 countries.
Novel Technique for Direct Measurement of the Plasma Diffusion Coefficient in Magnetized Plasma
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Brotánková, Jana; Martines, E.; Adámek, Jiří; Stöckel, Jan; Popa, G.; Costin, C.; Ionita, G.; Schrittwieser, R.; Van Oost, G.
2008-01-01
Roč. 48, 5-7 (2008), s. 418-423 ISSN 0863-1042. [International Workshop on Electrical Probes in Magnetized Plasmas/7th./. Praha, 22.07.2007-25.07.2007] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Tokamak * probe diagnostics * diffusion coefficient Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.250, year: 2008
Non-Maxwellian and magnetic field effects in complex plasma wakes★
Ludwig, Patrick; Jung, Hendrik; Kählert, Hanno; Joost, Jan-Philip; Greiner, Franko; Moldabekov, Zhandos; Carstensen, Jan; Sundar, Sita; Bonitz, Michael; Piel, Alexander
2018-05-01
In a streaming plasma, negatively charged dust particles create complex charge distributions on the downstream side of the particle, which are responsible for attractive forces between the like-charged particles. This wake phenomenon is studied by means of refined linear response theory and molecular dynamics simulations as well as in experiments. Particular attention is paid to non-Maxwellian velocity distributions that are found in the plasma sheath and to situations with strong magnetic fields, which are becoming increasingly important. Non-Maxwellian distributions and strong magnetic fields result in a substantial damping of the oscillatory wake potential. The interaction force in particle pairs is explored with the phase-resolved resonance method, which demonstrates the non-reciprocity of the interparticle forces in unmagnetized and magnetized systems.
Magnetic fluctuations in the plasma of KT-5C tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lu Ronghua; Pan Gesheng; Wang Zhijiang; Wen Yizhi; Yu Changxuan; Wan Shude; Liu Wandong; Wang Jun; Xu Min; Xiao Delong; Yu Yi
2004-01-01
A newly developed moveable magnetic probe array was installed on KT-5C tokamak. The profiles of radial and poloidal magnetic fluctuations of the plasma have been measured for (0.5r/a1.1). The experimental results indicate that there is a radial gradient which is greater than relative electrostatic fluctuations and the magnetic fluctuations contribute a little to losses. A strong coherence between fluctuations of 4 mm nearby two points suggests that the magnetic fluctuations have quite a long correlation length
Effects of magnetic fields on the quark–gluon plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bali, G.S. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Universität Regensburg, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany); Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005 (India); Bruckmann, F. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Universität Regensburg, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany); Endrődi, G., E-mail: gergely.endrodi@physik.uni-r.de [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Universität Regensburg, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany); Fodor, Z. [Eötvös University, Theoretical Physics, Pázmány P. s 1/A, H-1117, Budapest (Hungary); Bergische Universität Wuppertal, Theoretical Physics, 42119 Wuppertal (Germany); Jülich Supercomputing Centre, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Katz, S.D. [Eötvös University, Theoretical Physics, Pázmány P. s 1/A, H-1117, Budapest (Hungary); MTA-ELTE Lendület Lattice Gauge Theory Research Group (Hungary); Schäfer, A. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Universität Regensburg, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany)
2014-11-15
In this talk, the response of the thermal QCD medium to external (electro)magnetic fields is studied using continuum extrapolated lattice results at physical quark masses. The magnetic susceptibility of QCD is calculated, revealing a strong paramagnetic response at high temperatures. This paramagnetism is shown to result in an anisotropic squeezing of the quark–gluon plasma in non-central heavy-ion collisions, implying a sizeable contribution to the elliptic flow. Another aspect is the magnetic response of topologically non-trivial domains to the magnetic field. We quantify this effect on the lattice and compare the results to a simple model estimate.
Magnetic analysis of tokamak plasma with approximate MHD equilibrium solution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moriyama, Shin-ichi; Hiraki, Naoji
1993-01-01
A magnetic analysis method for determining equilibrium configuration parameters (plasma shape, poloidal beta and internal inductance) on a non-circular tokamak is described. The feature is to utilize an approximate MHD equilibrium solution which explicitly relates the configuration parameters with the magnetic fields picked up by magnetic sensors. So this method is suitable for the real-time analysis performed during a tokamak discharge. A least-squares fitting procedure is added to the analytical algorithm in order to reduce the errors in the magnetic analysis. The validity is investigated through the numerical calculation for a tokamak equilibrium model. (author)
Electro-Magnetic Fields and Plasma in the Cosmos
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scott, Donald E.
2006-01-01
It is becoming widely recognized that a majority of baryons in the cosmos are in the plasma state. But, fundamental disagreements about the properties and behavior of electro-magnetic fields in these plasmas exist between the science of modern astronomy and the experimentally verified laws of electrical engineering and physics. Some astronomers claim that magnetic fields can be open-ended - that they begin on or beneath the Sun's surface and extend outward to infinity. Astrophysicists have claimed that galactic magnetic fields begin and end on molecular clouds. Electrical engineers, most physicists, and the pioneers in electromagnetic field theory disagree - magnetic fields have no beginning or end. Since these two viewpoints are mutually exclusive, both cannot be correct; one must be completely false. Many astrophysicists claim that magnetic fields are 'frozen into' electric plasma. We also examine the basis for this claim. It has been shown to be incorrect in the laboratory. The hypothetical 'magnetic merging' mechanism is also reviewed in light of both theoretical and experimental investigations. The cause of large-scale filamentation in the cosmos is also simply revealed by experimental results obtained in plasma laboratories
Plasma Detachment Mechanisms in Propulsive Magnetic Nozzles
2013-03-07
tested HPHall2 code used in our group,12 originally conceived for ∗PhD student, Equipo de Propulsión Espacial y Plasmas (EP2), web.fmetsia.upm.es...the main characteristics of the updated DIMAGNO model. Sections ∗PhD student, Equipo de Propulsión Espacial y Plasmas (EP2, web.fmetsia.upm.es/ep2
Lynn, Alan G; Gilmore, Mark
2014-11-01
Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) experiments, where a metal liner is imploded to compress a magnetized seed plasma may generate peak magnetic fields ∼10(4) T (100 Megagauss) over small volumes (∼10(-10)m(3)) at high plasma densities (∼10(28)m(-3)) on 100 ns time scales. Such conditions are extremely challenging to diagnose. We discuss the possibility of, and issues involved in, using polarimetry techniques at x-ray wavelengths to measure magnetic fields under these extreme conditions.
Interaction of the electromagnetic waves and non-magnetized plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun Aiping; Qiu Xiaoming; Dong Yuying; Li Liqiong
2002-01-01
The propagation of electromagnetic waves with 0.5 - 10 GHz in a non-magnetized collisional plasma slab is studied numerically. The change in the absorbed power, reflected power and transmitted power of the electromagnetic wave with collisional frequency of electrons and neutral atoms in plasma from 0.1 - 10 GHz, is calculated, in the condition of the uniform plasma with density of 10 10 or 10 11 cm -3 and depth of 10 cm, and the non-uniform plasma with density distribution of n = n 0 exp[2(z/d-1)] and depth of 10 cm, respectively. The results show that the absorbed power in either uniform or non-uniform plasma is large when the plasma density is large and collision frequency is high, and the peak value is 90%
Transparency of magnetized plasma at the cyclotron frequency
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shvets, G.; Wurtele, J.S.
2002-01-01
Electromagnetic radiation is strongly absorbed by a magnetized plasma if the radiation frequency equals the cyclotron frequency of plasma electrons. It is demonstrated that absorption can be completely canceled in the presence of a magnetostatic field of an undulator, or a second radiation beam, resulting in plasma transparency at the cyclotron frequency. This effect is reminiscent of the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) of three-level atomic systems, except that it occurs in a completely classical plasma. Unlike the atomic systems, where all the excited levels required for EIT exist in each atom, this classical EIT requires the excitation of nonlocal plasma oscillation. A Lagrangian description was used to elucidate the physics of the plasma transparency and control of group and phase velocity. This control leads to applications for electromagnetic pulse compression and electron/ion acceleration
Optimal laser heating of plasmas confined in strong solenoidal magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vitela, J.; Akcasu, A.Z.
1987-01-01
Optimal Control Theory is used to analyze the laser-heating of plasmas confined in strong solenoidal magnetic fields. Heating strategies that minimize a linear combination of heating time and total energy spent by the laser system are found. A numerical example is used to illustrate the theory. Results of this example show that by an appropriate modulation of the laser intensity, significant savings in the laser energy are possible with only slight increases in the heating time. However, results may depend strongly on the initial state of the plasma and on the final ion temperature. (orig.)
Eck, van H.J.N.; Koppers, W.R.; Rooij, van G.J.; Goedheer, W.J.; Engeln, R.A.H.; Schram, D.C.; Lopes Cardozo, N.J.; Kleyn, A.W.
2009-01-01
The direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method was used to investigate the efficiency of differential pumping in linear plasma generators operating at high gas flows. Skimmers are used to separate the neutrals from the plasma beam, which is guided from the source to the target by a strong axial
Advanced Thomson scattering system for high-flux linear plasma generator
Meiden, van der H.J.; Lof, A.R.; Berg, van den M.A.; Brons, S.; Donné, A.J.H.; Eck, van H.J.N.; Koelman, Peter; Koppers, W.R.; Kruijt, O.G.; Naumenko, N.N.; Oyevaar, T.; Prins, P.R.; Rapp, J.; Scholten, J.; Schram, D.C.; Smeets, P.H.M.; Star, van der G.; Tugarinov, S.N.; Zeijlmans van Emmichoven, P.A.
2012-01-01
An advanced Thomson scattering system has been built for a linear plasma generator for plasma surface interaction studies. The Thomson scattering system is based on a Nd:YAG laser operating at the second harmonic and a detection branch featuring a high etendue (f /3) transmission grating
Investigation of magnetic drift on transport of plasma across magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hazarika, Parismita; Chakraborty, Monojit; Das, Bidyut; Bandyopadhyay, Mainak
2015-01-01
When a metallic body is inserted inside plasma chamber it is always associated with sheath which depends on plasma and wall condition. The effect of sheath formed in the magnetic drift and magnetic field direction on cross field plasma transport has been investigated in a double Plasma device (DPD). The drifts exist inside the chamber in the transverse magnetic field (TMF) region in a direction perpendicular to both magnetic field direction and axis of the DPD chamber. The sheath are formed in the magnetic drift direction in the experimental chamber is due to the insertion of two metallic plates in these directions and in the magnetic field direction sheath is formed at the surface of the TMF channels. These metallic plates are inserted in order to obstruct the magnetic drift so that we can minimised the loss of plasma along drift direction and density in the target region is expected to increase due to the obstruction. It ultimately improves the negative ion formation parameters. The formation of sheath in the transverse magnetic field region is studied by applying electric field both parallel and antiparallel to drift direction. Data are acquired by Langmuir probe in source and target region of our chamber. (author)
Lynn, Alan G.; Zhang, Yue; Gilmore, Mark; Hsu, Scott
2014-10-01
We discuss the dynamics of plasma ``bubbles'' as they propagate through a variety of background media. These bubbles are formed by a pulsed coaxial gun with an externally applied magnetic field. Bubble parameters are typically ne ~1020 m-3, Te ~ 5 - 10 eV, and Ti ~ 10 - 15 eV. The structure of the bubbles can range from unmagnetized jet-like structures to spheromak-like structures with complex magnetic flux surfaces. Some of the background media the bubbles interact with are vacuum, vacuum with magnetic field, and other magnetized plasmas. These bubbles exhibit different qualitative behavior depending on coaxial gun parameters such as gas species, gun current, and gun bias magnetic field. Their behavior also depends on the parameters of the background they propagate through. Multi-frame fast camera imaging and magnetic probe data are used to characterize the bubble evolution under various conditions.
Sheath and plasma parameters in a magnetized plasma system
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
through the negatively biased grid from the source region into the diffused region. It is observed that the electron temperature increases with the magnetic field in the diffused region whereas it decreases in the source region of the system for a constant grid biasing voltage. Also, investigation is done to see the change of ...
Performance improvement of magnetized coaxial plasma gun by magnetic circuit on a bias coil
Edo, Takahiro; Matsumoto, Tadafumi; Asai, Tomohiko; Kamino, Yasuhiro; Inomoto, Michiaki; Gota, Hiroshi
2016-10-01
A magnetized coaxial plasmoid accelerator has been utilized for compact torus (CT) injection to refuel into fusion reactor core plasma. Recently, CT injection experiments have been conducted on the C-2/C-2U facility at Tri Alpha Energy. In the series of experiments successful refueling, i.e. increased particle inventory of field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasma, has been observed. In order to improve the performance of CT injector and to refuel in the upgraded FRC device, called C-2W, with higher confinement magnetic field, magnetic circuit consisting of magnetic material onto a bias magnetic coil is currently being tested at Nihon University. Numerical work suggests that the optimized bias magnetic field distribution realizes the increased injection velocity because of higher conversion efficiency of Lorenz self force to kinetic energy. Details of the magnetic circuit design as well as results of the test experiment and field calculations will be presented and discussed.
Measurements of magnetic fields generated in underdense plasmas by intense lasers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Najmudin, Z.; Walton, B. R.; Mangles, S. P. D.; Dangor, A. E.; Krushelnick, K.; Fritzler, S.; Malka, V.; Faure, J.; Tatarakis, M.
2006-01-01
Measurements have been made of the magnetic field generated by the passage of high intensity short laser pulses through underdense plasmas. For a 30 fs, 1 J, 800 nm linearly-polarised laser pulse, an azimuthal magnetic field is observed at a radial extent of approximately 200 μm. The field is found to exceed 2.8 MG. For a 1 ps, 40 J, 1054 nm circularly-polarised laser pulse, a solenoidal field is observed that can exceed 7 MG. This solenoidal field is absent with linear polarised light, and hence can be considered as an Inverse Faraday effect. Both types of field are found to decay on the picosecond timescale. For both the azimuthal and solenoidal fields produced by such intense lasers, the production of energetic electrons by the interaction is thought to be vital for magnetic field generation
Numerical treatment of linearized equations describing inhomogeneous collisionless plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lewis, H.R.
1979-01-01
The equations governing the small-signal response of spatially inhomogeneous collisionless plasmas have practical significance in physics, for example in controlled thermonuclear fusion research. Although the solutions are very complicated and the equations are different to solve numerically, effective methods for them are being developed which are applicable when the equilibrium involves only one nonignorable coordinate. The general theoretical framework probably will provide a basis for progress when there are two or three nonignorable coordinates
Dense magnetized plasma associated with a fast radio burst.
Masui, Kiyoshi; Lin, Hsiu-Hsien; Sievers, Jonathan; Anderson, Christopher J; Chang, Tzu-Ching; Chen, Xuelei; Ganguly, Apratim; Jarvis, Miranda; Kuo, Cheng-Yu; Li, Yi-Chao; Liao, Yu-Wei; McLaughlin, Maura; Pen, Ue-Li; Peterson, Jeffrey B; Roman, Alexander; Timbie, Peter T; Voytek, Tabitha; Yadav, Jaswant K
2015-12-24
Fast radio bursts are bright, unresolved, non-repeating, broadband, millisecond flashes, found primarily at high Galactic latitudes, with dispersion measures much larger than expected for a Galactic source. The inferred all-sky burst rate is comparable to the core-collapse supernova rate out to redshift 0.5. If the observed dispersion measures are assumed to be dominated by the intergalactic medium, the sources are at cosmological distances with redshifts of 0.2 to 1 (refs 10 and 11). These parameters are consistent with a wide range of source models. One fast burst revealed circular polarization of the radio emission, but no linear polarization was detected, and hence no Faraday rotation measure could be determined. Here we report the examination of archival data revealing Faraday rotation in the fast radio burst FRB 110523. Its radio flux and dispersion measure are consistent with values from previously reported bursts and, accounting for a Galactic contribution to the dispersion and using a model of intergalactic electron density, we place the source at a maximum redshift of 0.5. The burst has a much higher rotation measure than expected for this line of sight through the Milky Way and the intergalactic medium, indicating magnetization in the vicinity of the source itself or within a host galaxy. The pulse was scattered by two distinct plasma screens during propagation, which requires either a dense nebula associated with the source or a location within the central region of its host galaxy. The detection in this instance of magnetization and scattering that are both local to the source favours models involving young stellar populations such as magnetars over models involving the mergers of older neutron stars, which are more likely to be located in low-density regions of the host galaxy.
Magnetic field line draping in the plasma depletion layer
Sibeck, D. G.; Lepping, R. P.; Lazarus, A. J.
1990-01-01
Simultaneous IMP 8 solar wind and ISEE 1/2 observations for a northern dawn ISEE 1/2 magnetopause crossing on November 6, 1977. During this crossing, ISEE 1/2 observed quasi-periodic pulses of magnetosheathlike plasma on northward magnetic field lines. The ISEE 1/2 observations were originally interpreted as evidence for strong diffusion of magnetosheath plasma across the magnetopause and the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability at the inner edge of the low-latitude boundary layer. An alternate explanation, in terms of magnetic field merging and flux transfer events, has also been advocated. In this paper, a third interpretation is proposed in terms of quasi-periodic magnetopause motion which causes the satellites to repeatedly exit the magnetosphere and observe draped northward magnetosheath magnetic field lines in the plasma depletion layer.
On the Magnetic Shield for a Vlasov-Poisson Plasma
Caprino, Silvia; Cavallaro, Guido; Marchioro, Carlo
2017-12-01
We study the screening of a bounded body Γ against the effect of a wind of charged particles, by means of a shield produced by a magnetic field which becomes infinite on the border of Γ . The charged wind is modeled by a Vlasov-Poisson plasma, the bounded body by a torus, and the external magnetic field is taken close to the border of Γ . We study two models: a plasma composed by different species with positive or negative charges, and finite total mass of each species, and another made of many species of the same sign, each having infinite mass. We investigate the time evolution of both systems, showing in particular that the plasma particles cannot reach the body. Finally we discuss possible extensions to more general initial data. We show also that when the magnetic lines are straight lines, (that imposes an unbounded body), the previous results can be improved.
Very-low-frequency magnetic plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pendry, J.B.; O'Brien, S.
2002-01-01
We show that a set of current-carrying wires can exhibit an effective magnetic permeability at very low frequencies of a few hertz. The resonant permeability, which is negative above the resonance frequency, arises from the oscillations of the wires driven by the applied magnetic field. We show that a large, frequency-specific and tunable effective permeability can be realized for a wide range of strengths of the applied field. (author)
Angular dependence of energy and particle fluxes in a magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koch, B.; Bohmeyer, W.; Fussmann, G.
2005-01-01
A flat probe allowing simultaneous measurements of energy flux and current density as functions of a bias voltage was rotated in a spatially homogeneous plasma. The experiments were conducted at the PSI-2 facility, a linear divertor simulator with moderate magnetic field strength. Sheath parameters (ion current density j i , floating potential U f , energy flux density q, ion energy reflection coefficient R E and sheath energy transmission coefficient γ) were determined as functions of the angle α between the probe surface normal and the magnetic field. A geometric model has been developed to explain the ion flux density at grazing incidence
Self excitation of second harmonic ion-acoustic waves in a weakly magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsukabayashi, I.; Yagishita, T.; Nakamura, Y.
1994-01-01
Electrostatic ion-acoustic waves in a weakly magnetized plasma are investigated experimentally. It is observed that finite amplitudes ion acoustic waves excite a new second harmonic wave train behind the initial ion waves excite a new second harmonic wave train behind the initial ion waves in a parallel magnetic field. The excitation of higher harmonic waves can be explained by non-linearity of finite amplitude ion-acoustic waves. The newly excited second harmonics waves satisfy a dispersion relation of the ion-acoustic waves. (author). 3 refs, 5 figs
Magnetized and collimated millimeter scale plasma jets with astrophysical relevance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brady, Parrish C.; Quevedo, Hernan J.; Valanju, Prashant M.; Bengtson, Roger D.; Ditmire, Todd
2012-01-01
Magnetized collimated plasma jets are created in the laboratory to extend our understanding of plasma jet acceleration and collimation mechanisms with particular connection to astrophysical jets. In this study, plasma collimated jets are formed from supersonic unmagnetized flows, mimicking a stellar wind, subject to currents and magnetohydrodynamic forces. It is found that an external poloidal magnetic field, like the ones found anchored to accretion disks, is essential to stabilize the jets against current-driven instabilities. The maximum jet length before instabilities develop is proportional to the field strength and the length threshold agrees well with Kruskal-Shafranov theory. The plasma evolution is modeled qualitatively using MHD theory of current-carrying flux tubes showing that jet acceleration and collimation arise as a result of electromagnetic forces.
Review of recent experiments on magnetic reconnection in laboratory plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamada, M.
1995-02-01
The present paper reviews recent laboratory experiments on magnetic reconnection. Examples will be drawn from electron current sheet experiments, merging spheromaks, and from high temperature tokamak plasmas with the Lundquist numbers exceeding 10 7 . These recent laboratory experiments create an environment which satisfies the criteria for MHD plasma and in which the global boundary conditions can be controlled externally. Experiments with fully three dimensional reconnection are now possible. In the most recent TFTR tokamak discharges, Motional Stark effect (MSE) data have verified the existence of a partial reconnection. In the experiment of spheromak merging, a new plasma acceleration parallel to the neutral line has been indicated. Together with the relationship of these observations to the analysis of magnetic reconnection in space and in solar flares, important physics issues such as global boundary conditions, local plasma parameters, merging angle of the field lines, and the 3-D aspects of the reconnection are discussed
Bhuva, M. P.; Karkari, S. K.; Kumar, Sunil
2018-03-01
An elongated plasma column in the presence of an axial magnetic field has been formed using a cylindrical hollow cathode (HC) and a constricted anode (CA). The plasma characteristics of the central line have been found to vary with the magnetic field strength and the axial distance from the source. It is believed that the primary electrons constituting the discharge current are steered by the axial magnetic field to undertake ionizing collisions along the plasma column. The current carrying electrons from the HC reach the anode by cross-field diffusion towards the central line. The above observation has been substantiated using a phenomenological model which links the observed characteristics of the source with the plasma column. The experimental results are found to be in qualitative agreement with the model.
Two-dimensional convection and interchange motions in fluids and magnetized plasmas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Garcia, O.E.; Bian, N.H.; Naulin, V.
2006-01-01
fluids, emphasizing its relation to interchange motions of non- uniformly magnetized plasmas. This is followed by a review of the theories for the onset of convection and quasi-linear saturation in driven-dissipative systems. Non-linear numerical simulations which result in stationary convective states...... behaviour of the fluctuation level which is associated with relaxation oscillations in the kinetic energy of the azimuthally mean flows. This leads to a state of large-scale intermittency manifested by exponential tails in the single-point probability distribution function of the dependent variables...
Rusconi, C. C.; Pöchhacker, V.; Cirac, J. I.; Romero-Isart, O.
2017-10-01
We theoretically study the levitation of a single magnetic domain nanosphere in an external static magnetic field. We show that, apart from the stability provided by the mechanical rotation of the nanomagnet (as in the classical Levitron), the quantum spin origin of its magnetization provides two additional mechanisms to stably levitate the system. Despite the Earnshaw theorem, such stable phases are present even in the absence of mechanical rotation. For large magnetic fields, the Larmor precession of the quantum magnetic moment stabilizes the system in full analogy with magnetic trapping of a neutral atom. For low magnetic fields, the magnetic anisotropy stabilizes the system via the Einstein-de Haas effect. These results are obtained with a linear stability analysis of a single magnetic domain rigid nanosphere with uniaxial anisotropy in a Ioffe-Pritchard magnetic field.
Computer models for kinetic equations of magnetically confined plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Killeen, J.; Kerbel, G.D.; McCoy, M.G.; Mirin, A.A.; Horowitz, E.J.; Shumaker, D.E.
1987-01-01
This paper presents four working computer models developed by the computational physics group of the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center. All of the models employ a kinetic description of plasma species. Three of the models are collisional, i.e., they include the solution of the Fokker-Planck equation in velocity space. The fourth model is collisionless and treats the plasma ions by a fully three-dimensional particle-in-cell method
Determination of gross plasma equilibrium from magnetic multipoles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kessel, C.E.
1986-05-01
A new approximate technique to determine the gross plasma equilibrium parameters, major radius, minor radius, elongation and triangularity for an up-down symmetric plasma is developed. It is based on a multipole representation of the externally applied poloidal magnetic field, relating specific terms to the equilibrium parameters. The technique shows reasonable agreement with free boundary MHD equilibrium results. The method is useful in dynamic simulation and control studies.
Determination of gross plasma equilibrium from magnetic multipoles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kessel, C.E.
1986-05-01
A new approximate technique to determine the gross plasma equilibrium parameters, major radius, minor radius, elongation and triangularity for an up-down symmetric plasma is developed. It is based on a multipole representation of the externally applied poloidal magnetic field, relating specific terms to the equilibrium parameters. The technique shows reasonable agreement with free boundary MHD equilibrium results. The method is useful in dynamic simulation and control studies
Linear conversion theory on the second harmonic emission from a plasma filament
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tan Weihan; Gu Min
1989-01-01
The linear conversion theory of laser produced plasma filaments is studied. By calculations for the energy flux of the second harmonic emission on the basis of the planar wave-plasma interaction model, it has been found that there exists no 2ω 0 harmonic emission in the direction perpendicular to the incident laser, in contradiction with the experiments. A linear conversion theory is proposed on the second harmonic emission from a plasma filament and discovered the intense 2ω 0 harmonic emission in the direction perpendicular to the incident laser, which is in agreement with the experiments. (author)
Parametric instabilities in a magnetized and collisional plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Phalswal, D R; Dube, A [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Dept. of Physics
1980-09-01
The dispersion relation for a magnetized, collisional and hot plasma in the presence of a pump wave is developed for the case where the pump frequency ..omega../sub 0/ is large compared with the cyclotron frequency ..omega..sub(c) and the plasma frequency ..omega..sub(p). Formulae for the growth rate, the damping rate for the free electron plasma wave and the threshold power are derived and discussed numerically under different conditions. It is found that in a hot plasma (for magnetic fields with ..omega..sub(c)/..omega..sub(p) = 1 and 10) the threshold power Psub(T) is less than or greater than that in a cold plamsa for the (Re..omega../sub 2/)sub(+) or (Re..omega../sub 2/)sub(-) modes respectively. In a weak magnetic field (..omega..sub(c)/..omega..sub(p) = 0.1), Psub(T) does not vary with the direction theta of the magnetic field for the (Re..omega../sub 2/) sub(+) mode. However, Psub(T) for the (Re..omega../sub 2/)sub(-) mode is a minimum at theta = 30deg. and 10deg. for ..omega..sub(c)/ ..omega..sub(p) = 1 and 10 respectively, and it becomes very large (10/sup 5/-10/sup 7/ times its value in a cold unmagnetized plasma) for ..omega..sub(c)/..omega..sub(p) = 0.1. The results for the growth are found to be just the reverse of those for the threshold power.
Rayleigh scattering for a magnetized cold plasma sphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Yingle; Wang Mingjun; Tang Gaofeng; Li Jin
2010-01-01
The transformation of parameter tensors for anisotropic medium in different coordinate systems is derived. The electric field for a magnetized cold plasma sphere and the general expression of scattering field from anisotropic target are obtained. The functional relations of differential scattering cross section and the radar cross section for the magnetized plasma sphere are presented. Simulation results agree with that in the literatures, which shows the method used is correct and therefore the results may provide a theoretical base for anisotropic target identification. (authors)
Study on the plasma diode in the external magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Korenev, S.A.
1981-01-01
The experimental investigations of plasma diode with cathode plasma formation on the basis of an incomplete charge over dielectric surface in the external longitudinal magnetic field with the intensity of Hsub(z) up to 2000 Oe are presented. It is demonstrated that at the 150-250 keV diode voltage and the current density of up to 300 A/cm 2 the homogeneity of the current density over transverse cross section is preserved up to the cell size of metallic grid onto cathode with the change of the magnetic field up to 2000 Oe [ru
Plasma confinement in a magnetic dipole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kesner, J.; Bromberg, L.; Garnier, D.; Mauel, M.
1999-01-01
A dipole fusion confinement device is stable to MHD interchange and ballooning modes when the pressure profile is sufficiently gentle. The plasma can be confined at high beta, is steady state and disruption free. Theory indicates that when the pressure gradient is sufficiently gentle to satisfy MHD requirements drift waves will also be stable. The dipole approach is particularly applicable for advanced fuels. A new experimental facility is presently being built to test the stability and transport properties of a dipole-confined plasma. (author)
Plasma confinement in a magnetic dipole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kesner, J.; Bromberg, L.; Garnier, D.; Mauel, M.
2001-01-01
A dipole fusion confinement device is stable to MHD interchange and ballooning modes when the pressure profile is sufficiently gentle. The plasma can be confined at high beta, is steady state and disruption free. Theory indicates that when the pressure gradient is sufficiently gentle to satisfy MHD requirements drift waves will also be stable. The dipole approach is particularly applicable for advanced fuels. A new experimental facility is presently being built to test the stability and transport properties of a dipole-confined plasma. (author)
Suprathermal ion transport in turbulent magnetized plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bovet, A. D.
2015-01-01
Suprathermal ions, which have an energy greater than the quasi-Maxwellian background plasma temperature, are present in many laboratory and astrophysical plasmas. In fusion devices, they are generated by the fusion reactions and auxiliary heating. Controlling their transport is essential for the success of future fusion devices that could provide a clean, safe and abundant source of electric power to our society. In space, suprathermal ions include energetic solar particles and cosmic rays. The understanding of the acceleration and transport mechanisms of these particles is still incomplete. Basic plasma devices allow detailed measurements that are not accessible in astrophysical and fusion plasmas, due to the difficulty to access the former and the high temperatures of the latter. The basic toroidal device TORPEX offers an easy access for diagnostics, well characterized plasma scenarios and validated numerical simulations of its turbulence dynamics, making it the ideal platform for the investigation of suprathermal ion transport. This Thesis presents three-dimensional measurements of a suprathermal ion beam injected in turbulent TORPEX plasmas. The combination of uniquely resolved measurements and first principle numerical simulations reveals the general non-diffusive nature of the suprathermal ion transport. A precise characterization of their transport regime shows that, depending on their energies, suprathermal ions can experience either a super diffusive transport or a subdiffusive transport in the same background turbulence. The transport character is determined by the interaction of the suprathermal ion orbits with the turbulent plasma structures, which in turn depends on the ratio between the ion energy and the background plasma temperature. Time-resolved measurements reveal a clear difference in the intermittency of suprathermal ions time-traces depending on the transport regime they experience. Conditionally averaged measurements uncover the influence of
Collisionless scattering of plasma cloud in a dipole magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Osipyan, D.A.
2006-01-01
Results of numerical simulation of dense plasma cloud scattering dynamics in a magnetized background and MHD indignations generation are presented. The magnetic field has dipole structure. The initial system of equations includes the Vlasov equations for ionic components of plasma, hydrodynamic approach for electrons and Maxwell's system of equations. The method of solution is based on the use of the method of particles in cells and finite difference splitting schemes. Quantitative characteristics of dependence of scattering cloud parameters from the Mach-Alfven number and parameter of magnetic laminar interaction are observed. In particular, a condition of more effective deformation of a cloud is large values of the Mach-Alfven numbers and small parameters of the magnetic laminar interaction
Maximum thermal energy density in magnetically confined plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coppi, B.
1977-01-01
The consequences of the limiting value of β that follows from analyzing the onset of high temperature ballooning modes is examined in high temperature regimes where the ideal MHD approximation is not strictly valid and for finite-β configurations exhibiting the main features of those that are obtained by magnetic flux conservation. These modes are localized over periodically space intervals of a given magnetic field line and are driven by the combined effects of finite plasma pressure and the locally unfavorable magnetic curvature. The effects of finite β, insofar as they shorten the effective connection length, steepen the pressure gradient, and influence the magnetic well dug by the plasma, are studied using a model dispersion relation. 14 references
SO-FDTD analysis of anisotropic magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang Hongwei; Nanjing Univ. of Science and Technology, Nanjing; Yuan Hong; Chen Rushan; Yang Yang
2007-01-01
A novel finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, called shift operator FDTD (SO-FDTD) method is developed for anisotropic magnetized dispersive media. The recursive relation between operators is used. In this paper, some expressions containing the dielectric constants of magnetized dispersive media are written as rational polynomial function. The SO-FDTD formulation for anisotropic magnetized plasma is derived. The high efficiency and effectiveness of the method are confirmed by computing the reflection and transmission through a magnetized plasma layer, with the direction of the propagation parallel to the direction of the biasing field. A comparison with frequency domain analytic results is included. The CPU time was several times shorter than that of the JEC method. (authors)
Studies of the formation of field reversed plasma by a magnetized co-axial plasma gun
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turner, W.C.; Granneman, E.H.A.; Hartman, C.W.; Prono, D.S.; Taska, J.; Smith, A.C. Jr.
1980-01-01
The gun injects axially into a drift tank followed by a magnetic mirror. For the experiments reported here, only the guide coils outside the vacuum vessel and solenoids on the plasma gun electrodes were used; the mirror coil was not energized. A stainless steel flux conserver is placed in the mirror throat to prevent the plasma from contacting the nonconducting vacuum wall in the region of the mirror. An axis encircling array of magnetic loop probes includes four diamagnetic loops and a loop which measures the azimuthally averaged outward pointing radial component of magnetic field. These loop probes are stainless steel jacketed and form a flux conserving boundary (at a radius = 30 cm) for plasma emitted from the gun. A five tip probe that can be positioned anywhere along the axis of the experiment is used to measure internal components of magnetic field
ASYMMETRIC MAGNETIC RECONNECTION IN WEAKLY IONIZED CHROMOSPHERIC PLASMAS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murphy, Nicholas A.; Lukin, Vyacheslav S.
2015-01-01
Realistic models of magnetic reconnection in the solar chromosphere must take into account that the plasma is partially ionized and that plasma conditions within any two magnetic flux bundles undergoing reconnection may not be the same. Asymmetric reconnection in the chromosphere may occur when newly emerged flux interacts with pre-existing, overlying flux. We present 2.5D simulations of asymmetric reconnection in weakly ionized, reacting plasmas where the magnetic field strengths, ion and neutral densities, and temperatures are different in each upstream region. The plasma and neutral components are evolved separately to allow non-equilibrium ionization. As in previous simulations of chromospheric reconnection, the current sheet thins to the scale of the neutral–ion mean free path and the ion and neutral outflows are strongly coupled. However, the ion and neutral inflows are asymmetrically decoupled. In cases with magnetic asymmetry, a net flow of neutrals through the current sheet from the weak-field (high-density) upstream region into the strong-field upstream region results from a neutral pressure gradient. Consequently, neutrals dragged along with the outflow are more likely to originate from the weak-field region. The Hall effect leads to the development of a characteristic quadrupole magnetic field modified by asymmetry, but the X-point geometry expected during Hall reconnection does not occur. All simulations show the development of plasmoids after an initial laminar phase
Axisymmetric magnetic mirrors for plasma confinement. Recent development and perspectives
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kruglyakov, E.P.; Dimov, G.I.; Ivanov, A.A.; Koidan, V.S.
2003-01-01
Mirrors are the only one class of fusion systems which completely differs topologically from the systems with closed magnetic configurations. At present, three modern types of different mirror machines for plasma confinement and heating exist in Novosibirsk (Gas Dynamic Trap,- GDT, Multi-mirror,- GOL-3, and Tandem Mirror,- AMBAL-M). All these systems are attractive from the engineering point of view because of very simple axisymmetric geometry of magnetic configurations. In the present paper, the status of different confinement systems is presented. The experiments most crucial for the mirror concept are described such as a demonstration of different principles of suppression of electron heat conductivity (GDT, GOL-3), finding of MHD stable regimes of plasma confinement in axisymmetric geometry of magnetic field (GDT, AMBAL-M), an effective heating of a dense plasma by relativistic electron beam (GOL-3), observation of radial diffusion of quiescent plasma with practically classical diffusion coefficient (AMBAL-M), etc. It should be mentioned that on the basis of the GDT it is possible to make a very important intermediate step. Using 'warm' plasma and oblique injection of fast atoms of D and T one can create a powerful 14 MeV neutron source with a moderate irradiation area (about 1 square meter) and, accordingly, with low tritium consumption. The main plasma parameters achieved are presented and the future perspectives of different mirror machines are outlined. (author)
Non-linear effects and plasma heating by lower-hybrid waves in the Petula tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Briand, P.; Dupas, L.; Golovato, S.N.; Singh, C.M.; Melin, G.; Grelot, P.; Legardeur, R.; Zymanski, S.
1979-01-01
Lower hybrid waves were excited by a two-waveguide 'grill' (nsub(parallel) approximately 1-10, Esub(grill) approximately 3kVcm -1 , Psub(grill) approximately 5kWcm -2 ) at 1.25GHz, 3ms, 600kW. Plasma heating was observed separately as due to non-linear effects alone as well as to a combination of linear and non-linear mechanisms. (author)
Interaction of plasma with magnetic fields in coaxial discharge
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Soliman, H.M.; Masoud, M.M. (National Research Centre, Cairo (Egypt))
1991-01-01
Previous experiments have shown that, in normal mode of focus operation (67 KJ-20 KV) i.e. without external magnetic fields, the focus exhibits instability growths as revealed by the time integrated X-ray pinhole photographs. A magnetic field which is trapped ahead of the current sheath will reduce the high ejection rate of plasma which occurs during the (r,z) collapse stage. This reduction should lead to a more uniform plasma of larger dimension. If an externally excited axial magnetic field of (10[sup 2]-10[sup 3] G) is introduced at the end of the central electrode of coaxial discharge with 45 [mu]f capacitor bank, U[sub ch]=13-17 KV, peak current [approx]0.5 MA, the decay rate of the current sheath is slowed down and the minimum radius of the column remains large enough. Experiment investigation of the X-ray emission in axial direction from a (12 KJ/20 KV, 480 KA), Mather type focus, showed that the X-ray intensity changes drastically, by superimposing an axial magnetic field of 55 G on the focus. By introducing an external axial magnetic field of intensity 2.4 KG along the coaxial electrodes, this magnetic field has a radial component at distances approach to muzzle of coaxial discharge with charging voltage 10 KV and peak discharge current 100 KA. Presence of these magnetic fields, will cause an increase in intensity of soft X-ray emission. The main purpose of this work is to study the interactions of axial and transverse magnetic fields with plasma sheath during the axial interelectrode propagation, and its effects on the X-ray emission from plasma focus. (author) 4 refs., 7 figs.
Interaction of plasma with magnetic fields in coaxial discharge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soliman, H.M.; Masoud, M.M.
1991-01-01
Previous experiments have shown that, in normal mode of focus operation (67 KJ-20 KV) i.e. without external magnetic fields, the focus exhibits instability growths as revealed by the time integrated X-ray pinhole photographs. A magnetic field which is trapped ahead of the current sheath will reduce the high ejection rate of plasma which occurs during the (r,z) collapse stage. This reduction should lead to a more uniform plasma of larger dimension. If an externally excited axial magnetic field of (10 2 -10 3 G) is introduced at the end of the central electrode of coaxial discharge with 45 μf capacitor bank, U ch =13-17 KV, peak current ∼0.5 MA, the decay rate of the current sheath is slowed down and the minimum radius of the column remains large enough. Experiment investigation of the X-ray emission in axial direction from a (12 KJ/20 KV, 480 KA), Mather type focus, showed that the X-ray intensity changes drastically, by superimposing an axial magnetic field of 55 G on the focus. By introducing an external axial magnetic field of intensity 2.4 KG along the coaxial electrodes, this magnetic field has a radial component at distances approach to muzzle of coaxial discharge with charging voltage 10 KV and peak discharge current 100 KA. Presence of these magnetic fields, will cause an increase in intensity of soft X-ray emission. The main purpose of this work is to study the interactions of axial and transverse magnetic fields with plasma sheath during the axial interelectrode propagation, and its effects on the X-ray emission from plasma focus. (author) 4 refs., 7 figs
The potential around a test charge in magnetized dusty plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shukla, P.K.; Salimullah, M.
1996-01-01
The potential of a test dust particle in a magnetized dusty plasma is calculated, taking into account the dielectric constant associated with electrostatic ion-cyclotron waves. Besides the well-known Debye-Hueckel screening potential, an oscillatory potential distribution around a test dust particle is found, which strongly depends on the strength of the external magnetic field. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics
Magnetic Nozzles for Plasma Thrusters: Acceleration, Thrust, and Detachment Mechanisms
2011-10-01
neutral double layer. A very detailed study of this surface discontinuity has been culminated [4]. It had been claimed that the presence of this DL could...field assures that electrons are strongly-magnetized whereas ions are partially-magnetized. The use of the method of characteristic surfaces (i.e...z = const disk. (d) Ambipolar electric field and equipotential lines for plasmas with a 0.2 fraction of 9-times hotter electrons at the nozzle
Fast non-linear extraction of plasma equilibrium parameters using a neural network mapping
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lister, J.B.; Schnurrenberger, H.
1990-07-01
The shaping of non-circular plasmas requires a non-linear mapping between the measured diagnostic signals and selected equilibrium parameters. The particular configuration of Neural Network known as the multi-layer perceptron provides a powerful and general technique for formulating an arbitrary continuous non-linear multi-dimensional mapping. This technique has been successfully applied to the extraction of equilibrium parameters from measurements of single-null diverted plasmas in the DIII-D tokamak; the results are compared with a purely linear mapping. The method is promising, and hardware implementation is straightforward. (author) 15 refs., 7 figs
Fast non-linear extraction of plasma equilibrium parameters using a neural network mapping
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lister, J.B.; Schnurrenberger, H.
1991-01-01
The shaping of non-circular plasmas requires a non-linear mapping between the measured diagnostic signals and selected equilibrium parameters. The particular configuration of neural network known as the multilayer perceptron provides a powerful and general technique for formulating an arbitrary continuous non-linear multi-dimensional mapping. This technique has been successfully applied to the extraction of equilibrium parameters from measurements of single-null diverted plasmas in the DIII-D tokamak; the results are compared with a purely linear mapping. The method is promising, and hardware implementation is straightforward. (author). 17 refs, 8 figs, 2 tab
Vlasov-Fokker-Planck modeling of magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thomas, Alexander
2016-01-01
Understanding the magnetic fields that can develop in high-power-laser interactions with solid-density plasma is important because such fields significantly modify both the magnitude and direction of electron heat fluxes. The dynamics of such fields evidently have consequences for inertial fusion energy applications, as the coupling of the laser beams with the walls or pellet and the development of temperature inhomogeneities are critical to the uniformity of the implosion and potentially the success of, for example, the National Ignition Facility. To study these effects, we used the code Impacta, a two-dimensional, fully implicit, Vlasov-Fokker-Planck code with self-consistent magnetic fields and a hydrodynamic ion model, designed for nanosecond time-scale laser-plasma interactions. Heat-flux effects in Ohm's law under non-local conditions was investigated; physics that is not well captured by standard numerical models but is nevertheless important in fusion-related scenarios. Under such conditions there are numerous interesting physical effects, such as collisional magnetic instabilities, amplification of magnetic fields, re-emergence of non-locality through magnetic convection, and reconnection of magnetic field lines and redistribution of thermal energy. In this project highlights included the first full-scale kinetic simulations of a magnetized hohlraum and the discovery of a new magnetic reconnection mechanism, as well as a completed PhD thesis and the production of a new code for Inertial Fusion research.
Vlasov-Fokker-Planck modeling of magnetized plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thomas, Alexander [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)
2016-08-01
Understanding the magnetic fields that can develop in high-power-laser interactions with solid-density plasma is important because such fields significantly modify both the magnitude and direction of electron heat fluxes. The dynamics of such fields evidently have consequences for inertial fusion energy applications, as the coupling of the laser beams with the walls or pellet and the development of temperature inhomogeneities are critical to the uniformity of the implosion and potentially the success of, for example, the National Ignition Facility. To study these effects, we used the code Impacta, a two-dimensional, fully implicit, Vlasov-Fokker-Planck code with self-consistent magnetic fields and a hydrodynamic ion model, designed for nanosecond time-scale laser-plasma interactions. Heat-flux effects in Ohm’s law under non-local conditions was investigated; physics that is not well captured by standard numerical models but is nevertheless important in fusion-related scenarios. Under such conditions there are numerous interesting physical effects, such as collisional magnetic instabilities, amplification of magnetic fields, re-emergence of non-locality through magnetic convection, and reconnection of magnetic field lines and redistribution of thermal energy. In this project highlights included the first full-scale kinetic simulations of a magnetized hohlraum and the discovery of a new magnetic reconnection mechanism, as well as a completed PhD thesis and the production of a new code for Inertial Fusion research.
Anti-screening in magnetically quantized plasmas
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
is the wave vector and h is the Plank constant divided by 2 . This effect becomes important when the energy of the aforementioned oscillation exceeds electron ther- mal energy (or Fermi energy in the degenerate case). It is clear that this condition may be valid in a magneto-active plasma. In the presence of an external ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsuyama, Shoichiro; Shinohara, Shunjiro
2001-01-01
A large density profile modification was successfully obtained by voltage biasing to electrodes inserted in a RF (radio frequency) produced, magnetized plasma, and formation of strong shear of azimuthal plasma rotation velocity in a supersonic regime was found. For the case of biasing to an electrode near the central plasma region, two types of density transitions were observed in the outer plasma region: one was an oscillatory transition between two states, and the other was a transition from high to low density states with a large reduction of density fluctuations. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Matsuyama, Shoichiro; Shinohara, Shunjiro [Kyushu Univ., Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan)
2001-07-01
A large density profile modification was successfully obtained by voltage biasing to electrodes inserted in a RF (radio frequency) produced, magnetized plasma, and formation of strong shear of azimuthal plasma rotation velocity in a supersonic regime was found. For the case of biasing to an electrode near the central plasma region, two types of density transitions were observed in the outer plasma region: one was an oscillatory transition between two states, and the other was a transition from high to low density states with a large reduction of density fluctuations. (author)
Amplification of magnetic modes in laser-created plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matte, J.P.; Bendib, A.; Luciani, J.F.
1987-01-01
The amplification of magnetic (Weibel) modes in laser-plasma interaction is investigated by use of unperturbed distribution functions given by Fokker-Planck simulations and a dispersion relation valid for all collisionality regimes. In the five cases studied, a strongly growing mode is found in the underdense plasma, where v-bar/sub x/ 2 2 , and the usual slowly growing one in the overdense plasma. The first mode grows convectively outwards by more than 10 4 . The convection velocities are found to be very different from Nernst values
Fast reconnection of magnetic fields in a plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hu, P.N.
1983-01-01
Reconnection process of magnetic fields in a plasma is analytically studied by perturbing the boundary conditions on a slab of incompressible plasma with a resonant surface inside. It is found, for small resistivity, that the reconnection takes place on Alfven time scale and continues into a slow time scale t 1 = eta/sup 1/3/t. Both time scales are faster than the usual tearing time scale. Furthermore, the plasma evolves globally from its initial equilibrium on the slow time scale and settles down to a different final equilibrium
Plasma Flows in Crossed Magnetic and Electric Fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Belikov, A.G.
2005-01-01
The effect of the magnitude and direction of an external electric field on the plasma flowing through a magnetic barrier is studied by numerically solving two-fluid MHD equations. The drift velocity of the plasma flow and the distribution of the flow electrons over transverse velocities are found to depend on the magnitude and direction of the electric field. It is shown that the direction of the induced longitudinal electric field is determined by the direction of the external field and that the electric current generated by the plasma flow significantly disturbs the barrier field
Multi-scale magnetic field intermittence in the plasma sheet
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Z. Vörös
2003-09-01
Full Text Available This paper demonstrates that intermittent magnetic field fluctuations in the plasma sheet exhibit transitory, localized, and multi-scale features. We propose a multifractal-based algorithm, which quantifies intermittence on the basis of the statistical distribution of the "strength of burstiness", estimated within a sliding window. Interesting multi-scale phenomena observed by the Cluster spacecraft include large-scale motion of the current sheet and bursty bulk flow associated turbulence, interpreted as a cross-scale coupling (CSC process.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (magnetotail; plasma sheet – Space plasma physics (turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Welander, A.S.; Deranian, R.D.; Humphreys, D.A.; Leuer, J.A.; Walker, M.L.
2005-01-01
Tokamak control design relies on an accurate linear model of the plasma response, which can often dominate the local field variations in regions under active feedback control. For example, when fluxes at selected points on the plasma boundary are regulated in DIII-D, the plasma response to a change in a coil current gives rise to a flux change which can be larger than and opposite to the flux change caused by the coil alone.In the past, rigid plasma models have been used for linear stability and shape control design. In a rigid model, the plasma current profile is considered fixed and moves rigidly in response to control coils to maintain radial and vertical force balance. In a nonrigid model, however, changes in the plasma shape and current profile are taken into account. Such models are expected to be important for future advanced tokamak control design. The present work describes development of a nonrigid plasma response model for high-accuracy multivariable control design and provides comparisons of model predictions against DIII-D experimental data. The linear perturbed plasma response model is calculated rapidly from an existing equilibrium solution
Electron current extraction from a permanent magnet waveguide plasma cathode
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weatherford, B. R.; Foster, J. E. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Kamhawi, H. [NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio 44135 (United States)
2011-09-15
An electron cyclotron resonance plasma produced in a cylindrical waveguide with external permanent magnets was investigated as a possible plasma cathode electron source. The configuration is desirable in that it eliminates the need for a physical antenna inserted into the plasma, the erosion of which limits operating lifetime. Plasma bulk density was found to be overdense in the source. Extraction currents over 4 A were achieved with the device. Measurements of extracted electron currents were similar to calculated currents, which were estimated using Langmuir probe measurements at the plasma cathode orifice and along the length of the external plume. The influence of facility effects and trace ionization in the anode-cathode gap are also discussed.
a Novel Method for Improving Plasma Nitriding Efficiency: Pre-Magnetization by DC Magnetic Field
Kovaci, Halim; Yetim, Ali Fatih; Bozkurt, Yusuf Burak; Çelik, Ayhan
2017-06-01
In this study, a novel pre-magnetization process, which enables easy diffusion of nitrogen, was used to enhance plasma nitriding efficiency. Firstly, magnetic fields with intensities of 1500G and 2500G were applied to the untreated samples before nitriding. After the pre-magnetization, the untreated and pre-magnetized samples were plasma nitrided for 4h in a gas mixture of 50% N2-50% H2 at 500∘C and 600∘C. The structural, mechanical and morphological properties of samples were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), microhardness tester and surface tension meter. It was observed that pre-magnetization increased the surface energy of the samples. Therefore, both compound and diffusion layer thicknesses increased with pre-magnetization process before nitriding treatment. As modified layer thickness increased, higher surface hardness values were obtained.
Experimental study of the initial plasma formation stage in a linear theta pinch of inverted field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Casin, G.C.; Alvarez, Ricardo; Rojkind, R.H.; Rodrigo, A.B.
1986-01-01
The initial stage of the plasma formation was studied in a linear theta pinch. Experiments were made to determine the machine operating conditions for good shot-to-shot reproducibility. Spectroscopic measurements of electron density and of electron and ion temperature were made afterwards to characterize the plasma at different stages of its heating process. The results obtained indicate that shot-to-shot reproducibility is strongly influenced by the presence of impurities and by the plasma preionization technique used. Under proper operating conditions, excellent reproducibility was observed. The measured values of the plasma parameters are compatible with those determined for similar machines. (Author) [es
Rotation of dust plasma crystals in an axial magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheung, F.; Prior, N.; Mitchell, L.
2000-01-01
Full text: Micron-sized melamine formaldehyde particles were introduced into argon plasma. As a result, the particles were negatively charged due to collision with the electrons within the plasma. With the right conditions, these particles formed a stable macroscopic crystal lattice, known as dust plasma crystal. In our experiment we conduct at Flinders University, we apply an external axial magnetic field to various configurations of dust plasma crystal. These configurations include small crystal lattices consisting of one to several particles, and large crystal lattices with many hundreds of particles. The magnetic field strength ranged from 0-32G and was uniform over the extent of the crystal. The crystals were observed to be rotating collectively in the left-handed direction under the influence of the axial magnetic field. In the case of the large crystals, the angular velocity was about 2 complete rotations per minute and was proportional to the applied magnetic field. The angular velocity changes only slightly depending on the plasma conditions. Neither radial variance in the angular velocity nor shear velocity in the vertical direction was observed in the crystal's rotational motion. In the case of the small crystals, we managed to rotate 2-6 particles (whether they are planar, 2 layers or tetrahedral). We discovered that the ease and the uniformity of the rotation of the different crystals increase as its rotational symmetry increases. Also an increase in the magnetic field strength will correspond to an increase in the angular velocity. Crystals in the shape of an annulus were also tested for theoretical reasons. The poster presentation will contain the experimental procedures, a detailed analysis and an explanation for such dust plasma crystal rotational motion
On the electric and magnetic field generation in expanding plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gielen, H.J.G.
1989-01-01
This thesis deals with the generation of electric and magnetic fields in expanding plasmas. The theoretical model used to calculate the different field quantities in such plasmas is discussed in part 1 and is in fact an analysis of Ohm's law. A general method is given that decomposes each of the forces terms in Ohm's law in a component that induces a charge separation in the plasma and in a component that can drive current. This decomposition is unambiguous and depends upon the boundary conditions for the electric potential. It is shown that in calculating the electromagnetic field quantities in a plasma that is located in the vicinity of a boundary that imposes constraints on the electric potential, Ohm's law should be analyzed instead of the so-called induction equation. Three applications of the model are presented. A description is given of the unipolar arc discharge where both plasma and sheath effects have been taken into account. Secondly a description is presented of the plasma effects of a cathode spot. The third application of the model deals with the generation of magnetic fields in laser-produced plasmas. The second part of this thesis describes the experiments on a magnetized argon plasma expanding from a cascaded arc. With the use of spectroscopic techniques the electron density, ion temperature and the rotation velocity profiles of the ion gas have been determined. The magnetic field generated by the plasma has been measured with the use of the Zeeman effect. Depending on the channel diameter of the nozzle of the cascaded arc, self-generated magnetic fields with axial components of the order of 1% of the externally applied mangetic field have been observed. From the measured ion rotation it has been concluded that this magnetic field is mainly generated by azimuthal electron currents. The corresponding azimuthal current density is of the order of 15% of the axial current density. The observed ion rotation is caused by electron-ion friction. (author
Non-linear unidimensional Debye screening in plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clemente, R.A.; Martin, P.
1992-01-01
An exact analytical solution for T e = T i and an approximate solution for T e ≠ T i have been obtained for the unidimensional non-linear Debye potential. The approximate expression is a solution of the Poisson equation obtained by expanding up to third order the Boltzmann's factors. The analysis shows that the effective Debye screening length can be quite different from the usual Debye length, when the potential to thermal energy ratio of the particles is not much smaller than unity. (author)
Waves generated in the plasma plume of helicon magnetic nozzle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, Nagendra; Rao, Sathyanarayan; Ranganath, Praveen
2013-01-01
Experimental measurements have shown that the plasma plume created in a helicon plasma device contains a conical structure in the plasma density and a U-shaped double layer (US-DL) tightly confined near the throat where plasma begins to expand from the source. Recently reported two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations verified these density and US-DL features of the plasma plume. Simulations also showed that the plasma in the plume develops non-thermal feature consisting of radial ion beams with large densities near the conical surface of the density structure. The plasma waves that are generated by the radial ion beams affecting the structure of the plasma plume are studied here. We find that most intense waves persist in the high-density regions of the conical density structure, where the transversely accelerated ions in the radial electric fields in the plume are reflected setting up counter-streaming. The waves generated are primarily ion Bernstein modes. The nonlinear evolution of the waves leads to magnetic field-aligned striations in the fields and the plasma near the conical surface of the density structure.
Waves generated in the plasma plume of helicon magnetic nozzle
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Singh, Nagendra; Rao, Sathyanarayan; Ranganath, Praveen [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alabama, Huntsville, Alabama 35899 (United States)
2013-03-15
Experimental measurements have shown that the plasma plume created in a helicon plasma device contains a conical structure in the plasma density and a U-shaped double layer (US-DL) tightly confined near the throat where plasma begins to expand from the source. Recently reported two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations verified these density and US-DL features of the plasma plume. Simulations also showed that the plasma in the plume develops non-thermal feature consisting of radial ion beams with large densities near the conical surface of the density structure. The plasma waves that are generated by the radial ion beams affecting the structure of the plasma plume are studied here. We find that most intense waves persist in the high-density regions of the conical density structure, where the transversely accelerated ions in the radial electric fields in the plume are reflected setting up counter-streaming. The waves generated are primarily ion Bernstein modes. The nonlinear evolution of the waves leads to magnetic field-aligned striations in the fields and the plasma near the conical surface of the density structure.
Oscillating magnetic islands in a rotating plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Persson, M.; Bondeson, A.
1990-01-01
The nonlinear evolution of tearing modes in the presence of sheared mass flow is studied as an initial value problem. It is shown that under certain conditions, when the mode is driven unstable primarily by the mass flow, the nonlinear evolution leads to a dynamic state in which the size and shape of the magnetic islands is oscillatory. 15 refs., 11 figs
Electrodynamics in cylindrical symmetry in the magnetic plasma state
López-Bara, F. I.; López-Aguilar, F.
2018-05-01
Excited states in magnetic structures of the so-called spin-ices and in some artificial magnetic materials present a behaviour as being a magnetic neutral plasma. In this state the electromagnetic waves in confined systems (waveguides) filled with materials with magnetic charges are able to transmit information and energy. In the natural spin-ices, the difficulty is the very low temperature for which these magnetic entities appear, whose phenomenology under the electromagnetic interaction is that of solids containing magnetic charges. However, similar behaviour may be present in other compounds at higher temperatures, even at room temperature and they are named artificial spin-ice compounds. This analysis is addressed to obtain theoretical results about magnetic responses and frequency-dependent magnetricity. The key physical magnitudes are the plasmon frequency () which is related to the cut-off frequency in a wave guide and the effective inertial masses () of these magnetic charges. All properties of the electromagnetic propagation in these compounds with effective magnetic monopoles depend on and m. This is carried out including the dissipative forces among magnetic charges which give new characteristic features to the electromagnetic propagation. The main goal of this work is the analysis of these electromagnetic properties in order to find possible circuital applications of these materials to be utilized by devices.
Plasma target output from a magnetically augmented, gas-injected, washer-stack plasma gun
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Osher, J.E.
1982-01-01
This article describes a new washer-stack gun design developed for the application of plasma target production for the startup of neutral-beam trapping in a fusion research magnetic confinement system. The gun is a Mo anode type that is D 2 injected and has an auxiliary pulsed magnet for control of plasma-flux mapping. One of the principal features of 2--10-ms duration pulses for gun operation in a suitable magnetic field is the formation of an arc column along magnetic field lines from the gun's central cathode electrode to the vacuum chamber walls (at common anode potential). The primary power output from a 5.0-cm-i.d. gun is typically carried along this arc column by a stream of approximately 2000 A of 50--250-eV electrons. This primary stream of relatively low-density energetic electrons efficiently ionizes the injected gas, forming a quasi-dc source of denser secondary plasma of approx.10 13 /cm 3 at a few eV, which is able to flow or diffuse away along a somewhat larger column of magnetic field lines. In plasma-target production tests on a test stand, a gun operated at a D 2 gas flow of 22 Torr ls -1 yielded 250 A of equivalent plasma flow
Magnetic plasma confinement for laser ion source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Okamura, M.; Adeyemi, A.; Kanesue, T.; Tamura, J.; Kondo, K.; Dabrowski, R.
2010-01-01
A laser ion source (LIS) can easily provide a high current beam. However, it has been difficult to obtain a longer beam pulse while keeping a high current. On occasion, longer beam pulses are required by certain applications. For example, more than 10 μs of beam pulse is required for injecting highly charged beams to a large sized synchrotron. To extend beam pulse width, a solenoid field was applied at the drift space of the LIS at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The solenoid field suppressed the diverging angle of the expanding plasma and the beam pulse was widened. Also, it was observed that the plasma state was conserved after passing through a few hundred gauss of the 480 mm length solenoid field.
Magnetic plasma confinement for laser ion source.
Okamura, M; Adeyemi, A; Kanesue, T; Tamura, J; Kondo, K; Dabrowski, R
2010-02-01
A laser ion source (LIS) can easily provide a high current beam. However, it has been difficult to obtain a longer beam pulse while keeping a high current. On occasion, longer beam pulses are required by certain applications. For example, more than 10 micros of beam pulse is required for injecting highly charged beams to a large sized synchrotron. To extend beam pulse width, a solenoid field was applied at the drift space of the LIS at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The solenoid field suppressed the diverging angle of the expanding plasma and the beam pulse was widened. Also, it was observed that the plasma state was conserved after passing through a few hundred gauss of the 480 mm length solenoid field.
Plane and hemispherical potential structures in magnetically expanding plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takahashi, Kazunori; Igarashi, Yuichi; Fujiwara, Tamiya
2010-01-01
Two-dimensional potential structures are measured for different gas pressure in expanding argon plasma using permanent magnets, where the magnetic field is about 100 G in the source and several gauss in the diffusion chamber. The plane potential drop is observed near the source exit for 0.35 mTorr, while the potential structure becomes hemispherical when increasing up to 1 mTorr; the hemispherical structure results in the radial divergence of the ion beam. It is found that the trajectories of the accelerated ions and the electrons overcoming the potential drop are dominated by the potential structure and magnetic-field lines, respectively.
Effects of a vertical magnetic field on particle confinement in a magnetized plasma torus.
Müller, S H; Fasoli, A; Labit, B; McGrath, M; Podestà, M; Poli, F M
2004-10-15
The particle confinement in a magnetized plasma torus with superimposed vertical magnetic field is modeled and measured experimentally. The formation of an equilibrium characterized by a parallel plasma current canceling out the grad B and curvature drifts is described using a two-fluid model. Characteristic response frequencies and relaxation rates are calculated. The predictions for the particle confinement time as a function of the vertical magnetic field are verified in a systematic experimental study on the TORPEX device, including the existence of an optimal vertical field and the anticorrelation between confinement time and density.
Production of field-reversed plasma with a magnetized coaxial plasma gun
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turner, W.C.; Granneman, E.H.A.; Hartman, C.W.; Prono, D.S.; Taska, J.; Smith, A.C. Jr.
1981-01-01
Experimental data are presented on the production of field-reversed deuterium plasma by a modified coaxial plasma gun. The coaxial gun is constructed with solenoid coils along the inner and outer electrodes that, together with an external guide field solenoid, form a magnetic cusp at the gun muzzle. The net flux inside the inner electrode is arranged to be opposite the external guide field and is the source of field-reversed flux trapped by the plasma. The electrode length is 145 cm, the diameter of the inner (outer) electrode is 15 cm (32 cm). The gun discharge is driven with a 232-μF 40-kV capacitor bank. Acceleration of plasma through the magnetic cusp at the gun muzzle results in entrainment of field-reversed flux that is detected by magnetic probes 75 cm from the gun muzzle. Field-reversed plasma has been produced for a variety of experimental conditions. In one typical case, the guide magnetic field was B 0 =4.8 kG and the change in axial magnetic field ΔB/sub z/ normalized to B 0 was ΔB/sub z/ /B 0 =-3.1. Total field-reversed flux (poloidal flux) obtained by integrating ΔB/sub z/ profiles is in the range 2 x 10 3 kG cm 2 . Measurement of the orthogonal field component indicates a sizable toroidal field peaked off axis at rapprox. =10 cm with a magnitude of roughly one-half the poloidal field component that is measured on magnetic axis. Reconnection of the poloidal field lines has not been established for the data reported in the paper and will be addressed in future experiments which attempt to trap and confine the field-reversed plasma in a magnetic mirror
Dispersion functions for weakly relativistic magnetized plasmas in inhomogeneous magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaelzer, R.; Schneider, R.S.; Ziebell, L.F.
1995-01-01
The study of wave propagation and absorption inhomogeneous plasmas can be made by using a formulation in which the dielectric properties of the plasma are described by an effective dielectric tensor which incorporates inhomogeneity effects, inserted into a dispersion relation which is formally the same as that of an homogeneous plasma. We have recently utilized this formalism in the study of electron cyclotron absorption in inhomogeneous media, both in the case of homogeneous magnetic field and in the case of inhomogeneous magnetic field. In the present paper we resume the study of the case with inhomogeneous magnetic field, in order to introduce a generalized dispersion function useful for the case of a Maxwellian plasma, and discuss some of its properties. (author). 10 refs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aamir Hussain
2016-06-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the design optimization of linear permanent magnet (PM generator for wave energy conversion using finite element method (FEM. A linear PM generator with triangular-shaped magnet is proposed, which has higher electromagnetic characteristics, superior performance and low weight as compared to conventional linear PM generator with rectangular shaped magnet. The Individual Parameter (IP optimization technique is employed in order to optimize and achieve optimum performance of linear PM generator. The objective function, optimization variables; magnet angle,M_θ(∆ (θ, the pole-width ratio, P_w ratio(τ_p/τ_mz,, and split ratio between translator and stator, δ_a ratio(R_m/R_e, and constraints are defined. The efficiency and its main parts; copper and iron loss are computed using time-stepping FEM. The optimal values after optimization are presented which yields highest efficiency. Key
Electron vortex magnetic holes: A nonlinear coherent plasma structure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haynes, Christopher T., E-mail: c.t.haynes@qmul.ac.uk; Burgess, David; Sundberg, Torbjorn [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Camporeale, Enrico [Multiscale Dynamics, Centrum Wiskunde and Informatica (CWI), Amsterdam (Netherlands)
2015-01-15
We report the properties of a novel type of sub-proton scale magnetic hole found in two dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of decaying turbulence with a guide field. The simulations were performed with a realistic value for ion to electron mass ratio. These structures, electron vortex magnetic holes (EVMHs), have circular cross-section. The magnetic field depression is associated with a diamagnetic azimuthal current provided by a population of trapped electrons in petal-like orbits. The trapped electron population provides a mean azimuthal velocity and since trapping preferentially selects high pitch angles, a perpendicular temperature anisotropy. The structures arise out of initial perturbations in the course of the turbulent evolution of the plasma, and are stable over at least 100 electron gyroperiods. We have verified the model for the EVMH by carrying out test particle and PIC simulations of isolated structures in a uniform plasma. It is found that (quasi-)stable structures can be formed provided that there is some initial perpendicular temperature anisotropy at the structure location. The properties of these structures (scale size, trapped population, etc.) are able to explain the observed properties of magnetic holes in the terrestrial plasma sheet. EVMHs may also contribute to turbulence properties, such as intermittency, at short scale lengths in other astrophysical plasmas.
ECR plasma source in a flaring magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meis, C.; Compant La Fontaine, A.; Louvet, P.
1992-01-01
The propagation and absorption of an electromagnetic wave, near the electron cyclotron zone, of a cold plasma (T e ∼ 1-5 eV) confined in a flaring magnetic field is studied. The case of both extraordinary and ordinary modes has been considered. Temperature effects and electron-neutral collisions have been taken account in the dielectric tensor
Interaction between Electron Holes in a Strongly Magnetized Plasma
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lynov, Jens-Peter; Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, Hans
1980-01-01
The interaction between electron holes in a strongly magnetized, plasma-filled waveguide is investigated by means of computer simulation. Two holes may or may not coalesce, depending on their amplitudes and velocities. The interaction between holes and Trivelpiece-Gould solitons is demonstrated...
On nonlinear MHD-stability of toroidal magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ilgisonis, V.I.; Pastukhov, V.P.
1994-01-01
The variational approach to analyze the nonlinear MHD stability of ideal plasma in toroidal magnetic field is proposed. The potential energy functional to be used is expressed in terms of complete set of independent Lagrangian invariants, that allows to take strictly into account all the restrictions inherent in the varied functions due to MHD dynamic equations. (author). 3 refs
Electromagnetic pulses in a strongly magnetized electron-positron plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu, M.Y.; Rao, N.N.
1985-01-01
The conditions for the existence of large-amplitude localized electromagnetic wave pulses in an electron-positron plasma penetrated by a very strong ambient magnetic field are obtained. It is shown that such pulses can exist in pulsar polar magnetospheres. 12 references
Kubo conductivity of a strongly magnetized two-dimensional plasma.
Montgomery, D.; Tappert, F.
1971-01-01
The Kubo formula is used to evaluate the bulk electrical conductivity of a two-dimensional guiding-center plasma in a strong dc magnetic field. The particles interact only electrostatically. An ?anomalous' electrical conductivity is derived for this system, which parallels a recent result of Taylor and McNamara for the coefficient of spatial diffusion.
Three-dimensional linear peeling-ballooning theory in magnetic fusion devices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weyens, T., E-mail: tweyens@fis.uc3m.es; Sánchez, R.; García, L. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Madrid 28911 (Spain); Loarte, A.; Huijsmans, G. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13067 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)
2014-04-15
Ideal magnetohydrodynamics theory is extended to fully 3D magnetic configurations to investigate the linear stability of intermediate to high n peeling-ballooning modes, with n the toroidal mode number. These are thought to be important for the behavior of edge localized modes and for the limit of the size of the pedestal that governs the high confinement H-mode. The end point of the derivation is a set of coupled second order ordinary differential equations with appropriate boundary conditions that minimize the perturbed energy and that can be solved to find the growth rate of the perturbations. This theory allows of the evaluation of 3D effects on edge plasma stability in tokamaks such as those associated with the toroidal ripple due to the finite number of toroidal field coils, the application of external 3D fields for elm control, local modification of the magnetic field in the vicinity of ferromagnetic components such as the test blanket modules in ITER, etc.
Characterization of the plasma in magnetic multidipole discharges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferreira, J.G.
1988-09-01
In this work, a caracterization of the discharge of the quiescent plasma machine of INPE, and an identification of the most relevant processes in the definition of its plasma properties, were achieved. Measurements of plasma potential, the floating potential, the temperature of the electrons, and the density of the plasma, for pressures ranging from 10 -3 to 10 -1 Pa and for discharge potentials for 45V to 120V were acomplished. These measurements were made with a Langmuir spherical probe with 1mm in diameter. In the whole range of operation the presence of two populations of electrons with distinct temperatures in the energy range from 1 to 10eV was observed, although for pressures approaching 10 -1 Pa the plasma tended to a single population of electrons with temperature of 1eV. The difference between plasma and floating potentials was observed to become smaller as the pressure raised, and the potential difference between plasma and anode reached a value around 2V when pressure raised above 10 -2 Pa. The plasma density increases approximately linearly with pressure, for values below 10 -2 Paa, but above 10 -1 Pa its increase with pressure is quite reduced. A study on the collision processes in the plasma volume and on loss processes to surfaces allowed to interpret qualitatively the observed plasma behavior and to estimate, by means of simple expressions, some of the plasma parameters. The loss areas for ions and primary electrons were estimated from experimental results. A simple quantitative model which allows the calculation of plasma density in the whole range of operation, reproduced the correct order of magnitude of experimental values. However, an additional work, both theoretical and experimental, is required to obtain better agreement between experimental and theoretical values. (author) [pt
Plasma losses from a magnetic well
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kutbi, I.I.; Valfells, A.
1981-01-01
The particle losses from a magnetic well having an octahedral symmetry are considered. The cusp, classical diffusion, and Bohm diffusion losses are computed. Results show that: Cusp losses can be compensated for by ion beam in the Hershkowitz equation prevails. Otherwise, the losses will have to be diminished by some other means; Classical diffusion losses are relatively small; and Bohm diffusion losses are very large, should it prevail, but that is unlikely to be the case in the configuration under consideration
Permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance plasma source with remote window
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berry, L.A.; Gorbatkin, S.M.
1995-01-01
An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma has been used in conjunction with a solid metal sputter target for Cu deposition over 200 mm diameters. The goal is to develop a deposition system and process suitable for filling submicron, high-aspect ratio ULSI features. The system uses a permanent magnet for creation of the magnetic field necessary for ECR, and is significantly more compact than systems equipped with electromagnets. A custom launcher design allows remote microwave injection with the microwave entrance window shielded from the copper flux. When microwaves are introduced at an angle with respect to the plasma, high electron densities can be produced with a plasma frequency significantly greater than the electron cyclotron frequency. Copper deposition rates of 1000 A/min have been achieved
Numerical investigation of a plasma beam entering transverse magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koga, J.; Geary, J.L.; Tajima, T.; Rostoker, N.
1988-11-01
We study plasma beam injection into transverse magnetic fields using both electrostatic and electromagnetic particle-in-cell (PIC) codes. In the case of small beam momentum or energy (low drift kinetic /beta/) we study both large and small ion gyroradius beams. Large ion gyroradius beams with a large dielectric constant /epsilon/ /muchreverse arrowgt/ (M/m)/sup /1/2// are found to propagate across the magnetic field via E /times/ B drifts at nearly the initial injection velocity, where /epsilon/ = 1 + (/omega//sup pi//sup 2/)/(/Omega//sub i//sup 2/) and (M/m) is the ion to electron mass ratio. Beam degradation and undulations are observed in agreement with previous experimental and analytical results. When /epsilon/ is on the order of (M/m)/sup /1/2//, the plasma beam propagates across field lines at only half its initial velocity and loses its coherent structure. When /epsilon/ is much less than (M/m)/sup /1/2//, the beam particles decouple at the magnetic field boundary, scattering the electrons and slightly deflecting the ions. For small ion gyroradius beam injection a flute type instability is observed at the beam magnetic fields interface. In the case of large beam momentum or energy (high drift kinetic /beta/) we observe good penetration of a plasma beam which shields the magnetic field from the interior of the beam (diagmagnetism). 25 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab
Confinement properties of tokamak plasmas with extended regions of low magnetic shear
Graves, J. P.; Cooper, W. A.; Kleiner, A.; Raghunathan, M.; Neto, E.; Nicolas, T.; Lanthaler, S.; Patten, H.; Pfefferle, D.; Brunetti, D.; Lutjens, H.
2017-10-01
Extended regions of low magnetic shear can be advantageous to tokamak plasmas. But the core and edge can be susceptible to non-resonant ideal fluctuations due to the weakened restoring force associated with magnetic field line bending. This contribution shows how saturated non-linear phenomenology, such as 1 / 1 Long Lived Modes, and Edge Harmonic Oscillations associated with QH-modes, can be modelled accurately using the non-linear stability code XTOR, the free boundary 3D equilibrium code VMEC, and non-linear analytic theory. That the equilibrium approach is valid is particularly valuable because it enables advanced particle confinement studies to be undertaken in the ordinarily difficult environment of strongly 3D magnetic fields. The VENUS-LEVIS code exploits the Fourier description of the VMEC equilibrium fields, such that full Lorenzian and guiding centre approximated differential operators in curvilinear angular coordinates can be evaluated analytically. Consequently, the confinement properties of minority ions such as energetic particles and high Z impurities can be calculated accurately over slowing down timescales in experimentally relevant 3D plasmas.
Magnetic reconnection and self-organized plasma systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamada, Masaaki; Ji, Hantao
2000-01-01
In this paper the recent results from the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment (MRX) at PPPL are discussed along with their relationship to observations from solar flares, the magnetosphere, and current carrying pinch discharges such as tokamaks, reversed field pinches, spheromaks and field reversed configurations. It is found that the reconnection speed decreases as the angle of merging field lines decreases, consistent with the well-established observation in the dayside magnetosphere. This observation can also provide a qualitative interpretation of a generally observed trend in pinch plasmas, namely that magnetic field diffuses (or reconnects) faster when magnetic shear is larger. A recently conceived research project, SPIRIT (Self-organized Plasma with Induction, Reconnection, and Injection Techniques), will also be discussed. (author)
Transparency of Magnetized Plasma at Cyclotron Frequency; TOPICAL
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
G. Shvets; J.S. Wurtele
2002-01-01
Electromagnetic radiation is strongly absorbed by a magnetized plasma if the radiation frequency equals the cyclotron frequency of plasma electrons. It is demonstrated that absorption can be completely canceled in the presence of a magnetostatic field of an undulator or a second radiation beam, resulting in plasma transparency at the cyclotron frequency. This effect is reminiscent of the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) of the three-level atomic systems, except that it occurs in a completely classical plasma. Unlike the atomic systems, where all the excited levels required for EIT exist in each atom, this classical EIT requires the excitation of the nonlocal plasma oscillation. The complexity of the plasma system results in an index of refraction at the cyclotron frequency that differs from unity. Lagrangian description was used to elucidate the physics and enable numerical simulation of the plasma transparency and control of group and phase velocity. This control naturally leads to applications for electromagnetic pulse compression in the plasma and electron/ion acceleration
Impact of magnetic perturbation fields on tokamak plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fietz, Sina; Maraschek, Marc; Suttrop, Wolfgang; Zohm, Hartmut [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Classen, Ivo [FOM-Institute DIFFER, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Collaboration: the ASDEX Upgrade Team
2015-05-01
Non-axisymmetric external magnetic perturbation (MP) fields arise in every tokamak e.g. due to not perfectly positioned external coils. Additionally many tokamaks, like ASDEX Upgrade (AUG), are equipped with a set of external coils, which produce a 3D MP field in addition to the equilibrium field. This field is used to either compensate for the intrinsic MP field or to influence MHD instabilities such as Edge Localised Modes (ELMs) or Neoclassical Tearing Modes (NTMs). But these MP fields can also give rise to a more global plasma response. The resonant components can penetrate the plasma and influence the stability of existing NTMs or even lead to their formation via magnetic reconnection. In addition they exert a local torque on the plasma. These effects are less pronounced at high plasma rotation where the resonant field components are screened. The non-resonant components do not influence NTMs directly but slow down the plasma rotation globally via the neoclassical toroidal viscous torque. The island formation caused by the MP field as well as the interaction of pre-existing islands with the MP field at AUG is presented. It is shown that these effects can be modelled using a simple forced reconnection theory. Also the effect of resonant and non-resonant MPs on the plasma rotation at AUG is discussed.
Study on spatial distribution of plasma parameters in a magnetized inductively coupled plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cheong, Hee-Woon; Lee, Woohyun; Kim, Ji-Won; Whang, Ki-Woong, E-mail: kwhang@snu.ac.kr [Plasma Laboratory, Inter-University Semiconductor Research Center, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyuk [Samsung Electronics Co., Banwol-dong, Hwaseong 445-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Wanjae [Tokyo Electron Miyagi Ltd., Taiwa-cho, Kurokawa-gun, Miyagi 981-3629 (Japan)
2015-07-15
Spatial distributions of various plasma parameters such as plasma density, electron temperature, and radical density in an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and a magnetized inductively coupled plasma (M-ICP) were investigated and compared. Electron temperature in between the rf window and the substrate holder of M-ICP was higher than that of ICP, whereas the one just above the substrate holder of M-ICP was similar to that of ICP when a weak (<8 G) magnetic field was employed. As a result, radical densities in M-ICP were higher than those in ICP and the etch rate of oxide in M-ICP was faster than that in ICP without severe electron charging in 90 nm high aspect ratio contact hole etch.
Slow convection of a magnetized plasma and the earth plasma sheet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hruska, A.
1980-01-01
Stationary convection of an isotropic, infinitely conducting plasma in a magnetic field with non-trivial geometry is discussed under the assumption that the inertial term in the equation of motion may be ignored. The energy gained or lost by a volume element of plasma per unit time does not vary along the field-lines. Simple relations between the components of the current density, depending on the field-line geometry, exist. Similar relations hold for the components of the plasma velocity. The theoretical analysis is applied to the geomagnetically-quiet plasma sheet and a qualitative physical picture of the sheet is suggested. The observed structure of the sheet is compatible with Axford-Hines type of convection perhaps combined with a low-speed flow from a distant neutral point. The magnetic-field-aligned currents are driven by the deformations of the closed field-lines which are enforced by the solar wind. (orig.)
Nonequilibrium Thermodynamic Treatment of a Warm Plasma in Strong Magnetic and Electric Fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abourabia, A.M.; Shahein, R.A.
2008-01-01
In the framework of the irreversible thermodynamics we study a rarefied and collisional warm electron plasma under the effects of external strong magnetic and electric fields which generate small wave amplitudes. We adopt the linear theory and normal mode solution in the MHD model to calculate the perturbations in pressure, mass density, components of velocity, electric and magnetic fields. By applying the second law of thermodynamics it is concluded that the change in the internal energy of the plasma particles predicts whether they gain from or lose energy to the generated waves .The obtained results agree with the physical ground bounded by the positive nature of the entropy production. The predictions have been carried out within the range of the frequency of the generated waves and the distance from the Debye sphere
Ion-collecting sphere in a stationary, weakly magnetized plasma with finite shielding length
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Patacchini, Leonardo; Hutchinson, Ian H
2007-01-01
Collisionless ion collection by a negatively biased stationary spherical probe in a finite shielding length plasma is investigated using the Particle in Cell code SCEPTIC, in the presence of a weak magnetic field B. The overall effect of the magnetic field is to reduce the ion current, linearly in |B| for weak enough fields, with a slope steepness increasing with the electron Debye length. The angular current distribution and space-charge buildup strongly depend on the focusing properties of the probe, hence on its potential and the plasma shielding length. In particular, it is found that the concavity of the ion collection flux distribution can reverse sign when the electron Debye length is comparable to or larger than the probe radius (λ De ∼> r p ), provided the ion temperature is much lower than the probe bias (T i p )
Study of linear and non-linear waves propagation. Application to fluid mechanics and plasmas physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Forestier, A.
2002-01-01
This contribution's topic is the resolution of the hyperbolic system which describes a compressible flow in perfect or real situation. It is always in a compressible case and a turbulent model or a multicomponent isentropic turbulent model can be associated. Different schemes are tested as S α β scheme or TVD scheme. An extension to generalized geometry is purposed in 2D or 3D. For chemical aspects, the ZND theory is under control with connexion of second order method. In the same way, MHD or Turbulent problem are developed with computations for compressible situation. Implicit aspects are investigated that show the lost of knowledge in large CFL even if computation can be driven for all time step. At the end, for Plasma situations in which pressure effects can be neglected, there is a lost of hyperbolicity that requires investigation in generated problems. We don't present numerical simulations that are exhibited in an other paper. (author)
Exponential frequency spectrum and Lorentzian pulses in magnetized plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pace, D. C.; Shi, M.; Maggs, J. E.; Morales, G. J.; Carter, T. A.
2008-01-01
Two different experiments involving pressure gradients across the confinement magnetic field in a large plasma column are found to exhibit a broadband turbulence that displays an exponential frequency spectrum for frequencies below the ion cyclotron frequency. The exponential feature has been traced to the presence of solitary pulses having a Lorentzian temporal signature. These pulses arise from nonlinear interactions of drift-Alfven waves driven by the pressure gradients. In both experiments the width of the pulses is narrowly distributed resulting in exponential spectra with a single characteristic time scale. The temporal width of the pulses is measured to be a fraction of a period of the drift-Alfven waves. The experiments are performed in the Large Plasma Device (LAPD-U) [W. Gekelman et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 2875 (1991)] operated by the Basic Plasma Science Facility at the University of California, Los Angeles. One experiment involves a controlled, pure electron temperature gradient associated with a microscopic (6 mm gradient length) hot electron temperature filament created by the injection a small electron beam embedded in the center of a large, cold magnetized plasma. The other experiment is a macroscopic (3.5 cm gradient length) limiter-edge experiment in which a density gradient is established by inserting a metallic plate at the edge of the nominal plasma column of the LAPD-U. The temperature filament experiment permits a detailed study of the transition from coherent to turbulent behavior and the concomitant change from classical to anomalous transport. In the limiter experiment the turbulence sampled is always fully developed. The similarity of the results in the two experiments strongly suggests a universal feature of pressure-gradient driven turbulence in magnetized plasmas that results in nondiffusive cross-field transport. This may explain previous observations in helical confinement devices, research tokamaks, and arc plasmas.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang Yimin; Hassam, A.B.
2003-01-01
The ideal magnetohydrodynamics stability of a Dean flow plasma supported against centrifugal forces by an axial magnetic field is studied. Only axisymmetric perturbations are allowed for simplicity. Two distinct but coupled destabilization mechanisms are present: flow shear (magnetorotational instability) and magnetic buoyancy (Parker instability). It is shown that the flow shear alone is likely insufficient to destabilize the plasma, but the magnetic buoyancy instability could occur. For a high Mach number (M S ), high Alfven Mach number (M A ) system with M S M A > or approx. πR/a (R/a is the aspect ratio), the Parker instability is unstable for long axial wavelength modes. Implications for the centrifugal confinement approach to magnetic fusion are also discussed
Model of magnetic reconnection in space and astrophysical plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boozer, Allen H. [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)
2013-03-15
Maxwell's equations imply that exponentially smaller non-ideal effects than commonly assumed can give rapid magnetic reconnection in space and astrophysical plasmas. In an ideal evolution, magnetic field lines act as stretchable strings, which can become ever more entangled but cannot be cut. High entanglement makes the lines exponentially sensitive to small non-ideal changes in the magnetic field. The cause is well known in popular culture as the butterfly effect and in the theory of deterministic dynamical systems as a sensitive dependence on initial conditions, but the importance to magnetic reconnection is not generally recognized. Two-coordinate models are too constrained geometrically for the required entanglement, but otherwise the effect is general and can be studied in simple models. A simple model is introduced, which is periodic in the x and y Cartesian coordinates and bounded by perfectly conducting planes in z. Starting from a constant magnetic field in the z direction, reconnection is driven by a spatially smooth, bounded force. The model is complete and could be used to study the impulsive transfer of energy between the magnetic field and the ions and electrons using a kinetic plasma model.
Model of magnetic reconnection in space and astrophysical plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boozer, Allen H.
2013-01-01
Maxwell's equations imply that exponentially smaller non-ideal effects than commonly assumed can give rapid magnetic reconnection in space and astrophysical plasmas. In an ideal evolution, magnetic field lines act as stretchable strings, which can become ever more entangled but cannot be cut. High entanglement makes the lines exponentially sensitive to small non-ideal changes in the magnetic field. The cause is well known in popular culture as the butterfly effect and in the theory of deterministic dynamical systems as a sensitive dependence on initial conditions, but the importance to magnetic reconnection is not generally recognized. Two-coordinate models are too constrained geometrically for the required entanglement, but otherwise the effect is general and can be studied in simple models. A simple model is introduced, which is periodic in the x and y Cartesian coordinates and bounded by perfectly conducting planes in z. Starting from a constant magnetic field in the z direction, reconnection is driven by a spatially smooth, bounded force. The model is complete and could be used to study the impulsive transfer of energy between the magnetic field and the ions and electrons using a kinetic plasma model.
Bifurcation in asymmetric plasma divided by a magnetic filter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohi, K.; Naitou, H.; Tauchi, Y.; Fukumasa, O.
2001-05-01
A magnetic filter (MF) reflecting electrons from both sides can separate a low-temperature and low-density subplasma from a high-temperature and high-density main plasma. The one-dimensional numerical simulation by the particle-in-cell code revealed that, depending on the asymmetry, the plasma divided by the MF behaves dynamically or statically [K. Ohi et al., Physics of Plasmas 8, 23 (2001)]. The transition between the two bifurcated states is discontinuous. In the dynamic state, the autonomous potential oscillation in the subplasma is synchronized with the passage of the shock wave structure generated by the modulated ion beam from the main plasma. The stationary phase of the dynamic state appears after the amplitude of the potential oscillation in the subplasma grows exponentially from the thermal noise. In the static state, the system is stable to the growth of the potential oscillation in the subplasma. (author)
Dielectric effects on Thomson scattering in a relativistic magnetized plasma
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bindslev, H.
1991-01-01
The effects of the dielectric properties of a relativistic magnetized plasma on the scattering of electromagnetic radiation by fluctuations in electron density are investigated. The origin of the density fluctuations is not considered. Expressions for the scattering cross-section and the scattered...... power accepted by the receiving antenna are derived for a plasma with spatial dispersion. The resulting expressions allow thermal motion to be included in the description of the plasma and remain valid for frequencies of the probing radiation in the region of omega(p) and omega(ce), provided...... the absorption is small. Symmetry between variables relating to incident and scattered fields is demonstrated and shown to be in agreement with the reciprocity relation. Earlier results are confirmed in the cold plasma limit. Significant relativistic effects, of practical importance to the scattering...
Abdullaev, Sadrilla
2014-01-01
This is the first book to systematically consider the modern aspects of chaotic dynamics of magnetic field lines and charged particles in magnetically confined fusion plasmas. The analytical models describing the generic features of equilibrium magnetic fields and magnetic perturbations in modern fusion devices are presented. It describes mathematical and physical aspects of onset of chaos, generic properties of the structure of stochastic magnetic fields, transport of charged particles in tokamaks induced by magnetic perturbations, new aspects of particle turbulent transport, etc. The presentation is based on the classical and new unique mathematical tools of Hamiltonian dynamics, like the action--angle formalism, classical perturbation theory, canonical transformations of variables, symplectic mappings, the Poincaré-Melnikov integrals. They are extensively used for analytical studies as well as for numerical simulations of magnetic field lines, particle dynamics, their spatial structures and statisti...
MAGNETIC NULL POINTS IN KINETIC SIMULATIONS OF SPACE PLASMAS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olshevsky, Vyacheslav; Innocenti, Maria Elena; Cazzola, Emanuele; Lapenta, Giovanni; Deca, Jan; Divin, Andrey; Peng, Ivy Bo; Markidis, Stefano
2016-01-01
We present a systematic attempt to study magnetic null points and the associated magnetic energy conversion in kinetic particle-in-cell simulations of various plasma configurations. We address three-dimensional simulations performed with the semi-implicit kinetic electromagnetic code iPic3D in different setups: variations of a Harris current sheet, dipolar and quadrupolar magnetospheres interacting with the solar wind, and a relaxing turbulent configuration with multiple null points. Spiral nulls are more likely created in space plasmas: in all our simulations except lunar magnetic anomaly (LMA) and quadrupolar mini-magnetosphere the number of spiral nulls prevails over the number of radial nulls by a factor of 3–9. We show that often magnetic nulls do not indicate the regions of intensive energy dissipation. Energy dissipation events caused by topological bifurcations at radial nulls are rather rare and short-lived. The so-called X-lines formed by the radial nulls in the Harris current sheet and LMA simulations are rather stable and do not exhibit any energy dissipation. Energy dissipation is more powerful in the vicinity of spiral nulls enclosed by magnetic flux ropes with strong currents at their axes (their cross sections resemble 2D magnetic islands). These null lines reminiscent of Z-pinches efficiently dissipate magnetic energy due to secondary instabilities such as the two-stream or kinking instability, accompanied by changes in magnetic topology. Current enhancements accompanied by spiral nulls may signal magnetic energy conversion sites in the observational data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kadijani, M Nouri; Abbasi, H; Pajouh, H Hakimi
2011-01-01
The effect of superthermal electrons, modeled by a Lorentzian velocity distribution function, on the oblique propagation characteristics of linear and nonlinear ion-acoustic waves in an electron-ion plasma in the presence of a uniform external magnetic field is investigated. First, the linear dispersion relations of the fast and slow modes are obtained. It is shown that the superthermal electrons make both modes propagate with smaller phase velocities. Then, the Korteweg-de Vries equation describing the propagation of nonlinear slow and fast ion-acoustic waves is derived. It is shown that the presence of superthermal electrons has a significant influence on the nature of magnetized ion-acoustic solitons. That is, for a larger population of the superthermal electrons, the soliton velocity of both modes in the laboratory frame significantly decreases and the soliton are slimmer, and on approaching the Maxwellian limit, the width becomes maximum.
Computing the complex : Dusty plasmas in the presence of magnetic fields and UV radiation
Land, V.
2007-12-01
About 90% of the visible universe is plasma. Interstellar clouds, stellar cores and atmospheres, the Solar wind, the Earth's ionosphere, polar lights, and lightning are all plasma; ionized gases, consisting of electrons, ions, and neutrals. Not only many industries, like the microchip and solar cell industry, but also future fusion power stations, rely heavily on the use of plasma. More and more, home appliances include plasma technologies, like compact fluorescent light sources, and plasma screens. Dust particles, which can disrupt plasma processes, enter these plasmas, through chemical reactions in the plasma, or through interactions between plasma and walls. For instance, during microchip fabrication, dust particles can destroy the tiny, nanometre-sized structures on the surface of these chips. On the other hand, dust particles orbiting Young Stellar Objects coagulate and form the seeds of planets. In order to understand fundamental processes, such as planet formation, or to optimize industrial plasma processes, a thorough description of dusty plasma is necessary. Dust particles immersed in plasma collect ions and electrons from the plasma and charge up electrically. Therefore, the presence of dust changes plasma, while at the same time many forces start acting on the dust. Therefore, the dust and plasma become coupled, making dusty plasma a very complex medium to describe, in which many length and time scales play a role, from the Debye length to the length of the electrodes, and from the inverse plasma frequencies to the dust transport times. Using a self-consistent fluid model, we simulate these multi-scale dusty plasmas in radio frequency discharges under micro-gravity. We show that moderate non-linear scattering of ions by the dust particles is the most important aspect in the calculation of the ion drag force. This force is also responsible for the formation of a dust-free 'void' in dusty plasma under micro-gravity, caused by ions moving from the centre of