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Sample records for linear logic patrick

  1. Parametric Linear Dynamic Logic

    Peter Faymonville

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We introduce Parametric Linear Dynamic Logic (PLDL, which extends Linear Dynamic Logic (LDL by temporal operators equipped with parameters that bound their scope. LDL was proposed as an extension of Linear Temporal Logic (LTL that is able to express all ω-regular specifications while still maintaining many of LTL's desirable properties like an intuitive syntax and a translation into non-deterministic Büchi automata of exponential size. But LDL lacks capabilities to express timing constraints. By adding parameterized operators to LDL, we obtain a logic that is able to express all ω-regular properties and that subsumes parameterized extensions of LTL like Parametric LTL and PROMPT-LTL. Our main technical contribution is a translation of PLDL formulas into non-deterministic Büchi word automata of exponential size via alternating automata. This yields a PSPACE model checking algorithm and a realizability algorithm with doubly-exponential running time. Furthermore, we give tight upper and lower bounds on optimal parameter values for both problems. These results show that PLDL model checking and realizability are not harder than LTL model checking and realizability.

  2. Linear Logic on Petri Nets

    Engberg, Uffe Henrik; Winskel, Glynn

    This article shows how individual Petri nets form models of Girard's intuitionistic linear logic. It explores questions of expressiveness and completeness of linear logic with respect to this interpretation. An aim is to use Petri nets to give an understanding of linear logic and give some apprai...

  3. Application of linear logic to simulation

    Clarke, Thomas L.

    1998-08-01

    Linear logic, since its introduction by Girard in 1987 has proven expressive and powerful. Linear logic has provided natural encodings of Turing machines, Petri nets and other computational models. Linear logic is also capable of naturally modeling resource dependent aspects of reasoning. The distinguishing characteristic of linear logic is that it accounts for resources; two instances of the same variable are considered differently from a single instance. Linear logic thus must obey a form of the linear superposition principle. A proportion can be reasoned with only once, unless a special operator is applied. Informally, linear logic distinguishes two kinds of conjunction, two kinds of disjunction, and also introduces a modal storage operator that explicitly indicates propositions that can be reused. This paper discuses the application of linear logic to simulation. A wide variety of logics have been developed; in addition to classical logic, there are fuzzy logics, affine logics, quantum logics, etc. All of these have found application in simulations of one sort or another. The special characteristics of linear logic and its benefits for simulation will be discussed. Of particular interest is a connection that can be made between linear logic and simulated dynamics by using the concept of Lie algebras and Lie groups. Lie groups provide the connection between the exponential modal storage operators of linear logic and the eigen functions of dynamic differential operators. Particularly suggestive are possible relations between complexity result for linear logic and non-computability results for dynamical systems.

  4. Petri Nets as Models of Linear Logic

    Engberg, Uffe Henrik; Winskel, Glynn

    1990-01-01

    The chief purpose of this paper is to appraise the feasibility of Girad's linear logic as a specification language for parallel processes. To this end we propose an interpretation of linear logic in Petri nets, with respect to which we investigate the expressive power of the logic...

  5. Cut elimination in multifocused linear logic

    Guenot, Nicolas; Brock-Nannestad, Taus

    2015-01-01

    We study cut elimination for a multifocused variant of full linear logic in the sequent calculus. The multifocused normal form of proofs yields problems that do not appear in a standard focused system, related to the constraints in grouping rule instances in focusing phases. We show that cut...... elimination can be performed in a sensible way even though the proof requires some specific lemmas to deal with multifocusing phases, and discuss the difficulties arising with cut elimination when considering normal forms of proofs in linear logic....

  6. Linear Temporal Logic-based Mission Planning

    Anil Kumar; Rahul Kala

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the Linear Temporal Logic-based reactive motion planning. We address the problem of motion planning for mobile robots, wherein the goal specification of planning is given in complex environments. The desired task specification may consist of complex behaviors of the robot, including specifications for environment constraints, need of task optimality, obstacle avoidance, rescue specifications, surveillance specifications, safety specifications, etc. We use Linear Tem...

  7. Completeness Results for Linear Logic on Petri Nets

    Engberg, Uffe Henrik; Winskel, Glynn

    1993-01-01

    Completeness is shown for several versions of Girard's linear logic with respect to Petri nets as the class of models. The strongest logic considered is intuitionistic linear logic, with $otimes$, $-!circ$, &, $oplus$ and the exponential ! (''of course´´), and forms of quantification. This logic ...

  8. Linear Temporal Logic-based Mission Planning

    Anil Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe the Linear Temporal Logic-based reactive motion planning. We address the problem of motion planning for mobile robots, wherein the goal specification of planning is given in complex environments. The desired task specification may consist of complex behaviors of the robot, including specifications for environment constraints, need of task optimality, obstacle avoidance, rescue specifications, surveillance specifications, safety specifications, etc. We use Linear Temporal Logic to give a representation for such complex task specification and constraints. The specifications are used by a verification engine to judge the feasibility and suitability of plans. The planner gives a motion strategy as output. Finally a controller is used to generate the desired trajectory to achieve such a goal. The approach is tested using simulations on the LTLMoP mission planning tool, operating over the Robot Operating System. Simulation results generated using high level planners and low level controllers work simultaneously for mission planning and controlling the physical behavior of the robot.

  9. On Multiplicative Linear Logic, Modality and Quantum Circuits

    Ugo Dal Lago

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A logical system derived from linear logic and called QMLL is introduced and shown able to capture all unitary quantum circuits. Conversely, any proof is shown to compute, through a concrete GoI interpretation, some quantum circuits. The system QMLL, which enjoys cut-elimination, is obtained by endowing multiplicative linear logic with a quantum modality.

  10. Dynamic logic architecture based on piecewise-linear systems

    Peng Haipeng; Liu Fei; Li Lixiang; Yang Yixian; Wang Xue

    2010-01-01

    This Letter explores piecewise-linear systems to construct dynamic logic architecture. The proposed schemes can discriminate the two input signals and obtain 16 kinds of logic operations by different combinations of parameters and conditions for determining the output. Each logic cell performs more flexibly, that makes it possible to achieve complex logic operations more simply and construct computing architecture with less logic cells. We also analyze the various performances of our schemes under different conditions and the characteristics of these schemes.

  11. Hybrid logic on linear structures: expressivity and complexity

    Franceschet, M.; de Rijke, M.; Schlingoff, B.-H.

    2003-01-01

    We investigate expressivity and complexity of hybrid logics on linear structures. Hybrid logics are an enrichment of modal logics with certain first-order features which are algorithmically well behaved. Therefore, they are well suited for the specification of certain properties of computational

  12. A logic circuit for solving linear function by digital method

    Ma Yonghe

    1986-01-01

    A mathematical method for determining the linear relation of physical quantity with rediation intensity is described. A logic circuit has been designed for solving linear function by digital method. Some applications and the circuit function are discussed

  13. Lincx: A Linear Logical Framework with First-class Contexts

    Linn Georges, Aina; Murawska, Agata; Otis, Shawn

    2017-01-01

    Linear logic provides an elegant framework for modelling stateful, imperative and concurrent systems by viewing a context of assumptions as a set of resources. However, mechanizing the meta-theory of such systems remains a challenge, as we need to manage and reason about mixed contexts of linear...

  14. Relating Reasoning Methodologies in Linear Logic and Process Algebra

    Yuxin Deng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We show that the proof-theoretic notion of logical preorder coincides with the process-theoretic notion of contextual preorder for a CCS-like calculus obtained from the formula-as-process interpretation of a fragment of linear logic. The argument makes use of other standard notions in process algebra, namely a labeled transition system and a coinductively defined simulation relation. This result establishes a connection between an approach to reason about process specifications and a method to reason about logic specifications.

  15. Minimality of critical scenarios with linear logic and cutsets

    DK

    Keywords: Dependability - Mechatronic systems -Petri net - Linear logic - Minimal Feared scenarios - Cutsets. ..... Energy supply. Detection high level. Relay. ET. Energy supply. Detection high level. Relay ..... Evaluation de la SdF des systèmes mécatroniques en utilisant ... in complex distributed systems, Proceedings of the.

  16. Synthesizing Dynamic Programming Algorithms from Linear Temporal Logic Formulae

    Rosu, Grigore; Havelund, Klaus

    2001-01-01

    The problem of testing a linear temporal logic (LTL) formula on a finite execution trace of events, generated by an executing program, occurs naturally in runtime analysis of software. We present an algorithm which takes an LTL formula and generates an efficient dynamic programming algorithm. The generated algorithm tests whether the LTL formula is satisfied by a finite trace of events given as input. The generated algorithm runs in linear time, its constant depending on the size of the LTL formula. The memory needed is constant, also depending on the size of the formula.

  17. Logical Qubit in a Linear Array of Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    Cody Jones

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available We design a logical qubit consisting of a linear array of quantum dots, we analyze error correction for this linear architecture, and we propose a sequence of experiments to demonstrate components of the logical qubit on near-term devices. To avoid the difficulty of fully controlling a two-dimensional array of dots, we adapt spin control and error correction to a one-dimensional line of silicon quantum dots. Control speed and efficiency are maintained via a scheme in which electron spin states are controlled globally using broadband microwave pulses for magnetic resonance, while two-qubit gates are provided by local electrical control of the exchange interaction between neighboring dots. Error correction with two-, three-, and four-qubit codes is adapted to a linear chain of qubits with nearest-neighbor gates. We estimate an error correction threshold of 10^{-4}. Furthermore, we describe a sequence of experiments to validate the methods on near-term devices starting from four coupled dots.

  18. Testing Linear Temporal Logic Formulae on Finite Execution Traces

    Havelund, Klaus; Rosu, Grigore; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We present an algorithm for efficiently testing Linear Temporal Logic (LTL) formulae on finite execution traces. The standard models of LTL are infinite traces, reflecting the behavior of reactive and concurrent systems which conceptually may be continuously alive. In most past applications of LTL. theorem provers and model checkers have been used to formally prove that down-scaled models satisfy such LTL specifications. Our goal is instead to use LTL for up-scaled testing of real software applications. Such tests correspond to analyzing the conformance of finite traces against LTL formulae. We first describe what it means for a finite trace to satisfy an LTL property. We then suggest an optimized algorithm based on transforming LTL formulae. The work is done using the Maude rewriting system. which turns out to provide a perfect notation and an efficient rewriting engine for performing these experiments.

  19. Mendie, Patrick Johnson

    Mendie, Patrick Johnson. Vol 15, No 2 (2015) - Articles An examination of the nexus between Thomas Hobbes‟ concept of human nature and theory of the state. Abstract. ISSN: 1119-443X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

  20. Interview with Patrick Blackburn

    Hendricks, Vincent F.; Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    2005-01-01

    In 2005 Patrick Blackburn, who is Directeur de Recherche for INRIA Lorraine (France's national organization for research in computer science), published together with Johan Bos (Università di Roma "La Sapienza") the book Representation and Inference for Natural Language: A First Course in Computa...

  1. Configurable unitary transformations and linear logic gates using quantum memories.

    Campbell, G T; Pinel, O; Hosseini, M; Ralph, T C; Buchler, B C; Lam, P K

    2014-08-08

    We show that a set of optical memories can act as a configurable linear optical network operating on frequency-multiplexed optical states. Our protocol is applicable to any quantum memories that employ off-resonant Raman transitions to store optical information in atomic spins. In addition to the configurability, the protocol also offers favorable scaling with an increasing number of modes where N memories can be configured to implement arbitrary N-mode unitary operations during storage and readout. We demonstrate the versatility of this protocol by showing an example where cascaded memories are used to implement a conditional cz gate.

  2. Synthetic Domain Theory and Models of Linear Abadi & Plotkin Logic

    Møgelberg, Rasmus Ejlers; Birkedal, Lars; Rosolini, Guiseppe

    2008-01-01

    Plotkin suggested using a polymorphic dual intuitionistic/linear type theory (PILLY) as a metalanguage for parametric polymorphism and recursion. In recent work the first two authors and R.L. Petersen have defined a notion of parametric LAPL-structure, which are models of PILLY, in which one can...... reason using parametricity and, for example, solve a large class of domain equations, as suggested by Plotkin.In this paper, we show how an interpretation of a strict version of Bierman, Pitts and Russo's language Lily into synthetic domain theory presented by Simpson and Rosolini gives rise...... to a parametric LAPL-structure. This adds to the evidence that the notion of LAPL-structure is a general notion, suitable for treating many different parametric models, and it provides formal proofs of consequences of parametricity expected to hold for the interpretation. Finally, we show how these results...

  3. Undecidability of the Logic of Overlap Relation over Discrete Linear Orderings

    Bresolin, Davide; Della Monica, Dario; Goranko, Valentin

    2010-01-01

    . Still, decidability is the rule for the fragments of HS with only one modal operator, based on an Allen’s relation. In this paper, we show that the logic O of the Overlap relation, when interpreted over discrete linear orderings, is an exception. The proof is based on a reduction from the undecidable...

  4. Passive linear-optics 640 Gbit/s logic NOT gate

    Maram, Reza; Kong, Deming; Galili, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a 640 Gbit/s all-optical NOT gate for high-speed telecommunication on-off-keying (OOK) data signals. We employ linear optical signal processing based on spectral phase-only (all-pass) optical filtering to perform the target logic NOT operation....

  5. Performance of Globally Linearized Controller and Two Region Fuzzy Logic Controller on a Nonlinear Process

    N. Jaya

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a design and implementation of a Conventional PI controller, single region fuzzy logic controller, two region fuzzy logic controller and Globally Linearized Controller (GLC for a two capacity interacting nonlinear process is carried out. The performance of this process using single region FLC, two region FLC and GLC are compared with the performance of conventional PI controller about an operating point of 50 %. It has been observed that GLC and two region FLC provides better performance. Further, this procedure is also validated by real time experimentation using dSPACE.

  6. Linear Time Logics around PSL: Complexity, Expressiveness, and a little bit of Succinctness

    Lange, Martin

    2007-01-01

    We consider linear time temporal logic enriched with semi-extended regular expressions through various operators that have been proposed in the literature, in particular in Accelera's Property Specification Language. We obtain results about the expressive power of fragments of this logic when...... restricted to certain operators only: basically, all operators alone suffice for expressive completeness w.r.t.\\ omega-regular expressions, just the closure operator is too weak. We also obtain complexity results. Again, almost all operators alone suffice for EXPSPACE-completeness, just the closure operator...

  7. Experimental investigation of a four-qubit linear-optical quantum logic circuit.

    Stárek, R; Mičuda, M; Miková, M; Straka, I; Dušek, M; Ježek, M; Fiurášek, J

    2016-09-20

    We experimentally demonstrate and characterize a four-qubit linear-optical quantum logic circuit. Our robust and versatile scheme exploits encoding of two qubits into polarization and path degrees of single photons and involves two crossed inherently stable interferometers. This approach allows us to design a complex quantum logic circuit that combines a genuine four-qubit C(3)Z gate and several two-qubit and single-qubit gates. The C(3)Z gate introduces a sign flip if and only if all four qubits are in the computational state |1〉. We verify high-fidelity performance of this central four-qubit gate using Hofmann bounds on quantum gate fidelity and Monte Carlo fidelity sampling. We also experimentally demonstrate that the quantum logic circuit can generate genuine multipartite entanglement and we certify the entanglement with the use of suitably tailored entanglement witnesses.

  8. Patrick Moore the autobiography

    Moore, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Throughout his distinguished career, Patrick Moore has, without a doubt, done more to raise the profile of astronomy among the British public than any other figure in the scientific world. As the presenter of The Sky at Night on BBC television for nearly 50 years he was honored with an OBE in 1968 and a CBE in 1988. In 2001 he was knighted 'for services to the popularisation of science and to broadcasting'. The BBC first aired The Sky at Night in April 1957 and it is now in the record books as the world's longest running TV series with the same presenter. He is also the author of over 60

  9. Predicting recycling behaviour: Comparison of a linear regression model and a fuzzy logic model.

    Vesely, Stepan; Klöckner, Christian A; Dohnal, Mirko

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we demonstrate that fuzzy logic can provide a better tool for predicting recycling behaviour than the customarily used linear regression. To show this, we take a set of empirical data on recycling behaviour (N=664), which we randomly divide into two halves. The first half is used to estimate a linear regression model of recycling behaviour, and to develop a fuzzy logic model of recycling behaviour. As the first comparison, the fit of both models to the data included in estimation of the models (N=332) is evaluated. As the second comparison, predictive accuracy of both models for "new" cases (hold-out data not included in building the models, N=332) is assessed. In both cases, the fuzzy logic model significantly outperforms the regression model in terms of fit. To conclude, when accurate predictions of recycling and possibly other environmental behaviours are needed, fuzzy logic modelling seems to be a promising technique. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Introduction: Patrick Modiano's Dora Bruder

    Richard J. Golsan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available After establishing a reputation as a literary enfant terrible in the late 1960s and early 1970s, Patrick Modiano is now firmly ensconced as a Grand Old Man (perhaps the Grand Old Man of French letters and arguably as France's greatest living novelist…

  11. Parameterized Linear Temporal Logics Meet Costs: Still not Costlier than LTL

    Martin Zimmermann

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We continue the investigation of parameterized extensions of Linear Temporal Logic (LTL that retain the attractive algorithmic properties of LTL: a polynomial space model checking algorithm and a doubly-exponential time algorithm for solving games. Alur et al. and Kupferman et al. showed that this is the case for Parametric LTL (PLTL and PROMPT-LTL respectively, which have temporal operators equipped with variables that bound their scope in time. Later, this was also shown to be true for Parametric LDL (PLDL, which extends PLTL to be able to express all omega-regular properties. Here, we generalize PLTL to systems with costs, i.e., we do not bound the scope of operators in time, but bound the scope in terms of the cost accumulated during time. Again, we show that model checking and solving games for specifications in PLTL with costs is not harder than the corresponding problems for LTL. Finally, we discuss PLDL with costs and extensions to multiple cost functions.

  12. a fuzzy logic approach to non-linearity problem of load frequency

    user

    2016-07-03

    Jul 3, 2016 ... reduction in settling time, percent overshoot and steady state error. Keywords: fuzzy logic ... power system to regain a state of operating equilibrium given ... power system depends basically on the active (real) power balance ...

  13. Patrick Durand (1953 – 2014)

    2014-01-01

    Patrick arrived at CERN in January 1994 on a temporary contract in the Finance Department (previously FI), where he worked on the packaging of items for the Meyrin self-service stores (located at the time in Building 113) so that goods could be identified using barcodes, just like in a supermarket.   His hard work and initiative were recognised by CERN’s service provider, ISS, who gave him a permanent contract. Following the closure of the self-service stores, Patrick joined the Recuperation and Sales Service, still within the FI Department, where he worked on dismantling many different installations and the disposal of various goods. Here too he impressed his supervisors and departmental managers and became a team leader and, soon after, deputy to the Head of the Sales Service. Patrick’s sociable nature led him to become a member of the CERN Pétanque Club, where he put his talents as a chef to good use by supplying and organising the post-competition meals. ...

  14. Patrick Couvreur: inspiring pharmaceutical innovation.

    Stanwix, Hannah

    2014-05-01

    Patrick Couvreur speaks to Hannah Stanwix, Managing Comissioning Editor: Professor Patrick Couvreur received his pharmacy degree from the Université Catholique de Louvain (Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium) in 1972. He holds a PhD in pharmaceutical technology from the same university and completed a postdoctoral fellowship at the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (Zürich, Switzerland). Since 1984, Professor Couvreur has been Full Professor of Pharmacy at the Paris-Sud University (Paris, France) and was holder of the Chair of Innovation Technologique at the prestigious Collège de France (Paris, France). He has published more than 450 peer-reviewed articles and has an H-index of 73, with over 19,000 citations. Professor Coureur has been recognized by numerous national and international awards, including the 2004 Pharmaceutical Sciences World Congress Award, the prestigious Host Madsen Medal, the Prix Galien, the European Pharmaceutical Scientist Award 2011 from the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Sciences, the Médaille de l'Innovation from the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, and recently the European Inventor Award 2013 from the European Patent Office.

  15. Detection of epistatic effects with logic regression and a classical linear regression model.

    Malina, Magdalena; Ickstadt, Katja; Schwender, Holger; Posch, Martin; Bogdan, Małgorzata

    2014-02-01

    To locate multiple interacting quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing a trait of interest within experimental populations, usually methods as the Cockerham's model are applied. Within this framework, interactions are understood as the part of the joined effect of several genes which cannot be explained as the sum of their additive effects. However, if a change in the phenotype (as disease) is caused by Boolean combinations of genotypes of several QTLs, this Cockerham's approach is often not capable to identify them properly. To detect such interactions more efficiently, we propose a logic regression framework. Even though with the logic regression approach a larger number of models has to be considered (requiring more stringent multiple testing correction) the efficient representation of higher order logic interactions in logic regression models leads to a significant increase of power to detect such interactions as compared to a Cockerham's approach. The increase in power is demonstrated analytically for a simple two-way interaction model and illustrated in more complex settings with simulation study and real data analysis.

  16. Microelectromechanical reprogrammable logic device

    Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al; Kosuru, Lakshmoji; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2016-01-01

    on the electrothermal frequency modulation scheme of a single microelectromechanical resonator, capable of performing all the fundamental 2-bit logic functions as well as n-bit logic operations. Logic functions are performed by actively tuning the linear resonance

  17. Efficient SAT engines for concise logics: Accelerating proof search for zero-one linear constraint systems

    Fränzle, Martin; Herde, Christian

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the problem of generalizing acceleration techniques as found in recent satisfiability engines for conjunctive normal forms (CNFs) to linear constraint systems over the Booleans. The rationale behind this research is that rewriting the propositional formulae occurring in e.g. bounde...

  18. THRESHOLD LOGIC IN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

    COMPUTER LOGIC, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE , BIONICS, GEOMETRY, INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES, LINEAR PROGRAMMING, MATHEMATICAL LOGIC, MATHEMATICAL PREDICTION, NETWORKS, PATTERN RECOGNITION, PROBABILITY, SWITCHING CIRCUITS, SYNTHESIS

  19. Eetikata edu ei saavuta / Patrick Dixon

    Dixon, Patrick

    2003-01-01

    Ettevõte on edu saavutanud siis, kui ta on võitnud nii selle töötajate ja juhtide kui avalikkuse usalduse, leiab autor. Lisa: Usalduse loomine vajab igapäevast järjekindlat tööd ; Kes on kes: Patrick Dixon

  20. Linear Logical Voting Protocols

    DeYoung, Henry; Schürmann, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Current approaches to electronic implementations of voting protocols involve translating legal text to source code of an imperative programming language. Because the gap between legal text and source code is very large, it is difficult to trust that the program meets its legal specification. In r...

  1. Patrick Janot receives the CNRS silver medal

    2005-01-01

    Patrick Janot during the award ceremony. (Photo Schwemling, Paris) On 25 November, Patrick Janot of the CERN Physics Department received the CNRS silver medal for IN2P3 (Institut national de physique nucléaire et de physique des particules). This prize, one of the most prestigious awarded by the French research centre, is given to scientists for the 'originality, quality and importance of their work, as recognised both nationally and internationally'. Patrick Janot joined the ALEPH collaboration, one of the four experiments at LEP, then under construction, in 1987. First a CERN Fellow, he went on to work for the CNRS at LAL in 1989. Together with his team, he developed innovative algorithms for the reconstruction of events. This work and others earned him the bronze CNRS medal in 1993, which is awarded to scientists for their first achievements. In 1997, he became a permanent physicist at CERN, where he continued to work for ALEPH. He was appointed LEP scientific co-ordinator for the last two years of the ac...

  2. Obituary: Patrick L. Nolan (1952-2011)

    Digel, Seth

    2011-12-01

    Patrick Lee Nolan died at his home in Palo Alto, California, on November 6, 2011, from complications related to a brain tumor, glioblastoma multiforme, which had been diagnosed less than five months earlier. He was born in Colusa, California, on November 18, 1952. Pat was the only child of John Henry Nolan and Carol Lee Harris Nolan. For most of his childhood they lived in Grass Valley, California, where his father was a butcher and his mother was a surgical nurse. Pat graduated from the California Institute of Technology in 1974 with a B.S. in Physics and completed a Ph.D. at the University of California at San Diego in 1982. His graduate and professional career was devoted to high-energy astronomy. His loss is being keenly felt by his friends and colleagues around the world, including the members of the Chancel Choir of the Menlo Park Presbyterian Church, of which he was a member for 25 years. At U. C. San Diego, Pat worked on construction of the Hard X-ray and Low Energy Gamma Ray Experiment for the first High Energy Astronomy Observatory mission, which was launched in 1977. His Ph.D. thesis, supervised by Prof. Laurence E. Peterson, was based on data from this instrument and addressed variability of the high-energy emission from Cygnus X-1 and other black hole binary systems in the Milky Way. After he completed his Ph.D., Pat took a National Research Council postdoctoral research position at the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, D.C. He worked there from 1982-1984 developing spectral analysis software and studying gamma-ray bursts using the gamma-ray spectrometer on the Solar Maximum Mission satellite. A paper in Nature setting constraining limits on positron-electron annihilation radiation in the spectra of bursts marked the culmination of his efforts. Pat was hired by Prof. Robert Hofstadter at Stanford University in 1984 to work on the Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET). As a co-investigator for EGRET, Pat worked on its calorimeter

  3. La voz inconformista de Patrick Kavanagh

    Maximiliano Brina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Patrick Kavanagh, rural and self-taught poet, stands out among the Irish poets of the early twentieth century for his critical consideration of literary and political nationalist programs. Facing the quasi mythical representation of the peasantry built by the Irish Literary Revival, which was later used by the Republicans as a synthesis of Irishness, Kavanagh offers a unique opinion, ranging between despair and satire. The purpose of this article is to examine, from “The Great Hunger” (1942 and previous poems, the way Kavanagh disassembles this urban vision of the Irish peasantry.

  4. Data Logic

    Nilsson, Jørgen Fischer

    A Gentle introduction to logical languages, logical modeling, formal reasoning and computational logic for computer science and software engineering students......A Gentle introduction to logical languages, logical modeling, formal reasoning and computational logic for computer science and software engineering students...

  5. Full-order Luenberger observer based on fuzzy-logic control for sensorless field-oriented control of a single-sided linear induction motor.

    Holakooie, Mohammad Hosein; Ojaghi, Mansour; Taheri, Asghar

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates sensorless indirect field oriented control (IFOC) of SLIM with full-order Luenberger observer. The dynamic equations of SLIM are first elaborated to draw full-order Luenberger observer with some simplifying assumption. The observer gain matrix is derived from conventional procedure so that observer poles are proportional to SLIM poles to ensure the stability of system for wide range of linear speed. The operation of observer is significantly impressed by adaptive scheme. A fuzzy logic control (FLC) is proposed as adaptive scheme to estimate linear speed using speed tuning signal. The parameters of FLC are tuned using an off-line method through chaotic optimization algorithm (COA). The performance of the proposed observer is verified by both numerical simulation and real-time hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) implementation. Moreover, a detailed comparative study among proposed and other speed observers is obtained under different operation conditions. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fuzzy Logic vs. Neutrosophic Logic: Operations Logic

    Salah Bouzina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research is first to show how different, thorough, widespread and effective are the operations logic of the neutrosophic logic compared to the fuzzy logic’s operations logical. The second aim is to observe how a fully new logic, the neutrosophic logic, is established starting by changing the previous logical perspective fuzzy logic, and by changing that, we mean changing changing the truth values from the truth and falsity degrees membership in fuzzy logic, to the truth, falsity and indeterminacy degrees membership in neutrosophic logic; and thirdly, to observe that there is no limit to the logical discoveries - we only change the principle, then the system changes completely.

  7. Choreographies, Logically

    Carbone, Marco; Montesi, Fabrizio; Schürmann, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    In Choreographic Programming, a distributed system is programmed by giving a choreography, a global description of its interactions, instead of separately specifying the behaviour of each of its processes. Process implementations in terms of a distributed language can then be automatically...... projected from a choreography. We present Linear Compositional Choreographies (LCC), a proof theory for reasoning about programs that modularly combine choreographies with processes. Using LCC, we logically reconstruct a semantics and a projection procedure for programs. For the first time, we also obtain...... a procedure for extracting choreographies from process terms....

  8. Coherent quantum logic

    Finkelstein, D.

    1987-01-01

    The von Neumann quantum logic lacks two basic symmetries of classical logic, that between sets and classes, and that between lower and higher order predicates. Similarly, the structural parallel between the set algebra and linear algebra of Grassmann and Peano was left incomplete by them in two respects. In this work a linear algebra is constructed that completes this correspondence and is interpreted as a new quantum logic that restores these invariances, and as a quantum set theory. It applies to experiments with coherent quantum phase relations between the quantum and the apparatus. The quantum set theory is applied to model a Lorentz-invariant quantum time-space complex

  9. A Hybrid Model through the Fusion of Type-2 Fuzzy Logic Systems and Sensitivity-Based Linear Learning Method for Modeling PVT Properties of Crude Oil Systems

    Ali Selamat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity-based linear learning method (SBLLM has recently been used as a predictive tool due to its unique characteristics and performance, particularly its high stability and consistency during predictions. However, the generalisation capability of SBLLM is sometimes limited depending on the nature of the dataset, particularly on whether uncertainty is present in the dataset or not. Since it made use of sensitivity analysis in relation to the data sets used, it is surely very prone to being affected by the nature of the dataset. In order to reduce the effects of uncertainties in SBLLM prediction and improve its generalisation ability, this paper proposes a hybrid system through the unique combination of type-2 fuzzy logic systems (type-2 FLSs and SBLLM; thereafter the hybrid system was used to model PVT properties of crude oil systems. Type-2 FLS has been choosen in order to better handle uncertainties existing in datasets beyond the capability of type-1 fuzzy logic systems. In the proposed hybrid, the type-2 FLS is used to handle uncertainties in reservoir data so that the cleaned data from type-2 FLS is then passed to the SBLLM for training and then final prediction using testing dataset follows. Comparative studies have been carried out to compare the performance of the newly proposed T2-SBLLM hybrid system with each of the constituent type-2 FLS and SBLLM. Empirical results from simulation show that the proposed T2-SBLLM hybrid system has greatly improved upon the performance of SBLLM, while also maintaining a better performance above that of the type-2 FLS.

  10. Embedding Logics into Product Logic

    Baaz, M.; Hájek, Petr; Krajíček, Jan; Švejda, David

    1998-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 1 (1998), s. 35-47 ISSN 0039-3215 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1030601 Grant - others:COST(XE) Action 15 Keywords : fuzzy logic * Lukasiewicz logic * Gödel logic * product logic * computational complexity * arithmetical hierarchy Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  11. Logical labyrinths

    Smullyan, Raymond

    2008-01-01

    This book features a unique approach to the teaching of mathematical logic by putting it in the context of the puzzles and paradoxes of common language and rational thought. It serves as a bridge from the author's puzzle books to his technical writing in the fascinating field of mathematical logic. Using the logic of lying and truth-telling, the author introduces the readers to informal reasoning preparing them for the formal study of symbolic logic, from propositional logic to first-order logic, a subject that has many important applications to philosophy, mathematics, and computer science. T

  12. Microelectromechanical reprogrammable logic device

    Hafiz, M. A. A.; Kosuru, L.; Younis, M. I.

    2016-01-01

    In modern computing, the Boolean logic operations are set by interconnect schemes between the transistors. As the miniaturization in the component level to enhance the computational power is rapidly approaching physical limits, alternative computing methods are vigorously pursued. One of the desired aspects in the future computing approaches is the provision for hardware reconfigurability at run time to allow enhanced functionality. Here we demonstrate a reprogrammable logic device based on the electrothermal frequency modulation scheme of a single microelectromechanical resonator, capable of performing all the fundamental 2-bit logic functions as well as n-bit logic operations. Logic functions are performed by actively tuning the linear resonance frequency of the resonator operated at room temperature and under modest vacuum conditions, reprogrammable by the a.c.-driving frequency. The device is fabricated using complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible mass fabrication process, suitable for on-chip integration, and promises an alternative electromechanical computing scheme. PMID:27021295

  13. Microelectromechanical reprogrammable logic device

    Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al

    2016-03-29

    In modern computing, the Boolean logic operations are set by interconnect schemes between the transistors. As the miniaturization in the component level to enhance the computational power is rapidly approaching physical limits, alternative computing methods are vigorously pursued. One of the desired aspects in the future computing approaches is the provision for hardware reconfigurability at run time to allow enhanced functionality. Here we demonstrate a reprogrammable logic device based on the electrothermal frequency modulation scheme of a single microelectromechanical resonator, capable of performing all the fundamental 2-bit logic functions as well as n-bit logic operations. Logic functions are performed by actively tuning the linear resonance frequency of the resonator operated at room temperature and under modest vacuum conditions, reprogrammable by the a.c.-driving frequency. The device is fabricated using complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible mass fabrication process, suitable for on-chip integration, and promises an alternative electromechanical computing scheme.

  14. Mathematical logic

    Kleene, Stephen Cole

    1967-01-01

    Undergraduate students with no prior instruction in mathematical logic will benefit from this multi-part text. Part I offers an elementary but thorough overview of mathematical logic of 1st order. Part II introduces some of the newer ideas and the more profound results of logical research in the 20th century. 1967 edition.

  15. BDI Logics

    Meyer, J.J.Ch.; Broersen, J.M.; Herzig, A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of so-called BDI logics, logics where the notion of Beliefs, Desires and Intentions play a central role. Starting out from the basic ideas about BDI by Bratman, we consider various formalizations in logic, such as the approach of Cohen and Levesque, slightly

  16. 'American Psycho': a double portrait of serial yuppie Patrick Bateman

    Kooijman, J.; Laine, T.

    2003-01-01

    Kooijman and Laine analyze Mary Harron's "American Psycho," a 2000 film adaptation of the 1980s satirical novel by Bret Easton Ellis in which Patrick Bateman, a narcissistic Wall Street young urban professional ("yuppie"), assumes an alternate identity as a serial killer. The authors examine the

  17. Patrick filmib teismelise tüdruku fantaasiaid / Janno Zõbin

    Zõbin, Janno

    2003-01-01

    Eestis viibib 3 briti režissööri, kes osalevad lühimängufilmide koostööprojektis "The Tyne Tallinn Digital Film Challenge-2003". Lähemalt režissöör Patrick Collertonist ja tema lühimängufilmist "Armuvalu" ("Lovesick")

  18. An interview with Patrick Tam by Kathryn Senior.

    Tam, Patrick

    2010-12-01

    Patrick Tam's research is focused on the cellular and molecular mechanisms of body patterning during mouse development. He agreed to be interviewed by Development to talk about his interest in mouse development, new concepts in gastrulation, X-linked diseases and his dream of an African safari.

  19. Response to Patrick Love's "Informal Theory": A Rejoinder

    Evans, Nancy J.; Guido, Florence M.

    2012-01-01

    This rejoinder to Patrick Love's article, "Informal Theory: The Ignored Link in Theory-to-Practice," which appears earlier in this issue of the "Journal of College Student Development", was written at the invitation of the Editor. In the critique, we point out the weaknesses of many of Love's arguments and propositions. We provide an alternative…

  20. Profile Interview: Dr. Patrick Dongosolo Kamalo – Consultant ...

    Dr. Yohane Gadama (YG), an MMJ intern, interviews Dr. Patrick Dongosolo Kamalo (PDK) on his work as Malawi's only local practicing neurosurgeon, the launch of Blantyre Institute of Neurological Sciences (BINS) and the beginning of Neurosurgery training in Malawi ...

  1. A multiplicity logic unit

    Bialkowski, J.; Moszynski, M.; Zagorski, A.

    1981-01-01

    The logic diagram principle of operation and some details of the design of the multiplicity logic unit are presented. This unit was specially designed to fulfil the requirements of a multidetector arrangement for gamma-ray multiplicity measurements. The unit is equipped with 16 inputs controlled by a common coincidence gate. It delivers a linear output pulse with the height proportional to the multiplicity of coincidences and logic pulses corresponding to 0, 1, ... up to >= 5-fold coincidences. These last outputs are used to steer the routing unit working with the multichannel analyser. (orig.)

  2. Dispositional logic

    Le Balleur, J. C.

    1988-01-01

    The applicability of conventional mathematical analysis (based on the combination of two-valued logic and probability theory) to problems in which human judgment, perception, or emotions play significant roles is considered theoretically. It is shown that dispositional logic, a branch of fuzzy logic, has particular relevance to the common-sense reasoning typical of human decision-making. The concepts of dispositionality and usuality are defined analytically, and a dispositional conjunctive rule and dispositional modus ponens are derived.

  3. A Current Logical Framework: The Propositional Fragment

    Watkins, Kevin

    2003-01-01

    We present the propositional fragment CLF of the Concurrent Logical Framework (CLF). CLF extends the Linear Logical Framework to allow the natural representation of concurrent computations in an object language...

  4. Patrick Pearse: Psychobiographical Reflections on an Enigmatic, Paradoxical Personality

    Orr, Patricia Meredith

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To date historians have focused almost exclusively on Patrick Pearse’s key role in the 1916 Easter Rising to the extent that there is much less information about his personality development and characteristics. They have portrayed the elusive, paradoxical Patrick as nationalist, revolutionary and martyr or as a flawed and failed human being. Moran, agreeing with comments made at an earlier time by F.S.L. Lyons, suggests that, to have any real understanding of Patrick’s role in the rebellion and the events that led up to it, historians need to focus more attention on understanding the man himself.[1] The approach used in this article is psychobiographical, a methodology that applies psychological theory to biographical information in order to more fully understand an individual’s personality and achievements. In the case of Patrick Pearse the biographical information focuses on consensual aspects of his family background, his life experiences, his role as educator and his emergence as leader and hero. With regard to psychological theory, there are many empirically supported perspectives than could have been applied in this psychobiography. However, for the purposes of this particular article three perspectives have been selected. Drawing on some main tenets of the psychoanalytic, humanistic and trait approaches, the authors hope to provide a broader understanding of the influences and experiences that may have shaped Pearse as son, sibling, peer, educator and ultimately as a main instigator of the 1916 Rising and one of Ireland’s most famous patriots.

  5. Logic Meeting

    Tugué, Tosiyuki; Slaman, Theodore

    1989-01-01

    These proceedings include the papers presented at the logic meeting held at the Research Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Kyoto University, in the summer of 1987. The meeting mainly covered the current research in various areas of mathematical logic and its applications in Japan. Several lectures were also presented by logicians from other countries, who visited Japan in the summer of 1987.

  6. Classical Mathematical Logic The Semantic Foundations of Logic

    Epstein, Richard L

    2011-01-01

    In Classical Mathematical Logic, Richard L. Epstein relates the systems of mathematical logic to their original motivations to formalize reasoning in mathematics. The book also shows how mathematical logic can be used to formalize particular systems of mathematics. It sets out the formalization not only of arithmetic, but also of group theory, field theory, and linear orderings. These lead to the formalization of the real numbers and Euclidean plane geometry. The scope and limitations of modern logic are made clear in these formalizations. The book provides detailed explanations of all proo

  7. Propositional Logics of Dependence

    Yang, F.; Väänänen, J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study logics of dependence on the propositional level. We prove that several interesting propositional logics of dependence, including propositional dependence logic, propositional intuitionistic dependence logic as well as propositional inquisitive logic, are expressively complete

  8. Intuitionistic hybrid logic

    Braüner, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area.......Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area....

  9. Urban lessons for the modern planner : Patrick Abercrombie and the study of urban development

    Dehaene, M.B.M.

    2004-01-01

    As the first editor of the Town Planning Review, Patrick Abercrombie produced a significant number of contributions to early town planning literature. Through the discussion of a great variety of subjects, Abercrombie gradually defined a specific approach towards town planning. Echoing Patrick

  10. Career Development and Social Inclusion at St Patrick's College: A Case Study

    Hughes, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    Consistent with the Commonwealth government's social inclusion agenda, the mission statement of St Patrick's College advocates the development and delivery of career development services and programs that promote social justice and social inclusion. This case study describes the evolving career development program at St Patrick's College, which…

  11. Replication and Pedagogy in the History of Psychology IV: Patrick and Gilbert (1896) on Sleep Deprivation

    Fuchs, Thomas; Burgdorf, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    We report an attempted replication of G. T. W. Patrick and J. A. Gilbert's pioneering sleep deprivation experiment "Studies from the psychological laboratory of the University of Iowa. On the effects of loss of sleep", conducted in 1895/96. Patrick and Gilbert's study was the first sleep deprivation experiment of its kind, performed by some of the…

  12. Fuzzy logic

    Smets, P

    1995-01-01

    We start by describing the nature of imperfect data, and giving an overview of the various models that have been proposed. Fuzzy sets theory is shown to be an extension of classical set theory, and as such has a proeminent role or modelling imperfect data. The mathematic of fuzzy sets theory is detailled, in particular the role of the triangular norms. The use of fuzzy sets theory in fuzzy logic and possibility theory,the nature of the generalized modus ponens and of the implication operator for approximate reasoning are analysed. The use of fuzzy logic is detailled for application oriented towards process control and database problems.

  13. Separation Logic

    Reynolds, John C.

    2002-01-01

    In joint work with Peter O'Hearn and others, based on early ideas of Burstall, we have developed an extension of Hoare logic that permits reasoning about low-level imperative programs that use shared mutable data structure. The simple imperative programming language is extended with commands (not...... with the inductive definition of predicates on abstract data structures, this extension permits the concise and flexible description of structures with controlled sharing. In this paper, we will survey the current development of this program logic, including extensions that permit unrestricted address arithmetic...

  14. A functional language for describing reversible logic

    Thomsen, Michael Kirkedal

    2012-01-01

    Reversible logic is a computational model where all gates are logically reversible and combined in circuits such that no values are lost or duplicated. This paper presents a novel functional language that is designed to describe only reversible logic circuits. The language includes high....... Reversibility of descriptions is guaranteed with a type system based on linear types. The language is applied to three examples of reversible computations (ALU, linear cosine transformation, and binary adder). The paper also outlines a design flow that ensures garbage- free translation to reversible logic...... circuits. The flow relies on a reversible combinator language as an intermediate language....

  15. Ühendriigid otsivad NATOs taas liitlast / Jamie Patrick Shea ; interv. Kadri Liik

    Shea, Jamie Patrick

    2004-01-01

    NATO asepeasekretäri asetäitja räägib alliansi kaitseplaneerimisest, rahukaitsest, arengust, tegevusest Afganistanis, rollist Iraagis, võitlusest terrorismiga, koostööst USA-ga. Lisa: Jamie Patrick Shea

  16. Initial Remedial Action Plan for Expanded Bioventing System BX Service Station, Patrick Air Force Base, Florida

    1995-01-01

    This initial remedial action plan presents the scope for an expanded bioventing system for in situ treatment of fuel-contaminated soils at the BX Service Station at Patrick Air Force Base (AFB), Florida...

  17. Quantum logic

    Mittelstaedt, P.

    1979-01-01

    The subspaces of Hilbert space constitute an orthocomplemented quasimodular lattice Lsub(q) for which neither a two-valued function nor generalized truth function exist. A generalisation of the dialogic method can be used as an interpretation of a lattice Lsub(qi), which may be considered as the intuitionistic part of Lsub(q). Some obvious modifications of the dialogic method are introduced which come from the possible incommensurability of propositions about quantum mechanical systems. With the aid of this generalized dialogic method a propositional calculus Qsub(eff) is derived which is similar to the calculus of effective (intuitionistic) logic, but contains a few restrictions which are based on the incommensurability of quantum mechanical propositions. It can be shown within the framework of the calculus Qsub(eff) that the value-definiteness of the elementary propositions which are proved by quantum mechanical propositions is inherited by all finite compund propositions. In this way one arrives at the calculus Q of full quantum logic which incorporates the principle of excluded middle for all propositions and which is a model for the lattice Lsub(q). (Auth.)

  18. Logic regression and its extensions.

    Schwender, Holger; Ruczinski, Ingo

    2010-01-01

    Logic regression is an adaptive classification and regression procedure, initially developed to reveal interacting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genetic association studies. In general, this approach can be used in any setting with binary predictors, when the interaction of these covariates is of primary interest. Logic regression searches for Boolean (logic) combinations of binary variables that best explain the variability in the outcome variable, and thus, reveals variables and interactions that are associated with the response and/or have predictive capabilities. The logic expressions are embedded in a generalized linear regression framework, and thus, logic regression can handle a variety of outcome types, such as binary responses in case-control studies, numeric responses, and time-to-event data. In this chapter, we provide an introduction to the logic regression methodology, list some applications in public health and medicine, and summarize some of the direct extensions and modifications of logic regression that have been proposed in the literature. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Patrick Blanc'i rippuvad aiad / Urmas Grišakov

    Grišakov, Urmas, 1942-2013

    2010-01-01

    Prantsuse botaaniku ja aiakujundaja Patrick Blanc'i taeva poole kõrguvad rohelised seinad võimaldavad tänapäeval imetleda inimese loovuse ja teadmiste koostöös sündinut. Kujundaja on oma töödega tõestanud, et taimed võivad edukalt kasvada ka vertikaalselt üksteise kohal. Patrick Blanc'i kodulehekülg: www.verticalgardenpatrickblanc.com

  20. Camille Flammarion's the planet Mars as translated by Patrick Moore

    2015-01-01

    Camille Flammarion (1842-1925) began his career at 16 as a human computer under the great mathematician U. J. J. Le Verrier at the Paris Observatory.  He soon tired of the drudgery; he was drawn to more romantic vistas, and at 19 wrote a book on an idea that he was to make his own—the habitability of other worlds.  There followed a career as France’s greatest popularizer of astronomy, with over 60 titles to his credit.  An admirer granted him a chateau at Juvisy-sur-l’Orge, and he set up a first-rate observatory dedicated to the study of the planet Mars. Finally, in 1892, he published his masterpiece, La Planete Mars et ses conditions d’habitabilite, a comprehensive summary of three centuries’ worth of literature on Mars, much of it based on his own personal research into rare memoirs and archives.  As a history of that era, it has never been surpassed, and remains one of a handful of indispensable books on the red planet. Sir Patrick Moore (1923-2012) needs no introduction; his record of popula...

  1. Nanomagnetic Logic

    Carlton, David Bryan

    The exponential improvements in speed, energy efficiency, and cost that the computer industry has relied on for growth during the last 50 years are in danger of ending within the decade. These improvements all have relied on scaling the size of the silicon-based transistor that is at the heart of every modern CPU down to smaller and smaller length scales. However, as the size of the transistor reaches scales that are measured in the number of atoms that make it up, it is clear that this scaling cannot continue forever. As a result of this, there has been a great deal of research effort directed at the search for the next device that will continue to power the growth of the computer industry. However, due to the billions of dollars of investment that conventional silicon transistors have received over the years, it is unlikely that a technology will emerge that will be able to beat it outright in every performance category. More likely, different devices will possess advantages over conventional transistors for certain applications and uses. One of these emerging computing platforms is nanomagnetic logic (NML). NML-based circuits process information by manipulating the magnetization states of single-domain nanomagnets coupled to their nearest neighbors through magnetic dipole interactions. The state variable is magnetization direction and computations can take place without passing an electric current. This makes them extremely attractive as a replacement for conventional transistor-based computing architectures for certain ultra-low power applications. In most work to date, nanomagnetic logic circuits have used an external magnetic clocking field to reset the system between computations. The clocking field is then subsequently removed very slowly relative to the magnetization dynamics, guiding the nanomagnetic logic circuit adiabatically into its magnetic ground state. In this dissertation, I will discuss the dynamics behind this process and show that it is greatly

  2. Student Logical Implications and Connections between Symbolic Representations of a Linear System within the Context of an Introductory Linear Algebra Course Employing Inquiry-Oriented Teaching and Traditional Lecture

    Payton, Spencer D.

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to explore how inquiry-oriented teaching could be implemented in an introductory linear algebra course that, due to various constraints, may not lend itself to inquiry-oriented teaching. In particular, the course in question has a traditionally large class size, limited amount of class time, and is often coordinated with other…

  3. Advances in Modal Logic

    Modal logic is a subject with ancient roots in the western logical tradition. Up until the last few generations, it was pursued mainly as a branch of philosophy. But in recent years, the subject has taken new directions with connections to topics in computer science and mathematics. This volume...... is the proceedings of the conference of record in its fi eld, Advances in Modal Logic. Its contributions are state-of-the-art papers. The topics include decidability and complexity results for specifi c modal logics, proof theory of modal logic, logics for reasoning about time and space, provability logic, dynamic...... epistemic logic, and the logic of evidence....

  4. Linear algebra

    Stoll, R R

    1968-01-01

    Linear Algebra is intended to be used as a text for a one-semester course in linear algebra at the undergraduate level. The treatment of the subject will be both useful to students of mathematics and those interested primarily in applications of the theory. The major prerequisite for mastering the material is the readiness of the student to reason abstractly. Specifically, this calls for an understanding of the fact that axioms are assumptions and that theorems are logical consequences of one or more axioms. Familiarity with calculus and linear differential equations is required for understand

  5. Bohrification of operator algebras and quantum logic

    Heunen, C.; Landsman, N.P.; Spitters, B.A.W.

    2012-01-01

    Following Birkhoff and von Neumann, quantum logic has traditionally been based on the lattice of closed linear subspaces of some Hilbert space, or, more generally, on the lattice of projections in a von Neumann algebra A. Unfortunately, the logical interpretation of these lattices is impaired by

  6. Bohrification of operator algebras and quantum logic

    Heunen, C.; Landsman, N.P.; Spitters, B.A.W.

    2009-01-01

    Following Birkhoff and von Neumann, quantum logic has traditionally been based on the lattice of closed linear subspaces of some Hilbert space, or, more generally, on the lattice of projections in a von Neumann algebra A. Unfortunately, the logical interpretation of these lattices is impaired by

  7. Paraconsistent Computational Logic

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Villadsen, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    In classical logic everything follows from inconsistency and this makes classical logic problematic in areas of computer science where contradictions seem unavoidable. We describe a many-valued paraconsistent logic, discuss the truth tables and include a small case study....

  8. Stochastic coalgebraic logic

    Doberkat, Ernst-Erich

    2009-01-01

    Combining coalgebraic reasoning, stochastic systems and logic, this volume presents the principles of coalgebraic logic from a categorical perspective. Modal logics are also discussed, including probabilistic interpretations and an analysis of Kripke models.

  9. Classical logic and logicism in human thought

    Elqayam, Shira

    2012-01-01

    This chapter explores the role of classical logic as a theory of human reasoning. I distinguish between classical logic as a normative, computational and algorithmic system, and review its role is theories of human reasoning since the 1960s. The thesis I defend is that psychological theories have been moving further and further away from classical logic on all three levels. I examine some prominent example of logicist theories, which incorporate logic in their psychological account, includin...

  10. Logic programming extensions of Horn clause logic

    Ron Sigal

    1988-11-01

    Full Text Available Logic programming is now firmly established as an alternative programming paradigm, distinct and arguably superior to the still dominant imperative style of, for instance, the Algol family of languages. The concept of a logic programming language is not precisely defined, but it is generally understood to be characterized buy: a declarative nature; foundation in some well understood logical system, e.g., first order logic.

  11. Three-valued logics in modal logic

    Kooi, Barteld; Tamminga, Allard

    2013-01-01

    Every truth-functional three-valued propositional logic can be conservatively translated into the modal logic S5. We prove this claim constructively in two steps. First, we define a Translation Manual that converts any propositional formula of any three-valued logic into a modal formula. Second, we

  12. Fuzzy logic of Aristotelian forms

    Perlovsky, L.I. [Nichols Research Corp., Lexington, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Model-based approaches to pattern recognition and machine vision have been proposed to overcome the exorbitant training requirements of earlier computational paradigms. However, uncertainties in data were found to lead to a combinatorial explosion of the computational complexity. This issue is related here to the roles of a priori knowledge vs. adaptive learning. What is the a-priori knowledge representation that supports learning? I introduce Modeling Field Theory (MFT), a model-based neural network whose adaptive learning is based on a priori models. These models combine deterministic, fuzzy, and statistical aspects to account for a priori knowledge, its fuzzy nature, and data uncertainties. In the process of learning, a priori fuzzy concepts converge to crisp or probabilistic concepts. The MFT is a convergent dynamical system of only linear computational complexity. Fuzzy logic turns out to be essential for reducing the combinatorial complexity to linear one. I will discuss the relationship of the new computational paradigm to two theories due to Aristotle: theory of Forms and logic. While theory of Forms argued that the mind cannot be based on ready-made a priori concepts, Aristotelian logic operated with just such concepts. I discuss an interpretation of MFT suggesting that its fuzzy logic, combining a-priority and adaptivity, implements Aristotelian theory of Forms (theory of mind). Thus, 2300 years after Aristotle, a logic is developed suitable for his theory of mind.

  13. Quantifiers for quantum logic

    Heunen, Chris

    2008-01-01

    We consider categorical logic on the category of Hilbert spaces. More generally, in fact, any pre-Hilbert category suffices. We characterise closed subobjects, and prove that they form orthomodular lattices. This shows that quantum logic is just an incarnation of categorical logic, enabling us to establish an existential quantifier for quantum logic, and conclude that there cannot be a universal quantifier.

  14. Replication and Pedagogy in the History of Psychology IV: Patrick and Gilbert (1896) on Sleep Deprivation

    Fuchs, Thomas; Burgdorf, Jeffrey

    2008-05-01

    We report an attempted replication of G. T. W. Patrick and J. A. Gilbert’s pioneering sleep deprivation experiment ‘Studies from the psychological laboratory of the University of Iowa. On the effects of loss of sleep’, conducted in 1895/96. Patrick and Gilbert’s study was the first sleep deprivation experiment of its kind, performed by some of the first formally trained psychologists. We attempted to recreate the original experience in two subjects, using similar apparatus and methodology, and drawing direct comparisons to the original study whenever possible. We argue for a strong influence of an ‘Americanized’ Wundtian psychology on Patrick and Gilbert, a claim supported biographically by their education and by their experimental methods. The replication thus opens interesting new perspectives, which are unlikely to be generated by any other historical approach.

  15. Metamathematics of fuzzy logic

    Hájek, Petr

    1998-01-01

    This book presents a systematic treatment of deductive aspects and structures of fuzzy logic understood as many valued logic sui generis. Some important systems of real-valued propositional and predicate calculus are defined and investigated. The aim is to show that fuzzy logic as a logic of imprecise (vague) propositions does have well-developed formal foundations and that most things usually named `fuzzy inference' can be naturally understood as logical deduction.

  16. What are Institutional Logics

    Berg Johansen, Christina; Bock Waldorff, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    This study presents new insights into the explanatory power of the institutional logics perspective. With outset in a discussion of seminal theory texts, we identify two fundamental topics that frame institutional logics: overarching institutional orders guided by institutional logics, as well as change and agency generated by friction between logics. We use these topics as basis for an analysis of selected empirical papers, with the aim of understanding how institutional logics contribute to...

  17. Linearization Method and Linear Complexity

    Tanaka, Hidema

    We focus on the relationship between the linearization method and linear complexity and show that the linearization method is another effective technique for calculating linear complexity. We analyze its effectiveness by comparing with the logic circuit method. We compare the relevant conditions and necessary computational cost with those of the Berlekamp-Massey algorithm and the Games-Chan algorithm. The significant property of a linearization method is that it needs no output sequence from a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) because it calculates linear complexity using the algebraic expression of its algorithm. When a PRNG has n [bit] stages (registers or internal states), the necessary computational cost is smaller than O(2n). On the other hand, the Berlekamp-Massey algorithm needs O(N2) where N(≅2n) denotes period. Since existing methods calculate using the output sequence, an initial value of PRNG influences a resultant value of linear complexity. Therefore, a linear complexity is generally given as an estimate value. On the other hand, a linearization method calculates from an algorithm of PRNG, it can determine the lower bound of linear complexity.

  18. Review of Patrick Chabal, Africa: The Politics of Suffering and Smiling, and Pierre Englebert, Africa: Unity, Sovereignty and Sorrow

    Kaarsholm, Preben

    2012-01-01

    Review article discussing Patrick Chabal, Africa: The Politics of Suffering and Smiling (London: Zed Books, 2009) and Pierre Englebert, Africa: Unity, Sovereignty and Sorrow (Bodulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2009).......Review article discussing Patrick Chabal, Africa: The Politics of Suffering and Smiling (London: Zed Books, 2009) and Pierre Englebert, Africa: Unity, Sovereignty and Sorrow (Bodulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2009)....

  19. Connections among quantum logics

    Lock, P.F.; Hardegree, G.M.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper, a theory of quantum logics is proposed which is general enough to enable us to reexamine a previous work on quantum logics in the context of this theory. It is then easy to assess the differences between the different systems studied. The quantum logical systems which are incorporated are divided into two groups which we call ''quantum propositional logics'' and ''quantum event logics''. The work of Kochen and Specker (partial Boolean algebras) is included and so is that of Greechie and Gudder (orthomodular partially ordered sets), Domotar (quantum mechanical systems), and Foulis and Randall (operational logics) in quantum propositional logics; and Abbott (semi-Boolean algebras) and Foulis and Randall (manuals) in quantum event logics, In this part of the paper, an axiom system for quantum propositional logics is developed and the above structures in the context of this system examined. (author)

  20. A Logical Process Calculus

    Cleaveland, Rance; Luettgen, Gerald; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the Logical Process Calculus (LPC), a formalism that supports heterogeneous system specifications containing both operational and declarative subspecifications. Syntactically, LPC extends Milner's Calculus of Communicating Systems with operators from the alternation-free linear-time mu-calculus (LT(mu)). Semantically, LPC is equipped with a behavioral preorder that generalizes Hennessy's and DeNicola's must-testing preorder as well as LT(mu's) satisfaction relation, while being compositional for all LPC operators. From a technical point of view, the new calculus is distinguished by the inclusion of: (1) both minimal and maximal fixed-point operators and (2) an unimple-mentability predicate on process terms, which tags inconsistent specifications. The utility of LPC is demonstrated by means of an example highlighting the benefits of heterogeneous system specification.

  1. Structural Logical Relations

    Schürmann, Carsten; Sarnat, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Tait's method (a.k.a. proof by logical relations) is a powerful proof technique frequently used for showing foundational properties of languages based on typed lambda-calculi. Historically, these proofs have been extremely difficult to formalize in proof assistants with weak meta-logics......, such as Twelf, and yet they are often straightforward in proof assistants with stronger meta-logics. In this paper, we propose structural logical relations as a technique for conducting these proofs in systems with limited meta-logical strength by explicitly representing and reasoning about an auxiliary logic...

  2. What are Institutional Logics

    Berg Johansen, Christina; Waldorff, Susanne Boch

    This study presents new insights into the explanatory power of the institutional logics perspective. With outset in a discussion of seminal theory texts, we identify two fundamental topics that frame institutional logics: overarching institutional orders guides by institutional logics, as well...... as change and agency generated by friction between logics. We use these topics as basis for an analysis of selected empirical papers, with the aim of understanding how institutional logics contribute to institutional theory at large, and which social matters institutional logics can and cannot explore...

  3. Indeterministic Temporal Logic

    Trzęsicki Kazimierz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The questions od determinism, causality, and freedom have been the main philosophical problems debated since the beginning of temporal logic. The issue of the logical value of sentences about the future was stated by Aristotle in the famous tomorrow sea-battle passage. The question has inspired Łukasiewicz’s idea of many-valued logics and was a motive of A. N. Prior’s considerations about the logic of tenses. In the scheme of temporal logic there are different solutions to the problem. In the paper we consider indeterministic temporal logic based on the idea of temporal worlds and the relation of accessibility between them.

  4. 33 CFR 334.560 - Banana River at Patrick Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area.

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banana River at Patrick Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area. 334.560 Section 334.560 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.560 Banana...

  5. Turner : ettevõtjaks ei sünnita / Patrick Turner ; interv. Erik Aru

    Turner, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    Intervjuu rahvusvahelise ärikooli INSEAD õppejõu Patrick Turneriga, kes vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad ettevõtlust. Ta leiab, et nii nagu inimene peab omama luba auto juhtimiseks, peaks luba olema ka firma loomiseks. Vt. samas: Kes ta on?

  6. 1787 and 1776: Patrick Henry, James Madison, and the Revolutionary Legitimacy of the Constitution.

    Banning, Lance

    1988-01-01

    Discusses Patrick Henry's and James Madison's opinions on how the U.S. Constitution should be constructed. Describes how Henry introduced a set of substantive objections which were shared by Antifederalists throughout the country and persuaded many Revolutionaries that the Constitution was essentially at odds with the principles of 1776. (BSR)

  7. (dis)Ability and Music Education: Paralympian Patrick Anderson and the Experience of Disability in Music

    Bell, Adam Patrick

    2017-01-01

    What does it mean to experience disability in music? Based on interviews with Patrick Anderson--arguably the greatest wheelchair basketball player of all time--this article presents insights into the complexities of the experience of disability in sports and music. Contrasted with music education's tendency to adhere to a medicalized model of…

  8. Quantum Logic as a Dynamic Logic

    Baltag, A.; Smets, S.

    We address the old question whether a logical understanding of Quantum Mechanics requires abandoning some of the principles of classical logic. Against Putnam and others (Among whom we may count or not E. W. Beth, depending on how we interpret some of his statements), our answer is a clear “no”.

  9. Quantum logic as a dynamic logic

    Baltag, Alexandru; Smets, Sonja

    We address the old question whether a logical understanding of Quantum Mechanics requires abandoning some of the principles of classical logic. Against Putnam and others (Among whom we may count or not E. W. Beth, depending on how we interpret some of his statements), our answer is a clear "no".

  10. Transforming equality logic to propositional logic

    Zantema, H.; Groote, J.F.

    2003-01-01

    Abstract We investigate and compare various ways of transforming equality formulas to propositional formulas, in order to be able to solve satisfiability in equality logic by means of satisfiability in propositional logic. We propose equality substitution as a new approach combining desirable

  11. Admissible Rules of Lukasiewicz Logic

    Jeřábek, Emil

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 2 (2010), s. 425-447 ISSN 0955-792X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA900090703; GA AV ČR IAA100190902; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : linear temporal logic * unification * consecutions Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.586, year: 2010 http://logcom.oxfordjournals.org/content/20/2/425

  12. Session Types in Abelian Logic

    Yoichi Hirai

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There was a PhD student who says "I found a pair of wooden shoes. I put a coin in the left and a key in the right. Next morning, I found those objects in the opposite shoes." We do not claim existence of such shoes, but propose a similar programming abstraction in the context of typed lambda calculi. The result, which we call the Amida calculus, extends Abramsky's linear lambda calculus LF and characterizes Abelian logic.

  13. Many-valued logics

    Bolc, Leonard

    1992-01-01

    Many-valued logics were developed as an attempt to handle philosophical doubts about the "law of excluded middle" in classical logic. The first many-valued formal systems were developed by J. Lukasiewicz in Poland and E.Post in the U.S.A. in the 1920s, and since then the field has expanded dramatically as the applicability of the systems to other philosophical and semantic problems was recognized. Intuitionisticlogic, for example, arose from deep problems in the foundations of mathematics. Fuzzy logics, approximation logics, and probability logics all address questions that classical logic alone cannot answer. All these interpretations of many-valued calculi motivate specific formal systems thatallow detailed mathematical treatment. In this volume, the authors are concerned with finite-valued logics, and especially with three-valued logical calculi. Matrix constructions, axiomatizations of propositional and predicate calculi, syntax, semantic structures, and methodology are discussed. Separate chapters deal w...

  14. Against Logical Form

    P N Johnson-Laird

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available An old view in logic going back to Aristotle is that an inference is valid in virtue of its logical form. Many psychologists have adopted the same point of view about human reasoning: the first step is to recover the logical form of an inference, and the second step is to apply rules of inference that match these forms in order to prove that the conclusion follows from the premises. The present paper argues against this idea. The logical form of an inference transcends the grammatical forms of the sentences used to express it, because logical form also depends on context. Context is not readily expressed in additional premises. And the recovery of logical form leads ineluctably to the need for infinitely many axioms to capture the logical properties of relations. An alternative theory is that reasoning depends on mental models, and this theory obviates the need to recover logical form.

  15. Logic an introductory course

    Newton-Smith, WH

    2003-01-01

    A complete introduction to logic for first-year university students with no background in logic, philosophy or mathematics. In easily understood steps it shows the mechanics of the formal analysis of arguments.

  16. Anticoincidence logic using PALs

    Bolanos, L.; Arista Romeu, E.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the functioning principle of an anticoincidence logic and a design of this based on programing logic. The circuit was included in a discriminator of an equipment for single-photon absorptiometry

  17. Manipulating potential wells in Logical Stochastic Resonance to obtain XOR logic

    Storni, Remo; Ando, Hiroyasu; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Murali, K.; Sinha, Sudeshna

    2012-01-01

    Logical Stochastic Resonance (LSR) is the application of Stochastic Resonance to logic computation, namely the phenomenon where a nonlinear system driven by weak signals representing logic inputs, under optimal noise, can yield logic outputs. We extend the existing results, obtained in the context of bistable systems, to multi-stable dynamical systems, allowing us to obtain XOR logic, in addition to the AND (NAND) and OR (NOR) logic observed in earlier studies. This strategy widens the scope of LSR from the application point of view, as XOR forms the basis of ubiquitous bit-by-bit addition, and conceptually, showing the ability to yield non-monotonic input–output logic associations. -- Highlights: ► We generalize Logical Stochastic Resonance from bistable to multi-stable systems. ► We propose a tristable dynamical system formed of piecewise linear functions. ► The system can correctly reproduce XOR logic behavior using the LSR principle. ► The system yields different logic behavior without the need to change the dynamics.

  18. Connections among quantum logics

    Lock, P.F.; Hardegree, G.M.

    1985-01-01

    This paper gives a brief introduction to the major areas of work in quantum event logics: manuals (Foulis and Randall) and semi-Boolean algebras (Abbott). The two theories are compared, and the connection between quantum event logics and quantum propositional logics is made explicit. In addition, the work on manuals provides us with many examples of results stated in Part I. (author)

  19. Equational type logic

    Manca, V.; Salibra, A.; Scollo, Giuseppe

    1990-01-01

    Equational type logic is an extension of (conditional) equational logic, that enables one to deal in a single, unified framework with diverse phenomena such as partiality, type polymorphism and dependent types. In this logic, terms may denote types as well as elements, and atomic formulae are either

  20. Concurrent weighted logic

    Xue, Bingtian; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Mardare, Radu Iulian

    2015-01-01

    We introduce Concurrent Weighted Logic (CWL), a multimodal logic for concurrent labeled weighted transition systems (LWSs). The synchronization of LWSs is described using dedicated functions that, in various concurrency paradigms, allow us to encode the compositionality of LWSs. To reflect these......-completeness results for this logic. To complete these proofs we involve advanced topological techniques from Model Theory....

  1. Real Islamic Logic

    Bergstra, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Four options for assigning a meaning to Islamic Logic are surveyed including a new proposal for an option named "Real Islamic Logic" (RIL). That approach to Islamic Logic should serve modern Islamic objectives in a way comparable to the functionality of Islamic Finance. The prospective role of RIL

  2. Abductive Logic Grammars

    Christiansen, Henning; Dahl, Veronica

    2009-01-01

    By extending logic grammars with constraint logic, we give them the ability to create knowledge bases that represent the meaning of an input string. Semantic information is thus defined through extra-grammatical means, and a sentence's meaning logically follows as a by-product of string rewriting....... We formalize these ideas, and exemplify them both within and outside first-order logic, and for both fixed and dynamic knowledge bases. Within the latter variety, we consider the usual left-to-right derivations that are traditional in logic grammars, but also -- in a significant departure from...

  3. Action Type Deontic Logic

    Bentzen, Martin Mose

    2014-01-01

    A new deontic logic, Action Type Deontic Logic, is presented. To motivate this logic, a number of benchmark cases are shown, representing inferences a deontic logic should validate. Some of the benchmark cases are singled out for further comments and some formal approaches to deontic reasoning...... are evaluated with respect to the benchmark cases. After that follows an informal introduction to the ideas behind the formal semantics, focussing on the distinction between action types and action tokens. Then the syntax and semantics of Action Type Deontic Logic is presented and it is shown to meet...

  4. Product Lukasiewicz Logic

    Horčík, Rostislav; Cintula, Petr

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 43, - (2004), s. 477-503 ISSN 1432-0665 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1030004; GA ČR GA201/02/1540 Grant - others:GA CTU(CZ) project 0208613; net CEEPUS(SK) SK-042 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1030915 Keywords : fuzzy logic * many-valued logic * Lukasiewicz logic * Lpi logic * Takeuti-Titani logic * MV-algebras * product MV-algebras Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.295, year: 2004

  5. Henkin and Hybrid Logic

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Huertas, Antonia; Manzano, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Leon Henkin was not a modal logician, but there is a branch of modal logic that has been deeply influenced by his work. That branch is hybrid logic, a family of logics that extend orthodox modal logic with special proposition symbols (called nominals) that name worlds. This paper explains why...... Henkin’s techniques are so important in hybrid logic. We do so by proving a completeness result for a hybrid type theory called HTT, probably the strongest hybrid logic that has yet been explored. Our completeness result builds on earlier work with a system called BHTT, or basic hybrid type theory...... is due to the first-order perspective, which lies at the heart of Henin’s best known work and hybrid logic....

  6. Logic and Ontology

    Newton C. A. da Costa

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In view of the present state of development of non classical logic, especially of paraconsistent logic, a new stand regarding the relations between logic and ontology is defended In a parody of a dictum of Quine, my stand May be summarized as follows. To be is to be the value of a variable a specific language with a given underlying logic Yet my stand differs from Quine’s, because, among other reasons, I accept some first order heterodox logics as genuine alternatives to classical logic I also discuss some questions of non classical logic to substantiate my argument, and suggest that may position complements and extends some ideas advanced by L Apostel.

  7. Institutional Logics in Action

    Lounsbury, Michael; Boxenbaum, Eva

    2013-01-01

    This double volume presents state-of-the-art research and thinking on the dynamics of actors and institutional logics. In the introduction, we briefly sketch the roots and branches of institutional logics scholarship before turning to the new buds of research on the topic of how actors engage...... institutional logics in the course of their organizational practice. We introduce an exciting line of new works on the meta-theoretical foundations of logics, institutional logic processes, and institutional complexity and organizational responses. Collectively, the papers in this volume advance the very...... prolific stream of research on institutional logics by deepening our insight into the active use of institutional logics in organizational action and interaction, including the institutional effects of such (inter)actions....

  8. Substructural Logical Specifications

    2012-11-14

    and independently in the context of CLF by Schack-Nielsen [SN07] and by Cruz and Hou [CH12]; Schack-Nielsen proves the equivalence of the two specifi...cations, whereas Cruz and Hou used the connection informally. The contribution of this section is to describe a general transformation (of which...Functional Programming (LFP’86), pages 13–27. ACM, 1986. 5.1 [CDE+11] Manuel Clavel, Francisco Durán, Steven Eker, Patrick Lincoln, Narciso Martı́- 290 Oliet

  9. 'Transatlantic Print Culture, 1880-1940: Emerging Media, Emerging Modernisms', edited by Ann Ardis and Patrick Collier

    Janet Floyd

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A review of 'Transatlantic Print Culture, 1880-1940: Emerging Media, Emerging Modernisms', edited by Ann Ardis and Patrick Collier (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008. Hardback, 259 pages, £50, ISBN 9780554269.

  10. L’analyse hypertextuelle de L’Empreinte à Crusoé de Patrick Chamoiseau // Hypertextual analysis of Patrick Chamoiseau’s Crusoe’s footprint

    Damian Paweł Masłowski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Over centuries, the subject of robinsonade does not seem to be a thoroughly investigated field in literary criticism. In this context, the role of Defoe’s work is still considered as the fundamental hypotext for every future robinsonade. Nevertheless, the twentieth century brings writers such as Michel Tournier, Patrick Chamoiseau or Yann Martel who began to transvalorize their robinsonades. This postmodern and sometimes postcolonial approach questions the topicality of modern and colonial masterpiece. In his recent novel, Patrick Chamoiseau explores the literary myth of Robinson Crusoe. He indicates the equiponderant influence of Daniel Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe and Michel Tournier’s Friday, or, the Other Island. The purpose of this paper is to analyze said hypertextuality in Crusoe’s footprint. It attempts to focus notably on the dialogue between Chamoiseau and Tournier and to see Michel Tournier’s impact not only as the primordial hypotext in case of Crusoe’s footprint but also as the basic reference for robinsonades reversing the ideological message of Daniel Defoe’s text in the XXth and XXIth centuries.

  11. Book Review: Critical Condition: Replacing Critical Thinking with Creativity by Patrick Finn

    Matthews, Jodie

    2016-01-01

    In Critical Condition: Replacing Critical Thinking with Creativity, Patrick Finn expands upon his 2011 TEDx Talk, ‘Loving Communication’, to suggest that critical thinking implies disapproval and unnecessary judgement originating from a particular mode of Classical thought. Jodie Matthews argues that Finn’s discussion is dependent upon a crudely drawn straw man and neglects to consider thinking critically as a necessary corollary, rather than antithesis, to thinking creatively.

  12. Environmental Assessment for Airfield Safety and Drainage Improvements at Patrick Air Force Base, Florida

    2011-12-22

    of Cocoa Beach, and covers approximately 2,000 acres bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east and the Banana River on the west. The PAFB airfield...significance for greenhouse gas emissions, but the Federal government recognizes the need to reduce energy consumption and shift to renewable and...Historical and Architectural Documentation Reports of Patrick Air Force Base, Cocoa Beach, Florida. U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research

  13. Logic and structure

    Dalen, Dirk

    1983-01-01

    A book which efficiently presents the basics of propositional and predicate logic, van Dalen’s popular textbook contains a complete treatment of elementary classical logic, using Gentzen’s Natural Deduction. Propositional and predicate logic are treated in separate chapters in a leisured but precise way. Chapter Three presents the basic facts of model theory, e.g. compactness, Skolem-Löwenheim, elementary equivalence, non-standard models, quantifier elimination, and Skolem functions. The discussion of classical logic is rounded off with a concise exposition of second-order logic. In view of the growing recognition of constructive methods and principles, one chapter is devoted to intuitionistic logic. Completeness is established for Kripke semantics. A number of specific constructive features, such as apartness and equality, the Gödel translation, the disjunction and existence property have been incorporated. The power and elegance of natural deduction is demonstrated best in the part of proof theory cal...

  14. The Football of Logic

    Schang Fabien

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available An analogy is made between two rather different domains, namely: logic, and football (or soccer. Starting from a comparative table between the two activities, an alternative explanation of logic is given in terms of players, ball, goal, and the like. Our main thesis is that, just as the task of logic is preserving truth from premises to the conclusion, footballers strive to keep the ball as far as possible until the opposite goal. Assuming this analogy may help think about logic in the same way as in dialogical logic, but it should also present truth-values in an alternative sense of speech-acts occurring in a dialogue. The relativity of truth-values is focused by this way, thereby leading to an additional way of logical pluralism.

  15. Patrick Air Force Base integrated resource assessment. Volume 2, Baseline detail

    Wahlstrom, R.R.; King, D.A.; Parker, S.A.; Sandusky, W.F.

    1993-08-01

    The US Air Force has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), to assess energy use at Patrick Air Force Base (AFB). The information obtained from this assessment will be used in identifying energy resource opportunities to reduce overall energy consumption on the base. The primary focus of this report is to assess the current baseline energy consumption at Patrick AFB. It is a comparison report to Volume 1, the Executive Summary, and Volume 3, the Resource Assessment. This assessment requires that information be obtained and characterized for buildings, utilities, energy sources, energy uses, and load profile information to be used to improve the characterization of energy use on the base. The characteristics of electricity, natural gas, and No. 2 fuel oil are analyzed for on-base facilities and housing. The assessment examines basic regional information used to determine energy-use intensity (EUI) values for Patrick AFB facilities by building, fuel type, and energy end use. It also provides a summary of electricity consumption from Florida Power and Light Company (FPL) metered data for 1985-1991. Load profile information obtained from FPL data is presented for the north and south substations for the four seasons of the year, including weekdays and weekends.

  16. Patrick Moore’s observer’s year 366 nights of the universe : 2015-2020

    2015-01-01

    Observers no longer need to wonder what they will turn their attention to each night of the year with this updated text of a beloved favorite from Sir Partick Moore. His night-by-night account of the stars is the best possible guide an observer could ask for, and now includes the latest data for the years 2015-2020, preserving and extending Sir Patrick Moore's legacy. This new edition of his classic text makes it easy to see why Sir Patrick Moore was such a helpful guide to generations of budding astronomers, professional and amateur alike. For every night of the year Patrick gives the reader details of interesting objects that can be seen from Earth. It is a book for people with a wide interest in practical astronomy, those who may not have specialized in a specific area of astronomy and wish to expand their knowledge in all areas. This third edition includes Sir Patrick’s original text but revises its time-sensitive material and adds all of the points of interest that change from year to year, such as e...

  17. Logic of likelihood

    Wall, M.J.W.

    1992-01-01

    The notion of open-quotes probabilityclose quotes is generalized to that of open-quotes likelihood,close quotes and a natural logical structure is shown to exist for any physical theory which predicts likelihoods. Two physically based axioms are given for this logical structure to form an orthomodular poset, with an order-determining set of states. The results strengthen the basis of the quantum logic approach to axiomatic quantum theory. 25 refs

  18. Logical database design principles

    Garmany, John; Clark, Terry

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION TO LOGICAL DATABASE DESIGNUnderstanding a Database Database Architectures Relational Databases Creating the Database System Development Life Cycle (SDLC)Systems Planning: Assessment and Feasibility System Analysis: RequirementsSystem Analysis: Requirements Checklist Models Tracking and Schedules Design Modeling Functional Decomposition DiagramData Flow Diagrams Data Dictionary Logical Structures and Decision Trees System Design: LogicalSYSTEM DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION The ER ApproachEntities and Entity Types Attribute Domains AttributesSet-Valued AttributesWeak Entities Constraint

  19. Erotetic epistemic logic

    Peliš, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 3 (2017), s. 357-381 ISSN 1425-3305 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GC16-07954J Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : epistemic logic * erotetic implication * erotetic logic * logic of questions Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion OBOR OECD: Philosophy, History and Philosophy of science and technology http://apcz.umk.pl/czasopisma/index.php/LLP/article/view/LLP.2017.007

  20. Logic for Physicists

    Pereyra, Nicolas A.

    2018-06-01

    This book gives a rigorous yet 'physics-focused' introduction to mathematical logic that is geared towards natural science majors. We present the science major with a robust introduction to logic, focusing on the specific knowledge and skills that will unavoidably be needed in calculus topics and natural science topics in general (rather than taking a philosophical-math-fundamental oriented approach that is commonly found in mathematical logic textbooks).

  1. What is mathematical logic?

    Crossley, J N; Brickhill, CJ; Stillwell, JC

    2010-01-01

    Although mathematical logic can be a formidably abstruse topic, even for mathematicians, this concise book presents the subject in a lively and approachable fashion. It deals with the very important ideas in modern mathematical logic without the detailed mathematical work required of those with a professional interest in logic.The book begins with a historical survey of the development of mathematical logic from two parallel streams: formal deduction, which originated with Aristotle, Euclid, and others; and mathematical analysis, which dates back to Archimedes in the same era. The streams beg

  2. Indexical Hybrid Tense Logic

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Jørgensen, Klaus Frovin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we explore the logic of now, yesterday, today and tomorrow by combining the semantic approach to indexicality pioneered by Hans Kamp [9] and refined by David Kaplan [10] with hybrid tense logic. We first introduce a special now nominal (our @now corresponds to Kamp’s original now...... operator N) and prove completeness results for both logical and contextual validity. We then add propositional constants to handle yesterday, today and tomorrow; our system correctly treats sentences like “Niels will die yesterday” as contextually unsatisfiable. Building on our completeness results for now......, we prove completeness for the richer language, again for both logical and contextual validity....

  3. A Logic for Choreographies

    Lopez, Hugo Andres; Carbone, Marco; Hildebrandt, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We explore logical reasoning for the global calculus, a coordination model based on the notion of choreography, with the aim to provide a methodology for specification and verification of structured communications. Starting with an extension of Hennessy-Milner logic, we present the global logic (GL...... ), a modal logic describing possible interactions among participants in a choreography. We illustrate its use by giving examples of properties on service specifications. Finally, we show that, despite GL is undecidable, there is a significant decidable fragment which we provide with a sound and complete proof...

  4. Superconductor fluxoid logic

    Andronov, A.A.; Kurin, V.V.; Levichev, M.Yu.; Ryndyk, D.A.; Vostokov, V.I.

    1993-01-01

    In recent years there has been much interest in superconductor logical devices. Our paper is devoted to the analysis of some new possibilities in this field. The main problems here are: minimization of time of logical operations and reducing of device scale. Josephson systems are quite appropriate for this purpose because of small size, short characteristic time and also small energy losses. Two different types of Josephson logic have been investigated during last years. The first type is based on hysteretic V-A characteristic of a single Josephson junction. Superconducting and resistive (with nonzero voltage) states are considered as logical zero and logical unit. The second one - rapid single flux quantum logic, has been developed recently and is based on SQUID-like bistability. Different logical states are the states with different number of magnetic flux quanta inside closed superconducting contour. Information is represented by voltage pulses with fixed ''area'' (∫ V(t)/dt). This pulses are generated when logical state of SQUID-like elementary cell changes. The fundamental role of magnetic flux quantization in this type of logic leads to the necessity of large enough self-inductance of superconductor contour and thus to limitations on minimal device dimensions. (orig.)

  5. A Logic for Choreographies

    Marco Carbone

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We explore logical reasoning for the global calculus, a coordination model based on the notion of choreography, with the aim to provide a methodology for specification and verification of structured communications. Starting with an extension of Hennessy-Milner logic, we present the global logic (GL, a modal logic describing possible interactions among participants in a choreography. We illustrate its use by giving examples of properties on service specifications. Finally, we show that, despite GL is undecidable, there is a significant decidable fragment which we provide with a sound and complete proof system for checking validity of formulae.

  6. Introduction to mathematical logic

    Mendelson, Elliott

    2015-01-01

    The new edition of this classic textbook, Introduction to Mathematical Logic, Sixth Edition explores the principal topics of mathematical logic. It covers propositional logic, first-order logic, first-order number theory, axiomatic set theory, and the theory of computability. The text also discusses the major results of Gödel, Church, Kleene, Rosser, and Turing.The sixth edition incorporates recent work on Gödel's second incompleteness theorem as well as restoring an appendix on consistency proofs for first-order arithmetic. This appendix last appeared in the first edition. It is offered in th

  7. The logical foundations of scientific theories languages, structures, and models

    Krause, Decio

    2016-01-01

    This book addresses the logical aspects of the foundations of scientific theories. Even though the relevance of formal methods in the study of scientific theories is now widely recognized and regaining prominence, the issues covered here are still not generally discussed in philosophy of science. The authors focus mainly on the role played by the underlying formal apparatuses employed in the construction of the models of scientific theories, relating the discussion with the so-called semantic approach to scientific theories. The book describes the role played by this metamathematical framework in three main aspects: considerations of formal languages employed to axiomatize scientific theories, the role of the axiomatic method itself, and the way set-theoretical structures, which play the role of the models of theories, are developed. The authors also discuss the differences and philosophical relevance of the two basic ways of aximoatizing a scientific theory, namely Patrick Suppes’ set theoretical predicate...

  8. Understanding Social Media Logic

    José van Dijck

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, social media platforms have penetrated deeply into the mech­anics of everyday life, affecting people's informal interactions, as well as institutional structures and professional routines. Far from being neutral platforms for everyone, social media have changed the conditions and rules of social interaction. In this article, we examine the intricate dynamic between social media platforms, mass media, users, and social institutions by calling attention to social media logic—the norms, strategies, mechanisms, and economies—underpin­ning its dynamics. This logic will be considered in light of what has been identified as mass me­dia logic, which has helped spread the media's powerful discourse outside its institutional boundaries. Theorizing social media logic, we identify four grounding principles—programmabil­ity, popularity, connectivity, and datafication—and argue that these principles become increas­ingly entangled with mass media logic. The logic of social media, rooted in these grounding principles and strategies, is gradually invading all areas of public life. Besides print news and broadcasting, it also affects law and order, social activism, politics, and so forth. Therefore, its sustaining logic and widespread dissemination deserve to be scrutinized in detail in order to better understand its impact in various domains. Concentrating on the tactics and strategies at work in social media logic, we reassess the constellation of power relationships in which social practices unfold, raising questions such as: How does social media logic modify or enhance ex­isting mass media logic? And how is this new media logic exported beyond the boundaries of (social or mass media proper? The underlying principles, tactics, and strategies may be relat­ively simple to identify, but it is much harder to map the complex connections between plat­forms that distribute this logic: users that employ them, technologies that

  9. Weakly Intuitionistic Quantum Logic

    Hermens, Ronnie

    2013-01-01

    In this article von Neumann's proposal that in quantum mechanics projections can be seen as propositions is followed. However, the quantum logic derived by Birkhoff and von Neumann is rejected due to the failure of the law of distributivity. The options for constructing a distributive logic while

  10. Modal Logics and Definability

    Kuusisto, Antti

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, research into the mathematical foundations of modal logic has become increasingly popular. One of the main reasons for this is the fact that modal logic seems to adapt well to the requirements of a wide range of different fields of application. This paper is a summary of some of the author’s contributions to the understanding of modal definability theory.

  11. Modal logics are coalgebraic

    Cirstea, C.; Kurz, A.; Pattinson, D.; Schröder, L.; Venema, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Applications of modal logics are abundant in computer science, and a large number of structurally different modal logics have been successfully employed in a diverse spectrum of application contexts. Coalgebraic semantics, on the other hand, provides a uniform and encompassing view on the large

  12. Description logics of context

    Klarman, S

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We introduce Description Logics of Context (DLCs) - an extension of Description Logics (DLs) for context-based reasoning. Our approach descends from J. McCarthy's tradition of treating contexts as formal objects over which one can quantify...

  13. Criteria for logical formalization

    Peregrin, Jaroslav; Svoboda, Vladimír

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 190, č. 14 (2013), s. 2897-2924 ISSN 0039-7857 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP401/10/1279 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : logic * logical form * formalization * reflective equilibrium Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion Impact factor: 0.637, year: 2013

  14. Automata, Logic, and XML

    NEVEN, Frank

    2002-01-01

    We survey some recent developments in the broad area of automata and logic which are motivated by the advent of XML. In particular, we consider unranked tree automata, tree-walking automata, and automata over infinite alphabets. We focus on their connection with logic and on questions imposed by XML.

  15. One reason, several logics

    Evandro Agazzi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Humans have used arguments for defending or refuting statements long before the creation of logic as a specialized discipline. This can be interpreted as the fact that an intuitive notion of "logical consequence" or a psychic disposition to articulate reasoning according to this pattern is present in common sense, and logic simply aims at describing and codifying the features of this spontaneous capacity of human reason. It is well known, however, that several arguments easily accepted by common sense are actually "logical fallacies", and this indicates that logic is not just a descriptive, but also a prescriptive or normative enterprise, in which the notion of logical consequence is defined in a precise way and then certain rules are established in order to maintain the discourse in keeping with this notion. Yet in the justification of the correctness and adequacy of these rules commonsense reasoning must necessarily be used, and in such a way its foundational role is recognized. Moreover, it remains also true that several branches and forms of logic have been elaborated precisely in order to reflect the structural features of correct argument used in different fields of human reasoning and yet insufficiently mirrored by the most familiar logical formalisms.

  16. The logic of ACP

    A. Ponse (Alban); M.B. van der Zwaag

    2002-01-01

    textabstractWe distinguish two interpretations for the truth value `undefined' in Kleene's three-valued logic. Combining these two interpretations leads to a four-valued propositional logic that characterizes two particular ingredients of process algebra: ``choice' and ``inaction'. We study two

  17. Anselm's logic of agency

    Uckelman, S.L.

    2009-01-01

    The origins of treating agency as a modal concept go back at least to the 11th century when Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury, provided a modal explication of the Latin facere ‘to do’, which can be formalized within the context of modern modal logic and neighborhood semantics. The agentive logic

  18. Temporalized Epistemic Default Logic

    van der Hoek, W.; Meyer, J.J.; Treur, J.; Gabbay, D.

    2001-01-01

    The nonmonotonic logic Epistemic Default Logic (EDL) [Meyer and van der Hoek, 1993] is based on the metaphore of a meta-level architecture. It has already been established [Meyer and van der Hoek, 1993] how upward reflection can be formalized by a nonmonotonic entailment based on epistemic states,

  19. Logic Programming: PROLOG.

    Lopez, Antonio M., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Provides background material on logic programing and presents PROLOG as a high-level artificial intelligence programing language that borrows its basic constructs from logic. Suggests the language is one which will help the educator to achieve various goals, particularly the promotion of problem solving ability. (MVL)

  20. Honesty in partial logic

    W. van der Hoek (Wiebe); J.O.M. Jaspars; E. Thijsse

    1995-01-01

    textabstractWe propose an epistemic logic in which knowledge is fully introspective and implies truth, although truth need not imply epistemic possibility. The logic is presented in sequential format and is interpreted in a natural class of partial models, called balloon models. We examine the

  1. Amplifying genetic logic gates.

    Bonnet, Jerome; Yin, Peter; Ortiz, Monica E; Subsoontorn, Pakpoom; Endy, Drew

    2013-05-03

    Organisms must process information encoded via developmental and environmental signals to survive and reproduce. Researchers have also engineered synthetic genetic logic to realize simpler, independent control of biological processes. We developed a three-terminal device architecture, termed the transcriptor, that uses bacteriophage serine integrases to control the flow of RNA polymerase along DNA. Integrase-mediated inversion or deletion of DNA encoding transcription terminators or a promoter modulates transcription rates. We realized permanent amplifying AND, NAND, OR, XOR, NOR, and XNOR gates actuated across common control signal ranges and sequential logic supporting autonomous cell-cell communication of DNA encoding distinct logic-gate states. The single-layer digital logic architecture developed here enables engineering of amplifying logic gates to control transcription rates within and across diverse organisms.

  2. Heterogeneous logics of competition

    Mossin, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    of competition are only realized as particular forms of social organization by virtue of interplaying with other kinds of logics, like legal logics. (2) Competition logics enjoy a peculiar status in-between constructedness and givenness; although competition depends on laws and mechanisms of socialization, we...... still experience competition as an expression of spontaneous human activities. On the basis of these perspectives, a study of fundamental rights of EU law, springing from the principle of ‘free movement of people’, is conducted. The first part of the empirical analysis seeks to detect the presence...... of a presumed logic of competition within EU law, whereas the second part focuses on particular legal logics. In this respect, the so-called ‘real link criterion’ (determining the access to transnational social rights for certain groups of unemployed people) is given special attention. What is particularly...

  3. Le silenciement urbain, ou le silence du ciment. Lire Moi non de Patrick Goujon The Silence of Cement, or Reading Patrick Goujon’s Moi non

    Claudia Bouliane

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Au cours des dernières années, plusieurs romanciers français ont tenté de dépeindre les habitus et les formes de socialisation des jeunes des banlieues. La présente étude porte sur les représentations de l’espace périurbain dans le roman Moi non de Patrick Goujon, œuvre exemplaire de la volonté de donner une valeur symbolique à la vie de ces jeunes. Le roman se présente comme une réévaluation critique des clichés généralement accolés à la banlieue. Pourtant, Moi non propose une lecture ambiguë des alternatives de mobilité sociale offertes aux jeunes des banlieues et des formes de sociabilité qui leur sont propres ; sans les condamner à l’avance, Goujon montre qu’elles tendent à reproduire le schéma tracé par la doxa.Several French novelists have attempted in recent years to portray inner-city youths’ habits and forms of socialization. This study focuses on the representations of inner-city space in Patrick Goujon’s novel Moi non, a novel that epitomizes the desire to give symbolic value to the lives of inner-city youths. The novel presents itself as a critical reassessment of the stereotypes usually associated with inner cities. However, Moi non proposes an ambiguous reading of the forms both of social mobility offered inner-city youths and of their socialization. Without condemning them beforehand, Goujon shows they tend to reproduce the pattern traced by the doxa.

  4. Instantons in Self-Organizing Logic Gates

    Bearden, Sean R. B.; Manukian, Haik; Traversa, Fabio L.; Di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2018-03-01

    Self-organizing logic is a recently suggested framework that allows the solution of Boolean truth tables "in reverse"; i.e., it is able to satisfy the logical proposition of gates regardless to which terminal(s) the truth value is assigned ("terminal-agnostic logic"). It can be realized if time nonlocality (memory) is present. A practical realization of self-organizing logic gates (SOLGs) can be done by combining circuit elements with and without memory. By employing one such realization, we show, numerically, that SOLGs exploit elementary instantons to reach equilibrium points. Instantons are classical trajectories of the nonlinear equations of motion describing SOLGs and connect topologically distinct critical points in the phase space. By linear analysis at those points, we show that these instantons connect the initial critical point of the dynamics, with at least one unstable direction, directly to the final fixed point. We also show that the memory content of these gates affects only the relaxation time to reach the logically consistent solution. Finally, we demonstrate, by solving the corresponding stochastic differential equations, that, since instantons connect critical points, noise and perturbations may change the instanton trajectory in the phase space but not the initial and final critical points. Therefore, even for extremely large noise levels, the gates self-organize to the correct solution. Our work provides a physical understanding of, and can serve as an inspiration for, models of bidirectional logic gates that are emerging as important tools in physics-inspired, unconventional computing.

  5. Relativistic quantum logic

    Mittelstaedt, P.

    1983-01-01

    on the basis of the well-known quantum logic and quantum probability a formal language of relativistic quantum physics is developed. This language incorporates quantum logical as well as relativistic restrictions. It is shown that relativity imposes serious restrictions on the validity regions of propositions in space-time. By an additional postulate this relativistic quantum logic can be made consistent. The results of this paper are derived exclusively within the formal quantum language; they are, however, in accordance with well-known facts of relativistic quantum physics in Hilbert space. (author)

  6. Logical inference and evaluation

    Perey, F.G.

    1981-01-01

    Most methodologies of evaluation currently used are based upon the theory of statistical inference. It is generally perceived that this theory is not capable of dealing satisfactorily with what are called systematic errors. Theories of logical inference should be capable of treating all of the information available, including that not involving frequency data. A theory of logical inference is presented as an extension of deductive logic via the concept of plausibility and the application of group theory. Some conclusions, based upon the application of this theory to evaluation of data, are also given

  7. Layered Fixed Point Logic

    Filipiuk, Piotr; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2012-01-01

    We present a logic for the specification of static analysis problems that goes beyond the logics traditionally used. Its most prominent feature is the direct support for both inductive computations of behaviors as well as co-inductive specifications of properties. Two main theoretical contributions...... are a Moore Family result and a parametrized worst case time complexity result. We show that the logic and the associated solver can be used for rapid prototyping of analyses and illustrate a wide variety of applications within Static Analysis, Constraint Satisfaction Problems and Model Checking. In all cases...

  8. Integration of the geological/engineering model with production performance for Patrick Draw Field, Wyoming

    Jackson, S.

    1993-03-01

    The NIPER Reservoir Assessment and Characterization Research Program incorporates elements of the near-term, mid-term and long-term objectives of the National Energy Strategy-Advanced Oil Recovery Program. The interdisciplinary NIPER team focuses on barrier island reservoirs, a high priority class of reservoirs, that contains large amounts of remaining oil in place located in mature fields with a high number of shut-in and abandoned wells. The project objectives are to: (1) identify heterogeneities that influence the movement and trapping of reservoir fluids in two examples of shoreline barrier reservoirs (Patrick Draw Field, WY and Bell Creek Field, MT); (2) develop geological and engineering reservoir characterization methods to quantify reservoir architecture and predict mobile oil saturation distribution for application of targeted infill drilling and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes; and (3) summarize reservoir and production characteristics of shoreline barrier reservoirs to determine similarities and differences. The major findings of the research include: (1) hydrogeochemical analytical techniques were demonstrated to be an inexpensive reservoir characterization tool that provides information on reservoir architecture and compartmentalization; (2) the formation water salinity in Patrick Draw Field varies widely across the field and can result in a 5 to 12% error in saturation values calculated from wireline logs if the salinity variations and corresponding resistivity values are not accounted for; and (3) an analysis of the enhanced oil recovery (EOR) potential of Patrick Draw Field indicates that CO[sub 2] flooding in the Monell Unit and horizontal drilling in the Arch Unit are potential methods to recover additional oil from the field.

  9. Integration of the geological/engineering model with production performance for Patrick Draw Field, Wyoming

    Jackson, S.

    1993-03-01

    The NIPER Reservoir Assessment and Characterization Research Program incorporates elements of the near-term, mid-term and long-term objectives of the National Energy Strategy-Advanced Oil Recovery Program. The interdisciplinary NIPER team focuses on barrier island reservoirs, a high priority class of reservoirs, that contains large amounts of remaining oil in place located in mature fields with a high number of shut-in and abandoned wells. The project objectives are to: (1) identify heterogeneities that influence the movement and trapping of reservoir fluids in two examples of shoreline barrier reservoirs (Patrick Draw Field, WY and Bell Creek Field, MT); (2) develop geological and engineering reservoir characterization methods to quantify reservoir architecture and predict mobile oil saturation distribution for application of targeted infill drilling and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes; and (3) summarize reservoir and production characteristics of shoreline barrier reservoirs to determine similarities and differences. The major findings of the research include: (1) hydrogeochemical analytical techniques were demonstrated to be an inexpensive reservoir characterization tool that provides information on reservoir architecture and compartmentalization; (2) the formation water salinity in Patrick Draw Field varies widely across the field and can result in a 5 to 12% error in saturation values calculated from wireline logs if the salinity variations and corresponding resistivity values are not accounted for; and (3) an analysis of the enhanced oil recovery (EOR) potential of Patrick Draw Field indicates that CO{sub 2} flooding in the Monell Unit and horizontal drilling in the Arch Unit are potential methods to recover additional oil from the field.

  10. Linear contextual modal type theory

    Schack-Nielsen, Anders; Schürmann, Carsten

    Abstract. When one implements a logical framework based on linear type theory, for example the Celf system [?], one is immediately con- fronted with questions about their equational theory and how to deal with logic variables. In this paper, we propose linear contextual modal type theory that gives...... a mathematical account of the nature of logic variables. Our type theory is conservative over intuitionistic contextual modal type theory proposed by Nanevski, Pfenning, and Pientka. Our main contributions include a mechanically checked proof of soundness and a working implementation....

  11. Patrick Hamilton’s Hangover Square and the Landscapes of Fascism

    Simon GOULDING

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available If Patrick Hamilton’s name is recognised at all these days, then it is for his stage thrillers Rope (1929 and Gaslight (1938. Still played in repertory, these may be his best-known works but are hardly typical of his output. Hamilton had been a published writer since his early twenties and Hangover Square (1941 was his eighth novel. Like the preceding novels, it covers much of the same thematic and topographic territory. It is a world of boarding houses in unfashionable parts of London, pu...

  12. Linearly Refined Session Types

    Pedro Baltazar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Session types capture precise protocol structure in concurrent programming, but do not specify properties of the exchanged values beyond their basic type. Refinement types are a form of dependent types that can address this limitation, combining types with logical formulae that may refer to program values and can constrain types using arbitrary predicates. We present a pi calculus with assume and assert operations, typed using a session discipline that incorporates refinement formulae written in a fragment of Multiplicative Linear Logic. Our original combination of session and refinement types, together with the well established benefits of linearity, allows very fine-grained specifications of communication protocols in which refinement formulae are treated as logical resources rather than persistent truths.

  13. Advances in temporal logic

    Fisher, Michael; Gabbay, Dov; Gough, Graham

    2000-01-01

    Time is a fascinating subject that has captured mankind's imagination from ancient times to the present. It has been, and continues to be studied across a wide range of disciplines, from the natural sciences to philosophy and logic. More than two decades ago, Pnueli in a seminal work showed the value of temporal logic in the specification and verification of computer programs. Today, a strong, vibrant international research community exists in the broad community of computer science and AI. This volume presents a number of articles from leading researchers containing state-of-the-art results in such areas as pure temporal/modal logic, specification and verification, temporal databases, temporal aspects in AI, tense and aspect in natural language, and temporal theorem proving. Earlier versions of some of the articles were given at the most recent International Conference on Temporal Logic, University of Manchester, UK. Readership: Any student of the area - postgraduate, postdoctoral or even research professor ...

  14. Logic and Learning

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella; Gierasimczuk, Nina; de Jong, Dick

    2014-01-01

    Learning and learnability have been long standing topics of interests within the linguistic, computational, and epistemological accounts of inductive in- ference. Johan van Benthem’s vision of the “dynamic turn” has not only brought renewed life to research agendas in logic as the study of inform......Learning and learnability have been long standing topics of interests within the linguistic, computational, and epistemological accounts of inductive in- ference. Johan van Benthem’s vision of the “dynamic turn” has not only brought renewed life to research agendas in logic as the study...... of information processing, but likewise helped bring logic and learning in close proximity. This proximity relation is examined with respect to learning and belief revision, updating and efficiency, and with respect to how learnability fits in the greater scheme of dynamic epistemic logic and scientific method....

  15. Magnonic logic circuits

    Khitun, Alexander; Bao Mingqiang; Wang, Kang L

    2010-01-01

    We describe and analyse possible approaches to magnonic logic circuits and basic elements required for circuit construction. A distinctive feature of the magnonic circuitry is that information is transmitted by spin waves propagating in the magnetic waveguides without the use of electric current. The latter makes it possible to exploit spin wave phenomena for more efficient data transfer and enhanced logic functionality. We describe possible schemes for general computing and special task data processing. The functional throughput of the magnonic logic gates is estimated and compared with the conventional transistor-based approach. Magnonic logic circuits allow scaling down to the deep submicrometre range and THz frequency operation. The scaling is in favour of the magnonic circuits offering a significant functional advantage over the traditional approach. The disadvantages and problems of the spin wave devices are also discussed.

  16. Characterization of quantum logics

    Lahti, P.J.

    1980-01-01

    The quantum logic approach to axiomatic quantum mechanics is used to analyze the conceptual foundations of the traditional quantum theory. The universal quantum of action h>0 is incorporated into the theory by introducing the uncertainty principle, the complementarity principle, and the superposition principle into the framework. A characterization of those quantum logics (L,S) which may provide quantum descriptions is then given. (author)

  17. A Conceptual Space Logic

    Nilsson, Jørgen Fischer

    1999-01-01

    Conceptual spaces have been proposed as topological or geometric means for establishing conceptual structures and models. This paper, after briey reviewing conceptual spaces, focusses on the relationship between conceptual spaces and logical concept languages with operations for combining concepts...... to form concepts. Speci cally is introduced an algebraic concept logic, for which conceptual spaces are installed as semantic domain as replacement for, or enrichment of, the traditional....

  18. Characteristics of a Circular Logic and Its Treatment

    Lim, Ho-Gon; Han, Sang-Hoon; Yang, Joon Eon

    2007-01-01

    A circular logic or a logical loop is defined as the infinite circulation of supporting relations due to their mutual dependencies among the systems in the Fault Tree Analysis (FTA). While many methods to break the circular logic have been developed and used in the fault tree quantification codes, the general solution for a circular logic and its breaking methods are not generally known as yet. This paper presents an analytic solution for circular logics in which the systems are linearly interrelated with each other. Then, a general treatment of circular logics is discussed. To formulate the analytic solution, the relations among systems in the fault tree structure are described by the Boolean equations. The solution is, then, obtained from the successive substitutions of the Boolean equations, which is equivalent to the attaching processes of interrelated system's fault tree to a given fault tree. The solution for three interrelated systems and their independent fault tree structures are given as an example

  19. Extending Value Logic Thinking to Value Logic Portfolios

    Andersen, Poul Houman; Ritter, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Based on value creation logic theory (Stabell & Fjeldstad, 1998), this paper suggests an extension of the original Stabell & Fjeldstad model by an additional fourth value logic, the value system logic. Furthermore, instead of only allowing one dominant value creation logic for a given firm...... or transaction, an understanding of firms and transactions as a portfolio of value logics (i.e. an interconnected coexistence of different value creation logics) is proposed. These additions to the original value creation logic theory imply interesting avenues for both, strategic decision making in firms...

  20. Towards a Formal Occurrence Logic based on Predicate Logic

    Badie, Farshad; Götzsche, Hans

    2015-01-01

    In this discussion we will concentrate on the main characteristics of an alternative kind of logic invented by Hans Götzsche: Occurrence Logic, which is not based on truth functionality. Our approach is based on temporal logic developed and elaborated by A. N. Prior. We will focus on characterising...... argumentation based on formal Occurrence Logic concerning events and occurrences, and illustrate the relations between Predicate Logic and Occurrence Logic. The relationships (and dependencies) is conducive to an approach that can analyse the occurrences of ”logical statements based on different logical...... principles” in different moments. We will also conclude that the elaborated Götzsche’s Occurrence Logic could be able to direct us to a truth-functional independent computer-based logic for analysing argumentation based on events and occurrences....

  1. Patrick Air Force Base integrated resource assessment. Volume 3, Resource assessment

    Sandusky, W.F.; Parker, S.A.; King, D.A.; Wahlstrom, R.R.; Elliott, D.B.; Shankle, S.A.

    1993-12-01

    The US Air Force has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost effective energy projects at Patrick Air Force Base (AFB). This is part of a model program that PNL is designing to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at Patrick AFB which is located south of Cocoa Beach, Florida. It is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume.2, Baseline Detail. The results of the analyses of EROs are presented in 11 common energy end-use categories. A narrative description of each ERO is provided, including information on the installed cost, energy and dollar savings, impacts on operations and maintenance, and, when applicable, a discussion of energy supply and demand, energy security, and environmental issues. A description of the evaluation methodologies and technical and cost assumptions is also provided for each ERO. Summary tables present the cost-effectiveness of energy end-use equipment before and after the implementation of each ERO and present the results of the life-cycle cost analysis indicating the net present value and value index of each ERO.

  2. It came from outer space wearing an RAF blazer! a fan's biography of Sir Patrick Moore

    Mobberley, Martin

    2013-01-01

    To British television viewers, the name ‘Patrick Moore’ has been synonymous with Astronomy and Space Travel since he first appeared on The Sky at Night in 1957. To amateur astronomers he has been a source of inspiration, joy, humour and even an eccentric role model since that time. Most people know that his 55 years of presenting The Sky at Night is a world record, but what was he really like in person?  What did he do away from the TV cameras, in his observatory, and within the British Astronomical Association, the organisation that inspired him as a youngster? Also, precisely what did he do during the War Years, a subject that has always been shrouded in mystery? Martin Mobberley, a friend of Patrick Moore’s for 30 years, and a former President of the British Astronomical Association, has spent ten years exhaustively researching Patrick’s real life away from the TV cameras. His childhood, RAF service, tireless voluntary work for astronomy and charity and his endless book writing are all examined in...

  3. Modern logic and quantum mechanics

    Garden, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    The book applies the methods of modern logic and probabilities to ''interpreting'' quantum mechanics. The subject is described and discussed under the chapter headings: classical and quantum mechanics, modern logic, the propositional logic of mechanics, states and measurement in mechanics, the traditional analysis of probabilities, the probabilities of mechanics and the model logic of predictions. (U.K.)

  4. Semantic theory for logic programming

    Brown, F M

    1981-01-01

    The author axiomatizes a number of meta theoretic concepts which have been used in logic programming, including: meaning, logical truth, nonentailment, assertion and erasure, thus showing that these concepts are logical in nature and need not be defined as they have previously been defined in terms of the operations of any particular interpreter for logic programs. 10 references.

  5. Relational Parametricity and Separation Logic

    Birkedal, Lars; Yang, Hongseok

    2008-01-01

    Separation logic is a recent extension of Hoare logic for reasoning about programs with references to shared mutable data structures. In this paper, we provide a new interpretation of the logic for a programming language with higher types. Our interpretation is based on Reynolds's relational...... parametricity, and it provides a formal connection between separation logic and data abstraction. Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  6. Rough set classification based on quantum logic

    Hassan, Yasser F.

    2017-11-01

    By combining the advantages of quantum computing and soft computing, the paper shows that rough sets can be used with quantum logic for classification and recognition systems. We suggest the new definition of rough set theory as quantum logic theory. Rough approximations are essential elements in rough set theory, the quantum rough set model for set-valued data directly construct set approximation based on a kind of quantum similarity relation which is presented here. Theoretical analyses demonstrate that the new model for quantum rough sets has new type of decision rule with less redundancy which can be used to give accurate classification using principles of quantum superposition and non-linear quantum relations. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt aiming to define rough sets in representation of a quantum rather than logic or sets. The experiments on data-sets have demonstrated that the proposed model is more accuracy than the traditional rough sets in terms of finding optimal classifications.

  7. Non-logic devices in logic processes

    Ma, Yanjun

    2017-01-01

    This book shows readers how to design semiconductor devices using the most common and lowest cost logic CMOS processes.  Readers will benefit from the author’s extensive, industrial experience and the practical approach he describes for designing efficiently semiconductor devices that typically have to be implemented using specialized processes that are expensive, time-consuming, and low-yield. The author presents an integrated picture of semiconductor device physics and manufacturing techniques, as well as numerous practical examples of device designs that are tried and true.

  8. The dark side of Interval Temporal Logic: sharpening the undecidability border

    Bresolin, Davide; Monica, Dario Della; Goranko, Valentin

    2011-01-01

    on the class of models (in our case, the class of interval structures)in which it is interpreted. In this paper, we have identified several new minimal undecidable logics amongst the fragments of Halpern-Shoham logic HS, including the logic of the overlaps relation, over the classes of all and finite linear...... orders, as well as the logic of the meet and subinterval relations, over the class of dense linear orders. Together with previous undecid ability results, this work contributes to delineate the border of the dark side of interval temporal logics quite sharply....

  9. Modal Logics with Counting

    Areces, Carlos; Hoffmann, Guillaume; Denis, Alexandre

    We present a modal language that includes explicit operators to count the number of elements that a model might include in the extension of a formula, and we discuss how this logic has been previously investigated under different guises. We show that the language is related to graded modalities and to hybrid logics. We illustrate a possible application of the language to the treatment of plural objects and queries in natural language. We investigate the expressive power of this logic via bisimulations, discuss the complexity of its satisfiability problem, define a new reasoning task that retrieves the cardinality bound of the extension of a given input formula, and provide an algorithm to solve it.

  10. Diagnosable structured logic array

    Whitaker, Sterling (Inventor); Miles, Lowell (Inventor); Gambles, Jody (Inventor); Maki, Gary K. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A diagnosable structured logic array and associated process is provided. A base cell structure is provided comprising a logic unit comprising a plurality of input nodes, a plurality of selection nodes, and an output node, a plurality of switches coupled to the selection nodes, where the switches comprises a plurality of input lines, a selection line and an output line, a memory cell coupled to the output node, and a test address bus and a program control bus coupled to the plurality of input lines and the selection line of the plurality of switches. A state on each of the plurality of input nodes is verifiably loaded and read from the memory cell. A trusted memory block is provided. The associated process is provided for testing and verifying a plurality of truth table inputs of the logic unit.

  11. VHDL for logic synthesis

    Rushton, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Many engineers encountering VHDL (very high speed integrated circuits hardware description language) for the first time can feel overwhelmed by it. This book bridges the gap between the VHDL language and the hardware that results from logic synthesis with clear organisation, progressing from the basics of combinational logic, types, and operators; through special structures such as tristate buses, register banks and memories, to advanced themes such as developing your own packages, writing test benches and using the full range of synthesis types. This third edition has been substantially rewritten to include the new VHDL-2008 features that enable synthesis of fixed-point and floating-point hardware. Extensively updated throughout to reflect modern logic synthesis usage, it also contains a complete case study to demonstrate the updated features. Features to this edition include: * a common VHDL subset which will work across a range of different synthesis systems, targeting a very wide range of technologies...

  12. Fuzzy logic in management

    Carlsson, Christer; Fullér, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Fuzzy Logic in Management demonstrates that difficult problems and changes in the management environment can be more easily handled by bringing fuzzy logic into the practice of management. This explicit theme is developed through the book as follows: Chapter 1, "Management and Intelligent Support Technologies", is a short survey of management leadership and what can be gained from support technologies. Chapter 2, "Fuzzy Sets and Fuzzy Logic", provides a short introduction to fuzzy sets, fuzzy relations, the extension principle, fuzzy implications and linguistic variables. Chapter 3, "Group Decision Support Systems", deals with group decision making, and discusses methods for supporting the consensus reaching processes. Chapter 4, "Fuzzy Real Options for Strategic Planning", summarizes research where the fuzzy real options theory was implemented as a series of models. These models were thoroughly tested on a number of real life investments, and validated in 2001. Chapter 5, "Soft Computing Methods for Reducing...

  13. Continuous Markovian Logics

    Mardare, Radu Iulian; Cardelli, Luca; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2012-01-01

    Continuous Markovian Logic (CML) is a multimodal logic that expresses quantitative and qualitative properties of continuous-time labelled Markov processes with arbitrary (analytic) state-spaces, henceforth called continuous Markov processes (CMPs). The modalities of CML evaluate the rates...... of the exponentially distributed random variables that characterize the duration of the labeled transitions of a CMP. In this paper we present weak and strong complete axiomatizations for CML and prove a series of metaproperties, including the finite model property and the construction of canonical models. CML...... characterizes stochastic bisimilarity and it supports the definition of a quantified extension of the satisfiability relation that measures the "compatibility" between a model and a property. In this context, the metaproperties allows us to prove two robustness theorems for the logic stating that one can...

  14. The impacts of the St. Patrick's Day superstorm on selected technologies

    Carter, B. A.; Yizengaw, E.; Lin, C. S.; Pradipta, R.; Norman, R.; Tseng, T.; Bennett, J.; Bishop, R. L.; Weygand, J. M.; Francis, M.; Terkildsen, M. B.; Groves, K. M.; Caton, R. G.; Tripathi, N.; Zhang, K.

    2015-12-01

    In the past, significant research efforts have been directed towards understanding how severe geomagnetic storms affect the near-Earth space environment. From this research, we have learned that many technologies are affected by these severe space weather events. The 2015 St. Patrick's Day geomagnetic storm has provided a great opportunity to analyze three selected space weather phenomena that adversely impact modern technologies; (1) Geomagnetically Induced Currents (GICs), (2) increased thermospheric mass density, and (3) the occurrence of Equatorial Plasma Bubbles (EPBs). The serious effects of GICs on power grids in the high-latitude regions is well known. Recent research has indicated that the equatorial region is also susceptible to increased GIC activity due to the equatorial electrojet. Thus, an examination of the equatorial magnetometer data during the St. Patrick's Day storm will be presented. It is also well understood that during geomagnetic storms, the thermospheric mass density at a given altitude increases due to the increase in Joule heating in the high-latitude regions. As a consequence of this, low-Earth orbiting satellites and space debris experience increased atmospheric drag. Changes in atmospheric drag causes orbits to be perturbed, resulting in less accurate orbit predictions. An investigation of the orbits of several low-Earth orbiting satellites will be presented and discussed in the context of collision avoidance, as part of the ongoing space debris problem. Finally, Equatorial Plasma Bubbles (EPBs) are a common phenomenon in the nighttime low-latitude ionosphere. EPBs are known to cause random fluctuations (i.e., scintillations) in the amplitude and phase of trans-ionospheric radio signals. While EPBs have been reported during both geomagnetically quiet and disturbed periods, research clearly indicates that the occurrence of EPBs is dependent on the geomagnetic activity level. The occurrence of EPBs around the world will be presented

  15. MANUAL LOGIC CONTROLLER (MLC)

    Claude Ziad Bayeh

    2015-01-01

    The “Manual Logic Controller” also called MLC, is an electronic circuit invented and designed by the author in 2008, in order to replace the well known PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) in many applications for its advantages and its low cost of fabrication. The function of the MLC is somewhat similar to the well known PLC, but instead of doing it by inserting a written program into the PLC using a computer or specific software inside the PLC, it will be manually programmed in a manner to h...

  16. Set theory and logic

    Stoll, Robert R

    1979-01-01

    Set Theory and Logic is the result of a course of lectures for advanced undergraduates, developed at Oberlin College for the purpose of introducing students to the conceptual foundations of mathematics. Mathematics, specifically the real number system, is approached as a unity whose operations can be logically ordered through axioms. One of the most complex and essential of modern mathematical innovations, the theory of sets (crucial to quantum mechanics and other sciences), is introduced in a most careful concept manner, aiming for the maximum in clarity and stimulation for further study in

  17. Introduction to mathematical logic

    Mendelson, Elliott

    2009-01-01

    The Propositional CalculusPropositional Connectives. Truth TablesTautologies Adequate Sets of Connectives An Axiom System for the Propositional Calculus Independence. Many-Valued LogicsOther AxiomatizationsFirst-Order Logic and Model TheoryQuantifiersFirst-Order Languages and Their Interpretations. Satisfiability and Truth. ModelsFirst-Order TheoriesProperties of First-Order Theories Additional Metatheorems and Derived Rules Rule C Completeness Theorems First-Order Theories with EqualityDefinitions of New Function Letters and Individual Constants Prenex Normal Forms Isomorphism of Interpretati

  18. The Logic of XACML

    Ramli, Carroline Dewi Puspa Kencana; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    We study the international standard XACML 3.0 for describing security access control policy in a compositional way. Our main contribution is to derive a logic that precisely captures the idea behind the standard and to formally define the semantics of the policy combining algorithms of XACML....... To guard against modelling artefacts we provide an alternative way of characterizing the policy combining algorithms and we formally prove the equivalence of these approaches. This allows us to pinpoint the shortcoming of previous approaches to formalization based either on Belnap logic or on D -algebra....

  19. Digital logic circuit test

    Yun, Gil Jung; Yang, Hong Young

    2011-03-15

    This book is about digital logic circuit test, which lists the digital basic theory, basic gate like and, or And Not gate, NAND/NOR gate such as NAND gate, NOR gate, AND and OR, logic function, EX-OR gate, adder and subtractor, decoder and encoder, multiplexer, demultiplexer, flip-flop, counter such as up/down counter modulus N counter and Reset type counter, shift register, D/A and A/D converter and two supplements list of using components and TTL manual and CMOS manual.

  20. Electronic logic circuits

    Gibson, J

    2013-01-01

    Most branches of organizing utilize digital electronic systems. This book introduces the design of such systems using basic logic elements as the components. The material is presented in a straightforward manner suitable for students of electronic engineering and computer science. The book is also of use to engineers in related disciplines who require a clear introduction to logic circuits. This third edition has been revised to encompass the most recent advances in technology as well as the latest trends in components and notation. It includes a wide coverage of application specific integrate

  1. Logic of the digital

    Evens, Aden

    2015-01-01

    Building a foundational understanding of the digital, Logic of the Digital reveals a unique digital ontology. Beginning from formal and technical characteristics, especially the binary code at the core of all digital technologies, Aden Evens traces the pathways along which the digital domain of abstract logic encounters the material, human world. How does a code using only 0s and 1s give rise to the vast range of applications and information that constitutes a great and growing portion of our world? Evens' analysis shows how any encounter between the actual and the digital must cross an ontolo

  2. Programmable Array Logic Design

    Demon Handoyo; Djen Djen Djainal

    2007-01-01

    Good digital circuit design that part of a complex system, often becoming a separate problem. To produce finishing design according to wanted performance is often given on to considerations which each other confuse, hence thereby analyse optimization become important in this case. To realization is made design logic program, the first are determined global diagram block, then are decided contents of these block diagram, and then determined its interconnection in the form of logic expression, continued with election of component. These steps are done to be obtained the design with low price, easy in its interconnection, minimal volume, low power and certainty god work. (author)

  3. Education as an Agent of Social Evolution: The Educational Projects of Patrick Geddes in Late-Victorian Scotland

    Sutherland, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the educational projects of Patrick Geddes in late-Victorian Scotland. Initially a natural scientist, Geddes drew on an eclectic mix of social theory to develop his own ideas on social evolution. For him education was a vital agent of social change which, he believed, had the potential to develop active citizens whose…

  4. Quantum logics with existence property

    Schindler, C.

    1991-01-01

    A quantum logic (σ-orthocomplete orthomodular poset L with a convex, unital, and separating set Δ of states) is said to have the existence property if the expectation functionals on lin(Δ) associated with the bounded observables of L form a vector space. Classical quantum logics as well as the Hilbert space logics of traditional quantum mechanics have this property. The author shows that, if a quantum logic satisfies certain conditions in addition to having property E, then the number of its blocks (maximal classical subsystems) must either be one (classical logics) or uncountable (as in Hilbert space logics)

  5. GOAL Agents Instantiate Intention Logic

    Hindriks, Koen; van der Hoek, Wiebe

    2008-01-01

    It is commonly believed there is a big gap between agent logics and computational agent frameworks. In this paper, we show that this gap is not as big as believed by showing that GOAL agents instantiate Intention Logic of Cohen and Levesque. That is, we show that GOAL agent programs can be formally related to Intention Logic.We do so by proving that the GOAL Verification Logic can be embedded into Intention Logic. It follows that (a fragment of) Intention Logic can be used t...

  6. Querying Natural Logic Knowledge Bases

    Andreasen, Troels; Bulskov, Henrik; Jensen, Per Anker

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the principles of a system applying natural logic as a knowledge base language. Natural logics are regimented fragments of natural language employing high level inference rules. We advocate the use of natural logic for knowledge bases dealing with querying of classes...... in ontologies and class-relationships such as are common in life-science descriptions. The paper adopts a version of natural logic with recursive restrictive clauses such as relative clauses and adnominal prepositional phrases. It includes passive as well as active voice sentences. We outline a prototype...... for partial translation of natural language into natural logic, featuring further querying and conceptual path finding in natural logic knowledge bases....

  7. Linearity in Process Languages

    Nygaard, Mikkel; Winskel, Glynn

    2002-01-01

    The meaning and mathematical consequences of linearity (managing without a presumed ability to copy) are studied for a path-based model of processes which is also a model of affine-linear logic. This connection yields an affine-linear language for processes, automatically respecting open......-map bisimulation, in which a range of process operations can be expressed. An operational semantics is provided for the tensor fragment of the language. Different ways to make assemblies of processes lead to different choices of exponential, some of which respect bisimulation....

  8. Patrick Saurin, Teocuicatl. Chants sacrés des anciens Mexicains

    Gruzinski, Serge

    2007-01-01

    Patrick Saurin s’est penché sur l’un des nombreux manuscrits laissés par le franciscain Bernardino de Sahagùn : les teocuicatl, ces hymnes sacrés composés en l’honneur des anciens dieux mexicains. Vraisemblablement d’origine mexica, ces chants ont été rassemblés à Tepepulco vers 1560. S’agit- il de textes archaïques comme la critique s’est accordée à le penser ? L’auteur propose d’y voir, au moins pour partie d’entre eux, des hymnes portant la « marque d’une réécriture, voire d’une écriture r...

  9. The Brain Dead Patient Is Still Sentient: A Further Reply to Patrick Lee and Germain Grisez.

    Austriaco, Nicanor Pier Giorgio

    2016-06-01

    Patrick Lee and Germain Grisez have argued that the total brain dead patient is still dead because the integrated entity that remains is not even an animal, not only because he is not sentient but also, and more importantly, because he has lost the radical capacity for sentience. In this essay, written from within and as a contribution to the Catholic philosophical tradition, I respond to Lee and Grisez's argument by proposing that the brain dead patient is still sentient because an animal with an intact but severed spinal cord can still perceive and respond to external stimuli. The brain dead patient is an unconscious sentient organism. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. The practice of Spencerian science: Patrick Geddes's Biosocial Program, 1876-1889.

    Renwick, Chris

    2009-03-01

    From the Victorian era to our own, critics of Herbert Spencer have portrayed his science-based philosophical system as irrelevant to the concerns of practicing scientists. Yet, as a number of scholars have recently argued, an extraordinary range of reformist and experimental projects across the human and life sciences took their bearings from Spencer's work. This essay examines Spencerian science as practiced by the biologist, sociologist, and town planner Patrick Geddes (1854-1932). Through a close examination of his experimental natural history of the late 1870s and early 1880s, his wider writings on the evolutionary process in the 1880s, and his efforts later in that decade to improve the slums of Edinburgh, this essay reveals Geddes's deep, unifying, and energizing commitment to Spencer's program. Recapturing that commitment can not only help historians rethink Spencerian science as practice but also suggest ways of overcoming the dichotomy between elite ideas and practical activity that bedevils much contemporary historiography of science.

  11. Patrick Vinton Kirch & Robert C. Green, Hawaiki, Ancestral Polynesia. An Essay in Historical Anthropology

    Di Piazza, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Hawaiki, la patrie des ancêtres chantée par les Polynésiens, le lieu de rassemblement des âmes des morts, est aussi la terre mythique des archéologues. C’est bien celle-ci que ces derniers s’efforcent de localiser dans le temps et dans l’espace. Si l’on en croit Patrick Vinton Kirch et Roger Green, la culture ancestrale polynésienne s’est développée dans les archipels de Tonga et Samoa (avec leurs voisins immédiats) au cours du Ier millénaire avant J.-C. Les auteurs ne s’arrêtent pas à ce con...

  12. A lesson for the future of our science my testimony on Lord Patrick M S Blackett

    Zichichi, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    This unique volume contains a tribute to Lord Patrick M S Blackett through the testimony of Professor Antonino Zichichi, who was one of Blackett's pupils in the experiment at the Sphinx Observatory, Europe's highest lab (3580 meters a.s.l.), at Jungfraujoch. The book presents an overview of Blackett's most significant discoveries, such as the so called "vacuum polarization" effect, the first example of "virtual physics" and the "strange particles", that opened a new horizon towards the existence of the subnuclear universe. After discussing the profound implications of Blackett's pioneering contributions to Subnuclear Physics, the book also recalls his deep interest in the promotion of scientific culture. Blackett was firmly convinced that physicists must be engaged directly to let the people outside our labs know what the role of science is in the progress of our civilisation. In particular, according to Blackett and his friend Bertrand Russell, the Manhattan Project was the example of how the new frontiers o...

  13. Some relationships between logic programming and multiple-valued logic

    Rine, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    There have been suggestions in the artificial intelligence literature that investigations into relationships between logic programming and multiple-valued logic may be helpful. This paper presents some of these relationships through equivalent algebraic evaluations

  14. The logic of XACML

    Ramli, Carroline Dewi Puspa Kencana; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    We study the international standard XACML 3.0 for describing security access control policies in a compositional way. Our main contributions are (i) to derive a logic that precisely captures the intentions of the standard, (ii) to formally define a semantics for the XACML 3.0 component evaluation...

  15. The Logic of XACML

    Ramli, Carroline Dewi Puspa Kencana; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    We study the international standard XACML 3.0 for describing security access control policy in a compositional way. Our main contribution is to derive a logic that precisely captures the idea behind the standard and to formally define the semantics of the policy combining algorithms of XACML...

  16. Categories and logical syntax

    Klev, Ansten Morch

    2014-01-01

    The notions of category and type are here studied through the lens of logical syntax: Aristotle's as well as Kant's categories through the traditional form of proposition `S is P', and modern doctrines of type through the Fregean form of proposition `F(a)', function applied to argument. Topics

  17. Structures for Epistemic Logic

    Bezhanishvili, N.; Hoek, W. van der

    2013-01-01

    Epistemic modal logic in a narrow sense studies and formalises reasoning about knowledge. In a wider sense, it gives a formal account of the informational attitude that agents may have, and covers notions like knowledge, belief, uncertainty, and hence incomplete or partial information. As is so

  18. Time and Logic

    Øhrstrøm, Peter

    2009-01-01

    's notion of branching time is analysed. It is argued that Prior can be criticized for identifying 'plain future'. Finally, Prior's four grades of tense-logical involvement are introduced and discussed. It is argued that the third grade is the most attractive form a philosophical point of view....

  19. Expressivist Perspective on Logicality

    Arazim, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 4 (2017), s. 409-419 ISSN 1661-8297 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-15645S Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : logical constant * expressivism * topic-neutrality * proof- theory * conservativity Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion OBOR OECD: Philosophy, History and Philosophy of science and technology

  20. Fictional Separation Logic

    Jensen, Jonas Buhrkal; Birkedal, Lars

    2012-01-01

    , separation means physical separation. In this paper, we introduce \\emph{fictional separation logic}, which includes more general forms of fictional separating conjunctions P * Q, where "*" does not require physical separation, but may also be used in situations where the memory resources described by P and Q...

  1. Dedekind’s logicism

    Klev, Ansten

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 3 (2017), s. 341-368 ISSN 0031-8019 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Philosophy of mathematics * logicism * Richard Dedekind Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion OBOR OECD: Philosophy, History and Philosophy of science and technology Impact factor: 0.419, year: 2016

  2. Modular Logic Metaprogramming

    Klose, Karl; Ostermann, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    In logic metaprogramming, programs are not stored as plain textfiles but rather derived from a deductive database. While the benefits of this approach for metaprogramming are obvious, its incompatibility with separate checking limits its applicability to large-scale projects. We analyze the probl...

  3. LOGICAL SEMANTICS OF MODULARIZATION

    DELAVALETTE, GRR

    1992-01-01

    An algebra of theories, signatures, renamings and the operations import and export is investigated. A normal form theorem for terms of this algebra is proved. Another algebraic approach and the relation with a fragment of second order logic are also considered.

  4. Duration Calculus: Logical Foundations

    Hansen, Michael Reichhardt; Chaochen, Zhou

    1997-01-01

    The Duration Calculus (abbreviated DC) represents a logical approach to formal design of real-time systems, where real numbers are used to model time and Boolean valued functions over time are used to model states and events of real-time systems. Since it introduction, DC has been applied to many...

  5. Logicism, intuitionism, and formalism

    Symons, John

    2008-01-01

    Aims to review the programmes in the foundations of mathematics from the classical period and to assess their possible relevance for contemporary philosophy of mathematics. This work is suitable for researchers and graduate students of philosophy, logic, mathematics and theoretical computer science.

  6. Foundations of mathematical logic

    Curry, Haskell B

    2010-01-01

    Written by a pioneer of mathematical logic, this comprehensive graduate-level text explores the constructive theory of first-order predicate calculus. It covers formal methods, including algorithms and epitheory, and offers a brief treatment of Markov's approach to algorithms, explains elementary facts about lattices and similar algebraic systems, and more. 1963 edition.

  7. Logically Incorrect Arguments

    Svoboda, Vladimír; Peregrin, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 3 (2016), s. 263-287 ISSN 0920-427X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-21076S Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : argumentation * logical form * incorrect argument * correct arguments Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion Impact factor: 0.689, year: 2016

  8. Short-circuit logic

    Bergstra, J.A.; Ponse, A.

    2010-01-01

    Short-circuit evaluation denotes the semantics of propositional connectives in which the second argument is only evaluated if the first argument does not suffice to determine the value of the expression. In programming, short-circuit evaluation is widely used. A short-circuit logic is a variant of

  9. Temporal logic motion planning

    Seotsanyana, M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a critical review on temporal logic motion planning is presented. The review paper aims to address the following problems: (a) In a realistic situation, the motion planning problem is carried out in real-time, in a dynamic, uncertain...

  10. Logic Programming for Linguistics

    Christiansen, Henning

    2010-01-01

    This article gives a short introduction on how to get started with logic pro- gramming in Prolog that does not require any previous programming expe- rience. The presentation is aimed at students of linguistics, but it does not go deeper into linguistics than any student who has some ideas of what...

  11. Logic and Natural selection

    Peregrin, Jaroslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 2 (2010), s. 207-223 ISSN 1661-8297 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP401/10/1279 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z9009908 Keywords : logic * natural selection * modus potens * inferentialism Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  12. Quantum probabilistic logic programming

    Balu, Radhakrishnan

    2015-05-01

    We describe a quantum mechanics based logic programming language that supports Horn clauses, random variables, and covariance matrices to express and solve problems in probabilistic logic. The Horn clauses of the language wrap random variables, including infinite valued, to express probability distributions and statistical correlations, a powerful feature to capture relationship between distributions that are not independent. The expressive power of the language is based on a mechanism to implement statistical ensembles and to solve the underlying SAT instances using quantum mechanical machinery. We exploit the fact that classical random variables have quantum decompositions to build the Horn clauses. We establish the semantics of the language in a rigorous fashion by considering an existing probabilistic logic language called PRISM with classical probability measures defined on the Herbrand base and extending it to the quantum context. In the classical case H-interpretations form the sample space and probability measures defined on them lead to consistent definition of probabilities for well formed formulae. In the quantum counterpart, we define probability amplitudes on Hinterpretations facilitating the model generations and verifications via quantum mechanical superpositions and entanglements. We cast the well formed formulae of the language as quantum mechanical observables thus providing an elegant interpretation for their probabilities. We discuss several examples to combine statistical ensembles and predicates of first order logic to reason with situations involving uncertainty.

  13. Temporalizing Epistemic Default Logic

    van der Hoek, Wiebe; Meyer, John Jules; Treur, Jan

    1998-01-01

    We present an epistemic default logic, based on the metaphore of a meta-level architecture. Upward reflection is formalized by a nonmonotonic entailment relation, based on the objective facts that are either known or unknown at the object level. Then, the meta (monotonic) reasoning process generates

  14. Logic Programming with Requests

    De Schreye, Danny; Etalle, Sandro; van Raamsdonk, Femke

    1999-01-01

    We propose an extension of logic programming where the user can specify, together with the initial query, the information he is interested in by means of a request. This allows one to extract a result from an incomplete computation, such as the prefix of an infinite derivation. The classical

  15. Logical Characterisation of Ontology Construction using Fuzzy Description Logics

    Badie, Farshad; Götzsche, Hans

    had the extension of ontologies with Fuzzy Logic capabilities which plan to make proper backgrounds for ontology driven reasoning and argumentation on vague and imprecise domains. This presentation conceptualises learning from fuzzy classes using the Inductive Logic Programming framework. Then......, employs Description Logics in characterising and analysing fuzzy statements. And finally, provides a conceptual framework describing fuzzy concept learning in ontologies using the Inductive Logic Programming....

  16. Greek, Indian and Arabic logic

    Gabbay, Dov M

    2004-01-01

    Greek, Indian and Arabic Logic marks the initial appearance of the multi-volume Handbook of the History of Logic. Additional volumes will be published when ready, rather than in strict chronological order. Soon to appear are The Rise of Modern Logic: From Leibniz to Frege. Also in preparation are Logic From Russell to Gödel, Logic and the Modalities in the Twentieth Century, and The Many-Valued and Non-Monotonic Turn in Logic. Further volumes will follow, including Mediaeval and Renaissance Logic and Logic: A History of its Central. In designing the Handbook of the History of Logic, the Editors have taken the view that the history of logic holds more than an antiquarian interest, and that a knowledge of logic's rich and sophisticated development is, in various respects, relevant to the research programmes of the present day. Ancient logic is no exception. The present volume attests to the distant origins of some of modern logic's most important features, such as can be found in the claim by the authors of t...

  17. Radiation tolerant combinational logic cell

    Maki, Gary R. (Inventor); Gambles, Jody W. (Inventor); Whitaker, Sterling (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A system has a reduced sensitivity to Single Event Upset and/or Single Event Transient(s) compared to traditional logic devices. In a particular embodiment, the system includes an input, a logic block, a bias stage, a state machine, and an output. The logic block is coupled to the input. The logic block is for implementing a logic function, receiving a data set via the input, and generating a result f by applying the data set to the logic function. The bias stage is coupled to the logic block. The bias stage is for receiving the result from the logic block and presenting it to the state machine. The state machine is coupled to the bias stage. The state machine is for receiving, via the bias stage, the result generated by the logic block. The state machine is configured to retain a state value for the system. The state value is typically based on the result generated by the logic block. The output is coupled to the state machine. The output is for providing the value stored by the state machine. Some embodiments of the invention produce dual rail outputs Q and Q'. The logic block typically contains combinational logic and is similar, in size and transistor configuration, to a conventional CMOS combinational logic design. However, only a very small portion of the circuits of these embodiments, is sensitive to Single Event Upset and/or Single Event Transients.

  18. A Single MEMS Resonator for Reconfigurable Multifunctional Logic Gates

    Tella, Sherif Adekunle

    2018-04-30

    Despite recent efforts toward true electromechanical resonator-based computing, achieving complex logics functions through cascading micro resonators has been deterred by challenges involved in their interconnections and the large required array of resonators. In this work we present a single micro electromechanical resonator with two outputs that enables the realization of multifunctional logic gates as well as other complex logic operations. As examples, we demonstrate the realization of the fundamental 2-bit logic gates of OR, XOR, AND, NOR, and a half adder. The device is based on a compound resonator consisting of a clamped-guided electrostatically actuated arch beam that is attached to another resonant beam from the side, which serves as an additional actuation electrode for the arch. The structure is also provided with an additional electrothermal tuning capability. The logic operations are based on the linear frequency modulations of the arch resonator and side microbeam. The device is compatible with CMOS fabrication process and works at room temperature

  19. A Single MEMS Resonator for Reconfigurable Multifunctional Logic Gates

    Tella, Sherif Adekunle; Alcheikh, Nouha; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2018-01-01

    Despite recent efforts toward true electromechanical resonator-based computing, achieving complex logics functions through cascading micro resonators has been deterred by challenges involved in their interconnections and the large required array of resonators. In this work we present a single micro electromechanical resonator with two outputs that enables the realization of multifunctional logic gates as well as other complex logic operations. As examples, we demonstrate the realization of the fundamental 2-bit logic gates of OR, XOR, AND, NOR, and a half adder. The device is based on a compound resonator consisting of a clamped-guided electrostatically actuated arch beam that is attached to another resonant beam from the side, which serves as an additional actuation electrode for the arch. The structure is also provided with an additional electrothermal tuning capability. The logic operations are based on the linear frequency modulations of the arch resonator and side microbeam. The device is compatible with CMOS fabrication process and works at room temperature

  20. Quantum Logic and Quantum Reconstruction

    Stairs, Allen

    2015-01-01

    Quantum logic understood as a reconstruction program had real successes and genuine limitations. This paper offers a synopsis of both and suggests a way of seeing quantum logic in a larger, still thriving context.

  1. First-Order Hybrid Logic

    Braüner, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Hybrid logic is an extension of modal logic which allows us to refer explicitly to points of the model in the syntax of formulas. It is easy to justify interest in hybrid logic on applied grounds, with the usefulness of the additional expressive power. For example, when reasoning about time one...... often wants to build up a series of assertions about what happens at a particular instant, and standard modal formalisms do not allow this. What is less obvious is that the route hybrid logic takes to overcome this problem often actually improves the behaviour of the underlying modal formalism....... For example, it becomes far simpler to formulate proof-systems for hybrid logic, and completeness results can be proved of a generality that is simply not available in modal logic. That is, hybridization is a systematic way of remedying a number of known deficiencies of modal logic. First-order hybrid logic...

  2. Logical analysis of biological systems

    Mardare, Radu Iulian

    2005-01-01

    R. Mardare, Logical analysis of biological systems. Fundamenta Informaticae, N 64:271-285, 2005.......R. Mardare, Logical analysis of biological systems. Fundamenta Informaticae, N 64:271-285, 2005....

  3. Probabilistic logics and probabilistic networks

    Haenni, Rolf; Wheeler, Gregory; Williamson, Jon; Andrews, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Probabilistic Logic and Probabilistic Networks presents a groundbreaking framework within which various approaches to probabilistic logic naturally fit. Additionally, the text shows how to develop computationally feasible methods to mesh with this framework.

  4. Conference Trends in Logic XI

    Wansing, Heinrich; Willkommen, Caroline; Recent Trends in Philosophical Logic

    2014-01-01

    This volume presents recent advances in philosophical logic with chapters focusing on non-classical logics, including paraconsistent logics, substructural logics, modal logics of agency and other modal logics. The authors cover themes such as the knowability paradox, tableaux and sequent calculi, natural deduction, definite descriptions, identity, truth, dialetheism, and possible worlds semantics.   The developments presented here focus on challenging problems in the specification of fundamental philosophical notions, as well as presenting new techniques and tools, thereby contributing to the development of the field. Each chapter contains a bibliography, to assist the reader in making connections in the specific areas covered. Thus this work provides both a starting point for further investigations into philosophical logic and an update on advances, techniques and applications in a dynamic field.   The chapters originate from papers presented during the Trends in Logic XI conference at the Ruhr University ...

  5. Preferential reasoning for modal logics

    Britz, K

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Modal logic is the foundation for a versatile and well-established class of knowledge representation formalisms in artificial intelligence. Enriching modal logics with non-monotonic reasoning capabilities such as preferential reasoning as developed...

  6. From Logical to Distributional Models

    Anne Preller

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper relates two variants of semantic models for natural language, logical functional models and compositional distributional vector space models, by transferring the logic and reasoning from the logical to the distributional models. The geometrical operations of quantum logic are reformulated as algebraic operations on vectors. A map from functional models to vector space models makes it possible to compare the meaning of sentences word by word.

  7. Modal Logics for Cryptographic Processes

    Frendrup, U.; Huttel, Hans; Jensen, N. J.

    2002-01-01

    We present three modal logics for the spi-calculus and show that they capture strong versions of the environment sensitive bisimulation introduced by Boreale et al. Our logics differ from conventional modal logics for process calculi in that they allow us to describe the knowledge of an attacker ...

  8. Combining Paraconsistent Logic with Argumentation

    Grooters, Diana; Prakken, Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    One tradition in the logical study of argumentation is to allow for arguments that combine strict and defeasible inference rules, and to derive the strict inference rules from a logic at least as strong as classical logic. An unsolved problem in this tradition is how the trivialising effect of the

  9. Lectures on Logic and Computation

    The European Summer School in Logic, Language and Information (ESSLLI) is organized every year by the Association for Logic, Language and Information (FoLLI) in different sites around Europe. The main focus of ESSLLI is on the interface between linguistics, logic and computation. ESSLLI offers fo...

  10. Strong Completeness for Markovian Logics

    Kozen, Dexter; Mardare, Radu Iulian; Panangaden, Prakash

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present Hilbert-style axiomatizations for three logics for reasoning about continuous-space Markov processes (MPs): (i) a logic for MPs defined for probability distributions on measurable state spaces, (ii) a logic for MPs defined for sub-probability distributions and (iii) a log...

  11. Propositional interval neighborhood logics: Expressiveness, decidability, and undecidable extensions

    Bresolin, Davide; Goranko, Valentin; Montanari, Angelo

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the expressiveness of the variety of propositional interval neighborhood logics (PNL), we establish their decidability on linearly ordered domains and some important subclasses, and we prove the undecidability of a number of extensions of PNL with additional modalities...... over interval relations. All together, we show that PNL form a quite expressive and nearly maximal decidable fragment of Halpern–Shoham’s interval logic HS....

  12. Four logics of governance

    Friche, Nanna; Normann Andersen, Vibeke

    unintended consequences. Theoretically, we draw on different management and governance theories, e.g. performance management. Empirically, the study is based on surveys to teachers and students at all Danish vocational colleges and interviews with school leaders, teachers and students at six colleges (cases...... and well-being of students enrolled in the VETs must be strengthened. We focus on target 1, 2 and 4. The reform is being implemented in a field of VET that can be characterized by four logics of governance. Firstly, a governance logic characterized by institutional independence of vocational colleges......For the last fifteen years completion rates in Danish vocational education and training (VET) has stayed on a rather low level. In 2014, only half of the students enrolled in a vocational program on upper secondary level, graduated from the program (Flarup et al 2016). In Denmark, like in other...

  13. Modern Logical Frameworks Design

    Murawska, Agata Anna

    2017-01-01

    lack support for reasoning about, or programming with, the mechanised systems. Our main motivation is to eventually make it possible to model and reason about complex concurrent systems and protocols. No matter the application, be it the development of a logic for multiparty session types...... or a cryptographic protocol used in a voting system, we need the ability to model and reason about both the building blocks of these systems and the intricate connections between them. To this end, this dissertation is an investigation into LF-based formalisms that might help address the aforementioned issues. We...... design and provide the meta-theory of two new frameworks, HyLF and Lincx. The former aims to extend the expressiveness of LF to include proof irrelevance and some user-defined behaviours, using ideas from hybrid logics. The latter is a showcase for an easier to implement framework, while also allowing...

  14. Competing Logics and Healthcare

    Saks, Mike

    2018-01-01

    This paper offers a short commentary on the editorial by Mannion and Exworthy. The paper highlights the positive insights offered by their analysis into the tensions between the competing institutional logics of standardization and customization in healthcare, in part manifested in the conflict between managers and professionals, and endorses the plea of the authors for further research in this field. However, the editorial is criticized for its lack of a strong societal reference point, the comparative absence of focus on hybridization, and its failure to highlight structural factors impinging on the opposing logics in a broader neo-institutional framework. With reference to the Procrustean metaphor, it is argued that greater stress should be placed on the healthcare user in future health policy. Finally, the case of complementary and alternative medicine is set out which – while not explicitly mentioned in the editorial – most effectively concretizes the tensions at the heart of this analysis of healthcare. PMID:29626406

  15. Conventions and Institutional Logics

    Westenholz, Ann

    Two theoretical approaches – Conventions and Institutional Logics – are brought together and the similarities and differences between the two are explored. It is not the intention to combine the approaches, but I would like to open both ‘boxes’ and make them available to each other with the purpose...... of creating a space for dialog. Both approaches were developed in the mid-1980s as a reaction to rational-choice economic theory and collectivistic sociological theory. These two theories were oversimplifying social life as being founded either in actor-micro level analyses or in structure-macro level...... analyses. The theoretical quest of both Conventions and Institutional Logics has been to understand the increasing indeterminacy, uncertainty and ambiguity in people’s lives where a sense of reality, of value, of moral, of feelings is not fixed. Both approaches have created new theoretical insights...

  16. Formalizing Informal Logic

    Douglas Walton

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a formalization of informal logic using the Carneades Argumentation System (CAS, a formal, computational model of argument that consists of a formal model of argument graphs and audiences. Conflicts between pro and con arguments are resolved using proof standards, such as preponderance of the evidence. CAS also formalizes argumentation schemes. Schemes can be used to check whether a given argument instantiates the types of argument deemed normatively appropriate for the type of dialogue.

  17. Probabilistic Logical Characterization

    Hermanns, Holger; Parma, Augusto; Segala, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Probabilistic automata exhibit both probabilistic and non-deterministic choice. They are therefore a powerful semantic foundation for modeling concurrent systems with random phenomena arising in many applications ranging from artificial intelligence, security, systems biology to performance...... modeling. Several variations of bisimulation and simulation relations have proved to be useful as means to abstract and compare different automata. This paper develops a taxonomy of logical characterizations of these relations on image-finite and image-infinite probabilistic automata....

  18. Bisimulations, games, and logic

    Nielsen, Mogens; Clausen, Christian

    1994-01-01

    In a recent paper by Joyal, Nielsen, and Winskel, bisimulation is defined in an abstract and uniform way across a wide range of different models for concurrency. In this paper, following a recent trend in theoretical computer science, we characterize their abstract definition game-theoretically a......-theoretically and logically in a non-interleaving model. Our characterizations appear as surprisingly simple extensions of corresponding characterizations of interleaving bisimulation....

  19. Stereotypical Reasoning: Logical Properties

    Lehmann, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Stereotypical reasoning assumes that the situation at hand is one of a kind and that it enjoys the properties generally associated with that kind of situation. It is one of the most basic forms of nonmonotonic reasoning. A formal model for stereotypical reasoning is proposed and the logical properties of this form of reasoning are studied. Stereotypical reasoning is shown to be cumulative under weak assumptions.

  20. RSFQ logic arithmetic

    Mukhanov, O.A.; Rylov, S.V.; Semenov, V.K.; Vyshenskii, S.V.

    1989-01-01

    Several ways of local timing of the Josephson-junction RSFQ (Rapid Single Flux Quantum) logic elements are proposed, and their peculiarities are discussed. Several examples of serial and parallel pipelined arithmetic blocks using various types of timing are suggested and their possible performance is discussed. Serial devices enable one to perform n-bit functions relatively slowly but using integrated circuits of a moderate integration scale, while parallel pipelined devices are more hardware-wasteful but promise extremely high productivity

  1. Logic Programming in LISP.

    1981-01-01

    Rapport, Groupe Intelligence Pasero, R., Artificielle , Universite d’Aix-Marseille, Roussel, P. Luminy, France, 1973. [Kowalski 1974] Kowalski, R. A...THIS PAGZ(Whan Doee Es tMord) Item 20 (Cont’d) ------ work in the area of artificial intelligence and those used in general program development into a...logic programming with LISP for implementing intelligent data base query systems. Continued developments will allow for enhancements to be made to the

  2. Magnetoresistive logic and biochip

    Brueckl, Hubert; Brzeska, Monika; Brinkmann, Dirk; Schotter, J.Joerg; Reiss, Guenter; Schepper, Willi; Kamp, P.-B.; Becker, Anke

    2004-01-01

    While some magnetoresistive devices based on giant magnetoresistance or spin-dependent tunneling are already commercialized, a new branch of development is evolving towards magnetoresistive logic with magnetic tunnel junctions. Furthermore, the new magnetoelectronic effects show promising properties in magnetoresistive biochips, which are capable of detecting even single molecules (e.g. DNA) by functionalized magnetic markers. The unclear limits of this approach are discussed with two model systems

  3. A Paraconsistent Higher Order Logic

    Villadsen, Jørgen

    2004-01-01

    of paraconsistent logics in knowledge-based systems, logical semantics of natural language, etc. Higher order logics have the advantages of being expressive and with several automated theorem provers available. Also the type system can be helpful. We present a concise description of a paraconsistent higher order...... of the logic is examined by a case study in the domain of medicine. Thus we try to build a bridge between the HOL and MVL communities. A sequent calculus is proposed based on recent work by Muskens. Many non-classical logics are, at the propositional level, funny toys which work quite good, but when one wants...

  4. Review: Joseph Patrick Ganahl, Corruption, Good Governance, and the African State: A Critical Analysis of the Political-Economic Foundations of Corruption in Sub-Saharan Africa (2013)

    Reinhart Kößler

    2015-01-01

    Review of the monograph:Joseph Patrick Ganahl, Corruption, Good Governance, and the African State: A Critical Analysis of the Political-Economic Foundations of Corruption in Sub-Saharan Africa, Potsdam: Potsdam University Press, 2013, ISBN 9783869562483, 300 pp.

  5. Viveret Patrick, 2005, Pourquoi ça ne va pas plus mal?, Fayard, 264 p.

    Fabien Thurette

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Patrick Viveret est philosophe de formation et Conseiller-maître à la Cour des comptes. Il a, en outre, été chargé d’une mission, confiée par l'éphémère Secrétaire d'État à l'économie solidaire Guy Hascoët, puis prolongée par le Président Chirac sur une « autre approche de la richesse », dont le rapport final a été publié sous le titre Reconsidérer la richesse (2004.Dans son essai Pourquoi ça ne va pas plus mal ? publié en 2005, Patrick Viveret nous livre une analyse philosophique sur le « m...

  6. Review: Joseph Patrick Ganahl, Corruption, Good Governance, and the African State: A Critical Analysis of the Political-Economic Foundations of Corruption in Sub-Saharan Africa (2013)

    Reinhart Kößler; Arnold-Bergstraesser-Institut

    2015-01-01

    Review of the monograph:Joseph Patrick Ganahl, Corruption, Good Governance, and the African State: A Critical Analysis of the Political-Economic Foundations of Corruption in Sub-Saharan Africa, Potsdam: Potsdam University Press, 2013, ISBN 9783869562483, 300 pp. Besprechung der Monographie:Joseph Patrick Ganahl, Corruption, Good Governance, and the African State: A Critical Analysis of the Political-Economic Foundations of Corruption in Sub-Saharan Africa, Potsdam: Potsdam University Press...

  7. Logic circuits based on molecular spider systems.

    Mo, Dandan; Lakin, Matthew R; Stefanovic, Darko

    2016-08-01

    Spatial locality brings the advantages of computation speed-up and sequence reuse to molecular computing. In particular, molecular walkers that undergo localized reactions are of interest for implementing logic computations at the nanoscale. We use molecular spider walkers to implement logic circuits. We develop an extended multi-spider model with a dynamic environment wherein signal transmission is triggered via localized reactions, and use this model to implement three basic gates (AND, OR, NOT) and a cascading mechanism. We develop an algorithm to automatically generate the layout of the circuit. We use a kinetic Monte Carlo algorithm to simulate circuit computations, and we analyze circuit complexity: our design scales linearly with formula size and has a logarithmic time complexity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Computability, complexity, logic

    Börger, Egon

    1989-01-01

    The theme of this book is formed by a pair of concepts: the concept of formal language as carrier of the precise expression of meaning, facts and problems, and the concept of algorithm or calculus, i.e. a formally operating procedure for the solution of precisely described questions and problems. The book is a unified introduction to the modern theory of these concepts, to the way in which they developed first in mathematical logic and computability theory and later in automata theory, and to the theory of formal languages and complexity theory. Apart from considering the fundamental themes an

  9. Intuitionistic fuzzy logics

    T Atanassov, Krassimir

    2017-01-01

    The book offers a comprehensive survey of intuitionistic fuzzy logics. By reporting on both the author’s research and others’ findings, it provides readers with a complete overview of the field and highlights key issues and open problems, thus suggesting new research directions. Starting with an introduction to the basic elements of intuitionistic fuzzy propositional calculus, it then provides a guide to the use of intuitionistic fuzzy operators and quantifiers, and lastly presents state-of-the-art applications of intuitionistic fuzzy sets. The book is a valuable reference resource for graduate students and researchers alike.

  10. Legume Logic & Green Manuring

    Basavanagowda Nagabhushana, Nandeesh

    2014-01-01

    Brown plant hopper showed me the way into organic farming. In 2001, I started my practice with logic of legumes just to cut down the 45 percent expenses of my paddy on fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides. Later as I realized each and every plant carries it’s own nutrients, medicinal values and characters. Plants like millets, oil seeds, spices, di-cots, monocots and weeds all being used as a green manure. For all my agriculture problems and crop demands, I look for the answers only thro...

  11. A Concurrent Logical Relation

    Birkedal, Lars; Sieczkowski, Filip; Thamsborg, Jacob Junker

    2012-01-01

    We present a logical relation for showing the correctness of program transformations based on a new type-and-effect system for a concurrent extension of an ML-like language with higher-order functions, higher-order store and dynamic memory allocation. We show how to use our model to verify a number....... To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such result for a concurrent higher-order language with higher-order store and dynamic memory allocation....

  12. Description logic rules

    Krötzsch, M

    2010-01-01

    Ontological modelling today is applied in many areas of science and technology,including the Semantic Web. The W3C standard OWL defines one of the most important ontology languages based on the semantics of description logics. An alternative is to use rule languages in knowledge modelling, as proposed in the W3C's RIF standard. So far, it has often been unclear how to combine both technologies without sacrificing essential computational properties. This book explains this problem and presents new solutions that have recently been proposed. Extensive introductory chapters provide the necessary

  13. Logical empiricists on race.

    Bright, Liam Kofi

    2017-10-01

    The logical empiricists expressed a consistent attitude to racial categorisation in both the ethical and scientific spheres. Their attitude may be captured in the following slogan: human racial taxonomy is an empirically meaningful mode of classifying persons that we should refrain from deploying. I offer an interpretation of their position that would render coherent their remarks on race with positions they adopted on the scientific status of taxonomy in general, together with their potential moral or political motivations for adopting that position. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Flexible programmable logic module

    Robertson, Perry J.; Hutchinson, Robert L.; Pierson, Lyndon G.

    2001-01-01

    The circuit module of this invention is a VME board containing a plurality of programmable logic devices (PLDs), a controlled impedance clock tree, and interconnecting buses. The PLDs are arranged to permit systolic processing of a problem by offering wide data buses and a plurality of processing nodes. The board contains a clock reference and clock distribution tree that can drive each of the PLDs with two critically timed clock references. External clock references can be used to drive additional circuit modules all operating from the same synchronous clock reference.

  15. Observations and global numerical modelling of the St. Patrick's Day 2015 geomagnetic storm event

    Foerster, M.; Prokhorov, B. E.; Doornbos, E.; Astafieva, E.; Zakharenkova, I.

    2017-12-01

    With a sudden storm commencement (SSC) at 04:45 UT on St. Patrick's day 2015 started the most severe geomagnetic storm in solar cycle 24. It appeared as a two-stage geomagnetic storm with a minimum SYM-H value of -233 nT. In the response to the storm commencement in the first activation, a short-term positive effect in the ionospheric vertical electron content (VTEC) occurred at low- and mid-latitudes on the dayside. The second phase commencing around 12:30 UT lasted longer and caused significant and complex storm-time changes around the globe with hemispherical different ionospheric storm reactions in different longitudinal ranges. Swarm-C observations of the neutral mass density variation along the orbital path as well as Langmuir probe plasma and magnetometer measurements of all three Swarm satellites and global TEC records are used for physical interpretations and modelling of the positive/negative storm scenario. These observations pose a challenge for the global numerical modelling of thermosphere-ionosphere storm processes as the storm, which occurred around spring equinox, obviously signify the existence of other impact factors than seasonal dependence for hemispheric asymmetries to occur. Numerical simulation trials using the Potsdam version of the Upper Atmosphere Model (UAM-P) are presented to explain these peculiar M-I-T storm processes.

  16. Sir Patrick Dun and the Complete School of Physic in eighteenth-century Dublin.

    Mullaney, S

    2015-03-01

    2013 is the tercentenary of the death of Sir Patrick Dun. When Dun died in 1713, he left the proceeds of his estate to enhance medical education in Dublin by funding chairs in medicine. He showed remarkable innovation, but it took 95 years, five Acts of Parliament, two House of Commons enquiries and a House of Lords enquiry before Dun's wishes were brought to fruition and systematic clinical education was available for Dublin medical students. The passage of the final School of Physic Act in 1800 insured that a hospital would open in his name and regular clinical education was provided. The physician, Richard Steevens, who died 3 years earlier in 1710, left the proceeds of his estate to found a hospital, which opened, in his name, in 1733. The contemporary primary sources have been analysed and material from relevant secondary sources has been included where appropriate. Dublin was the beneficiary of these bequests and if circumstances had been more favourable, and the proceeds had been used more efficiently at the start of the eighteenth-century, Dublin could well have rivalled Edinburgh as the seat of medical education in the eighteenth century. In the early nineteenth century, it would fulfil that role and equal Edinburgh as one of the primary centres of medical education in Europe.

  17. Imagery interchange in John Patrick Shanley’s Doubt, a parable

    Sandra Sirangelo Maggio

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available John Patrick Shanley’s play Doubt - a Parable (2004 revisits the world he knew as a child, which is the Bronx of the 1960’s. The story centers upon a Catholic Irish-Italian school community, and the plot relates to a doubt - that grows into belief, and ends up as certainty - on the part of Sister Aloysius, the principal of the school, who is persuaded that Father Flynn, the vicar, has been harassing the only Black student in the school. The play is an open-ended construct, allowing each reader/spectator to build their own interpretation of the facts implied. Shanley is more than the author of the play. He has also worked as the producer of the play on the stage and he turned the story into a movie screenplay, Doubt, and has worked as a director to the movie. In this paper we examine the strategies used by Shanley to keep the possibility of interpretation open as he translates his own work into different media, on the page and on the screen.

  18. Coherence Generalises Duality: A Logical Explanation of Multiparty Session Types

    Carbone, Marco; Lindley, Sam; Montesi, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    the duality of classical linear logic (relating two types) with a more general notion of coherence (relating an arbitrary number of types). This paper introduces variants of CP and MCP, plus a new intermediate calculus of Globally-governed Classical Processes (GCP). We show a tight relation between......Wadler introduced Classical Processes (CP), a calculus based on a propositions-as-types correspondence between propositions of classical linear logic and session types. Carbone et al. introduced Multiparty Classical Processes, a calculus that generalises CP to multiparty session types, by replacing...

  19. Superconducting digital logic amplifier

    Przybysz, J.X.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a superconducting digital logic amplifier for interfacing between a Josephson junction logic circuit having output current and a higher voltage semiconductor circuit input. The amplifier comprising: an input terminal for connection to a; an output terminal for connection to a semiconductor circuit input; an input, lower critical current, Josephson junction having first and second terminals; a first series string of at least three lower critical current Josephson junctions. The first series string being connected to the first terminal of the input Josephson junction such that the first series string is in series with the input Josephson junction to provide a series combination. The input terminal being connected to the first terminal of the input Josephson junction, and with the critical current of the lower critical current Josephson junctions of the input Josephson junction and the first series Josephson junctions being less than the output current of the low voltage Josephson junction circuit; a second series string of at least four higher critical current Josephson junctions. The second string being connected in parallel with the series combination to provide parallel strings having an upper common connection and a lower common connection. The lower common connection being connected to the second terminal of the input Josephson junction and the upper common connection being connected to the output terminal; and a pulsed DC current source connected the parallel strings at the upper common connection. The DC current source having a current at least equal to the critical current of the higher critical current Josephson junctions

  20. Quantum logics and convex geometry

    Bunce, L.J.; Wright, J.D.M.

    1985-01-01

    The main result is a representation theorem which shows that, for a large class of quantum logics, a quantum logic, Q, is isomorphic to the lattice of projective faces in a suitable convex set K. As an application we extend our earlier results, which, subject to countability conditions, gave a geometric characterization of those quantum logics which are isomorphic to the projection lattice of a von Neumann algebra or a JBW-algebra. (orig.)

  1. Safety logic systems of PFBR

    Sambasivan, S. Ilango

    2004-01-01

    Full text : PFBR is provided with two independent, fast acting and diverse shutdown systems to detect any abnormalities and to initiate safety action. Each system consists of sensors, signal processing systems, logics, drive mechanisms and absorber rods. The absorber rods of the first system are Control and Safety Rods (CSR) and that of the second are called as Diverse Safety Rods (DSR). There are nine CSR and three DSR. While CSR are used for startup, control of reactor power, controlled shutdown and SCRAM, the DSR are used only for SCRAM. The respective drive mechanisms are called as CSRDM and DSRDM. Each of these two systems is capable of executing the shutdown satisfactorily with single failure criteria. Two independent safety logic systems based on diverse principles have been designed for the two shut down systems. The analog outputs of the sensors of Core Monitoring Systems comprising of reactor flux monitoring, core temperature monitoring, failed fuel detection and core flow monitoring systems are processed and converted into binary signals depending on their instantaneous values. Safety logic systems receive the binary signals from these core-monitoring systems and process them logically to protect the reactor against postulated initiating events. Neutronic and power to flow (P/Q) signals form the inputs to safety logic system-I and temperature signals are inputs to the safety logic system II. Failed fuel detection signals are processed by both the shut down systems. The two logic systems to actuate the safety rods are also based on two diverse designs and implemented with solid-state devices to meet all the requirements of safety systems. Safety logic system I that caters to neutronic and P/Q signals is designed around combinational logic and has an on-line test facility to detect struck at faults. The second logic system is based on dynamic logic and hence is inherently safe. This paper gives an overview of the two logic systems that have been

  2. PM 3655 PHILIPS Logic analyzer

    A logic analyzer is an electronic instrument that captures and displays multiple signals from a digital system or digital circuit. A logic analyzer may convert the captured data into timing diagrams, protocol decodes, state machine traces, assembly language, or may correlate assembly with source-level software. Logic Analyzers have advanced triggering capabilities, and are useful when a user needs to see the timing relationships between many signals in a digital system.

  3. Popular lectures on mathematical logic

    Wang, Hao

    2014-01-01

    A noted logician and philosopher addresses various forms of mathematical logic, discussing both theoretical underpinnings and practical applications. Author Hao Wang surveys the central concepts and theories of the discipline in a historical and developmental context, and then focuses on the four principal domains of contemporary mathematical logic: set theory, model theory, recursion theory and constructivism, and proof theory.Topics include the place of problems in the development of theories of logic and logic's relation to computer science. Specific attention is given to Gödel's incomplete

  4. Contextual logic for quantum systems

    Domenech, Graciela; Freytes, Hector

    2005-01-01

    In this work we build a quantum logic that allows us to refer to physical magnitudes pertaining to different contexts from a fixed one without the contradictions with quantum mechanics expressed in no-go theorems. This logic arises from considering a sheaf over a topological space associated with the Boolean sublattices of the ortholattice of closed subspaces of the Hilbert space of the physical system. Different from standard quantum logics, the contextual logic maintains a distributive lattice structure and a good definition of implication as a residue of the conjunction

  5. Tensor product of quantum logics

    Pulmannová, Sylvia

    1985-01-01

    A quantum logic is the couple (L,M) where L is an orthomodular σ-lattice and M is a strong set of states on L. The Jauch-Piron property in the σ-form is also supposed for any state of M. A ``tensor product'' of quantum logics is defined. This definition is compared with the definition of a free orthodistributive product of orthomodular σ-lattices. The existence and uniqueness of the tensor product in special cases of Hilbert space quantum logics and one quantum and one classical logic are studied.

  6. Logic and Philosophy of Time

    A.N. Prior (1914-69) in the course of the 1950s and 1960s founded a new and revolutionary paradigm in philosophy and logic. Its most central feature is the preoccupation with time and the development of the logic of time. However, this was inseparably interwoven with fundamental questions about h...... human freedom, ethics, and existence. This remarkable integration of themes also embodies an original and in fact revolutionary conception of logic. The book series, Logic and Philosophy of Time, is dedicated to a deep investigation and also the further development of Prior’s paradigm. ...

  7. Optimization methods for logical inference

    Chandru, Vijay

    2011-01-01

    Merging logic and mathematics in deductive inference-an innovative, cutting-edge approach. Optimization methods for logical inference? Absolutely, say Vijay Chandru and John Hooker, two major contributors to this rapidly expanding field. And even though ""solving logical inference problems with optimization methods may seem a bit like eating sauerkraut with chopsticks. . . it is the mathematical structure of a problem that determines whether an optimization model can help solve it, not the context in which the problem occurs."" Presenting powerful, proven optimization techniques for logic in

  8. Logic and Philosophy of Time

    By blending historical research with current research, this collection (loosely inspired by themes from the work of Arthur Prior) demonstrates the importance of Prior's writings and helps us to gain a deeper understanding of time, its logic(s), and its language(s).......By blending historical research with current research, this collection (loosely inspired by themes from the work of Arthur Prior) demonstrates the importance of Prior's writings and helps us to gain a deeper understanding of time, its logic(s), and its language(s)....

  9. Meta-Logical Reasoning in Higher-Order Logic

    Villadsen, Jørgen; Schlichtkrull, Anders; Hess, Andreas Viktor

    The semantics of first-order logic (FOL) can be described in the meta-language of higher-order logic (HOL). Using HOL one can prove key properties of FOL such as soundness and completeness. Furthermore, one can prove sentences in FOL valid using the formalized FOL semantics. To aid...

  10. Towards an arithmetical logic the arithmetical foundations of logic

    Gauthier, Yvon

    2015-01-01

    This book offers an original contribution to the foundations of logic and mathematics, and focuses on the internal logic of mathematical theories, from arithmetic or number theory to algebraic geometry. Arithmetical logic is the term used to refer to the internal logic of classical arithmetic, here called Fermat-Kronecker arithmetic, and combines Fermat’s method of infinite descent with Kronecker’s general arithmetic of homogeneous polynomials. The book also includes a treatment of theories in physics and mathematical physics to underscore the role of arithmetic from a constructivist viewpoint. The scope of the work intertwines historical, mathematical, logical and philosophical dimensions in a unified critical perspective; as such, it will appeal to a broad readership from mathematicians to logicians, to philosophers interested in foundational questions. Researchers and graduate students in the fields of philosophy and mathematics will benefit from the author’s critical approach to the foundations of l...

  11. Fuzzy Logic and Arithmetical Hierarchy III

    Hájek, Petr

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 1 (2001), s. 129-142 ISSN 0039-3215 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1030004 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : fuzzy logic * basic fuzzy logic * Lukasiewicz logic * Godel logic * product logic * arithmetical hierarchy Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  12. Logical entropy of quantum dynamical systems

    Ebrahimzadeh Abolfazl

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the concepts of logical entropy and conditional logical entropy of hnite partitions on a quantum logic. Some of their ergodic properties are presented. Also logical entropy of a quantum dynamical system is dehned and ergodic properties of dynamical systems on a quantum logic are investigated. Finally, the version of Kolmogorov-Sinai theorem is proved.

  13. Questions and dependency in intuitionistic logic

    Ciardelli, Ivano; Iemhoff, Rosalie; Yang, Fan

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the logic of questions and dependencies has been investigated in the closely related frameworks of inquisitive logic and dependence logic. These investigations have assumed classical logic as the background logic of statements, and added formulas expressing questions and

  14. Reversible logic gates on Physarum Polycephalum

    Schumann, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we consider possibilities how to implement asynchronous sequential logic gates and quantum-style reversible logic gates on Physarum polycephalum motions. We show that in asynchronous sequential logic gates we can erase information because of uncertainty in the direction of plasmodium propagation. Therefore quantum-style reversible logic gates are more preferable for designing logic circuits on Physarum polycephalum

  15. A beginner's guide to mathematical logic

    Smullyan, Raymond M

    2014-01-01

    Combining stories of great philosophers, quotations, and riddles with the fundamentals of mathematical logic, this new textbook for first courses in mathematical logic was written by the subject's creative master. Raymond Smullyan offers clear, incremental presentations of difficult logic concepts with creative explanations and unique problems related to proofs, propositional logic and first-order logic, undecidability, recursion theory, and other topics.

  16. Structural Completeness in Fuzzy Logics

    Cintula, Petr; Metcalfe, G.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 2 (2009), s. 153-183 ISSN 0029-4527 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : structral logics * fuzzy logics * structural completeness * admissible rules * primitive variety * residuated lattices Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  17. A tristate optical logic system

    Basuray, A.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Kumar Ghosh, Hirak; Datta, A. K.

    1991-09-01

    A method is described to represent data in a tristate logic system which are subsequently replaced by Modified Trinary Numbers (MTN). This system is advantagegeous in parallel processing as carry and borrow free operations in arithmatic computation is possible. The logical operations are also modified according to the three states available. A possible practical application of the same using polarized light is also suggested.

  18. Logic, reasoning, and verbal behavior

    Terrell, Dudley J.; Johnston, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper analyzes the traditional concepts of logic and reasoning from the perspective of radical behaviorism and in the terms of Skinner's treatment of verbal behavior. The topics covered in this analysis include the proposition, premises and conclusions, logicality and rules, and deductive and inductive reasoning.

  19. Flat Coalgebraic Fixed Point Logics

    Schröder, Lutz; Venema, Yde

    Fixed point logics are widely used in computer science, in particular in artificial intelligence and concurrency. The most expressive logics of this type are the μ-calculus and its relatives. However, popular fixed point logics tend to trade expressivity for simplicity and readability, and in fact often live within the single variable fragment of the μ-calculus. The family of such flat fixed point logics includes, e.g., CTL, the *-nesting-free fragment of PDL, and the logic of common knowledge. Here, we extend this notion to the generic semantic framework of coalgebraic logic, thus covering a wide range of logics beyond the standard μ-calculus including, e.g., flat fragments of the graded μ-calculus and the alternating-time μ-calculus (such as ATL), as well as probabilistic and monotone fixed point logics. Our main results are completeness of the Kozen-Park axiomatization and a timed-out tableaux method that matches ExpTime upper bounds inherited from the coalgebraic μ-calculus but avoids using automata.

  20. Evidence logics with relational evidence

    Baltag, Alexandru; Occhipinti, Andrés

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a family of logics for reasoning about relational evidence: evidence that involves an ordering of states in terms of their relative plausibility. We provide sound and complete axiomatizations for the logics. We also present several evidential actions and prove soundness...

  1. Methods in Logic Based Control

    Christensen, Georg Kronborg

    1999-01-01

    Desing and theory of Logic Based Control systems.Boolean Algebra, Karnaugh Map, Quine McClusky's algorithm. Sequential control design. Logic Based Control Method, Cascade Control Method. Implementation techniques: relay, pneumatic, TTL/CMOS,PAL and PLC- and Soft_PLC implementation. PLC...

  2. Epistemic logics for sceptical agents

    Bílková, M.; Majer, Ondrej; Peliš, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 6 (2016), s. 1815-1841 ISSN 0955-792X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-21076S Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : epistemic logic * substructural logic * frame semantics Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion Impact factor: 0.909, year: 2016

  3. Binary logic is rich enough

    Zapatrin, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    Given a finite ortholattice L, the *-semigroup is explicitly built whose annihilator ortholattice is isomorphic to L. Thus, it is shown that any finite quantum logic is the additive part of a binary logic. Some areas of possible applications are outlined. 7 refs

  4. Logical independence and quantum randomness

    Paterek, T; Kofler, J; Aspelmeyer, M; Zeilinger, A; Brukner, C; Prevedel, R; Klimek, P

    2010-01-01

    We propose a link between logical independence and quantum physics. We demonstrate that quantum systems in the eigenstates of Pauli group operators are capable of encoding mathematical axioms and show that Pauli group quantum measurements are capable of revealing whether or not a given proposition is logically dependent on the axiomatic system. Whenever a mathematical proposition is logically independent of the axioms encoded in the measured state, the measurement associated with the proposition gives random outcomes. This allows for an experimental test of logical independence. Conversely, it also allows for an explanation of the probabilities of random outcomes observed in Pauli group measurements from logical independence without invoking quantum theory. The axiomatic systems we study can be completed and are therefore not subject to Goedel's incompleteness theorem.

  5. Generator of combined logical signals

    Laviron, Andre; Berard, Claude.

    1982-01-01

    The invention concerns a generator of combined logical signals to form combinations of two outputs at logical level 1 and N-2 outputs at logical level 0, among N generator outputs. This generator is characterized in that it includes a set of N means for storing combinations. Means enable the N storage means to be loaded with the logical levels corresponding to a pre-set starting combination, to control the operations for shifting the contents of the storage means and to control, by transfer facilities, the transfers of contents between these storage means. Controls enable the storage means to be actuated in order to obtain combinations of logical levels 1 and 0. The generation of combinations can be stopped after another pre-set combination. Application is for testing of safety circuits for nuclear power stations [fr

  6. Reliability evaluation programmable logic devices

    Srivani, L.; Murali, N.; Thirugnana Murthy, D.; Satya Murty, S.A.V.

    2014-01-01

    Programmable Logic Devices (PLD) are widely used as basic building modules in high integrity systems, considering their robust features such as gate density, performance, speed etc. PLDs are used to implement digital design such as bus interface logic, control logic, sequencing logic, glue logic etc. Due to semiconductor evolution, new PLDs with state-of-the-art features are arriving to the market. Since these devices are reliable as per the manufacturer's specification, they were used in the design of safety systems. But due to their reduced market life, the availability of performance data is limited. So evaluating the PLD before deploying in a safety system is very important. This paper presents a survey on the use of PLDs in the nuclear domain and the steps involved in the evaluation of PLD using Quantitative Accelerated Life Testing. (author)

  7. Logical independence and quantum randomness

    Paterek, T; Kofler, J; Aspelmeyer, M; Zeilinger, A; Brukner, C [Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Boltzmanngasse 3, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Prevedel, R; Klimek, P [Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: tomasz.paterek@univie.ac.at

    2010-01-15

    We propose a link between logical independence and quantum physics. We demonstrate that quantum systems in the eigenstates of Pauli group operators are capable of encoding mathematical axioms and show that Pauli group quantum measurements are capable of revealing whether or not a given proposition is logically dependent on the axiomatic system. Whenever a mathematical proposition is logically independent of the axioms encoded in the measured state, the measurement associated with the proposition gives random outcomes. This allows for an experimental test of logical independence. Conversely, it also allows for an explanation of the probabilities of random outcomes observed in Pauli group measurements from logical independence without invoking quantum theory. The axiomatic systems we study can be completed and are therefore not subject to Goedel's incompleteness theorem.

  8. Marketing Logics, Ambidexterity and Influence

    Tollin, Karin; Schmidt, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    in four CMOs have taken on this challenge, or adopted a marketing logic which could be referred to as ambidextrous. Furthermore, the study shows that this logic exerts a stronger impact on marketing's influence, compared to logics related to assuring brand consistency and measuring the performance...... of marketing processes. Three other ways to enact marketing management were also revealed, namely: an innovation; a communication; and a supporting marketing logic. This leads us to conclude that the influence of companies' marketing functions show up a heterogeneous picture within which the marketing logics......The duties of companies' chief marketing officers (CMOs) seem incompatible. They are expected to ensure that their company's market assets are properly exploited and recorded, while simultaneously enacting a proactive role in the company's business development. This study shows that about one...

  9. Optical programmable Boolean logic unit.

    Chattopadhyay, Tanay

    2011-11-10

    Logic units are the building blocks of many important computational operations likes arithmetic, multiplexer-demultiplexer, radix conversion, parity checker cum generator, etc. Multifunctional logic operation is very much essential in this respect. Here a programmable Boolean logic unit is proposed that can perform 16 Boolean logical operations from a single optical input according to the programming input without changing the circuit design. This circuit has two outputs. One output is complementary to the other. Hence no loss of data can occur. The circuit is basically designed by a 2×2 polarization independent optical cross bar switch. Performance of the proposed circuit has been achieved by doing numerical simulations. The binary logical states (0,1) are represented by the absence of light (null) and presence of light, respectively.

  10. Flow Logic for Process Calculi

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming; Pilegaard, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Flow Logic is an approach to statically determining the behavior of programs and processes. It borrows methods and techniques from Abstract Interpretation, Data Flow Analysis and Constraint Based Analysis while presenting the analysis in a style more reminiscent of Type Systems. Traditionally...... developed for programming languages, this article provides a tutorial development of the approach of Flow Logic for process calculi based on a decade of research. We first develop a simple analysis for the π-calculus; this consists of the specification, semantic soundness (in the form of subject reduction......, and finally, we extend it to a relational analysis. A Flow Logic is a program logic---in the same sense that a Hoare’s logic is. We conclude with an executive summary presenting the highlights of the approach from this perspective including a discussion of theoretical properties as well as implementation...

  11. Analysing Vote Counting Algorithms Via Logic - And its Application to the CADE Election Scheme

    Schürmann, Carsten; Beckert, Bernhard; Gore, Rejeev

    2013-01-01

    We present a method for using first-order logic to specify the semantics of preferences as used in common vote counting algorithms. We also present a corresponding system that uses Celf linear-logic programs to describe voting algorithms and which generates explicit examples when the algorithm de...

  12. Fuzzy logic control of vehicle suspensions with dry friction nonlinearity

    We design and investigate the performance of fuzzy logic-controlled (FLC) active suspensions on a nonlinear vehicle model with four degrees of freedom, without causing any degeneration in suspension working limits. Force actuators were mounted parallel to the suspensions. In this new approach, linear combinations of ...

  13. The Logic of Practice in the Practice of Logics

    Raviola, Elena; Dubini, Paola

    2016-01-01

    of logics through a six months full-time ethnographic study at Il Sole-24 Ore, the largest Italian financial newspaper, between 2007 and 2008. An original conceptual framework is developed to analyse how the logic of journalism is enacted vis-à-vis that of advertising in a setting in which an old technology...... for news production – print newspaper – coexists with a new one – website – and thus encounters between new and old technological possibilities make workings of institutional logics particularly visible. The findings point out different mechanisms of institutional work dealing with actions that, made...

  14. Minimality of critical scenarios with linear logic and cutsets

    DK

    establish the causality between undesirable events and normal operations. The proof trees of ... MS (both continuous and discrete features) leads us to choose a ...... Modeling and simulation of hybrid system through. Differential Predicate ...

  15. Underwater cleaning techniqued used for removal of zebra mussels at the FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant

    Hobbs, B.; Kahabka, J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of a mechanical brush cleaning technology recently used to remove biofouling from the Circulating Water (CW) System at New York Power Authority's James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant. The FitzPatrick plant had previously used chemical molluscicide to treat zebra mussels in the CW system. Full system treatment was performed in 1992 with limited forebay/screenwell treatment in 1993. The New York Power Authority (NYPA) decided to conduct a mechanical cleaning of the intake system in 1994. Specific project objectives included: (1) Achieve a level of surface cleaniness greater than 98%; (2) Remove 100% of debris, both existing sediment and debris generated as a result of cleaning; (3) Inspect all surfaces and components, identifying any problem areas; (4) Complete the task in a time frame within the 1994-95 refueling outage schedule window, and; (5) Determine if underwater mechanical cleaning is a cost-effective zebra mussel control method suitable for future application at FitzPatrick. A pre-cleaning inspection, including underwater video photography, was conducted of each area. Cleaning was accomplished using diver-controlled, multi-brush equipment included the electro-hydraulic powered Submersible Cleaning and Maintenance Platform (SCAMP), and several designs of hand-held machines. The brushes swept all zebra mussels off surfaces, restoring concrete and metal substrates to their original condition. Sensitive areas including pump housings, standpipes, sensor piping and chlorine injection tubing, were cleaned without degradation. Submersible vortex vacuum pumps were used to remove debris from the cavity. More than 46,000 ft 2 of surface area was cleaned and over 460 cubic yards of dewatered debris were removed. As each area was completed, a post-clean inspection with photos and video was performed

  16. Basic logic and quantum entanglement

    Zizzi, P A

    2007-01-01

    As it is well known, quantum entanglement is one of the most important features of quantum computing, as it leads to massive quantum parallelism, hence to exponential computational speed-up. In a sense, quantum entanglement is considered as an implicit property of quantum computation itself. But... can it be made explicit? In other words, is it possible to find the connective 'entanglement' in a logical sequent calculus for the machine language? And also, is it possible to 'teach' the quantum computer to 'mimic' the EPR 'paradox'? The answer is in the affirmative, if the logical sequent calculus is that of the weakest possible logic, namely Basic logic. - A weak logic has few structural rules. But in logic, a weak structure leaves more room for connectives (for example the connective 'entanglement'). Furthermore, the absence in Basic logic of the two structural rules of contraction and weakening corresponds to the validity of the no-cloning and no-erase theorems, respectively, in quantum computing

  17. Basic logic and quantum entanglement

    Zizzi, P A [Dipartimento di Matematica Pura ed Applicata, Via Trieste 63, 35121 Padova (Italy)

    2007-05-15

    As it is well known, quantum entanglement is one of the most important features of quantum computing, as it leads to massive quantum parallelism, hence to exponential computational speed-up. In a sense, quantum entanglement is considered as an implicit property of quantum computation itself. But... can it be made explicit? In other words, is it possible to find the connective 'entanglement' in a logical sequent calculus for the machine language? And also, is it possible to 'teach' the quantum computer to 'mimic' the EPR 'paradox'? The answer is in the affirmative, if the logical sequent calculus is that of the weakest possible logic, namely Basic logic. - A weak logic has few structural rules. But in logic, a weak structure leaves more room for connectives (for example the connective 'entanglement'). Furthermore, the absence in Basic logic of the two structural rules of contraction and weakening corresponds to the validity of the no-cloning and no-erase theorems, respectively, in quantum computing.

  18. Automatic Configuration of Programmable Logic Controller Emulators

    2015-03-01

    download.php?articleid= sec v6 n12 2013 3 . [FGM+99] Roy Fielding, Jim Gettys, Jeffrey Mogul, Henrik Frystyk, Larry Masin- ter, Paul Leach, and Tim...2011 ACM SIGCOMM Conference on, IMC ’11, pages 397–412, New York, NY, USA, 2011. ACM. [LBZH13] Patrick LaRoche, Aimee Burrows , and A. Nur Zincir

  19. Suicide as social logic.

    Kral, M J

    1994-01-01

    Although suicide is not viewed as a mental disorder per se, it is viewed by many if not most clinicians, researchers, and lay people as a real or natural symptom of depression. It is at least most typically seen as the unfortunate, severe, yet logical end result of a chain of negative self-appraisals, negative events, and hopelessness. Extending an approach articulated by the early French sociologist Gabriel Tarde, in this paper I argue that suicide is merely an idea, albeit a very bad one, having more in common with societal beliefs and norms regarding such things as divorce, abortion, sex, politics, consumer behavior, and fashion. I make a sharp contrast between perturbation and lethality, concepts central to Edwin S. Shneidman's theory of suicide. Evidence supportive of suicide as an idea is discussed based on what we are learning from the study of history and culture, and about contagion/cluster phenomena, media/communication, and choice of method. It is suggested that certain individuals are more vulnerable to incorporate the idea and act of suicide into their concepts of self, based on the same principles by which ideas are spread throughout society. Just as suicide impacts on society, so does society impact on suicide.

  20. Conference on Logical Methods

    Remmel, Jeffrey; Shore, Richard; Sweedler, Moss; Progress in Computer Science and Applied Logic

    1993-01-01

    The twenty-six papers in this volume reflect the wide and still expanding range of Anil Nerode's work. A conference on Logical Methods was held in honor of Nerode's sixtieth birthday (4 June 1992) at the Mathematical Sciences Institute, Cornell University, 1-3 June 1992. Some of the conference papers are here, but others are from students, co-workers and other colleagues. The intention of the conference was to look forward, and to see the directions currently being pursued, in the development of work by, or with, Nerode. Here is a brief summary of the contents of this book. We give a retrospective view of Nerode's work. A number of specific areas are readily discerned: recursive equivalence types, recursive algebra and model theory, the theory of Turing degrees and r.e. sets, polynomial-time computability and computer science. Nerode began with automata theory and has also taken a keen interest in the history of mathematics. All these areas are represented. The one area missing is Nerode's applied mathematica...

  1. Rethinking logic logic in relation to mathematics, evolution, and method

    Cellucci, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    This book examines the limitations of mathematical logic and proposes a new approach intended to overcome them. Formulates new rules of discovery, such as induction, analogy, generalization, specialization, metaphor, metonymy, definition and diagrams.

  2. The conditional in quantum logic

    Hardegree, G.M.

    1976-01-01

    In this article it is argued that orthodox quantum logic, which is represented by the lattice of projections on Hilbert space, does in fact admit an operation which possesses the essential properties of a material conditional. It is proposed that this connective can be interpreted as a Stalnaker (counter factual) conditional, where the nearness ordering among 'worlds' (in this case, QM pure states) derives in a natural way from the Hilbert space inner-product metric. It is a characteristic of the quantum logic conditional that the law of modus ponens is equivalent to the orthomodular law of conventional quantum logic. (B.R.H.)

  3. Handling Pressures of Community Logic

    Minbaeva, Dana; Hotho, Jasper; Muratbekova-Touron, Maral

    2013-01-01

    The paper aims at investigating how in pluralistic societies, such as emerging economies and countries in transition, organizational decision-makers respond to pressures of community logics in non-community settings, such as the work place. We theorize that in non-community settings, social...... relations and interactions with community members can act as social cues that induce and expose individuals to community logics. We subsequently propose that properties of these relations – immediacy and relatedness - will affect individual response strategies towards community logics. We test these ideas...... with an experimental vignette study of the effects of clan and kinship ties on recruitment and selection decisions in Kazakhstan, followed by qualitative interviews....

  4. Miniaturization of Josephson logic circuits

    Ko, H.; Van Duzer, T.

    1985-01-01

    The performances of Current Injection Logic (CIL) and Resistor Coupled Josephson Logic (RCJL) have been evaluated for minimum features sizes ranging from 5 μm to 0.2 μm. The logic delay is limited to about 10 ps for both the CIL AND gate and the RCJL OR gate biased at 70% of maximum bias current. The maximum circuit count on an 6.35 x 6.35 chip is 13,000 for CIL gates and 20,000 for RCJL gates. Some suggestions are given for further improvements

  5. Nanoelectromechanical resonator for logic operations

    Kazmi, Syed N. R.

    2017-08-29

    We report an electro-thermally tunable in-plane doubly-clamped nanoelectromechanical resonator capable of dynamically performing NOR, NOT, XNOR, XOR, and AND logic operations. Toward this, a silicon based resonator is fabricated using standard e-beam lithography and surface nanomachining of a highly conductive device layer of a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer. The performance of this logic device is examined at elevated temperatures, ranging from 25 °C to 85 °C, demonstrating its resilience for most of the logic operations; thereby paving the way towards nano-elements-based mechanical computing.

  6. Formalized Epistemology, Logic, and Grammar

    Bitbol, Michel

    The task of a formal epistemology is defined. It appears that a formal epistemology must be a generalization of "logic" in the sense of Wittgenstein's Tractatus. The generalization is required because, whereas logic presupposes a strict relation between activity and language, this relation may be broken in some domains of experimental enquiry (e.g., in microscopic physics). However, a formal epistemology should also retain a major feature of Wittgenstein's "logic": It must not be a discourse about scientific knowledge, but rather a way of making manifest the structures usually implicit in knowledge-gaining activity. This strategy is applied to the formalism of quantum mechanics.

  7. Application of fuzzy logic to determine the odour intensity of model gas mixtures using electronic nose

    Szulczyński, Bartosz; Gębicki, Jacek; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents the possibility of application of fuzzy logic to determine the odour intensity of model, ternary gas mixtures (α-pinene, toluene and triethylamine) using electronic nose prototype. The results obtained using fuzzy logic algorithms were compared with the values obtained using multiple linear regression (MLR) model and sensory analysis. As the results of the studies, it was found the electronic nose prototype along with the fuzzy logic pattern recognition system can be successfully used to estimate the odour intensity of tested gas mixtures. The correctness of the results obtained using fuzzy logic was equal to 68%.

  8. Surface confined assemblies and polymers for sensing and molecular logic

    de Ruiter, Graham; Altman, Marc; Motiei, Leila; Lahav, Michal; van der Boom, Milko E.

    2013-05-01

    Since the development of molecule-based sensors and the introduction of molecules mimicking the behavior of the AND gate in solution by de Silva in 1993, molecular (Boolean) Logic and Computing (MBLC) has become increasingly popular. The molecular approach toward Boolean logic resulted in intriguing proofs of concepts in solution including logic gates, half-adders, multiplexers, and flip-flop logic circuits. Molecular assemblies can perform diverse logic tasks by reconfiguring their inputs. Our recent research activities focus on MBLC with electrochromic polymers and immobilized polypyridyl complexes on solid support. We have designed a series of coordination-based thin films that are formed linearly by stepwise wet-chemical deposition or by self-propagating molecular assembly. The electrochromic properties of these films can be used for (i) detecting various analytes in solution and in the air, (ii) MBLC, (iii) electron-transfer studies, and (iv) interlayers for efficient inverted bulk-heterojunction solar cells. Our concept toward MBLC with functionalized surfaces is applicable to electrochemical and chemical inputs coupled with optical readout. Using this approach, we demonstrated various logic architectures with redox-active functionalized surfaces. Electrochemically operated sequential logic systems (e.g., flip-flops), multi-valued logic, and multi-state memory have been designed, which can improve computational power without increasing spatial requirements. Applying multi-valued digits in data storage and information processing could exponentially increase memory capacity. Our approach is applicable to highly diverse electrochromic thin films that operate at practical voltages (< 1.5 V).

  9. Computational intelligence synergies of fuzzy logic, neural networks and evolutionary computing

    Siddique, Nazmul

    2013-01-01

    Computational Intelligence: Synergies of Fuzzy Logic, Neural Networks and Evolutionary Computing presents an introduction to some of the cutting edge technological paradigms under the umbrella of computational intelligence. Computational intelligence schemes are investigated with the development of a suitable framework for fuzzy logic, neural networks and evolutionary computing, neuro-fuzzy systems, evolutionary-fuzzy systems and evolutionary neural systems. Applications to linear and non-linear systems are discussed with examples. Key features: Covers all the aspect

  10. Decision logics in radiotherapy

    Gauwerky, F.

    1979-01-01

    Decisions in planning procedures can generally, at least for beam therapy to deep seated tumors, be based on a self-consistent system of criteria of optimization, namely: 1. The absorbed dose to the target volume must be applied as uniformly as possible. 2. Absorbed doses to organs (volumes) at risk must be as low as possible, at least below an accepted limit. 3. Radiation effects to outside volumes must be kept as low as possible. Whereas these criteria, as being reduced to the simplest possible requirements, have to be regarded as the stable elements, the radiotherapy parameters, such as geometric arrangements, special techniques, absorbed dose contributions to reference points or systems, have to be taken as the variables within decision processes. The properties of the criteria which have widely proved to be valuable in routine clinical practice, have been investigated in relation to the theoretical system of axioms as it is e.g. offered by Karl Popper's general logics of scientific research. An axiomatic system, as it is demanded (after Popper) must be a) free of discrepancies, i.e. self-consistent (not any sentence can be derived), b) independent, that is, one axiom cannot be derived from another one within the system, c) sufficient for deduction of statements needed, d) necessary, that is complete. All these requirements are fitting also to the offered system of radiotherapy optimization criteria. It has been demonstrated, that Popper's axiomatic system can be regarded as to be the general case for all scientific fields of application, the set of optimization criteria being a special system for radiation therapy, which would have been derivable from Popper's theory. Also practical use could be demonstrated. (orig./ORU) [de

  11. Quantum supports and modal logic

    Svetlichny, G.

    1986-01-01

    Recently Foulis, Piron, and Randall introduced a new interpretation of empirical and quantum logics which substitute for the notion of a probabilistic weight a combinatorial notion called a support. The informal use of the notion of ''possible outcomes of experiments'' suggests that this interpretation can be related to corresponding formal notions as treated by modal logic. The purpose of this paper is to prove that in fact supports are in one-to-one correspondence with the sets of possibly true elementary propositions in Kripke models of a set of modal formulas associated to the empirical or quantum logic. This hopefully provides a sufficiently detailed link between the two rather distinct logical systems to shed useful light on both

  12. Classical Limit and Quantum Logic

    Losada, Marcelo; Fortin, Sebastian; Holik, Federico

    2018-02-01

    The analysis of the classical limit of quantum mechanics usually focuses on the state of the system. The general idea is to explain the disappearance of the interference terms of quantum states appealing to the decoherence process induced by the environment. However, in these approaches it is not explained how the structure of quantum properties becomes classical. In this paper, we consider the classical limit from a different perspective. We consider the set of properties of a quantum system and we study the quantum-to-classical transition of its logical structure. The aim is to open the door to a new study based on dynamical logics, that is, logics that change over time. In particular, we appeal to the notion of hybrid logics to describe semiclassical systems. Moreover, we consider systems with many characteristic decoherence times, whose sublattices of properties become distributive at different times.

  13. Logical Theories for Agent Introspection

    Bolander, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Artificial intelligence systems (agents) generally have models of the environments they inhabit which they use for representing facts, for reasoning about these facts and for planning actions. Much intelligent behaviour seems to involve an ability to model not only one's external environment...... by self-reference. In the standard approach taken in artificial intelligence, the model that an agent has of its environment is represented as a set of beliefs. These beliefs are expressed as logical formulas within a formal, logical theory. When the logical theory is expressive enough to allow...... introspective reasoning, the presence of self-reference causes the theory to be prone to inconsistency. The challenge therefore becomes to construct logical theories supporting introspective reasoning while at the same time ensuring that consistency is retained. In the thesis, we meet this challenge by devising...

  14. Dependence logic theory and applications

    Kontinen, Juha; Väänänen, Jouko; Vollmer, Heribert

    2016-01-01

    In this volume, different aspects of logics for dependence and independence are discussed, including both the logical and computational aspects of dependence logic, and also applications in a number of areas, such as statistics, social choice theory, databases, and computer security. The contributing authors represent leading experts in this relatively new field, each of whom was invited to write a chapter based on talks given at seminars held at the Schloss Dagstuhl Leibniz Center for Informatics in Wadern, Germany (in February 2013 and June 2015) and an Academy Colloquium at the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (March 2014). Altogether, these chapters provide the most up-to-date look at this developing and highly interdisciplinary field and will be of interest to a broad group of logicians, mathematicians, statisticians, philosophers, and scientists. Topics covered include a comprehensive survey of many propositional, modal, and first-order variants of dependence logic; new results concerning ...

  15. Nanoelectromechanical resonator for logic operations

    Kazmi, Syed N. R.; Hafiz, Md A. Al; Chappanda, Karumbaiah N.; Ilyas, Saad; Holguin, Jorge; Da Costa, Pedro M. F. J.; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2017-01-01

    We report an electro-thermally tunable in-plane doubly-clamped nanoelectromechanical resonator capable of dynamically performing NOR, NOT, XNOR, XOR, and AND logic operations. Toward this, a silicon based resonator is fabricated using standard e

  16. Empirical logic and quantum mechanics

    Foulis, D.J.; Randall, C.H.

    1976-01-01

    This article discusses some of the basic notions of quantum physics within the more general framework of operational statistics and empirical logic (as developed in Foulis and Randall, 1972, and Randall and Foulis, 1973). Empirical logic is a formal mathematical system in which the notion of an operation is primitive and undefined; all other concepts are rigorously defined in terms of such operations (which are presumed to correspond to actual physical procedures). (Auth.)

  17. Logical operations using phenyl ring

    Patra, Moumita; Maiti, Santanu K.

    2018-02-01

    Exploiting the effects of quantum interference we put forward an idea of designing three primary logic gates, OR, AND and NOT, using a benzene molecule. Under a specific molecule-lead interface geometry, anti-resonant states appear which play the crucial role for AND and NOT operations, while for OR gate no such states are required. Our analysis leads to a possibility of designing logic gates using simple molecular structure which might be significant in the area of molecular electronics.

  18. Observation Predicates in Flow Logic

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Sun, Hongyan

    2003-01-01

    in such a way that the hard constraints are satisfi ed exactly when the observation predicates report no violations. The development is carried out in a large fragment of a first order logic with negation and also takes care of the transformations necessary in order to adhere to the stratification restrictions...... inherent in Alternation-free Least Fixed Point Logic and similar formalisms such as Datalog....

  19. Logically automorphically equivalent knowledge bases

    Aladova, Elena; Plotkin, Tatjana

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge bases theory provide an important example of the field where applications of universal algebra and algebraic logic look very natural, and their interaction with practical problems arising in computer science might be very productive. In this paper we study the equivalence problem for knowledge bases. Our interest is to find out how the informational equivalence is related to the logical description of knowledge. Studying various equivalences of knowledge bases allows us to compare d...

  20. A Logic of Blockchain Updates

    Brünnler, Kai; Flumini, Dandolo; Studer, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Blockchains are distributed data structures that are used to achieve consensus in systems for cryptocurrencies (like Bitcoin) or smart contracts (like Ethereum). Although blockchains gained a lot of popularity recently, there is no logic-based model for blockchains available. We introduce BCL, a dynamic logic to reason about blockchain updates, and show that BCL is sound and complete with respect to a simple blockchain model.

  1. Logical Reasoning and Decision Making

    Ong, D; Khaddaj, Souheil; Bashroush, Rabih

    2011-01-01

    Most intelligent systems have some form of \\ud decision making mechanisms built into their \\ud organisations. These normally include a logical \\ud reasoning element into their design. This paper reviews \\ud and compares the different logical reasoning strategies, \\ud and tries to address the accuracy and precision of \\ud decision making by formulating a tolerance to \\ud imprecision view which can be used in conjunction with \\ud the various reasoning strategies.

  2. Flow Logics and Operational Semantics

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    1998-01-01

    Flow logic is a “fast prototyping” approach to program analysis that shows great promise of being able to deal with a wide variety of languages and calculi for computation. However, seemingly innocent choices in the flow logic as well as in the operational semantics may inhibit proving the analys...... correct. Our main conclusion is that environment based semantics is more flexible than either substitution based semantics or semantics making use of structural congruences (like alpha-renaming)....

  3. Some results from the combinatorial approach to quantum logic

    Greechie, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    The combinatorial approach to quantum logic focuses on certain interconnections between graphs, combinatorial designs, and convex sets as applied to a quantum logic. This article is concerned only with orthomodular lattices and associated structures. A class of complete atomic irreducible semimodular orthomodular lattices is derived which may not be represented as linear subspaces of a vector space over a division ring. Each of these lattices is a proposition system of dimension three. These proposition systems form orthocomplemented non-Desarguesian projective geometries. (B.R.H.)

  4. A logic for specifying stochastic actions and observations

    Rens, G

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available (2007) 30. Smallwood, R., Sondik, E.: The optimal control of partially observable Markov processes over a finite horizon. Operations Research 21, 1071–1088 (1973) 31. Tarski, A.: A decision method for elementary algebra and geometry. Tech. rep., The RAND... POMDPs totally into the logical arena. One is then in very familiar territory and new opportunities for the advancement in reasoning about POMDPs may be opened up. Systems of linear inequalities are at the heart of Nilsson’s probabilistic logic [19...

  5. Abstract Interpretation of PIC programs through Logic Programming

    Henriksen, Kim Steen; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2006-01-01

    , are applied to the logic based model of the machine. A small PIC microcontroller is used as a case study. An emulator for this microcontroller is written in Prolog, and standard programming transformations and analysis techniques are used to specialise this emulator with respect to a given PIC program....... The specialised emulator can now be further analysed to gain insight into the given program for the PIC microcontroller. The method describes a general framework for applying abstractions, illustrated here by linear constraints and convex hull analysis, to logic programs. Using these techniques on the specialised...

  6. Circuit Simulation of All-Spin Logic

    Alawein, Meshal

    2016-05-01

    With the aggressive scaling of complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) nearing an inevitable physical limit and its well-known power crisis, the quest for an alternative/augmenting technology that surpasses the current semiconductor electronics is needed for further technological progress. Spintronic devices emerge as prime candidates for Beyond CMOS era by utilizing the electron spin as an extra degree of freedom to decrease the power consumption and overcome the velocity limit connected with the charge. By using the nonvolatility nature of magnetization along with its direction to represent a bit of information and then manipulating it by spin-polarized currents, routes are opened for combined memory and logic. This would not have been possible without the recent discoveries in the physics of nanomagnetism such as spin-transfer torque (STT) whereby a spin-polarized current can excite magnetization dynamics through the transfer of spin angular momentum. STT have expanded the available means of switching the magnetization of magnetic layers beyond old classical techniques, promising to fulfill the need for a new generation of dense, fast, and nonvolatile logic and storage devices. All-spin logic (ASL) is among the most promising spintronic logic switches due to its low power consumption, logic-in-memory structure, and operation on pure spin currents. The device is based on a lateral nonlocal spin valve and STT switching. It utilizes two nanomagnets (whereby information is stored) that communicate with pure spin currents through a spin-coherent nonmagnetic channel. By using the well-known spin physics and the recently proposed four-component spin circuit formalism, ASL can be thoroughly studied and simulated. Previous attempts to model ASL in the linear and diffusive regime either neglect the dynamic characteristics of transport or do not provide a scalable and robust platform for full micromagnetic simulations and inclusion of other effects like spin Hall

  7. Linear algebra

    Shilov, Georgi E

    1977-01-01

    Covers determinants, linear spaces, systems of linear equations, linear functions of a vector argument, coordinate transformations, the canonical form of the matrix of a linear operator, bilinear and quadratic forms, Euclidean spaces, unitary spaces, quadratic forms in Euclidean and unitary spaces, finite-dimensional space. Problems with hints and answers.

  8. Optically controllable molecular logic circuits

    Nishimura, Takahiro; Fujii, Ryo; Ogura, Yusuke; Tanida, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Molecular logic circuits represent a promising technology for observation and manipulation of biological systems at the molecular level. However, the implementation of molecular logic circuits for temporal and programmable operation remains challenging. In this paper, we demonstrate an optically controllable logic circuit that uses fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) for signaling. The FRET-based signaling process is modulated by both molecular and optical inputs. Based on the distance dependence of FRET, the FRET pathways required to execute molecular logic operations are formed on a DNA nanostructure as a circuit based on its molecular inputs. In addition, the FRET pathways on the DNA nanostructure are controlled optically, using photoswitching fluorescent molecules to instruct the execution of the desired operation and the related timings. The behavior of the circuit can thus be controlled using external optical signals. As an example, a molecular logic circuit capable of executing two different logic operations was studied. The circuit contains functional DNAs and a DNA scaffold to construct two FRET routes for executing Input 1 AND Input 2 and Input 1 AND NOT Input 3 operations on molecular inputs. The circuit produced the correct outputs with all possible combinations of the inputs by following the light signals. Moreover, the operation execution timings were controlled based on light irradiation and the circuit responded to time-dependent inputs. The experimental results demonstrate that the circuit changes the output for the required operations following the input of temporal light signals

  9. A Comparison of Implications in Orthomodular Quantum Logic—Morphological Analysis of Quantum Logic

    Mitsuhiko Fujio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological operators are generalized to lattices as adjunction pairs (Serra, 1984; Ronse, 1990; Heijmans and Ronse, 1990; Heijmans, 1994. In particular, morphology for set lattices is applied to analyze logics through Kripke semantics (Bloch, 2002; Fujio and Bloch, 2004; Fujio, 2006. For example, a pair of morphological operators as an adjunction gives rise to a temporalization of normal modal logic (Fujio and Bloch, 2004; Fujio, 2006. Also, constructions of models for intuitionistic logic or linear logics can be described in terms of morphological interior and/or closure operators (Fujio and Bloch, 2004. This shows that morphological analysis can be applied to various non-classical logics. On the other hand, quantum logics are algebraically formalized as orhomodular or modular ortho-complemented lattices (Birkhoff and von Neumann, 1936; Maeda, 1980; Chiara and Giuntini, 2002, and shown to allow Kripke semantics (Chiara and Giuntini, 2002. This suggests the possibility of morphological analysis for quantum logics. In this article, to show an efficiency of morphological analysis for quantum logic, we consider the implication problem in quantum logics (Chiara and Giuntini, 2002. We will give a comparison of the 5 polynomial implication connectives available in quantum logics.

  10. On Structural Completeness of Tabular Superintuitionistic Logics

    Citkin, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    As usual, the superintuitionistic (propositional) logics (that is, logics extending intuitionistic logic) are being studied “modulo derivability”, meaning such logics are viewed extensionally — they are identified with the set of formulae that are valid (derivable in the corresponding calculus) in

  11. Temporal logics and real time expert systems

    Blom, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper introduces temporal logics. Due to the eternal compromise between expressive adequacy and reasoning efficiency that must decided upon in any application, full (first order logic or modal logic based) temporal logics are frequently not suitable. This is especially true in real time expert

  12. Breaking the fault tree circular logic

    Lankin, M.

    2000-01-01

    Event tree - fault tree approach to model failures of nuclear plants as well as of other complex facilities is noticeably dominant now. This approach implies modeling an object in form of unidirectional logical graph - tree, i.e. graph without circular logic. However, genuine nuclear plants intrinsically demonstrate quite a few logical loops (circular logic), especially where electrical systems are involved. This paper shows the incorrectness of existing practice of circular logic breaking by elimination of part of logical dependencies and puts forward a formal algorithm, which enables the analyst to correctly model the failure of complex object, which involves logical dependencies between system and components, in form of fault tree. (author)

  13. Proposal for the Formalization of Dialectical Logic

    José Luis Usó-Doménech

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Classical logic is typically concerned with abstract analysis. The problem for a synthetic logic is to transcend and unify available data to reconstruct the object as a totality. Three rules are proposed to pass from classic logic to synthetic logic. We present the category logic of qualitative opposition using examples from various sciences. This logic has been defined to include the neuter as part of qualitative opposition. The application of these rules to qualitative opposition, and, in particular, its neuter, demonstrated that a synthetic logic allows the truth of some contradictions. This synthetic logic is dialectical with a multi-valued logic, which gives every proposition a truth value in the interval [0,1] that is the square of the modulus of a complex number. In this dialectical logic, contradictions of the neuter of an opposition may be true.

  14. Type-2 fuzzy logic uncertain systems’ modeling and control

    Antão, Rómulo

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on a particular domain of Type-2 Fuzzy Logic, related to process modeling and control applications. It deepens readers’understanding of Type-2 Fuzzy Logic with regard to the following three topics: using simpler methods to train a Type-2 Takagi-Sugeno Fuzzy Model; using the principles of Type-2 Fuzzy Logic to reduce the influence of modeling uncertainties on a locally linear n-step ahead predictor; and developing model-based control algorithms according to the Generalized Predictive Control principles using Type-2 Fuzzy Sets. Throughout the book, theory is always complemented with practical applications and readers are invited to take their learning process one step farther and implement their own applications using the algorithms’ source codes (provided). As such, the book offers avaluable referenceguide for allengineers and researchers in the field ofcomputer science who are interested in intelligent systems, rule-based systems and modeling uncertainty.

  15. Axially modulated arch resonator for logic and memory applications

    Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al

    2018-01-17

    We demonstrate reconfigurable logic and random access memory devices based on an axially modulated clamped-guided arch resonator. The device is electrostatically actuated and the motional signal is capacitively sensed, while the resonance frequency is modulated through an axial electrostatic force from the guided side of the microbeam. A multi-physics finite element model is used to verify the effectiveness of the axial modulation. We present two case studies: first, a reconfigurable two-input logic gate based on the linear resonance frequency modulation, and second, a memory element based on the hysteretic frequency response of the resonator working in the nonlinear regime. The energy consumptions of the device for both logic and memory operations are in the range of picojoules, promising for energy efficient alternative computing paradigm.

  16. A Resolution Prover for Coalition Logic

    Nalon, Cláudia; Zhang, Lan; Dixon, Clare; Hustadt, Ullrich

    2014-01-01

    We present a prototype tool for automated reasoning for Coalition Logic, a non-normal modal logic that can be used for reasoning about cooperative agency. The theorem prover CLProver is based on recent work on a resolution-based calculus for Coalition Logic that operates on coalition problems, a normal form for Coalition Logic. We provide an overview of coalition problems and of the resolution-based calculus for Coalition Logic. We then give details of the implementation of CLProver and prese...

  17. A vindication of logical necessity against scepticism

    Philie, Patrice

    2002-01-01

    Some philosophers dispute the claim that there is a notion of logical necessity involved in the concept of logical consequence. They are sceptical about logical necessity. They argue that a proper characterisation of logical consequence - of what follows from what - need not and should not appeal to the notion of necessity at all. Quine is the most prominent philosopher holding such a view. In this doctoral dissertation, I argue that scepticism about logical necessity is not successful. Quine...

  18. A new hierarchy of infinitary logics in abstract algebraic logic

    Lávička, Tomáš; Noguera, Carles

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 3 (2017), s. 521-551 ISSN 0039-3215 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-14654S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 689176 - SYSMICS Institutional support: RVO:67985556 ; RVO:67985807 Keywords : Abstract algebraic logic * consequence relations * infinitary logics * completeness properties Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics; BA - General Mathematics (UIVT-O) OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics; Computer sciences, information science, bioinformathics (hardware development to be 2.2, social aspect to be 5.8) (UIVT-O) Impact factor: 0.589, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2017/MTR/noguera-0469118.pdf

  19. Strategies and logics of internationalization

    Mahjouba Ben Salem

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The race between firms to acquire capacities worldwide has evolved in a chronological order which centered at first around products, then around position to move later on to skills and to focus currently on networks. Similarly, when observing the evolution of the different international development strategies, it was found out that they have started by the exportation and the setting up of production subsidiaries to move more recently to such strategies as mergers & acquisitions and international alliances. The present paper investigates the relationship between the internationalization strategies and logics and comes to the conclusion that, a particular logic is behind every choice made. Indeed, the present work was conducted within the Tunisian food enterprises and helped confirm this hypothesis as it was found out that the position logic is behind the choice of exportation and the creation of production subsidiaries while the choice of partnership is based on the logic of skills. The option for merger, on the other hand, is motivated by the networks logic.

  20. A Look at Informal Logic

    Iryna Khomenko

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The challenges of the global time require new solutions and up-to-date ways of thinking and communication. These challenges call for the ability to use critical thinking to face the ever-changing world and the ability to maintain a dialog based on the effective skills of communication. Studies in the fields of logic and argumentation theory are of particular importance in this regard. Nowadays they can be presented as a mix of theoretical and practical approaches. In this paper, I will present my reflections on informal logic, which was formed in the late 1970s. Unfortunately, in spite of numerous papers, books, and text-books published over the last forty years, consensus on many issues in this field has not been achieved so far. Therefore, it is difficult to treat informal logic as one of the well-defined approaches to argumentation. The goal of this paper is to take a look at the place of informal logic in state-of-the art study of argumentation by clarifying its subject matter and figuring out the realm to which informal logic belongs.

  1. A fuzzy logic pitch angle controller for power system stabilization

    Jauch, Clemens; Cronin, Tom; Sorensen, Poul [Wind Energy Department, Riso National Laboratory, PO Box 49, DK-4000 Roskilde, (Denmark); Jensen, Birgitte Bak [Institute of Energy Technology, Aalborg University, Pontoppidanstraede 101, DK-9220 Aalborg East, (Denmark)

    2006-07-12

    In this article the design of a fuzzy logic pitch angle controller for a fixed speed, active-stall wind turbine, which is used for power system stabilization, is presented. The system to be controlled, which is the wind turbine and the power system to which the turbine is connected, is described. The advantages of fuzzy logic control when applied to large-signal control of active-stall wind turbines are outlined. The general steps of the design process for a fuzzy logic controller, including definition of the controller inputs, set-up of the fuzzy rules and the method of defuzzification, are described. The performance of the controller is assessed by simulation, where the wind turbine's task is to dampen power system oscillations. In the scenario simulated for this work, the wind turbine has to ride through a transient short-circuit fault and subsequently contribute to the damping of the grid frequency oscillations that are caused by the transient fault. It is concluded that the fuzzy logic controller enables the wind turbine to dampen power system oscillations. It is also concluded that, owing to the inherent non-linearities in a wind turbine and the unpredictability of the whole system, the fuzzy logic controller is very suitable for this application. (Author).

  2. Boolean Logic Tree of Label-Free Dual-Signal Electrochemical Aptasensor System for Biosensing, Three-State Logic Computation, and Keypad Lock Security Operation.

    Lu, Jiao Yang; Zhang, Xin Xing; Huang, Wei Tao; Zhu, Qiu Yan; Ding, Xue Zhi; Xia, Li Qiu; Luo, Hong Qun; Li, Nian Bing

    2017-09-19

    The most serious and yet unsolved problems of molecular logic computing consist in how to connect molecular events in complex systems into a usable device with specific functions and how to selectively control branchy logic processes from the cascading logic systems. This report demonstrates that a Boolean logic tree is utilized to organize and connect "plug and play" chemical events DNA, nanomaterials, organic dye, biomolecule, and denaturant for developing the dual-signal electrochemical evolution aptasensor system with good resettability for amplification detection of thrombin, controllable and selectable three-state logic computation, and keypad lock security operation. The aptasensor system combines the merits of DNA-functionalized nanoamplification architecture and simple dual-signal electroactive dye brilliant cresyl blue for sensitive and selective detection of thrombin with a wide linear response range of 0.02-100 nM and a detection limit of 1.92 pM. By using these aforementioned chemical events as inputs and the differential pulse voltammetry current changes at different voltages as dual outputs, a resettable three-input biomolecular keypad lock based on sequential logic is established. Moreover, the first example of controllable and selectable three-state molecular logic computation with active-high and active-low logic functions can be implemented and allows the output ports to assume a high impediment or nothing (Z) state in addition to the 0 and 1 logic levels, effectively controlling subsequent branchy logic computation processes. Our approach is helpful in developing the advanced controllable and selectable logic computing and sensing system in large-scale integration circuits for application in biomedical engineering, intelligent sensing, and control.

  3. Logical foundation of quantum mechanics

    Stachow, E.W.

    1980-01-01

    The subject of this article is the reconstruction of quantum mechanics on the basis of a formal language of quantum mechanical propositions. During recent years, research in the foundations of the language of science has given rise to a dialogic semantics that is adequate in the case of a formal language for quantum physics. The system of sequential logic which is comprised by the language is more general than classical logic; it includes the classical system as a special case. Although the system of sequential logic can be founded without reference to the empirical content of quantum physical propositions, it establishes an essential part of the structure of the mathematical formalism used in quantum mechanics. It is the purpose of this paper to demonstrate the connection between the formal language of quantum physics and its representation by mathematical structures in a self-contained way. (author)

  4. Coinductive Logic Programming with Negation

    Min, Richard; Gupta, Gopal

    We introduce negation into coinductive logic programming (co-LP) via what we term Coinductive SLDNF (co-SLDNF) resolution. We present declarative and operational semantics of co-SLDNF resolution and present their equivalence under the restriction of rationality. Co-LP with co-SLDNF resolution provides a powerful, practical and efficient operational semantics for Fitting's Kripke-Kleene three-valued logic with restriction of rationality. Further, applications of co-SLDNF resolution are also discussed and illustrated where Co-SLDNF resolution allows one to develop elegant implementations of modal logics. Moreover it provides the capability of non-monotonic inference (e.g., predicate Answer Set Programming) that can be used to develop novel and effective first-order modal non-monotonic inference engines.

  5. Logic, probability, and human reasoning.

    Johnson-Laird, P N; Khemlani, Sangeet S; Goodwin, Geoffrey P

    2015-04-01

    This review addresses the long-standing puzzle of how logic and probability fit together in human reasoning. Many cognitive scientists argue that conventional logic cannot underlie deductions, because it never requires valid conclusions to be withdrawn - not even if they are false; it treats conditional assertions implausibly; and it yields many vapid, although valid, conclusions. A new paradigm of probability logic allows conclusions to be withdrawn and treats conditionals more plausibly, although it does not address the problem of vapidity. The theory of mental models solves all of these problems. It explains how people reason about probabilities and postulates that the machinery for reasoning is itself probabilistic. Recent investigations accordingly suggest a way to integrate probability and deduction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Review: Joseph Patrick Ganahl, Corruption, Good Governance, and the African State: A Critical Analysis of the Political-Economic Foundations of Corruption in Sub-Saharan Africa (2013

    Reinhart Kößler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Review of the monograph:Joseph Patrick Ganahl, Corruption, Good Governance, and the African State: A Critical Analysis of the Political-Economic Foundations of Corruption in Sub-Saharan Africa, Potsdam: Potsdam University Press, 2013, ISBN 9783869562483, 300 pp.

  7. Ténèbres khmères: les revenants de Phnom Penh : à propos de Kampuchéa de Patrick Deville

    van Montfrans, M.; Freyermuth, S.; Bonnot, J.-F.P.

    2014-01-01

    Remonter le Mékong comme Patrick Deville dans les traces de Henri Mouhot, paisible explorateur du XIXe siècle, naturaliste chasseur de papillons, semble une entreprise plus idyllique que de parcourir le monde contemporain comme l’a fait Jean Rolin pour une enquête sur les chiens errants. Ma

  8. On-line tuning of a fuzzy-logic power system stabilizer

    Hossein-Zadeh, N.; Kalam, A.

    2002-01-01

    A scheme for on-line tuning of a fuzzy-logic power system stabilizer is presented. firstly, a fuzzy-logic power system stabilizer is developed using speed deviation and accelerating power as the controller input variables. The inference mechanism of fuzzy-logic controller is represented by a decision table, constructed of linguistic IF-THEN rules. The Linguistic rules are available from experts and the design procedure is based on these rules. It assumed that an exact model of the plant is not available and it is difficult to extract the exact parameters of the power plant. Thus, the design procedure can not be based on an exact model. This is an advantage of fuzzy logic that makes the design of a controller possible without knowing the exact model of the plant. Secondly, two scaling parameters are introduced to tune the fuzzy-logic power system stabilizer. These scaling parameters are the outputs of another fuzzy-logic system, which gets the operating conditions of power system as inputs. These mechanism of tuning the fuzzy-logic power system stabilizer makes the fuzzy-logic power system stabilizer adaptive to changes in the operating conditions. Therefore, the degradation of the system response, under a wide range of operating conditions, is less compared to the system response with a fixed-parameter fuzzy-logic power system stabilizer and a conventional (linear) power system stabilizer. The tuned stabilizer has been tested by performing nonlinear simulations using a synchronous machine-infinite bus model. The responses are compared with a fixed parameters fuzzy-logic power system stabilizer and a conventional (linear) power system stabilizer. It is shown that the tuned fuzzy-logic power system stabilizer is superior to both of them

  9. Classical Syllogisms in Logic Teaching

    Øhrstrøm, Peter; Sandborg-Petersen, Ulrik; Thorvaldsen, Steinar

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the challenges of introducing classical syllogisms in university courses in elementary logic and human reasoning. Using a program written in Prolog+CG, some empirical studies have been carried out involving three groups of students in Denmark; one group of philosophy students...... have a tendency correctly to assess valid syllogisms as such more often than correctly assessing invalid syllogisms as such. It is also investigated to what extent the students have improved their skills in practical reasoning by attending the logic courses. Finally, some open questions regarding...

  10. The logical foundations of mathematics

    Hatcher, William S

    1981-01-01

    The Logical Foundations of Mathematics offers a study of the foundations of mathematics, stressing comparisons between and critical analyses of the major non-constructive foundational systems. The position of constructivism within the spectrum of foundational philosophies is discussed, along with the exact relationship between topos theory and set theory.Comprised of eight chapters, this book begins with an introduction to first-order logic. In particular, two complete systems of axioms and rules for the first-order predicate calculus are given, one for efficiency in proving metatheorems, and

  11. Symmetric normalisation for intuitionistic logic

    Guenot, Nicolas; Straßburger, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    We present two proof systems for implication-only intuitionistic logic in the calculus of structures. The first is a direct adaptation of the standard sequent calculus to the deep inference setting, and we describe a procedure for cut elimination, similar to the one from the sequent calculus......, but using a non-local rewriting. The second system is the symmetric completion of the first, as normally given in deep inference for logics with a DeMorgan duality: all inference rules have duals, as cut is dual to the identity axiom. We prove a generalisation of cut elimination, that we call symmetric...

  12. Sequential logic analysis and synthesis

    Cavanagh, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Until now, there was no single resource for actual digital system design. Using both basic and advanced concepts, Sequential Logic: Analysis and Synthesis offers a thorough exposition of the analysis and synthesis of both synchronous and asynchronous sequential machines. With 25 years of experience in designing computing equipment, the author stresses the practical design of state machines. He clearly delineates each step of the structured and rigorous design principles that can be applied to practical applications. The book begins by reviewing the analysis of combinatorial logic and Boolean a

  13. An exercise in 'anhomomorphic logic'

    Sorkin, Rafael D

    2007-01-01

    A classical logic exhibits a threefold inner structure comprising an algebra of propositions U, a space of 'truth values' V, and a distinguished family of mappings φ from propositions to truth values. Classically U is a Boolean algebra, V = Z 2 , and the admissible maps φ: U Z 2 are homomorphisms. If one admits a larger set of maps, one obtains an anhomomorphic logic that seems better suited to quantal reality (and the needs of quantum gravity). I explain these ideas and illustrate them with three simple examples

  14. Logic programming and metadata specifications

    Lopez, Antonio M., Jr.; Saacks, Marguerite E.

    1992-01-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) ideas and techniques are critical to the development of intelligent information systems that will be used to collect, manipulate, and retrieve the vast amounts of space data produced by 'Missions to Planet Earth.' Natural language processing, inference, and expert systems are at the core of this space application of AI. This paper presents logic programming as an AI tool that can support inference (the ability to draw conclusions from a set of complicated and interrelated facts). It reports on the use of logic programming in the study of metadata specifications for a small problem domain of airborne sensors, and the dataset characteristics and pointers that are needed for data access.

  15. Design and experimentation of BSFQ logic devices

    Hosoki, T.; Kodaka, H.; Kitagawa, M.; Okabe, Y.

    1999-01-01

    Rapid single flux quantum (RSFQ) logic needs synchronous pulses for each gate, so the clock-wiring problem is more serious when designing larger scale circuits with this logic. So we have proposed a new SFQ logic which follows Boolean algebra perfectly by using set and reset pulses. With this logic, the level information of current input is transmitted with these pulses generated by level-to-pulse converters, and each gate calculates logic using its phase level made by these pulses. Therefore, our logic needs no clock in each gate. We called this logic 'Boolean SFQ (BSFQ) logic'. In this paper, we report design and experimentation for an AND gate with inverting input based on BSFQ logic. The experimental results for OR and XOR gates are also reported. (author)

  16. Logical space and the origins of pluralism in logic

    Arazim, Pavel

    -, č. 2 (2017), s. 7-26 ISSN 0567-8293 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-15645S Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : pluralism * expressivism * logical space * geometry * holism Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion OBOR OECD: Philosophy, History and Philosophy of science and technology

  17. James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant recirculation pumps vibration system installation and performance since July 7, 1990

    Lefter, J.

    1992-01-01

    James A. FitzPatrick recirculation pumps are vertical units consisting of General Electric 5,300 hp variable speed motors driving Byron Jackson Pumps. Speed range is from 400 rpm at 20% reactor power to 1,480 rpm at 100% power. Full speed pump output is 42,500 gpm at 530 ft. head. This paper describes the vibration monitoring system. The design of this vibration monitoring system took about five months and was installed during plant refueling outage between February and May 1990. The objectives of this project were as follows: (1) document and assess the mechanical condition of each RRP during plant startup normal operation and shutdown; (2) identify any areas of operation that might be harmful to the unit; (3) perform impact testing of the proximity probe brackets to determine if any bracket resonances existed in the 0 to 20 times operating speed region (0 to 20X); (4) define and recommend Acceptance Regions in the TDM system

  18. Duality Theory and Categorical Universal Logic: With Emphasis on Quantum Structures

    Yoshihiro Maruyama

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Categorical Universal Logic is a theory of monad-relativised hyperdoctrines (or fibred universal algebras, which in particular encompasses categorical forms of both first-order and higher-order quantum logics as well as classical, intuitionistic, and diverse substructural logics. Here we show there are those dual adjunctions that have inherent hyperdoctrine structures in their predicate functor parts. We systematically investigate into the categorical logics of dual adjunctions by utilising Johnstone-Dimov-Tholen's duality-theoretic framework. Our set-theoretical duality-based hyperdoctrines for quantum logic have both universal and existential quantifiers (and higher-order structures, giving rise to a universe of Takeuti-Ozawa's quantum sets via the tripos-to-topos construction by Hyland-Johnstone-Pitts. The set-theoretical hyperdoctrinal models of quantum logic, as well as all quantum hyperdoctrines with cartesian base categories, turn out to give sound and complete semantics for Faggian-Sambin's first-order quantum sequent calculus over cartesian type theory; in addition, quantum hyperdoctrines with monoidal base categories are sound and complete for the calculus over linear type theory. We finally consider how to reconcile Birkhoff-von Neumann's quantum logic and Abramsky-Coecke's categorical quantum mechanics (which is modernised quantum logic as an antithesis to the traditional one via categorical universal logic.

  19. Ionospheric Response to St. Patrick's Day Storm of 2015 Over Indian Region: Ionosonde and All-Sky Imager Observations

    Gupta, S.; Upadhayaya, A. K.; Taori, A. K.; Kotnala, R. K.

    2017-12-01

    The St. Patrick's Day Storm of 2015 was the first superstorm of 24th solar cycle, with Dst dipping down to -223 nT. The response of this severe (G4) storm is studied using ionosonde data at low-mid latitude Indian station, Delhi (28.6°N, 77.2°E), along with 630.0 nm night airglow observations from low latitude Indian station, Gadanki (13.5°N, 79.2°E). A peculiar occurrence of additional stratification, not observed before at this latitude, is found to be present between F1 and F2 layers before the SSC of the storm. This observed extra stratification in F layer (F1.5) is attributed to TIDs during vertically uplifted F region. Apart from this, additional stratification above F2 layer, lasting for about half an hour, was seen during this storm. A large variation in F2 layer critical parameters, showing both positive and negative phases, with electron density enhancement of 264% and depression of 65%, is observed during this storm. Contrary to the previous reports, Spread-F occurrence at Delhi do not follow anticorrelation with solar activity. The night airglow observations of 630.0 nm from Gadanki indicates towards the presence of external forcing which results in drifting of plasma in the opposite direction (westward) to that of normally seen, during this St. Patrick's Day storm of 2015. The variation in neutral composition (O/N2 taken from GUVI) is found during this storm. This result suggests O/N2 ratio to be a vital contributor, apart from the electric field and neutral wind, in determining the ionospheric response to such transient events.

  20. St. Patrick's Day 2015 geomagnetic storm analysis based on Real Time Ionosphere Monitoring

    García-Rigo, Alberto

    2017-04-01

    Ionosphere Monitoring (RTIM) is a new Working Group within the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) Sub-Commission 4.3 "Atmosphere Remote Sensing". The complementary expertise of the participating research groups allows to analyse the ionospheric behaviour from a broad perspective, taking benefit of comparing multiple independent real time and near real time ionospheric approaches. In this context, a detailed analysis will be presented for the days in March, 2015 surrounding St. Patrick's Day 2015 geomagnetic storm, based on the existing ionospheric models (global or regional) within the group, which are mainly based on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) and ionosonde data. For this purpose, a variety of ionospheric parameters will be considered, including Total Electron Content (TEC), F2 layer critical frequency (foF2), F2 layer peak (hmF2), bottomside half-thickness (B0) and ionospheric disturbance W-index. Also, ionospheric high-frequency perturbations such as Travelling Ionospheric Disturbances (TIDs), scintillations and the impact of solar flares facing the Earth will be presented to derive a clear picture of the ionospheric dynamics. Among other sources of information to take part in the comparisons, there will be (1) scintillation results -from MONITOR ESA/ESTEC-funded project- derived by means of S4 index and Sigma Phi (IEEA), specially significant in the African sector and European high latitudes, (2) dynamics of the global maps of W-index with 1h resolution derived from JPL Global Ionospheric Maps (GIMs; IZMIRAN), (3) deviations from expected quiet-time behavior analysed in terms of foF2, hmF2, B0 and B1 based on IRTAM and GIRO network of digisondes (Lowell), showing F2 layer peculiar changes due to the storm, (4) statistics based on the median of the VTEC for the 15 previous days considering VTEC european regional maps (ROB), (5) time series of VTEC data that are derived by running the NRT ionosphere model of DGFI-TUM in offline mode, which show

  1. Threatened and Endangered Species Survey for Patrick Air Force Base, Florida

    Oddy, Donna M.; Stolen, Eric D.; Schmalzer, Paul A.; Larson, Vickie L.; Hall, Patrice; Hensley, Melissa A.

    1997-01-01

    A review of previous environmental work conducted at Patrick Air Force Base (PAFB) indicated that several threatened, endangered, or species of special concern occurred or had the potential to occur there. This study was implemented to collect more information on protected species at PAFB. A map of landcover types was prepared for PAFB using aerial photography, groundtruthing, and a geographic information system (GIS). Herbaceous vegetation was the most common vegetation type. The second most abundant vegetation type was disturbed shrubs/exotics. The beach and associated dune vegetation comprised 3.2% of the land area, but was the most extensive natural community within PAFB. A few isolated mangrove communities exist along the Banana River. Seventy-seven species of vascular plants occurred on the dunes, including four species listed by state agencies: spider lily (Hymenocallis latifolia), prickly pear cactus (Opuntia stricta), beach star (Remirea maritima), and inkberry (Scaevola plumien). Surveys of other habitats revealed eighty-four species of vascular plants including two state-listed species: spider lily and prickly pear cactus. Many of these areas are dominated by invasive, exotic species, particularly Brazilian pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius) and Australian pine (Casuarina equisetifolia), and native species of open or disturbed sites such as camphorweed (Heterotheca subaxillaris) and beardgrass (Andropogon spp.). Due to the isolation of PAFB from other natural areas, most exotic plant populations on the base are not an immediate threat to intact native plant communities. Dune habitat was surveyed for the southeastem beach mouse (Peromyscus polionotus niveiventris) by quarterly trapping along eight 100 m transects. No beach mice were found. The limited extent of dune habitat, its fragmented condition, and the isolation of PAFB from extant populations of the beach mouse probably accounts for its absence. Surveys of birds on PAFB found an avifauna

  2. Implicational (semilinear) logics III: completeness properties

    Cintula, Petr; Noguera, Carles

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 57, 3-4 (2018), s. 391-420 ISSN 0933-5846 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-14654S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 689176 - SYSMICS Institutional support: RVO:67985807 ; RVO:67985556 Keywords : abstract algebraic logic * protoalgebraic logics * implicational logics * disjunctional logics * semilinear logics * non-classical logics * completeness theorems * rational completeness Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics; BA - General Mathematics (UTIA-B) OBOR OECD: Computer science s, information science , bioinformathics (hardware development to be 2.2, social aspect to be 5.8) Impact factor: 0.394, year: 2016

  3. A fast-slow logic system

    Kawashima, Hideo.

    1977-01-01

    A fast-slow logic system has been made for use in multi-detector experiments in nuclear physics such as particle-gamma and particle-particle coincidence experiments. The system consists of a fast logic system and a slow logic system. The fast logic system has a function of fast coincidences and provides timing signals for the slow logic system. The slow logic system has a function of slow coincidences and a routing control of input analog signals to the ADCs. (auth.)

  4. Microelectromechanical resonator based digital logic elements

    Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al

    2016-10-20

    Micro/nano-electromechanical resonator based mechanical computing has recently attracted significant attention. However, its full realization has been hindered by the difficulty in realizing complex combinational logics, in which the logic function is constructed by cascading multiple smaller logic blocks. In this work we report an alternative approach for implementation of digital logic core elements, multiplexer and demultiplexer, which can be used to realize combinational logic circuits by suitable concatenation. Toward this, shallow arch shaped microresonators are electrically connected and their resonance frequencies are tuned based on an electrothermal frequency modulation scheme. This study demonstrates that by reconfiguring the same basic building block, the arch microresonator, complex logic circuits can be realized.

  5. Aspects and modular reasoning in nonmonotonic logic

    Ostermann, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Nonmonotonic logic is a branch of logic that has been developed to model situations with incomplete information. We argue that there is a connection between AOP and nonmonotonic logic which deserves further study. As a concrete technical contribution and "appetizer", we outline an AO semantics de...... defined in default logic (a form of nonmonotonic logic), propose a definition of modular reasoning, and show that the default logic version of the language semantics admits modular reasoning whereas a conventional language semantics based on weaving does not....

  6. Implicational (semilinear) logics III: completeness properties

    Cintula, Petr; Noguera, Carles

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 57, 3-4 (2018), s. 391-420 ISSN 0933-5846 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-14654S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 689176 - SYSMICS Institutional support: RVO:67985807 ; RVO:67985556 Keywords : abstract algebraic logic * protoalgebraic logics * implicational logics * disjunctional logics * semilinear logics * non-classical logics * completeness theorems * rational completeness Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics; BA - General Mathematics (UTIA-B) OBOR OECD: Computer sciences, information science, bioinformathics (hardware development to be 2.2, social aspect to be 5.8) Impact factor: 0.394, year: 2016

  7. Microelectromechanical resonator based digital logic elements

    Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al; Kosuru, Lakshmoji; Younis, Mohammad I.; Fariborzi, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Micro/nano-electromechanical resonator based mechanical computing has recently attracted significant attention. However, its full realization has been hindered by the difficulty in realizing complex combinational logics, in which the logic function is constructed by cascading multiple smaller logic blocks. In this work we report an alternative approach for implementation of digital logic core elements, multiplexer and demultiplexer, which can be used to realize combinational logic circuits by suitable concatenation. Toward this, shallow arch shaped microresonators are electrically connected and their resonance frequencies are tuned based on an electrothermal frequency modulation scheme. This study demonstrates that by reconfiguring the same basic building block, the arch microresonator, complex logic circuits can be realized.

  8. HYPROLOG: A New Logic Programming Language with Assumptions and Abduction

    Christiansen, Henning; Dahl, Veronica

    2005-01-01

    We present HYPROLOG, a novel integration of Prolog with assumptions and abduction which is implemented in and partly borrows syntax from Constraint Handling Rules (CHR) for integrity constraints. Assumptions are a mechanism inspired by linear logic and taken over from Assumption Grammars. The lan......We present HYPROLOG, a novel integration of Prolog with assumptions and abduction which is implemented in and partly borrows syntax from Constraint Handling Rules (CHR) for integrity constraints. Assumptions are a mechanism inspired by linear logic and taken over from Assumption Grammars....... The language shows a novel flexibility in the interaction between the different paradigms, including all additional built-in predicates and constraints solvers that may be available. Assumptions and abduction are especially useful for language processing, and we can show how HYPROLOG works seamlessly together...

  9. Probabilistic Logic and Probabilistic Networks

    Haenni, R.; Romeijn, J.-W.; Wheeler, G.; Williamson, J.

    2009-01-01

    While in principle probabilistic logics might be applied to solve a range of problems, in practice they are rarely applied at present. This is perhaps because they seem disparate, complicated, and computationally intractable. However, we shall argue in this programmatic paper that several approaches

  10. Phonotactics in inductive logic programming

    Nerbonne, J.; Konstantopoulos, S.; Klopotek, M.A.; Wierzchon, S.T.; Trojanowski, K.

    2004-01-01

    We examine the results of applying inductive logic programming (ILP) to a relatively simple linguistic task, that of recognizing monosyllables in one language. ILP is suited to linguistic problems given linguists' preference for formulating their theories in discrete rules, and because of ILP's

  11. Logics of communication and change

    van Benthem, Johan; van Eijck, Jan; Kooi, Barteld

    2006-01-01

    Current dynamic epistemic logics for analyzing effects of informational events often become cumbersome and opaque when common knowledge is added for groups of agents. Still, postconditions involving common knowledge are essential to successful multi-agent communication. We propose new systems that

  12. Generic physical protection logic trees

    Paulus, W.K.

    1981-10-01

    Generic physical protection logic trees, designed for application to nuclear facilities and materials, are presented together with a method of qualitative evaluation of the trees for design and analysis of physical protection systems. One or more defense zones are defined where adversaries interact with the physical protection system. Logic trees that are needed to describe the possible scenarios within a defense zone are selected. Elements of a postulated or existing physical protection system are tagged to the primary events of the logic tree. The likelihood of adversary success in overcoming these elements is evaluated on a binary, yes/no basis. The effect of these evaluations is propagated through the logic of each tree to determine whether the adversary is likely to accomplish the end event of the tree. The physical protection system must be highly likely to overcome the adversary before he accomplishes his objective. The evaluation must be conducted for all significant states of the site. Deficiencies uncovered become inputs to redesign and further analysis, closing the loop on the design/analysis cycle

  13. Testing Superconductor Logic Integrated Circuits

    Arun, A.J.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    2005-01-01

    Superconductor logic has the potential of extremely low-power consumption and ultra-fast digital signal processing. Unfortunately, the obtained yield of the present processes is low and specific faults occur. This paper deals with fault-modelling, Design-for-Test structures, and ATPG for these

  14. Generic physical protection logic trees

    Paulus, W.K.

    1981-10-01

    Generic physical protection logic trees, designed for application to nuclear facilities and materials, are presented together with a method of qualitative evaluation of the trees for design and analysis of physical protection systems. One or more defense zones are defined where adversaries interact with the physical protection system. Logic trees that are needed to describe the possible scenarios within a defense zone are selected. Elements of a postulated or existing physical protection system are tagged to the primary events of the logic tree. The likelihood of adversary success in overcoming these elements is evaluated on a binary, yes/no basis. The effect of these evaluations is propagated through the logic of each tree to determine whether the adversary is likely to accomplish the end event of the tree. The physical protection system must be highly likely to overcome the adversary before he accomplishes his objective. The evaluation must be conducted for all significant states of the site. Deficiencies uncovered become inputs to redesign and further analysis, closing the loop on the design/analysis cycle.

  15. The modal logic of forcing

    Hamkins, J.D.; Löwe, B.

    2008-01-01

    A set theoretical assertion psi is forceable or possible, written lozenge psi, if psi holds in some forcing extension, and necessary, written square psi, if psi holds in all forcing extensions. In this forcing interpretation of modal logic, we establish that if ZFC is consistent, then the

  16. Logical Entity Level Sentiment Analysis

    Petersen, Niklas Christoffer; Villadsen, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    We present a formal logical approach using a combinatory categorial grammar for entity level sentiment analysis that utilizes machine learning techniques for efficient syntactical tagging and performs a deep structural analysis of the syntactical properties of texts in order to yield precise resu...

  17. Linear gate

    Suwono.

    1978-01-01

    A linear gate providing a variable gate duration from 0,40μsec to 4μsec was developed. The electronic circuity consists of a linear circuit and an enable circuit. The input signal can be either unipolar or bipolar. If the input signal is bipolar, the negative portion will be filtered. The operation of the linear gate is controlled by the application of a positive enable pulse. (author)

  18. Linear Accelerators

    Vretenar, M

    2014-01-01

    The main features of radio-frequency linear accelerators are introduced, reviewing the different types of accelerating structures and presenting the main characteristics aspects of linac beam dynamics

  19. FUZZY LOGIC IN LEGAL EDUCATION

    Z. Gonul BALKIR

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of examination of every case within its peculiar conditions in social sciences requires different approaches complying with the spirit and nature of social sciences. Multiple realities require different and various perceptual interpretations. In modern world and social sciences, interpretation of perception of valued and multi-valued have been started to be understood by the principles of fuzziness and fuzzy logic. Having the verbally expressible degrees of truthness such as true, very true, rather true, etc. fuzzy logic provides the opportunity for the interpretation of especially complex and rather vague set of information by flexibility or equivalence of the variables’ of fuzzy limitations. The methods and principles of fuzzy logic can be benefited in examination of the methodological problems of law, especially in the applications of filling the legal loopholes arising from the ambiguities and interpretation problems in order to understand the legal rules in a more comprehensible and applicable way and the efficiency of legal implications. On the other hand, fuzzy logic can be used as a technical legal method in legal education and especially in legal case studies and legal practice applications in order to provide the perception of law as a value and the more comprehensive and more quality perception and interpretation of value of justice, which is the core value of law. In the perception of what happened as it has happened in legal relationships and formations, the understanding of social reality and sociological legal rules with multi valued sense perspective and the their applications in accordance with the fuzzy logic’s methods could create more equivalent and just results. It can be useful for the young lawyers and law students as a facilitating legal method especially in the materialization of the perception and interpretation of multi valued and variables. Using methods and principles of fuzzy logic in legal

  20. A new quantum flux parametron logic gate with large input margin

    Hioe, W.; Hosoya, M.; Goto, E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the Quantum Flux Parametron (QFP) which is a flux transfer, flux activated Josephson logic device which realizes much lower power dissipation than other Josephson logic devices. Being a two-terminal device its correct operation may be affected by coupling to other QFPs. The problems include backcoupling from active QFPs through inactive QFPs (relay noise), coupling between QFPs activated at different times because of clock skew (homophase noise), and interaction between active QFPs (reaction hazard). Previous QFP circuits worked by wired-majority, which being a linear input logic, has low input margin. A new logic gate (D-gate) using a QFP to perform logic operations has been analyzed and tested by computer simulation. Relay noise, homophase noise and reaction hazard are substantially reduced. Moreover, the input have little interaction hence input margin is greatly improved

  1. Acoustic logic gates and Boolean operation based on self-collimating acoustic beams

    Zhang, Ting; Xu, Jian-yi; Cheng, Ying; Liu, Xiao-jun; Guo, Jian-zhong

    2015-01-01

    The reveal of self-collimation effect in two-dimensional (2D) photonic or acoustic crystals has opened up possibilities for signal manipulation. In this paper, we have proposed acoustic logic gates based on the linear interference of self-collimated beams in 2D sonic crystals (SCs) with line-defects. The line defects on the diagonal of the 2D square SCs are actually functioning as a 3 dB splitter. By adjusting the phase difference between two input signals, the basic Boolean logic functions such as XOR, OR, AND, and NOT are achieved both theoretically and experimentally. Due to the non-diffracting property of self-collimation beams, more complex Boolean logic and algorithms such as NAND, NOR, and XNOR can be realized by cascading the basic logic gates. The achievement of acoustic logic gates and Boolean operation provides a promising approach for acoustic signal computing and manipulations

  2. Logical and mathematical structures of quantum mechanics

    Beltrametti, E.G.; Cassinelli, G.

    1976-01-01

    The logic associated with a physical system is first analysed, and the general properties of observable and states are discussed. The logic of the Hilbert-space formulation of quantum mechanics and of pure, ideal measurements is described

  3. A superposition principle in quantum logics

    Pulmannova, S.

    1976-01-01

    A new definition of the superposition principle in quantum logics is given which enables us to define the sectors. It is shown that the superposition principle holds only in the irreducible quantum logics. (orig.) [de

  4. Mathematical logic foundations for information science

    Li, Wei

    2010-01-01

    This book presents the basic principles and formal calculus of mathematical logic. It covers core contents, extensions and developments of classical mathematical logic, and it offers formal proofs and concrete examples for all theoretical results.

  5. Logic functions and equations examples and exercises

    Steinbach, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    With a free, downloadable software package available to help solve the exercises, this book focuses on practical and relevant problems that arise in the field of binary logics, with its two main applications - digital circuit design, and propositional logics.

  6. Semantic foundation for preferential description logics

    Britz, K

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Description logics are a well-established family of knowledge representation formalisms in Artificial Intelligence. Enriching description logics with non-monotonic reasoning capabilities, especially preferential reasoning as developed by Lehmann...

  7. Towards practical defeasible reasoning for description logics

    Casini, G

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The formalisation of defeasible reasoning in automated systems is becoming increasingly important. Description Logics (DLs) are nowadays the main logical formalism in the field of formal ontologies. Our focus in this paper is to devise a practical...

  8. Error-Transparent Quantum Gates for Small Logical Qubit Architectures

    Kapit, Eliot

    2018-02-01

    One of the largest obstacles to building a quantum computer is gate error, where the physical evolution of the state of a qubit or group of qubits during a gate operation does not match the intended unitary transformation. Gate error stems from a combination of control errors and random single qubit errors from interaction with the environment. While great strides have been made in mitigating control errors, intrinsic qubit error remains a serious problem that limits gate fidelity in modern qubit architectures. Simultaneously, recent developments of small error-corrected logical qubit devices promise significant increases in logical state lifetime, but translating those improvements into increases in gate fidelity is a complex challenge. In this Letter, we construct protocols for gates on and between small logical qubit devices which inherit the parent device's tolerance to single qubit errors which occur at any time before or during the gate. We consider two such devices, a passive implementation of the three-qubit bit flip code, and the author's own [E. Kapit, Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 150501 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.150501] very small logical qubit (VSLQ) design, and propose error-tolerant gate sets for both. The effective logical gate error rate in these models displays superlinear error reduction with linear increases in single qubit lifetime, proving that passive error correction is capable of increasing gate fidelity. Using a standard phenomenological noise model for superconducting qubits, we demonstrate a realistic, universal one- and two-qubit gate set for the VSLQ, with error rates an order of magnitude lower than those for same-duration operations on single qubits or pairs of qubits. These developments further suggest that incorporating small logical qubits into a measurement based code could substantially improve code performance.

  9. A Logical Characterisation of Static Equivalence

    Hüttel, Hans; Pedersen, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    -order logic for frames with quantification over environment knowledge which, under certain general conditions, characterizes static equivalence and is amenable to construction of characteristic formulae. The logic can be used to reason about environment knowledge and can be adapted to a particular application...... by defining a suitable signature and associated equational theory. The logic can furthermore be extended with modalities to yield a modal logic for e.g. the Applied Pi calculus....

  10. BIO Logical Agents: Norms, Beliefs, Intentions in Defeasible Logic

    Governatori, Guido; Rotolo, Antonino

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we follow the BOID (Belief, Obligation, Intention, Desire) architecture to describe agents and agent types in Defeasible Logic. We argue, in particular, that the introduction of obligations can provide a new reading of the concepts of intention and intentionality. Then we examine the notion of social agent (i.e., an agent where obligations prevail over intentions) and discuss some computational and philosophical issues related to it. We show th...

  11. Linear algebra

    Said-Houari, Belkacem

    2017-01-01

    This self-contained, clearly written textbook on linear algebra is easily accessible for students. It begins with the simple linear equation and generalizes several notions from this equation for the system of linear equations and introduces the main ideas using matrices. It then offers a detailed chapter on determinants and introduces the main ideas with detailed proofs. The third chapter introduces the Euclidean spaces using very simple geometric ideas and discusses various major inequalities and identities. These ideas offer a solid basis for understanding general Hilbert spaces in functional analysis. The following two chapters address general vector spaces, including some rigorous proofs to all the main results, and linear transformation: areas that are ignored or are poorly explained in many textbooks. Chapter 6 introduces the idea of matrices using linear transformation, which is easier to understand than the usual theory of matrices approach. The final two chapters are more advanced, introducing t...

  12. Proof systems for Moss’ coalgebraic logic

    Bílková, M.; Palmigiano, A.; Venema, Y.

    2014-01-01

    We study Gentzen-style proof theory of the finitary version of the coalgebraic logic introduced by L. Moss. The logic captures the behaviour of coalgebras for a large class of set functors. The syntax of the logic, defined uniformly with respect to a finitary coalgebraic type functor T , uses a

  13. The Dynamic Turn in Quantum Logic

    Baltag, A.; Smets, S.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we show how ideas coming from two areas of research in logic can reinforce each other. The first such line of inquiry concerns the "dynamic turn" in logic and especially the formalisms inspired by Propositional Dynamic Logic (PDL); while the second line concerns research into the

  14. Quantum team logic and Bell's inequalities

    Hyttinen, T.; Paolini, G.; Väänänen, J.

    2015-01-01

    A logical approach to Bell’s Inequalities of quantum mechanics has been introduced by Abramsky and Hardy (Abramsky & Hardy, 2012). We point out that the logical Bell’s Inequalities of Abramsky & Hardy (2012) are provable in the probability logic of Fagin, Halpern and Megiddo (Fagin et al., 1990).

  15. The dynamic turn in quantum logic

    Baltag, Alexandru; Smets, Sonja

    In this paper we show how ideas coming from two areas of research in logic can reinforce each other. The first such line of inquiry concerns the "dynamic turn" in logic and especially the formalisms inspired by Propositional Dynamic Logic (PDL); while the second line concerns research into the

  16. Translating Dominant Institutional Logics in Practice

    Agger Nielsen, Jeppe; Jensen, Tina Blegind

    In this paper we examine the proliferation of a new mobile technology in a structured setting of home care in Denmark, focusing on how actions at multiple levels interact to enable technology diffusion and institutionalization. The case study shows how a dominating field level logic...... that combining an institutional logic perspective with a translation perspective furthers our understanding of the malleability of institutional logics....

  17. An Adequate First Order Logic of Intervals

    Chaochen, Zhou; Hansen, Michael Reichhardt

    1998-01-01

    This paper introduces left and right neighbourhoods as primitive interval modalities to define other unary and binary modalities of intervals in a first order logic with interval length. A complete first order logic for the neighbourhood modalities is presented. It is demonstrated how the logic can...... support formal specification and verification of liveness and fairness, and also of various notions of real analysis....

  18. Piaget's Logic of Meanings: Still Relevant Today

    Wavering, Michael James

    2011-01-01

    In his last book, "Toward a Logic of Meanings" (Piaget & Garcia, 1991), Jean Piaget describes how thought can be categorized into a form of propositional logic, a logic of meanings. The intent of this article is to offer this analysis by Piaget as a means to understand the language and teaching of science. Using binary propositions, conjunctions,…

  19. Dialogues as a dynamic framework for logic

    Rückert, Helge

    2007-01-01

    Dialogical logic is a game-theoretical approach to logic. Logic is studied with the help of certain games, which can be thought of as idealized argumentations. Two players, the Proponent, who puts forward the initial thesis and tries to defend it, and the Opponent, who tries to attack the

  20. Hybrid Logical Analyses of the Ambient Calculus

    Bolander, Thomas; Hansen, Rene Rydhof

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, hybrid logic is used to formulate three control flow analyses for Mobile Ambients, a process calculus designed for modelling mobility. We show that hybrid logic is very well-suited to express the semantic structure of the ambient calculus and how features of hybrid logic can...

  1. Mathematical Fuzzy Logic - State of Art 2001

    Hájek, Petr

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 24, - (2003), s. 71-89 ISSN 0103-9059. [WOLLIC'2001. Brasília, 31.07.2001-03.08.2001] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A056 Keywords : fuzzy logic * many valued logic * basic fuzzy logic BL Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://www.mat.unb.br/~matcont/24_4.pdf

  2. A crash course in arrow logic

    Venema, Y.

    This contribution gives a short introduction to arrow logic. We start by explaining the basic idea underlying arrow logic and the motivation for studying it (sections 1 and 2) We discuss some elementary duality theory between arrow logic and the algebraic theory of binary relations (section 3).

  3. Logics of Business Education for Sustainability

    Andersson, Pernilla; Öhman, Johan

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores various kinds of logics of "business education for sustainability" and how these "logics" position the subject business person, based on eight teachers' reasoning of their own practices. The concept of logics developed within a discourse theoretical framework is employed to analyse the teachers' reasoning.…

  4. General Logic-Systems and Consequence Operators

    Herrmann, Robert A.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, general logic-systems are investigated. It is shown that there are infinitely many finite consequence operators defined on a fixed language L that cannot be generated from a finite logic-system. It is shown that a set map is a finite consequence operator iff it is defined by a general logic-system.

  5. Against All Odds: When Logic Meets Probability

    van Benthem, J.; Katoen, J.-P.; Langerak, R.; Rensink, A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper is a light walk along interfaces between logic and probability, triggered by a chance encounter with Ed Brinksma. It is not a research paper, or a literature survey, but a pointer to issues. I discuss both direct combinations of logic and probability and structured ways in which logic can

  6. Applications of Logic Coverage Criteria and Logic Mutation to Software Testing

    Kaminski, Garrett K.

    2011-01-01

    Logic is an important component of software. Thus, software logic testing has enjoyed significant research over a period of decades, with renewed interest in the last several years. One approach to detecting logic faults is to create and execute tests that satisfy logic coverage criteria. Another approach to detecting faults is to perform mutation…

  7. Optical NOR logic gate design on square lattice photonic crystal platform

    D’souza, Nirmala Maria, E-mail: nirmala@cukerala.ac.in; Mathew, Vincent, E-mail: vincent@cukerala.ac.in [Department of Physics, Central University of Kerala, Kasaragod, Kerala-671 314 (India)

    2016-05-06

    We numerically demonstrate a new configuration of all-optical NOR logic gate with square lattice photonic crystal (PhC) waveguide using finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. The logic operations are based on interference effect of optical waves. We have determined the operating frequency range by calculating the band structure for a perfectly periodic PhC using plane wave expansion (PWE) method. Response time of this logic gate is 1.98 ps and it can be operated with speed about 513 GB/s. The proposed device consists of four linear waveguides and a square ring resonator waveguides on PhC platform.

  8. Right Propositional Neighborhood Logic over Natural Numbers with Integer Constraints for Interval Lengths

    Bresolin, Davide; Goranko, Valentin; Montanari, Angelo

    2009-01-01

    Interval temporal logics are based on interval structures over linearly (or partially) ordered domains, where time intervals, rather than time instants, are the primitive ontological entities. In this paper we introduce and study Right Propositional Neighborhood Logic over natural numbers...... with integer constraints for interval lengths, which is a propositional interval temporal logic featuring a modality for the 'right neighborhood' relation between intervals and explicit integer constraints for interval lengths. We prove that it has the bounded model property with respect to ultimately periodic...

  9. Nanowire NMOS Logic Inverter Characterization.

    Hashim, Yasir

    2016-06-01

    This study is the first to demonstrate characteristics optimization of nanowire N-Channel Metal Oxide Semiconductor (NW-MOS) logic inverter. Noise margins and inflection voltage of transfer characteristics are used as limiting factors in this optimization. A computer-based model used to produce static characteristics of NW-NMOS logic inverter. In this research two circuit configuration of NW-NMOS inverter was studied, in first NW-NMOS circuit, the noise margin for (low input-high output) condition was very low. For second NMOS circuit gives excellent noise margins, and results indicate that optimization depends on applied voltage to the inverter. Increasing gate to source voltage with (2/1) nanowires ratio results better noise margins. Increasing of applied DC load transistor voltage tends to increasing in decreasing noise margins; decreasing this voltage will improve noise margins significantly.

  10. Programming Games for Logical Thinking

    H. Tsalapatas

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Analytical thinking is a transversal skill that helps learners synthesize knowledge across subject areas; from mathematics, science, and technology to critical reading, critical examination, and evaluation of lessons. While most would not doubt the importance of analytical capacity in academic settings and its growing demand for the skill in professional environments, school curricula do not comprehensively address its development. As a result, the responsibility for structuring related learning activities falls to teachers. This work examines learning paradigms that can be integrated into mathematics and science school education for developing logical thinking through game-based exercises based on programming. The proposed learning design promotes structured algorithmic mindsets, is based on inclusive universal logic present in all cultures, and promotes constructivism educational approaches encouraging learners to drive knowledge building by composing past and emerging experiences.

  11. An Embedded Reconfigurable Logic Module

    Tucker, Jerry H.; Klenke, Robert H.; Shams, Qamar A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A Miniature Embedded Reconfigurable Computer and Logic (MERCAL) module has been developed and verified. MERCAL was designed to be a general-purpose, universal module that that can provide significant hardware and software resources to meet the requirements of many of today's complex embedded applications. This is accomplished in the MERCAL module by combining a sub credit card size PC in a DIMM form factor with a XILINX Spartan I1 FPGA. The PC has the ability to download program files to the FPGA to configure it for different hardware functions and to transfer data to and from the FPGA via the PC's ISA bus during run time. The MERCAL module combines, in a compact package, the computational power of a 133 MHz PC with up to 150,000 gate equivalents of digital logic that can be reconfigured by software. The general architecture and functionality of the MERCAL hardware and system software are described.

  12. The Relevance of Hegel's Logic

    John W Burbidge

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Hegel defines his Logic as the science that thinks about thinking.nbsp; But when we interpret that work as outlining what happens when we reason we are vulnerable to Fregersquo;s charge of psychologism.nbsp; I use Hegelrsquo;s tripartite distinction among understanding, dialectical and speculative reason as operations of pure thought to suggest how thinking can work with objective concepts.nbsp; In the last analysis, however, our ability to move from the subjective contingency of representations and ideas to the pure concepts we think develops from mechanical memory, which separates sign from sense so hat we can focus simply on the latter.nbsp; By becoming aware of the connections that underlie our thinking processes we may be able to both move beyond the abstractions of symbolic logic and clarify what informal logicians call relevance.

  13. Contextual Validity in Hybrid Logic

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Jørgensen, Klaus Frovin

    2013-01-01

    interpretations. Moreover, such indexicals give rise to a special kind of validity—contextual validity—that interacts with ordinary logi- cal validity in interesting and often unexpected ways. In this paper we model these interactions by combining standard techniques from hybrid logic with insights from the work...... of Hans Kamp and David Kaplan. We introduce a simple proof rule, which we call the Kamp Rule, and first we show that it is all we need to take us from logical validities involving now to contextual validities involving now too. We then go on to show that this deductive bridge is strong enough to carry us...... to contextual validities involving yesterday, today and tomorrow as well....

  14. Fuzzy Versions of Epistemic and Deontic Logic

    Gounder, Ramasamy S.; Esterline, Albert C.

    1998-01-01

    Epistemic and deontic logics are modal logics, respectively, of knowledge and of the normative concepts of obligation, permission, and prohibition. Epistemic logic is useful in formalizing systems of communicating processes and knowledge and belief in AI (Artificial Intelligence). Deontic logic is useful in computer science wherever we must distinguish between actual and ideal behavior, as in fault tolerance and database integrity constraints. We here discuss fuzzy versions of these logics. In the crisp versions, various axioms correspond to various properties of the structures used in defining the semantics of the logics. Thus, any axiomatic theory will be characterized not only by its axioms but also by the set of properties holding of the corresponding semantic structures. Fuzzy logic does not proceed with axiomatic systems, but fuzzy versions of the semantic properties exist and can be shown to correspond to some of the axioms for the crisp systems in special ways that support dependency networks among assertions in a modal domain. This in turn allows one to implement truth maintenance systems. For the technical development of epistemic logic, and for that of deontic logic. To our knowledge, we are the first to address fuzzy epistemic and fuzzy deontic logic explicitly and to consider the different systems and semantic properties available. We give the syntax and semantics of epistemic logic and discuss the correspondence between axioms of epistemic logic and properties of semantic structures. The same topics are covered for deontic logic. Fuzzy epistemic and fuzzy deontic logic discusses the relationship between axioms and semantic properties for these logics. Our results can be exploited in truth maintenance systems.

  15. The PLC: a logical development

    Walker, Mark; Bissell, Christopher; Monk, John

    2010-01-01

    Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) have been used to control industrial processes and equipment for over 40 years, having their first commercially recognised application in 1969. Since then there have been enormous changes in the design and application of PLCs, yet developments were evolutionary rather than radical. The flexibility of the PLC does not confine it to industrial use and it has been used for disparate non-industrial control applications . This article reviews the history, deve...

  16. Logic Learning in Hopfield Networks

    Sathasivam, Saratha; Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin Wan

    2008-01-01

    Synaptic weights for neurons in logic programming can be calculated either by using Hebbian learning or by Wan Abdullah's method. In other words, Hebbian learning for governing events corresponding to some respective program clauses is equivalent with learning using Wan Abdullah's method for the same respective program clauses. In this paper we will evaluate experimentally the equivalence between these two types of learning through computer simulations.

  17. Is special relativity logically inconsistent

    Prokhovnik, S.J.

    1980-01-01

    The author gives his view that Special Relativity is logically and mathematically consistent, as well as physically comprehensible if, and only if, it is firmly based on the single assumption of a unique fundamental reference frame for light propagation. The theory and all its results are derivable from this assumption; the Relativity and Light Principles become intelligible consequences of this assumption; the physical significance and source of time dilation and length contraction are made manifest thereby. (Auth.)

  18. Cosmic logic: a computational model

    Vanchurin, Vitaly

    2016-01-01

    We initiate a formal study of logical inferences in context of the measure problem in cosmology or what we call cosmic logic. We describe a simple computational model of cosmic logic suitable for analysis of, for example, discretized cosmological systems. The construction is based on a particular model of computation, developed by Alan Turing, with cosmic observers (CO), cosmic measures (CM) and cosmic symmetries (CS) described by Turing machines. CO machines always start with a blank tape and CM machines take CO's Turing number (also known as description number or Gödel number) as input and output the corresponding probability. Similarly, CS machines take CO's Turing number as input, but output either one if the CO machines are in the same equivalence class or zero otherwise. We argue that CS machines are more fundamental than CM machines and, thus, should be used as building blocks in constructing CM machines. We prove the non-computability of a CS machine which discriminates between two classes of CO machines: mortal that halts in finite time and immortal that runs forever. In context of eternal inflation this result implies that it is impossible to construct CM machines to compute probabilities on the set of all CO machines using cut-off prescriptions. The cut-off measures can still be used if the set is reduced to include only machines which halt after a finite and predetermined number of steps

  19. Hybrid Logic and its Proof-Theory

    Brauner, Torben

    2011-01-01

    This is the first book-length treatment of hybrid logic and its proof-theory. Hybrid logic is an extension of ordinary modal logic which allows explicit reference to individual points in a model (where the points represent times, possible worlds, states in a computer, or something else). This is useful for many applications, for example when reasoning about time one often wants to formulate a series of statements about what happens at specific times. There is little consensus about proof-theory for ordinary modal logic. Many modal-logical proof systems lack important properties and the relatio

  20. A Resolution Prover for Coalition Logic

    Cláudia Nalon

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a prototype tool for automated reasoning for Coalition Logic, a non-normal modal logic that can be used for reasoning about cooperative agency. The theorem prover CLProver is based on recent work on a resolution-based calculus for Coalition Logic that operates on coalition problems, a normal form for Coalition Logic. We provide an overview of coalition problems and of the resolution-based calculus for Coalition Logic. We then give details of the implementation of CLProver and present the results for a comparison with an existing tableau-based solver.

  1. All-optical symmetric ternary logic gate

    Chattopadhyay, Tanay

    2010-09-01

    Symmetric ternary number (radix=3) has three logical states (1¯, 0, 1). It is very much useful in carry free arithmetical operation. Beside this, the logical operation using this type of number system is also effective in high speed computation and communication in multi-valued logic. In this literature all-optical circuits for three basic symmetrical ternary logical operations (inversion, MIN and MAX) are proposed and described. Numerical simulation verifies the theoretical model. In this present scheme the different ternary logical states are represented by different polarized state of light. Terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD) based interferometric switch has been used categorically in this manuscript.

  2. Logic and discrete mathematics a concise introduction

    Conradie, Willem

    2015-01-01

    A concise yet rigorous introduction to logic and discrete mathematics. This book features a unique combination of comprehensive coverage of logic with a solid exposition of the most important fields of discrete mathematics, presenting material that has been tested and refined by the authors in university courses taught over more than a decade.  The chapters on logic - propositional and first-order - provide a robust toolkit for logical reasoning, emphasizing the conceptual understanding of the language and the semantics of classical logic as well as practical applications through the easy

  3. Logical design for computers and control

    Dodd, Kenneth N

    1972-01-01

    Logical Design for Computers and Control Logical Design for Computers and Control gives an introduction to the concepts and principles, applications, and advancements in the field of control logic. The text covers topics such as logic elements; high and low logic; kinds of flip-flops; binary counting and arithmetic; and Boolean algebra, Boolean laws, and De Morgan's theorem. Also covered are topics such as electrostatics and atomic theory; the integrated circuit and simple control systems; the conversion of analog to digital systems; and computer applications and control. The book is recommend

  4. Asynchronous Operators of Sequential Logic Venjunction & Sequention

    Vasyukevich, Vadim

    2011-01-01

    This book is dedicated to new mathematical instruments assigned for logical modeling of the memory of digital devices. The case in point is logic-dynamical operation named venjunction and venjunctive function as well as sequention and sequentional function. Venjunction and sequention operate within the framework of sequential logic. In a form of the corresponding equations, they organically fit analytical expressions of Boolean algebra. Thus, a sort of symbiosis is formed using elements of asynchronous sequential logic on the one hand and combinational logic on the other hand. So, asynchronous

  5. Linear programming

    Solow, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This text covers the basic theory and computation for a first course in linear programming, including substantial material on mathematical proof techniques and sophisticated computation methods. Includes Appendix on using Excel. 1984 edition.

  6. Linear algebra

    Liesen, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    This self-contained textbook takes a matrix-oriented approach to linear algebra and presents a complete theory, including all details and proofs, culminating in the Jordan canonical form and its proof. Throughout the development, the applicability of the results is highlighted. Additionally, the book presents special topics from applied linear algebra including matrix functions, the singular value decomposition, the Kronecker product and linear matrix equations. The matrix-oriented approach to linear algebra leads to a better intuition and a deeper understanding of the abstract concepts, and therefore simplifies their use in real world applications. Some of these applications are presented in detailed examples. In several ‘MATLAB-Minutes’ students can comprehend the concepts and results using computational experiments. Necessary basics for the use of MATLAB are presented in a short introduction. Students can also actively work with the material and practice their mathematical skills in more than 300 exerc...

  7. Linear algebra

    Berberian, Sterling K

    2014-01-01

    Introductory treatment covers basic theory of vector spaces and linear maps - dimension, determinants, eigenvalues, and eigenvectors - plus more advanced topics such as the study of canonical forms for matrices. 1992 edition.

  8. Linear Models

    Searle, Shayle R

    2012-01-01

    This 1971 classic on linear models is once again available--as a Wiley Classics Library Edition. It features material that can be understood by any statistician who understands matrix algebra and basic statistical methods.

  9. LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    Christofilos, N.C.; Polk, I.J.

    1959-02-17

    Improvements in linear particle accelerators are described. A drift tube system for a linear ion accelerator reduces gap capacity between adjacent drift tube ends. This is accomplished by reducing the ratio of the diameter of the drift tube to the diameter of the resonant cavity. Concentration of magnetic field intensity at the longitudinal midpoint of the external sunface of each drift tube is reduced by increasing the external drift tube diameter at the longitudinal center region.

  10. Analysis of Linear Hybrid Systems in CLP

    Banda, Gourinath; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present a procedure for representing the semantics of linear hybrid automata (LHAs) as constraint logic programs (CLP); flexible and accurate analysis and verification of LHAs can then be performed using generic CLP analysis and transformation tools. LHAs provide an expressive...

  11. MEMS Logic Using Mixed-Frequency Excitation

    Ilyas, Saad

    2017-06-22

    We present multi-function microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) logic device that can perform the fundamental logic gate AND, OR, universal logic gates NAND, NOR, and a tristate logic gate using mixed-frequency excitation. The concept is based on exciting combination resonances due to the mixing of two or more input signals. The device vibrates at two steady states: a high state when the combination resonance is activated and a low state when no resonance is activated. These vibration states are assigned to logical value 1 or 0 to realize the logic gates. Using ac signals to drive the resonator and to execute the logic inputs unifies the input and output wave forms of the logic device, thereby opening the possibility for cascading among logic devices. We found that the energy consumption per cycle of the proposed logic resonator is higher than those of existing technologies. Hence, integration of such logic devices to build complex computational system needs to take into consideration lowering the total energy consumption. [2017-0041

  12. Introduction to fuzzy logic using Matlab

    Sivanandam, SN; Deepa, S N

    2006-01-01

    Fuzzy Logic, at present is a hot topic, among academicians as well various programmers. This book is provided to give a broad, in-depth overview of the field of Fuzzy Logic. The basic principles of Fuzzy Logic are discussed in detail with various solved examples. The different approaches and solutions to the problems given in the book are well balanced and pertinent to the Fuzzy Logic research projects. The applications of Fuzzy Logic are also dealt to make the readers understand the concept of Fuzzy Logic. The solutions to the problems are programmed using MATLAB 6.0 and the simulated results are given. The MATLAB Fuzzy Logic toolbox is provided for easy reference.

  13. The logic of relations and the logic of management.

    Buntinx, W

    2008-07-01

    Increasing emphasis on financial and administrative control processes is affecting service culture in support organisations for persons with intellectual disability. This phenomenon is currently obvious in Dutch service organisations that find themselves in transition towards more community care and at the same time under pressure from new administrative and funding managerial bureaucracy. As a result, the logic of management is becoming more dominant in direct support settings and risk to overshadow the logic of relationships between staff and clients. The article presents a reflection on this phenomenon, starting from a description of service team characteristics as found in the literature. Next, findings about direct support staff (DSS) continuity are summarised from four Dutch studies. Following up these findings, the concept of 'microsystems' is explored as a possible answer to the organisational challenges demonstrated in the studies. Team characteristics, especially team size and membership continuity for DSS, appear relevant factors for assuring supportive relationships and service quality in direct support teams. The structure of the primary support team shows to be of special interest. The organisational concept of 'microsystems' is explored with respect to transcending the present conflict between bureaucratic managerial pressure and the need for supportive relationships. Service organisations need to create structural conditions for the efficacy of direct support teams in terms of client relationships and relevant client outcomes. At the same time, the need for administrative and control processes can not be denied. The concept of 'microsystems', application of a Quality of Life framework and the use of new instruments, such as the Supports Intensity Scale, can contribute to an organisational solution for the present conflicting logic of relations and management.

  14. Digital Humanitarians: How Big Data Is Changing the Face of Humanitarian Response : Patrick Meier, 2015, CRC Press (Boca Raton, FL, 978-1-4822-4839-5, 259 pp.).

    Dave, Anushree

    2017-12-01

    This is a review of Patrick Meier's 2015 book, Digital Humanitarians: How Big Data Is Changing the Face of Humanitarian Response. The book explores the role of technologies such as high-resolution satellite imagery, online social media, drones, and artificial intelligence in humanitarian responses during disasters such as the 2010 Haiti earthquake. In this analysis, the book is examined using a humanitarian health ethics perspective.

  15. “You may have heard of me”:an archetypal analysis of the protagonist of Patrick Rothfuss’ The Name of the Wind

    Tikkanen, T. (Tapio)

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This research examines the protagonist of the fantasy novel The Name of the Wind written by Patrick Rothfuss. The goal is to establish that the given protagonist is not an archetypal hero or villain character, but rather he transcends the simplistic binary definitions of hero and villain by acting on humane drives and understandable reasons, both of which can contribute towards good or evil. The paper draws upon mu...

  16. Fuzzy logic of quasi-truth an algebraic treatment

    Di Nola, Antonio; Turunen, Esko

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the first algebraic treatment of quasi-truth fuzzy logic and covers the algebraic foundations of many-valued logic. It offers a comprehensive account of basic techniques and reports on important results showing the pivotal role played by perfect many-valued algebras (MV-algebras). It is well known that the first-order predicate Łukasiewicz logic is not complete with respect to the canonical set of truth values. However, it is complete with respect to all linearly ordered MV –algebras. As there are no simple linearly ordered MV-algebras in this case, infinitesimal elements of an MV-algebra are allowed to be truth values. The book presents perfect algebras as an interesting subclass of local MV-algebras and provides readers with the necessary knowledge and tools for formalizing the fuzzy concept of quasi true and quasi false. All basic concepts are introduced in detail to promote a better understanding of the more complex ones. It is an advanced and inspiring reference-guide for graduate s...

  17. Specification and Verification of Web Applications in Rewriting Logic

    Alpuente, María; Ballis, Demis; Romero, Daniel

    This paper presents a Rewriting Logic framework that formalizes the interactions between Web servers and Web browsers through a communicating protocol abstracting HTTP. The proposed framework includes a scripting language that is powerful enough to model the dynamics of complex Web applications by encompassing the main features of the most popular Web scripting languages (e.g. PHP, ASP, Java Servlets). We also provide a detailed characterization of browser actions (e.g. forward/backward navigation, page refresh, and new window/tab openings) via rewrite rules, and show how our models can be naturally model-checked by using the Linear Temporal Logic of Rewriting (LTLR), which is a Linear Temporal Logic specifically designed for model-checking rewrite theories. Our formalization is particularly suitable for verification purposes, since it allows one to perform in-depth analyses of many subtle aspects related to Web interaction. Finally, the framework has been completely implemented in Maude, and we report on some successful experiments that we conducted by using the Maude LTLR model-checker.

  18. Is everyone Irish on St Patrick's Day? Divergent expectations and experiences of collective self-objectification at a multicultural parade.

    Pehrson, Samuel; Stevenson, Clifford; Muldoon, Orla T; Reicher, Steve

    2014-06-01

    We examine experiences of collective self-objectification (CSO) (or its failure) among participants in a 'multicultural' St Patrick's Day parade. A two-stage interview study was carried out in which 10 parade participants (five each from ethnic majority and minority groups) were interviewed before and after the event. In pre-event interviews, all participants understood the parade as an opportunity to enact social identities, but differed in the category definitions and relations they saw as relevant. Members of the white Irish majority saw the event as being primarily about representing Ireland in a positive, progressive, light, whereas members of minority groups saw it as an opportunity to have their groups' identities and belonging in Ireland recognized by others. Post-event interviews revealed that, for the former group, the event succeeded in giving expression to their relevant category definitions. The latter group, on the other hand, cited features of the event such as inauthentic costume design and a segregated structure as reasons for why the event did not provide the group recognition they sought. The accounts revealed a variety of empowering and disempowering experiences corresponding to the extent of enactment. We consider the implications in terms of CSO, the performative nature of dual identities, as well as the notion of multicultural recognition. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  19. Travels Through Heterotopia: The Textual Realms of Patrick Modiano's Rue des Boutiques Obscures and Mikhail Kuraev's Kapitan Dikshtein

    Vitaly Chernetsky

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Within contemporary prose, one distinct mode or paradigm that can be discerned is constituted by the texts that daringly tackle the dark, suppressed, erased parts of our history and mentality; however, they approach this task not by way of self-righteous denunciatory investigations, but by provocatively problematizing the most established everyday facts, by depriving the reader of the possibility of even conceiving any firm ground of the stable construct of an origin or a self-identification—historically and culturally. Their irreverent and playful deconstruction of the all-pervasive national cultural mythologies has mounted a powerful challenge to ideological constructs big and small. This article considers two representative examples of texts of this kind, which the author proposes to call heterotopic: Patrick Modiano's Rue des Boutiques Obscures and Mikhail Kuraev's Kapitan Dikshtein . It offers an attempt at defining this paradigm through a reading of these two novels, drawing upon Michel Foucault's usage of the term "heterotopia" for the purpose of designating the "other" cultural spaces of our civilization, as well as on Deleuze and Guattari's concept of "minor literature" and the work of several other theorists. The texts of the kind exemplified by these two novels are considered as an instance of successful partaking in the project of cognitive mapping, which has been proposed by Fredric Jameson and others as the positive political edge of postmodern culture.

  20. Return to the far side of planet Moore! rambling through observations, friendships and antics of sir Patrick Moore

    Mobberley, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The result of an exhaustive study of Sir Patrick Moore’s observations of the Moon and planets for more than 60 years, this book is a fantastic companion to the extremely popular, “It Came From Outer Space Wearing an RAF Blazer!” written by the same author.  Moore recorded his telescopic observations in his logbooks, which are reproduced and described here in detail, along with his sketches and notes. In this light, the author discusses the factors that caused Moore to switch from lunar observing to planetary and variable star observing.  He has also included personal recollections and humorous anecdotes from Moore’s friends and acquaintances, as well as a look at his best loved books. Further chapters describe Moore’s foreign travels and correspondence with those back home. Lastly, the author has not neglected a few of Moore’s most memorable television and radio appearances, which are examined along with a close up of what it was like to visit Moore’s beloved home of Farthings in Selsey. Essen...

  1. Your Country is of Great Subtlety: Aspects of the Brazilian Translation of Patrick White’s Voss

    Ian Alexander

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2016v69n2p107 A number of the dialogues in Patrick White’s Voss (1957, especially those involving Laura Trevelyan, involve an implicit debate about what is meant by country and what it means to live in a country. Is the colony of New South Wales simply a province of the British Empire, a little piece of Britain transplanted on the other side of the world, or is it a place where British settlers will have to adapt their ways and gradually be transformed into something new? In these dialogues, each speaker makes use of words such as country, colony, property and land in order to express their vision of the place where they find themselves, frequently forcing a shift of meaning from one sentence to the next. This study examines how this debate is carried out in the novel and how it functions in Paulo Henriques Britto’s 1985 Brazilian translation.

  2. Australian Modernists in London: William Dobell’s The Dead Landlord and Patrick White’s The Ham Funeral

    Denise Varney

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available When Patrick White was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1973, it was primarily for his novels. Less well recognised is the significance of White’s dramatic literature and his involvement in the theatre. This article offers a new analysis of White’s first notable breakthrough into theatre and drama, The Ham Funeral, which he wrote in postwar London and which was produced in Adelaide in 1961. This article argues that a modernist idiom of 20th-century Australian drama can be found in this play that laid the groundwork for a poetics of language, image and theatricality. The play’s aesthetic modernism is found primarily in the blend of expressionist and surrealist elements, the poetic language, the alienated creative subject and the representation of sexuality and the unconscious. White’s thematics also become political, concerned with power, masculinity and gendered assumptions about rationality and emotion, poetry and the body. Having lived in London during the interwar years, White was also part of the networks that included Australian-born artists, and he was exposed to influences from visual arts as well as theatre. Of these, the artist William Dobell was central to the genesis of The Ham Funeral, as was the Polish-born modernist artist S. Ostoja-Kotkowski, who was critical to the design of the brooding expressionist set that set the standard for subsequent stage realisations of the play.

  3. Linear regression

    Olive, David J

    2017-01-01

    This text covers both multiple linear regression and some experimental design models. The text uses the response plot to visualize the model and to detect outliers, does not assume that the error distribution has a known parametric distribution, develops prediction intervals that work when the error distribution is unknown, suggests bootstrap hypothesis tests that may be useful for inference after variable selection, and develops prediction regions and large sample theory for the multivariate linear regression model that has m response variables. A relationship between multivariate prediction regions and confidence regions provides a simple way to bootstrap confidence regions. These confidence regions often provide a practical method for testing hypotheses. There is also a chapter on generalized linear models and generalized additive models. There are many R functions to produce response and residual plots, to simulate prediction intervals and hypothesis tests, to detect outliers, and to choose response trans...

  4. Linear Colliders

    Alcaraz, J.

    2001-01-01

    After several years of study e''+ e''- linear colliders in the TeV range have emerged as the major and optimal high-energy physics projects for the post-LHC era. These notes summarize the present status form the main accelerator and detector features to their physics potential. The LHC era. These notes summarize the present status, from the main accelerator and detector features to their physics potential. The LHC is expected to provide first discoveries in the new energy domain, whereas an e''+ e''- linear collider in the 500 GeV-1 TeV will be able to complement it to an unprecedented level of precision in any possible areas: Higgs, signals beyond the SM and electroweak measurements. It is evident that the Linear Collider program will constitute a major step in the understanding of the nature of the new physics beyond the Standard Model. (Author) 22 refs

  5. Linear algebra

    Edwards, Harold M

    1995-01-01

    In his new undergraduate textbook, Harold M Edwards proposes a radically new and thoroughly algorithmic approach to linear algebra Originally inspired by the constructive philosophy of mathematics championed in the 19th century by Leopold Kronecker, the approach is well suited to students in the computer-dominated late 20th century Each proof is an algorithm described in English that can be translated into the computer language the class is using and put to work solving problems and generating new examples, making the study of linear algebra a truly interactive experience Designed for a one-semester course, this text adopts an algorithmic approach to linear algebra giving the student many examples to work through and copious exercises to test their skills and extend their knowledge of the subject Students at all levels will find much interactive instruction in this text while teachers will find stimulating examples and methods of approach to the subject

  6. Pulse coded safety logic for PFBR

    Anwer, Md. Najam; Satheesh, N.; Nagaraj, C.P.; Krishnakumar, B.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Reactor safety logic is designed to initiate safety action against design basis events. The reactor is shutdown by de-energizing electromagnets and dropping the absorber rods under gravity. In prototype fast breeder reactor (PFBR), shutdown is affected by two independent shutdown systems, viz., control and safety rod drive mechanism (CSRDM) and diverse safety rod drive mechanism (DSRDM). Two separate safety logics are proposed for CSRDM and DSRDM, i.e. solid state logic with on-line fine impulse test (FIT) for CSRDM and pulse coded safety logic (PCSL) for DSRDM. The PCSL primarily utilizes the fact that the vast majority of faults in the logic circuitry result in static conditions at the output. It is arranged such that the presence of pulses are required to hold the shutdown actuators and any DC logic state, either logic 0 or logic 1 releases them. It is a dynamic, self-testing logic and used in a number of reactors. This paper describes the principle of operation of PCSL, its advantages, the concept of guard line logic (GLL), detection of stuck at 0 and stuck at 1 faults, fail safe and diversity features. The implementation of PCSL using Altera Max+Plus II software for PFBR trip signals and the results of simulation are discussed. This paper also describes a test jig using 80186 based system for testing PCSL for various input parameter's combinations and monitoring the outputs

  7. PTL: A Propositional Typicality Logic

    Booth, R

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available consequence relations first studied by Lehmann and col- leagues in the 90?s play a central role in nonmonotonic reasoning [13, 14]. This has been the case due to at least three main reasons. Firstly, they are based on semantic constructions that are elegant...) j ; 6j : ^ j PTL: A Propositional Typicality Logic 3 The semantics of (propositional) rational consequence is in terms of ranked models. These are partially ordered structures in which the ordering is modular. Definition 1. Given a set S...

  8. Contributions to Logical Database Design

    Vitalie COTELEA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper treats the problems arising at the stage of logical database design. It comprises a synthesis of the most common inference models of functional dependencies, deals with the problems of building covers for sets of functional dependencies, makes a synthesizes of normal forms, presents trends regarding normalization algorithms and provides a temporal complexity of those. In addition, it presents a summary of the most known keys’ search algorithms, deals with issues of analysis and testing of relational schemes. It also summarizes and compares the different features of recognition of acyclic database schemas.

  9. Towards a logic of Dilation

    Britz, K

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available modulo logical equivalence. This result allows us to write ForgetS(K) for the semantically unique result of forgetting all the atoms in S in the knowledge base K. If K is a singleton set, say K = {α}, we write ForgetS(α) as shorthand for Forget...= ∅}. uunionsq This result allows us to write SForgetnS(K) for the (semantically unique) result of selective forgetting any n atoms from S in K. It then follows from Lemma 1 that SForgetnS(K) arises from a tolerance space 〈U , Ω n〉 in which Ωn has a particular...

  10. Empirical logic and tensor products

    Foulis, D.J.; Randall, C.H.

    1981-01-01

    In our work we are developing a formalism called empirical logic to support a generalization of conventional statistics; the resulting generalization is called operational statistics. We are not attempting to develop or advocate any particular physical theory; rather we are formulating a precision 'language' in which such theories can be expressed, compared, evaluated, and related to laboratory experiments. We believe that only in such a language can the connections between real physical procedures (operations) and physical theories be made explicit and perspicuous. (orig./HSI)

  11. Enriching an effect calculus with linear types

    Egger, Jeff; Møgelberg, Rasmus Ejlers; Simpson, Alex

    2009-01-01

    We define an ``enriched effect calculus'' by conservatively extending  a type theory for computational effects with primitives from linear logic. By doing so, we obtain a generalisation of linear type theory, intended as a formalism for expressing linear aspects of effects. As a worked example, we...... formulate  linearly-used continuations in the enriched effect calculus. These are captured by a fundamental translation of the enriched effect calculus into itself, which extends existing call-by-value and call-by-name linearly-used CPS translations. We show that our translation is involutive. Full...... completeness results for the various linearly-used CPS translations  follow. Our main results, the conservativity of enriching the effect calculus with linear primitives, and the involution property of the fundamental translation, are proved using a category-theoretic semantics for the enriched effect calculus...

  12. Electrodynamic linear motor

    Munehiro, H

    1980-05-29

    When driving the carriage of a printer through a rotating motor, there are problems regarding the limited accuracy of the carriage position due to rotation or contraction and ageing of the cable. In order to solve the problem, a direct drive system was proposed, in which the printer carriage is driven by a linear motor. If one wants to keep the motor circuit of such a motor compact, then the magnetic flux density in the air gap must be reduced or the motor travel must be reduced. It is the purpose of this invention to create an electrodynamic linear motor, which on the one hand is compact and light and on the other hand has a relatively high constant force over a large travel. The invention is characterised by the fact that magnetic fields of alternating polarity are generated at equal intervals in the magnetic field, and that the coil arrangement has 2 adjacent coils, whose size corresponds to half the length of each magnetic pole. A logic circuit is provided to select one of the two coils and to determine the direction of the current depending on the signals of a magnetic field sensor on the coil arrangement.

  13. Logic from A to Z the Routledge encyclopedia of philosophy glossary of logical and mathematical terms

    Bacon, John B; McCarty, David Charles; Bacon, John B

    1999-01-01

    First published in the most ambitious international philosophy project for a generation; the Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Logic from A to Z is a unique glossary of terms used in formal logic and the philosophy of mathematics. Over 500 entries include key terms found in the study of: * Logic: Argument, Turing Machine, Variable * Set and model theory: Isomorphism, Function * Computability theory: Algorithm, Turing Machine * Plus a table of logical symbols. Extensively cross-referenced to help comprehension and add detail, Logic from A to Z provides an indispensable reference source for students of all branches of logic.

  14. How Objects Shape Logics in Construction

    Tryggestad, Kjell; Georg, Susse

    2011-01-01

    The notion of institutional logics is a key tenet in institutional theory but few studies have attended to the micro‐foundations of logics. The sociology of associations is used to explore the micro‐foundations of logics, their emergence and temporal–spatial importance. A case study of the constr......The notion of institutional logics is a key tenet in institutional theory but few studies have attended to the micro‐foundations of logics. The sociology of associations is used to explore the micro‐foundations of logics, their emergence and temporal–spatial importance. A case study...... and identities as emergent and contingent outcomes of the material practices of building construction. The argument is concluded by considering the building construction as a materially mediated meaning structure....

  15. Synthesizing biomolecule-based Boolean logic gates.

    Miyamoto, Takafumi; Razavi, Shiva; DeRose, Robert; Inoue, Takanari

    2013-02-15

    One fascinating recent avenue of study in the field of synthetic biology is the creation of biomolecule-based computers. The main components of a computing device consist of an arithmetic logic unit, the control unit, memory, and the input and output devices. Boolean logic gates are at the core of the operational machinery of these parts, and hence to make biocomputers a reality, biomolecular logic gates become a necessity. Indeed, with the advent of more sophisticated biological tools, both nucleic acid- and protein-based logic systems have been generated. These devices function in the context of either test tubes or living cells and yield highly specific outputs given a set of inputs. In this review, we discuss various types of biomolecular logic gates that have been synthesized, with particular emphasis on recent developments that promise increased complexity of logic gate circuitry, improved computational speed, and potential clinical applications.

  16. 5th World Congress of Paraconsistent Logic

    Chakraborty, Mihir; Dutta, Soma

    2015-01-01

    The present book discusses all aspects of paraconsistent logic, including the latest findings, and its various systems. It includes papers by leading international researchers, which address the subject in many different ways: development of abstract paraconsistent systems and new theorems about them; studies of the connections between these systems and other non-classical logics, such as non-monotonic, many-valued, relevant, paracomplete and fuzzy logics; philosophical interpretations of these constructions; and applications to other sciences, in particular quantum physics and mathematics. Reasoning with contradictions is the challenge of paraconsistent logic. The book will be of interest to graduate students and researchers working in mathematical logic, computer science, philosophical logic, linguistics and physics.

  17. Molecular processors: from qubits to fuzzy logic.

    Gentili, Pier Luigi

    2011-03-14

    Single molecules or their assemblies are information processing devices. Herein it is demonstrated how it is possible to process different types of logic through molecules. As long as decoherent effects are maintained far away from a pure quantum mechanical system, quantum logic can be processed. If the collapse of superimposed or entangled wavefunctions is unavoidable, molecules can still be used to process either crisp (binary or multi-valued) or fuzzy logic. The way for implementing fuzzy inference engines is declared and it is supported by the examples of molecular fuzzy logic systems devised so far. Fuzzy logic is drawing attention in the field of artificial intelligence, because it models human reasoning quite well. This ability may be due to some structural analogies between a fuzzy logic system and the human nervous system. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Synthesizing Biomolecule-based Boolean Logic Gates

    Miyamoto, Takafumi; Razavi, Shiva; DeRose, Robert; Inoue, Takanari

    2012-01-01

    One fascinating recent avenue of study in the field of synthetic biology is the creation of biomolecule-based computers. The main components of a computing device consist of an arithmetic logic unit, the control unit, memory, and the input and output devices. Boolean logic gates are at the core of the operational machinery of these parts, hence to make biocomputers a reality, biomolecular logic gates become a necessity. Indeed, with the advent of more sophisticated biological tools, both nucleic acid- and protein-based logic systems have been generated. These devices function in the context of either test tubes or living cells and yield highly specific outputs given a set of inputs. In this review, we discuss various types of biomolecular logic gates that have been synthesized, with particular emphasis on recent developments that promise increased complexity of logic gate circuitry, improved computational speed, and potential clinical applications. PMID:23526588

  19. A Denotational Semantics for Logic Programming

    Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg

    A fully abstract denotational semantics for logic programming has not been constructed yet. In this paper we present a denotational semantics that is almost fully abstract. We take the meaning of a logic program to be an element in a Plotkin power domain of substitutions. In this way our result...... shows that standard domain constructions suffice, when giving a semantics for logic programming. Using the well-known fixpoint semantics of logic programming we have to consider two different fixpoints in order to obtain information about both successful and failed computations. In contrast, our...... semantics is uniform in that the (single) meaning of a logic program contains information about both successful, failed and infinite computations. Finally, based on the full abstractness result, we argue that the detail level of substitutions is needed in any denotational semantics for logic programming....

  20. All optical programmable logic array (PLA)

    Hiluf, Dawit

    2018-03-01

    A programmable logic array (PLA) is an integrated circuit (IC) logic device that can be reconfigured to implement various kinds of combinational logic circuits. The device has a number of AND and OR gates which are linked together to give output or further combined with more gates or logic circuits. This work presents the realization of PLAs via the physics of a three level system interacting with light. A programmable logic array is designed such that a number of different logical functions can be combined as a sum-of-product or product-of-sum form. We present an all optical PLAs with the aid of laser light and observables of quantum systems, where encoded information can be considered as memory chip. The dynamics of the physical system is investigated using Lie algebra approach.

  1. Neutral network and fuzzy logic based grate control; Roststyrning med neutrala naetverk och fuzzy logic

    Ramstroem, Erik [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2002-04-01

    Grate-control is a complex task in many ways. The relations between controlled variables and the values they depend on are mostly unknown. Research projects are going on to create grate models based on physical laws. Those models are too complex for control implementation. The evaluation time is to long for control use. Another fundamental difficulty is that the relationships are none linear. That is, for a specific change in control value, the change in controlled value depends on the original size of control value, process disturbances and controlled values. There are extensive theories for linear process control. Non-linear control theory is used in robotic applications, but not in process and combustion control. The aim of grate control is to use as much of the grate area as possible, without having unburned material in ash. The outlined strategy is: To keep the position of the final bum out zone constant and its extension controlled. The control variables should be primary airflow, distribution of primary air, and fuel flow. Disturbances that should be measured are the fuel moisture content, the temperature of primary air and the grate temperature under the fuel bed. Technologies used are, fuzzy-logic and neural networks. A combination of booth could be used as well as any of them separately. A Fuzzy-logic controller acts as a computerised operator. Rules are specified with 'if - then' thesis. An example of that is: - if temperature is low, then close the valve The boundaries between the rules are made fuzzy. That makes it possible for the temperature to be just a bit low, which makes the valve open a bit. A lot of rules are created so that the controller knows what to do in every situation. Neural networks are sort of multi dimensional curves, with arbitrary degrees of freedom. The nets are used to predict future process values from measured ones. The model is evaluated from collected data. Parameters are adjusted for best correspondence between

  2. Interdisciplinarity, logic of uncertainty and fuzzy logic in primary school

    Luciana Delli Rocili

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available On the occasion of the 120th anniversary of Mathesis, this work wants to be a memory, a tribute to two great presidents of Mathesis: Bruno de Finetti and Angelo Fadini. Both have pursued the idea of interdisciplinary teaching and research. Bruno de Finetti, with his books on The invention of truth, (1934, and on Logic and Intuitive Mathematics, (1959, and his very famous "Theory of probability", (1970, shows a rejection of formal education, comfortable, monodisciplinary, made of certainties, and chooses the impervious way of addressing the problems that are to the base of science. Angelo Fadini, with his papers and books on Theory of Fuzzy Sets, shows first in Italy several logical questions which puts as the basis for practical applications in Architecture. This paper is an attempt to experiment, in an interdisciplinary framework, the basic ideas of Bruno de Finetti and Angelo Fadini in primary school, in the belief that in the Primary School are formed ideas and intuitions, while in the secondary school the attention is focused mainly on specific issues of Mathematics. We shows some results of a still ongoing experimentation.   Interdisciplinarietà, logica dell'incerto e logica sfumata nella scuola primaria In occasione dei 120 anni della Mathesis, questo lavoro vuole essere un ricordo, un omaggio a due grandi Presidenti della Mathesis: Bruno de Finetti e Angelo Fadini. Entrambi hanno portato avanti l’idea della interdisciplinarietà nell’insegnamento e nella ricerca. Bruno de Finetti, con la sua “Matematica Logico Intuitiva” del 1959, e la sua “Teoria delle probabilità”, del 1970, e ancora prima, con “L’invenzione della verità”, del 1934, mostra un rifiuto dell’insegnamento formale, comodo, monodisciplinare, fatto di certezze, e sceglie la strada impervia dell’affrontare i problemi che sono alla base della scienza. Angelo Fadini, con la sua Teoria degli Insiemi Sfocati, mostra per primo in Italia varie questioni

  3. Analogical proportions: another logical view

    Prade, Henri; Richard, Gilles

    This paper investigates the logical formalization of a restricted form of analogical reasoning based on analogical proportions, i.e. statements of the form a is to b as c is to d. Starting from a naive set theoretic interpretation, we highlight the existence of two noticeable companion proportions: one states that a is to b the converse of what c is to d (reverse analogy), while the other called paralogical proportion expresses that what a and b have in common, c and d have it also. We identify the characteristic postulates of the three types of proportions and examine their consequences from an abstract viewpoint. We further study the properties of the set theoretic interpretation and of the Boolean logic interpretation, and we provide another light on the understanding of the role of permutations in the modeling of the three types of proportions. Finally, we address the use of these proportions as a basis for inference in a propositional setting, and relate it to more general schemes of analogical reasoning. The differences between analogy, reverse-analogy, and paralogy is still emphasized in a three-valued setting, which is also briefly presented.

  4. Logic and its Pragmatic Aspects

    Michele Marsonet

    2018-03-01

    (2 the Platonistic, and (3 the instrumentalistic viewpoints. According to (1 logic is viewed as fundamentally descriptive, and its task is taken to be that of outlining a “theory of reasoning,” i.e. a systematic account of how we humans proceed when reasoning successufully. According to (3, instead, logic’s task is that of constructing rigorous systems codifying not only actual, but also possible instrumentalities for conducting valid inferences, and these would be available (should someone want to avail himself to them for adoption as an organon of reasoning, but no empirical claims are made that anyone has (or will avail himself of this opportunity. The logician devises a tool or instrument for correct reasoning, but does not concern himself about the uses of this instrument. Philosophy and logic cannot be linked so closely, and today the idea that the analytic style of philosophizing is just one style among many others, and not the only possible one, is gaining increasing acceptance.

  5. Logic circuits from zero forcing.

    Burgarth, Daniel; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Hogben, Leslie; Severini, Simone; Young, Michael

    We design logic circuits based on the notion of zero forcing on graphs; each gate of the circuits is a gadget in which zero forcing is performed. We show that such circuits can evaluate every monotone Boolean function. By using two vertices to encode each logical bit, we obtain universal computation. We also highlight a phenomenon of "back forcing" as a property of each function. Such a phenomenon occurs in a circuit when the input of gates which have been already used at a given time step is further modified by a computation actually performed at a later stage. Finally, we show that zero forcing can be also used to implement reversible computation. The model introduced here provides a potentially new tool in the analysis of Boolean functions, with particular attention to monotonicity. Moreover, in the light of applications of zero forcing in quantum mechanics, the link with Boolean functions may suggest a new directions in quantum control theory and in the study of engineered quantum spin systems. It is an open technical problem to verify whether there is a link between zero forcing and computation with contact circuits.

  6. HDL to verification logic translator

    Gambles, J. W.; Windley, P. J.

    1992-01-01

    The increasingly higher number of transistors possible in VLSI circuits compounds the difficulty in insuring correct designs. As the number of possible test cases required to exhaustively simulate a circuit design explodes, a better method is required to confirm the absence of design faults. Formal verification methods provide a way to prove, using logic, that a circuit structure correctly implements its specification. Before verification is accepted by VLSI design engineers, the stand alone verification tools that are in use in the research community must be integrated with the CAD tools used by the designers. One problem facing the acceptance of formal verification into circuit design methodology is that the structural circuit descriptions used by the designers are not appropriate for verification work and those required for verification lack some of the features needed for design. We offer a solution to this dilemma: an automatic translation from the designers' HDL models into definitions for the higher-ordered logic (HOL) verification system. The translated definitions become the low level basis of circuit verification which in turn increases the designer's confidence in the correctness of higher level behavioral models.

  7. People Like Logical Truth: Testing the Intuitive Detection of Logical Value in Basic Propositions.

    Hiroko Nakamura

    Full Text Available Recent studies on logical reasoning have suggested that people are intuitively aware of the logical validity of syllogisms or that they intuitively detect conflict between heuristic responses and logical norms via slight changes in their feelings. According to logical intuition studies, logically valid or heuristic logic no-conflict reasoning is fluently processed and induces positive feelings without conscious awareness. One criticism states that such effects of logicality disappear when confounding factors such as the content of syllogisms are controlled. The present study used abstract propositions and tested whether people intuitively detect logical value. Experiment 1 presented four logical propositions (conjunctive, biconditional, conditional, and material implications regarding a target case and asked the participants to rate the extent to which they liked the statement. Experiment 2 tested the effects of matching bias, as well as intuitive logic, on the reasoners' feelings by manipulating whether the antecedent or consequent (or both of the conditional was affirmed or negated. The results showed that both logicality and matching bias affected the reasoners' feelings, and people preferred logically true targets over logically false ones for all forms of propositions. These results suggest that people intuitively detect what is true from what is false during abstract reasoning. Additionally, a Bayesian mixed model meta-analysis of conditionals indicated that people's intuitive interpretation of the conditional "if p then q" fits better with the conditional probability, q given p.

  8. Formalization of Many-Valued Logics

    Villadsen, Jørgen; Schlichtkrull, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Partiality is a key challenge for computational approaches to artificial intelligence in general and natural language in particular. Various extensions of classical two-valued logic to many-valued logics have been investigated in order to meet this challenge. We use the proof assistant Isabelle...... to formalize the syntax and semantics of many-valued logics with determinate as well as indeterminate truth values. The formalization allows for a concise presentation and makes automated verification possible....

  9. On the Predictability of Classical Propositional Logic

    Finger, Marcelo; Reis, Poliana

    2013-01-01

    In this work we provide a statistical form of empirical analysis of classical propositional logic decision methods called SAT solvers. This work is perceived as an empirical counterpart of a theoretical movement, called the enduring scandal of deduction, that opposes considering Boolean Logic as trivial in any sense. For that, we study the predictability of classical logic, which we take to be the distribution of the runtime of its decision process. We present a series of experiments that det...

  10. A Dynamic Logic for Learning Theory

    Baltag, Alexandru; Gierasimczuk, Nina; Özgün, Aybüke

    2017-01-01

    Building on previous work that bridged Formal Learning Theory and Dynamic Epistemic Logic in a topological setting, we introduce a Dynamic Logic for Learning Theory (DLLT), extending Subset Space Logics with dynamic observation modalities, as well as with a learning operator, which encodes the le...... the learner’s conjecture after observing a finite sequence of data. We completely axiomatise DLLT, study its expressivity and use it to characterise various notions of knowledge, belief, and learning. ...

  11. Enhancing programming logic thinking using analogy mapping

    Sukamto, R. A.; Megasari, R.

    2018-05-01

    Programming logic thinking is the most important competence for computer science students. However, programming is one of the difficult subject in computer science program. This paper reports our work about enhancing students' programming logic thinking using Analogy Mapping for basic programming subject. Analogy Mapping is a computer application which converts source code into analogies images. This research used time series evaluation and the result showed that Analogy Mapping can enhance students' programming logic thinking.

  12. Research on Judgment Aggregation Based on Logic

    Li Dai

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Preference aggregation and judgment aggregation are two basic research models of group decision making. And preference aggregation has been deeply studied in social choice theory. However, researches of social choice theory gradually focus on judgment aggregation which appears recently. Judgment aggregation focuses on how to aggregate many consistent logical formulas into one, from the perspective of logic. We try to start with judgment aggregation model based on logic and then explore different solutions to problem of judgment aggregation.

  13. Conjunction analysis and propositional logic in fMRI data analysis using Bayesian statistics.

    Rudert, Thomas; Lohmann, Gabriele

    2008-12-01

    To evaluate logical expressions over different effects in data analyses using the general linear model (GLM) and to evaluate logical expressions over different posterior probability maps (PPMs). In functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data analysis, the GLM was applied to estimate unknown regression parameters. Based on the GLM, Bayesian statistics can be used to determine the probability of conjunction, disjunction, implication, or any other arbitrary logical expression over different effects or contrast. For second-level inferences, PPMs from individual sessions or subjects are utilized. These PPMs can be combined to a logical expression and its probability can be computed. The methods proposed in this article are applied to data from a STROOP experiment and the methods are compared to conjunction analysis approaches for test-statistics. The combination of Bayesian statistics with propositional logic provides a new approach for data analyses in fMRI. Two different methods are introduced for propositional logic: the first for analyses using the GLM and the second for common inferences about different probability maps. The methods introduced extend the idea of conjunction analysis to a full propositional logic and adapt it from test-statistics to Bayesian statistics. The new approaches allow inferences that are not possible with known standard methods in fMRI. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. From Interpreter to Logic Engine by Defunctionalization

    Biernacki, Dariusz; Danvy, Olivier

    2003-01-01

    Starting from a continuation-based interpreter for a simple logic programming language, propositional Prolog with cut, we derive the corresponding logic engine in the form of an abstract machine. The derivation originates in previous work (our article at PPDP 2003) where it was applied to the lam......Starting from a continuation-based interpreter for a simple logic programming language, propositional Prolog with cut, we derive the corresponding logic engine in the form of an abstract machine. The derivation originates in previous work (our article at PPDP 2003) where it was applied...

  15. From Interpreter to Logic Engine by Defunctionalization

    Biernacki, Dariusz; Danvy, Olivier

    2004-01-01

    Starting from a continuation-based interpreter for a simple logic programming language, propositional Prolog with cut, we derive the corresponding logic engine in the form of an abstract machine. The derivation originates in previous work (our article at PPDP 2003) where it was applied to the lam......Starting from a continuation-based interpreter for a simple logic programming language, propositional Prolog with cut, we derive the corresponding logic engine in the form of an abstract machine. The derivation originates in previous work (our article at PPDP 2003) where it was applied...

  16. From Interpreter to logic Engine by Defunctionalization

    Biernacki, Dariusz; Danvy, Olivier

    2003-01-01

    Starting from a continuation-based interpreter for a simple logic programming language, propositional Prolog with cut, we derive the corresponding logic engine in the form of an abstract machine. The derivation originates in previous work (our article at PPDP 2003) where it was applied to the lam......Starting from a continuation-based interpreter for a simple logic programming language, propositional Prolog with cut, we derive the corresponding logic engine in the form of an abstract machine. The derivation originates in previous work (our article at PPDP 2003) where it was applied...

  17. A Verification Logic for GOAL Agents

    Hindriks, K. V.

    Although there has been a growing body of literature on verification of agents programs, it has been difficult to design a verification logic for agent programs that fully characterizes such programs and to connect agent programs to agent theory. The challenge is to define an agent programming language that defines a computational framework but also allows for a logical characterization useful for verification. The agent programming language GOAL has been originally designed to connect agent programming to agent theory and we present additional results here that GOAL agents can be fully represented by a logical theory. GOAL agents can thus be said to execute the corresponding logical theory.

  18. Temporal logics and real time expert systems.

    Blom, J A

    1996-10-01

    This paper introduces temporal logics. Due to the eternal compromise between expressive adequacy and reasoning efficiency that must decided upon in any application, full (first order logic or modal logic based) temporal logics are frequently not suitable. This is especially true in real time expert systems, where a fixed (and usually small) response time must be guaranteed. One such expert system, Fagan's VM, is reviewed, and a delineation is given of how to formally describe and reason with time in medical protocols. It is shown that Petri net theory is a useful tool to check the correctness of formalised protocols.

  19. Fuzzy logic control of nuclear power plant

    Yao Liangzhong; Guo Renjun; Ma Changwen

    1996-01-01

    The main advantage of the fuzzy logic control is that the method does not require a detailed mathematical model of the object to be controlled. In this paper, the shortcomings and limitations of the model-based method in nuclear power plant control were presented, the theory of the fuzzy logic control was briefly introduced, and the applications of the fuzzy logic control technology in nuclear power plant controls were surveyed. Finally, the problems to be solved by using the fuzzy logic control in nuclear power plants were discussed

  20. Towards a formal logic of design rationalization

    Galle, Per

    1997-01-01

    Certain extensions to standard predicate logic are proposed and used as a framework for critical logical study of patterns of inference in design reasoning. It is shown that within this framework a modal logic of design rationalization (suggested by an empirical study reported earlier) can...... be formally defined in terms of quantification over a universe of discourse of ‘relevant points of view’. Five basic principles of the extended predicate logic are listed, on the basis of which the validity of ten modal patterns of inference encountered in design rationalization is tested. The basic idea...