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Sample records for linear growth results

  1. Dietary arginine and linear growth

    van Vught, Anneke J A H; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Arts, Ilja C W

    2013-01-01

    Child Intervention Study during 2001-2 (baseline), and at 3-year and 7-year follow-up, were used. Arginine intake was estimated via a 7 d precoded food diary at baseline and 3-year follow-up. Data were analysed in a multilevel structure in which children were embedded within schools. Random intercept......The amino acid arginine is a well-known growth hormone (GH) stimulator and GH is an important modulator of linear growth. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of dietary arginine on growth velocity in children between 7 and 13 years of age. Data from the Copenhagen School...... and slopes were defined to estimate the association between arginine intake and growth velocity, including the following covariates: sex; age; baseline height; energy intake; puberty stage at 7-year follow-up and intervention/control group. The association between arginine intake and growth velocity...

  2. On conjugacy growth of linear groups

    Breuillard, Emmanuel; de Cornulier, Yves; Lubotzky, Alexander; Meiri, Chen

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the conjugacy growth of finitely generated linear groups. We show that finitely generated non-virtually-solvable subgroups of GL_d have uniform exponential conjugacy growth and in fact that the number of distinct polynomials arising as characteristic polynomials of the elements of the ball of radius n for the word metric has exponential growth rate bounded away from 0 in terms of the dimension d only.

  3. Convex variational problems linear, nearly linear and anisotropic growth conditions

    Bildhauer, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The author emphasizes a non-uniform ellipticity condition as the main approach to regularity theory for solutions of convex variational problems with different types of non-standard growth conditions. This volume first focuses on elliptic variational problems with linear growth conditions. Here the notion of a "solution" is not obvious and the point of view has to be changed several times in order to get some deeper insight. Then the smoothness properties of solutions to convex anisotropic variational problems with superlinear growth are studied. In spite of the fundamental differences, a non-uniform ellipticity condition serves as the main tool towards a unified view of the regularity theory for both kinds of problems.

  4. On Associative Conformal Algebras of Linear Growth

    Retakh, Alexander

    2000-01-01

    Lie conformal algebras appear in the theory of vertex algebras. Their relation is similar to that of Lie algebras and their universal enveloping algebras. Associative conformal algebras play a role in conformal representation theory. We introduce the notions of conformal identity and unital associative conformal algebras and classify finitely generated simple unital associative conformal algebras of linear growth. These are precisely the complete algebras of conformal endomorphisms of finite ...

  5. The effects of oestrogens on linear bone growth

    Juul, A

    2001-01-01

    Regulation of linear bone growth in children and adolescents comprises a complex interaction of hormones and growth factors. Growth hormone (GH) is considered to be the key hormone regulator of linear growth in childhood. The pubertal increase in growth velocity associated with GH has traditionally...... been attributed to testicular androgen secretion in boys, and to oestrogens or adrenal androgen secretion in girls. Research data indicating that oestrogen may be the principal hormone stimulating the pubertal growth spurt in boys as well as girls is reviewed. Such an action is mediated by oestrogen...... female growth spurt despite lack of androgen action. Oestrogens may also influence linear bone growth indirectly via modulation of the GH-insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) axis. Thus, ER blockade diminishes endogenous GH secretion, androgen receptor (AR) blockade increases GH secretion in peripubertal...

  6. Beneficial effect of physical activity on linear growth rate of ...

    It is not known if nutritional and/or other interventions could improve linear growth in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of physical activity in promoting linear growth velocity of black adolescents in a low-income shanty town in South Africa. Two schools in a disadvantaged shanty town participated ...

  7. Piecewise Linear-Linear Latent Growth Mixture Models with Unknown Knots

    Kohli, Nidhi; Harring, Jeffrey R.; Hancock, Gregory R.

    2013-01-01

    Latent growth curve models with piecewise functions are flexible and useful analytic models for investigating individual behaviors that exhibit distinct phases of development in observed variables. As an extension of this framework, this study considers a piecewise linear-linear latent growth mixture model (LGMM) for describing segmented change of…

  8. Predicting Madura cattle growth curve using non-linear model

    Widyas, N.; Prastowo, S.; Widi, T. S. M.; Baliarti, E.

    2018-03-01

    Madura cattle is Indonesian native. It is a composite breed that has undergone hundreds of years of selection and domestication to reach nowadays remarkable uniformity. Crossbreeding has reached the isle of Madura and the Madrasin, a cross between Madura cows and Limousine semen emerged. This paper aimed to compare the growth curve between Madrasin and one type of pure Madura cows, the common Madura cattle (Madura) using non-linear models. Madura cattles are kept traditionally thus reliable records are hardly available. Data were collected from small holder farmers in Madura. Cows from different age classes (5years) were observed, and body measurements (chest girth, body length and wither height) were taken. In total 63 Madura and 120 Madrasin records obtained. Linear model was built with cattle sub-populations and age as explanatory variables. Body weights were estimated based on the chest girth. Growth curves were built using logistic regression. Results showed that within the same age, Madrasin has significantly larger body compared to Madura (plogistic models fit better for Madura and Madrasin cattle data; with the estimated MSE for these models were 39.09 and 759.28 with prediction accuracy of 99 and 92% for Madura and Madrasin, respectively. Prediction of growth curve using logistic regression model performed well in both types of Madura cattle. However, attempts to administer accurate data on Madura cattle are necessary to better characterize and study these cattle.

  9. The effects of oestrogens on linear bone growth

    Juul, A

    2001-01-01

    receptors (ER-alpha and ER-beta) in the human growth plate, and polymorphisms in the ER gene may influence adult height in healthy subjects. Prepubertal oestradiol concentrations are significantly higher in girls than in boys, explaining sex-related differences in pubertal onset. Men with a disruptive......Regulation of linear bone growth in children and adolescents comprises a complex interaction of hormones and growth factors. Growth hormone (GH) is considered to be the key hormone regulator of linear growth in childhood. The pubertal increase in growth velocity associated with GH has traditionally...... been attributed to testicular androgen secretion in boys, and to oestrogens or adrenal androgen secretion in girls. Research data indicating that oestrogen may be the principal hormone stimulating the pubertal growth spurt in boys as well as girls is reviewed. Such an action is mediated by oestrogen...

  10. Direct and Maternal Additive Effects on Rabbit Growth and Linear ...

    Growth and linear body measurements of rabbits which consisted of 17 ew Zealand White (ZW), 19 Chinchilla (CH), 29 ZW x CH and 33 CH x ZW kittens were compared. The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the crossbreeding effects (i.e direct and maternal additive effect) for growth (individual body weight, IBW) and ...

  11. Non-linear Growth Models in Mplus and SAS

    Grimm, Kevin J.; Ram, Nilam

    2013-01-01

    Non-linear growth curves or growth curves that follow a specified non-linear function in time enable researchers to model complex developmental patterns with parameters that are easily interpretable. In this paper we describe how a variety of sigmoid curves can be fit using the Mplus structural modeling program and the non-linear mixed-effects modeling procedure NLMIXED in SAS. Using longitudinal achievement data collected as part of a study examining the effects of preschool instruction on academic gain we illustrate the procedures for fitting growth models of logistic, Gompertz, and Richards functions. Brief notes regarding the practical benefits, limitations, and choices faced in the fitting and estimation of such models are included. PMID:23882134

  12. Linear Stability of Binary Alloy Solidification for Unsteady Growth Rates

    Mazuruk, K.; Volz, M. P.

    2010-01-01

    An extension of the Mullins and Sekerka (MS) linear stability analysis to the unsteady growth rate case is considered for dilute binary alloys. In particular, the stability of the planar interface during the initial solidification transient is studied in detail numerically. The rapid solidification case, when the system is traversing through the unstable region defined by the MS criterion, has also been treated. It has been observed that the onset of instability is quite accurately defined by the "quasi-stationary MS criterion", when the growth rate and other process parameters are taken as constants at a particular time of the growth process. A singular behavior of the governing equations for the perturbed quantities at the constitutional supercooling demarcation line has been observed. However, when the solidification process, during its transient, crosses this demarcation line, a planar interface is stable according to the linear analysis performed.

  13. Testing linear growth rate formulas of non-scale endogenous growth models

    Ziesemer, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Endogenous growth theory has produced formulas for steady-state growth rates of income per capita which are linear in the growth rate of the population. Depending on the details of the models, slopes and intercepts are positive, zero or negative. Empirical tests have taken over the assumption of

  14. Augmenting Data with Published Results in Bayesian Linear Regression

    de Leeuw, Christiaan; Klugkist, Irene

    2012-01-01

    In most research, linear regression analyses are performed without taking into account published results (i.e., reported summary statistics) of similar previous studies. Although the prior density in Bayesian linear regression could accommodate such prior knowledge, formal models for doing so are absent from the literature. The goal of this…

  15. Linear ubiquitin chain induces apoptosis and inhibits tumor growth.

    Qin, Zhoushuai; Jiang, Wandong; Wang, Guifen; Sun, Ying; Xiao, Wei

    2018-01-01

    Ubiquitination of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) plays an important role in DNA damage response. Ectopic expression of PCNA fused at either terminus with ubiquitin (Ub) lacking two C-terminal glycine residues induces translesion DNA synthesis which resembles synthesis mediated by PCNA monoubiquitination. PCNA fused with Ub containing the C-terminal Gly residues at the C-terminus can be further polyubiquitinated in a Gly-dependent manner, which inhibits cell proliferation and induces ATR-dependent replication checkpoint. In this study, we surprisingly found that PCNA fused to a head-to-tail linear Ub chain induces apoptosis in a Ub chain length-dependent manner. Further investigation revealed that the apoptotic effect is actually induced by the linear Ub chain independently from PCNA, as the Ub chain fused to GFP or an epitope tag still efficiently induces apoptosis. It is revealed that the artificial linear Ub chain differs from endogenously encoded linear Ub chains in that its Ubs contain a Ub-G76S substitution, making the Ub chain resistant to cleavage by deubiquitination enzymes. We demonstrated in this study that ectopic expression of the artificial Ub chain alone in cultured human cancer cells is sufficient to inhibit tumor growth in a xenograft mouse model, making the linear Ub chain a putative anti-cancer agent.

  16. Mathematical problems in non-linear Physics: some results

    1979-01-01

    The basic results presented in this report are the following: 1) Characterization of the range and Kernel of the variational derivative. 2) Determination of general conservation laws in linear evolution equations, as well as bounds for the number of polynomial conserved densities in non-linear evolution equations in two independent variables of even order. 3) Construction of the most general evolution equation which has a given family of conserved densities. 4) Regularity conditions for the validity of the Lie invariance method. 5) A simple class of perturbations in non-linear wave equations. 6) Soliton solutions in generalized KdV equations. (author)

  17. Influence of magnetic flutter on tearing growth in linear and nonlinear theory

    Kreifels, L.; Hornsby, W. A.; Weikl, A.; Peeters, A. G.

    2018-06-01

    Recent simulations of tearing modes in turbulent regimes show an unexpected enhancement in the growth rate. In this paper the effect is investigated analytically. The enhancement is linked to the influence of turbulent magnetic flutter, which is modelled by diffusion terms in magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) momentum balance and Ohm’s law. Expressions for the linear growth rate as well as the island width in nonlinear theory for small amplitudes are derived. The results indicate an enhanced linear growth rate and a larger linear layer width compared with resistive MHD. Also the island width in the nonlinear regime grows faster in the diffusive model. These observations correspond well to simulations in which the effect of turbulence on the magnetic island width and tearing mode growth is analyzed.

  18. An easy way to obtain strong duality results in linear, linear semidefinite and linear semi-infinite programming

    Pop, P.C.; Still, Georg J.

    1999-01-01

    In linear programming it is known that an appropriate non-homogeneous Farkas Lemma leads to a short proof of the strong duality results for a pair of primal and dual programs. By using a corresponding generalized Farkas lemma we give a similar proof of the strong duality results for semidefinite

  19. Relevance of Linear Stability Results to Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Ding, Xueru; Daripa, Prabir

    2012-11-01

    How relevant can the results based on linear stability theory for any problem for that matter be to full scale simulation results? Put it differently, is the optimal design of a system based on linear stability results is optimal or even near optimal for the complex nonlinear system with certain objectives of interest in mind? We will address these issues in the context of enhanced oil recovery by chemical flooding. This will be based on an ongoing work. Supported by Qatar National Research Fund (a member of the Qatar Foundation).

  20. The Non-Linear Effect of Corporate Taxes on Economic Growth

    Huňady Ján

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problem of taxation and its potential impact on economic growth and presents some new empirical insights into this topic. The main aim of the paper is to verify an assumed nonlinear impact of corporate tax rates on economic growth. Based on the theory of public finance and taxation, we hypothesize that at relatively low tax rates it is possible that the impact of taxation on economic growth become slightly positive. On the other hand when the tax rates are higher a negative impact of taxation on economic growth could be expected. Despite the fact that the most of the existing studies find a negative linear relationship between these variables, we can also find strong support for a non-linear relationship from several theoretical models as well as some empirical studies. Based on panel data fixed-effects econometric models, we, as well, find empirical evidence for a non-linear relationship between nominal and effective corporate tax rates and economic growth. Our data consists of annual observations for the period 1999 to 2011 for EU Member States. Based on the results, we also estimated the optimal level of the corporate tax rate in terms of maximizing economic growth in the average of the EU countries.

  1. Association between parental socio-demographic factors and declined linear growth of young children in Jakarta

    Hartono Gunardi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Indonesia, approximately 35.5% of children under five years old were stunted. Stunting is related to shorter adult stature, poor cognition and educational performance, low adult wages, lost productivity, and higher risk of nutrition-related chronic disease. The aim of this study was to identify parental socio-demographic risk factors of declined linear growth in children younger than 2 years old.Methods: This was a cohort-prospective study between August 2012 and May 2014 at three primary community health care centers (Puskesmas in Jakarta, Indonesia, namely Puskesmas Jatinegara, Mampang, and Tebet. Subjects were healthy children under 2 years old, in which their weight and height were measured serially (at 6–11 weeks old and 18–24 months old. The length-for-age based on those data was used to determine stature status. The serial measurement was done to detect growth pattern. Parental socio-demographic data were obtained from questionnairesResults: From the total of 160 subjects, 14 (8.7% showed declined growth pattern from normal to stunted and 10 (6.2% to severely stunted. As many as 134 (83.8% subjects showed consistent normal growth pattern. Only 2 (1.2% showed improvement in the linear growth. Maternal education duration less than 9 years (RR=2.60, 95% CI=1.23–5.46; p=0.02 showed statistically significant association with declined linear growth in children.Conclusion: Mother with education duration less than 9 years was the determining socio-demographic risk factor that contributed to the declined linear growth in children less than 2 years of age.

  2. The effect of zinc supplementation on linear growth, body composition, and growth factors in preterm infants.

    Díaz-Gómez, N Marta; Doménech, Eduardo; Barroso, Flora; Castells, Silvia; Cortabarria, Carmen; Jiménez, Alejandro

    2003-05-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of zinc supplementation on linear growth, body composition, and growth factors in premature infants. Thirty-six preterm infants (gestational age: 32.0 +/- 2.1 weeks, birth weight: 1704 +/- 364 g) participated in a longitudinal double-blind, randomized clinical trial. They were randomly allocated either to the supplemental (S) group fed with a standard term formula supplemented with zinc (final content 10 mg/L) and a small quantity of copper (final content 0.6 mg/L), or to the placebo group fed with the same formula without supplementation (final content of zinc: 5 mg/L and copper: 0.4 mg/L), from 36 weeks postconceptional age until 6 months corrected postnatal age. At each evaluation, anthropometric variables and bioelectrical impedance were measured, a 3-day dietary record was collected, and a blood sample was taken. We analyzed serum levels of total alkaline phosphatase, skeletal alkaline phosphatase (sALP), insulin growth factor (IGF)-I, IGF binding protein-3, IGF binding protein-1, zinc and copper, and the concentrations of zinc in erythrocytes. The S group had significantly higher zinc levels in serum and erythrocytes and lower serum copper levels with respect to the placebo group. We found that the S group had a greater linear growth (from baseline to 3 months corrected age: Delta score deviation standard length: 1.32 +/-.8 vs.38 +/-.8). The increase in total body water and in serum levels of sALP was also significantly higher in the S group (total body water: 3 months; corrected age: 3.8 +/-.5 vs 3.5 +/-.4 kg, 6 months; corrected age: 4.5 +/-.5 vs 4.2 +/-.4 kg; sALP: 3 months; corrected age: 140.2 +/- 28.7 vs 118.7 +/- 18.8 micro g/L). Zinc supplementation has a positive effect on linear growth in premature infants.

  3. Fecal Markers of Intestinal Inflammation and Permeability Associated with the Subsequent Acquisition of Linear Growth Deficits in Infants

    Kosek, Margaret; Haque, Rashidul; Lima, Aldo; Babji, Sudhir; Shrestha, Sanjaya; Qureshi, Shahida; Amidou, Samie; Mduma, Estomih; Lee, Gwenyth; Yori, Pablo Peñataro; Guerrant, Richard L.; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Mason, Carl; Kang, Gagandeep; Kabir, Mamun; Amour, Caroline; Bessong, Pascal; Turab, Ali; Seidman, Jessica; Olortegui, Maribel Paredes; Quetz, Josiane; Lang, Dennis; Gratz, Jean; Miller, Mark; Gottlieb, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Enteric infections are associated with linear growth failure in children. To quantify the association between intestinal inflammation and linear growth failure three commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (neopterin [NEO], alpha-anti-trypsin [AAT], and myeloperoxidase [MPO]) were performed in a structured sampling of asymptomatic stool from children under longitudinal surveillance for diarrheal illness in eight countries. Samples from 537 children contributed 1,169 AAT, 916 MPO, and 954 NEO test results that were significantly associated with linear growth. When combined to form a disease activity score, children with the highest score grew 1.08 cm less than children with the lowest score over the 6-month period following the tests after controlling for the incidence of diarrheal disease. This set of affordable non-invasive tests delineates those at risk of linear growth failure and may be used for the improved assessments of interventions to optimize growth during a critical period of early childhood. PMID:23185075

  4. Preliminary experimental results from a linear reciprocating magnetic refrigerator prototype

    Tagliafico, Luca Antonio; Scarpa, Federico; Valsuani, Federico; Tagliafico, Giulio

    2013-01-01

    A linear reciprocating magnetic refrigerator prototype was designed and built with the aid of an industrial partner. The refrigerator is based on the Active Magnetic Regenerative cycle, and exploits two regenerators working in parallel. The active material is Gadolinium in plates, 0.8 mm thick, for a total mass of 0.36 kg. The device is described and results about magnetic field and temperature span measurements are presented. The designed permanent magnet structure, based on an improved cross-type arrangement, generates a maximum magnetic field intensity of 1.55 T in air, over a gap of (13 × 50 × 100) mm 3 . The maximum temperature span achieved is 5.0 K, in a free run condition. -- Highlights: ► We give preliminary results from a linear reciprocating magnetic refrigerator prototype. ► The design is intended to process visualization and investigation. ► The prototype behavior gives us various suggestions to improve its general performance

  5. Identifiability Results for Several Classes of Linear Compartment Models.

    Meshkat, Nicolette; Sullivant, Seth; Eisenberg, Marisa

    2015-08-01

    Identifiability concerns finding which unknown parameters of a model can be estimated, uniquely or otherwise, from given input-output data. If some subset of the parameters of a model cannot be determined given input-output data, then we say the model is unidentifiable. In this work, we study linear compartment models, which are a class of biological models commonly used in pharmacokinetics, physiology, and ecology. In past work, we used commutative algebra and graph theory to identify a class of linear compartment models that we call identifiable cycle models, which are unidentifiable but have the simplest possible identifiable functions (so-called monomial cycles). Here we show how to modify identifiable cycle models by adding inputs, adding outputs, or removing leaks, in such a way that we obtain an identifiable model. We also prove a constructive result on how to combine identifiable models, each corresponding to strongly connected graphs, into a larger identifiable model. We apply these theoretical results to several real-world biological models from physiology, cell biology, and ecology.

  6. Markov and semi-Markov switching linear mixed models used to identify forest tree growth components.

    Chaubert-Pereira, Florence; Guédon, Yann; Lavergne, Christian; Trottier, Catherine

    2010-09-01

    Tree growth is assumed to be mainly the result of three components: (i) an endogenous component assumed to be structured as a succession of roughly stationary phases separated by marked change points that are asynchronous among individuals, (ii) a time-varying environmental component assumed to take the form of synchronous fluctuations among individuals, and (iii) an individual component corresponding mainly to the local environment of each tree. To identify and characterize these three components, we propose to use semi-Markov switching linear mixed models, i.e., models that combine linear mixed models in a semi-Markovian manner. The underlying semi-Markov chain represents the succession of growth phases and their lengths (endogenous component) whereas the linear mixed models attached to each state of the underlying semi-Markov chain represent-in the corresponding growth phase-both the influence of time-varying climatic covariates (environmental component) as fixed effects, and interindividual heterogeneity (individual component) as random effects. In this article, we address the estimation of Markov and semi-Markov switching linear mixed models in a general framework. We propose a Monte Carlo expectation-maximization like algorithm whose iterations decompose into three steps: (i) sampling of state sequences given random effects, (ii) prediction of random effects given state sequences, and (iii) maximization. The proposed statistical modeling approach is illustrated by the analysis of successive annual shoots along Corsican pine trunks influenced by climatic covariates. © 2009, The International Biometric Society.

  7. Effects of socioeconomic position and social mobility on linear growth from early childhood until adolescence

    Ana Paula Muraro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Objective: To assess the effect of socioeconomic position (SEP in childhood and social mobility on linear growth through adolescence in a population-based cohort. Methods: Children born in Cuiabá-MT, central-western Brazil, were evaluated during 1994 - 1999. They were first assessed during 1999 - 2000 (0 - 5 years and again during 2009 - 2011 (10 - 17 years, and their height-for-age was evaluated during these two periods.Awealth index was used to classify the SEP of each child’s family as low, medium, or high. Social mobility was categorized as upward mobility or no upward mobility. Linear mixed models were used. Results: We evaluated 1,716 children (71.4% of baseline after 10 years, and 60.6% of the families showed upward mobility, with a higher percentage among the lowest economic classes. A higher height-for-age was also observed among those from families with a high SEP both in childhood (low SEP= -0.35 z-score; high SEP= 0.15 z-score, p < 0.01 and adolescence (low SEP= -0.01 z-score; high SEP= 0.45 z-score, p < 0.01, whereas upward mobility did not affect their linear growth. Conclusion: Expressive social mobility was observed, but SEP in childhood and social mobility did not greatly influence linear growth through childhood in this central-western Brazilian cohort.

  8. Preliminary results of Linear Induction Accelerator LIA-200

    Sharma, Archana; Senthil, K; Kumar, D D Praveen; Mitra, S; Sharma, V; Patel, A; Sharma, D K; Rehim, R; Kolge, T S; Saroj, P C; Acharya, S; Amitava, Roy; Rakhee, M; Nagesh, K V; Chakravarthy, D P, E-mail: aroy@barc.gov.i, E-mail: arsharma@barc.gov.i [Accelerator and Pulse Power Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2010-05-15

    Repetitive Pulsed Power Technology is being developed keeping in mind the potential applications of this technology in material modifications, disinfections of water, timber, and food pasteurization etc. BARC has indigenously developed a Linear Induction Accelerator (LIA-200) rated for 200 kV, 4 kA, 100 ns, 10 Hz. The satisfactory performance of all the sub-systems including solid state power modulator, amorphous core based pulsed transformers, magnetic switches, water capacitors, water pulse- forming line, induction adder and field-emission diode have been demonstrated. This paper presents some design details and operational results of this pulsed power system. It also highlights the need for further research and development to build reliable and economic high-average power systems for industrial applications.

  9. Hartman-Wintner growth results for sublinear functional differential equations

    John A. D. Appleby

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article determines the rate of growth to infinity of scalar autonomous nonlinear functional and Volterra differential equations. In these equations, the right-hand side is a positive continuous linear functional of f(x. We assume f grows sublinearly, leading to subexponential growth in the solutions. The main results show that the solution of the functional differential equations are asymptotic to that of an auxiliary autonomous ordinary differential equation with right-hand side proportional to f. This happens provided f grows more slowly than l(x=x/log(x. The linear-logarithmic growth rate is also shown to be critical: if f grows more rapidly than l, the ODE dominates the FDE; if f is asymptotic to a constant multiple of l, the FDE and ODE grow at the same rate, modulo a constant non-unit factor; if f grows more slowly than l, the ODE and FDE grow at exactly the same rate. A partial converse of the last result is also proven. In the case when the growth rate is slower than that of the ODE, sharp bounds on the growth rate are determined. The Volterra and finite memory equations can have differing asymptotic behaviour and we explore the source of these differences.

  10. Non-compliance with growth hormone treatment in children is common and impairs linear growth.

    Wayne S Cutfield

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: GH therapy requires daily injections over many years and compliance can be difficult to sustain. As growth hormone (GH is expensive, non-compliance is likely to lead to suboptimal growth, at considerable cost. Thus, we aimed to assess the compliance rate of children and adolescents with GH treatment in New Zealand. METHODS: This was a national survey of GH compliance, in which all children receiving government-funded GH for a four-month interval were included. Compliance was defined as ≥ 85% adherence (no more than one missed dose a week on average to prescribed treatment. Compliance was determined based on two parameters: either the number of GH vials requested (GHreq by the family or the number of empty GH vials returned (GHret. Data are presented as mean ± SEM. FINDINGS: 177 patients were receiving GH in the study period, aged 12.1 ± 0.6 years. The rate of returned vials, but not number of vials requested, was positively associated with HVSDS (p < 0.05, such that patients with good compliance had significantly greater linear growth over the study period (p<0.05. GHret was therefore used for subsequent analyses. 66% of patients were non-compliant, and this outcome was not affected by sex, age or clinical diagnosis. However, Maori ethnicity was associated with a lower rate of compliance. INTERPRETATION: An objective assessment of compliance such as returned vials is much more reliable than compliance based on parental or patient based information. Non-compliance with GH treatment is common, and associated with reduced linear growth. Non-compliance should be considered in all patients with apparently suboptimal response to GH treatment.

  11. Completeness Results for Linear Logic on Petri Nets

    Engberg, Uffe Henrik; Winskel, Glynn

    1993-01-01

    Completeness is shown for several versions of Girard's linear logic with respect to Petri nets as the class of models. The strongest logic considered is intuitionistic linear logic, with $otimes$, $-!circ$, &, $oplus$ and the exponential ! (''of course´´), and forms of quantification. This logic ...

  12. Non-linear self-reinforced growth of tearing modes with multiple rational surfaces

    Maschke, E.K.; Persson, M.; Dewar, R.L.; Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT

    1993-06-01

    The non-linear evolution of tearing modes with multiple rational surfaces is discussed. It is demonstrated that, in the presence of small differential rotation, the non-linear growth might be faster than exponential. This growth occurs as the rotation frequencies of the plasma at the different rational surfaces go into equilibrium

  13. Modeling results for a linear simulator of a divertor

    Hooper, E.B.; Brown, M.D.; Byers, J.A.; Casper, T.A.; Cohen, B.I.; Cohen, R.H.; Jackson, M.C.; Kaiser, T.B.; Molvik, A.W.; Nevins, W.M.; Nilson, D.G.; Pearlstein, L.D.; Rognlien, T.D.

    1993-01-01

    A divertor simulator, IDEAL, has been proposed by S. Cohen to study the difficult power-handling requirements of the tokamak program in general and the ITER program in particular. Projections of the power density in the ITER divertor reach ∼ 1 Gw/m 2 along the magnetic fieldlines and > 10 MW/m 2 on a surface inclined at a shallow angle to the fieldlines. These power densities are substantially greater than can be handled reliably on the surface, so new techniques are required to reduce the power density to a reasonable level. Although the divertor physics must be demonstrated in tokamaks, a linear device could contribute to the development because of its flexibility, the easy access to the plasma and to tested components, and long pulse operation (essentially cw). However, a decision to build a simulator requires not just the recognition of its programmatic value, but also confidence that it can meet the required parameters at an affordable cost. Accordingly, as reported here, it was decided to examine the physics of the proposed device, including kinetic effects resulting from the intense heating required to reach the plasma parameters, and to conduct an independent cost estimate. The detailed role of the simulator in a divertor program is not explored in this report

  14. Metrical results on systems of small linear forms

    Hussain, M.; Kristensen, Simon

    In this paper the metric theory of Diophantine approximation associated with the small linear forms is investigated. Khintchine--Groshev theorems are established along with Hausdorff measure generalization without the monotonic assumption on the approximating function.......In this paper the metric theory of Diophantine approximation associated with the small linear forms is investigated. Khintchine--Groshev theorems are established along with Hausdorff measure generalization without the monotonic assumption on the approximating function....

  15. The effect of changes in sea surface temperature on linear growth of Porites coral in Ambon Bay

    Corvianawatie, Corry; Putri, Mutiara R.; Cahyarini, Sri Y.

    2015-01-01

    Coral is one of the most important organisms in the coral reef ecosystem. There are several factors affecting coral growth, one of them is changes in sea surface temperature (SST). The purpose of this research is to understand the influence of SST variability on the annual linear growth of Porites coral taken from Ambon Bay. The annual coral linear growth was calculated and compared to the annual SST from the Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature version 3b (ERSST v3b) model. Coral growth was calculated by using Coral X-radiograph Density System (CoralXDS) software. Coral sample X-radiographs were used as input data. Chronology was developed by calculating the coral’s annual growth bands. A pair of high and low density banding patterns observed in the coral’s X-radiograph represent one year of coral growth. The results of this study shows that Porites coral extents from 2001-2009 and had an average growth rate of 1.46 cm/year. Statistical analysis shows that the annual coral linear growth declined by 0.015 cm/year while the annual SST declined by 0.013°C/year. SST and the annual linear growth of Porites coral in the Ambon Bay is insignificantly correlated with r=0.304 (n=9, p>0.05). This indicates that annual SST variability does not significantly influence the linear growth of Porites coral from Ambon Bay. It is suggested that sedimentation load, salinity, pH or other environmental factors may affect annual linear coral growth

  16. The effect of changes in sea surface temperature on linear growth of Porites coral in Ambon Bay

    Corvianawatie, Corry, E-mail: corvianawatie@students.itb.ac.id; Putri, Mutiara R., E-mail: mutiara.putri@fitb.itb.ac.id [Oceanography Study Program, Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB), Jl. Ganesha 10 Bandung (Indonesia); Cahyarini, Sri Y., E-mail: yuda@geotek.lipi.go.id [Research Center for Geotechnology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), Bandung (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    Coral is one of the most important organisms in the coral reef ecosystem. There are several factors affecting coral growth, one of them is changes in sea surface temperature (SST). The purpose of this research is to understand the influence of SST variability on the annual linear growth of Porites coral taken from Ambon Bay. The annual coral linear growth was calculated and compared to the annual SST from the Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature version 3b (ERSST v3b) model. Coral growth was calculated by using Coral X-radiograph Density System (CoralXDS) software. Coral sample X-radiographs were used as input data. Chronology was developed by calculating the coral’s annual growth bands. A pair of high and low density banding patterns observed in the coral’s X-radiograph represent one year of coral growth. The results of this study shows that Porites coral extents from 2001-2009 and had an average growth rate of 1.46 cm/year. Statistical analysis shows that the annual coral linear growth declined by 0.015 cm/year while the annual SST declined by 0.013°C/year. SST and the annual linear growth of Porites coral in the Ambon Bay is insignificantly correlated with r=0.304 (n=9, p>0.05). This indicates that annual SST variability does not significantly influence the linear growth of Porites coral from Ambon Bay. It is suggested that sedimentation load, salinity, pH or other environmental factors may affect annual linear coral growth.

  17. Results of fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy with linear accelerator

    Aoki, Masahiko; Watanabe, Sadao [Aomori Prefectural Central Hospital (Japan); Mariya, Yasushi [and others

    1997-03-01

    A lot of clinical data about stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) were reported, however, standard fractionated schedules were not shown. In this paper, our clinical results of SRT, 3 fractions of 10 Gy, are reported. Between February 1992 and March 1995, we treated 41 patients with 7 arteriovenous malformations and 41 intracranial tumors using a stereotactic technique implemented by a standard 10MV X-ray linear accelerator. Average age was 47.4 years (range 3-80 years) and average follow-up time was 16.7 months (range 3.5-46.1 months). The patients received 3 fractions of 10 Gy for 3 days delivered by multiple arc narrow beams under 3 cm in width and length. A three-pieces handmade shell was used for head fixation without any anesthetic procedures. Three-dimensional treatment planning system (Focus) was applied for the dose calculation. All patients have received at least one follow-up radiographic study and one clinical examination. In four of the 7 patients with AVM the nidus has become smaller, 9 of the 21 patients with benign intracranial tumors and 9 of the 13 patients with intracranial malignant tumors have shown complete or partial response to the therapy. In 14 patients, diseases were stable or unevaluable due to the short follow-up time. In 5 patients (3 with astrocytoma, 1 each with meningioma and craniopharyngioma), diseases were progressive. Only 1 patient with falx meningioma had minor complication due to the symptomatic brain edema around the tumor. Although, further evaluation of target control (i.e. tumor and nidus) and late normal tissue damage is needed, preliminary clinical results indicate that SRT with our methods is safe and effective. (author)

  18. Non-linear pattern formation in bone growth and architecture.

    Salmon, Phil

    2014-01-01

    The three-dimensional morphology of bone arises through adaptation to its required engineering performance. Genetically and adaptively bone travels along a complex spatiotemporal trajectory to acquire optimal architecture. On a cellular, micro-anatomical scale, what mechanisms coordinate the activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts to produce complex and efficient bone architectures? One mechanism is examined here - chaotic non-linear pattern formation (NPF) - which underlies in a unifying way natural structures as disparate as trabecular bone, swarms of birds flying, island formation, fluid turbulence, and others. At the heart of NPF is the fact that simple rules operating between interacting elements, and Turing-like interaction between global and local signals, lead to complex and structured patterns. The study of "group intelligence" exhibited by swarming birds or shoaling fish has led to an embodiment of NPF called "particle swarm optimization" (PSO). This theoretical model could be applicable to the behavior of osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes, seeing them operating "socially" in response simultaneously to both global and local signals (endocrine, cytokine, mechanical), resulting in their clustered activity at formation and resorption sites. This represents problem-solving by social intelligence, and could potentially add further realism to in silico computer simulation of bone modeling. What insights has NPF provided to bone biology? One example concerns the genetic disorder juvenile Pagets disease or idiopathic hyperphosphatasia, where the anomalous parallel trabecular architecture characteristic of this pathology is consistent with an NPF paradigm by analogy with known experimental NPF systems. Here, coupling or "feedback" between osteoblasts and osteoclasts is the critical element. This NPF paradigm implies a profound link between bone regulation and its architecture: in bone the architecture is the regulation. The former is the emergent

  19. CSR-induced emittance growth in achromats: Linear formalism revisited

    Venturini, M.

    2015-09-11

    We review the R-matrix formalism used to describe Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR)-induced projected emittance growth in electron beam transport lines and establish the connection with a description in terms of the dispersion-invariant function.

  20. Comparative study of growth and linear body measurements in Anak ...

    The study was designed to compare the performance of two different breeds of broilers (Anak and Hubbard) using body weight and body linear measurements. Data on a total of 200 (100 each) Anak and Hubbard broiler breeds were collected weekly and the experiment lasted for 8 weeks. The parameters investigated ...

  1. Further results on "Robust MPC using Linear Matrix Inequalities"

    Lazar, M.; Heemels, W.P.M.H.; Munoz de la Pena, D.; Alamo, T.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for designing the terminal cost and the auxiliary control law (ACL) for robust MPC of uncertain linear systems, such that ISS is a priori guaranteed for the closed-loop system. The method is based on the solution of a set of LMIs. An explicit relation is

  2. Effect of milk proteins on linear growth and IGF variables in overweight adolescents

    Larnkjær, Anni; Arnberg, Karina; Michaelsen, Kim F

    2014-01-01

    Milk may stimulate growth acting via insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) secretion but the effect in adolescents is less examined. This study investigates the effect of milk proteins on linear growth, IGF-I, IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio in overweight adolescents....

  3. Kinetics of nickel silicide growth in silicon nanowires: From linear to square root growth

    Yaish, Y. E.; Beregovsky, M.; Katsman, A.; Cohen, G. M.

    2011-01-01

    The common practice for nickel silicide formation in silicon nanowires (SiNWs) relies on axial growth of silicide along the wire that is initiated from nickel reservoirs at the source and drain contacts. In the present work the silicide intrusions were studied for various parameters including wire diameter (25-50 nm), annealing time (15-120 s), annealing temperature (300-440 deg. C), and the quality of the initial Ni/Si interface. The silicide formation was investigated by high-resolution scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy. The main part of the intrusion formed at 420 deg. C consists of monosilicide NiSi, as was confirmed by energy dispersive spectroscopy STEM, selected area diffraction TEM, and electrical resistance measurements of fully silicided SiNWs. The kinetics of nickel silicide axial growth in the SiNWs was analyzed in the framework of a diffusion model through constrictions. The model calculates the time dependence of the intrusion length, L, and predicts crossover from linear to square root time dependency for different wire parameters, as confirmed by the experimental data.

  4. The effects of oestrogens on linear bone growth

    Juul, A

    2001-01-01

    boys, and non-aromatizable androgens [oxandrolone or dihydrotestosterone (DHT)] have no effect on GH secretion. Treatment with aromatase inhibitors reduces circulating IGF-I concentrations in healthy males, and reduces growth in boys with testotoxicosis. Taken together, these findings suggest...

  5. Caregiver perceptions of children's linear growth in Bangladesh: a qualitative analysis.

    Hossain, Muttaquina; Ickes, Scott; Rice, Lauren; Ritter, Gaelen; Naila, Nurun Nahar; Zia, Tasnia; Nahar, Baitun; Mahfuz, Mustafa; Denno, Donna M; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Walson, Judd

    2018-03-26

    To understand caregivers' perceptions of children's linear growth and to identify the cultural meanings and perceptions of risk associated with poor height attainment. Three investigators from Bangladesh conducted twelve focus group discussions. The study was conducted in rural and slum settings in Bangladesh. Participants included mothers and alternative caregivers (n 81) who were recruited by household screening. No eligible, recruited subjects refused participation. Caregivers reported limited experience with growth monitoring services from the health system. Caregivers mainly use visual cues and developmental milestones to understand if children are growing properly, and recognize that children normally experience both weight gain and linear growth with age. Mothers expressed concern over children's malnutrition and short stature, but did not discuss children's failure to attain a 'growth potential' or distinguish inherited short stature from stunting. Caregivers interpret the consequences of poor height attainment as primarily social and economic and cite few health risks. Linear growth interpretation is determined more by community norms than by guidance from nutrition programming or the health system. Interventions to prevent or reduce linear growth failure may be perceived to have limited value where appropriate linear growth in children is determined by comparison to peers and siblings. Such perceptions may be significant barriers to programmes addressing stunting prevention in settings where many children are stunted. Efforts to raise awareness about the risks of linear growth faltering may need to consider delivering messages to caregivers that emphasize the social and economic consequences of stunting.

  6. Investigation of various growth mechanisms of solid tumour growth within the linear-quadratic model for radiotherapy

    McAneney, H; O'Rourke, S F C

    2007-01-01

    The standard linear-quadratic survival model for radiotherapy is used to investigate different schedules of radiation treatment planning to study how these may be affected by different tumour repopulation kinetics between treatments. The laws for tumour cell repopulation include the logistic and Gompertz models and this extends the work of Wheldon et al (1977 Br. J. Radiol. 50 681), which was concerned with the case of exponential re-growth between treatments. Here we also consider the restricted exponential model. This has been successfully used by Panetta and Adam (1995 Math. Comput. Modelling 22 67) in the case of chemotherapy treatment planning.Treatment schedules investigated include standard fractionation of daily treatments, weekday treatments, accelerated fractionation, optimized uniform schedules and variation of the dosage and α/β ratio, where α and β are radiobiological parameters for the tumour tissue concerned. Parameters for these treatment strategies are extracted from the literature on advanced head and neck cancer, prostate cancer, as well as radiosensitive parameters. Standardized treatment protocols are also considered. Calculations based on the present analysis indicate that even with growth laws scaled to mimic initial growth, such that growth mechanisms are comparable, variation in survival fraction to orders of magnitude emerged. Calculations show that the logistic and exponential models yield similar results in tumour eradication. By comparison the Gompertz model calculations indicate that tumours described by this law result in a significantly poorer prognosis for tumour eradication than either the exponential or logistic models. The present study also shows that the faster the tumour growth rate and the higher the repair capacity of the cell line, the greater the variation in outcome of the survival fraction. Gaps in treatment, planned or unplanned, also accentuate the differences of the survival fraction given alternative growth

  7. Evaluating Non-Linear Regression Models in Analysis of Persian Walnut Fruit Growth

    I. Karamatlou

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Persian walnut (Juglans regia L. is a large, wind-pollinated, monoecious, dichogamous, long lived, perennial tree cultivated for its high quality wood and nuts throughout the temperate regions of the world. Growth model methodology has been widely used in the modeling of plant growth. Mathematical models are important tools to study the plant growth and agricultural systems. These models can be applied for decision-making anddesigning management procedures in horticulture. Through growth analysis, planning for planting systems, fertilization, pruning operations, harvest time as well as obtaining economical yield can be more accessible.Non-linear models are more difficult to specify and estimate than linear models. This research was aimed to studynon-linear regression models based on data obtained from fruit weight, length and width. Selecting the best models which explain that fruit inherent growth pattern of Persian walnut was a further goal of this study. Materials and Methods: The experimental material comprising 14 Persian walnut genotypes propagated by seed collected from a walnut orchard in Golestan province, Minoudasht region, Iran, at latitude 37◦04’N; longitude 55◦32’E; altitude 1060 m, in a silt loam soil type. These genotypes were selected as a representative sampling of the many walnut genotypes available throughout the Northeastern Iran. The age range of walnut trees was 30 to 50 years. The annual mean temperature at the location is16.3◦C, with annual mean rainfall of 690 mm.The data used here is the average of walnut fresh fruit and measured withgram/millimeter/day in2011.According to the data distribution pattern, several equations have been proposed to describesigmoidal growth patterns. Here, we used double-sigmoid and logistic–monomolecular models to evaluate fruit growth based on fruit weight and4different regression models in cluding Richards, Gompertz, Logistic and Exponential growth for evaluation

  8. A reexamination of some puzzling results in linearized elasticity

    University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28223-0001, USA e-mail: jogc@mecheng.iisc.ernet.in; ..... ˆT (F) = C[ϵ] + o(∇u), where ϵ = [∇u+(∇u)T ]/2, and C = D ˆT (I) is the elasticity tensor, and one also linearizes the body force vector to get b = QT [ b∗ − ¨c. ] − ˙ × X − × ( × X) − 2 × v,. (5) where X is the position ...

  9. Untangling the causal relationship between tax burden distribution and economic growth in 23 OECD countries: Fresh evidence from linear and non-linear Granger causality

    Sami Saafi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to investigate the linear and nonlinear causality between a set of alternative tax burden ratios and economic growth in 23 OECD countries. To that end, the linear causality approach of Toda– Yamamoto (1995 and the nonparametric causality method of Kyrtsou and Labys (2006 are applied to annual data spanning from 1970 to 2014. Results obtained from the nonlinear causality test tend to reject the neutrality hypothesis for the tax structure–growth relationship in 19 of the 23 OECD countries. In the majority of the countries under investigation, the evidence is in line with the growth hypothesis where causality running from economic growth to tax burden ratios was detected in Australia, Denmark, Finland, Japan, New Zealand, and Norway. The opposite causality running from tax structure to economic growth was found in Germany, Netherlands, Portugal, and Sweden. In contrast, the neutrality hypothesis was supported in Austria, Italy, Luxembourg, and the USA, whereas the feedback hypothesis was supported in Turkey and the UK. Additional robustness checks show that when the signs of variations are taken into account, there is an asymmetric causality running from positive tax burden shocks to positive per capita GDP shocks for Belgium, France, and Turkey. Overall, our findings suggest that policy implications of the tax structure-economic growth relationships should be interpreted with caution, taking into account the test-dependent and country-specific results.

  10. Alignment of the Stanford Linear Collider Arcs: Concepts and results

    Pitthan, R.; Bell, B.; Friedsam, H.; Pietryka, M.; Oren, W.; Ruland, R.

    1987-02-01

    The alignment of the Arcs for the Stanford Linear Collider at SLAC has posed problems in accelerator survey and alignment not encountered before. These problems come less from the tight tolerances of 0.1 mm, although reaching such a tight statistically defined accuracy in a controlled manner is difficult enough, but from the absence of a common reference plane for the Arcs. Traditional circular accelerators, including HERA and LEP, have been designed in one plane referenced to local gravity. For the SLC Arcs no such single plane exists. Methods and concepts developed to solve these and other problems, connected with the unique design of SLC, range from the first use of satellites for accelerator alignment, use of electronic laser theodolites for placement of components, computer control of the manual adjustment process, complete automation of the data flow incorporating the most advanced concepts of geodesy, strict separation of survey and alignment, to linear principal component analysis for the final statistical smoothing of the mechanical components

  11. Severe linear growth retardation in rural Zambian children: the influence of biological variables.

    Hautvast, J.L.A.; Tolboom, J.J.M.; Kaftwembe, E.M.; Musonda, R.M.; Mwanakasale, V.; Staveren, W.A. van; Hof, M.A. van 't; Sauerwein, R.W.; Willems, J.L.; Monnens, L.A.H.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of stunting in preschool children in Zambia is high; stunting has detrimental effects on concurrent psychomotor development and later working capacity. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate biological variables that may contribute to linear growth retardation in

  12. Neutrino mass, dark energy, and the linear growth factor

    Kiakotou, Angeliki; Lahav, Ofer; Elgaroey, Oystein

    2008-01-01

    We study the degeneracies between neutrino mass and dark energy as they manifest themselves in cosmological observations. In contradiction to a popular formula in the literature, the suppression of the matter power spectrum caused by massive neutrinos is not just a function of the ratio of neutrino to total mass densities f ν =Ω ν /Ω m , but also each of the densities independently. We also present a fitting formula for the logarithmic growth factor of perturbations in a flat universe, f(z,k;f ν ,w,Ω DE )≅[1-A(k)Ω DE f ν +B(k)f ν 2 -C(k)f ν 3 ]Ω m α (z), where α depends on the dark energy equation of state parameter w. We then discuss cosmological probes where the f factor directly appears: peculiar velocities, redshift distortion, and the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect. We also modify the approximation of Eisenstein and Hu [Astrophys. J. 511, 5 (1999)] for the power spectrum of fluctuations in the presence of massive neutrinos and provide a revised code [http://www.star.ucl.ac.uk/∼lahav/nu m atter p ower.f].

  13. Linear and Nonlinear Causality between Energy Consumption and Economic Growth: The Case of Mexico 1965–2014

    Mario Gómez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the causal link between aggregated and disaggregated levels of energy consumption and economic growth in Mexico between 1965 and 2014, with the presence of structural breaks stemming from the series. To that end, unit root with structural breaks, cointegration, and linear and nonlinear causality tests are employed. The results show that there is a long-run relationship between production, capital, labor, and energy, and linear causal links from total and disaggregated energy consumption to economic growth. A nonlinear causality also exists from energy consumption, the transport sector, capital, and labor to output. These results support the growth hypothesis, which maintains that energy is an important input factor for economic activity and that energy conservation policies impact the economic growth in Mexico.

  14. Homogeneous shear turbulence – bypass concept via interplay of linear transient growth and nonlinear transverse cascade

    Mamatsashvili, George; Dong, Siwei; Jiménez, Javier; Khujadze, George; Chagelishvili, George; Foysi, Holger

    2016-01-01

    We performed direct numerical simulations of homogeneous shear turbulence to study the mechanism of the self-sustenance of subcritical turbulence in spectrally stable (constant) shear flows. For this purpose, we analyzed the turbulence dynamics in Fourier/wavenumber/spectral space based on the simulation data for the domain aspect ratio 1 : 1 : 1. Specifically, we examined the interplay of linear transient growth of Fourier harmonics and nonlinear processes. The transient growth of harmonics is strongly anisotropic in spectral space. This, in turn, leads to anisotropy of nonlinear processes in spectral space and, as a result, the main nonlinear process appears to be not a direct/inverse, but rather a transverse/angular redistribution of harmonics in Fourier space referred to as the nonlinear transverse cascade. It is demonstrated that the turbulence is sustained by the interplay of the linear transient, or nonmodal growth and the transverse cascade. This course of events reliably exemplifies the wellknown bypass scenario of subcritical turbulence in spectrally stable shear flows. These processes mainly operate at large length scales, comparable to the box size. Consequently, the central, small wavenumber area of Fourier space (the size of which is determined below) is crucial in the self-sustenance and is labeled the vital area. Outside the vital area, the transient growth and the transverse cascade are of secondary importance - Fourier harmonics are transferred to dissipative scales by the nonlinear direct cascade. The number of harmonics actively participating in the self-sustaining process (i.e., the harmonics whose energies grow more than 10% of the maximum spectral energy at least once during evolution) is quite large - it is equal to 36 for the considered box aspect ratio - and obviously cannot be described by low-order models. (paper)

  15. Model for predicting non-linear crack growth considering load sequence effects (LOSEQ)

    Fuehring, H.

    1982-01-01

    A new analytical model for predicting non-linear crack growth is presented which takes into account the retardation as well as the acceleration effects due to irregular loading. It considers not only the maximum peak of a load sequence to effect crack growth but also all other loads of the history according to a generalised memory criterion. Comparisons between crack growth predicted by using the LOSEQ-programme and experimentally observed data are presented. (orig.) [de

  16. Linear growth of children on a ketogenic diet: does the protein-to-energy ratio matter?

    Nation, Judy; Humphrey, Maureen; MacKay, Mark; Boneh, Avihu

    2014-11-01

    Ketogenic diet is a structured effective treatment for children with intractable epilepsy. Several reports have indicated poor linear growth in children on the diet but the mechanism of poor growth has not been elucidated. We aimed to explore whether the protein to energy ratio plays a role in linear growth of children on ketogenic diet. Data regarding growth and nutrition were, retrospectively, collected from the clinical histories of 35 children who were treated with ketogenic diet for at least 6 months between 2002 and 2010. Patients were stratified into groups according to periods of satisfactory or poor linear growth. Poor linear growth was associated with protein or caloric intake of <80% recommended daily intake, and with a protein-to-energy ratio consistently ≤1.4 g protein/100 kcal even when protein and caloric intakes were adequate. We recommend a protein-to-energy ratio of 1.5 g protein/100 kcal be prescribed to prevent growth retardation. © The Author(s) 2013.

  17. Associations of infant feeding and timing of linear growth and relative weight gain during early life with childhood body composition

    de Beer, M.; Vrijkotte, T. G. M.; Fall, C. H. D.; van Eijsden, M.; Osmond, C.; Gemke, R. J. B. J.

    2015-01-01

    Growth and feeding during infancy have been associated with later life body mass index. However, the associations of infant feeding, linear growth and weight gain relative to linear growth with separate components of body composition remain unclear. Of 5551 children with collected growth and

  18. Linear growth patterns in small for gestational age and preterm infants after zinc supplementation

    Caecilia Nancy Setiawan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Low birth weight (LBW infants are at risk for growth disturbances due to intrauterine zinc deficiency. Zinc supplementation is expected to improve the linear growth of LBW babies. Objective To assess the effect of zinc supplementation on linear growth in preterm and small for gestational age (SGA infants. Methods This quasi-experimental study had a pre- and post-test design. Subjects were LBW infants hospitalized in Kariadi Hospital during March-December 2011, consisted of SGA and preterm neonates. All subjects were given 5 mg of zinc syrup daily for 3 months. Subjects’ head circumference, weight, and length were measured monthly. Serum zinc levels were measured before and after supplementation. Data were analyzed with Chi-square test, independent T-test, and general linear model repeated measure. Results A total of 61 subjects were enrolled consisted of 31 preterm and 30 SGA neonates. Mean serum zinc levels in the preterm group were 168.2 (SD 54.5 μg/dL pre-supplementation and 163.6 (SD 50.7 μg/dL post-supplementation (P=0.049, while mean serum zinc levels in the SGA group were 174.8 (SD 46.6 μg/dL pre-supplementation and 167.4 (SD 49.4 μg/dL post-supplementation (P=0.271. Median percentage preterm weight and length increased from 87.3 to 102.4% in the third month (P<0.001 and from 95.8 to 103.9% in the third month (P<0.001, respectively. Median percentage SGA weight and length increased from 73.5 to 98.3% in the third month (P<0.001 and from 94.5 to 102.2% in the third month (P<0.001, respectively. Conclusion Both, the preterm and SGA infants exhibit catch-up growth after three months of zinc supplementation. [

  19. The non-linear growth of the magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    Carlyle, Jack; Hillier, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    This work examines the effect of the embedded magnetic field strength on the non-linear development of the magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) (with a field-aligned interface) in an ideal gas close to the incompressible limit in three dimensions. Numerical experiments are conducted in a domain sufficiently large so as to allow the predicted critical modes to develop in a physically realistic manner. The ratio between gravity, which drives the instability in this case (as well as in several of the corresponding observations), and magnetic field strength is taken up to a ratio which accurately reflects that of observed astrophysical plasma, in order to allow comparison between the results of the simulations and the observational data which served as inspiration for this work. This study finds reduced non-linear growth of the rising bubbles of the RTI for stronger magnetic fields, and that this is directly due to the change in magnetic field strength, rather than the indirect effect of altering characteristic length scales with respect to domain size. By examining the growth of the falling spikes, the growth rate appears to be enhanced for the strongest magnetic field strengths, suggesting that rather than affecting the development of the system as a whole, increased magnetic field strengths in fact introduce an asymmetry to the system. Further investigation of this effect also revealed that the greater this asymmetry, the less efficiently the gravitational energy is released. By better understanding the under-studied regime of such a major phenomenon in astrophysics, deeper explanations for observations may be sought, and this work illustrates that the strength of magnetic fields in astrophysical plasmas influences observed RTI in subtle and complex ways.

  20. A meta-analysis of cambium phenology and growth: linear and non-linear patterns in conifers of the northern hemisphere.

    Rossi, Sergio; Anfodillo, Tommaso; Cufar, Katarina; Cuny, Henri E; Deslauriers, Annie; Fonti, Patrick; Frank, David; Gricar, Jozica; Gruber, Andreas; King, Gregory M; Krause, Cornelia; Morin, Hubert; Oberhuber, Walter; Prislan, Peter; Rathgeber, Cyrille B K

    2013-12-01

    Ongoing global warming has been implicated in shifting phenological patterns such as the timing and duration of the growing season across a wide variety of ecosystems. Linear models are routinely used to extrapolate these observed shifts in phenology into the future and to estimate changes in associated ecosystem properties such as net primary productivity. Yet, in nature, linear relationships may be special cases. Biological processes frequently follow more complex, non-linear patterns according to limiting factors that generate shifts and discontinuities, or contain thresholds beyond which responses change abruptly. This study investigates to what extent cambium phenology is associated with xylem growth and differentiation across conifer species of the northern hemisphere. Xylem cell production is compared with the periods of cambial activity and cell differentiation assessed on a weekly time scale on histological sections of cambium and wood tissue collected from the stems of nine species in Canada and Europe over 1-9 years per site from 1998 to 2011. The dynamics of xylogenesis were surprisingly homogeneous among conifer species, although dispersions from the average were obviously observed. Within the range analysed, the relationships between the phenological timings were linear, with several slopes showing values close to or not statistically different from 1. The relationships between the phenological timings and cell production were distinctly non-linear, and involved an exponential pattern. The trees adjust their phenological timings according to linear patterns. Thus, shifts of one phenological phase are associated with synchronous and comparable shifts of the successive phases. However, small increases in the duration of xylogenesis could correspond to a substantial increase in cell production. The findings suggest that the length of the growing season and the resulting amount of growth could respond differently to changes in environmental conditions.

  1. Ignition-and-Growth Modeling of NASA Standard Detonator and a Linear Shaped Charge

    Oguz, Sirri

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to quantitatively investigate the ignition and shock sensitivity of NASA Standard Detonator (NSD) and the shock wave propagation of a linear shaped charge (LSC) after being shocked by NSD flyer plate. This combined explosive train was modeled as a coupled Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) model with LS-DYNA hydro code. An ignition-and-growth (I&G) reactive model based on unreacted and reacted Jones-Wilkins-Lee (JWL) equations of state was used to simulate the shock initiation. Various NSD-to-LSC stand-off distances were analyzed to calculate the shock initiation (or failure to initiate) and detonation wave propagation along the shaped charge. Simulation results were verified by experimental data which included VISAR tests for NSD flyer plate velocity measurement and an aluminum target severance test for LSC performance verification. Parameters used for the analysis were obtained from various published data or by using CHEETAH thermo-chemical code.

  2. The relationships among iron supplement use, Hb concentration and linear growth in young children: Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey.

    Mohammed, Shimels Hussien; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2017-11-01

    Growth faltering and anaemia remain unacceptably high among infants and young children in Ethiopia. In this study, we investigated the relationships among Fe supplement use (ISU), Hb concentration and linear growth, hypothesising positive relationships between ISU and Hb, ISU and linear growth and Hb and linear growth. We used a nationally representative data of 2400 children aged 6-24 months from the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) 2011, conducted following a stratified, two-stage cluster sampling. We examined the links by Pearson's correlation, bivariate and multivariate linear regression analyses and reported adjusted estimates. We found that ISU was not significantly associated with either Hb (β=1·09; 95 % CI -2·73, 5·01, P=0·567) or linear growth (β=0·07; 95 % CI -0·06, 0·21, P=0·217). We found a positive, however, weak, correlation between Hb and linear growth (r 0·09; 95 % CI 0·06, 0·11, PHb predicted linear growth independent of a variety dietary and non-dietary factors (β=0·08; 95 % CI 0·04, 0·11, PHb; age, birth type, size at birth, sex, breast-feeding duration, dietary diversity and deworming were independently associated with linear growth, indicating that Hb and linear growth are multifactorial with both nutritional and non-nutritional factors implicated. Further studies, with better design and exposure assessment, are warranted on the relation of ISU with Hb or linear growth.

  3. Associations of infant feeding and timing of linear growth and relative weight gain during early life with childhood body composition

    de Beer, M.; Vrijkotte, T.G.M.; Fall, C.H.D.; Eijsden, M.; Osmond, C.; Gemke, R.J.B.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background:Growth and feeding during infancy have been associated with later life body mass index. However, the associations of infant feeding, linear growth and weight gain relative to linear growth with separate components of body composition remain unclear.Methods:Of 5551 children with collected

  4. Modelling subject-specific childhood growth using linear mixed-effect models with cubic regression splines.

    Grajeda, Laura M; Ivanescu, Andrada; Saito, Mayuko; Crainiceanu, Ciprian; Jaganath, Devan; Gilman, Robert H; Crabtree, Jean E; Kelleher, Dermott; Cabrera, Lilia; Cama, Vitaliano; Checkley, William

    2016-01-01

    Childhood growth is a cornerstone of pediatric research. Statistical models need to consider individual trajectories to adequately describe growth outcomes. Specifically, well-defined longitudinal models are essential to characterize both population and subject-specific growth. Linear mixed-effect models with cubic regression splines can account for the nonlinearity of growth curves and provide reasonable estimators of population and subject-specific growth, velocity and acceleration. We provide a stepwise approach that builds from simple to complex models, and account for the intrinsic complexity of the data. We start with standard cubic splines regression models and build up to a model that includes subject-specific random intercepts and slopes and residual autocorrelation. We then compared cubic regression splines vis-à-vis linear piecewise splines, and with varying number of knots and positions. Statistical code is provided to ensure reproducibility and improve dissemination of methods. Models are applied to longitudinal height measurements in a cohort of 215 Peruvian children followed from birth until their fourth year of life. Unexplained variability, as measured by the variance of the regression model, was reduced from 7.34 when using ordinary least squares to 0.81 (p linear mixed-effect models with random slopes and a first order continuous autoregressive error term. There was substantial heterogeneity in both the intercept (p modeled with a first order continuous autoregressive error term as evidenced by the variogram of the residuals and by a lack of association among residuals. The final model provides a parametric linear regression equation for both estimation and prediction of population- and individual-level growth in height. We show that cubic regression splines are superior to linear regression splines for the case of a small number of knots in both estimation and prediction with the full linear mixed effect model (AIC 19,352 vs. 19

  5. [Linear growth retardation in children under five years of age: a baseline study].

    Rissin, Anete; Figueiroa, José Natal; Benício, Maria Helena D'Aquino; Batista Filho, Malaquias

    2011-10-01

    The scope of this study was to describe the prevalence of, and analyze factors associated with, linear growth retardation in children. The baseline study analyzed 2040 children under the age of five, establishing a possible association between growth delay (height/age index non-binary variables, there was a positive association with roof type and number of inhabitants per room and a negative association with income per capita, mother's schooling and birth weight. The adjusted analysis also indicated water supply, visit from the community health agent, birth delivery location, internment for diarrhea, or for pneumonia and birth weight as significant variables. Several risk factors were identified for linear growth retardation pointing to the multi-causal aspects of the problem and highlighting the need for control measures by the various hierarchical government agents.

  6. Low temperature diamond growth by linear antenna plasma CVD over large area

    Izak, Tibor; Babchenko, Oleg; Potocky, Stepan; Kromka, Alexander; Varga, Marian

    2012-01-01

    Recently, there is a great effort to increase the deposition area and decrease the process temperature for diamond growth which will enlarge its applications including use of temperature sensitive substrates. In this work, we report on the large area (20 x 30 cm 2 ) and low temperature (250 C) polycrystalline diamond growth by pulsed linear antenna microwave plasma system. The influence of substrate temperature varied from 250 to 680 C, as controlled by the table heater and/or by microwave power, is studied. It was found that the growth rate, film morphology and diamond to non-diamond phases (sp 3 /sp 2 carbon bonds) are influenced by the growth temperature, as confirmed by SEM and Raman measurements. The surface chemistry and growth processes were studied in terms of activation energies (E a ) calculated from Arrhenius plots. The activation energies of growth processes were very low (1.7 and 7.8 kcal mol -1 ) indicating an energetically favourable growth process from the CO 2 -CH 4 -H 2 gas mixture. In addition, from activation energies two different growth regimes were observed at low and high temperatures, indicating different growth mechanism. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Linear growth and final height characteristics in adolescent females with anorexia nervosa.

    Dalit Modan-Moses

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Growth retardation is an established complication of anorexia nervosa (AN. However, findings concerning final height of AN patients are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to assess these phenomena in female adolescent inpatients with AN. METHODS: We retrospectively studied all 211 female adolescent AN patients hospitalized in an inpatient eating disorders department from 1/1/1987 to 31/12/99. Height and weight were assessed at admission and thereafter routinely during hospitalization and follow-up. Final height was measured in 69 patients 2-10 years after discharge. Pre-morbid height data was available in 29 patients. RESULTS: Patients' height standard deviation scores (SDS on admission (-0.285±1.0 and discharge (-0.271±1.02 were significantly (p<0.001 lower than expected in normal adolescents. Patients admitted at age ≤13 years, or less than 1 year after menarche, were more severely growth-impaired than patients admitted at an older age, (p = 0.03. Final height SDS, available for 69 patients, was -0.258±1.04, significantly lower than expected in a normal population (p = 0.04, and was more severely compromised in patients who were admitted less than 1 year from their menarche. In a subgroup of 29 patients with complete growth data (pre-morbid, admission, discharge, and final adult height, the pre-morbid height SDS was not significantly different from the expected (-0.11±1.1, whereas heights at the other time points were significantly (p = 0.001 lower (-0.56±1.2, -0.52±1.2, and -0.6±1.2, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that whereas the premorbid height of female adolescent AN patients is normal, linear growth retardation is a prominent feature of their illness. Weight restoration is associated with catch-up growth, but complete catch-up is often not achieved.

  8. Wavelength dependence of the linear growth rate of the Es layer instability

    R. B. Cosgrove

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available It has recently been shown, by computation of the linear growth rate, that midlatitude sporadic-E (Es layers are subject to a large scale electrodynamic instability. This instability is a logical candidate to explain certain frontal structuring events, and polarization electric fields, which have been observed in Es layers by ionosondes, by coherent scatter radars, and by rockets. However, the original growth rate derivation assumed an infinitely thin Es layer, and therefore did not address the short wavelength cutoff. Also, the same derivation ignored the effects of F region loading, which is a significant wavelength dependent effect. Herein is given a generalized derivation that remedies both these short comings, and thereby allows a computation of the wavelength dependence of the linear growth rate, as well as computations of various threshold conditions. The wavelength dependence of the linear growth rate is compared with observed periodicities, and the role of the zeroth order meridional wind is explored. A three-dimensional paper model is used to explain the instability geometry, which has been defined formally in previous works.

  9. Differentiability of Palmer's linearization Theorem and converse result for density functions

    Castañeda, Alvaro; Robledo, Gonzalo

    2014-01-01

    We study differentiability properties in a particular case of the Palmer's linearization Theorem, which states the existence of an homeomorphism $H$ between the solutions of a linear ODE system having exponential dichotomy and a quasilinear system. Indeed, if the linear system is uniformly asymptotically stable, sufficient conditions ensuring that $H$ is a $C^{2}$ preserving orientation diffeomorphism are given. As an application, we generalize a converse result of density functions for a non...

  10. Linear growth of the entanglement entropy and the Kolmogorov-Sinai rate

    Bianchi, Eugenio; Hackl, Lucas; Yokomizo, Nelson

    2018-03-01

    The rate of entropy production in a classical dynamical system is characterized by the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy rate h KS given by the sum of all positive Lyapunov exponents of the system. We prove a quantum version of this result valid for bosonic systems with unstable quadratic Hamiltonian. The derivation takes into account the case of time-dependent Hamiltonians with Floquet instabilities. We show that the entanglement entropy S A of a Gaussian state grows linearly for large times in unstable systems, with a rate Λ A ≤ h KS determined by the Lyapunov exponents and the choice of the subsystem A. We apply our results to the analysis of entanglement production in unstable quadratic potentials and due to periodic quantum quenches in many-body quantum systems. Our results are relevant for quantum field theory, for which we present three applications: a scalar field in a symmetry-breaking potential, parametric resonance during post-inflationary reheating and cosmological perturbations during inflation. Finally, we conjecture that the same rate Λ A appears in the entanglement growth of chaotic quantum systems prepared in a semiclassical state.

  11. Multibunch emittance growth and its corrections in S-Band linear collider

    Gao, J.

    1994-11-01

    Multibunch emittance growths caused by long range wake fields with the misalignments of accelerating structures and quadrupoles in S-Band linear collider are studied. Tolerances for the misalignment errors of accelerating structures and quadrupoles are given corresponding to different detuned+damped structures. At the end of main linac, emittance corrector (EC) is proposed to be used to reduce further the multibunch emittance. Numerical simulations show that the effect of EC is obvious (multibunch emittance can be reduced about one order of magnitude), and it is believed that this kind of EC will be necessary for future linear colliders. (author). 16 refs., 21 figs., 4 tabs

  12. The Relationship between Economic Growth and Money Laundering – a Linear Regression Model

    Daniel Rece

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study provides an overview of the relationship between economic growth and money laundering modeled by a least squares function. The report analyzes statistically data collected from USA, Russia, Romania and other eleven European countries, rendering a linear regression model. The study illustrates that 23.7% of the total variance in the regressand (level of money laundering is “explained” by the linear regression model. In our opinion, this model will provide critical auxiliary judgment and decision support for anti-money laundering service systems.

  13. Aeroelastic Limit-Cycle Oscillations resulting from Aerodynamic Non-Linearities

    van Rooij, A.C.L.M.

    2017-01-01

    Aerodynamic non-linearities, such as shock waves, boundary layer separation or boundary layer transition, may cause an amplitude limitation of the oscillations induced by the fluid flow around a structure. These aeroelastic limit-cycle oscillations (LCOs) resulting from aerodynamic non-linearities

  14. Guaranteed and computable bounds of the limit load for variational problems with linear growth energy functionals

    Haslinger, Jaroslav; Repin, S.; Sysala, Stanislav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 5 (2016), s. 527-564 ISSN 0862-7940 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LQ1602 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : functionals with linear growth * limit load * truncation method * perfect plasticity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.618, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10492-016-0146-6

  15. Linear and nonlinear causality between sectoral electricity consumption and economic growth: Evidence from Taiwan

    Yang, Cheng-Lang; Lin, Hung-Pin; Chang, Chih-Heng

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the linear and nonlinear causality between the total electricity consumption (TEC) and real gross domestic production (RGDP). Unlike previous literature, we solve the undetermined relation between RGDP and electricity consumption by classifying TEC into industrial sector consumption (ISC) and residential sector consumption (RSC) as well as investigating how TEC, ISC, and RSC influence Taiwan's RGDP. By using the Granger's linear causality test, it is shown that (i) there is a bidirectional causality among TEC, ISC, and RGDP, but a neutrality between RSC and RGDP with regard to the linear causality and (ii) there is still a bidirectional causality between TEC and RGDP, but a unidirectional causality between RSC and RGDP with regard to the nonlinear causality. On the basis of (i) and (ii), we suggest that the electricity policy formulators loosen the restriction on ISC and limit RSC in order to achieve the goal of economic growth.

  16. Linear perturbation growth at the trailing edge of a rarefaction wave

    Wouchuk, J.G.; Carretero, R.

    2003-01-01

    An analytic model for the perturbation growth inside a rarefaction wave is presented. The objective of the work is to calculate the growth of the perturbations at the trailing edge of a simple expanding wave in planar geometry. Previous numerical and analytical works have shown that the ripples at the rarefaction tail exhibit linear growth asymptotically in time [Yang et al., Phys. Fluids 6, 1856 (1994), A. Velikovich and L. Phillips, ibid. 8, 1107 (1996)]. However, closed expressions for the asymptotic value of the perturbed velocity of the trailing edge have not been reported before, except for very weak rarefactions. Explicit analytic solutions for the perturbations growing at the rarefaction trailing edge as a function of time and also for the asymptotic perturbed velocity are given, for fluids with γ<3. The limits of weak and strong rarefactions are considered and the corresponding scaling laws are given. A semi-qualitative discussion of the late time linear growth at the trailing edge ripple is presented and it is seen that the lateral mass flow induced by the sound wave fluctuations is solely responsible for that behavior. Only the rarefactions generated after the interaction of a shock wave with a contact discontinuity are considered

  17. Effects of socioeconomic position and social mobility on linear growth from early childhood until adolescence.

    Muraro, Ana Paula; Souza, Rita Adriana Gomes de; Rodrigues, Paulo Rogério Melo; Ferreira, Márcia Gonçalves; Sichieri, Rosely

    2017-01-01

    To assess the effect of socioeconomic position (SEP) in childhood and social mobility on linear growth through adolescence in a population-based cohort. Children born in Cuiabá-MT, central-western Brazil, were evaluated during 1994 - 1999. They were first assessed during 1999 - 2000 (0 - 5 years) and again during 2009 - 2011 (10 - 17 years), and their height-for-age was evaluated during these two periods.Awealth index was used to classify the SEP of each child's family as low, medium, or high. Social mobility was categorized as upward mobility or no upward mobility. Linear mixed models were used. We evaluated 1,716 children (71.4% of baseline) after 10 years, and 60.6% of the families showed upward mobility, with a higher percentage among the lowest economic classes. A higher height-for-age was also observed among those from families with a high SEP both in childhood (low SEP= -0.35 z-score; high SEP= 0.15 z-score, p childhood and social mobility did not greatly influence linear growth through childhood in this central-western Brazilian cohort.

  18. Growth of meromorphic solutions of higher-order linear differential equations

    Wenjuan Chen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the higher-order linear differential equations with meromorphic coefficients. We improve and extend a result of M.S. Liu and C.L. Yuan, by using the estimates for the logarithmic derivative of a transcendental meromorphic function due to Gundersen, and the extended Winman-Valiron theory which proved by J. Wang and H.X. Yi. In addition, we also consider the nonhomogeneous linear differential equations.

  19. Genetic programming over context-free languages with linear constraints for the knapsack problem: first results.

    Bruhn, Peter; Geyer-Schulz, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce genetic programming over context-free languages with linear constraints for combinatorial optimization, apply this method to several variants of the multidimensional knapsack problem, and discuss its performance relative to Michalewicz's genetic algorithm with penalty functions. With respect to Michalewicz's approach, we demonstrate that genetic programming over context-free languages with linear constraints improves convergence. A final result is that genetic programming over context-free languages with linear constraints is ideally suited to modeling complementarities between items in a knapsack problem: The more complementarities in the problem, the stronger the performance in comparison to its competitors.

  20. Linear Growth and Child Development in Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Malawi.

    Prado, Elizabeth L; Abbeddou, Souheila; Adu-Afarwuah, Seth; Arimond, Mary; Ashorn, Per; Ashorn, Ulla; Brown, Kenneth H; Hess, Sonja Y; Lartey, Anna; Maleta, Kenneth; Ocansey, Eugenia; Ouédraogo, Jean-Bosco; Phuka, John; Somé, Jérôme W; Vosti, Steve A; Yakes Jimenez, Elizabeth; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to produce quantitative estimates of the associations between 4 domains of child development and linear growth during 3 periods: before birth, early infancy, and later infancy. We also aimed to determine whether several factors attenuated these associations. In 3700 children in Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Malawi, growth was measured several times from birth to age 18 months. At 18 months, language, motor, socioemotional, and executive function development were assessed. In Burkina Faso (n = 1111), personal-social development was assessed rather than the latter 2 domains. Linear growth was significantly associated with language, motor, and personal-social development but not socioemotional development or executive function. For language, the pooled adjusted estimate of the association with length-for-age z score (LAZ) at 6 months was 0.13 ± 0.02 SD, and with ΔLAZ from 6 to 18 months it was 0.11 ± 0.03 SD. For motor, these estimates were 0.16 ± 0.02 SD and 0.22 ± 0.03 SD, respectively. In 1412 children measured at birth, estimates of the association with LAZ at birth were similar (0.07-0.16 SD for language and 0.09-0.18 SD for motor development). These associations were weaker or absent in certain subsets of children with high levels of developmental stimulation or mothers who received nutritional supplementation. Growth faltering during any period from before birth to 18 months is associated with poor development of language and motor skills. Interventions to provide developmental stimulation or maternal supplementation may protect children who are faltering in growth from poor language and motor development. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  1. The magnitude of linear dichroism of biological tissues as a result of cancer changes

    Bojchuk, T. M.; Yermolenko, S. B.; Fedonyuk, L. Y.; Petryshen, O. I.; Guminetsky, S. G.; Prydij, O. G.

    2011-09-01

    The results of studies of linear dichroism values of different types of biological tissues (human prostate, esophageal epithelial human muscle tissue in rats) both healthy and infected tumor at different stages of development are shown here. The significant differences in magnitude of linear dichroism and its spectral dependence in the spectral range λ = 330 - 750 nm both among the objects of study, and between biotissues: healthy (or affected by benign tumors) and cancer patients are established. It is researched that in all cases in biological tissues (prostate gland, esophagus, human muscle tissue in rats) with cancer the linear dichroism arises, the value of which depends on the type of tissue and time of the tumor process. As for healthy tissues linear dichroism is absent, the results may have diagnostic value for detecting and assessing the degree of development of cancer.

  2. Describing Growth Pattern of Bali Cows Using Non-linear Regression Models

    Mohd. Hafiz A.W

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the best fit non-linear regression model to describe the growth pattern of Bali cows. Estimates of asymptotic mature weight, rate of maturing and constant of integration were derived from Brody, von Bertalanffy, Gompertz and Logistic models which were fitted to cross-sectional data of body weight taken from 74 Bali cows raised in MARDI Research Station Muadzam Shah Pahang. Coefficient of determination (R2 and residual mean squares (MSE were used to determine the best fit model in describing the growth pattern of Bali cows. Von Bertalanffy model was the best model among the four growth functions evaluated to determine the mature weight of Bali cattle as shown by the highest R2 and lowest MSE values (0.973 and 601.9, respectively, followed by Gompertz (0.972 and 621.2, respectively, Logistic (0.971 and 648.4, respectively and Brody (0.932 and 660.5, respectively models. The correlation between rate of maturing and mature weight was found to be negative in the range of -0.170 to -0.929 for all models, indicating that animals of heavier mature weight had lower rate of maturing. The use of non-linear model could summarize the weight-age relationship into several biologically interpreted parameters compared to the entire lifespan weight-age data points that are difficult and time consuming to interpret.

  3. Linear growth and child development in low- and middle-income countries: a meta-analysis.

    Sudfeld, Christopher R; McCoy, Dana Charles; Danaei, Goodarz; Fink, Günther; Ezzati, Majid; Andrews, Kathryn G; Fawzi, Wafaie W

    2015-05-01

    The initial years of life are critical for physical growth and broader cognitive, motor, and socioemotional development, but the magnitude of the link between these processes remains unclear. Our objective was to produce quantitative estimates of the cross-sectional and prospective association of height-for-age z score (HAZ) with child development. Observational studies conducted in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) presenting data on the relationship of linear growth with any measure of child development among children children ≤ 2 years old was +0.24 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.14-0.33; I(2) = 53%) and +0.09 for children > 2 years old (95% CI, 0.05-0.12; I(2) = 78%). Prospectively, each unit increase in HAZ for children ≤ 2 years old was associated with a +0.22-SD increase in cognition at 5 to 11 years after multivariate adjustment (95% CI, 0.17-0.27; I(2) = 0%). HAZ was also significantly associated with earlier walking age and better motor scores (P development. Effective interventions that reduce linear growth restriction may improve developmental outcomes; however, integration with environmental, educational, and stimulation interventions may produce larger positive effects. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  4. Linear analysis on the growth of non-spherical perturbations in supersonic accretion flows

    Takahashi, Kazuya; Yamada, Shoichi, E-mail: ktakahashi@heap.phys.waseda.ac.jp [Advanced Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku 169-8555 (Japan)

    2014-10-20

    We analyzed the growth of non-spherical perturbations in supersonic accretion flows. We have in mind an application to the post-bounce phase of core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe). Such non-spherical perturbations have been suggested by a series of papers by Arnett, who has numerically investigated violent convections in the outer layers of pre-collapse stars. Moreover, Couch and Ott demonstrated in their numerical simulations that such perturbations may lead to a successful supernova even for a progenitor that fails to explode without fluctuations. This study investigated the linear growth of perturbations during the infall onto a stalled shock wave. The linearized equations are solved as an initial and boundary value problem with the use of a Laplace transform. The background is a Bondi accretion flow whose parameters are chosen to mimic the 15 M {sub ☉} progenitor model by Woosley and Heger, which is supposed to be a typical progenitor of CCSNe. We found that the perturbations that are given at a large radius grow as they flow down to the shock radius; the density perturbations can be amplified by a factor of 30, for example. We analytically show that the growth rate is proportional to l, the index of the spherical harmonics. We also found that the perturbations oscillate in time with frequencies that are similar to those of the standing accretion shock instability. This may have an implication for shock revival in CCSNe, which will be investigated in our forthcoming paper in more detail.

  5. Numerical computation of the linear stability of the diffusion model for crystal growth simulation

    Yang, C.; Sorensen, D.C. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Meiron, D.I.; Wedeman, B. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    We consider a computational scheme for determining the linear stability of a diffusion model arising from the simulation of crystal growth. The process of a needle crystal solidifying into some undercooled liquid can be described by the dual diffusion equations with appropriate initial and boundary conditions. Here U{sub t} and U{sub a} denote the temperature of the liquid and solid respectively, and {alpha} represents the thermal diffusivity. At the solid-liquid interface, the motion of the interface denoted by r and the temperature field are related by the conservation relation where n is the unit outward pointing normal to the interface. A basic stationary solution to this free boundary problem can be obtained by writing the equations of motion in a moving frame and transforming the problem to parabolic coordinates. This is known as the Ivantsov parabola solution. Linear stability theory applied to this stationary solution gives rise to an eigenvalue problem of the form.

  6. Rate-Independent Processes with Linear Growth Energies and Time-Dependent Boundary Conditions

    Kružík, Martin; Zimmer, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 3 (2012), s. 591-604 ISSN 1937-1632 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100750802 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP201/10/0357 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : concentrations * oscillations * time - dependent boundary conditions * rate-independent evolution Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/MTR/kruzik-rate-independent processes with linear growth energies and time - dependent boundary conditions.pdf

  7. Linear growth rates of resistive tearing modes with sub-Alfvénic streaming flow

    Wu, L. N.; Ma, Z. W.

    2014-01-01

    The tearing instability with sub-Alfvénic streaming flow along the external magnetic field is investigated using resistive MHD simulation. It is found that the growth rate of the tearing mode instability is larger than that without the streaming flow. With the streaming flow, there exist two Alfvén resonance layers near the central current sheet. The larger perturbation of the magnetic field in two closer Alfvén resonance layers could lead to formation of the observed cone structure and can largely enhance the development of the tearing mode for a narrower streaming flow. For a broader streaming flow, a larger separation of Alfvén resonance layers reduces the magnetic reconnection. The linear growth rate decreases with increase of the streaming flow thickness. The growth rate of the tearing instability also depends on the plasma beta (β). When the streaming flow is embedded in the current sheet, the growth rate increases with β if β  s , but decreases if β > β s . The existence of the specific value β s can be attributed to competition between the suppressing effect of β and the enhancing effect of the streaming flow on the magnetic reconnection. The critical value β s increases with increase of the streaming flow strength

  8. Plasma endotoxin core antibody concentration and linear growth are unrelated in rural Malawian children aged 2-5 years

    Environmental enteropathy is subclinical inflammation of the upper gastrointestinal tract associated with reduced linear growth in developing countries. Usually investigators have used biopsy or a dual sugar absorption test to assess environmental enteropathy. Such tests are time and resource intens...

  9. Two Aspects of the Simplex Model: Goodness of Fit to Linear Growth Curve Structures and the Analysis of Mean Trends.

    Mandys, Frantisek; Dolan, Conor V.; Molenaar, Peter C. M.

    1994-01-01

    Studied the conditions under which the quasi-Markov simplex model fits a linear growth curve covariance structure and determined when the model is rejected. Presents a quasi-Markov simplex model with structured means and gives an example. (SLD)

  10. Increased linear bone growth by GH in the absence of SOCS2 is independent of IGF-1.

    Dobie, Ross; Ahmed, Syed F; Staines, Katherine A; Pass, Chloe; Jasim, Seema; MacRae, Vicky E; Farquharson, Colin

    2015-11-01

    Growth hormone (GH) signaling is essential for postnatal linear bone growth, but the relative importance of GHs actions on the liver and/or growth plate cartilage remains unclear. The importance of liver derived insulin like-growth factor-1 (IGF-1) for endochondral growth has recently been challenged. Here, we investigate linear growth in Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling-2 (SOCS2) knockout mice, which have enhanced growth despite normal systemic GH/IGF-1 levels. Wild-type embryonic ex vivo metatarsals failed to exhibit increased linear growth in response to GH, but displayed increased Socs2 transcript levels (P growth over a 12 day period. Despite this increase, IGF-1 transcript and protein levels were not increased in response to GH. In accordance with these data, IGF-1 levels were unchanged in GH-challenged postnatal Socs2(-/-) conditioned medium despite metatarsals showing enhanced linear growth. Growth-plate Igf1 mRNA levels were not elevated in juvenile Socs2(-/-) mice. GH did however elevate IGF-binding protein 3 levels in conditioned medium from GH challenged metatarsals and this was more apparent in Socs2(-/-) metatarsals. GH did not enhance the growth of Socs2(-/-) metatarsals when the IGF receptor was inhibited, suggesting that IGF receptor mediated mechanisms are required. IGF-2 may be responsible as IGF-2 promoted metatarsal growth and Igf2 expression was elevated in Socs2(-/-) (but not WT) metatarsals in response to GH. These studies emphasise the critical importance of SOCS2 in regulating GHs ability to promote bone growth. Also, GH appears to act directly on the metatarsals of Socs2(-/-) mice, promoting growth via a mechanism that is independent of IGF-1. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Physiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. New results for exponential synchronization of linearly coupled ordinary differential systems

    Tong Ping; Chen Shi-Hua

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the exponential synchronization of linearly coupled ordinary differential systems. The intrinsic nonlinear dynamics may not satisfy the QUAD condition or weak-QUAD condition. First, it gives a new method to analyze the exponential synchronization of the systems. Second, two theorems and their corollaries are proposed for the local or global exponential synchronization of the coupled systems. Finally, an application to the linearly coupled Hopfield neural networks and several simulations are provided for verifying the effectiveness of the theoretical results. (paper)

  12. Results of radiotherapy in craniopharyngiomas analysed by the linear quadratic model

    Guerkaynak, M. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Hacettepe Univ., Ankara (Turkey); Oezyar, E. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Hacettepe Univ., Ankara (Turkey); Zorlu, F. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Hacettepe Univ., Ankara (Turkey); Akyol, F.H. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Hacettepe Univ., Ankara (Turkey); Lale Atahan, I. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Hacettepe Univ., Ankara (Turkey)

    1994-12-31

    In 23 craniopharyngioma patients treated by limited surgery and external radiotherapy, the results concerning local control were analysed by linear quadratic formula. A biologically effective dose (BED) of 55 Gy, calculated with time factor and an {alpha}/{beta} value of 10 Gy, seemed to be adequate for local control. (orig.).

  13. Comparison results on preconditioned SOR-type iterative method for Z-matrices linear systems

    Wang, Xue-Zhong; Huang, Ting-Zhu; Fu, Ying-Ding

    2007-09-01

    In this paper, we present some comparison theorems on preconditioned iterative method for solving Z-matrices linear systems, Comparison results show that the rate of convergence of the Gauss-Seidel-type method is faster than the rate of convergence of the SOR-type iterative method.

  14. Growth Kinetics of the Homogeneously Nucleated Water Droplets: Simulation Results

    Mokshin, Anatolii V; Galimzyanov, Bulat N

    2012-01-01

    The growth of homogeneously nucleated droplets in water vapor at the fixed temperatures T = 273, 283, 293, 303, 313, 323, 333, 343, 353, 363 and 373 K (the pressure p = 1 atm.) is investigated on the basis of the coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation data with the mW-model. The treatment of simulation results is performed by means of the statistical method within the mean-first-passage-time approach, where the reaction coordinate is associated with the largest droplet size. It is found that the water droplet growth is characterized by the next features: (i) the rescaled growth law is unified at all the considered temperatures and (ii) the droplet growth evolves with acceleration and follows the power law.

  15. Periosteal PTHrP regulates cortical bone modeling during linear growth in mice.

    Wang, Meina; VanHouten, Joshua N; Nasiri, Ali R; Tommasini, Steven M; Broadus, Arthur E

    2014-07-01

    The modeling of long bone surfaces during linear growth is a key developmental process, but its regulation is poorly understood. We report here that parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) expressed in the fibrous layer of the periosteum (PO) drives the osteoclastic (OC) resorption that models the metaphyseal-diaphyseal junction (MDJ) in the proximal tibia and fibula during linear growth. PTHrP was conditionally deleted (cKO) in the PO via Scleraxis gene targeting (Scx-Cre). In the lateral tibia, cKO of PTHrP led to a failure of modeling, such that the normal concave MDJ was replaced by a mound-like deformity. This was accompanied by a failure to induce receptor activator of NF-kB ligand (RANKL) and a 75% reduction in OC number (P ≤ 0.001) on the cortical surface. The MDJ also displayed a curious threefold increase in endocortical osteoblast mineral apposition rate (P ≤ 0.001) and a thickened cortex, suggesting some form of coupling of endocortical bone formation to events on the PO surface. Because it fuses distally, the fibula is modeled only proximally and does so at an extraordinary rate, with an anteromedial cortex in CD-1 mice that was so moth-eaten that a clear PO surface could not be identified. The cKO fibula displayed a remarkable phenotype, with a misshapen club-like metaphysis and an enlargement in the 3D size of the entire bone, manifest as a 40-45% increase in the PO circumference at the MDJ (P ≤ 0.001) as well as the mid-diaphysis (P ≤ 0.001). These tibial and fibular phenotypes were reproduced in a Scx-Cre-driven RANKL cKO mouse. We conclude that PTHrP in the fibrous PO mediates the modeling of the MDJ of long bones during linear growth, and that in a highly susceptible system such as the fibula this surface modeling defines the size and shape of the entire bone. © 2014 Anatomical Society.

  16. Accretion of fat-free mass rather than fat mass in infancy is positively associated with linear growth in childhood

    Admassu Wossen, Bitiya; Ritz, Christian; Wells, Jonathan C K

    2018-01-01

    Background: We have previously shown that fat-free mass (FFM) at birth is associated with height at 2 y of age in Ethiopian children. However, to our knowledge, the relation between changes in body composition during early infancy and later linear growth has not been studied. Objective: This study...... examined the associations of early infancy fat mass (FM) and FFM accretion with linear growth from 1 to 5 y of age in Ethiopian children. Methods: In the infant Anthropometry and Body Composition (iABC) study, a prospective cohort study was carried out in children in Jimma, Ethiopia, followed from birth...... to 5 y of age. FM and FFM were measured ≤6 times from birth to 6 mo by using air-displacement plethysmography. Linear mixed-effects models were used to identify associations between standardized FM and FFM accretion rates during early infancy and linear growth from 1 to 5 y of age. Standardized...

  17. Growth and Zeros of Meromorphic Solutions to Second-Order Linear Differential Equations

    Maamar Andasmas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to investigate the growth of meromorphic solutions to homogeneous and non-homogeneous second order linear differential equations f00+Af0+Bf = F, where A(z, B (z and F (z are meromorphic functions with finite order having only finitely many poles. We show that, if there exist a positive constants σ > 0, α > 0 such that |A(z| ≥ eα|z|σ as |z| → +∞, z ∈ H, where dens{|z| : z ∈ H} > 0 and ρ = max{ρ(B, ρ(F} < σ, then every transcendental meromorphic solution f has an infinite order. Further, we give some estimates of their hyper-order, exponent and hyper-exponent of convergence of distinct zeros.

  18. Using hierarchical linear growth models to evaluate protective mechanisms that mediate science achievement

    von Secker, Clare Elaine

    The study of students at risk is a major topic of science education policy and discussion. Much research has focused on describing conditions and problems associated with the statistical risk of low science achievement among individuals who are members of groups characterized by problems such as poverty and social disadvantage. But outcomes attributed to these factors do not explain the nature and extent of mechanisms that account for differences in performance among individuals at risk. There is ample theoretical and empirical evidence that demographic differences should be conceptualized as social contexts, or collections of variables, that alter the psychological significance and social demands of life events, and affect subsequent relationships between risk and resilience. The hierarchical linear growth models used in this dissertation provide greater specification of the role of social context and the protective effects of attitude, expectations, parenting practices, peer influences, and learning opportunities on science achievement. While the individual influences of these protective factors on science achievement were small, their cumulative effect was substantial. Meta-analysis conducted on the effects associated with psychological and environmental processes that mediate risk mechanisms in sixteen social contexts revealed twenty-two significant differences between groups of students. Positive attitudes, high expectations, and more intense science course-taking had positive effects on achievement of all students, although these factors were not equally protective in all social contexts. In general, effects associated with authoritative parenting and peer influences were negative, regardless of social context. An evaluation comparing the performance and stability of hierarchical linear growth models with traditional repeated measures models is included as well.

  19. Child feeding style is associated with food intake and linear growth in rural Ethiopia.

    Abebe, Zeweter; Haki, Gulelat Desse; Baye, Kaleab

    2017-09-01

    Little is known about mother-child feeding interactions and how this is associated with food intake and linear growth. To characterize mother-child feeding styles and investigate their associations with accepted mouthful and linear growth in west Gojam, rural Ethiopia. Two, in-home, meal observations of children aged 12-23 months (n = 100) were video-taped. The number of mouthful accepted was counted and the caregiver/child feeding styles were coded into positive/negative categories of self-feeding, responsive-feeding, active-feeding, social-behavior and distraction. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, child feeding practices, perception about child's overall appetite, and strategies adopted to overcome food refusal were collected through questionnaire-based interviews. Child and mothers' anthropometric measurements were also taken. Stunting was highly prevalent (48%) and the number of mouthful accepted was very low. Offering breastmilk and threatening to harm were the main strategies adopted to overcome food refusal. Although all forms of feeding style were present, active positive feeding style was dominant (90%) and was positively associated with mouthful accepted. Talking with non-feeding partner (64%), and domestic animals (24%) surrounding the feeding place were common distractions of feeding. Feeding was mostly terminated by caregivers (75%), often prematurely. Overall, caregivers of stunted children had poorer complementary- and breast-feeding practices and were less responsive to child's hunger and satiation cues (P responsive feeding behaviors were associated with child's number of mouthful accepted (r = 0.27; P = 0.007) and stunting (r = 0.4; P feeding style and stunting. Nutrition interventions that reinforce messages of optimal infant and young child feeding and integrate the promotion of responsive feeding behaviors are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Successive 1-Month Weight Increments in Infancy Can Be Used to Screen for Faltering Linear Growth.

    Onyango, Adelheid W; Borghi, Elaine; de Onis, Mercedes; Frongillo, Edward A; Victora, Cesar G; Dewey, Kathryn G; Lartey, Anna; Bhandari, Nita; Baerug, Anne; Garza, Cutberto

    2015-12-01

    Linear growth faltering in the first 2 y contributes greatly to a high stunting burden, and prevention is hampered by the limited capacity in primary health care for timely screening and intervention. This study aimed to determine an approach to predicting long-term stunting from consecutive 1-mo weight increments in the first year of life. By using the reference sample of the WHO velocity standards, the analysis explored patterns of consecutive monthly weight increments among healthy infants. Four candidate screening thresholds of successive increments that could predict stunting were considered, and one was selected for further testing. The selected threshold was applied in a cohort of Bangladeshi infants to assess its predictive value for stunting at ages 12 and 24 mo. Between birth and age 12 mo, 72.6% of infants in the WHO sample tracked within 1 SD of their weight and length. The selected screening criterion ("event") was 2 consecutive monthly increments below the 15th percentile. Bangladeshi infants were born relatively small and, on average, tracked downward from approximately age 6 to strategy is effective, the estimated preventable proportion in the group who experienced the event would be 34% at 12 mo and 24% at 24 mo. This analysis offers an approach for frontline workers to identify children at risk of stunting, allowing for timely initiation of preventive measures. It opens avenues for further investigation into evidence-informed application of the WHO growth velocity standards. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Goertler vortices in growing boundary layers: The leading edge receptivity problem, linear growth and the nonlinear breakdown stage

    Hall, Philip

    1989-01-01

    Goertler vortices are thought to be the cause of transition in many fluid flows of practical importance. A review of the different stages of vortex growth is given. In the linear regime, nonparallel effects completely govern this growth, and parallel flow theories do not capture the essential features of the development of the vortices. A detailed comparison between the parallel and nonparallel theories is given and it is shown that at small vortex wavelengths, the parallel flow theories have some validity; otherwise nonparallel effects are dominant. New results for the receptivity problem for Goertler vortices are given; in particular vortices induced by free stream perturbations impinging on the leading edge of the walls are considered. It is found that the most dangerous mode of this type can be isolated and it's neutral curve is determined. This curve agrees very closely with the available experimental data. A discussion of the different regimes of growth of nonlinear vortices is also given. Again it is shown that, unless the vortex wavelength is small, nonparallel effects are dominant. Some new results for nonlinear vortices of 0(1) wavelengths are given and compared to experimental observations.

  2. Beam emittance growth caused by transverse deflecting fields in a linear accelerator

    Chao, A W; Richter, B; Yao, C Y [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, CA (USA)

    1980-12-01

    The effect of the beam-generated transverse deflecting fields on the emittance of an intense bunch of particles in a high-energy linear accelerator is analyzed in this paper. The equation of motion is solved by a perturbation method for cases of a coasting beam and a uniformly accelerated beam. The results are applied to obtain some design tolerance specifications for the recently proposed SLAC Single Pass Collider.

  3. Linear spline multilevel models for summarising childhood growth trajectories: A guide to their application using examples from five birth cohorts.

    Howe, Laura D; Tilling, Kate; Matijasevich, Alicia; Petherick, Emily S; Santos, Ana Cristina; Fairley, Lesley; Wright, John; Santos, Iná S; Barros, Aluísio Jd; Martin, Richard M; Kramer, Michael S; Bogdanovich, Natalia; Matush, Lidia; Barros, Henrique; Lawlor, Debbie A

    2016-10-01

    Childhood growth is of interest in medical research concerned with determinants and consequences of variation from healthy growth and development. Linear spline multilevel modelling is a useful approach for deriving individual summary measures of growth, which overcomes several data issues (co-linearity of repeat measures, the requirement for all individuals to be measured at the same ages and bias due to missing data). Here, we outline the application of this methodology to model individual trajectories of length/height and weight, drawing on examples from five cohorts from different generations and different geographical regions with varying levels of economic development. We describe the unique features of the data within each cohort that have implications for the application of linear spline multilevel models, for example, differences in the density and inter-individual variation in measurement occasions, and multiple sources of measurement with varying measurement error. After providing example Stata syntax and a suggested workflow for the implementation of linear spline multilevel models, we conclude with a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of the linear spline approach compared with other growth modelling methods such as fractional polynomials, more complex spline functions and other non-linear models. © The Author(s) 2013.

  4. [Peculiarities of linear growth of the melanin-containing fungi Cladosporium sphaerospermum Penz. and Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler].

    Vember, V V; Zhdanova, N N

    2001-01-01

    Results on determination of radial (linear) growth rate of melanin-containing fungi Cladosporium sphaerospermum Penz. and Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler concerning place of their isolation and ecologic peculiarities are presented in the paper. Essential differences, as to all studied indices of the strains of C. sphaerospermum strains, isolated from premices of the ChNPP 4th unit from the control strains of this species have been established. Only strain 34 of C. sphaerospermum, isolated from the cable driving region of the "Shelter" object, which did not differ from the control strains as to all the studied indices, made the exception. The radial growth rate was 2-4 times as low and variability amplitude 10-30 times as high in strains 60 and 5-1 of C. sphaerospermum, (which suffered high radiation load), as in the control strains of this species. The radial growth rate of C. sphaerospermum studied strains was an order lower as a whole than that of A. alternata strains. All the above said evidence for implementation of K-type vital strategy by C. sphaerospermum species and in this connection one can suppose its active growth on the surface of walls and ferroconcrete structures of the ChNPP 4th unit. Absence of differences, as to the studied radial growth indices, between A. alternata strains isolated from the ChNPP 4th unit premices and control strains of the species can evidence for the existence of A. alternata species under the conditions of high radioactivity in the surviving state.

  5. Growth of linear Ni-filled carbon nanotubes by local arc discharge in liquid ethanol

    Sagara, Takuya [Department of Electric Engineering, Graduated School of Science and Technology, Nihon University, 1-8-14 Surugadai Kanda, Chiyoda, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan); Kurumi, Satoshi [Department of Electric Engineering, College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, 1-8-14 Surugadai Kanda, Chiyoda, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan); Suzuki, Kaoru, E-mail: kaoru@ele.cst.nihon-u.ac.jp [Department of Electric Engineering, College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, 1-8-14 Surugadai Kanda, Chiyoda, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    The cylindrical geometry of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) allows them to be filled with metal catalysts; the resulting metal-filled CNTs possess different properties depending on the filler metal. Here we report the synthesis of Ni-filled CNTs in which Ni is situated linearly and homogeneously by local arc discharge in liquid ethanol. The structural characteristics of synthesized Ni-filled CNTs were determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the relationship between pyrolysis conditions and the length and diameter of Ni-filled CNTs was examined. The encapsulated Ni was identified by a TEM-equipped energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscope and found to have a single-crystal fcc structure by nano-beam diffraction. The features of linear Ni-filled CNT are expected to be applicable to probes for magnetic force microscopy.

  6. Linear and nonlinear causal relationship between energy consumption and economic growth in China: New evidence based on wavelet analysis

    2018-01-01

    The energy-growth nexus has important policy implications for economic development. The results from many past studies that investigated the causality direction of this nexus can lead to misleading policy guidance. Using data on China from 1953 to 2013, this study shows that an application of causality test on the time series of energy consumption and national output has masked a lot of information. The Toda-Yamamoto test with bootstrapped critical values and the newly proposed non-linear causality test reveal no causal relationship. However, a further application of these tests using series in different time-frequency domain obtained from wavelet decomposition indicates that while energy consumption Granger causes economic growth in the short run, the reverse is true in the medium term. A bidirectional causal relationship is found for the long run. This approach has proven to be superior in unveiling information on the energy-growth nexus that are useful for policy planning over different time horizons. PMID:29782534

  7. Using Personality Traits to Construct Linear Growth Models of Mental Health in Family Members of Individuals With Severe Brain Injury

    Trujillo, Michael; Perrin, Paul B; Doser, Karoline

    2016-01-01

    Objective: No studies have examined the impact of personality traits on mental health among caregivers of individuals with severe brain injury. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to construct linear growth models to examine whether the personality traits of family members...... neuroticism had lower anxiety and depression over time, as well as a more accelerated decrease in anxiety and depression. Conclusions: Caregivers' personality traits were strongly associated over time with mental HRQoL, anxiety, and depression, with neuroticism being especially important for trajectories...... the Short Form-36 assessing mental HRQoL (vitality, social functioning, role limitations-emotional, mental health), anxiety, and depression across 5 time points during the 1st year after injury. The measure of personality was administered 3 months after the patients' discharge. Results: All mental HRQo...

  8. Linear-stability theory of thermocapillary convection in a model of float-zone crystal growth

    Neitzel, G. P.; Chang, K.-T.; Jankowski, D. F.; Mittelmann, H. D.

    1992-01-01

    Linear-stability theory has been applied to a basic state of thermocapillary convection in a model half-zone to determine values of the Marangoni number above which instability is guaranteed. The basic state must be determined numerically since the half-zone is of finite, O(1) aspect ratio with two-dimensional flow and temperature fields. This, in turn, means that the governing equations for disturbance quantities will remain partial differential equations. The disturbance equations are treated by a staggered-grid discretization scheme. Results are presented for a variety of parameters of interest in the problem, including both terrestrial and microgravity cases.

  9. Accretion of Fat-Free Mass Rather Than Fat Mass in Infancy Is Positively Associated with Linear Growth in Childhood.

    Admassu, Bitiya; Ritz, Christian; Wells, Jonathan C K; Girma, Tsinuel; Andersen, Gregers S; Belachew, Tefera; Owino, Victor; Michaelsen, Kim F; Abera, Mubarek; Wibaek, Rasmus; Friis, Henrik; Kæstel, Pernille

    2018-04-01

    We have previously shown that fat-free mass (FFM) at birth is associated with height at 2 y of age in Ethiopian children. However, to our knowledge, the relation between changes in body composition during early infancy and later linear growth has not been studied. This study examined the associations of early infancy fat mass (FM) and FFM accretion with linear growth from 1 to 5 y of age in Ethiopian children. In the infant Anthropometry and Body Composition (iABC) study, a prospective cohort study was carried out in children in Jimma, Ethiopia, followed from birth to 5 y of age. FM and FFM were measured ≤6 times from birth to 6 mo by using air-displacement plethysmography. Linear mixed-effects models were used to identify associations between standardized FM and FFM accretion rates during early infancy and linear growth from 1 to 5 y of age. Standardized accretion rates were obtained by dividing FM and FFM accretion by their respective SD. FFM accretion from 0 to 6 mo of age was positively associated with length at 1 y (β = 0.64; 95% CI: 0.19, 1.09; P = 0.005) and linear growth from 1 to 5 y (β = 0.63; 95% CI: 0.19, 1.07; P = 0.005). The strongest association with FFM accretion was observed at 1 y. The association with linear growth from 1 to 5 y was mainly engendered by the 1-y association. FM accretion from 0 to 4 mo was positively associated with linear growth from 1 to 5 y (β = 0.45; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.88; P = 0.038) in the fully adjusted model. In Ethiopian children, FFM accretion was associated with linear growth at 1 y and no clear additional longitudinal effect from 1 to 5 y was observed. FM accretion showed a weak association from 1 to 5 y. This trial was registered at www.controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN46718296.

  10. Linear regression metamodeling as a tool to summarize and present simulation model results.

    Jalal, Hawre; Dowd, Bryan; Sainfort, François; Kuntz, Karen M

    2013-10-01

    Modelers lack a tool to systematically and clearly present complex model results, including those from sensitivity analyses. The objective was to propose linear regression metamodeling as a tool to increase transparency of decision analytic models and better communicate their results. We used a simplified cancer cure model to demonstrate our approach. The model computed the lifetime cost and benefit of 3 treatment options for cancer patients. We simulated 10,000 cohorts in a probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) and regressed the model outcomes on the standardized input parameter values in a set of regression analyses. We used the regression coefficients to describe measures of sensitivity analyses, including threshold and parameter sensitivity analyses. We also compared the results of the PSA to deterministic full-factorial and one-factor-at-a-time designs. The regression intercept represented the estimated base-case outcome, and the other coefficients described the relative parameter uncertainty in the model. We defined simple relationships that compute the average and incremental net benefit of each intervention. Metamodeling produced outputs similar to traditional deterministic 1-way or 2-way sensitivity analyses but was more reliable since it used all parameter values. Linear regression metamodeling is a simple, yet powerful, tool that can assist modelers in communicating model characteristics and sensitivity analyses.

  11. Newborn length predicts early infant linear growth retardation and disproportionately high weight gain in a low-income population.

    Berngard, Samuel Clark; Berngard, Jennifer Bishop; Krebs, Nancy F; Garcés, Ana; Miller, Leland V; Westcott, Jamie; Wright, Linda L; Kindem, Mark; Hambidge, K Michael

    2013-12-01

    Stunting is prevalent by the age of 6 months in the indigenous population of the Western Highlands of Guatemala. The objective of this study was to determine the time course and predictors of linear growth failure and weight-for-age in early infancy. One hundred and forty eight term newborns had measurements of length and weight in their homes, repeated at 3 and 6 months. Maternal measurements were also obtained. Mean ± SD length-for-age Z-score (LAZ) declined from newborn -1.0 ± 1.01 to -2.20 ± 1.05 and -2.26 ± 1.01 at 3 and 6 months respectively. Stunting rates for newborn, 3 and 6 months were 47%, 53% and 56% respectively. A multiple regression model (R(2) = 0.64) demonstrated that the major predictor of LAZ at 3 months was newborn LAZ with the other predictors being newborn weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ), gender and maternal education∗maternal age interaction. Because WAZ remained essentially constant and LAZ declined during the same period, weight-for-length Z-score (WLZ) increased from -0.44 to +1.28 from birth to 3 months. The more severe the linear growth failure, the greater WAZ was in proportion to the LAZ. The primary conclusion is that impaired fetal linear growth is the major predictor of early infant linear growth failure indicating that prevention needs to start with maternal interventions. © 2013.

  12. Growth of KNN thin films for non-linear optical applications

    Sharma, Shweta; Gupta, Reema; Gupta, Vinay; Tomar, Monika

    2018-01-01

    Two-wave mixing is a remarkable area of research in the field of non-linear optics, finding various applications in the development of opto-electronic devices, photorefractive waveguides, real time holography, etc. Non-linear optical properties of ferroelectric potassium sodium niobate (KNN) thin films have been interrogated using two-wave mixing phenomenon. Regarding this, a-axis oriented K 0.35 Na (1-0.35) NbO 3 thin films were successfully grown on epitaxial matched (100) SrTiO 3 substrate using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. The uniformly distributed Au micro-discs of 200 μm diameter were integrated with KNN/STO thin film to study the plasmonic enhancement in the optical response. Beam amplification has been observed as a result of the two-wave mixing. This is due to the alignment of ferroelectric domains in KNN films and the excitement of plasmons at the metal-dielectric (Au-KNN) interface. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Growth of KNN thin films for non-linear optical applications

    Sharma, Shweta; Gupta, Reema; Gupta, Vinay [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi (India); Tomar, Monika [Department of Physics, Miranda House University of Delhi (India)

    2018-02-15

    Two-wave mixing is a remarkable area of research in the field of non-linear optics, finding various applications in the development of opto-electronic devices, photorefractive waveguides, real time holography, etc. Non-linear optical properties of ferroelectric potassium sodium niobate (KNN) thin films have been interrogated using two-wave mixing phenomenon. Regarding this, a-axis oriented K{sub 0.35}Na{sub (1-0.35)}NbO{sub 3} thin films were successfully grown on epitaxial matched (100) SrTiO{sub 3} substrate using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. The uniformly distributed Au micro-discs of 200 μm diameter were integrated with KNN/STO thin film to study the plasmonic enhancement in the optical response. Beam amplification has been observed as a result of the two-wave mixing. This is due to the alignment of ferroelectric domains in KNN films and the excitement of plasmons at the metal-dielectric (Au-KNN) interface. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. The effect of adding zinc to vitamin A on IGF-1, bone age and linear growth in stunted children.

    Adriani, Merryana; Wirjatmadi, Bambang

    2014-10-01

    A randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial of a single dose of 200,000 I.U. of vitamin A with daily zinc supplementation was conducted with children in Mojo village, Surabaya City. Children aged 48 to 60 months were randomized to receive a single dose of 200,000 I.U. of vitamin A plus zinc sulfate (n=12) or a single dose of 200,000 I.U. of vitamin A (n=12) plus placebo six days a week for six months. Children were evaluated weekly for nutrient intake and for IGF-1, C-reactive protein levels, gamma globulin levels, serum zinc, serum retinol, bone age and the index height for age at six months. At the end of the study, there was a significant increase in the serum retinol level (pbone age (p<0.01), and gamma globulin level (p<0.04) and a significant decrease in the amount of infection/inflammation measured by CRP level (p<0.001). There was also a significant correlation between CRP level and height for age (p<0.01), and between gamma level and height for age (p<0.01). These results suggest that combined vitamin A and zinc supplementation reduces the risk of infection and increases linear growth among children, and thus may play a key role in controlling infection and stunted growth for children under five years old. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Linear Growth and Fat and Lean Tissue Gain during Childhood: Associations with Cardiometabolic and Cognitive Outcomes in Adolescent Indian Children.

    Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Veena, Sargoor R; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Osmond, Clive; Fall, Caroline H D

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to determine how linear growth and fat and lean tissue gain during discrete age periods from birth to adolescence are related to adolescent cardiometabolic risk factors and cognitive ability. Adolescents born to mothers with normal glucose tolerance during pregnancy from an Indian birth cohort (N = 486, age 13.5 years) had detailed anthropometry and measurements of body fat (fat%), fasting plasma glucose, insulin and lipid concentrations, blood pressure and cognitive function. Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated. These outcomes were examined in relation to birth measurements and statistically independent measures (conditional SD scores) representing linear growth, and fat and lean tissue gain during birth-1, 1-2, 2-5, 5-9.5 and 9.5-13.5 years in 414 of the children with measurements at all these ages. Birth length and linear growth at all ages were positively associated with current height. Fat gain, particularly during 5-9.5 years was positively associated with fat% at 13.5 years (0.44 SD per SD [99.9% confidence interval: 0.29,0.58]). Greater fat gain during mid-late childhood was associated with higher systolic blood pressure (5-9.5 years: 0.23 SD per SD [0.07,0.40]) and HOMA-IR (5-9.5 years: 0.24 [0.08,0.40], 9.5-13.5 years: 0.22 [0.06,0.38]). Greater infant growth (up to age 2 years) in linear, fat or lean components was unrelated to cardiometabolic risk factors or cognitive function. This study suggests that factors that increase linear, fat and lean growth in infancy have no adverse cardiometabolic effects in this population. Factors that increase fat gain in mid-late childhood may increase cardiometabolic risk, without any benefit to cognitive abilities.

  16. Linear Growth and Fat and Lean Tissue Gain during Childhood: Associations with Cardiometabolic and Cognitive Outcomes in Adolescent Indian Children.

    Ghattu V Krishnaveni

    Full Text Available We aimed to determine how linear growth and fat and lean tissue gain during discrete age periods from birth to adolescence are related to adolescent cardiometabolic risk factors and cognitive ability.Adolescents born to mothers with normal glucose tolerance during pregnancy from an Indian birth cohort (N = 486, age 13.5 years had detailed anthropometry and measurements of body fat (fat%, fasting plasma glucose, insulin and lipid concentrations, blood pressure and cognitive function. Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR was calculated. These outcomes were examined in relation to birth measurements and statistically independent measures (conditional SD scores representing linear growth, and fat and lean tissue gain during birth-1, 1-2, 2-5, 5-9.5 and 9.5-13.5 years in 414 of the children with measurements at all these ages.Birth length and linear growth at all ages were positively associated with current height. Fat gain, particularly during 5-9.5 years was positively associated with fat% at 13.5 years (0.44 SD per SD [99.9% confidence interval: 0.29,0.58]. Greater fat gain during mid-late childhood was associated with higher systolic blood pressure (5-9.5 years: 0.23 SD per SD [0.07,0.40] and HOMA-IR (5-9.5 years: 0.24 [0.08,0.40], 9.5-13.5 years: 0.22 [0.06,0.38]. Greater infant growth (up to age 2 years in linear, fat or lean components was unrelated to cardiometabolic risk factors or cognitive function.This study suggests that factors that increase linear, fat and lean growth in infancy have no adverse cardiometabolic effects in this population. Factors that increase fat gain in mid-late childhood may increase cardiometabolic risk, without any benefit to cognitive abilities.

  17. Assessing non-linear variation of temperature and precipitation for different growth periods of maize and their impacts on phenology in the Midwest of Jilin Province, China

    Guo, Enliang; Zhang, Jiquan; Wang, Yongfang; Alu, Si; Wang, Rui; Li, Danjun; Ha, Si

    2018-05-01

    In the past two decades, the regional climate in China has undergone significant change, resulting in crop yield reduction and complete failure. The goal of this study is to detect the variation of temperature and precipitation for different growth periods of maize and assess their impact on phenology. The daily meteorological data in the Midwest of Jilin Province during 1960-2014 were used in the study. The ensemble empirical mode decomposition method was adopted to analyze the non-linear trend and fluctuation in temperature and precipitation, and the sensitivity of the length of the maize growth period to temperature and precipitation was analyzed by the wavelet cross-transformation method. The results show that the trends of temperature and precipitation change are non-linear for different growth periods of maize, and the average temperature in the sowing-jointing stage was different from that in the other growth stages, showing a slight decrease trend, while the variation amplitude of maximum temperature is smaller than that of the minimum temperature. This indicates that the temperature difference between day and night shows a gradually decreasing trend. Precipitation in the growth period also showed a decreasing non-linear trend, while the inter-annual variability with period of quasi-3-year and quasi-6-year dominated the variation of temperature and precipitation. The whole growth period was shortened by 10.7 days, and the sowing date was advanced by approximately 11 days. We also found that there was a significant resonance period among temperature, precipitation, and phenology. Overall, a negative correlation between phenology and temperature is evident, while a positive correlation with precipitation is exhibited. The results illustrate that the climate suitability for maize has reduced over the past decades.

  18. Linear elastic obstacles: analysis of experimental results in the case of stress dependent pre-exponentials

    Surek, T.; Kuon, L.G.; Luton, M.J.; Jones, J.J.

    1975-01-01

    For the case of linear elastic obstacles, the analysis of experimental plastic flow data is shown to have a particularly simple form when the pre-exponential factor is a single-valued function of the modulus-reduced stress. The analysis permits the separation of the stress and temperature dependence of the strain rate into those of the pre-exponential factor and the activation free energy. As a consequence, the true values of the activation enthalpy, volume and entropy also are obtained. The approach is applied to four sets of experimental data, including Zr, and the results for the pre-exponential term are examined for self-consistency in view of the assumed functional dependence

  19. Rapid Population Growth-Cause or Result of Global Problems?

    Schwartz, Richard H.

    Explosive population growth is a symptom of the world's unjust and inequitable social, political, and economic conditions. The current rate of growth is staggering, particularly in the cities of the underdeveloped countries. While some progress has been made in slowing population growth, several factors still contribute to its momentum. One of…

  20. New results on the mathematical problems in nonlinear physics; Nuevos resultados sobre problemas matematicos en fisica no-linear

    NONE

    1980-07-01

    The main topics treated in this report are: I) Existence of generalized Lagrangians. II) Conserved densities for odd-order polynomial evolution equations and linear evolution systems. III ) Conservation laws for Klein-Gordon, Di rae and Maxwell equations. IV) Stability conditions for finite-energy solutions of a non-linear Klein-Gordon equation. V) Hamiltonian approach to non-linear evolution equations and Backlund transformations. VI) Anharmonic vibrations: Status of results and new possible approaches. (Author) 83 refs.

  1. Impacts of changing hydrology on permanent gully growth: experimental results

    Day, Stephanie S.; Gran, Karen B.; Paola, Chris

    2018-06-01

    Permanent gullies grow through head cut propagation in response to overland flow coupled with incision and widening in the channel bottom leading to hillslope failures. Altered hydrology can impact the rate at which permanent gullies grow by changing head cut propagation, channel incision, and channel widening rates. Using a set of small physical experiments, we tested how changing overland flow rates and flow volumes alter the total volume of erosion and resulting gully morphology. Permanent gullies were modeled as both detachment-limited and transport-limited systems, using two different substrates with varying cohesion. In both cases, the erosion rate varied linearly with water discharge, such that the volume of sediment eroded was a function not of flow rate, but of total water volume. This implies that efforts to reduce peak flow rates alone without addressing flow volumes entering gully systems may not reduce erosion. The documented response in these experiments is not typical when compared to larger preexisting channels where higher flow rates result in greater erosion through nonlinear relationships between water discharge and sediment discharge. Permanent gullies do not respond like preexisting channels because channel slope remains a free parameter and can adjust relatively quickly in response to changing flows.

  2. Reconstruction of real-space linear matter power spectrum from multipoles of BOSS DR12 results

    Lee, Seokcheon

    2018-02-01

    Recently, the power spectrum (PS) multipoles using the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) Data Release 12 (DR12) sample are analyzed [1]. The based model for the analysis is the so-called TNS quasi-linear model and the analysis provides the multipoles up to the hexadecapole [2]. Thus, one might be able to recover the real-space linear matter PS by using the combinations of multipoles to investigate the cosmology [3]. We provide the analytic form of the ratio of quadrupole (hexadecapole) to monopole moments of the quasi-linear PS including the Fingers-of-God (FoG) effect to recover the real-space PS in the linear regime. One expects that observed values of the ratios of multipoles should be consistent with those of the linear theory at large scales. Thus, we compare the ratios of multipoles of the linear theory, including the FoG effect with the measured values. From these, we recover the linear matter power spectra in real-space. These recovered power spectra are consistent with the linear matter power spectra.

  3. Growth of silver-coated gold nanoshells with enhanced linear and nonlinear optical responses

    Zhang, Ya-Fang; Wang, Jia-Hong; Ma, Liang; Nan, Fan; Cheng, Zi-Qiang; Zhou, Li, E-mail: zhouli@whu.edu.cn; Wang, Qu-Quan, E-mail: qqwang@whu.edu.cn [Wuhan University, Department of Physics, Key Laboratory of Artificial Miro- and Nano-structures of the Ministry of Education, and School of Physics and Technology (China)

    2015-03-15

    Silver-coated gold nanoshells with 1,4-BDT molecules as the spacer (Ag/BDT/Au) were synthesized on the surface of SiO{sub 2} nanospheres. The surface plasmon resonance of Au/SiO{sub 2} and Ag/BDT/Au/SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles with single and double shells were tuned by adjusting the thickness of Au and Ag nanoshells. The enhanced local field in the gap of Au and Ag shells is demonstrated by measuring Raman scattering and nonlinear refraction. The results show that the Raman intensity is enhanced by 17 times and the nonlinear refractive index is enhanced by 30 % due to the growth of Ag shells.

  4. Stunted at 10 Years. Linear Growth Trajectories and Stunting from Birth to Pre-Adolescence in a Rural Bangladeshi Cohort.

    Pernilla Svefors

    Full Text Available Few studies in low-income settings analyse linear growth trajectories from foetal life to pre-adolescence. The aim of this study is to describe linear growth and stunting from birth to 10 years in rural Bangladesh and to analyse whether maternal and environmental determinants at conception are associated with linear growth throughout childhood and stunting at 10 years.Pregnant women participating in the MINIMat trial were identified in early pregnancy and a birth cohort (n = 1054 was followed with 19 growth measurements from birth to 10 years. Analyses of baseline predictors and mean height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ over time were modelled using GLMM. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the associations between baseline predictors and stunting (HAZ<-2 at 10 years. HAZ decreased to 2 years, followed by an increase up to 10 years, while the average height-for-age difference in cm (HAD to the WHO reference median continued to increase up to 10 years. Prevalence of stunting was highest at 2 years (50% decreasing to 29% at 10 years. Maternal height, maternal educational level and season of conception were all independent predictors of HAZ from birth to pre-adolescence (p<0.001 and stunting at 10 years. The highest probability to be stunted at 10 years was for children born by short mothers (<147.5 cm (ORadj 2.93, 95% CI: 2.06-4.20, mothers with no education (ORadj 1.74, 95% CI 1.17-2.81 or those conceived in the pre-monsoon season (ORadj 1.94, 95% CI 1.37-2.77.Height growth trajectories and prevalence of stunting in pre-adolescence showed strong intergenerational associations, social differentials, and environmental influence from foetal life. Targeting women before and during pregnancy is needed for the prevention of impaired child growth.

  5. Non-linear growth in tree ferns, Dicksonia antarctica and Cyathea australis

    Blair, David P.; Blanchard, Wade; Banks, Sam C.; Lindenmayer, David B.

    2017-01-01

    Tree ferns are an important structural component of forests in many countries. However, because their regeneration is often unrelated to major disturbances, their age is often difficult to determine. In addition, rates of growth may not be uniform, which further complicates attempts to determine their age. In this study, we measured 5 years of growth of Cyathea australis and Dicksonia antarctica after a large wildfire in 2009 in south-eastern Australia. We found growth rates of these two spec...

  6. Inertial and viscous effects in the non linear growth of the tearing mode

    Edery, D.; Frey, M.; Tagger, M.; Soule, J.L.; Pellat, R.; Bussac, M.N.; Somon, J.P.

    1982-08-01

    The non linear self similar Tearing mode solution of Rutherford is revisited. We compute explicitly the stream function for the plasma flow including inertia, convection and viscosity. In all cases, Rutherford's solution is asymptotically valid

  7. Size-corrected BMD decreases during peak linear growth: implications for fracture incidence during adolescence.

    Faulkner, Robert A; Davison, K Shawn; Bailey, Donald A; Mirwald, Robert L; Baxter-Jones, Adam D G

    2006-12-01

    Peak adolescent fracture incidence at the distal end of the radius coincides with a decline in size-corrected BMD in both boys and girls. Peak gains in bone area preceded peak gains in BMC in a longitudinal sample of boys and girls, supporting the theory that the dissociation between skeletal expansion and skeletal mineralization results in a period of relative bone weakness. The high incidence of fracture in adolescence may be related to a period of relative skeletal fragility resulting from dissociation between bone expansion and bone mineralization during the growing years. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between changes in size-corrected BMD (BMDsc) and peak distal radius fracture incidence in boys and girls. Subjects were 41 boys and 46 girls measured annually (DXA; Hologic 2000) over the adolescent growth period and again in young adulthood. Ages of peak height velocity (PHV), peak BMC velocity (PBMCV), and peak bone area (BA) velocity (PBAV) were determined for each child. To control for maturational differences, subjects were aligned on PHV. BMDsc was calculated by first regressing the natural logarithms of BMC and BA. The power coefficient (pc) values from this analysis were used as follows: BMDsc = BMC/BA(pc). BMDsc decreased significantly before the age of PHV and then increased until 4 years after PHV. The peak rates in radial fractures (reported from previous work) in both boys and girls coincided with the age of negative velocity in BMDsc; the age of peak BA velocity (PBAV) preceded the age of peak BMC velocity (PBMCV) by 0.5 years in both boys and girls. There is a clear dissociation between PBMCV and PBAV in boys and girls. BMDsc declines before age of PHV before rebounding after PHV. The timing of these events coincides directly with reported fracture rates of the distal end of the radius. Thus, the results support the theory that there is a period of relative skeletal weakness during the adolescent growth period caused, in

  8. Inflammation and linear bone growth: the inhibitory role of SOCS2 on GH/IGF-1 signaling.

    Farquharson, Colin; Ahmed, S Faisal

    2013-04-01

    Linear bone growth is widely recognized to be adversely affected in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and other chronic inflammatory disorders. The growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) pathway is anabolic to the skeleton and inflammatory cytokines compromise bone growth through a number of different mechanisms, which include interference with the systemic as well as the tissue-level GH/IGF-1 axis. Despite attempts to promote growth and control disease, there are an increasing number of reports of the persistence of poor growth in a substantial proportion of patients receiving rhGH and/or drugs that block cytokine action. Thus, there is an urgent need to consider better and alternative forms of therapy that are directed specifically at the mechanism of the insult which leads to abnormal bone health. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 (SOCS2) expression is increased in inflammatory conditions including CKD, and is a recognized inhibitor of GH signaling. Therefore, in this review, we will focus on the premise that SOCS2 signaling represents a critical pathway in growth plate chondrocytes through which pro-inflammatory cytokines alter both GH/IGF-1 signaling and cellular function.

  9. Planktonic food webs revisited: Reanalysis of results from the linear inverse approach

    Hlaili, Asma Sakka; Niquil, Nathalie; Legendre, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Identification of the trophic pathway that dominates a given planktonic assemblage is generally based on the distribution of biomasses among food-web compartments, or better, the flows of materials or energy among compartments. These flows are obtained by field observations and a posteriori analyses, including the linear inverse approach. In the present study, we re-analysed carbon flows obtained by inverse analysis at 32 stations in the global ocean and one large lake. Our results do not support two "classical" views of plankton ecology, i.e. that the herbivorous food web is dominated by mesozooplankton grazing on large phytoplankton, and the microbial food web is based on microzooplankton significantly consuming bacteria; our results suggest instead that phytoplankton are generally grazed by microzooplankton, of which they are the main food source. Furthermore, we identified the "phyto-microbial food web", where microzooplankton largely feed on phytoplankton, in addition to the already known "poly-microbial food web", where microzooplankton consume more or less equally various types of food. These unexpected results led to a (re)definition of the conceptual models corresponding to the four trophic pathways we found to exist in plankton, i.e. the herbivorous, multivorous, and two types of microbial food web. We illustrated the conceptual trophic pathways using carbon flows that were actually observed at representative stations. The latter can be calibrated to correspond to any field situation. Our study also provides researchers and managers with operational criteria for identifying the dominant trophic pathway in a planktonic assemblage, these criteria being based on the values of two carbon ratios that could be calculated from flow values that are relatively easy to estimate in the field.

  10. Non-linear growth in tree ferns, Dicksonia antarctica and Cyathea australis.

    Blair, David P; Blanchard, Wade; Banks, Sam C; Lindenmayer, David B

    2017-01-01

    Tree ferns are an important structural component of forests in many countries. However, because their regeneration is often unrelated to major disturbances, their age is often difficult to determine. In addition, rates of growth may not be uniform, which further complicates attempts to determine their age. In this study, we measured 5 years of growth of Cyathea australis and Dicksonia antarctica after a large wildfire in 2009 in south-eastern Australia. We found growth rates of these two species were unaffected by aspect and elevation but slope had a minor effect with D. antarctica growing 0.3mm faster for each additional degree of slope. Geographic location influenced growth in both species by up to 12 - 14mm/yr. The most consistent factor influencing growth rate, however, was initial height at the time of the 2009 fire; a finding consistent in both species and all geographic locations. For both tree fern species, individuals that were taller at the commencement of the study had greater overall growth for the duration of the study. This effect did not decrease even among the tallest tree ferns in our study (up to 6 metres tall). Overall, Cyathea australis averaged 73 (± 22)mm/year of growth (± 1SD), with the rate increasing 5mm/yr per metre of additional height. Dicksonia antarctica averaged 33 (± 13)mm/year, increasing by 6mm/yr/m. Growth rates dependent on initial height were unexpected and we discuss possible reasons for this finding. Variable growth rates also suggest that common age estimation methods of dividing height by average growth rate are likely to underestimate the age of short tree ferns, while overestimating the age of tall tree ferns, particularly if they have been subject to a fire.

  11. Non-linear growth in tree ferns, Dicksonia antarctica and Cyathea australis.

    David P Blair

    Full Text Available Tree ferns are an important structural component of forests in many countries. However, because their regeneration is often unrelated to major disturbances, their age is often difficult to determine. In addition, rates of growth may not be uniform, which further complicates attempts to determine their age. In this study, we measured 5 years of growth of Cyathea australis and Dicksonia antarctica after a large wildfire in 2009 in south-eastern Australia. We found growth rates of these two species were unaffected by aspect and elevation but slope had a minor effect with D. antarctica growing 0.3mm faster for each additional degree of slope. Geographic location influenced growth in both species by up to 12 - 14mm/yr. The most consistent factor influencing growth rate, however, was initial height at the time of the 2009 fire; a finding consistent in both species and all geographic locations. For both tree fern species, individuals that were taller at the commencement of the study had greater overall growth for the duration of the study. This effect did not decrease even among the tallest tree ferns in our study (up to 6 metres tall. Overall, Cyathea australis averaged 73 (± 22mm/year of growth (± 1SD, with the rate increasing 5mm/yr per metre of additional height. Dicksonia antarctica averaged 33 (± 13mm/year, increasing by 6mm/yr/m. Growth rates dependent on initial height were unexpected and we discuss possible reasons for this finding. Variable growth rates also suggest that common age estimation methods of dividing height by average growth rate are likely to underestimate the age of short tree ferns, while overestimating the age of tall tree ferns, particularly if they have been subject to a fire.

  12. Non-Linear Relationship between Economic Growth and CO₂ Emissions in China: An Empirical Study Based on Panel Smooth Transition Regression Models.

    Wang, Zheng-Xin; Hao, Peng; Yao, Pei-Yi

    2017-12-13

    The non-linear relationship between provincial economic growth and carbon emissions is investigated by using panel smooth transition regression (PSTR) models. The research indicates that, on the condition of separately taking Gross Domestic Product per capita (GDPpc), energy structure (Es), and urbanisation level (Ul) as transition variables, three models all reject the null hypothesis of a linear relationship, i.e., a non-linear relationship exists. The results show that the three models all contain only one transition function but different numbers of location parameters. The model taking GDPpc as the transition variable has two location parameters, while the other two models separately considering Es and Ul as the transition variables both contain one location parameter. The three models applied in the study all favourably describe the non-linear relationship between economic growth and CO₂ emissions in China. It also can be seen that the conversion rate of the influence of Ul on per capita CO₂ emissions is significantly higher than those of GDPpc and Es on per capita CO₂ emissions.

  13. Miniaturized fatigue crack growth specimen technology and results

    Puigh, R.J.; Bauer, R.E.; Ermi, A.M.; Chin, B.A.

    1981-01-01

    The miniature fatigue crack propagation technology has been extended to in-cell fabrication of irradiated specimens. Baseline testing of selected titanium alloys has been performed at 25 0 C in air. At relatively small values for the stress intensity factor, ΔK, the crack growth rates for all titanium alloys investigated are within a factor of three. The crack growth rates for these titanium alloys are a factor of three greater than the crack growth rates of either 316SS (20% CW) or HT-9. Each of the titanium alloys has observable crack propagation for stress intensity factors as small as 4.2 MPa√m

  14. Non-linear growth: The road ahead for Indian IT outsourcing companies

    Y.L.R. Moorthi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Indian IT outsourcing companies (major among them being the SWITCH companies -- Satyam, Wipro, Infosys, TCS, Cognizant and HCL grew rapidly for more than a decade on low cost business process and IT outsourcing. With the bigger companies already reaching a high of 100,000 employees, they are now turning their attention to non-linear revenue (i.e. revenue less dependent on numbers or greater revenue earned per employee. For this they need to pursue ‘disruptive’ strategies which are distinctly different from the ‘incremental’ initiatives they adopted in the past to maintain linear revenue. This paper first outlines the disruptive and the incremental initiatives of the SWITCH companies and the road ahead for them. This is followed by an interview with S Gopalakrishnan, CEO and MD, Infosys Technologies who discusses the non-linear initiatives of the company and the challenges it faces in the field.

  15. Soil-to-plant transfer of elements is not linear: Results for five elements relevant to radioactive waste in five boreal forest species

    Tuovinen, Tiina S.; Roivainen, Paeivi, E-mail: paivi.roivainen@uef.fi; Makkonen, Sari; Kolehmainen, Mikko; Holopainen, Toini; Juutilainen, Jukka

    2011-12-01

    Element-specific concentration ratios (CRs) assuming that plant uptake of elements is linear are commonly used in radioecological modelling to describe the soil-to-plant transfer of elements. The goal of this study was to investigate the validity of the linearity assumption in boreal forest plants, for which only limited relevant data are available. The soil-to-plant transfer of three essential (Mo, Ni, Zn) and two non-essential (Pb, U) elements relevant to the safety of radioactive waste disposal was studied. Three understory species (blueberry, narrow buckler fern and May lily) and two tree species (Norway spruce and rowan) were included. Examining CRs as a function of soil concentration showed that CR was not constant but decreased with increasing soil concentrations for all elements and plant species. A non-linear equation fitted fairly well with the empirical data; the R{sup 2}-values for this equation were constantly higher than those for the linear fit. The difference between the two fits was most evident at low soil concentrations where the use of constant CRs underestimated transfer from soil to plants. Site-specific factors affected the transfer of Mo and Ni. The results suggested that systematic variation with soil concentrations explains a part of the large variation of empirically determined CRs, and the accuracy of modelling the soil-to-plant transfer might be improved by using non-linear methods. Non-linearity of soil-to-plant transfer has been previously reported for a few different species, elements and environments. The present study systematically tested the linearity assumption for five elements (both essential and non-essential) and in five boreal forest species representing different growth traits and phylogenies. The data supported non-linearity in all cases.

  16. Soil-to-plant transfer of elements is not linear: Results for five elements relevant to radioactive waste in five boreal forest species

    Tuovinen, Tiina S.; Roivainen, Päivi; Makkonen, Sari; Kolehmainen, Mikko; Holopainen, Toini; Juutilainen, Jukka

    2011-01-01

    Element-specific concentration ratios (CRs) assuming that plant uptake of elements is linear are commonly used in radioecological modelling to describe the soil-to-plant transfer of elements. The goal of this study was to investigate the validity of the linearity assumption in boreal forest plants, for which only limited relevant data are available. The soil-to-plant transfer of three essential (Mo, Ni, Zn) and two non-essential (Pb, U) elements relevant to the safety of radioactive waste disposal was studied. Three understory species (blueberry, narrow buckler fern and May lily) and two tree species (Norway spruce and rowan) were included. Examining CRs as a function of soil concentration showed that CR was not constant but decreased with increasing soil concentrations for all elements and plant species. A non-linear equation fitted fairly well with the empirical data; the R 2 -values for this equation were constantly higher than those for the linear fit. The difference between the two fits was most evident at low soil concentrations where the use of constant CRs underestimated transfer from soil to plants. Site-specific factors affected the transfer of Mo and Ni. The results suggested that systematic variation with soil concentrations explains a part of the large variation of empirically determined CRs, and the accuracy of modelling the soil-to-plant transfer might be improved by using non-linear methods. Non-linearity of soil-to-plant transfer has been previously reported for a few different species, elements and environments. The present study systematically tested the linearity assumption for five elements (both essential and non-essential) and in five boreal forest species representing different growth traits and phylogenies. The data supported non-linearity in all cases.

  17. Comparative Study of Worldwide Species of Genus Lentinus (=Lentinula, Higher Basidiomycetes) Based on Linear Mycelium Growth.

    Mata, Juan Luis; Mishra, Nutan Tulapurkar

    2015-01-01

    Species of mushroom genus Lentinus (=Lentinula) are best known for the commercially important and extensively studied culinary-medicinal shiitake, L. edodes. A few mycelium growth studies have focused on Lentinus boryana, but information is lacking for L. raphanica and L. aciculospora, endemic to the Americas. In this study, 14 dikaryon strains representing 5 Lentinus species were grown on 5 nutritive agar media at increments of 5°C. Growth for each species was significantly slower on corn meal agar, but no differences were found among malt extract, potato dextrose, malt peptone, and yeast malt extract agars. Lentinus aciculospora and L. boryana consistently exhibited the slowest mycelium growth rates among all species and across all temperatures tested, with optima at 15°C and 20°C. The fastest mycelium growth rates for L. edodes, L. novaezelandiae, and L. raphanica occurred at 25°C. Strains of the latter continued to grow well at 30°C, whereas growth of the other 2 species declined significantly. Differences in mycelium growth rates for American strains could be partially explained by their geographic locations, indicating that understanding this physiological parameter has important ramifications for the edible mushroom industry.

  18. On a new iterative method for solving linear systems and comparison results

    Jing, Yan-Fei; Huang, Ting-Zhu

    2008-10-01

    In Ujevic [A new iterative method for solving linear systems, Appl. Math. Comput. 179 (2006) 725-730], the author obtained a new iterative method for solving linear systems, which can be considered as a modification of the Gauss-Seidel method. In this paper, we show that this is a special case from a point of view of projection techniques. And a different approach is established, which is both theoretically and numerically proven to be better than (at least the same as) Ujevic's. As the presented numerical examples show, in most cases, the convergence rate is more than one and a half that of Ujevic.

  19. Linear accelerator radiosurgery for vestibular schwannomas: Results of medium-term follow-up.

    Ellenbogen, Jonathan R; Waqar, Mueez; Kinshuck, Andrew J; Jenkinson, Michael D; Lesser, Tristram H J; Husband, David; Javadpour, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    To examine tumour control, via volume changes, and the complications of linear accelerator (LINAC)-based stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) treatment of vestibular schwannomas (VSs) on medium-term follow-up. Between September 2003 and November 2009 fifty consecutive patients with VSs treated with SRS using a marginal dose of 12.5 Gy utilizing a LINAC equipped with a micro-multileaf collimator were identified. Evaluation included serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and neurological and hearing examinations. The median tumour volume at treatment was 2.4 (range: 0.24-10.59) cm3. The intracranial diameter of the tumours ranged between 7.7 and 28.7 (median: 15.8) mm. Follow-up MRI was available for analysis on 49 patients. The median radiological follow-up period was 5.8 (range: 1.4-9.2) years. The median tumour volume at last follow-up was 1.1 (range: 0.03-5.3) cm3. VS decreased in size in 45 (90%) patients, with a median reduction in tumour volume of 1.46 (range: 0.06-9.29) cm3 or a median tumour size reduction of 59% of the baseline (range: 6-90%) in these patients. VS remained stable in 2 patients and increased in size in 2 patients. Only 1 patient (2%) required additional intervention (surgery). 15 patients had useful hearing pre-treatment; 10 post-treatment pure-tone audiograms of these patients were available. 5 (50%) patients still had useful hearing post treatment. Non-auditory adverse radiation effects included new (House-Brackmann grade II) or worsened facial nerve palsy (House-Brackmann grade II to grade V) in 2 (4%) patients and trigeminal sensory disturbance in 2 (4%) patients. At medium term, the vast majority of VSs treated with LINAC-based SRS exhibit tumour shrinkage. The slightly higher rate of facial nerve palsy compared with Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) results may be related to the learning curve. Other complications were similar to reported GKS results for VSs of comparable sizes.

  20. Exact results on diffusion in a piecewise linear potential with a time-dependent sink

    Diwaker, E-mail: diwakerphysics@gmail.com [Central University of Himachal Pradesh, School of Physical and Astronomical Sciences (India); Chakraborty, Aniruddha [Indian Institute of Technology Mandi (India)

    2016-02-15

    The Smoluchowski equation with a time-dependent sink term is solved exactly. In this method, knowing the probability distribution P(0, s) at the origin, allows deriving the probability distribution P(x, s) at all positions. Exact solutions of the Smoluchowski equation are also provided in different cases where the sink term has linear, constant, inverse, and exponential variation in time.

  1. Oscillation and nonoscillation results for solutions of half-linear equations with deviated argument

    Drábek, P.; Kufner, Alois; Kuliev, K.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 447, č. 1 (2017), s. 371-382 ISSN 0022-247X Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : half-linear equation * oscillatory solution * nonoscillatory solution Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 1.064, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022247X16306059

  2. Peculiarities in power type comparison results for half-linear dynamic equations

    Řehák, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 6 (2012), s. 1995-2013 ISSN 0035-7596 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB100190701 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : half-linear dynamic equation * time scale * comparison theorem Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.389, year: 2012 http://projecteuclid.org/euclid.rmjm/1361800616

  3. Recent results on stability and response bounds of linear systems - a review

    Pommer, Christian; Kliem, Wolfhard

    2006-01-01

    The literature on linear systems emerging from second order differential equations is extensive because such systems are ubiquitous in modeling, particularly modeling of mechanical systems. This paper offers an overview of some of the recent research in this field, in particular on the subject...

  4. Vacuum system of Synchrotron Light National Laboratory (LNLS) linear accelerator: project and results

    Rocha, L.R.B.; Gomes, P.A.P.

    1990-01-01

    The LINAC, electron linear accelerator used as injector for storage ring in production of synchrotron radiation at Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS) is described. The LINAC basic parameters, the dimension calculations of vacuum system and the final project with all components are presented. The vacuum system for electron gun tests and accelerator structure tests is described. (M.C.K.)

  5. Growth and characterization of nanodiamond layers prepared using plasma enhanced linear antennas microwave CVD system

    Fendrych, František; Taylor, Andrew; Peksa, Ladislav; Kratochvílová, Irena; Vlček, J.; Řezáčová, V.; Petrák, V.; Kluiber, Z.; Fekete, Ladislav; Liehr, M.; Nesládek, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 37 (2010), 374018/1-374018/6 ISSN 0022-3727 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200100801; GA AV ČR KAN300100801; GA AV ČR KAN301370701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : nanodiamond, * thin films * PE MW CVD * linear antennas Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.105, year: 2010

  6. Stochastic differential equation model for linear growth birth and death processes with immigration and emigration

    Granita; Bahar, A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses on linear birth and death with immigration and emigration (BIDE) process to stochastic differential equation (SDE) model. Forward Kolmogorov equation in continuous time Markov chain (CTMC) with a central-difference approximation was used to find Fokker-Planckequation corresponding to a diffusion process having the stochastic differential equation of BIDE process. The exact solution, mean and variance function of BIDE process was found

  7. Stochastic differential equation model for linear growth birth and death processes with immigration and emigration

    Granita, E-mail: granitafc@gmail.com [Dept. Mathematical Education, State Islamic University of Sultan Syarif Kasim Riau, 28293 Indonesia and Dept. of Mathematical Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310,Johor (Malaysia); Bahar, A. [Dept. of Mathematical Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310,Johor Malaysia and UTM Center for Industrial and Applied Mathematics (UTM-CIAM) (Malaysia)

    2015-03-09

    This paper discusses on linear birth and death with immigration and emigration (BIDE) process to stochastic differential equation (SDE) model. Forward Kolmogorov equation in continuous time Markov chain (CTMC) with a central-difference approximation was used to find Fokker-Planckequation corresponding to a diffusion process having the stochastic differential equation of BIDE process. The exact solution, mean and variance function of BIDE process was found.

  8. Growth of carbon allotropes and plasma characterization in linear antenna microwave plasma CVD system

    Potocký, Štěpán; Babchenko, Oleg; Davydova, Marina; Ižák, Tibor; Čada, Martin; Kromka, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 5 (2014), "05FP04-1"-"05FP04-3" ISSN 0021-4922 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01011740; GA ČR GAP205/12/0908 Grant - others:AVČR(CZ) M100100902 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : antenna linear * CVD system * plasma Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.127, year: 2014

  9. Relations among the crack growth modes resulting from tensor splitting

    Kafka, Vratislav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 4 (2015), s. 319-335 ISSN 0001-7043 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : fracture mechanics * combination of crack-growth modes * non-local effect * tensor splitting Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics http://journal.it.cas.cz/60(15)4-Contents/60(15)4a.pdf

  10. How maternal malnutrition affects linear growth and development in the offspring

    Maternal malnutrition is common in the developing world and has detrimental effects on both the mother and infant. Pre-pregnancy nutritional status and weight gain during pregnancy are positively related to fetal growth and development. Internationally, there is no agreement on the method of diagnos...

  11. Consistent deformations of dual formulations of linearized gravity: A no-go result

    Bekaert, Xavier; Boulanger, Nicolas; Henneaux, Marc

    2003-01-01

    The consistent, local, smooth deformations of the dual formulation of linearized gravity involving a tensor field in the exotic representation of the Lorentz group with Young symmetry type (D-3,1) (one column of length D-3 and one column of length 1) are systematically investigated. The rigidity of the Abelian gauge algebra is first established. We next prove a no-go theorem for interactions involving at most two derivatives of the fields

  12. Wakefield dependent emittance growth in the SLAC [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center] linac

    Bane, K.L.F.

    1990-10-01

    In this note we describe the emittance growth we can expect at bunch populations of N = 3,4,5 x 10 10 in the SLC linac. We will discuss briefly the effects of injection jitter, injection drift, and coherent oscillations starting in the middle of the linac. Finally, we will discuss in a more thorough manner the effects of random misalignment errors throughout the linac

  13. Using personality traits to construct linear growth models of mental health in family members of individuals with severe brain injury.

    Trujillo, Michael; Perrin, Paul B; Doser, Karoline; Norup, Anne

    2016-11-01

    No studies have examined the impact of personality traits on mental health among caregivers of individuals with severe brain injury. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to construct linear growth models to examine whether the personality traits of family members of individuals with severe brain injury could predict the trajectories of their own mental health-related quality of life (HRQoL), anxiety, and depression beginning in a neurointensive care unit through 1 year after injury. Danish family members of individuals with severe brain injury (n = 52) completed the Short Form-36 assessing mental HRQoL (vitality, social functioning, role limitations-emotional, mental health), anxiety, and depression across 5 time points during the 1st year after injury. The measure of personality was administered 3 months after the patients' discharge. All mental HRQoL, anxiety, and depression variables improved significantly over time. Caregivers who were less neurotic and less conscientious had higher vitality, social functioning, and mental health over time, whereas caregivers who were more agreeable had higher social functioning over time. Caregivers with lower neuroticism had lower anxiety and depression over time, as well as a more accelerated decrease in anxiety and depression. Caregivers' personality traits were strongly associated over time with mental HRQoL, anxiety, and depression, with neuroticism being especially important for trajectories of anxiety and depression. These results suggest that personality assessments for caregivers of individuals with severe brain injury could help identify those most at risk for poor mental health over the course of rehabilitation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Test results for three prototype models of a linear induction launcher

    Zabar, Z.; Lu, X.N.; He, J.L.; Birenbaum, L.; Levi, E.; Kuznetsov, S.B.; Nahemow, M.D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the work on the linear induction launcher (LIL) started with an analytical study tht was followed by computer simulations and then was tested by laboratory models. Two mathematical representations have been developed to describe the launcher. The first, based on the field approach with sinusoidal excitation, has been validated by static tests on a small scale prototype fed at constant current and variable frequency. The second, a transient representation using computer simulation allows consideration of energization by means of a capacitor bank and a power conditioner. Tests performed on three small-scale prototypes up to 100 m/s muzzle velocities show good agreement with predicted performance

  15. Some Results on facets for linear inequality in 0-1 variables

    D. Sashi Bhusan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The facet of Knapsack ploytope, i.e. convex hull of 0-1 points satisfying a given linear inequality has been presented in this current paper. Such type of facets plays an important role in set covering set partitioning, matroidal-intersection vertex- packing, generalized assignment and other combinatorial problems. Strong covers for facets of Knapsack ploytope has been developed in the first part of the present paper. Generating family of valid cutting planes that satisfy inequality with 0-1 variables through algorithms are the attraction of this paper.

  16. Non-linear trends and fluctuations in temperature during different growth stages of summer maize in the North China Plain from 1960 to 2014

    Wang, Cailin; Wu, Jidong; Wang, Xu; He, Xin; Li, Ning

    2017-12-01

    North China Plain has undergone severe warming trends since the 1950s, but whether this trend is the same during different growth phases for crops remains unknown. Thus, we analyzed the non-linear changes in the minimum temperature (T min ), mean temperature (T mean ) and maximum temperature (T max ) using the Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition method during each growth stage of summer maize based on daily temperature data from 1960 to 2014. Our results strongly suggest that the trends and fluctuations in temperature change are non-linear. These changes can be categorized into four types of trend change according to the combinations of decreasing and increasing trends, and 8 fluctuation modes dominated by the fluctuations of expansion and shrinkage. The amplitude of the fluctuation is primarily expansion in the sowing-jointing stage and shrinkage in the jointing-maturity stage. Moreover, the temperature changes are inconsistent within each growth stage and are not consistent with the overall warming trend observed over the last 55 years. A transition period occurred in both the 1980s and the 1990s for temperatures during the sowing-tasseling stage. Furthermore, the cooling trend of the T max was significant in the sowing-emergence stage, while this cooling trend was not obvious for both T mean and T min in the jointing-tasseling stage. These results showed that temperature change was significantly different in different stages of the maize growth season. The results can serve as a scientific basis for a better understanding of the actual changes in the regional surface air temperature and agronomic heat resources.

  17. Results from a prototype chicane-based energy spectrometer for a linear collider

    Lyapin, A. [Univ. College London (United Kingdom); London Univ., Egham (United Kingdom). Royal Holloway; Schreiber, H.J.; Viti, M. [Deutsches Electronen Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Deutsches Electronen Synchrotron DESY, Zeuthen (DE)] (and others)

    2010-11-15

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) and other proposed high energy e{sup +}e{sup -} machines aim to measure with unprecedented precision Standard Model quantities and new, not yet discovered phenomena. One of the main requirements for achieving this goal is a measurement of the incident beam energy with an uncertainty close to 10{sup -4}. This article presents the analysis of data from a prototype energy spectrometer commissioned in 2006-2007 in SLAC's End Station A beamline. The prototype was a 4-magnet chicane equipped with beam position monitors measuring small changes of the beam orbit through the chicane at different beam energies. A single bunch energy resolution close to 5 . 10{sup -4} was measured, which is satisfactory for most scenarios. We also report on the operational experience with the chicane-based spectrometer and suggest ways of improving its performance. (orig.)

  18. An optimally weighted estimator of the linear power spectrum disentangling the growth of density perturbations across galaxy surveys

    Sorini, D.

    2017-01-01

    Measuring the clustering of galaxies from surveys allows us to estimate the power spectrum of matter density fluctuations, thus constraining cosmological models. This requires careful modelling of observational effects to avoid misinterpretation of data. In particular, signals coming from different distances encode information from different epochs. This is known as ''light-cone effect'' and is going to have a higher impact as upcoming galaxy surveys probe larger redshift ranges. Generalising the method by Feldman, Kaiser and Peacock (1994) [1], I define a minimum-variance estimator of the linear power spectrum at a fixed time, properly taking into account the light-cone effect. An analytic expression for the estimator is provided, and that is consistent with the findings of previous works in the literature. I test the method within the context of the Halofit model, assuming Planck 2014 cosmological parameters [2]. I show that the estimator presented recovers the fiducial linear power spectrum at present time within 5% accuracy up to k ∼ 0.80 h Mpc −1 and within 10% up to k ∼ 0.94 h Mpc −1 , well into the non-linear regime of the growth of density perturbations. As such, the method could be useful in the analysis of the data from future large-scale surveys, like Euclid.

  19. Algal growth inhibition test results of 425 organic chemical substances

    Kusk, Kresten Ole; Christensen, Anne Munch; Nyholm, Niels

    2018-01-01

    The toxicity towards the algal species Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata of 425 organic chemical substances was tested in a growth inhibition test. Precautions were taken to prevent loss of the compounds from the water phase and the test system (closed test system, low biomass, shorter test duration......, silanized glass) and to keep pH constant by applying a higher alkalinity. Chemical phase distribution was modelled taking ionization, volatilisation, and adsorption to glass and biomass into consideration. If the modelled water concentration was below 90% of the nominal concentration the calculated EC...... values were corrected accordingly. The model helped to identify substances, where the calculated water concentration was too uncertain. Substances covering a wide range of physical-chemical properties and different modes of action were tested. Median effect concentrations (EC50) lower than 1000 mg/L were...

  20. Additional Common Bean in the Diet of Malawian Children Does Not Affect Linear Growth, but Reduces Intestinal Permeability.

    Agapova, Sophia E; Stephenson, Kevin B; Divala, Oscar; Kaimila, Yankho; Maleta, Kenneth M; Thakwalakwa, Chrissie; Ordiz, M Isabel; Trehan, Indi; Manary, Mark J

    2018-02-01

    Chronic malnutrition, as manifested by linear growth faltering, is pervasive among rural African children. Improvements in complementary feeding may decrease the burden of environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) and thus improve growth in children during the critical first 1000 d of development. We tested the hypothesis that systematically including common bean or cowpea into complementary feeding would reduce EED and growth faltering among children in rural Malawi. This was a double-blind clinical trial in which children 12-23 mo of age were randomly assigned to receive complementary feeding with 1 of 3 foods: roasted cowpea or common bean flour, or an isoenergetic amount of corn-soy blend as a control food for 48 wk. Children aged 12-23 mo received 155 kcal/d and thereafter until 35 mo received 200 kcal/d. The primary outcomes were change in length-for-age z score (LAZ) and improvements in a biomarker of EED, the percentage of lactulose (%L) excreted as part of the lactulose:mannitol dual-sugar absorption test. Anthropometric measurements and urinary %L excretion were compared between the 2 intervention groups and the control group separately with the use of linear mixed model analyses for repeated measures. A total of 331 children completed the clinical trial. Compliance with the study interventions was excellent, with >90% of the intervention flour consumed as intended. No significant effects on LAZ, change in LAZ, or weight-for-length z score were observed due to either intervention legume, compared to the control. %L was reduced with common bean consumption (effect estimate was -0.07 percentage points of lactulose, P = 0.0007). The lactulose:mannitol test was not affected by the legume intervention. The addition of common bean to complementary feeding of rural Malawian children during the second year of life led to an improvement in a biomarker of gut health, although this did not directly translate into improved linear growth. This trial was registered at

  1. Stunting at birth: recognition of early-life linear growth failure in the western highlands of Guatemala.

    Solomons, Noel W; Vossenaar, Marieke; Chomat, Anne-Marie; Doak, Colleen M; Koski, Kristine G; Scott, Marilyn E

    2015-07-01

    Measurements of length at birth, or in the neonatal period, are challenging to obtain and often discounted for lack of validity. Hence, classical 'under-5' stunting rates have been derived from surveys on children from 6 to 59 months of age. Guatemala has a high prevalence of stunting (49.8%), but the age of onset of growth failure is not clearly defined. The objective of the study was to assess length-for-age within the first 1.5 months of life among Guatemalan infants. As part of a cross-sectional observational study, supine length was measured in young infants. Mothers' height was measured. Length-for-age Z-scores (HAZ) were generated and stunting was defined as HAZ Guatemala. Three hundred and six newborns with a median age of 19 d. The median rural HAZ was -1.56 and prevalence of stunting was 38%; the respective urban values were -1.41 and 25%. Linear regression revealed no relationship between infant age and HAZ (r = 0.101, r(2) = 0.010, P = 0.077). Maternal height explained 3% of the variability in HAZ (r = 0.171, r(2) = 0.029, P = 0.003). Stunting must be carried over from in utero growth retardation in short-stature Guatemalan mothers. As linear growth failure in this setting begins in utero, its prevention must be linked to maternal care strategies during gestation, or even before. A focus on maternal nutrition and health in an intergenerational dimension is needed to reduce its prevalence.

  2. Preterm infant linear growth and adiposity gain: trade-offs for later weight status and intelligence quotient.

    Belfort, Mandy B; Gillman, Matthew W; Buka, Stephen L; Casey, Patrick H; McCormick, Marie C

    2013-12-01

    To examine trade-offs between cognitive outcome and overweight/obesity in preterm-born infants at school age and young adulthood in relation to weight gain and linear growth during infancy. We studied 945 participants in the Infant Health and Development Program, an 8-center study of preterm (≤37 weeks gestational age), low birth weight (≤2500 g) infants from birth to age 18 years. Adjusting for maternal and child factors in logistic regression, we estimated the odds of overweight/obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥85th percentile at age 8 or ≥25 kg/m(2) at age 18) and in separate models, low IQ (growth from term to 4 months was associated with lower odds of IQ growth soon after term was associated with better cognition, but also with a greater risk of overweight/obesity at age 8 years and 18 years. BMI gain over the entire 18 months after term was associated with later risk of overweight/obesity, with less evidence of a benefit for IQ. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Adding salt to a surfactant solution: Linear rheological response of the resulting morphologies

    Gaudino, Danila; Pasquino, Rossana, E-mail: r.pasquino@unina.it; Grizzuti, Nino [DICMaPI, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, P.le Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy)

    2015-11-15

    The micellar system composed of Cetylpyridinium Chloride-Sodium Salicylate (CPyCl-NaSal) in brine aqueous solutions has been studied by systematically changing the salt concentration, in order to investigate the rheology of the arising morphologies. In particular, the zero-shear viscosity and the linear viscoelastic response have been measured as a function of the NaSal concentration (with [CPyCl] = 100 mM). The Newtonian viscosity shows a nonmonotonic dependence upon concentration, passing through a maximum at NaSal/CPyCl ≈ 0.6, and eventually dropping at higher salt concentrations. The progressive addition of salt determines first a transition from a Newtonian to a purely Maxwell-like behavior as the length of the micelles significantly increases. Beyond the peak viscosity, the viscoelastic data show two distinct features. On the one hand, the main relaxation time of the system strongly decreases, while the plateau modulus remains essentially constant. Calculations based on the rheological data show that, as the binding salt concentration increases, there is a decrease in micelles breaking rate and a decrease in their average length. On the other hand, in the same concentration region, a low-frequency elastic plateau is measured. Such a plateau is considered as the signature of a tenuous, but persistent branched network, whose existence is confirmed by cryo-transmission electron microscopy images.

  4. An Analysis of Turkey's PISA 2015 Results Using Two-Level Hierarchical Linear Modelling

    Atas, Dogu; Karadag, Özge

    2017-01-01

    In the field of education, most of the data collected are multi-level structured. Cities, city based schools, school based classes and finally students in the classrooms constitute a hierarchical structure. Hierarchical linear models give more accurate results compared to standard models when the data set has a structure going far as individuals,…

  5. Piecewise linear emulator of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation and the resulting analytic solutions for Bose-Einstein condensates

    Theodorakis, Stavros

    2003-01-01

    We emulate the cubic term Ψ 3 in the nonlinear Schroedinger equation by a piecewise linear term, thus reducing the problem to a set of uncoupled linear inhomogeneous differential equations. The resulting analytic expressions constitute an excellent approximation to the exact solutions, as is explicitly shown in the case of the kink, the vortex, and a δ function trap. Such a piecewise linear emulation can be used for any differential equation where the only nonlinearity is a Ψ 3 one. In particular, it can be used for the nonlinear Schroedinger equation in the presence of harmonic traps, giving analytic Bose-Einstein condensate solutions that reproduce very accurately the numerically calculated ones in one, two, and three dimensions

  6. Areva 2007 results: accelerated growth and significantly improved profitability

    2008-02-01

    The AREVA group recorded accelerated growth and increased profitability in 2007, meeting both of its objectives for the year. The group made strategic inroads in fast growing markets. AREVA's integrated model met with record success in China, where GGNPC acquired two EPR nuclear islands in a combined order including both the reactors and the fuel, and the creation of a joint venture in engineering. Its T and D division was awarded the largest contract of its history in Qatar, making it the leader in a region where T and D was not even present a few years ago. For more than three years, AREVA has built up its capacity to meet surging demand in the nuclear power and T and D markets through an active policy of research and development and by capitalizing on the diversity and strength of its partnerships. Areva hired 8,600 people in 2006 and 11,500 people in 2007; this represents an investment in recruitment, training and integration of approximately euro 200 million per year. For 2008, the group foresees a further increase in its backlog, sales revenue and operating income. The Areva Group financial statements for 2007 are summarized below: - Backlog: euro 39.8 billion, up 55%; - Sales revenue: euro 11.9 billion, up 9.8% (up 10.4% like-for-like); - Operating income: euro 751 million, i.e. 6.3% operating margin, up 2.6 points compared with 2006; - Net income attributable to equity holders of the parent: euro 743 million (euro 20.95 per share), up from euro 649 million in 2006 (euro 18.31 per share); - Net debt: euro 1.954 billion, linked to the acquisition of UraMin; - Dividend: euro 6.77, to be proposed to the Annual General Meeting of Shareholders convening on April 17, 2008

  7. The Non-Linear Relationship between BMI and Health Care Costs and the Resulting Cost Fraction Attributable to Obesity.

    Laxy, Michael; Stark, Renée; Peters, Annette; Hauner, Hans; Holle, Rolf; Teuner, Christina M

    2017-08-30

    This study aims to analyse the non-linear relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI) and direct health care costs, and to quantify the resulting cost fraction attributable to obesity in Germany. Five cross-sectional surveys of cohort studies in southern Germany were pooled, resulting in data of 6757 individuals (31-96 years old). Self-reported information on health care utilisation was used to estimate direct health care costs for the year 2011. The relationship between measured BMI and annual costs was analysed using generalised additive models, and the cost fraction attributable to obesity was calculated. We found a non-linear association of BMI and health care costs with a continuously increasing slope for increasing BMI without any clear threshold. Under the consideration of the non-linear BMI-cost relationship, a shift in the BMI distribution so that the BMI of each individual is lowered by one point is associated with a 2.1% reduction of mean direct costs in the population. If obesity was eliminated, and the BMI of all obese individuals were lowered to 29.9 kg/m², this would reduce the mean direct costs by 4.0% in the population. Results show a non-linear relationship between BMI and health care costs, with very high costs for a few individuals with high BMI. This indicates that population-based interventions in combination with selective measures for very obese individuals might be the preferred strategy.

  8. New 3DXRD results on recrystallization and grain growth

    Juul Jensen, Dorte; West, Stine; Poulsen, Stefan Othmar

    2012-01-01

    New in-situ 3DXRD results obtained since the last Rex&GG conference are presented and discussed. This includes: Documentation of the formation of nuclei with new orientations, determination of apparent activation energies for individual bulk grains during recrystallization and evolution in the 3D...

  9. Some initial results from the new SLAC [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center] permeameter

    Cobb, J.K.; Early, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    A new permeameter has been built and is now available for testing samples of steel and other ferromagnetic materials for their magnetic characteristics such as permeability, remanent induction, coercive force and saturation induction. The present range of operation for the permeameter is from 0.5 Oe to 1250 Oe. Results are presented for two samples of low-carbon steel as well as some preliminary results for Vanadium Permendur. 4 refs., 8 figs

  10. A meta-analysis of cambium phenology and growth: linear and non-linear patterns in conifers of the northern hemisphere

    Rossi, Sergio; Anfodillo, Tommaso; Čufar, Katarina; Cuny, Henri E.; Deslauriers, Annie; Fonti, Patrick; Frank, David; Gričar, Jožica; Gruber, Andreas; King, Gregory M.; Krause, Cornelia; Morin, Hubert; Oberhuber, Walter; Prislan, Peter; Rathgeber, Cyrille B. K.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims Ongoing global warming has been implicated in shifting phenological patterns such as the timing and duration of the growing season across a wide variety of ecosystems. Linear models are routinely used to extrapolate these observed shifts in phenology into the future and to estimate changes in associated ecosystem properties such as net primary productivity. Yet, in nature, linear relationships may be special cases. Biological processes frequently follow more complex, non-l...

  11. Areva - 2008 results: yet another year of growth for AREVA

    2009-02-01

    This paper summarizes the 2008 financial results of the Areva group: Backlog: 48.2 billion euros, up 21.1%; Revenue: 13.2 billion euros, up 10.4%; Operating income: - Operating income excluding provision on OL3 contract in Finland: 1,166 million euros, i.e. operating margin of 8.9%; - Additional provision on OL3 contract of 749 million euros; - Operating income: 417 million euros, i.e. operating margin of 3.2%. Net income attributable to equity holders of the parent: 589 million euros, i.e. euros 16.62 per share; Net debt of 3.45 billion euros before recognition of the SIEMENS put; Dividend of euros 7.05 to be proposed during the Annual General Meeting of Shareholders of April 30, 2009. After publication of these figures Siemens announced its decision to withdraw from AREVA NP

  12. CSA/AZA, in the absence of prednisone, improves linear growth in renal transplanted children.

    David-Neto, E; Nahas, W; Sampaio, E C; Ianhez, L E; Sabbaga, E; Arap, S

    1992-01-01

    We compared the results of 44 renal transplants in children, of whom 24 were treated with CSA/AZA and 20 with prednisone in combination with AZA and/or CSA. There were no differences in age distribution or mean ages at transplant between the two treatment groups. The CSA/AZA group had a longer follow-up (29 +/- 33 vs 17 +/- 18 months). At the last follow-up, five children in the CSA/AZA and none in the prednisone group had lost their grafts. Serum creatinine increased in both groups from 0.7 +/- 0.1 mg/dl and 0.9 +/- 0.1 mg/dl at the end of the first month to 1.1 +/- 0.2 mg/dl in the 36th month (CSA/AZA group) (P renal transplant in children, but only 75% tolerated AZA/CSA without same damage to their grafts.

  13. Linear Array Ultrasonic Test Results from Alkali-Silica Reaction (ASR) Specimens

    Clayton, Dwight A [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Khazanovich, Dr. Lev [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Salles, Lucio [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is to develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the operating lifetimes of nuclear power plants (NPPs) beyond 60 years. Since many important safety structures in an NPP are constructed of concrete, inspection techniques must be developed and tested to evaluate the internal condition. In-service containment structures generally do not allow for the destructive measures necessary to validate the accuracy of these inspection techniques. This creates a need for comparative testing of the various nondestructive evaluation (NDE) measurement techniques on concrete specimens with known material properties, voids, internal microstructure flaws, and reinforcement locations.This report presents results of the ultrasound evaluation of four concrete slabs with varying levels of ASR damage present. This included an investigation of the experimental results, as well as a supplemental simulation considering the effect of ASR damage by elasto-dynamic wave propagation using a finite integration technique method. It was found that the Hilbert Transform Indicator (HTI), developed for quantification of freeze/thaw damage in concrete structures, could also be successfully utilized for quantification of ASR damage. internal microstructure flaws, and reinforcement locations.

  14. Equilibrium and linear analysis of rotating plasmas: fluid and guiding center results

    Iacono, R.

    1990-06-01

    This work is devoted to the equilibrium and stability of rotating plasmas. Apart from its theoretical interest, this subject has become of practical importance in fusion research, due to the use in recent tokamak experiments of auxiliary heating methods such as neutral-beam injection, which can produce large plasma flows. Flow velocities up to the ion sound speed have been measured on different machines and new phenomena associated with the flow, such as distorsions of the plasma equilibrium profiles, have been observed. As a consequence, flows must be included in the macroscopic description of plasma equilibrium, which is the basis for the analysis and the design of magnetic confinement machines, and the stability properties of equilibria with flows need to be investigated. Here, attention is centered on toroidal confinement machines and in particular on tokamaks. However, some of the results to be presented may be of interest also for other domains (strong mass flows also occur in astrophysical and geophysical contexts such as in the Jovian magnetosphere or in the Earth's magnetopause and plasmapause. It should be noted that equilibrium and, in particular, stability with flows are poorly understood at present. Therefore, many of the questions we will consider are of quite a general nature. We are not yet at the point where quantitative comparisons with specific experiments can be made. Even the choice of a convenient model to study plasma flow is far from being evident. So far most of the theoretical investigations have used the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model, which is one of the simplest descriptions of a plasma. In this work, however, it will be shown that, for rotating plasmas, the 'simple' MHD model can give very complicated and physically meaningless results, while more 'complicated' models can provide a simpler and more realistic description of the plasma behaviour. 65 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Measuring system for correlations of light particles with low relative linear momentum: operation and first results

    Mistretta, J.

    1988-01-01

    The EMRIC set up (Ensemble de Mesure Rapide pour l'Interferometrie et les Correlations) is devoted to the study of space and time extent of nuclear sources from the measurement of light charged particles correlations. This device, composed of an array of 16 detectors (CsI crystals coupled to phototubes) used in conjunction with a multiwire chamber, is characterised by a smart granulation, a large solid angle and very small detection dead areas. It opens new possibilities in the measurement of the correlation functions (complete determination (modulus and direction) of the relative momenta in the range 1 to 100 MeV/c). This work describes the development and performances of EMRIC. The mechanics and electronics are detailed to enlighten difficulties inherent to this type of detector. An auxiliary monitoring system has been carried out to simplify some of the experimental tasks. A simulation software code has been written (based on Monte-Carlo techniques) to simulate the effect of the detector on the experimental data. The precision and efficiency in detection place EMRIC, which can be operated in the whole intermediate energy range (10-100 MeV/u), among the most powerful existing devices. First results on the 20 Ne + 27 Al system are finally shown [fr

  16. Characterization and Growth Mechanism of Nickel Nanowires Resulting from Reduction of Nickel Formate in Polyol Medium

    Logutenko, Olga A.; Titkov, Alexander I.; Vorob’yov, Alexander M.; Yukhin, Yriy M.; Lyakhov, Nikolay Z.

    2016-01-01

    Nickel linear nanostructures were synthesized by reduction of nickel formate with hydrazine hydrate in ethylene glycol medium in the absence of any surfactants or capping agents for direction of the particles growth. The effect of the synthesis conditions such as temperature, reduction time, type of polyol, and nickel formate concentration on the reduction products was studied. The size and morphology of the nickel nanowires were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning, and transmission ...

  17. Cellular and molecular insight into the inhibition of primary root growth of Arabidopsis induced by peptaibols, a class of linear peptide antibiotics mainly produced by Trichoderma spp.

    Shi, Wei-Ling; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Wang, Li-Xia; Gong, Zhi-Ting; Li, Shuyu; Li, Chun-Long; Xie, Bin-Bin; Zhang, Wei; Shi, Mei; Li, Chuanyou; Zhang, Yu-Zhong; Song, Xiao-Yan

    2016-04-01

    Trichoderma spp. are well known biocontrol agents that produce a variety of antibiotics. Peptaibols are a class of linear peptide antibiotics mainly produced by Trichoderma Alamethicin, the most studied peptaibol, is reported as toxic to plants at certain concentrations, while the mechanisms involved are unclear. We illustrated the toxic mechanisms of peptaibols by studying the growth-inhibitory effect of Trichokonin VI (TK VI), a peptaibol from Trichoderma longibrachiatum SMF2, on Arabidopsis primary roots. TK VI inhibited root growth by suppressing cell division and cell elongation, and disrupting root stem cell niche maintenance. TK VI increased auxin content and disrupted auxin response gradients in root tips. Further, we screened the Arabidopsis TK VI-resistant mutant tkr1. tkr1 harbors a point mutation in GORK, which encodes gated outwardly rectifying K(+)channel proteins. This mutation alleviated TK VI-induced suppression of K(+)efflux in roots, thereby stabilizing the auxin gradient. The tkr1 mutant also resisted the phytotoxicity of alamethicin. Our results indicate that GORK channels play a key role in peptaibol-plant interaction and that there is an inter-relationship between GORK channels and maintenance of auxin homeostasis. The cellular and molecular insight into the peptaibol-induced inhibition of plant root growth advances our understanding of Trichoderma-plant interactions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  18. Nanosecond-Timescale Intra-Bunch-Train Feedback for the Linear Collider: Results of the FONT2 Run

    Barlow, R.; Dufau, M.; Kalinin, A.; Daresbury; Myatt, G.; Perry, C.; Oxford U.; Burrows, P.N.; Hartin, T.; Hussain, S.M.; Molloy, S.; White, G.R.; Queen Mary, U. of London; Adolphsen, C.; Frisch, J.C.; Hendrickson, L.; Jobe, R.K.; Markiewicz, T.; McCormick, D.J.; Nelson, J.; Ross, M.C.; Smith, S.; Smith, T.J.; SLAC

    2005-01-01

    We report on experimental results from the December 2003/January 2004 data run of the Feedback On Nanosecond Timescales (FONT) experiment at the Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator at SLAC. We built a second-generation prototype intra-train beam-based feedback system incorporating beam position monitors, fast analogue signal processors, a feedback circuit, fast-risetime amplifiers and stripline kickers. We applied a novel real-time charge-normalization scheme to account for beam current variations along the train. We used the system to correct the position of the 170-nanosecond-long bunchtrain at NLCTA. We achieved a latency of 53 nanoseconds, representing a significant improvement on FONT1 (2002), and providing a demonstration of intra-train feedback for the Linear Collider

  19. Probe-level linear model fitting and mixture modeling results in high accuracy detection of differential gene expression

    Lemieux Sébastien

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of differentially expressed genes (DEGs from Affymetrix GeneChips arrays is currently done by first computing expression levels from the low-level probe intensities, then deriving significance by comparing these expression levels between conditions. The proposed PL-LM (Probe-Level Linear Model method implements a linear model applied on the probe-level data to directly estimate the treatment effect. A finite mixture of Gaussian components is then used to identify DEGs using the coefficients estimated by the linear model. This approach can readily be applied to experimental design with or without replication. Results On a wholly defined dataset, the PL-LM method was able to identify 75% of the differentially expressed genes within 10% of false positives. This accuracy was achieved both using the three replicates per conditions available in the dataset and using only one replicate per condition. Conclusion The method achieves, on this dataset, a higher accuracy than the best set of tools identified by the authors of the dataset, and does so using only one replicate per condition.

  20. Growth and characterization of nanodiamond layers prepared using the plasma-enhanced linear antennas microwave CVD system

    Fendrych, Frantisek; Taylor, Andrew; Peksa, Ladislav; Kratochvilova, Irena; Kluiber, Zdenek; Fekete, Ladislav [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i, Na Slovance 2, CZ-18221 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Vlcek, Jan [Department of Physics and Measurement, Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, Technicka 5, CZ-16628 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Rezacova, Vladimira; Petrak, Vaclav [Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Czech Technical University, Sitna 3105, CZ-27201 Kladno 2 (Czech Republic); Liehr, Michael [Leybold Optics Dresden GmbH, Zur Wetterwarte 50, D-01109 Dresden (Germany); Nesladek, Milos, E-mail: fendrych@fzu.c [IMOMEC division, IMEC, Institute for Materials Research, University Hasselt, Wetenschapspark 1, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium)

    2010-09-22

    Industrial applications of plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond grown on large area substrates, 3D shapes, at low substrate temperatures and on standard engineering substrate materials require novel plasma concepts. Based on the pioneering work of the group at AIST in Japan, the high-density coaxial delivery type of plasmas has been explored (Tsugawa et al 2006 New Diamond Front. Carbon Technol. 16 337-46). However, an important challenge is to obtain commercially interesting growth rates at very low substrate temperatures. In this work we introduce the concept of novel linear antenna sources, designed at Leybold Optics Dresden, using high-frequency pulsed MW discharge with a high plasma density. This type of pulse discharges leads to the preparation of nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) thin films, compared with ultra-NCD thin films prepared in (Tsugawa et al 2006 New Diamond Front. Carbon Technol. 16 337-46). We present optical emission spectroscopy data for the CH{sub 4}-CO{sub 2}-H{sub 2} gas chemistry and we discuss the basic properties of the NCD films grown.

  1. A nonlinear look at trend MFP growth and the business cycle: result from a hybrid Kalman/Markov switching model

    Mark W. French

    2005-01-01

    The cycle in output and hours worked is not symmetric: it behaves differently around recessions than in expansions. Similarly, the trend in multifactor productivity (MFP) seems to pass through different regimes; there was an extended period of slow MFP growth from about 1973 through 1995, and faster growth thereafter. Typical linear models and linear filters such as the Kalman filter deal poorly with asymmetry and regime changes. This paper attempts to determine more accurately and quickly an...

  2. Comparison of TOPEX/Poseidon Sea Level and Linear Model Results forced by Various Wind Products for the Tropical Pacific

    Hackert, Eric C.; Busalacchi, Antonio J.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to compare TOPEX/Posaidon (T/P) sea level with sea level results from linear ocean model experiments forced by several different wind products for the tropical Pacific. During the period of this study (October 1992 - October 1995), available wind products include satellite winds from the ERS-1 scatterometer product of [HALP 97] and the passive microwave analysis of SSMI winds produced using the variational analysis method (VAM) of [ATLA 91]. In addition, atmospheric GCM winds from the NCEP reanalysis [KALN 96], ECMWF analysis [ECMW94], and the Goddard EOS-1 (GEOS-1) reanalysis experiment [SCHU 93] are available for comparison. The observed ship wind analysis of FSU [STRI 92] is also included in this study. The linear model of [CANE 84] is used as a transfer function to test the quality of each of these wind products for the tropical Pacific. The various wind products are judged by comparing the wind-forced model sea level results against the T/P sea level anomalies. Correlation and RMS difference maps show how well each wind product does in reproducing the T/P sea level signal. These results are summarized in a table showing area average correlations and RMS differences. The large-scale low-frequency temporal signal is reproduced by all of the wind products, However, significant differences exist in both amplitude and phase on regional scales. In general, the model results forced by satellite winds do a better job reproducing the T/P signal (i.e. have a higher average correlation and lower RMS difference) than the results forced by atmospheric model winds.

  3. Recent electron-cloud simulation results for the main damping rings of the NLC and TESLA linear colliders

    Pivi, M.; Raubenheimer, T.O.; Furman, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    In the beam pipe of the Main Damping Ring (MDR) of the Next Linear Collider (NLC), ionization of residual gases and secondary emission give rise to an electron-cloud which stabilizes to equilibrium after few bunch trains. In this paper, we present recent computer simulation results for the main features of the electron cloud at the NLC and preliminary simulation results for the TESLA main damping rings, obtained with the code POSINST that has been developed at LBNL, and lately in collaboration with SLAC, over the past 7 years. Possible remedies to mitigate the effect are also discussed. We have recently included the possibility to simulate different magnetic field configurations in our code including solenoid, quadrupole, sextupole and wiggler

  4. Effects of Animal-Source Foods and Micronutrient-Fortification Complementary Foods on Body Composition, Linear Growth, Iron Status – the WinFood Project in Cambodia

    Chhoun, Chamnan; Kloppenborg Heick Skau, Jutta; Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine; Friis, Henrik; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Roos, Nanna; Touch, Bunthang; Chea, Mary; Wieringa, Frank; Berger, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective: The nutritional quality of CF in developing countries is often insufficient to sustain optimal growth. The Winfood project evaluated the efficacy of two new, processed rice-fish based CF with local ASF in Cambodia: non-fortified ‘WinFood’ (WF) with 14% by dry-weight ASF from small-sized fish (Esomus longimanus and Paralaubuca typus) and edible spiders (Haplopelma sp.); an adjusted ‘lite’ WinFood (WF-L) with 10% by dry-weight ASF from small-sized fish of mixed species, and fortified with minerals and vitamins. The products were precooked by extrusion. The WF-products were compared with two standard products from World Food Programme: Corn-Soy-Blend (CSB+) and CSB++ (8% by dry-weight skimmed-milk powder), in a single-blinded randomized trial. Methods: 419 Cambodian infants at age 6 months were randomized to daily rations of one of the four products for nine months period. BC (deuterium dilution) and iron status (serum ferritin and hemoglobin) were measured before and after intervention; and anthropometry (knee-heel-length, length, weight, MUAC, head circumference and skinfolds) monthly. Data were analyzed by intention-to-treat. Results: Among 358 children completing the study, no significant difference in BC between the groups where found, but knee-heel length increments differed (P = 0.046: WF-L: 3.6 cm, CSB++: 3.6 cm, WF: 3.5 cm, CSB+: 3.4 cm), suggesting that micronutrient-fortified products with 8-10% ASF (CSB++ and WF-L) promoted better linear growth than products without fortification or ASF. Knee-heel and total length increment was significantly higher in the highest food compliance quartile compared to the lowest, across food groups. There were no differences in ferritin and hemoglobin concentration. There was higher prevalence of anemic children in the WF group. Conclusion: Products with ASF (milk or small fish) and micronutrient premix resulted in slightly better linear growth. Small fish is a cheap ASF with high potential

  5. Research on the operation characteristics of a free-piston linear generator: Numerical model and experimental results

    Guo, Chendong; Feng, Huihua; Jia, Boru; Zuo, Zhengxing; Guo, Yuyao; Roskilly, Tony

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The operation process of free-piston linear generator is investigated. • The larger the motor force at the starting process, the fewer circulations of the piston reciprocating to meet ignition condition. • The “gradually switching strategy” is the best strategy in the intermediate process. • During the generating process, engines indicated power is 2.9 kW with an efficiency of 37.3% under medium load. - Abstract: Free piston linear generator (FPLG) shows unique operation characteristics due to the elimination of crankshaft and connecting rod mechanism. This paper investigates its operation characteristics during each operating process based on the simulation and experiment results. During the starting process, the larger motor force during the starting process, the fewer times of reciprocating pistons which meet the condition of ignition. When the motor force reached 300 N, the prototype could adopt one-stroke starting strategy. During the intermediate process, it was found that the “gradually switching strategy” could help to achieve a smoother operation during the intermediate process. And the values of the operation parameters after the intermediate process were lower than those before the intermediate process. During the generating process, cycle-to-cycle variations were observed for piston TDC and in-cylinder gas pressure from the experimental results. According to the experimental results of the FPLG during the generating process, the calculated engine indicated power is 2.9 kW, and the corresponding indicated thermal efficiency is 37.3%. Additionally, based on the comparison of the FPLG performance, it is found that the parameters of the FPLG during the generating process are smaller than those when it was operated during the second stage of the starting process, while much higher than those during the first stage of the starting process.

  6. Vegetation growth parameters and leaf temperature: Experimental results from a six plots green roofs' system

    Ferrante, Patrizia; La Gennusa, Maria; Peri, Giorgia; Rizzo, Gianfranco; Scaccianoce, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    The paper provides a contribution for populating database of three physical parameters needed to model energy performance of buildings with green roofs: “coverage ratio” (σ_f), leaf area index (LAI) and leaf temperature (T_f). On purpose, six plant species were investigated experimentally: Phyla nordiflora, Aptenia lancifolia, Mesembryanthenum barbatus, Gazania nivea, Gazania uniflora, and Sedum. Proper ranges of the cited parameters have been found for each species. The here indicated ranges of σ_f values refer to different growth levels of the species in the same lapse of time, that is four months. Single measured LAI values are also reported for the same plants. As for the T_f (upper and lower layer), ranges of revealed temperatures refer to those detected from 10:30 a.m. to 16:30 p.m. of a selected day. Additionally, the dependence of T_f on climatic parameters was investigated. A linear equation resulted the best fitting curve for all experimental T_f data and the corresponding solar radiation data (with autocorrelation coefficients between 0.80 and 0.98). Furthermore, the effect potentially produced on building energy consumption by these species was analyzed using a simulation tool. Estimated cooling energy savings range approximately between 8% and 20% depending on adopted plants. - Highlights: • Green roof modeling requires the knowledge of various physical parameters. • Coverage ratio, leaf area index and leaves temperatures were measured for six species. • A tentative correlation between leaf temperature and climatic parameters was shown. • A correlation between LAI and coverage ratio was checked and discussed. • Potential effects of studied species on building energy consumption were investigated.

  7. Characterization and Growth Mechanism of Nickel Nanowires Resulting from Reduction of Nickel Formate in Polyol Medium

    Olga A. Logutenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nickel linear nanostructures were synthesized by reduction of nickel formate with hydrazine hydrate in ethylene glycol medium in the absence of any surfactants or capping agents for direction of the particles growth. The effect of the synthesis conditions such as temperature, reduction time, type of polyol, and nickel formate concentration on the reduction products was studied. The size and morphology of the nickel nanowires were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. It was shown that the nickel nanocrystallites were wire-shaped with a face-center-cubic phase. Ethylene glycol was found to play a crucial role in the formation of the nickel nanowires. The possible growth processes of the wire-shaped particles taking place at 110 and 130°C are discussed. It was shown that, under certain synthesis conditions, nickel nanowires grow on the surface of the crystals of the solid intermediate of nickel with hydrazine hydrate.

  8. Validation Techniques of network harmonic models based on switching of a series linear component and measuring resultant harmonic increments

    Wiechowski, Wojciech Tomasz; Lykkegaard, Jan; Bak, Claus Leth

    2007-01-01

    In this paper two methods of validation of transmission network harmonic models are introduced. The methods were developed as a result of the work presented in [1]. The first method allows calculating the transfer harmonic impedance between two nodes of a network. Switching a linear, series network......, as for example a transmission line. Both methods require that harmonic measurements performed at two ends of the disconnected element are precisely synchronized....... are used for calculation of the transfer harmonic impedance between the nodes. The determined transfer harmonic impedance can be used to validate a computer model of the network. The second method is an extension of the fist one. It allows switching a series element that contains a shunt branch...

  9. Motivational predictors of physical education students' effort, exercise intentions, and leisure-time physical activity: a multilevel linear growth analysis.

    Taylor, Ian M; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Standage, Martyn; Spray, Christopher M

    2010-02-01

    Grounded in self-determination theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 2000), the current study explored whether physical education (PE) students' psychological needs and their motivational regulations toward PE predicted mean differences and changes in effort in PE, exercise intentions, and leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) over the course of one UK school trimester. One hundred and seventy-eight students (69% male) aged between 11 and 16 years completed a multisection questionnaire at the beginning, middle, and end of a school trimester. Multilevel growth models revealed that students' perceived competence and self-determined regulations were the most consistent predictors of the outcome variables at the within- and between-person levels. The results of this work add to the extant SDT-based literature by examining change in PE students' motivational regulations and psychological needs, as well as underscoring the importance of disaggregating within- and between-student effects.

  10. On the Evaluation of Computational Results Obtained from Solving System of linear Equations With matlab The Dual affine Scalling interior Point

    Murfi, Hendri; Basaruddin, T.

    2001-01-01

    The interior point method for linear programming has gained extraordinary interest as an alternative to simplex method since Karmarkar presented a polynomial-time algorithm for linear programming based on interior point method. In implementation of the algorithm of this method, there are two important things that have impact heavily to performance of the algorithm; they are data structure and used method to solve linear equation system in the algorithm. This paper describes about solving linear equation system in variants of the algorithm called dual-affine scaling algorithm. Next, we evaluate experimentally results of some used methods, either direct method or iterative method. The experimental evaluation used Matlab

  11. Linearization Method and Linear Complexity

    Tanaka, Hidema

    We focus on the relationship between the linearization method and linear complexity and show that the linearization method is another effective technique for calculating linear complexity. We analyze its effectiveness by comparing with the logic circuit method. We compare the relevant conditions and necessary computational cost with those of the Berlekamp-Massey algorithm and the Games-Chan algorithm. The significant property of a linearization method is that it needs no output sequence from a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) because it calculates linear complexity using the algebraic expression of its algorithm. When a PRNG has n [bit] stages (registers or internal states), the necessary computational cost is smaller than O(2n). On the other hand, the Berlekamp-Massey algorithm needs O(N2) where N(≅2n) denotes period. Since existing methods calculate using the output sequence, an initial value of PRNG influences a resultant value of linear complexity. Therefore, a linear complexity is generally given as an estimate value. On the other hand, a linearization method calculates from an algorithm of PRNG, it can determine the lower bound of linear complexity.

  12. Development of a shortleaf pine individual-tree growth equation using non-linear mixed modeling techniques

    Chakra B. Budhathoki; Thomas B. Lynch; James M. Guldin

    2010-01-01

    Nonlinear mixed-modeling methods were used to estimate parameters in an individual-tree basal area growth model for shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.). Shortleaf pine individual-tree growth data were available from over 200 permanently established 0.2-acre fixed-radius plots located in naturally-occurring even-aged shortleaf pine forests on the...

  13. Nucleation kinetics and growth aspects of semi organic non-linear optical bis thiourea cadmium acetate single crystals

    Sankar, R.; Raghavan, C.M.; Jayavel, R.

    2006-01-01

    Nucleation parameters such as metastable zone width, induction period and interfacial energy have been determined for the aqueous solution growth of bis thiourea cadmium acetate (BTCA) single crystals. Solubility of BTCA has been determined for various temperatures. Metastable zone width and induction period values have been estimated in order to optimize the growth parameters. The interfacial tension values derived from experimentally determined induction period are found to be comparable with theoretical values. Bulk crystals of BTCA have been grown using the optimized growth parameters. The grown crystals have been subjected to structural, optical and mechanical property studies. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  14. Linear algebra

    Said-Houari, Belkacem

    2017-01-01

    This self-contained, clearly written textbook on linear algebra is easily accessible for students. It begins with the simple linear equation and generalizes several notions from this equation for the system of linear equations and introduces the main ideas using matrices. It then offers a detailed chapter on determinants and introduces the main ideas with detailed proofs. The third chapter introduces the Euclidean spaces using very simple geometric ideas and discusses various major inequalities and identities. These ideas offer a solid basis for understanding general Hilbert spaces in functional analysis. The following two chapters address general vector spaces, including some rigorous proofs to all the main results, and linear transformation: areas that are ignored or are poorly explained in many textbooks. Chapter 6 introduces the idea of matrices using linear transformation, which is easier to understand than the usual theory of matrices approach. The final two chapters are more advanced, introducing t...

  15. The AOLI low-order non-linear curvature wavefront sensor: laboratory and on-sky results

    Crass, Jonathan; King, David; MacKay, Craig

    2014-08-01

    Many adaptive optics (AO) systems in use today require the use of bright reference objects to determine the effects of atmospheric distortions. Typically these systems use Shack-Hartmann Wavefront sensors (SHWFS) to distribute incoming light from a reference object between a large number of sub-apertures. Guyon et al. evaluated the sensitivity of several different wavefront sensing techniques and proposed the non-linear Curvature Wavefront Sensor (nlCWFS) offering improved sensitivity across a range of orders of distortion. On large ground-based telescopes this can provide nearly 100% sky coverage using natural guide stars. We present work being undertaken on the nlCWFS development for the Adaptive Optics Lucky Imager (AOLI) project. The wavefront sensor is being developed as part of a low-order adaptive optics system for use in a dedicated instrument providing an AO corrected beam to a Lucky Imaging based science detector. The nlCWFS provides a total of four reference images on two photon-counting EMCCDs for use in the wavefront reconstruction process. We present results from both laboratory work using a calibration system and the first on-sky data obtained with the nlCWFS at the 4.2 metre William Herschel Telescope, La Palma. In addition, we describe the updated optical design of the wavefront sensor, strategies for minimising intrinsic effects and methods to maximise sensitivity using photon-counting detectors. We discuss on-going work to develop the high speed reconstruction algorithm required for the nlCWFS technique. This includes strategies to implement the technique on graphics processing units (GPUs) and to minimise computing overheads to obtain a prior for a rapid convergence of the wavefront reconstruction. Finally we evaluate the sensitivity of the wavefront sensor based upon both data and low-photon count strategies.

  16. Results of a Conservative Dose Plan Linear Accelerator-Based Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Pediatric Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations.

    Rajshekhar, Vedantam; Moorthy, Ranjith K; Jeyaseelan, Visalakshi; John, Subhashini; Rangad, Faith; Viswanathan, P N; Ravindran, Paul; Singh, Rabiraja

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the obliteration rate and clinical outcome following linear accelerator (LINAC)-based stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for intracranial arteriovenous malformation (AVM) in pediatric patients (age ≤18 years). Factors associated with the obliteration rate and neurologic complications were studied retrospectively in pediatric patients who underwent LINAC-based SRS for AVM between June 1995 and May 2014. The study cohort comprised 36 males and 33 females, with a median age at the time of SRS of 14 years (range, 7-18 years). The mean AVM volume was 8.5 ± 8.7 cc (range, 0.6-41.8 cc). The median marginal dose of radiation delivered was 15 Gy (range, 9-20 Gy). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated complete obliteration of the AVM in 44 of the 69 patients (63.8%), at a mean follow up of 27.5 months (range, 12-90 months). On subgroup analysis, 41 of the 53 AVMs of ≤14 cc in volume (77.3%) were obliterated. AVMs with a modified AVM radiosurgery score <1 had significantly shorter obliteration times from the time of SRS (P = .006). On multivariate analysis, the mean marginal dose of radiation delivered to the AVM was the sole significant predictor of obliteration (odds ratio, 1.6; 95% confidence interval, 1 to 2.4). A modest median marginal dose of 15 Gy (16 Gy in the obliterated AVM group vs. 12 Gy in the nonobliterated group) resulted in an obliteration rate of 66.7% after LINAC-based SRS for intracranial AVM, with low rate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Fiscal policy and growth: new results for the Spanish regions, 1967-1995

    Óscar Bajo Rubio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a new assessment of the effects of fiscal policy on economic growth, focusing on the role of public expenditure. Starting from a theoretical model where only those public expenditure items strictly presumed to influence the production process (i.e., public capital and transfers are incorporated into the production function, we provide an empirical application for the case of the Spanish regions during the period 1967-1995. The results confirm the positive effect on growth from both public capital and transfers, being relatively more intense that of public capital for the more productive regions, and that of transfers for the less productive ones.

  18. TESTING THE ASSUMPTIONS AND INTERPRETING THE RESULTS OF THE RASCH MODEL USING LOG-LINEAR PROCEDURES IN SPSS

    TENVERGERT, E; GILLESPIE, M; KINGMA, J

    This paper shows how to use the log-linear subroutine of SPSS to fit the Rasch model. It also shows how to fit less restrictive models obtained by relaxing specific assumptions of the Rasch model. Conditional maximum likelihood estimation was achieved by including dummy variables for the total

  19. Associations of linear growth and relative weight gain during early life with adult health and human capital in countries of low and middle income: findings from five birth cohort studies.

    Adair, Linda S; Fall, Caroline H D; Osmond, Clive; Stein, Aryeh D; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Sachdev, Harshpal Singh; Dahly, Darren L; Bas, Isabelita; Norris, Shane A; Micklesfield, Lisa; Hallal, Pedro; Victora, Cesar G

    2013-08-10

    , 1·43-1·60; mid-childhood: 1·76, 1·69-1·91) and elevated blood pressure (age 2 years: 1·07, 1·01-1·13; mid-childhood: 1·22, 1·15-1·30). Linear growth and relative weight gain were not associated with dysglycaemia, but a higher birthweight was associated with decreased risk of the disorder (0·89, 0·81-0·98). Interventions in countries of low and middle income to increase birthweight and linear growth during the first 2 years of life are likely to result in substantial gains in height and schooling and give some protection from adult chronic disease risk factors, with few adverse trade-offs. Wellcome Trust and Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Linear algebra

    Liesen, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    This self-contained textbook takes a matrix-oriented approach to linear algebra and presents a complete theory, including all details and proofs, culminating in the Jordan canonical form and its proof. Throughout the development, the applicability of the results is highlighted. Additionally, the book presents special topics from applied linear algebra including matrix functions, the singular value decomposition, the Kronecker product and linear matrix equations. The matrix-oriented approach to linear algebra leads to a better intuition and a deeper understanding of the abstract concepts, and therefore simplifies their use in real world applications. Some of these applications are presented in detailed examples. In several ‘MATLAB-Minutes’ students can comprehend the concepts and results using computational experiments. Necessary basics for the use of MATLAB are presented in a short introduction. Students can also actively work with the material and practice their mathematical skills in more than 300 exerc...

  1. Analysing the mechanical performance and growth adaptation of Norway spruce using a non-linear finite-element model and experimental data.

    Lundström, T; Jonas, T; Volkwein, A

    2008-01-01

    Thirteen Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] trees of different size, age, and social status, and grown under varying conditions, were investigated to see how they react to complex natural static loading under summer and winter conditions, and how they have adapted their growth to such combinations of load and tree state. For this purpose a non-linear finite-element model and an extensive experimental data set were used, as well as a new formulation describing the degree to which the exploitation of the bending stress capacity is uniform. The three main findings were: material and geometric non-linearities play important roles when analysing tree deflections and critical loads; the strengths of the stem and the anchorage mutually adapt to the local wind acting on the tree crown in the forest canopy; and the radial stem growth follows a mechanically high-performance path because it adapts to prevailing as well as acute seasonal combinations of the tree state (e.g. frozen or unfrozen stem and anchorage) and load (e.g. wind and vertical and lateral snow pressure). Young trees appeared to adapt to such combinations in a more differentiated way than older trees. In conclusion, the mechanical performance of the Norway spruce studied was mostly very high, indicating that their overall growth had been clearly influenced by the external site- and tree-specific mechanical stress.

  2. Retardo estatural em menores de cinco anos: um estudo "baseline" Linear growth retardation in children under five years of age: a baseline study

    Anete Rissin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a prevalência e analisar fatores associados ao retardo estatural em menores de cinco anos. MÉTODOS: Estudo "baseline", que analisou 2.040 crianças, verificando possíveis associações entre o retardo estatural (índice altura/idade The scope of this study was to describe the prevalence of, and analyze factors associated with, linear growth retardation in children. The baseline study analyzed 2040 children under the age of five, establishing a possible association between growth delay (height/age index < 2 scores Z and variables in six hierarchical blocks: socio-economic, residence, sanitary, maternal, biological and healthcare access. Multivariate analysis was performed using Poisson regression with the robust standard error option, obtaining adjusted prevalence ratios with a CI of 95% and the respective significant probability values. Among non-binary variables, there was a positive association with roof type and number of inhabitants per room and a negative association with income per capita, mother's schooling and birth weight. The adjusted analysis also indicated water supply, visit from the community health agent, birth delivery location, internment for diarrhea, or for pneumonia and birth weight as significant variables. Several risk factors were identified for linear growth retardation pointing to the multi-causal aspects of the problem and highlighting the need for control measures by the various hierarchical government agents.

  3. Age-related changes in spatiotemporal characteristics of gait accompany ongoing lower limb linear growth in late childhood and early adolescence.

    Froehle, Andrew W; Nahhas, Ramzi W; Sherwood, Richard J; Duren, Dana L

    2013-05-01

    Walking gait is generally held to reach maturity, including walking at adult-like velocities, by 7-8 years of age. Lower limb length, however, is a major determinant of gait, and continues to increase until 13-15 years of age. This study used a sample from the Fels Longitudinal Study (ages 8-30 years) to test the hypothesis that walking with adult-like velocity on immature lower limbs results in the retention of immature gait characteristics during late childhood and early adolescence. There was no relationship between walking velocity and age in this sample, whereas the lower limb continued to grow, reaching maturity at 13.2 years in females and 15.6 years in males. Piecewise linear mixed models regression analysis revealed significant age-related trends in normalized cadence, initial double support time, single support time, base of support, and normalized step length in both sexes. Each trend reached its own, variable-specific age at maturity, after which the gait variables' relationships with age reached plateaus and did not differ significantly from zero. Offsets in ages at maturity occurred among the gait variables, and between the gait variables and lower limb length. The sexes also differed in their patterns of maturation. Generally, however, immature walkers of both sexes took more frequent and relatively longer steps than did mature walkers. These results support the hypothesis that maturational changes in gait accompany ongoing lower limb growth, with implications for diagnosing, preventing, and treating movement-related disorders and injuries during late childhood and early adolescence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Practical application of linear growth measurements in clinical research in low-and middle-income countries

    Wit, Jan Maarten; Himes, John H.; Van Buuren, Stef; Denno, Donna M.; Suchdev, Parminder S.

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims: Childhood stunting is a prevalent problem in low-and middle-income countries and is associated with long-term adverse neurodevelopment and health outcomes. In this review, we define indicators of growth, discuss key challenges in their analysis and application, and offer suggestions

  5. Protein crystal growth results from the United States Microgravity Laboratory-1 mission

    Delucas, Lawrence J.; Moore, K. M.; Vanderwoerd, M.; Bray, T. L.; Smith, C.; Carson, M.; Narayana, S. V. L.; Rosenblum, W. M.; Carter, D.; Clark, A. D, Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Protein crystal growth experiments have been performed by this laboratory on 18 Space Shuttle missions since April, 1985. In addition, a number of microgravity experiments also have been performed and reported by other investigators. These Space Shuttle missions have been used to grow crystals of a variety of proteins using vapor diffusion, liquid diffusion, and temperature-induced crystallization techniques. The United States Microgravity Laboratory - 1 mission (USML-1, June 25 - July 9, 1992) was a Spacelab mission dedicated to experiments involved in materials processing. New protein crystal growth hardware was developed to allow in orbit examination of initial crystal growth results, the knowledge from which was used on subsequent days to prepare new crystal growth experiments. In addition, new seeding hardware and techniques were tested as well as techniques that would prepare crystals for analysis by x-ray diffraction, a capability projected for the planned Space Station. Hardware that was specifically developed for the USML-1 mission will be discussed along with the experimental results from this mission.

  6. SOCIAL INEQUALITY IN CHINA AS A RESULT OF THE RAPID ECONOMIC GROWTH

    Вероника Игоревна Шехурдина

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the period of openness in China, laid the foundation for more than 30 years ago, he has made remarkable progress in increasing incomes and reducing absolute poverty. However, they are caused by rising inequality. It should be noted that the rise in inequality was seen almost everywhere in the world over the past two decades. Growing dissatisfaction with the quality of economic growth is often seen in favor of certain groups more than the general population. This is clearly reflected in the growth of inequality between different groups - the rich are getting richer faster than the poor. The economic literature attributes this mainly to globalization, technological change, skills-based, and reduce the "power" of the workers. Growth model, which accompanies the last three decades to China, included a trade-off between high growth (and subsequent reduction of absolute poverty and worsening inequality. The government of China has recognized this problem and taken active steps to reduce the gap incomes and standards of living in the city and rural areas, which have already brought the first results.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-10-16

  7. Split photosystem protein, linear-mapping topology, and growth of structural complexity in the plastid genome of chromera velia

    Janouškovec, Jan

    2013-08-22

    The canonical photosynthetic plastid genomes consist of a single circular-mapping chromosome that encodes a highly conserved protein core, involved in photosynthesis and ATP generation. Here, we demonstrate that the plastid genome of the photosynthetic relative of apicomplexans, Chromera velia, departs from this view in several unique ways. Core photosynthesis proteins PsaA and AtpB have been broken into two fragments, which we show are independently transcribed, oligoU-tailed, translated, and assembled into functional photosystem I and ATP synthase complexes. Genome-wide transcription profiles support expression of many other highly modified proteins, including several that contain extensions amounting to hundreds of amino acids in length. Canonical gene clusters and operons have been fragmented and reshuffled into novel putative transcriptional units. Massive genomic coverage by paired-end reads, coupled with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and polymerase chain reaction, consistently indicate that the C. velia plastid genome is linear-mapping, a unique state among all plastids. Abundant intragenomic duplication probably mediated by recombination can explain protein splits, extensions, and genome linearization and is perhaps the key driving force behind the many features that defy the conventional ways of plastid genome architecture and function. © The Author 2013.

  8. Electrochemical and Chemical Complications Resulting from Yeast Extract Addition to Stimulate Microbial Growth

    2016-09-22

    including strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown on molasses-based media, debittered brewers yeasts (strains of Saccharo- myces cerevisiae or...RESPONSIBLE PERSON 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) Technical Note: Electrochemical and Chemical Complications Resulting from Yeast Extract...Addition to Stimulate Microbial Growth Jason S. Lee‡,* and Brenda J. Little* ABSTRACT Addition of 1 g/L yeast extract (YE) to sterile, aerobic

  9. Scaling-up access to family planning may improve linear growth and child development in low and middle income countries.

    Fink, Günther; Sudfeld, Christopher R; Danaei, Goodarz; Ezzati, Majid; Fawzi, Wafaie W

    2014-01-01

    A large literature has indicated a robust association between birth spacing and child survival, but evidence on the association of birth timing with physical growth in low and middle income countries (LMICs) remains limited. Data from 153 cross-sectional Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) across 61 LMICs conducted between 1990 and 2011 were combined to assess the association of birth timing with child stunting (height-for-age z-score Middle East and North Africa sample. Postponing the age of first birth and increasing inter-pregnancy intervals has the potential to significantly reduce the prevalence of stunting and improve child development in LMICs.

  10. Controls/CFD Interdisciplinary Research Software Generates Low-Order Linear Models for Control Design From Steady-State CFD Results

    Melcher, Kevin J.

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center is developing analytical methods and software tools to create a bridge between the controls and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) disciplines. Traditionally, control design engineers have used coarse nonlinear simulations to generate information for the design of new propulsion system controls. However, such traditional methods are not adequate for modeling the propulsion systems of complex, high-speed vehicles like the High Speed Civil Transport. To properly model the relevant flow physics of high-speed propulsion systems, one must use simulations based on CFD methods. Such CFD simulations have become useful tools for engineers that are designing propulsion system components. The analysis techniques and software being developed as part of this effort are an attempt to evolve CFD into a useful tool for control design as well. One major aspect of this research is the generation of linear models from steady-state CFD results. CFD simulations, often used during the design of high-speed inlets, yield high resolution operating point data. Under a NASA grant, the University of Akron has developed analytical techniques and software tools that use these data to generate linear models for control design. The resulting linear models have the same number of states as the original CFD simulation, so they are still very large and computationally cumbersome. Model reduction techniques have been successfully applied to reduce these large linear models by several orders of magnitude without significantly changing the dynamic response. The result is an accurate, easy to use, low-order linear model that takes less time to generate than those generated by traditional means. The development of methods for generating low-order linear models from steady-state CFD is most complete at the one-dimensional level, where software is available to generate models with different kinds of input and output variables. One-dimensional methods have been extended

  11. Formation of banded vegetation patterns resulted from interactions between sediment deposition and vegetation growth.

    Huang, Tousheng; Zhang, Huayong; Dai, Liming; Cong, Xuebing; Ma, Shengnan

    2018-03-01

    This research investigates the formation of banded vegetation patterns on hillslopes affected by interactions between sediment deposition and vegetation growth. The following two perspectives in the formation of these patterns are taken into consideration: (a) increased sediment deposition from plant interception, and (b) reduced plant biomass caused by sediment accumulation. A spatial model is proposed to describe how the interactions between sediment deposition and vegetation growth promote self-organization of banded vegetation patterns. Based on theoretical and numerical analyses of the proposed spatial model, vegetation bands can result from a Turing instability mechanism. The banded vegetation patterns obtained in this research resemble patterns reported in the literature. Moreover, measured by sediment dynamics, the variation of hillslope landform can be described. The model predicts how treads on hillslopes evolve with the banded patterns. Thus, we provide a quantitative interpretation for coevolution of vegetation patterns and landforms under effects of sediment redistribution. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  12. Recombinant human growth hormone treatment, using two dose regimens in children with chronic renal failure--a report on linear growth and adverse effects

    Hertel, Niels Thomas; Holmberg, Christer; Rönnholm, Kai A R

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to study the efficiency and the adverse effects of 2 or 4 IU/m2/day of growth hormone (GH) in the first year and 4 IU/m2/day in the second. Of 29 growth-retarded children with chronic renal failure (CRF) (aged 3.4-15.1 years), 23 completed the first year of therapy, and 16...... completed the second year. Height velocity SDS (HVSDS) increased in the first year in the low-dose group with 3.0, and 3.8 in the high-dose group. In the second year, HVSDS increased by 1.3 in the low-dose group and by 2.1 in high-dose group (p 3 ratio rose identically during...... the first year (p year of therapy in both groups. HbA1c, levels did not change. The number of adverse events was highest in the low-dose group, in which one patient developed...

  13. Acoustic emission linear pulse holography

    Collins, H.D.; Busse, L.J.; Lemon, D.K.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the emission linear pulse holography which produces a chronological linear holographic image of a flaw by utilizing the acoustic energy emitted during crack growth. A thirty two point sampling array is used to construct phase-only linear holograms of simulated acoustic emission sources on large metal plates. The concept behind the AE linear pulse holography is illustrated, and a block diagram of a data acquisition system to implement the concept is given. Array element spacing, synthetic frequency criteria, and lateral depth resolution are specified. A reference timing transducer positioned between the array and the inspection zone and which inititates the time-of-flight measurements is described. The results graphically illustrate the technique using a one-dimensional FFT computer algorithm (ie. linear backward wave) for an AE image reconstruction

  14. Growth

    John R. Jones; George A. Schier

    1985-01-01

    This chapter considers aspen growth as a process, and discusses some characteristics of the growth and development of trees and stands. For the most part, factors affecting growth are discussed elsewhere, particularly in the GENETICS AND VARIATION chapter and in chapters in PART 11. ECOLOGY. Aspen growth as it relates to wood production is examined in the WOOD RESOURCE...

  15. Effects of animal source food and micronutrient fortification in complementary food products on body composition, iron status, and linear growth

    Skau, Jutta Kloppenborg Heick; Touch, Bunthang; Chhoun, Chamnan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Poor nutritional quality of complementary foods often limits growth. Animal source foods, such as milk or meat, are often unaffordable. Local affordable alternatives are needed. Objective: We evaluate the efficacy of 2 newly developed, rice-based complementary food products: WinFood (WF......) with small fish and edible spiders and WinFood-Lite (WF-L) fortified with small fish, against 2 existing fortified corn-soy blend products, CSB+ (purely plant based) and CSB++ (8% dried skimmed milk). Design: In total, 419 infants aged 6 mo were enrolled in this randomized, single-blinded study for 9 mo...... increase in knee-heel length in WF-L compared with CSB+ was not significant. Conclusions: No difference was found between the locally produced products (WF and WF-L) and the CSBs. Micronutrient fortification may be necessary, and small fish may be an affordable alternative to milk to improve complementary...

  16. Growth, spectral, linear and nonlinear optical characteristics of an efficient semiorganic acentric crystal: L-valinium L-valine chloride

    Nageshwari, M.; Jayaprakash, P.; Kumari, C. Rathika Thaya [PG & Research Department of Physics, Arignar Anna Govt. Arts College, Cheyyar 604407, Tamil Nadu (India); Vinitha, G. [Department of Physics, School of Advanced Sciences, VIT Chennai, 600127 Tamil Nadu (India); Caroline, M. Lydia, E-mail: lydiacaroline2006@yahoo.co.in [PG & Research Department of Physics, Arignar Anna Govt. Arts College, Cheyyar 604407, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2017-04-15

    An efficient nonlinear optical semiorganic material L-valinium L-valine chloride (LVVCl) was synthesized and grown-up by means of slow evaporation process. Single crystal XRD evince that LVVCl corresponds to monoclinic system having acentric space group P2{sub 1}. The diverse functional groups existing in LVVCl were discovered with FTIR spectral investigation. The UV-Visible and photoluminescence spectrum discloses the optical and electronic properties respectively for the grown crystal. Several optical properties specifically extinction coefficient, reflectance, linear refractive index, electrical and optical conductivity were also determined. The SEM analysis was also carried out and it portrayed the surface morphology of LVVCl. The calculated value of laser damage threshold was 2.59 GW/cm{sup 2}. The mechanical and dielectric property of LVVCl was investigated employing microhardness and dielectric studies. The second and third order nonlinear optical characteristics of LVVCl was characterized utilizing Kurtz Perry and Z scan technique respectively clearly suggest its suitability in the domain of optics and photonics. - Graphical abstract: Good quality transparent single crystals of L-valinium L-valine chloride single crystal was grown by slow evaporation technique. The grown crystals were analyzed using different instrumentation methods to check its usefulness for the device fabrication. The determination of nonlinear refractive index (n{sub 2}), absorption coefficient (β) and third order nonlinear susceptibility was determined by Z scan technique, highlighted that LVVCl can serve as a promising candidate for opto electronic and nonlinear optical applications.

  17. Linear growth increased in young children in an urban slum of Haiti: a randomized controlled trial of a lipid-based nutrient supplement.

    Iannotti, Lora L; Dulience, Sherlie Jean Louis; Green, Jamie; Joseph, Saminetha; François, Judith; Anténor, Marie-Lucie; Lesorogol, Carolyn; Mounce, Jacqueline; Nickerson, Nathan M

    2014-01-01

    Haiti has experienced rapid urbanization that has exacerbated poverty and undernutrition in large slum areas. Stunting affects 1 in 5 young children. We aimed to test the efficacy of a daily lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) for increased linear growth in young children. Healthy, singleton infants aged 6-11 mo (n = 589) were recruited from an urban slum of Cap Haitien and randomly assigned to receive: 1) a control; 2) a 3-mo LNS; or 3) a 6-mo LNS. The LNS provided 108 kcal and other nutrients including vitamin A, vitamin B-12, iron, and zinc at ≥80% of the recommended amounts. Infants were followed monthly on growth, morbidity, and developmental outcomes over a 6-mo intervention period and at one additional time point 6 mo postintervention to assess sustained effects. The Bonferroni multiple comparisons test was applied, and generalized least-squares (GLS) regressions with mixed effects was used to examine impacts longitudinally. Baseline characteristics did not differ by trial arm except for a higher mean age in the 6-mo LNS group. GLS modeling showed LNS supplementation for 6 mo significantly increased the length-for-age z score (±SE) by 0.13 ± 0.05 and the weight-for-age z score by 0.12 ± 0.02 compared with in the control group after adjustment for child age (P < 0.001). The effects were sustained 6 mo postintervention. Morbidity and developmental outcomes did not differ by trial arm. A low-energy, fortified product improved the linear growth of young children in this urban setting. The trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01552512.

  18. Linearly constrained minimax optimization

    Madsen, Kaj; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans

    1978-01-01

    We present an algorithm for nonlinear minimax optimization subject to linear equality and inequality constraints which requires first order partial derivatives. The algorithm is based on successive linear approximations to the functions defining the problem. The resulting linear subproblems...

  19. Sensitivity analysis for linear structural equation models, longitudinal mediation with latent growth models and blended learning in biostatistics education

    Sullivan, Adam John

    In chapter 1, we consider the biases that may arise when an unmeasured confounder is omitted from a structural equation model (SEM) and sensitivity analysis techniques to correct for such biases. We give an analysis of which effects in an SEM are and are not biased by an unmeasured confounder. It is shown that a single unmeasured confounder will bias not just one but numerous effects in an SEM. We present sensitivity analysis techniques to correct for biases in total, direct, and indirect effects when using SEM analyses, and illustrate these techniques with a study of aging and cognitive function. In chapter 2, we consider longitudinal mediation with latent growth curves. We define the direct and indirect effects using counterfactuals and consider the assumptions needed for identifiability of those effects. We develop models with a binary treatment/exposure followed by a model where treatment/exposure changes with time allowing for treatment/exposure-mediator interaction. We thus formalize mediation analysis with latent growth curve models using counterfactuals, makes clear the assumptions and extends these methods to allow for exposure mediator interactions. We present and illustrate the techniques with a study on Multiple Sclerosis(MS) and depression. In chapter 3, we report on a pilot study in blended learning that took place during the Fall 2013 and Summer 2014 semesters here at Harvard. We blended the traditional BIO 200: Principles of Biostatistics and created ID 200: Principles of Biostatistics and epidemiology. We used materials from the edX course PH207x: Health in Numbers: Quantitative Methods in Clinical & Public Health Research and used. These materials were used as a video textbook in which students would watch a given number of these videos prior to class. Using surveys as well as exam data we informally assess these blended classes from the student's perspective as well as a comparison of these students with students in another course, BIO 201

  20. Modeling individual differences in randomized experiments using growth models: Recommendations for design, statistical analysis and reporting of results of internet interventions

    Hugo Hesser

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Growth models (also known as linear mixed effects models, multilevel models, and random coefficients models have the capability of studying change at the group as well as the individual level. In addition, these methods have documented advantages over traditional data analytic approaches in the analysis of repeated-measures data. These advantages include, but are not limited to, the ability to incorporate time-varying predictors, handle dependence among repeated observations in a very flexible manner, and to provide accurate estimates with missing data under fairly unrestrictive missing data assumptions. The flexibility of the growth curve modeling approach to the analysis of change makes it the preferred choice in the evaluation of direct, indirect and moderated intervention effects. Although offering many benefits, growth models present challenges in terms of design, analysis and reporting of results. This paper provides a nontechnical overview of growth models in the analysis of change in randomized experiments and advocates for their use in the field of internet interventions. Practical recommendations for design, analysis and reporting of results from growth models are provided.

  1. Quasi-linear evolution of tearing modes

    Pellat, R.; Frey, M.; Tagger, M.

    1983-07-01

    The growth of a Tearing instability in Rutherford's nonlinear regime is investigated. Using a singular perturbation technique, lowest order Rutherford's result is recovered. To the following order it is shown that the mode generates a quasi-linear deformation of the equilibrium flux profile, whose resistive diffusion slows down the growth and shows the possibility of a saturation of the instability

  2. The Influence of Used Construction Material and Its Thickness on the Neutron Dose Rate Around the Linear Accelerator - Experimental Results

    Krpan, I; Miklavcic, I.; Poje, M.; Radolic, V.; Vukovic, B.; Zivkovic, A.; Faj, D.; Ivkovic, A.

    2013-01-01

    Since linear accelerators for medical radiotherapy do not have active radioactive sources it makes them adequate from the radioprotection point of view. However, when operating at the energy higher than 10 MeV, they can become a source of unwanted neutron radiation in the giant dipole resonance reaction between the photon beam and the accelerator head material. Neutrons created in this reaction are almost isotropic in direction with an energy range between 700 keV and 1 MeV. During the accelerator installation and different phases of the construction work around the accelerator, a neutron dose rate at several important locations was investigated. Both passive (solid state nuclear track etched detectors - CR 39 and/or LR-115 with the 10B foil) and active detectors (Thermo Biorem FHT 752) were used. A higher photon dose rate was measured around the accelerator facility. An effective photon dose reduction was achieved using steel plates. However, this was the secondary source of neutrons in the reaction between the photons and steel plates, since higher values were measured. Neutron reduction was done by additional layers of barite concrete. A very conservative assessment of the effective dose was done for the medical personnel inside the control room. At the accelerator extreme operating regime (fixed accelerator direction - gantry angle, highest energy possible used), the neutron dose rate in the control room of 12 μSv/h was measured. Knowing the number of working days and number of patients per technician (per day), an exposure to the neutron dose of 1,1 mSv per year was calculated.(author)

  3. Determinants of stunting and poor linear growth in children under 2 years of age in India: an in-depth analysis of Maharashtra's comprehensive nutrition survey.

    Aguayo, Víctor M; Nair, Rajilakshmi; Badgaiyan, Nina; Krishna, Vandana

    2016-05-01

    We use a representative sample of 2561 children 0-23 months old to identify the factors most significantly associated with child stunting in the state of Maharashtra, India. We find that 22.7% of children were stunted, with one-third (7.4%) of the stunted children severely stunted. Multivariate regression analyses indicate that children born with low birthweight had a 2.5-fold higher odds of being stunted [odds ratio (OR) 2.49; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.96-3.27]; children 6-23 months old who were not fed a minimum number of times/day had a 63% higher odds of being stunted (OR 1.63; 95% CI 1.24-2.14); and lower consumption of eggs was associated with a two-fold increased odds of stunting in children 6-23 months old (OR 2.07; 95% CI 1.19-3.61); children whose mother's height was women's nutrition and status and household sanitation and poverty are the most significant predictors of stunting and poor linear growth in children under 2 years. Key messages One in five (22.7%) of children 0-23 months old in the state of Maharashtra were stunted, and one-third (7.4%) of the stunted children were severely stunted. Birthweight, child feeding, women's nutrition and household sanitation were the most significant predictors of stunting and poor linear growth in children under 2 years. Children born to mothers whose height was below 145 cm, had two-fold higher odds of being stunted; children born with a low birthweight had a 2.5-fold higher odds of being stunted. Low feeding frequency and low consumption of eggs, dairy products, fruits and vegetables were associated with stunting and poor linear growth in children 6-23 months old. Children of households without access to improved sanitation had 88% higher odds of being severely stunted. © 2016 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Meckel's and condylar cartilages anomalies in achondroplasia result in defective development and growth of the mandible.

    Biosse Duplan, Martin; Komla-Ebri, Davide; Heuzé, Yann; Estibals, Valentin; Gaudas, Emilie; Kaci, Nabil; Benoist-Lasselin, Catherine; Zerah, Michel; Kramer, Ina; Kneissel, Michaela; Porta, Diana Grauss; Di Rocco, Federico; Legeai-Mallet, Laurence

    2016-07-15

    Activating FGFR3 mutations in human result in achondroplasia (ACH), the most frequent form of dwarfism, where cartilages are severely disturbed causing long bones, cranial base and vertebrae defects. Because mandibular development and growth rely on cartilages that guide or directly participate to the ossification process, we investigated the impact of FGFR3 mutations on mandibular shape, size and position. By using CT scan imaging of ACH children and by analyzing Fgfr3 Y367C/+ mice, a model of ACH, we show that FGFR3 gain-of-function mutations lead to structural anomalies of primary (Meckel's) and secondary (condylar) cartilages of the mandible, resulting in mandibular hypoplasia and dysmorphogenesis. These defects are likely related to a defective chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation and pan-FGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor NVP-BGJ398 corrects Meckel's and condylar cartilages defects ex vivo. Moreover, we show that low dose of NVP-BGJ398 improves in vivo condyle growth and corrects dysmorphologies in Fgfr3 Y367C/+ mice, suggesting that postnatal treatment with NVP-BGJ398 mice might offer a new therapeutic strategy to improve mandible anomalies in ACH and others FGFR3-related disorders. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. Yearly stepwise increments of the growth hormone dose results in a better growth response after four years in girls with Turner syndrome. Dutch Working Group on Growth Hormone

    van Teunenbroek, A.; de Muinck Keizer-Schrama, S. M.; Stijnen, T.; Jansen, M.; Otten, B. J.; Delemarre-van de Waal, H. A.; Vulsma, T.; Wit, J. M.; Rouwé, C. W.; Reeser, H. M.; Gosen, J. J.; Rongen-Westerlaken, C.; Drop, S. L.

    1996-01-01

    To optimize the growth promoting effect of growth hormone (GH), 65 previously untreated girls with Turner syndrome (TS), chronological age (CA) 2-11 yr, were randomized into 3 dosage regimen groups: A, B, and C, with a daily recombinant-human GH dose during 4 study years of 4-4-4-4, 4-6-6-6, and

  6. Scaling-up access to family planning may improve linear growth and child development in low and middle income countries.

    Günther Fink

    Full Text Available A large literature has indicated a robust association between birth spacing and child survival, but evidence on the association of birth timing with physical growth in low and middle income countries (LMICs remains limited.Data from 153 cross-sectional Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS across 61 LMICs conducted between 1990 and 2011 were combined to assess the association of birth timing with child stunting (height-for-age z-score <-2. A total of 623,789 children of birth order 1-5 contributed to the maternal age analysis, while the birth spacing dataset consisted of 584,226 children of birth order 2 and higher. Compared to 27-34 year old mothers, maternal age under 18 years was associated with a relative stunting risk of 1.35 (95% CI: 1.29-1.40 for firstborn children, whereas the relative risk was 1.24 (95% CI: 1.19-1.29 for mothers aged 18-19 years. The association of young maternal age with stunting was significantly greater for urban residents and those in the top 50% of household wealth. Birth intervals less than 12 months and 12-23 months had relative risks for stunting of 1.09 (95% CI: 1.06-1.12 and 1.06 (95% CI: 1.05-1.06 as compared to a 24-35 month inter-pregnancy interval, respectively. The strength of both teenage pregnancy and short birth interval associations showed substantial variation across WHO region. We estimate that 8.6% (6.9-10.3% of stunted cases in the South Asian DHS sample would have been averted by jointly eliminating teen pregnancies and birth intervals less than 24 months, while only 3.6% (1.5-5.7% of stunting cases would have prevented in the Middle East and North Africa sample.Postponing the age of first birth and increasing inter-pregnancy intervals has the potential to significantly reduce the prevalence of stunting and improve child development in LMICs.

  7. Complementary Feeding Interventions Have a Small but Significant Impact on Linear and Ponderal Growth of Children in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Panjwani, Anita; Heidkamp, Rebecca

    2017-11-01

    Background: World Health Assembly member states have committed to ambitious global targets for reductions in stunting and wasting by 2025. Improving complementary diets of children aged 6-23 mo is a recommended approach for reducing stunting in children impact of complementary feeding interventions on linear [length-for-age z score (LAZ)] and ponderal [weight-for-length z score (WLZ)] growth of children aged 6-23 mo, with the specific goal of updating intervention-outcome linkages in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST). Methods: We started our review with studies included in the previous LiST review and searched for articles published since January 2012. We identified longitudinal trials that compared children aged 6-23 mo who received 1 of 2 types of complementary feeding interventions (nutrition education or counseling alone or complementary food supplementation with or without nutrition education or counseling) with a no-intervention control. We assessed study quality and generated pooled estimates of LAZ and WLZ change, as well as length and weight gain, for each category of intervention. Results: Interventions that provided nutrition education or counseling had a small but significant impact on linear growth in food-secure populations [LAZ standardized mean difference (SMD): 0.11; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.22] but not on ponderal growth. Complementary food supplementation interventions with or without nutrition education also had a small, significant effect in food-insecure settings on both LAZ (SMD: 0.08; 95% CI: 0.04, 0.13) and WLZ (SMD: 0.05; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.08). Conclusions: Nutrition education and complementary feeding interventions both had a small but significant impact on linear growth, and complementary feeding interventions also had an impact on ponderal growth of children aged 6-23 mo in low- and middle-income countries. The updated LiST model will support nutrition program planning and evaluation efforts by allowing users to model changes in intervention coverage on

  8. Nanocrystalline diamond surfaces for adhesion and growth of primary neurons, conflicting results and rational explanation

    Silviya Mikhailovna Ojovan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a variety of proliferating cell types, it was shown that the surface of nanocrystalline-diamond (NCD provides a permissive substrate for cell adhesion and development without the need of complex chemical functionalization prior to cell seeding. In an extensive series of experiments we found that, unlike proliferating cells, post-mitotic primary neurons do not adhere to bare NCD surfaces when cultured in defined medium. These observations raise questions on the potential use of bare NCD as an interfacing layer for neuronal devices. Nevertheless, we also found that classical chemical functionalization methods render the hostile bare NCD surfaces with adhesive properties that match those of classically functionalized substrates used extensively in biomedical research and applications. Based on the results, we propose a mechanism that accounts for the conflicting results; which on one hand claim that un-functionalized NCD provides a permissive substrate for cell adhesion and growth, while other reports demonstrate the opposite.

  9. Targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor in radiotherapy: radiobiological mechanisms, preclinical and clinical results

    Baumann, Michael; Krause, Mechthild

    2004-01-01

    Background and purpose: Inhibition of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a fastly developing field in preclinical and clinical cancer research. This review presents the current status of knowledge and discusses radiobiological mechanisms which may underly the efficacy of EGFR inhibitors combined with irradiation. Materials and methods: Preclinical and clinical results on combined targeting of the EGFR and irradiation from the literature and from this laboratory are reviewed. Focus is given to the radiobiological rationale of this approach and to endpoints of experimental radiotherapy. Results: Overexpression of the EGFR is associated with decreased local tumour control after radiotherapy, especially when the overall treatment time is long. Inhibition of the EGFR either alone or in combination with irradiation decreases the growth rate of tumours expressing this receptor. Preclinical data provide proof-of-principle that local tumour control may be improved by combining irradiation with C225 mAb. In a randomised phase III clinical trial, simultaneous irradiation and treatment with the EGFR antibody Cetuximab (Erbitux[reg]; C225) in head and neck cancer patients resulted in significantly improved locoregional tumour control and survival compared to curative irradiation alone. Acute skin reactions increased in the experimental arm. The underlying mechanisms of enhanced radiation effects of combined EGFR inhibition with irradiation and of the partly conflicting results in different studies are poorly understood. There is increasing evidence, that important intertumoral heterogeneity in the response to EGFR inhibition alone and combined with irradiation exists, which appears to be at least partly dependent on specific mutations of the receptor as well as of molecules that are involved in the intracellular signal transduction pathway. Conclusions and outlook: Further investigations at all levels of the translational research chain exploring the mechanisms of

  10. EFFECTIVENESS OF FERTILIZER SRF-N D AND H ON RICE GROWTH AND RESULTS

    Nasruddin Razak

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Study aims are to know effectiveness level of SRF-N (D & H on growth and yield of lowland rice, and gets fertilizer dosage that gave highest yield of lowland rice. Twelve 12 treatments added with recommendation dosage and farmer treatment. Experiment arranged in RCBD three replications. Result: SRF-N significantly effect growth and yield of lowland rice. Applied SRF-N type H with dosage 350 kg per ha which combined SP-36 and KCl gave higher dry grind grain compared to other treatments of SRF. Proposes SRF-H 280 kg and SRF-D 500 kg per ha. Treatment of farmer way with dosage Urea 300 kg, SP-36 100 kg, and KCl 50 kg per ha, gave higher dry grind grain (8.14 t DGG per ha compared to other treatments including recommendation dosage (7.65 t DGG per ha. Effectiveness of SRF-N type H with dosage 350 kg (two times applications on produce of grain, is 0.97 times compared to recommendation. Need to study more of SRF-H 350 kg and 280 kg per ha, and SRF-H 500 kg per ha (two times application which combined with P and K recommendation on different location and planting season to obtain accurate data in order to obtain locationspecific fertilizer recommendation

  11. Why care about linear hair growth rates (LHGR)? a study using in vivo imaging and computer assisted image analysis after manual processing (CAIAMP) in unaffected male controls and men with male pattern hair loss (MPHL).

    Van Neste, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    The words "hair growth" frequently encompass many aspects other than just growth. Report on a validation method for precise non-invasive measurement of thickness together with linear hair growth rates of individual hair fibres. To verify the possible correlation between thickness and linear growth rate of scalp hair in male pattern hair loss as compared with healthy male controls. To document the process of validation of hair growth measurement from in vivo image capturing and manual processing, followed by computer assisted image analysis. We analysed 179 paired images obtained with the contrast-enhanced-phototrichogram method with exogen collection (CE-PTG-EC) in 13 healthy male controls and in 87 men with male pattern hair loss (MPHL). There was a global positive correlation between thickness and growth rate (ANOVA; phairs from controls. Finally, the growth rate recorded in the more severe patterns was significantly (ANOVA; P ≤ 0.001) reduced compared with equally thick hair from less severely affected MPHL or controls subjects. Reduced growth rate, together with thinning and shortening of the anagen phase duration in MPHL might contribute together to the global impression of decreased hair volume on the top of the head. Amongst other structural and functional parameters characterizing hair follicle regression, linear hair growth rate warrants further investigation, as it may be relevant in terms of self-perception of hair coverage, quantitative diagnosis and prognostic factor of the therapeutic response.

  12. Cyclic and seasonal features in the behaviour of linear growth increment of Rayleigh-Taylor instability in equatorial F-region

    Farkullin, M.N.; Nikitin, M.A.; Kashchenko, N.M.

    1989-01-01

    Calculations of linear increment of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability for various geophysical conditions are presented. It is shwn that space-time characteristics of increment depend strongly on conditions of solar activity and seasons. The calculation results are in a good agreement with statistical regularities of F-scattering observation in equatorial F-area, which points to the Rayleigh-Taylor natur of the penomena

  13. Prophages and growth dynamics confound experimental results with antibiotic-tolerant persister cells

    Harms, Alexander; Fino, Cinzia; Sørensen, Michael Askvad

    2017-01-01

    the validity of our model of persister formation in a refined assay setup that uses robust culture conditions and unravels the dynamics of persister cells through all bacterial growth stages. Our results confirm the importance of (p)ppGpp and Lon but no longer support a role of TA modules in E. coli persister......) modules. This model found considerable support among researchers studying persisters but also generated controversy as part of recent debates in the field. In this study, we therefore used our previous work as a model to critically examine common experimental procedures to understand and overcome......-tolerant persisters via induction of cryptic prophages. Similarly, the inadvertent infection of mutant strains with bacteriophage φ80, a notorious laboratory contaminant, apparently caused several of the phenotypes that we reported in our previous studies. We therefore reconstructed all infected mutants and probed...

  14. No evidence for consistent long-term growth stimulation of 13 tropical tree species: results from tree-ring analysis.

    Groenendijk, Peter; van der Sleen, Peter; Vlam, Mart; Bunyavejchewin, Sarayudh; Bongers, Frans; Zuidema, Pieter A

    2015-10-01

    The important role of tropical forests in the global carbon cycle makes it imperative to assess changes in their carbon dynamics for accurate projections of future climate-vegetation feedbacks. Forest monitoring studies conducted over the past decades have found evidence for both increasing and decreasing growth rates of tropical forest trees. The limited duration of these studies restrained analyses to decadal scales, and it is still unclear whether growth changes occurred over longer time scales, as would be expected if CO2 -fertilization stimulated tree growth. Furthermore, studies have so far dealt with changes in biomass gain at forest-stand level, but insights into species-specific growth changes - that ultimately determine community-level responses - are lacking. Here, we analyse species-specific growth changes on a centennial scale, using growth data from tree-ring analysis for 13 tree species (~1300 trees), from three sites distributed across the tropics. We used an established (regional curve standardization) and a new (size-class isolation) growth-trend detection method and explicitly assessed the influence of biases on the trend detection. In addition, we assessed whether aggregated trends were present within and across study sites. We found evidence for decreasing growth rates over time for 8-10 species, whereas increases were noted for two species and one showed no trend. Additionally, we found evidence for weak aggregated growth decreases at the site in Thailand and when analysing all sites simultaneously. The observed growth reductions suggest deteriorating growth conditions, perhaps due to warming. However, other causes cannot be excluded, such as recovery from large-scale disturbances or changing forest dynamics. Our findings contrast growth patterns that would be expected if elevated CO2 would stimulate tree growth. These results suggest that commonly assumed growth increases of tropical forests may not occur, which could lead to erroneous

  15. Post-weaning high-fat diet results in growth cartilage lesions in young male rats.

    Samuel S Haysom

    Full Text Available To determine if a high-fat diet (HF from weaning would result in a pro-inflammatory state and affect joint cartilage, we fed male rats either HF or Chow diet post-weaning, and voluntary wheel exercise (EX or cage only activity (SED after 9 weeks of age. At 17 weeks body composition, plasma biomarkers and histomorphology scores of femoro-tibial cartilages of HF-SED, HF-EX, Chow-SED and Chow-EX groups were compared. Food intake and activity were not significantly different between groups. HF diet resulted in significantly higher weight gain, %fat, fat:lean ratio, and plasma leptin, insulin and TNFα concentrations, with significant interactions between diet and exercise. No abnormal features were detected in the hyaline articular cartilage or in the metaphyseal growth plate in all four groups. However, collagen type X- positive regions of retained epiphyseal growth cartilage (EGC was present in all HF-fed animals and significantly greater than that observed in Chow-fed sedentary rats. Most lesions were located in the lateral posterior aspect of the tibia and/or femur. The severity of lesions was greater in HF-fed animals. Although exercise had a significantly greater effect in reducing adiposity and associated systemic inflammation in HF-fed rats, it had no effect on lesion incidence or severity. Lesion incidence was also significantly associated with indices of obesity and plasma markers of chronic inflammation. Clinically, EGC lesions induced by HF feeding in rats from very early in life, and possibly by insufficient activity, is typical of osteochondrosis in animals. Such lesions may be the precursor of juvenile osteochondritis dissecans requiring surgery in children/adolescents, conservative management of which could benefit from improved understanding of early changes in cellular and gene expression.

  16. Research on the intermediate process of a free-piston linear generator from cold start-up to stable operation: Numerical model and experimental results

    Feng, Huihua; Guo, Chendong; Jia, Boru; Zuo, Zhengxing; Guo, Yuyao; Roskilly, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The intermediate process of free-piston linear generator is investigated for the first time. • “Gradually switching strategy” is the best strategy in the intermediate process. • Switching at the top dead center position timing has the least influences on free-piston linear generator. • After the intermediate process, the operation parameters value is smaller than those before the intermediate process. - Abstract: The free-piston linear generator (FPLG) has more merits than the traditional reciprocating engines (TRE), and has been under extensive investigation. Researchers mainly investigated on the starting process and the stable generating process of FPLG, while there has not been any report on the intermediate process from the engine cold start-up to stable operation process. Therefore, this paper investigated the intermediate process of the FPLG in terms of switching strategy and switching position based on simulation results and test results. Results showed that when the motor force of the linear electric machine (LEM) declined gradually from 100% to 0% with an interval of 50%, and then to a resistance force in the opposite direction of piston velocity (generator mode), the operation parameters of the FPLG showed minimal changes. Meanwhile, the engine operated more smoothly when the LEM switched its working mode from a motor to a generator at the piston dead center, compared with that at the middle stroke or a random switching time. More importantly, after the intermediate process, the operation parameters of FPLG were smaller than that before the intermediate process. As a result, a gradual motor/generator switching strategy was recommended and the LEM was suggested to switch its working mode when the piston arrived its dead center in order to achieve smooth engine operation.

  17. Global atmospheric response to specific linear combinations of the main SST modes. Part I: numerical experiments and preliminary results

    S. Trzaska

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates through numerical experiments the controversial question of the impact of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO phenomena on climate according to large-scale and regional-scale interhemispheric thermal contrast. Eight experiments (two considering only inversed Atlantic thermal anomalies and six combining ENSO warm phase with large-scale interhemispheric contrast and Atlantic anomaly patterns were performed with the Météo-France atmospheric general circulation model. The definition of boundary conditions from observed composites and principal components is presented and preliminary results concerning the month of August, especially over West Africa and the equatorial Atlantic are discussed. Results are coherent with observations and show that interhemispheric and regional scale sea-surface-temperature anomaly (SST patterns could significantly modulate the impact of ENSO phenomena: the impact of warm-phase ENSO, relative to the atmospheric model intercomparison project (AMIP climatology, seems stronger when embedded in global and regional SSTA patterns representative of the post-1970 conditions [i.e. with temperatures warmer (colder than the long-term mean in the southern hemisphere (northern hemisphere]. Atlantic SSTAs may also play a significant role.

  18. High gradient RF test results of S-band and C-band cavities for medical linear accelerators

    Degiovanni, A.; Bonomi, R.; Garlasché, M.; Verdú-Andrés, S.; Wegner, R.; Amaldi, U.

    2018-05-01

    TERA Foundation has proposed and designed hadrontherapy facilities based on novel linacs, i.e. high gradient linacs which accelerate either protons or light ions. The overall length of the linac, and therefore its cost, is almost inversely proportional to the average accelerating gradient. With the scope of studying the limiting factors for high gradient operation and to optimize the linac design, TERA, in collaboration with the CLIC Structure Development Group, has conducted a series of high gradient experiments. The main goals were to study the high gradient behavior and to evaluate the maximum gradient reached in 3 and 5.7 GHz structures to direct the design of medical accelerators based on high gradient linacs. This paper summarizes the results of the high power tests of 3.0 and 5.7 GHz single-cell cavities.

  19. Energy consumption and economic growth in New Zealand: Results of trivariate and multivariate models

    Bartleet, Matthew; Gounder, Rukmani

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the energy consumption-growth nexus in New Zealand. Causal linkages between energy and macroeconomic variables are investigated using trivariate demand-side and multivariate production models. Long run and short run relationships are estimated for the period 1960-2004. The estimated results of demand model reveal a long run relationship between energy consumption, real GDP and energy prices. The short run results indicate that real GDP Granger-causes energy consumption without feedback, consistent with the proposition that energy demand is a derived demand. Energy prices are found to be significant for energy consumption outcomes. Production model results indicate a long run relationship between real GDP, energy consumption and employment. The Granger-causality is found from real GDP to energy consumption, providing additional evidence to support the neoclassical proposition that energy consumption in New Zealand is fundamentally driven by economic activities. Inclusion of capital in the multivariate production model shows short run causality from capital to energy consumption. Also, changes in real GDP and employment have significant predictive power for changes in real capital.

  20. Infant feeding bottle design, growth and behaviour: results from a randomised trial

    Fewtrell MS

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whether the design of an anti-vacuum infant feeding bottle influences infant milk intake, growth or behavior is unknown, and was the subject of this randomized trial. Methods Subjects 63 (36 male healthy, exclusively formula-fed term infants. Intervention Randomisation to use Bottle A (n = 31, one-way air valve: Philips Avent versus Bottle B (n = 32, internal venting system: Dr Browns. 74 breast-fed reference infants were recruited, with randomisation (n = 24 to bottle A (n = 11 or B (n = 13 if bottle-feeding was subsequently introduced. Randomisation stratified by gender and parity; computer-based telephone randomisation by independent clinical trials unit. Setting Infant home. Primary outcome measure infant weight gain to 4 weeks. Secondary outcomes (i milk intake (ii infant behaviour measured at 2 weeks (validated 3-day diary; (iii risk of infection; (iv continuation of breastfeeding following introduction of mixed feeding. Results Number analysed for primary outcome Bottle A n = 29, Bottle B n = 25. Primary outcome There was no significant difference in weight gain between randomised groups (0-4 weeks Bottle A 0.74 (SD 1.2 SDS versus bottle B 0.51 (0.39, mean difference 0.23 (95% CI -0.31 to 0.77. Secondary outcomes Infants using bottle A had significantly less reported fussing (mean 46 versus 74 minutes/day, p Breast-fed reference group There were no significant differences in primary or secondary outcomes between breast-fed and formula fed infants. The likelyhood of breastfeeding at 3 months was not significantly different in infants subsequently randomised to bottle A or B. Conclusion Bottle design may have short-term effects on infant behaviour which merit further investigation. No significant effects were seen on milk intake or growth; confidence in these findings is limited by the small sample size and this needs confirmation in a larger study. Trial registration Clinical Trials.gov NCT00325208.

  1. Fatigue test results of flat plate specimens with surface cracks and evaluation of crack growth in structural components

    Shibata, Katsuyuki; Yokoyama, Norio; Ohba, Toshihiro; Kawamura, Takaichi; Miyazono, Shohachiro

    1982-12-01

    Part-through surface cracks are most frequently observed in the inspection of structural components, and it is one of the important subjects in the assessment of safety to evaluate appropriately the growth of such cracks during the service life of structural components. Due to the complexity of the stress at the front free surface, the crack growth at the surface shows a different behavior from the other part. Besides, an effect of interaction is caused in the growth of multiple surface cracks. These effects should be included in the growth analysis of surface part-through cracks. Authors have carried out a series of fatigue tests on some kinds of pipes with multiple cracks in the inner surface, and subsequently the fatigue test of flat plate specimens, made of Type 304L stainless steel, with a single or double surface cracks was carried out to study the basic characteristics in the growth of multiple surface cracks. Based on the results of the flat plate test. the correction factors for the front free surface (Cs) and interaction (Ci) of surface cracks were derived quantitatively by the following empirical expressions; Cs = 0.824. Ci = (0.227(a/b) 2 (sec(PI X/2) - 1) + 1)sup(1/m). Using these two correction factors, a procedure to predict the growth of surface cracks was developed by applying the crack growth formula to both the thickness and surface directions. Besides, the crack growth predictions based on the procedure of ASME Code Sex. XI, and the above procedure without the correction of the free surface and interactions on the crack growth behaviors were compared with the test results of flat plate specimens. The crack growth behavior predicted by the procedure described in this report showed the best agreement with the test results in respects of the crack growth life and the change in the crack shape. The criteria of the ASME Code did not agree with the test results. (author)

  2. Recent results on the linearity of the dose-response relationship for radiation-induced mutations in human cells by low dose levels

    Traut, H.

    1987-01-01

    Five studies made by various authors in the last years are discussed, which are significant in that the response of human cells to low-dose irradiation is determined directly and not by extrapolation, and which also provide information on the mutagenic effects of low radiation doses. The results of these studies do not indicate any other than a linear response for induction of mutations by low-dose irradiation, nor are there any reasons observable for assuming the existence of a threshold dose. It is very likely therefore that cancer initiation at the low dose level also is characterized by a linear relationship. Although threshold dose levels cannot generally be excluded, and maybe are only too low to be detected by experiment, there is no plausible biophysical argument for assuming the existence of such microdose threshold. (orig./MG) [de

  3. Pour on application of growth promoters in veal calves: analytical and histological results

    Schilt, R.; Groot, M.J.; Berende, P.L.M.; Rammazza, V.; Ossenkoppele, J.S.; Haasnoot, W.; Bennekom, van E.O.; Brouwer, L.; Hooijerink, H.

    1998-01-01

    To investigate the possibilities for screening and confirmation methods when the 'pour on' method of application is used for administration of growth promoters, an animal experiment was performed using a cocktail of a combination of growth promoters derived from (illegal) practice. Two cocktails

  4. Tip moth control and loblolly pine growth in intensive pine culture: four year results

    David L. Kulhavy; Jimmie L. Yeiser; L. Allen Smith

    2006-01-01

    Twenty-two treatments replicated four times were applied to planted loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., on bedded industrial forest land in east Texas for measurement of growth impact of Nantucket pine tip moth (NPTM), Rhyacionia frustrana Comstock, and effects on pine growth over 2 years. Treatments were combinations of Velpar®,...

  5. Linear algebra

    Shilov, Georgi E

    1977-01-01

    Covers determinants, linear spaces, systems of linear equations, linear functions of a vector argument, coordinate transformations, the canonical form of the matrix of a linear operator, bilinear and quadratic forms, Euclidean spaces, unitary spaces, quadratic forms in Euclidean and unitary spaces, finite-dimensional space. Problems with hints and answers.

  6. Characterization and Growth Mechanism of Nickel Nano wires Resulting from Reduction of Nickel Formate in Polyol Medium

    Logutenko, O.A.; Titkov, A.I.; Vorobyov, A.M.; Yukhin, Y.M.; Lyakhov, N.Z.

    2016-01-01

    Nickel linear nano structures were synthesized by reduction of nickel formate with hydrazine hydrate in ethylene glycol medium in the absence of any surfactants or capping agents for direction of the particles growth. The effect of the synthesis conditions such as temperature, reduction time, type of polyol, and nickel formate concentration on the reduction products was studied. The size and morphology of the nickel nano wires were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. It was shown that the nickel nano crystallites were wire-shaped with a face-center-cubic phase. Ethylene glycol was found to play a crucial role in the formation of the nickel nano wires. The possible growth processes of the wire-shaped particles taking place at 110 and 130 degree are discussed. It was shown that, under certain synthesis conditions, nickel nano wires grow on the surface of the crystals of the solid intermediate of nickel with hydrazine hydrate.

  7. Herdabilidades de parâmetros de curvas de crescimento não-lineares em zebuínos, no estado de Pernambuco Heritabilities of nonlinear growth curve parameters in zebu breeds, in Pernambuco State, Northeastern Brazil

    Kleber Régis Santoro

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estimar parâmetros genéticos e fenotípicos de curvas de crescimento de modelos não-lineares. Foram analisados dados de pesagem constantes no banco de dados de Controle de Desenvolvimento Ponderal da Associação Brasileira de Criadores de Zebu (ABCZ, referentes a 24.028 animais Zebu, nascidos entre 1960 e 2000, das raças Guzerá, Nelore e Nelore Mocho. As pesagens ocorreram ao nascimento e em intervalos de 90 dias até dois anos de idade. Os seguintes modelos não-lineares foram utilizados na análise dos dados de peso-idade: Brody, Gompertz, Logístico, von Bertalanffy e Richards. Os efeitos fixos estudados no modelo misto foram sexo, rebanho, ano e mês de nascimento e regime de criação. As herdabilidades para os parâmetros foram de baixa a alta magnitude, em geral, para todos os modelos. As correlações genéticas entre peso assintótico e taxa de maturidade e entre peso assintótico e velocidade de crescimento foram negativas, enquanto aquelas entre taxa de maturidade e velocidade de crescimento foram positivas. As correlações fenotípicas foram negativas entre peso assintótico e taxa de crescimento e entre peso assintótico e velocidade de crescimento e positivas entre taxa e velocidade de crescimento. Encontrou-se variabilidade possível de ser explorada em um programa de melhoramento genético, especialmente para a raça Nelore, que apresentou amostra de dados e resultados mais consistentes.Weight records of 24.028 zebu animals from Guzerá, Nelore, and Polled Nelore breeds available from Brazilian Association of Zebu Breeders (ABCZ database were used to estimate heritabilities of growth curve parameters. Non-linear Brody, Gompertz, Logistic, Mitscherlich, von Bertalanffy, Richards, and Double Logistic models including sex, farm, year of birth, month of birth, raising system, and interaction sex*raising system as fixed effects and sire and dam, as random effects were adjusted using weight-age records of animals

  8. Mildew growth on automotive coatings influencing the results of outdoor weathering

    Wachtendorf, V.; Schulz, U.; Geburtig, A.; Stephan, I. [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    As the results of a 14 weeks outdoor exposure of a series of automotive coatings in South Florida, the panels were found to be overgrown with an almost closed layer of mildew. Pinholes remained as permanent surface damage after removing the mildew mycelium. The extent of the damage differed in dependence of the kind of the coating. By tracing the images and profiles of the coating surfaces systematically over all phases of weathering and the subsequent cleaning procedure, a connection between formation of pinholes and mildew growth could be found. Outdoor weathering tests in other regions of Florida as well as in Europe and Australia showed that pinholes caused by mildew attack could also be found in all other locations, but always to a lower extent than in South Florida. The standardised mildew tests EN ISO 846 and MIL-STD 810F for laboratory exposure failed to reproduce the formation of pinholes. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Preliminary results of Physiological plant growth modelling for human life support in space

    Sasidharan L, Swathy; Dussap, Claude-Gilles; Hezard, Pauline

    2012-07-01

    Human life support is fundamental and crucial in any kind of space explorations. MELiSSA project of European Space Agency aims at developing a closed, artificial ecological life support system involving human, plants and micro organisms. Consuming carbon dioxide and water from the life support system, plants grow in one of the chambers and convert it into food and oxygen along with potable water. The environmental conditions, nutrient availability and its consumption of plants should be studied and necessarily modeled to predict the amount of food, oxygen and water with respect to the environmental changes and limitations. The reliability of a completely closed system mainly depends on the control laws and strategies used. An efficient control can occur, only if the system to control is itself well known, described and ideally if the responses of the system to environmental changes are predictable. In this aspect, the general structure of plant growth model has been designed together with physiological modelling.The physiological model consists of metabolic models of leaves, stem and roots, of which concern specific metabolisms of the associated plant parts. On the basis of the carbon source transport (eg. sucrose) through stem, the metabolic models (leaf and root) can be interconnected to each other and finally coupled to obtain the entire plant model. For the first step, leaf metabolic model network was built using stoichiometric, mass and energy balanced metabolic equations under steady state approach considering all necessary plant pathways for growth and maintenance of leaves. As the experimental data for lettuce plants grown in closed and controlled environmental chambers were available, the leaf metabolic model has been established for lettuce leaves. The constructed metabolic network is analyzed using known stoichiometric metabolic technique called metabolic flux analysis (MFA). Though, the leaf metabolic model alone is not sufficient to achieve the

  10. Size-dependent standard deviation for growth rates: empirical results and theoretical modeling.

    Podobnik, Boris; Horvatic, Davor; Pammolli, Fabio; Wang, Fengzhong; Stanley, H Eugene; Grosse, I

    2008-05-01

    We study annual logarithmic growth rates R of various economic variables such as exports, imports, and foreign debt. For each of these variables we find that the distributions of R can be approximated by double exponential (Laplace) distributions in the central parts and power-law distributions in the tails. For each of these variables we further find a power-law dependence of the standard deviation sigma(R) on the average size of the economic variable with a scaling exponent surprisingly close to that found for the gross domestic product (GDP) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3275 (1998)]. By analyzing annual logarithmic growth rates R of wages of 161 different occupations, we find a power-law dependence of the standard deviation sigma(R) on the average value of the wages with a scaling exponent beta approximately 0.14 close to those found for the growth of exports, imports, debt, and the growth of the GDP. In contrast to these findings, we observe for payroll data collected from 50 states of the USA that the standard deviation sigma(R) of the annual logarithmic growth rate R increases monotonically with the average value of payroll. However, also in this case we observe a power-law dependence of sigma(R) on the average payroll with a scaling exponent beta approximately -0.08 . Based on these observations we propose a stochastic process for multiple cross-correlated variables where for each variable (i) the distribution of logarithmic growth rates decays exponentially in the central part, (ii) the distribution of the logarithmic growth rate decays algebraically in the far tails, and (iii) the standard deviation of the logarithmic growth rate depends algebraically on the average size of the stochastic variable.

  11. Size-dependent standard deviation for growth rates: Empirical results and theoretical modeling

    Podobnik, Boris; Horvatic, Davor; Pammolli, Fabio; Wang, Fengzhong; Stanley, H. Eugene; Grosse, I.

    2008-05-01

    We study annual logarithmic growth rates R of various economic variables such as exports, imports, and foreign debt. For each of these variables we find that the distributions of R can be approximated by double exponential (Laplace) distributions in the central parts and power-law distributions in the tails. For each of these variables we further find a power-law dependence of the standard deviation σ(R) on the average size of the economic variable with a scaling exponent surprisingly close to that found for the gross domestic product (GDP) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3275 (1998)]. By analyzing annual logarithmic growth rates R of wages of 161 different occupations, we find a power-law dependence of the standard deviation σ(R) on the average value of the wages with a scaling exponent β≈0.14 close to those found for the growth of exports, imports, debt, and the growth of the GDP. In contrast to these findings, we observe for payroll data collected from 50 states of the USA that the standard deviation σ(R) of the annual logarithmic growth rate R increases monotonically with the average value of payroll. However, also in this case we observe a power-law dependence of σ(R) on the average payroll with a scaling exponent β≈-0.08 . Based on these observations we propose a stochastic process for multiple cross-correlated variables where for each variable (i) the distribution of logarithmic growth rates decays exponentially in the central part, (ii) the distribution of the logarithmic growth rate decays algebraically in the far tails, and (iii) the standard deviation of the logarithmic growth rate depends algebraically on the average size of the stochastic variable.

  12. Dietary acrylamide intake during pregnancy and postnatal growth and obesity: Results from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).

    Kadawathagedara, Manik; Botton, Jérémie; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Alexander, Jan; Brantsaeter, Anne Lise; Haugen, Margaretha; Papadopoulou, Eleni

    2018-04-01

    Prenatal acrylamide exposure has been negatively associated with fetal growth but the association with child growth is unknown. We studied the association between prenatal acrylamide exposure and child postnatal growth up to 8 years in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). In 51,952 mother-child pairs from MoBa, acrylamide intake during pregnancy was estimated by combining maternal food intake with food concentrations of acrylamide. Mothers reported their child's weight and length/height up to 11 times between 6 weeks and 8 years. Weight and height growth trajectories were modelled using Jenss-Bayley's growth model. Logistic regression models were used to study the association with overweight/obese status at 3, 5 and 8 years, as identified using the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs. Linear mixed-effect models were used to explore associations with overall growth. At 3 years, the adjusted odds ratios (95% Confidence Intervals (CI)) of being overweight/obese were 1.10 (1.02, 1.20), 1.12 (1.04, 1.22) and 1.21 (1.11, 1.31) by increasing prenatal acrylamide exposure quartile. Similar dose-response associations were found at 5 and 8 years. Acrylamide intake during pregnancy was associated with higher weight growth velocity in childhood. Children exposed at the highest level had 22 g (95% CI: 8, 37), 57 g (95% CI: 32, 81), and 194 g (95% CI: 110, 278) higher weight at 0.5, 2, and 8 years, respectively, compared to their low exposed peers. Children prenatally exposed to acrylamide in the highest quartile experienced a moderate increase in weight growth velocity during early childhood that resulted in a moderately increased prevalence of overweight/obesity compared to peers in the lowest quartile. Our study is the first to link prenatal acrylamide exposure and postnatal growth. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of participatory women's groups and counselling through home visits on children's linear growth in rural eastern India (CARING trial): a cluster-randomised controlled trial.

    Nair, Nirmala; Tripathy, Prasanta; Sachdev, H S; Pradhan, Hemanta; Bhattacharyya, Sanghita; Gope, Rajkumar; Gagrai, Sumitra; Rath, Shibanand; Rath, Suchitra; Sinha, Rajesh; Roy, Swati Sarbani; Shewale, Suhas; Singh, Vijay; Srivastava, Aradhana; Costello, Anthony; Copas, Andrew; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene; Haghparast-Bidgoli, Hassan; Saville, Naomi; Prost, Audrey

    2017-10-01

    Around 30% of the world's stunted children live in India. The Government of India has proposed a new cadre of community-based workers to improve nutrition in 200 districts. We aimed to find out the effect of such a worker carrying out home visits and participatory group meetings on children's linear growth. We did a cluster-randomised controlled trial in two adjoining districts of Jharkhand and Odisha, India. 120 clusters (around 1000 people each) were randomly allocated to intervention or control using a lottery. Randomisation took place in July, 2013, and was stratified by district and number of hamlets per cluster (0, 1-2, or ≥3), resulting in six strata. In each intervention cluster, a worker carried out one home visit in the third trimester of pregnancy, monthly visits to children younger than 2 years to support feeding, hygiene, care, and stimulation, as well as monthly women's group meetings to promote individual and community action for nutrition. Participants were pregnant women identified and recruited in the study clusters and their children. We excluded stillbirths and neonatal deaths, infants whose mothers died, those with congenital abnormalities, multiple births, and mother and infant pairs who migrated out of the study area permanently during the trial period. Data collectors visited each woman in pregnancy, within 72 h of her baby's birth, and at 3, 6, 9, 12, and 18 months after birth. The primary outcome was children's length-for-age Z score at 18 months of age. Analyses were by intention to treat. Due to the nature of the intervention, participants and the intervention team were not masked to allocation. Data collectors and the data manager were masked to allocation. The trial is registered as ISCRTN (51505201) and with the Clinical Trials Registry of India (number 2014/06/004664). Between Oct 1, 2013, and Dec 31, 2015, we recruited 5781 pregnant women. 3001 infants were born to pregnant women recruited between Oct 1, 2013, and Feb 10, 2015

  14. GLOBAL MODELING OF NEBULAE WITH PARTICLE GROWTH, DRIFT, AND EVAPORATION FRONTS. I. METHODOLOGY AND TYPICAL RESULTS

    Estrada, Paul R. [Carl Sagan Center, SETI Institute, 189 N. Bernardo Avenue # 100, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Cuzzi, Jeffrey N. [Ames Research Center, NASA, Mail Stop 245-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Morgan, Demitri A., E-mail: Paul.R.Estrada@nasa.gov [USRA, NASA Ames Research Center, Mail Stop 245-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2016-02-20

    We model particle growth in a turbulent, viscously evolving protoplanetary nebula, incorporating sticking, bouncing, fragmentation, and mass transfer at high speeds. We treat small particles using a moments method and large particles using a traditional histogram binning, including a probability distribution function of collisional velocities. The fragmentation strength of the particles depends on their composition (icy aggregates are stronger than silicate aggregates). The particle opacity, which controls the nebula thermal structure, evolves as particles grow and mass redistributes. While growing, particles drift radially due to nebula headwind drag. Particles of different compositions evaporate at “evaporation fronts” (EFs) where the midplane temperature exceeds their respective evaporation temperatures. We track the vapor and solid phases of each component, accounting for advection and radial and vertical diffusion. We present characteristic results in evolutions lasting 2 × 10{sup 5} years. In general, (1) mass is transferred from the outer to the inner nebula in significant amounts, creating radial concentrations of solids at EFs; (2) particle sizes are limited by a combination of fragmentation, bouncing, and drift; (3) “lucky” large particles never represent a significant amount of mass; and (4) restricted radial zones just outside each EF become compositionally enriched in the associated volatiles. We point out implications for millimeter to submillimeter SEDs and the inference of nebula mass, radial banding, the role of opacity on new mechanisms for generating turbulence, the enrichment of meteorites in heavy oxygen isotopes, variable and nonsolar redox conditions, the primary accretion of silicate and icy planetesimals, and the makeup of Jupiter’s core.

  15. GLOBAL MODELING OF NEBULAE WITH PARTICLE GROWTH, DRIFT, AND EVAPORATION FRONTS. I. METHODOLOGY AND TYPICAL RESULTS

    Estrada, Paul R.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.; Morgan, Demitri A.

    2016-01-01

    We model particle growth in a turbulent, viscously evolving protoplanetary nebula, incorporating sticking, bouncing, fragmentation, and mass transfer at high speeds. We treat small particles using a moments method and large particles using a traditional histogram binning, including a probability distribution function of collisional velocities. The fragmentation strength of the particles depends on their composition (icy aggregates are stronger than silicate aggregates). The particle opacity, which controls the nebula thermal structure, evolves as particles grow and mass redistributes. While growing, particles drift radially due to nebula headwind drag. Particles of different compositions evaporate at “evaporation fronts” (EFs) where the midplane temperature exceeds their respective evaporation temperatures. We track the vapor and solid phases of each component, accounting for advection and radial and vertical diffusion. We present characteristic results in evolutions lasting 2 × 10 5 years. In general, (1) mass is transferred from the outer to the inner nebula in significant amounts, creating radial concentrations of solids at EFs; (2) particle sizes are limited by a combination of fragmentation, bouncing, and drift; (3) “lucky” large particles never represent a significant amount of mass; and (4) restricted radial zones just outside each EF become compositionally enriched in the associated volatiles. We point out implications for millimeter to submillimeter SEDs and the inference of nebula mass, radial banding, the role of opacity on new mechanisms for generating turbulence, the enrichment of meteorites in heavy oxygen isotopes, variable and nonsolar redox conditions, the primary accretion of silicate and icy planetesimals, and the makeup of Jupiter’s core

  16. Equipartitioning in linear accelerators

    Jameson, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    Emittance growth has long been a concern in linear accelerators, as has the idea that some kind of energy balance, or equipartitioning, between the degrees of freedom, would ameliorate the growth. M. Prome observed that the average transverse and longitudinal velocity spreads tend to equalize as current in the channel is increased, while the sum of the energy in the system stays nearly constant. However, only recently have we shown that an equipartitioning requirement on a bunched injected beam can indeed produce remarkably small emittance growth. The simple set of equations leading to this condition are outlined below. At the same time, Hofmann, using powerful analytical and computational methods, has investigated collective instabilities in transported beams and has identified thresholds and regions in parameter space where instabilities occur. This is an important generalization. Work that he will present at this conference shows that the results are essentially the same in r-z coordinates for transport systems, and evidence is presented that shows transport system boundaries to be quite accurate in computer simulations of accelerating systems also. Discussed are preliminary results of efforts to design accelerators that avoid parameter regions where emittance is affected by the instabilities identified by Hofmann. These efforts suggest that other mechanisms are present. The complicated behavior of the RFQ linac in this framework also is shown

  17. Effect of T-stress on the cleavage crack growth resistance resulting from plastic flow

    Tvergaard, Viggo

    1998-01-01

    Crack growth is studied numerically for cases where fracture occurs by atomic separation, sc that the length scale of the fracture process is typically much smaller than the dislocation spacing. Thus, the crack growth mechanism is brittle, but due to plastic flow at some distance from the crack tip......, the materials show crack growth resistance. It is shown here that the resistance is strongly dependent on the value of the non-singular T-stress, acting parallel to the crack plane. The numerical technique employed makes use of a thin dislocation-free strip of elastic material inside which the crack propagates......, with the material outside described by continuum plasticity. Thus the width of the strip is a material length scale comparable to the dislocation spacing or the dislocation cell size....

  18. Miniature linear cooler development

    Pruitt, G.R.

    1993-01-01

    An overview is presented of the status of a family of miniature linear coolers currently under development by Hughes Aircraft Co. for use in hand held, volume limited or power limited infrared applications. These coolers, representing the latest additions to the Hughes family of TOP trademark [twin-opposed piston] linear coolers, have been fabricated and tested in three different configurations. Each configuration is designed to utilize a common compressor assembly resulting in reduced manufacturing costs. The baseline compressor has been integrated with two different expander configurations and has been operated with two different levels of input power. These various configuration combinations offer a wide range of performance and interface characteristics which may be tailored to applications requiring limited power and size without significantly compromising cooler capacity or cooldown characteristics. Key cooler characteristics and test data are summarized for three combinations of cooler configurations which are representative of the versatility of this linear cooler design. Configurations reviewed include the shortened coldfinger [1.50 to 1.75 inches long], limited input power [less than 17 Watts] for low power availability applications; the shortened coldfinger with higher input power for lightweight, higher performance applications; and coldfingers compatible with DoD 0.4 Watt Common Module coolers for wider range retrofit capability. Typical weight of these miniature linear coolers is less than 500 grams for the compressor, expander and interconnecting transfer line. Cooling capacity at 80K at room ambient conditions ranges from 400 mW to greater than 550 mW. Steady state power requirements for maintaining a heat load of 150 mW at 80K has been shown to be less than 8 Watts. Ongoing reliability growth testing is summarized including a review of the latest test article results

  19. Impact of maternal depressive symptoms and infant temperament on early infant growth and motor development: results from a population based study in Bangladesh.

    Nasreen, Hashima-E; Kabir, Zarina Nahar; Forsell, Yvonne; Edhborg, Maigun

    2013-04-05

    Evidence linking maternal depressive symptoms with infant's growth and development in low-income countries is inadequate and conflicting. This study investigated the independent effect of maternal perinatal depressive symptoms on infant's growth and motor development in rural Bangladesh. A cohort of 720 pregnant women was followed from the third trimester of pregnancy to 6-8 months postpartum. For growth and developmental outcomes, 652 infants at 2-3 months and 6-8 months were assessed. Explanatory variables comprised maternal depressive symptoms, socioeconomic status, and infant's health and temperament. Outcome measures included infant's underweight, stunting and motor development. Multiple linear regression analyses identified predictors of infant growth and development. Maternal postpartum depressive symptoms independently predicted infant's underweight and impaired motor development, and antepartum depressive symptoms predicted infant's stunting. Infant's unadaptable temperament was inversely associated with infant's weight-for-age and motor development, and fussy and unpredictable temperament with height-for-age and motor development. Repeated measures design might threaten the internal validity of the results 8.3% of the participant does not participate in the measurements at different times. As the study was conducted in two sub-districts of rural Bangladesh, it does not represent the urban scenario and cannot be generalized even for other rural areas of the country. This study provides evidence that maternal ante- and postpartum depressive symptoms predict infant's growth and motor development in rural Bangladesh. It is recommended to integrate psychosocial components in maternal and child health interventions in order to counsel mothers with depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of Crack Growth Test Results at Elevated Temperature and Design Code Material Properties for Grade 91 Steel

    Lee, Hyeong-Yeon; Kim, Woo-Gon; Kim, Nak-Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Reserach Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    The material properties of crack growth models at an elevated temperature were derived from the results of numerous crack growth tests for Mod.9Cr-1Mo (ASME Grade 91) steel specimens under fatigue loading and creep loading at an elevated temperature. These crack growth models were needed for defect assessment under creep-fatigue loading. The mathematical crack growth rate models for fatigue crack growth (FCG) and creep crack growth (CCG) were determined based on the test results, and the models were compared with those of the French design code RCCMRx to investigate the conservatism of the code. The French design code RCC-MRx provides an FCG model and a CCG model for Grade 91 steel in Section III Tome 6. It was shown that the FCG model of RCC-MRx is conservative, while the CCG model is non-conservative compared with the present test data. Thus, it was shown that further validation of the property was required. Mechanical strength tests and creep tests were also conducted, and the test results were compared with those of RCC-MRx.

  1. Determinants of long-term growth : New results applying robust estimation and extreme bounds analysis

    Sturm, J.-E.; de Haan, J.

    2005-01-01

    Two important problems exist in cross-country growth studies: outliers and model uncertainty. Employing Sala-i-Martin's (1997a,b) data set, we first use robust estimation and analyze to what extent outliers influence OLS regressions. We then use both OLS and robust estimation techniques in applying

  2. Preliminary results of sugar maple carbohydrate and growth response under vacuum and gravity sap extraction

    Mark L. Isselhardt; Timothy D. Perkins; Abby K. van den Berg; Paul G. Schaberg

    2016-01-01

    Recent technological advancements have increased the amount of sugar-enriched sap that can be extracted from sugar maple (Acer saccharum). This pilot study quantified overall sugar removal and the impacts of vacuum (60 cm Hg) and gravity sap extraction on residual nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) concentrations and on stem and twig growth. Vacuum...

  3. Evaluating Tree Protection Devices: Effects on Growth and Survival–First-Year Results

    L. R. Costello; R. H. Schmidt; Gregory A. Giusti

    1991-01-01

    The protection of seedlings from animal browsing is critical for the survival and growth of many tree species. This is particularly true in wildland areas and arid areas (McAuliffe, 1986), and oftentimes in urban areas. A variety of techniques and devices have been used to protect seedlings, from using straw stubble to milk cartons to plastic or metal screens. Recently...

  4. Experimental Results and Integrated Modeling of Bacterial Growth on an Insoluble Hydrophobic Substrate (Phenanthrene)

    Adam, Iris K. U.; Rein, Arno; Miltner, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Metabolism of a low-solubility substrate is limited by dissolution and availability and can hardly be determined. We developed a numerical model for simultaneously calculating dissolution kinetics of such substrates and their metabolism and microbial growth (Monod kinetics with decay) and tested ...

  5. Overview of urban growth simulation: With examples of results from three SA cities

    Waldeck, L

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This presentation provides an overview of Urban Growth Simulation as a risk free means of assessing the future outcome of major policy and investment decisions with some examples of scenarios that were simulated in different South African cities...

  6. Foundations of linear and generalized linear models

    Agresti, Alan

    2015-01-01

    A valuable overview of the most important ideas and results in statistical analysis Written by a highly-experienced author, Foundations of Linear and Generalized Linear Models is a clear and comprehensive guide to the key concepts and results of linear statistical models. The book presents a broad, in-depth overview of the most commonly used statistical models by discussing the theory underlying the models, R software applications, and examples with crafted models to elucidate key ideas and promote practical model building. The book begins by illustrating the fundamentals of linear models,

  7. Using hierarchical linear models to test differences in Swedish results from OECD’s PISA 2003: Integrated and subject-specific science education

    Maria Åström

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The possible effects of different organisations of the science curriculum in schools participating in PISA 2003 are tested with a hierarchical linear model (HLM of two levels. The analysis is based on science results. Swedish schools are free to choose how they organise the science curriculum. They may choose to work subject-specifically (with Biology, Chemistry and Physics, integrated (with Science or to mix these two. In this study, all three ways of organising science classes in compulsory school are present to some degree. None of the different ways of organising science education displayed statistically significant better student results in scientific literacy as measured in PISA 2003. The HLM model used variables of gender, country of birth, home language, preschool attendance, an economic, social and cultural index as well as the teaching organisation.

  8. A non-linear association between self-reported negative emotional response to stress and subsequent allostatic load: prospective results from the Whitehall II cohort study.

    Dich, Nadya; Doan, Stacey N; Kivimäki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Rod, Naja Hulvej

    2014-11-01

    Previous research suggests that high levels of negative emotions may affect health. However, it is likely that the absence of an emotional response following stressful events may also be problematic. Accordingly, we investigated whether a non-linear association exists between negative emotional response to major life events and allostatic load, a multisystem indicator of physiological dysregulation. Study sample was 6764 British civil service workers from the Whitehall II cohort. Negative emotional response was assessed by self-report at baseline. Allostatic load was calculated using cardiovascular, metabolic and immune function biomarkers at three clinical follow-up examinations. A non-linear association between negative emotional response and allostatic load was observed: being at either extreme end of the distribution of negative emotional response increased the risk of physiological dysregulation. Allostatic load also increased with age, but the association between negative emotional response and allostatic load remained stable over time. These results provide evidence for a more nuanced understanding of the role of negative emotions in long-term physical health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Twofold reduction of phosphofructokinase activity in Lactococcus lactis results in strong decreases in growth rate and in glycolytic flux

    Andersen, Heidi Winterberg; Solem, Christian; Hammer, Karin

    2001-01-01

    reduced. Surprisingly, the mutants still showed homolactic fermentation, which indicated that the limitation was different from standard glucose-limited conditions, One explanation could be that the reduced activity of phosphofructokinase resulted in the accumulation of sugar-phosphates. Indeed, when one...... kinase and lactate dehydrogenase remained closer to the wild-type level. In defined medium supplemented with glucose, the growth rate of the mutants was reduced to 57 to 70% of wild-type levels and the glycolytic flux was reduced to 62 to 76% of wild-type levels. In complex medium growth was even further...... of the mutants was starved for glucose in glucose-limited chemostat, the growth rate could gradually be increased to 195% of the growth fate observed in glucose-saturated batch culture, suggesting that phosphofructokinase does affect the concentration of upstream metabolites. The pools of glucose-6- phosphate...

  10. Equipartitioning in linear accelerators

    Jameson, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    Emittance growth has long been a concern in linear accelerators, as has the idea that some kind of energy balance, or equipartitioning, between the degrees of freedom, would ameliorate the growth. M. Prome observed that the average transverse and longitudinal velocity spreads tend to equalize as current in the channel is increased, while the sum of the energy in the system stays nearly constant. However, only recently have we shown that an equipartitioning requirement on a bunched injected beam can indeed produce remarkably small emittance growth. The simple set of equations leading to this condition are outlined. At the same time, Hofmann has investigated collective instabilities in transported beams and has identified thresholds and regions in parameter space where instabilities occur. Evidence is presented that shows transport system boundaries to be quite accurate in computer simulations of accelerating systems. Discussed are preliminary results of efforts to design accelerators that avoid parameter regions where emittance is affected by the instabilities identified by Hofmann. These efforts suggest that other mechanisms are present. The complicated behavior of the RFQ linac in this framework also is shown

  11. Relationships between Unemployment and Economic Growth - the Review (Results of the Theoretical and Empirical Research

    Katarzyna Nagel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to discuss the relationship between economic growth and unemployment as well as related determinant factors based on literature review. The traditional approach presents this relationship through the prism of the effects of creation, capitalization, pool of savings and creative destruction. Nowadays, an increasing number of researchers attach more importance to the impact of institutional factors, such as minimum and efficiency wages or the flexibility of the labor market. Both theoretical and empirical research reveal both the evolution of the relevant views and the lack of consistency between the concepts explaining the relationship between economic growth and unemployment in different regions of the world and in different groups of countries.

  12. Existence Results for Differential Inclusions with Nonlinear Growth Conditions in Banach Spaces

    Messaoud Bounkhel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Banach space setting, the existence of viable solutions for differential inclusions with nonlinear growth; that is, ẋ(t∈F(t,x(t a.e. on I, x(t∈S, ∀t∈I, x(0=x0∈S, (*, where S is a closed subset in a Banach space , I=[0,T], (T>0, F:I×S→, is an upper semicontinuous set-valued mapping with convex values satisfying F(t,x⊂c(tx+xp, ∀(t,x∈I×S, where p∈ℝ, with p≠1, and c∈C([0,T],ℝ+. The existence of solutions for nonconvex sweeping processes with perturbations with nonlinear growth is also proved in separable Hilbert spaces.

  13. Effect of Estimated Daily Global Solar Radiation Data on the Results of Crop Growth Models

    Herbert Formayer

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of previous studies have suggested that estimated daily globalradiation (RG values contain an error that could compromise the precision of subsequentcrop model applications. The following study presents a detailed site and spatial analysis ofthe RG error propagation in CERES and WOFOST crop growth models in Central Europeanclimate conditions. The research was conducted i at the eight individual sites in Austria andthe Czech Republic where measured daily RG values were available as a reference, withseven methods for RG estimation being tested, and ii for the agricultural areas of the CzechRepublic using daily data from 52 weather stations, with five RG estimation methods. In thelatter case the RG values estimated from the hours of sunshine using the ångström-Prescottformula were used as the standard method because of the lack of measured RG data. At thesite level we found that even the use of methods based on hours of sunshine, which showedthe lowest bias in RG estimates, led to a significant distortion of the key crop model outputs.When the ångström-Prescott method was used to estimate RG, for example, deviationsgreater than ±10 per cent in winter wheat and spring barley yields were noted in 5 to 6 percent of cases. The precision of the yield estimates and other crop model outputs was lowerwhen RG estimates based on the diurnal temperature range and cloud cover were used (mean bias error 2.0 to 4.1 per cent. The methods for estimating RG from the diurnal temperature range produced a wheat yield bias of more than 25 per cent in 12 to 16 per cent of the seasons. Such uncertainty in the crop model outputs makes the reliability of any seasonal yield forecasts or climate change impact assessments questionable if they are based on this type of data. The spatial assessment of the RG data uncertainty propagation over the winter wheat yields also revealed significant differences within the study area. We

  14. Growth following pruning of young loblolly pine trees: some early results

    Ralph L. Amateis; Harold E. Burkhart

    2006-01-01

    In the spring of 2000, a designed experiment was established to study the effects of pruning on juvenile loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) tree growth and the subsequent formation of mature wood. Trees were planted at a 3 m x 3 m square spacing in plots of 6 rows with 6 trees per row, with the inner 16 trees constituting the measurement plot. Among the...

  15. Magnetic flow control in growth and casting of photovoltaic silicon: Numerical and experimental results

    Poklad, A.; Pal, J.; Galindo, V.; Grants, I.; Heinze, V.; Meier, D.; Pätzold, O.; Stelter, M.; Gerbeth, G.

    2017-07-01

    A novel, vertical Bridgman-type technique for growing multi-crystalline silicon ingots in an induction furnace is described. In contrast to conventional growth, a modified setup with a cone-shaped crucible and susceptor is used. A detailed numerical simulation of the setup is presented. It includes a global thermal simulation of the furnace and a local simulation of the melt, which aims at the influence of the melt flow on the temperature and concentration fields. Furthermore, seeded growth of cone-shaped Si ingots using either a monocrystalline seed or a seed layer formed by pieces of poly-Si is demonstrated and compared to growth without seeds. The influences of the seed material on the grain structure and the dislocation density of the ingots are discussed. The second part addresses model experiments for the Czochralski technique using the room temperature liquid metal GaInSn. The studies were focused on the influence of a rotating and a horizontally static magnetic field on the melt flow and the related heat transport in crucibles being heated from bottom and/or side, and cooled by a crystal model covering about 1/3 of the upper melt surface.

  16. 重複觀測量數之分析:多群體多變項線性成長模式的估計Data Analysis of Repeated Measures: Estimating a Multi-Group Multivariate Linear Growth Model

    溫福星 Fur-Hsing Wen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available 本研究利用「台灣教育長期追蹤資料庫」的一般分析能力與數學分析能力的四波調查結果,配合男、女學生樣本進行多群體多條追蹤資料的線性成長模式估計。在考慮重複觀測資料誤差項在不同時點的變異數非同質與不同時點間的共變數非獨立情況下,以及男、女學生的不同成長軌跡,將誤差項結構設為無限制結構,利用虛擬變項交互項法與虛擬變項多樣本法同時估計不同性別、不同能力的線性成長軌跡變化。由於全部追蹤資料樣本存在遺失值的情形,本研究以階層線性模式(hierarchical linear modeling, HLM)軟體對完整資料2,806位學生進行分析,其估計結果發現,在完整資料的兩條成長軌跡模式中,男、女學生誤差項共變異數矩陣結構相同,但線性成長軌跡不恆等。除此之外,本文並對競爭模式比較的結果在文章最後進行討論並提出相關的建議。 This paper demonstrates the data analysis of the repeated measures from the Taiwan Education Panel Survey (TEPS. Based on the four data waves on the TEPS, we consider two abilities (general and mathematic and two population groups (male and female students to construct a multi-group multivariate linear growth model. Because the two-group multivariate repeated measures belong to the different populations and the different research variables, the residual terms of linear growth models may imply heterogeneity of the error covariance structure. We treat the error covariance structure as an unrestricted structure to compare the various types of models. The results from the HLM on the complete data (2,806 students reveal that the male and female students in this study have the same error covariance structure but have distinct linear growth trajectories. In addition, comparisons of the competitive models and related suggestions are discussed in the results and conclusion

  17. Correlation of results obtained by in-vivo optical spectroscopy with measured blood oxygen saturation using a positive linear regression fit

    McCormick, Patrick W.; Lewis, Gary D.; Dujovny, Manuel; Ausman, James I.; Stewart, Mick; Widman, Ronald A.

    1992-05-01

    Near infrared light generated by specialized instrumentation was passed through artificially oxygenated human blood during simultaneous sampling by a co-oximeter. Characteristic absorption spectra were analyzed to calculate the ratio of oxygenated to reduced hemoglobin. A positive linear regression fit between diffuse transmission oximetry and measured blood oxygenation over the range 23% to 99% (r2 equals .98, p signal was observed in the patient over time. The procedure was able to be performed clinically without difficulty; rSO2 values recorded continuously demonstrate the usefulness of the technique. Using the same instrumentation, arterial input and cerebral response functions, generated by IV tracer bolus, were deconvoluted to measure mean cerebral transit time. Date collected over time provided a sensitive index of changes in cerebral blood flow as a result of therapeutic maneuvers.

  18. Classifying Linear Canonical Relations

    Lorand, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    In this Master's thesis, we consider the problem of classifying, up to conjugation by linear symplectomorphisms, linear canonical relations (lagrangian correspondences) from a finite-dimensional symplectic vector space to itself. We give an elementary introduction to the theory of linear canonical relations and present partial results toward the classification problem. This exposition should be accessible to undergraduate students with a basic familiarity with linear algebra.

  19. Linear gate

    Suwono.

    1978-01-01

    A linear gate providing a variable gate duration from 0,40μsec to 4μsec was developed. The electronic circuity consists of a linear circuit and an enable circuit. The input signal can be either unipolar or bipolar. If the input signal is bipolar, the negative portion will be filtered. The operation of the linear gate is controlled by the application of a positive enable pulse. (author)

  20. Linear Accelerators

    Vretenar, M

    2014-01-01

    The main features of radio-frequency linear accelerators are introduced, reviewing the different types of accelerating structures and presenting the main characteristics aspects of linac beam dynamics

  1. Crystal growth of pure substances: Phase-field simulations in comparison with analytical and experimental results

    Nestler, B.; Danilov, D.; Galenko, P.

    2005-07-01

    A phase-field model for non-isothermal solidification in multicomponent systems [SIAM J. Appl. Math. 64 (3) (2004) 775-799] consistent with the formalism of classic irreversible thermodynamics is used for numerical simulations of crystal growth in a pure material. The relation of this approach to the phase-field model by Bragard et al. [Interface Science 10 (2-3) (2002) 121-136] is discussed. 2D and 3D simulations of dendritic structures are compared with the analytical predictions of the Brener theory [Journal of Crystal Growth 99 (1990) 165-170] and with recent experimental measurements of solidification in pure nickel [Proceedings of the TMS Annual Meeting, March 14-18, 2004, pp. 277-288; European Physical Journal B, submitted for publication]. 3D morphology transitions are obtained for variations in surface energy and kinetic anisotropies at different undercoolings. In computations, we investigate the convergence behaviour of a standard phase-field model and of its thin interface extension at different undercoolings and at different ratios between the diffuse interface thickness and the atomistic capillary length. The influence of the grid anisotropy is accurately analyzed for a finite difference method and for an adaptive finite element method in comparison.

  2. Marketing in the HMO industry: an analysis of spending patterns and enrollment growth results.

    Menges, J J

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assess the level of marketing spending in the HMO industry and the enrollment growth HMOs have achieved in return for their marketing dollars. This study identifies industry norms that are designed to assist HMOs in the evaluation of their marketing performance. The study is based on data from 1985 to 1986 covering approximately half the HMOs in the country and comprising a substantial proportion of industry-wide enrollment (Table 1). The analyses are designed to allow operational HMOs to compare their marketing efforts, enrollment growth, and marketing costs per new member with industry norms within similar age, model type, enrollment level, and geographic categories. The marketing expenses provided by each HMO are an aggregate figure including sales staff salaries, benefits and commissions, advertising, costs for the production and printing of marketing materials, and all other expenses directly related to the marketing effort. Components of the aggregate marketing expenses, such as the amount spent on advertising versus sales staff compensation, were not available.

  3. Ground Based Experiments in Support of Microgravity Research Results-Vapor Growth of Organic Nonlinear Optical Thin Film

    Zugrav, M. Ittu; Carswell, William E.; Haulenbeek, Glen B.; Wessling, Francis C.

    2001-01-01

    This work is specifically focused on explaining previous results obtained for the crystal growth of an organic material in a reduced gravity environment. On STS-59, in April 1994, two experiments were conducted with N,N-dimethyl-p-(2,2-dicyanovinyl) aniline (DCVA), a promising nonlinear optical (NLO) material. The space experiments were set to reproduce laboratory experiments that yielded small, bulk crystals of DCVA. The results of the flight experiment, however, were surprising. Rather than producing a bulk single crystal, the result was the production of two high quality, single crystalline thin films. This result was even more intriguing when it is considered that thin films are more desirable for NLO applications than are bulk single crystals. Repeated attempts on the ground to reproduce these results were fruitless. A second set of flight experiments was conducted on STS-69 in September 1995. This time eight DCVA experiments were flown, with each of seven experiments containing a slight change from the first reference experiment. The reference experiment was programmed with growth conditions identical to those of the STS-59 mission. The slight variations in each of the other seven were an attempt to understand what particular parameter was responsible for the preference of thin film growth over bulk crystal growth in microgravity. Once again the results were surprising. In all eight cases thin films were grown again, albeit with varying quality. So now we were faced with a phenomenon that not only takes place in microgravity, but also is very robust, resisting all attempts to force the growth of bulk single crystals.

  4. Influence of material non-linearity on the thermo-mechanical response of polymer foam cored sandwich structures - FE modelling and preliminary experiemntal results

    Palleti, Hara Naga Krishna Teja; Thomsen, Ole Thybo; Fruehmann, Richard.K

    In this paper, the polymer foam cored sandwich structures with fibre reinforced composite face sheets will be analyzed using the commercial FE code ABAQUS/Standard® incorporating the material and geometrical non-linearity. Large deformations are allowed which attributes geometric non linearity...

  5. Amorphous-tetrahedral diamondlike carbon layered structures resulting from film growth energetics

    Siegal, M. P.; Barbour, J. C.; Provencio, P. N.; Tallant, D. R.; Friedmann, T. A.

    1998-08-01

    High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) shows that amorphous-tetrahedral diamondlike carbon (a-tC) films grown by pulsed-laser deposition on Si(100) consist of three-to-four layers, depending on the growth energetics. We estimate the density of each layer using both HRTEM image contrast and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. The first carbon layer and final surface layer have relatively low density. The bulk of the film between these two layers has higher density. For films grown under the most energetic conditions, there exists a superdense a-tC layer between the interface and bulk layers. The density of all four layers, and the thickness of the surface and interfacial layers, correlate well with the energetics of the depositing carbon species.

  6. Association between intimate partner violence and poor child growth: results from 42 demographic and health surveys.

    Chai, Jeanne; Fink, Günther; Kaaya, Sylvia; Danaei, Goodarz; Fawzi, Wafaie; Ezzati, Majid; Lienert, Jeffrey; Smith Fawzi, Mary C

    2016-05-01

    To determine the impact of intimate partner violence against women on children's growth and nutritional status in low- and middle-income countries. We pooled records from 42 demographic and health surveys in 29 countries. Data on maternal lifetime exposure to physical or sexual violence by an intimate partner, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics were collected. We used logistic regression models to determine the association between intimate partner violence and child stunting and wasting. Prior exposure to intimate partner violence was reported by 69 652 (34.1%) of the 204 159 ever-married women included in our analysis. After adjusting for a range of characteristics, stunting in children was found to be positively associated with maternal lifetime exposure to only physical (adjusted odds ratio, aOR: 1.11; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.09-1.14) or sexual intimate partner violence (aOR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.05-1.13) and to both forms of such violence (aOR: 1.10; 95% CI: 1.05-1.14). The associations between stunting and intimate partner violence were stronger in urban areas than in rural ones, for mothers who had low levels of education than for women with higher levels of education, and in middle-income countries than in low-income countries. We also found a small negative association between wasting and intimate partner violence (aOR: 0.94; 95%CI: 0.90-0.98). Intimate partner violence against women remains common in low- and middle-income countries and is highly detrimental to women and to the growth of the affected women's children. Policy and programme efforts are needed to reduce the prevalence and impact of such violence.

  7. Maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy and childhood growth and overweight: results from a large Norwegian prospective observational cohort study

    Botton, Jérémie; Brantsæter, Anne-Lise; Haugen, Margaretha; Alexander, Jan; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Bacelis, Jonas; Elfvin, Anders; Jacobsson, Bo; Sengpiel, Verena

    2018-01-01

    Objectives To study the association between maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy and the child’s weight gain and overweight risk up to 8 years. Design Prospective nationwide pregnancy cohort. Setting The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Participants A total of 50 943 mothers recruited from 2002 to 2008 and their children, after singleton pregnancies, with information about average caffeine intake assessed at mid-pregnancy. Outcome measure Child’s body size information at 11 age points from 6 weeks to 8 years. We defined excess growth in infancy as a WHO weight gain z-score of >0.67 from birth to age 1 year, and overweight according to the International Obesity Task Force. We used a growth model to assess individual growth trajectories. Results Compared with pregnant women with low caffeine intake (200 mg/day had consistently higher weight. Very high caffeine exposures were associated with higher weight gain velocity from infancy to age 8 years. Conclusion Any caffeine consumption during pregnancy is associated with a higher risk of excess infant growth and of childhood overweight, mainly at preschool ages. Maternal caffeine intake may modify the overall weight growth trajectory of the child from birth to 8 years. This study adds supporting evidence for the current advice to reduce caffeine intake during pregnancy. PMID:29685923

  8. Growth and artemisinin content of artemisia Annua L. As a result of gamma irradiation on shoot culture

    Tri Muji Ermayanti; Erwin Al Hafiizh; Andri Fadillah Martin; Arthur A Lelono; Wiguna Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Artemisinin is the main compound produced by Artemisia annua is used as antimalarial drug. Many research have been conducted in order to increase artemisinin content in A. annua so that it can be produced economically. In several plants, mutation can be induced by Gamma irradiation to increase their secondary metabolite production. The aim of this research was to investigate the growth and artemisinin content of A. annua after Gamma irradiation. Irradiation was conducted using in vitro shoot tips with 5-50 Gy. Survival rate, growth of shoot culture, ploidy level confirmation, acclimatization, growth of plants in the field and artemisinin content were recorded. The results showed that LD_5_0 of A. annua was 37 Gy, therefore, shoots only grew in the control environment in the laboratory, their growth in the field was inhibited. Irradiation with 50 Gy, shoots only grew for 8 weeks, and died afterwards. Irradiation dose affected on growth of plants in the field as well as their artemisinin content. (author)

  9. linear-quadratic-linear model

    Tanwiwat Jaikuna

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To develop an in-house software program that is able to calculate and generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram by physical dose conversion using the linear-quadratic-linear (LQL model. Material and methods : The Isobio software was developed using MATLAB version 2014b to calculate and generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histograms. The physical dose from each voxel in treatment planning was extracted through Computational Environment for Radiotherapy Research (CERR, and the accuracy was verified by the differentiation between the dose volume histogram from CERR and the treatment planning system. An equivalent dose in 2 Gy fraction (EQD2 was calculated using biological effective dose (BED based on the LQL model. The software calculation and the manual calculation were compared for EQD2 verification with pair t-test statistical analysis using IBM SPSS Statistics version 22 (64-bit. Results: Two and three-dimensional biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram were displayed correctly by the Isobio software. Different physical doses were found between CERR and treatment planning system (TPS in Oncentra, with 3.33% in high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV determined by D90%, 0.56% in the bladder, 1.74% in the rectum when determined by D2cc, and less than 1% in Pinnacle. The difference in the EQD2 between the software calculation and the manual calculation was not significantly different with 0.00% at p-values 0.820, 0.095, and 0.593 for external beam radiation therapy (EBRT and 0.240, 0.320, and 0.849 for brachytherapy (BT in HR-CTV, bladder, and rectum, respectively. Conclusions : The Isobio software is a feasible tool to generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram for treatment plan evaluation in both EBRT and BT.

  10. Linear algebra

    Stoll, R R

    1968-01-01

    Linear Algebra is intended to be used as a text for a one-semester course in linear algebra at the undergraduate level. The treatment of the subject will be both useful to students of mathematics and those interested primarily in applications of the theory. The major prerequisite for mastering the material is the readiness of the student to reason abstractly. Specifically, this calls for an understanding of the fact that axioms are assumptions and that theorems are logical consequences of one or more axioms. Familiarity with calculus and linear differential equations is required for understand

  11. Management of Very Early-onset Fetal Growth Restriction: Results from 92 Consecutive Cases.

    Hoellen, Friederike; Beckmann, Annika; Banz-Jansen, Constanze; Weichert, Jan; Rody, Achim; Bohlmann, Michael K

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate management of early-onset intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and to define outcome according to obstetric setting. During an 11-year period (2000-2011), data of patients presenting with IUGR and preterm delivery of less than 30 weeks of gestation at a tertiary perinatal center were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 92 pregnancies were investigated. Delivery was indicated for fetal reasons in 38 out of 92 patients. Sixteen children of our cohort died within one year post partum, out of which eight had suffered from severe early-onset IUGR causing iatrogenic preterm delivery. Concerning the fetal outcome, gestational age at delivery and antenatal exposure to corticosteroids were found to be crucial. In some cases, respiratory distress syndrome prophylaxis and a "wait and see" approach to management in favor of a prolongation of the pregnancy might be favorable. Randomized prospective trials in early-onset IUGR with threatened preterm deliveries are needed in order to define guidelines for an individually tailored management of early-onset preterm infants. Copyright © 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of potential upon the high-temperature fatigue crack growth response of low-alloy steels. Part 1: Crack growth results

    James, L.A.; Moshier, W.C.

    1997-01-01

    Corrosion-fatigue crack propagation experiments were conducted on several low-alloy steels in elevated temperature aqueous environments, and experimental parameters included temperature, sulfur content of the steel, applied potential level, and dissolved hydrogen (and in one case, dissolved oxygen) concentration in the water. Specimen potentials were controlled potentiostatically, and the observation (or non-observation) of accelerated fatigue crack growth rates was a complex function of the above parameters. Electrochemical results and the postulated explanation for the complex behavior are given in Part II

  13. Linear programming

    Solow, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This text covers the basic theory and computation for a first course in linear programming, including substantial material on mathematical proof techniques and sophisticated computation methods. Includes Appendix on using Excel. 1984 edition.

  14. Linear algebra

    Berberian, Sterling K

    2014-01-01

    Introductory treatment covers basic theory of vector spaces and linear maps - dimension, determinants, eigenvalues, and eigenvectors - plus more advanced topics such as the study of canonical forms for matrices. 1992 edition.

  15. Linear Models

    Searle, Shayle R

    2012-01-01

    This 1971 classic on linear models is once again available--as a Wiley Classics Library Edition. It features material that can be understood by any statistician who understands matrix algebra and basic statistical methods.

  16. Angular Distribution and Linear Polarization of X-ray Radiation Resulting from Electron Impact Excitation of Highly Charged Ions in Debye Plasmas

    Chen, Zhanbin

    2018-05-01

    Plasma-screening effects on the 1s _{1/2} → 2l (l = s , p ) and 1s _{1/2} → 3d _{3/2} electron-impact excitation of highly charged ions are investigated, together with their subsequent radiative decay. The analysis is performed based on the multi-configuration Dirac-Fock method and the fully relativistic distorted-wave method incorporating the Debye-Hückel potential. To explore the nature of the effects, calculations are carried out based on detailed analyses of the integrated total and magnetic sublevel cross sections, the alignment parameters, the linear polarizations, and the angular distribution of the X-ray photoemission, as well as on corresponding data calculated in various Debye lengths/environments, taking the 2p _{3/2}→ 1s _{1/2} and 3d _{3/2}→ 1s _{1/2} characteristic lines of H-like Fe^{25+} ion as an example. The present results are compared with experimental data and other theoretical predictions where available.

  17. 3 GHz digital rf control at the superconducting Darmstadt electron linear accelerator: First results from the baseband approach and extensions for other frequencies

    A. Araz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The low level rf system for the superconducting Darmstadt electron linear accelerator (S-DALINAC developed 20 years ago and operating since converts the 3 GHz signals from the cavities down to the baseband and not to an intermediate frequency. While designing the new, digital rf control system this concept was kept: the rf module does the I/Q and amplitude modulation/demodulation while the low frequency board, housing an field programmable gate array analyzes and processes the signals. Recently, the flexibility of this concept was realized: By replacing the modulator/demodulators on the rf module, cavities operating at frequencies other than the one of the S-DALINAC can be controlled with only minor modifications: A 6 GHz version, needed for a harmonic bunching system at the S-DALINAC and a 324 MHz solution to be used on a room temperature cavity at GSI, are currently under design. This paper reviews the concept of the digital low level rf control loops in detail and reports on the results gained during first operation with a superconducting cavity.

  18. LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    Christofilos, N.C.; Polk, I.J.

    1959-02-17

    Improvements in linear particle accelerators are described. A drift tube system for a linear ion accelerator reduces gap capacity between adjacent drift tube ends. This is accomplished by reducing the ratio of the diameter of the drift tube to the diameter of the resonant cavity. Concentration of magnetic field intensity at the longitudinal midpoint of the external sunface of each drift tube is reduced by increasing the external drift tube diameter at the longitudinal center region.

  19. Medium-dose-rate brachytherapy of cancer of the cervix: preliminary results of a prospectively designed schedule based on the linear-quadratic model

    Leborgne, Felix; Fowler, Jack F.; Leborgne, Jose H.; Zubizarreta, Eduardo; Curochquin, Rene

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To compare results and complications of our previous low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy schedule for early-stage cancer of the cervix, with a prospectively designed medium-dose-rate (MDR) schedule, based on the linear-quadratic model (LQ). Methods and Materials: A combination of brachytherapy, external beam pelvic and parametrial irradiation was used in 102 consecutive Stage Ib-IIb LDR treated patients (1986-1990) and 42 equally staged MDR treated patients (1994-1996). The planned MDR schedule consisted of three insertions on three treatment days with six 8-Gy brachytherapy fractions to Point A, two on each treatment day with an interfraction interval of 6 hours, plus 18 Gy external whole pelvic dose, and followed by additional parametrial irradiation. The calculated biologically effective dose (BED) for tumor was 90 Gy 10 and for rectum below 125 Gy 3 . Results: In practice the MDR brachytherapy schedule achieved a tumor BED of 86 Gy 10 and a rectal BED of 101 Gy 3 . The latter was better than originally planned due to a reduction from 85% to 77% in the percentage of the mean dose to the rectum in relation to Point A. The mean overall treatment time was 10 days shorter for MDR in comparison with LDR. The 3-year actuarial central control for LDR and MDR was 97% and 98% (p = NS), respectively. The Grades 2 and 3 late complications (scale 0 to 3) were 1% and 2.4%, respectively for LDR (3-year) and MDR (2-year). Conclusions: LQ is a reliable tool for designing new schedules with altered fractionation and dose rates. The MDR schedule has proven to be an equivalent treatment schedule compared with LDR, with an additional advantage of having a shorter overall treatment time. The mean rectal BED Gy 3 was lower than expected

  20. Fetal growth and subsequent risk of breast cancer: results from long term follow up of Swedish cohort

    McCormack, V A; dos Santos Silva, I; De Stavola, B L; Mohsen, R; Leon, D A; Lithell, H O

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether size at birth and rate of fetal growth influence the risk of breast cancer in adulthood. DESIGN: Cohort identified from detailed birth records, with 97% follow up. SETTING: Uppsala Academic Hospital, Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: 5358 singleton females born during 1915-29, alive and traced to the 1960 census. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence of breast cancer before (at age <50 years) and after (> or = 50 years) the menopause. RESULTS: Size at birth was positive...

  1. Brown Midrib (Low Lignin) Sorghum Mutations Result in Restricted Growth of Fusarium and Alternaria spp

    To increase usability of sorghum for bioenergy and forages, two different brown midrib (bmr) genes, bmr6 and bmr12, were backcrossed into five elite backgrounds, resulting in reduced lignin near-isogenic genotypes. When compared with wild-type, field-grown grain from bmr6 and bmr12 plants had signif...

  2. Linear regression

    Olive, David J

    2017-01-01

    This text covers both multiple linear regression and some experimental design models. The text uses the response plot to visualize the model and to detect outliers, does not assume that the error distribution has a known parametric distribution, develops prediction intervals that work when the error distribution is unknown, suggests bootstrap hypothesis tests that may be useful for inference after variable selection, and develops prediction regions and large sample theory for the multivariate linear regression model that has m response variables. A relationship between multivariate prediction regions and confidence regions provides a simple way to bootstrap confidence regions. These confidence regions often provide a practical method for testing hypotheses. There is also a chapter on generalized linear models and generalized additive models. There are many R functions to produce response and residual plots, to simulate prediction intervals and hypothesis tests, to detect outliers, and to choose response trans...

  3. Linear Colliders

    Alcaraz, J.

    2001-01-01

    After several years of study e''+ e''- linear colliders in the TeV range have emerged as the major and optimal high-energy physics projects for the post-LHC era. These notes summarize the present status form the main accelerator and detector features to their physics potential. The LHC era. These notes summarize the present status, from the main accelerator and detector features to their physics potential. The LHC is expected to provide first discoveries in the new energy domain, whereas an e''+ e''- linear collider in the 500 GeV-1 TeV will be able to complement it to an unprecedented level of precision in any possible areas: Higgs, signals beyond the SM and electroweak measurements. It is evident that the Linear Collider program will constitute a major step in the understanding of the nature of the new physics beyond the Standard Model. (Author) 22 refs

  4. Linear algebra

    Edwards, Harold M

    1995-01-01

    In his new undergraduate textbook, Harold M Edwards proposes a radically new and thoroughly algorithmic approach to linear algebra Originally inspired by the constructive philosophy of mathematics championed in the 19th century by Leopold Kronecker, the approach is well suited to students in the computer-dominated late 20th century Each proof is an algorithm described in English that can be translated into the computer language the class is using and put to work solving problems and generating new examples, making the study of linear algebra a truly interactive experience Designed for a one-semester course, this text adopts an algorithmic approach to linear algebra giving the student many examples to work through and copious exercises to test their skills and extend their knowledge of the subject Students at all levels will find much interactive instruction in this text while teachers will find stimulating examples and methods of approach to the subject

  5. Meromorphic functions and linear algebra

    Nevanlinna, Olavi

    2003-01-01

    This volume describes for the first time in monograph form important applications in numerical methods of linear algebra. The author presents new material and extended results from recent papers in a very readable style. The main goal of the book is to study the behavior of the resolvent of a matrix under the perturbation by low rank matrices. Whereas the eigenvalues (the poles of the resolvent) and the pseudospectra (the sets where the resolvent takes large values) can move dramatically under such perturbations, the growth of the resolvent as a matrix-valued meromorphic function remains essen

  6. The associations between adult body composition and abdominal adiposity outcomes, and relative weight gain and linear growth from birth to age 22 in the Birth to Twenty Plus cohort, South Africa.

    Alessandra Prioreschi

    Full Text Available The growing prevalence of overweight and obesity in low- or middle-income countries precipitates the need to examine early life predictors of adiposity.To examine growth trajectories from birth, and associations with adult body composition in the Birth to Twenty Plus Cohort, Soweto, South Africa.Complete data at year 22 was available for 1088 participants (536 males and 537 females. Conditional weight and height indices were generated indicative of relative rate of growth between years 0-2, 2-5, 5-8, 8-18, and 18-22. Whole body composition was measured at year 22 (range 21-25 years using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Total fat free soft tissue mass (FFSTM, fat mass, and abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT were recorded.Birth weight was positively associated with FFSTM and fat mass at year 22 (β = 0.11, p<0.01 and β = 0.10, p<0.01 respectively. Relative weight gain from birth to year 22 was positively associated with FFSTM, fat mass, VAT, and SAT at year 22. Relative linear growth from birth to year 22 was positively associated with FFSTM at year 22. Relative linear growth from birth to year 2 was positively associated with VAT at year 22. Being born small for gestational age and being stunted at age 2 years were inversely associated with FFSTM at year 22.The importance of optimal birth weight and growth tempos during early life for later life body composition, and the detrimental effects of pre- and postnatal growth restriction are clear; yet contemporary weight-gain most strongly predicted adult body composition. Thus interventions should target body composition trajectories during childhood and prevent excessive weight gain in early adulthood.

  7. Preconception Micronutrient Supplementation with Iron and Folic Acid Compared with Folic Acid Alone Affects Linear Growth and Fine Motor Development at 2 Years of Age: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Vietnam.

    Nguyen, Phuong H; Gonzalez-Casanova, Ines; Young, Melissa F; Truong, Truong Viet; Hoang, Hue; Nguyen, Huong; Nguyen, Son; DiGirolamo, Ann M; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ramakrishnan, Usha

    2017-08-01

    Background: Maternal health and nutrition play a crucial role in early child growth and development. However, little is known about the benefits of preconception micronutrient interventions beyond the role of folic acid (FA) and neural tube defects. Objective: We evaluated the impact of weekly preconception multiple micronutrient (MM) or iron and folic acid (IFA) supplementation on child growth and development through the age of 2 y compared with FA alone. Methods: We followed 1599 offspring born to women who participated in a randomized controlled trial of preconception supplementation in Vietnam. Women received weekly supplements that contained either 2800 μg FA, 60 mg Fe and 2800 μg FA, or 15 MMs including IFA, from baseline until conception followed by daily prenatal IFA supplements until delivery. Child anthropometry was measured at birth and at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 mo. Child development was measured with the use of the Bayley Scales for Infant Development III at 24 mo. Results: The groups were similar for baseline maternal and offspring birth characteristics. At 24 mo of age, the offspring in the IFA group had significantly higher length-for-age z scores (LAZs) (0.14; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.26), reduced risk of being stunted (0.87; 95% CI: 0.76, 0.99), and smaller yearly decline in LAZs (0.10; 95% CI: 0.04, 0.15) than the offspring in the FA group. Similar trends were found for the offspring in the MM group compared with the FA group for LAZs (0.10; 95% CI: -0.02, 0.22) and the risk of being stunted (0.88; 95% CI: 0.77, 1.01). Offspring in the IFA group had improved motor development ( P = 0.03), especially fine motor development (0.41; 95% CI: 0.05, 0.77), at the age of 24 mo, but there were no differences for measures of cognition or language. Conclusions: Preconception supplementation with IFA improved linear growth and fine motor development at 2 y of age compared with FA. Future studies should examine whether these effects persist and improve child health and

  8. Fiscal stimulation of human capital and resultant economic growth in South Africa

    Gerhardus van Zyl

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Shift-share analysis of employment as a measuring instrument for human resource management is proposed by this study. The results obtained through this technique can assist human resource management on the macro-level in making informed and strategic decisions regarding future employment practices and trends. This technique is often applied to studies of economic geography, and is illustrated in this article through its application to the estimation of future employment potential of manufacturing industries of South Africa’s Southern District Municipality. The economy in this region is mainly dependent on gold mining, which is declining as gold reserves are becoming depleted. As a result, a large section of the area’s population will be unemployed in future, causing adversity and other development needs. Shift-share analysis provides insight into the shifts of employment in the various sectors over time, as well as insight into the national share effect on employment in the region, including the regional-industrial mix and the competitive share effects. It was found that the sectors with the highest employment creation potential are: transport equipment, wood and paper products, metal products, and furniture. Some suggestions are also made regarding the ways that this information can be utilised in human resource management.

  9. results

    Salabura Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available HADES experiment at GSI is the only high precision experiment probing nuclear matter in the beam energy range of a few AGeV. Pion, proton and ion beams are used to study rare dielectron and strangeness probes to diagnose properties of strongly interacting matter in this energy regime. Selected results from p + A and A + A collisions are presented and discussed.

  10. Modelling the Impact of Life on Continental Growth - Mechanisms and Results

    Höning, D.; Spohn, T.

    2013-12-01

    The complexity of planetary evolution increases with the number of interacting reservoirs. On Earth, even the biosphere is speculated to interact with the interior. It has been argued (e.g., Rosing et al. 2006; Sleep et al, 2012) that the formation of continents could be a consequence of bioactivity harvesting solar energy through photosynthesis to help build the continents and that the mantle should carry a chemical biosignature. Through plate tectonics, the surface biosphere can impact deep subduction zone processes and the interior of the Earth. Subducted sediments are particularly important, because they influence the Earth's interior in several ways, and in turn are strongly influenced by the Earth's biosphere. In our model, we use the assumption that a thick sedimentary layer of low permeability on top of the subducting oceanic crust, caused by a biologically enhanced weathering rate, can suppress shallow dewatering. This in turn leads to greater availability of water in the source region of andesitic partial melt, resulting in an enhanced rate of continental production and regassing rate into the mantle. Our model includes (i) mantle convection, (ii) continental erosion and production, and (iii) mantle water degassing at mid-ocean ridges and regassing at subduction zones. The mantle viscosity of our model depends on (i) the mantle water concentration and (ii) the mantle temperature, whose time dependency is given by radioactive decay of isotopes in the Earth's mantle. Boundary layer theory yields the speed of convection and the water outgassing rate of the Earth's mantle. Our results indicate that present day values of continental surface area and water content of the Earth's mantle represent an attractor in a phase plane spanned by both parameters. We show that the biologic enhancement of the continental erosion rate is important for the system to reach this fixed point. An abiotic Earth tends to reach an alternative stable fixed point with a smaller

  11. Variations in growth pattern and predictablity of liveweight growth of ...

    The prediction equations results for rate of liveweight growth showed that of the four models used, the quadratic function was the best predictor of liveweight growth, as indicated by the highest and significant R2 value of 90.7 %. This was closely followed by the linear function which had a significant R2 value of 88.1 %.

  12. Quantitative analysis of results of quality control tests in linear accelerators used in radiotherapy; Analise quantitativa dos resultados de testes de controle de qualidade em aceleradores lineares usados em radioterapia

    Passaro, Bruno M.; Rodrigues, Laura N. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Videira, Heber S., E-mail: bruno.passaro@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (HCFMRP/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Hospital das Clinicas

    2013-04-15

    The aim of this study is to assess and analyze the stability of the calibration factor of three linear accelerators, as well as the other dosimetric parameters normally included in a program of quality control in radiotherapy. The average calibration factors of the accelerators for the period of approximately four years for the Clinac 600C and Clinac 6EX were (0.998±0.012) and (0.996±0.014), respectively. For the Clinac 2100CD 6 MV and 15 MV was (1.008±0.009) and (1.006±0.010), respectively, in a period of approximately four years. The data of the calibration factors were divided into four subgroups for a more detailed analysis of behavior over the years. Through statistical analysis of calibration factors, we found that for the 600C and Clinacs 2100CD, is an expected probability that more than 90% of cases the values are within acceptable ranges according to TG-142, while for the Clinac 6EX is expected around 85% since this had several exchanges of accelerator components. The values of TPR20,10 of three accelerators are practically constant and within acceptable limits according to the TG-142. It can be concluded that a detailed study of data from the calibration factor of the accelerators and TPR{sub 20},{sub 10} from a quantitative point of view, is extremely useful in a quality assurance program. (author)

  13. Scientific Growth and Identity Development during a Postbaccalaureate Program: Results from a Multisite Qualitative Study.

    Remich, Robin; Naffziger-Hirsch, Michelle E; Gazley, J Lynn; McGee, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This report builds upon our previous study, which described five patterns of why college graduates join National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded diversity-focused Postbaccalaureate Research Education Programs (PREP). A 2015 report from the NIH showed that a high fraction of PREP participants matriculate into PhD and MD/PhD programs. This current study reveals how participants change during PREP, the program elements that facilitate change, and how identity as a graduate student and future scientist develops. Data come from in-depth interviews done at the beginning and end of PREP with 48 individuals from seven PREP programs. Results reveal three domains of development: academics, research, and presentation of oneself; each domain contains a developmental continuum. Key attributes of PREP enabling development include opportunities to attend graduate-level classes and seminars; time to practice reading literature; extended lab time with one's own project; high and explicit expectations from mentors; and multiple opportunities to talk about science and improve communication skills. PREP enabled participants to develop their identities as graduate students and to anticipate being seen by others as highly prepared for PhD training. After PREP, 85% (n = 41) started the PhD or MD/PhD, making PREP an intervention approach with great potential to broaden participation in biomedical PhD programs. © 2016 R. Remich et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  14. Dietary Inflammatory Potential during Pregnancy Is Associated with Lower Fetal Growth and Breastfeeding Failure: Results from Project Viva.

    Sen, Sarbattama; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Shivappa, Nitin; Wirth, Michael D; Hébert, James R; Gold, Diane R; Gillman, Matthew W; Oken, Emily

    2016-04-01

    Inflammation during pregnancy has been linked to adverse maternal and infant outcomes. There is limited information available on the contribution of maternal diet to systemic inflammation and pregnancy health. The objective of this study was to examine associations of maternal prenatal dietary inflammatory index (DII), a composite measure of the inflammatory potential of diet, with markers of maternal systemic inflammation and pregnancy outcomes. We studied 1808 mother-child pairs from Project Viva, a pre-birth cohort study in Massachusetts. We calculated the DII from first- and second-trimester food-frequency questionnaires by standardizing the dietary intakes of participants to global means, which were multiplied by the inflammatory effect score and summed. We examined associations of DII with maternal plasma C-reactive protein and white blood cell count in the second trimester and the following perinatal outcomes: gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, length of gestation, fetal growth, mode of delivery, and duration of breastfeeding. We used multivariable linear and logistic regression models to analyze the strength of these associations. Maternal age was (mean ± SD) 32.2 ± 5.0 y, prepregnancy body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) was 24.9 ± 5.2, and DII was -2.56 ± 1.42 units with a range of -5.4 to 3.7. DII was positively correlated with prepregnancy BMI (Pearson'sr= 0.13,Pincrease in maternal DII; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.14) and lower birth weight for gestational agezscore in infants born to obese mothers (β: -0.10zscore per 1-unit increase in maternal DII; 95% CI: -0.18, -0.02). Higher DII scores were associated with lower odds of breastfeeding for at least 1 mo (OR = 0.85; 95% CI: 0.74, 0.98). A proinflammatory diet during pregnancy is associated with maternal systemic inflammation and may be associated with impaired fetal growth and breastfeeding failure. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Linear programming

    Karloff, Howard

    1991-01-01

    To this reviewer’s knowledge, this is the first book accessible to the upper division undergraduate or beginning graduate student that surveys linear programming from the Simplex Method…via the Ellipsoid algorithm to Karmarkar’s algorithm. Moreover, its point of view is algorithmic and thus it provides both a history and a case history of work in complexity theory. The presentation is admirable; Karloff's style is informal (even humorous at times) without sacrificing anything necessary for understanding. Diagrams (including horizontal brackets that group terms) aid in providing clarity. The end-of-chapter notes are helpful...Recommended highly for acquisition, since it is not only a textbook, but can also be used for independent reading and study. —Choice Reviews The reader will be well served by reading the monograph from cover to cover. The author succeeds in providing a concise, readable, understandable introduction to modern linear programming. —Mathematics of Computing This is a textbook intend...

  16. Preliminary results in implementing a model of the world economy on the CYBER 205: A case of large sparse nonsymmetric linear equations

    Szyld, D. B.

    1984-01-01

    A brief description of the Model of the World Economy implemented at the Institute for Economic Analysis is presented, together with our experience in converting the software to vector code. For each time period, the model is reduced to a linear system of over 2000 variables. The matrix of coefficients has a bordered block diagonal structure, and we show how some of the matrix operations can be carried out on all diagonal blocks at once.

  17. Design elements and quantitative results of synchronous longstator linear motors for high-speed magnetic trains taking the TRANSRAPID test facility in Emsland as an example

    Fuerst, R [Industrieanlagen-Betriebsgesellschaft mbH, Magnetbahn-Versuchsanlage, Lathen/Ems (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    In German high-speed magnetic train technology, iron-clad synchronous long-stator linear motors of levitation stator design are used to propel and brake the vehicles. This paper uses the propulsion design of the Transrapid test facility in Emsland (TVE) to illustrate in practical terms the dimensioning parameters for thrust calculations and their interdependencies. The paper is based on description conventions common for rotating electrical machines and rail technology. (orig.)

  18. Early childhood linear growth faltering in low-income and middle-income countries as a whole-population condition: analysis of 179 Demographic and Health Surveys from 64 countries (1993-2015).

    Roth, Daniel E; Krishna, Aditi; Leung, Michael; Shi, Joy; Bassani, Diego G; Barros, Aluisio J D

    2017-12-01

    The causes of early childhood linear growth faltering (known as stunting) in low-income and middle-income countries remain inadequately understood. We aimed to determine if the progressive postnatal decline in mean height-for-age Z score (HAZ) in low-income and middle-income countries is driven by relatively slow growth of certain high-risk children versus faltering of the entire population. Distributions of HAZ (based on WHO growth standards) were analysed in 3-month age intervals from 0 to 36 months of age in 179 Demographic and Health Surveys from 64 low-income and middle-income countries (1993-2015). Mean, standard deviation (SD), fifth percentiles, and 95th percentiles of the HAZ distribution were estimated for each age interval in each survey. Associations between mean HAZ and SD, fifth percentile, and 95th percentile were estimated using multilevel linear models. Stratified analyses were performed in consideration of potential modifiers (world region, national income, sample size, year, or mean HAZ in the 0-3 month age band). We also used Monte Carlo simulations to model the effects of subgroup versus whole-population faltering on the HAZ distribution. Declines in mean HAZ from birth to 3 years of age were accompanied by declines in both the fifth and 95th percentiles, leading to nearly symmetrical narrowing of the HAZ distributions. Thus, children with relatively low HAZ were not more likely to have faltered than taller same-age peers. Inferences were unchanged in surveys regardless of world region, national income, sample size, year, or mean HAZ in the 0-3 month age band. Simulations showed that the narrowing of the HAZ distribution as mean HAZ declined could not be explained by faltering limited to a growth-restricted subgroup of children. In low-income and middle-income countries, declines in mean HAZ with age are due to a downward shift in the entire HAZ distribution, revealing that children across the HAZ spectrum experience slower growth compared to

  19. Fetal growth and subsequent risk of breast cancer: results from long term follow up of Swedish cohort.

    McCormack, V A; dos Santos Silva, I; De Stavola, B L; Mohsen, R; Leon, D A; Lithell, H O

    2003-02-01

    To investigate whether size at birth and rate of fetal growth influence the risk of breast cancer in adulthood. Cohort identified from detailed birth records, with 97% follow up. Uppsala Academic Hospital, Sweden. 5358 singleton females born during 1915-29, alive and traced to the 1960 census. Incidence of breast cancer before (at age or = 50 years) the menopause. Size at birth was positively associated with rates of breast cancer in premenopausal women. In women who weighed > or =4000 g at birth rates of breast cancer were 3.5 times (95% confidence interval 1.3 to 9.3) those in women of similar gestational age who weighed birth. Rates in women in the top fifths of the distributions of birth length and head circumference were 3.4 (1.5 to 7.9) and 4.0 (1.6 to 10.0) times those in the lowest fifths (adjusted for gestational age). The effect of birth weight disappeared after adjustment for birth length or head circumference, whereas the effects of birth length and head circumference remained significant after adjustment for birth weight. For a given size at birth, gestational age was inversely associated with risk (P=0.03 for linear trend). Adjustment for markers of adult risk factors did not affect these findings. Birth size was not associated with rates of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Size at birth, particularly length and head circumference, is associated with risk of breast cancer in women aged rate, as measured by birth size adjusted for gestational age, rather than size at birth may be the aetiologically relevant factor in premenopausal breast cancer.

  20. Posttraumatic growth in women after breast cancer surgery – preliminary results from a study of Polish patients

    Aleksandra Andysz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of the study was to answer the following research questions: What percentage of women after breast cancer surgery experienced posttraumatic growth (PTG? Which aspect of PTG was experienced to the greatest extent by the participants? Do age at the day of survey, age at diagnosis, time since diagnosis, type of surgery, non-surgical methods of treatment, participation in rehabilitation or physical activity significantly differentiate participants in PTG? Participants and procedure Forty-seven women after breast cancer surgery participated in the study. Posttraumatic growth was measured with the Polish version of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI consisting of 4 scales: Self-Perception (SP, Relating to Others (RO, Appreciation of Life (AL and Spiritual Change (SC. The demographic, disease and treatment related variables were controlled. Results Forty-three percent of participants experienced high, 23% moderate, and 34% little or no PTG. Posttraumatic growth manifested itself mainly positive changes in relationships with others. Age at the day of the survey did not correlate significantly with scores of PTGI. Age at diagnosis correlated significantly with total PTG (ρ = –0.37, p = .012, SP (ρ = –0.33, p = .029, RO (ρ = –0.40, p = .008 and AL (ρ = –0.39, p = .010. Women aged ≤ 50 at the day of the survey had significantly higher scores of AL than women > 50 (U = 117.50, p = .042. Women who were physically active at the day of the survey had significantly higher scores in total PTG (U = 118.50, p = .008, SP (U = 7.28, p = .007 and RO (U = 108.00, p = .003. Time since diagnosis, type of treatment and participation in rehabilitation after the surgery did not differentiate respondents significantly in PTG. Conclusions Posttraumatic growth was experienced by a considerable percentage of participants. The average level of PTG was moderate. Women physically active at the time of the survey showed higher levels of PTG

  1. Meckel’s and condylar cartilages anomalies in achondroplasia result in defective development and growth of the mandible

    Biosse Duplan, Martin; Komla-Ebri, Davide; Heuzé, Yann; Estibals, Valentin; Gaudas, Emilie; Kaci, Nabil; Benoist-Lasselin, Catherine; Zerah, Michel; Kramer, Ina; Kneissel, Michaela; Porta, Diana Grauss; Di Rocco, Federico; Legeai-Mallet, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Activating FGFR3 mutations in human result in achondroplasia (ACH), the most frequent form of dwarfism, where cartilages are severely disturbed causing long bones, cranial base and vertebrae defects. Because mandibular development and growth rely on cartilages that guide or directly participate to the ossification process, we investigated the impact of FGFR3 mutations on mandibular shape, size and position. By using CT scan imaging of ACH children and by analyzing Fgfr3Y367C/+ mice, a model of ACH, we show that FGFR3 gain-of-function mutations lead to structural anomalies of primary (Meckel’s) and secondary (condylar) cartilages of the mandible, resulting in mandibular hypoplasia and dysmorphogenesis. These defects are likely related to a defective chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation and pan-FGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor NVP-BGJ398 corrects Meckel’s and condylar cartilages defects ex vivo. Moreover, we show that low dose of NVP-BGJ398 improves in vivo condyle growth and corrects dysmorphologies in Fgfr3Y367C/+ mice, suggesting that postnatal treatment with NVP-BGJ398 mice might offer a new therapeutic strategy to improve mandible anomalies in ACH and others FGFR3-related disorders. PMID:27260401

  2. Conditional inactivation of TNFα-converting enzyme in chondrocytes results in an elongated growth plate and shorter long bones.

    Kenta Saito

    Full Text Available TNFα-converting enzyme (TACE is a membrane-bound proteolytic enzyme with essential roles in the functional regulation of TNFα and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR ligands. Previous studies have demonstrated critical roles for TACE in vivo, including epidermal development, immune response, and pathological neoangiogenesis, among others. However, the potential contribution of TACE to skeletal development is still unclear. In the present study, we generated a Tace mutant mouse in which Tace is conditionally disrupted in chondrocytes under the control of the Col2a1 promoter. These mutant mice were fertile and viable but all exhibited long bones that were approximately 10% shorter compared to those of wild-type animals. Histological analyses revealed that Tace mutant mice exhibited a longer hypertrophic zone in the growth plate, and there were fewer osteoclasts at the chondro-osseous junction in the Tace mutant mice than in their wild-type littermates. Of note, we found an increase in osteoprotegerin transcripts and a reduction in Rankl and Mmp-13 transcripts in the TACE-deficient cartilage, indicating that dysregulation of these genes is causally related to the skeletal defects in the Tace mutant mice. Furthermore, we also found that phosphorylation of EGFR was significantly reduced in the cartilage tissue lacking TACE, and that suppression of EGFR signaling increases osteoprotegerin transcripts and reduces Rankl and Mmp-13 transcripts in primary chondrocytes. In accordance, chondrocyte-specific abrogation of Egfr in vivo resulted in skeletal defects nearly identical to those observed in the Tace mutant mice. Taken together, these data suggest that TACE-EGFR signaling in chondrocytes is involved in the turnover of the growth plate during postnatal development via the transcriptional regulation of osteoprotegerin, Rankl, and Mmp-13.

  3. Linearity enigmas in ecology

    Patten, B.C.

    1983-04-01

    Two issues concerning linearity or nonlinearity of natural systems are considered. Each is related to one of the two alternative defining properties of linear systems, superposition and decomposition. Superposition exists when a linear combination of inputs to a system results in the same linear combination of outputs that individually correspond to the original inputs. To demonstrate this property it is necessary that all initial states and inputs of the system which impinge on the output in question be included in the linear combination manipulation. As this is difficult or impossible to do with real systems of any complexity, nature appears nonlinear even though it may be linear. A linear system that displays nonlinear behavior for this reason is termed pseudononlinear. The decomposition property exists when the dynamic response of a system can be partitioned into an input-free portion due to state plus a state-free portion due to input. This is a characteristic of all linear systems, but not of nonlinear systems. Without the decomposition property, it is not possible to distinguish which portions of a system's behavior are due to innate characteristics (self) vs. outside conditions (environment), which is an important class of questions in biology and ecology. Some philosophical aspects of these findings are then considered. It is suggested that those ecologists who hold to the view that organisms and their environments are separate entities are in effect embracing a linear view of nature, even though their belief systems and mathematical models tend to be nonlinear. On the other hand, those who consider that organism-environment complex forms a single inseparable unit are implictly involved in non-linear thought, which may be in conflict with the linear modes and models that some of them use. The need to rectify these ambivalences on the part of both groups is indicated.

  4. Loss of a highly conserved sterile alpha motif domain gene (WEEP) results in pendulous branch growth in peach trees.

    Hollender, Courtney A; Pascal, Thierry; Tabb, Amy; Hadiarto, Toto; Srinivasan, Chinnathambi; Wang, Wanpeng; Liu, Zhongchi; Scorza, Ralph; Dardick, Chris

    2018-05-15

    Plant shoots typically grow upward in opposition to the pull of gravity. However, exceptions exist throughout the plant kingdom. Most conspicuous are trees with weeping or pendulous branches. While such trees have long been cultivated and appreciated for their ornamental value, the molecular basis behind the weeping habit is not known. Here, we characterized a weeping tree phenotype in Prunus persica (peach) and identified the underlying genetic mutation using a genomic sequencing approach. Weeping peach tree shoots exhibited a downward elliptical growth pattern and did not exhibit an upward bending in response to 90° reorientation. The causative allele was found to be an uncharacterized gene, Ppa013325 , having a 1.8-Kb deletion spanning the 5' end. This gene, dubbed WEEP , was predominantly expressed in phloem tissues and encodes a highly conserved 129-amino acid protein containing a sterile alpha motif (SAM) domain. Silencing WEEP in the related tree species Prunus domestica (plum) resulted in more outward, downward, and wandering shoot orientations compared to standard trees, supporting a role for WEEP in directing lateral shoot growth in trees. This previously unknown regulator of branch orientation, which may also be a regulator of gravity perception or response, provides insights into our understanding of how tree branches grow in opposition to gravity and could serve as a critical target for manipulating tree architecture for improved tree shape in agricultural and horticulture applications. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  5. Deletion of the MBII-85 snoRNA gene cluster in mice results in postnatal growth retardation.

    Boris V Skryabin

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS [MIM 176270] is a neurogenetic disorder characterized by decreased fetal activity, muscular hypotonia, failure to thrive, short stature, obesity, mental retardation, and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. It is caused by the loss of function of one or more imprinted, paternally expressed genes on the proximal long arm of chromosome 15. Several potential PWS mouse models involving the orthologous region on chromosome 7C exist. Based on the analysis of deletions in the mouse and gene expression in PWS patients with chromosomal translocations, a critical region (PWScr for neonatal lethality, failure to thrive, and growth retardation was narrowed to the locus containing a cluster of neuronally expressed MBII-85 small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA genes. Here, we report the deletion of PWScr. Mice carrying the maternally inherited allele (PWScr(m-/p+ are indistinguishable from wild-type littermates. All those with the paternally inherited allele (PWScr(m+/p- consistently display postnatal growth retardation, with about 15% postnatal lethality in C57BL/6, but not FVB/N crosses. This is the first example in a multicellular organism of genetic deletion of a C/D box snoRNA gene resulting in a pronounced phenotype.

  6. Design and descriptive results of the "Growth, Exercise and Nutrition Epidemiological Study In preSchoolers": The GENESIS Study

    Manios Yannis

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Growth, Exercise and Nutrition Epidemiological Study in preSchoolers (GENESIS attempts to evaluate the food and nutrient intakes, as well as growth and development of a representative sample of Greek toddlers and preschool children. In the current work the study design, data collection procedures and some preliminary data of the GENESIS study are presented. Methods From April 2003 to July 2004, 1218 males and 1156 females 1 to 5 years old, stratified by parental educational level (Census 1999, were examined from 105 nurseries in five counties. Approximately 300 demographic, lifestyle, physical activity, dietary, anthropometrical and DNA variables have been recorded from the study population (children and parents. Results Regarding anthropometrical indices, boys were found to be taller than girls at all ages (P Conclusion The prevalence of overweight in the current preschool population is considerably high. Future but more extensive analyses of the GENESIS data will be able to reveal the interactions of the parameters leading to this phenomenon.

  7. Native bacterial endophytes promote host growth in a species-specific manner; phytohormone manipulations do not result in common growth responses.

    Hoang Hoa Long

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: All plants in nature harbor a diverse community of endophytic bacteria which can positively affect host plant growth. Changes in plant growth frequently reflect alterations in phytohormone homoeostasis by plant-growth-promoting (PGP rhizobacteria which can decrease ethylene (ET levels enzymatically by 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC deaminase or produce indole acetic acid (IAA. Whether these common PGP mechanisms work similarly for different plant species has not been rigorously tested. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We isolated bacterial endophytes from field-grown Solanum nigrum; characterized PGP traits (ACC deaminase activity, IAA production, phosphate solubilization and seedling colonization; and determined their effects on their host, S. nigrum, as well as on another Solanaceous native plant, Nicotiana attenuata. In S. nigrum, a majority of isolates that promoted root growth were associated with ACC deaminase activity and IAA production. However, in N. attenuata, IAA but not ACC deaminase activity was associated with root growth. Inoculating N. attenuata and S. nigrum with known PGP bacteria from a culture collection (DSMZ reinforced the conclusion that the PGP effects are not highly conserved. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that natural endophytic bacteria with PGP traits do not have general and predictable effects on the growth and fitness of all host plants, although the underlying mechanisms are conserved.

  8. Reduction of Linear Programming to Linear Approximation

    Vaserstein, Leonid N.

    2006-01-01

    It is well known that every Chebyshev linear approximation problem can be reduced to a linear program. In this paper we show that conversely every linear program can be reduced to a Chebyshev linear approximation problem.

  9. THE ANALYSIS OF TOTAL EXPENSES AT 1000 LEI TOTAL REVENUES AND OF THE RESULT OF THE GROWTH OF THEIR EFFICIENCY

    LĂPĂDUŞI MIHAELA LOREDANA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available act The analysis of the company’s expenses is mainly important in the management and control activity, because it highlights the way in which are used the resources (material, human, financial and the impact of their allocation on the company’s performances. The optimization of the level of costs or the their reduction, where it is possible, without affecting the quality of the products and working conditions of the activity, represent the primary objectives of the management of companies.[9] Expenses have been and will remain one of the key indicators of a company requiring continuous application of a control and monitoring mechanism because when it comes to expenses we never speak of their growth, but their reduction. This reduction is the main objective of any economic agent that will result in increasing the efficiency of the entire activity. The costs of a company reflect in cash the total consumption of material, human and financial resources used in manufacturing and selling of the products. The level, dynamics and structure of these expenses reflect synthetically the activity of industrial enterprises when using effectively the available resources. The purpose of this article is to analyze synthetically a company's expenses efficiency based on the efficiency ratio of total expenses at 1000 lei total revenues and the purpose of the article results in a set of conclusions that will highlight a number of important issues concerning the role and the importance of the efficiency of total expenses related to total revenue, as well as the result of the growth of the efficiency of total expenses.

  10. Borehole Breakout Growth and In-Situ Stress Orientation in the Central Scandinavian Caledonides: Results from the Cosc-1 Borehole

    Wenning, Q.; Zappone, A.; Berthet, T.; Ask, M. V. S.; Rosberg, J. E.; Almqvist, B. S. G.

    2017-12-01

    Borehole breakouts are often assumed to form near instantaneously due to stress perturbations around boreholes after the rock mass was removed. Recent observations in sediments [e.g., Moore et al., 2011] and crystalline rocks [e.g., Berard and Cornet, 2003], as well as numerical modelling results [e.g., Schoenball et al., 2014], suggest that there are cases in which borehole breakout grows radially over time, forcing us to reconsider subsurface stress estimation. These observations are rare due to drilling difficulties (i.e., cementing and casing the borehole after drilling), often only allowing a single image logging campaign. In 2014, the Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides deep scientific borehole (COSC-1) was drilled to a depth of 2.5 km. To date the borehole is open and uncased, allowing two acoustic televiewer logging campaigns, with more than one year between campaigns. The borehole is still available for supplementary data collactions. These logs provide detailed images along the full length of the 2.5 km deep borehole with 1.6 km of overlapping logs for breakout and drilling induced tensile fracture analysis. The results show from the sparse occurrence of breakouts and drilling induced tensile fractures a NW-SE average maximum horizontal stress direction, consistent with the general trend in Scandinavia. The unique acquisition of image logs in two successions allows for analysis of time-dependent borehole deformation, indicating that six breakout zones have crept, both along the borehole axis and radially (up to 20° growth) around the borehole. While some breakouts have grown, the formation of new breakouts has not occurred. The occurrence of breakouts and their growth appear to be independent of lithology. The observed growth after the second logging campaign suggests that under conditions where the stress exceeded the strength of the rock, the resulting breakout causes perturbations in the stresses around the borehole in the near

  11. A Multi-Objective Input–Output Linear Model for Water Supply, Economic Growth and Environmental Planning in Resource-Based Cities

    Wenlan Ke

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Water resource and environment capacity have become two of the most important restrictions for sustainable development in resource-based cities whose leading industries are the exploitation and processing of resources. Taking Ordos in China as an example, this article constructs an integrated model combining a multi-objective optimization model with input–output analysis to achieve the tradeoffs between economic growth, water utilization and environmental protection. This dynamic model includes socioeconomic, water supply–demand, water quality control, air quality control, energy consumption control and integrated policy sub-models. These six sub-models interact with each other. After simulation, this article proposes efficient solutions on industrial restructuring by maximizing the Gross Regional Product of Ordos from 394.3 in 2012 to 785.1 billion RMB in 2025 with a growth rate of 6.4% annually; and presents a water supply plan by maximizing the proportion of reclaimed water from 2% to 6.3% through sewage treatment technology selection and introduction, and effective water allocation. Meanwhile, the environmental impacts are all in line with the planning targets. This study illustrates that the integrated modeling is generic and can be applied to any region suffering uncoordinated development issues and can serve as a pre-evaluation approach for conducting early warning research to offer suggestions for government decision-making.

  12. Mathematical modeling of the crack growth in linear elastic isotropic materials by conventional fracture mechanics approaches and by molecular dynamics method: crack propagation direction angle under mixed mode loading

    Stepanova, Larisa; Bronnikov, Sergej

    2018-03-01

    The crack growth directional angles in the isotropic linear elastic plane with the central crack under mixed-mode loading conditions for the full range of the mixity parameter are found. Two fracture criteria of traditional linear fracture mechanics (maximum tangential stress and minimum strain energy density criteria) are used. Atomistic simulations of the central crack growth process in an infinite plane medium under mixed-mode loading using Large-scale Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator (LAMMPS), a classical molecular dynamics code, are performed. The inter-atomic potential used in this investigation is Embedded Atom Method (EAM) potential. The plane specimens with initial central crack were subjected to Mixed-Mode loadings. The simulation cell contains 400000 atoms. The crack propagation direction angles under different values of the mixity parameter in a wide range of values from pure tensile loading to pure shear loading in a wide diapason of temperatures (from 0.1 К to 800 К) are obtained and analyzed. It is shown that the crack propagation direction angles obtained by molecular dynamics method coincide with the crack propagation direction angles given by the multi-parameter fracture criteria based on the strain energy density and the multi-parameter description of the crack-tip fields.

  13. Inhibition of Curcumin on ZAKα Activity Resultant in Apoptosis and Anchorage-Independent Growth in Cancer Cells.

    Lee, Jin-Sun; Wang, Tsu-Shing; Lin, Ming Cheng; Lin, Wei-Wen; Yang, Jaw-Ji

    2017-10-31

    Curcumin, a popular yellow pigment of the dietary spice turmeric, has been reported to inhibit cell growth and to induce apoptosis in a wide variety of cancer cells. Although numerous studies have investigated anticancer effects of curcumin, the precise molecular mechanism of action remains unidentified. Whereas curcumin mediates cell survival and apoptosis through mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling cascades, its impact on the upstream regulation of MAPK is unclear. The leucine-zipper and sterile-α motif kinase alpha (ZAKα), a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAP3K), activates the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and NF-κB pathway. This paper investigated the prospective involvement of ZAKα in curcumin-induced effects on cancer cells. Our results suggest that the antitumor activity of curcumin is mediated via a mechanism involving inhibition of ZAKα activity.

  14. Cellular Automata Rules and Linear Numbers

    Nayak, Birendra Kumar; Sahoo, Sudhakar; Biswal, Sagarika

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, linear Cellular Automta (CA) rules are recursively generated using a binary tree rooted at "0". Some mathematical results on linear as well as non-linear CA rules are derived. Integers associated with linear CA rules are defined as linear numbers and the properties of these linear numbers are studied.

  15. NON LINEAR GROWTH CURVES FOR WEIGHT AND HEIGHT IN FOUR GENETIC GROUPS OF HORSES CURVAS DE CRESCIMENTO NÃO-LINEARES PARA PESO E ALTURA EM QUATRO GRUPOS GENÉTICOS DE CAVALOS

    Concepta Margaret McManus

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Hanoverian, Brazilian Showjumper, English Thoroughbred and Crossbred horses reared by the Brazilian Army were weighed and measured from six months of age to adult. In total 4,860 measurements on 1,445 horses were available. General curves were estimated as a function of time by the Gompertz, Brody, Logistic, Weibull and Richards curves, using PROC NLIN procedures of SAS ®. The Richards Curve did not converge for weight or height of any of the genetic groups or sexes. The logistic curve did not converge for any of the weight traits while the Gompertz also did not converge for height in several groups. R2 varied between 0.55 for weight in females of the crossbred group to 0.92 for males of the same group. For the height traits the highest R2 (0.66 was found for female Hanovarian horses and lowest for males of the same breed (0.12. In general the curves estimated similar values for asymptotic height and weight, except for Logistic curve, which also showed lowest R2 and highest error. Results for the Weibull and Brody curves were similar in all cases so where possible the Brody curve was selected as the best curve as it had less parameters. The Gompertz curve tended to underestimate mature weights and height. Estimates for both weight and height were in general higher in males than for females. In most cases the b parameter was shown to account for < 0.0001% of the variation in the curve shape. The k parameters, which indicate maturity, were of similar magnitude for the Brody, Gompertz and Weibull curves, for both height and weight within breed. This parameter indicated that there is little difference in maturation rates between males and females.

    KEY WORDS: Brody, Gompertz, Logistic, Richards, Weibull.

    Cavalos das raças Hanoveriana (HA, Brasileiro de Hipismo (BH, Puro Sangue Inglês (PSI e mestiços (PSIxBH criados pelo Exército brasileiro foram pesados e medidos de seis meses de idade até adulto. Realizaram-se 4.860 medidas em

  16. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Medication Treatment Impact on Response to Growth Hormone Therapy: Results from the ANSWER Program, a Non-Interventional Study.

    Rose, Susan R; Reeves, Grafton; Gut, Robert; Germak, John

    2015-12-01

    To examine whether attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) stimulant medication modified the linear growth response to growth hormone (GH) treatment in children enrolled in the American Norditropin Studies: Web-Enabled Research Program. Short, GH treatment-naive children with or without GH deficiency (GHD) received GH therapy. A subset also received ADHD stimulant medication (n = 1190), and others did not (n = 7230). Linear mixed models (adjusted means) examined height SDS (HSDS) and body mass index (BMI) SDS from baseline through year 4. Analyses were repeated with ADHD groups matched for baseline age, height, weight, BMI, and sex. Groups with and without GHD were compared between ADHD groups. Adjusted change in HSDS for the group receiving ADHD stimulant medication was slightly lower than that for patients not receiving stimulant medication at years 1 to 4 (P -2. Year 4 adjusted change in BMI SDS was greater in the patients receiving ADHD stimulant medication compared with both groups not receiving ADHD stimulant medication (P growth response of children treated with GH when those receiving or not receiving ADHD stimulant medication were matched for baseline measurements. Underlying reasons for the observed greater increase in BMI in patients with GHD concomitantly treated with ADHD medication remain to be elucidated. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01009905. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The results of a non-linear mathematical model for the kinetics of 10B after BPA-F infusion in BNCT

    Ryynaenen, P.; Savolainen, S.; Hiismaeki, P.; Kangasmaeki, A.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to create a model for the kinetics of 10 B in glioma patients after p-boronophenylalanine fructose complex (BPA-F) infusion in order to predict the 10 B concentration in blood during the neutron irradiations in BNCT. The more specific aim was to create a flexible model that would work with variable infusion duration and variable amounts of infused BRA, by forehand carrying out only 1 to 2 kinetic studies per different trials. Previously used bi-exponential fitting and open compartmental model are capable, but, however, heavy kinetic studies are needed before they are reliable enough. A model probe with a memory effect based on phenomenological findings was created. The model development was based on the data from 10 glioblastoma multiforme patients from the Brookhaven National Laboratory BNCT trials. These patients received i.v. 290 mg BPA/kg body weight as a fructose complex during two hours. Blood samples were collected during and after the infusion. The accuracy of the model was verified with distinctive fitting of 10 new glioma patient data from the Finnish BNCT-trials. The 10 B- concentration in whole blood samples was determined by ICP-AES method. In the study it is concluded that the constructed non-linear model is flexible and capable in describing the kinetics of 10 B concentration in blood after a single infusion of BPA-F. (author)

  18. Linear ubiquitination in immunity.

    Shimizu, Yutaka; Taraborrelli, Lucia; Walczak, Henning

    2015-07-01

    Linear ubiquitination is a post-translational protein modification recently discovered to be crucial for innate and adaptive immune signaling. The function of linear ubiquitin chains is regulated at multiple levels: generation, recognition, and removal. These chains are generated by the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC), the only known ubiquitin E3 capable of forming the linear ubiquitin linkage de novo. LUBAC is not only relevant for activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in various signaling pathways, but importantly, it also regulates cell death downstream of immune receptors capable of inducing this response. Recognition of the linear ubiquitin linkage is specifically mediated by certain ubiquitin receptors, which is crucial for translation into the intended signaling outputs. LUBAC deficiency results in attenuated gene activation and increased cell death, causing pathologic conditions in both, mice, and humans. Removal of ubiquitin chains is mediated by deubiquitinases (DUBs). Two of them, OTULIN and CYLD, are constitutively associated with LUBAC. Here, we review the current knowledge on linear ubiquitination in immune signaling pathways and the biochemical mechanisms as to how linear polyubiquitin exerts its functions distinctly from those of other ubiquitin linkage types. © 2015 The Authors. Immunological Reviews Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Synthesis, growth, physicochemical properties and DFT calculations of 2-naphthol substituted Mannich base 1-(morpholino(phenyl) methyl) naphthalen-2-ol: A non linear optical single crystal

    Dennis Raj, A.; Jeeva, M.; Shankar, M.; Venkatesa Prabhu, G.; Vimalan, M.; Vetha Potheher, I.

    2017-11-01

    2-Naphthol substituted Mannich base 1-morpholino(phenyl)methyl)naphthalen-2-ol (MPMN), a potential NLO active organic single crystal was developed using acetonitrile as a solvent by slow evaporation method. The experimental and theoretical analysis made towards the exploitation in the field of electro-optic and NLO applications. The cubic structure with non-centrosymmetric space group Cc was confirmed and cell dimensions of the grown crystal were obtained from single crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) study. The formation of the Csbnd Nsbnd C vibrational band at 1115 cm-1 in Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) analysis confirms the formation of MPMN compound. The placement of protons and carbons of MPMN were identified from Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (NMR) analysis. The wide optical absorption window and the lower cutoff wavelength of MPMN show the suitability of the material for the various laser related applications. The presence of dislocations and growth pattern of crystal were analyzed using chemical etching technique. The Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) of MPMN was found to be 1.57 times greater than the standard KDP crystal. The laser damage threshold was measured by using Nd: YAG laser beam passed through the sample and it was found to be 1.006 GW/cm2. The electronic structure of the molecular system and the optical properties were also studied from quantum chemical calculations using Density Functional Theory (DFT) and reported for the first time.

  20. Effect of recombinant insulin-like growth factor-1 treatment on short-term linear growth in a child with Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II and hepatic insufficiency.

    Faienza, Maria Felicia; Acquafredda, Angelo; D'Aniello, Mariangela; Soldano, Lucia; Marzano, Flaviana; Ventura, Annamaria; Cavallo, Luciano

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of a boy affected by severe intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation, microcephaly, facial dysmorphisms and postnecrotic cirrhosis, diagnosed at birth as having Seckel syndrome, and subsequently confirmed as Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II) on the basis of clinical and radiological features of skeletal dysplasia. At our observation (6 years 7 months) he presented height -10.3 standard deviation score (SDS), weight -22.1 SDS, head circumference -8 SDS, delayed bone age of 4 years with respect to chronological age. In consideration of the low levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) as well as of hepatic insufficiency, we started the treatment with recombinant human IGF-1 (rhIGF-1) at the dose of 0.04 mg/kg in 2 doses/day, with an increase of 0.04 mg/kg after 1 week until the maximum dose of 0.12 mg/kg. We observed an early response to rhIGF-1 treatment, with a shift of height velocity from 1.8 cm/year (-4.6 SDS) at 4 cm/year (-1.9 SDS), and an increase in bone age of 1.5 years during the first 6 months. rhIGF-1 treatment does not seem to be able to replace the physiological action of IGF-1 in patients with MOPD II and hepatic insufficiency, however, it seems to preserve the typical growth pattern of MOPD II patients, avoiding a further widening of the growth deficiency in these subjects.

  1. Nantucket Pine Tip Moth Control and Loblolly Pine Growth in Intensive Pine Culture: Two-Year Results

    David L. Kulhavy; Jimmie L. Yeiser; L. Allen Smith

    2004-01-01

    Twenty-two treatments replicated four times were applied to planted loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L. on bedded industrial forest land in east Texas for measurement of growth impact of Nantucket pine tip moth (NPTM), Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock), and effects on pine growth over 2 years. Treatments were combinations of Velpar, Oust, and Arsenal...

  2. Inhibition of furin results in increased growth, invasiveness and cytokine production of synoviocytes from patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Wu, Changshun; Song, Zezhong; Liu, Huiling; Pan, Jihong; Jiang, Huiyu; Liu, Chao; Yan, Zexing; Feng, Hong; Sun, Shui

    2017-07-01

    Fibroblast-like synoviocytes derived from patients with rheumatoid arthritis play a key role by local production of cytokines and proteolytic enzymes that degrade the extracellular matrix and cartilage. These synoviocytes acquire phenotypic characteristics commonly observed in transformed cells, like anchorage-independent growth, increased proliferation and invasiveness, and insensitivity to apoptosis. Furin is a ubiquitous proprotein convertase that is capable of cleaving precursors of a wide variety of proteins. In patients with rheumatoid arthritis, furin is reported to be highly expressed in the synovial pannus compared with healthy persons. However, the mechanisms are poorly understood. This study is to explore the effect of furin overexpression in rheumatoid synoviocytes. In this study, RNA interference was used to knock down furin expression and to assess the resultant effects on biological behaviors of synoviocytes, such as cell proliferation, invasion, migration, cell cycle and cell apoptosis. In addition, the production of inflammatory cytokines was evaluated. The results showed that the inhibition of furin enhanced proliferation, invasion, and migration of synoviocytes in vitro. Cell cycle was accelerated and cell death was affected by furin knockdown. Also, the inhibition of furin increased interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α secretion of synoviocytes. Inhibition of furin enhances invasive phenotype of synoviocytes from patients with rheumatoid arthritis, implying a protective role of furin. Agents targeting upregulation of furin may have therapeutic potential for rheumatoid arthritis. Copyright © 2016 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. A splice site mutation in laminin-α2 results in a severe muscular dystrophy and growth abnormalities in zebrafish.

    Vandana A Gupta

    Full Text Available Congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of inherited muscle disorders. In patients, muscle weakness is usually present at or shortly after birth and is progressive in nature. Merosin deficient congenital muscular dystrophy (MDC1A is a form of CMD caused by a defect in the laminin-α2 gene (LAMA2. Laminin-α2 is an extracellular matrix protein that interacts with the dystrophin-dystroglycan (DGC complex in membranes providing stability to muscle fibers. In an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis screen to develop zebrafish models of neuromuscular diseases, we identified a mutant fish that exhibits severe muscular dystrophy early in development. Genetic mapping identified a splice site mutation in the lama2 gene. This splice site is highly conserved in humans and this mutation results in mis-splicing of RNA and a loss of protein function. Homozygous lama2 mutant zebrafish, designated lama2(cl501/cl501, exhibited reduced motor function and progressive degeneration of skeletal muscles and died at 8-15 days post fertilization. The skeletal muscles exhibited damaged myosepta and detachment of myofibers in the affected fish. Laminin-α2 deficiency also resulted in growth defects in the brain and eye of the mutant fish. This laminin-α2 deficient mutant fish represents a novel disease model to develop therapies for modulating splicing defects in congenital muscular dystrophies and to restore the muscle function in human patients with CMD.

  4. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factors for choroidal neovascularization secondary to choroidal osteoma: Long-term results

    T Lekha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Choroidal osteoma is an uncommon benign osseous intraocular tumor typically seen unilaterally in young women. Visual loss can occur due to choroidal neovascularization (CNV complicating osteoma. We report a rare case of bilateral choroidal osteoma with secondary CNV in a young male and the long-term results following anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF therapy. A 30-year-old male with history of defective vision in both eyes since several years and recent worsening in the right eye (RE since 2 months was found to have bilateral macular osteoma with CNV in the RE based on clinical evaluation, fluorescein angiography, optical coherence tomography, and ultrasonography. Intravitreal injection of ranibizumab at monthly intervals for three doses resulted in resolution of CNV and remained stable for 5 years. Recurrent CNV detected 6 years later responded to an injection of intravitreal bevacizumab and has remained stable till date. Anti-VEGF therapy stabilized the secondary CNV in our patient for 7 years with satisfactory structural and functional outcome, demonstrating the long-term efficacy of this modality of treatment.

  5. Long-term results of repeated anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy in eyes with retinal pigment epithelial tears.

    Moreira, Carlos A; Arana, Luis A; Zago, Rommel J

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the long-term results of retinal pigment epithelium tears in eyes treated with repeated anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy. Five patients with retinal pigment epithelial tears (without foveal center involvement) after anti-VEGF injection were studied retrospectively. Mean follow-up time was 52 months, with measurements of visual acuity and evaluation of macular findings by angiography and optical coherence tomography during this period. All eyes had a persistent submacular neovascular membrane 30 days after the tear. An anti-VEGF drug was reinjected until the membranes stopped leaking. The mean initial visual acuity immediately after the tear was 20/160, and the mean final visual acuity was 20/60. The number of anti-VEGF reinjections varied from two to eight during the follow-up period. Long-term optical coherence tomography analysis showed reduced fluid and remodeling of the torn retinal pigment epithelium. Long-term visual results with repeated anti-VEGF therapy are not as devastating as suggested previously. Visual acuity and metamorphopsia improve with time as long as the neovascular membrane is inactive. Optical coherence tomography changes in the macular area reflect the visual acuity improvement.

  6. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status of gastric cancer patients in Asia: results from a large, multicountry study.

    Pathmanathan, Nirmala; Geng, Jing-Shu; Li, Wencai; Nie, Xiu; Veloso, Januario; Wang, John; Hill, Julie; Mccloud, Philip; Bilous, Michael

    2017-06-01

    Current estimates of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positivity rate in gastric cancer vary widely in the literature, and there are limited data from countries in Asia. The primary aim of this study was to conduct a clinical audit of laboratories across seven countries in Asia to determine the incidence of HER2-positive gastric cancer in this region. Pathologists were asked to collect data on patient gender, age, cancer site, specimen type, tumor spread, type and grade, HER2 test results, including protein and/or gene copy enumeration, and final HER2 status on consecutive gastric cancer cases tested for HER2 in their laboratory over a 2-year period. HER2 results from 5,301 gastric cancers were submitted by 50 laboratories. The overall HER2-positivity rate was 9.7% which, after the exclusion of China, increased to 18.1%. The rate between countries ranged from 0% to 23.1%, and from 0% to 50.0% between laboratories. An equivocal HER2 result was recorded in 19.5% of cases. Despite the lack of centralized testing to confirm the accuracy of HER2 diagnoses, the incidence of HER2-positive gastric cancer observed here was comparable to that reported in the literature. Nevertheless, rates were highly variable between countries and laboratories, which suggests a lack of HER2 testing expertise in gastric cancer. Given that the mortality rates for gastric cancer in Eastern Asia are the highest in the world, efforts should focus on improving HER2 testing expertise in the region so that patients receive the appropriate treatment early in their disease. © 2016 The Authors. Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology Published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. Overexpression of transforming growth factor-β1 in fetal monkey lung results in prenatal pulmonary fibrosis

    Tarantal, A.F.; Chen, H.; Shi, T.T.; Lu, C-H.; Fang, A.B.; Buckley, S.; Kolb, M.; Gauldie, J.; Warburton, D.; Shi, W.

    2011-01-01

    Altered transforming growth factor (TGF)-β expression levels have been linked to a variety of human respiratory diseases, including bronchopulmonary dysplasia and pulmonary fibrosis. However, a causative role for aberrant TGF-β in neonatal lung diseases has not been defined in primates. Exogenous and transient TGF-β1 overexpression in fetal monkey lung was achieved by transabdominal ultrasound-guided fetal intrapulmonary injection of adenoviral vector expressing TGF-β1 at the second or third trimester of pregnancy. The lungs were then harvested near term, and fixed for histology and immunohistochemistry. Lung hypoplasia was observed where TGF-β1 was overexpressed during the second trimester. The most clearly marked phenotype consisted of severe pulmonary and pleural fibrosis, which was independent of the gestational time point when TGF-β1 was overexpressed. Increased cell proliferation, particularly in α-smooth muscle actin-positive myofibroblasts, was detected within the fibrotic foci. But epithelium to mesenchyme transdifferentiation was not detected. Massive collagen fibres were deposited on the inner and outer sides of the pleural membrane, with an intact elastin layer in the middle. This induced fibrotic pathology persisted even after adenoviral-mediated TGF-β1 overexpression was no longer evident. Therefore, overexpression of TGF-β1 within developing fetal monkey lung results in severe and progressive fibrosis in lung parenchyma and pleural membrane, in addition to pulmonary hypoplasia. PMID:20351039

  8. Preliminary results on the non-thermal effects of 200-350 GHz radiation on the growth rate of S. cerevisiae cells in microcolonies

    Hadjiloucas, S.; Chahal, M. S.; Bowen, J. W.

    2002-11-01

    We report preliminary results from studies of biological effects induced by non-thermal levels of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation. Exponentially growing Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells grown on dry media were exposed to electromagnetic fields in the 200-350 GHz frequency range at low power density to observe possible non-thermal effects on the microcolony growth. Exposure to the electromagnetic field was conducted over 2.5 h. The data from exposure and control experiments were grouped into either large-, medium- or small-sized microcolonies to assist in the accurate assessment of growth. The three groups showed significant differences in growth between exposed and control microcolonies. A statistically significant enhanced growth rate was observed at 341 GHz. Growth rate was assessed every 30 min via time-lapse photography. Possible interaction mechanisms are discussed, taking into account Frohlich's hypothesis.

  9. Preliminary results on the non-thermal effects of 200-350 GHz radiation on the growth rate of S. cerevisiae cells in microcolonies

    Hadjiloucas, S; Chahal, M S; Bowen, J W [Department of Cybernetics, University of Reading, Whiteknights, RG6 6AY, Berkshire (United Kingdom)

    2002-11-07

    We report preliminary results from studies of biological effects induced by non-thermal levels of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation. Exponentially growing Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells grown on dry media were exposed to electromagnetic fields in the 200-350 GHz frequency range at low power density to observe possible non-thermal effects on the microcolony growth. Exposure to the electromagnetic field was conducted over 2.5 h. The data from exposure and control experiments were grouped into either large-, medium- or small-sized microcolonies to assist in the accurate assessment of growth. The three groups showed significant differences in growth between exposed and control microcolonies. A statistically significant enhanced growth rate was observed at 341 GHz. Growth rate was assessed every 30 min via time-lapse photography. Possible interaction mechanisms are discussed, taking into account Frohlich's hypothesis.

  10. FY 2000 report on the results of the technology development of energy use reduced machine tools, etc. Development of the linear motor system for realization of energy conservation and commercialization; 2000 nendo energy shiyo gorika kosaku kiki nado gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Shoeneka to jitsuyoka wo jitsugensuru linear motor system no kaihatsu

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    In relation to the drive system of machine tools widely used as production facilities for automobiles, home electric appliances, etc., the R and D were made of a high efficiency linear motor system of which attention was paid to energy rationalization and environmental loads, and the FY 2000 results were summed up. In the study of the development of the system, studies were made not only on the lowering of heating, cost reduction and heightening of speed, but on the mechanism and control by which machine natural vibration can relatively be cut off, technology of damping for cutting vibration, technology to meet the deformation, etc. by cutting loads, sliding loads, and acceleration of accelerating/decelerating, technology to reduce the machine weight, etc. In the study of the basic technology of linear motor, the finite element method analysis was conducted on the typical linear motor. Concerning the control system, specs were studied which can deal with natural vibration and cutting vibration of the machine system. As to the development of the steel scale type linear encoder, scale sample for evaluation of basic characteristics was designed/trially manufactured. In the study of the detection optical system, the design/trial manufacture of photodiode array were made. (NEDO)

  11. Maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy and childhood growth and overweight: results from a large Norwegian prospective observational cohort study.

    Papadopoulou, Eleni; Botton, Jérémie; Brantsæter, Anne-Lise; Haugen, Margaretha; Alexander, Jan; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Bacelis, Jonas; Elfvin, Anders; Jacobsson, Bo; Sengpiel, Verena

    2018-04-23

    To study the association between maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy and the child's weight gain and overweight risk up to 8 years. Prospective nationwide pregnancy cohort. The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. A total of 50 943 mothers recruited from 2002 to 2008 and their children, after singleton pregnancies, with information about average caffeine intake assessed at mid-pregnancy. Child's body size information at 11 age points from 6 weeks to 8 years. We defined excess growth in infancy as a WHO weight gain z-score of >0.67 from birth to age 1 year, and overweight according to the International Obesity Task Force. We used a growth model to assess individual growth trajectories. Compared with pregnant women with low caffeine intake (200 mg/day had consistently higher weight. Very high caffeine exposures were associated with higher weight gain velocity from infancy to age 8 years. Any caffeine consumption during pregnancy is associated with a higher risk of excess infant growth and of childhood overweight, mainly at preschool ages. Maternal caffeine intake may modify the overall weight growth trajectory of the child from birth to 8 years. This study adds supporting evidence for the current advice to reduce caffeine intake during pregnancy. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Rosette growth of shoots in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev) as a result of in vitro propagation of plants and gamma irradiation used for mutation induction

    Jerzy, M.; Zalewska, M.; Lema, J.

    1999-01-01

    Rosette growth of chrysanthemum shoots in 'Mrs. R.C. Puling' was observed after in vitro propagation with explants obtained from vernalised and non-vernalised stock plants. The phenomenon was also observed as a result of the exposure of leaf explants to gamma radiation used for in vitro regeneration of plants in mutation induction. The higher the irradiation dose, the more considerable the rosette growth. Following the 4th pinching of shoot tips, only elongating growth of plants was observed

  13. Full non-linear treatment of the global thermospheric wind system. I - Mathematical method and analysis of forces. II - Results and comparison with observations

    Blum, P. W.; Harris, I.

    1975-01-01

    The equations of horizontal motion of the neutral atmosphere between 120 and 500 km are integrated with the inclusion of all nonlinear terms of the convective derivative and the viscous forces due to vertical and horizontal velocity gradients. Empirical models of the distribution of neutral and charged particles are assumed to be known. The model of velocities developed is a steady state model. In Part I the mathematical method used in the integration of the Navier-Stokes equations is described and the various forces are analyzed. Results of the method given in Part I are presented with comparison with previous calculations and observations of upper atmospheric winds. Conclusions are that nonlinear effects are only significant in the equatorial region, especially at solstice conditions and that nonlinear effects do not produce any superrotation.

  14. Growth hormone (GH)-independent dimerization of GH receptor by a leucine zipper results in constitutive activation

    Behncken, S N; Billestrup, Nils; Brown, R

    2000-01-01

    Growth hormone initiates signaling by inducing homodimerization of two GH receptors. Here, we have sought to determine whether constitutively active receptor can be created in the absence of the extracellular domain by substituting it with high affinity leucine zippers to create dimers of the gro......Growth hormone initiates signaling by inducing homodimerization of two GH receptors. Here, we have sought to determine whether constitutively active receptor can be created in the absence of the extracellular domain by substituting it with high affinity leucine zippers to create dimers...

  15. Linear Algebra and Smarandache Linear Algebra

    Vasantha, Kandasamy

    2003-01-01

    The present book, on Smarandache linear algebra, not only studies the Smarandache analogues of linear algebra and its applications, it also aims to bridge the need for new research topics pertaining to linear algebra, purely in the algebraic sense. We have introduced Smarandache semilinear algebra, Smarandache bilinear algebra and Smarandache anti-linear algebra and their fuzzy equivalents. Moreover, in this book, we have brought out the study of linear algebra and vector spaces over finite p...

  16. Trajectories of Heroin Addiction: Growth Mixture Modeling Results Based on a 33-Year Follow-Up Study

    Hser, Yih-Ing; Huang, David; Chou, Chih-Ping; Anglin, M. Douglas

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates trajectories of heroin use and subsequent consequences in a sample of 471 male heroin addicts who were admitted to the California Civil Addict Program in 1964-1965 and followed over 33 years. Applying a two-part growth mixture modeling strategy to heroin use level during the first 16 years of the addiction careers since…

  17. Maximum growth potential in loblolly pine: results from a 47-year-old spacing study in Hawaii

    Lisa J. Samuelson; Thomas L. Eberhardt; John R. Butnor; Tom A. Stokes; Kurt H. Johnsen

    2010-01-01

    Growth, allocation to woody root biomass, wood properties, leaf physiology, and shoot morphology were examined in a 47-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) density trial located in Maui, Hawaii, to determine if stands continued to carry the high density, basal area, and volume reported at younger ages and to identify potential factors controlling...

  18. Existence and nonexistence results for a singular boundary value problem arising in the theory of epitaxial growth

    Escudero, C.; Hakl, Robert; Peral, I.; Torres, P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 6 (2014), s. 793-807 ISSN 0170-4214 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : singular boundary value problem * epitaxial growth * radial solution Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.918, year: 2014 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/mma.2836/full

  19. Modeling of metal thin film growth: Linking angstrom-scale molecular dynamics results to micron-scale film topographies

    Hansen, U.; Rodgers, S.; Jensen, K. F.

    2000-07-01

    A general method for modeling ionized physical vapor deposition is presented. As an example, the method is applied to growth of an aluminum film in the presence of an ionized argon flux. Molecular dynamics techniques are used to examine the surface adsorption, reflection, and sputter reactions taking place during ionized physical vapor deposition. We predict their relative probabilities and discuss their dependence on energy and incident angle. Subsequently, we combine the information obtained from molecular dynamics with a line of sight transport model in a two-dimensional feature, incorporating all effects of reemission and resputtering. This provides a complete growth rate model that allows inclusion of energy- and angular-dependent reaction rates. Finally, a level-set approach is used to describe the morphology of the growing film. We thus arrive at a computationally highly efficient and accurate scheme to model the growth of thin films. We demonstrate the capabilities of the model predicting the major differences on Al film topographies between conventional and ionized sputter deposition techniques studying thin film growth under ionized physical vapor deposition conditions with different Ar fluxes.

  20. Linear induction motor

    Barkman, W.E.; Adams, W.Q.; Berrier, B.R.

    1978-01-01

    A linear induction motor has been operated on a test bed with a feedback pulse resolution of 5 nm (0.2 μin). Slewing tests with this slide drive have shown positioning errors less than or equal to 33 nm (1.3 μin) at feedrates between 0 and 25.4 mm/min (0-1 ipm). A 0.86-m (34-in)-stroke linear motor is being investigated, using the SPACO machine as a test bed. Initial results were encouraging, and work is continuing to optimize the servosystem compensation

  1. Modeling effects of cadmium on population growth of Palaemonetes pugio: Results of a full life cycle exposure

    Manyin, Teresa; Rowe, Christopher L.

    2008-01-01

    In an 8-month laboratory experiment, Palaemonetes pugio (grass shrimp) were exposed to aqueous cadmium (free cadmium ion concentrations of 1.51 or 2.51 μg Cd 2+ /L) for an entire life cycle, from larva to reproductive adult and through to production of second-generation larva. Individual-level effects on survival, life stage duration, and reproduction were measured, and population growth was projected using two models: a stage-based matrix model and a z-transformed life cycle graph analysis. Adult survival was significantly reduced at 2.51 μg Cd 2+ /L, but cadmium exposure had no effects on survival or stage duration of embryos, larvae, or juveniles. Survival of second-generation larvae was unaffected by maternal exposure. Brood size was reduced by 27% at 1.51 μg Cd 2+ /L and by 36% at 2.51 μg Cd 2+ /L. The percent of females in the population that was gravid was approximately 50% lower at 2.51 μg Cd 2+ /L, compared to controls. Both population models projected a dose-dependent decrease in population growth rate (λ), up to a 12% reduction at 2.51 μg Cd 2+ /L, which can be attributed mainly to contributions from reproductive effects. Elasticity analysis revealed that population growth rate was most sensitive to changes in survival of juveniles and adults. However, lethal effects of cadmium made only a small contribution to the effect on population growth rate. Even though both models project positive growth (λ > 1) of grass shrimp populations exposed to low concentrations of cadmium, the ability of populations to withstand predation pressure would be compromised

  2. Modeling effects of cadmium on population growth of Palaemonetes pugio: Results of a full life cycle exposure

    Manyin, Teresa [University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, Chesapeake Biological Laboratory, PO Box 38, 1 Williams Street, Solomons, MD 20688 (United States)], E-mail: manyin@cbl.umces.edu; Rowe, Christopher L. [University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, Chesapeake Biological Laboratory, PO Box 38, 1 Williams Street, Solomons, MD 20688 (United States)

    2008-06-23

    In an 8-month laboratory experiment, Palaemonetes pugio (grass shrimp) were exposed to aqueous cadmium (free cadmium ion concentrations of 1.51 or 2.51 {mu}g Cd{sup 2+}/L) for an entire life cycle, from larva to reproductive adult and through to production of second-generation larva. Individual-level effects on survival, life stage duration, and reproduction were measured, and population growth was projected using two models: a stage-based matrix model and a z-transformed life cycle graph analysis. Adult survival was significantly reduced at 2.51 {mu}g Cd{sup 2+}/L, but cadmium exposure had no effects on survival or stage duration of embryos, larvae, or juveniles. Survival of second-generation larvae was unaffected by maternal exposure. Brood size was reduced by 27% at 1.51 {mu}g Cd{sup 2+}/L and by 36% at 2.51 {mu}g Cd{sup 2+}/L. The percent of females in the population that was gravid was approximately 50% lower at 2.51 {mu}g Cd{sup 2+}/L, compared to controls. Both population models projected a dose-dependent decrease in population growth rate ({lambda}), up to a 12% reduction at 2.51 {mu}g Cd{sup 2+}/L, which can be attributed mainly to contributions from reproductive effects. Elasticity analysis revealed that population growth rate was most sensitive to changes in survival of juveniles and adults. However, lethal effects of cadmium made only a small contribution to the effect on population growth rate. Even though both models project positive growth ({lambda} > 1) of grass shrimp populations exposed to low concentrations of cadmium, the ability of populations to withstand predation pressure would be compromised.

  3. Linear mass reflectron

    Mamyrin, B.A.; Shmikk, D.V.

    1979-01-01

    A description and operating principle of a linear mass reflectron with V-form trajectory of ion motion -a new non-magnetic time-of-flight mass spectrometer with high resolution are presented. The ion-optical system of the device consists of an ion source with ionization by electron shock, of accelerating gaps, reflector gaps, a drift space and ion detector. Ions move in the linear mass refraction along the trajectories parallel to the axis of the analyzer chamber. The results of investigations into the experimental device are given. With an ion drift length of 0.6 m the device resolution is 1200 with respect to the peak width at half-height. Small-sized mass spectrometric transducers with high resolution and sensitivity may be designed on the base of the linear mass reflectron principle

  4. Theory of linear operations

    Banach, S

    1987-01-01

    This classic work by the late Stefan Banach has been translated into English so as to reach a yet wider audience. It contains the basics of the algebra of operators, concentrating on the study of linear operators, which corresponds to that of the linear forms a1x1 + a2x2 + ... + anxn of algebra.The book gathers results concerning linear operators defined in general spaces of a certain kind, principally in Banach spaces, examples of which are: the space of continuous functions, that of the pth-power-summable functions, Hilbert space, etc. The general theorems are interpreted in various mathematical areas, such as group theory, differential equations, integral equations, equations with infinitely many unknowns, functions of a real variable, summation methods and orthogonal series.A new fifty-page section (``Some Aspects of the Present Theory of Banach Spaces'''') complements this important monograph.

  5. Dimension of linear models

    Høskuldsson, Agnar

    1996-01-01

    Determination of the proper dimension of a given linear model is one of the most important tasks in the applied modeling work. We consider here eight criteria that can be used to determine the dimension of the model, or equivalently, the number of components to use in the model. Four of these cri......Determination of the proper dimension of a given linear model is one of the most important tasks in the applied modeling work. We consider here eight criteria that can be used to determine the dimension of the model, or equivalently, the number of components to use in the model. Four...... the basic problems in determining the dimension of linear models. Then each of the eight measures are treated. The results are illustrated by examples....

  6. Among-tree variability and feedback effects result in different growth responses to climate change at the upper treeline in the Swiss Alps.

    Jochner, Matthias; Bugmann, Harald; Nötzli, Magdalena; Bigler, Christof

    2017-10-01

    Upper treeline ecotones are important life form boundaries and particularly sensitive to a warming climate. Changes in growth conditions at these ecotones have wide-ranging implications for the provision of ecosystem services in densely populated mountain regions like the European Alps. We quantify climate effects on short- and long-term tree growth responses, focusing on among-tree variability and potential feedback effects. Although among-tree variability is thought to be substantial, it has not been considered systematically yet in studies on growth-climate relationships. We compiled tree-ring data including almost 600 trees of major treeline species ( Larix decidua , Picea abies , Pinus cembra , and Pinus mugo ) from three climate regions of the Swiss Alps. We further acquired tree size distribution data using unmanned aerial vehicles. To account for among-tree variability, we employed information-theoretic model selections based on linear mixed-effects models (LMMs) with flexible choice of monthly temperature effects on growth. We isolated long-term trends in ring-width indices (RWI) in interaction with elevation. The LMMs revealed substantial amounts of previously unquantified among-tree variability, indicating different strategies of single trees regarding when and to what extent to invest assimilates into growth. Furthermore, the LMMs indicated strongly positive temperature effects on growth during short summer periods across all species, and significant contributions of fall ( L. decidua ) and current year's spring ( L. decidua , P. abies ). In the longer term, all species showed consistently positive RWI trends at highest elevations, but different patterns with decreasing elevation. L. decidua exhibited even negative RWI trends compared to the highest treeline sites, whereas P. abies , P. cembra , and P. mugo showed steeper or flatter trends with decreasing elevation. This does not only reflect effects of ameliorated climate conditions on tree

  7. Long-term growth responses of ash addition and liming - Preliminary results from a pilot study; Laangtidseffekter paa skogsproduktion efter askaaterfoering och kalkning - Preliminaera resultat fraan en pilotstudie

    Sikstroem, Ulf; Jacobson, Staffan (Skogsbrukets Forskningsinstitut (Skogforsk), Uppsala Science Park, SE-751 83 Uppsala (Sweden)); Johansson, Ulf (Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, The Unit for field-based forest research, Box 17, SE-310 38 Simlaangsdalen (Sweden)); Kukkola, Mikko; Saarsalmi, Anna (Metla, P.O. Box 18, FIN-01301 Vantaa (Finland)); Holt-Hansen, Kjersti (Norsk Institutt for skog og landskap, P.B. 115, NO-1431 Aas (Norway))

    2009-04-15

    Under this pilot study with preliminary results revealed trends in the experimental material which indicated that the addition of ashes or lime in the coniferous forest on mineral soil can lead to reduced stem growth on land with low fertility, unchanged stem growth in medium productive land, while growth may increase land with high fertility. This applied to both periods of 5-15 years and in the longer term (17-23 years; lime). Hence, the hypothesis, regarding the growth being dependent on soil fertility expressed as fertility, could not be rejected. However, previously reported indications of a similar connection with the C/N ratio in the humus was not confirmed in this first evaluation of the material

  8. Military Expenditure, Threats, and Growth

    Aizenman, Joshua; Glick, Reuven

    2003-01-01

    This paper clarifies one of the puzzling results of the economic growth literature: the impact of military expenditure is frequently found to be non-significant or negative, yet most countries spend a large fraction of their GDP on defense and the military. We start by empirical evaluation of the non- linear interactions between military expenditure, external threats, corruption, and other relevant controls. While growth falls with higher levels of military spending, given the values of the o...

  9. Models of Hawaiian volcano growth and plume structure: Implications of results from the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project

    DePaolo, D. J.; Stolper, E. M.

    1996-01-01

    The shapes of typical Hawaiian volcanoes are simply parameterized, and a relationship is derived for the dependence of lava accumulation rates on volcano volume and volumetric growth rate. The dependence of lava accumulation rate on time is derived by estimating the eruption rate of a volcano as it traverses the Hawaiian plume, with the eruption rate determined from a specified radial dependence of magma generation in the plume and assuming that a volcano captures melt from a circular area ce...

  10. RESULTS OF LONG-TERM THERAPY WITH GROWTH-HORMONE IN 2 DOSE REGIMENS IN TURNER SYNDROME

    NIENHUIS, HE; RONGENWESTERLAKEN, C; WIT, JM; OTTEN, BJ; KEIZERSCHRAMA, SMPFD; DRAYER, NM; DELEMARREVANDEWAAL, HA; VULSMA, T; OOSTDIJK, W; WAELKENS, JJJ

    1993-01-01

    Girls with Turner syndrome were divided according to age (group A 6-12 years, and group B 12-19 years) and human growth hormone (GH) dose regimen (A1 and B1, three injections/week; A2 and B2, six injections/week). All groups responded to GH, 24 IU/M2/week, with an increase in height velocity, though

  11. The Environmental Consequences of Altered Nitrogen Cycling Resulting from Industrial Activity, Agricultural Production, and Population Growth in China

    Xing, G.X.; Zhu, Z.L.

    2001-01-01

    Human activities exerted very little effect on nitrogen (N) cycling in China before 1949. Between 1949 and 1999, however, rapid economic development and population growth led to dramatic changes in anthropogenic reactive N, inputted recycling N, N flux on land, N2O emission, and NH3 volatilization. Consequently, these changes have had a tremendous impact on the environment in China. In the current study, we estimated the amount of atmospheric wet N deposition and N transportation into water b...

  12. Placental pathology, birthweight discordance, and growth restriction in twin pregnancy: results of the ESPRiT Study.

    Kent, Etaoin M; Breathnach, Fionnuala M; Gillan, John E; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; Geary, Michael P; Daly, Sean; Higgins, John R; Hunter, Alyson; Morrison, John J; Burke, Gerard; Higgins, Shane; Carroll, Stephen; Dicker, Patrick; Manning, Fiona; Tully, Elizabeth; Malone, Fergal D

    2012-09-01

    We sought to evaluate the association between placental histological abnormalities and birthweight discordance and growth restriction in twin pregnancies. We performed a multicenter, prospective study of twin pregnancies. Placentas were examined for evidence of infarction, retroplacental hemorrhage, chorangioma, subchorial fibrin, or abnormal villus maturation. Association of placental lesions with chorionicity, birthweight discordance, and growth restriction were assessed. In all, 668 twin pairs were studied, 21.1% monochorionic and 78.9% dichorionic. Histological abnormalities were more frequent in placentas of smaller twins of birthweight discordant pairs (P = .02) and in placentas of small for gestational age infants (P = .0001) when compared to controls. The association of placental abnormalities with both birthweight discordance and small for gestational age was significant for dichorionic twins (P = .01 and .0001, respectively). No such association was seen in monochorionic twins. In a large, prospective, multicenter study, we observed a strong relationship between abnormalities of placental histology and birthweight discordance and growth restriction in dichorionic, but not monochorionic, twin pregnancies. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Endothelial Cell Migration and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression Are the Result of Loss of Breast Tissue Polarity

    Chen, Amy; Cuevas, Ileana; Kenny, Paraic A; Miyake, Hiroshi; Mace, Kimberley; Ghajar, Cyrus; Boudreau, Aaron; Bissell, Mina; Boudreau, Nancy

    2009-05-26

    Recruiting a new blood supply is a rate-limiting step in tumor progression. In a three-dimensional model of breast carcinogenesis, disorganized, proliferative transformed breast epithelial cells express significantly higher expression of angiogenic genes compared with their polarized, growth-arrested nonmalignant counterparts. Elevated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion by malignant cells enhanced recruitment of endothelial cells (EC) in heterotypic cocultures. Significantly, phenotypic reversion of malignant cells via reexpression of HoxD10, which is lost in malignant progression, significantly attenuated VEGF expression in a hypoxia-inducible factor 1{alpha}-independent fashion and reduced EC migration. This was due primarily to restoring polarity: forced proliferation of polarized, nonmalignant cells did not induce VEGF expression and EC recruitment, whereas disrupting the architecture of growth-arrested, reverted cells did. These data show that disrupting cytostructure activates the angiogenic switch even in the absence of proliferation and/or hypoxia and restoring organization of malignant clusters reduces VEGF expression and EC activation to levels found in quiescent nonmalignant epithelium. These data confirm the importance of tissue architecture and polarity in malignant progression.

  14. Acoustic emission linear pulse holography

    Collins, H.D.; Busse, L.J.; Lemon, D.K.

    1983-10-25

    This device relates to the concept of and means for performing Acoustic Emission Linear Pulse Holography, which combines the advantages of linear holographic imaging and Acoustic Emission into a single non-destructive inspection system. This unique system produces a chronological, linear holographic image of a flaw by utilizing the acoustic energy emitted during crack growth. The innovation is the concept of utilizing the crack-generated acoustic emission energy to generate a chronological series of images of a growing crack by applying linear, pulse holographic processing to the acoustic emission data. The process is implemented by placing on a structure an array of piezoelectric sensors (typically 16 or 32 of them) near the defect location. A reference sensor is placed between the defect and the array.

  15. Structural Health Monitoring System Trade Space Analysis Tool with Consideration for Crack Growth, Sensor Degradation and a Variable Detection Threshold

    2014-09-18

    Fatigue crack growth ..................................................................................................25 Probability of detection...32 Figure 5: Fatigue crack growth simulation results for 10 runs .............................................. 35 Figure 6...43 Figure 10: Linear regression fit of ln() vs. ln( ) data for SHM using PZT sensors (Kuhn, 2009

  16. Calculations of beam dynamics in Sandia linear electron accelerators, 1984

    Poukey, J.W.; Coleman, P.D.

    1985-03-01

    A number of code and analytic studies were made during 1984 which pertain to the Sandia linear accelerators MABE and RADLAC. In this report the authors summarize the important results of the calculations. New results include a better understanding of gap-induced radial oscillations, leakage currents in a typical MABE gas, emittance growth in a beam passing through a series of gaps, some new diocotron results, and the latest diode simulations for both accelerators. 23 references, 30 figures, 1 table

  17. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 ablation in dystrophin-deficient mdx muscles reduces angiogenesis resulting in impaired growth of regenerated muscle fibers.

    Miyazaki, Daigo; Nakamura, Akinori; Fukushima, Kazuhiro; Yoshida, Kunihiro; Takeda, Shin'ichi; Ikeda, Shu-ichi

    2011-05-01

    Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) are a family of endopeptidases classified into subgroups based on substrate preference in normal physiological processes such as embryonic development and tissue remodeling, as well as in various disease processes via degradation of extracellular matrix components. Among the MMPs, MMP-9 and MMP-2 have been reported to be up-regulated in skeletal muscles in the lethal X-linked muscle disorder Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), which is caused by loss of dystrophin. A recent study showed that deletion of the MMP9 gene in mdx, a mouse model for DMD, improved skeletal muscle pathology and function; however, the role of MMP-2 in the dystrophin-deficient muscle is not well known. In this study, we aimed at verifying the role of MMP-2 in the dystrophin-deficient muscle by using mdx mice with genetic ablation of MMP-2 (mdx/MMP-2(-/-)). We found impairment of regenerated muscle fiber growth with reduction of angiogenesis in mdx/MMP-2(-/-) mice at 3 months of age. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), an important angiogenesis-related factor, decreased in mdx/MMP-2(-/-) mice at 3 months of age. MMP-2 had not a critical role in the degradation of dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC) components such as β-dystroglycan and β-sarcoglycan in the regeneration process of the dystrophic muscle. Accordingly, MMP-2 may be essential for growth of regenerated muscle fibers through VEGF-associated angiogenesis in the dystrophin-deficient skeletal muscle.

  18. Dopaminergic agonists that result in ocular growth inhibition also elicit transient increases in choroidal thickness in chicks.

    Nickla, Debora L; Totonelly, Kristen; Dhillon, Balprit

    2010-11-01

    The dopaminergic system has been implicated in ocular growth regulation in chicks and monkeys. In both, dopamine D2 agonists inhibit the development of myopia in response to form deprivation, and in chicks, to negative lenses as well. Because there is mounting evidence that the choroidal response to defocus plays a role in ocular growth regulation, we asked whether the effective agonists also elicit transient thickening of the choroid concomitant with the growth inhibition. Negative lenses mounted on velcro rings were worn on one eye starting at age 8-12 days. Intravitreal injections (20 μl; dose = 10 nmole) of the agonist (dissolved in saline) or saline, were given through the superior temporal sclera using a 30G needle. Eyes were injected daily at noon, for 4 days, and the lenses immediately replaced. Agonists used were apomorphine (non-specific; n = 17), quinpirole (D2; n = 10), SKF-38393 (D1; n = 9), and saline controls (n = 22). For the antagonists, the same protocol was used, but on each day, the lenses were removed for 2 h. Immediately prior to lens-removal, the antagonist was injected (20 μl; dose = 5 nmole). Antagonists used were methylergonovine (non-specific; n = 12), spiperone (D2; n = 20), SCH-23390 (D1; n = 6) and saline controls (n = 27). Comparisons to saline (continuous lens wear) controls were from the agonist experiment. Axial dimensions were measured using high frequency A-scan ultrasonography at the start of lens wear, and on day 4 prior to the injections, and then again 3 h later. Refractive errors were measured using a Hartinger's refractometer at the end of the experiment. Apomorphine and quinpirole inhibited the refractive response to the hyperopic defocus induced by the negative lenses (drug vs saline controls: -1.3 and 1.2 D vs -5.6 D; p effect was axial: both drugs prevented the excessive ocular elongation (change in axial length: 233 and 205 μm vs 417 μm; p effects of periods of vision on lens

  19. Delayed puberty caused by hyperthyroidism in ram lambs is not a result of suppression in body growth.

    Chandrasekhar, Y; D'Occhio, M J; Setchell, B P

    1986-03-01

    Over a period of 8 weeks ram lambs (16 weeks old) were made hyperthyroidal (serum thyroxine approximately equal to 150 ng/ml, compared with control approximately equal to 48 ng/ml) by daily subcutaneous injections of thyroxine or maintained at a constant body weight by restriction of the feed intake. Hyperthyroidal and restricted-intake lambs remained at a constant body weight during the period of treatment whilst control rams gained body weight. Testicular growth was normal in restricted-intake lambs but was suppressed in hyperthyroidal animals. Hyperthyroidism, but not feed restriction, was also associated with decrease in LH pulse frequency (1.3 +/- 0.3/12 h compared with controls 4.8 +/- 0.9/12 h. Hyperthyroidal lambs showed normal LH responses to exogenous LHRH. After cessation of treatment testicular growth continued to be suppressed for up to 16 weeks in previously hyperthyroidic rams; thereafter testes began to increase in size but at 30 weeks after treatment were still smaller than those of control rams. It is concluded that elevated thyroxine concentrations directly influence sexual maturation in ram lambs through actions at hypothalamic and/or higher brain centres which control LH secretion. Transient hyperthyroidism during sexual maturation may cause permanent impairment of sexual development.

  20. Bulk Crystal Growth, and High-Resolution X-ray Diffraction Results of LiZnAs Semiconductor Material

    Montag, Benjamin W.; Reichenberger, Michael A.; Sunder, Madhana; Ugorowski, Philip B.; Nelson, Kyle A.; Henson, Luke C.; McGregor, Douglas S.

    2017-08-01

    LiZnAs is being explored as a candidate for solid-state neutron detectors. The compact form, solid-state device would have greater efficiency than present day gas-filled 3He and 10BF3 detectors. Devices fabricated from LiZnAs having either natural Li (nominally 7.5% 6Li) or enriched 6Li (usually 95% 6Li) as constituent atoms may provide a material for compact high efficiency neutron detectors. The 6Li( n, t)4He reaction yields a total Q-value of 4.78 MeV, an energy larger than that of the 10B reaction, which can easily be identified above background radiations. LiZnAs material was synthesized by preparing equimolar portions of Li, Zn, and As sealed under vacuum (10-6 Torr) in quartz ampoules lined with boron nitride and subsequently reacted in a compounding furnace (Montag et al. in J Cryst Growth 412:103, 2015). The raw synthesized LiZnAs was purified by a static vacuum sublimation in quartz (Montag et al. in J Cryst Growth 438:99, 2016). Bulk crystalline LiZnAs ingots were grown from the purified material with a high-temperature Bridgman-style growth process described here. One of the largest LiZnAs ingots harvested was 9.6 mm in diameter and 4.2 mm in length. Samples were harvested from the ingot and were characterized for crystallinity using a Bruker AXS Inc. D8 AXS Inc. D2 CRYSO, energy dispersive x-ray diffractometer, and a Bruker AXS Inc. D8 DISCOVER, high-resolution x-ray diffractometer equipped with molybdenum radiation, Gobel mirror, four bounce germanium monochromator and a scintillation detector. The primary beam divergence was determined to be 0.004°, using a single crystal Si standard. The x-ray based characterization revealed that the samples nucleated in the (110) direction and a high-resolution open detector rocking curve recorded on the (220) LiZnAs yielded a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 0.235°. Sectional pole figures using off-axis reflections of the (211) LiZnAs confirmed in-plane ordering, and also indicated the presence of multiple

  1. A randomized controlled clinical trial of growth hormone in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: clinical, neuroimaging, and hormonal results.

    Saccà, Francesco; Quarantelli, Mario; Rinaldi, Carlo; Tucci, Tecla; Piro, Raffaele; Perrotta, Gaetano; Carotenuto, Barbara; Marsili, Angela; Palma, Vincenzo; De Michele, Giuseppe; Brunetti, Arturo; Brescia Morra, Vincenzo; Filla, Alessandro; Salvatore, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurological disease with motor neuron degeneration. Riluzole is the only available treatment. Two-thirds of ALS patients present with growth hormone (GH) deficiency. The aim of this study is to determine if add-on of GH to riluzole, with an individually regulated dose based on Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) production, was able to reduce neuronal loss in the motor cortex, reduce mortality, and improve motor function of ALS patients. Patients with definite/probable ALS, in treatment with riluzole, aged 40-85 years, and with disease duration ≤3 years were enrolled. The study was randomized, placebo controlled, and double blind. Before treatment, patients were tested with a GH releasing hormone (GHRH) + arginine test. The initial dose of GH was 2 IU s.c. every other day, and was progressively increased to a maximum of 8 IU. Primary endpoint was N-acetylaspartate/(creatine + choline) (NAA/Cre + Cho) ratio in motor cortex assessed by magnetic resonance spectroscopy performed at months 0, 6, and 12. Secondary endpoints were mortality and ALS functional rating scale revised (ALSFRS-R). The NAA/(Cre + Cho) ratio decreased in all patients who completed the trial. No significant difference was noted between treated and placebo group. At baseline, although IGF-I levels were within the normal range, 73% of patients had GH deficiency, being severe in half of them. Compared with bulbar onset, spinal-onset patients showed more depressed GH response to the GHRH + arginine stimulation test (10.4 ± 7.0 versus 15.5 ± 8.1 ng/mL; p growth factor (IGF) binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) decreased from 8,435 ± 4,477 ng/mL at baseline to 3,250 ± 1,780 ng/mL at 12 months (p deficit, with higher levels in the bulbar-onset group. During follow-up, patients showed progressive increase in HOMA-IR and decrease in IGFBP-3 levels.

  2. In vitro colonic metabolism of coffee and chlorogenic acid results in selective changes in human faecal microbiota growth.

    Mills, Charlotte E; Tzounis, Xenofon; Oruna-Concha, Maria-Jose; Mottram, Don S; Gibson, Glenn R; Spencer, Jeremy P E

    2015-04-28

    Coffee is a relatively rich source of chlorogenic acids (CGA), which, as other polyphenols, have been postulated to exert preventive effects against CVD and type 2 diabetes. As a considerable proportion of ingested CGA reaches the large intestine, CGA may be capable of exerting beneficial effects in the large gut. Here, we utilise a stirred, anaerobic, pH-controlled, batch culture fermentation model of the distal region of the colon in order to investigate the impact of coffee and CGA on the growth of the human faecal microbiota. Incubation of coffee samples with the human faecal microbiota led to the rapid metabolism of CGA (4 h) and the production of dihydrocaffeic acid and dihydroferulic acid, while caffeine remained unmetabolised. The coffee with the highest levels of CGA (Pspp. relative to the control vessel at 10 h after exposure (Pspp. (PEubacterium rectale group (P<0·05). This selective metabolism and subsequent amplification of specific bacterial populations could be beneficial to host health.

  3. Non linear viscoelastic models

    Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2011-01-01

    Viscoelastic eects are often present in loudspeaker suspensions, this can be seen in the displacement transfer function which often shows a frequency dependent value below the resonance frequency. In this paper nonlinear versions of the standard linear solid model (SLS) are investigated....... The simulations show that the nonlinear version of the Maxwell SLS model can result in a time dependent small signal stiness while the Kelvin Voight version does not....

  4. Elementary linear programming with applications

    Kolman, Bernard

    1995-01-01

    Linear programming finds the least expensive way to meet given needs with available resources. Its results are used in every area of engineering and commerce: agriculture, oil refining, banking, and air transport. Authors Kolman and Beck present the basic notions of linear programming and illustrate how they are used to solve important common problems. The software on the included disk leads students step-by-step through the calculations. The Second Edition is completely revised and provides additional review material on linear algebra as well as complete coverage of elementary linear program

  5. Coral growth rates revisited after 31 years: what is causing lower extension rates in Acropora palmata?

    Bak, R.P.M.; Nieuwland, G.; Meesters, H.W.G.

    2009-01-01

    Linear extension of branches in the same Acropora palmata (Lamarck, 1816) population in Curaçao was measured, employing exactly the same methods, in 1971-1973 and in 2002-2004, and the resulting coral growth rates are compared. Linear growth shows the same pattern over seasons in both periods with

  6. Fermentation Results in Quantitative Changes in Milk-Derived Exosomes and Different Effects on Cell Growth and Survival.

    Yu, Siran; Zhao, Zhehao; Sun, Liming; Li, Ping

    2017-02-15

    The discovery of microRNAs encapsulated in milk-derived exosomes has revealed stability under extreme conditions reflecting the protection of membranes. We attempted to determine the variations in nanoparticles derived from milk after fermentation, and provide evidence to determine the effects of these exosomes on cells with potential bioactivity. Using scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering, we compared the morphology and particle size distribution of exosomes from yogurt fermented with three different combinations of strains with those from raw milk. The protein content of the exosome was significantly reduced in fermented milk. The cycle threshold showed that the expression of miR-29b and miR-21 was relatively high in raw milk, indicating a loss of microRNA after fermentation. Milk-derived exosomes could promote cell growth and activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. These findings demonstrated biological functions in milk exosomes and provided new insight into the nutrient composition of dairy products.

  7. Longitudinal interrelationships between frequent geographic relocation and personality development: results from the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study.

    Lin, Kuan-Chia; Twisk, Jos W R; Rong, Jiin-Ru

    2011-04-01

    This study is part of the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study, which was undertaken to assess the long-term interrelationships between cumulative frequency of geographic relocation (CFGR) and the development of personality characteristics (i.e., Inadequacy, Rigidity, Social Inadequacy, Dominance, Self-sufficiency, Self-esteem, and Hostility). We found that participants who had more mobility experiences had lower consistency in their personality characteristics (the exception being Rigidity). Residential mobility from different life stages was positively associated with the continuity and change of Inadequacy and Dominance. In addition, young adults with higher Rigidity personality experienced fewer geographic moves during the transition from young adulthood to mid-life. Our study provides evidence that CFGR in different life stages may be associated with the development of personality characteristics from young adulthood to mid-life in different ways. Increased awareness of the potential interrelationships between frequent geographic relocation and personality development may have positive consequences for adult psychological health. © 2011 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  8. Linear Water Waves

    Kuznetsov, N.; Maz'ya, V.; Vainberg, B.

    2002-08-01

    This book gives a self-contained and up-to-date account of mathematical results in the linear theory of water waves. The study of waves has many applications, including the prediction of behavior of floating bodies (ships, submarines, tension-leg platforms etc.), the calculation of wave-making resistance in naval architecture, and the description of wave patterns over bottom topography in geophysical hydrodynamics. The first section deals with time-harmonic waves. Three linear boundary value problems serve as the approximate mathematical models for these types of water waves. The next section uses a plethora of mathematical techniques in the investigation of these three problems. The techniques used in the book include integral equations based on Green's functions, various inequalities between the kinetic and potential energy and integral identities which are indispensable for proving the uniqueness theorems. The so-called inverse procedure is applied to constructing examples of non-uniqueness, usually referred to as 'trapped nodes.'

  9. Dimension of linear models

    Høskuldsson, Agnar

    1996-01-01

    Determination of the proper dimension of a given linear model is one of the most important tasks in the applied modeling work. We consider here eight criteria that can be used to determine the dimension of the model, or equivalently, the number of components to use in the model. Four...... the basic problems in determining the dimension of linear models. Then each of the eight measures are treated. The results are illustrated by examples....... of these criteria are widely used ones, while the remaining four are ones derived from the H-principle of mathematical modeling. Many examples from practice show that the criteria derived from the H-principle function better than the known and popular criteria for the number of components. We shall briefly review...

  10. Linear waves and instabilities

    Bers, A.

    1975-01-01

    The electrodynamic equations for small-amplitude waves and their dispersion relation in a homogeneous plasma are outlined. For such waves, energy and momentum, and their flow and transformation, are described. Perturbation theory of waves is treated and applied to linear coupling of waves, and the resulting instabilities from such interactions between active and passive waves. Linear stability analysis in time and space is described where the time-asymptotic, time-space Green's function for an arbitrary dispersion relation is developed. The perturbation theory of waves is applied to nonlinear coupling, with particular emphasis on pump-driven interactions of waves. Details of the time--space evolution of instabilities due to coupling are given. (U.S.)

  11. Non-linear osmosis

    Diamond, Jared M.

    1966-01-01

    1. The relation between osmotic gradient and rate of osmotic water flow has been measured in rabbit gall-bladder by a gravimetric procedure and by a rapid method based on streaming potentials. Streaming potentials were directly proportional to gravimetrically measured water fluxes. 2. As in many other tissues, water flow was found to vary with gradient in a markedly non-linear fashion. There was no consistent relation between the water permeability and either the direction or the rate of water flow. 3. Water flow in response to a given gradient decreased at higher osmolarities. The resistance to water flow increased linearly with osmolarity over the range 186-825 m-osM. 4. The resistance to water flow was the same when the gall-bladder separated any two bathing solutions with the same average osmolarity, regardless of the magnitude of the gradient. In other words, the rate of water flow is given by the expression (Om — Os)/[Ro′ + ½k′ (Om + Os)], where Ro′ and k′ are constants and Om and Os are the bathing solution osmolarities. 5. Of the theories advanced to explain non-linear osmosis in other tissues, flow-induced membrane deformations, unstirred layers, asymmetrical series-membrane effects, and non-osmotic effects of solutes could not explain the results. However, experimental measurements of water permeability as a function of osmolarity permitted quantitative reconstruction of the observed water flow—osmotic gradient curves. Hence non-linear osmosis in rabbit gall-bladder is due to a decrease in water permeability with increasing osmolarity. 6. The results suggest that aqueous channels in the cell membrane behave as osmometers, shrinking in concentrated solutions of impermeant molecules and thereby increasing membrane resistance to water flow. A mathematical formulation of such a membrane structure is offered. PMID:5945254

  12. Novel GALNT3 mutations causing hyperostosis-hyperphosphatemia syndrome result in low intact fibroblast growth factor 23 concentrations.

    Ichikawa, Shoji; Guigonis, Vincent; Imel, Erik A; Courouble, Mélanie; Heissat, Sophie; Henley, John D; Sorenson, Andrea H; Petit, Barbara; Lienhardt, Anne; Econs, Michael J

    2007-05-01

    Hyperostosis-hyperphosphatemia syndrome (HHS) is a rare metabolic disorder characterized by hyperphosphatemia and localized hyperostosis. HHS is caused by mutations in GALNT3, which encodes UDP-N-acetyl-alpha-D-galactosamine:polypeptide N- acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 3. Familial tumoral calcinosis (TC), characterized by ectopic calcifications and hyperphosphatemia, is caused by mutations in the GALNT3 or fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) genes. Our objective was to identify mutations in FGF23 or GALNT3 and determine serum FGF23 levels in an HHS patient. Mutation detection in FGF23 and GALNT3 was performed by DNA sequencing, and serum FGF23 concentrations were measured by ELISA. A 5-year-old French boy with HHS and his family members participated. The patient presented with painful cortical lesions in his leg. Radiographs of the affected bone showed diaphyseal hyperostosis. The lesional tissue comprised trabeculae of immature, woven bone surrounded by fibrous tissue. Biochemistry revealed elevated phosphate, tubular maximum rate for phosphate reabsorption per deciliter of glomerular filtrate, and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels. The patient was a compound heterozygote for two novel GALNT3 mutations. His parents and brother were heterozygous for one of the mutations and had no biochemical abnormalities. Intact FGF23 level in the patient was low normal, whereas C-terminal FGF23 was elevated, a pattern similar to TC. The presence of GALNT3 mutations and elevated C-terminal, but low intact serum FGF23, levels in HHS resemble those seen in TC, suggesting that HHS and TC are different manifestations of the same disorder. The absence of biochemical abnormalities in the heterozygous individuals suggests that one normal allele is sufficient for secretion of intact FGF23.

  13. Quality of life and growth after childhood craniopharyngioma: results of the multinational trial KRANIOPHARYNGEOM 2007.

    Heinks, Kerstin; Boekhoff, Svenja; Hoffmann, Anika; Warmuth-Metz, Monika; Eveslage, Maria; Peng, Junxiang; Calaminus, Gabriele; Müller, Hermann L

    2018-02-01

    Quality of life (QoL) after childhood-onset craniopharyngioma (CP) is frequently impaired due to tumor and/or treatment-related factors such as endocrine deficits and hypothalamic involvement/lesions. In a multinational trial, we prospectively analyzed parental and self-assessment of CP patient QoL at 3 months, 1 and 3 years after CP diagnosis related to growth hormone (GH) substitution. 47 of 194 CP recruited between 2007 and 2015 in KRANIOPHARYNGEOM 2007 were analyzed for QoL 1 and 3 years after CP diagnosis. QoL was assessed by Pediatric Quality of Life (PEDQOL) questionnaire and PEDQOL scores of parental and self-assessed QoL during 3 years follow-up after CP diagnosis were analyzed. Parents estimated QoL of their children worse than patients did themselves. GH substitution had no relevant effect on short-term weight and height development. CP patients GH-treated at 3 years follow-up presented at baseline (1 year after diagnosis, before GH substitution) with reduced self-assessed QoL when compared with GH non-treated CP. QoL stabilized during 1-3 years of follow-up in GH-treated patients, whereas non GH-treated patients experienced decreases in autonomy (p = 0.03), cognition (p = 0.01), and physical function (p = 0.04). Parents assess QoL in CP survivors worse than their children. GH substitution should be considered as a therapeutic option to ameliorate imminent impairments of QoL after CP.

  14. Leukocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF) for long-term delivery of growth factor in rotator cuff repair: review, preliminary results and future directions.

    Zumstein, Matthias A; Berger, Simon; Schober, Martin; Boileau, Pascal; Nyffeler, Richard W; Horn, Michael; Dahinden, Clemens A

    2012-06-01

    Surgical repair of the rotator cuff repair is one of the most common procedures in orthopedic surgery. Despite it being the focus of much research, the physiological tendon-bone insertion is not recreated following repair and there is an anatomic non-healing rate of up to 94%. During the healing phase, several growth factors are upregulated that induce cellular proliferation and matrix deposition. Subsequently, this provisional matrix is replaced by the definitive matrix. Leukocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF) contain growth factors and has a stable dense fibrin matrix. Therefore, use of LPRF in rotator cuff repair is theoretically attractive. The aim of the present study was to determine 1) the optimal protocol to achieve the highest leukocyte content; 2) whether L-PRF releases growth factors in a sustained manner over 28 days; 3) whether standard/gelatinous or dry/compressed matrix preparation methods result in higher growth factor concentrations. 1) The standard L-PRF centrifugation protocol with 400 x g showed the highest concentration of platelets and leukocytes. 2) The L-PRF clots cultured in medium showed a continuous slow release with an increase in the absolute release of growth factors TGF-β1, VEGF and MPO in the first 7 days, and for IGF1, PDGF-AB and platelet activity (PF4=CXCL4) in the first 8 hours, followed by a decrease to close to zero at 28 days. Significantly higher levels of growth factor were expressed relative to the control values of normal blood at each culture time point. 3) Except for MPO and the TGFβ-1, there was always a tendency towards higher release of growth factors (i.e., CXCL4, IGF-1, PDGF-AB, and VEGF) in the standard/gelatinous- compared to the dry/compressed group. L-PRF in its optimal standard/gelatinous-type matrix can store and deliver locally specific healing growth factors for up to 28 days and may be a useful adjunct in rotator cuff repair.

  15. Linear algebraic groups

    Springer, T A

    1998-01-01

    "[The first] ten chapters...are an efficient, accessible, and self-contained introduction to affine algebraic groups over an algebraically closed field. The author includes exercises and the book is certainly usable by graduate students as a text or for self-study...the author [has a] student-friendly style… [The following] seven chapters... would also be a good introduction to rationality issues for algebraic groups. A number of results from the literature…appear for the first time in a text." –Mathematical Reviews (Review of the Second Edition) "This book is a completely new version of the first edition. The aim of the old book was to present the theory of linear algebraic groups over an algebraically closed field. Reading that book, many people entered the research field of linear algebraic groups. The present book has a wider scope. Its aim is to treat the theory of linear algebraic groups over arbitrary fields. Again, the author keeps the treatment of prerequisites self-contained. The material of t...

  16. Parametric Linear Dynamic Logic

    Peter Faymonville

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We introduce Parametric Linear Dynamic Logic (PLDL, which extends Linear Dynamic Logic (LDL by temporal operators equipped with parameters that bound their scope. LDL was proposed as an extension of Linear Temporal Logic (LTL that is able to express all ω-regular specifications while still maintaining many of LTL's desirable properties like an intuitive syntax and a translation into non-deterministic Büchi automata of exponential size. But LDL lacks capabilities to express timing constraints. By adding parameterized operators to LDL, we obtain a logic that is able to express all ω-regular properties and that subsumes parameterized extensions of LTL like Parametric LTL and PROMPT-LTL. Our main technical contribution is a translation of PLDL formulas into non-deterministic Büchi word automata of exponential size via alternating automata. This yields a PSPACE model checking algorithm and a realizability algorithm with doubly-exponential running time. Furthermore, we give tight upper and lower bounds on optimal parameter values for both problems. These results show that PLDL model checking and realizability are not harder than LTL model checking and realizability.

  17. The Stanford Linear Collider

    Emma, P.

    1995-01-01

    The Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) is the first and only high-energy e + e - linear collider in the world. Its most remarkable features are high intensity, submicron sized, polarized (e - ) beams at a single interaction point. The main challenges posed by these unique characteristics include machine-wide emittance preservation, consistent high intensity operation, polarized electron production and transport, and the achievement of a high degree of beam stability on all time scales. In addition to serving as an important machine for the study of Z 0 boson production and decay using polarized beams, the SLC is also an indispensable source of hands-on experience for future linear colliders. Each new year of operation has been highlighted with a marked improvement in performance. The most significant improvements for the 1994-95 run include new low impedance vacuum chambers for the damping rings, an upgrade to the optics and diagnostics of the final focus systems, and a higher degree of polarization from the electron source. As a result, the average luminosity has nearly doubled over the previous year with peaks approaching 10 30 cm -2 s -1 and an 80% electron polarization at the interaction point. These developments as well as the remaining identifiable performance limitations will be discussed

  18. Growth and Survival Rate of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Larvae Fed by Daphnia magna Cultured With Organic Fertilizer Resulted From Probiotic Bacteria Fermentation

    Vivi Endar Herawati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Daphnia magna is a potential feed for fish. The aim of this research was to find the best treatment and effect of D. magna culture addition from fermented organic fertilizer, to growth and survival rate of Oreochromis niloticus larvae. There were five treatments, each with three repetitions used in the study. All treatments used chicken dung, and different combinations of rice bran, coconut oilcake waste and tilapia larvae. Feeding on tilapia was given by ad libitum method for five times a day until 14 days. Water quality during the research was maintained at temperature 28–29°C, DO 0.3 ppm and pH 8.1–8.2. Observed variables include relative growth rate, survival rate, food consumption rate and water quality. Our results showed that D. magna cultured by fermented organic fertilizer for tilapia larvae (O. niloticus had high significant effect (p < 0.01 on the relative growth rate and survival rate. Treatment of D. magna cultured by 1.2 g/L chicken manure, 0.9 g/L rice bran and 0.3 g/L coconut oilcake showed the highest value on the relative growth rate (10.86%; survival rate (98.46% and food consumption at first week (106.43% and second week (152.76%.

  19. Condensational Growth of Combination Drug-Excipient Submicrometer Particles for Targeted High Efficiency Pulmonary Delivery: Comparison of CFD Predictions with Experimental Results

    Hindle, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study was to investigate the hygroscopic growth of combination drug and excipient submicrometer aerosols for respiratory drug delivery using in vitro experiments and a newly developed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Methods Submicrometer combination drug and excipient particles were generated experimentally using both the capillary aerosol generator and the Respimat inhaler. Aerosol hygroscopic growth was evaluated in vitro and with CFD in a coiled tube geometry designed to provide residence times and thermodynamic conditions consistent with the airways. Results The in vitro results and CFD predictions both indicated that the initially submicrometer particles increased in mean size to a range of 1.6–2.5 µm for the 50:50 combination of a non-hygroscopic drug (budesonide) and different hygroscopic excipients. CFD results matched the in vitro predictions to within 10% and highlighted gradual and steady size increase of the droplets, which will be effective for minimizing extrathoracic deposition and producing deposition deep within the respiratory tract. Conclusions Enhanced excipient growth (EEG) appears to provide an effective technique to increase pharmaceutical aerosol size, and the developed CFD model will provide a powerful design tool for optimizing this technique to produce high efficiency pulmonary delivery. PMID:21948458

  20. A coupled model approach to reduce nonpoint-source pollution resulting from predicted urban growth: A case study in the Ambos Nogales watershed

    Norman, L.M.; Guertin, D.P.; Feller, M.

    2008-01-01

    The development of new approaches for understanding processes of urban development and their environmental effects, as well as strategies for sustainable management, is essential in expanding metropolitan areas. This study illustrates the potential of linking urban growth and watershed models to identify problem areas and support long-term watershed planning. Sediment is a primary source of nonpoint-source pollution in surface waters. In urban areas, sediment is intermingled with other surface debris in transport. In an effort to forecast the effects of development on surface-water quality, changes predicted in urban areas by the SLEUTH urban growth model were applied in the context of erosion-sedimentation models (Universal Soil Loss Equation and Spatially Explicit Delivery Models). The models are used to simulate the effect of excluding hot-spot areas of erosion and sedimentation from future urban growth and to predict the impacts of alternative erosion-control scenarios. Ambos Nogales, meaning 'both Nogaleses,' is a name commonly used for the twin border cities of Nogales, Arizona and Nogales, Sonora, Mexico. The Ambos Nogales watershed has experienced a decrease in water quality as a result of urban development in the twin-city area. Population growth rates in Ambos Nogales are high and the resources set in place to accommodate the rapid population influx will soon become overburdened. Because of its remote location and binational governance, monitoring and planning across the border is compromised. One scenario described in this research portrays an improvement in water quality through the identification of high-risk areas using models that simulate their protection from development and replanting with native grasses, while permitting the predicted and inevitable growth elsewhere. This is meant to add to the body of knowledge about forecasting the impact potential of urbanization on sediment delivery to streams for sustainable development, which can be

  1. Introduction to generalized linear models

    Dobson, Annette J

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Background Scope Notation Distributions Related to the Normal Distribution Quadratic Forms Estimation Model Fitting Introduction Examples Some Principles of Statistical Modeling Notation and Coding for Explanatory Variables Exponential Family and Generalized Linear Models Introduction Exponential Family of Distributions Properties of Distributions in the Exponential Family Generalized Linear Models Examples Estimation Introduction Example: Failure Times for Pressure Vessels Maximum Likelihood Estimation Poisson Regression Example Inference Introduction Sampling Distribution for Score Statistics Taylor Series Approximations Sampling Distribution for MLEs Log-Likelihood Ratio Statistic Sampling Distribution for the Deviance Hypothesis Testing Normal Linear Models Introduction Basic Results Multiple Linear Regression Analysis of Variance Analysis of Covariance General Linear Models Binary Variables and Logistic Regression Probability Distributions ...

  2. Linear morphoea follows Blaschko's lines.

    Weibel, L; Harper, J I

    2008-07-01

    The aetiology of morphoea (or localized scleroderma) remains unknown. It has previously been suggested that lesions of linear morphoea may follow Blaschko's lines and thus reflect an embryological development. However, the distribution of linear morphoea has never been accurately evaluated. We aimed to identify common patterns of clinical presentation in children with linear morphoea and to establish whether linear morphoea follows the lines of Blaschko. A retrospective chart review of 65 children with linear morphoea was performed. According to clinical photographs the skin lesions of these patients were plotted on to standardized head and body charts. With the aid of Adobe Illustrator a final figure was produced including an overlay of all individual lesions which was used for comparison with the published lines of Blaschko. Thirty-four (53%) patients had the en coup de sabre subtype, 27 (41%) presented with linear morphoea on the trunk and/or limbs and four (6%) children had a combination of the two. In 55 (85%) children the skin lesions were confined to one side of the body, showing no preference for either left or right side. On comparing the overlays of all body and head lesions with the original lines of Blaschko there was an excellent correlation. Our data indicate that linear morphoea follows the lines of Blaschko. We hypothesize that in patients with linear morphoea susceptible cells are present in a mosaic state and that exposure to some trigger factor may result in the development of this condition.

  3. Matlab linear algebra

    Lopez, Cesar

    2014-01-01

    MATLAB is a high-level language and environment for numerical computation, visualization, and programming. Using MATLAB, you can analyze data, develop algorithms, and create models and applications. The language, tools, and built-in math functions enable you to explore multiple approaches and reach a solution faster than with spreadsheets or traditional programming languages, such as C/C++ or Java. MATLAB Linear Algebra introduces you to the MATLAB language with practical hands-on instructions and results, allowing you to quickly achieve your goals. In addition to giving an introduction to

  4. Effects of 60 Hz electromagnetic fields on early growth in three plant species and a replication of previous results

    Davis, M.S. [Univ. of Sunderland (United Kingdom). Ecology Centre

    1996-05-01

    In an attempt to replicate the findings of Smith et al., seeds of Raphanus sativus L. (radish), Sinapsis alba L. (mustard), and Hordeum vulgare L. (barley) were grown for between 9 and 21 days in continuous electromagnetic fields (EMFs) at ion-cyclotron resonance conditions for stimulation of Ca{sup 2+} (B{sub H} = 78.3 {micro}T, B{sub HAC} = 40 {micro}T peak-peak at 60 Hz, B{sub v} = 0). On harvesting, radish showed results similar to those of Smith et al. Dry stem weight and plant height were both significantly greater (Mann-Whitney tests, Ps < 0.05) in EMF-exposed plants than in control plants in each EMF experiment. Wet root weight was significantly greater in EMF-exposed plants in two out of three experiments, as were dry leaf weight, dry whole weight, and stem diameter. Dry root weight, wet leaf weight, and wet whole weight were significantly greater in EMF-exposed plants in one of three experiments. All significant differences indicated an increase in weight or size in the EMF-exposed plants. In each of the sham experiments, no differences between exposed and control plants were evident. Mustard plants failed to respond to the EMFs in any of the plant parameters measured. In one experiment, barley similarly failed to respond; but in another showed significantly greater wet root weight and significantly smaller stem diameter and dry seed weight at the end of the experiment in exposed plants compared to control plants. Although these results give no clue about the underlying bioelectromagnetic mechanism, they demonstrate that, at least for one EMF-sensitive biosystem, results can be independently replicated in another laboratory. Such replication is crucial in establishing the validity of bioelectromagnetic science.

  5. Condensational growth of combination drug-excipient submicrometer particles for targeted high efficiency pulmonary delivery: comparison of CFD predictions with experimental results.

    Longest, P Worth; Hindle, Michael

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the hygroscopic growth of combination drug and excipient submicrometer aerosols for respiratory drug delivery using in vitro experiments and a newly developed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Submicrometer combination drug and excipient particles were generated experimentally using both the capillary aerosol generator and the Respimat inhaler. Aerosol hygroscopic growth was evaluated in vitro and with CFD in a coiled tube geometry designed to provide residence times and thermodynamic conditions consistent with the airways. The in vitro results and CFD predictions both indicated that the initially submicrometer particles increased in mean size to a range of 1.6-2.5 μm for the 50:50 combination of a non-hygroscopic drug (budesonide) and different hygroscopic excipients. CFD results matched the in vitro predictions to within 10% and highlighted gradual and steady size increase of the droplets, which will be effective for minimizing extrathoracic deposition and producing deposition deep within the respiratory tract. Enhanced excipient growth (EEG) appears to provide an effective technique to increase pharmaceutical aerosol size, and the developed CFD model will provide a powerful design tool for optimizing this technique to produce high efficiency pulmonary delivery.

  6. Heterogeneous engineered cartilage growth results from gradients of media-supplemented active TGF-β and is ameliorated by the alternative supplementation of latent TGF-β.

    Albro, Michael B; Nims, Robert J; Durney, Krista M; Cigan, Alexander D; Shim, Jay J; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Hung, Clark T; Ateshian, Gerard A

    2016-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) has become one of the most widely utilized mediators of engineered cartilage growth. It is typically exogenously supplemented in the culture medium in its active form, with the expectation that it will readily transport into tissue constructs through passive diffusion and influence cellular biosynthesis uniformly. The results of this investigation advance three novel concepts regarding the role of TGF-β in cartilage tissue engineering that have important implications for tissue development. First, through the experimental and computational analysis of TGF-β concentration distributions, we demonstrate that, contrary to conventional expectations, media-supplemented exogenous active TGF-β exhibits a pronounced concentration gradient in tissue constructs, resulting from a combination of high-affinity binding interactions and a high cellular internalization rate. These gradients are sustained throughout the entire culture duration, leading to highly heterogeneous tissue growth; biochemical and histological measurements support that while biochemical content is enhanced up to 4-fold at the construct periphery, enhancements are entirely absent beyond 1 mm from the construct surface. Second, construct-encapsulated chondrocytes continuously secrete large amounts of endogenous TGF-β in its latent form, a portion of which undergoes cell-mediated activation and enhances biosynthesis uniformly throughout the tissue. Finally, motivated by these prior insights, we demonstrate that the alternative supplementation of additional exogenous latent TGF-β enhances biosynthesis uniformly throughout tissue constructs, leading to enhanced but homogeneous tissue growth. This novel demonstration suggests that latent TGF-β supplementation may be utilized as an important tool for the translational engineering of large cartilage constructs that will be required to repair the large osteoarthritic defects observed clinically. Copyright © 2015

  7. Areva - 2008 results: yet another year of growth for AREVA; Areva - Resultats 2008: une nouvelle annee de croissance pour AREVA

    NONE

    2009-02-15

    This paper summarizes the 2008 financial results of the Areva group: Backlog: 48.2 billion euros, up 21.1%; Revenue: 13.2 billion euros, up 10.4%; Operating income: - Operating income excluding provision on OL3 contract in Finland: 1,166 million euros, i.e. operating margin of 8.9%; - Additional provision on OL3 contract of 749 million euros; - Operating income: 417 million euros, i.e. operating margin of 3.2%. Net income attributable to equity holders of the parent: 589 million euros, i.e. euros 16.62 per share; Net debt of 3.45 billion euros before recognition of the SIEMENS put; Dividend of euros 7.05 to be proposed during the Annual General Meeting of Shareholders of April 30, 2009. After publication of these figures Siemens announced its decision to withdraw from AREVA NP.

  8. ADAM12 redistributes and activates MMP-14, resulting in gelatin degradation, reduced apoptosis and increased tumor growth

    Albrechtsen, Reidar; Kveiborg, Marie; Hansen, Dorte Stautz

    2013-01-01

    that there is a positive correlation between MMP-14 and ADAM12 expression in human breast cancer. We demonstrated that in 293-VnR and human breast cancer cells expressing ADAM12 at the cell surface, endogenous MMP-14 was recruited to the cell surface, resulting in its activation. Subsequent to this activation, gelatin......Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), in particular MMP-2, MMP-9 and MMP-14, play a key role in various aspects of cancer pathology. Likewise, ADAMs (a disintegrin and metalloproteinases), including ADAM12, are upregulated in malignant tumors and contribute to the pathology of cancers. Here, we show....... Furthermore, orthotopic implantation of ADAM12-expressing MCF7 cells in nude mice produced tumors with increased levels of activated MMP-14 and confirmed that ADAM12 protects tumor cells against apoptosis, leading to increased tumor progression. In conclusion, our data suggest that a ternary protein complex...

  9. Retardo do crescimento e condições sociais em escolares de Osasco, São Paulo, Brasil Linear growth retardation and social factors among schoolchildren from the city of Osasco, São Paulo, Brazil

    Doris Lucia Martini Lei

    1997-04-01

    entering school at the same age, were characterized by a height-for-age index above -1 z score. Socioeconomíc variables such as family income, head-of-family's level of schooling, mother's schooling, environmental sanitation, and housing conditions were significant factors associated with the stunting process. Risk of linear growth retardation tended to be higher with lower social class (odds ratio = 7.3 for sub-proletariat vs. petit bourgeois; p < 0,001 for overall trend, suggesting the biological impact of Brazil's economic slowdown during the 1980s.

  10. Direct growth of cobalt aluminum double hydroxides on graphene nanosheets and the capacitive properties of the resulting composites

    Kim, Yuna; Kim, Seok

    2015-01-01

    We synthesized graphene nanosheets (GNs)/cobalt aluminum (CoAl) double hydroxide composites through a layer-by-layer deposition process while varying the concentration of the graphene precursor used. The CoAl layered double hydroxide particles were uniformly distributed on the surfaces of the graphene layers and effectively prevented the agglomeration of the GNs, resulting in a higher reactive surface area and easier ion transport. We employed X-ray diffraction analysis, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, and field-emission transmission electron microscopy to investigate the microstructures and morphologies of the composites. In addition, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and galvanostatic charge/discharge measurements were performed to analyze the electrochemical behaviors of the composites. The as-prepared composites showed desirable electrochemical characteristics, including high specific capacitances, low resistances, and high cycling stabilities. In particular, the composite formed by optimizing the GNs/CoAl ratio (the electrolyte used was a 6 M aqueous KOH solution) exhibited the maximum specific capacitance, which was 974 F g −1

  11. A linear programming manual

    Tuey, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    Computer solutions of linear programming problems are outlined. Information covers vector spaces, convex sets, and matrix algebra elements for solving simultaneous linear equations. Dual problems, reduced cost analysis, ranges, and error analysis are illustrated.

  12. Linear shaped charge

    Peterson, David; Stofleth, Jerome H.; Saul, Venner W.

    2017-07-11

    Linear shaped charges are described herein. In a general embodiment, the linear shaped charge has an explosive with an elongated arrowhead-shaped profile. The linear shaped charge also has and an elongated v-shaped liner that is inset into a recess of the explosive. Another linear shaped charge includes an explosive that is shaped as a star-shaped prism. Liners are inset into crevices of the explosive, where the explosive acts as a tamper.

  13. Linear-Algebra Programs

    Lawson, C. L.; Krogh, F. T.; Gold, S. S.; Kincaid, D. R.; Sullivan, J.; Williams, E.; Hanson, R. J.; Haskell, K.; Dongarra, J.; Moler, C. B.

    1982-01-01

    The Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS) library is a collection of 38 FORTRAN-callable routines for performing basic operations of numerical linear algebra. BLAS library is portable and efficient source of basic operations for designers of programs involving linear algebriac computations. BLAS library is supplied in portable FORTRAN and Assembler code versions for IBM 370, UNIVAC 1100 and CDC 6000 series computers.

  14. Impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake on feeding methods and newborn growth at 1 month postpartum: results from the Fukushima Health Management Survey

    Kyozuka, Hyo; Yasuda, Shun; Kawamura, Makoto; Nomura, Yasuhisa; Fujimori, Keiya; Goto, Aya; Yasumura, Seiji; Abe, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of three disasters (the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011, followed by a tsunami and the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident) on feeding methods and growth in infants born after the disasters. Using results from the Fukushima Health Management Survey, Soso District (the affected area where the damaged nuclear power plant is located) and Aizu District (a less-affected area located farthest from the plant) were compared. In this study, newborn and maternal background characteristics were examined, as well as feeding methods, and other factors for newborn growth at the first postpartum examination for 1706 newborns born after the disaster in the affected (n = 836) and less-affected (n = 870) areas. Postpartum examinations took place 1 month after birth. Feeding method trends were examined, and multivariate regression analyses were used to investigate effects on newborn mass gain. There were no significant differences in background characteristics among newborns in these areas. When birth dates were divided into four periods to assess trends, no significant change in the exclusive breastfeeding rate was found, while the exclusive formula-feeding rate was significantly different across time periods in the affected area (p = 0.02). Multivariate analyses revealed no significant independent associations of maternal depression and change in medical facilities (possible disaster effects) with other newborn growth factors in either area. No area differences in newborn growth at the first postpartum examination or in exclusive breastfeeding rates were found during any period. Exclusive formula-feeding rates varied across time periods in the affected, but not in the less-affected area. It is concluded that effective guidance to promote breast-feeding and prevent exclusive use of formula is important for women in post-disaster circumstances. (orig.)

  15. Impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake on feeding methods and newborn growth at 1 month postpartum: results from the Fukushima Health Management Survey

    Kyozuka, Hyo; Yasuda, Shun; Kawamura, Makoto; Nomura, Yasuhisa; Fujimori, Keiya [Fukushima Medical University, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Fukushima (Japan); Goto, Aya; Yasumura, Seiji [Radiation Medical Science Center for the Fukushima Health Management Survey, Fukushima (Japan); Fukushima Medical University, Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, Fukushima (Japan); Abe, Masafumi [Radiation Medical Science Center for the Fukushima Health Management Survey, Fukushima (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    This study examined the effects of three disasters (the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011, followed by a tsunami and the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident) on feeding methods and growth in infants born after the disasters. Using results from the Fukushima Health Management Survey, Soso District (the affected area where the damaged nuclear power plant is located) and Aizu District (a less-affected area located farthest from the plant) were compared. In this study, newborn and maternal background characteristics were examined, as well as feeding methods, and other factors for newborn growth at the first postpartum examination for 1706 newborns born after the disaster in the affected (n = 836) and less-affected (n = 870) areas. Postpartum examinations took place 1 month after birth. Feeding method trends were examined, and multivariate regression analyses were used to investigate effects on newborn mass gain. There were no significant differences in background characteristics among newborns in these areas. When birth dates were divided into four periods to assess trends, no significant change in the exclusive breastfeeding rate was found, while the exclusive formula-feeding rate was significantly different across time periods in the affected area (p = 0.02). Multivariate analyses revealed no significant independent associations of maternal depression and change in medical facilities (possible disaster effects) with other newborn growth factors in either area. No area differences in newborn growth at the first postpartum examination or in exclusive breastfeeding rates were found during any period. Exclusive formula-feeding rates varied across time periods in the affected, but not in the less-affected area. It is concluded that effective guidance to promote breast-feeding and prevent exclusive use of formula is important for women in post-disaster circumstances. (orig.)

  16. Dentoalveolar growth of patients with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate by early two-stage furlow and push-back method: preliminary results.

    Kitagawa, Taiji; Kohara, Hiroshi; Sohmura, Taiji; Takahashi, Junzo; Tachimura, Takashi; Wada, Takeshi; Kogo, Mikihiko

    2004-09-01

    This study examined dentoalveolar growth changes prior to the time of palatoplasty up to 3 years of age by the early two-stage Furlow and push-back methods. Thirty-four Japanese patients with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) treated with either a two-stage Furlow procedure (Furlow group: seven boys, eight girls) from 1998 to 2002 or a push-back procedure (push-back group; 12 boys, 7 girls) from 1993 to 1997. Consecutive plaster models were measured by three-dimensional laser scanner, before primary palatoplasty, before hard palate closure (Furlow group only), and at 3 years of age. Bite measures were taken at 3 years of age. In the Furlow group, arch length, canine width, first and second deciduous molar width and cross-sectional area, and depth and volume at midpoint showed greater growth than in the push-back group. In the Furlow group, the crossbite score was also better than in the push-back group at 3 years of age. In comparison with the push-back group, inhibition of growth impediment in the anterior region was observed in the horizontal direction in the Furlow group. In the midregion, it was observed in the horizontal and vertical directions, and in the posterior region it was observed in the horizontal direction. The results demonstrate that the early two-stage Furlow method showed progressive alveolar growth. Therefore, the early two-stage Furlow method is a more beneficial procedure than the push-back method.

  17. Empirical Investigation of External Debt-Growth Nexus in Sub ...

    Empirical Investigation of External Debt-Growth Nexus in Sub-Saharan Africa. ... distributed lag (PARDL) model and panel non-linear autoregressive distributed lag (PNARDL) model to examine the relationship between external debt and economic growth using a panel dataset of 22 countries from 1985 to 2015. Its results ...

  18. Explorative methods in linear models

    Høskuldsson, Agnar

    2004-01-01

    The author has developed the H-method of mathematical modeling that builds up the model by parts, where each part is optimized with respect to prediction. Besides providing with better predictions than traditional methods, these methods provide with graphic procedures for analyzing different feat...... features in data. These graphic methods extend the well-known methods and results of Principal Component Analysis to any linear model. Here the graphic procedures are applied to linear regression and Ridge Regression....

  19. Turbulence Spreading into Linearly Stable Zone and Transport Scaling

    Hahm, T.S.; Diamond, P.H.; Lin, Z.; Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.-I.

    2003-01-01

    We study the simplest problem of turbulence spreading corresponding to the spatio-temporal propagation of a patch of turbulence from a region where it is locally excited to a region of weaker excitation, or even local damping. A single model equation for the local turbulence intensity I(x, t) includes the effects of local linear growth and damping, spatially local nonlinear coupling to dissipation and spatial scattering of turbulence energy induced by nonlinear coupling. In the absence of dissipation, the front propagation into the linearly stable zone occurs with the property of rapid progression at small t, followed by slower subdiffusive progression at late times. The turbulence radial spreading into the linearly stable zone reduces the turbulent intensity in the linearly unstable zone, and introduces an additional dependence on the rho* is always equal to rho i/a to the turbulent intensity and the transport scaling. These are in broad, semi-quantitative agreements with a number of global gyrokinetic simulation results with zonal flows and without zonal flows. The front propagation stops when the radial flux of fluctuation energy from the linearly unstable region is balanced by local dissipation in the linearly stable region

  20. HEAVY ION LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    Van Atta, C.M.; Beringer, R.; Smith, L.

    1959-01-01

    A linear accelerator of heavy ions is described. The basic contributions of the invention consist of a method and apparatus for obtaining high energy particles of an element with an increased charge-to-mass ratio. The method comprises the steps of ionizing the atoms of an element, accelerating the resultant ions to an energy substantially equal to one Mev per nucleon, stripping orbital electrons from the accelerated ions by passing the ions through a curtain of elemental vapor disposed transversely of the path of the ions to provide a second charge-to-mass ratio, and finally accelerating the resultant stripped ions to a final energy of at least ten Mev per nucleon.

  1. MicroRNA-126 and epidermal growth factor-like domain 7-an angiogenic couple of importance in metastatic colorectal cancer. Results from the Nordic ACT trial

    Hansen, T F; Christensen, René dePont; Andersen, R F

    2013-01-01

    Background:This study investigated the clinical importance of linked angiogenetic biomarkers to chemotherapy, combined with the anti-vascular endothelial growth factor A (anti-VEGF-A), as a first-line treatment in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC).Methods:A total of 230 patients...... on the prognostic value of miRNA-126 in mCRC and may suggest a relationship between treatment efficacy and EGFL7 expression. As miRNA-126 may target VEGF-A as well as EGFL7, the results may provide predictive information in relation to next-generation anti-angiogenetics....

  2. Stochastic modeling of mode interactions via linear parabolized stability equations

    Ran, Wei; Zare, Armin; Hack, M. J. Philipp; Jovanovic, Mihailo

    2017-11-01

    Low-complexity approximations of the Navier-Stokes equations have been widely used in the analysis of wall-bounded shear flows. In particular, the parabolized stability equations (PSE) and Floquet theory have been employed to capture the evolution of primary and secondary instabilities in spatially-evolving flows. We augment linear PSE with Floquet analysis to formally treat modal interactions and the evolution of secondary instabilities in the transitional boundary layer via a linear progression. To this end, we leverage Floquet theory by incorporating the primary instability into the base flow and accounting for different harmonics in the flow state. A stochastic forcing is introduced into the resulting linear dynamics to model the effect of nonlinear interactions on the evolution of modes. We examine the H-type transition scenario to demonstrate how our approach can be used to model nonlinear effects and capture the growth of the fundamental and subharmonic modes observed in direct numerical simulations and experiments.

  3. Linear wind generator

    Kozarov, A.; Petrov, O.; Antonov, J.; Sotirova, S.; Petrova, B.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the linear wind-power generator described in this article is to decrease the following disadvantages of the common wind-powered turbine: 1) large bending and twisting moments to the blades and the shaft, especially when strong winds and turbulence exist; 2) significant values of the natural oscillation period of the construction result in the possibility of occurrence of destroying resonance oscillations; 3) high velocity of the peripheral parts of the rotor creating a danger for birds; 4) difficulties, connected with the installation and the operation on the mountain ridges and passages where the wind energy potential is the largest. The working surfaces of the generator in questions driven by the wind are not connected with a joint shaft but each moves along a railway track with few oscillations. So the sizes of each component are small and their number can be rather large. The mechanical trajectory is not a circle but a closed outline in a vertical plain, which consists of two rectilinear sectors, one above the other, connected in their ends by semi-circumferences. The mechanical energy of each component turns into electrical on the principle of the linear electrical generator. A regulation is provided when the direction of the wind is perpendicular to the route. A possibility of effectiveness is shown through aiming of additional quantities of air to the movable components by static barriers

  4. High-precision improved-analytic-exponentiation results for multiple-photon effects in low-angle Bhabha scattering at the SLAC Linear Collider and the CERN e+e- collider LEP

    Jadach, S.; Richter-Was, E.; Ward, B.F.L.; Was, Z.

    1991-01-01

    Starting from an earlier benchmark analytical calculation of the luminosity process e + e-→e + e-+(γ) at the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) and the CERN e + e- collider LEP, we use the methods of Yennie, Frautschi, and Suura to develop an analytical improved naive exponentiated formula for this process. The formula is compared to our multiple-photon Monte Carlo event generator BHLUMI (1.13) for the same process. We find agreement on the overall cross-section normalization between the exponentiated formula and BHLUMI below the 0.2% level. In this way, we obtain an important cross-check on the normalization of our higher-order results in BHLUMI and we arrive at formulas which represent the LEP/SLC luminosity process in the below 1% Z 0 physics tests of the SU(2) L xU(1) theory in complete analogy with the famous high-precision Z 0 line-shape formulas for the e + e-→μ + μ - process discussed by Berends et al., for example

  5. Validation and ease of use of a new pen device for self-administration of recombinant human growth hormone: results from a two-center usability study

    Rapaport R

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Robert Rapaport,1 Paul Saenger,2 Heinrich Schmidt,3 Yukihiro Hasegawa,4 Michel Colle,5 Sandro Loche,6 Sandra Marcantonio,7 Walter Bonfig,8 Markus Zabransky,9 Fima Lifshitz10 1Division of Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, 2Winthrop University Hospital, Mineola, NY, USA; 3University Children's Hospital, Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Munich, Germany; 4Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Tokyo Metropolitan Children's Medical Center, Tokyo, Japan; 525 rue Boudet, Bordeaux, France; 6Servizio di Endocrinologia Pediatrica, Ospedale Microcitemico ASL Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy; 7Clinica de Endocrinologia Pediátrica, Londrina, Brazil; 8Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Technical University München, Munich, Germany; 9Sandoz International GmbH, Holzkirchen, Germany; 10Pediatric Sunshine Academics, Inc, Santa Barbara, CA, USA Abstract: Close adherence to the recommended treatment regimen is important for the success of recombinant human growth hormone therapy, although nonadherence can be common. Ease of use and safety during use/storage are among several important factors in the design of a growth hormone injection device intended for long-term use. This study was performed to validate the usability and assess the ease of use of a new pen device (SurePal™ that has been developed to support daily administration of the recombinant human growth hormone product, Omnitrope® (somatropin. The primary objectives of the study were to assess if study participants, representing intended users of the pen in clinical practice, were able to perform an injection procedure into an injection pad effectively and safely and disassemble the pen without receiving a needlestick injury. A total of 106 participants (61 adults and 45 children/adolescents were enrolled at two study centers (one in the US, one in Germany. Results for both primary usability tasks met the predefined acceptance criteria, with >85% of

  6. Prognostic significance of equivocal human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 results and clinical utility of alternative chromosome 17 genes in patients with invasive breast cancer: A cohort study.

    Sneige, Nour; Hess, Kenneth R; Multani, Asha S; Gong, Yun; Ibrahim, Nuhad K

    2017-04-01

    The 2013 testing guidelines for determining the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status include new cutoff points for the HER2/chromosome enumeration probe 17 (CEP17) ratio and the average HER2 copy number per cell, and they recommend using a reflex test with alternative chromosome 17 probes (Ch17Ps) to resolve equivocal HER2 results. This study sought to determine the clinical utility of alternative Ch17Ps in equivocal cases and the effects of equivocal results and/or a change in the HER2 status on patients' outcomes. The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center database of HER2 dual-probe fluorescence in situ hybridization results from 2000 to 2010 was searched for cases of invasive breast cancer with HER2/CEP17 ratios Cancer 2017;123:1115-1123. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  7. A six-month intervention with two different types of micronutrient-fortified complementary foods had distinct short- and long-term effects on linear and ponderal growth of vietnamese infants

    Phu, Pham V.; Hoan, Nguyen V.; Salvignol, Bertrand

    2012-01-01

    -scores in the C group intermediate and not significantly different from the others. This study shows that regular provision of locally produced CF fortified with micronutrients partly stopped growth faltering in Vietnamese infants, with differential effects on long-term length and ponderal growth. Providing only...

  8. Effects of dietary vanadium on growth and lipid storage in a larval anuran: Results from studies employing ad libitum and rationed feeding

    Rowe, Christopher L.; Heyes, Andrew; Hopkins, William

    2009-01-01

    Vanadium (V) exerts a variety of effects related to metabolic function in vertebrates, including modifying glycolytic pathways and lipid metabolism. However, little is known about toxicity of V to wildlife in natural systems. We conducted parallel, independent studies to evaluate the effect of dietary exposure to vanadium on survival, metabolism, growth, and lipid storage of larval leopard frogs (Rana sphenocephala). In one study ('Ad lib') larvae were fed unlimited food and in the other ('Ration') larvae were fed a restricted diet. Experimental diets contained 10 ppm dw V total (Control, 'C'), 109 ppm (Low, 'L'), and 363 ppm (High, 'H'). In neither study did V affect metabolic rate or survival to forelimb emergence. However, in the Ration study, 31% of individuals in H that had initiated metamorphosis died prior to completion of metamorphosis, compared with 22% in M and 9% in C, however the difference was not significant at α = 0.05. Mortality during metamorphosis in the Ad lib study was more variable, yet followed a similar trend (26, 14, and 12% mortality in H, L, and C). In both studies, individuals that died during the metamorphic period were smaller at the time of forelimb emergence than those that survived. In the Ration study, individuals in H also had significantly lower growth rates, delayed metamorphosis, and reduced lipid content at metamorphosis compared to C and L. Growth was not affected by V in the Ad lib study. Our results suggest that habitat contamination by V may present risks to amphibians during the metamorphic period attributable to energetic responses influencing size at the initiation of metamorphosis and body lipid stores. Furthermore, while we cannot make formal comparisons between the studies, our results imply that protocols that employ ad libitum feeding regimes could fail to capture the effects of contaminants as they may be expressed in natural situations in which resources are typically more limited

  9. Effects of dietary vanadium on growth and lipid storage in a larval anuran: Results from studies employing ad libitum and rationed feeding

    Rowe, Christopher L. [University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, Chesapeake Biological Laboratory, P.O. Box 38, Solomons, MD 20688 (United States)], E-mail: Rowe@cbl.umces.edu; Heyes, Andrew [University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, Chesapeake Biological Laboratory, P.O. Box 38, Solomons, MD 20688 (United States); Hopkins, William [Department of Fisheries and Wildlife Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 100 Cheatham Hall, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)

    2009-01-31

    Vanadium (V) exerts a variety of effects related to metabolic function in vertebrates, including modifying glycolytic pathways and lipid metabolism. However, little is known about toxicity of V to wildlife in natural systems. We conducted parallel, independent studies to evaluate the effect of dietary exposure to vanadium on survival, metabolism, growth, and lipid storage of larval leopard frogs (Rana sphenocephala). In one study ('Ad lib') larvae were fed unlimited food and in the other ('Ration') larvae were fed a restricted diet. Experimental diets contained 10 ppm dw V{sub total} (Control, 'C'), 109 ppm (Low, 'L'), and 363 ppm (High, 'H'). In neither study did V affect metabolic rate or survival to forelimb emergence. However, in the Ration study, 31% of individuals in H that had initiated metamorphosis died prior to completion of metamorphosis, compared with 22% in M and 9% in C, however the difference was not significant at {alpha} = 0.05. Mortality during metamorphosis in the Ad lib study was more variable, yet followed a similar trend (26, 14, and 12% mortality in H, L, and C). In both studies, individuals that died during the metamorphic period were smaller at the time of forelimb emergence than those that survived. In the Ration study, individuals in H also had significantly lower growth rates, delayed metamorphosis, and reduced lipid content at metamorphosis compared to C and L. Growth was not affected by V in the Ad lib study. Our results suggest that habitat contamination by V may present risks to amphibians during the metamorphic period attributable to energetic responses influencing size at the initiation of metamorphosis and body lipid stores. Furthermore, while we cannot make formal comparisons between the studies, our results imply that protocols that employ ad libitum feeding regimes could fail to capture the effects of contaminants as they may be expressed in natural situations in which resources

  10. Emittance Growth in the NLCTA First Chicane

    Sun, Yipeng

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the emittance growth in the NLCTA (Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator) first chicane region is evaluated by simulation studies. It is demonstrated that the higher order fields of the chicane dipole magnet and the dipole corrector magnet (which is attached on the quadrupoles) are the main contributions for the emittance growth, especially for the case with a large initial emittance (γε 0 = 5 (micro)m for instance). These simulation results agree with the experimental observations.

  11. Phenomenology of stochastic exponential growth

    Pirjol, Dan; Jafarpour, Farshid; Iyer-Biswas, Srividya

    2017-06-01

    Stochastic exponential growth is observed in a variety of contexts, including molecular autocatalysis, nuclear fission, population growth, inflation of the universe, viral social media posts, and financial markets. Yet literature on modeling the phenomenology of these stochastic dynamics has predominantly focused on one model, geometric Brownian motion (GBM), which can be described as the solution of a Langevin equation with linear drift and linear multiplicative noise. Using recent experimental results on stochastic exponential growth of individual bacterial cell sizes, we motivate the need for a more general class of phenomenological models of stochastic exponential growth, which are consistent with the observation that the mean-rescaled distributions are approximately stationary at long times. We show that this behavior is not consistent with GBM, instead it is consistent with power-law multiplicative noise with positive fractional powers. Therefore, we consider this general class of phenomenological models for stochastic exponential growth, provide analytical solutions, and identify the important dimensionless combination of model parameters, which determines the shape of the mean-rescaled distribution. We also provide a prescription for robustly inferring model parameters from experimentally observed stochastic growth trajectories.

  12. Non linear system become linear system

    Petre Bucur

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper refers to the theory and the practice of the systems regarding non-linear systems and their applications. We aimed the integration of these systems to elaborate their response as well as to highlight some outstanding features.

  13. Linear motor coil assembly and linear motor

    2009-01-01

    An ironless linear motor (5) comprising a magnet track (53) and a coil assembly (50) operating in cooperation with said magnet track (53) and having a plurality of concentrated multi-turn coils (31 a-f, 41 a-d, 51 a-k), wherein the end windings (31E) of the coils (31 a-f, 41 a-e) are substantially

  14. FY 1993 Report on the industrial science and technology research and development project results. Research and development of non-linear photoelectronic materials; 1993 nendo hisenkei hikari denshi zairyo no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    NONE

    1994-11-01

    Described herein are the results of the industrial science and technology research and development project for nonlinear optoelectronic materials. The more functional chiral and pi-conjugated compounds are investigated as the organic, low-molecular-weight materials. The technologies for the orientation-controlled crystal growth are continuously investigated. Polyacetylene is investigated as the conjugated pi-electron system. The glass-dispersed systems, prepared by the sol-gel, superlow-melting glass and super-cooling methods, are investigated. In order to elucidate the relationship between the organic superlattice and properties (e.g., photoelectronic properties), the intramolecular interactions under the superlattice conditions are estimated by the theoretical chemical calculations, and the optimum structures deduced from the measured properties are proposed. The thin, composite films of fine metallic particles and glass are prepared by the multi-dimensional sputtering, to explore the constituent materials suitable for the three-dimensional superstructures, and their properties are analyzed. The thin semiconductor films of superlattices are prepared by the molecular beam epitaxy method, to investigate the optimization of the structures and compositions. The basic aspects of the three-dimensional superstructures, prepared by the superfine machining, are investigated. The results of the comprehensive investigations and researches are also described. (NEDO)

  15. Cosmological perturbations beyond linear order

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    Cosmological perturbation theory is the standard tool to understand the formation of the large scale structure in the Universe. However, its degree of applicability is limited by the growth of the amplitude of the matter perturbations with time. This problem can be tackled with by using N-body simulations or analytical techniques that go beyond the linear calculation. In my talk, I'll summarise some recent efforts in the latter that ameliorate the bad convergence of the standard perturbative expansion. The new techniques allow better analytical control on observables (as the matter power spectrum) over scales very relevant to understand the expansion history and formation of structure in the Universe.

  16. Combination of vatalanib and a 20-HETE synthesis inhibitor results in decreased tumor growth in an animal model of human glioma

    Shankar A

    2016-03-01

    different treatment groups: vehicle, vatalanib (oral treatment 50 mg/kg/d, HET0016 (intraperitoneal treatment 10 mg/kg/d, and combined (vatalanib and HET0016. Following scheduled treatments, all animals underwent magnetic resonance imaging on day 22, followed by euthanasia. Brain specimens were equally divided for immunohistochemistry and protein array analysis.Results: Our results demonstrated a trend that HET0016, alone or in combination with vatalanib, is capable of controlling the tumor growth compared with that of vatalanib alone, indicating attenuation of the unwanted effect of vatalanib. When both vatalanib and HET0016 were administered together on the day of the tumor implantation (0–21 days treatment, tumor volume, tumor blood volume, permeability, extravascular and extracellular space volume, tumor cell proliferation, and cell migration were decreased compared with that of the vehicle-treated group. Conclusion: HET0016 is capable of controlling tumor growth and migration, but these effects are dependent on the timing of drug administration. The addition of HET0016 to vatalanib may attenuate the unwanted effect of vatalanib.Keywords: magnetic resonance imaging, glioblastoma, antiangiogenic treatments, HET0016, vascular parameters, protein array

  17. SLAC linear collider conceptual design report

    1980-06-01

    The linear collider system is described in detail, including the transport system, the collider lattice, final focusing system, positron production, beam damping and compression, high current electron source, instrumentation and control, and the beam luminosity. The experimental facilities and the experimental uses are discussed along with the construction schedule and estimated costs. Appendices include a discussion of space charge effects in the linear accelerator, emittance growth in the collider, the final focus system, beam-beam instabilities and pinch effects, and detector backgrounds

  18. Bracing can reduce high degree curves and improve aesthetics immediately after the end of growth. Final results of a retrospective case series.

    Negrini, Stefano; Donzelli, Sabrina; Lusini, Monia; Zaina, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    Recently it has been shown that idiopathic scoliosis (IS) curves can be reduced with bracing, and it has been proposed that this could be useful in non-surgically treated high degree curves even after Risser 3. Moreover, bracing has been shown to be able to improve aesthetics, and this could be another reason to treat some patients with cosmetic needs. Our aim is to preliminary check if results can be obtained in IS patients after Risser 3. Design. Retrospective uncontrolled cohort study. Inclusion criteria. All IS patients treated on a voluntary basis for aesthetic reasons and/or for curve reduction; Risser 4-5 at start; end of treatment reached. Population. 34 females and 2 males, age 16.2±1.6 years, Cobb angle 27.6°±8.9°. Treatment. Lyon or SPoRT braces 18 to 24 hours/day, specific SEAS exercises, rapid weaning (2-3 hours every 6 months). Outcome criteria: SRS (unchanged; worsened over 6°; over 45° at the end of treatment; surgically treated), radiographic and clinical. Statistics. ANOVA and chi-test. The reported compliance during the 2.8 ± 1.1 treatment years was 95.1%, while residual growth was 0.9 ± 1.1 cm. Improvements were found in 39% of this cohort, (46% in curves over 30°). Only 1 patient progressed 6°. We found highly statistically significant reductions of maximal (-4.4°), thoracic (-6.0°) and thoracolumbar (-6.6°) curves. Statistically significant improvements were found for Aesthetic Index. Before 20 years of age, even in skeletally mature patients, it is possible to reach radiographic and aesthetic improvements, although not as good as during growth. Correction is based on bone growth, but ligaments and neuromuscular control of posture can also be involved.

  19. Elevated p21-Activated Kinase 2 Activity Results in Anchorage-Independent Growth and Resistance to Anticancer Drug–Induced Cell Death

    Jerry W. Marlin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available p21-Activated kinase 2 (PAK-2 seems to be a regulatory switch between cell survival and cell death signaling. We have shown previously that activation of full-length PAK-2 by Rac or Cdc42 stimulates cell survival, whereas caspase activation of PAK-2 to the proapoptotic PAK-2p34 fragment is involved in the cell death response. In this study, we present a role of elevated activity of full-length PAK-2 in anchorage-independent growth and resistance to anticancer drug–induced apoptosis of cancer cells. Hs578T human breast cancer cells that have low levels of PAK-2 activity were more sensitive to anticancer drug–induced apoptosis and showed higher levels of caspase activation of PAK-2 than MDA-MB435 and MCF-7 human breast cancer cells that have high levels of PAK-2 activity. To examine the role of elevated PAK-2 activity in breast cancer, we have introduced a conditionally active PAK-2 into Hs578T human breast cells. Conditional activation of PAK-2 causes loss of contact inhibition and anchorage-independent growth of Hs578T cells. Furthermore, conditional activation of PAK-2 suppresses activation of caspase 3, caspase activation of PAK-2, and apoptosis of Hs578T cells in response to the anticancer drug cisplatin. Our data suggest a novel mechanism by which full-length PAK-2 activity controls the apoptotic response by regulating levels of activated caspase 3 and thereby its own cleavage to the proapoptotic PAK-2p34 fragment. As a result, elevated PAK-2 activity interrupts the apoptotic response and thereby causes anchorage-independent survival and growth and resistance to anticancer drug–induced apoptosis.

  20. Linear collider: a preview

    Wiedemann, H.

    1981-11-01

    Since no linear colliders have been built yet it is difficult to know at what energy the linear cost scaling of linear colliders drops below the quadratic scaling of storage rings. There is, however, no doubt that a linear collider facility for a center of mass energy above say 500 GeV is significantly cheaper than an equivalent storage ring. In order to make the linear collider principle feasible at very high energies a number of problems have to be solved. There are two kinds of problems: one which is related to the feasibility of the principle and the other kind of problems is associated with minimizing the cost of constructing and operating such a facility. This lecture series describes the problems and possible solutions. Since the real test of a principle requires the construction of a prototype I will in the last chapter describe the SLC project at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center.

  1. Basic linear algebra

    Blyth, T S

    2002-01-01

    Basic Linear Algebra is a text for first year students leading from concrete examples to abstract theorems, via tutorial-type exercises. More exercises (of the kind a student may expect in examination papers) are grouped at the end of each section. The book covers the most important basics of any first course on linear algebra, explaining the algebra of matrices with applications to analytic geometry, systems of linear equations, difference equations and complex numbers. Linear equations are treated via Hermite normal forms which provides a successful and concrete explanation of the notion of linear independence. Another important highlight is the connection between linear mappings and matrices leading to the change of basis theorem which opens the door to the notion of similarity. This new and revised edition features additional exercises and coverage of Cramer's rule (omitted from the first edition). However, it is the new, extra chapter on computer assistance that will be of particular interest to readers:...

  2. Linear collider: a preview

    Wiedemann, H.

    1981-11-01

    Since no linear colliders have been built yet it is difficult to know at what energy the linear cost scaling of linear colliders drops below the quadratic scaling of storage rings. There is, however, no doubt that a linear collider facility for a center of mass energy above say 500 GeV is significantly cheaper than an equivalent storage ring. In order to make the linear collider principle feasible at very high energies a number of problems have to be solved. There are two kinds of problems: one which is related to the feasibility of the principle and the other kind of problems is associated with minimizing the cost of constructing and operating such a facility. This lecture series describes the problems and possible solutions. Since the real test of a principle requires the construction of a prototype I will in the last chapter describe the SLC project at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center

  3. MicroRNA-126 and epidermal growth factor-like domain 7-an angiogenic couple of importance in metastatic colorectal cancer. Results from the Nordic ACT trial

    Hansen, T F; Christensen, René dePont; Andersen, R F

    2013-01-01

    Background:This study investigated the clinical importance of linked angiogenetic biomarkers to chemotherapy, combined with the anti-vascular endothelial growth factor A (anti-VEGF-A), as a first-line treatment in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC).Methods:A total of 230 patients......-like domain 7 (EGFL7) protein was visualised and quantified using immunohistochemistry.Results:High tumour expression of miRNA-126 was significantly related to a longer progression-free survival. The independent prognostic value of miRNA-126 was confirmed using a Cox regression analysis (hazard ratio=0.49, 95...... on the prognostic value of miRNA-126 in mCRC and may suggest a relationship between treatment efficacy and EGFL7 expression. As miRNA-126 may target VEGF-A as well as EGFL7, the results may provide predictive information in relation to next-generation anti-angiogenetics....

  4. Matrices and linear transformations

    Cullen, Charles G

    1990-01-01

    ""Comprehensive . . . an excellent introduction to the subject."" - Electronic Engineer's Design Magazine.This introductory textbook, aimed at sophomore- and junior-level undergraduates in mathematics, engineering, and the physical sciences, offers a smooth, in-depth treatment of linear algebra and matrix theory. The major objects of study are matrices over an arbitrary field. Contents include Matrices and Linear Systems; Vector Spaces; Determinants; Linear Transformations; Similarity: Part I and Part II; Polynomials and Polynomial Matrices; Matrix Analysis; and Numerical Methods. The first

  5. Efficient Non Linear Loudspeakers

    Petersen, Bo R.; Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2006-01-01

    Loudspeakers have traditionally been designed to be as linear as possible. However, as techniques for compensating non linearities are emerging, it becomes possible to use other design criteria. This paper present and examines a new idea for improving the efficiency of loudspeakers at high levels...... by changing the voice coil layout. This deliberate non-linear design has the benefit that a smaller amplifier can be used, which has the benefit of reducing system cost as well as reducing power consumption....

  6. Silencing of the pollen-specific gene NTP303 and its family members in tobacco affects in vivo pollen tube growth and results in male sterile plants

    Groot, de P.; Weterings, K.; Been, de M.; Wittink, F.; Hulzink, R.; Custers, J.B.M.; Herpen, van T.W.J.M.; Wullems, G.

    2004-01-01

    In seed plants, successful fertilization requires correct regulation of pollen tube growth. At germination and during growth, the pollen tube interacts with tissues from the pistil while the pollen tube extends via tip growth. Despite the fact that much research has been devoted to the mechanisms

  7. Linear models with R

    Faraway, Julian J

    2014-01-01

    A Hands-On Way to Learning Data AnalysisPart of the core of statistics, linear models are used to make predictions and explain the relationship between the response and the predictors. Understanding linear models is crucial to a broader competence in the practice of statistics. Linear Models with R, Second Edition explains how to use linear models in physical science, engineering, social science, and business applications. The book incorporates several improvements that reflect how the world of R has greatly expanded since the publication of the first edition.New to the Second EditionReorganiz

  8. Linear integrated circuits

    Carr, Joseph

    1996-01-01

    The linear IC market is large and growing, as is the demand for well trained technicians and engineers who understand how these devices work and how to apply them. Linear Integrated Circuits provides in-depth coverage of the devices and their operation, but not at the expense of practical applications in which linear devices figure prominently. This book is written for a wide readership from FE and first degree students, to hobbyists and professionals.Chapter 1 offers a general introduction that will provide students with the foundations of linear IC technology. From chapter 2 onwa

  9. Fault tolerant linear actuator

    Tesar, Delbert

    2004-09-14

    In varying embodiments, the fault tolerant linear actuator of the present invention is a new and improved linear actuator with fault tolerance and positional control that may incorporate velocity summing, force summing, or a combination of the two. In one embodiment, the invention offers a velocity summing arrangement with a differential gear between two prime movers driving a cage, which then drives a linear spindle screw transmission. Other embodiments feature two prime movers driving separate linear spindle screw transmissions, one internal and one external, in a totally concentric and compact integrated module.

  10. Superconducting linear accelerator cryostat

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Elkonin, B.V.; Sokolowski, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    A large vertical cryostat for a superconducting linear accelerator using quarter wave resonators has been developed. The essential technical details, operational experience and performance are described. (author)

  11. Growth factor release by vesicular phospholipid gels: in-vitro results and application for rotator cuff repair in a rat model.

    Buchmann, Stefan; Sandmann, Gunther H; Walz, Lars; Reichel, Thomas; Beitzel, Knut; Wexel, Gabriele; Tian, Weiwei; Battmann, Achim; Vogt, Stephan; Winter, Gerhard; Imhoff, Andreas B

    2015-04-10

    Biological augmentation of rotator cuff repair is of growing interest to improve biomechanical properties and prevent re-tearing. But intraoperative single shot growth factor application appears not sufficient to provide healing support in the physiologic growth factor expression peaks. The purpose of this study was to establish a sustained release of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) from injectable vesicular phospholipid gels (VPGs) in vitro and to examine biocompatibility and influence on histology and biomechanical behavior of G-CSF loaded VPGs in a chronic supraspinatus tear rat model. G-CSF loaded VPGs were produced by dual asymmetric centrifugation. In vitro the integrity, stability and release rate were analyzed. In vivo supraspinatus tendons of 60 rats were detached and after 3 weeks a transosseous refixation with G-CSF loaded VPGs augmentation (n = 15; control, placebo, 1 and 10 μg G-CSF/d) was performed. 6 weeks postoperatively the healing site was analyzed histologically (n = 9; H&E by modified MOVIN score/Collagen I/III) and biomechanically (n = 6). In vitro testing revealed stable proteins after centrifugation and a continuous G-CSF release of up to 4 weeks. Placebo VPGs showed histologically no negative side effects on the healing process. Histologically in vivo testing demonstrated significant advantages for G-CSF 1 μg/d but not for G-CSF 10 μg/d in Collagen III content (p = 0.035) and a higher Collagen I/III ratio compared to the other groups. Biomechanically G-CSF 1 μg/d revealed a significant higher load to failure ratio (p = 0.020) compared to control but no significant differences in stiffness. By use of VPGs a continuous growth factor release could be obtained in vitro. The in vivo results demonstrate an improvement of immunohistology and biomechanical properties with a low dose G-CSF application via VPG. The VPG itself was well tolerated and had no negative influence on the healing behavior. Due to the favorable properties

  12. THE VOLATILE COMPOSITION OF COMET C/2003 K4 (LINEAR) AT NEAR-IR WAVELENGTHS—COMPARISONS WITH RESULTS FROM THE NANÇAY RADIO TELESCOPE AND FROM THE ODIN, SPITZER, AND SOHO SPACE OBSERVATORIES

    Paganini, L.; Mumma, M. J.; Villanueva, G. L.; DiSanti, M. A.; Bonev, B. P., E-mail: lucas.paganini@nasa.gov [Goddard Center for Astrobiology, NASA GSFC, MS 690, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2015-07-20

    We observed comet C/2003 K4 (LINEAR) using NIRSPEC at the Keck Observatory on UT 2004 November 28, when the comet was at 1.28 AU from the Sun (post-perihelion) and 1.38 AU from Earth. We detected six gaseous species (H{sub 2}O, OH*, C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, CH{sub 3}OH, CH{sub 4}, and HCN) and obtained upper limits for three others (H{sub 2}CO, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, and NH{sub 3}). Our results indicate a water production rate of (1.72 ± 0.18) × 10{sup 29} molecules s{sup −1}, in reasonable agreement with production rates from SOHO (on the same day), Odin (one day earlier), and Nançay (about two weeks earlier). We also report abundances (relative to water) for seven trace species: CH{sub 3}OH (∼1.8%), CH{sub 4} (∼0.9%), and C{sub 2}H{sub 6} (∼0.4%) that were consistent with mean values among Oort cloud (OC) comets, while NH{sub 3} (<0.55%), HCN (∼0.07%), H{sub 2}CO (<0.07%), and C{sub 2}H{sub 2} (<0.04%) were “lower” than the mean values in other OC comets. We extracted inner-coma rotational temperatures for four species (H{sub 2}O, C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, CH{sub 3}OH, and CH{sub 4}), all of which are consistent with 70 K (within 1σ). The extracted ortho-para ratio for water was 3.0 ± 0.15, corresponding to spin temperatures larger than 39 K (at the 1σ level) and agreeing with those obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope at the 2σ level.

  13. Adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of endostatin in vivo results in high level of transgene expression and inhibition of tumor growth and metastases

    Sauter, Bernhard V.; Martinet, Olivier; Zhang, Wei-Jian; Mandeli, John; Woo, Savio L. C.

    2000-04-01

    Inhibition of angiogenesis has been shown to be an effective strategy in cancer therapy in mice. However, its widespread application has been hampered by difficulties in the large-scale production of the antiangiogenic proteins. This limitation may be resolved by in vivo delivery and expression of the antiangiogenic genes. We have constructed a recombinant adenovirus that expresses murine endostatin that is biologically active both in vitro, as determined in endothelial cell proliferation assays, and in vivo, by suppression of angiogenesis induced by vascular endothelial growth factor 165. Persistent high serum levels of endostatin (605-1740 ng/ml; mean, 936 ng/ml) were achieved after systemic administration of the vector to nude mice, which resulted in significant reduction of the growth rates and the volumes of JC breast carcinoma and Lewis lung carcinoma (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively). In addition, the endostatin vector treatment completely prevented the formation of pulmonary micrometastases in Lewis lung carcinoma (P = 0.0001). Immunohistochemical staining of the tumors demonstrated a decreased number of blood vessels in the treatment group versus the controls. In conclusion, the present study clearly demonstrates the potential of vector-mediated antiangiogenic gene therapy as a component in cancer therapy.

  14. Nutritional value content, biomass production and growth performance of Daphnia magna cultured with different animal wastes resulted from probiotic bacteria fermentation

    Endar Herawati, Vivi; Nugroho, R. A.; Pinandoyo; Hutabarat, Johannes

    2017-02-01

    Media culture is an important factor for the growth and quality of Daphnia magna nutrient value. This study has purpose to find the increasing of nutritional content, biomass production and growth performance of D. magna using different animal wastes fermented by probiotic bacteria. This study conducted using completely randomized experimental design with 10 treatments and 3 replicates. Those media used different animal manures such as chicken manure, goat manure and quail manure mixed by rejected bread and tofu waste fermented by probiotic bacteria then cultured for 24 days. The results showed that the media which used 50% chicken manure, 100% rejected bread and 50% tofu waste created the highest biomass production, population and nutrition content of D.magna about 2111788.9 ind/L for population; 342 grams biomass production and 68.85% protein content. The highest fatty acid profile is 6.37% of linoleic and the highest essential amino acid is 22.8% of lysine. Generally, the content of ammonia, DO, temperature, and pH during the study were in the good range of D. magna’s life. This research has conclusion that media used 50% chicken manure, 100% rejected bread and 50% tofu waste created the highest biomass production, population and nutrition content of D. magna.

  15. A feasibility study of prepubertal and over mature aged local goat in relation to results of In Vitro growth culture to obtain additional M-II oocyte resources

    Ciptadi, Gatot; Ihsan, M. Nur; Rahayu, Sri; Widjaja, D. H. K.; Mudawamah, Mudawamah

    2017-11-01

    The aims of this research are to study the potential source of mature (M-II) oocytes of domestic animals using follicles isolated from prepubertal and over mature aged Indonesian local goats, resulting from an in vitro growth (IVG) method. This method of IVG could provide a new source of M-II oocytes for embryo production. In Indonesia, a very limited number of a good quality oocytes are available for research purposes, as there is a limited number of reproductive females slaughtered, which is dominated by prepubertal and old mature aged animals. IVG culture systems could be improved as an alternative method to provide a new source of a good quality oocytes for in vitro maturation of M-II oocytes. From a number of prepubertal and mature aged goats slaughtered in a local abattoir, the small oocytes in the preantral follicles were cultured in vitro to normal oocyte growth. The methods used in this research are experimental. Follicles were isolated, cultured in vitro for 14 days individually using a sticky medium containing 4% (w/v) polyvinylpyrrolidone in TCM 199 10% Fetal Bovine Serum supplemented with Follicle Stimulating Hormone, which was then evaluated for their follicle development and oocyte quality. The research results showed that a minimum follicle size and oocyte diameter is needed (>100 um) for early evaluation of maturation to be achieved, meanwhile oocytes recovered from IVG after being cultured in vitro for maturation resulted in a very low rate of maturation. However, in the future, IVG of the preantral follicles of Indonesian local goat could be considered as an alternative source of oocytes for both research purposes and embryo production in vitro.

  16. Numerical studies of the linear theta pinch

    Brackbill, J.U.; Menzel, M.T.; Barnes, D.C.

    1975-01-01

    Aspects of several physical problems associated with linear theta pinches were studied using recently developed numerical methods for the solution of the nonlinear equations for time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic flow in two- and three-dimensions. The problems studied include the propagation of end-loss produced rarefaction waves, the flow produced in a proposed injection experiment geometry, and the linear growth and nonlinear saturation of instabilities in rotating plasmas, all in linear geometries. The studies illustrate how numerical computations aid in flow visualization, and how the small amplitude behavior and nonlinear fate of plasmas in unstable equilibria can be connected through the numerical solution of the dynamical equations. (auth)

  17. Non-linear second-order periodic systems with non-smooth potential

    In this paper we study second order non-linear periodic systems driven by the ordinary vector -Laplacian with a non-smooth, locally Lipschitz potential function. Our approach is variational and it is based on the non-smooth critical point theory. We prove existence and multiplicity results under general growth conditions on ...

  18. Non-linear second-order periodic systems with non-smooth potential

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Abstract. In this paper we study second order non-linear periodic systems driven by the ordinary vector p-Laplacian with a non-smooth, locally Lipschitz potential function. Our approach is variational and it is based on the non-smooth critical point theory. We prove existence and multiplicity results under general growth ...

  19. Genetic design of interpolated non-linear controllers for linear plants

    Ajlouni, N.

    2000-01-01

    The techniques of genetic algorithms are proposed as a means of designing non-linear PID control systems. It is shown that the use of genetic algorithms for this purpose results in highly effective non-linear PID control systems. These results are illustrated by using genetic algorithms to design a non-linear PID control system and contrasting the results with an optimally tuned linear PID controller. (author)

  20. Generalized Linear Covariance Analysis

    Carpenter, James R.; Markley, F. Landis

    2014-01-01

    This talk presents a comprehensive approach to filter modeling for generalized covariance analysis of both batch least-squares and sequential estimators. We review and extend in two directions the results of prior work that allowed for partitioning of the state space into solve-for'' and consider'' parameters, accounted for differences between the formal values and the true values of the measurement noise, process noise, and textita priori solve-for and consider covariances, and explicitly partitioned the errors into subspaces containing only the influence of the measurement noise, process noise, and solve-for and consider covariances. In this work, we explicitly add sensitivity analysis to this prior work, and relax an implicit assumption that the batch estimator's epoch time occurs prior to the definitive span. We also apply the method to an integrated orbit and attitude problem, in which gyro and accelerometer errors, though not estimated, influence the orbit determination performance. We illustrate our results using two graphical presentations, which we call the variance sandpile'' and the sensitivity mosaic,'' and we compare the linear covariance results to confidence intervals associated with ensemble statistics from a Monte Carlo analysis.

  1. Linear colliders - prospects 1985

    Rees, J.

    1985-06-01

    We discuss the scaling laws of linear colliders and their consequences for accelerator design. We then report on the SLAC Linear Collider project and comment on experience gained on that project and its application to future colliders. 9 refs., 2 figs

  2. The SLAC linear collider

    Richter, B.

    1985-01-01

    A report is given on the goals and progress of the SLAC Linear Collider. The author discusses the status of the machine and the detectors and give an overview of the physics which can be done at this new facility. He also gives some ideas on how (and why) large linear colliders of the future should be built

  3. Linear Programming (LP)

    Rogner, H.H.

    1989-01-01

    The submitted sections on linear programming are extracted from 'Theorie und Technik der Planung' (1978) by W. Blaas and P. Henseler and reformulated for presentation at the Workshop. They consider a brief introduction to the theory of linear programming and to some essential aspects of the SIMPLEX solution algorithm for the purposes of economic planning processes. 1 fig

  4. Racetrack linear accelerators

    Rowe, C.H.; Wilton, M.S. de.

    1979-01-01

    An improved recirculating electron beam linear accelerator of the racetrack type is described. The system comprises a beam path of four straight legs with four Pretzel bending magnets at the end of each leg to direct the beam into the next leg of the beam path. At least one of the beam path legs includes a linear accelerator. (UK)

  5. Application of linear logic to simulation

    Clarke, Thomas L.

    1998-08-01

    Linear logic, since its introduction by Girard in 1987 has proven expressive and powerful. Linear logic has provided natural encodings of Turing machines, Petri nets and other computational models. Linear logic is also capable of naturally modeling resource dependent aspects of reasoning. The distinguishing characteristic of linear logic is that it accounts for resources; two instances of the same variable are considered differently from a single instance. Linear logic thus must obey a form of the linear superposition principle. A proportion can be reasoned with only once, unless a special operator is applied. Informally, linear logic distinguishes two kinds of conjunction, two kinds of disjunction, and also introduces a modal storage operator that explicitly indicates propositions that can be reused. This paper discuses the application of linear logic to simulation. A wide variety of logics have been developed; in addition to classical logic, there are fuzzy logics, affine logics, quantum logics, etc. All of these have found application in simulations of one sort or another. The special characteristics of linear logic and its benefits for simulation will be discussed. Of particular interest is a connection that can be made between linear logic and simulated dynamics by using the concept of Lie algebras and Lie groups. Lie groups provide the connection between the exponential modal storage operators of linear logic and the eigen functions of dynamic differential operators. Particularly suggestive are possible relations between complexity result for linear logic and non-computability results for dynamical systems.

  6. Semidefinite linear complementarity problems

    Eckhardt, U.

    1978-04-01

    Semidefinite linear complementarity problems arise by discretization of variational inequalities describing e.g. elastic contact problems, free boundary value problems etc. In the present paper linear complementarity problems are introduced and the theory as well as the numerical treatment of them are described. In the special case of semidefinite linear complementarity problems a numerical method is presented which combines the advantages of elimination and iteration methods without suffering from their drawbacks. This new method has very attractive properties since it has a high degree of invariance with respect to the representation of the set of all feasible solutions of a linear complementarity problem by linear inequalities. By means of some practical applications the properties of the new method are demonstrated. (orig.) [de

  7. Linear algebra done right

    Axler, Sheldon

    2015-01-01

    This best-selling textbook for a second course in linear algebra is aimed at undergrad math majors and graduate students. The novel approach taken here banishes determinants to the end of the book. The text focuses on the central goal of linear algebra: understanding the structure of linear operators on finite-dimensional vector spaces. The author has taken unusual care to motivate concepts and to simplify proofs. A variety of interesting exercises in each chapter helps students understand and manipulate the objects of linear algebra. The third edition contains major improvements and revisions throughout the book. More than 300 new exercises have been added since the previous edition. Many new examples have been added to illustrate the key ideas of linear algebra. New topics covered in the book include product spaces, quotient spaces, and dual spaces. Beautiful new formatting creates pages with an unusually pleasant appearance in both print and electronic versions. No prerequisites are assumed other than the ...

  8. Uniqueness theorems in linear elasticity

    Knops, Robin John

    1971-01-01

    The classical result for uniqueness in elasticity theory is due to Kirchhoff. It states that the standard mixed boundary value problem for a homogeneous isotropic linear elastic material in equilibrium and occupying a bounded three-dimensional region of space possesses at most one solution in the classical sense, provided the Lame and shear moduli, A and J1 respectively, obey the inequalities (3 A + 2 J1) > 0 and J1>O. In linear elastodynamics the analogous result, due to Neumann, is that the initial-mixed boundary value problem possesses at most one solution provided the elastic moduli satisfy the same set of inequalities as in Kirchhoffs theorem. Most standard textbooks on the linear theory of elasticity mention only these two classical criteria for uniqueness and neglect altogether the abundant literature which has appeared since the original publications of Kirchhoff. To remedy this deficiency it seems appropriate to attempt a coherent description ofthe various contributions made to the study of uniquenes...

  9. MicroRNA-126 and epidermal growth factor-like domain 7-an angiogenic couple of importance in metastatic colorectal cancer. Results from the Nordic ACT trial.

    Hansen, T F; Christensen, R dP; Andersen, R F; Sørensen, F B; Johnsson, A; Jakobsen, A

    2013-09-03

    This study investigated the clinical importance of linked angiogenetic biomarkers to chemotherapy, combined with the anti-vascular endothelial growth factor A (anti-VEGF-A), as a first-line treatment in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). A total of 230 patients from a randomised phase III study were included. The primary microRNA-126 (pri-miRNA-126) A24G single-nucleotide polymorphism and the mature miRNA-126 were analysed by PCR using genomic DNA (full blood) and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections, respectively. The epidermal growth factor-like domain 7 (EGFL7) protein was visualised and quantified using immunohistochemistry. High tumour expression of miRNA-126 was significantly related to a longer progression-free survival. The independent prognostic value of miRNA-126 was confirmed using a Cox regression analysis (hazard ratio=0.49, 95% confidence interval=0.29-0.84, P=0.009). Although not significant, a relationship between EGFL7 expression and response rates is suggested, with EGFL7 expression at the invasive front being lower in responding patients than in the non-responders (P=0.063). The results validate the previous findings on the prognostic value of miRNA-126 in mCRC and may suggest a relationship between treatment efficacy and EGFL7 expression. As miRNA-126 may target VEGF-A as well as EGFL7, the results may provide predictive information in relation to next-generation anti-angiogenetics.

  10. Handbook on linear motor application

    1988-10-01

    This book guides the application for Linear motor. It lists classification and speciality of Linear Motor, terms of linear-induction motor, principle of the Motor, types on one-side linear-induction motor, bilateral linear-induction motor, linear-DC Motor on basic of the motor, linear-DC Motor for moving-coil type, linear-DC motor for permanent-magnet moving type, linear-DC motor for electricity non-utility type, linear-pulse motor for variable motor, linear-pulse motor for permanent magneto type, linear-vibration actuator, linear-vibration actuator for moving-coil type, linear synchronous motor, linear electromagnetic motor, linear electromagnetic solenoid, technical organization and magnetic levitation and linear motor and sensor.

  11. Enriching an effect calculus with linear types

    Egger, Jeff; Møgelberg, Rasmus Ejlers; Simpson, Alex

    2009-01-01

    We define an ``enriched effect calculus'' by conservatively extending  a type theory for computational effects with primitives from linear logic. By doing so, we obtain a generalisation of linear type theory, intended as a formalism for expressing linear aspects of effects. As a worked example, we...... formulate  linearly-used continuations in the enriched effect calculus. These are captured by a fundamental translation of the enriched effect calculus into itself, which extends existing call-by-value and call-by-name linearly-used CPS translations. We show that our translation is involutive. Full...... completeness results for the various linearly-used CPS translations  follow. Our main results, the conservativity of enriching the effect calculus with linear primitives, and the involution property of the fundamental translation, are proved using a category-theoretic semantics for the enriched effect calculus...

  12. Dose fractionated gamma knife radiosurgery for large arteriovenous malformations on daily or alternate day schedule outside the linear quadratic model: Proof of concept and early results. A substitute to volume fractionation.

    Mukherjee, Kanchan Kumar; Kumar, Narendra; Tripathi, Manjul; Oinam, Arun S; Ahuja, Chirag K; Dhandapani, Sivashanmugam; Kapoor, Rakesh; Ghoshal, Sushmita; Kaur, Rupinder; Bhatt, Sandeep

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility, safety and efficacy of dose fractionated gamma knife radiosurgery (DFGKRS) on a daily schedule beyond the linear quadratic (LQ) model, for large volume arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Between 2012-16, 14 patients of large AVMs (median volume 26.5 cc) unsuitable for surgery or embolization were treated in 2-3 of DFGKRS sessions. The Leksell G frame was kept in situ during the whole procedure. 86% (n = 12) patients had radiologic evidence of bleed, and 43% (n = 6) had presented with a history of seizures. 57% (n = 8) patients received a daily treatment for 3 days and 43% (n = 6) were on an alternate day (2 fractions) regimen. The marginal dose was split into 2 or 3 fractions of the ideal prescription dose of a single fraction of 23-25 Gy. The median follow up period was 35.6 months (8-57 months). In the three-fraction scheme, the marginal dose ranged from 8.9-11.5 Gy, while in the two-fraction scheme, the marginal dose ranged from 11.3-15 Gy at 50% per fraction. Headache (43%, n = 6) was the most common early postoperative complication, which was controlled with short course steroids. Follow up evaluation of at least three years was achieved in seven patients, who have shown complete nidus obliteration in 43% patients while the obliteration has been in the range of 50-99% in rest of the patients. Overall, there was a 67.8% reduction in the AVM volume at 3 years. Nidus obliteration at 3 years showed a significant rank order correlation with the cumulative prescription dose (p 0.95, P value 0.01), with attainment of near-total (more than 95%) obliteration rates beyond 29 Gy of the cumulative prescription dose. No patient receiving a cumulative prescription dose of less than 31 Gy had any severe adverse reaction. In co-variate adjusted ordinal regression, only the cumulative prescription dose had a significant correlation with common terminology criteria for adverse events (CTCAE) severity (P value 0.04), independent of age, AVM volume

  13. Pulsed Radiation Therapy With Concurrent Cisplatin Results in Superior Tumor Growth Delay in a Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Murine Model

    Meyer, Kurt; Krueger, Sarah A.; Kane, Jonathan L.; Wilson, Thomas G.; Hanna, Alaa; Dabjan, Mohamad; Hege, Katie M.; Wilson, George D.; Grills, Inga; Marples, Brian, E-mail: brian.marples@beaumont.edu

    2016-09-01

    Purpose: To assess the efficacy of 3-week schedules of low-dose pulsed radiation treatment (PRT) and standard radiation therapy (SRT), with concurrent cisplatin (CDDP) in a head and neck squamous cell carcinoma xenograft model. Methods and Materials: Subcutaneous UT-SCC-14 tumors were established in athymic NIH III HO female mice. A total of 30 Gy was administered as 2 Gy/d, 5 d/wk for 3 weeks, either by PRT (10 × 0.2 Gy/d, with a 3-minute break between each 0.2-Gy dose) or SRT (2 Gy/d, uninterrupted delivery) in combination with concurrent 2 mg/kg CDDP 3 times per week in the final 2 weeks of radiation therapy. Treatment-induced growth delays were defined from twice-weekly tumor volume measurements. Tumor hypoxia was assessed by {sup 18}F-fluoromisonidazole positron emission tomography imaging, and calculated maximum standardized uptake values compared with tumor histology. Tumor vessel density and hypoxia were measured by quantitative immunohistochemistry. Normal tissues effects were evaluated in gut and skin. Results: Untreated tumors grew to 1000 mm{sup 3} in 25.4 days (±1.2), compared with delays of 62.3 days (±3.5) for SRT + CDDP and 80.2 days (±5.0) for PRT + CDDP. Time to reach 2× pretreatment volume ranged from 8.2 days (±1.8) for untreated tumors to 67.1 days (±4.7) after PRT + CDDP. Significant differences in tumor growth delay were observed for SRT versus SRT + CDDP (P=.04), PRT versus PRT + CDDP (P=.035), and SRT + CDDP versus PRT + CDDP (P=.033), and for survival between PRT versus PRT + CDDP (P=.017) and SRT + CDDP versus PRT + CDDP (P=.008). Differences in tumor hypoxia were evident by {sup 18}F-fluoromisonidazole positron emission tomography imaging between SRT and PRT (P=.025), although not with concurrent CDDP. Tumor vessel density differed between SRT + CDDP and PRT + CDDP (P=.011). No differences in normal tissue parameters were seen. Conclusions: Concurrent CDDP was more effective in combination PRT than SRT at

  14. Increased height standard deviation scores in response to growth hormone therapy to near-adult height in older children with delayed skeletal maturation: results from the ANSWER Program.

    Ross, Judith L; Lee, Peter A; Gut, Robert; Germak, John

    2015-01-01

    A primary goal of recombinant human growth hormone therapy (GHT) in children is attaining normal adult height. In this study, children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) (including isolated idiopathic growth hormone deficiency [IGHD] and multiple pituitary hormone deficiency [MPHD]), idiopathic short stature (ISS), and Turner syndrome (TS) were evaluated for near-adult height (NAH) and percent achieving NAH within the normal range after approximately 4 years of GHT. Data from the American Norditropin® Web-Enabled Research (ANSWER) Program were analyzed for NAH from age at treatment start (ATS) (i.e., referral age as defined by age at enrollment in the study) to last clinic visit using one of the following two criteria: 1) age ≥18 years, or 2) if male: ≥16 years and height velocity (HV) standard deviation score (HSDS) ≤ -2, and either GHD (n = 201), ISS (n = 19), or TS (n = 41). The main outcome measures included HSDS and corrected HSDS (HSDS-target HSDS) in response to GH treatment, and correlation of ATS with NAH HSDS. Mean (± SD) chronological and bone ages at baseline were 14.0 ± 2.1 years and 11.7 ± 2.0 years, respectively, and mean GHT duration was 4.0 ± 1.6 years. Mean HSDS (baseline to NAH; GHD: -2.7 to -1.0; ISS: -2.8 to -1.4; TS: -3.0 to -1.8) and mean corrected HSDS (baseline to NAH; GHD: -2.1 to -0.3; ISS: -2.1 to -0.6; TS: -1.8 to -0.6) increased across diagnostic indications. Percentages of patients reaching near-adult HSDS > -2 were GHD: 87.6%; ISS: 78.9%; TS: 65.8%. Significant negative correlations were found between ATS and NAH HSDS when analyzed by sex. Despite a relatively advanced childhood age, the majority of GH-treated patients attained mean near-adult HSDS within the normal range (HSDS > -2). Negative correlations of ATS with near-adult HSDS indicate that an earlier age at treatment start would likely have resulted in greater adult height achieved in both male and female patients.

  15. Oscillation of solutions of some higher order linear differential equations

    Hong-Yan Xu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we deal with the order of growth and the hyper order of solutions of higher order linear differential equations $$f^{(k}+B_{k-1}f^{(k-1}+\\cdots+B_1f'+B_0f=F$$ where $B_j(z (j=0,1,\\ldots,k-1$ and $F$ are entire functions or polynomials. Some results are obtained which improve and extend previous results given by Z.-X. Chen, J. Wang, T.-B. Cao and C.-H. Li.

  16. Linearizing W-algebras

    Krivonos, S.O.; Sorin, A.S.

    1994-06-01

    We show that the Zamolodchikov's and Polyakov-Bershadsky nonlinear algebras W 3 and W (2) 3 can be embedded as subalgebras into some linear algebras with finite set of currents. Using these linear algebras we find new field realizations of W (2) 3 and W 3 which could be a starting point for constructing new versions of W-string theories. We also reveal a number of hidden relationships between W 3 and W (2) 3 . We conjecture that similar linear algebras can exist for other W-algebra as well. (author). 10 refs

  17. Matrices and linear algebra

    Schneider, Hans

    1989-01-01

    Linear algebra is one of the central disciplines in mathematics. A student of pure mathematics must know linear algebra if he is to continue with modern algebra or functional analysis. Much of the mathematics now taught to engineers and physicists requires it.This well-known and highly regarded text makes the subject accessible to undergraduates with little mathematical experience. Written mainly for students in physics, engineering, economics, and other fields outside mathematics, the book gives the theory of matrices and applications to systems of linear equations, as well as many related t

  18. Linearity in Process Languages

    Nygaard, Mikkel; Winskel, Glynn

    2002-01-01

    The meaning and mathematical consequences of linearity (managing without a presumed ability to copy) are studied for a path-based model of processes which is also a model of affine-linear logic. This connection yields an affine-linear language for processes, automatically respecting open......-map bisimulation, in which a range of process operations can be expressed. An operational semantics is provided for the tensor fragment of the language. Different ways to make assemblies of processes lead to different choices of exponential, some of which respect bisimulation....

  19. Elements of linear space

    Amir-Moez, A R; Sneddon, I N

    1962-01-01

    Elements of Linear Space is a detailed treatment of the elements of linear spaces, including real spaces with no more than three dimensions and complex n-dimensional spaces. The geometry of conic sections and quadric surfaces is considered, along with algebraic structures, especially vector spaces and transformations. Problems drawn from various branches of geometry are given.Comprised of 12 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to real Euclidean space, followed by a discussion on linear transformations and matrices. The addition and multiplication of transformations and matrices a

  20. Applied linear regression

    Weisberg, Sanford

    2013-01-01

    Praise for the Third Edition ""...this is an excellent book which could easily be used as a course text...""-International Statistical Institute The Fourth Edition of Applied Linear Regression provides a thorough update of the basic theory and methodology of linear regression modeling. Demonstrating the practical applications of linear regression analysis techniques, the Fourth Edition uses interesting, real-world exercises and examples. Stressing central concepts such as model building, understanding parameters, assessing fit and reliability, and drawing conclusions, the new edition illus

  1. A new algebraic growth of nonlinear tearing mode

    Li, D.

    1995-01-01

    It is found that the quasilinear modification of magnetic field produces a nonlinear Lorentz force opposing the linear driving force and slowing down the vortex flow. A new algebraic growth appears due to this damping mechanism to oppose the linear growth of the tearing mode. This effect was eliminated in Rutherford's model [Phys. Fluids 16, 1903 (1973)] under the flux average operation and the assumption ∂/∂t much-lt η/δ 2 (here η is the resistivity, δ is the resistive layer width). A unified analytical model is developed by using standard perturbation theory for the linear and nonlinear growth of the tearing mode. The inertia effect and quasilinear effects of both the current density and the magnetic field have been included. A nonlinear evolution equation is analytically derived for the tearing mode to describe the linear growth, Rutherford's behavior, and the new behavior. The classical linear result is exactly recovered as the quasilinear effects are negligible. It is shown that a more slowly algebraic growth like Ψ 1 ∝t can become dominant in the nonlinear phase instead of Rutherford behavior like Ψ 1 ∝t 2 , provided the tearing mode in the linear phase is strongly unstable. Here Ψ 1 is the magnetic flux perturbation. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  2. Basic linear partial differential equations

    Treves, Francois

    1975-01-01

    Focusing on the archetypes of linear partial differential equations, this text for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students features most of the basic classical results. The methods, however, are decidedly nontraditional: in practically every instance, they tend toward a high level of abstraction. This approach recalls classical material to contemporary analysts in a language they can understand, as well as exploiting the field's wealth of examples as an introduction to modern theories.The four-part treatment covers the basic examples of linear partial differential equations and their

  3. Periodic linear differential stochastic processes

    Kwakernaak, H.

    1975-01-01

    Periodic linear differential processes are defined and their properties are analyzed. Equivalent representations are discussed, and the solutions of related optimal estimation problems are given. An extension is presented of Kailath and Geesey’s [1] results concerning the innovations representation

  4. The associations between adult body composition and abdominal adiposity outcomes, and relative weight gain and linear growth from birth to age 22 in the Birth to Twenty Plus cohort, South Africa.

    Prioreschi, Alessandra; Munthali, Richard J; Kagura, Juliana; Said-Mohamed, Rihlat; De Lucia Rolfe, Emanuella; Micklesfield, Lisa K; Norris, Shane A

    2018-01-01

    The growing prevalence of overweight and obesity in low- or middle-income countries precipitates the need to examine early life predictors of adiposity. To examine growth trajectories from birth, and associations with adult body composition in the Birth to Twenty Plus Cohort, Soweto, South Africa. Complete data at year 22 was available for 1088 participants (536 males and 537 females). Conditional weight and height indices were generated indicative of relative rate of growth between years 0-2, 2-5, 5-8, 8-18, and 18-22. Whole body composition was measured at year 22 (range 21-25 years) using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Total fat free soft tissue mass (FFSTM), fat mass, and abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were recorded. Birth weight was positively associated with FFSTM and fat mass at year 22 (β = 0.11, page and being stunted at age 2 years were inversely associated with FFSTM at year 22. The importance of optimal birth weight and growth tempos during early life for later life body composition, and the detrimental effects of pre- and postnatal growth restriction are clear; yet contemporary weight-gain most strongly predicted adult body composition. Thus interventions should target body composition trajectories during childhood and prevent excessive weight gain in early adulthood.

  5. Topics in quaternion linear algebra

    Rodman, Leiba

    2014-01-01

    Quaternions are a number system that has become increasingly useful for representing the rotations of objects in three-dimensional space and has important applications in theoretical and applied mathematics, physics, computer science, and engineering. This is the first book to provide a systematic, accessible, and self-contained exposition of quaternion linear algebra. It features previously unpublished research results with complete proofs and many open problems at various levels, as well as more than 200 exercises to facilitate use by students and instructors. Applications presented in the book include numerical ranges, invariant semidefinite subspaces, differential equations with symmetries, and matrix equations. Designed for researchers and students across a variety of disciplines, the book can be read by anyone with a background in linear algebra, rudimentary complex analysis, and some multivariable calculus. Instructors will find it useful as a complementary text for undergraduate linear algebra courses...

  6. Bayes linear statistics, theory & methods

    Goldstein, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Bayesian methods combine information available from data with any prior information available from expert knowledge. The Bayes linear approach follows this path, offering a quantitative structure for expressing beliefs, and systematic methods for adjusting these beliefs, given observational data. The methodology differs from the full Bayesian methodology in that it establishes simpler approaches to belief specification and analysis based around expectation judgements. Bayes Linear Statistics presents an authoritative account of this approach, explaining the foundations, theory, methodology, and practicalities of this important field. The text provides a thorough coverage of Bayes linear analysis, from the development of the basic language to the collection of algebraic results needed for efficient implementation, with detailed practical examples. The book covers:The importance of partial prior specifications for complex problems where it is difficult to supply a meaningful full prior probability specification...

  7. Scalar-tensor linear inflation

    Artymowski, Michał [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Racioppi, Antonio, E-mail: Michal.Artymowski@uj.edu.pl, E-mail: Antonio.Racioppi@kbfi.ee [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Rävala 10, 10143 Tallinn (Estonia)

    2017-04-01

    We investigate two approaches to non-minimally coupled gravity theories which present linear inflation as attractor solution: a) the scalar-tensor theory approach, where we look for a scalar-tensor theory that would restore results of linear inflation in the strong coupling limit for a non-minimal coupling to gravity of the form of f (φ) R /2; b) the particle physics approach, where we motivate the form of the Jordan frame potential by loop corrections to the inflaton field. In both cases the Jordan frame potentials are modifications of the induced gravity inflationary scenario, but instead of the Starobinsky attractor they lead to linear inflation in the strong coupling limit.

  8. Intrinsic suppression of turbulence in linear plasma devices

    Leddy, J.; Dudson, B.

    2017-12-01

    Plasma turbulence is the dominant transport mechanism for heat and particles in magnetised plasmas in linear devices and tokamaks, so the study of turbulence is important in limiting and controlling this transport. Linear devices provide an axial magnetic field that serves to confine a plasma in cylindrical geometry as it travels along the magnetic field from the source to the strike point. Due to perpendicular transport, the plasma density and temperature have a roughly Gaussian radial profile with gradients that drive instabilities, such as resistive drift-waves and Kelvin-Helmholtz. If unstable, these instabilities cause perturbations to grow resulting in saturated turbulence, increasing the cross-field transport of heat and particles. When the plasma emerges from the source, there is a time, {τ }\\parallel , that describes the lifetime of the plasma based on parallel velocity and length of the device. As the plasma moves down the device, it also moves azimuthally according to E × B and diamagnetic velocities. There is a balance point in these parallel and perpendicular times that sets the stabilisation threshold. We simulate plasmas with a variety of parallel lengths and magnetic fields to vary the parallel and perpendicular lifetimes, respectively, and find that there is a clear correlation between the saturated RMS density perturbation level and the balance between these lifetimes. The threshold of marginal stability is seen to exist where {τ }\\parallel ≈ 11{τ }\\perp . This is also associated with the product {τ }\\parallel {γ }* , where {γ }* is the drift-wave linear growth rate, indicating that the instability must exist for roughly 100 times the growth time for the instability to enter the nonlinear growth phase. We explore the root of this correlation and the implications for linear device design.

  9. Primordial black holes in linear and non-linear regimes

    Allahyari, Alireza; Abolhasani, Ali Akbar [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Firouzjaee, Javad T., E-mail: allahyari@physics.sharif.edu, E-mail: j.taghizadeh.f@ipm.ir [School of Astronomy, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-06-01

    We revisit the formation of primordial black holes (PBHs) in the radiation-dominated era for both linear and non-linear regimes, elaborating on the concept of an apparent horizon. Contrary to the expectation from vacuum models, we argue that in a cosmological setting a density fluctuation with a high density does not always collapse to a black hole. To this end, we first elaborate on the perturbation theory for spherically symmetric space times in the linear regime. Thereby, we introduce two gauges. This allows to introduce a well defined gauge-invariant quantity for the expansion of null geodesics. Using this quantity, we argue that PBHs do not form in the linear regime irrespective of the density of the background. Finally, we consider the formation of PBHs in non-linear regimes, adopting the spherical collapse picture. In this picture, over-densities are modeled by closed FRW models in the radiation-dominated era. The difference of our approach is that we start by finding an exact solution for a closed radiation-dominated universe. This yields exact results for turn-around time and radius. It is important that we take the initial conditions from the linear perturbation theory. Additionally, instead of using uniform Hubble gauge condition, both density and velocity perturbations are admitted in this approach. Thereby, the matching condition will impose an important constraint on the initial velocity perturbations δ {sup h} {sub 0} = −δ{sub 0}/2. This can be extended to higher orders. Using this constraint, we find that the apparent horizon of a PBH forms when δ > 3 at turn-around time. The corrections also appear from the third order. Moreover, a PBH forms when its apparent horizon is outside the sound horizon at the re-entry time. Applying this condition, we infer that the threshold value of the density perturbations at horizon re-entry should be larger than δ {sub th} > 0.7.

  10. Results of a survey to determine demographic and business management factors associated with size and growth rate of rural mixed-animal veterinary practices.

    Brusk, Amy M; White, Brad J; Goehl, Dan R; Dhuyvetter, Kevin C

    2010-12-15

    To determine potential associations between demographic and business management factors and practice size and growth rate in rural mixed-animal veterinary practices. Cross-sectional survey. 54 mixed-animal practitioners. A cross-sectional survey (96 questions) was electronically disseminated. Responses were collected, and outcomes (number of veterinarians [NV], growth in number of veterinarians [NVG], gross practice income [GPI], growth in gross practice income [GPIG], gross practice income per veterinarian [GPIV], and growth in gross practice income per veterinarian [GPIVG]) were calculated. Bivariate analyses were performed and multivariable models created to determine associations between survey responses and outcomes of interest. Survey respondents were from mixed-animal practices, and most (46/54 [85.2%]) practiced in small communities (business manager. Typically, practices had positive mean growth in NVG (4.4%), GPIG (8.5%), and GPIVG (8.1%), but growth rate was highly variable among practices. Factors associated with growth rate included main species interest, frequency for adjusting prices, use of a marketing plan, service fee structure, and sending a client newsletter. Mixed-animal practices had a large range in size and growth rate. Economic indices were impacted by common business management practices.

  11. Linear system theory

    Callier, Frank M.; Desoer, Charles A.

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this book is to provide a systematic and rigorous access to the main topics of linear state-space system theory in both the continuous-time case and the discrete-time case; and the I/O description of linear systems. The main thrusts of the work are the analysis of system descriptions and derivations of their properties, LQ-optimal control, state feedback and state estimation, and MIMO unity-feedback systems.

  12. Deficiency of maize starch-branching enzyme i results in altered starch fine structure, decreased digestibility and reduced coleoptile growth during germination

    Yandeau-Nelson Marna

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two distinct starch branching enzyme (SBE isoforms predate the divergence of monocots and dicots and have been conserved in plants since then. This strongly suggests that both SBEI and SBEII provide unique selective advantages to plants. However, no phenotype for the SBEI mutation, sbe1a, had been previously observed. To explore this incongruity the objective of the present work was to characterize functional and molecular phenotypes of both sbe1a and wild-type (Wt in the W64A maize inbred line. Results Endosperm starch granules from the sbe1a mutant were more resistant to digestion by pancreatic α-amylase, and the sbe1a mutant starch had an altered branching pattern for amylopectin and amylose. When kernels were germinated, the sbe1a mutant was associated with shorter coleoptile length and higher residual starch content, suggesting that less efficient starch utilization may have impaired growth during germination. Conclusions The present report documents for the first time a molecular phenotype due to the absence of SBEI, and suggests strongly that it is associated with altered physiological function of the starch in vivo. We believe that these results provide a plausible rationale for the conservation of SBEI in plants in both monocots and dicots, as greater seedling vigor would provide an important survival advantage when resources are limited.

  13. Surgical management of macular holes: results using gas tamponade alone, or in combination with autologous platelet concentrate, or transforming growth factor beta 2.

    Minihan, M

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Vitrectomy and gas tamponade has become a recognised technique for the treatment of macular holes. In an attempt to improve the anatomic and visual success of the procedure, various adjunctive therapies--cytokines, serum, and platelets--have been employed. A consecutive series of 85 eyes which underwent macular hole surgery using gas tamponade alone, or gas tamponade with either the cytokine transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGF-beta 2) or autologous platelet concentrate is reported. METHODS: Twenty eyes had vitrectomy and 20% SF6 gas tamponade; 15 had vitrectomy, 20% SF6 gas, and TGF-beta 2; 50 had vitrectomy, 16% C3F8 gas tamponade, and 0.1 ml of autologous platelet concentrate prepared during the procedure. RESULTS: Anatomic success occurred in 86% of eyes, with 96% of the platelet treated group achieving closure of the macular hole. Visual acuity improved by two lines or more in 65% of the SF6 only group, 33% of those treated with TGF-beta 2 and in 74% of the platelet treated group. In the platelet treated group 40% achieved 6\\/12 or better and 62% achieved 6\\/18 or better. The best visual results were obtained in stage 2 holes. CONCLUSION: Vitrectomy for macular holes is often of benefit and patients may recover good visual acuity, especially early in the disease process. The procedure has a number of serious complications, and the postoperative posturing requirement is difficult. Patients need to be informed of such concerns before surgery.

  14. Topological characterizations of S-Linearity

    Carfi', David

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available We give several characterizations of basic concepts of S-linear algebra in terms of weak duality on topological vector spaces. On the way, some classic results of Functional Analysis are reinterpreted in terms of S-linear algebra, by an application-oriented fashion. The results are required in the S-linear algebra formulation of infinite dimensional Decision Theory and in the study of abstract evolution equations in economical and physical Theories.

  15. Displacement measurement system for linear array detector

    Zhang Pengchong; Chen Ziyu; Shen Ji

    2011-01-01

    It presents a set of linear displacement measurement system based on encoder. The system includes displacement encoders, optical lens and read out circuit. Displacement read out unit includes linear CCD and its drive circuit, two amplifier circuits, second order Butterworth low-pass filter and the binarization circuit. The coding way is introduced, and various parts of the experimental signal waveforms are given, and finally a linear experimental test results are given. The experimental results are satisfactory. (authors)

  16. Cluster growth kinetics

    Dubovik, V.M.; Gal'perin, A.G.; Rikhvitskij, V.S.; Lushnikov, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    Processes of some traffic blocking coming into existence are considered as probabilistic ones. We study analytic solutions for models for the dynamics of both cluster growth and cluster growth with fragmentation in the systems of finite number of objects. Assuming rates constancy of both coalescence and fragmentation, the models under consideration are linear on the probability functions

  17. Stochastic process corrosion growth models for pipeline reliability

    Bazán, Felipe Alexander Vargas; Beck, André Teófilo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Novel non-linear stochastic process corrosion growth model is proposed. •Corrosion rate modeled as random Poisson pulses. •Time to corrosion initiation and inherent time-variability properly represented. •Continuous corrosion growth histories obtained. •Model is shown to precisely fit actual corrosion data at two time points. -- Abstract: Linear random variable corrosion models are extensively employed in reliability analysis of pipelines. However, linear models grossly neglect well-known characteristics of the corrosion process. Herein, a non-linear model is proposed, where corrosion rate is represented as a Poisson square wave process. The resulting model represents inherent time-variability of corrosion growth, produces continuous growth and leads to mean growth at less-than-one power of time. Different corrosion models are adjusted to the same set of actual corrosion data for two inspections. The proposed non-linear random process corrosion growth model leads to the best fit to the data, while better representing problem physics

  18. Comparing growth rate in a mixed plantation (walnut, poplar and nurse trees with different planting designs: results from an experimental plantation in northern Italy

    Francesco Pelleri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Results of a mixed plantation with poplar, walnut and nurse trees established in winter 2003 in Northern Italy, are reported. Main tree species (poplar and walnut were planted according to a rectangular design (10 x 11m, with different spacings and alternate lines. The experimental trial was carried out to verify the following working hypotheses: (i possibility to combine main trees with different growth levels (common walnut, hybrid walnut, and different poplar clones and test two different poplar and walnut spacings (5.0 and 7.4 m in the same plantation; (ii opportunity to reduce cultivation’s workload, in comparison with poplar monoculture, using mixtures with different poplar clones and N-fixing nurse trees; (iii verifying the growth pattern of two new poplar clones in comparison with the traditional clones cultivated for different purposes in Italy.The use of different valuable crop trees’ mixtures intercropped with nurse trees and shrubs (including N-fixing trees allows to decrease the cultivation’s workload. In fact, a heavy reduction of cultural practices - fertilizers, weed control, irrigation and pesticides applications (-61% are the main concurrent, supplementary benefits. The best growth performances (DBH and tree height, associated with the higher competition towards walnuts, were recorded with the new clones Lena and Neva in comparison with the I214 and Villafranca. The closer spacing (5 m between poplar and walnut trees was found to be unsuited to get merchantable poplars sized 30 cm without developing a heavy competition towards walnut trees. The wider spacing (7.4 m resulted vice versa suitable to get poplar trees sized as requested by veneer factories and to maintain an acceptable competitive level with walnut. Within this plantation design, a shorter rotation (8 yrs is needed for Lena and Neva clones in comparison with I214 and Villafranca (10 yrs. Walnut intercropped with poplar showed cone-shaped crowns, light

  19. Transient from crystallization to fractal growth observed in both boar bile and SnI sub 2 vapour

    Zhang Ji Zhong; Xie An Jian

    2003-01-01

    A visual transient of the growth mechanism from crystallization to fractal growth was observed clearly in a drop of boar bile. The growing crystals were replaced by treelike fractal structures during solidification of the sample. It is fascinating to compare the transient with the result observed in SnI sub 2 vapour. They were completely identical, and revealed that under certain conditions a linear growth could be transferred spontaneously into nonlinear growth. It may be possible to consider the transient as a 'bridge' between linear and nonlinear growth, and to develop a quantitative expression of transient dynamics.

  20. A Linear Electromagnetic Piston Pump

    Hogan, Paul H.

    Advancements in mobile hydraulics for human-scale applications have increased demand for a compact hydraulic power supply. Conventional designs couple a rotating electric motor to a hydraulic pump, which increases the package volume and requires several energy conversions. This thesis investigates the use of a free piston as the moving element in a linear motor to eliminate multiple energy conversions and decrease the overall package volume. A coupled model used a quasi-static magnetic equivalent circuit to calculate the motor inductance and the electromagnetic force acting on the piston. The force was an input to a time domain model to evaluate the mechanical and pressure dynamics. The magnetic circuit model was validated with finite element analysis and an experimental prototype linear motor. The coupled model was optimized using a multi-objective genetic algorithm to explore the parameter space and maximize power density and efficiency. An experimental prototype linear pump coupled pistons to an off-the-shelf linear motor to validate the mechanical and pressure dynamics models. The magnetic circuit force calculation agreed within 3% of finite element analysis, and within 8% of experimental data from the unoptimized prototype linear motor. The optimized motor geometry also had good agreement with FEA; at zero piston displacement, the magnetic circuit calculates optimized motor force within 10% of FEA in less than 1/1000 the computational time. This makes it well suited to genetic optimization algorithms. The mechanical model agrees very well with the experimental piston pump position data when tuned for additional unmodeled mechanical friction. Optimized results suggest that an improvement of 400% of the state of the art power density is attainable with as high as 85% net efficiency. This demonstrates that a linear electromagnetic piston pump has potential to serve as a more compact and efficient supply of fluid power for the human scale.