WorldWideScience

Sample records for linear growth law

  1. Determination of regression laws: Linear and nonlinear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishchenko, A.M.

    1994-01-01

    A detailed mathematical determination of regression laws is presented in the article. Particular emphasis is place on determining the laws of X j on X l to account for source nuclei decay and detector errors in nuclear physics instrumentation. Both linear and nonlinear relations are presented. Linearization of 19 functions is tabulated, including graph, relation, variable substitution, obtained linear function, and remarks. 6 refs., 1 tab

  2. Dietary arginine and linear growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Vught, Anneke J A H; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Arts, Ilja C W

    2013-01-01

    Child Intervention Study during 2001-2 (baseline), and at 3-year and 7-year follow-up, were used. Arginine intake was estimated via a 7 d precoded food diary at baseline and 3-year follow-up. Data were analysed in a multilevel structure in which children were embedded within schools. Random intercept......The amino acid arginine is a well-known growth hormone (GH) stimulator and GH is an important modulator of linear growth. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of dietary arginine on growth velocity in children between 7 and 13 years of age. Data from the Copenhagen School...... and slopes were defined to estimate the association between arginine intake and growth velocity, including the following covariates: sex; age; baseline height; energy intake; puberty stage at 7-year follow-up and intervention/control group. The association between arginine intake and growth velocity...

  3. Power laws from linear neuronal cable theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettersen, Klas H; Lindén, Henrik Anders; Tetzlaff, Tom

    2014-01-01

    suggested to be at the root of this phenomenon, we here demonstrate a possible origin of such power laws in the biophysical properties of single neurons described by the standard cable equation. Taking advantage of the analytical tractability of the so called ball and stick neuron model, we derive general...... are homogeneously distributed across the neural membranes and themselves exhibit pink ([Formula: see text]) noise distributions. While the PSD noise spectra at low frequencies may be dominated by synaptic noise, our findings suggest that the high-frequency power laws may originate in noise from intrinsic ion...

  4. Decay properties of linear thermoelastic plates: Cattaneo versus Fourier law

    KAUST Repository

    Said-Houari, Belkacem

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the decay properties of the linear thermoelastic plate equations in the whole space for both Fourier and Cattaneo's laws of heat conduction. We point out that while the paradox of infinite propagation speed inherent

  5. On conjugacy growth of linear groups

    OpenAIRE

    Breuillard, Emmanuel; de Cornulier, Yves; Lubotzky, Alexander; Meiri, Chen

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the conjugacy growth of finitely generated linear groups. We show that finitely generated non-virtually-solvable subgroups of GL_d have uniform exponential conjugacy growth and in fact that the number of distinct polynomials arising as characteristic polynomials of the elements of the ball of radius n for the word metric has exponential growth rate bounded away from 0 in terms of the dimension d only.

  6. Convex variational problems linear, nearly linear and anisotropic growth conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Bildhauer, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The author emphasizes a non-uniform ellipticity condition as the main approach to regularity theory for solutions of convex variational problems with different types of non-standard growth conditions. This volume first focuses on elliptic variational problems with linear growth conditions. Here the notion of a "solution" is not obvious and the point of view has to be changed several times in order to get some deeper insight. Then the smoothness properties of solutions to convex anisotropic variational problems with superlinear growth are studied. In spite of the fundamental differences, a non-uniform ellipticity condition serves as the main tool towards a unified view of the regularity theory for both kinds of problems.

  7. Decay properties of linear thermoelastic plates: Cattaneo versus Fourier law

    KAUST Repository

    Said-Houari, Belkacem

    2013-02-01

    In this article, we investigate the decay properties of the linear thermoelastic plate equations in the whole space for both Fourier and Cattaneo\\'s laws of heat conduction. We point out that while the paradox of infinite propagation speed inherent in Fourier\\'s law is removed by changing to the Cattaneo law, the latter always leads to a loss of regularity of the solution. The main tool used to prove our results is the energy method in the Fourier space together with some integral estimates. We prove the decay estimates for initial data U0 ∈ Hs(ℝ) ∩ L1(ℝ). In addition, by restricting the initial data to U0 ∈ Hs(ℝ) ∩ L1,γ(ℝ) and γ ∈ [0, 1], we can derive faster decay estimates with the decay rate improvement by a factor of t-γ/2. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  8. Infinite sets of conservation laws for linear and non-linear field equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederle, J.

    1984-01-01

    The work was motivated by a desire to understand group theoretically the existence of an infinite set of conservation laws for non-interacting fields and to carry over these conservation laws to the case of interacting fields. The relation between an infinite set of conservation laws of a linear field equation and the enveloping algebra of its space-time symmetry group was established. It is shown that in the case of the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation to each symmetry of the corresponding linear equation delta sub(o)uxxx=u sub() determined by an element of the enveloping algebra of the space translation algebra, there corresponds a symmetry of the full KdV equation

  9. Modeling and analysis of linear hyperbolic systems of balance laws

    CERN Document Server

    Bartecki, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    This monograph focuses on the mathematical modeling of distributed parameter systems in which mass/energy transport or wave propagation phenomena occur and which are described by partial differential equations of hyperbolic type. The case of linear (or linearized) 2 x 2 hyperbolic systems of balance laws is considered, i.e., systems described by two coupled linear partial differential equations with two variables representing physical quantities, depending on both time and one-dimensional spatial variable. Based on practical examples of a double-pipe heat exchanger and a transportation pipeline, two typical configurations of boundary input signals are analyzed: collocated, wherein both signals affect the system at the same spatial point, and anti-collocated, in which the input signals are applied to the two different end points of the system. The results of this book emerge from the practical experience of the author gained during his studies conducted in the experimental installation of a heat exchange cente...

  10. On Associative Conformal Algebras of Linear Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Retakh, Alexander

    2000-01-01

    Lie conformal algebras appear in the theory of vertex algebras. Their relation is similar to that of Lie algebras and their universal enveloping algebras. Associative conformal algebras play a role in conformal representation theory. We introduce the notions of conformal identity and unital associative conformal algebras and classify finitely generated simple unital associative conformal algebras of linear growth. These are precisely the complete algebras of conformal endomorphisms of finite ...

  11. Law, Economic Growth and Human Development: Evidence from Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Asongu Simplice

    2011-01-01

    This paper cuts adrift the mainstream approach to the legal-origins debate on the law-growth nexus by integrating both overall economic and human components in our understanding of how regulation quality and the rule of law lie at the heart of economic and inequality adjusted human developments. Findings summarily reveal that legal-origin does not explain economic growth and human development beyond the mechanisms of law. Our results support the current consensus that, English common-law coun...

  12. Scaling laws for e+/e- linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delahaye, J.P.; Guignard, G.; Raubenheimer, T.; Wilson, I.

    1999-01-01

    Design studies of a future TeV e + e - Linear Collider (TLC) are presently being made by five major laboratories within the framework of a world-wide collaboration. A figure of merit is defined which enables an objective comparison of these different designs. This figure of merit is shown to depend only on a small number of parameters. General scaling laws for the main beam parameters and linac parameters are derived and prove to be very effective when used as guidelines to optimize the linear collider design. By adopting appropriate parameters for beam stability, the figure of merit becomes nearly independent of accelerating gradient and RF frequency of the accelerating structures. In spite of the strong dependence of the wake fields with frequency, the single-bunch emittance blow-up during acceleration along the linac is also shown to be independent of the RF frequency when using equivalent trajectory correction schemes. In this situation, beam acceleration using high-frequency structures becomes very advantageous because it enables high accelerating fields to be obtained, which reduces the overall length and consequently the total cost of the linac. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  13. Grain-growth law during Stage 1 sintering of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Zeming; Ma, J.

    2002-01-01

    This work investigates the grain-growth behaviour of powder compact during Stage 1 sintering (<90{%} theoretical density). It is widely accepted that grain size is an important state variable in the constitutive modelling in material sintering. However, it is noted that all the existing grain-growth laws proposed in the literature do not incorporate the effect of externally applied stress independently. In this work, a grain-growth law with externally applied stress as a variable was proposed. Alumina powders were forge-sintered at different applied stresses to examine the proposed grain-growth relationship. The proposed grain-growth law was then applied to model the grain-growth process on the sinter forging of tool steel. It is shown that the present proposed grain-growth law provides a good description on the experimental results. (author)

  14. A proposal for unification of fatigue crack growth law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobelev, V.

    2017-05-01

    In the present paper, the new fractional-differential dependences of cycles to failure for a given initial crack length upon the stress amplitude in the linear fracture approach are proposed. The anticipated unified propagation function describes the infinitesimal crack length growths per increasing number of load cycles, supposing that the load ratio remains constant over the load history. Two unification fractional-differential functions with different number of fitting parameters are proposed. An alternative, threshold formulations for the fractional-differential propagation functions are suggested. The mean stress dependence is the immediate consequence from the considered laws. The corresponding formulas for crack length over the number of cycles are derived in closed form.

  15. Government expenditure and economic growth nexus: Wagner's law ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Granger causality test was performed within vector error correction model and the results revealed strong support for both Wagner's law and Keynesian hypothesis when ... Wagner's law was only supported in one instance where causality runs from economic growth to development expenditure from domestic sources.

  16. The effects of oestrogens on linear bone growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A

    2001-01-01

    Regulation of linear bone growth in children and adolescents comprises a complex interaction of hormones and growth factors. Growth hormone (GH) is considered to be the key hormone regulator of linear growth in childhood. The pubertal increase in growth velocity associated with GH has traditionally...... been attributed to testicular androgen secretion in boys, and to oestrogens or adrenal androgen secretion in girls. Research data indicating that oestrogen may be the principal hormone stimulating the pubertal growth spurt in boys as well as girls is reviewed. Such an action is mediated by oestrogen...... female growth spurt despite lack of androgen action. Oestrogens may also influence linear bone growth indirectly via modulation of the GH-insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) axis. Thus, ER blockade diminishes endogenous GH secretion, androgen receptor (AR) blockade increases GH secretion in peripubertal...

  17. Conservation laws for multidimensional systems and related linear algebra problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igonin, Sergei

    2002-01-01

    We consider multidimensional systems of PDEs of generalized evolution form with t-derivatives of arbitrary order on the left-hand side and with the right-hand side dependent on lower order t-derivatives and arbitrary space derivatives. For such systems we find an explicit necessary condition for the existence of higher conservation laws in terms of the system's symbol. For systems that violate this condition we give an effective upper bound on the order of conservation laws. Using this result, we completely describe conservation laws for viscous transonic equations, for the Brusselator model and the Belousov-Zhabotinskii system. To achieve this, we solve over an arbitrary field the matrix equations SA=A t S and SA=-A t S for a quadratic matrix A and its transpose A t , which may be of independent interest

  18. Beneficial effect of physical activity on linear growth rate of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is not known if nutritional and/or other interventions could improve linear growth in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of physical activity in promoting linear growth velocity of black adolescents in a low-income shanty town in South Africa. Two schools in a disadvantaged shanty town participated ...

  19. Piecewise Linear-Linear Latent Growth Mixture Models with Unknown Knots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Nidhi; Harring, Jeffrey R.; Hancock, Gregory R.

    2013-01-01

    Latent growth curve models with piecewise functions are flexible and useful analytic models for investigating individual behaviors that exhibit distinct phases of development in observed variables. As an extension of this framework, this study considers a piecewise linear-linear latent growth mixture model (LGMM) for describing segmented change of…

  20. Influence of magnetic flutter on tearing growth in linear and nonlinear theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreifels, L.; Hornsby, W. A.; Weikl, A.; Peeters, A. G.

    2018-06-01

    Recent simulations of tearing modes in turbulent regimes show an unexpected enhancement in the growth rate. In this paper the effect is investigated analytically. The enhancement is linked to the influence of turbulent magnetic flutter, which is modelled by diffusion terms in magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) momentum balance and Ohm’s law. Expressions for the linear growth rate as well as the island width in nonlinear theory for small amplitudes are derived. The results indicate an enhanced linear growth rate and a larger linear layer width compared with resistive MHD. Also the island width in the nonlinear regime grows faster in the diffusive model. These observations correspond well to simulations in which the effect of turbulence on the magnetic island width and tearing mode growth is analyzed.

  1. Comparison between isotropic linear-elastic law and isotropic hyperelastic law in the finite element modeling of the brachial plexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perruisseau-Carrier, A; Bahlouli, N; Bierry, G; Vernet, P; Facca, S; Liverneaux, P

    2017-12-01

    Augmented reality could help the identification of nerve structures in brachial plexus surgery. The goal of this study was to determine which law of mechanical behavior was more adapted by comparing the results of Hooke's isotropic linear elastic law to those of Ogden's isotropic hyperelastic law, applied to a biomechanical model of the brachial plexus. A model of finite elements was created using the ABAQUS ® from a 3D model of the brachial plexus acquired by segmentation and meshing of MRI images at 0°, 45° and 135° of shoulder abduction of a healthy subject. The offset between the reconstructed model and the deformed model was evaluated quantitatively by the Hausdorff distance and qualitatively by the identification of 3 anatomical landmarks. In every case the Hausdorff distance was shorter with Ogden's law compared to Hooke's law. On a qualitative aspect, the model deformed by Ogden's law followed the concavity of the reconstructed model whereas the model deformed by Hooke's law remained convex. In conclusion, the results of this study demonstrate that the behavior of Ogden's isotropic hyperelastic mechanical model was more adapted to the modeling of the deformations of the brachial plexus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Power-law and runaway growth in conserved aggregation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Ohtsuki, Toshiya; Fujihara, Akihiro; Tanimoto, Satoshi

    2006-01-01

    The z-transform technique is used to analyze the Smoluchowski coagulation equation for conserved aggregation systems. A universal power law with the exponent -5/2 appears when a total 'mass' has a certain critical value. Below the threshold, ordinary scaling relations hold and the system exhibits a behavior like usual critical phenomena. Above the threshold, in contrast, the excess amount of mass coagulates into a runaway member, and remaining members follow the power law. Here the runaway growth coexists with the power law. It is argued that these behaviors are observed universally in conserved aggregation processes

  3. The effects of oestrogens on linear bone growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A

    2001-01-01

    receptors (ER-alpha and ER-beta) in the human growth plate, and polymorphisms in the ER gene may influence adult height in healthy subjects. Prepubertal oestradiol concentrations are significantly higher in girls than in boys, explaining sex-related differences in pubertal onset. Men with a disruptive......Regulation of linear bone growth in children and adolescents comprises a complex interaction of hormones and growth factors. Growth hormone (GH) is considered to be the key hormone regulator of linear growth in childhood. The pubertal increase in growth velocity associated with GH has traditionally...... been attributed to testicular androgen secretion in boys, and to oestrogens or adrenal androgen secretion in girls. Research data indicating that oestrogen may be the principal hormone stimulating the pubertal growth spurt in boys as well as girls is reviewed. Such an action is mediated by oestrogen...

  4. Infinite sets of conservation laws for linear and nonlinear field equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickelsson, J.

    1984-01-01

    The relation between an infinite set of conservation laws of a linear field equation and the enveloping algebra of the space-time symmetry group is established. It is shown that each symmetric element of the enveloping algebra of the space-time symmetry group of a linear field equation generates a one-parameter group of symmetries of the field equation. The cases of the Maxwell and Dirac equations are studied in detail. Then it is shown that (at least in the sense of a power series in the 'coupling constant') the conservation laws of the linear case can be deformed to conservation laws of a nonlinear field equation which is obtained from the linear one by adding a nonlinear term invariant under the group of space-time symmetries. As an example, our method is applied to the Korteweg-de Vries equation and to the massless Thirring model. (orig.)

  5. Direct and Maternal Additive Effects on Rabbit Growth and Linear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth and linear body measurements of rabbits which consisted of 17 ew Zealand White (ZW), 19 Chinchilla (CH), 29 ZW x CH and 33 CH x ZW kittens were compared. The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the crossbreeding effects (i.e direct and maternal additive effect) for growth (individual body weight, IBW) and ...

  6. Bacterial growth laws reflect the evolutionary importance of energy efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitra, Arijit; Dill, Ken A

    2015-01-13

    We are interested in the balance of energy and protein synthesis in bacterial growth. How has evolution optimized this balance? We describe an analytical model that leverages extensive literature data on growth laws to infer the underlying fitness landscape and to draw inferences about what evolution has optimized in Escherichia coli. Is E. coli optimized for growth speed, energy efficiency, or some other property? Experimental data show that at its replication speed limit, E. coli produces about four mass equivalents of nonribosomal proteins for every mass equivalent of ribosomes. This ratio can be explained if the cell's fitness function is the the energy efficiency of cells under fast growth conditions, indicating a tradeoff between the high energy costs of ribosomes under fast growth and the high energy costs of turning over nonribosomal proteins under slow growth. This model gives insight into some of the complex nonlinear relationships between energy utilization and ribosomal and nonribosomal production as a function of cell growth conditions.

  7. Approximate analytical relationships for linear optimal aeroelastic flight control laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Ayman Hamdy

    1998-09-01

    This dissertation introduces new methods to uncover functional relationships between design parameters of a contemporary control design technique and the resulting closed-loop properties. Three new methods are developed for generating such relationships through analytical expressions: the Direct Eigen-Based Technique, the Order of Magnitude Technique, and the Cost Function Imbedding Technique. Efforts concentrated on the linear-quadratic state-feedback control-design technique applied to an aeroelastic flight control task. For this specific application, simple and accurate analytical expressions for the closed-loop eigenvalues and zeros in terms of basic parameters such as stability and control derivatives, structural vibration damping and natural frequency, and cost function weights are generated. These expressions explicitly indicate how the weights augment the short period and aeroelastic modes, as well as the closed-loop zeros, and by what physical mechanism. The analytical expressions are used to address topics such as damping, nonminimum phase behavior, stability, and performance with robustness considerations, and design modifications. This type of knowledge is invaluable to the flight control designer and would be more difficult to formulate when obtained from numerical-based sensitivity analysis.

  8. Bianchi-Baecklund transformations, conservation laws, and linearization of various field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chau Wang, L.L.

    1980-01-01

    The discussion includes: the Sine-Gordon equation, parametric Bianchi-Baecklund transformations and the derivation of local conservation laws; chiral fields, parametric Bianchi-Baecklund transformations, local and non-local conservation laws, and linearization; super chiral fields, a parallel development similar to the chiral field; and self-dual Yang-Mills fields in 4-dimensional Euclidean space; loop-cpace chiral equations, parallel development but with subtlety

  9. Non-linear Growth Models in Mplus and SAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Kevin J.; Ram, Nilam

    2013-01-01

    Non-linear growth curves or growth curves that follow a specified non-linear function in time enable researchers to model complex developmental patterns with parameters that are easily interpretable. In this paper we describe how a variety of sigmoid curves can be fit using the Mplus structural modeling program and the non-linear mixed-effects modeling procedure NLMIXED in SAS. Using longitudinal achievement data collected as part of a study examining the effects of preschool instruction on academic gain we illustrate the procedures for fitting growth models of logistic, Gompertz, and Richards functions. Brief notes regarding the practical benefits, limitations, and choices faced in the fitting and estimation of such models are included. PMID:23882134

  10. A uniform law for convergence to the local times of linear fractional stable motions

    OpenAIRE

    Duffy, James A.

    2016-01-01

    We provide a uniform law for the weak convergence of additive functionals of partial sum processes to the local times of linear fractional stable motions, in a setting sufficiently general for statistical applications. Our results are fundamental to the analysis of the global properties of nonparametric estimators of nonlinear statistical models that involve such processes as covariates.

  11. Linear Stability of Binary Alloy Solidification for Unsteady Growth Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazuruk, K.; Volz, M. P.

    2010-01-01

    An extension of the Mullins and Sekerka (MS) linear stability analysis to the unsteady growth rate case is considered for dilute binary alloys. In particular, the stability of the planar interface during the initial solidification transient is studied in detail numerically. The rapid solidification case, when the system is traversing through the unstable region defined by the MS criterion, has also been treated. It has been observed that the onset of instability is quite accurately defined by the "quasi-stationary MS criterion", when the growth rate and other process parameters are taken as constants at a particular time of the growth process. A singular behavior of the governing equations for the perturbed quantities at the constitutional supercooling demarcation line has been observed. However, when the solidification process, during its transient, crosses this demarcation line, a planar interface is stable according to the linear analysis performed.

  12. Testing linear growth rate formulas of non-scale endogenous growth models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziesemer, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Endogenous growth theory has produced formulas for steady-state growth rates of income per capita which are linear in the growth rate of the population. Depending on the details of the models, slopes and intercepts are positive, zero or negative. Empirical tests have taken over the assumption of

  13. Fall with linear drag and Wien's displacement law: approximate solution and Lambert function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vial, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    We present an approximate solution for the downward time of travel in the case of a mass falling with a linear drag force. We show how a quasi-analytical solution implying the Lambert function can be found. We also show that solving the previous problem is equivalent to the search for Wien's displacement law. These results can be of interest for undergraduate students, as they show that some transcendental equations found in physics may be solved without purely numerical methods. Moreover, as will be seen in the case of Wien's displacement law, solutions based on series expansion can be very accurate even with few terms. (paper)

  14. Investigation of various growth mechanisms of solid tumour growth within the linear-quadratic model for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAneney, H; O'Rourke, S F C

    2007-01-01

    The standard linear-quadratic survival model for radiotherapy is used to investigate different schedules of radiation treatment planning to study how these may be affected by different tumour repopulation kinetics between treatments. The laws for tumour cell repopulation include the logistic and Gompertz models and this extends the work of Wheldon et al (1977 Br. J. Radiol. 50 681), which was concerned with the case of exponential re-growth between treatments. Here we also consider the restricted exponential model. This has been successfully used by Panetta and Adam (1995 Math. Comput. Modelling 22 67) in the case of chemotherapy treatment planning.Treatment schedules investigated include standard fractionation of daily treatments, weekday treatments, accelerated fractionation, optimized uniform schedules and variation of the dosage and α/β ratio, where α and β are radiobiological parameters for the tumour tissue concerned. Parameters for these treatment strategies are extracted from the literature on advanced head and neck cancer, prostate cancer, as well as radiosensitive parameters. Standardized treatment protocols are also considered. Calculations based on the present analysis indicate that even with growth laws scaled to mimic initial growth, such that growth mechanisms are comparable, variation in survival fraction to orders of magnitude emerged. Calculations show that the logistic and exponential models yield similar results in tumour eradication. By comparison the Gompertz model calculations indicate that tumours described by this law result in a significantly poorer prognosis for tumour eradication than either the exponential or logistic models. The present study also shows that the faster the tumour growth rate and the higher the repair capacity of the cell line, the greater the variation in outcome of the survival fraction. Gaps in treatment, planned or unplanned, also accentuate the differences of the survival fraction given alternative growth

  15. Scaling laws for particle growth in plasma reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemons, D.S.; Keinigs, R.K.; Winske, D.; Jones, M.E.

    1996-01-01

    We quantify a model which incorporates observed features of contaminant particle growth in plasma processing reactors. According to the model, large open-quote open-quote predator close-quote close-quote particles grow by adsorbing smaller, typically neutral, open-quote open-quote prey close-quote close-quote protoparticles. The latter are supplied by an assumed constant mass injection of contaminant material. Scaling laws and quantitative predictions compare favorably with published experimental results. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  16. Linear ubiquitin chain induces apoptosis and inhibits tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhoushuai; Jiang, Wandong; Wang, Guifen; Sun, Ying; Xiao, Wei

    2018-01-01

    Ubiquitination of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) plays an important role in DNA damage response. Ectopic expression of PCNA fused at either terminus with ubiquitin (Ub) lacking two C-terminal glycine residues induces translesion DNA synthesis which resembles synthesis mediated by PCNA monoubiquitination. PCNA fused with Ub containing the C-terminal Gly residues at the C-terminus can be further polyubiquitinated in a Gly-dependent manner, which inhibits cell proliferation and induces ATR-dependent replication checkpoint. In this study, we surprisingly found that PCNA fused to a head-to-tail linear Ub chain induces apoptosis in a Ub chain length-dependent manner. Further investigation revealed that the apoptotic effect is actually induced by the linear Ub chain independently from PCNA, as the Ub chain fused to GFP or an epitope tag still efficiently induces apoptosis. It is revealed that the artificial linear Ub chain differs from endogenously encoded linear Ub chains in that its Ubs contain a Ub-G76S substitution, making the Ub chain resistant to cleavage by deubiquitination enzymes. We demonstrated in this study that ectopic expression of the artificial Ub chain alone in cultured human cancer cells is sufficient to inhibit tumor growth in a xenograft mouse model, making the linear Ub chain a putative anti-cancer agent.

  17. ORACLS: A system for linear-quadratic-Gaussian control law design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, E. S.

    1978-01-01

    A modern control theory design package (ORACLS) for constructing controllers and optimal filters for systems modeled by linear time-invariant differential or difference equations is described. Numerical linear-algebra procedures are used to implement the linear-quadratic-Gaussian (LQG) methodology of modern control theory. Algorithms are included for computing eigensystems of real matrices, the relative stability of a matrix, factored forms for nonnegative definite matrices, the solutions and least squares approximations to the solutions of certain linear matrix algebraic equations, the controllability properties of a linear time-invariant system, and the steady state covariance matrix of an open-loop stable system forced by white noise. Subroutines are provided for solving both the continuous and discrete optimal linear regulator problems with noise free measurements and the sampled-data optimal linear regulator problem. For measurement noise, duality theory and the optimal regulator algorithms are used to solve the continuous and discrete Kalman-Bucy filter problems. Subroutines are also included which give control laws causing the output of a system to track the output of a prescribed model.

  18. Predicting Madura cattle growth curve using non-linear model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyas, N.; Prastowo, S.; Widi, T. S. M.; Baliarti, E.

    2018-03-01

    Madura cattle is Indonesian native. It is a composite breed that has undergone hundreds of years of selection and domestication to reach nowadays remarkable uniformity. Crossbreeding has reached the isle of Madura and the Madrasin, a cross between Madura cows and Limousine semen emerged. This paper aimed to compare the growth curve between Madrasin and one type of pure Madura cows, the common Madura cattle (Madura) using non-linear models. Madura cattles are kept traditionally thus reliable records are hardly available. Data were collected from small holder farmers in Madura. Cows from different age classes (5years) were observed, and body measurements (chest girth, body length and wither height) were taken. In total 63 Madura and 120 Madrasin records obtained. Linear model was built with cattle sub-populations and age as explanatory variables. Body weights were estimated based on the chest girth. Growth curves were built using logistic regression. Results showed that within the same age, Madrasin has significantly larger body compared to Madura (plogistic models fit better for Madura and Madrasin cattle data; with the estimated MSE for these models were 39.09 and 759.28 with prediction accuracy of 99 and 92% for Madura and Madrasin, respectively. Prediction of growth curve using logistic regression model performed well in both types of Madura cattle. However, attempts to administer accurate data on Madura cattle are necessary to better characterize and study these cattle.

  19. The Inverse System Method Applied to the Derivation of Power System Non—linear Control Laws

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DonghaiLI; XuezhiJIANG; 等

    1997-01-01

    The differential geometric method has been applied to a series of power system non-linear control problems effectively.However a set of differential equations must be solved for obtaining the required diffeomorphic transformation.Therefore the derivation of control laws is very complicated.In fact because of the specificity of power system models the required diffeomorphic transformation may be obtained directly,so it is unnecessary to solve a set of differential equations.In addition inverse system method is equivalent to differential geometric method in reality and not limited to affine nonlinear systems,Its physical meaning is able to be viewed directly and its deduction needs only algebraic operation and derivation,so control laws can be obtained easily and the application to engineering is very convenient.Authors of this paper take steam valving control of power system as a typical case to be studied.It is demonstrated that the control law deduced by inverse system method is just the same as one by differential geometric method.The conclusion will simplify the control law derivations of steam valving,excitation,converter and static var compensator by differential geometric method and may be suited to similar control problems in other areas.

  20. On the growth and dissemination laws in a mathematical model of metastatic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benzekry Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis represents one of the main clinical challenge in cancer treatment since it is associated with the majority of deaths. Recent technological advances allow quantification of the dynamics of the process by means of noninvasive techniques such as longitudinal tracking of bioluminescent cells. The metastatic process was simplified here into two essential components – dissemination and colonization – which were mathematically formalized in terms of simple quantitative laws. The resulting mathematical model was confronted to in vivo experimental data of spontaneous metastasis after primary tumor resection. We discuss how much information can be inferred from confrontation of theories to the data with emphasis on identifiability issues. It is shown that two mutually exclusive assumptions for the secondary growth law (namely same or different from the primary tumor growth law could fit equally well the data. Similarly, the fractal dimension coeffcient in the dissemination law could not be uniquely determined from data on total metastatic burden only. Together, these results delimitate the range of information that can be recovered from fitting data of metastatic growth to already simplified mathematical models.

  1. A kinetic approach to some quasi-linear laws of macroeconomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gligor, M.; Ignat, M.

    2002-11-01

    Some previous works have presented the data on wealth and income distributions in developed countries and have found that the great majority of population is described by an exponential distribution, which results in idea that the kinetic approach could be adequate to describe this empirical evidence. The aim of our paper is to extend this framework by developing a systematic kinetic approach of the socio-economic systems and to explain how linear laws, modelling correlations between macroeconomic variables, may arise in this context. Firstly we construct the Boltzmann kinetic equation for an idealised system composed by many individuals (workers, officers, business men, etc.), each of them getting a certain income and spending money for their needs. To each individual a certain time variable amount of money is associated this meaning him/her phase space coordinate. In this way the exponential distribution of money in a closed economy is explicitly found. The extension of this result, including states near the equilibrium, give us the possibility to take into account the regular increase of the total amount of money, according to the modern economic theories. The Kubo-Green-Onsager linear response theory leads us to a set of linear equations between some macroeconomic variables. Finally, the validity of such laws is discussed in relation with the time reversal symmetry and is tested empirically using some macroeconomic time series.

  2. Nonlinear and linear wave equations for propagation in media with frequency power law losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Thomas L.

    2003-10-01

    The Burgers, KZK, and Westervelt wave equations used for simulating wave propagation in nonlinear media are based on absorption that has a quadratic dependence on frequency. Unfortunately, most lossy media, such as tissue, follow a more general frequency power law. The authors first research involved measurements of loss and dispersion associated with a modification to Blackstock's solution to the linear thermoviscous wave equation [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 41, 1312 (1967)]. A second paper by Blackstock [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 77, 2050 (1985)] showed the loss term in the Burgers equation for plane waves could be modified for other known instances of loss. The authors' work eventually led to comprehensive time-domain convolutional operators that accounted for both dispersion and general frequency power law absorption [Szabo, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 96, 491 (1994)]. Versions of appropriate loss terms were developed to extend the standard three nonlinear wave equations to these more general losses. Extensive experimental data has verified the predicted phase velocity dispersion for different power exponents for the linear case. Other groups are now working on methods suitable for solving wave equations numerically for these types of loss directly in the time domain for both linear and nonlinear media.

  3. The law on energy transition for a green growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signoret, Stephane

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the main issues addressed by the French law on energy transition for a green growth. Thus, it evokes its main objectives and how they can be reached (notably through a control of energy demand, a wider carbon share in taxes), gives an overview of measures related to building renovation, to the development of clean transports (priority to less polluting transport modes, energy efficiency and renewable energy in transports, reduction of greenhouse gas and pollutant emissions, plan for air quality), to the struggle against wastage and to the promotion of circular economy, to the promotion of renewable energies, to the reinforcement of nuclear safety and citizen information, to the simplification and clarification of procedures, to making citizens, enterprises and State able to act together (through governance tools, the steering of electricity production, energy transition in territories, specific measures for non-interconnected areas)

  4. Growth Law For Peritectic Phases Formation In The Zinc Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzik E.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Some experiments dealing with the isothermal hot dip galvanizing were carried out. The (Zn – coating settled on the Armco-iron substrate were examined after arresting the solidification for different periods of time. The measurement of the thickness of each sub-layer in the coating were performed due to the SEM – analysis. The zinc segregation on the cross-section of the studied sub-layers were also determined by the EDS technique. The growth laws are formulated mathematically for each of the observed sub-layer. The mechanism of the sub-layer formation is also analysed due to the observation of the birth/nucleation of the phases in the sub-layers and the effect of flux onto the sub-layers morphology formation. The appearance of each phase is referred to the Fe-Zn diagram for stable equilibrium according to which these phases are the products of the adequate peritectic transformation.

  5. Linear perturbation growth at the trailing edge of a rarefaction wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wouchuk, J.G.; Carretero, R.

    2003-01-01

    An analytic model for the perturbation growth inside a rarefaction wave is presented. The objective of the work is to calculate the growth of the perturbations at the trailing edge of a simple expanding wave in planar geometry. Previous numerical and analytical works have shown that the ripples at the rarefaction tail exhibit linear growth asymptotically in time [Yang et al., Phys. Fluids 6, 1856 (1994), A. Velikovich and L. Phillips, ibid. 8, 1107 (1996)]. However, closed expressions for the asymptotic value of the perturbed velocity of the trailing edge have not been reported before, except for very weak rarefactions. Explicit analytic solutions for the perturbations growing at the rarefaction trailing edge as a function of time and also for the asymptotic perturbed velocity are given, for fluids with γ<3. The limits of weak and strong rarefactions are considered and the corresponding scaling laws are given. A semi-qualitative discussion of the late time linear growth at the trailing edge ripple is presented and it is seen that the lateral mass flow induced by the sound wave fluctuations is solely responsible for that behavior. Only the rarefactions generated after the interaction of a shock wave with a contact discontinuity are considered

  6. Four-dimensional Hooke's law can encompass linear elasticity and inertia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoci, S.; Mihich, L.

    1999-01-01

    The question is examined whether the formally straightforward extension of Hooke's time-honoured stress-strain relation to the four dimensions of special and of general relativity can make physical sense. The four-dimensional Hooke law is found able to account for the inertia of matter; in the flat-space, slow-motion approximation the field equations for the displacement four-vector field ξ i can encompass both linear elasticity and inertia. In this limit one just recovers the equations of motion of the classical theory of elasticity

  7. The effect of zinc supplementation on linear growth, body composition, and growth factors in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Gómez, N Marta; Doménech, Eduardo; Barroso, Flora; Castells, Silvia; Cortabarria, Carmen; Jiménez, Alejandro

    2003-05-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of zinc supplementation on linear growth, body composition, and growth factors in premature infants. Thirty-six preterm infants (gestational age: 32.0 +/- 2.1 weeks, birth weight: 1704 +/- 364 g) participated in a longitudinal double-blind, randomized clinical trial. They were randomly allocated either to the supplemental (S) group fed with a standard term formula supplemented with zinc (final content 10 mg/L) and a small quantity of copper (final content 0.6 mg/L), or to the placebo group fed with the same formula without supplementation (final content of zinc: 5 mg/L and copper: 0.4 mg/L), from 36 weeks postconceptional age until 6 months corrected postnatal age. At each evaluation, anthropometric variables and bioelectrical impedance were measured, a 3-day dietary record was collected, and a blood sample was taken. We analyzed serum levels of total alkaline phosphatase, skeletal alkaline phosphatase (sALP), insulin growth factor (IGF)-I, IGF binding protein-3, IGF binding protein-1, zinc and copper, and the concentrations of zinc in erythrocytes. The S group had significantly higher zinc levels in serum and erythrocytes and lower serum copper levels with respect to the placebo group. We found that the S group had a greater linear growth (from baseline to 3 months corrected age: Delta score deviation standard length: 1.32 +/-.8 vs.38 +/-.8). The increase in total body water and in serum levels of sALP was also significantly higher in the S group (total body water: 3 months; corrected age: 3.8 +/-.5 vs 3.5 +/-.4 kg, 6 months; corrected age: 4.5 +/-.5 vs 4.2 +/-.4 kg; sALP: 3 months; corrected age: 140.2 +/- 28.7 vs 118.7 +/- 18.8 micro g/L). Zinc supplementation has a positive effect on linear growth in premature infants.

  8. Law Schools and the Continuing Growth of the Legal Profesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Kritzer

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In most countries for which data are available, the size of the legal profession has continued to grow over the last 40 plus years. This continued growth reflects the perceived attractiveness of a career as a legal professional (i.e., the demand and the incentives of the institutions that provide legal education, and hence serve as primary gatekeepers, to maintain or increase the number of students they enroll. In some countries, perhaps most prominently the United States, structural changes in the opportunities for careers in the legal profession are likely to put pressure on law schools that could result in changes in the supply of opportunities to obtain the legal education required to become a lawyer. En la mayoría de los países de los que se dispone de datos, el número de abogados no ha dejado de crecer desde hace más de 40 años. Este crecimiento constante, refleja el atractivo que se percibe en una profesión como la abogacía (esto es, la demanda, y los incentivos de las instituciones que imparten estos estudios, y constituyen la primera barrera para mantener o aumentar el número de estudiantes que aceptan. En algunos países, tal vez de forma más destacada en Estados Unidos, es probable que los cambios estructurales en las oportunidades de trabajar como abogado obliguen a las facultades de derecho a modificar la oferta para acceder a la carrera de derecho.

  9. Exact solutions to robust control problems involving scalar hyperbolic conservation laws using Mixed Integer Linear Programming

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yanning

    2013-10-01

    This article presents a new robust control framework for transportation problems in which the state is modeled by a first order scalar conservation law. Using an equivalent formulation based on a Hamilton-Jacobi equation, we pose the problem of controlling the state of the system on a network link, using boundary flow control, as a Linear Program. Unlike many previously investigated transportation control schemes, this method yields a globally optimal solution and is capable of handling shocks (i.e. discontinuities in the state of the system). We also demonstrate that the same framework can handle robust control problems, in which the uncontrollable components of the initial and boundary conditions are encoded in intervals on the right hand side of inequalities in the linear program. The lower bound of the interval which defines the smallest feasible solution set is used to solve the robust LP (or MILP if the objective function depends on boolean variables). Since this framework leverages the intrinsic properties of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation used to model the state of the system, it is extremely fast. Several examples are given to demonstrate the performance of the robust control solution and the trade-off between the robustness and the optimality. © 2013 IEEE.

  10. Exact solutions to robust control problems involving scalar hyperbolic conservation laws using Mixed Integer Linear Programming

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yanning; Canepa, Edward S.; Claudel, Christian G.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a new robust control framework for transportation problems in which the state is modeled by a first order scalar conservation law. Using an equivalent formulation based on a Hamilton-Jacobi equation, we pose the problem of controlling the state of the system on a network link, using boundary flow control, as a Linear Program. Unlike many previously investigated transportation control schemes, this method yields a globally optimal solution and is capable of handling shocks (i.e. discontinuities in the state of the system). We also demonstrate that the same framework can handle robust control problems, in which the uncontrollable components of the initial and boundary conditions are encoded in intervals on the right hand side of inequalities in the linear program. The lower bound of the interval which defines the smallest feasible solution set is used to solve the robust LP (or MILP if the objective function depends on boolean variables). Since this framework leverages the intrinsic properties of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation used to model the state of the system, it is extremely fast. Several examples are given to demonstrate the performance of the robust control solution and the trade-off between the robustness and the optimality. © 2013 IEEE.

  11. Growth laws for sub-delta crevasses in the Mississippi River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yocum, T. A.; Georgiou, I. Y.; Straub, K. M.

    2017-12-01

    River deltas are threatened by environmental change, including subsidence, global sea level rise, reduced sediment inputs and other local factors. In the Mississippi River Delta (MRD) these impacts are exemplified, and have led to proposed solutions to build land that include sediment diversions to reinitiate the delta cycle. Deltas were studied extensively using numerical models, theoretical and conceptual frameworks, empirical scaling relationships, laboratory models and field observations. But predicting the future of deltas relies on field observations where for most deltas data are still lacking. Moreover, empirical and theoretical scaling laws may be influenced by the data used to develop them, while laboratory deltas may be influenced by scaling issues. Anthropogenic crevasses in the MRD are large enough to overcome limitations of laboratory deltas, and small enough to allow for rapid channel and wetland development, providing an ideal setting to investigate delta development mechanics. Here we assessed growth laws of sub-delta crevasses (SDC) in the MRD, in two experimental laboratory deltas (LD - weakly and strongly cohesive) and compared them to river dominated deltas worldwide. Channel and delta geometry metrics for each system were obtained using geospatial tools, bathymetric datasets, sediment size, and hydrodynamic observations. Results show that SDC follow growth laws similar to large river dominated deltas, with the exception of some that exhibit anomalous behavior with respect to the frequency and distance to a bifurcation and the fraction of wetted delta shoreline (allometry metrics). Most SDC exhibit a systematic decrease of non-dimensional channel geometries with increased bifurcation order, indicating that channels are adjusting to decreased flow after bifurcations occur, and exhibit linear trends for land allometry and width-depth ratio, although geometries decrease more rapidly per bifurcation order. Measured distance to bifurcations in SDC

  12. On the structure on non-local conservation laws in the two-dimensional non-linear sigma-model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamolodchikov, Al.B.

    1978-01-01

    The non-local conserved charges are supposed to satisfy a special multiplicative law in the space of asymptotic states of the non-linear sigma-model. This supposition leads to factorization equations for two-particle scattering matrix elements and determines to some extent the action of these charges in the asymptotic space. Their conservation turns out to be consistent with the factorized S-matrix of the non-linear sigma-model. It is shown also that the factorized sine-Gordon S-matrix is consistent with a similar family of conservation laws

  13. Non-compliance with growth hormone treatment in children is common and impairs linear growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne S Cutfield

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: GH therapy requires daily injections over many years and compliance can be difficult to sustain. As growth hormone (GH is expensive, non-compliance is likely to lead to suboptimal growth, at considerable cost. Thus, we aimed to assess the compliance rate of children and adolescents with GH treatment in New Zealand. METHODS: This was a national survey of GH compliance, in which all children receiving government-funded GH for a four-month interval were included. Compliance was defined as ≥ 85% adherence (no more than one missed dose a week on average to prescribed treatment. Compliance was determined based on two parameters: either the number of GH vials requested (GHreq by the family or the number of empty GH vials returned (GHret. Data are presented as mean ± SEM. FINDINGS: 177 patients were receiving GH in the study period, aged 12.1 ± 0.6 years. The rate of returned vials, but not number of vials requested, was positively associated with HVSDS (p < 0.05, such that patients with good compliance had significantly greater linear growth over the study period (p<0.05. GHret was therefore used for subsequent analyses. 66% of patients were non-compliant, and this outcome was not affected by sex, age or clinical diagnosis. However, Maori ethnicity was associated with a lower rate of compliance. INTERPRETATION: An objective assessment of compliance such as returned vials is much more reliable than compliance based on parental or patient based information. Non-compliance with GH treatment is common, and associated with reduced linear growth. Non-compliance should be considered in all patients with apparently suboptimal response to GH treatment.

  14. Energy harvesting with stacked dielectric elastomer transducers: Nonlinear theory, optimization, and linearized scaling law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutcuoglu, A.; Majidi, C.

    2014-12-01

    Using principles of damped harmonic oscillation with continuous media, we examine electrostatic energy harvesting with a "soft-matter" array of dielectric elastomer (DE) transducers. The array is composed of infinitely thin and deformable electrodes separated by layers of insulating elastomer. During vibration, it deforms longitudinally, resulting in a change in the capacitance and electrical enthalpy of the charged electrodes. Depending on the phase of electrostatic loading, the DE array can function as either an actuator that amplifies small vibrations or a generator that converts these external excitations into electrical power. Both cases are addressed with a comprehensive theory that accounts for the influence of viscoelasticity, dielectric breakdown, and electromechanical coupling induced by Maxwell stress. In the case of a linearized Kelvin-Voigt model of the dielectric, we obtain a closed-form estimate for the electrical power output and a scaling law for DE generator design. For the complete nonlinear model, we obtain the optimal electrostatic voltage input for maximum electrical power output.

  15. Non-linear laws of echoic memory and auditory change detection in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Koji; Urakawa, Tomokazu; Yamashiro, Koya; Otsuru, Naofumi; Nishihara, Makoto; Takeshima, Yasuyuki; Keceli, Sumru; Kakigi, Ryusuke

    2010-07-03

    The detection of any abrupt change in the environment is important to survival. Since memory of preceding sensory conditions is necessary for detecting changes, such a change-detection system relates closely to the memory system. Here we used an auditory change-related N1 subcomponent (change-N1) of event-related brain potentials to investigate cortical mechanisms underlying change detection and echoic memory. Change-N1 was elicited by a simple paradigm with two tones, a standard followed by a deviant, while subjects watched a silent movie. The amplitude of change-N1 elicited by a fixed sound pressure deviance (70 dB vs. 75 dB) was negatively correlated with the logarithm of the interval between the standard sound and deviant sound (1, 10, 100, or 1000 ms), while positively correlated with the logarithm of the duration of the standard sound (25, 100, 500, or 1000 ms). The amplitude of change-N1 elicited by a deviance in sound pressure, sound frequency, and sound location was correlated with the logarithm of the magnitude of physical differences between the standard and deviant sounds. The present findings suggest that temporal representation of echoic memory is non-linear and Weber-Fechner law holds for the automatic cortical response to sound changes within a suprathreshold range. Since the present results show that the behavior of echoic memory can be understood through change-N1, change-N1 would be a useful tool to investigate memory systems.

  16. Optimal Control of Scalar Conservation Laws Using Linear/Quadratic Programming: Application to Transportation Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yanning

    2014-03-01

    This article presents a new optimal control framework for transportation networks in which the state is modeled by a first order scalar conservation law. Using an equivalent formulation based on a Hamilton-Jacobi (H-J) equation and the commonly used triangular fundamental diagram, we pose the problem of controlling the state of the system on a network link, in a finite horizon, as a Linear Program (LP). We then show that this framework can be extended to an arbitrary transportation network, resulting in an LP or a Quadratic Program. Unlike many previously investigated transportation network control schemes, this method yields a globally optimal solution and is capable of handling shocks (i.e., discontinuities in the state of the system). As it leverages the intrinsic properties of the H-J equation used to model the state of the system, it does not require any approximation, unlike classical methods that are based on discretizations of the model. The computational efficiency of the method is illustrated on a transportation network. © 2014 IEEE.

  17. Optimal Control of Scalar Conservation Laws Using Linear/Quadratic Programming: Application to Transportation Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yanning; Canepa, Edward S.; Claudel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a new optimal control framework for transportation networks in which the state is modeled by a first order scalar conservation law. Using an equivalent formulation based on a Hamilton-Jacobi (H-J) equation and the commonly used triangular fundamental diagram, we pose the problem of controlling the state of the system on a network link, in a finite horizon, as a Linear Program (LP). We then show that this framework can be extended to an arbitrary transportation network, resulting in an LP or a Quadratic Program. Unlike many previously investigated transportation network control schemes, this method yields a globally optimal solution and is capable of handling shocks (i.e., discontinuities in the state of the system). As it leverages the intrinsic properties of the H-J equation used to model the state of the system, it does not require any approximation, unlike classical methods that are based on discretizations of the model. The computational efficiency of the method is illustrated on a transportation network. © 2014 IEEE.

  18. High temperature cracking of steels: effect of geometry on creep crack growth laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabiri, M.R.

    2003-12-01

    This study was performed at Centre des Materiaux de l'Ecole des Mines de Paris. It deals with identification and transferability of high temperature creep cracking laws of steels. A global approach, based on C * and J non-linear fracture mechanics parameters has been used to characterize creep crack initiation and propagation. The studied materials are: the ferritic steels 1Cr-1Mo-1/4V (hot and cold parts working at 540 and 250 C) used in the thermal power stations and the austenitic stainless steel 316 L(N) used in the nuclear power stations. During this thesis a data base was setting up, it regroups several tests of fatigue, creep, creep-fatigue, and relaxation. Its particularity is to contain several creep tests (27 tests), achieved at various temperatures (550 to 650 C) and using three different geometries. The relevance of the C * parameter to describe the creep crack propagation was analysed by a means of systematic study of elasto-viscoplastic stress singularities under several conditions (different stress triaxiality). It has been shown that, besides the C * parameter, a second non singular term, denoted here as Q * , is necessary to describe the local variables in the vicinity of the crack tip. Values of this constraint parameter are always negative. Consequently, application of typical creep crack growth laws linking the creep crack growth rate to the C * parameter (da/dt - C * ), will be conservative for industrial applications. Furthermore, we showed that for ferritic steels, crack incubation period is important, therefore a correlation of Ti - C * type has been kept to predict crack initiation time Ti. For the austenitic stainless steel, the relevant stage is the one of the crack propagation, so that a master curve (da/dt - C * ), using a new data analysis method, was established. Finally, the propagation of cracks has been simulated numerically using the node release technique, allowing to validate analytical expressions utilised for the experimental

  19. Non-linear self-reinforced growth of tearing modes with multiple rational surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maschke, E.K.; Persson, M.; Dewar, R.L.; Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT

    1993-06-01

    The non-linear evolution of tearing modes with multiple rational surfaces is discussed. It is demonstrated that, in the presence of small differential rotation, the non-linear growth might be faster than exponential. This growth occurs as the rotation frequencies of the plasma at the different rational surfaces go into equilibrium

  20. Note on french law on the energy transition and green growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denolle, Anne-Sophie

    2016-01-01

    The French law on the energy transition and green growth (TECV law) seems in some ways limited in scope, restricted to set vague goals and formulate simple incentives to act. But this law can not be reduced to this. Composed of 215 articles, it necessarily refers to prescriptive and technical measures meant to realize the energy transition. The TECV law has, moreover, the merit of addressing the energy issue in its entirety, evoking not only renewable energies, but also the insulation of buildings, the challenge of developing clean transport, the need to promote a circular economy that consumes less energy

  1. Non-linear laws of echoic memory and auditory change detection in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshima Yasuyuki

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The detection of any abrupt change in the environment is important to survival. Since memory of preceding sensory conditions is necessary for detecting changes, such a change-detection system relates closely to the memory system. Here we used an auditory change-related N1 subcomponent (change-N1 of event-related brain potentials to investigate cortical mechanisms underlying change detection and echoic memory. Results Change-N1 was elicited by a simple paradigm with two tones, a standard followed by a deviant, while subjects watched a silent movie. The amplitude of change-N1 elicited by a fixed sound pressure deviance (70 dB vs. 75 dB was negatively correlated with the logarithm of the interval between the standard sound and deviant sound (1, 10, 100, or 1000 ms, while positively correlated with the logarithm of the duration of the standard sound (25, 100, 500, or 1000 ms. The amplitude of change-N1 elicited by a deviance in sound pressure, sound frequency, and sound location was correlated with the logarithm of the magnitude of physical differences between the standard and deviant sounds. Conclusions The present findings suggest that temporal representation of echoic memory is non-linear and Weber-Fechner law holds for the automatic cortical response to sound changes within a suprathreshold range. Since the present results show that the behavior of echoic memory can be understood through change-N1, change-N1 would be a useful tool to investigate memory systems.

  2. CSR-induced emittance growth in achromats: Linear formalism revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venturini, M.

    2015-09-11

    We review the R-matrix formalism used to describe Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR)-induced projected emittance growth in electron beam transport lines and establish the connection with a description in terms of the dispersion-invariant function.

  3. Comparative study of growth and linear body measurements in Anak ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to compare the performance of two different breeds of broilers (Anak and Hubbard) using body weight and body linear measurements. Data on a total of 200 (100 each) Anak and Hubbard broiler breeds were collected weekly and the experiment lasted for 8 weeks. The parameters investigated ...

  4. Contribution of services to economic growth: Kaldor’s fifth law?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Giovanini

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study questions whether there is a Kaldor’s fifth law and tests whether the size of the intermediate services sector contributes to the growth of the industrial sector. Originality/Value: The laws proposed by Kaldor consider that the industrial sector contributes to economic growth and affirm that the growth of this sector depends on the existing demand for industrial products. If this new law is corroborated we have the initial evidences that the growth of the service sector contributes to the growth of the industry. Design/methodological/approach: The existence of this new law is tested through the estimation of panel VAR models for eight developed countries in the period 1980-2009. Findings: The growth of the service sector causes Granger to increase industrial productivity, industrial density and economic complexity. The causality test shows that there is a bidirectional causal relationship between the growth of the service sector and the industrial density and between the growth of the service sector and the Economic Complexity Index.

  5. Effect of milk proteins on linear growth and IGF variables in overweight adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larnkjær, Anni; Arnberg, Karina; Michaelsen, Kim F

    2014-01-01

    Milk may stimulate growth acting via insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) secretion but the effect in adolescents is less examined. This study investigates the effect of milk proteins on linear growth, IGF-I, IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio in overweight adolescents....

  6. Kinetics of nickel silicide growth in silicon nanowires: From linear to square root growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaish, Y. E.; Beregovsky, M.; Katsman, A.; Cohen, G. M.

    2011-01-01

    The common practice for nickel silicide formation in silicon nanowires (SiNWs) relies on axial growth of silicide along the wire that is initiated from nickel reservoirs at the source and drain contacts. In the present work the silicide intrusions were studied for various parameters including wire diameter (25-50 nm), annealing time (15-120 s), annealing temperature (300-440 deg. C), and the quality of the initial Ni/Si interface. The silicide formation was investigated by high-resolution scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy. The main part of the intrusion formed at 420 deg. C consists of monosilicide NiSi, as was confirmed by energy dispersive spectroscopy STEM, selected area diffraction TEM, and electrical resistance measurements of fully silicided SiNWs. The kinetics of nickel silicide axial growth in the SiNWs was analyzed in the framework of a diffusion model through constrictions. The model calculates the time dependence of the intrusion length, L, and predicts crossover from linear to square root time dependency for different wire parameters, as confirmed by the experimental data.

  7. The effects of oestrogens on linear bone growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A

    2001-01-01

    boys, and non-aromatizable androgens [oxandrolone or dihydrotestosterone (DHT)] have no effect on GH secretion. Treatment with aromatase inhibitors reduces circulating IGF-I concentrations in healthy males, and reduces growth in boys with testotoxicosis. Taken together, these findings suggest...

  8. Caregiver perceptions of children's linear growth in Bangladesh: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Muttaquina; Ickes, Scott; Rice, Lauren; Ritter, Gaelen; Naila, Nurun Nahar; Zia, Tasnia; Nahar, Baitun; Mahfuz, Mustafa; Denno, Donna M; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Walson, Judd

    2018-03-26

    To understand caregivers' perceptions of children's linear growth and to identify the cultural meanings and perceptions of risk associated with poor height attainment. Three investigators from Bangladesh conducted twelve focus group discussions. The study was conducted in rural and slum settings in Bangladesh. Participants included mothers and alternative caregivers (n 81) who were recruited by household screening. No eligible, recruited subjects refused participation. Caregivers reported limited experience with growth monitoring services from the health system. Caregivers mainly use visual cues and developmental milestones to understand if children are growing properly, and recognize that children normally experience both weight gain and linear growth with age. Mothers expressed concern over children's malnutrition and short stature, but did not discuss children's failure to attain a 'growth potential' or distinguish inherited short stature from stunting. Caregivers interpret the consequences of poor height attainment as primarily social and economic and cite few health risks. Linear growth interpretation is determined more by community norms than by guidance from nutrition programming or the health system. Interventions to prevent or reduce linear growth failure may be perceived to have limited value where appropriate linear growth in children is determined by comparison to peers and siblings. Such perceptions may be significant barriers to programmes addressing stunting prevention in settings where many children are stunted. Efforts to raise awareness about the risks of linear growth faltering may need to consider delivering messages to caregivers that emphasize the social and economic consequences of stunting.

  9. ANALYSIS OF MARANGONI CONVECTION OF NON-NEWTONIAN POWER LAW FLUIDS WITH LINEAR TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of steady, laminar, thermal Marangoni convection flow of non-Newtonian power law fluid along a horizontal surface with variable surface temperature is studied. The partial differential equations are transformed into ordinary differential equations by using a suitable similarity transformation and analytical approximate solutions are obtained by an efficient transformation, asymptotic expansion and Padé approximants technique. The effects of power law index and Marangoni number on velocity and temperature profiles are examined and discussed.

  10. Influence of the growth process on some laws deduced from percolation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hachi, M.; Olivier, G.

    1985-09-01

    A brutal application of the percolation theory to some physical problems can lead to erroneous interpretation of the experimental results. Among these problems, the influence of the growth process on the percolation laws is studied. The behaviour of nsub(s)(t), the number of clusters of size s, at time t, is analyzed and linked to a macroscopic property of the system for a comparison to experimental laws. (author)

  11. A nonlinear CDM based damage growth law for ductile materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Abhinav; Priya Ajit, K.; Sarkar, Prabir Kumar

    2018-02-01

    A nonlinear ductile damage growth criterion is proposed based on continuum damage mechanics (CDM) approach. The model is derived in the framework of thermodynamically consistent CDM assuming damage to be isotropic. In this study, the damage dissipation potential is also derived to be a function of varying strain hardening exponent in addition to damage strain energy release rate density. Uniaxial tensile tests and load-unload-cyclic tensile tests for AISI 1020 steel, AISI 1030 steel and Al 2024 aluminum alloy are considered for the determination of their respective damage variable D and other parameters required for the model(s). The experimental results are very closely predicted, with a deviation of 0%-3%, by the proposed model for each of the materials. The model is also tested with predictabilities of damage growth by other models in the literature. Present model detects the state of damage quantitatively at any level of plastic strain and uses simpler material tests to find the parameters of the model. So, it should be useful in metal forming industries to assess the damage growth for the desired deformation level a priori. The superiority of the new model is clarified by the deviations in the predictability of test results by other models.

  12. Severe linear growth retardation in rural Zambian children: the influence of biological variables.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hautvast, J.L.A.; Tolboom, J.J.M.; Kaftwembe, E.M.; Musonda, R.M.; Mwanakasale, V.; Staveren, W.A. van; Hof, M.A. van 't; Sauerwein, R.W.; Willems, J.L.; Monnens, L.A.H.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of stunting in preschool children in Zambia is high; stunting has detrimental effects on concurrent psychomotor development and later working capacity. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate biological variables that may contribute to linear growth retardation in

  13. Emergence of robust growth laws from optimal regulation of ribosome synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Matthew; Klumpp, Stefan; Mateescu, Eduard M; Hwa, Terence

    2014-08-22

    Bacteria must constantly adapt their growth to changes in nutrient availability; yet despite large-scale changes in protein expression associated with sensing, adaptation, and processing different environmental nutrients, simple growth laws connect the ribosome abundance and the growth rate. Here, we investigate the origin of these growth laws by analyzing the features of ribosomal regulation that coordinate proteome-wide expression changes with cell growth in a variety of nutrient conditions in the model organism Escherichia coli. We identify supply-driven feedforward activation of ribosomal protein synthesis as the key regulatory motif maximizing amino acid flux, and autonomously guiding a cell to achieve optimal growth in different environments. The growth laws emerge naturally from the robust regulatory strategy underlying growth rate control, irrespective of the details of the molecular implementation. The study highlights the interplay between phenomenological modeling and molecular mechanisms in uncovering fundamental operating constraints, with implications for endogenous and synthetic design of microorganisms. © 2014 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  14. Construction of local and non-local conservation laws for non-linear field equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimirov, V.S.; Volovich, I.V.

    1984-08-01

    A method of constructing conserved currents for non-linear field equations is presented. More explicitly for non-linear equations, which can be derived from compatibility conditions of some linear system with a parameter, a procedure of obtaining explicit expressions for local and non-local currents is developed. Some examples such as the classical Heisenberg spin chain and supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory are considered. (author)

  15. Non-linear pattern formation in bone growth and architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Phil

    2014-01-01

    The three-dimensional morphology of bone arises through adaptation to its required engineering performance. Genetically and adaptively bone travels along a complex spatiotemporal trajectory to acquire optimal architecture. On a cellular, micro-anatomical scale, what mechanisms coordinate the activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts to produce complex and efficient bone architectures? One mechanism is examined here - chaotic non-linear pattern formation (NPF) - which underlies in a unifying way natural structures as disparate as trabecular bone, swarms of birds flying, island formation, fluid turbulence, and others. At the heart of NPF is the fact that simple rules operating between interacting elements, and Turing-like interaction between global and local signals, lead to complex and structured patterns. The study of "group intelligence" exhibited by swarming birds or shoaling fish has led to an embodiment of NPF called "particle swarm optimization" (PSO). This theoretical model could be applicable to the behavior of osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes, seeing them operating "socially" in response simultaneously to both global and local signals (endocrine, cytokine, mechanical), resulting in their clustered activity at formation and resorption sites. This represents problem-solving by social intelligence, and could potentially add further realism to in silico computer simulation of bone modeling. What insights has NPF provided to bone biology? One example concerns the genetic disorder juvenile Pagets disease or idiopathic hyperphosphatasia, where the anomalous parallel trabecular architecture characteristic of this pathology is consistent with an NPF paradigm by analogy with known experimental NPF systems. Here, coupling or "feedback" between osteoblasts and osteoclasts is the critical element. This NPF paradigm implies a profound link between bone regulation and its architecture: in bone the architecture is the regulation. The former is the emergent

  16. Neutrino mass, dark energy, and the linear growth factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiakotou, Angeliki; Lahav, Ofer; Elgaroey, Oystein

    2008-01-01

    We study the degeneracies between neutrino mass and dark energy as they manifest themselves in cosmological observations. In contradiction to a popular formula in the literature, the suppression of the matter power spectrum caused by massive neutrinos is not just a function of the ratio of neutrino to total mass densities f ν =Ω ν /Ω m , but also each of the densities independently. We also present a fitting formula for the logarithmic growth factor of perturbations in a flat universe, f(z,k;f ν ,w,Ω DE )≅[1-A(k)Ω DE f ν +B(k)f ν 2 -C(k)f ν 3 ]Ω m α (z), where α depends on the dark energy equation of state parameter w. We then discuss cosmological probes where the f factor directly appears: peculiar velocities, redshift distortion, and the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect. We also modify the approximation of Eisenstein and Hu [Astrophys. J. 511, 5 (1999)] for the power spectrum of fluctuations in the presence of massive neutrinos and provide a revised code [http://www.star.ucl.ac.uk/∼lahav/nu m atter p ower.f].

  17. Model for predicting non-linear crack growth considering load sequence effects (LOSEQ)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuehring, H.

    1982-01-01

    A new analytical model for predicting non-linear crack growth is presented which takes into account the retardation as well as the acceleration effects due to irregular loading. It considers not only the maximum peak of a load sequence to effect crack growth but also all other loads of the history according to a generalised memory criterion. Comparisons between crack growth predicted by using the LOSEQ-programme and experimentally observed data are presented. (orig.) [de

  18. Irreversible thermodynamics, parabolic law and self-similar state in grain growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rios, P.R.

    2004-01-01

    The formalism of the thermodynamic theory of irreversible processes is applied to grain growth to investigate the nature of the self-similar state and its corresponding parabolic law. Grain growth does not reach a steady state in the sense that the entropy production remains constant. However, the entropy production can be written as a product of two factors: a scale factor that tends to zero for long times and a scaled entropy production. It is suggested that the parabolic law and the self-similar state may be associated with the minimum of this scaled entropy production. This result implies that the parabolic law and the self-similar state have a sound irreversible thermodynamical basis

  19. Steady-state global optimization of metabolic non-linear dynamic models through recasting into power-law canonical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo, Carlos; Marín-Sanguino, Alberto; Alves, Rui; Guillén-Gosálbez, Gonzalo; Jiménez, Laureano; Sorribas, Albert

    2011-08-25

    Design of newly engineered microbial strains for biotechnological purposes would greatly benefit from the development of realistic mathematical models for the processes to be optimized. Such models can then be analyzed and, with the development and application of appropriate optimization techniques, one could identify the modifications that need to be made to the organism in order to achieve the desired biotechnological goal. As appropriate models to perform such an analysis are necessarily non-linear and typically non-convex, finding their global optimum is a challenging task. Canonical modeling techniques, such as Generalized Mass Action (GMA) models based on the power-law formalism, offer a possible solution to this problem because they have a mathematical structure that enables the development of specific algorithms for global optimization. Based on the GMA canonical representation, we have developed in previous works a highly efficient optimization algorithm and a set of related strategies for understanding the evolution of adaptive responses in cellular metabolism. Here, we explore the possibility of recasting kinetic non-linear models into an equivalent GMA model, so that global optimization on the recast GMA model can be performed. With this technique, optimization is greatly facilitated and the results are transposable to the original non-linear problem. This procedure is straightforward for a particular class of non-linear models known as Saturable and Cooperative (SC) models that extend the power-law formalism to deal with saturation and cooperativity. Our results show that recasting non-linear kinetic models into GMA models is indeed an appropriate strategy that helps overcoming some of the numerical difficulties that arise during the global optimization task.

  20. Steady-state global optimization of metabolic non-linear dynamic models through recasting into power-law canonical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorribas Albert

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Design of newly engineered microbial strains for biotechnological purposes would greatly benefit from the development of realistic mathematical models for the processes to be optimized. Such models can then be analyzed and, with the development and application of appropriate optimization techniques, one could identify the modifications that need to be made to the organism in order to achieve the desired biotechnological goal. As appropriate models to perform such an analysis are necessarily non-linear and typically non-convex, finding their global optimum is a challenging task. Canonical modeling techniques, such as Generalized Mass Action (GMA models based on the power-law formalism, offer a possible solution to this problem because they have a mathematical structure that enables the development of specific algorithms for global optimization. Results Based on the GMA canonical representation, we have developed in previous works a highly efficient optimization algorithm and a set of related strategies for understanding the evolution of adaptive responses in cellular metabolism. Here, we explore the possibility of recasting kinetic non-linear models into an equivalent GMA model, so that global optimization on the recast GMA model can be performed. With this technique, optimization is greatly facilitated and the results are transposable to the original non-linear problem. This procedure is straightforward for a particular class of non-linear models known as Saturable and Cooperative (SC models that extend the power-law formalism to deal with saturation and cooperativity. Conclusions Our results show that recasting non-linear kinetic models into GMA models is indeed an appropriate strategy that helps overcoming some of the numerical difficulties that arise during the global optimization task.

  1. Gibrat's Law and the Firm Size / Firm Growth Relationship in Italian Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Piergiovanni; E. Santarelli (Enrico); L. Klomp (Luuk); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractSeveral surveys on intra-industry dynamics have recently reached the conclusion from a large body of evidence that Gibrat's Law does not hold, i.e., the main finding is that firm growth decreases with firm size. However, almost all of these studies have been based on manufacturing. In

  2. Linear growth of children on a ketogenic diet: does the protein-to-energy ratio matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation, Judy; Humphrey, Maureen; MacKay, Mark; Boneh, Avihu

    2014-11-01

    Ketogenic diet is a structured effective treatment for children with intractable epilepsy. Several reports have indicated poor linear growth in children on the diet but the mechanism of poor growth has not been elucidated. We aimed to explore whether the protein to energy ratio plays a role in linear growth of children on ketogenic diet. Data regarding growth and nutrition were, retrospectively, collected from the clinical histories of 35 children who were treated with ketogenic diet for at least 6 months between 2002 and 2010. Patients were stratified into groups according to periods of satisfactory or poor linear growth. Poor linear growth was associated with protein or caloric intake of <80% recommended daily intake, and with a protein-to-energy ratio consistently ≤1.4 g protein/100 kcal even when protein and caloric intakes were adequate. We recommend a protein-to-energy ratio of 1.5 g protein/100 kcal be prescribed to prevent growth retardation. © The Author(s) 2013.

  3. Associations of infant feeding and timing of linear growth and relative weight gain during early life with childhood body composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Beer, M.; Vrijkotte, T. G. M.; Fall, C. H. D.; van Eijsden, M.; Osmond, C.; Gemke, R. J. B. J.

    2015-01-01

    Growth and feeding during infancy have been associated with later life body mass index. However, the associations of infant feeding, linear growth and weight gain relative to linear growth with separate components of body composition remain unclear. Of 5551 children with collected growth and

  4. On the classical theory of ordinary linear differential equations of the second order and the Schroedinger equation for power law potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, M.L.; Mignaco, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    The power law potentials in the Schroedinger equation solved recently are shown to come from the classical treatment of the singularities of a linear, second order differential equation. This allows to enlarge the class of solvable power law potentials. (Author) [pt

  5. Linear drag law for high-Reynolds-number flow past an oscillating body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agre, Natalie; Childress, Stephen; Zhang, Jun; Ristroph, Leif

    2016-07-01

    An object immersed in a fast flow typically experiences fluid forces that increase with the square of speed. Here we explore how this high-Reynolds-number force-speed relationship is affected by unsteady motions of a body. Experiments on disks that are driven to oscillate while progressing through air reveal two distinct regimes: a conventional quadratic relationship for slow oscillations and an anomalous scaling for fast flapping in which the time-averaged drag increases linearly with flow speed. In the linear regime, flow visualization shows that a pair of counterrotating vortices is shed with each oscillation and a model that views a train of such dipoles as a momentum jet reproduces the linearity. We also show that appropriate scaling variables collapse the experimental data from both regimes and for different oscillatory motions into a single drag-speed relationship. These results could provide insight into the aerodynamic resistance incurred by oscillating wings in flight and they suggest that vibrations can be an effective means to actively control the drag on an object.

  6. The relationships among iron supplement use, Hb concentration and linear growth in young children: Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Shimels Hussien; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2017-11-01

    Growth faltering and anaemia remain unacceptably high among infants and young children in Ethiopia. In this study, we investigated the relationships among Fe supplement use (ISU), Hb concentration and linear growth, hypothesising positive relationships between ISU and Hb, ISU and linear growth and Hb and linear growth. We used a nationally representative data of 2400 children aged 6-24 months from the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) 2011, conducted following a stratified, two-stage cluster sampling. We examined the links by Pearson's correlation, bivariate and multivariate linear regression analyses and reported adjusted estimates. We found that ISU was not significantly associated with either Hb (β=1·09; 95 % CI -2·73, 5·01, P=0·567) or linear growth (β=0·07; 95 % CI -0·06, 0·21, P=0·217). We found a positive, however, weak, correlation between Hb and linear growth (r 0·09; 95 % CI 0·06, 0·11, PHb predicted linear growth independent of a variety dietary and non-dietary factors (β=0·08; 95 % CI 0·04, 0·11, PHb; age, birth type, size at birth, sex, breast-feeding duration, dietary diversity and deworming were independently associated with linear growth, indicating that Hb and linear growth are multifactorial with both nutritional and non-nutritional factors implicated. Further studies, with better design and exposure assessment, are warranted on the relation of ISU with Hb or linear growth.

  7. The Non-Linear Effect of Corporate Taxes on Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huňady Ján

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problem of taxation and its potential impact on economic growth and presents some new empirical insights into this topic. The main aim of the paper is to verify an assumed nonlinear impact of corporate tax rates on economic growth. Based on the theory of public finance and taxation, we hypothesize that at relatively low tax rates it is possible that the impact of taxation on economic growth become slightly positive. On the other hand when the tax rates are higher a negative impact of taxation on economic growth could be expected. Despite the fact that the most of the existing studies find a negative linear relationship between these variables, we can also find strong support for a non-linear relationship from several theoretical models as well as some empirical studies. Based on panel data fixed-effects econometric models, we, as well, find empirical evidence for a non-linear relationship between nominal and effective corporate tax rates and economic growth. Our data consists of annual observations for the period 1999 to 2011 for EU Member States. Based on the results, we also estimated the optimal level of the corporate tax rate in terms of maximizing economic growth in the average of the EU countries.

  8. Associations of infant feeding and timing of linear growth and relative weight gain during early life with childhood body composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Beer, M.; Vrijkotte, T.G.M.; Fall, C.H.D.; Eijsden, M.; Osmond, C.; Gemke, R.J.B.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background:Growth and feeding during infancy have been associated with later life body mass index. However, the associations of infant feeding, linear growth and weight gain relative to linear growth with separate components of body composition remain unclear.Methods:Of 5551 children with collected

  9. Association between parental socio-demographic factors and declined linear growth of young children in Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartono Gunardi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Indonesia, approximately 35.5% of children under five years old were stunted. Stunting is related to shorter adult stature, poor cognition and educational performance, low adult wages, lost productivity, and higher risk of nutrition-related chronic disease. The aim of this study was to identify parental socio-demographic risk factors of declined linear growth in children younger than 2 years old.Methods: This was a cohort-prospective study between August 2012 and May 2014 at three primary community health care centers (Puskesmas in Jakarta, Indonesia, namely Puskesmas Jatinegara, Mampang, and Tebet. Subjects were healthy children under 2 years old, in which their weight and height were measured serially (at 6–11 weeks old and 18–24 months old. The length-for-age based on those data was used to determine stature status. The serial measurement was done to detect growth pattern. Parental socio-demographic data were obtained from questionnairesResults: From the total of 160 subjects, 14 (8.7% showed declined growth pattern from normal to stunted and 10 (6.2% to severely stunted. As many as 134 (83.8% subjects showed consistent normal growth pattern. Only 2 (1.2% showed improvement in the linear growth. Maternal education duration less than 9 years (RR=2.60, 95% CI=1.23–5.46; p=0.02 showed statistically significant association with declined linear growth in children.Conclusion: Mother with education duration less than 9 years was the determining socio-demographic risk factor that contributed to the declined linear growth in children less than 2 years of age.

  10. From Newton's Law to the Linear Boltzmann Equation Without Cut-Off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayi, Nathalie

    2017-03-01

    We provide a rigorous derivation of the linear Boltzmann equation without cut-off starting from a system of particles interacting via a potential with infinite range as the number of particles N goes to infinity under the Boltzmann-Grad scaling. More particularly, we will describe the motion of a tagged particle in a gas close to global equilibrium. The main difficulty in our context is that, due to the infinite range of the potential, a non-integrable singularity appears in the angular collision kernel, making no longer valid the single-use of Lanford's strategy. Our proof relies then on a combination of Lanford's strategy, of tools developed recently by Bodineau, Gallagher and Saint-Raymond to study the collision process, and of new duality arguments to study the additional terms associated with the long-range interaction, leading to some explicit weak estimates.

  11. Modelling subject-specific childhood growth using linear mixed-effect models with cubic regression splines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grajeda, Laura M; Ivanescu, Andrada; Saito, Mayuko; Crainiceanu, Ciprian; Jaganath, Devan; Gilman, Robert H; Crabtree, Jean E; Kelleher, Dermott; Cabrera, Lilia; Cama, Vitaliano; Checkley, William

    2016-01-01

    Childhood growth is a cornerstone of pediatric research. Statistical models need to consider individual trajectories to adequately describe growth outcomes. Specifically, well-defined longitudinal models are essential to characterize both population and subject-specific growth. Linear mixed-effect models with cubic regression splines can account for the nonlinearity of growth curves and provide reasonable estimators of population and subject-specific growth, velocity and acceleration. We provide a stepwise approach that builds from simple to complex models, and account for the intrinsic complexity of the data. We start with standard cubic splines regression models and build up to a model that includes subject-specific random intercepts and slopes and residual autocorrelation. We then compared cubic regression splines vis-à-vis linear piecewise splines, and with varying number of knots and positions. Statistical code is provided to ensure reproducibility and improve dissemination of methods. Models are applied to longitudinal height measurements in a cohort of 215 Peruvian children followed from birth until their fourth year of life. Unexplained variability, as measured by the variance of the regression model, was reduced from 7.34 when using ordinary least squares to 0.81 (p linear mixed-effect models with random slopes and a first order continuous autoregressive error term. There was substantial heterogeneity in both the intercept (p modeled with a first order continuous autoregressive error term as evidenced by the variogram of the residuals and by a lack of association among residuals. The final model provides a parametric linear regression equation for both estimation and prediction of population- and individual-level growth in height. We show that cubic regression splines are superior to linear regression splines for the case of a small number of knots in both estimation and prediction with the full linear mixed effect model (AIC 19,352 vs. 19

  12. [Linear growth retardation in children under five years of age: a baseline study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissin, Anete; Figueiroa, José Natal; Benício, Maria Helena D'Aquino; Batista Filho, Malaquias

    2011-10-01

    The scope of this study was to describe the prevalence of, and analyze factors associated with, linear growth retardation in children. The baseline study analyzed 2040 children under the age of five, establishing a possible association between growth delay (height/age index non-binary variables, there was a positive association with roof type and number of inhabitants per room and a negative association with income per capita, mother's schooling and birth weight. The adjusted analysis also indicated water supply, visit from the community health agent, birth delivery location, internment for diarrhea, or for pneumonia and birth weight as significant variables. Several risk factors were identified for linear growth retardation pointing to the multi-causal aspects of the problem and highlighting the need for control measures by the various hierarchical government agents.

  13. An anisotropic linear thermo-viscoelastic constitutive law - Elastic relaxation and thermal expansion creep in the time domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettermann, Heinz E.; DeSimone, Antonio

    2017-09-01

    A constitutive material law for linear thermo-viscoelasticity in the time domain is presented. The time-dependent relaxation formulation is given for full anisotropy, i.e., both the elastic and the viscous properties are anisotropic. Thereby, each element of the relaxation tensor is described by its own and independent Prony series expansion. Exceeding common viscoelasticity, time-dependent thermal expansion relaxation/creep is treated as inherent material behavior. The pertinent equations are derived and an incremental, implicit time integration scheme is presented. The developments are implemented into an implicit FEM software for orthotropic material symmetry under plane stress assumption. Even if this is a reduced problem, all essential features are present and allow for the entire verification and validation of the approach. Various simulations on isotropic and orthotropic problems are carried out to demonstrate the material behavior under investigation.

  14. Bond lengths in Cd1-xZnxTe beyond linear laws revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koteski, V.; Haas, H.; Holub-Krappe, E.; Ivanovic, N.; Mahnke, H.-E.

    2004-01-01

    We have investigated the development of local bond lengths with composition in the Cd 1-x Zn x Te mixed system by measuring the fine structure in X-ray absorption (EXAFS) at all three constituent atoms. The bond strength is found to dominate over the averaging of the bulk so that the local bond length deviates only slightly from its natural value determined for the pure binary components ZnTe and CdTe, respectively. The deviations are significantly less than predicted by a simple radial force constant model for tetrahedrally co-ordinated binary systems, and the bond-length variation with concentration is significantly non-linear. For the second shell, bimodal anion-anion distances are found while the cation-cation distances can already be described by the virtual crystal approximation. In the diluted regime close to the end-point compounds, we have complemented our experimental work by ab initio calculations based on density functional theory with the WIEN97 program using the linearised augmented plane wave method. Equilibrium atomic lattice positions have been calculated for the substitutional isovalent metal atom in a 32-atom super cell, Zn in the CdTe lattice or Cd in the ZnTe lattice, respectively, yielding good agreement with the atomic distances as determined in our EXAFS experiments

  15. Low temperature diamond growth by linear antenna plasma CVD over large area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izak, Tibor; Babchenko, Oleg; Potocky, Stepan; Kromka, Alexander; Varga, Marian

    2012-01-01

    Recently, there is a great effort to increase the deposition area and decrease the process temperature for diamond growth which will enlarge its applications including use of temperature sensitive substrates. In this work, we report on the large area (20 x 30 cm 2 ) and low temperature (250 C) polycrystalline diamond growth by pulsed linear antenna microwave plasma system. The influence of substrate temperature varied from 250 to 680 C, as controlled by the table heater and/or by microwave power, is studied. It was found that the growth rate, film morphology and diamond to non-diamond phases (sp 3 /sp 2 carbon bonds) are influenced by the growth temperature, as confirmed by SEM and Raman measurements. The surface chemistry and growth processes were studied in terms of activation energies (E a ) calculated from Arrhenius plots. The activation energies of growth processes were very low (1.7 and 7.8 kcal mol -1 ) indicating an energetically favourable growth process from the CO 2 -CH 4 -H 2 gas mixture. In addition, from activation energies two different growth regimes were observed at low and high temperatures, indicating different growth mechanism. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Markov and semi-Markov switching linear mixed models used to identify forest tree growth components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaubert-Pereira, Florence; Guédon, Yann; Lavergne, Christian; Trottier, Catherine

    2010-09-01

    Tree growth is assumed to be mainly the result of three components: (i) an endogenous component assumed to be structured as a succession of roughly stationary phases separated by marked change points that are asynchronous among individuals, (ii) a time-varying environmental component assumed to take the form of synchronous fluctuations among individuals, and (iii) an individual component corresponding mainly to the local environment of each tree. To identify and characterize these three components, we propose to use semi-Markov switching linear mixed models, i.e., models that combine linear mixed models in a semi-Markovian manner. The underlying semi-Markov chain represents the succession of growth phases and their lengths (endogenous component) whereas the linear mixed models attached to each state of the underlying semi-Markov chain represent-in the corresponding growth phase-both the influence of time-varying climatic covariates (environmental component) as fixed effects, and interindividual heterogeneity (individual component) as random effects. In this article, we address the estimation of Markov and semi-Markov switching linear mixed models in a general framework. We propose a Monte Carlo expectation-maximization like algorithm whose iterations decompose into three steps: (i) sampling of state sequences given random effects, (ii) prediction of random effects given state sequences, and (iii) maximization. The proposed statistical modeling approach is illustrated by the analysis of successive annual shoots along Corsican pine trunks influenced by climatic covariates. © 2009, The International Biometric Society.

  17. Effects of socioeconomic position and social mobility on linear growth from early childhood until adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Muraro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Objective: To assess the effect of socioeconomic position (SEP in childhood and social mobility on linear growth through adolescence in a population-based cohort. Methods: Children born in Cuiabá-MT, central-western Brazil, were evaluated during 1994 - 1999. They were first assessed during 1999 - 2000 (0 - 5 years and again during 2009 - 2011 (10 - 17 years, and their height-for-age was evaluated during these two periods.Awealth index was used to classify the SEP of each child’s family as low, medium, or high. Social mobility was categorized as upward mobility or no upward mobility. Linear mixed models were used. Results: We evaluated 1,716 children (71.4% of baseline after 10 years, and 60.6% of the families showed upward mobility, with a higher percentage among the lowest economic classes. A higher height-for-age was also observed among those from families with a high SEP both in childhood (low SEP= -0.35 z-score; high SEP= 0.15 z-score, p < 0.01 and adolescence (low SEP= -0.01 z-score; high SEP= 0.45 z-score, p < 0.01, whereas upward mobility did not affect their linear growth. Conclusion: Expressive social mobility was observed, but SEP in childhood and social mobility did not greatly influence linear growth through childhood in this central-western Brazilian cohort.

  18. Wavelength dependence of the linear growth rate of the Es layer instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Cosgrove

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available It has recently been shown, by computation of the linear growth rate, that midlatitude sporadic-E (Es layers are subject to a large scale electrodynamic instability. This instability is a logical candidate to explain certain frontal structuring events, and polarization electric fields, which have been observed in Es layers by ionosondes, by coherent scatter radars, and by rockets. However, the original growth rate derivation assumed an infinitely thin Es layer, and therefore did not address the short wavelength cutoff. Also, the same derivation ignored the effects of F region loading, which is a significant wavelength dependent effect. Herein is given a generalized derivation that remedies both these short comings, and thereby allows a computation of the wavelength dependence of the linear growth rate, as well as computations of various threshold conditions. The wavelength dependence of the linear growth rate is compared with observed periodicities, and the role of the zeroth order meridional wind is explored. A three-dimensional paper model is used to explain the instability geometry, which has been defined formally in previous works.

  19. Power-law Growth and Punctuated Equilibrium Dynamics in Water Resources Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolari, A.; Katul, G. G.; Porporato, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    The global rise in population-driven water scarcity and recent appreciation of strong dynamic coupling between human and natural systems has called for new approaches to predict the future sustainability of regional and global water resources systems. The dynamics of coupled human-water systems are driven by a complex set of social, environmental, and technological factors. Present projections of water resources systems range from a finite carrying capacity regulated by accessible freshwater, or `peak renewable water,' to punctuated evolution with new supplied and improved efficiency gained from technological and social innovation. However, these projections have yet to be quantified from observations or in a comprehensive theoretical framework. Using data on global water withdrawals and storage capacity of regional water supply systems, non-trivial dynamics are identified in water resources systems development over time, including power-law growth and punctuated equilibria. Two models are introduced to explain this behavior: (1) a delay differential equation and (2) a power-law with log-periodic oscillations, both of which rely on past conditions (or system memory) to describe the present rate of growth in the system. In addition, extension of the first model demonstrates how system delays and punctuated equilibria can emerge from coupling between human population growth and associated resource demands. Lastly, anecdotal evidence is used to demonstrate the likelihood of power-law growth in global water use from the agricultural revolution 3000 BC to the present. In a practical sense, the presence of these patterns in models with delayed oscillations suggests that current decision-making related to water resources development results from the historical accumulation of resource use decisions, technological and social changes, and their consequences.

  20. Scaling laws of free dendritic growth in a forced Oseen flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurnatowski, M von; Kassner, K

    2014-01-01

    We use the method presented in M von Kurnatowski et al (2013 Phys. Rev. E 87 042405) to solve the nonlinear problem of free dendritic growth in an Oseen flow. The growth process is assumed to be limited by thermal transport via diffusion and convection. A singular perturbation expansion is treated to lowest nontrivial order in the framework of asymptotic decomposition. The resulting complex integro-differential equation is solved using an elaborate numerical method. The approximate scaling laws V∝U 2/3 and ρ∝U −1/3 for the growth velocity and the tip radius of curvature of the dendrite, respectively, are found as a function of the forced flow velocity. The results are compared to those by Pelcé and Bouissou, constituting the only other attempt so far to treat the problem analytically. (paper)

  1. Multibunch emittance growth and its corrections in S-Band linear collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, J.

    1994-11-01

    Multibunch emittance growths caused by long range wake fields with the misalignments of accelerating structures and quadrupoles in S-Band linear collider are studied. Tolerances for the misalignment errors of accelerating structures and quadrupoles are given corresponding to different detuned+damped structures. At the end of main linac, emittance corrector (EC) is proposed to be used to reduce further the multibunch emittance. Numerical simulations show that the effect of EC is obvious (multibunch emittance can be reduced about one order of magnitude), and it is believed that this kind of EC will be necessary for future linear colliders. (author). 16 refs., 21 figs., 4 tabs

  2. The Relationship between Economic Growth and Money Laundering – a Linear Regression Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rece

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study provides an overview of the relationship between economic growth and money laundering modeled by a least squares function. The report analyzes statistically data collected from USA, Russia, Romania and other eleven European countries, rendering a linear regression model. The study illustrates that 23.7% of the total variance in the regressand (level of money laundering is “explained” by the linear regression model. In our opinion, this model will provide critical auxiliary judgment and decision support for anti-money laundering service systems.

  3. Equation of short fatigue crack growth law of 1Cr18Ni9Ti weld metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yongxiang; Yang Bing; Gao Qing

    2005-01-01

    The method is investigated for characterizing the short fatigue crack (SFC) behaviour of 1Cr18Ni9Ti weld metal by the 'effective short fatigue crack criterion'. Three considerations are given. Firstly, the dominant effective short fatigue crack (DESFC) behaviour is a result of the interaction and evolution of the collective SFCs and, therefore, it is deemed suitable to describe their collective behaviour. Secondly, the significant character of microstructural short crack (MSC) regime and physical short crack (PSC) regime for the behaviour of SFCs indicates that it should be well exhibited in the characterization. Thirdly, the stronger irregular behaviour of SFCs indicates the single parameter of cyclic stress or strain amplitude for representing driving force of DESFC growth may be not appropriated. A new growth law for the collective SFCs is derived from a consideration of the local cyclic strain energy density driving the DESFC initiation in the initial zone and, then, driving the DESFC growth in the zones around its tips. The final form of this law is relative to the total cyclic strain energy density of remote fields, which circle the initial zone and, then, the zones around the DESFC tips. Availability has been indicated by an analysis of the test data of present material. (authors)

  4. Guaranteed and computable bounds of the limit load for variational problems with linear growth energy functionals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haslinger, Jaroslav; Repin, S.; Sysala, Stanislav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 5 (2016), s. 527-564 ISSN 0862-7940 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LQ1602 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : functionals with linear growth * limit load * truncation method * perfect plasticity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.618, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10492-016-0146-6

  5. Linear and nonlinear causality between sectoral electricity consumption and economic growth: Evidence from Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Cheng-Lang; Lin, Hung-Pin; Chang, Chih-Heng

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the linear and nonlinear causality between the total electricity consumption (TEC) and real gross domestic production (RGDP). Unlike previous literature, we solve the undetermined relation between RGDP and electricity consumption by classifying TEC into industrial sector consumption (ISC) and residential sector consumption (RSC) as well as investigating how TEC, ISC, and RSC influence Taiwan's RGDP. By using the Granger's linear causality test, it is shown that (i) there is a bidirectional causality among TEC, ISC, and RGDP, but a neutrality between RSC and RGDP with regard to the linear causality and (ii) there is still a bidirectional causality between TEC and RGDP, but a unidirectional causality between RSC and RGDP with regard to the nonlinear causality. On the basis of (i) and (ii), we suggest that the electricity policy formulators loosen the restriction on ISC and limit RSC in order to achieve the goal of economic growth.

  6. A study of intergranular cavity growth controlled by the coupling of diffusion and power law creep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.S.; Martinez, L.; Nix, W.D.

    1983-01-01

    A technique based on pre-creeping and sintering is used to create large, widely spaced cavities at grain boundaries in copper. The size and spacing of the cavities is such that cavity growth is expected to be controlled by the coupling of diffusion and power law creep. The rupture properties of these pre-cavitated samples are studied over a range of stresses and temperatures and the results are compared with the predictions of various theoretical treatments of cavity growth. The stress and temperature dependence of rupture can be described using an analysis of the type suggested by Chen and Argon, provided that the diffusional length is based on the ligament stress rather than the applied stress

  7. DOES THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURE AND ECONOMIC GROWTH FOLLOW WAGNER’S LAW IN NIGERIA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLEMENT A.U. IGHODARO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available While previous studies to test Wagner’s hypothesis for Nigeria usedtotal government expenditure, this paper in addition to total government expenditure used adisaggregated government expenditure data from 1961 - 2007, specifically; expenditure ongeneral administration and that of community and social services to determine the specificgovernment expenditure that economic growth may have significant impact on. Economicconditions and policies change implying that it is not only economic growth that can affectgovernment expenditure hence the inclusion of other fiscal policy variable and politicalfreedom to augment the functional form of Wagner’s law. All the variables used were found tobe I(1 and long run relationship exist between the dependent and the independent variablesexcept in the case where only GDP was used as the independent variable. Wagner’s hypothesisdoes not hold in all the estimations rather Keynesian hypothesis was validated in all theestimation. Elasticity estimates and Granger causality results are in agreement.

  8. Evaluating Non-Linear Regression Models in Analysis of Persian Walnut Fruit Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Karamatlou

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Persian walnut (Juglans regia L. is a large, wind-pollinated, monoecious, dichogamous, long lived, perennial tree cultivated for its high quality wood and nuts throughout the temperate regions of the world. Growth model methodology has been widely used in the modeling of plant growth. Mathematical models are important tools to study the plant growth and agricultural systems. These models can be applied for decision-making anddesigning management procedures in horticulture. Through growth analysis, planning for planting systems, fertilization, pruning operations, harvest time as well as obtaining economical yield can be more accessible.Non-linear models are more difficult to specify and estimate than linear models. This research was aimed to studynon-linear regression models based on data obtained from fruit weight, length and width. Selecting the best models which explain that fruit inherent growth pattern of Persian walnut was a further goal of this study. Materials and Methods: The experimental material comprising 14 Persian walnut genotypes propagated by seed collected from a walnut orchard in Golestan province, Minoudasht region, Iran, at latitude 37◦04’N; longitude 55◦32’E; altitude 1060 m, in a silt loam soil type. These genotypes were selected as a representative sampling of the many walnut genotypes available throughout the Northeastern Iran. The age range of walnut trees was 30 to 50 years. The annual mean temperature at the location is16.3◦C, with annual mean rainfall of 690 mm.The data used here is the average of walnut fresh fruit and measured withgram/millimeter/day in2011.According to the data distribution pattern, several equations have been proposed to describesigmoidal growth patterns. Here, we used double-sigmoid and logistic–monomolecular models to evaluate fruit growth based on fruit weight and4different regression models in cluding Richards, Gompertz, Logistic and Exponential growth for evaluation

  9. Effects of socioeconomic position and social mobility on linear growth from early childhood until adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraro, Ana Paula; Souza, Rita Adriana Gomes de; Rodrigues, Paulo Rogério Melo; Ferreira, Márcia Gonçalves; Sichieri, Rosely

    2017-01-01

    To assess the effect of socioeconomic position (SEP) in childhood and social mobility on linear growth through adolescence in a population-based cohort. Children born in Cuiabá-MT, central-western Brazil, were evaluated during 1994 - 1999. They were first assessed during 1999 - 2000 (0 - 5 years) and again during 2009 - 2011 (10 - 17 years), and their height-for-age was evaluated during these two periods.Awealth index was used to classify the SEP of each child's family as low, medium, or high. Social mobility was categorized as upward mobility or no upward mobility. Linear mixed models were used. We evaluated 1,716 children (71.4% of baseline) after 10 years, and 60.6% of the families showed upward mobility, with a higher percentage among the lowest economic classes. A higher height-for-age was also observed among those from families with a high SEP both in childhood (low SEP= -0.35 z-score; high SEP= 0.15 z-score, p childhood and social mobility did not greatly influence linear growth through childhood in this central-western Brazilian cohort.

  10. Linear Growth and Child Development in Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Elizabeth L; Abbeddou, Souheila; Adu-Afarwuah, Seth; Arimond, Mary; Ashorn, Per; Ashorn, Ulla; Brown, Kenneth H; Hess, Sonja Y; Lartey, Anna; Maleta, Kenneth; Ocansey, Eugenia; Ouédraogo, Jean-Bosco; Phuka, John; Somé, Jérôme W; Vosti, Steve A; Yakes Jimenez, Elizabeth; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to produce quantitative estimates of the associations between 4 domains of child development and linear growth during 3 periods: before birth, early infancy, and later infancy. We also aimed to determine whether several factors attenuated these associations. In 3700 children in Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Malawi, growth was measured several times from birth to age 18 months. At 18 months, language, motor, socioemotional, and executive function development were assessed. In Burkina Faso (n = 1111), personal-social development was assessed rather than the latter 2 domains. Linear growth was significantly associated with language, motor, and personal-social development but not socioemotional development or executive function. For language, the pooled adjusted estimate of the association with length-for-age z score (LAZ) at 6 months was 0.13 ± 0.02 SD, and with ΔLAZ from 6 to 18 months it was 0.11 ± 0.03 SD. For motor, these estimates were 0.16 ± 0.02 SD and 0.22 ± 0.03 SD, respectively. In 1412 children measured at birth, estimates of the association with LAZ at birth were similar (0.07-0.16 SD for language and 0.09-0.18 SD for motor development). These associations were weaker or absent in certain subsets of children with high levels of developmental stimulation or mothers who received nutritional supplementation. Growth faltering during any period from before birth to 18 months is associated with poor development of language and motor skills. Interventions to provide developmental stimulation or maternal supplementation may protect children who are faltering in growth from poor language and motor development. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  11. Describing Growth Pattern of Bali Cows Using Non-linear Regression Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Hafiz A.W

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the best fit non-linear regression model to describe the growth pattern of Bali cows. Estimates of asymptotic mature weight, rate of maturing and constant of integration were derived from Brody, von Bertalanffy, Gompertz and Logistic models which were fitted to cross-sectional data of body weight taken from 74 Bali cows raised in MARDI Research Station Muadzam Shah Pahang. Coefficient of determination (R2 and residual mean squares (MSE were used to determine the best fit model in describing the growth pattern of Bali cows. Von Bertalanffy model was the best model among the four growth functions evaluated to determine the mature weight of Bali cattle as shown by the highest R2 and lowest MSE values (0.973 and 601.9, respectively, followed by Gompertz (0.972 and 621.2, respectively, Logistic (0.971 and 648.4, respectively and Brody (0.932 and 660.5, respectively models. The correlation between rate of maturing and mature weight was found to be negative in the range of -0.170 to -0.929 for all models, indicating that animals of heavier mature weight had lower rate of maturing. The use of non-linear model could summarize the weight-age relationship into several biologically interpreted parameters compared to the entire lifespan weight-age data points that are difficult and time consuming to interpret.

  12. Linear growth and child development in low- and middle-income countries: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudfeld, Christopher R; McCoy, Dana Charles; Danaei, Goodarz; Fink, Günther; Ezzati, Majid; Andrews, Kathryn G; Fawzi, Wafaie W

    2015-05-01

    The initial years of life are critical for physical growth and broader cognitive, motor, and socioemotional development, but the magnitude of the link between these processes remains unclear. Our objective was to produce quantitative estimates of the cross-sectional and prospective association of height-for-age z score (HAZ) with child development. Observational studies conducted in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) presenting data on the relationship of linear growth with any measure of child development among children children ≤ 2 years old was +0.24 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.14-0.33; I(2) = 53%) and +0.09 for children > 2 years old (95% CI, 0.05-0.12; I(2) = 78%). Prospectively, each unit increase in HAZ for children ≤ 2 years old was associated with a +0.22-SD increase in cognition at 5 to 11 years after multivariate adjustment (95% CI, 0.17-0.27; I(2) = 0%). HAZ was also significantly associated with earlier walking age and better motor scores (P development. Effective interventions that reduce linear growth restriction may improve developmental outcomes; however, integration with environmental, educational, and stimulation interventions may produce larger positive effects. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  13. Linear analysis on the growth of non-spherical perturbations in supersonic accretion flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Kazuya; Yamada, Shoichi, E-mail: ktakahashi@heap.phys.waseda.ac.jp [Advanced Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku 169-8555 (Japan)

    2014-10-20

    We analyzed the growth of non-spherical perturbations in supersonic accretion flows. We have in mind an application to the post-bounce phase of core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe). Such non-spherical perturbations have been suggested by a series of papers by Arnett, who has numerically investigated violent convections in the outer layers of pre-collapse stars. Moreover, Couch and Ott demonstrated in their numerical simulations that such perturbations may lead to a successful supernova even for a progenitor that fails to explode without fluctuations. This study investigated the linear growth of perturbations during the infall onto a stalled shock wave. The linearized equations are solved as an initial and boundary value problem with the use of a Laplace transform. The background is a Bondi accretion flow whose parameters are chosen to mimic the 15 M {sub ☉} progenitor model by Woosley and Heger, which is supposed to be a typical progenitor of CCSNe. We found that the perturbations that are given at a large radius grow as they flow down to the shock radius; the density perturbations can be amplified by a factor of 30, for example. We analytically show that the growth rate is proportional to l, the index of the spherical harmonics. We also found that the perturbations oscillate in time with frequencies that are similar to those of the standing accretion shock instability. This may have an implication for shock revival in CCSNe, which will be investigated in our forthcoming paper in more detail.

  14. Fecal Markers of Intestinal Inflammation and Permeability Associated with the Subsequent Acquisition of Linear Growth Deficits in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosek, Margaret; Haque, Rashidul; Lima, Aldo; Babji, Sudhir; Shrestha, Sanjaya; Qureshi, Shahida; Amidou, Samie; Mduma, Estomih; Lee, Gwenyth; Yori, Pablo Peñataro; Guerrant, Richard L.; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Mason, Carl; Kang, Gagandeep; Kabir, Mamun; Amour, Caroline; Bessong, Pascal; Turab, Ali; Seidman, Jessica; Olortegui, Maribel Paredes; Quetz, Josiane; Lang, Dennis; Gratz, Jean; Miller, Mark; Gottlieb, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Enteric infections are associated with linear growth failure in children. To quantify the association between intestinal inflammation and linear growth failure three commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (neopterin [NEO], alpha-anti-trypsin [AAT], and myeloperoxidase [MPO]) were performed in a structured sampling of asymptomatic stool from children under longitudinal surveillance for diarrheal illness in eight countries. Samples from 537 children contributed 1,169 AAT, 916 MPO, and 954 NEO test results that were significantly associated with linear growth. When combined to form a disease activity score, children with the highest score grew 1.08 cm less than children with the lowest score over the 6-month period following the tests after controlling for the incidence of diarrheal disease. This set of affordable non-invasive tests delineates those at risk of linear growth failure and may be used for the improved assessments of interventions to optimize growth during a critical period of early childhood. PMID:23185075

  15. Numerical computation of the linear stability of the diffusion model for crystal growth simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, C.; Sorensen, D.C. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Meiron, D.I.; Wedeman, B. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    We consider a computational scheme for determining the linear stability of a diffusion model arising from the simulation of crystal growth. The process of a needle crystal solidifying into some undercooled liquid can be described by the dual diffusion equations with appropriate initial and boundary conditions. Here U{sub t} and U{sub a} denote the temperature of the liquid and solid respectively, and {alpha} represents the thermal diffusivity. At the solid-liquid interface, the motion of the interface denoted by r and the temperature field are related by the conservation relation where n is the unit outward pointing normal to the interface. A basic stationary solution to this free boundary problem can be obtained by writing the equations of motion in a moving frame and transforming the problem to parabolic coordinates. This is known as the Ivantsov parabola solution. Linear stability theory applied to this stationary solution gives rise to an eigenvalue problem of the form.

  16. Rate-Independent Processes with Linear Growth Energies and Time-Dependent Boundary Conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kružík, Martin; Zimmer, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 3 (2012), s. 591-604 ISSN 1937-1632 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100750802 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP201/10/0357 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : concentrations * oscillations * time - dependent boundary conditions * rate-independent evolution Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/MTR/kruzik-rate-independent processes with linear growth energies and time - dependent boundary conditions.pdf

  17. Homogeneous shear turbulence – bypass concept via interplay of linear transient growth and nonlinear transverse cascade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamatsashvili, George; Dong, Siwei; Jiménez, Javier; Khujadze, George; Chagelishvili, George; Foysi, Holger

    2016-01-01

    We performed direct numerical simulations of homogeneous shear turbulence to study the mechanism of the self-sustenance of subcritical turbulence in spectrally stable (constant) shear flows. For this purpose, we analyzed the turbulence dynamics in Fourier/wavenumber/spectral space based on the simulation data for the domain aspect ratio 1 : 1 : 1. Specifically, we examined the interplay of linear transient growth of Fourier harmonics and nonlinear processes. The transient growth of harmonics is strongly anisotropic in spectral space. This, in turn, leads to anisotropy of nonlinear processes in spectral space and, as a result, the main nonlinear process appears to be not a direct/inverse, but rather a transverse/angular redistribution of harmonics in Fourier space referred to as the nonlinear transverse cascade. It is demonstrated that the turbulence is sustained by the interplay of the linear transient, or nonmodal growth and the transverse cascade. This course of events reliably exemplifies the wellknown bypass scenario of subcritical turbulence in spectrally stable shear flows. These processes mainly operate at large length scales, comparable to the box size. Consequently, the central, small wavenumber area of Fourier space (the size of which is determined below) is crucial in the self-sustenance and is labeled the vital area. Outside the vital area, the transient growth and the transverse cascade are of secondary importance - Fourier harmonics are transferred to dissipative scales by the nonlinear direct cascade. The number of harmonics actively participating in the self-sustaining process (i.e., the harmonics whose energies grow more than 10% of the maximum spectral energy at least once during evolution) is quite large - it is equal to 36 for the considered box aspect ratio - and obviously cannot be described by low-order models. (paper)

  18. Non-linear flow law of rockglacier creep determined from geomorphological observations: A case study from the Murtèl rockglacier (Engadin, SE Switzerland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frehner, Marcel; Amschwand, Dominik; Gärtner-Roer, Isabelle

    2016-04-01

    Rockglaciers consist of unconsolidated rock fragments (silt/sand-rock boulders) with interstitial ice; hence their creep behavior (i.e., rheology) may deviate from the simple and well-known flow-laws for pure ice. Here we constrain the non-linear viscous flow law that governs rockglacier creep based on geomorphological observations. We use the Murtèl rockglacier (upper Engadin valley, SE Switzerland) as a case study, for which high-resolution digital elevation models (DEM), time-lapse borehole deformation data, and geophysical soundings exist that reveal the exterior and interior architecture and dynamics of the landform. Rockglaciers often feature a prominent furrow-and-ridge topography. For the Murtèl rockglacier, Frehner et al. (2015) reproduced the wavelength, amplitude, and distribution of the furrow-and-ridge morphology using a linear viscous (Newtonian) flow model. Arenson et al. (2002) presented borehole deformation data, which highlight the basal shear zone at about 30 m depth and a curved deformation profile above the shear zone. Similarly, the furrow-and-ridge morphology also exhibits a curved geometry in map view. Hence, the surface morphology and the borehole deformation data together describe a curved 3D geometry, which is close to, but not quite parabolic. We use a high-resolution DEM to quantify the curved geometry of the Murtèl furrow-and-ridge morphology. We then calculate theoretical 3D flow geometries using different non-linear viscous flow laws. By comparing them to the measured curved 3D geometry (i.e., both surface morphology and borehole deformation data), we can determine the most adequate flow-law that fits the natural data best. Linear viscous models result in perfectly parabolic flow geometries; non-linear creep leads to localized deformation at the sides and bottom of the rockglacier while the deformation in the interior and top are less intense. In other words, non-linear creep results in non-parabolic flow geometries. Both the

  19. Linear growth rates of resistive tearing modes with sub-Alfvénic streaming flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, L. N.; Ma, Z. W.

    2014-01-01

    The tearing instability with sub-Alfvénic streaming flow along the external magnetic field is investigated using resistive MHD simulation. It is found that the growth rate of the tearing mode instability is larger than that without the streaming flow. With the streaming flow, there exist two Alfvén resonance layers near the central current sheet. The larger perturbation of the magnetic field in two closer Alfvén resonance layers could lead to formation of the observed cone structure and can largely enhance the development of the tearing mode for a narrower streaming flow. For a broader streaming flow, a larger separation of Alfvén resonance layers reduces the magnetic reconnection. The linear growth rate decreases with increase of the streaming flow thickness. The growth rate of the tearing instability also depends on the plasma beta (β). When the streaming flow is embedded in the current sheet, the growth rate increases with β if β  s , but decreases if β > β s . The existence of the specific value β s can be attributed to competition between the suppressing effect of β and the enhancing effect of the streaming flow on the magnetic reconnection. The critical value β s increases with increase of the streaming flow strength

  20. Subcritical crack growth law and its consequences for lifetime statistics and size effect of quasibrittle structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, Jia-Liang; Bazant, Zdenek P; Bazant, Martin Z

    2009-01-01

    For brittle failures, the probability distribution of structural strength and lifetime are known to be Weibullian, in which case the knowledge of the mean and standard deviation suffices to determine the loading or time corresponding to a tolerable failure probability such as 10 -6 . Unfortunately, this is not so for quasibrittle structures, characterized by material inhomogeneities that are not negligible compared with the structure size (as is typical, e.g. for concrete, fibre composites, tough ceramics, rocks and sea ice). For such structures, the distribution of structural strength was shown to vary from almost Gaussian to Weibullian as a function of structure size (and also shape). Here we predict the size dependence of the distribution type for the lifetime of quasibrittle structures. To derive the lifetime statistics from the strength statistics, the subcritical crack growth law is requisite. This empirical law is shown to be justified by fracture mechanics of random crack jumps in the atomic lattice and the condition of equality of the energy dissipation rates calculated on the nano-scale and the macro-scale. The size effect on the lifetime is found to be much stronger than that on the structural strength. The theory is shown to match the experimentally observed systematic deviations of lifetime histograms from the Weibull distribution.

  1. Prediction of Accurate Mixed Mode Fatigue Crack Growth Curves using the Paris' Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajith, S.; Krishna Murthy, K. S. R.; Robi, P. S.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate information regarding crack growth times and structural strength as a function of the crack size is mandatory in damage tolerance analysis. Various equivalent stress intensity factor (SIF) models are available for prediction of mixed mode fatigue life using the Paris' law. In the present investigation these models have been compared to assess their efficacy in prediction of the life close to the experimental findings as there are no guidelines/suggestions available on selection of these models for accurate and/or conservative predictions of fatigue life. Within the limitations of availability of experimental data and currently available numerical simulation techniques, the results of present study attempts to outline models that would provide accurate and conservative life predictions.

  2. Plasma endotoxin core antibody concentration and linear growth are unrelated in rural Malawian children aged 2-5 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental enteropathy is subclinical inflammation of the upper gastrointestinal tract associated with reduced linear growth in developing countries. Usually investigators have used biopsy or a dual sugar absorption test to assess environmental enteropathy. Such tests are time and resource intens...

  3. Two Aspects of the Simplex Model: Goodness of Fit to Linear Growth Curve Structures and the Analysis of Mean Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandys, Frantisek; Dolan, Conor V.; Molenaar, Peter C. M.

    1994-01-01

    Studied the conditions under which the quasi-Markov simplex model fits a linear growth curve covariance structure and determined when the model is rejected. Presents a quasi-Markov simplex model with structured means and gives an example. (SLD)

  4. Increased linear bone growth by GH in the absence of SOCS2 is independent of IGF-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobie, Ross; Ahmed, Syed F; Staines, Katherine A; Pass, Chloe; Jasim, Seema; MacRae, Vicky E; Farquharson, Colin

    2015-11-01

    Growth hormone (GH) signaling is essential for postnatal linear bone growth, but the relative importance of GHs actions on the liver and/or growth plate cartilage remains unclear. The importance of liver derived insulin like-growth factor-1 (IGF-1) for endochondral growth has recently been challenged. Here, we investigate linear growth in Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling-2 (SOCS2) knockout mice, which have enhanced growth despite normal systemic GH/IGF-1 levels. Wild-type embryonic ex vivo metatarsals failed to exhibit increased linear growth in response to GH, but displayed increased Socs2 transcript levels (P growth over a 12 day period. Despite this increase, IGF-1 transcript and protein levels were not increased in response to GH. In accordance with these data, IGF-1 levels were unchanged in GH-challenged postnatal Socs2(-/-) conditioned medium despite metatarsals showing enhanced linear growth. Growth-plate Igf1 mRNA levels were not elevated in juvenile Socs2(-/-) mice. GH did however elevate IGF-binding protein 3 levels in conditioned medium from GH challenged metatarsals and this was more apparent in Socs2(-/-) metatarsals. GH did not enhance the growth of Socs2(-/-) metatarsals when the IGF receptor was inhibited, suggesting that IGF receptor mediated mechanisms are required. IGF-2 may be responsible as IGF-2 promoted metatarsal growth and Igf2 expression was elevated in Socs2(-/-) (but not WT) metatarsals in response to GH. These studies emphasise the critical importance of SOCS2 in regulating GHs ability to promote bone growth. Also, GH appears to act directly on the metatarsals of Socs2(-/-) mice, promoting growth via a mechanism that is independent of IGF-1. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Physiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The effect of changes in sea surface temperature on linear growth of Porites coral in Ambon Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corvianawatie, Corry; Putri, Mutiara R.; Cahyarini, Sri Y.

    2015-01-01

    Coral is one of the most important organisms in the coral reef ecosystem. There are several factors affecting coral growth, one of them is changes in sea surface temperature (SST). The purpose of this research is to understand the influence of SST variability on the annual linear growth of Porites coral taken from Ambon Bay. The annual coral linear growth was calculated and compared to the annual SST from the Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature version 3b (ERSST v3b) model. Coral growth was calculated by using Coral X-radiograph Density System (CoralXDS) software. Coral sample X-radiographs were used as input data. Chronology was developed by calculating the coral’s annual growth bands. A pair of high and low density banding patterns observed in the coral’s X-radiograph represent one year of coral growth. The results of this study shows that Porites coral extents from 2001-2009 and had an average growth rate of 1.46 cm/year. Statistical analysis shows that the annual coral linear growth declined by 0.015 cm/year while the annual SST declined by 0.013°C/year. SST and the annual linear growth of Porites coral in the Ambon Bay is insignificantly correlated with r=0.304 (n=9, p>0.05). This indicates that annual SST variability does not significantly influence the linear growth of Porites coral from Ambon Bay. It is suggested that sedimentation load, salinity, pH or other environmental factors may affect annual linear coral growth

  6. The effect of changes in sea surface temperature on linear growth of Porites coral in Ambon Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corvianawatie, Corry, E-mail: corvianawatie@students.itb.ac.id; Putri, Mutiara R., E-mail: mutiara.putri@fitb.itb.ac.id [Oceanography Study Program, Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB), Jl. Ganesha 10 Bandung (Indonesia); Cahyarini, Sri Y., E-mail: yuda@geotek.lipi.go.id [Research Center for Geotechnology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), Bandung (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    Coral is one of the most important organisms in the coral reef ecosystem. There are several factors affecting coral growth, one of them is changes in sea surface temperature (SST). The purpose of this research is to understand the influence of SST variability on the annual linear growth of Porites coral taken from Ambon Bay. The annual coral linear growth was calculated and compared to the annual SST from the Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature version 3b (ERSST v3b) model. Coral growth was calculated by using Coral X-radiograph Density System (CoralXDS) software. Coral sample X-radiographs were used as input data. Chronology was developed by calculating the coral’s annual growth bands. A pair of high and low density banding patterns observed in the coral’s X-radiograph represent one year of coral growth. The results of this study shows that Porites coral extents from 2001-2009 and had an average growth rate of 1.46 cm/year. Statistical analysis shows that the annual coral linear growth declined by 0.015 cm/year while the annual SST declined by 0.013°C/year. SST and the annual linear growth of Porites coral in the Ambon Bay is insignificantly correlated with r=0.304 (n=9, p>0.05). This indicates that annual SST variability does not significantly influence the linear growth of Porites coral from Ambon Bay. It is suggested that sedimentation load, salinity, pH or other environmental factors may affect annual linear coral growth.

  7. Linear growth patterns in small for gestational age and preterm infants after zinc supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caecilia Nancy Setiawan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Low birth weight (LBW infants are at risk for growth disturbances due to intrauterine zinc deficiency. Zinc supplementation is expected to improve the linear growth of LBW babies. Objective To assess the effect of zinc supplementation on linear growth in preterm and small for gestational age (SGA infants. Methods This quasi-experimental study had a pre- and post-test design. Subjects were LBW infants hospitalized in Kariadi Hospital during March-December 2011, consisted of SGA and preterm neonates. All subjects were given 5 mg of zinc syrup daily for 3 months. Subjects’ head circumference, weight, and length were measured monthly. Serum zinc levels were measured before and after supplementation. Data were analyzed with Chi-square test, independent T-test, and general linear model repeated measure. Results A total of 61 subjects were enrolled consisted of 31 preterm and 30 SGA neonates. Mean serum zinc levels in the preterm group were 168.2 (SD 54.5 μg/dL pre-supplementation and 163.6 (SD 50.7 μg/dL post-supplementation (P=0.049, while mean serum zinc levels in the SGA group were 174.8 (SD 46.6 μg/dL pre-supplementation and 167.4 (SD 49.4 μg/dL post-supplementation (P=0.271. Median percentage preterm weight and length increased from 87.3 to 102.4% in the third month (P<0.001 and from 95.8 to 103.9% in the third month (P<0.001, respectively. Median percentage SGA weight and length increased from 73.5 to 98.3% in the third month (P<0.001 and from 94.5 to 102.2% in the third month (P<0.001, respectively. Conclusion Both, the preterm and SGA infants exhibit catch-up growth after three months of zinc supplementation. [

  8. The non-linear growth of the magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlyle, Jack; Hillier, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    This work examines the effect of the embedded magnetic field strength on the non-linear development of the magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) (with a field-aligned interface) in an ideal gas close to the incompressible limit in three dimensions. Numerical experiments are conducted in a domain sufficiently large so as to allow the predicted critical modes to develop in a physically realistic manner. The ratio between gravity, which drives the instability in this case (as well as in several of the corresponding observations), and magnetic field strength is taken up to a ratio which accurately reflects that of observed astrophysical plasma, in order to allow comparison between the results of the simulations and the observational data which served as inspiration for this work. This study finds reduced non-linear growth of the rising bubbles of the RTI for stronger magnetic fields, and that this is directly due to the change in magnetic field strength, rather than the indirect effect of altering characteristic length scales with respect to domain size. By examining the growth of the falling spikes, the growth rate appears to be enhanced for the strongest magnetic field strengths, suggesting that rather than affecting the development of the system as a whole, increased magnetic field strengths in fact introduce an asymmetry to the system. Further investigation of this effect also revealed that the greater this asymmetry, the less efficiently the gravitational energy is released. By better understanding the under-studied regime of such a major phenomenon in astrophysics, deeper explanations for observations may be sought, and this work illustrates that the strength of magnetic fields in astrophysical plasmas influences observed RTI in subtle and complex ways.

  9. Individuality and universality in the growth-division laws of single E. coli cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennard, Andrew S.; Osella, Matteo; Javer, Avelino; Grilli, Jacopo; Nghe, Philippe; Tans, Sander J.; Cicuta, Pietro; Cosentino Lagomarsino, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The mean size of exponentially dividing Escherichia coli cells in different nutrient conditions is known to depend on the mean growth rate only. However, the joint fluctuations relating cell size, doubling time, and individual growth rate are only starting to be characterized. Recent studies in bacteria reported a universal trend where the spread in both size and doubling times is a linear function of the population means of these variables. Here we combine experiments and theory and use scaling concepts to elucidate the constraints posed by the second observation on the division control mechanism and on the joint fluctuations of sizes and doubling times. We found that scaling relations based on the means collapse both size and doubling-time distributions across different conditions and explain how the shape of their joint fluctuations deviates from the means. Our data on these joint fluctuations highlight the importance of cell individuality: Single cells do not follow the dependence observed for the means between size and either growth rate or inverse doubling time. Our calculations show that these results emerge from a broad class of division control mechanisms requiring a certain scaling form of the "division hazard rate function," which defines the probability rate of dividing as a function of measurable parameters. This "model free" approach gives a rationale for the universal body-size distributions observed in microbial ecosystems across many microbial species, presumably dividing with multiple mechanisms. Additionally, our experiments show a crossover between fast and slow growth in the relation between individual-cell growth rate and division time, which can be understood in terms of different regimes of genome replication control.

  10. Untangling the causal relationship between tax burden distribution and economic growth in 23 OECD countries: Fresh evidence from linear and non-linear Granger causality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Saafi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to investigate the linear and nonlinear causality between a set of alternative tax burden ratios and economic growth in 23 OECD countries. To that end, the linear causality approach of Toda– Yamamoto (1995 and the nonparametric causality method of Kyrtsou and Labys (2006 are applied to annual data spanning from 1970 to 2014. Results obtained from the nonlinear causality test tend to reject the neutrality hypothesis for the tax structure–growth relationship in 19 of the 23 OECD countries. In the majority of the countries under investigation, the evidence is in line with the growth hypothesis where causality running from economic growth to tax burden ratios was detected in Australia, Denmark, Finland, Japan, New Zealand, and Norway. The opposite causality running from tax structure to economic growth was found in Germany, Netherlands, Portugal, and Sweden. In contrast, the neutrality hypothesis was supported in Austria, Italy, Luxembourg, and the USA, whereas the feedback hypothesis was supported in Turkey and the UK. Additional robustness checks show that when the signs of variations are taken into account, there is an asymmetric causality running from positive tax burden shocks to positive per capita GDP shocks for Belgium, France, and Turkey. Overall, our findings suggest that policy implications of the tax structure-economic growth relationships should be interpreted with caution, taking into account the test-dependent and country-specific results.

  11. Periosteal PTHrP regulates cortical bone modeling during linear growth in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meina; VanHouten, Joshua N; Nasiri, Ali R; Tommasini, Steven M; Broadus, Arthur E

    2014-07-01

    The modeling of long bone surfaces during linear growth is a key developmental process, but its regulation is poorly understood. We report here that parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) expressed in the fibrous layer of the periosteum (PO) drives the osteoclastic (OC) resorption that models the metaphyseal-diaphyseal junction (MDJ) in the proximal tibia and fibula during linear growth. PTHrP was conditionally deleted (cKO) in the PO via Scleraxis gene targeting (Scx-Cre). In the lateral tibia, cKO of PTHrP led to a failure of modeling, such that the normal concave MDJ was replaced by a mound-like deformity. This was accompanied by a failure to induce receptor activator of NF-kB ligand (RANKL) and a 75% reduction in OC number (P ≤ 0.001) on the cortical surface. The MDJ also displayed a curious threefold increase in endocortical osteoblast mineral apposition rate (P ≤ 0.001) and a thickened cortex, suggesting some form of coupling of endocortical bone formation to events on the PO surface. Because it fuses distally, the fibula is modeled only proximally and does so at an extraordinary rate, with an anteromedial cortex in CD-1 mice that was so moth-eaten that a clear PO surface could not be identified. The cKO fibula displayed a remarkable phenotype, with a misshapen club-like metaphysis and an enlargement in the 3D size of the entire bone, manifest as a 40-45% increase in the PO circumference at the MDJ (P ≤ 0.001) as well as the mid-diaphysis (P ≤ 0.001). These tibial and fibular phenotypes were reproduced in a Scx-Cre-driven RANKL cKO mouse. We conclude that PTHrP in the fibrous PO mediates the modeling of the MDJ of long bones during linear growth, and that in a highly susceptible system such as the fibula this surface modeling defines the size and shape of the entire bone. © 2014 Anatomical Society.

  12. The Schroedinger equation for central power law potentials and the classical theory of ordinary linear differential equations of the second order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, M.L.; Mignaco, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that the rational power law potentials in the two-body radial Schrodinger equations admit a systematic treatment available from the classical theory of ordinary linear differential equations of the second order. The resulting potentials come into families evolved from equations having a fixed number of elementary regular singularities. As a consequence, relations are found and discussed among the several potentials in a family. (Author) [pt

  13. The Schroedinger equation for central power law potentials and the classical theory of ordinary linear differential equations of the second order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, M.L.; Mignaco, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that the rational power law potentials in the two-body radial Schoedinger equation admit a systematic treatment available from the classical theory of ordinary linear differential equations of the second order. The admissible potentials come into families evolved from equations having a fixed number of elementary singularities. As a consequence, relations are found and discussed among the several potentials in a family. (Author) [pt

  14. Accretion of fat-free mass rather than fat mass in infancy is positively associated with linear growth in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Admassu Wossen, Bitiya; Ritz, Christian; Wells, Jonathan C K

    2018-01-01

    Background: We have previously shown that fat-free mass (FFM) at birth is associated with height at 2 y of age in Ethiopian children. However, to our knowledge, the relation between changes in body composition during early infancy and later linear growth has not been studied. Objective: This study...... examined the associations of early infancy fat mass (FM) and FFM accretion with linear growth from 1 to 5 y of age in Ethiopian children. Methods: In the infant Anthropometry and Body Composition (iABC) study, a prospective cohort study was carried out in children in Jimma, Ethiopia, followed from birth...... to 5 y of age. FM and FFM were measured ≤6 times from birth to 6 mo by using air-displacement plethysmography. Linear mixed-effects models were used to identify associations between standardized FM and FFM accretion rates during early infancy and linear growth from 1 to 5 y of age. Standardized...

  15. Baeklund transformations, conservation laws and linearization of the self-dual Yang-Mills and chiral fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.C.

    1980-01-01

    Baecklund Transformations (BT) and the derivation of local conservation laws are first reviewed in the classic case of the Sine-Gordon equation. The BT, conservation laws (local and nonlocal), and the inverse-scattering formulation are discussed for the chiral and the self-dual Yang-Mills fields. Their possible applications to the loop formulation for the Yang-Mills fields are mentioned. 55 references, 1 figure

  16. Growth and Zeros of Meromorphic Solutions to Second-Order Linear Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maamar Andasmas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to investigate the growth of meromorphic solutions to homogeneous and non-homogeneous second order linear differential equations f00+Af0+Bf = F, where A(z, B (z and F (z are meromorphic functions with finite order having only finitely many poles. We show that, if there exist a positive constants σ > 0, α > 0 such that |A(z| ≥ eα|z|σ as |z| → +∞, z ∈ H, where dens{|z| : z ∈ H} > 0 and ρ = max{ρ(B, ρ(F} < σ, then every transcendental meromorphic solution f has an infinite order. Further, we give some estimates of their hyper-order, exponent and hyper-exponent of convergence of distinct zeros.

  17. Ignition-and-Growth Modeling of NASA Standard Detonator and a Linear Shaped Charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Sirri

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to quantitatively investigate the ignition and shock sensitivity of NASA Standard Detonator (NSD) and the shock wave propagation of a linear shaped charge (LSC) after being shocked by NSD flyer plate. This combined explosive train was modeled as a coupled Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) model with LS-DYNA hydro code. An ignition-and-growth (I&G) reactive model based on unreacted and reacted Jones-Wilkins-Lee (JWL) equations of state was used to simulate the shock initiation. Various NSD-to-LSC stand-off distances were analyzed to calculate the shock initiation (or failure to initiate) and detonation wave propagation along the shaped charge. Simulation results were verified by experimental data which included VISAR tests for NSD flyer plate velocity measurement and an aluminum target severance test for LSC performance verification. Parameters used for the analysis were obtained from various published data or by using CHEETAH thermo-chemical code.

  18. Using hierarchical linear growth models to evaluate protective mechanisms that mediate science achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Secker, Clare Elaine

    The study of students at risk is a major topic of science education policy and discussion. Much research has focused on describing conditions and problems associated with the statistical risk of low science achievement among individuals who are members of groups characterized by problems such as poverty and social disadvantage. But outcomes attributed to these factors do not explain the nature and extent of mechanisms that account for differences in performance among individuals at risk. There is ample theoretical and empirical evidence that demographic differences should be conceptualized as social contexts, or collections of variables, that alter the psychological significance and social demands of life events, and affect subsequent relationships between risk and resilience. The hierarchical linear growth models used in this dissertation provide greater specification of the role of social context and the protective effects of attitude, expectations, parenting practices, peer influences, and learning opportunities on science achievement. While the individual influences of these protective factors on science achievement were small, their cumulative effect was substantial. Meta-analysis conducted on the effects associated with psychological and environmental processes that mediate risk mechanisms in sixteen social contexts revealed twenty-two significant differences between groups of students. Positive attitudes, high expectations, and more intense science course-taking had positive effects on achievement of all students, although these factors were not equally protective in all social contexts. In general, effects associated with authoritative parenting and peer influences were negative, regardless of social context. An evaluation comparing the performance and stability of hierarchical linear growth models with traditional repeated measures models is included as well.

  19. Child feeding style is associated with food intake and linear growth in rural Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebe, Zeweter; Haki, Gulelat Desse; Baye, Kaleab

    2017-09-01

    Little is known about mother-child feeding interactions and how this is associated with food intake and linear growth. To characterize mother-child feeding styles and investigate their associations with accepted mouthful and linear growth in west Gojam, rural Ethiopia. Two, in-home, meal observations of children aged 12-23 months (n = 100) were video-taped. The number of mouthful accepted was counted and the caregiver/child feeding styles were coded into positive/negative categories of self-feeding, responsive-feeding, active-feeding, social-behavior and distraction. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, child feeding practices, perception about child's overall appetite, and strategies adopted to overcome food refusal were collected through questionnaire-based interviews. Child and mothers' anthropometric measurements were also taken. Stunting was highly prevalent (48%) and the number of mouthful accepted was very low. Offering breastmilk and threatening to harm were the main strategies adopted to overcome food refusal. Although all forms of feeding style were present, active positive feeding style was dominant (90%) and was positively associated with mouthful accepted. Talking with non-feeding partner (64%), and domestic animals (24%) surrounding the feeding place were common distractions of feeding. Feeding was mostly terminated by caregivers (75%), often prematurely. Overall, caregivers of stunted children had poorer complementary- and breast-feeding practices and were less responsive to child's hunger and satiation cues (P responsive feeding behaviors were associated with child's number of mouthful accepted (r = 0.27; P = 0.007) and stunting (r = 0.4; P feeding style and stunting. Nutrition interventions that reinforce messages of optimal infant and young child feeding and integrate the promotion of responsive feeding behaviors are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Successive 1-Month Weight Increments in Infancy Can Be Used to Screen for Faltering Linear Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyango, Adelheid W; Borghi, Elaine; de Onis, Mercedes; Frongillo, Edward A; Victora, Cesar G; Dewey, Kathryn G; Lartey, Anna; Bhandari, Nita; Baerug, Anne; Garza, Cutberto

    2015-12-01

    Linear growth faltering in the first 2 y contributes greatly to a high stunting burden, and prevention is hampered by the limited capacity in primary health care for timely screening and intervention. This study aimed to determine an approach to predicting long-term stunting from consecutive 1-mo weight increments in the first year of life. By using the reference sample of the WHO velocity standards, the analysis explored patterns of consecutive monthly weight increments among healthy infants. Four candidate screening thresholds of successive increments that could predict stunting were considered, and one was selected for further testing. The selected threshold was applied in a cohort of Bangladeshi infants to assess its predictive value for stunting at ages 12 and 24 mo. Between birth and age 12 mo, 72.6% of infants in the WHO sample tracked within 1 SD of their weight and length. The selected screening criterion ("event") was 2 consecutive monthly increments below the 15th percentile. Bangladeshi infants were born relatively small and, on average, tracked downward from approximately age 6 to strategy is effective, the estimated preventable proportion in the group who experienced the event would be 34% at 12 mo and 24% at 24 mo. This analysis offers an approach for frontline workers to identify children at risk of stunting, allowing for timely initiation of preventive measures. It opens avenues for further investigation into evidence-informed application of the WHO growth velocity standards. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Linear growth and final height characteristics in adolescent females with anorexia nervosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalit Modan-Moses

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Growth retardation is an established complication of anorexia nervosa (AN. However, findings concerning final height of AN patients are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to assess these phenomena in female adolescent inpatients with AN. METHODS: We retrospectively studied all 211 female adolescent AN patients hospitalized in an inpatient eating disorders department from 1/1/1987 to 31/12/99. Height and weight were assessed at admission and thereafter routinely during hospitalization and follow-up. Final height was measured in 69 patients 2-10 years after discharge. Pre-morbid height data was available in 29 patients. RESULTS: Patients' height standard deviation scores (SDS on admission (-0.285±1.0 and discharge (-0.271±1.02 were significantly (p<0.001 lower than expected in normal adolescents. Patients admitted at age ≤13 years, or less than 1 year after menarche, were more severely growth-impaired than patients admitted at an older age, (p = 0.03. Final height SDS, available for 69 patients, was -0.258±1.04, significantly lower than expected in a normal population (p = 0.04, and was more severely compromised in patients who were admitted less than 1 year from their menarche. In a subgroup of 29 patients with complete growth data (pre-morbid, admission, discharge, and final adult height, the pre-morbid height SDS was not significantly different from the expected (-0.11±1.1, whereas heights at the other time points were significantly (p = 0.001 lower (-0.56±1.2, -0.52±1.2, and -0.6±1.2, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that whereas the premorbid height of female adolescent AN patients is normal, linear growth retardation is a prominent feature of their illness. Weight restoration is associated with catch-up growth, but complete catch-up is often not achieved.

  2. A meta-analysis of cambium phenology and growth: linear and non-linear patterns in conifers of the northern hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Sergio; Anfodillo, Tommaso; Cufar, Katarina; Cuny, Henri E; Deslauriers, Annie; Fonti, Patrick; Frank, David; Gricar, Jozica; Gruber, Andreas; King, Gregory M; Krause, Cornelia; Morin, Hubert; Oberhuber, Walter; Prislan, Peter; Rathgeber, Cyrille B K

    2013-12-01

    Ongoing global warming has been implicated in shifting phenological patterns such as the timing and duration of the growing season across a wide variety of ecosystems. Linear models are routinely used to extrapolate these observed shifts in phenology into the future and to estimate changes in associated ecosystem properties such as net primary productivity. Yet, in nature, linear relationships may be special cases. Biological processes frequently follow more complex, non-linear patterns according to limiting factors that generate shifts and discontinuities, or contain thresholds beyond which responses change abruptly. This study investigates to what extent cambium phenology is associated with xylem growth and differentiation across conifer species of the northern hemisphere. Xylem cell production is compared with the periods of cambial activity and cell differentiation assessed on a weekly time scale on histological sections of cambium and wood tissue collected from the stems of nine species in Canada and Europe over 1-9 years per site from 1998 to 2011. The dynamics of xylogenesis were surprisingly homogeneous among conifer species, although dispersions from the average were obviously observed. Within the range analysed, the relationships between the phenological timings were linear, with several slopes showing values close to or not statistically different from 1. The relationships between the phenological timings and cell production were distinctly non-linear, and involved an exponential pattern. The trees adjust their phenological timings according to linear patterns. Thus, shifts of one phenological phase are associated with synchronous and comparable shifts of the successive phases. However, small increases in the duration of xylogenesis could correspond to a substantial increase in cell production. The findings suggest that the length of the growing season and the resulting amount of growth could respond differently to changes in environmental conditions.

  3. Growth laws for delta crevasses in the Mississippi River Delta: observations and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yocum, T. A.; Georgiou, I. Y.

    2016-02-01

    River deltas are accumulations of sedimentary deposits delivered by rivers via a network of distributary channels. Worldwide they are threatened by environmental changes, including subsidence, global sea level rise and a suite of other local factors. In the Mississippi River Delta (MRD) these impacts are exemplified, and have led to proposed solutions to build land that include sediment diversions, thereby reinitiating the delta cycle. While economically efficient, there are too few analogs of small deltas aside from laboratory studies, numerical modeling studies, theoretical approaches, and limited field driven observations. Anthropogenic crevasses in the modern delta are large enough to overcome limitations of laboratory deltas, and small enough to allow for "rapid" channel and wetland development, providing an ideal setting to investigate delta development mechanics. Crevasse metrics were obtained using a combination of geospatial tools, extracting key parameters (bifurcation length and width, channel order and depth) that were non-dimensionalized and compared to river-dominated delta networks previously studied. Analysis showed that most crevasses in the MRD appear to obey delta growth laws and delta allometry relationships, suggesting that crevasses do exhibit similar planform metrics to larger Deltas; the distance to mouth bar versus bifurcation order demonstrated to be a very reasonable first order estimate of delta-top footprint. However, some crevasses exhibited different growth metrics. To better understand the hydrodynamic and geomorphic controls governing crevasse evolution in the MRD, we assess delta dynamics via a suite of field observations and numerical modeling in both well-established and newly constructed crevasses. Our analysis suggests that delta development is affected by the relative influence of external (upstream and downstream) and internal controls on the hydrodynamic and sediment transport patterns in these systems.

  4. Linear spline multilevel models for summarising childhood growth trajectories: A guide to their application using examples from five birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Laura D; Tilling, Kate; Matijasevich, Alicia; Petherick, Emily S; Santos, Ana Cristina; Fairley, Lesley; Wright, John; Santos, Iná S; Barros, Aluísio Jd; Martin, Richard M; Kramer, Michael S; Bogdanovich, Natalia; Matush, Lidia; Barros, Henrique; Lawlor, Debbie A

    2016-10-01

    Childhood growth is of interest in medical research concerned with determinants and consequences of variation from healthy growth and development. Linear spline multilevel modelling is a useful approach for deriving individual summary measures of growth, which overcomes several data issues (co-linearity of repeat measures, the requirement for all individuals to be measured at the same ages and bias due to missing data). Here, we outline the application of this methodology to model individual trajectories of length/height and weight, drawing on examples from five cohorts from different generations and different geographical regions with varying levels of economic development. We describe the unique features of the data within each cohort that have implications for the application of linear spline multilevel models, for example, differences in the density and inter-individual variation in measurement occasions, and multiple sources of measurement with varying measurement error. After providing example Stata syntax and a suggested workflow for the implementation of linear spline multilevel models, we conclude with a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of the linear spline approach compared with other growth modelling methods such as fractional polynomials, more complex spline functions and other non-linear models. © The Author(s) 2013.

  5. Effect of the concentration of magnetic grains on the linear-optical-absorption coefficient of ferrofluid-doped lyotropic mesophases: deviation from the Beer-Lambert law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuppo, F L S; Gómez, S L; Figueiredo Neto, A M

    2004-04-01

    In this paper is reported a systematic experimental study of the linear-optical-absorption coefficient of ferrofluid-doped isotropic lyotropic mixtures as a function of the magnetic-grains concentration. The linear optical absorption of ferrolyomesophases increases in a nonlinear manner with the concentration of magnetic grains, deviating from the usual Beer-Lambert law. This behavior is associated to the presence of correlated micelles in the mixture which favors the formation of small-scale aggregates of magnetic grains (dimers), which have a higher absorption coefficient with respect to that of isolated grains. We propose that the indirect heating of the micelles via the ferrofluid grains (hyperthermia) could account for this nonlinear increase of the linear-optical-absorption coefficient as a function of the grains concentration.

  6. Operator Hydrodynamics, OTOCs, and Entanglement Growth in Systems without Conservation Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Keyserlingk, C. W.; Rakovszky, Tibor; Pollmann, Frank; Sondhi, S. L.

    2018-04-01

    Thermalization and scrambling are the subject of much recent study from the perspective of many-body quantum systems with locally bounded Hilbert spaces ("spin chains"), quantum field theory, and holography. We tackle this problem in 1D spin chains evolving under random local unitary circuits and prove a number of exact results on the behavior of out-of-time-ordered commutators (OTOCs) and entanglement growth in this setting. These results follow from the observation that the spreading of operators in random circuits is described by a "hydrodynamical" equation of motion, despite the fact that random unitary circuits do not have locally conserved quantities (e.g., no conserved energy). In this hydrodynamic picture, quantum information travels in a front with a "butterfly velocity" vB that is smaller than the light-cone velocity of the system, while the front itself broadens diffusively in time. The OTOC increases sharply after the arrival of the light cone, but we do not observe a prolonged exponential regime of the form ˜eλL(t -x /v ) for a fixed Lyapunov exponent λL. We find that the diffusive broadening of the front has important consequences for entanglement growth, leading to an entanglement velocity that can be significantly smaller than the butterfly velocity. We conjecture that the hydrodynamical description applies to more generic Floquet ergodic systems, and we support this idea by verifying numerically that the diffusive broadening of the operator wavefront also holds in a more traditional nonrandom Floquet spin chain. We also compare our results to Clifford circuits, which have less rich hydrodynamics and consequently trivial OTOC behavior, but which can nevertheless exhibit linear entanglement growth and thermalization.

  7. A Zero-One Dichotomy Theorem for r-Semi-Stable Laws on Infinite Dimensional Linear Spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-10-01

    SEMISTABLE LAWS - LIKE STABLE ONES - ARE CONTINUOUS: i.e. THEY ASSIGN’ ZERO MASS TO SIIMGLETONS.. DD 172 1 1473 sov’ow as, IMail , 62 i 1 SOee..S $.M 0 102 LfP.Of 4 6601 1ECIuatY CLASSI’PICA1 130N 00 1 100 0449 (W%4 Dma rwer

  8. Combining linear polarization spectroscopy and the Representative Layer Theory to measure the Beer-Lambert law absorbance of highly scattering materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobrecht, Alexia; Bendoula, Ryad; Roger, Jean-Michel; Bellon-Maurel, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    Visible and Near Infrared (Vis-NIR) Spectroscopy is a powerful non destructive analytical method used to analyze major compounds in bulk materials and products and requiring no sample preparation. It is widely used in routine analysis and also in-line in industries, in-vivo with biomedical applications or in-field for agricultural and environmental applications. However, highly scattering samples subvert Beer-Lambert law's linear relationship between spectral absorbance and the concentrations. Instead of spectral pre-processing, which is commonly used by Vis-NIR spectroscopists to mitigate the scattering effect, we put forward an optical method, based on Polarized Light Spectroscopy to improve the absorbance signal measurement on highly scattering samples. This method selects part of the signal which is less impacted by scattering. The resulted signal is combined in the Absorption/Remission function defined in Dahm's Representative Layer Theory to compute an absorbance signal fulfilling Beer-Lambert's law, i.e. being linearly related to concentration of the chemicals composing the sample. The underpinning theories have been experimentally evaluated on scattering samples in liquid form and in powdered form. The method produced more accurate spectra and the Pearson's coefficient assessing the linearity between the absorbance spectra and the concentration of the added dye improved from 0.94 to 0.99 for liquid samples and 0.84-0.97 for powdered samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Linear and Nonlinear Causality between Energy Consumption and Economic Growth: The Case of Mexico 1965–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Gómez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the causal link between aggregated and disaggregated levels of energy consumption and economic growth in Mexico between 1965 and 2014, with the presence of structural breaks stemming from the series. To that end, unit root with structural breaks, cointegration, and linear and nonlinear causality tests are employed. The results show that there is a long-run relationship between production, capital, labor, and energy, and linear causal links from total and disaggregated energy consumption to economic growth. A nonlinear causality also exists from energy consumption, the transport sector, capital, and labor to output. These results support the growth hypothesis, which maintains that energy is an important input factor for economic activity and that energy conservation policies impact the economic growth in Mexico.

  10. Towards establishing a combined rate law of nucleation and crystal growth - The case study of gypsum precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendel, Pedro M.; Gavrieli, Ittai; Wolff-Boenisch, Domenik; Ganor, Jiwchar

    2018-03-01

    The main obstacle in the formulation of a quantitative rate-model for mineral precipitation is the absence of a rigorous method for coupling nucleation and growth processes. In order to link both processes, we conducted a series of batch experiments in which gypsum nucleation was followed by crystal growth. Experiments were carried out using various stirring methods in several batch vessels made of different materials. In the experiments, the initial degree of supersaturation of the solution with respect to gypsum (Ωgyp) was set between 1.58 and 1.82. Under these conditions, heterogeneous nucleation is the dominant nucleation mode. Based on changes in SO42- concentration with time, the induction time of gypsum nucleation and the following rate of crystal growth were calculated for each experiment. The induction time (6-104 h) was found to be a function of the vessel material, while the rates of crystal growth, which varied over three orders of magnitude, were strongly affected by the stirring speed and its mode (i.e. rocking, shaking, magnetic stirrer, and magnetic impeller). The SO42- concentration data were then used to formulate a forward model that couples the simple rate laws for nucleation and crystal growth of gypsum into a single kinetic model. Accordingly, the obtained rate law is based on classical nucleation theory and heterogeneous crystal growth.

  11. Linear growth of the entanglement entropy and the Kolmogorov-Sinai rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Eugenio; Hackl, Lucas; Yokomizo, Nelson

    2018-03-01

    The rate of entropy production in a classical dynamical system is characterized by the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy rate h KS given by the sum of all positive Lyapunov exponents of the system. We prove a quantum version of this result valid for bosonic systems with unstable quadratic Hamiltonian. The derivation takes into account the case of time-dependent Hamiltonians with Floquet instabilities. We show that the entanglement entropy S A of a Gaussian state grows linearly for large times in unstable systems, with a rate Λ A ≤ h KS determined by the Lyapunov exponents and the choice of the subsystem A. We apply our results to the analysis of entanglement production in unstable quadratic potentials and due to periodic quantum quenches in many-body quantum systems. Our results are relevant for quantum field theory, for which we present three applications: a scalar field in a symmetry-breaking potential, parametric resonance during post-inflationary reheating and cosmological perturbations during inflation. Finally, we conjecture that the same rate Λ A appears in the entanglement growth of chaotic quantum systems prepared in a semiclassical state.

  12. Accretion of Fat-Free Mass Rather Than Fat Mass in Infancy Is Positively Associated with Linear Growth in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admassu, Bitiya; Ritz, Christian; Wells, Jonathan C K; Girma, Tsinuel; Andersen, Gregers S; Belachew, Tefera; Owino, Victor; Michaelsen, Kim F; Abera, Mubarek; Wibaek, Rasmus; Friis, Henrik; Kæstel, Pernille

    2018-04-01

    We have previously shown that fat-free mass (FFM) at birth is associated with height at 2 y of age in Ethiopian children. However, to our knowledge, the relation between changes in body composition during early infancy and later linear growth has not been studied. This study examined the associations of early infancy fat mass (FM) and FFM accretion with linear growth from 1 to 5 y of age in Ethiopian children. In the infant Anthropometry and Body Composition (iABC) study, a prospective cohort study was carried out in children in Jimma, Ethiopia, followed from birth to 5 y of age. FM and FFM were measured ≤6 times from birth to 6 mo by using air-displacement plethysmography. Linear mixed-effects models were used to identify associations between standardized FM and FFM accretion rates during early infancy and linear growth from 1 to 5 y of age. Standardized accretion rates were obtained by dividing FM and FFM accretion by their respective SD. FFM accretion from 0 to 6 mo of age was positively associated with length at 1 y (β = 0.64; 95% CI: 0.19, 1.09; P = 0.005) and linear growth from 1 to 5 y (β = 0.63; 95% CI: 0.19, 1.07; P = 0.005). The strongest association with FFM accretion was observed at 1 y. The association with linear growth from 1 to 5 y was mainly engendered by the 1-y association. FM accretion from 0 to 4 mo was positively associated with linear growth from 1 to 5 y (β = 0.45; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.88; P = 0.038) in the fully adjusted model. In Ethiopian children, FFM accretion was associated with linear growth at 1 y and no clear additional longitudinal effect from 1 to 5 y was observed. FM accretion showed a weak association from 1 to 5 y. This trial was registered at www.controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN46718296.

  13. Universal principles governing multiple random searchers on complex networks: The logarithmic growth pattern and the harmonic law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Tongfeng; Zhang, Jie; Small, Michael; Harandizadeh, Bahareh; Hui, Pan

    2018-03-01

    We propose a unified framework to evaluate and quantify the search time of multiple random searchers traversing independently and concurrently on complex networks. We find that the intriguing behaviors of multiple random searchers are governed by two basic principles—the logarithmic growth pattern and the harmonic law. Specifically, the logarithmic growth pattern characterizes how the search time increases with the number of targets, while the harmonic law explores how the search time of multiple random searchers varies relative to that needed by individual searchers. Numerical and theoretical results demonstrate these two universal principles established across a broad range of random search processes, including generic random walks, maximal entropy random walks, intermittent strategies, and persistent random walks. Our results reveal two fundamental principles governing the search time of multiple random searchers, which are expected to facilitate investigation of diverse dynamical processes like synchronization and spreading.

  14. Subcritical crack growth and power law exponent of Y-Si-Al-O (-N) glasses in aqueous environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, de D.; Hintzen, H.T.J.M.; With, de G.

    2006-01-01

    The subcritical crack growth resistance in water of a Y–Si–Al–O and Y–Si–Al–O–N glasses has been investigated with three point bending experiments. It has been shown that the SCG behaviour of the Y–Si–Al–O–N glass is superior to that of the Y–Si–Al–O glass. This is reflected by the power law

  15. Newborn length predicts early infant linear growth retardation and disproportionately high weight gain in a low-income population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berngard, Samuel Clark; Berngard, Jennifer Bishop; Krebs, Nancy F; Garcés, Ana; Miller, Leland V; Westcott, Jamie; Wright, Linda L; Kindem, Mark; Hambidge, K Michael

    2013-12-01

    Stunting is prevalent by the age of 6 months in the indigenous population of the Western Highlands of Guatemala. The objective of this study was to determine the time course and predictors of linear growth failure and weight-for-age in early infancy. One hundred and forty eight term newborns had measurements of length and weight in their homes, repeated at 3 and 6 months. Maternal measurements were also obtained. Mean ± SD length-for-age Z-score (LAZ) declined from newborn -1.0 ± 1.01 to -2.20 ± 1.05 and -2.26 ± 1.01 at 3 and 6 months respectively. Stunting rates for newborn, 3 and 6 months were 47%, 53% and 56% respectively. A multiple regression model (R(2) = 0.64) demonstrated that the major predictor of LAZ at 3 months was newborn LAZ with the other predictors being newborn weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ), gender and maternal education∗maternal age interaction. Because WAZ remained essentially constant and LAZ declined during the same period, weight-for-length Z-score (WLZ) increased from -0.44 to +1.28 from birth to 3 months. The more severe the linear growth failure, the greater WAZ was in proportion to the LAZ. The primary conclusion is that impaired fetal linear growth is the major predictor of early infant linear growth failure indicating that prevention needs to start with maternal interventions. © 2013.

  16. Discovery of Power-Law Growth in the Self-Renewal of Heterogeneous Glioma Stem Cell Populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiya Sugimori

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence indicates that cancer stem cells (CSCs drive tumorigenesis. This suggests that CSCs should make ideal therapeutic targets. However, because CSC populations in tumors appear heterogeneous, it remains unclear how CSCs might be effectively targeted. To investigate the mechanisms by which CSC populations maintain heterogeneity during self-renewal, we established a glioma sphere (GS forming model, to generate a population in which glioma stem cells (GSCs become enriched. We hypothesized, based on the clonal evolution concept, that with each passage in culture, heterogeneous clonal sublines of GSs are generated that progressively show increased proliferative ability.To test this hypothesis, we determined whether, with each passage, glioma neurosphere culture generated from four different glioma cell lines become progressively proliferative (i.e., enriched in large spheres. Rather than monitoring self-renewal, we measured heterogeneity based on neurosphere clone sizes (#cells/clone. Log-log plots of distributions of clone sizes yielded a good fit (r>0.90 to a straight line (log(% total clones = k*log(#cells/clone indicating that the system follows a power-law (y = xk with a specific degree exponent (k = -1.42. Repeated passaging of the total GS population showed that the same power-law was maintained over six passages (CV = -1.01 to -1.17. Surprisingly, passage of either isolated small or large subclones generated fully heterogeneous populations that retained the original power-law-dependent heterogeneity. The anti-GSC agent Temozolomide, which is well known as a standard therapy for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, suppressed the self-renewal of clones, but it never disrupted the power-law behavior of a GS population.Although the data above did not support the stated hypothesis, they did strongly suggest a novel mechanism that underlies CSC heterogeneity. They indicate that power-law growth governs the self-renewal of heterogeneous

  17. Linear Growth and Fat and Lean Tissue Gain during Childhood: Associations with Cardiometabolic and Cognitive Outcomes in Adolescent Indian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Veena, Sargoor R; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Osmond, Clive; Fall, Caroline H D

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to determine how linear growth and fat and lean tissue gain during discrete age periods from birth to adolescence are related to adolescent cardiometabolic risk factors and cognitive ability. Adolescents born to mothers with normal glucose tolerance during pregnancy from an Indian birth cohort (N = 486, age 13.5 years) had detailed anthropometry and measurements of body fat (fat%), fasting plasma glucose, insulin and lipid concentrations, blood pressure and cognitive function. Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated. These outcomes were examined in relation to birth measurements and statistically independent measures (conditional SD scores) representing linear growth, and fat and lean tissue gain during birth-1, 1-2, 2-5, 5-9.5 and 9.5-13.5 years in 414 of the children with measurements at all these ages. Birth length and linear growth at all ages were positively associated with current height. Fat gain, particularly during 5-9.5 years was positively associated with fat% at 13.5 years (0.44 SD per SD [99.9% confidence interval: 0.29,0.58]). Greater fat gain during mid-late childhood was associated with higher systolic blood pressure (5-9.5 years: 0.23 SD per SD [0.07,0.40]) and HOMA-IR (5-9.5 years: 0.24 [0.08,0.40], 9.5-13.5 years: 0.22 [0.06,0.38]). Greater infant growth (up to age 2 years) in linear, fat or lean components was unrelated to cardiometabolic risk factors or cognitive function. This study suggests that factors that increase linear, fat and lean growth in infancy have no adverse cardiometabolic effects in this population. Factors that increase fat gain in mid-late childhood may increase cardiometabolic risk, without any benefit to cognitive abilities.

  18. Linear Growth and Fat and Lean Tissue Gain during Childhood: Associations with Cardiometabolic and Cognitive Outcomes in Adolescent Indian Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghattu V Krishnaveni

    Full Text Available We aimed to determine how linear growth and fat and lean tissue gain during discrete age periods from birth to adolescence are related to adolescent cardiometabolic risk factors and cognitive ability.Adolescents born to mothers with normal glucose tolerance during pregnancy from an Indian birth cohort (N = 486, age 13.5 years had detailed anthropometry and measurements of body fat (fat%, fasting plasma glucose, insulin and lipid concentrations, blood pressure and cognitive function. Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR was calculated. These outcomes were examined in relation to birth measurements and statistically independent measures (conditional SD scores representing linear growth, and fat and lean tissue gain during birth-1, 1-2, 2-5, 5-9.5 and 9.5-13.5 years in 414 of the children with measurements at all these ages.Birth length and linear growth at all ages were positively associated with current height. Fat gain, particularly during 5-9.5 years was positively associated with fat% at 13.5 years (0.44 SD per SD [99.9% confidence interval: 0.29,0.58]. Greater fat gain during mid-late childhood was associated with higher systolic blood pressure (5-9.5 years: 0.23 SD per SD [0.07,0.40] and HOMA-IR (5-9.5 years: 0.24 [0.08,0.40], 9.5-13.5 years: 0.22 [0.06,0.38]. Greater infant growth (up to age 2 years in linear, fat or lean components was unrelated to cardiometabolic risk factors or cognitive function.This study suggests that factors that increase linear, fat and lean growth in infancy have no adverse cardiometabolic effects in this population. Factors that increase fat gain in mid-late childhood may increase cardiometabolic risk, without any benefit to cognitive abilities.

  19. Numerical solution of a non-linear conservation law applicable to the interior dynamics of partially molten planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Dan J.; Sanan, Patrick; Wolf, Aaron S.

    2018-01-01

    The energy balance of a partially molten rocky planet can be expressed as a non-linear diffusion equation using mixing length theory to quantify heat transport by both convection and mixing of the melt and solid phases. Crucially, in this formulation the effective or eddy diffusivity depends on the entropy gradient, ∂S / ∂r , as well as entropy itself. First we present a simplified model with semi-analytical solutions that highlights the large dynamic range of ∂S / ∂r -around 12 orders of magnitude-for physically-relevant parameters. It also elucidates the thermal structure of a magma ocean during the earliest stage of crystal formation. This motivates the development of a simple yet stable numerical scheme able to capture the large dynamic range of ∂S / ∂r and hence provide a flexible and robust method for time-integrating the energy equation. Using insight gained from the simplified model, we consider a full model, which includes energy fluxes associated with convection, mixing, gravitational separation, and conduction that all depend on the thermophysical properties of the melt and solid phases. This model is discretised and evolved by applying the finite volume method (FVM), allowing for extended precision calculations and using ∂S / ∂r as the solution variable. The FVM is well-suited to this problem since it is naturally energy conserving, flexible, and intuitive to incorporate arbitrary non-linear fluxes that rely on lookup data. Special attention is given to the numerically challenging scenario in which crystals first form in the centre of a magma ocean. The computational framework we devise is immediately applicable to modelling high melt fraction phenomena in Earth and planetary science research. Furthermore, it provides a template for solving similar non-linear diffusion equations that arise in other science and engineering disciplines, particularly for non-linear functional forms of the diffusion coefficient.

  20. The French Energy Transition Law for Green Growth: At the limits of governance by objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruedinger, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this article is threefold: firstly, it briefly retraces the policy process that led to the adoption of the French Energy Transition Law over the last three years (2012-2015). Secondly, it provides a summary of the law's contents, including the main targets and measures. Eventually, it puts this overview into perspective, through an analysis of the key challenges for implementation, with a special focus on the new governance framework for the energy transition. After 3 years of extensive debates, the French energy transition law was adopted in July 2015. Through its 215 articles, it provides a comprehensive and ambitious roadmap for the transformation of the energy system and introduces various policy instruments. The transition builds on strong objectives for GHG reduction (-40% until 2030, -75% by 2050), energy efficiency (reducing demand by 20% until 2030 and 50% until 2050), and the diversification of energy supply through reduced nuclear and fossil fuels and an accelerated deployment of renewables. The law introduces a clear trajectory for the carbon price signal introduced in 2014, which should reach up to euro 56/ton by 2022 and euro 100/ton by 2030, applying to the final consumption of transport and heating fuels. Other key measures include new obligations to massively deploy building retrofits and the evolution of renewable support mechanisms towards a market premium scheme. While the adoption of the law represented a lengthy process, its implementation over the coming years will be even more challenging: the law essentially introduces a framework of governance by objectives, including a profusion of new targets and planning instruments. However, it might very well become an empty shell if this framework is not backed with equally strong measures to provide an effective implementation strategy

  1. Stunted at 10 Years. Linear Growth Trajectories and Stunting from Birth to Pre-Adolescence in a Rural Bangladeshi Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernilla Svefors

    Full Text Available Few studies in low-income settings analyse linear growth trajectories from foetal life to pre-adolescence. The aim of this study is to describe linear growth and stunting from birth to 10 years in rural Bangladesh and to analyse whether maternal and environmental determinants at conception are associated with linear growth throughout childhood and stunting at 10 years.Pregnant women participating in the MINIMat trial were identified in early pregnancy and a birth cohort (n = 1054 was followed with 19 growth measurements from birth to 10 years. Analyses of baseline predictors and mean height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ over time were modelled using GLMM. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the associations between baseline predictors and stunting (HAZ<-2 at 10 years. HAZ decreased to 2 years, followed by an increase up to 10 years, while the average height-for-age difference in cm (HAD to the WHO reference median continued to increase up to 10 years. Prevalence of stunting was highest at 2 years (50% decreasing to 29% at 10 years. Maternal height, maternal educational level and season of conception were all independent predictors of HAZ from birth to pre-adolescence (p<0.001 and stunting at 10 years. The highest probability to be stunted at 10 years was for children born by short mothers (<147.5 cm (ORadj 2.93, 95% CI: 2.06-4.20, mothers with no education (ORadj 1.74, 95% CI 1.17-2.81 or those conceived in the pre-monsoon season (ORadj 1.94, 95% CI 1.37-2.77.Height growth trajectories and prevalence of stunting in pre-adolescence showed strong intergenerational associations, social differentials, and environmental influence from foetal life. Targeting women before and during pregnancy is needed for the prevention of impaired child growth.

  2. Non-linear growth in tree ferns, Dicksonia antarctica and Cyathea australis

    OpenAIRE

    Blair, David P.; Blanchard, Wade; Banks, Sam C.; Lindenmayer, David B.

    2017-01-01

    Tree ferns are an important structural component of forests in many countries. However, because their regeneration is often unrelated to major disturbances, their age is often difficult to determine. In addition, rates of growth may not be uniform, which further complicates attempts to determine their age. In this study, we measured 5 years of growth of Cyathea australis and Dicksonia antarctica after a large wildfire in 2009 in south-eastern Australia. We found growth rates of these two spec...

  3. Inertial and viscous effects in the non linear growth of the tearing mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edery, D.; Frey, M.; Tagger, M.; Soule, J.L.; Pellat, R.; Bussac, M.N.; Somon, J.P.

    1982-08-01

    The non linear self similar Tearing mode solution of Rutherford is revisited. We compute explicitly the stream function for the plasma flow including inertia, convection and viscosity. In all cases, Rutherford's solution is asymptotically valid

  4. Regional Growth and Unemployment: The Validity of Okun's Law for the Finnish Regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kangasharju, A.; Tavera, C.; Nijkamp, P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper offers a concise critical overview of Okun's Law, with particular attention for its relevance in open economic systems of regions. Based on an extensive set of economic data for Finnish regions, the existence of cointegration is tested using alternative statistical methods, viz. the

  5. Growth of meromorphic solutions of higher-order linear differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjuan Chen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the higher-order linear differential equations with meromorphic coefficients. We improve and extend a result of M.S. Liu and C.L. Yuan, by using the estimates for the logarithmic derivative of a transcendental meromorphic function due to Gundersen, and the extended Winman-Valiron theory which proved by J. Wang and H.X. Yi. In addition, we also consider the nonhomogeneous linear differential equations.

  6. Inflammation and linear bone growth: the inhibitory role of SOCS2 on GH/IGF-1 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, Colin; Ahmed, S Faisal

    2013-04-01

    Linear bone growth is widely recognized to be adversely affected in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and other chronic inflammatory disorders. The growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) pathway is anabolic to the skeleton and inflammatory cytokines compromise bone growth through a number of different mechanisms, which include interference with the systemic as well as the tissue-level GH/IGF-1 axis. Despite attempts to promote growth and control disease, there are an increasing number of reports of the persistence of poor growth in a substantial proportion of patients receiving rhGH and/or drugs that block cytokine action. Thus, there is an urgent need to consider better and alternative forms of therapy that are directed specifically at the mechanism of the insult which leads to abnormal bone health. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 (SOCS2) expression is increased in inflammatory conditions including CKD, and is a recognized inhibitor of GH signaling. Therefore, in this review, we will focus on the premise that SOCS2 signaling represents a critical pathway in growth plate chondrocytes through which pro-inflammatory cytokines alter both GH/IGF-1 signaling and cellular function.

  7. Non-linear growth in tree ferns, Dicksonia antarctica and Cyathea australis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, David P; Blanchard, Wade; Banks, Sam C; Lindenmayer, David B

    2017-01-01

    Tree ferns are an important structural component of forests in many countries. However, because their regeneration is often unrelated to major disturbances, their age is often difficult to determine. In addition, rates of growth may not be uniform, which further complicates attempts to determine their age. In this study, we measured 5 years of growth of Cyathea australis and Dicksonia antarctica after a large wildfire in 2009 in south-eastern Australia. We found growth rates of these two species were unaffected by aspect and elevation but slope had a minor effect with D. antarctica growing 0.3mm faster for each additional degree of slope. Geographic location influenced growth in both species by up to 12 - 14mm/yr. The most consistent factor influencing growth rate, however, was initial height at the time of the 2009 fire; a finding consistent in both species and all geographic locations. For both tree fern species, individuals that were taller at the commencement of the study had greater overall growth for the duration of the study. This effect did not decrease even among the tallest tree ferns in our study (up to 6 metres tall). Overall, Cyathea australis averaged 73 (± 22)mm/year of growth (± 1SD), with the rate increasing 5mm/yr per metre of additional height. Dicksonia antarctica averaged 33 (± 13)mm/year, increasing by 6mm/yr/m. Growth rates dependent on initial height were unexpected and we discuss possible reasons for this finding. Variable growth rates also suggest that common age estimation methods of dividing height by average growth rate are likely to underestimate the age of short tree ferns, while overestimating the age of tall tree ferns, particularly if they have been subject to a fire.

  8. Non-linear growth in tree ferns, Dicksonia antarctica and Cyathea australis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P Blair

    Full Text Available Tree ferns are an important structural component of forests in many countries. However, because their regeneration is often unrelated to major disturbances, their age is often difficult to determine. In addition, rates of growth may not be uniform, which further complicates attempts to determine their age. In this study, we measured 5 years of growth of Cyathea australis and Dicksonia antarctica after a large wildfire in 2009 in south-eastern Australia. We found growth rates of these two species were unaffected by aspect and elevation but slope had a minor effect with D. antarctica growing 0.3mm faster for each additional degree of slope. Geographic location influenced growth in both species by up to 12 - 14mm/yr. The most consistent factor influencing growth rate, however, was initial height at the time of the 2009 fire; a finding consistent in both species and all geographic locations. For both tree fern species, individuals that were taller at the commencement of the study had greater overall growth for the duration of the study. This effect did not decrease even among the tallest tree ferns in our study (up to 6 metres tall. Overall, Cyathea australis averaged 73 (± 22mm/year of growth (± 1SD, with the rate increasing 5mm/yr per metre of additional height. Dicksonia antarctica averaged 33 (± 13mm/year, increasing by 6mm/yr/m. Growth rates dependent on initial height were unexpected and we discuss possible reasons for this finding. Variable growth rates also suggest that common age estimation methods of dividing height by average growth rate are likely to underestimate the age of short tree ferns, while overestimating the age of tall tree ferns, particularly if they have been subject to a fire.

  9. Non-linear growth: The road ahead for Indian IT outsourcing companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.L.R. Moorthi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Indian IT outsourcing companies (major among them being the SWITCH companies -- Satyam, Wipro, Infosys, TCS, Cognizant and HCL grew rapidly for more than a decade on low cost business process and IT outsourcing. With the bigger companies already reaching a high of 100,000 employees, they are now turning their attention to non-linear revenue (i.e. revenue less dependent on numbers or greater revenue earned per employee. For this they need to pursue ‘disruptive’ strategies which are distinctly different from the ‘incremental’ initiatives they adopted in the past to maintain linear revenue. This paper first outlines the disruptive and the incremental initiatives of the SWITCH companies and the road ahead for them. This is followed by an interview with S Gopalakrishnan, CEO and MD, Infosys Technologies who discusses the non-linear initiatives of the company and the challenges it faces in the field.

  10. Comparative Study of Worldwide Species of Genus Lentinus (=Lentinula, Higher Basidiomycetes) Based on Linear Mycelium Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Juan Luis; Mishra, Nutan Tulapurkar

    2015-01-01

    Species of mushroom genus Lentinus (=Lentinula) are best known for the commercially important and extensively studied culinary-medicinal shiitake, L. edodes. A few mycelium growth studies have focused on Lentinus boryana, but information is lacking for L. raphanica and L. aciculospora, endemic to the Americas. In this study, 14 dikaryon strains representing 5 Lentinus species were grown on 5 nutritive agar media at increments of 5°C. Growth for each species was significantly slower on corn meal agar, but no differences were found among malt extract, potato dextrose, malt peptone, and yeast malt extract agars. Lentinus aciculospora and L. boryana consistently exhibited the slowest mycelium growth rates among all species and across all temperatures tested, with optima at 15°C and 20°C. The fastest mycelium growth rates for L. edodes, L. novaezelandiae, and L. raphanica occurred at 25°C. Strains of the latter continued to grow well at 30°C, whereas growth of the other 2 species declined significantly. Differences in mycelium growth rates for American strains could be partially explained by their geographic locations, indicating that understanding this physiological parameter has important ramifications for the edible mushroom industry.

  11. Growth of linear Ni-filled carbon nanotubes by local arc discharge in liquid ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagara, Takuya [Department of Electric Engineering, Graduated School of Science and Technology, Nihon University, 1-8-14 Surugadai Kanda, Chiyoda, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan); Kurumi, Satoshi [Department of Electric Engineering, College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, 1-8-14 Surugadai Kanda, Chiyoda, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan); Suzuki, Kaoru, E-mail: kaoru@ele.cst.nihon-u.ac.jp [Department of Electric Engineering, College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, 1-8-14 Surugadai Kanda, Chiyoda, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    The cylindrical geometry of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) allows them to be filled with metal catalysts; the resulting metal-filled CNTs possess different properties depending on the filler metal. Here we report the synthesis of Ni-filled CNTs in which Ni is situated linearly and homogeneously by local arc discharge in liquid ethanol. The structural characteristics of synthesized Ni-filled CNTs were determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the relationship between pyrolysis conditions and the length and diameter of Ni-filled CNTs was examined. The encapsulated Ni was identified by a TEM-equipped energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscope and found to have a single-crystal fcc structure by nano-beam diffraction. The features of linear Ni-filled CNT are expected to be applicable to probes for magnetic force microscopy.

  12. Beam emittance growth caused by transverse deflecting fields in a linear accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, A W; Richter, B; Yao, C Y [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, CA (USA)

    1980-12-01

    The effect of the beam-generated transverse deflecting fields on the emittance of an intense bunch of particles in a high-energy linear accelerator is analyzed in this paper. The equation of motion is solved by a perturbation method for cases of a coasting beam and a uniformly accelerated beam. The results are applied to obtain some design tolerance specifications for the recently proposed SLAC Single Pass Collider.

  13. Growth and characterization of nanodiamond layers prepared using plasma enhanced linear antennas microwave CVD system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fendrych, František; Taylor, Andrew; Peksa, Ladislav; Kratochvílová, Irena; Vlček, J.; Řezáčová, V.; Petrák, V.; Kluiber, Z.; Fekete, Ladislav; Liehr, M.; Nesládek, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 37 (2010), 374018/1-374018/6 ISSN 0022-3727 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200100801; GA AV ČR KAN300100801; GA AV ČR KAN301370701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : nanodiamond, * thin films * PE MW CVD * linear antennas Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.105, year: 2010

  14. Stochastic differential equation model for linear growth birth and death processes with immigration and emigration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granita; Bahar, A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses on linear birth and death with immigration and emigration (BIDE) process to stochastic differential equation (SDE) model. Forward Kolmogorov equation in continuous time Markov chain (CTMC) with a central-difference approximation was used to find Fokker-Planckequation corresponding to a diffusion process having the stochastic differential equation of BIDE process. The exact solution, mean and variance function of BIDE process was found

  15. Stochastic differential equation model for linear growth birth and death processes with immigration and emigration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granita, E-mail: granitafc@gmail.com [Dept. Mathematical Education, State Islamic University of Sultan Syarif Kasim Riau, 28293 Indonesia and Dept. of Mathematical Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310,Johor (Malaysia); Bahar, A. [Dept. of Mathematical Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310,Johor Malaysia and UTM Center for Industrial and Applied Mathematics (UTM-CIAM) (Malaysia)

    2015-03-09

    This paper discusses on linear birth and death with immigration and emigration (BIDE) process to stochastic differential equation (SDE) model. Forward Kolmogorov equation in continuous time Markov chain (CTMC) with a central-difference approximation was used to find Fokker-Planckequation corresponding to a diffusion process having the stochastic differential equation of BIDE process. The exact solution, mean and variance function of BIDE process was found.

  16. Growth of carbon allotropes and plasma characterization in linear antenna microwave plasma CVD system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Potocký, Štěpán; Babchenko, Oleg; Davydova, Marina; Ižák, Tibor; Čada, Martin; Kromka, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 5 (2014), "05FP04-1"-"05FP04-3" ISSN 0021-4922 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01011740; GA ČR GAP205/12/0908 Grant - others:AVČR(CZ) M100100902 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : antenna linear * CVD system * plasma Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.127, year: 2014

  17. How maternal malnutrition affects linear growth and development in the offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maternal malnutrition is common in the developing world and has detrimental effects on both the mother and infant. Pre-pregnancy nutritional status and weight gain during pregnancy are positively related to fetal growth and development. Internationally, there is no agreement on the method of diagnos...

  18. Linear-stability theory of thermocapillary convection in a model of float-zone crystal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitzel, G. P.; Chang, K.-T.; Jankowski, D. F.; Mittelmann, H. D.

    1992-01-01

    Linear-stability theory has been applied to a basic state of thermocapillary convection in a model half-zone to determine values of the Marangoni number above which instability is guaranteed. The basic state must be determined numerically since the half-zone is of finite, O(1) aspect ratio with two-dimensional flow and temperature fields. This, in turn, means that the governing equations for disturbance quantities will remain partial differential equations. The disturbance equations are treated by a staggered-grid discretization scheme. Results are presented for a variety of parameters of interest in the problem, including both terrestrial and microgravity cases.

  19. Wakefield dependent emittance growth in the SLAC [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center] linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bane, K.L.F.

    1990-10-01

    In this note we describe the emittance growth we can expect at bunch populations of N = 3,4,5 x 10 10 in the SLC linac. We will discuss briefly the effects of injection jitter, injection drift, and coherent oscillations starting in the middle of the linac. Finally, we will discuss in a more thorough manner the effects of random misalignment errors throughout the linac

  20. Growth of KNN thin films for non-linear optical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Shweta; Gupta, Reema; Gupta, Vinay; Tomar, Monika

    2018-01-01

    Two-wave mixing is a remarkable area of research in the field of non-linear optics, finding various applications in the development of opto-electronic devices, photorefractive waveguides, real time holography, etc. Non-linear optical properties of ferroelectric potassium sodium niobate (KNN) thin films have been interrogated using two-wave mixing phenomenon. Regarding this, a-axis oriented K 0.35 Na (1-0.35) NbO 3 thin films were successfully grown on epitaxial matched (100) SrTiO 3 substrate using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. The uniformly distributed Au micro-discs of 200 μm diameter were integrated with KNN/STO thin film to study the plasmonic enhancement in the optical response. Beam amplification has been observed as a result of the two-wave mixing. This is due to the alignment of ferroelectric domains in KNN films and the excitement of plasmons at the metal-dielectric (Au-KNN) interface. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Growth of KNN thin films for non-linear optical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Shweta; Gupta, Reema; Gupta, Vinay [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi (India); Tomar, Monika [Department of Physics, Miranda House University of Delhi (India)

    2018-02-15

    Two-wave mixing is a remarkable area of research in the field of non-linear optics, finding various applications in the development of opto-electronic devices, photorefractive waveguides, real time holography, etc. Non-linear optical properties of ferroelectric potassium sodium niobate (KNN) thin films have been interrogated using two-wave mixing phenomenon. Regarding this, a-axis oriented K{sub 0.35}Na{sub (1-0.35)}NbO{sub 3} thin films were successfully grown on epitaxial matched (100) SrTiO{sub 3} substrate using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. The uniformly distributed Au micro-discs of 200 μm diameter were integrated with KNN/STO thin film to study the plasmonic enhancement in the optical response. Beam amplification has been observed as a result of the two-wave mixing. This is due to the alignment of ferroelectric domains in KNN films and the excitement of plasmons at the metal-dielectric (Au-KNN) interface. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Assessment of the application of the law on energy transition for a green growth, and application strategies. Council of Ministers, Wednesday 19 April 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royal, Segolene

    2017-01-01

    After having outlined that France is a leader in the action for climate thanks to the law on energy transition, this ministerial contribution proposes an assessment of the application of this law at the urban and territory levels: 554 territories are committed under the 'Territory with positive energy for a green growth' label, numerous decrees have been published, and measures for the struggle against the use of pesticides are warmly supported. Various aspects of the application of the law on energy transition at the national level are addressed: the main planning tools are defined, France is a pioneer for green finance, results of law application are huge, and significant advances have been achieved in the field of circular economy and struggle against any kind of wastage. The consequences at the international level are discussed: the law is an application of the Paris agreement, contributes to accomplish European commitments and to mobilisation of civil society

  3. An optimally weighted estimator of the linear power spectrum disentangling the growth of density perturbations across galaxy surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorini, D.

    2017-01-01

    Measuring the clustering of galaxies from surveys allows us to estimate the power spectrum of matter density fluctuations, thus constraining cosmological models. This requires careful modelling of observational effects to avoid misinterpretation of data. In particular, signals coming from different distances encode information from different epochs. This is known as ''light-cone effect'' and is going to have a higher impact as upcoming galaxy surveys probe larger redshift ranges. Generalising the method by Feldman, Kaiser and Peacock (1994) [1], I define a minimum-variance estimator of the linear power spectrum at a fixed time, properly taking into account the light-cone effect. An analytic expression for the estimator is provided, and that is consistent with the findings of previous works in the literature. I test the method within the context of the Halofit model, assuming Planck 2014 cosmological parameters [2]. I show that the estimator presented recovers the fiducial linear power spectrum at present time within 5% accuracy up to k ∼ 0.80 h Mpc −1 and within 10% up to k ∼ 0.94 h Mpc −1 , well into the non-linear regime of the growth of density perturbations. As such, the method could be useful in the analysis of the data from future large-scale surveys, like Euclid.

  4. Additional Common Bean in the Diet of Malawian Children Does Not Affect Linear Growth, but Reduces Intestinal Permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapova, Sophia E; Stephenson, Kevin B; Divala, Oscar; Kaimila, Yankho; Maleta, Kenneth M; Thakwalakwa, Chrissie; Ordiz, M Isabel; Trehan, Indi; Manary, Mark J

    2018-02-01

    Chronic malnutrition, as manifested by linear growth faltering, is pervasive among rural African children. Improvements in complementary feeding may decrease the burden of environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) and thus improve growth in children during the critical first 1000 d of development. We tested the hypothesis that systematically including common bean or cowpea into complementary feeding would reduce EED and growth faltering among children in rural Malawi. This was a double-blind clinical trial in which children 12-23 mo of age were randomly assigned to receive complementary feeding with 1 of 3 foods: roasted cowpea or common bean flour, or an isoenergetic amount of corn-soy blend as a control food for 48 wk. Children aged 12-23 mo received 155 kcal/d and thereafter until 35 mo received 200 kcal/d. The primary outcomes were change in length-for-age z score (LAZ) and improvements in a biomarker of EED, the percentage of lactulose (%L) excreted as part of the lactulose:mannitol dual-sugar absorption test. Anthropometric measurements and urinary %L excretion were compared between the 2 intervention groups and the control group separately with the use of linear mixed model analyses for repeated measures. A total of 331 children completed the clinical trial. Compliance with the study interventions was excellent, with >90% of the intervention flour consumed as intended. No significant effects on LAZ, change in LAZ, or weight-for-length z score were observed due to either intervention legume, compared to the control. %L was reduced with common bean consumption (effect estimate was -0.07 percentage points of lactulose, P = 0.0007). The lactulose:mannitol test was not affected by the legume intervention. The addition of common bean to complementary feeding of rural Malawian children during the second year of life led to an improvement in a biomarker of gut health, although this did not directly translate into improved linear growth. This trial was registered at

  5. Growth of silver-coated gold nanoshells with enhanced linear and nonlinear optical responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ya-Fang; Wang, Jia-Hong; Ma, Liang; Nan, Fan; Cheng, Zi-Qiang; Zhou, Li, E-mail: zhouli@whu.edu.cn; Wang, Qu-Quan, E-mail: qqwang@whu.edu.cn [Wuhan University, Department of Physics, Key Laboratory of Artificial Miro- and Nano-structures of the Ministry of Education, and School of Physics and Technology (China)

    2015-03-15

    Silver-coated gold nanoshells with 1,4-BDT molecules as the spacer (Ag/BDT/Au) were synthesized on the surface of SiO{sub 2} nanospheres. The surface plasmon resonance of Au/SiO{sub 2} and Ag/BDT/Au/SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles with single and double shells were tuned by adjusting the thickness of Au and Ag nanoshells. The enhanced local field in the gap of Au and Ag shells is demonstrated by measuring Raman scattering and nonlinear refraction. The results show that the Raman intensity is enhanced by 17 times and the nonlinear refractive index is enhanced by 30 % due to the growth of Ag shells.

  6. [Peculiarities of linear growth of the melanin-containing fungi Cladosporium sphaerospermum Penz. and Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vember, V V; Zhdanova, N N

    2001-01-01

    Results on determination of radial (linear) growth rate of melanin-containing fungi Cladosporium sphaerospermum Penz. and Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler concerning place of their isolation and ecologic peculiarities are presented in the paper. Essential differences, as to all studied indices of the strains of C. sphaerospermum strains, isolated from premices of the ChNPP 4th unit from the control strains of this species have been established. Only strain 34 of C. sphaerospermum, isolated from the cable driving region of the "Shelter" object, which did not differ from the control strains as to all the studied indices, made the exception. The radial growth rate was 2-4 times as low and variability amplitude 10-30 times as high in strains 60 and 5-1 of C. sphaerospermum, (which suffered high radiation load), as in the control strains of this species. The radial growth rate of C. sphaerospermum studied strains was an order lower as a whole than that of A. alternata strains. All the above said evidence for implementation of K-type vital strategy by C. sphaerospermum species and in this connection one can suppose its active growth on the surface of walls and ferroconcrete structures of the ChNPP 4th unit. Absence of differences, as to the studied radial growth indices, between A. alternata strains isolated from the ChNPP 4th unit premices and control strains of the species can evidence for the existence of A. alternata species under the conditions of high radioactivity in the surviving state.

  7. Stunting at birth: recognition of early-life linear growth failure in the western highlands of Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomons, Noel W; Vossenaar, Marieke; Chomat, Anne-Marie; Doak, Colleen M; Koski, Kristine G; Scott, Marilyn E

    2015-07-01

    Measurements of length at birth, or in the neonatal period, are challenging to obtain and often discounted for lack of validity. Hence, classical 'under-5' stunting rates have been derived from surveys on children from 6 to 59 months of age. Guatemala has a high prevalence of stunting (49.8%), but the age of onset of growth failure is not clearly defined. The objective of the study was to assess length-for-age within the first 1.5 months of life among Guatemalan infants. As part of a cross-sectional observational study, supine length was measured in young infants. Mothers' height was measured. Length-for-age Z-scores (HAZ) were generated and stunting was defined as HAZ Guatemala. Three hundred and six newborns with a median age of 19 d. The median rural HAZ was -1.56 and prevalence of stunting was 38%; the respective urban values were -1.41 and 25%. Linear regression revealed no relationship between infant age and HAZ (r = 0.101, r(2) = 0.010, P = 0.077). Maternal height explained 3% of the variability in HAZ (r = 0.171, r(2) = 0.029, P = 0.003). Stunting must be carried over from in utero growth retardation in short-stature Guatemalan mothers. As linear growth failure in this setting begins in utero, its prevention must be linked to maternal care strategies during gestation, or even before. A focus on maternal nutrition and health in an intergenerational dimension is needed to reduce its prevalence.

  8. Size-corrected BMD decreases during peak linear growth: implications for fracture incidence during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Robert A; Davison, K Shawn; Bailey, Donald A; Mirwald, Robert L; Baxter-Jones, Adam D G

    2006-12-01

    Peak adolescent fracture incidence at the distal end of the radius coincides with a decline in size-corrected BMD in both boys and girls. Peak gains in bone area preceded peak gains in BMC in a longitudinal sample of boys and girls, supporting the theory that the dissociation between skeletal expansion and skeletal mineralization results in a period of relative bone weakness. The high incidence of fracture in adolescence may be related to a period of relative skeletal fragility resulting from dissociation between bone expansion and bone mineralization during the growing years. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between changes in size-corrected BMD (BMDsc) and peak distal radius fracture incidence in boys and girls. Subjects were 41 boys and 46 girls measured annually (DXA; Hologic 2000) over the adolescent growth period and again in young adulthood. Ages of peak height velocity (PHV), peak BMC velocity (PBMCV), and peak bone area (BA) velocity (PBAV) were determined for each child. To control for maturational differences, subjects were aligned on PHV. BMDsc was calculated by first regressing the natural logarithms of BMC and BA. The power coefficient (pc) values from this analysis were used as follows: BMDsc = BMC/BA(pc). BMDsc decreased significantly before the age of PHV and then increased until 4 years after PHV. The peak rates in radial fractures (reported from previous work) in both boys and girls coincided with the age of negative velocity in BMDsc; the age of peak BA velocity (PBAV) preceded the age of peak BMC velocity (PBMCV) by 0.5 years in both boys and girls. There is a clear dissociation between PBMCV and PBAV in boys and girls. BMDsc declines before age of PHV before rebounding after PHV. The timing of these events coincides directly with reported fracture rates of the distal end of the radius. Thus, the results support the theory that there is a period of relative skeletal weakness during the adolescent growth period caused, in

  9. Preterm infant linear growth and adiposity gain: trade-offs for later weight status and intelligence quotient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfort, Mandy B; Gillman, Matthew W; Buka, Stephen L; Casey, Patrick H; McCormick, Marie C

    2013-12-01

    To examine trade-offs between cognitive outcome and overweight/obesity in preterm-born infants at school age and young adulthood in relation to weight gain and linear growth during infancy. We studied 945 participants in the Infant Health and Development Program, an 8-center study of preterm (≤37 weeks gestational age), low birth weight (≤2500 g) infants from birth to age 18 years. Adjusting for maternal and child factors in logistic regression, we estimated the odds of overweight/obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥85th percentile at age 8 or ≥25 kg/m(2) at age 18) and in separate models, low IQ (growth from term to 4 months was associated with lower odds of IQ growth soon after term was associated with better cognition, but also with a greater risk of overweight/obesity at age 8 years and 18 years. BMI gain over the entire 18 months after term was associated with later risk of overweight/obesity, with less evidence of a benefit for IQ. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Linear and nonlinear causal relationship between energy consumption and economic growth in China: New evidence based on wavelet analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The energy-growth nexus has important policy implications for economic development. The results from many past studies that investigated the causality direction of this nexus can lead to misleading policy guidance. Using data on China from 1953 to 2013, this study shows that an application of causality test on the time series of energy consumption and national output has masked a lot of information. The Toda-Yamamoto test with bootstrapped critical values and the newly proposed non-linear causality test reveal no causal relationship. However, a further application of these tests using series in different time-frequency domain obtained from wavelet decomposition indicates that while energy consumption Granger causes economic growth in the short run, the reverse is true in the medium term. A bidirectional causal relationship is found for the long run. This approach has proven to be superior in unveiling information on the energy-growth nexus that are useful for policy planning over different time horizons. PMID:29782534

  11. Goertler vortices in growing boundary layers: The leading edge receptivity problem, linear growth and the nonlinear breakdown stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Philip

    1989-01-01

    Goertler vortices are thought to be the cause of transition in many fluid flows of practical importance. A review of the different stages of vortex growth is given. In the linear regime, nonparallel effects completely govern this growth, and parallel flow theories do not capture the essential features of the development of the vortices. A detailed comparison between the parallel and nonparallel theories is given and it is shown that at small vortex wavelengths, the parallel flow theories have some validity; otherwise nonparallel effects are dominant. New results for the receptivity problem for Goertler vortices are given; in particular vortices induced by free stream perturbations impinging on the leading edge of the walls are considered. It is found that the most dangerous mode of this type can be isolated and it's neutral curve is determined. This curve agrees very closely with the available experimental data. A discussion of the different regimes of growth of nonlinear vortices is also given. Again it is shown that, unless the vortex wavelength is small, nonparallel effects are dominant. Some new results for nonlinear vortices of 0(1) wavelengths are given and compared to experimental observations.

  12. Using Personality Traits to Construct Linear Growth Models of Mental Health in Family Members of Individuals With Severe Brain Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trujillo, Michael; Perrin, Paul B; Doser, Karoline

    2016-01-01

    Objective: No studies have examined the impact of personality traits on mental health among caregivers of individuals with severe brain injury. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to construct linear growth models to examine whether the personality traits of family members...... neuroticism had lower anxiety and depression over time, as well as a more accelerated decrease in anxiety and depression. Conclusions: Caregivers' personality traits were strongly associated over time with mental HRQoL, anxiety, and depression, with neuroticism being especially important for trajectories...... the Short Form-36 assessing mental HRQoL (vitality, social functioning, role limitations-emotional, mental health), anxiety, and depression across 5 time points during the 1st year after injury. The measure of personality was administered 3 months after the patients' discharge. Results: All mental HRQo...

  13. A meta-analysis of cambium phenology and growth: linear and non-linear patterns in conifers of the northern hemisphere

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, Sergio; Anfodillo, Tommaso; Čufar, Katarina; Cuny, Henri E.; Deslauriers, Annie; Fonti, Patrick; Frank, David; Gričar, Jožica; Gruber, Andreas; King, Gregory M.; Krause, Cornelia; Morin, Hubert; Oberhuber, Walter; Prislan, Peter; Rathgeber, Cyrille B. K.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims Ongoing global warming has been implicated in shifting phenological patterns such as the timing and duration of the growing season across a wide variety of ecosystems. Linear models are routinely used to extrapolate these observed shifts in phenology into the future and to estimate changes in associated ecosystem properties such as net primary productivity. Yet, in nature, linear relationships may be special cases. Biological processes frequently follow more complex, non-l...

  14. The effect of adding zinc to vitamin A on IGF-1, bone age and linear growth in stunted children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriani, Merryana; Wirjatmadi, Bambang

    2014-10-01

    A randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial of a single dose of 200,000 I.U. of vitamin A with daily zinc supplementation was conducted with children in Mojo village, Surabaya City. Children aged 48 to 60 months were randomized to receive a single dose of 200,000 I.U. of vitamin A plus zinc sulfate (n=12) or a single dose of 200,000 I.U. of vitamin A (n=12) plus placebo six days a week for six months. Children were evaluated weekly for nutrient intake and for IGF-1, C-reactive protein levels, gamma globulin levels, serum zinc, serum retinol, bone age and the index height for age at six months. At the end of the study, there was a significant increase in the serum retinol level (pbone age (p<0.01), and gamma globulin level (p<0.04) and a significant decrease in the amount of infection/inflammation measured by CRP level (p<0.001). There was also a significant correlation between CRP level and height for age (p<0.01), and between gamma level and height for age (p<0.01). These results suggest that combined vitamin A and zinc supplementation reduces the risk of infection and increases linear growth among children, and thus may play a key role in controlling infection and stunted growth for children under five years old. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Growth and characterization of nanodiamond layers prepared using the plasma-enhanced linear antennas microwave CVD system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fendrych, Frantisek; Taylor, Andrew; Peksa, Ladislav; Kratochvilova, Irena; Kluiber, Zdenek; Fekete, Ladislav [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i, Na Slovance 2, CZ-18221 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Vlcek, Jan [Department of Physics and Measurement, Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, Technicka 5, CZ-16628 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Rezacova, Vladimira; Petrak, Vaclav [Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Czech Technical University, Sitna 3105, CZ-27201 Kladno 2 (Czech Republic); Liehr, Michael [Leybold Optics Dresden GmbH, Zur Wetterwarte 50, D-01109 Dresden (Germany); Nesladek, Milos, E-mail: fendrych@fzu.c [IMOMEC division, IMEC, Institute for Materials Research, University Hasselt, Wetenschapspark 1, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium)

    2010-09-22

    Industrial applications of plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond grown on large area substrates, 3D shapes, at low substrate temperatures and on standard engineering substrate materials require novel plasma concepts. Based on the pioneering work of the group at AIST in Japan, the high-density coaxial delivery type of plasmas has been explored (Tsugawa et al 2006 New Diamond Front. Carbon Technol. 16 337-46). However, an important challenge is to obtain commercially interesting growth rates at very low substrate temperatures. In this work we introduce the concept of novel linear antenna sources, designed at Leybold Optics Dresden, using high-frequency pulsed MW discharge with a high plasma density. This type of pulse discharges leads to the preparation of nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) thin films, compared with ultra-NCD thin films prepared in (Tsugawa et al 2006 New Diamond Front. Carbon Technol. 16 337-46). We present optical emission spectroscopy data for the CH{sub 4}-CO{sub 2}-H{sub 2} gas chemistry and we discuss the basic properties of the NCD films grown.

  16. Using personality traits to construct linear growth models of mental health in family members of individuals with severe brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Michael; Perrin, Paul B; Doser, Karoline; Norup, Anne

    2016-11-01

    No studies have examined the impact of personality traits on mental health among caregivers of individuals with severe brain injury. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to construct linear growth models to examine whether the personality traits of family members of individuals with severe brain injury could predict the trajectories of their own mental health-related quality of life (HRQoL), anxiety, and depression beginning in a neurointensive care unit through 1 year after injury. Danish family members of individuals with severe brain injury (n = 52) completed the Short Form-36 assessing mental HRQoL (vitality, social functioning, role limitations-emotional, mental health), anxiety, and depression across 5 time points during the 1st year after injury. The measure of personality was administered 3 months after the patients' discharge. All mental HRQoL, anxiety, and depression variables improved significantly over time. Caregivers who were less neurotic and less conscientious had higher vitality, social functioning, and mental health over time, whereas caregivers who were more agreeable had higher social functioning over time. Caregivers with lower neuroticism had lower anxiety and depression over time, as well as a more accelerated decrease in anxiety and depression. Caregivers' personality traits were strongly associated over time with mental HRQoL, anxiety, and depression, with neuroticism being especially important for trajectories of anxiety and depression. These results suggest that personality assessments for caregivers of individuals with severe brain injury could help identify those most at risk for poor mental health over the course of rehabilitation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, B.; Sparwasser, R.

    1988-01-01

    Environmental law is discussed exhaustively in this book. Legal and scientific fundamentals are taken into account, a systematic orientation is given, and hints for further information are presented. The book covers general environmental law, plan approval procedures, protection against nuisances, atomic law and radiation protection law, water protection law, waste management law, laws on chemical substances, conservation law. (HSCH) [de

  18. Urban Growth Areas, Priority Funding Area (PFA) - Vector Database. PFAs are geographic growth areas defined under State law and designated by local jurisdictions to provide a map for targeting State investment in infrastructure., Published in 1998, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Maryland Department of Planning.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Urban Growth Areas dataset current as of 1998. Priority Funding Area (PFA) - Vector Database. PFAs are geographic growth areas defined under State law and designated...

  19. Assessing non-linear variation of temperature and precipitation for different growth periods of maize and their impacts on phenology in the Midwest of Jilin Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Enliang; Zhang, Jiquan; Wang, Yongfang; Alu, Si; Wang, Rui; Li, Danjun; Ha, Si

    2018-05-01

    In the past two decades, the regional climate in China has undergone significant change, resulting in crop yield reduction and complete failure. The goal of this study is to detect the variation of temperature and precipitation for different growth periods of maize and assess their impact on phenology. The daily meteorological data in the Midwest of Jilin Province during 1960-2014 were used in the study. The ensemble empirical mode decomposition method was adopted to analyze the non-linear trend and fluctuation in temperature and precipitation, and the sensitivity of the length of the maize growth period to temperature and precipitation was analyzed by the wavelet cross-transformation method. The results show that the trends of temperature and precipitation change are non-linear for different growth periods of maize, and the average temperature in the sowing-jointing stage was different from that in the other growth stages, showing a slight decrease trend, while the variation amplitude of maximum temperature is smaller than that of the minimum temperature. This indicates that the temperature difference between day and night shows a gradually decreasing trend. Precipitation in the growth period also showed a decreasing non-linear trend, while the inter-annual variability with period of quasi-3-year and quasi-6-year dominated the variation of temperature and precipitation. The whole growth period was shortened by 10.7 days, and the sowing date was advanced by approximately 11 days. We also found that there was a significant resonance period among temperature, precipitation, and phenology. Overall, a negative correlation between phenology and temperature is evident, while a positive correlation with precipitation is exhibited. The results illustrate that the climate suitability for maize has reduced over the past decades.

  20. Business Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Föh, Kennet Fischer; Mandøe, Lene; Tinten, Bjarke

    Business Law is a translation of the 2nd edition of Erhvervsjura - videregående uddannelser. It is an educational textbook for the subject of business law. The textbook covers all important topic?s within business law such as the Legal System, Private International Law, Insolvency Law, Contract law......, Instruments of debt and other claims, Sale of Goods and real estate, Charges, mortgages and pledges, Guarantees, Credit agreements, Tort Law, Product liability and Insurance, Company law, Market law, Labour Law, Family Law and Law of Inheritance....

  1. Development of a shortleaf pine individual-tree growth equation using non-linear mixed modeling techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakra B. Budhathoki; Thomas B. Lynch; James M. Guldin

    2010-01-01

    Nonlinear mixed-modeling methods were used to estimate parameters in an individual-tree basal area growth model for shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.). Shortleaf pine individual-tree growth data were available from over 200 permanently established 0.2-acre fixed-radius plots located in naturally-occurring even-aged shortleaf pine forests on the...

  2. Non-Linear Relationship between Economic Growth and CO₂ Emissions in China: An Empirical Study Based on Panel Smooth Transition Regression Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng-Xin; Hao, Peng; Yao, Pei-Yi

    2017-12-13

    The non-linear relationship between provincial economic growth and carbon emissions is investigated by using panel smooth transition regression (PSTR) models. The research indicates that, on the condition of separately taking Gross Domestic Product per capita (GDPpc), energy structure (Es), and urbanisation level (Ul) as transition variables, three models all reject the null hypothesis of a linear relationship, i.e., a non-linear relationship exists. The results show that the three models all contain only one transition function but different numbers of location parameters. The model taking GDPpc as the transition variable has two location parameters, while the other two models separately considering Es and Ul as the transition variables both contain one location parameter. The three models applied in the study all favourably describe the non-linear relationship between economic growth and CO₂ emissions in China. It also can be seen that the conversion rate of the influence of Ul on per capita CO₂ emissions is significantly higher than those of GDPpc and Es on per capita CO₂ emissions.

  3. Nucleation kinetics and growth aspects of semi organic non-linear optical bis thiourea cadmium acetate single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankar, R.; Raghavan, C.M.; Jayavel, R.

    2006-01-01

    Nucleation parameters such as metastable zone width, induction period and interfacial energy have been determined for the aqueous solution growth of bis thiourea cadmium acetate (BTCA) single crystals. Solubility of BTCA has been determined for various temperatures. Metastable zone width and induction period values have been estimated in order to optimize the growth parameters. The interfacial tension values derived from experimentally determined induction period are found to be comparable with theoretical values. Bulk crystals of BTCA have been grown using the optimized growth parameters. The grown crystals have been subjected to structural, optical and mechanical property studies. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Linear colliders - prospects 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, J.

    1985-06-01

    We discuss the scaling laws of linear colliders and their consequences for accelerator design. We then report on the SLAC Linear Collider project and comment on experience gained on that project and its application to future colliders. 9 refs., 2 figs

  5. The old and new faces of morphology: the legacy of D'Arcy Thompson's 'theory of transformations' and 'laws of growth'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abzhanov, Arhat

    2017-12-01

    In 1917, the publication of On Growth and Form by D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson challenged both mathematicians and naturalists to think about biological shapes and diversity as more than a confusion of chaotic forms generated at random, but rather as geometric shapes that could be described by principles of physics and mathematics. Thompson's work was based on the ideas of Galileo and Goethe on morphology and of Russell on functionalism, but he was first to postulate that physical forces and internal growth parameters regulate biological forms and could be revealed via geometric transformations in morphological space. Such precise mathematical structure suggested a unifying generative process, as reflected in the title of the book. To Thompson it was growth that could explain the generation of any particular biological form, and changes in ontogeny, rather than natural selection, could then explain the diversity of biological shapes. Whereas adaptationism, widely accepted in evolutionary biology, gives primacy to extrinsic factors in producing morphological variation, Thompson's 'laws of growth' provide intrinsic directives and constraints for the generation of individual shapes, helping to explain the 'profusion of forms, colours, and other modifications' observed in the living world. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Analysing the mechanical performance and growth adaptation of Norway spruce using a non-linear finite-element model and experimental data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundström, T; Jonas, T; Volkwein, A

    2008-01-01

    Thirteen Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] trees of different size, age, and social status, and grown under varying conditions, were investigated to see how they react to complex natural static loading under summer and winter conditions, and how they have adapted their growth to such combinations of load and tree state. For this purpose a non-linear finite-element model and an extensive experimental data set were used, as well as a new formulation describing the degree to which the exploitation of the bending stress capacity is uniform. The three main findings were: material and geometric non-linearities play important roles when analysing tree deflections and critical loads; the strengths of the stem and the anchorage mutually adapt to the local wind acting on the tree crown in the forest canopy; and the radial stem growth follows a mechanically high-performance path because it adapts to prevailing as well as acute seasonal combinations of the tree state (e.g. frozen or unfrozen stem and anchorage) and load (e.g. wind and vertical and lateral snow pressure). Young trees appeared to adapt to such combinations in a more differentiated way than older trees. In conclusion, the mechanical performance of the Norway spruce studied was mostly very high, indicating that their overall growth had been clearly influenced by the external site- and tree-specific mechanical stress.

  7. Retardo estatural em menores de cinco anos: um estudo "baseline" Linear growth retardation in children under five years of age: a baseline study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anete Rissin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a prevalência e analisar fatores associados ao retardo estatural em menores de cinco anos. MÉTODOS: Estudo "baseline", que analisou 2.040 crianças, verificando possíveis associações entre o retardo estatural (índice altura/idade The scope of this study was to describe the prevalence of, and analyze factors associated with, linear growth retardation in children. The baseline study analyzed 2040 children under the age of five, establishing a possible association between growth delay (height/age index < 2 scores Z and variables in six hierarchical blocks: socio-economic, residence, sanitary, maternal, biological and healthcare access. Multivariate analysis was performed using Poisson regression with the robust standard error option, obtaining adjusted prevalence ratios with a CI of 95% and the respective significant probability values. Among non-binary variables, there was a positive association with roof type and number of inhabitants per room and a negative association with income per capita, mother's schooling and birth weight. The adjusted analysis also indicated water supply, visit from the community health agent, birth delivery location, internment for diarrhea, or for pneumonia and birth weight as significant variables. Several risk factors were identified for linear growth retardation pointing to the multi-causal aspects of the problem and highlighting the need for control measures by the various hierarchical government agents.

  8. Practical application of linear growth measurements in clinical research in low-and middle-income countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, Jan Maarten; Himes, John H.; Van Buuren, Stef; Denno, Donna M.; Suchdev, Parminder S.

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims: Childhood stunting is a prevalent problem in low-and middle-income countries and is associated with long-term adverse neurodevelopment and health outcomes. In this review, we define indicators of growth, discuss key challenges in their analysis and application, and offer suggestions

  9. Environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketteler, G.; Kippels, K.

    1988-01-01

    In section I 'Basic principles' the following topics are considered: Constitutional-legal aspects of environmental protection, e.g. nuclear hazards and the remaining risk; European environmental law; international environmental law; administrative law, private law and criminal law relating to the environment; basic principles of environmental law, the instruments of public environmental law. Section II 'Special areas of law' is concerned with the law on water and waste, prevention of air pollution, nature conservation and care of the countryside. Legal decisions and literature up to June 1988 have been taken into consideration. (orig./RST) [de

  10. Civil law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.; Gibbons, M.T.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of civil law has two distinct meanings. that is, disputes between private parties (individuals, corporations), as opposed to other branches of the law, such as administrative law or criminal law, which relate to disputes between individuals and the state. Second, the term civil law is

  11. The Energy transition for green growth. The green growth revolution is picking up pace with the help of the energy transition law and its associated actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-04-01

    This document briefly summarizes the main objectives of the French law on energy transition: make buildings and housing energy efficient, give priority to clean means of transport, aim for zero waste make tomorrow's materials out of today's waste, increase the use of renewable energies, combat fuel poverty. The goal is: to reach 40% less greenhouse gas emissions in 2030 compared to 1990, to Reduce final energy consumption by 50% in 2050 compared to 2012, to reach 30% less fossil fuel consumption in 2030 compared to 2012, to dispose 50% less waste in landfill by 2025, to increase the share of renewable energies to 32% of final energy consumption by 2030 and to 40% of electricity production, to diversify electricity production and reduce the share of nuclear energy to 50% by 2025

  12. Split photosystem protein, linear-mapping topology, and growth of structural complexity in the plastid genome of chromera velia

    KAUST Repository

    Janouškovec, Jan

    2013-08-22

    The canonical photosynthetic plastid genomes consist of a single circular-mapping chromosome that encodes a highly conserved protein core, involved in photosynthesis and ATP generation. Here, we demonstrate that the plastid genome of the photosynthetic relative of apicomplexans, Chromera velia, departs from this view in several unique ways. Core photosynthesis proteins PsaA and AtpB have been broken into two fragments, which we show are independently transcribed, oligoU-tailed, translated, and assembled into functional photosystem I and ATP synthase complexes. Genome-wide transcription profiles support expression of many other highly modified proteins, including several that contain extensions amounting to hundreds of amino acids in length. Canonical gene clusters and operons have been fragmented and reshuffled into novel putative transcriptional units. Massive genomic coverage by paired-end reads, coupled with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and polymerase chain reaction, consistently indicate that the C. velia plastid genome is linear-mapping, a unique state among all plastids. Abundant intragenomic duplication probably mediated by recombination can explain protein splits, extensions, and genome linearization and is perhaps the key driving force behind the many features that defy the conventional ways of plastid genome architecture and function. © The Author 2013.

  13. Non-linear trends and fluctuations in temperature during different growth stages of summer maize in the North China Plain from 1960 to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cailin; Wu, Jidong; Wang, Xu; He, Xin; Li, Ning

    2017-12-01

    North China Plain has undergone severe warming trends since the 1950s, but whether this trend is the same during different growth phases for crops remains unknown. Thus, we analyzed the non-linear changes in the minimum temperature (T min ), mean temperature (T mean ) and maximum temperature (T max ) using the Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition method during each growth stage of summer maize based on daily temperature data from 1960 to 2014. Our results strongly suggest that the trends and fluctuations in temperature change are non-linear. These changes can be categorized into four types of trend change according to the combinations of decreasing and increasing trends, and 8 fluctuation modes dominated by the fluctuations of expansion and shrinkage. The amplitude of the fluctuation is primarily expansion in the sowing-jointing stage and shrinkage in the jointing-maturity stage. Moreover, the temperature changes are inconsistent within each growth stage and are not consistent with the overall warming trend observed over the last 55 years. A transition period occurred in both the 1980s and the 1990s for temperatures during the sowing-tasseling stage. Furthermore, the cooling trend of the T max was significant in the sowing-emergence stage, while this cooling trend was not obvious for both T mean and T min in the jointing-tasseling stage. These results showed that temperature change was significantly different in different stages of the maize growth season. The results can serve as a scientific basis for a better understanding of the actual changes in the regional surface air temperature and agronomic heat resources.

  14. Criminal Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Lars Bo; Garde, Peter; Greve, Vagn

    <> book contains a thorough description of Danish substantive criminal law, criminal procedure and execution of sanctions. The book was originally published as a monograph in the International Encyclopaedia of Laws/Criminal Law....... book contains a thorough description of Danish substantive criminal law, criminal procedure and execution of sanctions. The book was originally published as a monograph in the International Encyclopaedia of Laws/Criminal Law....

  15. World law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold J. Berman

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In the third millennium of the Christian era, which is characterised by the emergence of a world economy and eventually a world society, the concept of world law is needed to embrace not only the traditional disciplines of public international law, and comparative law, but also the common underlying legal principles applicable in world trade, world finance, transnational transfer of technology and other fields of world economic law, as well as in such emerging fields as the protection of the world's environment and the protection of universal human rights. World law combines inter-state law with the common law of humanity and the customary law of various world communities.

  16. Comparison of inter-diffusion coefficients for Ni/Cu thin films determined from classical heating analysis and linear temperature ramping analysis by means of profile reconstruction and a numerical solution of Fick's law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joubert, H.D.; Terblans, J.J.; Swart, H.C.

    2009-01-01

    Classical inter-diffusion studies assume a constant time of annealing when samples are annealed in a furnace. It is assumed that the sample temperature reaches the annealing temperature immediately after insertion, while the sample temperature immediately drops to room temperature after removal, the annealing time being taken as the time between insertion and removal. Using the above assumption, the diffusion coefficient can be calculated in a number of ways. In reality, the sample temperature does not immediately reach the annealing temperature; instead it rises at a rate governed by several heat transfer mechanisms, depending on the annealing procedure. For short annealing times, the sample temperature may not attain the annealing temperature, while for extended annealing times the sample temperature may reach the annealing temperature only for a fraction of the annealing time. To eliminate the effect of heat transfer mechanisms, a linear temperature ramping regime is proposed. Used in conjunction with a suitable profile reconstructing technique and a numerical solution of Fick's second law, the inter-diffusion parameters obtained from a linear ramping of Ni/Cu thin film samples can be compared to those obtained from calculations performed with the so-called Mixing-Roughness-Information model or any other suitable method used to determine classical diffusion coefficients.

  17. Scaling-up access to family planning may improve linear growth and child development in low and middle income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Günther; Sudfeld, Christopher R; Danaei, Goodarz; Ezzati, Majid; Fawzi, Wafaie W

    2014-01-01

    A large literature has indicated a robust association between birth spacing and child survival, but evidence on the association of birth timing with physical growth in low and middle income countries (LMICs) remains limited. Data from 153 cross-sectional Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) across 61 LMICs conducted between 1990 and 2011 were combined to assess the association of birth timing with child stunting (height-for-age z-score Middle East and North Africa sample. Postponing the age of first birth and increasing inter-pregnancy intervals has the potential to significantly reduce the prevalence of stunting and improve child development in LMICs.

  18. Recombinant human growth hormone treatment, using two dose regimens in children with chronic renal failure--a report on linear growth and adverse effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Niels Thomas; Holmberg, Christer; Rönnholm, Kai A R

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to study the efficiency and the adverse effects of 2 or 4 IU/m2/day of growth hormone (GH) in the first year and 4 IU/m2/day in the second. Of 29 growth-retarded children with chronic renal failure (CRF) (aged 3.4-15.1 years), 23 completed the first year of therapy, and 16...... completed the second year. Height velocity SDS (HVSDS) increased in the first year in the low-dose group with 3.0, and 3.8 in the high-dose group. In the second year, HVSDS increased by 1.3 in the low-dose group and by 2.1 in high-dose group (p 3 ratio rose identically during...... the first year (p year of therapy in both groups. HbA1c, levels did not change. The number of adverse events was highest in the low-dose group, in which one patient developed...

  19. Relativistic Linear Restoring Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.; Franklin, J.; Mann, N.

    2012-01-01

    We consider two different forms for a relativistic version of a linear restoring force. The pair comes from taking Hooke's law to be the force appearing on the right-hand side of the relativistic expressions: d"p"/d"t" or d"p"/d["tau"]. Either formulation recovers Hooke's law in the non-relativistic limit. In addition to these two forces, we…

  20. Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Jones; George A. Schier

    1985-01-01

    This chapter considers aspen growth as a process, and discusses some characteristics of the growth and development of trees and stands. For the most part, factors affecting growth are discussed elsewhere, particularly in the GENETICS AND VARIATION chapter and in chapters in PART 11. ECOLOGY. Aspen growth as it relates to wood production is examined in the WOOD RESOURCE...

  1. Effects of animal source food and micronutrient fortification in complementary food products on body composition, iron status, and linear growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skau, Jutta Kloppenborg Heick; Touch, Bunthang; Chhoun, Chamnan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Poor nutritional quality of complementary foods often limits growth. Animal source foods, such as milk or meat, are often unaffordable. Local affordable alternatives are needed. Objective: We evaluate the efficacy of 2 newly developed, rice-based complementary food products: WinFood (WF......) with small fish and edible spiders and WinFood-Lite (WF-L) fortified with small fish, against 2 existing fortified corn-soy blend products, CSB+ (purely plant based) and CSB++ (8% dried skimmed milk). Design: In total, 419 infants aged 6 mo were enrolled in this randomized, single-blinded study for 9 mo...... increase in knee-heel length in WF-L compared with CSB+ was not significant. Conclusions: No difference was found between the locally produced products (WF and WF-L) and the CSBs. Micronutrient fortification may be necessary, and small fish may be an affordable alternative to milk to improve complementary...

  2. Motivational predictors of physical education students' effort, exercise intentions, and leisure-time physical activity: a multilevel linear growth analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ian M; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Standage, Martyn; Spray, Christopher M

    2010-02-01

    Grounded in self-determination theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 2000), the current study explored whether physical education (PE) students' psychological needs and their motivational regulations toward PE predicted mean differences and changes in effort in PE, exercise intentions, and leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) over the course of one UK school trimester. One hundred and seventy-eight students (69% male) aged between 11 and 16 years completed a multisection questionnaire at the beginning, middle, and end of a school trimester. Multilevel growth models revealed that students' perceived competence and self-determined regulations were the most consistent predictors of the outcome variables at the within- and between-person levels. The results of this work add to the extant SDT-based literature by examining change in PE students' motivational regulations and psychological needs, as well as underscoring the importance of disaggregating within- and between-student effects.

  3. Growth, spectral, linear and nonlinear optical characteristics of an efficient semiorganic acentric crystal: L-valinium L-valine chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nageshwari, M.; Jayaprakash, P.; Kumari, C. Rathika Thaya [PG & Research Department of Physics, Arignar Anna Govt. Arts College, Cheyyar 604407, Tamil Nadu (India); Vinitha, G. [Department of Physics, School of Advanced Sciences, VIT Chennai, 600127 Tamil Nadu (India); Caroline, M. Lydia, E-mail: lydiacaroline2006@yahoo.co.in [PG & Research Department of Physics, Arignar Anna Govt. Arts College, Cheyyar 604407, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2017-04-15

    An efficient nonlinear optical semiorganic material L-valinium L-valine chloride (LVVCl) was synthesized and grown-up by means of slow evaporation process. Single crystal XRD evince that LVVCl corresponds to monoclinic system having acentric space group P2{sub 1}. The diverse functional groups existing in LVVCl were discovered with FTIR spectral investigation. The UV-Visible and photoluminescence spectrum discloses the optical and electronic properties respectively for the grown crystal. Several optical properties specifically extinction coefficient, reflectance, linear refractive index, electrical and optical conductivity were also determined. The SEM analysis was also carried out and it portrayed the surface morphology of LVVCl. The calculated value of laser damage threshold was 2.59 GW/cm{sup 2}. The mechanical and dielectric property of LVVCl was investigated employing microhardness and dielectric studies. The second and third order nonlinear optical characteristics of LVVCl was characterized utilizing Kurtz Perry and Z scan technique respectively clearly suggest its suitability in the domain of optics and photonics. - Graphical abstract: Good quality transparent single crystals of L-valinium L-valine chloride single crystal was grown by slow evaporation technique. The grown crystals were analyzed using different instrumentation methods to check its usefulness for the device fabrication. The determination of nonlinear refractive index (n{sub 2}), absorption coefficient (β) and third order nonlinear susceptibility was determined by Z scan technique, highlighted that LVVCl can serve as a promising candidate for opto electronic and nonlinear optical applications.

  4. Linear growth increased in young children in an urban slum of Haiti: a randomized controlled trial of a lipid-based nutrient supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannotti, Lora L; Dulience, Sherlie Jean Louis; Green, Jamie; Joseph, Saminetha; François, Judith; Anténor, Marie-Lucie; Lesorogol, Carolyn; Mounce, Jacqueline; Nickerson, Nathan M

    2014-01-01

    Haiti has experienced rapid urbanization that has exacerbated poverty and undernutrition in large slum areas. Stunting affects 1 in 5 young children. We aimed to test the efficacy of a daily lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) for increased linear growth in young children. Healthy, singleton infants aged 6-11 mo (n = 589) were recruited from an urban slum of Cap Haitien and randomly assigned to receive: 1) a control; 2) a 3-mo LNS; or 3) a 6-mo LNS. The LNS provided 108 kcal and other nutrients including vitamin A, vitamin B-12, iron, and zinc at ≥80% of the recommended amounts. Infants were followed monthly on growth, morbidity, and developmental outcomes over a 6-mo intervention period and at one additional time point 6 mo postintervention to assess sustained effects. The Bonferroni multiple comparisons test was applied, and generalized least-squares (GLS) regressions with mixed effects was used to examine impacts longitudinally. Baseline characteristics did not differ by trial arm except for a higher mean age in the 6-mo LNS group. GLS modeling showed LNS supplementation for 6 mo significantly increased the length-for-age z score (±SE) by 0.13 ± 0.05 and the weight-for-age z score by 0.12 ± 0.02 compared with in the control group after adjustment for child age (P < 0.001). The effects were sustained 6 mo postintervention. Morbidity and developmental outcomes did not differ by trial arm. A low-energy, fortified product improved the linear growth of young children in this urban setting. The trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01552512.

  5. High temperature cracking of steels: effect of geometry on creep crack growth laws; Fissuration des aciers a haute temperature: effet de la geometrie sur la transferabilite des lois de propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabiri, M.R

    2003-12-01

    This study was performed at Centre des Materiaux de l'Ecole des Mines de Paris. It deals with identification and transferability of high temperature creep cracking laws of steels. A global approach, based on C{sup *} and J non-linear fracture mechanics parameters has been used to characterize creep crack initiation and propagation. The studied materials are: the ferritic steels 1Cr-1Mo-1/4V (hot and cold parts working at 540 and 250 C) used in the thermal power stations and the austenitic stainless steel 316 L(N) used in the nuclear power stations. During this thesis a data base was setting up, it regroups several tests of fatigue, creep, creep-fatigue, and relaxation. Its particularity is to contain several creep tests (27 tests), achieved at various temperatures (550 to 650 C) and using three different geometries. The relevance of the C{sup *} parameter to describe the creep crack propagation was analysed by a means of systematic study of elasto-viscoplastic stress singularities under several conditions (different stress triaxiality). It has been shown that, besides the C{sup *} parameter, a second non singular term, denoted here as Q{sup *}, is necessary to describe the local variables in the vicinity of the crack tip. Values of this constraint parameter are always negative. Consequently, application of typical creep crack growth laws linking the creep crack growth rate to the C{sup *} parameter (da/dt - C{sup *}), will be conservative for industrial applications. Furthermore, we showed that for ferritic steels, crack incubation period is important, therefore a correlation of Ti - C{sup *} type has been kept to predict crack initiation time Ti. For the austenitic stainless steel, the relevant stage is the one of the crack propagation, so that a master curve (da/dt - C{sup *}), using a new data analysis method, was established. Finally, the propagation of cracks has been simulated numerically using the node release technique, allowing to validate analytical

  6. Sensitivity analysis for linear structural equation models, longitudinal mediation with latent growth models and blended learning in biostatistics education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Adam John

    In chapter 1, we consider the biases that may arise when an unmeasured confounder is omitted from a structural equation model (SEM) and sensitivity analysis techniques to correct for such biases. We give an analysis of which effects in an SEM are and are not biased by an unmeasured confounder. It is shown that a single unmeasured confounder will bias not just one but numerous effects in an SEM. We present sensitivity analysis techniques to correct for biases in total, direct, and indirect effects when using SEM analyses, and illustrate these techniques with a study of aging and cognitive function. In chapter 2, we consider longitudinal mediation with latent growth curves. We define the direct and indirect effects using counterfactuals and consider the assumptions needed for identifiability of those effects. We develop models with a binary treatment/exposure followed by a model where treatment/exposure changes with time allowing for treatment/exposure-mediator interaction. We thus formalize mediation analysis with latent growth curve models using counterfactuals, makes clear the assumptions and extends these methods to allow for exposure mediator interactions. We present and illustrate the techniques with a study on Multiple Sclerosis(MS) and depression. In chapter 3, we report on a pilot study in blended learning that took place during the Fall 2013 and Summer 2014 semesters here at Harvard. We blended the traditional BIO 200: Principles of Biostatistics and created ID 200: Principles of Biostatistics and epidemiology. We used materials from the edX course PH207x: Health in Numbers: Quantitative Methods in Clinical & Public Health Research and used. These materials were used as a video textbook in which students would watch a given number of these videos prior to class. Using surveys as well as exam data we informally assess these blended classes from the student's perspective as well as a comparison of these students with students in another course, BIO 201

  7. Cellular and molecular insight into the inhibition of primary root growth of Arabidopsis induced by peptaibols, a class of linear peptide antibiotics mainly produced by Trichoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wei-Ling; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Wang, Li-Xia; Gong, Zhi-Ting; Li, Shuyu; Li, Chun-Long; Xie, Bin-Bin; Zhang, Wei; Shi, Mei; Li, Chuanyou; Zhang, Yu-Zhong; Song, Xiao-Yan

    2016-04-01

    Trichoderma spp. are well known biocontrol agents that produce a variety of antibiotics. Peptaibols are a class of linear peptide antibiotics mainly produced by Trichoderma Alamethicin, the most studied peptaibol, is reported as toxic to plants at certain concentrations, while the mechanisms involved are unclear. We illustrated the toxic mechanisms of peptaibols by studying the growth-inhibitory effect of Trichokonin VI (TK VI), a peptaibol from Trichoderma longibrachiatum SMF2, on Arabidopsis primary roots. TK VI inhibited root growth by suppressing cell division and cell elongation, and disrupting root stem cell niche maintenance. TK VI increased auxin content and disrupted auxin response gradients in root tips. Further, we screened the Arabidopsis TK VI-resistant mutant tkr1. tkr1 harbors a point mutation in GORK, which encodes gated outwardly rectifying K(+)channel proteins. This mutation alleviated TK VI-induced suppression of K(+)efflux in roots, thereby stabilizing the auxin gradient. The tkr1 mutant also resisted the phytotoxicity of alamethicin. Our results indicate that GORK channels play a key role in peptaibol-plant interaction and that there is an inter-relationship between GORK channels and maintenance of auxin homeostasis. The cellular and molecular insight into the peptaibol-induced inhibition of plant root growth advances our understanding of Trichoderma-plant interactions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  8. Hypocoercivity for linear kinetic equations conserving mass

    KAUST Repository

    Dolbeault, Jean; Mouhot, Clé ment; Schmeiser, Christian

    2015-01-01

    We develop a new method for proving hypocoercivity for a large class of linear kinetic equations with only one conservation law. Local mass conservation is assumed at the level of the collision kernel, while transport involves a confining potential, so that the solution relaxes towards a unique equilibrium state. Our goal is to evaluate in an appropriately weighted $ L^2$ norm the exponential rate of convergence to the equilibrium. The method covers various models, ranging from diffusive kinetic equations like Vlasov-Fokker-Planck equations, to scattering models or models with time relaxation collision kernels corresponding to polytropic Gibbs equilibria, including the case of the linear Boltzmann model. In this last case and in the case of Vlasov-Fokker-Planck equations, any linear or superlinear growth of the potential is allowed. - See more at: http://www.ams.org/journals/tran/2015-367-06/S0002-9947-2015-06012-7/#sthash.ChjyK6rc.dpuf

  9. Hypocoercivity for linear kinetic equations conserving mass

    KAUST Repository

    Dolbeault, Jean

    2015-02-03

    We develop a new method for proving hypocoercivity for a large class of linear kinetic equations with only one conservation law. Local mass conservation is assumed at the level of the collision kernel, while transport involves a confining potential, so that the solution relaxes towards a unique equilibrium state. Our goal is to evaluate in an appropriately weighted $ L^2$ norm the exponential rate of convergence to the equilibrium. The method covers various models, ranging from diffusive kinetic equations like Vlasov-Fokker-Planck equations, to scattering models or models with time relaxation collision kernels corresponding to polytropic Gibbs equilibria, including the case of the linear Boltzmann model. In this last case and in the case of Vlasov-Fokker-Planck equations, any linear or superlinear growth of the potential is allowed. - See more at: http://www.ams.org/journals/tran/2015-367-06/S0002-9947-2015-06012-7/#sthash.ChjyK6rc.dpuf

  10. Determinants of stunting and poor linear growth in children under 2 years of age in India: an in-depth analysis of Maharashtra's comprehensive nutrition survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo, Víctor M; Nair, Rajilakshmi; Badgaiyan, Nina; Krishna, Vandana

    2016-05-01

    We use a representative sample of 2561 children 0-23 months old to identify the factors most significantly associated with child stunting in the state of Maharashtra, India. We find that 22.7% of children were stunted, with one-third (7.4%) of the stunted children severely stunted. Multivariate regression analyses indicate that children born with low birthweight had a 2.5-fold higher odds of being stunted [odds ratio (OR) 2.49; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.96-3.27]; children 6-23 months old who were not fed a minimum number of times/day had a 63% higher odds of being stunted (OR 1.63; 95% CI 1.24-2.14); and lower consumption of eggs was associated with a two-fold increased odds of stunting in children 6-23 months old (OR 2.07; 95% CI 1.19-3.61); children whose mother's height was women's nutrition and status and household sanitation and poverty are the most significant predictors of stunting and poor linear growth in children under 2 years. Key messages One in five (22.7%) of children 0-23 months old in the state of Maharashtra were stunted, and one-third (7.4%) of the stunted children were severely stunted. Birthweight, child feeding, women's nutrition and household sanitation were the most significant predictors of stunting and poor linear growth in children under 2 years. Children born to mothers whose height was below 145 cm, had two-fold higher odds of being stunted; children born with a low birthweight had a 2.5-fold higher odds of being stunted. Low feeding frequency and low consumption of eggs, dairy products, fruits and vegetables were associated with stunting and poor linear growth in children 6-23 months old. Children of households without access to improved sanitation had 88% higher odds of being severely stunted. © 2016 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Law Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Tolstopiatenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available At the origin of the International Law Department were such eminent scientists, diplomats and teachers as V.N. Durdenevsky, S.B. Krylov and F.I. Kozhevnikov. International law studies in USSR and Russia during the second half of the XX century was largely shaped by the lawyers of MGIMO. They had a large influence on the education in the international law in the whole USSR, and since 1990s in Russia and other CIS countries. The prominence of the research of MGIMO international lawyers was due to the close connections with the international practice, involving international negotiations in the United Nations and other international fora, diplomatic conferences and international scientific conferences. This experience is represented in the MGIMO handbooks on international law, which are still in demand. The Faculty of International Law at MGIMO consists of seven departments: Department of International Law, Department of Private International and Comparative Law; Department of European Law; Department of Comparative Constitutional Law; Department of Administrative and Financial Law; Department of Criminal Law, Department Criminal Procedure and Criminalistics. Many Russian lawyers famous at home and abroad work at the Faculty, contributing to domestic and international law studies. In 1947 the Academy of Sciences of the USSR published "International Law" textbook which was the first textbook on the subject in USSR. S.B. Krylov and V.N. Durdenevsky were the authors and editors of the textbook. First generations of MGIMO students studied international law according to this textbook. All subsequent books on international law, published in the USSR, were based on the approach to the teaching of international law, developed in the textbook by S.B. Krylov and V.N. Durdenevsky. The first textbook of international law with the stamp of MGIMO, edited by F.I. Kozhevnikov, was published in 1964. This textbook later went through five editions in 1966, 1972

  12. On the Law of Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichten, William

    2004-01-01

    The law of intelligence is presented in test independent form. Mental abilities, physical brain size, and infant motor capacity follow the same law of growth from birth to adolescence. Mental growth is independent of race, "SES" or the Flynn effect. The vitality of the mental age scale calls for a reexamination of Wechsler's deviation IQ. This…

  13. Scaling-up access to family planning may improve linear growth and child development in low and middle income countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günther Fink

    Full Text Available A large literature has indicated a robust association between birth spacing and child survival, but evidence on the association of birth timing with physical growth in low and middle income countries (LMICs remains limited.Data from 153 cross-sectional Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS across 61 LMICs conducted between 1990 and 2011 were combined to assess the association of birth timing with child stunting (height-for-age z-score <-2. A total of 623,789 children of birth order 1-5 contributed to the maternal age analysis, while the birth spacing dataset consisted of 584,226 children of birth order 2 and higher. Compared to 27-34 year old mothers, maternal age under 18 years was associated with a relative stunting risk of 1.35 (95% CI: 1.29-1.40 for firstborn children, whereas the relative risk was 1.24 (95% CI: 1.19-1.29 for mothers aged 18-19 years. The association of young maternal age with stunting was significantly greater for urban residents and those in the top 50% of household wealth. Birth intervals less than 12 months and 12-23 months had relative risks for stunting of 1.09 (95% CI: 1.06-1.12 and 1.06 (95% CI: 1.05-1.06 as compared to a 24-35 month inter-pregnancy interval, respectively. The strength of both teenage pregnancy and short birth interval associations showed substantial variation across WHO region. We estimate that 8.6% (6.9-10.3% of stunted cases in the South Asian DHS sample would have been averted by jointly eliminating teen pregnancies and birth intervals less than 24 months, while only 3.6% (1.5-5.7% of stunting cases would have prevented in the Middle East and North Africa sample.Postponing the age of first birth and increasing inter-pregnancy intervals has the potential to significantly reduce the prevalence of stunting and improve child development in LMICs.

  14. International law

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, Malcolm N

    2017-01-01

    International Law is the definitive and authoritative text on the subject, offering Shaw's unbeatable combination of clarity of expression and academic rigour and ensuring both understanding and critical analysis in an engaging and authoritative style. Encompassing the leading principles, practice and cases, and retaining and developing the detailed references which encourage and assist the reader in further study, this new edition motivates and challenges students and professionals while remaining accessible and engaging. Fully updated to reflect recent case law and treaty developments, this edition contains an expanded treatment of the relationship between international and domestic law, the principles of international humanitarian law, and international criminal law alongside additional material on international economic law.

  15. Environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    This pocketbook contains major federal regulations on environmental protection. They serve to protect and cultivate mankind's natural foundations of life, to preserve the environment. The environmental law is devided as follows: Constitutional law on the environment, common administrative law on the environment, special administrative law on the environment including conservation of nature and preservation of rural amenities, protection of waters, waste management, protection against nuisances, nuclear energy and radiation protection, energy conservation, protection against dangerous substances, private law relating to the environment, criminal law relating to the environment. (HSCH) [de

  16. Why care about linear hair growth rates (LHGR)? a study using in vivo imaging and computer assisted image analysis after manual processing (CAIAMP) in unaffected male controls and men with male pattern hair loss (MPHL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Neste, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    The words "hair growth" frequently encompass many aspects other than just growth. Report on a validation method for precise non-invasive measurement of thickness together with linear hair growth rates of individual hair fibres. To verify the possible correlation between thickness and linear growth rate of scalp hair in male pattern hair loss as compared with healthy male controls. To document the process of validation of hair growth measurement from in vivo image capturing and manual processing, followed by computer assisted image analysis. We analysed 179 paired images obtained with the contrast-enhanced-phototrichogram method with exogen collection (CE-PTG-EC) in 13 healthy male controls and in 87 men with male pattern hair loss (MPHL). There was a global positive correlation between thickness and growth rate (ANOVA; phairs from controls. Finally, the growth rate recorded in the more severe patterns was significantly (ANOVA; P ≤ 0.001) reduced compared with equally thick hair from less severely affected MPHL or controls subjects. Reduced growth rate, together with thinning and shortening of the anagen phase duration in MPHL might contribute together to the global impression of decreased hair volume on the top of the head. Amongst other structural and functional parameters characterizing hair follicle regression, linear hair growth rate warrants further investigation, as it may be relevant in terms of self-perception of hair coverage, quantitative diagnosis and prognostic factor of the therapeutic response.

  17. Effects of Animal-Source Foods and Micronutrient-Fortification Complementary Foods on Body Composition, Linear Growth, Iron Status – the WinFood Project in Cambodia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chhoun, Chamnan; Kloppenborg Heick Skau, Jutta; Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine; Friis, Henrik; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Roos, Nanna; Touch, Bunthang; Chea, Mary; Wieringa, Frank; Berger, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective: The nutritional quality of CF in developing countries is often insufficient to sustain optimal growth. The Winfood project evaluated the efficacy of two new, processed rice-fish based CF with local ASF in Cambodia: non-fortified ‘WinFood’ (WF) with 14% by dry-weight ASF from small-sized fish (Esomus longimanus and Paralaubuca typus) and edible spiders (Haplopelma sp.); an adjusted ‘lite’ WinFood (WF-L) with 10% by dry-weight ASF from small-sized fish of mixed species, and fortified with minerals and vitamins. The products were precooked by extrusion. The WF-products were compared with two standard products from World Food Programme: Corn-Soy-Blend (CSB+) and CSB++ (8% by dry-weight skimmed-milk powder), in a single-blinded randomized trial. Methods: 419 Cambodian infants at age 6 months were randomized to daily rations of one of the four products for nine months period. BC (deuterium dilution) and iron status (serum ferritin and hemoglobin) were measured before and after intervention; and anthropometry (knee-heel-length, length, weight, MUAC, head circumference and skinfolds) monthly. Data were analyzed by intention-to-treat. Results: Among 358 children completing the study, no significant difference in BC between the groups where found, but knee-heel length increments differed (P = 0.046: WF-L: 3.6 cm, CSB++: 3.6 cm, WF: 3.5 cm, CSB+: 3.4 cm), suggesting that micronutrient-fortified products with 8-10% ASF (CSB++ and WF-L) promoted better linear growth than products without fortification or ASF. Knee-heel and total length increment was significantly higher in the highest food compliance quartile compared to the lowest, across food groups. There were no differences in ferritin and hemoglobin concentration. There was higher prevalence of anemic children in the WF group. Conclusion: Products with ASF (milk or small fish) and micronutrient premix resulted in slightly better linear growth. Small fish is a cheap ASF with high potential

  18. Dynamic intersectoral models with power-law memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasova, Valentina V.; Tarasov, Vasily E.

    2018-01-01

    Intersectoral dynamic models with power-law memory are proposed. The equations of open and closed intersectoral models, in which the memory effects are described by the Caputo derivatives of non-integer orders, are derived. We suggest solutions of these equations, which have the form of linear combinations of the Mittag-Leffler functions and which are characterized by different effective growth rates. Examples of intersectoral dynamics with power-law memory are suggested for two sectoral cases. We formulate two principles of intersectoral dynamics with memory: the principle of changing of technological growth rates and the principle of domination change. It has been shown that in the input-output economic dynamics the effects of fading memory can change the economic growth rate and dominant behavior of economic sectors.

  19. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Shilov, Georgi E

    1977-01-01

    Covers determinants, linear spaces, systems of linear equations, linear functions of a vector argument, coordinate transformations, the canonical form of the matrix of a linear operator, bilinear and quadratic forms, Euclidean spaces, unitary spaces, quadratic forms in Euclidean and unitary spaces, finite-dimensional space. Problems with hints and answers.

  20. Environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloepfer, M.

    1989-01-01

    This comprehensive reference book on environmental law and practice also is a valuable textbook for students specializing in the field. The entire law on pollution control and environmental protection is presented in an intelligent system, covering the latest developments in the Federal and Land legislation, public environmental law, and the related provisions in the fields of civil law and criminal law. The national survey is rounded up by information concerning the international environmental law, environmental law of the European Communities, and of other foreign countries as e.g. Austria and Switzerland. The author also reviews conditions in neighbouring fields such as technology and labour law, environmental economy, environmental policy. Special attention is given to current topics, as e.g. relating to genetic engineering, disused landfills or industrial sites, soil protection, transport of hazardous goods, liability for damage to forests, atomic energy law, and radiation protection law. The latest publishing dates of literature and court decisions considered in the book are in the first months of 1989. (RST) [de

  1. Pollution law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triffterer, O.

    1980-01-01

    In the draft proposed by the legal advisory board the law for the controlling of environmental criminality was promulgated on 28th March 1980. The present commentary therefore - as seen from the results - corresponds in essential to the original assessment of the governmental draft. However, an introduction into the problems of environmental law precedes this commentary for the better unterstanding of all those not acquainted with pollution law and the whole legal matter. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Lindy's Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2017-11-01

    Aging means that as things grow old their remaining expected lifetimes lessen. Either faster or slower, most of the things we encounter in our everyday lives age with time. However, there are things that do quite the opposite - they anti-age: as they grow old their remaining expected lifetimes increase rather than decrease. A quantitative formulation of anti-aging is given by the so-called ;Lindy's Law;. In this paper we explore Lindy's Law and its connections to Pareto's Law, to Zipf's Law, and to socioeconomic inequality.

  3. Scaling law systematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfirsch, D.; Duechs, D.F.

    1985-01-01

    A number of statistical implications of empirical scaling laws in form of power products obtained by linear regression are analysed. The sensitivity of the error against a change of exponents is described by a sensitivity factor and the uncertainty of predictions by a ''range of predictions factor''. Inner relations in the statistical material is discussed, as well as the consequences of discarding variables.A recipe is given for the computations to be done. The whole is exemplified by considering scaling laws for the electron energy confinement time of ohmically heated tokamak plasmas. (author)

  4. A scaling law beyond Zipf's law and its relation to Heaps' law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Font-Clos, Francesc; Corral, Álvaro; Boleda, Gemma

    2013-01-01

    The dependence on text length of the statistical properties of word occurrences has long been considered a severe limitation on the usefulness of quantitative linguistics. We propose a simple scaling form for the distribution of absolute word frequencies that brings to light the robustness of this distribution as text grows. In this way, the shape of the distribution is always the same, and it is only a scale parameter that increases (linearly) with text length. By analyzing very long novels we show that this behavior holds both for raw, unlemmatized texts and for lemmatized texts. In the latter case, the distribution of frequencies is well approximated by a double power law, maintaining the Zipf's exponent value γ ≃ 2 for large frequencies but yielding a smaller exponent in the low-frequency regime. The growth of the distribution with text length allows us to estimate the size of the vocabulary at each step and to propose a generic alternative to Heaps' law, which turns out to be intimately connected to the distribution of frequencies, thanks to its scaling behavior. (paper)

  5. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This section treats of the following case laws: 1 - Case Law France: Conseil d'etat decision, 22 February 2016, EDF v. Republic and Canton of Geneva relative to the Bugey nuclear power plant (No. 373516); United States: Brodsky v. US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 650 Fed. Appx. 804 (2. Cir. 2016)

  6. Law 302.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This publication outlines a law course intended as part of a business education program in the secondary schools of Manitoba, Canada. The one credit course of study should be taught over a period of 110-120 hours of instruction. It provides students with an introduction to the principles, practices, and consequences of law with regard to torts,…

  7. COSMOLOGY OF CHAMELEONS WITH POWER-LAW COUPLINGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mota, David F.; Winther, Hans A.

    2011-01-01

    In chameleon field theories, a scalar field can couple to matter with gravitational strength and still evade local gravity constraints due to a combination of self-interactions and the couplings to matter. Originally, these theories were proposed with a constant coupling to matter; however, the chameleon mechanism also extends to the case where the coupling becomes field dependent. We study the cosmology of chameleon models with power-law couplings and power-law potentials. It is found that these generalized chameleons, when viable, have a background expansion very close to ΛCDM, but can in some special cases enhance the growth of the linear perturbations at low redshifts. For the models we consider, it is found that this region of the parameter space is ruled out by local gravity constraints. Imposing a coupling to dark matter only, the local constraints are avoided, and it is possible to have observable signatures on the linear matter perturbations.

  8. Age-related changes in spatiotemporal characteristics of gait accompany ongoing lower limb linear growth in late childhood and early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehle, Andrew W; Nahhas, Ramzi W; Sherwood, Richard J; Duren, Dana L

    2013-05-01

    Walking gait is generally held to reach maturity, including walking at adult-like velocities, by 7-8 years of age. Lower limb length, however, is a major determinant of gait, and continues to increase until 13-15 years of age. This study used a sample from the Fels Longitudinal Study (ages 8-30 years) to test the hypothesis that walking with adult-like velocity on immature lower limbs results in the retention of immature gait characteristics during late childhood and early adolescence. There was no relationship between walking velocity and age in this sample, whereas the lower limb continued to grow, reaching maturity at 13.2 years in females and 15.6 years in males. Piecewise linear mixed models regression analysis revealed significant age-related trends in normalized cadence, initial double support time, single support time, base of support, and normalized step length in both sexes. Each trend reached its own, variable-specific age at maturity, after which the gait variables' relationships with age reached plateaus and did not differ significantly from zero. Offsets in ages at maturity occurred among the gait variables, and between the gait variables and lower limb length. The sexes also differed in their patterns of maturation. Generally, however, immature walkers of both sexes took more frequent and relatively longer steps than did mature walkers. These results support the hypothesis that maturational changes in gait accompany ongoing lower limb growth, with implications for diagnosing, preventing, and treating movement-related disorders and injuries during late childhood and early adolescence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Case - Case-Law - Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadl, Urska

    2013-01-01

    Reasoning of the Court of Justice of the European Union – Constr uction of arguments in the case-law of the Court – Citation technique – The use of formulas to transform case-law into ‘law’ – ‘Formulaic style’ – European citizenship as a fundamental status – Ruiz Zambrano – Reasoning from...

  10. Nuclear Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascal, Maurice.

    1979-01-01

    This book on nuclear law is the first of a series of analytical studies to be published by the French Energy Commission (CEA) concerning all the various nuclear activities. It describes national and international legislation applicable in France covering the following main sectors: the licensing procedure for nuclear installations, the law of the sea and nuclear law, the legal system governing radioisotopes, the transport of radioactive materials, third party liability and insurance and radiation protection. In each chapter, the overall analysis is supplemented by the relevant regulatory texts and by organisation charts in annex. (NEA) [fr

  11. Islamic Law

    OpenAIRE

    Doranda Maracineanu

    2009-01-01

    The law system of a State represents the body of rules passed or recognized by that State inorder to regulate the social relationships, rules that must be freely obeyed by their recipients, otherwisethe State intervening with its coercive power. Throughout the development of the society, pedants havebeen particularly interested in the issue of law systems, each supporting various classifications; theclassification that has remained is the one distinguishing between the Anglo-Saxon, the Roman-...

  12. Linear gate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwono.

    1978-01-01

    A linear gate providing a variable gate duration from 0,40μsec to 4μsec was developed. The electronic circuity consists of a linear circuit and an enable circuit. The input signal can be either unipolar or bipolar. If the input signal is bipolar, the negative portion will be filtered. The operation of the linear gate is controlled by the application of a positive enable pulse. (author)

  13. Linear Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vretenar, M

    2014-01-01

    The main features of radio-frequency linear accelerators are introduced, reviewing the different types of accelerating structures and presenting the main characteristics aspects of linac beam dynamics

  14. LINEAR2007, Linear-Linear Interpolation of ENDF Format Cross-Sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: LINEAR converts evaluated cross sections in the ENDF/B format into a tabular form that is subject to linear-linear interpolation in energy and cross section. The code also thins tables of cross sections already in that form. Codes used subsequently need thus to consider only linear-linear data. IAEA1311/15: This version include the updates up to January 30, 2007. Changes in ENDF/B-VII Format and procedures, as well as the evaluations themselves, make it impossible for versions of the ENDF/B pre-processing codes earlier than PREPRO 2007 (2007 Version) to accurately process current ENDF/B-VII evaluations. The present code can handle all existing ENDF/B-VI evaluations through release 8, which will be the last release of ENDF/B-VI. Modifications from previous versions: - Linear VERS. 2007-1 (JAN. 2007): checked against all ENDF/B-VII; increased page size from 60,000 to 600,000 points 2 - Method of solution: Each section of data is considered separately. Each section of File 3, 23, and 27 data consists of a table of cross section versus energy with any of five interpolation laws. LINEAR will replace each section with a new table of energy versus cross section data in which the interpolation law is always linear in energy and cross section. The histogram (constant cross section between two energies) interpolation law is converted to linear-linear by substituting two points for each initial point. The linear-linear is not altered. For the log-linear, linear-log and log- log laws, the cross section data are converted to linear by an interval halving algorithm. Each interval is divided in half until the value at the middle of the interval can be approximated by linear-linear interpolation to within a given accuracy. The LINEAR program uses a multipoint fractional error thinning algorithm to minimize the size of each cross section table

  15. Linearization Method and Linear Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hidema

    We focus on the relationship between the linearization method and linear complexity and show that the linearization method is another effective technique for calculating linear complexity. We analyze its effectiveness by comparing with the logic circuit method. We compare the relevant conditions and necessary computational cost with those of the Berlekamp-Massey algorithm and the Games-Chan algorithm. The significant property of a linearization method is that it needs no output sequence from a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) because it calculates linear complexity using the algebraic expression of its algorithm. When a PRNG has n [bit] stages (registers or internal states), the necessary computational cost is smaller than O(2n). On the other hand, the Berlekamp-Massey algorithm needs O(N2) where N(≅2n) denotes period. Since existing methods calculate using the output sequence, an initial value of PRNG influences a resultant value of linear complexity. Therefore, a linear complexity is generally given as an estimate value. On the other hand, a linearization method calculates from an algorithm of PRNG, it can determine the lower bound of linear complexity.

  16. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Said-Houari, Belkacem

    2017-01-01

    This self-contained, clearly written textbook on linear algebra is easily accessible for students. It begins with the simple linear equation and generalizes several notions from this equation for the system of linear equations and introduces the main ideas using matrices. It then offers a detailed chapter on determinants and introduces the main ideas with detailed proofs. The third chapter introduces the Euclidean spaces using very simple geometric ideas and discusses various major inequalities and identities. These ideas offer a solid basis for understanding general Hilbert spaces in functional analysis. The following two chapters address general vector spaces, including some rigorous proofs to all the main results, and linear transformation: areas that are ignored or are poorly explained in many textbooks. Chapter 6 introduces the idea of matrices using linear transformation, which is easier to understand than the usual theory of matrices approach. The final two chapters are more advanced, introducing t...

  17. Private law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    working and researching in the key areas of law, security and privacy in IT, international trade and private law. Now, in 2010 and some seven conferences later, the event moves to Barcelona and embraces for the first time the three conference tracks just described. The papers in this work have all been...... blind reviewed and edited for quality. They represent the contributions of leading academics, early career researchers and others from an increasing number of countries, universities and institutions around the world. They set a benchmark for discussion of the current issues arising in the subject area...... and continue to offer an informed and relevant contribution to the policy making agenda. As Chair of the Conference Committee, I am once more very proud to endorse this work "Private Law: Rights, Duties & Conflicts" to all those seeking an up to date and informed evaluation of the leading issues. This work...

  18. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Stoll, R R

    1968-01-01

    Linear Algebra is intended to be used as a text for a one-semester course in linear algebra at the undergraduate level. The treatment of the subject will be both useful to students of mathematics and those interested primarily in applications of the theory. The major prerequisite for mastering the material is the readiness of the student to reason abstractly. Specifically, this calls for an understanding of the fact that axioms are assumptions and that theorems are logical consequences of one or more axioms. Familiarity with calculus and linear differential equations is required for understand

  19. Linear programming

    CERN Document Server

    Solow, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This text covers the basic theory and computation for a first course in linear programming, including substantial material on mathematical proof techniques and sophisticated computation methods. Includes Appendix on using Excel. 1984 edition.

  20. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Liesen, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    This self-contained textbook takes a matrix-oriented approach to linear algebra and presents a complete theory, including all details and proofs, culminating in the Jordan canonical form and its proof. Throughout the development, the applicability of the results is highlighted. Additionally, the book presents special topics from applied linear algebra including matrix functions, the singular value decomposition, the Kronecker product and linear matrix equations. The matrix-oriented approach to linear algebra leads to a better intuition and a deeper understanding of the abstract concepts, and therefore simplifies their use in real world applications. Some of these applications are presented in detailed examples. In several ‘MATLAB-Minutes’ students can comprehend the concepts and results using computational experiments. Necessary basics for the use of MATLAB are presented in a short introduction. Students can also actively work with the material and practice their mathematical skills in more than 300 exerc...

  1. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Berberian, Sterling K

    2014-01-01

    Introductory treatment covers basic theory of vector spaces and linear maps - dimension, determinants, eigenvalues, and eigenvectors - plus more advanced topics such as the study of canonical forms for matrices. 1992 edition.

  2. Linear Models

    CERN Document Server

    Searle, Shayle R

    2012-01-01

    This 1971 classic on linear models is once again available--as a Wiley Classics Library Edition. It features material that can be understood by any statistician who understands matrix algebra and basic statistical methods.

  3. LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofilos, N.C.; Polk, I.J.

    1959-02-17

    Improvements in linear particle accelerators are described. A drift tube system for a linear ion accelerator reduces gap capacity between adjacent drift tube ends. This is accomplished by reducing the ratio of the diameter of the drift tube to the diameter of the resonant cavity. Concentration of magnetic field intensity at the longitudinal midpoint of the external sunface of each drift tube is reduced by increasing the external drift tube diameter at the longitudinal center region.

  4. Recent publications on environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohse, S.

    1991-01-01

    The bibliography contains references to publications covering the following subject fields: General environmental law; environmental law in relation to constitutional law, administrative law, procedural law, revenue law, criminal law, private law, industrial law; law of regional development; nature conservation law; law on water protection; waste management law; law on protection against harmful effects on the environment; atomic energy law and radiation protection law; law of the power industry and the mining industry; laws and regulations on hazardous material and environmental hygiene. (orig.) [de

  5. Quantum dissipation from power-law memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasov, Vasily E.

    2012-01-01

    A new quantum dissipation model based on memory mechanism is suggested. Dynamics of open and closed quantum systems with power-law memory is considered. The processes with power-law memory are described by using integration and differentiation of non-integer orders, by methods of fractional calculus. An example of quantum oscillator with linear friction and power-law memory is considered. - Highlights: ► A new quantum dissipation model based on memory mechanism is suggested. ► The generalization of Lindblad equation is considered. ► An exact solution of generalized Lindblad equation for quantum oscillator with linear friction and power-law memory is derived.

  6. Conservation Laws in Biochemical Reaction Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahdi, Adam; Ferragut, Antoni; Valls, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    We study the existence of linear and nonlinear conservation laws in biochemical reaction networks with mass-action kinetics. It is straightforward to compute the linear conservation laws as they are related to the left null-space of the stoichiometry matrix. The nonlinear conservation laws...... are difficult to identify and have rarely been considered in the context of mass-action reaction networks. Here, using the Darboux theory of integrability, we provide necessary structural (i.e., parameterindependent) conditions on a reaction network to guarantee the existence of nonlinear conservation laws...

  7. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    This paper gives and analyses three examples of case law: decision rejecting application to close down Tomari nuclear power plant (Japan); judgement by the Supreme Administrative Court on the closing of Barsebaeck (Sweden); litigation relating to the Department of Energy's obligations under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to accept spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste (United States). (A.L.B.)

  8. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This section treats of the two following case laws: Slovak Republic: Further developments in cases related to the challenge by Greenpeace Slovakia to the Mochovce nuclear power plant; United States: Judgment of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission denying requests from petitioners to suspend final reactor licensing decisions pending the issuance of a final determination of reasonable assurance of permanent disposal of spent fuel

  9. Business Law

    OpenAIRE

    Marson, James; Ferris, Katy

    2016-01-01

    Marson & Ferris provide a thorough account of the subject for students. Essential topics are introduced by exploring current and pertinent examples and the relevance of the law in a business environment is considered throughout. This pack includes a supplement which considers the effects of the Consumer Rights Act 2015.

  10. Associations of linear growth and relative weight gain during early life with adult health and human capital in countries of low and middle income: findings from five birth cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adair, Linda S; Fall, Caroline H D; Osmond, Clive; Stein, Aryeh D; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Sachdev, Harshpal Singh; Dahly, Darren L; Bas, Isabelita; Norris, Shane A; Micklesfield, Lisa; Hallal, Pedro; Victora, Cesar G

    2013-08-10

    Fast weight gain and linear growth in children in low-income and middle-income countries are associated with enhanced survival and improved cognitive development, but might increase risk of obesity and related adult cardiometabolic diseases. We investigated how linear growth and relative weight gain during infancy and childhood are related to health and human capital outcomes in young adults. We used data from five prospective birth cohort studies from Brazil, Guatemala, India, the Philippines, and South Africa. We investigated body-mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, plasma glucose concentration, height, years of attained schooling, and related categorical indicators of adverse outcomes in young adults. With linear and logistic regression models, we assessed how these outcomes relate to birthweight and to statistically independent measures representing linear growth and weight gain independent of linear growth (relative weight gain) in three age periods: 0-2 years, 2 years to mid-childhood, and mid-childhood to adulthood. We obtained data for 8362 participants who had at least one adult outcome of interest. A higher birthweight was consistently associated with an adult body-mass index of greater than 25 kg/m(2) (odds ratio 1·28, 95% CI 1·21-1·35) and a reduced likelihood of short adult stature (0·49, 0·44-0·54) and of not completing secondary school (0·82, 0·78-0·87). Faster linear growth was strongly associated with a reduced risk of short adult stature (age 2 years: 0·23, 0·20-0·52; mid-childhood: 0·39, 0·36-0·43) and of not completing secondary school (age 2 years: 0·74, 0·67-0·78; mid-childhood: 0·87, 0·83-0·92), but did raise the likelihood of overweight (age 2 years: 1·24, 1·17-1·31; mid-childhood: 1·12, 1·06-1·18) and elevated blood pressure (age 2 years: 1·12, 1·06-1·19; mid-childhood: 1·07, 1·01-1·13). Faster relative weight gain was associated with an increased risk of adult overweight (age 2 years: 1·51

  11. Nuclear Energy Law and Arbo Law/Safety Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eijnde, J.G. van den

    1986-01-01

    The legal aspects of radiation protection in the Netherlands are described. Radiation protection is regulated mainly in the Nuclear Energy Law. The Arbo Law also has some sections about radiation protection. The interaction between both laws is discussed. (Auth.)

  12. Effect of participatory women's groups and counselling through home visits on children's linear growth in rural eastern India (CARING trial): a cluster-randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Nirmala; Tripathy, Prasanta; Sachdev, H S; Pradhan, Hemanta; Bhattacharyya, Sanghita; Gope, Rajkumar; Gagrai, Sumitra; Rath, Shibanand; Rath, Suchitra; Sinha, Rajesh; Roy, Swati Sarbani; Shewale, Suhas; Singh, Vijay; Srivastava, Aradhana; Costello, Anthony; Copas, Andrew; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene; Haghparast-Bidgoli, Hassan; Saville, Naomi; Prost, Audrey

    2017-10-01

    Around 30% of the world's stunted children live in India. The Government of India has proposed a new cadre of community-based workers to improve nutrition in 200 districts. We aimed to find out the effect of such a worker carrying out home visits and participatory group meetings on children's linear growth. We did a cluster-randomised controlled trial in two adjoining districts of Jharkhand and Odisha, India. 120 clusters (around 1000 people each) were randomly allocated to intervention or control using a lottery. Randomisation took place in July, 2013, and was stratified by district and number of hamlets per cluster (0, 1-2, or ≥3), resulting in six strata. In each intervention cluster, a worker carried out one home visit in the third trimester of pregnancy, monthly visits to children younger than 2 years to support feeding, hygiene, care, and stimulation, as well as monthly women's group meetings to promote individual and community action for nutrition. Participants were pregnant women identified and recruited in the study clusters and their children. We excluded stillbirths and neonatal deaths, infants whose mothers died, those with congenital abnormalities, multiple births, and mother and infant pairs who migrated out of the study area permanently during the trial period. Data collectors visited each woman in pregnancy, within 72 h of her baby's birth, and at 3, 6, 9, 12, and 18 months after birth. The primary outcome was children's length-for-age Z score at 18 months of age. Analyses were by intention to treat. Due to the nature of the intervention, participants and the intervention team were not masked to allocation. Data collectors and the data manager were masked to allocation. The trial is registered as ISCRTN (51505201) and with the Clinical Trials Registry of India (number 2014/06/004664). Between Oct 1, 2013, and Dec 31, 2015, we recruited 5781 pregnant women. 3001 infants were born to pregnant women recruited between Oct 1, 2013, and Feb 10, 2015

  13. Tornado outbreak variability follows Taylor's power law of fluctuation scaling and increases dramatically with severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippett, Michael K; Cohen, Joel E

    2016-02-29

    Tornadoes cause loss of life and damage to property each year in the United States and around the world. The largest impacts come from 'outbreaks' consisting of multiple tornadoes closely spaced in time. Here we find an upward trend in the annual mean number of tornadoes per US tornado outbreak for the period 1954-2014. Moreover, the variance of this quantity is increasing more than four times as fast as the mean. The mean and variance of the number of tornadoes per outbreak vary according to Taylor's power law of fluctuation scaling (TL), with parameters that are consistent with multiplicative growth. Tornado-related atmospheric proxies show similar power-law scaling and multiplicative growth. Path-length-integrated tornado outbreak intensity also follows TL, but with parameters consistent with sampling variability. The observed TL power-law scaling of outbreak severity means that extreme outbreaks are more frequent than would be expected if mean and variance were independent or linearly related.

  14. Space Law and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronchetti, Fabio

    2017-08-01

    Over the past few years, China has made remarkable achievements in the space sector and become one of the most relevant players in the outer space domain. Highlights of this process have been the deployment in orbit of the first Chinese space station, Tiangong-1, on September 29, 2011; and the landing of the Yutu rover on the lunar surface on December 14, 2013. While technological developments have occurred at such a rapid pace, the same cannot be said of the regulatory framework governing Chinese space activities, which still lays at its infant stage. Indeed, unlike other major space-faring countries, China lacks comprehensive and uniform national space legislation; as of now, China has enacted two low-level administrative regulations addressing the issues of launching and registration of space objects. With the growth of the Chinese space program, such a lack of a structured national space law is beginning to show its limits and to create concerns about its negative impact on business opportunities and the ability of China to fully comply with international obligations. One should keep in mind that the international space treaties (China is part to four international space law treaties) are not self-executing, thus requiring States to adopt domestic measures to ensure their effective implementation. Importantly, Chinese authorities appear to be aware of these issues; as stated by the secretary-general of the Chinese National Space Administration (CNSA) in 2014, national space law has been listed in the national legislation plan and the CNSA is directly engaged in such a process. However, questions remain as to how this drafting process will be conducted and what legal form and content the law will have. For example, China could either decide to proceed with a gradual approach, consisting in the adoption of laws addressing selected issues to be eventually assembled into one single law; or to directly move to the adoption of one comprehensive law. In any case, if

  15. Islamic Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doranda Maracineanu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The law system of a State represents the body of rules passed or recognized by that State inorder to regulate the social relationships, rules that must be freely obeyed by their recipients, otherwisethe State intervening with its coercive power. Throughout the development of the society, pedants havebeen particularly interested in the issue of law systems, each supporting various classifications; theclassification that has remained is the one distinguishing between the Anglo-Saxon, the Roman-German,the religious and respectively the communist law systems. The third main international law system is theMuslim one, founded on the Muslim religion – the Islam. The Islam promotes the idea that Allah createdthe law and therefore it must be preserved and observed as such. Etymologically, the Arabian word“Islam” means “to be wanted, to obey” implying the fact that this law system promotes total andunconditioned submission to Allah. The Islamic law is not built on somebody of laws or leading cases,but has as source. The Islam is meant as a universal religion, the Koran promoting the idea of the unityof mankind; thus, one of the precepts in the Koran asserts that “all men are equal (…, there is nodifference between a white man and a black man, between one who is Arabian and one who is not,except for the measure in which they fear God.” The Koran is founded mainly on the Talmud, Hebrewsource of inspiration, and only on very few Christian sources. The Islam does not forward ideas whichcannot be materialized; on the contrary its ideas are purely practical, easy to be observed by the commonman, ideas subordinated to the principle of monotheism. The uncertainties and gaps of the Koran, whichhave been felt along the years, imposed the need for another set of rules, meant to supplement it – that isSunna. Sunna represents a body of laws and, consequently, the second source of the Koran. Sunnanarrates the life of the prophet Mohamed, the model to

  16. Linear regression

    CERN Document Server

    Olive, David J

    2017-01-01

    This text covers both multiple linear regression and some experimental design models. The text uses the response plot to visualize the model and to detect outliers, does not assume that the error distribution has a known parametric distribution, develops prediction intervals that work when the error distribution is unknown, suggests bootstrap hypothesis tests that may be useful for inference after variable selection, and develops prediction regions and large sample theory for the multivariate linear regression model that has m response variables. A relationship between multivariate prediction regions and confidence regions provides a simple way to bootstrap confidence regions. These confidence regions often provide a practical method for testing hypotheses. There is also a chapter on generalized linear models and generalized additive models. There are many R functions to produce response and residual plots, to simulate prediction intervals and hypothesis tests, to detect outliers, and to choose response trans...

  17. Linear Colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaraz, J.

    2001-01-01

    After several years of study e''+ e''- linear colliders in the TeV range have emerged as the major and optimal high-energy physics projects for the post-LHC era. These notes summarize the present status form the main accelerator and detector features to their physics potential. The LHC era. These notes summarize the present status, from the main accelerator and detector features to their physics potential. The LHC is expected to provide first discoveries in the new energy domain, whereas an e''+ e''- linear collider in the 500 GeV-1 TeV will be able to complement it to an unprecedented level of precision in any possible areas: Higgs, signals beyond the SM and electroweak measurements. It is evident that the Linear Collider program will constitute a major step in the understanding of the nature of the new physics beyond the Standard Model. (Author) 22 refs

  18. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Edwards, Harold M

    1995-01-01

    In his new undergraduate textbook, Harold M Edwards proposes a radically new and thoroughly algorithmic approach to linear algebra Originally inspired by the constructive philosophy of mathematics championed in the 19th century by Leopold Kronecker, the approach is well suited to students in the computer-dominated late 20th century Each proof is an algorithm described in English that can be translated into the computer language the class is using and put to work solving problems and generating new examples, making the study of linear algebra a truly interactive experience Designed for a one-semester course, this text adopts an algorithmic approach to linear algebra giving the student many examples to work through and copious exercises to test their skills and extend their knowledge of the subject Students at all levels will find much interactive instruction in this text while teachers will find stimulating examples and methods of approach to the subject

  19. The associations between adult body composition and abdominal adiposity outcomes, and relative weight gain and linear growth from birth to age 22 in the Birth to Twenty Plus cohort, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Prioreschi

    Full Text Available The growing prevalence of overweight and obesity in low- or middle-income countries precipitates the need to examine early life predictors of adiposity.To examine growth trajectories from birth, and associations with adult body composition in the Birth to Twenty Plus Cohort, Soweto, South Africa.Complete data at year 22 was available for 1088 participants (536 males and 537 females. Conditional weight and height indices were generated indicative of relative rate of growth between years 0-2, 2-5, 5-8, 8-18, and 18-22. Whole body composition was measured at year 22 (range 21-25 years using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Total fat free soft tissue mass (FFSTM, fat mass, and abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT were recorded.Birth weight was positively associated with FFSTM and fat mass at year 22 (β = 0.11, p<0.01 and β = 0.10, p<0.01 respectively. Relative weight gain from birth to year 22 was positively associated with FFSTM, fat mass, VAT, and SAT at year 22. Relative linear growth from birth to year 22 was positively associated with FFSTM at year 22. Relative linear growth from birth to year 2 was positively associated with VAT at year 22. Being born small for gestational age and being stunted at age 2 years were inversely associated with FFSTM at year 22.The importance of optimal birth weight and growth tempos during early life for later life body composition, and the detrimental effects of pre- and postnatal growth restriction are clear; yet contemporary weight-gain most strongly predicted adult body composition. Thus interventions should target body composition trajectories during childhood and prevent excessive weight gain in early adulthood.

  20. Criminal law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, J.M. da.

    1979-01-01

    Facts concerning the application of atomic energy are presented and those aspects which should be under tutelage, the nature and guilt of the nuclear offenses and the agent's peril are presented. The need of a specific chapter in criminal law with adequate legislation concerning the principles of atomic energy is inferred. The basis for the future elaboration this legislation are fixed. (A.L.S.L.) [pt

  1. Operational Law Handbook,2007

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    ...), human rights, rules of engagement, emergency essential civilians supporting military operations, contingency contractor personnel, foreign and deployment, criminal law, environmental law, fiscal law...

  2. Cyclic and seasonal features in the behaviour of linear growth increment of Rayleigh-Taylor instability in equatorial F-region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkullin, M.N.; Nikitin, M.A.; Kashchenko, N.M.

    1989-01-01

    Calculations of linear increment of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability for various geophysical conditions are presented. It is shwn that space-time characteristics of increment depend strongly on conditions of solar activity and seasons. The calculation results are in a good agreement with statistical regularities of F-scattering observation in equatorial F-area, which points to the Rayleigh-Taylor natur of the penomena

  3. Nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bringuier, P.

    2009-01-01

    The object of this report is to present the evolution of the nuclear law during the period from 2006 to 2008, period that was characterized in France by a real rewriting from the implementation of a control authority. The prescriptive backing of nuclear activities has been deeply changed by numerous texts. In this first part are presented: (1) the institutional aspects, (2) openness and public information, (7) radioactive wastes and (9) liability and insurance. In a next publication will be treated: (3) safety and radiation protection; (4) nuclear matter, inspection, physical protection; (5) transports; (6) trade, non-proliferation; (8) radiological accidents. (N.C.)

  4. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This section treats of the following case laws: 1 - Canada: Decision of the Canadian Federal Court of Appeal dismissing an appeal related to an environmental assessment of a project to refurbish and extend the life of an Ontario nuclear power plant; 2 - Poland: Decision of the Masovian Voivod of 28 December 2015 concerning the legality of the resolution on holding a local referendum in the Commune of Rozan regarding a new radioactive waste repository (2015); 3 - United States: Commission authorises issuance of construction permit for the Shine Medical Isotope Facility in Janesville, Wisconsin; 4 - United States: Commission authorises issuance of combined licences for the South Texas Project site in Matagorda County, Texas

  5. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This section gathers the following case laws: 1 - Canada: Judicial review of Darlington new nuclear power plant project; Appeal decision upholding criminal convictions related to attempt to export nuclear-related dual-use items to Iran: Her Majesty the Queen V. Yadegari; 2 - European Commission: Greenland cases; 3 - France: Chernobyl accident - decision of dismissal of the Court of Appeal of Paris; 4 - Slovak Republic: Aarhus Convention compliance update; 5 - United States: Judgement of a US court of appeals upholding the NRC's dismissal of challenges to the renewal of the operating licence for Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station; reexamination of the project of high-level waste disposal site at Yucca Mountain

  6. Linear programming

    CERN Document Server

    Karloff, Howard

    1991-01-01

    To this reviewer’s knowledge, this is the first book accessible to the upper division undergraduate or beginning graduate student that surveys linear programming from the Simplex Method…via the Ellipsoid algorithm to Karmarkar’s algorithm. Moreover, its point of view is algorithmic and thus it provides both a history and a case history of work in complexity theory. The presentation is admirable; Karloff's style is informal (even humorous at times) without sacrificing anything necessary for understanding. Diagrams (including horizontal brackets that group terms) aid in providing clarity. The end-of-chapter notes are helpful...Recommended highly for acquisition, since it is not only a textbook, but can also be used for independent reading and study. —Choice Reviews The reader will be well served by reading the monograph from cover to cover. The author succeeds in providing a concise, readable, understandable introduction to modern linear programming. —Mathematics of Computing This is a textbook intend...

  7. Early childhood linear growth faltering in low-income and middle-income countries as a whole-population condition: analysis of 179 Demographic and Health Surveys from 64 countries (1993-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Daniel E; Krishna, Aditi; Leung, Michael; Shi, Joy; Bassani, Diego G; Barros, Aluisio J D

    2017-12-01

    The causes of early childhood linear growth faltering (known as stunting) in low-income and middle-income countries remain inadequately understood. We aimed to determine if the progressive postnatal decline in mean height-for-age Z score (HAZ) in low-income and middle-income countries is driven by relatively slow growth of certain high-risk children versus faltering of the entire population. Distributions of HAZ (based on WHO growth standards) were analysed in 3-month age intervals from 0 to 36 months of age in 179 Demographic and Health Surveys from 64 low-income and middle-income countries (1993-2015). Mean, standard deviation (SD), fifth percentiles, and 95th percentiles of the HAZ distribution were estimated for each age interval in each survey. Associations between mean HAZ and SD, fifth percentile, and 95th percentile were estimated using multilevel linear models. Stratified analyses were performed in consideration of potential modifiers (world region, national income, sample size, year, or mean HAZ in the 0-3 month age band). We also used Monte Carlo simulations to model the effects of subgroup versus whole-population faltering on the HAZ distribution. Declines in mean HAZ from birth to 3 years of age were accompanied by declines in both the fifth and 95th percentiles, leading to nearly symmetrical narrowing of the HAZ distributions. Thus, children with relatively low HAZ were not more likely to have faltered than taller same-age peers. Inferences were unchanged in surveys regardless of world region, national income, sample size, year, or mean HAZ in the 0-3 month age band. Simulations showed that the narrowing of the HAZ distribution as mean HAZ declined could not be explained by faltering limited to a growth-restricted subgroup of children. In low-income and middle-income countries, declines in mean HAZ with age are due to a downward shift in the entire HAZ distribution, revealing that children across the HAZ spectrum experience slower growth compared to

  8. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    Several judgements are carried: Supreme Administrative Court Judgement rejecting an application to prevent construction of a new nuclear power plant (Finland); judgement of the Council of State specifying the law applicable to storage facilities for depleted uranium (France); Supreme Court Decision overturning for foreign spent fuel (Russian federation); Court of Appeal Judgement on government decision to allow the start up of a MOX fuel plant ( United Kingdom); judgement on lawfulness of authorizations granted by the Environment Agency: Marchiori v. the Environment Agency; (U.K.); Kennedy v. Southern California Edison Co. (U.S.A); Judgement concerning Ireland ' s application to prevent operation of BNFL ' s MOX facility at Sellafield: Ireland v. United Kingdom; At the European Court of Human Rights Balmer-Schafroth and others have complained v. Switzerland. Parliamentary decision rescinding the shutdown date for Barseback - 2 (Sweden); Decision of the International trade Commission regarding imposition of countervailing and anti-dumping duties on imports of low enriched uranium from the European Union, Yucca Mountain site recommendation (USA). (N.C.)

  9. Phenomenology of stochastic exponential growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirjol, Dan; Jafarpour, Farshid; Iyer-Biswas, Srividya

    2017-06-01

    Stochastic exponential growth is observed in a variety of contexts, including molecular autocatalysis, nuclear fission, population growth, inflation of the universe, viral social media posts, and financial markets. Yet literature on modeling the phenomenology of these stochastic dynamics has predominantly focused on one model, geometric Brownian motion (GBM), which can be described as the solution of a Langevin equation with linear drift and linear multiplicative noise. Using recent experimental results on stochastic exponential growth of individual bacterial cell sizes, we motivate the need for a more general class of phenomenological models of stochastic exponential growth, which are consistent with the observation that the mean-rescaled distributions are approximately stationary at long times. We show that this behavior is not consistent with GBM, instead it is consistent with power-law multiplicative noise with positive fractional powers. Therefore, we consider this general class of phenomenological models for stochastic exponential growth, provide analytical solutions, and identify the important dimensionless combination of model parameters, which determines the shape of the mean-rescaled distribution. We also provide a prescription for robustly inferring model parameters from experimentally observed stochastic growth trajectories.

  10. Complementary Feeding Interventions Have a Small but Significant Impact on Linear and Ponderal Growth of Children in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panjwani, Anita; Heidkamp, Rebecca

    2017-11-01

    Background: World Health Assembly member states have committed to ambitious global targets for reductions in stunting and wasting by 2025. Improving complementary diets of children aged 6-23 mo is a recommended approach for reducing stunting in children impact of complementary feeding interventions on linear [length-for-age z score (LAZ)] and ponderal [weight-for-length z score (WLZ)] growth of children aged 6-23 mo, with the specific goal of updating intervention-outcome linkages in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST). Methods: We started our review with studies included in the previous LiST review and searched for articles published since January 2012. We identified longitudinal trials that compared children aged 6-23 mo who received 1 of 2 types of complementary feeding interventions (nutrition education or counseling alone or complementary food supplementation with or without nutrition education or counseling) with a no-intervention control. We assessed study quality and generated pooled estimates of LAZ and WLZ change, as well as length and weight gain, for each category of intervention. Results: Interventions that provided nutrition education or counseling had a small but significant impact on linear growth in food-secure populations [LAZ standardized mean difference (SMD): 0.11; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.22] but not on ponderal growth. Complementary food supplementation interventions with or without nutrition education also had a small, significant effect in food-insecure settings on both LAZ (SMD: 0.08; 95% CI: 0.04, 0.13) and WLZ (SMD: 0.05; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.08). Conclusions: Nutrition education and complementary feeding interventions both had a small but significant impact on linear growth, and complementary feeding interventions also had an impact on ponderal growth of children aged 6-23 mo in low- and middle-income countries. The updated LiST model will support nutrition program planning and evaluation efforts by allowing users to model changes in intervention coverage on

  11. Nuclear Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesbauer, Bruno

    1978-01-01

    This book is the first attempt of a comprehensive compilation of national Austrian Nuclear Law (Nuclear Liability Act; Radiation protection Act, Radiation Protection Ordinance, Security Control Act, Act on the uses of Nuclear Energy - Zwentendorf Nuclear Power Plant) and the most important international agreements to which Austria is a party. Furthermore, the book contains the most important Nuclear Liability Conventions to which Austria is not yet a party, but which are applicable in neighbouring; the Paris Convention served as a model for the national Nuclear Liability Act and may be used for its interpretation. The author has translated a number of international instruments into German, such as the Expose des Motifs of the Paris Convention. (NEA) [fr

  12. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This section of the Bulletin brings together the texts of the following case laws: Canada: - Judgment of the Federal Court of Canada sending back to a joint review panel for reconsideration the environmental assessment of a proposed new nuclear power plant in Ontario. France : - Conseil d'etat, 24 March 2014 (Request No. 358882); - Conseil d'etat, 24 March 2014 (Request No. 362001). Slovak Republic: - Further developments in cases related to the challenge by Greenpeace Slovakia to the Mochovce nuclear power plant; - Developments in relation to the disclosure of information concerning the Mochovce nuclear power plant. United States: - Initial Decision of the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Ruling in Favour of Nuclear Innovation North America, LLC (NINA) Regarding Foreign Ownership, Control or Domination

  13. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This section treats of the following case laws (United States): 1 - Virginia Uranium, Inc. v. Warren, 848 F.3d 590 (4. Cir. 2017): In the United States District Court for the Western District of Virginia, the plaintiffs, a collection of uranium mining companies and owners of land containing uranium deposits, challenged a Commonwealth of Virginia moratorium on conventional uranium mining. The plaintiffs alleged that the state moratorium was preempted by federal law under the Supremacy Clause of the US Constitution.; 2 - United States v. Energy Solutions, Inc.; Rockwell Holdco, Inc.; Andrews County; Holdings, Inc.; and Waste Control Specialists, LLC. (D. Del. June 21, 2017): In 2016, the United States, acting through the US Department of Justice, commenced an action in United States District Court in Delaware seeking to enjoin the acquisition of Waste Control Specialists, LLC (WCS) and its parent company by Energy Solutions, Inc., and its parent. WCS and Energy Solutions are competitors in the market for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) produced by commercial generators of such material. The United States alleged that the proposed acquisition was unlawful. 3 - Cooper v. Tokyo Electric Power Company, No. 15-56426 (9. Cir. 2017): The plaintiffs are US Navy service members who were deployed off the Japanese coast as part of the US effort to provide earthquake relief after the 9.0 earthquake and tsunami that struck Japan on 11 March 2011. Plaintiffs sued alleging 'that TEPCO was negligent in operating the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant and in reporting the extent of the radiation leak

  14. Information report established according to the article 145 of the Regulation by the common information mission on the application of the law nr 2015-992 of 17 August 2015 related to energy transition for a green growth. Nr 4157

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanteguet, Jean-Paul; Battistel, Marie-Noelle; Buis, Sabine; Aubert, Julien

    2016-01-01

    This huge report details the context and issues of the French law for energy transition towards a green growth. The titles of the different chapters of this report are: definition of the common objectives (reinforcing the energy independence and the economic competitiveness of France, preserving the human health and the environment and struggling against the climatic change issue); better renovation of buildings in order to save energy, reduce energy bills and create jobs; development of clean transportation systems in order to improve air quality and protect health; struggle against squandering and promotion of circular economy (from product design to product recycling); encouraging the renewable energy sources and valorizing France's territories; reinforcing the nuclear safety and citizen information; simplification and clarification of procedures in order to gain efficiency and competitiveness; giving citizens, enterprises, territories and State the means to act together. A review of round table discussions on these matters is also presented

  15. Reduction of Linear Programming to Linear Approximation

    OpenAIRE

    Vaserstein, Leonid N.

    2006-01-01

    It is well known that every Chebyshev linear approximation problem can be reduced to a linear program. In this paper we show that conversely every linear program can be reduced to a Chebyshev linear approximation problem.

  16. A Multi-Objective Input–Output Linear Model for Water Supply, Economic Growth and Environmental Planning in Resource-Based Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenlan Ke

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Water resource and environment capacity have become two of the most important restrictions for sustainable development in resource-based cities whose leading industries are the exploitation and processing of resources. Taking Ordos in China as an example, this article constructs an integrated model combining a multi-objective optimization model with input–output analysis to achieve the tradeoffs between economic growth, water utilization and environmental protection. This dynamic model includes socioeconomic, water supply–demand, water quality control, air quality control, energy consumption control and integrated policy sub-models. These six sub-models interact with each other. After simulation, this article proposes efficient solutions on industrial restructuring by maximizing the Gross Regional Product of Ordos from 394.3 in 2012 to 785.1 billion RMB in 2025 with a growth rate of 6.4% annually; and presents a water supply plan by maximizing the proportion of reclaimed water from 2% to 6.3% through sewage treatment technology selection and introduction, and effective water allocation. Meanwhile, the environmental impacts are all in line with the planning targets. This study illustrates that the integrated modeling is generic and can be applied to any region suffering uncoordinated development issues and can serve as a pre-evaluation approach for conducting early warning research to offer suggestions for government decision-making.

  17. Mathematical modeling of the crack growth in linear elastic isotropic materials by conventional fracture mechanics approaches and by molecular dynamics method: crack propagation direction angle under mixed mode loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanova, Larisa; Bronnikov, Sergej

    2018-03-01

    The crack growth directional angles in the isotropic linear elastic plane with the central crack under mixed-mode loading conditions for the full range of the mixity parameter are found. Two fracture criteria of traditional linear fracture mechanics (maximum tangential stress and minimum strain energy density criteria) are used. Atomistic simulations of the central crack growth process in an infinite plane medium under mixed-mode loading using Large-scale Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator (LAMMPS), a classical molecular dynamics code, are performed. The inter-atomic potential used in this investigation is Embedded Atom Method (EAM) potential. The plane specimens with initial central crack were subjected to Mixed-Mode loadings. The simulation cell contains 400000 atoms. The crack propagation direction angles under different values of the mixity parameter in a wide range of values from pure tensile loading to pure shear loading in a wide diapason of temperatures (from 0.1 К to 800 К) are obtained and analyzed. It is shown that the crack propagation direction angles obtained by molecular dynamics method coincide with the crack propagation direction angles given by the multi-parameter fracture criteria based on the strain energy density and the multi-parameter description of the crack-tip fields.

  18. Evaluation of Iowa's anti-bullying law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Marizen; Ten Eyck, Patrick; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Onwuachi-Willig, Angela; Cavanaugh, Joseph E

    2016-12-01

    Bullying is the most common form of youth aggression. Although 49 of all 50 states in the U.S. have an anti-bullying law in place to prevent bullying, little is known about the effectiveness of these laws. Our objective was to measure the effectiveness of Iowa's anti-bullying law in preventing bullying and improving teacher response to bullying. Sixth, 8th, and 11th grade children who completed the 2005, 2008 and 2010 Iowa Youth Survey were included in this study (n = 253,000). Students were coded according to exposure to the law: pre-law for 2005 survey data, one year post-law for 2008 data, and three years post-law for 2010 data. The outcome variables were: 1) being bullied (relational, verbal, physical, and cyber) in the last month and 2) extent to which teachers/adults on campus intervened with bullying. Generalized linear mixed models were constructed with random effects. The odds of being bullied increased from pre-law to one year post-law periods, and then decreased from one year to three years post-law but not below 2005 pre-law levels. This pattern was consistent across all bullying types except cyberbullying. The odds of teacher intervention decreased 11 % (OR = 0.89, 95 % CL = 0.88, 0.90) from 2005 (pre-law) to 2010 (post-law). Bullying increased immediately after Iowa's anti-bullying law was passed, possibly due to improved reporting. Reductions in bullying occurred as the law matured. Teacher response did not improve after the passage of the law.

  19. Case Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    Different case law are presented in this part: By decision dated 17 july 2009, the Ontario Court of Appeal (Canada) has ruled on the scope of solicitor-client privilege and the protections that may be afforded to privileged investigations reports. The decision reaffirms the canadian court system view of the importance of the protection of solicitor-client privilege to the administration of justice; For United states here is a judgment of a U.S. court of Appeals on the design basis threat security rule (2009), this case concerns a challenge to the U.S. Nuclear regulatory commission (N.R.C.) revised design basis threat rule, which was adopted in 2007 (nuclear bulletin law no. 80). The petitioners public citizen, Inc., San Luis Obispo Mothers for Peace and the State of New York filed a lawsuit in the U.S. court of appeals for the Ninth circuit alleging that the N.R.C. acted arbitrarily and capriciously and in violation of law by refusing to include the treat of air attacks in its final revised design basis rule. On the 24. july 2009, a panel of three ninth circuit judges rules 2-1 that the N.R.C. acted reasonably in not including an air treat in its design basis rule. Secondly, judgment of a U.S. court of appeals on consideration of the environmental impact of terrorist attacks on nuclear facilities (2009), this case concerns the scope of the U.S. Nuclear regulatory commission environmental analysis during its review of applications to re-licence commercial nuclear power plants. New Jersey urged the N.R.C. to consider the environmental impact of an airborne terrorist attack on the power plant, arguing that such analysis was required by the national environmental policy act (N.E.P.A.). On 31. march 2009, a panel of three circuit judges declined to follow the ninth circuit opinion and affirmed NRC decision 3-0 ruling that NRC was not required to consider terrorism in its N.E.P.A. analysis because NRC re-licensing would not be a reasonably close cause of terrorism

  20. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter gathers three case laws, one concerning France and the two others concerning the United States. France - Decision of the Administrative Court in Strasbourg on the permanent shutdown of the Fessenheim nuclear power plant: On 9 March 2011, the administrative court in Strasbourg confirmed the government's rejection to immediately close the Fessenheim nuclear power plant, the first unit of which started operation on 1 January 1978. The court rejected the motion of the 'Association trinationale de protection nucleaire' (ATPN) filed against the decision of the Minister of Economy, Industry and Employment to refuse the final shutdown of the plant. The group, which brings together associations as well as French, German and Swiss municipalities, had taken legal action in December 2008. United States - Case law 1 - Judgment of a US Court of Appeals on public access to sensitive security information and consideration of the environmental impacts of terrorist attacks on nuclear facilities: This case concerns 1) the public's right to access classified and sensitive security information relied upon by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in its environmental review; and 2) the sufficiency of the NRC's environmental review of the impacts of terrorist attacks for a proposed Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI). In 2003, the NRC ruled that the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) did not require the NRC to consider the impacts of terrorist attacks in its environmental review for the proposed ISFSI at the Diablo Canyon Power Plant. ' NEPA mandates that all federal agencies must prepare a detailed statement on the environment impacts before undertaking a major federal action that significantly affects the human environment. In 2004, the San Luis Obispo Mothers for Peace, a group of individuals who live near the Diablo Canyon Power Plant, filed a petition in the US Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit challenging the NRC's 2003 decision. The

  1. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This section reports on 7 case laws from 4 countries: - France: Conseil d'Etat decision, 28 June 2013, refusing to suspend operation of the Fessenheim nuclear power plant; - Slovak Republic: New developments including the Supreme Court's judgment in a matter involving Greenpeace Slovakia's claims regarding the Mochovce nuclear power plant; New developments in the matter involving Greenpeace's demands for information under the Freedom of Information Act; - Switzerland: Judgment of the Federal Supreme Court in the matter of the Departement federal de l'environnement, des transports, de l'energie et de la communication (DETEC) against Ursula Balmer-Schafroth and others on consideration of admissibility of a request to withdraw the operating licence for the Muehleberg nuclear power plant; - United States: Judgment of the Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit granting petition for writ of mandamus ordering US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to resume Yucca Mountain licensing; Judgment of the Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit invalidating two Vermont statutes as preempted by the Atomic Energy Act; Judgment of the NRC on transferring Shieldalloy site to New Jersey's jurisdiction

  2. Case Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This section treats of the following case laws sorted by country: 1 - Germany: Federal Administrative Court confirms the judgments of the Higher Administrative Court of the Land Hesse: The shutdown of nuclear power plant Biblis blocks A and B based on a 'moratorium' imposed by the Government was unlawful; List of lawsuits in the nuclear field. 2 - Slovak Republic: Further developments in cases related to the challenge by Greenpeace Slovakia to the Mochovce nuclear power plant; Developments in relation to the disclosure of information concerning the Mochovce nuclear power plant. 3 - United States: Judgment of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission resuming the licensing process for the Department of Energy's construction authorisation application for the Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste repository; Judgment of the Licensing Board in favour of Shaw AREVA MOX Services regarding the material control and accounting system at the proposed MOX Facility; Dismissal by US District Court Judge of lawsuit brought by US military personnel against Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) in connection with the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident

  3. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    This article reviews the judgements and law decisions concerning nuclear activities throughout the world during the end of 1999 and the first semester 2000. In Belgium a judgement has allowed the return of nuclear waste from France. In France the Council of State confirmed the repeal of an authorization order of an installation dedicated to the storage of uranium sesquioxide, on the basis of an insufficient risk analysis. In France too, the criminal chamber of the French Supreme Court ruled that the production in excess of that authorized in the licence can be compared to carrying out operations without a licence. In Japan the Fukui district court rejected a lawsuit filed by local residents calling for the permanent closure, on safety grounds, of the Monju reactor. In the Netherlands, the Council of State ruled that the Dutch government had no legal basis for limiting in time the operating licence of the Borssele plant. In Usa a district court has rejected a request to ban MOX fuel shipment. (A.C.)

  4. Recent publications on environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohse, S.

    1988-01-01

    The bibliography contains 1235 references to publications covering the following subject fields: general environmental law; environmental law in relation to constitutional law, administrative law, procedural law, revenue law, criminal law, private law, industrial law; law of regional development; nature conservation law; law on water protection; waste management law; law on protection against harmful effects on the environment; atomic energy law and radiation protection law; law of the power industry and the mining industry; laws and regulations on hazardous material and environmental hygiene. (HP) [de

  5. Recent publications on environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohse, S.

    1989-01-01

    The bibliography contains 1160 references to publications covering the following subject fields: General environmental law; environmental law in relation to constitutional law, administrative law, procedural law, revenue law, criminal law, private law, industrial law; law of regional development; nature conservation law; law on water protection; waste management law; law on protection against harmful effects on the environment; atomic energy law and radiation protection law; law of the power industry and the mining industry; laws and regulations on hazardous material and environmental hygiene. (orig./HP) [de

  6. Herdabilidades de parâmetros de curvas de crescimento não-lineares em zebuínos, no estado de Pernambuco Heritabilities of nonlinear growth curve parameters in zebu breeds, in Pernambuco State, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleber Régis Santoro

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estimar parâmetros genéticos e fenotípicos de curvas de crescimento de modelos não-lineares. Foram analisados dados de pesagem constantes no banco de dados de Controle de Desenvolvimento Ponderal da Associação Brasileira de Criadores de Zebu (ABCZ, referentes a 24.028 animais Zebu, nascidos entre 1960 e 2000, das raças Guzerá, Nelore e Nelore Mocho. As pesagens ocorreram ao nascimento e em intervalos de 90 dias até dois anos de idade. Os seguintes modelos não-lineares foram utilizados na análise dos dados de peso-idade: Brody, Gompertz, Logístico, von Bertalanffy e Richards. Os efeitos fixos estudados no modelo misto foram sexo, rebanho, ano e mês de nascimento e regime de criação. As herdabilidades para os parâmetros foram de baixa a alta magnitude, em geral, para todos os modelos. As correlações genéticas entre peso assintótico e taxa de maturidade e entre peso assintótico e velocidade de crescimento foram negativas, enquanto aquelas entre taxa de maturidade e velocidade de crescimento foram positivas. As correlações fenotípicas foram negativas entre peso assintótico e taxa de crescimento e entre peso assintótico e velocidade de crescimento e positivas entre taxa e velocidade de crescimento. Encontrou-se variabilidade possível de ser explorada em um programa de melhoramento genético, especialmente para a raça Nelore, que apresentou amostra de dados e resultados mais consistentes.Weight records of 24.028 zebu animals from Guzerá, Nelore, and Polled Nelore breeds available from Brazilian Association of Zebu Breeders (ABCZ database were used to estimate heritabilities of growth curve parameters. Non-linear Brody, Gompertz, Logistic, Mitscherlich, von Bertalanffy, Richards, and Double Logistic models including sex, farm, year of birth, month of birth, raising system, and interaction sex*raising system as fixed effects and sire and dam, as random effects were adjusted using weight-age records of animals

  7. linear-quadratic-linear model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanwiwat Jaikuna

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To develop an in-house software program that is able to calculate and generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram by physical dose conversion using the linear-quadratic-linear (LQL model. Material and methods : The Isobio software was developed using MATLAB version 2014b to calculate and generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histograms. The physical dose from each voxel in treatment planning was extracted through Computational Environment for Radiotherapy Research (CERR, and the accuracy was verified by the differentiation between the dose volume histogram from CERR and the treatment planning system. An equivalent dose in 2 Gy fraction (EQD2 was calculated using biological effective dose (BED based on the LQL model. The software calculation and the manual calculation were compared for EQD2 verification with pair t-test statistical analysis using IBM SPSS Statistics version 22 (64-bit. Results: Two and three-dimensional biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram were displayed correctly by the Isobio software. Different physical doses were found between CERR and treatment planning system (TPS in Oncentra, with 3.33% in high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV determined by D90%, 0.56% in the bladder, 1.74% in the rectum when determined by D2cc, and less than 1% in Pinnacle. The difference in the EQD2 between the software calculation and the manual calculation was not significantly different with 0.00% at p-values 0.820, 0.095, and 0.593 for external beam radiation therapy (EBRT and 0.240, 0.320, and 0.849 for brachytherapy (BT in HR-CTV, bladder, and rectum, respectively. Conclusions : The Isobio software is a feasible tool to generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram for treatment plan evaluation in both EBRT and BT.

  8. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This section treats of the following case laws: 1 - Canada: Decision of the Canadian Federal Court of Appeal overturning a decision to send back for reconsideration an environmental assessment of a proposed new nuclear power plant in Ontario; 2 - France: Council of State decision, 28 November 2014, Federation 'Reseau sortir du nucleaire' (Nuclear Phase-Out network) and others vs. Electricite de France (EDF), Request No. 367013 for the annulment of: - The resolution of the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) dated 4 July 2011 specifying additional regulations for Electricite de France (EDF) designed to strengthen the reactor basemat of reactor No. 1 in the Fessenheim nuclear power plant, and - The resolution of ASN dated 19 December 2012 approving the start of work on reinforcing the reactor basemat in accordance with the dossier submitted by EDF; 3 - Germany: Judgment of the European Court of Justice on the nuclear fuel tax; 4 - India: Judgment of the High Court of Kerala in a public interest litigation challenging the constitutional validity of the Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Act, 2010; 5 - Japan - District court decisions on lawsuits related to the restart of Sendai NPP and Takahama NPP; 6 - Poland: Decision of the Masovian Voivod concerning the legality of the resolution on holding a local referendum in the Commune of Rozan regarding a new radioactive waste repository; Certain provisions of the Regulation of the Minister of Health of 18 February 2011 on the conditions for safe use of ionising radiation for all types of medical exposure have been declared unconstitutional by a judgment pronounced by the Constitutional Tribunal; 7 - Slovak Republic: Developments in relation to the disclosure of information concerning the Mochovce nuclear power plant

  9. UNCLOS and International Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Romera, Beatriz; Coelho, Nelson F.

    2018-01-01

    , treaty law is only one of many sources of the law that governs international relations, the others being customary international law and principles of law. The main conclusion of this chapter is that states may have to wake up to the limitations of the UNCLOS and that this will require understanding...... the relative role of this treaty among other sources of international law....

  10. The French nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    The nuclear law had been out of the environmental law. The act on the transparency and the security of the nuclear matter was enacted in 2006 and set in the code of the environment in 2012. It means that the nuclear law is part of the environmental law and that it is advanced. I will report the French nuclear law. (author)

  11. Demonstrating the Gas Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holko, David A.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a complete computer program demonstrating the relationship between volume/pressure for Boyle's Law, volume/temperature for Charles' Law, and volume/moles of gas for Avagadro's Law. The programing reinforces students' application of gas laws and equates a simulated moving piston to theoretical values derived using the ideal gas law.…

  12. Synthesis, growth, physicochemical properties and DFT calculations of 2-naphthol substituted Mannich base 1-(morpholino(phenyl) methyl) naphthalen-2-ol: A non linear optical single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis Raj, A.; Jeeva, M.; Shankar, M.; Venkatesa Prabhu, G.; Vimalan, M.; Vetha Potheher, I.

    2017-11-01

    2-Naphthol substituted Mannich base 1-morpholino(phenyl)methyl)naphthalen-2-ol (MPMN), a potential NLO active organic single crystal was developed using acetonitrile as a solvent by slow evaporation method. The experimental and theoretical analysis made towards the exploitation in the field of electro-optic and NLO applications. The cubic structure with non-centrosymmetric space group Cc was confirmed and cell dimensions of the grown crystal were obtained from single crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) study. The formation of the Csbnd Nsbnd C vibrational band at 1115 cm-1 in Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) analysis confirms the formation of MPMN compound. The placement of protons and carbons of MPMN were identified from Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (NMR) analysis. The wide optical absorption window and the lower cutoff wavelength of MPMN show the suitability of the material for the various laser related applications. The presence of dislocations and growth pattern of crystal were analyzed using chemical etching technique. The Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) of MPMN was found to be 1.57 times greater than the standard KDP crystal. The laser damage threshold was measured by using Nd: YAG laser beam passed through the sample and it was found to be 1.006 GW/cm2. The electronic structure of the molecular system and the optical properties were also studied from quantum chemical calculations using Density Functional Theory (DFT) and reported for the first time.

  13. Effect of recombinant insulin-like growth factor-1 treatment on short-term linear growth in a child with Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II and hepatic insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faienza, Maria Felicia; Acquafredda, Angelo; D'Aniello, Mariangela; Soldano, Lucia; Marzano, Flaviana; Ventura, Annamaria; Cavallo, Luciano

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of a boy affected by severe intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation, microcephaly, facial dysmorphisms and postnecrotic cirrhosis, diagnosed at birth as having Seckel syndrome, and subsequently confirmed as Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II) on the basis of clinical and radiological features of skeletal dysplasia. At our observation (6 years 7 months) he presented height -10.3 standard deviation score (SDS), weight -22.1 SDS, head circumference -8 SDS, delayed bone age of 4 years with respect to chronological age. In consideration of the low levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) as well as of hepatic insufficiency, we started the treatment with recombinant human IGF-1 (rhIGF-1) at the dose of 0.04 mg/kg in 2 doses/day, with an increase of 0.04 mg/kg after 1 week until the maximum dose of 0.12 mg/kg. We observed an early response to rhIGF-1 treatment, with a shift of height velocity from 1.8 cm/year (-4.6 SDS) at 4 cm/year (-1.9 SDS), and an increase in bone age of 1.5 years during the first 6 months. rhIGF-1 treatment does not seem to be able to replace the physiological action of IGF-1 in patients with MOPD II and hepatic insufficiency, however, it seems to preserve the typical growth pattern of MOPD II patients, avoiding a further widening of the growth deficiency in these subjects.

  14. Law Enforcement Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Law Enforcement Locations in Kansas Any location where sworn officers of a law enforcement agency are regularly based or stationed. Law enforcement agencies "are...

  15. Tenancy Law Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edlund, Hans Henrik

    2003-01-01

    Report on Danish Tenancy Law. Contribution to a research project co-financed by the Grotius Programme for Judicial Co-Operation in Civil Matters. http://www.iue.it/LAW/ResearchTeaching/EuropeanPrivateLaw/Projects.shtml......Report on Danish Tenancy Law. Contribution to a research project co-financed by the Grotius Programme for Judicial Co-Operation in Civil Matters. http://www.iue.it/LAW/ResearchTeaching/EuropeanPrivateLaw/Projects.shtml...

  16. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    The first point concerns the judgement of the federal Administration Court on the standing of third parties regarding attacks at interim storage facilities (2008). In its judgement handed down on 10. april 2008, the german Federal Administrative Court overrules a decision of a Higher Regional Administrative Court and declares that residents in the vicinity of an interim storage facility may challenge the licence for that facility on the grounds that the necessary protection has not been provided against disruptive action or other interference by third parties. The second point concerns the judgement of the European Court of justice of a member State to fulfill obligations under directive 96/29 EURATOM (2007): the united kingdom imposed to intervene only if a situation of radioactive contamination results from a present or past activity for the exercise of which a licence was granted. The national legislation does not oblige the authorities to take measures in circumstances in which radioactive contamination results from a past practice which was not the subject of a such licence. The United Kingdom Government admitted the validity of the Commission claims adding that further legislation to transpose that article (article 53) into national laws is in the process of being drawn up. The third point is relative to judgement of the US court of Appeals on licensing of the L.E.S. uranium enrichment facility (2007), on appeal to the Federal Court of Appeals for the district of Columbia, the joint petitioners objected to the Nuclear regulatory Commission (NRC) issuing to the Louisiana Energy Services, L.P. (L.E.S.) Uranium enrichment Facility in New Mexico on several grounds: the NRC violated the Atomic Energy Act by supplementing the environmental impact statement after hearing closed; the NRC violated the National Environmental Policy Act by insufficiently analysing the environmental impact of depleted uranium waste from the L.E.S. facility; the NRC violated the Atomic

  17. Hamiltonian structures of some non-linear evolution equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, G.Z.

    1983-06-01

    The Hamiltonian structure of the O(2,1) non-linear sigma model, generalized AKNS equations, are discussed. By reducing the O(2,1) non-linear sigma model to its Hamiltonian form some new conservation laws are derived. A new hierarchy of non-linear evolution equations is proposed and shown to be generalized Hamiltonian equations with an infinite number of conservation laws. (author)

  18. STABILITY, BIFURCATIONS AND CHAOS IN UNEMPLOYMENT NON-LINEAR DYNAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pagliari Carmen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The traditional analysis of unemployment in relation to real output dynamics is based on some empirical evidences deducted from Okun’s studies. In particular the so called Okun’s Law is expressed in a linear mathematical formulation, which cannot explain the fluctuation of the variables involved. Linearity is an heavy limit for macroeconomic analysis and especially for every economic growth study which would consider the unemployment rate among the endogenous variables. This paper deals with an introductive study about the role of non-linearity in the investigation of unemployment dynamics. The main idea is the existence of a non-linear relation between the unemployment rate and the gap of GDP growth rate from its trend. The macroeconomic motivation of this idea moves from the consideration of two concatenate effects caused by a variation of the unemployment rate on the real output growth rate. These two effects are concatenate because there is a first effect that generates a secondary one on the same variable. When the unemployment rate changes, the first effect is the variation in the level of production in consequence of the variation in the level of such an important factor as labour force; the secondary effect is a consecutive variation in the level of production caused by the variation in the aggregate demand in consequence of the change of the individual disposal income originated by the previous variation of production itself. In this paper the analysis of unemployment dynamics is carried out by the use of the logistic map and the conditions for the existence of bifurcations (cycles are determined. The study also allows to find the range of variability of some characteristic parameters that might be avoided for not having an absolute unpredictability of unemployment dynamics (deterministic chaos: unpredictability is equivalent to uncontrollability because of the total absence of information about the future value of the variable to

  19. Acoustic emission linear pulse holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, H.D.; Busse, L.J.; Lemon, D.K.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the emission linear pulse holography which produces a chronological linear holographic image of a flaw by utilizing the acoustic energy emitted during crack growth. A thirty two point sampling array is used to construct phase-only linear holograms of simulated acoustic emission sources on large metal plates. The concept behind the AE linear pulse holography is illustrated, and a block diagram of a data acquisition system to implement the concept is given. Array element spacing, synthetic frequency criteria, and lateral depth resolution are specified. A reference timing transducer positioned between the array and the inspection zone and which inititates the time-of-flight measurements is described. The results graphically illustrate the technique using a one-dimensional FFT computer algorithm (ie. linear backward wave) for an AE image reconstruction

  20. Greedy algorithms and Zipf laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, José; Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe

    2018-04-01

    We consider a simple model of firm/city/etc growth based on a multi-item criterion: whenever entity B fares better than entity A on a subset of M items out of K, the agent originally in A moves to B. We solve the model analytically in the cases K  =  1 and . The resulting stationary distribution of sizes is generically a Zipf-law provided M  >  K/2. When , no selection occurs and the size distribution remains thin-tailed. In the special case M  =  K, one needs to regularize the problem by introducing a small ‘default’ probability ϕ. We find that the stationary distribution has a power-law tail that becomes a Zipf-law when . The approach to the stationary state can also be characterized, with strong similarities with a simple ‘aging’ model considered by Barrat and Mézard.

  1. Generalized non-linear Schroedinger hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aratyn, H.; Gomes, J.F.; Zimerman, A.H.

    1994-01-01

    The importance in studying the completely integrable models have became evident in the last years due to the fact that those models present an algebraic structure extremely rich, providing the natural scenery for solitons description. Those models can be described through non-linear differential equations, pseudo-linear operators (Lax formulation), or a matrix formulation. The integrability implies in the existence of a conservation law associated to each of degree of freedom. Each conserved charge Q i can be associated to a Hamiltonian, defining a time evolution related to to a time t i through the Hamilton equation ∂A/∂t i =[A,Q i ]. Particularly, for a two-dimensions field theory, infinite degree of freedom exist, and consequently infinite conservation laws describing the time evolution in space of infinite times. The Hamilton equation defines a hierarchy of models which present a infinite set of conservation laws. This paper studies the generalized non-linear Schroedinger hierarchy

  2. 重複觀測量數之分析:多群體多變項線性成長模式的估計Data Analysis of Repeated Measures: Estimating a Multi-Group Multivariate Linear Growth Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    溫福星 Fur-Hsing Wen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available 本研究利用「台灣教育長期追蹤資料庫」的一般分析能力與數學分析能力的四波調查結果,配合男、女學生樣本進行多群體多條追蹤資料的線性成長模式估計。在考慮重複觀測資料誤差項在不同時點的變異數非同質與不同時點間的共變數非獨立情況下,以及男、女學生的不同成長軌跡,將誤差項結構設為無限制結構,利用虛擬變項交互項法與虛擬變項多樣本法同時估計不同性別、不同能力的線性成長軌跡變化。由於全部追蹤資料樣本存在遺失值的情形,本研究以階層線性模式(hierarchical linear modeling, HLM)軟體對完整資料2,806位學生進行分析,其估計結果發現,在完整資料的兩條成長軌跡模式中,男、女學生誤差項共變異數矩陣結構相同,但線性成長軌跡不恆等。除此之外,本文並對競爭模式比較的結果在文章最後進行討論並提出相關的建議。 This paper demonstrates the data analysis of the repeated measures from the Taiwan Education Panel Survey (TEPS. Based on the four data waves on the TEPS, we consider two abilities (general and mathematic and two population groups (male and female students to construct a multi-group multivariate linear growth model. Because the two-group multivariate repeated measures belong to the different populations and the different research variables, the residual terms of linear growth models may imply heterogeneity of the error covariance structure. We treat the error covariance structure as an unrestricted structure to compare the various types of models. The results from the HLM on the complete data (2,806 students reveal that the male and female students in this study have the same error covariance structure but have distinct linear growth trajectories. In addition, comparisons of the competitive models and related suggestions are discussed in the results and conclusion

  3. Democratic contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the normative relationship between contract law and democracy. In particular, it argues that in order to be legitimate contract law needs to have a democratic basis. Private law is not different in this respect from public law. Thus, the first claim made in this article will

  4. Investigating Coulomb's Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Ellis; Koehlinger, Mervin; Kowalski, Ludwik; Swackhamer, Gregg

    1998-01-01

    Describes the use of a computer-linked camera to demonstrate Coulomb's law. Suggests a way of reducing the difficulties in presenting Coulomb's law by teaching the inverse square law of gravity and the inverse square law of electricity in the same unit. (AIM)

  5. Teaching Human Rights Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Howard R.

    1985-01-01

    The international community has developed a system of human rights law relevant to many areas of legal encounter, which American law schools have been slow to incorporate into curricula. Teaching human rights law provides an opportunity for law schools to enrich the learning process and contribute creatively to the respect for rights in society.…

  6. Tax Law System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsindeliani, Imeda A.

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with consideration of the actual theoretic problems of the subject and system of tax law in Russia. The theoretical approaches to determination of the nature of separate institutes of tax law are represented. The existence of pandect system intax law building as financial law sub-branch of Russia is substantiated. The goal of the…

  7. How to accelerate the energy transition? Opinion of the implementation of the law related to energy transition for a green growth (LTECV). Opinion of the economic, social and environmental Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duval, Guillaume; Charru, Madeleine

    2018-01-01

    This publication states the critical opinion of the French economic, social and environmental Council (CESE) on the French energy policy notably defined within the law on energy transition for a green growth. In a first part, the authors discuss the different ambitious objectives (global objectives and those related to a low carbon strategy, to the energy multi-year programme, and to simplification) and outline the necessity of a better implementation. Then, they address aspects related to governance, and outline the complexity of the organisation at the national level, an insufficient steering, and the fact that territories are now awarded new competencies and that questions remain unanswered as far as means are concerned. The report then proposes a first assessment which reveals that global objectives are difficult to reach, means are insufficient, renovation objectives (for housing and office building) are far from being reached, transports appear to be a weak point in the transition, the taking of these issues into account in agriculture is still insufficient, industry and services display a contrasted situation, energy production and service providers are facing complex evolutions, and renewable energies are facing difficulties in reaching the desired pace. The last part discuss how to accelerate energy transition through a mobilisation of all actors

  8. Linear Algebra and Smarandache Linear Algebra

    OpenAIRE

    Vasantha, Kandasamy

    2003-01-01

    The present book, on Smarandache linear algebra, not only studies the Smarandache analogues of linear algebra and its applications, it also aims to bridge the need for new research topics pertaining to linear algebra, purely in the algebraic sense. We have introduced Smarandache semilinear algebra, Smarandache bilinear algebra and Smarandache anti-linear algebra and their fuzzy equivalents. Moreover, in this book, we have brought out the study of linear algebra and vector spaces over finite p...

  9. Law across nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of participants keen to work together to promote research and policy development in such a lively forum." - Professor Steve Saxby PhD, Cert Ed., MBCS Professor of IT Law and Public Policy, Solicitor, Deputy Head of School (Research), Faculty of Business and Law, University of Southampton, Editor...... not only the original themes of Legal, Security and Privacy Issues in IT Law and International Law and Trade but more recently two new conferences on International Public and Private Law. The papers in this volume then represent the contributions to all these fields and reflect the strong desire......-in-Chief, The Computer Law & Security Review - The International Journal of Technology Law and Practice (Elsevier), www.elsevier.com/locate/clsr, Editor, The Encyclopedia of Information Technology Law (Sweet & Maxwell), Director ILAWS - Institute for Law and the Web - School of Law, Southampton University, www...

  10. International Investment Law and EU Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    regional economic integration agreements, International Competition Law, International Investment Regulation, International Monetary Law, International Intellectual Property Protection and International Tax Law. In addition to the regular annual volumes, EYIEL Special Issues routinely address specific...... current topics in International Economic Law. The entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty entails sweeping changes with respect to foreign investment regulation. Most prominently, the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) now contains in its Article 207 an explicit competence...... for the regulation of foreign direct investment as part of the Common Commercial Policy (CCP) chapter. With this new competence, the EU will become an important actor in the field of international investment politics and law. The new empowerment in the field of international investment law prompts a multitude...

  11. Property law in Jersey

    OpenAIRE

    MacLeod, Rebecca Frances

    2012-01-01

    Jersey law, and within it Jersey property law, has received little academic attention. This thesis seeks to examine, and provide a systematic account of, the Jersey law of property. Specific aspects of substantive law are explored. From these, general observations about the nature and structure of property law are made. Unsurprisingly, given the small size of the island, Jersey has a relatively limited amount of indigenous legal material to offer, much of it in French. Inevitab...

  12. EU Labour Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ruth

    The focus in this book is upon EU labour law and its interaction with national and international labour law. The book provides an analysis of the framework and sources of European labour law. It covers a number of substantive topics, notably collective labour law, individual employment contracts......, discrimination on grounds of sex and on other grounds, free movement of persons, restructuring of enterprises, working environment and enforcement of rights derived from EU labour law....

  13. Environmental law and sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Oliva Sirgo Álvarez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the origin and birth of the human right to a safe and healthy environment in order to allow everyone to live a dignified and quality life. It also analyses the essential content of sustainable development, which must always guide the development of environmental law to ensure a healthy environment for human present and future generations, and a sustainable economic growth that contributes to the development of equal opportunities for all people.

  14. Europeanisation of private law and English law

    OpenAIRE

    Beale, Hugh

    2003-01-01

    To what extent is English Private Law being affected by the United Kingdom’s membership of the European Union? I think we can try to answer this at three levels: (i) The United Kingdom’s compliance with EU legislation; (ii) the influence of European ideas on English Private Law; (iii) the attitude in England towards greater harmonisation or possible unification of European Private Law

  15. On Newton's third law and its symmetry-breaking effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro, Mario J

    2011-01-01

    The law of action-reaction, considered by Ernst Mach as the cornerstone of physics, is thoroughly used to derive the conservation laws of linear and angular momentum. However, the conflict between momentum conservation law and Newton's third law, on experimental and theoretical grounds, calls for more attention. We give a background survey of several questions raised by the action-reaction law and, in particular, the role of the physical vacuum is shown to provide an appropriate framework for clarifying the occurrence of possible violations of the action-reaction law. Then, in the framework of statistical mechanics, using a maximizing entropy procedure, we obtain an expression for the general linear momentum of a body particle. The new approach presented here shows that Newton's third law is not verified in systems out of equilibrium due to an additional entropic gradient term present in the particle's momentum.

  16. Miniature linear cooler development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruitt, G.R.

    1993-01-01

    An overview is presented of the status of a family of miniature linear coolers currently under development by Hughes Aircraft Co. for use in hand held, volume limited or power limited infrared applications. These coolers, representing the latest additions to the Hughes family of TOP trademark [twin-opposed piston] linear coolers, have been fabricated and tested in three different configurations. Each configuration is designed to utilize a common compressor assembly resulting in reduced manufacturing costs. The baseline compressor has been integrated with two different expander configurations and has been operated with two different levels of input power. These various configuration combinations offer a wide range of performance and interface characteristics which may be tailored to applications requiring limited power and size without significantly compromising cooler capacity or cooldown characteristics. Key cooler characteristics and test data are summarized for three combinations of cooler configurations which are representative of the versatility of this linear cooler design. Configurations reviewed include the shortened coldfinger [1.50 to 1.75 inches long], limited input power [less than 17 Watts] for low power availability applications; the shortened coldfinger with higher input power for lightweight, higher performance applications; and coldfingers compatible with DoD 0.4 Watt Common Module coolers for wider range retrofit capability. Typical weight of these miniature linear coolers is less than 500 grams for the compressor, expander and interconnecting transfer line. Cooling capacity at 80K at room ambient conditions ranges from 400 mW to greater than 550 mW. Steady state power requirements for maintaining a heat load of 150 mW at 80K has been shown to be less than 8 Watts. Ongoing reliability growth testing is summarized including a review of the latest test article results

  17. Radiation protection and the laws and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Takuo

    1980-01-01

    In hospitals and clinics, when cobalt remote irradiation apparatuses, betatrons and linear accelerators are installed, the provisions of medical and radiation injury prevention laws and other related laws and regulations must be observed. The following matters are described: the laws and regulations concerning the prevention of radiation injuries, the definitions of the therapeutical equipments, the radiation protection standards for such facilities, radiation exposure dose and permissible dose, the procedures concerning the application before usage, the responsibilities of hospitals and clinics for radiation measurement and management, and shielding and shield calculations. (J.P.N.)

  18. Equipartitioning in linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameson, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    Emittance growth has long been a concern in linear accelerators, as has the idea that some kind of energy balance, or equipartitioning, between the degrees of freedom, would ameliorate the growth. M. Prome observed that the average transverse and longitudinal velocity spreads tend to equalize as current in the channel is increased, while the sum of the energy in the system stays nearly constant. However, only recently have we shown that an equipartitioning requirement on a bunched injected beam can indeed produce remarkably small emittance growth. The simple set of equations leading to this condition are outlined. At the same time, Hofmann has investigated collective instabilities in transported beams and has identified thresholds and regions in parameter space where instabilities occur. Evidence is presented that shows transport system boundaries to be quite accurate in computer simulations of accelerating systems. Discussed are preliminary results of efforts to design accelerators that avoid parameter regions where emittance is affected by the instabilities identified by Hofmann. These efforts suggest that other mechanisms are present. The complicated behavior of the RFQ linac in this framework also is shown

  19. Equipartitioning in linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameson, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    Emittance growth has long been a concern in linear accelerators, as has the idea that some kind of energy balance, or equipartitioning, between the degrees of freedom, would ameliorate the growth. M. Prome observed that the average transverse and longitudinal velocity spreads tend to equalize as current in the channel is increased, while the sum of the energy in the system stays nearly constant. However, only recently have we shown that an equipartitioning requirement on a bunched injected beam can indeed produce remarkably small emittance growth. The simple set of equations leading to this condition are outlined below. At the same time, Hofmann, using powerful analytical and computational methods, has investigated collective instabilities in transported beams and has identified thresholds and regions in parameter space where instabilities occur. This is an important generalization. Work that he will present at this conference shows that the results are essentially the same in r-z coordinates for transport systems, and evidence is presented that shows transport system boundaries to be quite accurate in computer simulations of accelerating systems also. Discussed are preliminary results of efforts to design accelerators that avoid parameter regions where emittance is affected by the instabilities identified by Hofmann. These efforts suggest that other mechanisms are present. The complicated behavior of the RFQ linac in this framework also is shown

  20. A Non-Linear Upscaling Approach for Wind Turbines Blades Based on Stresses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castillo Capponi, P.; Van Bussel, G.J.W.; Ashuri, T.; Kallesoe, B.

    2011-01-01

    The linear scaling laws for upscaling wind turbine blades show a linear increase of stresses due to the weight. However, the stresses should remain the same for a suitable design. Application of linear scaling laws may lead to an upscaled blade that may not be any more a feasible design. In this

  1. LAW OCRACY ELOPMENT LAW DEMOCRACY & DEVELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP27975994114

    head of traditional central government, the headman was the head of the ward, and the family head exercised leadership at family level.13 Accordingly, the nature of traditional governance in South Africa was that of an unspecialised legal system where the king or chief was creator of laws, the executor of laws and the judge ...

  2. Conservation laws for multidimensional systems and related linear algebra problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Igonine, Sergei

    2002-01-01

    We consider multidimensional systems of PDEs of generalized evolution form with t-derivatives of arbitrary order on the left-hand side and with the right-hand side dependent on lower order t-derivatives and arbitrary space derivatives. For such systems we find an explicit necessary condition for the

  3. Conservation laws for multidimensional systems and related linear algebra problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Igonin, S.

    2002-01-01

    We consider multidimensional systems of PDEs of generalized evolution form with $t$-derivatives of arbitrary order on the left-hand side and with the right-hand side dependent on lower order $t$-derivatives and arbitrary space derivatives. For such systems we find an explicit necessary condition for

  4. RUSSIAN LAW SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Bakhrakh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The question about the subjects of law branches is concerning the number of most important and difficult in law science. Its right decision influences on the subject of law regulation, precise definition of addressees of law norms, the volume of their rights and duties, the limits of action of norms of Main part of the branch, its principles. Scientific investigations, dedicated to law subjects system, promote the development of recommendations for the legislative and law applying activity; they are needed for scientific work organization and student training, for preparing qualified lawyers.

  5. Acoustic emission linear pulse holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, H.D.; Busse, L.J.; Lemon, D.K.

    1983-10-25

    This device relates to the concept of and means for performing Acoustic Emission Linear Pulse Holography, which combines the advantages of linear holographic imaging and Acoustic Emission into a single non-destructive inspection system. This unique system produces a chronological, linear holographic image of a flaw by utilizing the acoustic energy emitted during crack growth. The innovation is the concept of utilizing the crack-generated acoustic emission energy to generate a chronological series of images of a growing crack by applying linear, pulse holographic processing to the acoustic emission data. The process is implemented by placing on a structure an array of piezoelectric sensors (typically 16 or 32 of them) near the defect location. A reference sensor is placed between the defect and the array.

  6. Friction laws at the nanoscale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Yifei; Turner, Kevin T; Szlufarska, Izabela

    2009-02-26

    Macroscopic laws of friction do not generally apply to nanoscale contacts. Although continuum mechanics models have been predicted to break down at the nanoscale, they continue to be applied for lack of a better theory. An understanding of how friction force depends on applied load and contact area at these scales is essential for the design of miniaturized devices with optimal mechanical performance. Here we use large-scale molecular dynamics simulations with realistic force fields to establish friction laws in dry nanoscale contacts. We show that friction force depends linearly on the number of atoms that chemically interact across the contact. By defining the contact area as being proportional to this number of interacting atoms, we show that the macroscopically observed linear relationship between friction force and contact area can be extended to the nanoscale. Our model predicts that as the adhesion between the contacting surfaces is reduced, a transition takes place from nonlinear to linear dependence of friction force on load. This transition is consistent with the results of several nanoscale friction experiments. We demonstrate that the breakdown of continuum mechanics can be understood as a result of the rough (multi-asperity) nature of the contact, and show that roughness theories of friction can be applied at the nanoscale.

  7. Feedback linearizing control of a MIMO power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyes, Laszlo

    Prior research has demonstrated that either the mechanical or electrical subsystem of a synchronous electric generator may be controlled using single-input single-output (SISO) nonlinear feedback linearization. This research suggests a new approach which applies nonlinear feedback linearization to a multi-input multi-output (MIMO) model of the synchronous electric generator connected to an infinite bus load model. In this way, the electrical and mechanical subsystems may be linearized and simultaneously decoupled through the introduction of a pair of auxiliary inputs. This allows well known, linear, SISO control methods to be effectively applied to the resulting systems. The derivation of the feedback linearizing control law is presented in detail, including a discussion on the use of symbolic math processing as a development tool. The linearizing and decoupling properties of the control law are validated through simulation. And finally, the robustness of the control law is demonstrated.

  8. The Growth Opportunities For SMC?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Smith, Valdemar; Bentzen, Jan Børsen

    2006-01-01

    The extensive empirical literature on the validity of Gibrat's law does not in general verify the law as it finds that firms' growth rates are negatively correlated with both firm size and age. However, some studies find that Gibrat's law holds for sub-samples of firms such as large firms or firms...

  9. Preconception Micronutrient Supplementation with Iron and Folic Acid Compared with Folic Acid Alone Affects Linear Growth and Fine Motor Development at 2 Years of Age: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong H; Gonzalez-Casanova, Ines; Young, Melissa F; Truong, Truong Viet; Hoang, Hue; Nguyen, Huong; Nguyen, Son; DiGirolamo, Ann M; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ramakrishnan, Usha

    2017-08-01

    Background: Maternal health and nutrition play a crucial role in early child growth and development. However, little is known about the benefits of preconception micronutrient interventions beyond the role of folic acid (FA) and neural tube defects. Objective: We evaluated the impact of weekly preconception multiple micronutrient (MM) or iron and folic acid (IFA) supplementation on child growth and development through the age of 2 y compared with FA alone. Methods: We followed 1599 offspring born to women who participated in a randomized controlled trial of preconception supplementation in Vietnam. Women received weekly supplements that contained either 2800 μg FA, 60 mg Fe and 2800 μg FA, or 15 MMs including IFA, from baseline until conception followed by daily prenatal IFA supplements until delivery. Child anthropometry was measured at birth and at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 mo. Child development was measured with the use of the Bayley Scales for Infant Development III at 24 mo. Results: The groups were similar for baseline maternal and offspring birth characteristics. At 24 mo of age, the offspring in the IFA group had significantly higher length-for-age z scores (LAZs) (0.14; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.26), reduced risk of being stunted (0.87; 95% CI: 0.76, 0.99), and smaller yearly decline in LAZs (0.10; 95% CI: 0.04, 0.15) than the offspring in the FA group. Similar trends were found for the offspring in the MM group compared with the FA group for LAZs (0.10; 95% CI: -0.02, 0.22) and the risk of being stunted (0.88; 95% CI: 0.77, 1.01). Offspring in the IFA group had improved motor development ( P = 0.03), especially fine motor development (0.41; 95% CI: 0.05, 0.77), at the age of 24 mo, but there were no differences for measures of cognition or language. Conclusions: Preconception supplementation with IFA improved linear growth and fine motor development at 2 y of age compared with FA. Future studies should examine whether these effects persist and improve child health and

  10. Stochastic growth of localized plasma waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, P.A.; Cairns, Iver H.

    2001-01-01

    Localized bursty plasma waves are detected by spacecraft in many space plasmas. The large spatiotemporal scales involved imply that beam and other instabilities relax to marginal stability and that mean wave energies are low. Stochastic wave growth occurs when ambient fluctuations perturb the system, causing fluctuations about marginal stability. This yields regions where growth is enhanced and others where damping is increased; bursts are associated with enhanced growth and can occur even when the mean growth rate is negative. In stochastic growth, energy loss from the source is suppressed relative to secular growth, preserving it far longer than otherwise possible. Linear stochastic growth can operate at wave levels below thresholds of nonlinear wave-clumping mechanisms such as strong-turbulence modulational instability and is not subject to their coherence and wavelength limits. These mechanisms can be distinguished by statistics of the fields, whose strengths are lognormally distributed if stochastically growing and power-law distributed in strong turbulence. Recent applications of stochastic growth theory (SGT) are described, involving bursty plasma waves and unstable particle distributions in type III solar radio sources, the Earth's foreshock, magnetosheath, and polar cap regions. It is shown that when combined with wave-wave processes, SGT also accounts for associated radio emissions

  11. Recent Case Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petz, Thomas; Sagaert, Vincent; Østergaard, Kim

    2004-01-01

    In this section authors from various European countries report the recent case law in their country on the field of private patrimonial law, that is decisions on the law of property, juridical acts, the law of obligations, contract law and prescription. The European Review of Private Law (ERPL......) started this section in 2003. The section aims to give our readers an overview of what is happening in the most recent European case law. We have asked the national reporters to report the juridical essence of the decisions given by the highest courts in their country. These national reports...... not relate the facts of the decision, nor the personal opinion of the reporter. One can find discussions on the most important decisions of European courts in ERPL’s case note section. The recent case law section gives overviews of decisions published in periods of four months. The period of January...

  12. By Law Established

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lisbet

    2017-01-01

    An analysis of the degree and content of statutory law regulation of Nordic Lutheran majority churches in 2017......An analysis of the degree and content of statutory law regulation of Nordic Lutheran majority churches in 2017...

  13. Civil Law Glossary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Update on Law-Related Education, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Presents a glossary of civil law terms originally compiled for journalists by the American Bar Association. Defines many essential civil law concepts and practices including compensatory damages, jurisdiction, motion to dismiss, discovery, and remedy. (MJP)

  14. Community Notification Laws

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Speck, Michael B

    2007-01-01

    .... Furthermore, a false sense of security and reductions in incest reporting continue to victimize children, which results in further sex offender laws passed by legislatures without empirical data supporting such laws...

  15. Themes in nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The nuclear law was analyzed during a workshop. The main aspects were: the law of population to access to information on nuclear energy and the relationship between the Regulator Organism and the nuclear power plants managers

  16. Health care law versus constitutional law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Mark A

    2013-04-01

    National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, the Supreme Court's ruling on the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, is a landmark decision - both for constitutional law and for health care law and policy. Others will study its implications for constitutional limits on a range of federal powers beyond health care. This article considers to what extent the decision is also about health care law, properly conceived. Under one view, health care law is the subdiscipline that inquires how courts and government actors take account of the special features of medicine that make legal or policy issues especially problematic - rather than regarding health care delivery and finance more generically, like most any other economic or social enterprise. Viewed this way, the opinions from the Court's conservative justices are mainly about general constitutional law principles. In contrast, Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg's dissenting opinion for the four more liberal justices is just as much about health care law as it is about constitutional law. Her opinion gives detailed attention to the unique features of health care finance and delivery in order to inform her analysis of constitutional precedents and principles. Thus, the Court's multiple opinions give a vivid depiction of the compelling contrasts between communal versus individualistic conceptions of caring for those in need, and between health care and health insurance as ordinary commodities versus ones that merit special economic, social, and legal status.

  17. Approaching comparative company law

    OpenAIRE

    Donald, David C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper identifies some common errors that occur in comparative law, offers some guidelines to help avoid such errors, and provides a framework for entering into studies of the company laws of three major jurisdictions. The first section illustrates why a conscious approach to comparative company law is useful. Part I discusses some of the problems that can arise in comparative law and offers a few points of caution that can be useful for practical, theoretical and legislative comparative ...

  18. On crystallization of law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szmodis Jenő

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article introduces the problem of autonomy of law. The paper examines the medieval origins of legal positivism from a historical approach, sketching the main theories concerning the emergence of law, and phrasing some preliminary consideration for a historical and philosophical view of the problem of the birth of law. As a result of reasoning the article suggests some legal historical and human ethological ideas relating to the phenomena of crystallization of the law.

  19. Stochastic model of Zipf's law and the universality of the power-law exponent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Ken

    2014-04-01

    We propose a stochastic model of Zipf's law, namely a power-law relation between rank and size, and clarify as to why a specific value of its power-law exponent is quite universal. We focus on the successive total of a multiplicative stochastic process. By employing properties of a well-known stochastic process, we concisely show that the successive total follows a stationary power-law distribution, which is directly related to Zipf's law. The formula of the power-law exponent is also derived. Finally, we conclude that the universality of the rank-size exponent is brought about by symmetry between an increase and a decrease in the random growth rate.

  20. LAW DEMOCRACY & DEVELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP27975994114

    is still on the increase.8 It is forecast that the world will face a 40 per cent .... the legal context entails.27 Renowned property law scholars, like Underkuffler, argue ..... operation of law.53 The classic examples of Roman law res publicae were ...

  1. European tax law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terra, B.J.M.; Wattel, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    This book is intended as a reference book for tax law and EC law pratitioners, tax administrators, academics, the judiciary and tax or Community law policy makers. For students, an abridged student edition textbook is available. The book offers a systematic survey of the tax implications of the EC

  2. Contract law as fairness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijnsma, J.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the implications for contract law of Rawls' theory of justice as fairness. It argues that contract law as an institution is part of the basic structure of society and as such subject to the principles of justice. Discussing the basic structure in relation to contract law is

  3. Transnational Constitutional Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zumbansen, P (Peer); K.I. Bhatt (Kinnari)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractThis chapter provides an overview of the emerging field of transnational constitutional law (TCL). Whilst questions of constitutional law are typically discussed in the context of a specific domestic legal setting, a salient strategy of TCL is to understand constitutional law and its

  4. Environmental law in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, Ellen Margrethe

    Modern Danish environmental law has a strong international dimension due to membership of EU and participation in global and regional agreements. The concept of transnational law that includes EU environmental law that has vertical as well as horizontal effects across jurisdictions binding national...

  5. Physics overview: Introduction to international linear collider physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Linear collider; Higgs boson; unified theory; dark matter. PACS Nos 29.17. ... to confidence that gauge symmetry is a guiding principle of the law of elementary ... physics beyond the standard model, and each model offers different scenario for.

  6. Unjust enrichment in business law

    OpenAIRE

    Vydrová, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    This thesis analyses the concept of unjust enrichment under the business law. First of all the thesis explains the term of business law. Business law is a complex of legal rules concerning the contractual relationships between entrepreneurs arising from their business activities. Business law is a comprehensive field of law which extends into many other fields of law, both private and public law. Equally the regulation of unjust enrichment within the business law expands into many other laws ...

  7. The principles and construction of linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, J.

    1986-09-01

    The problems posed to the designers and builders of high-energy linear colliders are discussed. Scaling laws of linear colliders are considered. The problem of attainment of small interaction areas is addressed. The physics of damping rings, which are designed to condense beam bunches in phase space, is discussed. The effect of wake fields on a particle bunch in a linac, particularly the conventional disk-loaded microwave linac structures, are discussed, as well as ways of dealing with those effects. Finally, the SLAC Linear Collider is described. 18 refs., 17 figs

  8. Linearly constrained minimax optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kaj; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans

    1978-01-01

    We present an algorithm for nonlinear minimax optimization subject to linear equality and inequality constraints which requires first order partial derivatives. The algorithm is based on successive linear approximations to the functions defining the problem. The resulting linear subproblems...

  9. Water, law, science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, T. N.

    2008-01-01

    SummaryIn a world with water resources severely impacted by technology, science must actively contribute to water law. To this end, this paper is an earth scientist's attempt to comprehend essential elements of water law, and to examine their connections to science. Science and law share a common logical framework of starting with a priori prescribed tenets, and drawing consistent inferences. In science, observationally established physical laws constitute the tenets, while in law, they stem from social values. The foundations of modern water law in Europe and the New World were formulated nearly two thousand years ago by Roman jurists who were inspired by Greek philosophy of reason. Recognizing that vital natural elements such as water, air, and the sea were governed by immutable natural laws, they reasoned that these elements belonged to all humans, and therefore cannot be owned as private property. Legally, such public property was to be governed by jus gentium, the law of all people or the law of all nations. In contrast, jus civile or civil law governed private property. Remarkably, jus gentium continues to be relevant in our contemporary society in which science plays a pivotal role in exploiting vital resources common to all. This paper examines the historical roots of modern water law, follows their evolution through the centuries, and examines how the spirit of science inherent in jus gentium is profoundly influencing evolving water and environmental laws in Europe, the United States and elsewhere. In a technological world, scientific knowledge has to lie at the core of water law. Yet, science cannot formulate law. It is hoped that a philosophical understanding of the relationships between science and law will contribute to their constructively coming together in the service of society.

  10. LAW OCRACY ELOPMENT LAW DEMOCRACY & DEVELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP27975994114

    to health care services dovetails with the international law approach to assessing compliance with the ..... with extended opening hours) are well distributed across the city.40 Availability of .... often constitutes a de facto denial of access to care.

  11. Human law and computer law comparative perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Hildebrandt, Mireille

    2014-01-01

    This book probes the epistemological and hermeneutic implications of data science and artificial intelligence for democracy and the Rule of Law, and the challenges posed by computing technologies traditional legal thinking and the regulation of human affairs.

  12. Stochastic equivalent linearization in 3-D hysteretic frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casciati, F.; Faravelli, L.

    1987-01-01

    Stochastic equivalent linearization technique for hysteretic systems is extended to study the dynamic response of 3-D frames with hysteretic constitutive laws in the potential plastic hinges. The constitutive law is idealized by an appropriate endochronic model. A general purpose finite element code is adopted in order to generate the matrices by which the equations of motion to be linearized are built. (orig./HP)

  13. Burgers' turbulence problem with linear or quadratic external potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Leonenko, N.N.

    2005-01-01

    We consider solutions of Burgers' equation with linear or quadratic external potential and stationary random initial conditions of Ornstein-Uhlenbeck type. We study a class of limit laws that correspond to a scale renormalization of the solutions.......We consider solutions of Burgers' equation with linear or quadratic external potential and stationary random initial conditions of Ornstein-Uhlenbeck type. We study a class of limit laws that correspond to a scale renormalization of the solutions....

  14. A common law agenda for labour law

    OpenAIRE

    Hough, Barry; Spowart-Taylor, Ann

    1999-01-01

    This article assesses the purposes of a re-contractualisation of the employment relationship. It examines in particular the implied duty to act in good faith, and argues that in developing this and other implied terms the judiciary only extends employment protection to further wealth maximisation. It is argued that the common law sees its contribution to labour law as a device for maximising the efficiency of the enterprise and promoting the creation of wealth for the benefit of the national ...

  15. Linearizing feedforward/feedback attitude control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paielli, Russell A.; Bach, Ralph E.

    1991-01-01

    An approach to attitude control theory is introduced in which a linear form is postulated for the closed-loop rotation error dynamics, then the exact control law required to realize it is derived. The nonminimal (four-component) quaternion form is used to attitude because it is globally nonsingular, but the minimal (three-component) quaternion form is used for attitude error because it has no nonlinear constraints to prevent the rotational error dynamics from being linearized, and the definition of the attitude error is based on quaternion algebra. This approach produces an attitude control law that linearizes the closed-loop rotational error dynamics exactly, without any attitude singularities, even if the control errors become large.

  16. Effective stress law for anisotropic elastic deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, M.M.

    1979-01-01

    An effective stress law is derived analytically to describe the effect of pore fluid pressure on the linearly elastic response of saturated porous rocks which exhibit anisotropy. For general anisotropy the difference between the effective stress and the applied stress is not hydrostatic. The effective stress law involves two constants for transversely isotropic response and three constants for orthotropic response; these constants can be expressed in terms of the moduli of the porous material and of the solid material. These expressions simplify considerably when the anisotropy is structural rather than intrinsic, i.e., in the case of an isotropic solid material with an anisotropic pore structure. In this case the effective stress law involves the solid or grain bulk modulus and two or three moduli of the porous material, for transverse isotropy and orthotropy, respectively. The law reduces, in the case of isotropic response, to that suggested by Geertsma (1957) and by Skempton (1961) and derived analytically by Nur and Byerlee

  17. Consequences of nonlinear heat transport laws on expected plasma profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lackner, K.

    1987-03-01

    The expected variation of plasma pressure profiles against changes in power deposition is investigated by using a simple linear heat transport law as well as a quadratic one. Applying the quadratic transport law it can be shown that the stiffening of the resulting profiles is sufficient to understand the experimentally measured phenomenon of 'profile consistence' without further assumptions of nonlocal effects. (orig.) [de

  18. A Memory-Based Model of Hick's Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Darryl W.; Anderson, John R.

    2011-01-01

    We propose and evaluate a memory-based model of Hick's law, the approximately linear increase in choice reaction time with the logarithm of set size (the number of stimulus-response alternatives). According to the model, Hick's law reflects a combination of associative interference during retrieval from declarative memory and occasional savings…

  19. Foundations of linear and generalized linear models

    CERN Document Server

    Agresti, Alan

    2015-01-01

    A valuable overview of the most important ideas and results in statistical analysis Written by a highly-experienced author, Foundations of Linear and Generalized Linear Models is a clear and comprehensive guide to the key concepts and results of linear statistical models. The book presents a broad, in-depth overview of the most commonly used statistical models by discussing the theory underlying the models, R software applications, and examples with crafted models to elucidate key ideas and promote practical model building. The book begins by illustrating the fundamentals of linear models,

  20. On the viscoelastic characterization of the Jeffreys-Lomnitz law of creep

    OpenAIRE

    Mainardi, Francesco; Spada, Giorgio

    2011-01-01

    In 1958 Jeffreys proposed a power law of creep, generalizing the logarithmic law earlier introduced by Lomnitz, to broaden the geophysical applications to fluid-like materials including igneous rocks. This generalized law, however, can be applied also to solid-like viscoelastic materials. We revisit the Jeffreys-Lomnitz law of creep by allowing its power law exponent $\\alpha$, usually limited to the range [0,1] to all negative values. This is consistent with the linear theory of viscoelastici...

  1. Scaling behaviour of randomly alternating surface growth processes

    CERN Document Server

    Raychaudhuri, S

    2002-01-01

    The scaling properties of the roughness of surfaces grown by two different processes randomly alternating in time are addressed. The duration of each application of the two primary processes is assumed to be independently drawn from given distribution functions. We analytically address processes in which the two primary processes are linear and extend the conclusions to nonlinear processes as well. The growth scaling exponent of the average roughness with the number of applications is found to be determined by the long time tail of the distribution functions. For processes in which both mean application times are finite, the scaling behaviour follows that of the corresponding cyclical process in which the uniform application time of each primary process is given by its mean. If the distribution functions decay with a small enough power law for the mean application times to diverge, the growth exponent is found to depend continuously on this power-law exponent. In contrast, the roughness exponent does not depe...

  2. Newton's law of cooling revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollmer, M

    2009-01-01

    The cooling of objects is often described by a law, attributed to Newton, which states that the temperature difference of a cooling body with respect to the surroundings decreases exponentially with time. Such behaviour has been observed for many laboratory experiments, which led to a wide acceptance of this approach. However, the heat transfer from any object to its surrounding is not only due to conduction and convection but also due to radiation. The latter does not vary linearly with temperature difference, which leads to deviations from Newton's law. This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the cooling of objects with a small Biot number. It is shown that Newton's law of cooling, i.e. simple exponential behaviour, is mostly valid if temperature differences are below a certain threshold which depends on the experimental conditions. For any larger temperature differences appreciable deviations occur which need the complete nonlinear treatment. This is demonstrated by results of some laboratory experiments which use IR imaging to measure surface temperatures of solid cooling objects with temperature differences of up to 300 K.

  3. Water, law, science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narasimhan, T.N.

    2007-10-17

    In a world with water resources severely impacted bytechnology, science must actively contribute to water law. To this end,this paper is an earth scientist s attempt to comprehend essentialelements of water law, and to examine their connections to science.Science and law share a common logical framework of starting with apriori prescribed tenets, and drawing consistent inferences. In science,observationally established physical laws constitute the tenets, while inlaw, they stem from social values. The foundations of modern water law inEurope and the New World were formulated nearly two thousand years ago byRoman jurists who were inspired by Greek philosophy of reason.Recognizing that vital natural elements such as water, air, and the seawere governed by immutable natural laws, they reasoned that theseelements belonged to all humans, and therefore cannot be owned as privateproperty. Legally, such public property was to be governed by jusgentium, the law of all people or the law of all nations. In contrast,jus civile or civil law governed private property. Remarkably, jusgentium continues to be relevant in our contemporary society in whichscience plays a pivotal role in exploiting vital resources common to all.This paper examines the historical roots of modern water law, followstheir evolution through the centuries, and examines how the spirit ofscience inherent in jus gentium is profoundly influencing evolving waterand environmental laws in Europe, the United States and elsewhere. In atechnological world, scientific knowledge has to lie at the core of waterlaw. Yet, science cannot formulate law. It is hoped that a philosophicalunderstanding of the relationships between science and law willcontribute to their constructively coming together in the service ofsociety.

  4. International Treaties Tax Law in Brazilian Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Zampieri Sellmann

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available International agreements are the primary source of obligations internationally, whi- ch generate reflections in national law. They have been extremely used in tax harvest because they avoid double taxation and reduce tax burden in international trade. They are formal sources of tax law, which the legislature is expressly recognized in Article 96 of the National Tax Code to set the “tax legislation” expression. Article 98 of the Code determines the supremacy of international tax agreements over national law. Against the odds, international tax agreements do not revoke or modify the national legislation, just limit the effectiveness of national law incompatible with them, with supra-legal hierarchy and infra-constitution. They are above national law, either after or before it is created, and are below the Federal Constitution, so agreements incompatible with it should not be approved by Congress and, if so, they will be subject to declaration of unconstitutionality by the Supreme Court. It is a reporting case the international agreement’s unconstitutio- nality after it is celebrated.

  5. Quasi-linear evolution of tearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellat, R.; Frey, M.; Tagger, M.

    1983-07-01

    The growth of a Tearing instability in Rutherford's nonlinear regime is investigated. Using a singular perturbation technique, lowest order Rutherford's result is recovered. To the following order it is shown that the mode generates a quasi-linear deformation of the equilibrium flux profile, whose resistive diffusion slows down the growth and shows the possibility of a saturation of the instability

  6. Non linear dynamics of magnetic islands in fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshcheriakov, D.

    2012-10-01

    In this thesis we investigate the issues of linear stability of the tearing modes in a presence of both curvature and diamagnetic rotation using the non linear full-MHD toroidal code XTOR-2F, which includes anisotropic heat transport, diamagnetic and geometrical effects. This analysis is applied to one of the fully non-inductive discharges on Tore-Supra. Such experiments are crucially important to demonstrate reactor scale steady state operation for the tokamak. The possibility of a full linear stabilization of the tearing modes by diamagnetic rotation in the presence of toroidal curvature is shown. The stabilization threshold does not follow the classical scaling law connecting the growth rate of islands to plasma conductivity, measured here by the Lundquist number (S). However, for numerical reasons, the conductivity used in the simulations is lower than that of the experiment, which raises the question of extrapolation of the obtained results to the experimental situation. The extrapolation of the obtained results requires simulations with several different conductivities. It predicts that the mode at q = 2 surface to be stable at value of diamagnetic frequency consistent with the experimental one at S = S(exp). In the linearly stable domain, the mode is metastable: saturation level depends on the seed island size. In the non linear regime, the saturation of n=1, m=2 mode is found to be strongly reduced by diamagnetic rotation and by Lundquist number. However, the extrapolation to the experimental situation shows that if the island is destabilized, it will saturate at a detectable level for the Tore Supra diagnostic. For a large plasma aspect ratio (i.e. weak curvature effects), the reduction of the saturated width by diamagnetic frequency takes the form of a jump reminiscent of multiple states evidenced in slab geometry case. The question of extrapolation of the obtained results towards future generation of fusion devices is also addressed. In particular, for

  7. The rule of law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besnik Murati

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The state as an international entity and its impact on the individual’s right has been and still continues to be a crucial factor in the relationship between private and public persons. States vary in terms of their political system, however, democratic states are based on the separation of powers and human rights within the state. Rule of law is the product of many actors in a state, including laws, individuals, society, political system, separation of powers, human rights, the establishment of civil society, the relationship between law and the individual, as well as, individual-state relations. Purpose and focus of this study is the importance of a functioning state based on law, characteristics of the rule of law, separation of powers and the basic concepts of the rule of law.

  8. Dentistry and criminal law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, B S; Khoury, J N

    2017-09-01

    Criminal law in dentistry, as shaped and moulded by the prevailing views of society, defines what is or is not socially acceptable. It applies in both personal and professional contexts with the intended consequence of protecting the public from unacceptable conduct and potential imbalances of power. At its centre, a patient's consent plays a pivotal role in transforming unlawful conduct into lawful conduct. This literature review considers the current law and the trend of utilizing criminal law in addition to non-criminal law alternatives of reprimanding clinicians for failure to achieve consent in the course of dental practice. Dentists must appreciate this change and the prosecuting authority's increasing willingness to resort to criminal law. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  9. Stochastic growth of localized plasma waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, P.A.; Cairns, I.H.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Localized bursty plasma waves occur in many natural systems, where they are detected by spacecraft. The large spatiotemporal scales involved imply that beam and other instabilities relax to marginal stability and that mean wave energies are low. Stochastic wave growth occurs when ambient fluctuations perturb the wave-driver interaction, causing fluctuations about marginal stability. This yields regions where growth is enhanced and others where damping is increased; observed bursts are associated with enhanced growth and can occur even when the mean growth rate is negative. In stochastic growth, energy loss from the source is suppressed relative to secular growth, preserving it for much longer times and distances than otherwise possible. Linear stochastic growth can operate at wave levels below thresholds of nonlinear wave-clumping mechanisms such as strong-turbulence modulational instability and is not subject to their coherence and wavelength limits. Growth mechanisms can be distinguished by statistics of the fields, whose strengths are lognormally distributed if stochastically growing, power-law distributed in strong turbulence, and uniformly distributed in log under secular growth. After delineating stochastic growth and strong-turbulence regimes, recent applications of stochastic growth theory (SGT) are described, involving bursty plasma waves and unstable particle distributions in type II and III solar radio sources, foreshock regions upstream of the bow shocks of Earth and planets, and Earth's magnetosheath, auroras, and polar-caps. It is shown that when combined with wave-wave processes, SGT accounts for type II and III solar radio emissions. SGT thus removes longstanding problems in understanding persistent unstable distributions, bursty fields, and radio emissions observed in space

  10. Zipf's law, power laws and maximum entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines—from astronomy to demographics to software structure to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation (RGF) attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present paper I argue that the specific cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified. (paper)

  11. Transnational Constitutional Law

    OpenAIRE

    Zumbansen, P (Peer); Bhatt, Kinnari

    2018-01-01

    textabstractThis chapter provides an overview of the emerging field of transnational constitutional law (TCL). Whilst questions of constitutional law are typically discussed in the context of a specific domestic legal setting, a salient strategy of TCL is to understand constitutional law and its values by placing them ‘in context’ with existing and evolving cultural norms and political, social and economic discourses and struggles. Drawing on socio-legal investigations into the relationships ...

  12. New Russian law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The information about the Russian Federation law dealing with population radiation safety signed by the President in January 1996 is given. The law is based on a new strategy of radiation protection including the mean efficient dose from all ionizing radiation sources as the main factor for evaluation of the safe level for the population. The norms stated in the law will become valid from January 1, 2000

  13. Labor Laws and Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Viral V. Acharya; Ramin P. Baghai; Krishnamurthy V. Subramanian

    2013-01-01

    Can stringent labor laws be efficient? Possibly, if they provide firms with a commitment device to not punish short-run failures and thereby incentivize the pursuit of value-maximizing innovative activities. In this paper, we provide empirical evidence that strong labor laws indeed appear to have an ex ante positive incentive effect by encouraging the innovative pursuits of firms and their employees. Using patents and citations as proxies for innovation and a time-varying index of labor laws,...

  14. Rhetoric in Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabrielsen, Jonas

    The bond between law and rhetoric is as old as the subjects themselves. Especially the ancient works on legal rhetoric afford, however, a too narrow depiction of the interaction between law and rhetoric as a purely instrumental discipline of communication in court. In this paper I challenge...... this narrow understanding of legal rhetoric and outline three distinct frames of understanding the relation between law and rhetoric...

  15. Enjoying the Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Henrik Jøker

    2005-01-01

    of the concept of enjoyment is instructive, and looking at it more closely makes it possible to spell out why obedience in itself does not suffice for a moral existence. Subjecting ourselves to the prescriptions of positive law might actually function as a way of escaping the insatiable demands of the moral law....... In this case, the positive law not only sustains our enjoyment (by securing basic liberties), but also comes to function as an object of enjoyment itself....

  16. Does environmental policy affect scaling laws between population and pollution? Evidence from American metropolitan areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Nicholas Z; Jha, Akshaya

    2017-01-01

    Modern cities are engines of production, innovation, and growth. However, urbanization also increases both local and global pollution from household consumption and firms' production. Do emissions change proportionately to city size or does pollution tend to outpace or lag urbanization? Do emissions scale differently with population versus economic growth or are emissions, population, and economic growth inextricably linked? How are the scaling relationships between emissions, population, and economic growth affected by environmental regulation? This paper examines the link between urbanization, economic growth and pollution using data from Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) in the United States between 1999 and 2011. We find that the emissions of local air pollution in these MSAs scale according to a ¾ power law with both population size and gross domestic product (GDP). However, the monetary damages from these local emissions scale linearly with both population and GDP. Counties that have previously been out of attainment with the local air quality standards set by the Clean Air Act show an entirely different relationship: local emissions scale according to the square root of population, while the monetary damages from local air pollution follow a 2/3rds power law with population. Counties out of attainment are subject to more stringent emission controls; we argue based on this that enforcement of the Clean Air Act induces sublinear scaling between emissions, damages, and city size. In contrast, we find that metropolitan GDP scales super-linearly with population in all MSAs regardless of attainment status. Summarizing, our findings suggest that environmental policy limits the adverse effects of urbanization without interfering with the productivity benefits that manifest in cities.

  17. Is Contract Law Necessary?

    OpenAIRE

    SCHWARTZ, Alan

    2010-01-01

    This lecture was delivered on 17 March 2010. Alan Schwartz, Sterling Professor of Law; Professor of Management, Yale University This Lecture argues that much of the contract law in the cases (the US, the UK and Canada) and in the codes (Europe and Latin America) is unnecessary. To say that a law is unnecessary is to say that it does not perform a useful social function. The argument below thus sets out the functions that contract laws today are thought to serve, and then shows that many of...

  18. Outlines of environmental Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salzwedel, J.

    1982-01-01

    In this omnibus, ten members of the working group for environmental law attempt to present the respective fields of environmental law in a consistent context, and to show the autonomy of each subject-matter as well as their interdependence and interrelationships. In the long run, the complexity of basic facts of natural science, technology and that of practical execution will require subject-specific penetration and application. Relationships between systems have to be realized to an increasing extent. Structures of law and administration have to be harmonized, and statements on the environmental impact of projects have to be made possible on the whole. Fundamental issues of environmental law are dealt with in the chapters entitled 'Concept and levels of applications of environmental law' and 'Environmental law in general'. The international, supranational and constitutional conditions given in advance of any environmental legislation increasingly gaining in importance are presented in the chapter on 'International environmental law', 'Basics of European Law' and on 'Constitutional Fundamentals'. The necessity of interdisciplinary cooperation becomes evident in those contributions concerning individual fields of environmental law. (orig./HSCH) [de

  19. Law before Gratian

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume, the third in the series, contains the proceedings of the conference 'Law before Gratian' and covers a wide range of topics from individual and local studies to broader reflections on the status and function of law in medieval European societies before the scholastic legal 'revolution......' of the later twelfth century. Seeking to broaden our view of what constituted law in this period, the articles examine these earlier developments in their own right and provide new insights into the variety and complexity of early and high medieval approaches to law and jurisprudence. Contributors...

  20. Operational Law Handbook,2007

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    ... & SOFAs, legal assistance, combating terrorism, domestic operations, noncombatant evacuation operations, special operations, civil affairs, air, sea, and space law, detainee operations, reserve...

  1. The laws of sociodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Movsesyan, Arsen A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to tell briefly about the newly discovered fundamental Laws of Sociodynamics, which are the driving force of the evolution of society and the determining factor of world historic process. Based on the principle of symmetry of the laws of nature the relationship between the Laws of Thermodynamics and Sociodynamics is shown, due to which the fifth Law of Thermodynamics has been formulated. In doing so the objectivity of the concept of «spirituality» has been subst...

  2. Institutions and growth: theoretical foundations and empirical evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, A.F.

    2000-09-01

    Institutions and growth rates are strongly linked both theoretically and empirically. They act through 'efficiency of governance'), as institutions of conflict management, and as devices for inter temporal optimization. Contrary to most of the literature, a non-linear (inversely u-shaped) influence of institutions on growth is also formally derived as a general hypothesis; this reflects the widely neglected notion that institutions also bring opportunity costs with them. Systematic econometric evaluations for a world-wide cross-sectional sample and a European Union panel show mixed results: the rule of law, property rights, and contract and law enforcement are consistently positively related to growth. In Europe, a non-linear relationship is often found for these and other institutions. Corporatism and trust are good for growth in Europe; both bring with them significant rent-seeking costs, though. Comparing the results one notes that no easy transfer of knowledge is possible from one sample to the other. This is an important policy conclusion in its own right. (author)

  3. Tornado outbreak variability follows Taylor's power law of fluctuation scaling and increases dramatically with severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippett, Michael K.; Cohen, Joel E.

    2016-01-01

    Tornadoes cause loss of life and damage to property each year in the United States and around the world. The largest impacts come from ‘outbreaks' consisting of multiple tornadoes closely spaced in time. Here we find an upward trend in the annual mean number of tornadoes per US tornado outbreak for the period 1954–2014. Moreover, the variance of this quantity is increasing more than four times as fast as the mean. The mean and variance of the number of tornadoes per outbreak vary according to Taylor's power law of fluctuation scaling (TL), with parameters that are consistent with multiplicative growth. Tornado-related atmospheric proxies show similar power-law scaling and multiplicative growth. Path-length-integrated tornado outbreak intensity also follows TL, but with parameters consistent with sampling variability. The observed TL power-law scaling of outbreak severity means that extreme outbreaks are more frequent than would be expected if mean and variance were independent or linearly related. PMID:26923210

  4. The welfare state and Baumol's law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Martin

    The paper considers a two-sector economy with a constant population: The public sector, with stable productivity, and a private sector, with productivity growth. Baumol's law says that such an economy has no steady state. It is demonstrated what this means. Two attempts to uphold a policy...

  5. The petroleum industry and environment law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, Richard

    1992-01-01

    A brief review is given of certain aspects of the petroleum industry's operation in the context of the growth in European Community environmental law. Topics covered include exploration and production, transportation by both pipeline and tanker, oil terminals, refineries and the abandonment and decommissioning of offshore installations. (UK)

  6. LAW OCRACY ELOPMENT LAW DEMOCRACY & DEVELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP27975994114

    of customary law, affect the positioning, operation and influence of traditional justice systems. ... communities of East Africa.11 In non-centralised communities, the people were as critical to ..... Other elements which make traditional justice systems the preferred option include ..... are in attendance as friends of the court.

  7. School Law Update...Preventive School Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Thomas N., Ed.; Semler, Darel P., Ed.

    A wide variety of contemporary legal issues are addressed in the 15 separate papers that make up this volume. The introductory chapter by William C. Bednar, Jr. provides a broad-based rationale for "Preventive School Law." Chapters 2 and 3, both by Gerald A. Caplan, review "Current Issues in Reduction-in-Force" and "First Amendment Claims by…

  8. LAW OCRACY ELOPMENT LAW DEMOCRACY & DEVELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP27975994114

    2016-06-02

    Jun 2, 2016 ... section 20(1)(a) of the Electoral Commission Act 51 of 1996 after counsel ... in the 2016 national municipal elections scheduled for 3 August 2016, .... of South African law 9 ed (Cape Town: Juta and Company Ltd 2007) 93.

  9. On the derivation of the ionisation threshold law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterkop, R.

    1983-01-01

    The different procedures for derivation of the electron-atom ionisation threshold law have been analysed and the reasons for discrepancies in the results are pointed out. It is shown that if the wavefunction has a linear node at equal electron distances (r 1 =r 2 ), then the threshold law for the total cross section has the form σ approx. Esup(3m), where σ approx. Esup(m) is the Wannier law. The distribution of energy between escaping electrons is non-uniform and has a parabolic node at equal energies (epsilon 1 = epsilon 2 ). The linear node at opposite directions of electrons (theta = π) does not change the Wannier law but leads to a parabolic node in angular distribution at theta = π. The existence of both nodes leads to the threshold law σ approx. Esup(3m) and to parabolic nodes in energy and angular distributions. (author)

  10. Retardo do crescimento e condições sociais em escolares de Osasco, São Paulo, Brasil Linear growth retardation and social factors among schoolchildren from the city of Osasco, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Lucia Martini Lei

    1997-04-01

    entering school at the same age, were characterized by a height-for-age index above -1 z score. Socioeconomíc variables such as family income, head-of-family's level of schooling, mother's schooling, environmental sanitation, and housing conditions were significant factors associated with the stunting process. Risk of linear growth retardation tended to be higher with lower social class (odds ratio = 7.3 for sub-proletariat vs. petit bourgeois; p < 0,001 for overall trend, suggesting the biological impact of Brazil's economic slowdown during the 1980s.

  11. Model(ing) Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Kerstin

    The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) was the first and most celebrated of a wave of international criminal tribunals (ICTs) built in the 1990s designed to advance liberalism through international criminal law. Model(ing) Justice examines the case law of the ICTY...

  12. Nanotechnology and the Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmoulin-Canselier, Sonia; Lacour, Stéphanie

    Law and nanotechnology form a vast subject. The aim here will be to examine them from the societal standpoint of nanoethics, if necessary without due reference to the work that has been undertaken. For while law differs from ethics, as we shall attempt to explain throughout this reflection, it must also be studied in its relationship with social realities.

  13. Archives: Mizan Law Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 21 of 21 ... Archives: Mizan Law Review. Journal Home > Archives: Mizan Law Review. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 21 of 21 Items. 2017. Vol 11, No 2 ...

  14. The Corporate Law Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mofsky, James S.

    1976-01-01

    On the premise that corporate counsel must be an able diagnostician before he can focus on highly specialized and interrelated issues of business law, the author suggests an approach to corporate law curriculum in which the basic course balances the quality and quantity of material designed to create the needed sensitivity. (JT)

  15. Civil Law and Neuroscience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kogel, C.H.; Schrama, W.M.; Smit, M.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between the brain and human behaviour is receiving increasing attention in legal practice. Much has already been published about the role of neuroscience in criminal law, but surprisingly little is known about its role in civil law. In this contribution, the relevance of

  16. Teaching Information Technology Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M. J.; Jones, R. P.; Haggerty, J.; Gresty, D.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we discuss an approach to the teaching of information technology law to higher education computing students that attempts to prepare them for professional computing practice. As information technology has become ubiquitous its interactions with the law have become more numerous. Information technology practitioners, and in particular…

  17. European food law handbook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der B.M.J.; Velde, van der M.; Szajkowska, A.; Verbruggen, R.

    2008-01-01

    This handbook analyses and explains the institutional, substantive and procedural elements of EU food law, taking the General Food Law as a focus point. Principles are discussed as well as specific rules addressing food as a product, the processes related to food and communication about food through

  18. EU Food Law Handbook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der B.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    The twenty-first century has witnessed a fundamental reform of food law in the European Union, to the point where modern EU food law has now come of age. This book presents the most significant elements of these legal developments with contributions from a highly qualified team of academics and

  19. Oromia Law Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Oromia Law Journal covers articles, book reviews, legislative and case comments related to legal, economic, political and social issues arising in relation to Oromia, Ethiopian, and other related International Laws. As such, the journal has two audiences-primary and secondary. The primary ones are legal professionals ...

  20. Essential EU Climate Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdman, Edwin; Roggenkamp, Martha; Holwerda, Marijn

    2015-01-01

    This innovative textbook takes a broad approach to EU climate law and presents all available legal instruments to combat climate change, ranging from greenhouse gas emissions trading to the use of renewable energy sources and energy efficiency mechanisms. After providing a definition of climate law,

  1. Law-Abiding Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Beijing has begun work on laws and regulations to guarantee the smooth operation of the 2008 Olympics One of the major tasks for Beijing as host of the 2008 Olympic Games is to establish regulations and laws to govern the preparations for and conduct of the Games. Thus, on April 10 the Olympic Legislation Coordinating

  2. | Yilma | Mizan Law Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current information age requires intellectual property laws to catch up with and proactively regulate unfolding technological realities. The dynamic advances in the domain of the Internet have thus necessitated corresponding changes in Ethiopias intellectual property legal regime including copyright laws in relation with ...

  3. Law Education Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letwin, Alita Zurav

    1983-01-01

    Course outlines and timelines for a junior high school elective, "Youth and the Law," and a senior high school elective, "Criminal and Civil Law," are provided. A sample brochure about a supplementary television series for the junior high course is also included. (SR)

  4. Social Studies: Law Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curriculum Review, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Reviews 11 series, texts, supplements, kits, and professional references for law instruction, including civil and criminal law, the Bill of Rights, and controversial legal issues: arson, gun control, capital punishment, and euthanasia. While all grade levels are covered, the emphasis is on secondary-level materials. (SJL)

  5. International nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello, M.M. de.

    1981-01-01

    The peculiar feature of a developing nuclear law is discussed. Opinions from various writers and jurists are presented. It is concluded that it should be considered as international law, whose main sources are the various treaties, conventions and agreements. (A.L.) [pt

  6. Introduction to planning law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronellenfitsch, M.

    1986-01-01

    The author surveys the planning law in the Federal Republic of Germany. He deals with general regulations of the administrative procedure and land-use planning procedure and the main special rules of planning law, according to the Atomic Energy Act, the Nuclear Installation Ordinance and the Federal Act on the Protection against Nuisances. (WG) [de

  7. Mizan Law Review: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. SUBMISSION GUIDELINES The following submissions are acceptable for publication upon approval by the Editorial Board. Publication of an ... and development of laws; Comments: Case comments that highlight and analyze issues, laws and their interpretation and application in case decisions or fact ...

  8. The law and neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzaniga, Michael S

    2008-11-06

    Some of the implications for law of recent discoveries in neuroscience are considered in a new program established by the MacArthur Foundation. A group of neuroscientists, lawyers, philosophers, and jurists are examining issues in criminal law and, in particular, problems in responsibility and prediction and problems in legal decision making.

  9. Language and the Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, John

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the language of law and its general interest to the field of applied linguistics. Specific focus is on legal language, the problems and remedies of legal communication (e.g., language and disadvantage before the law, improving legal communication) the legislation of language (e.g., language rights, language crimes), and forensic…

  10. Elaboration of Avogadro law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luk'yanov, A.T.

    1999-01-01

    In the report on the base of conducted experiments the conclusion about necessity of Avogadro law elaboration is made. It is suggested to add to existing formulation of the law 'In equal volumes of gases at similar pressure and temperature there are equal molecules number' - the elaboration 'and at same spectral content of heat sources'

  11. Law, Democracy & Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The evolution and implementation of democracy, good governance practices, human rights and socio-economic development are critical issues facing South Africa and Africa as a whole. Law interacts with this process in ways that may promote or inhibit it. Law, Democracy & Development addresses this interaction. Our aim ...

  12. The Law of Elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocco, Alberto; Masin, Sergio Cesare

    2010-01-01

    Participants estimated the imagined elongation of a spring while they were imagining that a load was stretching the spring. This elongation turned out to be a multiplicative function of spring length and load weight--a cognitive law analogous to Hooke's law of elasticity. Participants also estimated the total imagined elongation of springs joined…

  13. Expropriation law in France

    OpenAIRE

    Melot, Romain

    2015-01-01

    In this publication, the editors present the first comparative overview of expropriation law in Europe covering 15 different jurisdictions. For many of the countries represented, this publication is the first English-language description of their national expropriation law. This survey provides a lot of information for all practitioners in the field of expropriation of land.

  14. Essay on nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puig, Diva

    1994-01-01

    This book is divided in seven parts, covering international organizations in nuclear energy. agreements, nuclear laws and environment, national legislation program and Uruguayan legislation. The texts of the nuclear laws in Uruguay are reproduced, and several aspects on nuclear energy are discussed

  15. The incorporation of public international law into municipal law and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Monism and dualism represent two different approaches towards the relationship between public international law and municipal law. While the former views public international law and municipal law as a single legal system, the latter regards these two areas of law as separate and distinct legal systems that exist ...

  16. Nuclear security and law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozal, Y.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study is to show that the classical distinction between the military nuclear law and the civil nuclear law is outdated. The technologies are dual and might be misused from a pacific to a military goal. The central element of the nuclear law is thus the integration of the safety rules: the nuclear risk being universal, it has created an universal law (first part) that reflects our scientific knowledge and might thus evaluate. This universal law has been a factor of nuclear security (part 2), as in 50 years, there had been only one major nuclear accident and no nuclear conflict. The horizontal proliferation has been limited and the international community has understood that time had come to reduce our arsenals. (author)

  17. A linear programming manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuey, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    Computer solutions of linear programming problems are outlined. Information covers vector spaces, convex sets, and matrix algebra elements for solving simultaneous linear equations. Dual problems, reduced cost analysis, ranges, and error analysis are illustrated.

  18. Linear shaped charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, David; Stofleth, Jerome H.; Saul, Venner W.

    2017-07-11

    Linear shaped charges are described herein. In a general embodiment, the linear shaped charge has an explosive with an elongated arrowhead-shaped profile. The linear shaped charge also has and an elongated v-shaped liner that is inset into a recess of the explosive. Another linear shaped charge includes an explosive that is shaped as a star-shaped prism. Liners are inset into crevices of the explosive, where the explosive acts as a tamper.

  19. Classifying Linear Canonical Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Lorand, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    In this Master's thesis, we consider the problem of classifying, up to conjugation by linear symplectomorphisms, linear canonical relations (lagrangian correspondences) from a finite-dimensional symplectic vector space to itself. We give an elementary introduction to the theory of linear canonical relations and present partial results toward the classification problem. This exposition should be accessible to undergraduate students with a basic familiarity with linear algebra.

  20. Linear-Algebra Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, C. L.; Krogh, F. T.; Gold, S. S.; Kincaid, D. R.; Sullivan, J.; Williams, E.; Hanson, R. J.; Haskell, K.; Dongarra, J.; Moler, C. B.

    1982-01-01

    The Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS) library is a collection of 38 FORTRAN-callable routines for performing basic operations of numerical linear algebra. BLAS library is portable and efficient source of basic operations for designers of programs involving linear algebriac computations. BLAS library is supplied in portable FORTRAN and Assembler code versions for IBM 370, UNIVAC 1100 and CDC 6000 series computers.

  1. Linear positivity and virtual probability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartle, James B.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the quantum theory of closed systems based on the linear positivity decoherence condition of Goldstein and Page. The objective of any quantum theory of a closed system, most generally the universe, is the prediction of probabilities for the individual members of sets of alternative coarse-grained histories of the system. Quantum interference between members of a set of alternative histories is an obstacle to assigning probabilities that are consistent with the rules of probability theory. A quantum theory of closed systems therefore requires two elements: (1) a condition specifying which sets of histories may be assigned probabilities and (2) a rule for those probabilities. The linear positivity condition of Goldstein and Page is the weakest of the general conditions proposed so far. Its general properties relating to exact probability sum rules, time neutrality, and conservation laws are explored. Its inconsistency with the usual notion of independent subsystems in quantum mechanics is reviewed. Its relation to the stronger condition of medium decoherence necessary for classicality is discussed. The linear positivity of histories in a number of simple model systems is investigated with the aim of exhibiting linearly positive sets of histories that are not decoherent. The utility of extending the notion of probability to include values outside the range of 0-1 is described. Alternatives with such virtual probabilities cannot be measured or recorded, but can be used in the intermediate steps of calculations of real probabilities. Extended probabilities give a simple and general way of formulating quantum theory. The various decoherence conditions are compared in terms of their utility for characterizing classicality and the role they might play in further generalizations of quantum mechanics

  2. Computational aspects of linear control

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Many devices (we say dynamical systems or simply systems) behave like black boxes: they receive an input, this input is transformed following some laws (usually a differential equation) and an output is observed. The problem is to regulate the input in order to control the output, that is for obtaining a desired output. Such a mechanism, where the input is modified according to the output measured, is called feedback. The study and design of such automatic processes is called control theory. As we will see, the term system embraces any device and control theory has a wide variety of applications in the real world. Control theory is an interdisci­ plinary domain at the junction of differential and difference equations, system theory and statistics. Moreover, the solution of a control problem involves many topics of numerical analysis and leads to many interesting computational problems: linear algebra (QR, SVD, projections, Schur complement, structured matrices, localization of eigenvalues, computation of the...

  3. The Practice of Transnational Law

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    Contents :"The new law merchant and the global market place" by Klaus Peter Berger, "The CENTRAL enquiry on the use of transnational law in international contract law and arbitration", "The UNIDROIT principles and transnational law" by Michael Joachim Bonell, "Examples for the practical application of transnational law", "The questionnaire and results of the CENTRAL enquiry"

  4. Law, Marxism and Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul O'Connell

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Law is crucial to the maintenance and reproduction of capitalism. While Marx never produced a comprehensive theory of law, state and rights, there is much in his work, and in the broader Marxist tradition, that can help us understand the nature and role of law in contemporary capitalism. This paper sketches out some of the key resources from within the Marxist tradition that can assist us in developing Marxist understandings of law, state and rights today. Specifically, the focus is on the question of method, drawing out three key strands from Marx's own work: (i the importance of dialectical materialist analysis; (ii the historically specific and transitory nature of capitalism and (iii the centrality of class antagonism and class struggle. The argument advanced here, in sum, is that Marxist explanations of law, state and rights should foreground these analytical reference points, in order to make the role of law intelligible, and to begin to sketch how movements for fundamental social change might understand and engage with the law.

  5. Theoretical disagreement about law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravković Miloš

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As the dominant direction of the study of legal phenomena, legal positivism has suffered criticisms above all from representatives of natural law. Nevertheless, the most complex criticism of legal positivism came from Ronald Dworkin. With the methodological criticism he formed in 'Law's Empire', Dworkin attacked the sole foundations of legal positivism and his main methodological assumptions. Quoting the first postulate of positivism, which understands the law as a fact, Dworkin claims that, if this comprehension is correct, there could be no dispute among jurists concerning the law, except if some of them make an empirical mistake while establishing facts. Since this is not the case, Dworkin proves that this is actually a theoretical disagreement which does not represent a disagreement about the law itself, but about its morality. On these grounds, he rejects the idea of law as a fact and claims that the law is an interpretive notion, which means that disagreements within jurisprudence are most frequently interpretative disagreements over criteria of legality, and not empirical disagreements over historic and social facts.

  6. Power Laws are Disguised Boltzmann Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Peter; Solomon, Sorin

    Using a previously introduced model on generalized Lotka-Volterra dynamics together with some recent results for the solution of generalized Langevin equations, we derive analytically the equilibrium mean field solution for the probability distribution of wealth and show that it has two characteristic regimes. For large values of wealth, it takes the form of a Pareto style power law. For small values of wealth, wGeneralized Lotka-Volterra type of stochastic dynamics. The power law that arises in the distribution function is identified with new additional logarithmic terms in the familiar Boltzmann distribution function for the system. These are a direct consequence of the multiplicative stochastic dynamics and are absent for the usual additive stochastic processes.

  7. Tikhonov theorem for linear hyperbolic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Tang , Ying; Prieur , Christophe; Girard , Antoine

    2015-01-01

    International audience; A class of linear systems of conservation laws with a small perturbation parameter is introduced. By setting the perturbation parameter to zero, two subsystems, the reduced system standing for the slow dynamics and the boundary-layer system representing the fast dynamics, are computed. It is first proved that the exponential stability of the full system implies the stability of both subsystems. Secondly, a counter example is given to indicate that the converse is not t...

  8. Is Fitts' law continuous in discrete aiming?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Sleimen-Malkoun

    Full Text Available The lawful continuous linear relation between movement time and task difficulty (i.e., index of difficulty; ID in a goal-directed rapid aiming task (Fitts' law has been recently challenged in reciprocal performance. Specifically, a discontinuity was observed at critical ID and was attributed to a transition between two distinct dynamic regimes that occurs with increasing difficulty. In the present paper, we show that such a discontinuity is also present in discrete aiming when ID is manipulated via target width (experiment 1 but not via target distance (experiment 2. Fitts' law's discontinuity appears, therefore, to be a suitable indicator of the underlying functional adaptations of the neuro-muscular-skeletal system to task properties/requirements, independently of reciprocal or discrete nature of the task. These findings open new perspectives to the study of dynamic regimes involved in discrete aiming and sensori-motor mechanisms underlying the speed-accuracy trade-off.

  9. Extended constitutive laws for lamellar phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Deuk Yoo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Classically, stress and strain rate in linear viscoelastic materials are related by a constitutive relationship involving the viscoelastic modulus G(t. The same constitutive law, within Linear Response Theory, relates currents of conserved quantities and gradients of existing conjugate variables, and it involves the autocorrelation functions of the currents in equilibrium. We explore the consequences of the latter relationship in the case of a mesoscale model of a block copolymer, and derive the resulting relationship between viscous friction and order parameter diffusion that would result in a lamellar phase. We also explicitly consider in our derivation the fact that the dissipative part of the stress tensor must be consistent with the uniaxial symmetry of the phase. We then obtain a relationship between the stress and order parameter autocorrelation functions that can be interpreted as an extended constitutive law, one that offers a way to determine them from microscopic experiment or numerical simulation.

  10. Reconfiguring trade mark law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsmore, Matthew James

    2013-01-01

    -border setting, with a particular focus on small business and consumers. The article's overall message is to call for a rethink of received wisdom suggesting that trade marks are effective trade-enabling devices. The case is made for reassessing how we think about European trade mark law.......First, this article argues that trade mark law should be approached in a supplementary way, called reconfiguration. Second, the article investigates such a reconfiguration of trade mark law by exploring the interplay of trade marks and service transactions in the Single Market, in the cross...

  11. Changes in environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer-Tasch, P.C.

    1978-01-01

    In this study the changing process of environmental law is depicted which is marked by the ecological crisis and the increasing pressure of the ecological movement. Main emphasis is laid on the analysis of the reform of the ecological licensing and voidance procedures which is in the centre of the discussion about (environmental) law policy as well as on the jurisprudential enforcement of the basic environmental right on life and physical integrity. The volume ends with a study on 'Nuclear Energy, Law and Judiciary Power' - a subject which is of immediate interest and special significance with its far-reaching political consequences for ecology, energy, and economics. (orig.) [de

  12. Environmental law in change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer-Tasch, P.C.

    1978-01-01

    This study describes the process of change of environmental protection law taking place during an ecological crisis and unter the increasing pressure of the ecological movement. Special analyses refer to the reform of the licensing procedures and prodecures of dispute under environmental protection law today being in the focus of juridical discussion. Furthermore they refer to the juridical implementation of the fundamental right of life in an unspoiled and healthy environment. The volume ends with a study on ''Nuclear energy, law and justice'', - a subject being topical and important for its broad political consequences on environment, energy and economy. (orig.) [de

  13. Culture and Contract Laws

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ole

    2007-01-01

    In the article it is argued that the wish to preserve the cultural values of national law should not prevent the EU from preparing a Code or an Optional Instrument. The no-code countries on the British Isles and in Scandinavia are the most ardent opponents to the idea of unifying European Contract...... Law by way of a code on Contracts. In both these regions however the absence of a code causes problems. In England a prominent writer has found that the major weakness of the judge-made law is its immense diffusion and the consequent difficulty of access to it and the Nordic countries face the same...

  14. Islamic law of tort

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad, Abdul Basir Bin

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to discover cases and principles governing tort in Islamic law. The study is divided into six chapters, an introduction and a conclusion. The Introduction contains the explanation of the general characteristic of crime and tort, the scope, the importance of the study, methodology and the relevant literature of the thesis. Chapter one defines Western and Islamic law of tort, the existence of tort in Islām, some similar concepts between Western and Islām on the law o...

  15. Law, Literature and Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Miranda Bahiense de Lyra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to highlight the importance of literature in critical thinking about the law, coupled with the search for the emergence of an autonomous political subject and as a possibility of materialization of a new right . This shall be used , bibliographic research , seeking at first discuss the historical background of the "Law and Literature Moviment " to later approach the thought of Michel Foucault , their ideas about power, the constitution subjectivity , the ethical dimension of the subject and the care of itself, the Aufklärung and its conception of this new law.

  16. Numerical solutions of conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, C.W.

    1986-01-01

    In the computation of conservation laws u/sub t/ + f(u)/sub x/ 0, TVD (total-variation-diminishing) schemes have been very successful. TVB (total-variation-bounded) schemes share most the advantages and may remove some of the disadvantages (e.g. local degeneracy of accuracy at critical points) TVD schemes. Included in this dissertation are a class of m-step Runge-Kutta type TVD schemes with CFL number equaling m; a procedure to obtain uniformly high order in space TVB schemes; a class of TVD high order time discretizations; a special boundary treatment which keeps the high order of the scheme up to the boundary and preserves the TVB properties in the nonlinear scalar and linear system cases; a discrete entropy inequality for a modified Lax-Wendroff scheme applied to Burgers' equation; and discusses about error propagation in large regions

  17. A six-month intervention with two different types of micronutrient-fortified complementary foods had distinct short- and long-term effects on linear and ponderal growth of vietnamese infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phu, Pham V.; Hoan, Nguyen V.; Salvignol, Bertrand

    2012-01-01

    -scores in the C group intermediate and not significantly different from the others. This study shows that regular provision of locally produced CF fortified with micronutrients partly stopped growth faltering in Vietnamese infants, with differential effects on long-term length and ponderal growth. Providing only...

  18. The conservation laws for deformed classical models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimek, M.

    1994-01-01

    The problem of deriving the conservation laws for deformed linear equations of motion is investigated. The conserved currents are obtained in explicit form and used in the construction of constants of motion. The equations for the set of non-interacting oscillators with arbitrary scale-time as well as the κ-Klein-Gordon equation are considered as an example of application of the method. (author) 9 refs

  19. Lawful Permanent Residents - Annual Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A lawful permanent resident (LPR) or 'green card' recipient is defined by immigration law as a person who has been granted lawful permanent residence in the United...

  20. Non linear system become linear system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre Bucur

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper refers to the theory and the practice of the systems regarding non-linear systems and their applications. We aimed the integration of these systems to elaborate their response as well as to highlight some outstanding features.

  1. Linear motor coil assembly and linear motor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    An ironless linear motor (5) comprising a magnet track (53) and a coil assembly (50) operating in cooperation with said magnet track (53) and having a plurality of concentrated multi-turn coils (31 a-f, 41 a-d, 51 a-k), wherein the end windings (31E) of the coils (31 a-f, 41 a-e) are substantially

  2. Nuclear law Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bischof, W.

    1976-01-01

    This publication gives, in Dutch and German, a comprehensive survey of the Netherland's current law in the field of reactor safety and radiation protection, including a survey of international agreements. (orig./HP) [de

  3. Labour Law in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Ole

    . Sources of Labour Law Chapter 6. International Private Labour Law – Conflicts of Law Selected Bibliography Part I. The Individual Employment Relation Chapter 1. Definitions and Concepts Chapter 2. Rights and Duties of the Parties during Employment Chapter 3. Working Time, Annual Holidays, Public Holidays...... Falling on a Normal Working Day and Leave Schemes Chapter 4. Remuneration and Benefits Chapter 5. Incapacity to Work Chapter 6. Job Security Chapter 7. Protection of Certain Categories of Employee and against Discrimination in Employment Chapter 8. Covenants of Non-competition and Non-solicitation Chapter....... Strikes, Lock-outs and Other Legal Forms of Industrial Action Chapter 6. Settlement of Industrial Disputes of Interest and Protection of Vital Needs Chapter 7. Disputes of Rights Introductory Remarks Part I. Implementation into National Law Chapter 1. Legal Sources Chapter 2. Objective and Scope Chapter 3...

  4. Mizan Law Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mizan Law Review publishes peer reviewed scholarly articles that identify, ... legal and related principles, stipulations and concepts based on research findings. Mizan's ... Comment: Major Differences between the Revised 'Federal' and SNNP ...

  5. Understanding scaling laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysenko, W.P.

    1986-01-01

    Accelerator scaling laws how they can be generated, and how they are used are discussed. A scaling law is a relation between machine parameters and beam parameters. An alternative point of view is that a scaling law is an imposed relation between the equations of motion and the initial conditions. The relation between the parameters is obtained by requiring the beam to be matched. (A beam is said to be matched if the phase-space distribution function is a function of single-particle invariants of the motion.) Because of this restriction, the number of independent parameters describing the system is reduced. Using simple models for bunched- and unbunched-beam situations. Scaling laws are shown to determine the general behavior of beams in accelerators. Such knowledge is useful in design studies for new machines such as high-brightness linacs. The simple model presented shows much of the same behavior as a more detailed RFQ model

  6. Radiology and the law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bundy, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 12 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: The Law of Medical Malpractice: An Overview; The Radiologist as Defendant; The Radiologist as an Expert Witness; The Missed Diagnosis; Legalities of the Radiograph; and Angiography and Interventional Radiology

  7. The law on wastes. November 2016 - october 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanoy, Laurence

    2017-01-01

    In France, the law on wastes has been subject to important reforms following the passing, in 2015, of the law on the 'energy transition for a green growth'. In the continuity of this law, various evolutions concerning regulations and jurisprudence have been applied. These evolutions mainly concern waste management modalities (technical prescriptions applicable to facilities receiving wastes, status of wastes, domestic wastes, radioactive wastes, special wastes and cross-border waste transfers, general orientations of French and European laws on wastes) and liabilities related to wastes (administrative liability, taxation related to wastes, waste producer liabilities)

  8. Discontinuous Galerkin Method for Hyperbolic Conservation Laws

    KAUST Repository

    Mousikou, Ioanna

    2016-11-11

    Hyperbolic conservation laws form a special class of partial differential equations. They describe phenomena that involve conserved quantities and their solutions show discontinuities which reflect the formation of shock waves. We consider one-dimensional systems of hyperbolic conservation laws and produce approximations using finite difference, finite volume and finite element methods. Due to stability issues of classical finite element methods for hyperbolic conservation laws, we study the discontinuous Galerkin method, which was recently introduced. The method involves completely discontinuous basis functions across each element and it can be considered as a combination of finite volume and finite element methods. We illustrate the implementation of discontinuous Galerkin method using Legendre polynomials, in case of scalar equations and in case of quasi-linear systems, and we review important theoretical results about stability and convergence of the method. The applications of finite volume and discontinuous Galerkin methods to linear and non-linear scalar equations, as well as to the system of elastodynamics, are exhibited.

  9. Discontinuous Galerkin Method for Hyperbolic Conservation Laws

    KAUST Repository

    Mousikou, Ioanna

    2016-01-01

    Hyperbolic conservation laws form a special class of partial differential equations. They describe phenomena that involve conserved quantities and their solutions show discontinuities which reflect the formation of shock waves. We consider one-dimensional systems of hyperbolic conservation laws and produce approximations using finite difference, finite volume and finite element methods. Due to stability issues of classical finite element methods for hyperbolic conservation laws, we study the discontinuous Galerkin method, which was recently introduced. The method involves completely discontinuous basis functions across each element and it can be considered as a combination of finite volume and finite element methods. We illustrate the implementation of discontinuous Galerkin method using Legendre polynomials, in case of scalar equations and in case of quasi-linear systems, and we review important theoretical results about stability and convergence of the method. The applications of finite volume and discontinuous Galerkin methods to linear and non-linear scalar equations, as well as to the system of elastodynamics, are exhibited.

  10. Constitutionalization of Peruvian Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Landa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Constitutionalizaton of Law’s different areas is a phenomenon gradually more ingrained in our cultural and legal framework. Maybe the best demonstration is the increasingly prominent role of the Constitutional Court (TC – Constitution’s Supreme Interpreter – in defining and redefining concepts, rights and legal principles touching a range of subjects, from TaxLaw to Human Rights. This is relevant to understand the Law and its current effects whether it is valued positively or negatively.

  11. Nuclear law reviewed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    When an Agency Seminar on the Development of Nuclear Law was held in Bangkok during April, those taking part included two previous trainees with the Agency's Legal Division. Both hold important positions with their national Atomic Energy Commissions, one as Legal Adviser and the other as Chief Legal Officer. All others who attended are closely associated with drafting laws and regulations for nuclear activities. (author)

  12. Euthanasia and criminal law

    OpenAIRE

    Ullrichová, Petra

    2008-01-01

    71 8. Summary- Euthanasia and criminal law Euthanasia is often regarded as a controversial topic that is being discussed all around the world. The legislative rules differ among the countries to various extent. The scope of this work is to offer a summary of legal regulations in euthanasia, particulary in the area of criminal law and a several examples of these regulations in Europe, USA and Australia. In the first chapter, the term of euthanasia is defined which is necessary for the purpose ...

  13. MEDICAL LAW AND ETHICS

    OpenAIRE

    Sunčica Ivanović; Čedomirka Stanojević; Slađana Jajić; Ana Vila; Svetlana Nikolić

    2013-01-01

    The subject of interest in this article is the importance of knowing and connecting medical ethics and medical law for the category of health workers. The author believes that knowledge of bioethics which as a discipline deals with the study of ethical issues and health care law as a legal discipline, as well as medical activity in general, result in the awareness of health professionals of human rights, and since the performance of activities of health workers is almost always linked...

  14. Upstream health law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, William M; McIlhattan, Kelley

    2014-01-01

    For the first time, entrepreneurs are aggressively developing new technologies and business models designed to improve individual and population health, not just to deliver specialized medical care. Consumers of these goods and services are not yet "patients"; they are simply people. As this sector of the health care industry expands, it is likely to require new forms of legal governance, which we term "upstream health law." © 2014 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  15. China's renewables law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Li

    2005-01-01

    The paper discusses China's Renewable Energy Promotion Law which will come into force in January 2006. The law shows China's commitment to renewable energy sources. The target is to raise the country's energy consumption from renewables to 10% by 2020. Data for current capacity, and expected capacity by 2020, are given for wind power, solar power, biomass and hydroelectric power. The financial and technological hurdles which China must overcome are mentioned briefly

  16. Cosmological perturbations beyond linear order

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    Cosmological perturbation theory is the standard tool to understand the formation of the large scale structure in the Universe. However, its degree of applicability is limited by the growth of the amplitude of the matter perturbations with time. This problem can be tackled with by using N-body simulations or analytical techniques that go beyond the linear calculation. In my talk, I'll summarise some recent efforts in the latter that ameliorate the bad convergence of the standard perturbative expansion. The new techniques allow better analytical control on observables (as the matter power spectrum) over scales very relevant to understand the expansion history and formation of structure in the Universe.

  17. Meromorphic functions and linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Nevanlinna, Olavi

    2003-01-01

    This volume describes for the first time in monograph form important applications in numerical methods of linear algebra. The author presents new material and extended results from recent papers in a very readable style. The main goal of the book is to study the behavior of the resolvent of a matrix under the perturbation by low rank matrices. Whereas the eigenvalues (the poles of the resolvent) and the pseudospectra (the sets where the resolvent takes large values) can move dramatically under such perturbations, the growth of the resolvent as a matrix-valued meromorphic function remains essen

  18. The Relationship Between Domestic Law and International Law : The Impacts on the Legal Daily Brazilian under the Perspective of Constitutionality Block Expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Klein Vieira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between domestic law and international law, carried out by court decisions, is a recurring theme of both international human rights law and constitutional law. This article aims to portray the interactions between domestic law and international law, with emphasis on Brazil, taking into account the internal rules and judicial practice. Therefore, we will use the dogmatic method, which involves analyzing the rules on the subject in the international and domestic front, with empirical perspective, with a view to analysis of cases in which the issue was raised, in particular the possible existence constitu- tionality block and its growth because human rights treaties ratified by Brazil.

  19. Law Panel in action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odulana, J

    In September 1976 the Africa Regional Council (ARC) of IPPF created a Law Panel to 1) advise the ARC on the emphasis of laws and parenthood programs in the region, 2) investigate legal obstacles to family planning and ways of removing them, 3) institute a monitoring service on laws and court decisions affecting planned parenthood, and 4) prepare a list of lawyers and legal reformers by country. The panel has 1) recommended adoption of an IPPF Central Medical Committee and Central Law Panel statement on sterilization, adolescent fertility control, and the use of medical and auxiliary personnel in family planning services with guidelines for Africa; 2) appointed National Legal Correspondents to carry on the monitoring service mentioned above in 18 countries; and 3) discussed solutions to problems in delivering family planning services with family planning associations in Tanzania, Zambia, Mauritius, Madagascar, and Kenya. Laws governing family planning education and services, marriage, divorce, and maternity benefits in these countries are summarized. In 1978 the panel will hold 2 workshops on law and the status of women.

  20. Consumer in insurance law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čorkalo Milena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the notion of consumer in the European Union law, and, in particular, the notion of consumer in insurance law. The author highligts the differences between the notion of consumer is in aquis communautaire and in insurance law, discussing whether the consumer can be defined in both field in the same way, concerning that insurance services differ a lot from other kind of services. Having regarded unequal position of contracting parties and information and technical disadvantages of a weaker party, author pleads for broad definition of consumer in insurance law. In Serbian law, the consumer is not defined in consistent way. That applies on Serbian insurance law as well. Therefore, the necessity of precise and broad definition of consumes is underlined, in order to delimit the circle of subject who are in need for protection. The author holds that the issue of determination of the circle of persons entitled to extended protection as consumers is of vital importance for further development of insurance market in Serbia.

  1. SLAC linear collider conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-06-01

    The linear collider system is described in detail, including the transport system, the collider lattice, final focusing system, positron production, beam damping and compression, high current electron source, instrumentation and control, and the beam luminosity. The experimental facilities and the experimental uses are discussed along with the construction schedule and estimated costs. Appendices include a discussion of space charge effects in the linear accelerator, emittance growth in the collider, the final focus system, beam-beam instabilities and pinch effects, and detector backgrounds

  2. Linear collider: a preview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedemann, H.

    1981-11-01

    Since no linear colliders have been built yet it is difficult to know at what energy the linear cost scaling of linear colliders drops below the quadratic scaling of storage rings. There is, however, no doubt that a linear collider facility for a center of mass energy above say 500 GeV is significantly cheaper than an equivalent storage ring. In order to make the linear collider principle feasible at very high energies a number of problems have to be solved. There are two kinds of problems: one which is related to the feasibility of the principle and the other kind of problems is associated with minimizing the cost of constructing and operating such a facility. This lecture series describes the problems and possible solutions. Since the real test of a principle requires the construction of a prototype I will in the last chapter describe the SLC project at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center.

  3. Basic linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Blyth, T S

    2002-01-01

    Basic Linear Algebra is a text for first year students leading from concrete examples to abstract theorems, via tutorial-type exercises. More exercises (of the kind a student may expect in examination papers) are grouped at the end of each section. The book covers the most important basics of any first course on linear algebra, explaining the algebra of matrices with applications to analytic geometry, systems of linear equations, difference equations and complex numbers. Linear equations are treated via Hermite normal forms which provides a successful and concrete explanation of the notion of linear independence. Another important highlight is the connection between linear mappings and matrices leading to the change of basis theorem which opens the door to the notion of similarity. This new and revised edition features additional exercises and coverage of Cramer's rule (omitted from the first edition). However, it is the new, extra chapter on computer assistance that will be of particular interest to readers:...

  4. Linear collider: a preview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedemann, H.

    1981-11-01

    Since no linear colliders have been built yet it is difficult to know at what energy the linear cost scaling of linear colliders drops below the quadratic scaling of storage rings. There is, however, no doubt that a linear collider facility for a center of mass energy above say 500 GeV is significantly cheaper than an equivalent storage ring. In order to make the linear collider principle feasible at very high energies a number of problems have to be solved. There are two kinds of problems: one which is related to the feasibility of the principle and the other kind of problems is associated with minimizing the cost of constructing and operating such a facility. This lecture series describes the problems and possible solutions. Since the real test of a principle requires the construction of a prototype I will in the last chapter describe the SLC project at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center

  5. Matrices and linear transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Cullen, Charles G

    1990-01-01

    ""Comprehensive . . . an excellent introduction to the subject."" - Electronic Engineer's Design Magazine.This introductory textbook, aimed at sophomore- and junior-level undergraduates in mathematics, engineering, and the physical sciences, offers a smooth, in-depth treatment of linear algebra and matrix theory. The major objects of study are matrices over an arbitrary field. Contents include Matrices and Linear Systems; Vector Spaces; Determinants; Linear Transformations; Similarity: Part I and Part II; Polynomials and Polynomial Matrices; Matrix Analysis; and Numerical Methods. The first

  6. Efficient Non Linear Loudspeakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bo R.; Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2006-01-01

    Loudspeakers have traditionally been designed to be as linear as possible. However, as techniques for compensating non linearities are emerging, it becomes possible to use other design criteria. This paper present and examines a new idea for improving the efficiency of loudspeakers at high levels...... by changing the voice coil layout. This deliberate non-linear design has the benefit that a smaller amplifier can be used, which has the benefit of reducing system cost as well as reducing power consumption....

  7. Study on linear canonical transformation in a framework of a phase space representation of quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raoelina Andriambololona; Ranaivoson, R.T.R.; Rakotoson, H.; Solofoarisina, W.C.

    2015-04-01

    We present a study on linear canonical transformation in the framework of a phase space representation of quantum mechanics that we have introduced in our previous work. We begin with a brief recall about the so called phase space representation. We give the definition of linear canonical transformation with the transformation law of coordinate and momentum operators. We establish successively the transformation laws of mean values, dispersions, basis state and wave functions.Then we introduce the concept of isodispersion linear canonical transformation.

  8. Linear models with R

    CERN Document Server

    Faraway, Julian J

    2014-01-01

    A Hands-On Way to Learning Data AnalysisPart of the core of statistics, linear models are used to make predictions and explain the relationship between the response and the predictors. Understanding linear models is crucial to a broader competence in the practice of statistics. Linear Models with R, Second Edition explains how to use linear models in physical science, engineering, social science, and business applications. The book incorporates several improvements that reflect how the world of R has greatly expanded since the publication of the first edition.New to the Second EditionReorganiz

  9. Linear integrated circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Carr, Joseph

    1996-01-01

    The linear IC market is large and growing, as is the demand for well trained technicians and engineers who understand how these devices work and how to apply them. Linear Integrated Circuits provides in-depth coverage of the devices and their operation, but not at the expense of practical applications in which linear devices figure prominently. This book is written for a wide readership from FE and first degree students, to hobbyists and professionals.Chapter 1 offers a general introduction that will provide students with the foundations of linear IC technology. From chapter 2 onwa

  10. Fault tolerant linear actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesar, Delbert

    2004-09-14

    In varying embodiments, the fault tolerant linear actuator of the present invention is a new and improved linear actuator with fault tolerance and positional control that may incorporate velocity summing, force summing, or a combination of the two. In one embodiment, the invention offers a velocity summing arrangement with a differential gear between two prime movers driving a cage, which then drives a linear spindle screw transmission. Other embodiments feature two prime movers driving separate linear spindle screw transmissions, one internal and one external, in a totally concentric and compact integrated module.

  11. Superconducting linear accelerator cryostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Elkonin, B.V.; Sokolowski, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    A large vertical cryostat for a superconducting linear accelerator using quarter wave resonators has been developed. The essential technical details, operational experience and performance are described. (author)

  12. Crack growth under combined creep and fatigue conditions in alloy 800

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfaffelhuber, M.; Roedig, M.; Schubert, F.; Nickel, H.

    1989-08-01

    To investigate the crack growth behaviour under combined creep-fatigue loading, CT 25 mm-specimens of X10NiCrAlTi 32 20 (Alloy 800) have been tested in experiments with cyclic loadings and hold times, with static loadings and short stress rekief interrupts, with ramp type loadings and with sequences of separate fatigue and creep crack growth periods. The test temperature of 700deg C was selected because only in this temperature range this alloy provides similar amounts of crack growth under creep and fatigue conditions due to equivalent stress levels. For the estimation of crack growth under combined loading conditions a linear accumulation of increase in crack length was proved using the crack growth laws of pure creep and fatigue crack growth. Hold time and ramp loadings lead to a higher crack growth rate compared with pure creep or pure fatigue crack growth tests. In hold time experiments the crack growth rate is higher than ramp tests of the same period time. The results of hold time tests can be fairly enough predicted by linear damage accumulation rules. (orig.) [de

  13. First law of entanglement rates from holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bannon, Andy; Probst, Jonas; Rodgers, Ronnie; Uhlemann, Christoph F.

    2017-09-01

    For a perturbation of the state of a conformal field theory (CFT), the response of the entanglement entropy is governed by the so-called "first law" of entanglement entropy, in which the change in entanglement entropy is proportional to the change in energy. Whether such a first law holds for other types of perturbations, such as a change to the CFT Lagrangian, remains an open question. We use holography to study the evolution in time t of entanglement entropy for a CFT driven by a t -linear source for a conserved U (1 ) current or marginal scalar operator. We find that although the usual first law of entanglement entropy may be violated, a first law for the rates of change of entanglement entropy and energy still holds. More generally, we prove that this first law for rates holds in holography for any asymptotically (d +1 )-dimensional anti-de Sitter metric perturbation whose t dependence first appears at order zd in the Fefferman-Graham expansion about the boundary at z =0 .

  14. Glass-crystal transformation under non-isothermal conditions: Kinetic analysis of the Ag{sub 0.16}As{sub 0.38}Se{sub 0.46} glassy alloy by using a new theoretical method based on nucleation and growth processes, which depend on time as a power law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, J., E-mail: jose.vazquez@uca.e [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cadiz, Apartado 40, 11510, Puerto Real (Cadiz) (Spain); Cardenas-Leal, J.L.; Garcia-G Barreda, D.; Gonzalez-Palma, R.; Lopez-Alemany, P.L.; Villares, P. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cadiz, Apartado 40, 11510, Puerto Real (Cadiz) (Spain)

    2010-11-01

    A theoretical method, which we have published in two previous works, has been applied to the study of the glass-crystal transformation of the Ag{sub 0.16}As{sub 0.38}Se{sub 0.46} semiconductor glass under non-isothermal conditions. This method allows one to obtain an evolution equation with temperature for the actual volume fraction, to calculate the kinetic parameters of the quoted transformation, to establish the thermal process type, to determine the dimensionality of the crystal growth and to evaluate the exponents of the power laws of the time-dependence both for the nucleation frequency and for the crystal growth rate in non-isothermal transformations. The quoted method assumes the concept of extended volume of the transformed material, the condition of randomly located nuclei and the supposition of mutual interference of regions growing from separated nuclei, considering moreover the case presented in the practice of a kinetic exponent with a value larger than 4. To study the quoted case it is proposed that both the nucleation frequency and the crystal growth rate depend on time as a power law. The above-mentioned Ag{sub 0.16}As{sub 0.38}Se{sub 0.46} glassy alloy presents two exothermic peaks. The second peak gives for the kinetic exponent a value large enough than 4 and it is necessary to resort to the hypotheses of the considered method to justify the unexpectedly high value of the kinetic exponent. Following the quoted method it has been found that the thermal process type is continuous nucleation with three-dimensional growth for the two peaks of crystallization of the studied alloy. Moreover, the experimental curve of the transformed fraction shows a satisfactory agreement with the theoretical curve corresponding to the considered method, confirming the reliability of the quoted method in order to analyze the transformation kinetics of the above-mentioned alloy.

  15. CATEGORY OF CIRCUMVENTION OF THE LAW IN RUSSIAN CIVIL LAW

    OpenAIRE

    Kamyshanskiy V. P.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the concept of "circumvention of the law" with respect to Treaty law. The author finds that the direct loan category "circumvention of the law" in Treaty law can be estimated ambiguously. The specified category which is fragmentary reflected in the active Civil codex indicates a regulatory gap

  16. Comparative law as method and the method of comparative law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hage, J.C.; Adams, M.; Heirbaut, D.

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses both the justificatory role of comparative law within legal research (comparative law as method) and the method of comparative law itself. In this connection two questions will be answered: 1. Is comparative law a method, or a set of methods, for legal research? 2. Does

  17. Numerical studies of the linear theta pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brackbill, J.U.; Menzel, M.T.; Barnes, D.C.

    1975-01-01

    Aspects of several physical problems associated with linear theta pinches were studied using recently developed numerical methods for the solution of the nonlinear equations for time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic flow in two- and three-dimensions. The problems studied include the propagation of end-loss produced rarefaction waves, the flow produced in a proposed injection experiment geometry, and the linear growth and nonlinear saturation of instabilities in rotating plasmas, all in linear geometries. The studies illustrate how numerical computations aid in flow visualization, and how the small amplitude behavior and nonlinear fate of plasmas in unstable equilibria can be connected through the numerical solution of the dynamical equations. (auth)

  18. Handbook on nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoiber, C.; Baer, A.; Pelzer, N.; Tonhauser, W.

    2003-07-01

    The objective of this handbook is to assist States in drafting national legislation that provides an adequate legal basis for pursuing the economic and social benefits of nuclear energy and ionizing radiation. At the outset, therefore, it is important to offer a basic concept of nuclear law. In the light of these basic factors, nuclear law can be defined as: The body of special legal norms created to regulate the conduct of legal or natural persons engaged in activities related to fissionable materials, ionizing radiation and exposure to natural sources of radiation. Before attempting to identify which special aspects of nuclear law distinguish it from other types of law, it is important to highlight briefly the fundamental reason why a State would decide to make the major effort necessary in order to promulgate such legislation. Simply stated, the primary objective of nuclear law is: To provide a legal framework for conducting activities related to nuclear energy and ionizing radiation in a manner which adequately protects individuals, property and the environment. In light of this objective, it is particularly important that responsible authorities carefully assess their current nuclear energy activities and their plans for future nuclear energy development so that the legislation ultimately adopted is adequate. What are the characteristics of nuclear law that distinguish it from the other aspects of national law? A number of basic concepts, often expressed as fundamental principles, can be mentioned in this regard: (a) The safety principle; (b) The security principle; (c) The responsibility principle; (d) The permission principle; (e) The continuous control principle; (f) The compensation principle; (g) The sustainable development principle; (h) The compliance principle; (i) The independence principle; (j) The transparency principle; (k) The international co-operation principle

  19. Handbook on nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoiber, C.; Baer, A.; Pelzer, N.; Tonhauser, W.

    2006-02-01

    The objective of this handbook is to assist States in drafting national legislation that provides an adequate legal basis for pursuing the economic and social benefits of nuclear energy and ionizing radiation. At the outset, therefore, it is important to offer a basic concept of nuclear law. In the light of these basic factors, nuclear law can be defined as: The body of special legal norms created to regulate the conduct of legal or natural persons engaged in activities related to fissionable materials, ionizing radiation and exposure to natural sources of radiation. Before attempting to identify which special aspects of nuclear law distinguish it from other types of law, it is important to highlight briefly the fundamental reason why a State would decide to make the major effort necessary in order to promulgate such legislation. Simply stated, the primary objective of nuclear law is: To provide a legal framework for conducting activities related to nuclear energy and ionizing radiation in a manner which adequately protects individuals, property and the environment. In light of this objective, it is particularly important that responsible authorities carefully assess their current nuclear energy activities and their plans for future nuclear energy development so that the legislation ultimately adopted is adequate. What are the characteristics of nuclear law that distinguish it from the other aspects of national law? A number of basic concepts, often expressed as fundamental principles, can be mentioned in this regard: (a) The safety principle. (B) The security principle. (C) The responsibility principle. (D) The permission principle. (E) The continuous control principle. (F) The compensation principle. (G) The sustainable development principle. (H) The compliance principle. (I) The independence principle. (J) The transparency principle. (K) The international co-operation principle

  20. Handbook on nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoiber, C.; Baer, A.; Pelzer, N.; Tonhauser, W.

    2006-06-01

    The objective of this handbook is to assist States in drafting national legislation that provides an adequate legal basis for pursuing the economic and social benefits of nuclear energy and ionizing radiation. At the outset, therefore, it is important to offer a basic concept of nuclear law. In the light of these basic factors, nuclear law can be defined as: The body of special legal norms created to regulate the conduct of legal or natural persons engaged in activities related to fissionable materials, ionizing radiation and exposure to natural sources of radiation. Before attempting to identify which special aspects of nuclear law distinguish it from other types of law, it is important to highlight briefly the fundamental reason why a State would decide to make the major effort necessary in order to promulgate such legislation. Simply stated, the primary objective of nuclear law is: To provide a legal framework for conducting activities related to nuclear energy and ionizing radiation in a manner which adequately protects individuals, property and the environment. In light of this objective, it is particularly important that responsible authorities carefully assess their current nuclear energy activities and their plans for future nuclear energy development so that the legislation ultimately adopted is adequate. What are the characteristics of nuclear law that distinguish it from the other aspects of national law? A number of basic concepts, often expressed as fundamental principles, can be mentioned in this regard: (a) The safety principle. (B) The security principle. (C) The responsibility principle. (D) The permission principle. (E) The continuous control principle. (F) The compensation principle. (G) The sustainable development principle. (H) The compliance principle. (I) The independence principle. (J) The transparency principle. (K) The international co-operation principle