WorldWideScience

Sample records for linear geologic units

  1. Non-linear Loudspeaker Unit Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bo Rohde; Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2008-01-01

    Simulations of a 6½-inch loudspeaker unit are performed and compared with a displacement measurement. The non-linear loudspeaker model is based on the major nonlinear functions and expanded with time-varying suspension behaviour and flux modulation. The results are presented with FFT plots of thr...... frequencies and different displacement levels. The model errors are discussed and analysed including a test with loudspeaker unit where the diaphragm is removed....

  2. Identification of different geologic units using fuzzy constrained resistivity tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anand; Sharma, S. P.

    2018-01-01

    Different geophysical inversion strategies are utilized as a component of an interpretation process that tries to separate geologic units based on the resistivity distribution. In the present study, we present the results of separating different geologic units using fuzzy constrained resistivity tomography. This was accomplished using fuzzy c means, a clustering procedure to improve the 2D resistivity image and geologic separation within the iterative minimization through inversion. First, we developed a Matlab-based inversion technique to obtain a reliable resistivity image using different geophysical data sets (electrical resistivity and electromagnetic data). Following this, the recovered resistivity model was converted into a fuzzy constrained resistivity model by assigning the highest probability value of each model cell to the cluster utilizing fuzzy c means clustering procedure during the iterative process. The efficacy of the algorithm is demonstrated using three synthetic plane wave electromagnetic data sets and one electrical resistivity field dataset. The presented approach shows improvement on the conventional inversion approach to differentiate between different geologic units if the correct number of geologic units will be identified. Further, fuzzy constrained resistivity tomography was performed to examine the augmentation of uranium mineralization in the Beldih open cast mine as a case study. We also compared geologic units identified by fuzzy constrained resistivity tomography with geologic units interpreted from the borehole information.

  3. Bedrock Geologic Map of Vermont - Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The bedrock geology was last mapped at a statewide scale 50 years ago at a scale of 1:250,000 (Doll and others, 1961). The 1961 map was compiled from 1:62,500-scale...

  4. Environmental aspects of engineering geological mapping in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radbruch-Hall, Dorothy H.

    1979-01-01

    Many engineering geological maps at different scales have been prepared for various engineering and environmental purposes in regions of diverse geological conditions in the United States. They include maps of individual geological hazards and maps showing the effect of land development on the environment. An approach to assessing the environmental impact of land development that is used increasingly in the United States is the study of a single area by scientists from several disciplines, including geology. A study of this type has been made for the National Petroleum Reserve in northern Alaska. In the San Francisco Bay area, a technique has been worked out for evaluating the cost of different types of construction and land development in terms of the cost of a number of kinds of earth science factors. ?? 1979 International Association of Engineering Geology.

  5. United States Geological Survey, programs in Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been collecting and interpreting natural-resources data in Nevada for more than 100 years. This long-term commitment enables planners to manage better the resources of a State noted for paradoxes. Although Nevada is one of the most sparsely populated States in the Nation, it has the fastest growing population (fig. 1). Although 90 percent of the land is rural, it is the fourth most urban State. Nevada is the most arid State and relies heavily on water resources. Historically, mining and agriculture have formed the basis of the economy; now tourism and urban development also have become important. The USGS works with more than 40 local, State, and other Federal agencies in Nevada to provide natural-resources information for immediate and long-term decisions.Subjects included in this fact sheet:Low-Level Radioactive-Waste DisposalMining and Water in the Humboldt BasinAquifer Systems in the Great BasinWater Allocation in Truckee and Carson BasinsNational Water-Quality Assessment ProgramMinerals Assessment for Land ManagementIrrigation DrainageGround-Water Movement at Nevada Test SiteOil and Gas ResourcesNational Mapping ProgramDigital Mapping and Aerial PhotographyCollection of Hydrologlc DataGeologic MappingEarthquake HazardsAssessing Mineral Resources of the SubsurfaceEarth Observation DataCooperative Programs

  6. Regional geologic framework off northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlee, J.; Behrendt, John C.; Grow, J.A.; Robb, James M.; Mattick, R.; Taylor, P.T.; Lawson, B.J.

    1976-01-01

    Six multichannel seismic-reflection profiles taken across the Atlantic continental margin Previous HitoffTop the northeastern United States show an excess of 14 km of presumed Mesozoic and younger sedimentary rocks in the Baltimore Canyon trough and 8 km in the Georges Bank basin. Beneath the continental rise, the sedimentary prism thickness exceeds 7 km south of New Jersey and Maryland, and it is 4.5 km thick south of Georges Bank. Stratigraphically, the continental slope--outer edge of the continental shelf is a transition zone of high-velocity sedimentary rock, probably carbonate, that covers deeply subsided basement. Acoustically, the sedimentary sequence beneath the shelf is divided into three units which are correlated speculatively with the Cenozoic, the Cretaceous, and the Jurassic-Triassic sections. These units thicken offshore, and some have increased seismic velocities farther offshore. The uppermost unit thickens from a fraction of a kilometer to slightly more than a kilometer in a seaward direction, and velocity values range from 1.7 to 2.2 km/sec. The middle unit thickens from a fraction of a kilometer to as much as 5 km (northern Baltimore Canyon trough), and seismic velocity ranges from 2.2 to 5.4 km/sec. The lowest unit thickens to a maximum of 9 km (northern Baltimore Canyon), and velocities span the 3.9 to 5.9-km/sec interval. The spatial separation of magnetic and gravity anomalies on line 2 (New Jersey) suggests that in the Baltimore Canyon region the magnetic-slope anomaly is due to edge effects and that the previously reported free-air and isostatic gravity anomalies over the outer shelf may be due in part to a lateral increase in sediment density (velocity) near the shelf edge. The East Coast magnetic anomaly and the free-air gravity high both coincide over the outer shelf edge on line 1 (Georges Bank) but are offset by 20 km from the ridge on the reflection profile. Because the magnetic-slope-anomaly wavelength is nearly 50 km across, a

  7. Geology of photo linear elements, Great Divide Basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, D. L., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Ground examination of photo linear elements in the Great Divide Basin, Wyoming indicates little if any tectonic control. Aeolian aspects are more widespread and pervasive than previously considered.

  8. Regional geologic framework off northeastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlee, J.; Behrendt, J.C.; Grow, J.A.; Robb, J.M.; Mattick, R.E.; Taylor, P.T.; Lawson, B.J.

    1976-01-01

    Six multichannel seismic-reflection profiles taken across the Atlantic continental margin off the northeastern United States show an excess of 14 km of presumed Mesozoic and younger sedimentary rocks in the Baltimore Canyon trough and 8 km in the Georges Bank basin. Beneath the continental rise, the sedimentary prism thickness exceeds 7 km south of New Jersey and Maryland, and it is 4.5 km thick south of Georges Bank Stratigraphically, the continental slope--outer edge of the continental shelf is a transition zone of high-velocity sedimentary rock, probably carbonate, that covers deeply subsidized basement. The spatial separation of magnetic and gravity anomalies on line 2 (New Jersey) suggests that in the Baltimore Canyon region the magnetic-slope anomaly is due to edge effects and that the previously reported free-air and isostatic gravity anomalies over the outer shelf may be due in part to a lateral increase in sediment density (velocity) near the shelf edge. The East Coast magnetic anomaly and the free-air gravity high both coincide over the outer shelf edge on line 1 (Georges Bank) but are offset by 20 km from the ridge on the reflection profile

  9. The United States Geological Survey: 1879-1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbitt, Mary C.

    1989-01-01

    The United States Geological Survey was established on March 3, 1879, just a few hours before the mandatory close of the final session of the 45th Congress, when President Rutherford B. Hayes signed the bill appropriating money for sundry civil expenses of the Federal Government for the fiscal year beginning July 1, 1879. The sundry civil expenses bill included a brief section establishing a new agency, the United States Geological Survey, placing it in the Department of the Interior, and charging it with a unique combination of responsibilities: 'classification of the public lands, and examination of the geological structure, mineral resources, and products of the national domain.' The legislation stemmed from a report of the National Academy of Sciences, which in June 1878 had been asked by Congress to provide a plan for surveying the Territories of the United States that would secure the best possible results at the least possible cost. Its roots, however, went far back into the Nation's history. The first duty enjoined upon the Geological Survey by the Congress, the classification of the public lands, originated in the Land Ordinance of 1785. The original public lands were the lands west of the Allegheny Mountains claimed by some of the colonies, which became a source of contention in writing the Articles of Confederation until 1781 when the States agreed to cede their western lands to Congress. The extent of the public lands was enormously increased by the Louisiana Purchase in 1803 and later territorial acquisitions. At the beginning of Confederation, the decision was made not to hold the public lands as a capital asset, but to dispose of them for revenue and to encourage settlement. The Land Ordinance of 1785 provided the method of surveying and a plan for disposal of the lands, but also reserved 'one-third part of all gold, silver, lead, and copper mines to be sold or otherwise disposed of, as Congress shall thereafter direct,' thus implicitly requiring

  10. Environmental geology in the United States: Present practice and future training needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Lawrence

    Environmental geology as practiced in the United States confronts issues in three large areas: Threats to human society from geologic phenomena (geologic hazards); impacts of human activities on natural systems (environmental impact), and natural-resource management. This paper illustrates present U.S. practice in environmental geology by sampling the work of 7 of the 50 state geological surveys and of the United States Geological Survey as well. Study of the work of these agencies provides a basis for identifying avenues for the training of those who will deal with environmental issues in the future. This training must deal not only with the subdisciplines of geology but with education to cope with the ethical, interdisciplinary, and public-communication aspects of the work of the environmental geologist.

  11. The State Geologic Map Compilation (SGMC) geodatabase of the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, John D.; San Juan, Carma A.; Stoeser, Douglas B.

    2017-06-30

    The State Geologic Map Compilation (SGMC) geodatabase of the conterminous United States (https://doi. org/10.5066/F7WH2N65) represents a seamless, spatial database of 48 State geologic maps that range from 1:50,000 to 1:1,000,000 scale. A national digital geologic map database is essential in interpreting other datasets that support numerous types of national-scale studies and assessments, such as those that provide geochemistry, remote sensing, or geophysical data. The SGMC is a compilation of the individual U.S. Geological Survey releases of the Preliminary Integrated Geologic Map Databases for the United States. The SGMC geodatabase also contains updated data for seven States and seven entirely new State geologic maps that have been added since the preliminary databases were published. Numerous errors have been corrected and enhancements added to the preliminary datasets using thorough quality assurance/quality control procedures. The SGMC is not a truly integrated geologic map database because geologic units have not been reconciled across State boundaries. However, the geologic data contained in each State geologic map have been standardized to allow spatial analyses of lithology, age, and stratigraphy at a national scale.

  12. Economic MPC for a linear stochastic system of energy units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Sokoler, Leo Emil; Standardi, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarizes comprehensively the work in four recent PhD theses from the Technical University of Denmark related to Economic MPC of future power systems. Future power systems will consist of a large number of decentralized power producers and a large number of controllable power consumers...... in addition to stochastic power producers such as wind turbines and solar power plants. Control of such large scale systems requires new control algorithms. In this paper, we formulate the control of such a system as an Economic Model Predictive Control (MPC) problem. When the power producers and controllable...... power consumers have linear dynamics, the Economic MPC may be expressed as a linear program. We provide linear models for a number of energy units in an energy system, formulate an Economic MPC for coordination of such a system. We indicate how advances in computational MPC makes the solutions...

  13. Beowulf Distributed Processing and the United States Geological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Brian G.

    2002-01-01

    Introduction In recent years, the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) National Mapping Discipline (NMD) has expanded its scientific and research activities. Work is being conducted in areas such as emergency response research, scientific visualization, urban prediction, and other simulation activities. Custom-produced digital data have become essential for these types of activities. High-resolution, remotely sensed datasets are also seeing increased use. Unfortunately, the NMD is also finding that it lacks the resources required to perform some of these activities. Many of these projects require large amounts of computer processing resources. Complex urban-prediction simulations, for example, involve large amounts of processor-intensive calculations on large amounts of input data. This project was undertaken to learn and understand the concepts of distributed processing. Experience was needed in developing these types of applications. The idea was that this type of technology could significantly aid the needs of the NMD scientific and research programs. Porting a numerically intensive application currently being used by an NMD science program to run in a distributed fashion would demonstrate the usefulness of this technology. There are several benefits that this type of technology can bring to the USGS's research programs. Projects can be performed that were previously impossible due to a lack of computing resources. Other projects can be performed on a larger scale than previously possible. For example, distributed processing can enable urban dynamics research to perform simulations on larger areas without making huge sacrifices in resolution. The processing can also be done in a more reasonable amount of time than with traditional single-threaded methods (a scaled version of Chester County, Pennsylvania, took about fifty days to finish its first calibration phase with a single-threaded program). This paper has several goals regarding distributed processing

  14. Activities of the United States Geological Survey in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Charles R.

    1997-01-01

    Since the late 1800's, when the U.S. Geological Survey first established a presence in Pennsylvania, the focus of our work has changed from general hydrologic and geologic appraisals to issue-oriented investigations; from predominantly data collection to a balanced program of data collection, interpretation, and research; and from traditional, hand-drawn mapping to digitally produced coverages with specialized themes. Yet our basic mission has not changed. It is as relevant to the resource issues of today as it was when our geologists first arrived in western Pennsylvania in 1884. Continuing in this proud heritage and tradition, the U.S. Geological Survey is moving confidently toward the next century, evolving organizationally and technologically to better meet the needs of our many constituencies. One major organizational change is the recent accession of employees from the former National Biological Service, who now form the Survey's fourth program division, the Biological Resources Division. These employees join forces with colleagues in our other three divisions: Water Resources, Geologic, and National Mapping. More than any other change in decades, the addition of this biological expertise creates new and exciting opportunities for scientific research and public service. This report provides an overview of recent activities in Pennsylvania conducted by the four program divisions and is intended to inform those interested in U.S. Geological Survey products and services. Additional information is available on our home page (at http://wwwpah2o.er.usgs.gov/). Together with numerous Federal, State, and local agencies and organizations who are our customers and partners, we at the U.S. Geological Survey look forward to providing continued scientific contributions and public service to Pennsylvania and the Nation.

  15. Geologic quadrangle maps of the United States: geology of the Casa Diablo Mountain quadrangle, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, C. Dean; Ross, Donald Clarence

    1957-01-01

    The Casa Diablo Mountain quadrangle was mapped in the summers of 1952 and 1953 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the California State Division of Mines as part of a study of potential tungsten-bearing areas.

  16. Geology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This database is an Arc/Info implementation of the 1:500,000 scale Geology Map of Kansas, M­23, 1991. This work wasperformed by the Automated Cartography section of...

  17. United States Geological Survey discharge data from five example gages on intermittent streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The data are mean daily discharge data at United States Geological Survey gages. Once column provides the date (mm/dd/yyyy) and the other column provides the mean...

  18. The British Geological Survey's Lexicon of Named Rock Units as Online and Linked Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, T.

    2012-12-01

    The British Geological Survey's Lexicon of Named Rock Units provides freely accessible definitions and supplementary information about geological units of Great Britain, Northern Ireland, and their associated continental shelf. It is an online database that can be searched at www.bgs.ac.uk/Lexicon/. It has existed since 1990 (under different names) but the database and user interface have recently been completely redesigned to improve their semantic capabilities and suitability for describing different styles of geology. The data are also now freely available as linked data from data.bgs.ac.uk/. The Lexicon of Named Rock Units serves two purposes. First, it is a dictionary, defining and constraining the geological units that are referenced in the Survey's data sets, workflows, products and services. These can include printed and digital geological maps at a variety of scales, reports, books and memoirs, and 3- and 4-dimensional geological models. All geological units referenced in any of these must first be present and defined, at least to a basic level of completeness, in the Lexicon database. Only then do they become available for use. The second purpose of the Lexicon is as a repository of knowledge about the geology of the UK and its continental shelf, providing authoritative descriptions written and checked by BGS geoscientists. Geological units are assigned to one of four themes: bedrock, superficial, mass movement and artificial. They are further assigned to one of nine classes: lithostratigraphical, lithodemic intrusive, lithodemic tectono-metamorphic, lithodemic mixed, litho-morpho-genetic, man-made, age-based, composite, and miscellaneous. The combination of theme and class controls the fields that are available to describe each geological unit, so that appropriate fields are offered for each, whether it is a Precambrian tectono-metamorphic complex, a Devonian sandstone formation, or a Devensian river terrace deposit. Information that may be recorded

  19. Validity of purchasing power parity for selected Latin American countries: Linear and non-linear unit root tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Roberto Fóffano Vasconcelos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine empirically the validity of PPP in the context of unit root tests based on linear and non-linear models of the real effective exchange rate of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela. For this purpose, we apply the Harvey et al. (2008 linearity test and the non-linear unit root test (Kruse, 2011. The results show that the series with linear characteristics are Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Peru and those with non-linear characteristics are Mexico and Venezuela. The linear unit root tests indicate that the real effective exchange rate is stationary for Chile and Peru, and the non-linear unit root tests evidence that Mexico is stationary. In the period analyzed, the results show support for the validity of PPP in only three of the seven countries.

  20. Homogenity of geological units with respect to the radon risk in the Walloon region of Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tondeur, François; Cinelli, Giorgia; Dehandschutter, Boris

    2014-10-01

    In the process of mapping indoor radon risk, an important step is to define geological units well-correlated with indoor radon. The present paper examines this question for the Walloon region of Belgium, using a database of more than 18,000 indoor radon measurements. With a few exceptions like the Carboniferous (to be divided into Tournaisian, Visean and Namurian-Westphalian) and the Tertiary (in which all Series may be treated together), the Series/Epoch stratigraphic level is found to be the most appropriate geological unit to classify the radon risk. A further division according to the geological massif or region is necessary to define units with a reasonable uniformity of the radon risk. In particular, Paleozoic series from Cambrian to Devonian show strong differences between different massifs. Local hot-spots are also observed in the Brabant massif. Finally, 35 geological units are defined according to their radon risk, 6 of which still present a clear weak homogeneity. In the case of 4 of these units (Jurassic, Middle Devonian of Condroz and of Fagne-Famenne, Ordovician of the Stavelot massif) homogeneity is moderate, but the data are strongly inhomogeneous for Visean in Condroz and in the Brabant massif. The 35 geological units are used in an ANOVA analysis, to evaluate the part of indoor radon variability which can be attributed to geology. The result (15.4-17.7%) agrees with the values observed in the UK. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Motivation, Classroom Environment, and Learning in Introductory Geology: A Hierarchical Linear Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, L. A.; Hilpert, J. C.; Van Der Hoeven Kraft, K.; Budd, D.; Jones, M. H.; Matheney, R.; Mcconnell, D. A.; Perkins, D.; Stempien, J. A.; Wirth, K. R.

    2013-12-01

    Prior research has indicated that highly motivated students perform better and that learning increases in innovative, reformed classrooms, but untangling the student effects from the instructor effects is essential to understanding how to best support student learning. Using a hierarchical linear model, we examine these effects separately and jointly. We use data from nearly 2,000 undergraduate students surveyed by the NSF-funded GARNET (Geoscience Affective Research NETwork) project in 65 different introductory geology classes at research universities, public masters-granting universities, liberal arts colleges and community colleges across the US. Student level effects were measured as increases in expectancy and self-regulation using the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ; Pintrich et al., 1991). Instructor level effects were measured using the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol, (RTOP; Sawada et al., 2000), with higher RTOP scores indicating a more reformed, student-centered classroom environment. Learning was measured by learning gains on a Geology Concept Inventory (GCI; Libarkin and Anderson, 2005) and normalized final course grade. The hierarchical linear model yielded significant results at several levels. At the student level, increases in expectancy and self-regulation are significantly and positively related to higher grades regardless of instructor; the higher the increase, the higher the grade. At the instructor level, RTOP scores are positively related to normalized average GCI learning gains. The higher the RTOP score, the higher the average class GCI learning gains. Across both levels, average class GCI learning gains are significantly and positively related to student grades; the higher the GCI learning gain, the higher the grade. Further, the RTOP scores are significantly and negatively related to the relationship between expectancy and course grade. The lower the RTOP score, the higher the correlation between change in

  2. A Lithology Based Map Unit Schema For Onegeology Regional Geologic Map Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosdorf, N.; Richard, S. M.

    2012-12-01

    A system of lithogenetic categories for a global lithological map (GLiM, http://www.ifbm.zmaw.de/index.php?id=6460&L=3) has been compiled based on analysis of lithology/genesis categories for regional geologic maps for the entire globe. The scheme is presented for discussion and comment. Analysis of units on a variety of regional geologic maps indicates that units are defined based on assemblages of rock types, as well as their genetic type. In this compilation of continental geology, outcropping surface materials are dominantly sediment/sedimentary rock; major subdivisions of the sedimentary category include clastic sediment, carbonate sedimentary rocks, clastic sedimentary rocks, mixed carbonate and clastic sedimentary rock, colluvium and residuum. Significant areas of mixed igneous and metamorphic rock are also present. A system of global categories to characterize the lithology of regional geologic units is important for Earth System models of matter fluxes to soils, ecosystems, rivers and oceans, and for regional analysis of Earth surface processes at global scale. Because different applications of the classification scheme will focus on different lithologic constituents in mixed units, an ontology-type representation of the scheme that assigns properties to the units in an analyzable manner will be pursued. The OneGeology project is promoting deployment of geologic map services at million scale for all nations. Although initial efforts are commonly simple scanned map WMS services, the intention is to move towards data-based map services that categorize map units with standard vocabularies to allow use of a common map legend for better visual integration of the maps (e.g. see OneGeology Europe, http://onegeology-europe.brgm.fr/ geoportal/ viewer.jsp). Current categorization of regional units with a single lithology from the CGI SimpleLithology (http://resource.geosciml.org/201202/ Vocab2012html/ SimpleLithology201012.html) vocabulary poorly captures the

  3. Quaternary Geologic Map of the Lake Superior 4° x 6° Quadrangle, United States and Canada

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — The Quaternary Geologic Map of the Lake Superior 4° x 6° Quadrangle was mapped as part of the Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States. The atlas was begun as...

  4. Regional groundwater characteristics and hydraulic conductivity based on geological units in Korean peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Suk, H.

    2011-12-01

    In this study, about 2,000 deep observation wells, stream and/or river distribution, and river's density were analyzed to identify regional groundwater flow trend, based on the regional groundwater survey of four major river watersheds including Geum river, Han river, Youngsan-Seomjin river, and Nakdong river in Korea. Hydrogeologial data were collected to analyze regional groundwater flow characteristics according to geological units. Additionally, hydrological soil type data were collected to estimate direct runoff through SCS-CN method. Temperature and precipitation data were used to quantify infiltration rate. The temperature and precipitation data were also used to quantify evaporation by Thornthwaite method and to evaluate groundwater recharge, respectively. Understanding the regional groundwater characteristics requires the database of groundwater flow parameters, but most hydrogeological data include limited information such as groundwater level and well configuration. In this study, therefore, groundwater flow parameters such as hydraulic conductivities or transmissivities were estimated using observed groundwater level by inverse model, namely PEST (Non-linear Parameter ESTimation). Since groundwater modeling studies have some uncertainties in data collection, conceptualization, and model results, model calibration should be performed. The calibration may be manually performed by changing parameters step by step, or various parameters are simultaneously changed by automatic procedure using PEST program. In this study, both manual and automatic procedures were employed to calibrate and estimate hydraulic parameter distributions. In summary, regional groundwater survey data obtained from four major river watersheds and various data of hydrology, meteorology, geology, soil, and topography in Korea were used to estimate hydraulic conductivities using PEST program. Especially, in order to estimate hydraulic conductivity effectively, it is important to perform

  5. Mapping variation in radon potential both between and within geological units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, J C H; Appleton, J D

    2005-01-01

    Previously, the potential for high radon levels in UK houses has been mapped either on the basis of grouping the results of radon measurements in houses by grid squares or by geological units. In both cases, lognormal modelling of the distribution of radon concentrations was applied to allow the estimated proportion of houses above the UK radon Action Level (AL, 200 Bq m -3 ) to be mapped. This paper describes a method of combining the grid square and geological mapping methods to give more accurate maps than either method can provide separately. The land area is first divided up using a combination of bedrock and superficial geological characteristics derived from digital geological map data. Each different combination of geological characteristics may appear at the land surface in many discontinuous locations across the country. HPA has a database of over 430 000 houses in which long-term measurements of radon concentration have been made, and whose locations are accurately known. Each of these measurements is allocated to the appropriate bedrock-superficial geological combination underlying it. Taking each geological combination in turn, the spatial variation of radon potential is mapped, treating the combination as if it were continuous over the land area. All of the maps of radon potential within different geological combinations are then combined to produce a map of variation in radon potential over the whole land surface

  6. Significance of geological units of the Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic, as seen by ambient noise interferometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Růžek, Bohuslav; Valentová, L.; Gallovič, F.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 173, č. 5 (2016), s. 1663-1682 ISSN 0033-4553 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP210/12/2336; GA MŠk LM2010008 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : ambient noise * geological units * Bohemian Massif * velocity model Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.591, year: 2016

  7. Geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in Aptian carbonates, onshore northern Gulf of Mexico Basin, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Paul C.; Karlsen, Alexander W.

    2014-01-01

    Carbonate lithofacies of the Lower Cretaceous Sligo Formation and James Limestone were regionally evaluated using established U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment methodology for undiscovered conventional hydrocarbon resources. The assessed area is within the Upper Jurassic–Cretaceous–Tertiary Composite total petroleum system, which was defined for the assessment. Hydrocarbons reservoired in carbonate platform Sligo-James oil and gas accumulations are interpreted to originate primarily from the Jurassic Smackover Formation. Emplacement of hydrocarbons occurred via vertical migration along fault systems; long-range lateral migration also may have occurred in some locations. Primary reservoir facies include porous patch reefs developed over paleostructural salt highs, carbonate shoals, and stacked linear reefs at the carbonate shelf margin. Hydrocarbon traps dominantly are combination structural-stratigraphic. Sealing lithologies include micrite, calcareous shale, and argillaceous lime mudstone. A geologic model, supported by discovery history analysis of petroleum geology data, was used to define a single regional assessment unit (AU) for conventional reservoirs in carbonate facies of the Sligo Formation and James Limestone. The AU is formally entitled Sligo-James Carbonate Platform Oil and Gas (50490121). A fully risked mean undiscovered technically recoverable resource in the AU of 50 million barrels of oil (MMBO), 791 billion cubic feet of natural gas (BCFG), and 26 million barrels of natural gas liquids was estimated. Substantial new development through horizontal drilling has occurred since the time of this assessment (2010), resulting in cumulative production of >200 BCFG and >1 MMBO.

  8. Mapping watershed potential to contribute phosphorus from geologic materials to receiving streams, southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terziotti, Silvia; Hoos, Anne B.; Harned, Douglas; Garcia, Ana Maria

    2010-01-01

    As part of the southeastern United States SPARROW (SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes) water-quality model implementation, the U.S. Geological Survey created a dataset to characterize the contribution of phosphorus to streams from weathering and erosion of surficial geologic materials. SPARROW provides estimates of total nitrogen and phosphorus loads in surface waters from point and nonpoint sources. The characterization of the contribution of phosphorus from geologic materials is important to help separate the effects of natural or background sources of phosphorus from anthropogenic sources of phosphorus, such as municipal wastewater or agricultural practices. The potential of a watershed to contribute phosphorus from naturally occurring geologic materials to streams was characterized by using geochemical data from bed-sediment samples collected from first-order streams in relatively undisturbed watersheds as part of the multiyear U.S. Geological Survey National Geochemical Survey. The spatial pattern of bed-sediment phosphorus concentration is offered as a tool to represent the best available information at the regional scale. One issue may weaken the use of bed-sediment phosphorus concentration as a surrogate for the potential for geologic materials in the watershed to contribute to instream levels of phosphorus-an unknown part of the variability in bed-sediment phosphorus concentration may be due to the rates of net deposition and processing of phosphorus in the streambed rather than to variability in the potential of the watershed's geologic materials to contribute phosphorus to the stream. Two additional datasets were created to represent the potential of a watershed to contribute phosphorus from geologic materials disturbed by mining activities from active mines and inactive mines.

  9. Quaternary geologic map of the Austin 4° x 6° quadrangle, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    State compilations by Moore, David W.; Wermund, E.G.; edited and integrated by Moore, David W.; Richmond, Gerald Martin; Christiansen, Ann Coe; Bush, Charles A.

    1993-01-01

    This map is part of the Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States (I-1420). It was first published as a printed edition in 1993. The geologic data have now been captured digitally and are presented here along with images of the printed map sheet and component parts as PDF files. The Quaternary Geologic Map of the Austin 4° x 6° Quadrangle was mapped as part of the Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States. The atlas was begun as an effort to depict the areal distribution of surficial geologic deposits and other materials that accumulated or formed during the past 2+ million years, the period that includes all activities of the human species. These materials are at the surface of the Earth. They make up the ground on which we walk, the dirt in which we dig foundations, and the soil in which we grow crops. Most of our human activity is related in one way or another to these surface materials that are referred to collectively by many geologists as regolith, the mantle of fragmental and generally unconsolidated material that overlies the bedrock foundation of the continent. The maps were compiled at 1:1,000,000 scale. In recent years, surficial deposits and materials have become the focus of much interest by scientists, environmentalists, governmental agencies, and the general public. They are the foundations of ecosystems, the materials that support plant growth and animal habitat, and the materials through which travels much of the water required for our agriculture, our industry, and our general well being. They also are materials that easily can become contaminated by pesticides, fertilizers, and toxic wastes. In this context, the value of the surficial geologic map is evident.

  10. Soil Patterns Associated with the Major Geological Units of the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J. Venter

    1986-11-01

    Full Text Available The dominant soil types of the Kruger National Park and their interrelationships with parent material, topography and climate are discussed. The geogenetic and topogenetic nature of the soils are manifested in the strong correlations between recurrent soil patterns, major geological units and terrain morphology. The soils are categorised into seven major classes on the basis of the parent material from which they developed. General soil patterns within the major classes are discussed.

  11. Investigation of background radiation levels and geologic unit profiles in Durango, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triplett, G.H.; Foutz, W.L.; Lesperance, L.R.

    1989-11-01

    As part of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has performed radiological surveys on 435 vicinity properties (VPs) in the Durango area. This study was undertaken to establish the background radiation levels and geologic unit profiles in the Durango VP area. During the months of May through June, 1986, extensive radiometric measurements and surface soil samples were collected in the Durango VP area by personnel from ORNL's Grand Junction Office. A majority of the Durango VP surveys were conducted at sites underlain by Quaternary alluvium, older Quaternary gravels, and Cretaceous Lewis and Mancos shales. These four geologic units were selected to be evaluated. The data indicated no formation anomalies and established regional background radiation levels. Durango background radionuclide concentrations in surface soil were determined to be 20.3 ± 3.4 pCi/g for 40 K, 1.6 ± 0.5 pCi/g for 226 Ra, and 1.2 ± 0.3 pCi/g for 232 Th. The Durango background gamma exposure rate was found to be 16.5 ± 1.3 μR/h. Average gamma spectral count rate measurements for 40 K, 226 Ra and 232 Th were determined to be 553, 150, and 98 counts per minute (cpm), respectively. Geologic unit profiles and Durango background radiation measurements are presented and compared with other areas. 19 refs., 15 figs., 5 tabs

  12. Linear geologic structure and magic rock discrimination as determined from infrared data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offield, T. W.; Rowan, L. C.; Watson, R. D.

    1970-01-01

    Color infrared photographs of the Beartooth Mountains, Montana show the distribution of mafic dikes and amphibolite bodies. Lineaments that cross grassy plateaus can be identified as dikes by the marked constrast between the dark rocks and the red vegetation. Some amphibolite bodies in granitic terrain can also be detected by infrared photography and their contacts can be accurately drawn due to enchanced contrast of the two types of rock in the near infrared. Reflectance measurements made in the field for amphibolite and granite show that the granite is 25% to 50% more reflective in the near infrared than in the visible region. Further enhancement is due to less atmospheric scattering than in the visible region. Thermal infrared images of the Mill Creek, Oklahoma test site provided information on geologic faults and fracture systems not obtainable from photographs. Subtle stripes that cross outcrop and intervening soil areas and which probably record water distribution are also shown on infrared photographs.

  13. Quaternary Geologic Map of the Regina 4 Degrees x 6 Degrees Quadrangle, United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, David S.; Christiansen, Earl A.; Schreiner, Bryan T.; Colton, Roger B.; Clayton, Lee; Bush, Charles A.; Fullerton, David S.

    2007-01-01

    For scientific purposes, the map differentiates Quaternary surficial deposits and materials on the basis of clast lithology or composition, matrix texture or particle size, structure, genesis, stratigraphic relations, engineering geologic properties, and relative age, as shown on the correlation diagram and indicated in the 'Description of Map Units'. Deposits of some constructional landforms, such as end moraines, are distinguished as map units. Deposits of erosional landforms, such as outwash terraces, are not distinguished, although glaciofluvial, ice-contact, fluvial, and lacustrine deposits that are mapped may be terraced. Differentiation of sequences of fluvial and glaciofluvial deposits at this scale is not possible. For practical purposes, the map is a surficial materials map. Materials are distinguished on the basis of lithology or composition, texture or particle size, and other physical, chemical, and engineering characteristics. It is not a map of soils that are recognized and classified in pedology or agronomy. Rather, it is a generalized map of soils as recognized in engineering geology, or of substrata or parent materials in which pedologic or agronomic soils are formed. As a materials map, it serves as a base from which a variety of maps for use in planning engineering, land-use planning, or land-management projects can be derived and from which a variety of maps relating to earth surface processes and Quaternary geologic history can be derived.

  14. Apatite fission track analysis: geological thermal history analysis based on a three-dimensional random process of linear radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galbraith, R.F.; Laslett, G.M.; Green, P.F.; Duddy, I.R.

    1990-01-01

    Spontaneous fission of uranium atoms over geological time creates a random process of linearly shaped features (fission tracks) inside an apatite crystal. The theoretical distributions associated with this process are governed by the elapsed time and temperature history, but other factors are also reflected in empirical measurements as consequences of sampling by plane section and chemical etching. These include geometrical biases leading to over-representation of long tracks, the shape and orientation of host features when sampling totally confined tracks, and 'gaps' in heavily annealed tracks. We study the estimation of geological parameters in the presence of these factors using measurements on both confined tracks and projected semi-tracks. Of particular interest is a history of sedimentation, uplift and erosion giving rise to a two-component mixture of tracks in which the parameters reflect the current temperature, the maximum temperature and the timing of uplift. A full likelihood analysis based on all measured densities, lengths and orientations is feasible, but because some geometrical biases and measurement limitations are only partly understood it seems preferable to use conditional likelihoods given numbers and orientations of confined tracks. (author)

  15. Geologic Setting and Hydrogeologic Units of the Columbia Plateau Regional Aquifer System, Washington, Oregon, and Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, Sue C.; Olsen, Theresa D.; Morgan, David S.

    2009-01-01

    geologic mapping and well information and to develop a digital, three-dimensional hydrogeologic model that could be used as the basis of a groundwater-flow model. This report describes the principal geologic and hydrogeologic units of the CPRAS and geologic map and well data that were compiled as part of the study. The report also describes simplified regional hydrogeologic sections and unit extent maps that were used to conceptualize the framework prior to development of the digital 3-dimensional framework model.

  16. Shallow subsurface geology and Vs characteristics of sedimentary units throughout Rasht City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Mehrabi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Manjil-Rudbar earthquake of June 1990 caused widespread damage to buildings in the city of Rasht located
    60 km from the epicenter. Seismic surveys, including refraction P-wave, S-wave and downhole tests, were
    carried out to study subsurface geology and classify materials in the city of Rasht. Rasht is built on Quaternary
    sediments consisting of old marine (Q1m, deltaic (Q2d, undivided deltaic sediments with gravel (Qdg and
    young marine (Q2m deposits. We used the variations of Vp in different materials to separate sedimentary
    boundaries. The National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program (NEHRP scheme was used for site classification.
    Average S-wave velocity to a depth of 30 m was used to develop site categories, based on measured Vs values
    in 35 refraction seismic profiles and 4 downhole tests. For each geological unit histograms of S-wave velocity
    were calculated. This study reveals that the Vs(30 of most of the city falls into categories D and C of NEHRP
    site classification. Average horizontal spectral amplification (AHSA in Rasht was calculated using Vs(30 . The
    AHSA map clearly indicates that the amplification factor east and north of the city are higher than those of south
    and central parts. The results show that the lateral changes and heterogeneities in Q1m sediments are significant
    and most damaged buildings in 1990 Manjil earthquake were located in this unit.

  17. On Linear Combinations of Two Orthogonal Polynomial Sequences on the Unit Circle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suárez C

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Let be a monic orthogonal polynomial sequence on the unit circle. We define recursively a new sequence of polynomials by the following linear combination: , , . In this paper, we give necessary and sufficient conditions in order to make be an orthogonal polynomial sequence too. Moreover, we obtain an explicit representation for the Verblunsky coefficients and in terms of and . Finally, we show the relation between their corresponding Carathéodory functions and their associated linear functionals.

  18. Development of the geologic waste disposal programme in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffman, F.E.; Ballard, W.W.; Carbiener, W.A.

    1983-01-01

    Although alternative concepts are being studied as future options, over at least the next few decades the United States of America is committed to the disposal of commercially generated high-level and transuranic nuclear waste (HLW and TRU) in mined geologic repositories. A 10,000-year minimum isolation period is sought. Responsibility for the management and disposal of United States nuclear waste, in accordance with standards and regulations established, respectively, by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), resides with the Department of Energy (DOE). The DOE National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program has been implemented to provide the facilities and develop the requisite technology for the disposal of HLW and TRU. The NWTS Program is highly structured, adequately funded, and realistically scheduled. The timely realization of its objectives is basic to the furtherance of the new national energy policy being defined by President Reagan and the United States Congress. The first NWTS repository is scheduled to be operational as early as 1998. The host-rock formation, selected on the basis of the results of at-depth investigations via exploratory shafts to be sunk in 1983-1985 at three potential sites previously extensively characterized by surface techniques, will be either basalt, volcanic tuff, or domed or bedded salt. Selection of one site in these formations will not necessarily disqualify others. Also, screening studies of granitic formations in the United States for the siting of later, regionally located repositories are currently being conducted. Each NWTS repository will be licensed by the NRC. The first application for a construction authorization will probably be submitted in 1988. The application will be submitted for a site to be selected in 1987

  19. Material Units, Structures/Landforms, and Stratigraphy for the Global Geologic Map of Ganymede (1:15M)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, G. Wesley; Head, James W.; Collins, Geoffrey C.; Pappalardo, Robert T.; Prockter, Louis M.; Lucchitta, Baerbel K.

    2008-01-01

    In the coming year a global geological map of Ganymede will be completed that represents the most recent understanding of the satellite on the basis of Galileo mission results. This contribution builds on important previous accomplishments in the study of Ganymede utilizing Voyager data and incorporates the many new discoveries that were brought about by examination of Galileo data. Material units have been defined, structural landforms have been identified, and an approximate stratigraphy has been determined utilizing a global mosaic of the surface with a nominal resolution of 1 km/pixel assembled by the USGS. This mosaic incorporates the best available Voyager and Galileo regional coverage and high resolution imagery (100-200 m/pixel) of characteristic features and terrain types obtained by the Galileo spacecraft. This map has given us a more complete understanding of: 1) the major geological processes operating on Ganymede, 2) the characteristics of the geological units making up its surface, 3) the stratigraphic relationships of geological units and structures, and 4) the geological history inferred from these relationships. A summary of these efforts is provided here.

  20. Novel methods for Solving Economic Dispatch of Security-Constrained Unit Commitment Based on Linear Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Sangang

    2017-09-01

    There are two stages in solving security-constrained unit commitment problems (SCUC) within Lagrangian framework: one is to obtain feasible units’ states (UC), the other is power economic dispatch (ED) for each unit. The accurate solution of ED is more important for enhancing the efficiency of the solution to SCUC for the fixed feasible units’ statues. Two novel methods named after Convex Combinatorial Coefficient Method and Power Increment Method respectively based on linear programming problem for solving ED are proposed by the piecewise linear approximation to the nonlinear convex fuel cost functions. Numerical testing results show that the methods are effective and efficient.

  1. Dose linearity and monitor unit stability of a G4 type cyberknife robotic stereotactic radiosurgery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudahar, H.; Kurup, P.G.G.; Murali, V.; Velmurugan, J.

    2012-01-01

    Dose linearity studies on conventional linear accelerators show a linearity error at low monitor units (MUs). The purpose of this study was to establish the dose linearity and MU stability characteristics of a cyberknife (Accuracy Inc., USA) stereotactic radiosurgery system. Measurements were done at a depth of 5 cm in a stereotactic dose verification phantom with a source to surface distance of 75 cm in a Generation 4 (G4) type cyberknife system. All the 12 fixed-type collimators starting from 5 to 60 mm were used for the dose linearity study. The dose linearity was examined in small (1-10), medium (15-100) and large (125-1000) MU ranges. The MU stability test was performed with 60 mm collimator for 10 MU and 20 MU with different combinations. The maximum dose linearity error of -38.8% was observed for 1 MU with 5 mm collimator. Dose linearity error in the small MU range was considerably higher than in the medium and large MU ranges. The maximum error in the medium range was -2.4%. In the large MU range, the linearity error varied between -0.7% and 1.2%. The maximum deviation in the MU stability was -3.03%. (author)

  2. Origin, Extent, and Thickness of Quaternary Geologic Units in the Willamette Valley, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Jim E.; Sarna-Wojcicki, Andrei M.; Wozniak, Karl C.; Polette, Danial J.; Fleck, Robert J.

    2001-01-01

    Stratigraphic and chronologic information collected for Quaternary deposits in the Willamette Valley, Oregon, provides a revised stratigraphic framework that serves as a basis for a 1:250,000-scale map, as well as for thickness estimates of widespread Quaternary geologic units. We have mapped 11 separate Quaternary units that are differentiated on the basis of stratigraphic, topographic, pedogenic, and hydrogeologic properties. In summation, these units reflect four distinct episodes in the Quaternary geologic development of the Willamette Valley: 1) Fluvial sands and gravels that underlie terraces flanking lowland margins and tributary valleys were probably deposited between 2.5 and 0.5 million years ago. They are the oldest widespread surficial Quaternary deposits in the valley. Their present positions and preservation are undoubtedly due to postdepositional tectonic deformation - either by direct tectonic uplift of valley margins, or by regional tectonic controls on local base level. 2) Tertiary and Quaternary excavation or tectonic lowering of the Willamette Valley accommodated as much as 500 m (meters) of lacustrine and fluvial fill. Beneath the lowland floor, much of the upper 10 to 50 m of fill is Quaternary sand and gravel deposited by braided channel systems in subhorizontal sheets 2 to 10 m thick. These deposits grade to gravel fans 40 to 100 m thick where major Cascade Range rivers enter the valley and are traced farther upstream as much thinner valley trains of coarse gravel. The sand and gravel deposits have ages that range from greater than 420,000 to about 12,000 years old. A widely distributed layer of sand and gravel deposited at about 12 ka (kiloannum, thousands of years before the present) is looser and probably more permeable than older sand and gravel. Stratigraphic exposures and drillers' logs indicate that this late Pleistocene unit is mostly between 5 and 20 m thick where it has not been subsequently eroded by the Willamette River and its

  3. Efficient Market Hypothesis in South Africa: Evidence from Linear and Nonlinear Unit Root Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Phiri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the weak form efficient market hypothesis (EMH for five generalized stock indices in the Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE using weekly data collected from 31st January 2000 to 16th December 2014. In particular, we test for weak form market efficiency using a battery of linear and nonlinear unit root testing procedures comprising of the classical augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF tests, the two-regime threshold autoregressive (TAR unit root tests described in Enders and Granger (1998 as well as the three-regime unit root tests described in Bec, Salem, and Carrasco (2004. Based on our empirical analysis, we are able to demonstrate that whilst the linear unit root tests advocate for unit roots within the time series, the nonlinear unit root tests suggest that most stock indices are threshold stationary processes. These results bridge two opposing contentions obtained from previous studies by concluding that under a linear framework the JSE stock indices offer support in favour of weak form market efficiency whereas when nonlinearity is accounted for, a majority of the indices violate the weak form EMH.

  4. Quaternary Geologic Map of the Lake of the Woods 4 Degrees x 6 Degrees Quadrangle, United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sado, Edward V.; Fullerton, David S.; Goebel, Joseph E.; Ringrose, Susan M.; Edited and Integrated by Fullerton, David S.

    1995-01-01

    The Quaternary Geologic Map of the Lake of the Woods 4 deg x 6 deg Quadrangle, United States and Canada, was mapped as part of the U.S. Geological Survey Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States map series (Miscellaneous Investigations Series I-1420, NM-15). The atlas was begun as an effort to depict the areal distribution of surficial geologic deposits and other materials that accumulated or formed during the past 2+ million years, the period that includes all activities of the human species. These materials are at the surface of the earth. They make up the 'ground' on which we walk, the 'dirt' in which we dig foundations, and the 'soil' in which we grow crops. Most of our human activity is related in one way or another to these surface materials that are referred to collectively by many geologists as regolith, the mantle of fragmental and generally unconsolidated material that overlies the bedrock foundation of the continent. The maps were compiled at 1:1,000,000 scale. This map is a product of collaboration of the Ontario Geological Survey, the Minnesota Geological Survey, the Manitoba Department of Energy and Mines, and the U.S. Geological Survey, and is designed for both scientific and practical purposes. It was prepared in two stages. First, separate maps and map explanations were prepared by the compilers. Second, the maps were combined, integrated, and supplemented by the editor. Map unit symbols were revised to a uniform system of classification and the map unit descriptions were prepared by the editor from information received from the compilers and from additional sources listed under Sources of Information. Diagrams accompanying the map were prepared by the editor. For scientific purposes, the map differentiates Quaternary surficial deposits on the basis of lithology or composition, texture or particle size, structure, genesis, stratigraphic relationships, engineering geologic properties, and relative age, as shown on the correlation diagram and

  5. Design of a linear detector array unit for high energy x-ray helical computed tomography and linear scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Tae; Park, Jong Hwan; Kim, Gi Yoon [Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Geun [Medical Imaging Department, ASTEL Inc., Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Park, Shin Woong; Yi, Yun [Dept. of Electronics and Information Eng, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun Duk [Research Center, Luvantix ADM Co., Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    A linear detector array unit (LdAu) was proposed and designed for the high energy X-ray 2-d and 3-d imaging systems for industrial non-destructive test. Specially for 3-d imaging, a helical CT with a 15 MeV linear accelerator and a curved detector is proposed. the arc-shape detector can be formed by many LdAus all of which are arranged to face the focal spot when the source-to-detector distance is fixed depending on the application. An LdAu is composed of 10 modules and each module has 48 channels of CdWO{sub 4} (CWO) blocks and Si PIn photodiodes with 0.4 mm pitch. this modular design was made for easy manufacturing and maintenance. through the Monte carlo simulation, the CWO detector thickness of 17 mm was optimally determined. the silicon PIn photodiodes were designed as 48 channel arrays and fabricated with NTD (neutron transmutation doping) wafers of high resistivity and showed excellent leakage current properties below 1 nA at 10 V reverse bias. to minimize the low-voltage breakdown, the edges of the active layer and the guard ring were designed as a curved shape. the data acquisition system was also designed and fabricated as three independent functional boards; a sensor board, a capture board and a communication board to a Pc. this paper describes the design of the detectors (CWO blocks and Si PIn photodiodes) and the 3-board data acquisition system with their simulation results.

  6. Lithospheric expression of geological units in central and eastern North America from full waveform tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Huaiyu; French, Scott; Cupillard, Paul; Romanowicz, Barbara

    2014-09-01

    The EarthScope TA deployment has provided dense array coverage throughout the continental US and with it, the opportunity for high resolution 3D seismic velocity imaging of both lithosphere and asthenosphere in the continent. Building upon our previous long-period waveform tomographic modeling in North America, we present a higher resolution 3D isotropic and radially anisotropic shear wave velocity model of the North American lithospheric mantle, constructed tomographically using the spectral element method for wavefield computations and waveform data down to 40 s period. The new model exhibits pronounced spatial correlation between lateral variations in seismic velocity and anisotropy and major tectonic units as defined from surface geology. In the center of the continent, the North American craton exhibits uniformly thick lithosphere down to 200-250 km, while major tectonic sutures of Proterozoic age visible in the surface geology extend down to 100-150 km as relatively narrow zones of distinct radial anisotropy, with Vsv >Vsh. Notably, the upper mantle low velocity zone is present everywhere under the craton between 200 and 300 km depth. East of the continental rift margin, the lithosphere is broken up into a series of large, somewhat thinner (150 km) high velocity blocks, which extend laterally 200-300 km offshore into the Atlantic Ocean. Between the craton and these deep-rooted blocks, we find a prominent narrow band of low velocities that roughly follows the southern and eastern Laurentia rift margin and extends into New England. We suggest that the lithosphere along this band of low velocities may be thinned due to the combined effects of repeated rifting processes and northward extension of the hotspot related Bermuda low-velocity channel across the New England region. We propose that the deep rooted high velocity blocks east of the Laurentia margin represent the Proterozoic Gondwanian terranes of pan-African affinity, which were captured during the Rodinia

  7. A speed estimation unit for induction motors based on adaptive linear combiner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marei, Mostafa I.; Shaaban, Mostafa F.; El-Sattar, Ahmed A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a new induction motor speed estimation technique, which can estimate the rotor resistance as well, from the measured voltage and current signals. Moreover, the paper utilizes a novel adaptive linear combiner (ADALINE) structure for speed and rotor resistance estimations. This structure can deal with the multi-output systems and it is called MO-ADALINE. The model of the induction motor is arranged in a linear form, in the stationary reference frame, to cope with the proposed speed estimator. There are many advantages of the proposed unit such as wide speed range capability, immunity against harmonics of measured waveforms, and precise estimation of the speed and the rotor resistance at different dynamic changes. Different types of induction motor drive systems are used to evaluate the dynamic performance and to examine the accuracy of the proposed unit for speed and rotor resistance estimation.

  8. Coupling and decoupling of the accelerating units for pulsed synchronous linear accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yi; Liu, Yi; Ye, Mao; Zhang, Huang; Wang, Wei; Xia, Liansheng; Wang, Zhiwen; Yang, Chao; Shi, Jinshui; Zhang, Linwen; Deng, Jianjun

    2017-12-01

    A pulsed synchronous linear accelerator (PSLA), based on the solid-state pulse forming line, photoconductive semiconductor switch, and high gradient insulator technologies, is a novel linear accelerator. During the prototype PSLA commissioning, the energy gain of proton beams was found to be much lower than expected. In this paper, the degradation of the energy gain is explained by the circuit and cavity coupling effect of the accelerating units. The coupling effects of accelerating units are studied, and the circuit topologies of these two kinds of coupling effects are presented. Two methods utilizing inductance and membrane isolations, respectively, are proposed to reduce the circuit coupling effects. The effectiveness of the membrane isolation method is also supported by simulations. The decoupling efficiency of the metal drift tube is also researched. We carried out the experiments on circuit decoupling of the multiple accelerating cavity. The result shows that both circuit decoupling methods could increase the normalized voltage.

  9. Automatic contouring of geologic fabric and finite strain data on the unit hyperboloid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Frederick W.

    2018-06-01

    Fabric and finite strain analysis, an integral part of studies of geologic structures and orogenic belts, is commonly done by the analysis of particles whose shapes can be approximated as ellipses. Given a sample of such particles, the mean and confidence intervals of particular parameters can be calculated, however, taking the extra step of plotting and contouring the density distribution can identify asymmetries or modes related to sedimentary fabrics or other factors. A common graphical strain analysis technique is to plot final ellipse ratios, Rf , versus orientations, ϕf on polar Elliott or Rf / ϕ plots to examine the density distribution. The plot may be contoured, however, it is desirable to have a contouring method that is rapid, reproducible, and based on the underlying geometry of the data. The unit hyperboloid, H2 , gives a natural parameter space for two-dimensional strain, and various projections, including equal-area and stereographic, have useful properties for examining density distributions for anisotropy. An index, Ia , is given to quantify the magnitude and direction of anisotropy. Elliott and Rf / ϕ plots can be understood by applying hyperbolic geometry and recognizing them as projections of H2 . These both distort area, however, so the equal-area projection is preferred for examining density distributions. The algorithm presented here gives fast, accurate, and reproducible contours of density distributions calculated directly on H2 . The algorithm back-projects the data onto H2 , where the density calculation is done at regular nodes using a weighting value based on the hyperboloid distribution, which is then contoured. It is implemented as an Octave compatible MATLAB function that plots ellipse data using a variety of projections, and calculates and displays contours of their density distribution on H2 .

  10. United States geological survey's reserve-growth models and their implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, T.R.

    2005-01-01

    The USGS has developed several mathematical models to forecast reserve growth of fields both in the United States (U.S.) and the world. The models are based on historical reserve growth patterns of fields in the U.S. The patterns of past reserve growth are extrapolated to forecast future reserve growth. Changes of individual field sizes through time are extremely variable, therefore, the reserve growth models take on a statistical approach whereby volumetric changes for populations of fields are used in the models. Field age serves as a measure of the field-development effort that is applied to promote reserve growth. At the time of the USGS World Petroleum Assessment 2000, a reserve growth model for discovered fields of the world was not available. Reserve growth forecasts, therefore, were made based on a model of historical reserve growth of fields of the U.S. To test the feasibility of such an application, reserve growth forecasts were made of 186 giant oil fields of the world (excluding the U.S. and Canada). In addition, forecasts were made for these giant oil fields subdivided into those located in and outside of Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). The model provided a reserve-growth forecast that closely matched the actual reserve growth that occurred from 1981 through 1996 for the 186 fields as a whole, as well as for both OPEC and non-OPEC subdivisions, despite the differences in reserves definition among the fields of the U.S. and the rest of the world. ?? 2005 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  11. Geological Factors Affecting Flow Spatial Continuity in Water Injection of Units Operating in the LGITJ–0102 Ore Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilver M. Soto-Loaiza

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the investigation was to identify the geological factors affecting the spatial continuity of the flow during the process of flank water injection in the units operating in the Lower Lagunilla Hydrocarbon Ore Body. This included the evaluation of the recovery factor, the petro-physic properties such as porosity, permeability, water saturation and rock type and quality in each flow unit. it was observed that the rock type of the geologic structure in the ore body is variable. The lowest values for the petro-physic properties were found in the southern area while a high variability of these parameters was observed in the northern and central areas. It was concluded that the northern area has a great potential for the development of new injection projects for petroleum recovery.

  12. Minding the gap: Children's difficulty conceptualizing spatial intervals as linear measurement units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Tracy L; Vasilyeva, Marina; Huttenlocher, Janellen; Levine, Susan C

    2015-11-01

    Understanding measurement units is critical to mathematics and science learning, but it is a topic that American students find difficult. In 3 studies, we investigated the challenges underlying this difficulty in kindergarten and second grade by comparing performance on different versions of a linear measurement task. Children measured crayons that were either aligned or shifted relative to the left edge of either a continuous ruler or a row of discrete units. The alignment (aligned, shifted) and the measuring tool (ruler, discrete units) were crossed to form 4 types of problems. Study 1 showed good performance in both grades on both types of aligned problems as well as on the shifted problems with discrete units. In contrast, performance was at chance on the shifted ruler problems. Study 2 showed that performance on shifted discrete unit problems declined when numbers were placed on the units, particularly for kindergarteners, suggesting that on the shifted ruler problems, the presence of numbers may have contributed to children's difficulty. However, Study 3 showed that the difficulty on the shifted ruler problems persisted even when the numbers were removed from the ruler. Taken together, these findings suggest that there are multiple challenges to understanding measurement, but that a key challenge is conceptualizing the ruler as a set of countable spatial interval units. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Geologic occurrences of erionite in the United States: an emerging national public health concern for respiratory disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Blitz, Thomas A.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Pierson, M. Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Erionite, a mineral series within the zeolite group, is classified as a Group 1 known respiratory carcinogen. This designation resulted from extremely high incidences of mesothelioma discovered in three small villages from the Cappadocia region of Turkey, where the disease was linked to environmental exposures to fibrous forms of erionite. Natural deposits of erionite, including fibrous forms, have been identified in the past in the western United States. Until recently, these occurrences have generally been overlooked as a potential hazard. In the last several years, concerns have emerged regarding the potential for environmental and occupational exposures to erionite in the United States, such as erionite-bearing gravels in western North Dakota mined and used to surface unpaved roads. As a result, there has been much interest in identifying locations and geologic environments across the United States where erionite occurs naturally. A 1996 U.S. Geological Survey report describing erionite occurrences in the United States has been widely cited as a compilation of all US erionite deposits; however, this compilation only focused on one of several geologic environments in which erionite can form. Also, new occurrences of erionite have been identified in recent years. Using a detailed literature survey, this paper updates and expands the erionite occurrences database, provided in a supplemental file (US_erionite.xls). Epidemiology, public health, and natural hazard studies can incorporate this information on known erionite occurrences and their characteristics. By recognizing that only specific geologic settings and formations are hosts to erionite, this knowledge can be used in developing management plans designed to protect the public.

  14. Quaternary Geologic Map of the Lake Nipigon 4 Degrees x 6 Degrees Quadrangle, United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sado, Edward V.; Fullerton, David S.; Farrand, William R.; Edited and Integrated by Fullerton, David S.

    1994-01-01

    The Quaternary Geologic Map of the Lake Nipigon 4 degree x 6 degree Quadrangle was mapped as part of the Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States. The atlas was begun as an effort to depict the areal distribution of surficial geologic deposits and other materials that accumulated or formed during the past 2+ million years, the period that includes all activities of the human species. These materials are at the surface of the earth. They make up the 'ground' on which we walk, the 'dirt' in which we dig foundations, and the 'soil' in which we grow crops. Most of our human activity is related in one way or another to these surface materials that are referred to collectively by many geologists as regolith, the mantle of fragmental and generally unconsolidated material that overlies the bedrock foundation of the continent. The maps were compiled at 1:1,000,000 scale. This map is a product of collaboration of the Ontario Geological Survey, the University of Michigan, and the U.S. Geological Survey, and is designed for both scientific and practical purposes. It was prepared in two stages. First, separate maps and map explanations were prepared by the compilers. Second, the maps were combined, integrated, and supplemented by the editor. Map unit symbols were revised to a uniform system of classification and the map unit descriptions were prepared by the editor from information received from the compilers and from additional sources listed under Sources of Information. Diagrams accompanying the map were prepared by the editor. For scientific purposes, the map differentiates Quaternary surficial deposits on the basis of lithology or composition, texture or particle size, structure, genesis, stratigraphic relationships, engineering geologic properties, and relative age, as shown on the correlation diagram and indicated in the map unit descriptions. Deposits of some constructional landforms, such as kame moraine deposits, are distinguished as map units. Deposits of

  15. Innervation zones of fasciculating motor units: observations by a linear electrode array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanmiri-Nezhad, Faezeh; Barkhaus, Paul E; Rymer, William Z; Zhou, Ping

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the innervation zone (IZ) in the biceps brachii muscle in healthy subjects and those with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using a 20-channel linear electromyogram (EMG) electrode array. Raster plots of individual waveform potentials were studied to estimate the motor unit IZ. While this work mainly focused on fasciculation potentials (FPs), a limited number of motor unit potentials (MUPs) from voluntary activity of 12 healthy and seven ALS subjects were also examined. Abnormal propagation of MUPs and scattered IZs were observed in fasciculating units, compared with voluntarily activated MUPs in healthy and ALS subjects. These findings can be related to muscle fiber reinnervation following motor neuron degeneration in ALS and the different origin sites of FPs compared with voluntary MUPs.

  16. Are fluctuations in oil consumption permanent or transitory? Evidence from linear and nonlinear unit root tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solarin, Sakiru Adebola; Lean, Hooi Hooi

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the integration properties of the total oil consumption in 57 countries for the period of 1965–2012. A combination of new and powerful linear and nonlinear stationarity tests are employed to achieve the objectives of the study. We find that the oil consumption series in 21 countries follow a nonlinearity path while those in the other countries are linear in nature. Evidence of the presence of a unit root is found for the total oil consumption series in 38 countries while the series is stationary in the remaining 19 countries. An important insight is that the blueprints that were designed to reduce oil consumption are likely to have a permanent effect in most of the countries. - Highlights: • We examine the integration properties of total oil consumption in 57 countries. • We apply new and powerful linear and nonlinear stationarity tests. • Unit root is found in two third of the countries. • Blueprints designed to reduce oil consumption are likely to have permanent effect.

  17. The United States program for the safety assessment of geologic disposal of commercial radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claiborne, H.C.

    1977-01-01

    The safe disposal of commercial radioactive wastes in deep geologic formations is the goal of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program. Safety assessment begins with selection of a disposal site; that is, all geologic and hydrologic factors must indicate long-term stability of the formation and prospective isolation of wastes from circulating ground waters for hundreds of thousands of years. The long-term stability of each site under thermal loading must then be demonstrated by sophisticated rock mechanic analyses. Therefore, it can be expected that the sites that are chosen will effectively isolate the waste for a very long period of time. However, to help provide answers on the mechanisms and consequences of an unlikely breach in the integrity of the repository, a Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP) is studied. The overall objective of this program is an assessment of the safety associated with the long-term disposal of high-level radioactive waste in a geologic formation. This objective will be achieved by developing methods and generating data necessary to characterize the safety of generic geological waste disposal concepts, which are to be applied in the assessment of specific sites. It is expected that no one particular model will suffice. Both deterministic and probabilistic approaches will be used, and the entire spectrum of phenomena that could influence geologic isolation will be considered

  18. Acceleration of Linear Finite-Difference Poisson-Boltzmann Methods on Graphics Processing Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ruxi; Botello-Smith, Wesley M; Luo, Ray

    2017-07-11

    Electrostatic interactions play crucial roles in biophysical processes such as protein folding and molecular recognition. Poisson-Boltzmann equation (PBE)-based models have emerged as widely used in modeling these important processes. Though great efforts have been put into developing efficient PBE numerical models, challenges still remain due to the high dimensionality of typical biomolecular systems. In this study, we implemented and analyzed commonly used linear PBE solvers for the ever-improving graphics processing units (GPU) for biomolecular simulations, including both standard and preconditioned conjugate gradient (CG) solvers with several alternative preconditioners. Our implementation utilizes the standard Nvidia CUDA libraries cuSPARSE, cuBLAS, and CUSP. Extensive tests show that good numerical accuracy can be achieved given that the single precision is often used for numerical applications on GPU platforms. The optimal GPU performance was observed with the Jacobi-preconditioned CG solver, with a significant speedup over standard CG solver on CPU in our diversified test cases. Our analysis further shows that different matrix storage formats also considerably affect the efficiency of different linear PBE solvers on GPU, with the diagonal format best suited for our standard finite-difference linear systems. Further efficiency may be possible with matrix-free operations and integrated grid stencil setup specifically tailored for the banded matrices in PBE-specific linear systems.

  19. Geodesy- and geology-based slip-rate models for the Western United States (excluding California) national seismic hazard maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Mark D.; Zeng, Yuehua; Haller, Kathleen M.; McCaffrey, Robert; Hammond, William C.; Bird, Peter; Moschetti, Morgan; Shen, Zhengkang; Bormann, Jayne; Thatcher, Wayne

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 National Seismic Hazard Maps for the conterminous United States incorporate additional uncertainty in fault slip-rate parameter that controls the earthquake-activity rates than was applied in previous versions of the hazard maps. This additional uncertainty is accounted for by new geodesy- and geology-based slip-rate models for the Western United States. Models that were considered include an updated geologic model based on expert opinion and four combined inversion models informed by both geologic and geodetic input. The two block models considered indicate significantly higher slip rates than the expert opinion and the two fault-based combined inversion models. For the hazard maps, we apply 20 percent weight with equal weighting for the two fault-based models. Off-fault geodetic-based models were not considered in this version of the maps. Resulting changes to the hazard maps are generally less than 0.05 g (acceleration of gravity). Future research will improve the maps and interpret differences between the new models.

  20. Transfer by anisotropic scattering between subsets of the unit sphere of directions in linear transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trombetti, T.

    1990-01-01

    The exact kernel method is presented for linear transport problems with azimuth-dependent angular fluxes. It is based on the evaluation of average scattering densities (ASD's) that fully describe the neutron (or particle) transfer between subsets of the unit sphere of directions by anisotropic scattering. Reciprocity and other ASD functional properties are proved and combined with the symmetry properties of suitable SN quadrature sets. This greatly reduces the number of independent ASD's to be computed and stored. An approach for performing ASD computations with reciprocity checks is presented. ASD expressions of the scattering source for typical 2D geometries are explicitly given. (author)

  1. Economic Screening of Geologic Sequestration Options in the United States with a Carbon Management Geographic Information System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahowski, Robert T.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Dooley, James J.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Brown, Daryl R.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Stephan, Alex J.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Badie I. Morsi

    2001-10-19

    Developing a carbon management strategy is a formidable task for nations as well as individual companies. It is often difficult to understand what options are available, let alone determine which may be optimal. In response to the need for a better understanding of complex carbon management options, Battelle has developed a state-of-the-art Geographic Information System (GIS) model with economic screening capability focused on carbon capture and geologic sequestration opportunities in the United States. This paper describes the development of this GIS-based economic screening model and demonstrates its use for carbon management analysis.

  2. United States program for the safety assessment of geologic disposal of commercial radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claiborne, H.C.

    1977-01-01

    The safe disposal of commercial radioactive wastes in deep geologic formations is the goal of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program. A comprehensive safety assessment program has been established which will proceed on a schedule consistent with the start-up of two waste repositories in late 1985. Safety assessment begins with selection of a disposal site; that is, all geologic and hydrologic factors must indicate long-term stability of the formation and prospective isolation of wastes from circulating around waters for hundreds of thousands of years. The long-term stability of each site must be demonstrated by sophisticated rock mechanics analyses. To help provide answers on the mechanism and consequences of an unlikely breach in the integrity of the repository, a Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP) is being sponsored at the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories. Methods and data necessary to characterize the safety of generic geological waste disposal concepts, which are to be applied in the assessment of specific sties, will be developed. Other long-term safety-related studies that complement WISAP are in progress, for example, borehole plugging, salt dissolutioning, and salt transport in vertical boreholes. Requirements for licensing are in the process of being formulated by the NRC

  3. United States of America activities relative to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) initiative: Records management for deep geologic repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, P.J.

    1997-03-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has conducted consultant and advisory meetings to prepare a Technical Document which is intended to provide guidance to all IAEA Member States (otherwise known as countries) that are currently planning, designing, constructing or operating a deep or near surface geological repository for the storage and protection of vitrified high-level radioactive waste, spent fuel waste and TRU-waste (transuranic). Eleven countries of the international community are presently in various stages of siting, designing, or constructing deep geologic repositories. Member States of the IAEA have determined that the principle safety of such completed and operation sites must not rely solely on long term institutional arrangements for the retention of information. It is believed that repository siting, design, operation and postoperation information should be gathered, managed and retained in a manner that will provide information to future societies over a very long period of time. The radionuclide life is 10,000 years thus the retention of information must outlive current societies, languages, and be continually migrated to new technology to assure retrieval. This presentation will provide an overview of the status of consideration and implementation of these issues within the United States efforts relative to deep geologic repository projects.

  4. United States of America activities relative to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) initiative: Records management for deep geologic repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, P.J.

    1997-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has conducted consultant and advisory meetings to prepare a Technical Document which is intended to provide guidance to all IAEA Member States (otherwise known as countries) that are currently planning, designing, constructing or operating a deep or near surface geological repository for the storage and protection of vitrified high-level radioactive waste, spent fuel waste and TRU-waste (transuranic). Eleven countries of the international community are presently in various stages of siting, designing, or constructing deep geologic repositories. Member States of the IAEA have determined that the principle safety of such completed and operation sites must not rely solely on long term institutional arrangements for the retention of information. It is believed that repository siting, design, operation and postoperation information should be gathered, managed and retained in a manner that will provide information to future societies over a very long period of time. The radionuclide life is 10,000 years thus the retention of information must outlive current societies, languages, and be continually migrated to new technology to assure retrieval. This presentation will provide an overview of the status of consideration and implementation of these issues within the United States efforts relative to deep geologic repository projects

  5. Onshore/ Offshore Geologic Assessment for Carbon Storage in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, C. C.; Knapp, J. H.; Brantley, D.; Lakshmi, V.; Almutairi, K.; Almayahi, D.; Akintunde, O. M.; Ollmann, J.

    2017-12-01

    Eighty percent of the world's energy relies on fossil fuels and under increasingly stricter national and international regulations on greenhouse gas emissions storage of CO2 in geologic repositories seems to be not only a feasible, but also and vital solution for near/ mid-term reduction of carbon emissions. We have evaluated the feasibility of CO2 storage in saline formations of the Eastern North American Margin (ENAM) including (1) the Jurassic/Triassic (J/TR) sandstones of the buried South Georgia Rift (SGR) basin, and (2) the Mesozoic and Cenozoic geologic formations along the Mid- and South Atlantic seaboard. These analyses have included integration of subsurface geophysical data (2- and 3-D seismic surveys) with core samples, well logs as well as uses of geological databases and geospatial analysis leading to CO2 injection simulation models. ENAM is a complex and regionally extensive mature Mesozoic passive margin rift system encompassing: (1) a large volume and regional extent of related magmatism known as the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP), (2) a complete stratigraphic column that records the post-rift evolution in several basins, (3) preserved lithospheric-scale pre-rift structures including Paleozoic sutures, and (4) a wide range of geological, geochemical, and geophysical studies both onshore and offshore. While the target reservoirs onshore show heterogeneity and a highly complex geologic evolution they also show promising conditions for significant safe CO2 storage away from the underground acquifers. Our offshore study (the Southeast Offshore Storage Resource Assessment - SOSRA) is focused on the outer continental shelf from North Carolina to the southern tip of Florida. Three old exploration wells are available to provide additional constraints on the seismic reflection profiles. Two of these wells (TRANSCO 1005-1 and COST GE-1) penetrate the pre-rift Paleozoic sedimentary formations while the EXXON 564-1 well penetrates the post

  6. Geological and production characteristics of strandplain/barrier island reservoirs in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, E.L.; Fowler, M.; Jackson, S.; Madden, M.P.; Reeves, T.K.; Salamy, S.P.; Young, M.A.

    1994-12-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) primary mission in the oil research program is to maximize the economically and environmentally sound recovery of oil from domestic reservoirs and to preserve access to this resource. The Oil Recovery Field Demonstration Program supports DOE`s mission through cost-shared demonstrations of improved Oil Recovery (IOR) processes and reservoir characterization methods. In the past 3 years, the DOE has issued Program Opportunity Notices (PONs) seeking cost-shared proposals for the three highest priority, geologically defined reservoir classes. The classes have been prioritized based on resource size and risk of abandonment. This document defines the geologic, reservoir, and production characteristics of the fourth reservoir class, strandplain/barrier islands. Knowledge of the geological factors and processes that control formation and preservation of reservoir deposits, external and internal reservoir heterogeneities, reservoir characterization methodology, and IOR process application can be used to increase production of the remaining oil-in-place (IOR) in Class 4 reservoirs. Knowledge of heterogeneities that inhibit or block fluid flow is particularly critical. Using the TORIS database of 330 of the largest strandplain/barrier island reservoirs and its predictive and economic models, the recovery potential which could result from future application of IOR technologies to Class 4 reservoirs was estimated to be between 1.0 and 4.3 billion barrels, depending on oil price and the level of technology advancement. The analysis indicated that this potential could be realized through (1) infill drilling alone and in combination with polymer flooding and profile modification, (2) chemical flooding (sufactant), and (3) thermal processes. Most of this future potential is in Texas, Oklahoma, and the Rocky Mountain region. Approximately two-thirds of the potentially recoverable resource is at risk of abandonment by the year 2000.

  7. Suggestions to authors of the reports of the United States Geological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1958-01-01

    Knowledge acquired by the Geological Survey through programs of research and investigations has no value to the public if it remains in office files or in the minds of the scientists and engineers who did the work. The full discharge of the Survey's responsibilities is attained only by making its acquired knowledge available promptly and effectively to all people who will find it of interest and use. And, to insure effectiveness, reports must be not only accurate but so clearly and simply written that they are easy to read and understand.

  8. Characterizing the natural radiation levels throughout the main geological units of Sabkhat al Jabboul area, northern Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hilal, Mohamed; Aissa, Mosa

    2015-02-01

    The concentrations of equivalent eU, eTh, and K% were determined together with soil gas radon values and carborne gamma-ray survey in order to define the natural radioactivity levels throughout main geological units of Sabkhat al Jabboul region. Forty five soil and rock samples were collected from various lithofacies in each geological unit, and analyzed by γ-ray spectrometric technique for determining the concentration values of major radioelements. Such radiometric data could be used to differentiate between various lithologies of the investigated rocks. Although no distinct radioactive anomalies were found in the area, the radiometric profiles showed some minor variations with slightly higher values than the normal level. Despite the low radioactivity and the lack of rocks diversity in the surveyed area, it was possible to classify some certain rock types based on their radiometric response. The relationships between eU, eTh and their ratios were discussed for the Quaternary, Neogene and Paleogene formations, in order to evaluate the degree of uranium distribution and remobilization. The overall results of this radiometric survey were generally low, and lying within the range of the normal background levels in Syrian. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Rectified-Linear-Unit-Based Deep Learning for Biomedical Multi-label Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pu; Ge, Ruiquan; Xiao, Xuan; Cai, Yunpeng; Wang, Guoqing; Zhou, Fengfeng

    2017-09-01

    Disease diagnosis is one of the major data mining questions by the clinicians. The current diagnosis models usually have a strong assumption that one patient has only one disease, i.e. a single-label data mining problem. But the patients, especially when at the late stages, may have more than one disease and require a multi-label diagnosis. The multi-label data mining is much more difficult than a single-label one, and very few algorithms have been developed for this situation. Deep learning is a data mining algorithm with highly dense inner structure and has achieved many successful applications in the other areas. We propose a hypothesis that rectified-linear-unit-based deep learning algorithm may also be good at the clinical questions, by revising the last layer as a multi-label output. The proof-of-concept experimental data support the hypothesis, and the community may be interested in trying more applications.

  10. Characteristics of a dedicated linear accelerator-based stereotactic radiosurgery-radiotherapy unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Indra J.; Downes, M. Beverly; Corn, Benjamin W.; Curran, Walter J.; Werner-Wasik, M.; Andrews, David W.

    1996-01-01

    A stereotactic radiosurgery and radiotherapy (SRS/SRT) system on a dedicated Varian Clinac-600SR linear accelerator with Brown-Roberts-Wells and Gill-Thomas-Cosman relocatable frames along with the Radionics (RSA) planning system is evaluated. The Clinac-600SR has a single 6-MV beam with the same beam characteristics as that of the mother unit, the Clinac-600C. The primary collimator is a fixed cone projecting to a 10-cm diameter at isocenter. The secondary collimator is a heavily shielded cylindrical collimator attached to the face plate of the primary collimator. The tertiary collimation consists of the actual treatment cones. The cone sizes vary from 12.5 to 40.0 mm diameter. The mechanical stability of the entire system was verified. The variations in isocenter position with table, gantry, and collimator rotation were found to be <0.5 mm with a compounded accuracy of ≤ 1.0 mm. The radiation leakage under the cones was < 1% measured at a depth of 5 cm in a phantom. The beam profiles of all cones in the x and y directions were within ±0.5 mm and match with the physical size of the cone. The dosimetric data such as tissue maximum ratio, off-axis ratio, and cone factor were taken using film, diamond detector, and ion chambers. The mechanical and dosimetric characteristics including dose linearity of this unit are presented and found to be suitable for SRS/SRT. The difficulty in absolute dose measurement for small cone is discussed

  11. Geological and hydrochemical sensitivity of the eastern United States to acid precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrey, G.R.; Galloway, J.N.; Norton, S.A.; Schofield, C.L.; Shaffer, P.W.; Burns, D.A.

    1980-03-01

    A new analysis of bedrock geology maps of the eastern US constitutes a simple model for predicting areas which might be impacted by acid precipitation and it allows much greater resolution for detecting sensitivity than has previously been available for the region. Map accuracy has been verified by examining current alkalinities and pH's of waters in several test states, including Maine, New Hampshire, New York, Virginia and North Carolina. In regions predicted to be highly sensitive, alkalinities in upstream sites were generally low. Many areas of the eastern US are pinpointed in which some of the surface waters, especially upstream reaches, may be sensitive to acidification. Pre-1970 data were compared to post-1975 data, revealing marked declines in both alkalinity and pH of sensitive waters of two states tested, North Carolina, where pH and alkalinity have decreased in 80% of 38 streams and New Hampshire, where pH in 90% of 49 streams and lakes has decreased since 1949. These sites are predicted to be sensitive by the geological map on the basis of their earlier alkalinity values. The map is to be improved by the addition of a soils component.

  12. Preliminary hydrogeological evaluation of geological units from the Mesa de los Santos, Santander

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, Eliana Jimena; Contreras, Nathalia Maria; Pinto, Jorge Eduardo; Velandia, Francisco; Morales, Carlos Julio; Hincapie, Gloria

    2009-01-01

    This paper present a preliminary hydrogeological evaluation of La Mesa de Los Santos' lithostratigraphic formations, based on the geological mapping, stratigraphy and inventory of water points. All this is supplemented with the analysis of primary porosity by means of the petrographic study and the secondary porosity related statistically with the quantity of fractures of each formation, as well as opening, interconnection and dip. It is made an approach to hydrogeological potential of the geologic outcropping formations in La Mesa de Los Santos, Department of Santander, from the stratigraphic and petrographic analysis and the structural features of these formations. The Upper Member of Los Santos Formation presents the highest potential because of rock's fracturing, continued by the Lower Member with low primary porosity and half fracturing. Silgara Formation, Granito de Pescadero, Jordan Formation and some sections of the sandy levels of the Rosablanca Formation presents a lowest potential due to its low porosity and low grade of fracturing. Low permeability is presented in the Middle Member of the Los Santos Formation, Paja and Tablazo formations, as well as in sectors of the fore mentioned formations and in the Quaternary deposits.

  13. Mercury compositional units inferred by MDIS. A comparison with the geology in support to the BepiColombo mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambon, Francesca; Carli, Cristian; Galluzzi, Valentina; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Filacchione, Gianrico; Giacomini, Lorenza; Massirioni, Matteo; Palumbo, Pasquale

    2016-04-01

    distributed distinct spectral units. Therefore, integrating the spectral variability to a well defined morpho-stratigraphic (photo-interpreted) map will permit to improve the geologic map itself, defining sub-units, and associating spectral properties to analogue deposits. We are working to produce quadrangles color mosaics and high resolution color mosaics of smaller areas to define color products (common planetary geologic map) and obtain an "advanced" geologic map. The mapping process permits integration of different geological surface information to better understand the planet crust formation and evolution. Merging data from different instruments provides additional information about lithological composition, contributing to the construction of a more complete geological map (e.g., Giacomini et al., 2012). These work has been done in support of the BepiColombo Mission, which has an innovative Spectrometer and Imagers Integrated Observatory SYStem (SIMBIO-SYS). SIMBIO-SYS is composed by three instruments, the visible-near-infrared imaging spectrometer (VIHI), the high-resolution imager (HRIC) and the stereo imaging system (STC) which will be albe to improve the knowledge of Mercury surface form the geological and compositional point of view. This research was supported by the Italian Space Agency (ASI) within the SIMBIOSYS project (ASI-INAF agreement no. I/022/10/0)

  14. Origin of discrepancies between crater size-frequency distributions of coeval lunar geologic units via target property contrasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Bogert, C. H.; Hiesinger, H.; Dundas, C. M.; Krüger, T.; McEwen, A. S.; Zanetti, M.; Robinson, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    Recent work on dating Copernican-aged craters, using Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Camera data, re-encountered a curious discrepancy in crater size-frequency distribution (CSFD) measurements that was observed, but not understood, during the Apollo era. For example, at Tycho, Copernicus, and Aristarchus craters, CSFDs of impact melt deposits give significantly younger relative and absolute model ages (AMAs) than impact ejecta blankets, although these two units formed during one impact event, and would ideally yield coeval ages at the resolution of the CSFD technique. We investigated the effects of contrasting target properties on CSFDs and their resultant relative and absolute model ages for coeval lunar impact melt and ejecta units. We counted craters with diameters through the transition from strength- to gravity-scaling on two large impact melt deposits at Tycho and King craters, and we used pi-group scaling calculations to model the effects of differing target properties on final crater diameters for five different theoretical lunar targets. The new CSFD for the large King Crater melt pond bridges the gap between the discrepant CSFDs within a single geologic unit. Thus, the observed trends in the impact melt CSFDs support the occurrence of target property effects, rather than self-secondary and/or field secondary contamination. The CSFDs generated from the pi-group scaling calculations show that targets with higher density and effective strength yield smaller crater diameters than weaker targets, such that the relative ages of the former are lower relative to the latter. Consequently, coeval impact melt and ejecta units will have discrepant apparent ages. Target property differences also affect the resulting slope of the CSFD, with stronger targets exhibiting shallower slopes, so that the final crater diameters may differ more greatly at smaller diameters. Besides their application to age dating, the CSFDs may provide additional information about the

  15. Critical mineral resources of the United States—Economic and environmental geology and prospects for future supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    SummaryMineral commodities are vital for economic growth, improving the quality of life, providing for national defense, and the overall functioning of modern society. Minerals are being used in larger quantities than ever before and in an increasingly diverse range of applications. With the increasing demand for a considerably more diverse suite of mineral commodities has come renewed recognition that competition and conflict over mineral resources can pose significant risks to the manufacturing industries that depend on them. In addition, production of many mineral commodities has become concentrated in relatively few countries (for example, tungsten, rare-earth elements, and antimony in China; niobium in Brazil; and platinum-group elements in South Africa and Russia), thus increasing the risk for supply disruption owing to political, social, or other factors. At the same time, an increasing awareness of and sensitivity to potential environmental and health issues caused by the mining and processing of many mineral commodities may place additional restrictions on mineral supplies. These factors have led a number of Governments, including the Government of the United States, to attempt to identify those mineral commodities that are viewed as most “critical” to the national economy and (or) security if supplies should be curtailed.This book presents resource and geologic information on the following 23 mineral commodities currently among those viewed as important to the national economy and national security of the United States: antimony (Sb), barite (barium, Ba), beryllium (Be), cobalt (Co), fluorite or fluorspar (fluorine, F), gallium (Ga), germanium (Ge), graphite (carbon, C), hafnium (Hf), indium (In), lithium (Li), manganese (Mn), niobium (Nb), platinum-group elements (PGE), rare-earth elements (REE), rhenium (Re), selenium (Se), tantalum (Ta), tellurium (Te), tin (Sn), titanium (Ti), vanadium (V), and zirconium (Zr). For a number of these commodities

  16. Uniting geology and craftsmanship to find the optimal soapstone for restoration of the Nidaros soapstone Cathedral in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslaksen Aasly, Kari; Meyer, Gurli Birgitte; Kløve Keiding, Jakob; Langås, Rune; Lund, Vegard

    2017-04-01

    The Nidaros Cathedral situated in Trondheim, Norway is a restored cathedral resting on the remnants of an original medieval church sanctified St Olav. The cathedral became one of the most important sanctuary for pilgrimage during the Middle Ages and still is today. In a European context the cathedral, along with a certain group of other churches and monasteries in Norway, is unique by being build from soapstone (steatite). This talc and chlorite dominated metamorphic rock is relatively soft, heat resistant and dense making the material ideal for cooking pots, stoves and all kinds of utensils. Soapstone has therefore been appreciated, used and quarried since the Stone Age in Norway. At the onset of Christianity the choice of soapstone from harder rock types was not difficult for the building owners combining the vision of stone churches in Norway with the skills of wood carving traditions of local handicraftsmen. The best example is the Nidaros Cathedral built in the 11th to 14th century. In 1869, the Nidaros Cathedral Restoration Workshop (NDR) was founded with the purpose of restoring the cathedral using original craftsman's techniques and authentic materials. The restoration was originally completed in 1969, but is still ongoing due to weathering of certain used soapstone types. A major challenge remains to find soapstone resources of the right quality. Core issues relate to avoid rocks with cracks and cleavage, a demand for homogeneity, maintaining esthetic authenticity, resistance to weathering (disintegration) and last but not least the ultimatum of workability. Thus locating new soapstone resources depends strongly on geological understanding, quarry experience and stone carver's knowledge. The present work is based on close cooperation between stone carvers and geologists in a common goal of uniting knowledge and experience in defining qualities of soapstone for various purposes of restoration. Cooperate observations of geology and carving properties in the

  17. Geological implications of recently derived vertical velocities of benchmarks of the south-central United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokka, R. K.

    2005-05-01

    , subsidence was 2-3 times higher than estimates based on long-term geologic measurements. The data also indicate that adjacent alluvial ridges where the population is concentrated have been similarly affected. In the Chenier plain of southwest Louisiana, a region previously thought to be subsiding at slowly, rates of sinking are similar to those of the deltaic plain. Second, spatial patterns suggest that motions at most locations may have both long (10-100 km) and short (<5 km) wavelength components. Gross aspects of some long wavelength motions can be explained by flexure produced by late Quaternary sediment loads such as the MRD and the MAV. Short wavelength spikes in motions correlate well with areas of fluid withdrawal, faults, and salt structures. Third, motions at many benchmarks have not been linear through time. For example, subsidence in ~10-30 km wide zones surrounding some active normal faults of south Louisiana declined as faulting has slowed (and vice versa). Subsidence in these areas reached a peak in 1970 and declined thereafter. Some local changes also correlate with changes in human-related activities (e.g., reduced groundwater pumping and slower subsidence in the Lake Charles area beginning in the late 1980s).

  18. Improvement of Storm Forecasts Using Gridded Bayesian Linear Regression for Northeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J.; Astitha, M.; Schwartz, C. S.

    2017-12-01

    Bayesian linear regression (BLR) is a post-processing technique in which regression coefficients are derived and used to correct raw forecasts based on pairs of observation-model values. This study presents the development and application of a gridded Bayesian linear regression (GBLR) as a new post-processing technique to improve numerical weather prediction (NWP) of rain and wind storm forecasts over northeast United States. Ten controlled variables produced from ten ensemble members of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) real-time prediction system are used for a GBLR model. In the GBLR framework, leave-one-storm-out cross-validation is utilized to study the performances of the post-processing technique in a database composed of 92 storms. To estimate the regression coefficients of the GBLR, optimization procedures that minimize the systematic and random error of predicted atmospheric variables (wind speed, precipitation, etc.) are implemented for the modeled-observed pairs of training storms. The regression coefficients calculated for meteorological stations of the National Weather Service are interpolated back to the model domain. An analysis of forecast improvements based on error reductions during the storms will demonstrate the value of GBLR approach. This presentation will also illustrate how the variances are optimized for the training partition in GBLR and discuss the verification strategy for grid points where no observations are available. The new post-processing technique is successful in improving wind speed and precipitation storm forecasts using past event-based data and has the potential to be implemented in real-time.

  19. Two concepts of uranium geology in the United States of America that may be useful in Latin American uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curry, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    Two concepts of the origin and deposition of uranium are described that are somewhat different from the conventional sandstone deposits of the United States of America. The first concept relates to granites as source and host rocks. Work done in the Granite Mountains of Wyoming provides considerable support for a granitic source. Calculations indicate that between 50 and 75% of the uranium has been leached from the granite to depths of nearly 400 m, and could have been source rocks for deposits in the Tertiary sandstones in adjacent basins. Areas of intense fracturing are also hosts for redeposition and concentration of uranium in granites of the Granite Mountains. The second concept describes resurgent cauldrons as source and host rocks. The development of resurgent cauldrons provides a variety of geological settings favourable for both intra-caldera deposits and deposits forming in adjacent basins. A collapsed caldera may contain a lake into which sediments from ejected material carrying uranium could be carried and into which direct contributions of uranium could come from the underlying magma. Weathering of uranium-bearing material deposited outside the caldera could provide uranium to be redeposited in conventional deposits such as roll fronts. Geological investigations carried out in the Great Basins of Utah and Nevada are cited. (author)

  20. Improved predictive mapping of indoor radon concentrations using ensemble regression trees based on automatic clustering of geological units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kropat, Georg; Bochud, Francois; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Laedermann, Jean-Pascal; Murith, Christophe; Palacios, Martha; Baechler, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: According to estimations around 230 people die as a result of radon exposure in Switzerland. This public health concern makes reliable indoor radon prediction and mapping methods necessary in order to improve risk communication to the public. The aim of this study was to develop an automated method to classify lithological units according to their radon characteristics and to develop mapping and predictive tools in order to improve local radon prediction. Method: About 240 000 indoor radon concentration (IRC) measurements in about 150 000 buildings were available for our analysis. The automated classification of lithological units was based on k-medoids clustering via pair-wise Kolmogorov distances between IRC distributions of lithological units. For IRC mapping and prediction we used random forests and Bayesian additive regression trees (BART). Results: The automated classification groups lithological units well in terms of their IRC characteristics. Especially the IRC differences in metamorphic rocks like gneiss are well revealed by this method. The maps produced by random forests soundly represent the regional difference of IRCs in Switzerland and improve the spatial detail compared to existing approaches. We could explain 33% of the variations in IRC data with random forests. Additionally, the influence of a variable evaluated by random forests shows that building characteristics are less important predictors for IRCs than spatial/geological influences. BART could explain 29% of IRC variability and produced maps that indicate the prediction uncertainty. Conclusion: Ensemble regression trees are a powerful tool to model and understand the multidimensional influences on IRCs. Automatic clustering of lithological units complements this method by facilitating the interpretation of radon properties of rock types. This study provides an important element for radon risk communication. Future approaches should consider taking into account further variables

  1. Open hydrology courseware using the United States Geological Survey’s National Water Census Data Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jake; Ames, Daniel P.; Blodgett, David L.

    2018-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is the primary U.S. Government agency for water data collection and dissemination. In this role, the USGS has recently created and deployed a National Water Census Data Portal (NWC-DP) which provides access to streamflow, evapotransporation, precipitation, aquatic biology and other data at the national level. Recognizing the value of these data sets for hydrologic science education, this paper presents an effort to bridge the gap between pencil–and-paper-based hydrology curriculum and the USGS NWC-DP resource. Specifically, we have developed an R package, National Water Census Education (NWCEd), and five associated laboratory exercises that integrate R- and web-services-based access to the NWC-DP data sets. Using custom functions built into the NWCEd, students are able to access unprecedented amounts of hydrologic data from the NWC-DP, which can be applied to current hydrology curriculum and analyzed using NWCEd and a number of other open-source R tools.

  2. Hydrogeologic framework and geologic structure of the Floridan aquifer system and intermediate confining unit in the Lake Okeechobee area, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Ronald S.

    2014-01-01

    The successful implementation of aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) as a water-management tool requires detailed information on the hydrologic and hydraulic properties of the potential water storage zones. This report presents stratigraphic and hydrogeologic sections of the upper part of the Floridan aquifer system and the overlying confining unit or aquifer system in the Lake Okeechobee area, and contour maps of the upper contacts of the Ocala Limestone and the Arcadia Formation, which are represented in the sections. The sections and maps illustrate hydrogeologic factors such as confinement of potential storage zones, the distribution of permeability within the zones, and geologic features that may control the efficiency of injection, storage, and recovery of water, and thus may influence decisions on ASR activities in areas of interest to the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan.

  3. Twenty-Sixth Annual Report of the Director of the United States Geological Survey, 1904-1905

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcott, Charles D.

    1905-01-01

    IntroductionRemarks on the work of the yearBranches of workThe United States Geological Survey was created in 1879 for the purpose—as its name implies—of examining and reporting on the geologic structure and mineral resources and products of the national domain. To the adequate description of geologic formations and structure cartography is essential, and Congress early recognized this fact by making appropriations for the preparation of a geologic map of the United States. The topographic base map, in order to show with sufficient precision the relations of the geologic formations and the intricacies of the structure, must have a rather large scale and present considerable detail. No such map of this country existed in 1879, and its preparation was immediately begun. The waters of the country are of vast importance, and in a broad sense may be regarded as one of its greatest mineral resources. Hence, in the evolution of the work of the Survey, and especially in view of the great importance of the subject to the irrigation interests, Congress early began making appropriations for ascertaining the amount and quality of the surface and underground waters and when, in 1902, the service for the reclamation of arid lands was organized, that work naturally was placed in the hands of the Secretary of the Interior and by him intrusted to the Director of the Survey.The three great branches of work carried on by the Geological Survey are, therefore, the geologic, the topographic, and the hydrographic, and with these, more especially the latter, is conjoined the Reclamation Service ; publication and administration constitute necessary auxiliary branches. Along these great lines the work of the Survey has progressed without essential variation for many years. The changes made have been due to normal expansion rather than to radical departure in object or plan.State cooperationDuring the last fiscal year, State cooperation, as explained in previous reports, continued

  4. Enhancement of loss detection capability using a combination of the Kalman Filter/Linear Smoother and controllable unit accounting approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pike, D.H.; Morrison, G.W.

    1979-01-01

    An approach to loss detection is presented which combines the optimal loss detection capability of state estimation techniques with a controllable unit accounting approach. The state estimation theory makes use of a linear system model which is capable of modeling the interaction of various controllable unit areas within a given facility. An example is presented which illustrates the increase in loss detection probability which is realizable with state estimation techniques. Comparisons are made with a Shewhart Control Chart and the CUSUM statistic

  5. Report on geological surveys in the 300-FF-1 operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandness, G.A.

    1991-03-01

    This report describes a set of geophysical surveys performed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory at selected locations within the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit at Hanford. Field work and preliminary data processing activities were initiated in September 1989. These actions were terminated by the Westinghouse Hanford Company before completion in December 1989. Work was reinitiated in October 1990, to complete the processing of the data that had already been collected and to report the results. Because the field work was only partially completed, the task objectives, as presented in the Statement of Work, could not be fully met. This report is, therefore, a progress report covering the work performed through December 11, 1989. This task involved (1) ground-penetrating radar surveys of the 618-4 and 618-5 Burial Grounds, and (2) ground-penetrating radar and electromagnetic induction surveys along the assumed routes of the abandoned process sewers and radioactive liquid waste sewers in the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit. The surveys in the burial grounds were intended to identify burial trenches and pits, to determine the depth of fill, and to locate waste materials, including any that might be outside the perimeter fences. The surveys along the sewer routes were intended, first, to confirm the locations of the sewers as shown on existing maps or to otherwise accurately determine their locations, and second, to attempt to identify locations of possible leaks. 3 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  6. U.S. Geological Survey Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units Program—2016–2017 Research Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennerline, Donald E.; Childs, Dawn E.

    2017-04-20

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has several strategic goals that focus its efforts on serving the American people. The USGS Ecosystems Mission Area has responsibility for the following objectives under the strategic goal of “Science to Manage and Sustain Resources for Thriving Economies and Healthy Ecosystems”:Understand, model, and predict change in natural systemsConserve and protect wildlife and fish species and their habitatsReduce or eliminate the threat of invasive species and wildlife diseaseThis report provides abstracts of the majority of ongoing research investigations of the USGS Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units program and is intended to complement the 2016 Cooperative Research Units Program Year in Review Circular 1424 (https://doi.org/10.3133/cir1424). The report is organized by the following major science themes that contribute to the objectives of the USGS:Advanced TechnologiesClimate ScienceDecision ScienceEcological FlowsEcosystem ServicesEndangered Species Conservation, Recovery, and Proactive StrategiesEnergyHuman DimensionsInvasive SpeciesLandscape EcologySpecies of Greatest Conservation NeedSpecies Population, Habitat, and Harvest ManagementWildlife Health and Disease

  7. Frac sand in the United States: a geological and industry overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Mary Ellen; Wilson, Anna B.; Bleiwas, Donald I.

    2015-01-01

    A new mineral rush is underway in the upper Midwest of the United States, especially in Wisconsin and Minnesota, for deposits of high-quality frac sand that the mining industry calls “Northern White” sand or “Ottawa” sand. Frac sand is a specialized type of sand that is added to fracking fluids that are injected into unconventional oil and gas wells during hydraulic fracturing (fracking or hydrofracking), a process that enhances petroleum extraction from tight (low permeability) reservoirs. Frac sand consists of natural sand grains with strict mineralogical and textural specifications that act as a proppant (keeping induced fractures open), extending the time of release and the flow rate of hydrocarbons from fractured rock surfaces in contact with the wellbore.

  8. Kilometer-Scale Topographic Roughness of Mercury: Correlation with Geologic Features and Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreslavsky, Mikhail A.; Head, James W.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Zuber, Maria T.; Smith, David E.

    2014-01-01

    We present maps of the topographic roughness of the northern circumpolar area of Mercury at kilometer scales. The maps are derived from range profiles obtained by the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) instrument onboard the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission. As measures of roughness, we used the interquartile range of profile curvature at three baselines: 0.7 kilometers, 2.8 kilometers, and 11 kilometers. The maps provide a synoptic overview of variations of typical topographic textures. They show a dichotomy between the smooth northern plains and rougher, more heavily cratered terrains. Analysis of the scale dependence of roughness indicates that the regolith on Mercury is thicker than on the Moon by approximately a factor of three. Roughness contrasts within northern volcanic plains of Mercury indicate a younger unit inside Goethe basin and inside another unnamed stealth basin. These new data permit interplanetary comparisons of topographic roughness.

  9. United States Geological Survey (USGS) FM cassette seismic-refraction recording system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    In this two chapter report, instrumentation used to collect seismic data is described. This data acquisition system has two parts: (1) portable anolog seismic recorders and related ''hand-held-testers'' (HHT) and (2) portable digitizing units. During the anolog recording process, ground motion is sensed by a 2-Hz vertical-component seismometer. The voltage output from the seismometer is split without amplification and sent to three parallel amplifier circuit boards. Each circuit board amplifiers the seismic signal in three stages and then frequency modulates the signal. Amplification at the last two stages can be set by the user. An internal precision clock signal is also frequency modulated. The three data carrier frequencies, the clock carrier frequency, and a tape-speed compensation carrier frequency are summed and recorded on a recorded on a cassette tape. During the digitizing process, the cassette tapes are played back and the signals are demultiplexed and demodulated. An anolog-to-digital converter converts the signals to digital data which are stored on 8-inch floppy disks. 7 refs., 19 figs., 6 tabs

  10. The United States Polar Rock Repository: A geological resource for the Earth science community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunow, Annie M.; Elliot, David H.; Codispoti, Julie E.

    2007-01-01

    The United States Polar Rock Repository (USPRR) is a U. S. national facility designed for the permanent curatorial preservation of rock samples, along with associated materials such as field notes, annotated air photos and maps, raw analytic data, paleomagnetic cores, ground rock and mineral residues, thin sections, and microfossil mounts, microslides and residues from Polar areas. This facility was established by the Office of Polar Programs at the U. S. National Science Foundation (NSF) to minimize redundant sample collecting, and also because the extreme cold and hazardous field conditions make fieldwork costly and difficult. The repository provides, along with an on-line database of sample information, an essential resource for proposal preparation, pilot studies and other sample based research that should make fieldwork more efficient and effective. This latter aspect should reduce the environmental impact of conducting research in sensitive Polar Regions. The USPRR also provides samples for educational outreach. Rock samples may be borrowed for research or educational purposes as well as for museum exhibits.

  11. Testing of an Annular Linear Induction Pump for the Fission Surface Power Technology Demonstration Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, K. A.; Pearson, J. B.; Webster, K.; Godfoy, T. J.; Bossard, J. A.

    2013-01-01

    Results of performance testing of an annular linear induction pump that has been designed for integration into a fission surface power technology demonstration unit are presented. The pump electromagnetically pushes liquid metal (NaK) through a specially-designed apparatus that permits quantification of pump performance over a range of operating conditions. Testing was conducted for frequencies of 40, 55, and 70 Hz, liquid metal temperatures of 125, 325, and 525 C, and input voltages from 30 to 120 V. Pump performance spanned a range of flow rates from roughly 0.3 to 3.1 L/s (4.8 to 49 gpm), and pressure heads of <1 to 104 kPa (<0.15 to 15 psi). The maximum efficiency measured during testing was 5.4%. At the technology demonstration unit operating temperature of 525 C the pump operated over a narrower envelope, with flow rates from 0.3 to 2.75 L/s (4.8 to 43.6 gpm), developed pressure heads from <1 to 55 kPa (<0.15 to 8 psi), and a maximum efficiency of 3.5%. The pump was supplied with three-phase power at 40 and 55 Hz using a variable-frequency motor drive, while power at 55 and 70 Hz was supplied using a variable-frequency power supply. Measured performance of the pump at 55 Hz using either supply exhibited good quantitative agreement. For a given temperature, the peak in efficiency occurred at different flow rates as the frequency was changed, but the maximum value of efficiency was relative insensitive within 0.3% over the frequency range tested, including a scan from 45 to 78 Hz. The objectives of the FSP technology project are as follows:5 • Develop FSP concepts that meet expected surface power requirements at reasonable cost with added benefits over other options. • Establish a nonnuclear hardware-based technical foundation for FSP design concepts to reduce overall development risk. • Reduce the cost uncertainties for FSP and establish greater credibility for flight system cost estimates. • Generate the key nonnuclear products to allow Agency

  12. Stability and linearity control of spectrometric channels of the Cherenkov counters using controllable units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kollar, D.; Kollarova, L.; Khorvat, P.

    1976-01-01

    A system is elaborated to control stability and linearity of the Cherenkov counter spectrometric channels in an experiment on a magnetic monopole search. Linearity of a light characteristic of a photoelectric multiplier is checked with the help of the calibrated light-strikings of light emitting diodes with flare intensity adjusted by controlling generator voltage across the mercury body. A program algorithm is presented for checking stability and linearity of the Cherenkov counter spectrometric channels which helps to consider the fatigue effects of the photoelectric multiplier resulting from the considerable loads

  13. Geologic and hydrologic considerations for various concepts of high-level radioactive waste disposal in conterminous United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekren, E.B.; Dinwiddie, G.A.; Mytton, J.W.; Thordarson, W.; Weir, J.E. Jr.; Hinrichs, E.N.; Schroder, L.J.

    1974-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate and identify which geohydrologic environments in conterminous United States are best suited for various concepts or methods of underground disposal of high-level radioactive wastes and to establish geologic and hydrologic criteria that are pertinent to high-level waste disposal. The unproven methods of disposal include (1) a very deep drill hole (30,000 to 50,000 ft or 9,140 to 15,240 m), (2) a matrix of (an array of multiple) drill holes (1,000 to 20,000 ft or 305 to 6,100 m), (3) a mined chamber (1,000 to 10,000 ft or 305 to 3,050 m), (4) a cavity with separate manmade structures (1,000 to 10,000 ft or 305 to 3,050 m), and (5) an exploded cavity (2,000 to 20,000 ft or 610 to 6,100 m). Areas considered to be unsuitable for waste disposal are those where seismic risk is high, where possible sea-level rise would inundate potential sites, where high topographic relief coincides with high frequency of faults, where there are unfavorable ground-water conditions, and where no suitable rocks are known to be present to depths of 20,000 feet (6,100 m) or more, and where these strata either contain large volumes of ground water or have high oil and gas potential

  14. Free-Piston Diesel-Fueled Linear Alternator for Auxiliary Power Unit Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Atkinson, Christopher

    1999-01-01

    .... Previous studies of free-piston engine designs have indicated that they would be useful where linear power delivery could be used, such as in fluid power delivery, or in electrical energy applications.

  15. SIMULATION FRAMEWORK FOR REGIONAL GEOLOGIC CO{sub 2} STORAGE ALONG ARCHES PROVINCE OF MIDWESTERN UNITED STATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sminchak, Joel

    2012-09-30

    This report presents final technical results for the project Simulation Framework for Regional Geologic CO{sub 2} Storage Infrastructure along Arches Province of the Midwest United States. The Arches Simulation project was a three year effort designed to develop a simulation framework for regional geologic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage infrastructure along the Arches Province through development of a geologic model and advanced reservoir simulations of large-scale CO{sub 2} storage. The project included five major technical tasks: (1) compilation of geologic, hydraulic and injection data on Mount Simon, (2) development of model framework and parameters, (3) preliminary variable density flow simulations, (4) multi-phase model runs of regional storage scenarios, and (5) implications for regional storage feasibility. The Arches Province is an informal region in northeastern Indiana, northern Kentucky, western Ohio, and southern Michigan where sedimentary rock formations form broad arch and platform structures. In the province, the Mount Simon sandstone is an appealing deep saline formation for CO{sub 2} storage because of the intersection of reservoir thickness and permeability. Many CO{sub 2} sources are located in proximity to the Arches Province, and the area is adjacent to coal fired power plants along the Ohio River Valley corridor. Geophysical well logs, rock samples, drilling logs, and geotechnical tests were evaluated for a 500,000 km{sup 2} study area centered on the Arches Province. Hydraulic parameters and historical operational information was also compiled from Mount Simon wastewater injection wells in the region. This information was integrated into a geocellular model that depicts the parameters and conditions in a numerical array. The geologic and hydraulic data were integrated into a three-dimensional grid of porosity and permeability, which are key parameters regarding fluid flow and pressure buildup due to CO{sub 2} injection. Permeability data

  16. SIMULATION FRAMEWORK FOR REGIONAL GEOLOGIC CO{sub 2} STORAGE ALONG ARCHES PROVINCE OF MIDWESTERN UNITED STATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sminchak, Joel

    2012-09-30

    This report presents final technical results for the project Simulation Framework for Regional Geologic CO{sub 2} Storage Infrastructure along Arches Province of the Midwest United States. The Arches Simulation project was a three year effort designed to develop a simulation framework for regional geologic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage infrastructure along the Arches Province through development of a geologic model and advanced reservoir simulations of large-scale CO{sub 2} storage. The project included five major technical tasks: (1) compilation of geologic, hydraulic and injection data on Mount Simon, (2) development of model framework and parameters, (3) preliminary variable density flow simulations, (4) multi-phase model runs of regional storage scenarios, and (5) implications for regional storage feasibility. The Arches Province is an informal region in northeastern Indiana, northern Kentucky, western Ohio, and southern Michigan where sedimentary rock formations form broad arch and platform structures. In the province, the Mount Simon sandstone is an appealing deep saline formation for CO{sub 2} storage because of the intersection of reservoir thickness and permeability. Many CO{sub 2} sources are located in proximity to the Arches Province, and the area is adjacent to coal fired power plants along the Ohio River Valley corridor. Geophysical well logs, rock samples, drilling logs, and geotechnical tests were evaluated for a 500,000 km{sup 2} study area centered on the Arches Province. Hydraulic parameters and historical operational information was also compiled from Mount Simon wastewater injection wells in the region. This information was integrated into a geocellular model that depicts the parameters and conditions in a numerical array. The geologic and hydraulic data were integrated into a three-dimensional grid of porosity and permeability, which are key parameters regarding fluid flow and pressure buildup due to CO{sub 2} injection. Permeability data

  17. Destination: Geology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Louise

    2016-04-01

    "While we teach, we learn" (Roman philosopher Seneca) One of the most beneficial ways to remember a theory or concept is to explain it to someone else. The offer of fieldwork and visits to exciting destinations is arguably the easiest way to spark a students' interest in any subject. Geology at A-Level (age 16-18) in the United Kingdom incorporates significant elements of field studies into the curriculum with many students choosing the subject on this basis and it being a key factor in consolidating student knowledge and understanding. Geology maintains a healthy annual enrollment with interest in the subject increasing in recent years. However, it is important for educators not to loose sight of the importance of recruitment and retention of students. Recent flexibility in the subject content of the UK curriculum in secondary schools has provided an opportunity to teach the basic principles of the subject to our younger students and fieldwork provides a valuable opportunity to engage with these students in the promotion of the subject. Promotion of the subject is typically devolved to senior students at Hessle High School and Sixth Form College, drawing on their personal experiences to engage younger students. Prospective students are excited to learn from a guest speaker, so why not use our most senior students to engage and promote the subject rather than their normal subject teacher? A-Level geology students embarking on fieldwork abroad, understand their additional responsibility to promote the subject and share their understanding of the field visit. They will typically produce a series of lessons and activities for younger students using their newly acquired knowledge. Senior students also present to whole year groups in seminars, sharing knowledge of the location's geology and raising awareness of the exciting destinations offered by geology. Geology fieldwork is always planned, organised and led by the member of staff to keep costs low, with recent visits

  18. Non-Linear Transmission Line (NLTL) Microwave Source Lecture Notes the United States Particle Accelerator School

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Steven J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Carlsten, Bruce E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-26

    We will quickly go through the history of the non-linear transmission lines (NLTLs). We will describe how they work, how they are modeled and how they are designed. Note that the field of high power, NLTL microwave sources is still under development, so this is just a snap shot of their current state. Topics discussed are: (1) Introduction to solitons and the KdV equation; (2) The lumped element non-linear transmission line; (3) Solution of the KdV equation; (4) Non-linear transmission lines at microwave frequencies; (5) Numerical methods for NLTL analysis; (6) Unipolar versus bipolar input; (7) High power NLTL pioneers; (8) Resistive versus reactive load; (9) Non-lineaer dielectrics; and (10) Effect of losses.

  19. Evaluation of radon occurrence in groundwater from 16 geologic units in Pennsylvania, 1986–2015, with application to potential radon exposure from groundwater and indoor air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Eliza L.

    2017-05-11

    Results from 1,041 groundwater samples collected during 1986‒2015 from 16 geologic units in Pennsylvania, associated with 25 or more groundwater samples with concentrations of radon-222, were evaluated in an effort to identify variations in radon-222 activities or concentrations and to classify potential radon-222 exposure from groundwater and indoor air. Radon-222 is hereafter referred to as “radon.” Radon concentrations in groundwater greater than or equal to the proposed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) for public-water supply systems of 300 picocuries per liter (pCi/L) were present in about 87 percent of the water samples, whereas concentrations greater than or equal to the proposed alternative MCL (AMCL) for public water-supply systems of 4,000 pCi/L were present in 14 percent. The highest radon concentrations were measured in groundwater from the schists, gneisses, and quartzites of the Piedmont Physiographic Province.In this study, conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Health and the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, groundwater samples were aggregated among 16 geologic units in Pennsylvania to identify units with high median radon concentrations in groundwater. Graphical plots and statistical tests were used to determine variations in radon concentrations in groundwater and indoor air. Median radon concentrations in groundwater samples and median radon concentrations in indoor air samples within the 16 geologic units were classified according to proposed and recommended regulatory limits to explore potential radon exposure from groundwater and indoor air. All of the geologic units, except for the Allegheny (Pa) and Glenshaw (Pcg) Formations in the Appalachian Plateaus Physiographic Province, had median radon concentrations greater than the proposed EPA MCL of 300 pCi/L, and the Peters Creek Schist (Xpc), which is in the Piedmont

  20. Geomorphology and Geology of the Southwestern Margaritifer Sinus and Argyre Regions of Mars. Part 2: Crater Size-frequency Distribution Curves and Geomorphic Unit Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, T. J.; Pieri, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    In assessing the relative ages of the geomorphic/geologic units, crater counts of the entire unit or nearly the entire unit were made and summed in order to get a more accurate value than obtainable by counts of isolated sections of each unit. Cumulative size-frequency counts show some interesting relationships. Most of the units show two distinct crater populations with a flattening out of the distribution curve at and below 10 km diameter craters. Above this crater size the curves for the different units diverge most notably. In general, the variance may reflect the relative ages of these units. At times, however, in the larger crater size range, these curves can overlap and cross on another. Also the error bars at these larger sizes are broader (and thus more suspect), since counts of larger craters show more scatter, whereas the unit areas remain constant. Occasional clusters of relatively large craters within a given unit, particularly one of limited areal extent, can affect the curve so that the unit might seem to be older than units which it overlies or cuts.

  1. Geologic mapping using LANDSAT data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, B. S.; Abrams, M. J.

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility of automated classification for lithologic mapping with LANDSAT digital data was evaluated using three classification algorithms. The two supervised algorithms analyzed, a linear discriminant analysis algorithm and a hybrid algorithm which incorporated the Parallelepiped algorithm and the Bayesian maximum likelihood function, were comparable in terms of accuracy; however, classification was only 50 per cent accurate. The linear discriminant analysis algorithm was three times as efficient as the hybrid approach. The unsupervised classification technique, which incorporated the CLUS algorithm, delineated the major lithologic boundaries and, in general, correctly classified the most prominent geologic units. The unsupervised algorithm was not as efficient nor as accurate as the supervised algorithms. Analysis of spectral data for the lithologic units in the 0.4 to 2.5 microns region indicated that a greater separability of the spectral signatures could be obtained using wavelength bands outside the region sensed by LANDSAT.

  2. Integrated inversion of airborne geophysics over a structural geological unit: A case study for delineation of a porphyry copper zone in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi, Maysam; Fournier, Dominique; Devriese, Sarah G. R.; Oldenburg, Douglas W.

    2018-05-01

    This work presents the application of an integrated geophysical survey of magnetometry and frequency-domain electromagetic data (FDEM) to image a geological unit located in the Kalat-e-Reshm prospect area in Iran which has good potential for ore mineralization. The aim of this study is to concentrate on a 3D arc-shaped andesite unit, where it has been concealed by a sedimentary cover. This unit consists of two segments; the top one is a porphyritic andesite having potential for ore mineralization, especially copper, whereas the lower segment corresponds to an unaltered andesite rock. Airborne electromagnetic data were used to delineate the top segment as a resistive unit embedded in a sediment column of alluvial fan, while the lower andesite unit was detected by magnetic field data. In our research, the FDEM data were first inverted by a laterally-constrained 1D program to provide three pieces of information that facilitate full 3D inversion of EM data: (1) noise levels associated with the FDEM observations, (2) an estimate of the general conductivity structure in the prospect area, and (3) the location of the sought target. Then EM data inversion was extended to 3D using a parallelized OcTree-based code to better determine the boundaries of the porphyry unit, where a transition exists from surface sediment to the upper segment. Moreover, a mixed-norm inversion approach was taken into account for magnetic data to construct a compact and sharp susceptible andesite unit at depth, beneath the top resistive and non-susceptible segment. The blind geological unit was eventually interpreted based on a combined model of conductivity and magnetic susceptibility acquired from individually inverting these geophysical surveys, which were collected simultaneously.

  3. A dual computed tomography linear accelerator unit for stereotactic radiation therapy: a new approach without cranially fixated stereotactic frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uematsu, Minoru; Fukui, Toshiharu; Shioda, Akira; Tokumitsu, Hideyuki; Takai, Kenji; Kojima, Tadaharu; Asai, Yoshiko; Kusano, Shoichi

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To perform stereotactic radiation therapy (SRT) without cranially fixated stereotactic frames, we developed a dual computed tomography (CT) linear accelerator (linac) treatment unit. Methods and Materials: This unit is composed of a linac, CT, and motorized table. The linac and CT are set up at opposite ends of the table, which is suitable for both machines. The gantry axis of the linac is coaxial with that of the CT scanner. Thus, the center of the target detected with the CT can be matched easily with the gantry axis of the linac by rotating the table. Positioning is confirmed with the CT for each treatment session. Positioning and treatment errors with this unit were examined by phantom studies. Between August and December 1994, 8 patients with 11 lesions of primary or metastatic brain tumors received SRT with this unit. All lesions were treated with 24 Gy in three fractions to 30 Gy in 10 fractions to the 80% isodose line, with or without conventional external beam radiation therapy. Results: Phantom studies revealed that treatment errors with this unit were within 1 mm after careful positioning. The position was easily maintained using two tiny metallic balls as vertical and horizontal marks. Motion of patients was negligible using a conventional heat-flexible head mold and dental impression. The overall time for a multiple noncoplanar arcs treatment for a single isocenter was less than 1 h on the initial treatment day and usually less than 20 min on subsequent days. Treatment was outpatient-based and well tolerated with no acute toxicities. Satisfactory responses have been documented. Conclusion: Using this treatment unit, multiple fractionated SRT is performed easily and precisely without cranially fixated stereotactic frames

  4. Watershed Boundaries - WATERSHEDS_HUC06_USGS_IN: 6-Digit Accounting Units, Hydrologic Units, in Indiana, (Derived from US Geological Survey, 1:24,000 Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — WATERSHEDS_HUC06_USGS_IN is a polygon shapefile showing the boundaries of accounting units (HUA) in Indiana. Accounting units are noted by a 6-digit hydrologic unit....

  5. Linear trend and climate response of five-needle pines in the western United States related to treeline proximity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kipfmueller, K.F. [Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Geography; Salzer, M.W. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research

    2010-01-15

    This study investigated sixty-six 5-needle pine growth chronologies from 1896 to their end years in order to identify potential patterns related to linear trends in ring width. Individual chronology responses to climate were also evaluated by comparing the chronologies with seasonal temperature and precipitation data from 1896 to the present date. Chronologies exhibiting similar patterns of climate response were grouped in order to examine the role of treeline proximity on climate-growth relationships. Ring width measurements for pine sites located in the western United States were obtained from the International Tree Ring Data Bank. Growth indices were compared among all sites in order to assess the relative strength of common signals with increasing distance. Pearson correlations were used to calculate linear trends for each chronology. A cluster analysis of climate response patterns indicated that most chronologies positively associated with temperatures were located near upper treeline and contained significant positive linear trends. The study suggested that 5-needle pine treeline chronologies may be used as predictors in temperature reconstructions. However, care must be taken to determine that collection sites have not been impacted by disturbances such as fire or insect outbreaks. 35 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  6. Geologic Map of the Derain (H-10) Quadrangle on Mercury: The Challenges of Consistently Mapping the Intercrater Plains Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitten, J. L.; Fassett, C. I.; Ostrach, L. R.

    2018-06-01

    We present the initial mapping of the H-10 quadrangle on Mercury, a region that was imaged for the first time by MESSENGER. Geologic map with assist with further characterization of the intercrater plains and their possible formation mechanism(s).

  7. Geographic Information System (GIS) representation of historical seagrass coverage in Perdido Bay from United States Geological Survey/National Wetlands Research Center (USGS/NWRC), 1979 (NODC Accession 0000605)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Historical seagrass coverage in Perdido Bay 1979 from United States Geological Survey/National Wetlands Research Center (USGS/NWRC).

  8. Geographic Information System (GIS) characterization of historical seagrass coverage in Perdido Bay from United States Geological Survey/National Wetlands Research Center (USGS/NWRC), 1987 (NODC Accession 0000606)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Graphical representation of historical seagrass coverage in Perdido Bay in 1987 from United States Geological Survey/National Wetlands Research Center (USGS/NWRC).

  9. Non-linear advanced control of the LHC inner triplet heat exchanger test unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinuela, E. Blanco; Cubillos, J. Casas; Prada Moraga, C. de; Cristea, S.

    2002-01-01

    The future Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will include eight interaction region final focus magnet systems, the so-called 'Inner Triplet', one on each side of the four beam collision points. The Inner Triplets will be cooled in a static bath of pressurized He II nominally at 1.9 K. This temperature is a control parameter and has very severe constraints in order to avoid the transition from the superconducting to normal resistive state. The main difference in these special zones with respect to a regular LHC cell is higher dynamic heat load unevenly distributed which modifies largely the process characteristics and hence the controller performance. Several control strategies have already been tested at CERN in a pilot plant (LHC String Test) which reproduced a LHC half-cell. In order to validate a common control structure along the whole LHC ring, a Nonlinear Model Predictive Control (NMPC) has been developed and implemented in the Inner Triplet Heat Exchanger Unit (IT-HXTU) at CERN. Automation of the Inner Triplet setup and the advanced control techniques deployed based on the Model Based Predictive Control (MBPC) principle are presented

  10. The synthesis and properties of linear A-π-D-π-A type organic small molecule containing diketopyrrolopyrrole terminal units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shanshan; Niu, Qingfen; Sun, Tao; Li, Yang; Li, Tianduo; Liu, Haixia

    2017-08-01

    A novel linear A-π-D-π-A-type organic small molecule Ph2(PDPP)2 consisting diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) as acceptor unit, biphenylene as donor unit and acetylene unit as π-linkage has been successfully designed and synthesized. Its corresponding thermal, photophysical and electrochemical properties as well as the photoinduced charge-separation process were investigated. Ph2(PDPP)2 exhibits high thermal stability and it can be soluble in common organic solvents such as chloroform and tetrahydrofuran. The photophysical properties show that DPP2Ph2 harvests sunlight over the entire visible spectrum range in the thin-film state (300-800 nm). DPP2Ph2 has lower band gaps and appropriate energy levels to satisfy the requirement of solution-processable organic solar cells. The efficient photoinduced charge separation process was clearly observed between DPP2Ph2 with PC61BM and the Ksv value was found to be as high as 2.13 × 104 M- 1. Therefore, these excellent properties demonstrate that the designed A-π-D-π-A-type small molecule Ph2(PDPP)2 is the prospective candidate as donor material for organic photovoltaic material.

  11. Geographical and geological data from caves and mines infected with white-nose syndrome (WNS) before September 2009 in the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swezey, Christopher S.; Garrity, Christopher P.

    2011-01-01

    Since 2006, a white fungus named Geomyces destructans has been observed on the muzzles, noses, ears, and (or) wings of bats in the eastern United States, and bat colonies that are infected with this fungus have experienced dramatic incidences of mortality. Although it is not exactly certain how and why these bats are dying, this condition has been named white-nose syndrome (WNS). WNS appears to have spread from an initial infection site at a cave that is connected to a commercial cave in New York, and by the end of August 2009 was identified in at least 74 other sites in the eastern United States. Although detailed geographical and geological data are limited, a review of the available data shows that sites infected with WNS before September 2009 include both natural caves and mines. These infected sites extend from New Hampshire to Virginia, and known site elevations range from 84 to 2693 feet above sea level. In terms of geological setting, the infected sites include sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous rocks of ages ranging from Precambrian to Jurassic. However, by the end of August 2009, no infected sites had been identified in strata of Mississippian, Cretaceous, or Triassic age. Meteorological data are sparse, but most of the recorded air temperatures in the known WNS-infected caves and mines range from 0 to 13.9 degrees C, and humidity measurements range from 68 to 100 percent. Although it is not certain which environmental parameters are important for WNS, it is hoped that the geographical and geological information presented in this paper will inform and clarify some of the debate about WNS, lead to greater understanding of the environmental parameters associated with WNS, and highlight the paucity of scientific data from caves in the eastern United States.

  12. Iowa Bedrock Geology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The bedrock geologic map portrays the current interpretation of the distribution of various bedrock stratigraphic units present at the bedrock surface. The bedrock...

  13. The geology of some United Kingdom nuclear sites related to the disposal of low and medium level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robins, N.S.

    1980-04-01

    The geological sequences beneath ten British nuclear sites are extrapolated from the available data. Formations that are potentially suitable hosts for low and medium level radioactive waste are identified and their relative merits assessed. Of the sites investigated, formations beneath five afford little or no potential, formations beneath a further three offer only moderate potential and sites underlain by the most favourable formations are at Dounreay and Harwell. (author)

  14. The geology of some United Kingdom nuclear sites related to the disposal of low and medium level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robins, N.S.

    1980-06-01

    The geological sequences beneath a further twelve nuclear sites in Britain are predicted from available data. Formations that are potentially suitable hosts for low and medium-level radioactive waste are identified and their relative merits assessed. Of the sites investigated, formations beneath six afford little or no potential, formations beneath a further 4 offer only moderate potential and sites underlain by the most favourable formations are Dungeness and Hinkley Point. (author)

  15. Handling high predictor dimensionality in slope-unit-based landslide susceptibility models through LASSO-penalized Generalized Linear Model

    KAUST Repository

    Camilo, Daniela Castro

    2017-08-30

    Grid-based landslide susceptibility models at regional scales are computationally demanding when using a fine grid resolution. Conversely, Slope-Unit (SU) based susceptibility models allows to investigate the same areas offering two main advantages: 1) a smaller computational burden and 2) a more geomorphologically-oriented interpretation. In this contribution, we generate SU-based landslide susceptibility for the Sado Island in Japan. This island is characterized by deep-seated landslides which we assume can only limitedly be explained by the first two statistical moments (mean and variance) of a set of predictors within each slope unit. As a consequence, in a nested experiment, we first analyse the distributions of a set of continuous predictors within each slope unit computing the standard deviation and quantiles from 0.05 to 0.95 with a step of 0.05. These are then used as predictors for landslide susceptibility. In addition, we combine shape indices for polygon features and the normalized extent of each class belonging to the outcropping lithology in a given SU. This procedure significantly enlarges the size of the predictor hyperspace, thus producing a high level of slope-unit characterization. In a second step, we adopt a LASSO-penalized Generalized Linear Model to shrink back the predictor set to a sensible and interpretable number, carrying only the most significant covariates in the models. As a result, we are able to document the geomorphic features (e.g., 95% quantile of Elevation and 5% quantile of Plan Curvature) that primarily control the SU-based susceptibility within the test area while producing high predictive performances. The implementation of the statistical analyses are included in a parallelized R script (LUDARA) which is here made available for the community to replicate analogous experiments.

  16. Handling high predictor dimensionality in slope-unit-based landslide susceptibility models through LASSO-penalized Generalized Linear Model

    KAUST Repository

    Camilo, Daniela Castro; Lombardo, Luigi; Mai, Paul Martin; Dou, Jie; Huser, Raphaë l

    2017-01-01

    Grid-based landslide susceptibility models at regional scales are computationally demanding when using a fine grid resolution. Conversely, Slope-Unit (SU) based susceptibility models allows to investigate the same areas offering two main advantages: 1) a smaller computational burden and 2) a more geomorphologically-oriented interpretation. In this contribution, we generate SU-based landslide susceptibility for the Sado Island in Japan. This island is characterized by deep-seated landslides which we assume can only limitedly be explained by the first two statistical moments (mean and variance) of a set of predictors within each slope unit. As a consequence, in a nested experiment, we first analyse the distributions of a set of continuous predictors within each slope unit computing the standard deviation and quantiles from 0.05 to 0.95 with a step of 0.05. These are then used as predictors for landslide susceptibility. In addition, we combine shape indices for polygon features and the normalized extent of each class belonging to the outcropping lithology in a given SU. This procedure significantly enlarges the size of the predictor hyperspace, thus producing a high level of slope-unit characterization. In a second step, we adopt a LASSO-penalized Generalized Linear Model to shrink back the predictor set to a sensible and interpretable number, carrying only the most significant covariates in the models. As a result, we are able to document the geomorphic features (e.g., 95% quantile of Elevation and 5% quantile of Plan Curvature) that primarily control the SU-based susceptibility within the test area while producing high predictive performances. The implementation of the statistical analyses are included in a parallelized R script (LUDARA) which is here made available for the community to replicate analogous experiments.

  17. Leveraging Regional Exploration to Develop Geologic Framework for CO2 Storage in Deep Formations in Midwestern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neeraj Gupta

    2009-09-30

    Obtaining subsurface data for developing a regional framework for geologic storage of CO{sub 2} can require drilling and characterization in a large number of deep wells, especially in areas with limited pre-existing data. One approach for achieving this objective, without the prohibitive costs of drilling costly standalone test wells, is to collaborate with the oil and gas drilling efforts in a piggyback approach that can provide substantial cost savings and help fill data gaps in areas that may not otherwise get characterized. This leveraging with oil/gas drilling also mitigates some of the risk involved in standalone wells. This collaborative approach has been used for characterizing in a number of locations in the midwestern USA between 2005 and 2009 with funding from U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE award: DE-FC26-05NT42434) and in-kind contributions from a number of oil and gas operators. The results are presented in this final technical report. In addition to data collected under current award, selected data from related projects such as the Midwestern Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (MRCSP), the Ohio River Valley CO{sub 2} storage project at and near the Mountaineer Plant, and the drilling of the Ohio Stratigraphic well in Eastern Ohio are discussed and used in the report. Data from this effort are also being incorporated into the MRCSP geologic mapping. The project activities were organized into tracking and evaluation of characterization opportunities; participation in the incremental drilling, basic and advanced logging in selected wells; and data analysis and reporting. Although a large number of opportunities were identified and evaluated, only a small subset was carried into the field stage. Typical selection factors included reaching an acceptable agreement with the operator, drilling and logging risks, and extent of pre-existing data near the candidate wells. The region of study is primarily along

  18. Old Geology and New Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 28 May 2003Mangala Vallis one of the large outflow channels that channeled large quantities of water into the northern lowlands, long ago on geological timescales. This valley is one of the few in the southern hemisphere, as well as one of the few west of the Tharsis bulge. A closer look at the channel shows more recent weathering of the old water channel: the walls of the channel show small, dark slope streaks that form in dusty areas; and much of the surrounding terrain has subtle linear markings trending from the upper left to the lower right, which are probably features sculpted and streamlined by the wind. Geology still shapes the surface of Mars today, but its methods over the eons have changed.Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6, Longitude 209.6 East (150.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  19. A fault‐based model for crustal deformation in the western United States based on a combined inversion of GPS and geologic inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yuehua; Shen, Zheng-Kang

    2017-01-01

    We develop a crustal deformation model to determine fault‐slip rates for the western United States (WUS) using the Zeng and Shen (2014) method that is based on a combined inversion of Global Positioning System (GPS) velocities and geological slip‐rate constraints. The model consists of six blocks with boundaries aligned along major faults in California and the Cascadia subduction zone, which are represented as buried dislocations in the Earth. Faults distributed within blocks have their geometrical structure and locking depths specified by the Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast, version 3 (UCERF3) and the 2008 U.S. Geological Survey National Seismic Hazard Map Project model. Faults slip beneath a predefined locking depth, except for a few segments where shallow creep is allowed. The slip rates are estimated using a least‐squares inversion. The model resolution analysis shows that the resulting model is influenced heavily by geologic input, which fits the UCERF3 geologic bounds on California B faults and ±one‐half of the geologic slip rates for most other WUS faults. The modeled slip rates for the WUS faults are consistent with the observed GPS velocity field. Our fit to these velocities is measured in terms of a normalized chi‐square, which is 6.5. This updated model fits the data better than most other geodetic‐based inversion models. Major discrepancies between well‐resolved GPS inversion rates and geologic‐consensus rates occur along some of the northern California A faults, the Mojave to San Bernardino segments of the San Andreas fault, the western Garlock fault, the southern segment of the Wasatch fault, and other faults. Off‐fault strain‐rate distributions are consistent with regional tectonics, with a total off‐fault moment rate of 7.2×1018">7.2×1018 and 8.5×1018  N·m/year">8.5×1018  N⋅m/year for California and the WUS outside California, respectively.

  20. Inhibition linearizes firing rate responses in human motor units: implications for the role of persistent inward currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revill, Ann L; Fuglevand, Andrew J

    2017-01-01

    Motor neurons are the output neurons of the central nervous system and are responsible for controlling muscle contraction. When initially activated during voluntary contraction, firing rates of motor neurons increase steeply but then level out at modest rates. Activation of an intrinsic source of excitatory current at recruitment onset may underlie the initial steep increase in firing rate in motor neurons. We attempted to disable this intrinsic excitatory current by artificially activating an inhibitory reflex. When motor neuron activity was recorded while the inhibitory reflex was engaged, firing rates no longer increased steeply, suggesting that the intrinsic excitatory current was probably responsible for the initial sharp rise in motor neuron firing rate. During graded isometric contractions, motor unit (MU) firing rates increase steeply upon recruitment but then level off at modest rates even though muscle force continues to increase. The mechanisms underlying such firing behaviour are not known although activation of persistent inward currents (PICs) might be involved. PICs are intrinsic, voltage-dependent currents that activate strongly when motor neurons (MNs) are first recruited. Such activation might cause a sharp escalation in depolarizing current and underlie the steep initial rise in MU firing rate. Because PICs can be disabled with synaptic inhibition, we hypothesized that artificial activation of an inhibitory pathway might curb this initial steep rise in firing rate. To test this, human subjects performed slow triangular ramp contractions of the ankle dorsiflexors in the absence and presence of tonic synaptic inhibition delivered to tibialis anterior (TA) MNs by sural nerve stimulation. Firing rate profiles (expressed as a function of contraction force) of TA MUs recorded during these tasks were compared for control and stimulation conditions. Under control conditions, during the ascending phase of the triangular contractions, 93% of the firing

  1. Risk Assessment and Management for Long-Term Storage of CO2 in Geologic Formations — United States Department of Energy R&D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn Deel

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Concern about increasing atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2 and other greenhouse gases (GHG and their impact on the earth's climate has grown significantly over the last decade. Many countries, including the United States, wrestle with balancing economic development and meeting critical near-term environmental goals while minimizing long-term environmental risks. One promising solution to the buildup of GHGs in the atmosphere, being pursued by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL and its industrial and academic partners, is carbon sequestration—a process of permanent storage of CO2 emissions in underground geologic formations, thus avoiding CO2 release to the atmosphere. This option looks particularly attractive for point source emissions of GHGs, such as fossil fuel fired power plants. CO2 would be captured, transported to a sequestration site, and injected into an appropriate geologic formation. However, sequestration in geologic formations cannot achieve a significant role in reducing GHG emissions unless it is acceptable to stakeholders, regulators, and the general public, i.e., unless the risks involved are judged to be acceptable. One tool that can be used to achieve acceptance of geologic sequestration of CO2 is risk assessment, which is a proven method to objectively manage hazards in facilities such as oil and natural gas fields, pipelines, refineries, and chemical plants. Although probabilistic risk assessment (PRA has been applied in many areas, its application to geologic CO2 sequestration is still in its infancy. The most significant risk from geologic carbon sequestration is leakage of CO2. Two types of CO2 releases are possible—atmospheric and subsurface. High concentrations of CO2 caused by a release to the atmosphere would pose health risks to humans and animals, and any leakage of CO2 back into the atmosphere negates the effort expended to sequester the CO2

  2. Geologic assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources--Middle Eocene Claiborne Group, United States part of the Gulf of Mexico Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    The Middle Eocene Claiborne Group was assessed using established U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment methodology for undiscovered conventional hydrocarbon resources as part of the 2007 USGS assessment of Paleogene-Neogene strata of the United States part of the Gulf of Mexico Basin including onshore and State waters. The assessed area is within the Upper Jurassic-Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite total petroleum system, which was defined as part of the assessment. Source rocks for Claiborne oil accumulations are interpreted to be organic-rich downdip shaley facies of the Wilcox Group and the Sparta Sand of the Claiborne Group; gas accumulations may have originated from multiple sources including the Jurassic Smackover and Haynesville Formations and Bossier Shale, the Cretaceous Eagle Ford and Pearsall(?) Formations, and the Paleogene Wilcox Group and Sparta Sand. Hydrocarbon generation in the basin started prior to deposition of Claiborne sediments and is ongoing at present. Emplacement of hydrocarbons into Claiborne reservoirs has occurred primarily via vertical migration along fault systems; long-range lateral migration also may have occurred in some locations. Primary reservoir sands in the Claiborne Group include, from oldest to youngest, the Queen City Sand, Cook Mountain Formation, Sparta Sand, Yegua Formation, and the laterally equivalent Cockfield Formation. Hydrocarbon traps dominantly are rollover anticlines associated with growth faults; salt structures and stratigraphic traps also are important. Sealing lithologies probably are shaley facies within the Claiborne and in the overlying Jackson Group. A geologic model, supported by spatial analysis of petroleum geology data including discovered reservoir depths, thicknesses, temperatures, porosities, permeabilities, and pressures, was used to divide the Claiborne Group into seven assessment units (AU) with distinctive structural and depositional settings. The AUs include (1) Lower Claiborne Stable Shelf

  3. Methanogenic pathways of coal-bed gas in the Powder River Basin, United States: The geologic factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, Romeo M.; Rice, Cynthia A.; Stricker, Gary D.; Warden, Augusta; Ellis, Margaret S. [U.S. Geological Survey, Box 25046, MS 939, Denver, Colorado 80225 (United States)

    2008-10-02

    Coal-bed gas of the Tertiary Fort Union and Wasatch Formations in the Powder River Basin in Wyoming and Montana, U.S. was interpreted as microbial in origin by previous studies based on limited data on the gas and water composition and isotopes associated with the coal beds. To fully evaluate the microbial origin of the gas and mechanisms of methane generation, additional data for 165 gas and water samples from 7 different coal-bed methane-bearing coal-bed reservoirs were collected basinwide and correlated to the coal geology and stratigraphy. The C{sub 1}/(C{sub 2} + C{sub 3}) ratio and vitrinite reflectance of coal and organic shale permitted differentiation between microbial gas and transitional thermogenic gas in the central part of the basin. Analyses of methane {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}D, carbon dioxide {delta}{sup 13}C, and water {delta}D values indicate gas was generated primarily from microbial CO{sub 2} reduction, but with significant gas generated by microbial methyl-type fermentation (aceticlastic) in some areas of the basin. Microbial CO{sub 2} reduction occurs basinwide, but is generally dominant in Paleocene Fort Union Formation coals in the central part of the basin, whereas microbial methyl-type fermentation is common along the northwest and east margins. Isotopically light methane {delta}{sup 13}C is distributed along the basin margins where {delta}D is also depleted, indicating that both CO{sub 2}-reduction and methyl-type fermentation pathways played major roles in gas generation, but gas from the latter pathway overprinted gas from the former pathway. More specifically, along the northwest basin margin gas generation by methyl-type fermentation may have been stimulated by late-stage infiltration of groundwater recharge from clinker areas, which flowed through highly fractured and faulted coal aquifers. Also, groundwater recharge controlled a change in gas composition in the shallow Eocene Wasatch Formation with the increase of nitrogen and

  4. Classification of Alzheimer's Disease Based on Eight-Layer Convolutional Neural Network with Leaky Rectified Linear Unit and Max Pooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shui-Hua; Phillips, Preetha; Sui, Yuxiu; Liu, Bin; Yang, Ming; Cheng, Hong

    2018-03-26

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive brain disease. The goal of this study is to provide a new computer-vision based technique to detect it in an efficient way. The brain-imaging data of 98 AD patients and 98 healthy controls was collected using data augmentation method. Then, convolutional neural network (CNN) was used, CNN is the most successful tool in deep learning. An 8-layer CNN was created with optimal structure obtained by experiences. Three activation functions (AFs): sigmoid, rectified linear unit (ReLU), and leaky ReLU. The three pooling-functions were also tested: average pooling, max pooling, and stochastic pooling. The numerical experiments demonstrated that leaky ReLU and max pooling gave the greatest result in terms of performance. It achieved a sensitivity of 97.96%, a specificity of 97.35%, and an accuracy of 97.65%, respectively. In addition, the proposed approach was compared with eight state-of-the-art approaches. The method increased the classification accuracy by approximately 5% compared to state-of-the-art methods.

  5. Site investigation SFR. Rock type coding, overview geological mapping and identification of rock units and possible deformation zones in drill cores from the construction of SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersson, Jesper (Vattenfall Power Consultant AB, Stockholm (Sweden)); Curtis, Philip; Bockgaard, Niclas (Golder Associates AB (Sweden)); Mattsson, Haakan (GeoVista AB, Luleaa (Sweden))

    2011-01-15

    This report presents the rock type coding, overview lithological mapping and identification of rock units and possible deformation zones in drill cores from 32 boreholes associated with the construction of SFR. This work can be seen as complementary to single-hole interpretations of other older SFR boreholes earlier reported in /Petersson and Andersson 2010/: KFR04, KFR08, KFR09, KFR13, KFR35, KFR36, KFR54, KFR55, KFR7A, KFR7B and KFR7C. Due to deficiencies in the available material, the necessary activities have deviated somewhat from the established methodologies used during the recent Forsmark site investigations for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel. The aim of the current work has been, wherever possible, to allow the incorporation of all relevant material from older boreholes in the ongoing SFR geological modelling work in spite of the deficiencies. The activities include: - Rock type coding of the original geological mapping according to the nomenclature used during the preceding Forsmark site investigation. As part of the Forsmark site investigation such rock type coding has already been performed on most of the old SFR boreholes if the original geological mapping results were available. This earlier work has been complemented by rock type coding on two further boreholes: KFR01 and KFR02. - Lithological overview mapping, including documentation of (1) rock types, (2) ductile and brittle-ductile deformation and (3) alteration for drill cores from eleven of the boreholes for which no original geological borehole mapping was available (KFR31, KFR32, KFR34, KFR37,KFR38, KFR51, KFR69, KFR70, KFR71, KFR72 and KFR89). - Identification of possible deformation zones and merging of similar rock types into rock units. This follows SKB's established criteria and methodology of the geological Single-hole interpretation (SHI) process wherever possible. Deviations from the standard SHI process are associated with the lack of data, for example BIPS images

  6. Site investigation SFR. Rock type coding, overview geological mapping and identification of rock units and possible deformation zones in drill cores from the construction of SFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersson, Jesper; Curtis, Philip; Bockgaard, Niclas; Mattsson, Haakan

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the rock type coding, overview lithological mapping and identification of rock units and possible deformation zones in drill cores from 32 boreholes associated with the construction of SFR. This work can be seen as complementary to single-hole interpretations of other older SFR boreholes earlier reported in /Petersson and Andersson 2010/: KFR04, KFR08, KFR09, KFR13, KFR35, KFR36, KFR54, KFR55, KFR7A, KFR7B and KFR7C. Due to deficiencies in the available material, the necessary activities have deviated somewhat from the established methodologies used during the recent Forsmark site investigations for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel. The aim of the current work has been, wherever possible, to allow the incorporation of all relevant material from older boreholes in the ongoing SFR geological modelling work in spite of the deficiencies. The activities include: - Rock type coding of the original geological mapping according to the nomenclature used during the preceding Forsmark site investigation. As part of the Forsmark site investigation such rock type coding has already been performed on most of the old SFR boreholes if the original geological mapping results were available. This earlier work has been complemented by rock type coding on two further boreholes: KFR01 and KFR02. - Lithological overview mapping, including documentation of (1) rock types, (2) ductile and brittle-ductile deformation and (3) alteration for drill cores from eleven of the boreholes for which no original geological borehole mapping was available (KFR31, KFR32, KFR34, KFR37,KFR38, KFR51, KFR69, KFR70, KFR71, KFR72 and KFR89). - Identification of possible deformation zones and merging of similar rock types into rock units. This follows SKB's established criteria and methodology of the geological Single-hole interpretation (SHI) process wherever possible. Deviations from the standard SHI process are associated with the lack of data, for example BIPS images, or a

  7. Geological studies of the COST No. B-3 Well, United States Mid-Atlantic continental slope area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholle, Peter A.

    1980-01-01

    The COST No. B-3 well is the first deep stratigraphic test to be drilled on the Continental Slope off the Eastern United States. The well was drilled in 2,686 ft (819 m) of water in the Baltimore Canyon trough area to a total depth of 15,820 ft (4,844 m) below the drill platform. It penetrated a section composed of mudstones, calcareous mudstones, and limestones of generally deep water origin to a depth of about 8.200 ft (2,500 m) below the drill floor. Light-colored, medium- to coarse-grained sandstones with intercalated gray and brown shales, micritic limestones, and minor coal and dolomite predominate from about 8,200 to 12,300 ft (2,500 to 3,750 m). From about 12,300 ft (3,750 m) to the bottom, the section consists of limestones (including oolitic and intraclastic grainstones) with interbedded fine-to medium-grained sandstones, dark-colored fissile shales, and numerous coal seams. Biostratigraphic examination has shown that the section down to approximately 6,000 ft (1,830 m) is Tertiary. The boundary between the Lower and Upper Cretaceous sections is placed between 8,600 and 9,200 ft (2,620 and 2,800 m) by various workers. Placement of the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary shows an even greater range based on different organisms; it is placed variously between 12,250 and 13,450 ft (3,730 and 5,000 m). The oldest unit penetrated in the well is considered to be Upper Jurassic (Kimmeridgian) by some workers and Middle Jurassic (Callovian) by others. The Lower Cretaceous and Jurassic parts of the section represent nonmarine to shallow-marine shelf sedimentation. Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary units reflect generally deeper water conditions at the B-3 well site and show a general transition from deposition at shelf to slope water depths. Examination of cores, well cuttings, and electric logs indicates that potential hydrocarbon-reservoir units are present throughout the Jurassic and Cretaceous section. Porous and moderately permeable limestones and sandstones have been

  8. Geologic Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, William L.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in geologic time with an introduction to the subject. Separate sections discuss the relative time scale, major divisions in geologic time, index fossils used as guides for telling the age of rocks, the atomic scale, and the age of the earth.…

  9. Value of Geological Information in Exploitation Management: the Case of Exploitation Units of the Polkowice-Sieroszowice Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzak, Mariusz; Panajew, Paweł

    2014-03-01

    The application of mathematical techniques of management is particularly significant in managing mineral deposits as well as generally in the mining industry, in which the execution of geological-mining projects is usually time-consuming and expensive. Such projects are usually undertaken in conditions of uncertainty, and the incurred expenses do not always generate satisfactory revenues. Mineral deposit management requires close cooperation between the geologist providing necessary information about the deposit and the miner conducting exploitation work. A real decision-making problem was undertaken, in which three exploitation divisions of a certain area in the Polkowice-Sieroszowice mine, differing in ore quality, could be developed in an order which would guarantee maximisation of income. First, the ore price was calculated with the NSR formula; next, the decision-making problem was presented as a kind of game between the geologist (the mine) and states of Nature. Projekty geologiczno-górnicze (surowcowe) różnią się znacznie od innych form aktywności gospodarczej człowieka, ponieważ wiedza o przedmiocie zainteresowań opiera się głównie na ocenach, zaś samo złoże kopalin jest obiektem przyrodniczym i trudno jest jednoznacznie przewidzieć rzeczywiste efekty jego odkrycia. Geologiczna niepewność związana z modelem złoża i jego zasobami znajduje odzwierciedlenie w technicznych planach kopalni i przygotowaniu rozcinki złoża odpowiednim systemem i sposobem eksploatacji. Kwantyfikacja, ocena i zarządzanie niepewnością geologiczną jest kluczowe w strategicznym planowaniu działania kopalni. Podstawowym celem, dla którego wykonuje się wyrobiska udostępniające jest przygotowanie złoża do eksploatacji górniczej. Wyrobiska udostępniające stanowią główne drogi transportu ludzi i urobku oraz spływu wód kopalnianych. Część z nich stanowi drogi jezdne i wentylacyjne, na innych zostaje ulokowany przenośnik taśmowy, a jeszcze innymi

  10. Research of the impact of coupling between unit cells on performance of linear-to-circular polarization conversion metamaterial with half transmission and half reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Mengchao; Zhou, Kan; Wang, Xiaokun; Zhuang, Haiyan; Tang, Dongming; Zhang, Baoshan; Yang, Yi

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, the impact of coupling between unit cells on the performance of linear-to-circular polarization conversion metamaterial with half transmission and half reflection is analyzed by changing the distance between the unit cells. An equivalent electrical circuit model is then built to explain it based on the analysis. The simulated results show that, when the distance between the unit cells is 23 mm, this metamaterial converts half of the incident linearly-polarized wave into reflected left-hand circularly-polarized wave and converts the other half of it into transmitted left-hand circularly-polarized wave at 4.4 GHz; when the distance is 28 mm, this metamaterial reflects all of the incident linearly-polarized wave at 4.4 GHz; and when the distance is 32 mm, this metamaterial converts half of the incident linearly-polarized wave into reflected right-hand circularly-polarized wave and converts the other half of it into transmitted right-hand circularly-polarized wave at 4.4 GHz. The tunability is realized successfully. The analysis shows that the changes of coupling between unit cells lead to the changes of performance of this metamaterial. The coupling between the unit cells is then considered when building the equivalent electrical circuit model. The built equivalent electrical circuit model can be used to perfectly explain the simulated results, which confirms the validity of it. It can also give help to the design of tunable polarization conversion metamaterials.

  11. Geologic feasibility of selected chalk-bearing sequences within the conterminous United States with regard to siting of radioactive-waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, S.

    1975-11-01

    Various geologic and hydrologic parameters are evaluated in relation to assessing the potential for repository storage of high-level radioactive wastes within several stratigraphic sequences dominated by chalks and chalky limestones. The former lithology is defined as a carbonate rock consisting mainly of very fine-grained particles of micritic calcite. Although chalks also contain coarser-grained particles such as shells of fossil foraminifera and non-calcitic minerals like quartz, most contain more than 90 percent micritic material. The latter represents broken fossil coccolith plates. The chalk-dominated formations discussed are exposed and underlie two different physiographic provinces which nevertheless display a general similarity in both being regions of extensive plains. The Niobrara Formation occurs mainly within the Great Plains province, while the Austin Chalk of Texas and the Selma Group of Alabama and Mississippi are located in the western and eastern Gulf Coastal Plain, respectively. The preliminary assessment is that chalk-bearing sequences show some promise and are deserving of added consideration and evaluation. Containment for hundreds of thousands of years would seem possible given certain assumptions. The most promising units from the three studied are the Niobrara Formation and Selma Group. Regional and local conditions make the Austin more suspect

  12. Integration of non linearities in the economic refining model. Case of the hydro-desulfurization unit; Prise en compte de non-linearites dans la modelisation economique du raffinage. Cas de l`unite d`hydrodesulfuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudouin, C.

    1998-12-08

    In recent years, the modifications in oil products demand and the increased quality requirements of European specifications have driven the oil industry towards more and more complex refining schemes. This situation should become even more pronounced in the future. Under these conditions, a technical analysis of the units operation must be carried out and combined with an economic approach. The research undertaken is divided into two parts. The first part is dedicated to the study of the European refining industry and its representation by the classic linear programming model. In these models, the units` operation is represented by typical running. The technical parameters are not explicitly taken into account. Therefore, in order to meet future requirements and to represent this activity in the best way, the current model must be improved. The second part relates to an analysis with forecasts future developments in the European refining sector up to 2010 and how linear programming models themselves will be adapted. Thus, the straight run gas oil hydro-desulfurization unit is completely redefined. The operating conditions and the design parameters of this unit are introduced into the model. Depending on the feed, they determine the performances and the material balance of the unit. Some of these operating conditions are new variables and appear in non linear equations. Therefore, we need non linear programming (the augmented Lagrangians method) to solve this detailed model. The results of the second part confirm those determined by the first part. They also provide us with a better representation of the hydro-desulfurization unit (taking the optimisation of the operating conditions into account). Using these models and the analysis described above, we can develop an outline plan of the future European refining industry. This shows that sizeable investments in both conventional and deep conversion capacity will be required to meet the requirements of changes in

  13. Linear units improve articulation between social and physical constructs: An example from caregiver parameterization for children supported by complex medical technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezruczko, N.; Stanley, T.; Battle, M.; Latty, C.

    2016-11-01

    Despite broad sweeping pronouncements by international research organizations that social sciences are being integrated into global research programs, little attention has been directed toward obstacles blocking productive collaborations. In particular, social sciences routinely implement nonlinear, ordinal measures, which fundamentally inhibit integration with overarching scientific paradigms. The widely promoted general linear model in contemporary social science methods is largely based on untransformed scores and ratings, which are neither objective nor linear. This issue has historically separated physical and social sciences, which this report now asserts is unnecessary. In this research, nonlinear, subjective caregiver ratings of confidence to care for children supported by complex, medical technologies were transformed to an objective scale defined by logits (N=70). Transparent linear units from this transformation provided foundational insights into measurement properties of a social- humanistic caregiving construct, which clarified physical and social caregiver implications. Parameterized items and ratings were also subjected to multivariate hierarchical analysis, then decomposed to demonstrate theoretical coherence (R2 >.50), which provided further support for convergence of mathematical parameterization, physical expectations, and a social-humanistic construct. These results present substantial support for improving integration of social sciences with contemporary scientific research programs by emphasizing construction of common variables with objective, linear units.

  14. Selected data for hydrothermal-convection systems in the United States with estimated temperatures greater than or equal to 90/sup 0/C: back-up data for US Geological Survey Circular 790

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariner, R.H.; Brook, C.A.; Swanson, J.R.; Mabey, D.R.

    1978-12-01

    A compilation of data used in determining the accessible resource base for identified hydrothermal convection systems greater than or equal to 90/sup 0/C in the United States are presented. Geographic, geologic, chemical, isotopic, volumetric, and bibliographic data and calculated thermal energy contents are listed for all vapor-dominated and hot-water systems with estimated reservoir temperatures greater than or equal to 90/sup 0/C and reservoir depths less than 3 km known to the authors in mid 1978. Data presented here is stored in the US Geological Survey's geothermal computer file GEOTHERM. Data for individual hydrothermal convection systems in each state are arranged geographically from north to south and west to east without regard to the type or temperature of the system. Locations of the systems and corresponding reference numbers are shown on map 1 accompanying US Geological Survey Circular 790.

  15. Geologic map of outcrop areas of sedimentary units in the eastern part of the Hailey 1 degree x 2 degrees quadrangle and part of the southern part of the Challis 1 degree x 2 degrees quadrangle, south-central Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, P.K.; Mahoney, J.B.; Bruner, D.J.; Batatian, L.D.; Wilson, Eric; Williams, F.J.C.

    1995-01-01

    The paper version of the Geologic map of outcrop areas of sedimentary units in the eastern part of the Hailey 1x2 Quadrangle and part of the southern part of the Challis 1x2 Quadrangle, south-central Idaho was compiled by Paul Link and others in 1995. The plate was compiled on a 1:100,000 scale topographic base map. TechniGraphic System, Inc. of Fort Collins Colorado digitized this map under contract for N.Shock. G.Green edited and prepared the digital version for publication as a GIS database. The digital geologic map database can be queried in many ways to produce a variety of geologic maps.

  16. Simulation-based evaluation of the performance of the F test in a linear multilevel model setting with sparseness at the level of the primary unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruyndonckx, Robin; Aerts, Marc; Hens, Niel

    2016-09-01

    In a linear multilevel model, significance of all fixed effects can be determined using F tests under maximum likelihood (ML) or restricted maximum likelihood (REML). In this paper, we demonstrate that in the presence of primary unit sparseness, the performance of the F test under both REML and ML is rather poor. Using simulations based on the structure of a data example on ceftriaxone consumption in hospitalized children, we studied variability, type I error rate and power in scenarios with a varying number of secondary units within the primary units. In general, the variability in the estimates for the effect of the primary unit decreased as the number of secondary units increased. In the presence of singletons (i.e., only one secondary unit within a primary unit), REML consistently outperformed ML, although even under REML the performance of the F test was found inadequate. When modeling the primary unit as a random effect, the power was lower while the type I error rate was unstable. The options of dropping, regrouping, or splitting the singletons could solve either the problem of a high type I error rate or a low power, while worsening the other. The permutation test appeared to be a valid alternative as it outperformed the F test, especially under REML. We conclude that in the presence of singletons, one should be careful in using the F test to determine the significance of the fixed effects, and propose the permutation test (under REML) as an alternative. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Preliminary peak stage and streamflow data at selected U.S. Geological Survey streamgages for flooding in the central and southeastern United States during December 2015 and January 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Robert R.; Watson, Kara M.; Harris, Thomas E.

    2016-06-16

    Flooding occurred in the central and southeastern United States during December 2015 and January 2016. The flooding was the result of more than 20 inches of rain falling in a 19 day period from December 12 to December 31, 2015. U.S. Geological Survey streamgages recorded 23 peaks of record during the subsequent flooding, with a total of 172 streamgages recording peaks that ranked in the top 5 all time for the period of record.

  18. Lunar and Planetary Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilevsky, Alexander T.

    2018-05-01

    Lunar and planetary geology can be described using examples such as the geology of Earth (as the reference case) and geologies of the Earth's satellite the Moon; the planets Mercury, Mars and Venus; the satellite of Saturn Enceladus; the small stony asteroid Eros; and the nucleus of the comet 67P Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Each body considered is illustrated by its global view, with information given as to its position in the solar system, size, surface, environment including gravity acceleration and properties of its atmosphere if it is present, typical landforms and processes forming them, materials composing these landforms, information on internal structure of the body, stages of its geologic evolution in the form of stratigraphic scale, and estimates of the absolute ages of the stratigraphic units. Information about one body may be applied to another body and this, in particular, has led to the discovery of the existence of heavy "meteoritic" bombardment in the early history of the solar system, which should also significantly affect Earth. It has been shown that volcanism and large-scale tectonics may have not only been an internal source of energy in the form of radiogenic decay of potassium, uranium and thorium, but also an external source in the form of gravity tugging caused by attractions of the neighboring bodies. The knowledge gained by lunar and planetary geology is important for planning and managing space missions and for the practical exploration of other bodies of the solar system and establishing manned outposts on them.

  19. State space model extraction of thermohydraulic systems – Part II: A linear graph approach applied to a Brayton cycle-based power conversion unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uren, Kenneth Richard; Schoor, George van

    2013-01-01

    This second paper in a two part series presents the application of a developed state space model extraction methodology applied to a Brayton cycle-based PCU (power conversion unit) of a PBMR (pebble bed modular reactor). The goal is to investigate if the state space extraction methodology can cope with larger and more complex thermohydraulic systems. In Part I the state space model extraction methodology for the purpose of control was described in detail and a state space representation was extracted for a U-tube system to illustrate the concept. In this paper a 25th order nonlinear state space representation in terms of the different energy domains is extracted. This state space representation is solved and the responses of a number of important states are compared with results obtained from a PBMR PCU Flownex ® model. Flownex ® is a validated thermo fluid simulation software package. The results show that the state space model closely resembles the dynamics of the PBMR PCU. This kind of model may be used for nonlinear MIMO (multi-input, multi-output) type of control strategies. However, there is still a need for linear state space models since many control system design and analysis techniques require a linear state space model. This issue is also addressed in this paper by showing how a linear state space model can be derived from the extracted nonlinear state space model. The linearised state space model is also validated by comparing the state space model to an existing linear Simulink ® model of the PBMR PCU system. - Highlights: • State space model extraction of a pebble bed modular reactor PCU (power conversion unit). • A 25th order nonlinear time varying state space model is obtained. • Linearisation of a nonlinear state space model for use in power output control. • Non-minimum phase characteristic that is challenging in terms of control. • Models derived are useful for MIMO control strategies

  20. Insertion of linear 8.4 μm diameter 16 channel carbon fiber electrode arrays for single unit recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Paras R.; Na, Kyounghwan; Zhang, Huanan; Kozai, Takashi D. Y.; Kotov, Nicholas A.; Yoon, Euisik; Chestek, Cynthia A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Single carbon fiber electrodes (d=8.4 μm) insulated with parylene-c and functionalized with PEDOT:pTS have been shown to record single unit activity but manual implantation of these devices with forceps can be difficult. Without an improvement in the insertion method any increase in the channel count by fabricating carbon fiber arrays would be impractical. In this study, we utilize a water soluble coating and structural backbones that allow us to create, implant, and record from fully functionalized arrays of carbon fibers with ~150 μm pitch. Approach Two approaches were tested for the insertion of carbon fiber arrays. The first method used a PEG coating that temporarily stiffened the fibers while leaving a small portion at the tip exposed. The small exposed portion (500 μm – 1 mm) readily penetrated the brain allowing for an insertion that did not require the handling of each fiber by forceps. The second method involved the fabrication of silicon support structures with individual shanks spaced 150 μm apart. Each shank consisted of a small groove that held an individual carbon fiber. Main results Our results showed that the PEG coating allowed for the chronic implantation of carbon fiber arrays in 5 rats with unit activity detected at 31 days post-implant. The silicon support structures recorded single unit activity in 3 acute rat surgeries. In one of those surgeries a stacked device with 3 layers of silicon support structures and carbon fibers was built and shown to readily insert into the brain with unit activity on select sites. Significance From these studies we have found that carbon fibers spaced at ~150 μm readily insert into the brain. This greatly increases the recording density of chronic neural probes and paves the way for even higher density devices that have a minimal scarring response. PMID:26035638

  1. Geologic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wayland, T.E.; Rood, A.

    1983-01-01

    The modern Great Divide Basin is the end product of natural forces influenced by the Green River lake system, Laramide tectonism, and intermittent volcanic events. It ranks as one of the most complex structural and stratigtaphic features within the Tertiary basins of Wyoming. Portions of the Great Divide Basin and adjoining areas in Wyoming have been investigated by applying detailed and region exploration methods to known uranium deposits located within the Red Desert portions of the basin. Geologic field investigations conducted by Bendix Field Engineering Corporaton (Bendix) were restricted to reconnaissance observations made during infrequent visits to the project area by various Bendix personnel. Locations of the most comprehensive field activities are shown in Figure II-1. The principal source fo data for geologic studies of the Red Desert project area has been information and materials furnished by industry. Several hundred holes have been drilled by various groups to delineate the uranium deposits. Results from Bendix-drilled holes at selected locations within the project area are summarized in Table II-1. Additional details and gross subsurface characteristics are illustrated in cross sections; pertinent geologic features are illustrated in plan maps. Related details of continental sedimentation that pertain to the Wyoming Basins generally, and the project area specificially, are discussed in subsections of this Geologic Studies section

  2. Stratigraphy and geologic history of Mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spudis, P.D.; Guest, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The geologic evolution of Mercury based on the Mariner-10 mission data is discussed. As reconstructed through photogeological analysis of global geologic relations of rock-stratigraphic units, Mercury's geologic history is shown to involve intensive early impact bombardment and widespread resurfacing by volcanic lavas. Evidence is presented to indicate that this volcanic activity essentially ended as much as 3 Gyr ago, with most of the major geologic events being completed within the first 1 to 1.5 Gyr of Mercurian history

  3. Stratigraphy and geologic history of Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spudis, Paul D.; Guest, John E.

    1988-01-01

    The geologic evolution of Mercury based on the Mariner-10 mission data is discussed. As reconstructed through photogeological analysis of global geologic relations of rock-stratigraphic units, Mercury's geologic history is shown to involve intensive early impact bombardment and widespread resurfacing by volcanic lavas. Evidence is presented to indicate that this volcanic activity essentially ended as much as 3 Gyr ago, with most of the major geologic events being completed within the first 1 to 1.5 Gyr of Mercurian history.

  4. Minerals, lands, and geology for the common defence and general welfare, Volume 4, 1939-1961: A history of geology in relation to the development of public-land, federal science, and mapping policies and the development of mineral resources in the United States from the 60th to the 82d year of the U.S. Geological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbitt, Mary C.; Nelson, Clifford M.

    2015-01-01

    The fourth volume of the comprehensive history of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is titled “Minerals, Lands, and Geology for the Common Defence and General Welfare—Volume 4, 1939‒1961.” The title is based on a passage in the preamble of the U.S. Constitution.

  5. Fluctuations in isometric muscle force can be described by one linear projection of low-frequency components of motor unit discharge rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negro, Francesco; Holobar, Ales; Farina, Dario

    2009-12-15

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relation between linear transformations of motor unit discharge rates and muscle force. Intramuscular (wire electrodes) and high-density surface EMG (13 x 5 electrode grid) were recorded from the abductor digiti minimi muscle of eight healthy men during 60 s contractions at 5%, 7.5% and 10% of the maximal force. Spike trains of a total of 222 motor units were identified from the EMG recordings with decomposition algorithms. Principal component analysis of the smoothed motor unit discharge rates indicated that one component (first common component, FCC) described 44.2 +/- 7.5% of the total variability of the smoothed discharge rates when computed over the entire contraction interval and 64.3 +/- 10.2% of the variability when computed over 5 s intervals. When the FCC was computed from four or more motor units per contraction, it correlated with the force produced by the muscle (62.7 +/- 10.1%) by a greater degree (P FCC and the force signal increased up to 71.8 +/- 13.1% when the duration and the shape of the smoothing window for discharge rates were similar to the average motor unit twitch force. Moreover, the coefficients of variation (CoV) for the force and for the FCC signal were correlated in all subjects (R(2) range = 0.14-0.56; P measures on the tibialis anterior muscle of an additional eight subjects during contractions at forces up to 20% of the maximal force (e.g. FCC explained 59.8 +/- 11.0% of variability of the smoothed discharge rates). In conclusion, one signal captures most of the underlying variability of the low-frequency components of motor unit discharge rates and explains large part of the fluctuations in the motor output during isometric contractions.

  6. Possible Intervals for T- and M-Orders of Solutions of Linear Differential Equations in the Unit Disc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Chuaqui

    2011-01-01

    f(k+ak-1(zf(k-1+⋯+a1(zf′+a0(zf=0 with polynomial coefficients. In the present paper, it is shown by an example that a unit disc counterpart of such finite set does not contain all possible T- and M-orders of solutions, with respect to Nevanlinna characteristic and maximum modulus, if the coefficients are analytic functions belonging either to weighted Bergman spaces or to weighted Hardy spaces. In contrast to a finite set, possible intervals for T- and M-orders are introduced to give detailed information about the growth of solutions. Finally, these findings yield sharp lower bounds for the sums of T- and M-orders of functions in the solution bases.

  7. Performance characterization of Siemens primus linear accelerator under small monitor unit and small segments for the implementation of step-and-shoot intensity-modulated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reena, P.; Pai, Rajeshri; Gupta, Tejpal; Rajeev, S.; Dayananda, S.; Jamema, S.V.; Deepak, D.

    2006-01-01

    Implementation of step-and-shoot intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) needs careful understanding of the accelerator start-up characteristic to ensure accurate and precise delivery of radiation dose to patient. The dosimetric characteristic of a Siemens Primus linear accelerator (LA) which delivers 6 and 18 MV x-rays at the dose rate of 300 and 500 monitor unit (MU) per minutes (min) respectively was studied under the condition of small MU ranging from 1 to 100. Dose monitor linearity was studied at different dose calibration parameter (D1 C O) by measuring ionization at 10 cm depth in a solid water phantom using a 0.6 cc ionization chamber. Monitor unit stability was studied from different intensity modulated (IM) groups comprising various combinations of MU per field and number of fields. Stability of beam flatness and symmetry was investigated under normal and IMRT mode for 20x20 cm 2 field under small MU using a 2D Profiler kept isocentrically at 5 cm depth. Inter segment response was investigated form 1 to 10 MU by measuring the dose per MU from various IM groups, each consisting of four segments with inter-segment separation of 2 cm. In the range 1-4 MU, the dose linearity error was more than 5% (max -32% at 1 MU) for 6 MV x-rays at factory calibrated D1 C O value of 6000. The dose linearity error was reduced to -10.95% at 1 MU, within -3% for 2 and 3 MU and ± 1% for MU ≥4 when the D1 C O was subsequently tuned at 4500. For 18 MV x-rays, the dose linearity error at factory calibrated D1 C O value of 4400 was within ± 1% for MU ≥3 with maximum of -13.5 observed at 1 MU. For both the beam energies and MU/field ≥4, the stability of monitor unit tested for different IM groups was within ± 1% of the dose from the normal treatment field. This variation increases to -2.6% for 6 MV and -2.7% for 18 MV x-rays for 2 MU/field. No significant variation was observed in the stability of beam profile measured from normal and IMRT mode. The beam flatness was

  8. Performance characterization of siemens primus linear accelerator under small monitor unit and small segments for the implementation of step-and-shoot intensitymodulated radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reena P

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of step-and-shoot intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT needs careful understanding of the accelerator start-up characteristic to ensure accurate and precise delivery of radiation dose to patient. The dosimetric characteristic of a Siemens Primus linear accelerator (LA which delivers 6 and 18 MV x-rays at the dose rate of 300 and 500 monitor unit (MU per minutes (min respectively was studied under the condition of small MU ranging from 1 to 100. Dose monitor linearity was studied at different dose calibration parameter (D1_C0 by measuring ionization at 10 cm depth in a solid water phantom using a 0.6 cc ionization chamber. Monitor unit stability was studied from different intensity modulated (IM groups comprising various combinations of MU per field and number of fields. Stability of beam flatness and symmetry was investigated under normal and IMRT mode for 20x20 cm2 field under small MU using a 2D Profiler kept isocentrically at 5 cm depth. Inter segment response was investigated form 1 to 10 MU by measuring the dose per MU from various IM groups, each consisting of four segments with inter-segment separation of 2 cm. In the range 1-4 MU, the dose linearity error was more than 5% (max -32% at 1 MU for 6 MV x-rays at factory calibrated D1_C0 value of 6000. The dose linearity error was reduced to -10.95% at 1 MU, within -3% for 2 and 3 MU and ±1% for MU ≥4 when the D1_C0 was subsequently tuned at 4500. For 18 MV x-rays, the dose linearity error at factory calibrated D1_C0 value of 4400 was within ±1% for MU ≥ 3 with maximum of -13.5 observed at 1 MU. For both the beam energies and MU/field ≥ 4, the stability of monitor unit tested for different IM groups was within ±1% of the dose from the normal treatment field. This variation increases to -2.6% for 6 MV and -2.7% for 18 MV x-rays for 2 MU/field. No significant variation was observed in the stability of beam profile measured from normal and IMRT mode. The beam flatness

  9. Geology, Alteration, Mineralization, Geochemistry and Petrology of intrusive units in the Shah Soltan Ali prospect area (Southwest of Birjand, South Khorasan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Nadermezerji

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Shah Soltan Ali area is located 85 km southwest of Birjand in the South Khorasan province. This area is part of the Tertiary volcanic-plutonic rocks in the east of the Lut block. The Lut block is bounded to the east by the Nehbandan and associated faults, to the north by the Doruneh and related faults (Sabzevar zone, to the south by the Makran arc and Bazman volcanic complex and to the west by the Nayband Fault. The Lut block is the main metallogenic province in the east of Iran (Karimpour et al., 2012, that comprises of numerous porphyry Cu and Cu–Au deposits, low and high sulfidation epithermal Au deposits, iron oxide deposits, base-metal deposits and Cu–Pb–Zn vein-type deposits. The geology of Shah Soltan Ali area is dominated by volcanic rocks, comprised of andesite and basalt, which are intruded by subvolanic units such as monzonite porphyry, monzodiorite porphyry and diorite porphyry. Materials and methods 1. 170 thin sections of the rock samples as well as 25 polished and thin polished sections were prepared for petrography, alteration and mineralization. 2. Twenty five samples were analyzed for Cu, Pb, Zn, Sb, Mo and As elements by the Aqua regia method in the Zarazama laboratory in Tehran, Iran. 3. Nine samples were analyzed for trace elements [including rare earth elements (REEs]. As a result of these analyses, trace elements and REE were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS in the ACME Analytical Laboratories (Vancouver Ltd., Canada. 4. Ten samples were analyzed for major elements by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry in the East Amethyst laboratory in Mashhad, Iran. 5. Five samples were analyzed for Firre Assay analysis in the Zarazma Laboratory in Tehran, Iran. 6. The results of XRD analysis were used for 4 samples. Discussion and results Petrographic studies indicate that subvolcanic rocks consist of diorite porphyry, monzonite porphyry and monzodiorite

  10. Performance estimation of an oil-free linear compressor unit for a new compact 2K Gifford-McMahon cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiratsuka, Y.; Bao, Q.; Y Xu, M.

    2017-12-01

    Since 2012, a new, compact Gifford-McMahon (GM) cryocooler for cooling superconducting single photon detectors (SSPD) has been developed and reported by Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. (SHI). Also, it was reported that National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) developed a multi-channel, conduction-cooled SSPD system. However, the size and power consumption reduction becomes indispensable to apply such a system to the optical communication of AdHoc for a mobile system installed in a vehicle. The objective is to reduce the total height of the expander by 33% relative to the existing RDK-101 GM expander and to reduce the total volume of the compressor unit by 50% relative to the existing CNA-11 compressor. In addition, considering the targeted cooling application, we set the design cooling capacity targets of the first and the second stages 1 W at 60 K and 20 mW at 2.3 K respectively. In 2016, Hiratsuka et al. reported that an oil-free compressor was developed for a 2K GM cryocooler. The cooling performance of a 2K GM expander driven by an experimental unit of the linear compressor was measured. No-load temperature less than 2.1 K and the cooling capacity of 20 mW at 2.3 K were successfully achieved with an electric input power of only 1.1 kW. After that, the compressor capsule and the heat exchanger, etc. were assembled into one enclosure as a compressor unit. The total volume of the compressor unit and electrical box was significantly reduced to about 38 L, which was close to the target of 35 L. Also, the sound noise, vibration characteristics, the effect of the compressor unit inclination and the ambient temperature on the cooling performance, were evaluated. The detailed experimental results are discussed in this paper.

  11. Dating and differentiation of geological units in highly deformed and metamorphosed rocks - Can palynology help? Examples from the Ossa-Morena Zone (W Portugal)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Machado, G.; Vavrdová, Milada; Fonseca, P. E.; Chaminé, H. I.; Rocha, F. T.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 30, - (2010), s. 23-27 ISSN 0474-9588 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : palynomorphs * metasediments * Ossa-Morena Zone * organic matter preservation * deformation * mineralization Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://www.geol.uniovi.es/TDG/Volumen30/TG30-03.PDF

  12. The First USGS Global Geologic Map of Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, E. J.; Patthoff, D. A.; Senske, D.; Collins, G. C.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the global scale geology of Europa is paramount to gaining insight into the potential habitability of this icy world. To this end, work is ongoing to complete a global geological map at the scale of 1:15 million that incorporates data at all resolutions collected by the Voyager and Galileo missions. The results of this work will aid the Europa Clipper mission, now in formulation, by providing a framework for collaborative and synergistic science investigations. To understand global geologic and tectonic relations, a total of 10 geologic units have been defined. These include: Low Albedo Ridge Material (lam)—low albedo material that irregularly surrounds large (>20 km) ridge structures; Ridged plains (pr)—distributed over all latitudes and characterized by subparallel to cross-cutting ridges and troughs visible at high resolution (material (b)—linear to curvilinear zones with a distinct, abrupt albedo change from the surrounding region; Crater material (c), Continuous Crater Ejecta (ce) and Discontinuous Crater Ejecta (dce)—features associated with impact craters including the site of the impact, crater material, and the fall-out debris respectively; Low Albedo Chaos (chl), Mottled Albedo Chaos (chm) and High Albedo Chaos (chh)—disrupted terrain with a relatively uniform low albedo, patchy/variegated albedo, and uniform high albedo appearance respectively; Knobby Chaos (chk) - disrupted terrain with rough and blocky texture occurring in the high latitudes. In addition to the geologic units, our mapping also includes structural features—Ridges, Cycloids, Undifferentiated Linea, Crater Rims, Depression Margins, Dome Margins and Troughs. We also introduce a point feature (at the global scale), Microchaos, to denote small (material. The completed map will constrain the distribution of different Europa terrains and provide a general stratigraphic framework to assess the geologic history of Europa from the regional to the global scale. Here, we

  13. An Evaluation of Selected Extraordinary Floods in the United States Reported by the U.S. Geological Survey and Implications for Future Advancement of Flood Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, John E.; Jarrett, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    Thirty flood peak discharges determine the envelope curve of maximum floods documented in the United States by the U.S. Geological Survey. These floods occurred from 1927 to 1978 and are extraordinary not just in their magnitude, but in their hydraulic and geomorphic characteristics. The reliability of the computed discharge of these extraordinary floods was reviewed and evaluated using current (2007) best practices. Of the 30 flood peak discharges investigated, only 7 were measured at daily streamflow-gaging stations that existed when the flood occurred, and 23 were measured at miscellaneous (ungaged) sites. Methods used to measure these 30 extraordinary flood peak discharges consisted of 21 slope-area measurements, 2 direct current-meter measurements, 1 culvert measurement, 1 rating-curve extension, and 1 interpolation and rating-curve extension. The remaining four peak discharges were measured using combinations of culvert, slope-area, flow-over-road, and contracted-opening measurements. The method of peak discharge determination for one flood is unknown. Changes to peak discharge or rating are recommended for 20 of the 30 flood peak discharges that were evaluated. Nine floods retained published peak discharges, but their ratings were downgraded. For two floods, both peak discharge and rating were corrected and revised. Peak discharges for five floods that are subject to significant uncertainty due to complex field and hydraulic conditions, were re-rated as estimates. This study resulted in 5 of the 30 peak discharges having revised values greater than about 10 percent different from the original published values. Peak discharges were smaller for three floods (North Fork Hubbard Creek, Texas; El Rancho Arroyo, New Mexico; South Fork Wailua River, Hawaii), and two peak discharges were revised upward (Lahontan Reservoir tributary, Nevada; Bronco Creek, Arizona). Two peak discharges were indeterminate because they were concluded to have been debris flows with peak

  14. Planetary geology

    CERN Document Server

    Gasselt, Stephan

    2018-01-01

    This book provides an up-to-date interdisciplinary geoscience-focused overview of solid solar system bodies and their evolution, based on the comparative description of processes acting on them. Planetary research today is a strongly multidisciplinary endeavor with efforts coming from engineering and natural sciences. Key focal areas of study are the solid surfaces found in our Solar System. Some have a direct interaction with the interplanetary medium and others have dynamic atmospheres. In any of those cases, the geological records of those surfaces (and sub-surfaces) are key to understanding the Solar System as a whole: its evolution and the planetary perspective of our own planet. This book has a modular structure and is divided into 4 sections comprising 15 chapters in total. Each section builds upon the previous one but is also self-standing. The sections are:  Methods and tools Processes and Sources  Integration and Geological Syntheses Frontiers The latter covers the far-reaching broad topics of exo...

  15. Predicting Porosity and Permeability for the Canyon Formation, SACROC Unit (Kelly-Snyder Field), Using the Geologic Analysis via Maximum Likelihood System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinaldo Gonzalez; Scott R. Reeves; Eric Eslinger

    2007-01-01

    -based, probabilistic clustering analysis procedure is successfully applied to generate a high-resolution reservoir characterization outcome. The approach was applied in the Pennsylvanian-Permian reef carbonates (Cisco and Canyon Formations) of a subregion of the SACROC Unit, Horseshoe Atoll, Permian Basin, Texas, and acknowledged as a highly complex carbonate reservoir. Due to the modest results achieved with the application of soft-computing methodologies to the available information (no crosswell data at hand), the original project target about creating a data-driven device relating surface seismic information, crosswell seismic attributes, geophysical logs and core parameters for the prediction of core-scale porosity and permeability profiles in locations where only 3D surface seismic data was available, had to be reformulated. It was shown that 3D seismic information was not capable of capturing the degree of vertical variability of SACROC. As a consequence, available seismic information was unincorporated from posterior reservoir characterization tasks, and a combination of data-driven procedures and geostatistical methods was utilized for reservoir characterization purposes. A selected area within the SACROC Unit platform was used for this study. The suitable logs for the creation of an 'intelligent' log-to-core device were not present for all wells. These logs were gamma ray (GR), neutron porosity (NPHI), bulk density (RHOB), and delta time (DT). It was necessary to create a first 'intelligent' tool, a log-to-log model to provide synthetic logs of RHOB and DT (or eventually of acoustic impedance derived from them) at well locations where only GR and NPHI were available (the most common situation in this reservoir). Once the 'ideal' logs were completed, a second model, a log-to-core device, provides core scale estimates of porosity and permeability (P and P). The validity of these soft-computing devices was checked using 'holdout' wells. In this way, 'core' parameter profiles

  16. Characterization of Near-Surface Geology and Possible Voids Using Resistivity and Electromagnetic Methods at the Gran Quivira Unit of Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument, Central New Mexico, June 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Lyndsay B.; Lucius, Jeffrey E.; Land, Lewis A.; Teeple, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    At the Gran Quivira Unit of Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument in central New Mexico, a partially excavated pueblo known as Mound 7 has recently become architecturally unstable. Historical National Park Service records indicate both natural caves and artificial tunnels may be present in the area. Knowledge of the local near-surface geology and possible locations of voids would aid in preservation of the ruins. Time-domain and frequency-domain electromagnetic as well as direct-current resistivity methods were used to characterize the electrical structure of the near-surface geology and to identify discrete electrical features that may be associated with voids. Time-domain electromagnetic soundings indicate three major electrical layers; however, correlation of these layers to geologic units was difficult because of the variability of lithologic data from existing test holes. Although resistivity forward modeling was unable to conclusively determine the presence or absence of voids in most cases, the high-resistivity values (greater than 5,000 ohm-meters) in the direct-current resistivity data indicate that voids may exist in the upper 50 meters. Underneath Mound 7, there is a possibility of large voids below a depth of 20 meters, but there is no indication of substantial voids in the upper 20 meters. Gridded lines and profiled inversions of frequency-domain electromagnetic data showed excellent correlation to resistivity features in the upper 5 meters of the direct-current resistivity data. This technique showed potential as a reconnaissance tool for detecting voids in the very near surface.

  17. Recent U.S. Geological Survey Studies in the Tintina Gold Province, Alaska, United States, and Yukon, Canada-Results of a 5-Year Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Larry P.; Day, Warren C.

    2010-01-01

    This report presents summary papers of work conducted between 2002 and 2007 under a 5-year project effort funded by the U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Resources Program, formerly entitled 'Tintina Metallogenic Province: Integrated Studies on Geologic Framework, Mineral Resources, and Environmental Signatures.' As the project progressed, the informal title changed from 'Tintina Metallogenic Province' project to 'Tintina Gold Province' project, the latter being more closely aligned with the terminology used by the mineral industry. As Goldfarb and others explain in the first chapter of this report, the Tintina Gold Province is a convenient term used by the mineral exploration community for a 'region of very varied geology, gold deposit types, and resource potential'. The Tintina Gold Province encompasses roughly 150,000 square kilometers, bounded by the Kaltag-Tintina fault system on the north and the Farewell-Denali fault system on the south. It extends westward in a broad arc, some 200 km wide, from northernmost British Columbia, through the Yukon, through southeastern and central Alaska, to southwestern Alaska. The climate is subarctic and, in Alaska, includes major physiographic delineations and ecoregions such as the Yukon-Tanana Upland, Tanana-Kuskokwim Lowlands, Yukon River Lowlands, and the Kuskokwim Mountains. Although the Tintina Gold Province is historically important for some of the very first placer and lode gold discoveries in northern North America, it has recently seen resurgence in mineral exploration, development, and mining activity. This resurgence is due to both new discoveries (for example, Pogo and Donlin Creek) and to the application of modern extraction methods to previously known, but economically restrictive, low-grade, bulk-tonnage gold resources (for example, Fort Knox, Clear Creek, and Scheelite Dome). In addition, the Tintina Gold Province hosts numerous other mineral deposit types, possessing both high and low sulfide content, which

  18. Establishment of research and development priorities regarding the geologic disposal of nuclear waste in the United States and strategies for international collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahon, Kevin; Swift, Peter; Nutt, Mark; Peters, Mark; Williams, Jeff; Voegele, Michael; Birkholzer, Jens

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), Office of Fuel Cycle Technologies (OFCT) has established the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) to conduct research and development (R and D) activities related to storage, transportation and disposal of low level waste (LLW), used nuclear fuel (UNF) and high level radioactive waste (HLW). The U.S. has, for the past twenty-plus years, focused efforts on disposing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and HLW in a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain Nevada. The recent decision by the U.S. DOE to no longer pursue the development of that repository has necessitated investigating alternative concepts for the disposal of SNF and HLW that exists today and that could be generated under future fuel cycles. The disposal of SNF and HLW in a range of geologic media has been investigated internationally. Considerable progress has been made by in the U.S and other nations, but gaps in knowledge still exist. The U.S. national laboratories have participated in these programs and have conducted R and D related to these issues to a limited extent. However, a comprehensive R and D program investigating a variety of storage, geologic media and disposal concepts has not been a part of the U.S. waste management program since the mid 1980s. Such a comprehensive R and D program has been developed in the UFDC using a systematic approach to identify potential R and D opportunities. This paper will describe the process used by the UFDC and summarize the R and D being pursued. The U.S. DOE has cooperated and collaborated with other countries in many different 'arenas' including the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) within the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and through bilateral agreements with other countries. These international activities benefited the DOE through the acquisition and exchange of information, database development, and peer reviews by experts from

  19. Geology and bedrock engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    This book deals with geology of Korea which includes summary, geology in central part and southern part in Korea and characteristic of geology structure, limestone like geology property of limestone, engineered property of limestone, and design and construction case in limestone area. It also introduces engineered property of the cenozoic, clay rock and shale, geologic and engineered property of phyllite and stratum.

  20. Mapping hotspots of malaria transmission from pre-existing hydrology, geology and geomorphology data in the pre-elimination context of Zanzibar, United Republic of Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Andrew; Mageni, Zawadi; Dongus, Stefan; Killeen, Gerry; Macklin, Mark G; Majambare, Silas; Ali, Abdullah; Msellem, Mwinyi; Al-Mafazy, Abdul-Wahiyd; Smith, Mark; Thomas, Chris

    2015-01-22

    Larval source management strategies can play an important role in malaria elimination programmes, especially for tackling outdoor biting species and for eliminating parasite and vector populations when they are most vulnerable during the dry season. Effective larval source management requires tools for identifying geographic foci of vector proliferation and malaria transmission where these efforts may be concentrated. Previous studies have relied on surface topographic wetness to indicate hydrological potential for vector breeding sites, but this is unsuitable for karst (limestone) landscapes such as Zanzibar where water flow, especially in the dry season, is subterranean and not controlled by surface topography. We examine the relationship between dry and wet season spatial patterns of diagnostic positivity rates of malaria infection amongst patients reporting to health facilities on Unguja, Zanzibar, with the physical geography of the island, including land cover, elevation, slope angle, hydrology, geology and geomorphology in order to identify transmission hot spots using Boosted Regression Trees (BRT) analysis. The distribution of both wet and dry season malaria infection rates can be predicted using freely available static data, such as elevation and geology. Specifically, high infection rates in the central and southeast regions of the island coincide with outcrops of hard dense limestone which cause locally elevated water tables and the location of dolines (shallow depressions plugged with fine-grained material promoting the persistence of shallow water bodies). This analysis provides a tractable tool for the identification of malaria hotspots which incorporates subterranean hydrology, which can be used to target larval source management strategies.

  1. California Geological Survey Geologic Map Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — All the individual maps from the Geologic Atlas of California and the Regional Geologic map series have been georeferenced for display in a GIS (and viewable online...

  2. Establishment of research and development priorities regarding the geologic disposal of nuclear waste in the United States and strategies for international collaboration - 59168

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutt, Mark; Peters, Mark; Voegele, Michael; Birkholzer, Jens; Swift, Peter; McMahon, Kevin; Williams, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), Office of Fuel Cycle Technologies (OFCT) has established the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) to conduct research and development (R and D) activities related to storage, transportation and disposal of used nuclear fuel (UNF) and high level radioactive waste (HLW). The U.S. has, in accordance with the U.S. Nuclear Waste Policy Act (as amended), focused efforts for the past twenty plus years on disposing of UNF and HLW in a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The recent decision by the U.S. DOE to no longer pursue the development of that repository has necessitated investigating alternative concepts for the disposal of UNF and HLW that exists today and that could be generated under future fuel cycles. The disposal of UNF and HLW in a range of geologic media has been investigated internationally. Considerable progress has been made by in the U.S and other nations, but gaps in knowledge still exist. The U.S. national laboratories have participated in these programs and have conducted R and D related to these issues to a limited extent. However, a comprehensive R and D program investigating a variety of storage, geologic media, and disposal concepts has not been a part of the U.S. waste management program since the mid 1980's because of its focus on the Yucca Mountain site. Such a comprehensive R and D program is being developed and executed in the UFDC using a systematic approach to identify potential R and D opportunities. This paper describes the process used by the UFDC to identify and prioritize R and D opportunities. The U.S. DOE has cooperated and collaborated with other countries in many different 'arenas' including the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) within the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and through bilateral agreements with other countries. These international activities benefited the DOE through the

  3. Design and construction of a single unit multi-function optical encoder for a six-degree-of-freedom motion error measurement in an ultraprecision linear stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, ChaBum; Kim, Gyu Ha; Lee, Sun-Kyu

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the method of a six-degree-of-freedom (DOF) posture measurement in a linear stage by employing a single unit of an optical encoder. The proposed optical encoder was constructed to simultaneously measure the posture along the traveling axis; angular errors, pitch, yaw and roll; and translational errors, ΔX, ΔY and ΔZ. It consists of a diffractive optical element, a corner cube, four separate two-dimensional position-sensitive detectors, four photodiodes and auxiliary optics components. The circularly polarizing interferometric technique was integrated to measure the displacement of the stage along the traveling axis in a robust manner and the resolution was estimated to be less than 0.4 nm. Two types of stages were employed for the measurement implementation, the piezoelectric transducer-driven and the ballscrew-driven, and they were feedback-controlled for the traveling axis, respectively. With a single travel of the stage, it provided a six-DOF motion error with a high resolution, less than 0.03 arcsec, 20 nm and 0.4 nm for angular errors, ΔY and ΔZ, and ΔX, respectively, at the same time. As a result, it was seen that motion errors of the stage have relevance to the driving mechanism and the whole construction of the stage

  4. Analyzing Economic Attainment Patterns of Foreign Born Latin American Male Immigrants to The United States: an Example Using Hierarchical Linear Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Gotcher

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the research which examines and endeavors to account for variation in the economic attainments of immigrants to the United States from Latin America, through the use of Hierarchical Linear Modeling. When analyzing this variation, researchers typically choose between two competing explanations. Human capital theory contends that variation in economic attainment is a product of different characteristics of individuals. Social capital theory contends that variation in economic attainment is a product of differences in characteristics of the societies from which the workers come. The author's central thesis is that we need not choose between human and social capital theories, that we can rely on both theoretical approaches, that it is an empirical and not a theoretical question how much variation can be explained by one set of factors versus the other. The real problem then is to build an appropriate methodology that allows us to partition the variation in economic attainments, identifying how much is explained by individual and how much by group characteristics. Using a multi-level modeling technique, this research presents such a methodology.

  5. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Shilov, Georgi E

    1977-01-01

    Covers determinants, linear spaces, systems of linear equations, linear functions of a vector argument, coordinate transformations, the canonical form of the matrix of a linear operator, bilinear and quadratic forms, Euclidean spaces, unitary spaces, quadratic forms in Euclidean and unitary spaces, finite-dimensional space. Problems with hints and answers.

  6. Geomorphology in North American Geology Departments, 1971

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sidney E.; Malcolm, Marshall D.

    1972-01-01

    Presents results of a 1970-71 survey of 350 geomorphologists and geology departments to determine what sort of geomorphology is being taught in the colleges and universities of the United States and Canada. (PR)

  7. Safeguards for geological repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fattah, A.

    2000-01-01

    Direct disposal of spent nuclear fuel in geological repositories is a recognised option for closing nuclear fuel cycles. Geological repositories are at present in stages of development in a number of countries and are expected to be built and operated early next century. A State usually has an obligation to safely store any nuclear material, which is considered unsuitable to re-enter the nuclear fuel cycle, isolated from the biosphere. In conjunction with this, physical protection has to be accounted for to prevent inadvertent access to such material. In addition to these two criteria - which are fully under the State's jurisdiction - a third criterion reflecting international non-proliferation commitments needs to be addressed. Under comprehensive safeguards agreements a State concedes verification of nuclear material for safeguards purposes to the IAEA. The Agency can thus provide assurance to the international community that such nuclear material has been used for peaceful purposes only as declared by the State. It must be emphasised that all three criteria mentioned constitute a 'unit'. None can be sacrificed for the sake of the other, but compromises may have to be sought in order to make their combination as effective as possible. Based on comprehensive safeguards agreements signed and ratified by the State, safeguards can be terminated only when the material has been consumed or diluted in such a way that it can no longer be utilised for any nuclear activities or has become practicably irrecoverable. As such safeguards for nuclear material in geological repositories have to be continued even after the repository has been back-filled and sealed. The effective application of safeguards must assure continuity-of-knowledge that the nuclear material in the repository has not been diverted for an unknown purpose. The nuclear material disposed in a geological repository may eventually have a higher and long term proliferation risk because the inventory is

  8. Energy response of imaging plates to radiation beams from standard beta sources, ortho-voltage and cobalt-60 units and linear accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Albin Leonel

    The response to different types of radiation beams of commercial imaging plates used for diagnostic computed radiography has been investigated in this work. Imaging plates are designed with a phosphor layer which after been irradiated; information is stored in the form of photostimulable luminescence (PSL) centers. Initial measurements of the dose distribution of a radioactive stent with the imaging plates showed similar results to those with radiochromic films, but with much shorter exposure time due to their higher sensitivity. In order to investigate further their response, the imaging plates were irradiated with calibrated beams from: standard beta sources, orthovoltage and Co-60 units and therapy linear accelerator. Initially it was found that the energy to create the storage centers (generation efficiency) when irradiated with the three standard beta sources (225 keV to 2.28 MeV) was the same. For the rest of the calibrated beams an in house reader system was built in order to perform the bleaching of the plates with a He-Ne laser (632.8 nm) and to measure the absolute number of the emitted PSL photons (storage centers produced). Bleaching curves were then obtained for different exposure times for each beam. From the graph of the calculated area under the bleaching curves (total number of storage center) versus the absorbed dose to the phosphor layer it was possible to calculate the energy to create the storage centers (generation efficiency) for photon and electron beams. The dose to the phosphor layer was calculated in the case of the electron beams following a scaling procedure, while in the case of the photon beams Monte Carlo simulations were performed. For the photons beams the measurement of the generation efficiency energy of 126 +/- 8% eV per PSL storage center, coincide with measurements using a different approach (˜148 eV) by previous investigators. The generation efficiency for the electron beam was 807 +/- 3% eV, no reference was found in the

  9. Engineering Geology | Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaska's Mineral Industry Reports AKGeology.info Rare Earth Elements WebGeochem Engineering Geology Alaska content Engineering Geology Additional information Engineering Geology Posters and Presentations Alaska Alaska MAPTEACH Tsunami Inundation Mapping Engineering Geology Staff Projects The Engineering Geology

  10. Geology of the North Sea and Skagerrak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelsen, O. [ed.

    1995-12-31

    The Marine Geology Unit of the Department of Earth Sciences organized the second Marine Geology symposium at Aarhus University, 7-8 October 1993. The intention was to bring together people working especially with the geology of the North Sea and Skagerrak. Approximately 60 people from different Danish and Norwegian institutions attended the symposium. 28 oral presentations were given and 2 posters presented. A large range of geological topics was covered, embracing biostratigraphy, sequence stratigraphy, sedimentology and structural geology. The majority of the presentations dealt with Quaternary geology and Cenozoic sequence stratigraphy, but also Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous stratigraphy was treated. Studies from the major part of the Danish sector were presented, spanning from Bornholm to the central North Sea, and further into the Norwegian North Sea sector. (au)

  11. Documentation for the U.S. Geological Survey Public-Supply Database (PSDB): A database of permitted public-supply wells, surface-water intakes, and systems in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Curtis V.; Maupin, Molly A.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed a database containing information about wells, surface-water intakes, and distribution systems that are part of public water systems across the United States, its territories, and possessions. Programs of the USGS such as the National Water Census, the National Water Use Information Program, and the National Water-Quality Assessment Program all require a complete and current inventory of public water systems, the sources of water used by those systems, and the size of populations served by the systems across the Nation. Although the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Safe Drinking Water Information System (SDWIS) database already exists as the primary national Federal database for information on public water systems, the Public-Supply Database (PSDB) was developed to add value to SDWIS data with enhanced location and ancillary information, and to provide links to other databases, including the USGS’s National Water Information System (NWIS) database.

  12. 国有地勘单位分类改革若干问题思考%Pondering on Some Issues in State-owned Geological Units Classified Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田国华; 颜洪鸣

    2013-01-01

    Going through more than 20 years, the state-owned geological exploration units have experienced stages of structural readjustment, unit business transferring and localization, realized diversified economy with one main industry, and diversified industrial structure management mode of enterprise, but are still public institutions. By virtue of "the Central Committee of the CPC, the State Council guidelines on classified institutional reform promotion", the classified reform of state-owned geological exploration units is imperative. Although the internal and external environments of the units have provided with sustainable development conditions, but common problems long-term accumulated still the choke point of the institution-enterprise reform, such as industrial scale small and scattered, long in "wage economy" position; human, financial and material resources limited, difficult to form new economic growth points; the ties of social problems of pension insurance system etc. Thus the units should take the initiative in the reform, to control conditions of classification, positioning with reason. On the basis of investigation and study, the government should consider regional differences promote the classified reform in classification, business segregation, gradation and step by step mode, phased and orderly manner. On the precondition of supporting policies, carry out industrial integration; ensure geological exploration industry sustainable development.%国有地勘单位的改革,历经20余年,先后经历了结构调整,成建制转产,属地化等阶段,实现了一业为主、多种经营、产业结构多元化的企业化管理模式,但仍保持着事业单位的身份.根据《中共中央、国务院关于分类推进事业单位改革的指导意见》,国有地勘单位分类改革势在必行.地勘单位虽然在内外部环境方面都具有可持续发展的条件,但长期积累下来的共性问题仍将成为事企改革的瓶颈,如产业规

  13. Predictive Modeling of Terrestrial Radiation Exposure from Geologic Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malchow, Russell L. [National Security Technologies, LLC; Haber, Daniel University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Burnley, Pamela [University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Marsac, Kara [University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Hausrath, Elisabeth [University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Adcock, Christopher [University of Nevada, Las Vegas

    2015-01-01

    Aerial gamma ray surveys are important for those working in nuclear security and industry for determining locations of both anthropogenic radiological sources and natural occurrences of radionuclides. During an aerial gamma ray survey, a low flying aircraft, such as a helicopter, flies in a linear pattern across the survey area while measuring the gamma emissions with a sodium iodide (NaI) detector. Currently, if a gamma ray survey is being flown in an area, the only way to correct for geologic sources of gamma rays is to have flown the area previously. This is prohibitively expensive and would require complete national coverage. This project’s goal is to model the geologic contribution to radiological backgrounds using published geochemical data, GIS software, remote sensing, calculations, and modeling software. K, U and Th are the three major gamma emitters in geologic material. U and Th are assumed to be in secular equilibrium with their daughter isotopes. If K, U, and Th abundance values are known for a given geologic unit the expected gamma ray exposure rate can be calculated using the Grasty equation or by modeling software. Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport software (MCNP), developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory, is modeling software designed to simulate particles and their interactions with matter. Using this software, models have been created that represent various lithologies. These simulations randomly generate gamma ray photons at energy levels expected from natural radiologic sources. The photons take a random path through the simulated geologic media and deposit their energy at the end of their track. A series of nested spheres have been created and filled with simulated atmosphere to record energy deposition. Energies deposited are binned in the same manner as the NaI detectors used during an aerial survey. These models are used in place of the simplistic Grasty equation as they take into account absorption properties of the lithology which the

  14. Aniakchak National Monument and Preserve: Geologic resources inventory report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hults, Chad P.; Neal, Christina

    2015-01-01

    This GRI report is a companion document to previously completed GRI digital geologic map data. It was written for resource managers to support science-informed decision making. It may also be useful for interpretation. The report was prepared using available geologic information, and the NPS Geologic Resources Division conducted no new fieldwork in association with its preparation. Sections of the report discuss distinctive geologic features and processes within the park, highlight geologic issues facing resource managers, describe the geologic history leading to the present-day landscape, and provide information about the GRI geologic map data. A poster illustrates these data. The Map Unit Properties Table summarizes report content for each geologic map unit.

  15. THE BRECCE DELLA RENGA FORMATION: AGE AND SEDIMENTOLOGY OF A SYN-TECTONIC CLASTIC UNIT IN THE UPPER MIOCENE OF CENTRAL APENNINES. INSIGHTS FROM FIELD GEOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMONE FABBI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the NE Simbruini Mountains, the “Brecce della Renga Fm.” is a clastic unit documenting sedimentation controlled by late Miocene extensional tectonics.The unit has been subdivided into three lithofacies and six sublithofacies, based on the arenite/rudite/pelite ratio. Massive and coarser (up to megablock size intervals are interpreted as rockfall deposits (likely induced by earthquakes at the toe of steep submarine escarpments. By contrast, finer levels are interpreted as having been sedimented through avalanching and turbidity flows in more distal settings, and are partly lateral to basinal hemipelagites and siliciclastic turbidites. Pelite lenses, found at various stratigraphic levels, are the result of ponded sedimentation along the clastic margin. Calcareous nannofossils analyses have been performed for age determinations on 60 fossiliferous samples, which were collected in each sublithofacies of the “Brecce della Renga Fm.”. The unit ranges from early Tortonian (MNN8b to early Messinian (MNN11c. The age and field geometries of the older breccias document the existence of a Tortonian extensional phase, which predated the late Messinian thrusting. A progradation of the clastic wedge can be observed in the Tortonian, while Messinian deposits show a fining upwards trend. The distribution curve of clastics over time can, given the number of synsedimentary faults mapped in the area, be put in relation with the seismicity induced by the activity along such faults, which after reaching an acme in the Tortonian gradually reached a quiescent state in the early Messinian, causing the backstepping of clastic facies.

  16. Selected data for low-temperature (less than 90{sup 0}C) geothermal systems in the United States: reference data for US Geological Survey Circular 892

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, M.J.; Mariner, R.H.; Brook, C.A.; Sorey, M.L.

    1983-12-15

    Supporting data are presented for the 1982 low-temperature geothermal resource assessment of the United States. Data are presented for 2072 geothermal sites which are representative of 1168 low-temperature geothermal systems identified in 26 States. The low-temperature geothermal systems consist of 978 isolated hydrothermal-convection systems, 148 delineated-area hydrothermal-convection systems, and 42 delineated-area conduction-dominated systems. The basic data and estimates of reservoir conditions are presented for each geothermal system, and energy estimates are given for the accessible resource base, resource, and beneficial heat for each isolated system.

  17. Geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources—Lower Cretaceous Albian to Upper Cretaceous Cenomanian carbonate rocks of the Fredericksburg and Washita Groups, United States Gulf of Mexico Coastal Plain and State Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Sharon M.; Enomoto, Catherine B.; Dennen, Kristin O.; Valentine, Brett J.; Cahan, Steven M.

    2017-02-10

    In 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessed Lower Cretaceous Albian to Upper Cretaceous Cenomanian carbonate rocks of the Fredericksburg and Washita Groups and their equivalent units for technically recoverable, undiscovered hydrocarbon resources underlying onshore lands and State Waters of the Gulf Coast region of the United States. This assessment was based on a geologic model that incorporates the Upper Jurassic-Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite Total Petroleum System (TPS) of the Gulf of Mexico basin; the TPS was defined previously by the USGS assessment team in the assessment of undiscovered hydrocarbon resources in Tertiary strata of the Gulf Coast region in 2007. One conventional assessment unit (AU), which extends from south Texas to the Florida panhandle, was defined: the Fredericksburg-Buda Carbonate Platform-Reef Gas and Oil AU. The assessed stratigraphic interval includes the Edwards Limestone of the Fredericksburg Group and the Georgetown and Buda Limestones of the Washita Group. The following factors were evaluated to define the AU and estimate oil and gas resources: potential source rocks, hydrocarbon migration, reservoir porosity and permeability, traps and seals, structural features, paleoenvironments (back-reef lagoon, reef, and fore-reef environments), and the potential for water washing of hydrocarbons near outcrop areas.In Texas and Louisiana, the downdip boundary of the AU was defined as a line that extends 10 miles downdip of the Lower Cretaceous shelf margin to include potential reef-talus hydrocarbon reservoirs. In Mississippi, Alabama, and the panhandle area of Florida, where the Lower Cretaceous shelf margin extends offshore, the downdip boundary was defined by the offshore boundary of State Waters. Updip boundaries of the AU were drawn based on the updip extent of carbonate rocks within the assessed interval, the presence of basin-margin fault zones, and the presence of producing wells. Other factors evaluated were the middle

  18. Methods of practice and guidelines for using survey-grade global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) to establish vertical datum in the United States Geological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydlund, Jr., Paul H.; Densmore, Brenda K.

    2012-01-01

    Geodetic surveys have evolved through the years to the use of survey-grade (centimeter level) global positioning to perpetuate and post-process vertical datum. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) uses Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) technology to monitor natural hazards, ensure geospatial control for climate and land use change, and gather data necessary for investigative studies related to water, the environment, energy, and ecosystems. Vertical datum is fundamental to a variety of these integrated earth sciences. Essentially GNSS surveys provide a three-dimensional position x, y, and z as a function of the North American Datum of 1983 ellipsoid and the most current hybrid geoid model. A GNSS survey may be approached with post-processed positioning for static observations related to a single point or network, or involve real-time corrections to provide positioning "on-the-fly." Field equipment required to facilitate GNSS surveys range from a single receiver, with a power source for static positioning, to an additional receiver or network communicated by radio or cellular for real-time positioning. A real-time approach in its most common form may be described as a roving receiver augmented by a single-base station receiver, known as a single-base real-time (RT) survey. More efficient real-time methods involving a Real-Time Network (RTN) permit the use of only one roving receiver that is augmented to a network of fixed receivers commonly known as Continually Operating Reference Stations (CORS). A post-processed approach in its most common form involves static data collection at a single point. Data are most commonly post-processed through a universally accepted utility maintained by the National Geodetic Survey (NGS), known as the Online Position User Service (OPUS). More complex post-processed methods involve static observations among a network of additional receivers collecting static data at known benchmarks. Both classifications provide users

  19. Linear gate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwono.

    1978-01-01

    A linear gate providing a variable gate duration from 0,40μsec to 4μsec was developed. The electronic circuity consists of a linear circuit and an enable circuit. The input signal can be either unipolar or bipolar. If the input signal is bipolar, the negative portion will be filtered. The operation of the linear gate is controlled by the application of a positive enable pulse. (author)

  20. Linear Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vretenar, M

    2014-01-01

    The main features of radio-frequency linear accelerators are introduced, reviewing the different types of accelerating structures and presenting the main characteristics aspects of linac beam dynamics

  1. Geology of Uruguay review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Rifas, C.

    2011-01-01

    This work is about the Uruguay geology review.This country has been a devoted to breeding cattle and agriculture.The evolution of geological knowledge begun with Dr. Karl Walther who published 53 papers between 1909 and 1948.

  2. Geological Services Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Researchers use computed tomography (CT) scanners at NETL’s Geological Services Laboratory in Morgantown, WV, to peer into geologic core samples to determine how...

  3. Mercury's Early Geologic History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denevi, B. W.; Ernst, C. M.; Klima, R. L.; Robinson, M. S.

    2018-05-01

    A combination of geologic mapping, compositional information, and geochemical models are providing a better understanding of Mercury's early geologic history, and allow us to place it in the context of the Moon and the terrestrial planets.

  4. Para-mixed linear spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crasmareanu Mircea

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We consider the paracomplex version of the notion of mixed linear spaces introduced by M. Jurchescu in [4] by replacing the complex unit i with the paracomplex unit j, j2 = 1. The linear algebra of these spaces is studied with a special view towards their morphisms.

  5. Linearization Method and Linear Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hidema

    We focus on the relationship between the linearization method and linear complexity and show that the linearization method is another effective technique for calculating linear complexity. We analyze its effectiveness by comparing with the logic circuit method. We compare the relevant conditions and necessary computational cost with those of the Berlekamp-Massey algorithm and the Games-Chan algorithm. The significant property of a linearization method is that it needs no output sequence from a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) because it calculates linear complexity using the algebraic expression of its algorithm. When a PRNG has n [bit] stages (registers or internal states), the necessary computational cost is smaller than O(2n). On the other hand, the Berlekamp-Massey algorithm needs O(N2) where N(≅2n) denotes period. Since existing methods calculate using the output sequence, an initial value of PRNG influences a resultant value of linear complexity. Therefore, a linear complexity is generally given as an estimate value. On the other hand, a linearization method calculates from an algorithm of PRNG, it can determine the lower bound of linear complexity.

  6. Measurement of the dosimetric parameters for low monitor units in step-and-shoot IMRT delivered by Siemens Artiste linear accelerators; Medida de los parametros dosimetricos para bajo numero de unidades monitor en IMRT segmentada estatica administrada por aceleradores lineales Siemens Artiste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Rodriguez, C.; Lopez Fernandez, A.; Saez Beltran, M.; Martin Martin, G.; Alonso Iracheta, L.

    2012-07-01

    Absorbed dose linearity and beam stability, both for low monitor units, are important factors for ensuring planned dose delivery in step-and-shoot IMRT. For Siemens Artiste linear accelerators, under IMRT stable irradiation conditions and for a single segment of 20 cm x 20 cm field size, the linearity of the absorbed dose with the monitor units, field flatness and symmetry have been measured for the range between 1 and 10 monitor units. We have found that absorbed dose linearity with monitor units is within 2% down to 2 monitor units and it is about 9% for 1 monitor unit. Flatness and symmetry values show variations within 1% down to 2 monitor units and increase by 9% for lower values. Using our monitor unit distribution per segment in IMRT we estimate that the uncertainty in absorbed dose for a whole treatment due to these factors is less than 1% (k= 3). (Author) 13 refs.

  7. Studies of geology and hydrology in the Basin and Range Province, Southwestern United States, for isolation of high-level radioactive waste - Basis of characterization and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedinger, M.S.; Sargent, K.A.; Langer, William H.; Sherman, Frank B.; Reed, J.E.; Brady, B.T.

    1989-01-01

    The geologic and hydrologic factors in selected regions of the Basin and Range province were examined to identify prospective areas for further study that may provide isolation of high-level radioactive waste from the accessible environment. The six regions selected for study were characterized with respect to the following guidelines: (1) Potential repository media; (2) Quaternary tectonic conditions; (3) climatic change and geomorphic processes; (4) ground-water conditions; (5) ground-water quality; and (6) mineral and energy resources.The repository medium will function as the first natural barrier to radionuclide travel by virtue of associated slow ground-water velocity. The principal rock types considered as host media include granitic, intermediate, and mafic intrusive rocks; argillaceous rocks; salt and anhydrite; volcanic mudflow (laharic) breccias; some intrusive rhyolitic plugs and stocks; partially zeolitized tuff; and metamorphic rocks. In the unsaturated zone, the permeability and hydrologic properties of the rocks and the hydrologic setting are more important than the rock type. Media ideally should be permeable to provide drainage and should have a minimal water fluxThe ground-water flow path from a repository to the accessible environment needs to present major barriers to the transport of radionuclides. Factors considered in evaluating the ground-water conditions include ground-water traveltimes and quality, confining beds, and earth materials favorable for retardation of radionuclides. Ground-water velocities in the regions were calculated from estimated hydraulic properties of the rocks and gradients. Because site-specific data on hydraulic properties are not available, data from the literature were assembled and synthesized to obtain values for use in estimating ground-water velocities. Hydraulic conductivities for many rock types having granular and fracture permeability follow a log-normal distribution. Porosity for granular and very weathered

  8. A multi-modal geological investigation framework for subsurface modeling and kinematic monitoring of a slow-moving landslide complex in Colorado, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, B. W.; Zhou, W.; Smartgeo

    2010-12-01

    The Muddy Creek landslide complex is a large area of active and reactivating landslides that impact the operation of both a state highway and Paonia Reservoir in Gunnison County, Colorado, United States. Historically, the monitoring of this slide has been investigated using disparate techniques leading to protracted analysis and project knowledge attrition. We present an integrated, data-driven investigation framework that supports continued kinematic monitoring, document cataloging, and subsurface modeling of the landslide complex. A geospatial information system (GIS) was integrated with a visual programming based subsurface model to facilitate modular integration of monitoring data with borehole information. Subsurface modeling was organized by material type and activity state based on multiple sources of kinematic measurement. The framework is constructed to modularly integrate remotely sensed imagery and other spatial datasets such as ASTER, InSAR, and LiDAR derived elevation products as more precise datasets become available. The framework allows for terrestrial LiDAR survey error estimation, borehole siting, and placement of wireless sensor (GPS, accelerometers, geophysical ) networks for optimized spatial relevance and utility. Coordinated spatial referencing within the GIS facilitates geotechnical and hydrogeological modeling input generation and common display of modeling outputs. Kinematic data fusion techniques are accomplished with integration of instrumentation, surficial feature tracking, subsurface classification, and 3D interpolation. The framework includes dynamic decision support including landslide dam failure estimates, back-flooding scenario planning that can be accessed by multiple agencies and stakeholders.

  9. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Said-Houari, Belkacem

    2017-01-01

    This self-contained, clearly written textbook on linear algebra is easily accessible for students. It begins with the simple linear equation and generalizes several notions from this equation for the system of linear equations and introduces the main ideas using matrices. It then offers a detailed chapter on determinants and introduces the main ideas with detailed proofs. The third chapter introduces the Euclidean spaces using very simple geometric ideas and discusses various major inequalities and identities. These ideas offer a solid basis for understanding general Hilbert spaces in functional analysis. The following two chapters address general vector spaces, including some rigorous proofs to all the main results, and linear transformation: areas that are ignored or are poorly explained in many textbooks. Chapter 6 introduces the idea of matrices using linear transformation, which is easier to understand than the usual theory of matrices approach. The final two chapters are more advanced, introducing t...

  10. Minerals, lands, and geology for the common defence and general welfare, Volume 2, 1879-1904 : A history of geology in relation to the development of public-land, federal-science, and mapping policies and the development of mineral resources in the United States during the first 25 years of the U.S. Geological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbitt, Mary C.

    1980-01-01

    In the traditional view of the Survey's first 25 years, which are the subject of much of this volume, John Wesley Powell, with his broad view of science and advanced ideas of land and water in the West, is the heroic figure. Clarence King is dismissed as brilliant but with a limited view of science as mining geology, and Charles D. Walcott is regarded primarily as a brilliant paleontologist chosen by Powell to succeed him. The Survey's first quarter century, however, spanned a watershed in American history that separated a primarily rural and agrarian nation and a primarily urban and industrial nation, a nation intent on conquering the continent and isolated from the Old World and a nation involved in world politics, a nation that believed in the virtues of competition and limited government and a nation that saw the virtue of cooperation and insisted on reform and regulation to ensure equal opportunities to all. Science itself changed during this period. The age of instruments was just beginning when the Survey was established; by the turn of the century, instruments had almost revolutionized science and the era of the lone investigator had to give way to an era of organized effort in the solution of problems.

  11. The Influence of Geography and Geology on Seismic Background Noise Levels Across the United States as Revealed by the Transportable Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, R. E.; Ringler, A. T.; Holland, A. A.; Wilson, D. C.

    2017-12-01

    The EarthScope USArray Transportable Array (TA) has now covered the US with 3-component broadband seismometers at approximately 70 km station spacing and deployment durations of approximately 2 years. This unprecedented coverage, combined with high-quality and near homogenous installation techniques, offers a novel dataset in which to characterize spatially varying levels of background seismic noise across the United States. We present background noise maps in period bands of interest to earthquake and imaging seismology across the US (lower 48 states and Alaska). Early results from the contiguous 48 states demonstrate that ambient noise levels within the body wave period band (1-5 s) vary by > 20 dB (rel. 1 (m/s2)2/Hz) with the highest noise levels occurring at stations located within sedimentary basins and lowest within the mountain ranges of the Western US. Additionally, stations around the Great Lakes observe heightened noise levels in this band beyond the aforementioned basin amplification. We attribute this observation to local swell activity in the Great Lakes generating short-period microseism signals. This suggests that lake-generated microseisms may be a significant source of noise for Alaskan deployments situated in close proximity to lakes to facilitate float plane access. We further investigate how basin amplification and short-period lake microseism signals may noticeably impact detection and signal-to-noise of teleseismic body wave signals during certain time periods. At longer-periods (> 20 s), we generally observe larger noise levels on the horizontal components of stations situated in basins or on soft sediment, likely caused by locally induced tilt of the sensor. We will present similar analysis from the initial Alaska TA dataset to quantitatively assess how utilization of posthole sensors affects signal-to-noise for the long-period horizontal wavefield.

  12. Studies of geology and hydrology in the Basin and Range province, southwestern United States, for isolation of high-level radioactive waste: characterization of the Sonoran region, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedinger, M.S.; Sargent, Kenneth A.; Langer, William H.

    1989-01-01

    The Sonoran region of California lies west of the Colorado River and adjoins the Mojave Desert on the west, Death Valley on the northwest, and the Salton trough on the south. The region is arid with annual precipitation ranging from less than 80 millimeters to as great as 250 millimeters in one mountain range; annual free-surface evaporation is as great as 2,500 millimeters. The characteristic basin and range topography of the region was caused by a mid-Tertiary period of intense crustal extension, accompanied by volcanic eruptions, clastic sedimentation, faulting, and tilting. Potential host media for isolation of high-level radioactive waste include granite and other coarsegrained plutonic rocks, ash-flow tuff, and basalt and basaltic andesite lava flows. Thick sections of the unsaturated zone in basin fill, intrusive, and volcanic rocks appear to have potential as host media. The region is bordered on the west by areas of relatively greater Quaternary faulting, vertical crustal uplift, and seismicity. The region has a few areas of Quaternary volcanic activity. Geothermal heat flows of 2.5 heat-flow units or greater and one earthquake of magnitude 6-7 have been recorded. The region includes topographically closed basins as well as basins that drain to the Colorado River. Dry lakes and playas occupy the closed basins. Ground-water recharge and surface runoff are small because of the small amount of precipitation and great potential evaporation. Natural ground-water discharge is by evaporation in the basin playas and by underflow to the Colorado River. Dissolved-solids concentration of ground water generally is less than 500 milligrams per liter, and much of it is of the sodium bicarbonate type. Ground water is saline in many of the playas, and chloride or sulfate is the predominant anion. Small tonnages of ore have been produced from numerous precious and fewer base-metal deposits. (author)

  13. Semantic Web-based digital, field and virtual geological

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaie, H. A.

    2012-12-01

    Digital, field and virtual Semantic Web-based education (SWBE) of geological mapping requires the construction of a set of searchable, reusable, and interoperable digital learning objects (LO) for learners, teachers, and authors. These self-contained units of learning may be text, image, or audio, describing, for example, how to calculate the true dip of a layer from two structural contours or find the apparent dip along a line of section. A collection of multi-media LOs can be integrated, through domain and task ontologies, with mapping-related learning activities and Web services, for example, to search for the description of lithostratigraphic units in an area, or plotting orientation data on stereonet. Domain ontologies (e.g., GeologicStructure, Lithostratigraphy, Rock) represent knowledge in formal languages (RDF, OWL) by explicitly specifying concepts, relations, and theories involved in geological mapping. These ontologies are used by task ontologies that formalize the semantics of computational tasks (e.g., measuring the true thickness of a formation) and activities (e.g., construction of cross section) for all actors to solve specific problems (making map, instruction, learning support, authoring). A SWBE system for geological mapping should also involve ontologies to formalize teaching strategy (pedagogical styles), learner model (e.g., for student performance, personalization of learning), interface (entry points for activities of all actors), communication (exchange of messages among different components and actors), and educational Web services (for interoperability). In this ontology-based environment, actors interact with the LOs through educational servers, that manage (reuse, edit, delete, store) ontologies, and through tools which communicate with Web services to collect resources and links to other tools. Digital geological mapping involves a location-based, spatial organization of geological elements in a set of GIS thematic layers. Each layer

  14. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Stoll, R R

    1968-01-01

    Linear Algebra is intended to be used as a text for a one-semester course in linear algebra at the undergraduate level. The treatment of the subject will be both useful to students of mathematics and those interested primarily in applications of the theory. The major prerequisite for mastering the material is the readiness of the student to reason abstractly. Specifically, this calls for an understanding of the fact that axioms are assumptions and that theorems are logical consequences of one or more axioms. Familiarity with calculus and linear differential equations is required for understand

  15. The geological attitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, J.G.C.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses geological activity which takes place mainly in response to industrial and social pressures. Past geological reaction to these pressures profoundly altered popular conceptions of time, the Church, man, and the balance of nature. The present-day circumstances of geology are not essentially different from those of the past. Petroleum geology in North American illustrates the role of technology in determining the style and scope of geological work. Peaks of activity cluster obviously on the introduction from time to time of new instrumental capabilities (geophysical apparatus, for example), although not infrequently such activity is testing concepts or relationships perceived long before. Organic metamorphism and continental drift provide two examples. The petroleum industry now faces the dilemma of satisfying predicted demands for fuel, without doing irreparable injury to its environment of operation. Awareness of man's place in nature, which is a fundamental perception of geology, governs the geological attitude

  16. Linear programming

    CERN Document Server

    Solow, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This text covers the basic theory and computation for a first course in linear programming, including substantial material on mathematical proof techniques and sophisticated computation methods. Includes Appendix on using Excel. 1984 edition.

  17. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Liesen, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    This self-contained textbook takes a matrix-oriented approach to linear algebra and presents a complete theory, including all details and proofs, culminating in the Jordan canonical form and its proof. Throughout the development, the applicability of the results is highlighted. Additionally, the book presents special topics from applied linear algebra including matrix functions, the singular value decomposition, the Kronecker product and linear matrix equations. The matrix-oriented approach to linear algebra leads to a better intuition and a deeper understanding of the abstract concepts, and therefore simplifies their use in real world applications. Some of these applications are presented in detailed examples. In several ‘MATLAB-Minutes’ students can comprehend the concepts and results using computational experiments. Necessary basics for the use of MATLAB are presented in a short introduction. Students can also actively work with the material and practice their mathematical skills in more than 300 exerc...

  18. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Berberian, Sterling K

    2014-01-01

    Introductory treatment covers basic theory of vector spaces and linear maps - dimension, determinants, eigenvalues, and eigenvectors - plus more advanced topics such as the study of canonical forms for matrices. 1992 edition.

  19. Linear Models

    CERN Document Server

    Searle, Shayle R

    2012-01-01

    This 1971 classic on linear models is once again available--as a Wiley Classics Library Edition. It features material that can be understood by any statistician who understands matrix algebra and basic statistical methods.

  20. LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofilos, N.C.; Polk, I.J.

    1959-02-17

    Improvements in linear particle accelerators are described. A drift tube system for a linear ion accelerator reduces gap capacity between adjacent drift tube ends. This is accomplished by reducing the ratio of the diameter of the drift tube to the diameter of the resonant cavity. Concentration of magnetic field intensity at the longitudinal midpoint of the external sunface of each drift tube is reduced by increasing the external drift tube diameter at the longitudinal center region.

  1. DIGITAL GEOLOGIC MAP OF SHERMAN QUADRANGLE, NORTH CENTRAL TEXAS (CD-ROM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This compact disc contains digital data sets of the surficial geology and geologic faults for the 1:250,000-scale Sherman quadrangle, North Central Texas, and can be used to make geologic maps, and determine approximate areas and locations of various geologic units. The source d...

  2. Spatial Analysis of Linear Structures in the Exploration of Groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdramane Dembele

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of linear structures on major geological formations plays a crucial role in resource exploration in the Inner Niger Delta. Highlighting and mapping of the large lithological units were carried out using image fusion, spectral bands (RGB coding, Principal Component Analysis (PCA, and band ratio methods. The automatic extraction method of linear structures has permitted the obtaining of a structural map with 82,659 linear structures, distributed on different stratigraphic stages. The intensity study shows an accentuation in density over 12.52% of the total area, containing 22.02% of the linear structures. The density and nodes (intersections of fractures formed by the linear structures on the different lithologies allowed to observe the behavior of the region’s aquifers in the exploration of subsoil resources. The central density, in relation to the hydrographic network of the lowlands, shows the conditioning of the flow and retention of groundwater in the region, and in-depth fluids. The node areas and high-density linear structures, have shown an ability to have rejections in deep (pores that favor the formation of structural traps for oil resources.

  3. The First Global Geological Map of Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prockter, L. M.; Head, J. W., III; Byrne, P. K.; Denevi, B. W.; Kinczyk, M. J.; Fassett, C.; Whitten, J. L.; Thomas, R.; Ernst, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    Geological maps are tools with which to understand the distribution and age relationships of surface geological units and structural features on planetary surfaces. Regional and limited global mapping of Mercury has already yielded valuable science results, elucidating the history and distribution of several types of units and features, such as regional plains, tectonic structures, and pyroclastic deposits. To date, however, no global geological map of Mercury exists, and there is currently no commonly accepted set of standardized unit descriptions and nomenclature. With MESSENGER monochrome image data, we are undertaking the global geological mapping of Mercury at the 1:15M scale applying standard U.S. Geological Survey mapping guidelines. This map will enable the development of the first global stratigraphic column of Mercury, will facilitate comparisons among surface units distributed discontinuously across the planet, and will provide guidelines for mappers so that future mapping efforts will be consistent and broadly interpretable by the scientific community. To date we have incorporated three major datasets into the global geological map: smooth plains units, tectonic structures, and impact craters and basins >20 km in diameter. We have classified most of these craters by relative age on the basis of the state of preservation of morphological features and standard classification schemes first applied to Mercury by the Mariner 10 imaging team. Additional datasets to be incorporated include intercrater plains units and crater ejecta deposits. In some regions MESSENGER color data is used to supplement the monochrome data, to help elucidate different plains units. The final map will be published online, together with a peer-reviewed publication. Further, a digital version of the map, containing individual map layers, will be made publicly available for use within geographic information systems (GISs).

  4. Linearity enigmas in ecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patten, B.C.

    1983-04-01

    Two issues concerning linearity or nonlinearity of natural systems are considered. Each is related to one of the two alternative defining properties of linear systems, superposition and decomposition. Superposition exists when a linear combination of inputs to a system results in the same linear combination of outputs that individually correspond to the original inputs. To demonstrate this property it is necessary that all initial states and inputs of the system which impinge on the output in question be included in the linear combination manipulation. As this is difficult or impossible to do with real systems of any complexity, nature appears nonlinear even though it may be linear. A linear system that displays nonlinear behavior for this reason is termed pseudononlinear. The decomposition property exists when the dynamic response of a system can be partitioned into an input-free portion due to state plus a state-free portion due to input. This is a characteristic of all linear systems, but not of nonlinear systems. Without the decomposition property, it is not possible to distinguish which portions of a system's behavior are due to innate characteristics (self) vs. outside conditions (environment), which is an important class of questions in biology and ecology. Some philosophical aspects of these findings are then considered. It is suggested that those ecologists who hold to the view that organisms and their environments are separate entities are in effect embracing a linear view of nature, even though their belief systems and mathematical models tend to be nonlinear. On the other hand, those who consider that organism-environment complex forms a single inseparable unit are implictly involved in non-linear thought, which may be in conflict with the linear modes and models that some of them use. The need to rectify these ambivalences on the part of both groups is indicated.

  5. Mapping urban geology of the city of Girona, Catalonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilà, Miquel; Torrades, Pau; Pi, Roser; Monleon, Ona

    2016-04-01

    A detailed and systematic geological characterization of the urban area of Girona has been conducted under the project '1:5000 scale Urban geological map of Catalonia' of the Catalan Geological Survey (Institut Cartogràfic i Geològic de Catalunya). The results of this characterization are organized into: i) a geological information system that includes all the information acquired; ii) a stratigraphic model focused on identification, characterization and correlation of the geological materials and structures present in the area and; iii) a detailed geological map that represents a synthesis of all the collected information. The mapping project integrates in a GIS environment pre-existing cartographic documentation (geological and topographical), core data from compiled boreholes, descriptions of geological outcrops within the urban network and neighbouring areas, physico-chemical characterisation of representative samples of geological materials, detailed geological mapping of Quaternary sediments, subsurface bedrock and artificial deposits and, 3D modelling of the main geological surfaces. The stratigraphic model is structured in a system of geological units that from a chronostratigrafic point of view are structured in Palaeozoic, Paleogene, Neogene, Quaternary and Anthropocene. The description of the geological units is guided by a systematic procedure. It includes the main lithological and structural features of the units that constitute the geological substratum and represents the conceptual base of the 1:5000 urban geological map of the Girona metropolitan area, which is organized into 6 map sheets. These map sheets are composed by a principal map, geological cross sections and, several complementary maps, charts and tables. Regardless of the geological map units, the principal map also represents the main artificial deposits, features related to geohistorical processes, contours of outcrop areas, information obtained in stations, borehole data, and contour

  6. Non-linear model predictive supervisory controller for building, air handling unit with recuperator and refrigeration system with heat waste recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minko, Tomasz; Wisniewski, Rafal; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2016-01-01

    . The retrieved heat excess can be stored in the water tank. For this purpose the charging and the discharging water loops has been designed. We present the non-linear model of the above described system and a non-linear model predictive supervisory controller that according to the received price signal......, occupancy information and ambient temperature minimizes the operation cost of the whole system and distributes set points to local controllers of supermarkets subsystems. We find that when reliable information about the high price period is available, it is profitable to use the refrigeration system...... to generate heat during the low price period, store it and use it to substitute the conventional heater during the high price period....

  7. Environmental geology and hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakić, Zoran; Mileusnić, Marta; Pavlić, Krešimir; Kovač, Zoran

    2017-10-01

    Environmental geology is scientific discipline dealing with the interactions between humans and the geologic environment. Many natural hazards, which have great impact on humans and their environment, are caused by geological settings. On the other hand, human activities have great impact on the physical environment, especially in the last decades due to dramatic human population growth. Natural disasters often hit densely populated areas causing tremendous death toll and material damage. Demand for resources enhanced remarkably, as well as waste production. Exploitation of mineral resources deteriorate huge areas of land, produce enormous mine waste and pollute soil, water and air. Environmental geology is a broad discipline and only selected themes will be presented in the following subchapters: (1) floods as natural hazard, (2) water as geological resource and (3) the mining and mineral processing as types of human activities dealing with geological materials that affect the environment and human health.

  8. Linear regression

    CERN Document Server

    Olive, David J

    2017-01-01

    This text covers both multiple linear regression and some experimental design models. The text uses the response plot to visualize the model and to detect outliers, does not assume that the error distribution has a known parametric distribution, develops prediction intervals that work when the error distribution is unknown, suggests bootstrap hypothesis tests that may be useful for inference after variable selection, and develops prediction regions and large sample theory for the multivariate linear regression model that has m response variables. A relationship between multivariate prediction regions and confidence regions provides a simple way to bootstrap confidence regions. These confidence regions often provide a practical method for testing hypotheses. There is also a chapter on generalized linear models and generalized additive models. There are many R functions to produce response and residual plots, to simulate prediction intervals and hypothesis tests, to detect outliers, and to choose response trans...

  9. Linear Colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaraz, J.

    2001-01-01

    After several years of study e''+ e''- linear colliders in the TeV range have emerged as the major and optimal high-energy physics projects for the post-LHC era. These notes summarize the present status form the main accelerator and detector features to their physics potential. The LHC era. These notes summarize the present status, from the main accelerator and detector features to their physics potential. The LHC is expected to provide first discoveries in the new energy domain, whereas an e''+ e''- linear collider in the 500 GeV-1 TeV will be able to complement it to an unprecedented level of precision in any possible areas: Higgs, signals beyond the SM and electroweak measurements. It is evident that the Linear Collider program will constitute a major step in the understanding of the nature of the new physics beyond the Standard Model. (Author) 22 refs

  10. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Edwards, Harold M

    1995-01-01

    In his new undergraduate textbook, Harold M Edwards proposes a radically new and thoroughly algorithmic approach to linear algebra Originally inspired by the constructive philosophy of mathematics championed in the 19th century by Leopold Kronecker, the approach is well suited to students in the computer-dominated late 20th century Each proof is an algorithm described in English that can be translated into the computer language the class is using and put to work solving problems and generating new examples, making the study of linear algebra a truly interactive experience Designed for a one-semester course, this text adopts an algorithmic approach to linear algebra giving the student many examples to work through and copious exercises to test their skills and extend their knowledge of the subject Students at all levels will find much interactive instruction in this text while teachers will find stimulating examples and methods of approach to the subject

  11. 关于地质勘探单位管理风险防控之探讨%Probe into Risk Prevention and Control in Geological Exploration Unit Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱永飞; 马革非

    2012-01-01

    地质勘探单位随着勘查市场和生产规模的拓展,队伍点、线、面越来越分散,管理风险加大.从“三重一大”决策、工程施工关键环节和堵塞经营漏洞人手,加强决策、生产和经营过程的风险防控,十分必要.“三重一大”决策制度的落实,可有效防止权力的过度集中,保证决策程序合理、制度执行合法、审查监督到位;对于项目承揽、施工、结算等关键生产各环节,应以单位的最大利益为目标,树立质量第一、顾客至上、安全为天的经营理念,科学组织,保证资金安全;针对单位经营管理中的薄弱环节,应找准点位,有的放矢,抓好落实,做到政务公开.%Along with the expanding of exploration market and industrial scale, points, lines and planes of geological exploration units are more and more dispersed, and management risk increased. Proceed with the "three majors and one large" (major issues decision-making, major functionaries appointing and removing, major projects investment decision and large amount funds using) decisions, key links of engineering construction and management weak points stopping up, to strengthen risk prevention and control in decision, production and management courses are quite necessary. The "three majors and one large" decision system put into effect can prevent excessive concentration of power,ensure rational decision-making procedure, legal execution of institutions and well placed inspecting and monitoring. With regard to key production links of project contracting, construction and balance the books, should take the greatest advantage of units as the target, set up quality, customers and safety first operation philosophy, scientifically organizing, ensure financing safety. In allusion to weak links in unit operation and management, should capture exact position, have a definite object in view, grasp implement and accomplish administration in public.

  12. Geology of Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soderblom, L.A.

    1988-01-01

    The geology of Mars and the results of the Mariner 4, 6/7, and 9 missions and the Viking mission are reviewed. The Mars chronology and geologic modification are examined, including chronological models for the inactive planet, the active planet, and crater flux. The importance of surface materials is discussed and a multispectral map of Mars is presented. Suggestions are given for further studies of the geology of Mars using the Viking data. 5 references

  13. Geologic Map of the Summit Region of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Christina A.; Lockwood, John P.

    2003-01-01

    This report consists of a large map sheet and a pamphlet. The map shows the geology, some photographs, description of map units, and correlation of map units. The pamphlet gives the full text about the geologic map. The area covered by this map includes parts of four U.S. Geological Survey 7.5' topographic quadrangles (Kilauea Crater, Volcano, Ka`u Desert, and Makaopuhi). It encompasses the summit, upper rift zones, and Koa`e Fault System of Kilauea Volcano and a part of the adjacent, southeast flank of Mauna Loa Volcano. The map is dominated by products of eruptions from Kilauea Volcano, the southernmost of the five volcanoes on the Island of Hawai`i and one of the world's most active volcanoes. At its summit (1,243 m) is Kilauea Crater, a 3 km-by-5 km collapse caldera that formed, possibly over several centuries, between about 200 and 500 years ago. Radiating away from the summit caldera are two linear zones of intrusion and eruption, the east and the southwest rift zones. Repeated subaerial eruptions from the summit and rift zones have built a gently sloping, elongate shield volcano covering approximately 1,500 km2. Much of the volcano lies under water; the east rift zone extends 110 km from the summit to a depth of more than 5,000 m below sea level; whereas the southwest rift zone has a more limited submarine continuation. South of the summit caldera, mostly north-facing normal faults and open fractures of the Koa`e Fault System extend between the two rift zones. The Koa`e Fault System is interpreted as a tear-away structure that accommodates southward movement of Kilauea's flank in response to distension of the volcano perpendicular to the rift zones.

  14. Geological Map of the Fredegonde (V-57) Quadrangle, Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, M. A.; Head, J. W.

    2009-01-01

    The area of V-57, the Fredegonde quadrangle (50-75degS, 60-120degE, Fig.1), is located within the eastern portion of Lada Terra within the topographic province of midlands (0-2 km above MPR [1,2]). Midlands form the most abundant portion of the surface of Venus and are characterized by diverse sets of units and structures [3-11]. The area of the Fredegonde quadrangle is in contact with the elevated portion of Lada Terra to the W and with the lowland of Aino Planitia to the NE. The transitions of the mid-lands to the lowlands and highlands are, thus, one of the main themes of the geology within the V-57 quadrangle. The character of the transitions and distribution and sequence of units/structures in the midlands are crucially important in understanding the time and modes of formation of this topographic province. The most prominent features in the map area are linear deformational zones consisting of swarms of grooves and graben and large coronae. The zones characterize the central and NW portions of the map area and represent regionally important, broad (up to 100s km wide) ridges that are 100s m high. Relatively small (100s km across, 100s m deep) equidimensional basins occur between the corona-groove-chains in the west and border the central chain from the east. Here we describe units that make up the surface within the V-57 quadrangle and present a summary of our geological map that shows the areal distribution of the major groups of units.

  15. Geology's Impact on Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzorusso, Ann

    2017-04-01

    Most people consider geology boring, static and difficult. The fields of astronomy and physics have "rebranded" themselves with exciting programs formatted so as to be readily understandable to the general public. The same thing can be done for geology. My research on geology's influence on other disciplines has resulted in a book, Tweeting da Vinci, in which I was able to show how geology affected Italy's art, architecture, medicine, religion, literature, engineering and just about everything else. The reaction to the book and my lectures by both students and the general public has been very positive, including four gold medals, with reviews and comments indicating that they never knew geology could be so exciting. The book is very user friendly, packed with facts, full-color photos, paintings, sketches and illustrations. Complex aspects of geology are presented in an easily understandable style. Widely diverse topics—such as gemology, folk remedies, grottoes, painting, literature, physics and religion—are stitched together using geology as a thread. Quoting everyone from Pliny the Elder to NASA physicist Friedemann Freund, the work is solidly backed scholarship that reads as easily as a summer novel. The book can be used in classes such as physics, chemistry, literature, art history, medicine, Classical Studies, Latin, Greek and Italian. By incorporating a "geologic perspective" in these courses, it can be perceived as a more "all encompassing" discipline and encourage more students to study it. The lectures I have given on college campuses have resulted in students seeing their own majors from a different perspective and some have even signed up for introductory geology courses. One college organized summer course to the Bay of Naples based on the book. We followed the geology as well as the culture of the area and the students were profoundly moved. To encourage dialog, the book is linked to Facebook, Twitter and Instagram. This has enabled followers from

  16. AEGIS geologic simulation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    The Geologic Simulation Model (GSM) is used by the AEGIS (Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems) program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to simulate the dynamic geology and hydrology of a geologic nuclear waste repository site over a million-year period following repository closure. The GSM helps to organize geologic/hydrologic data; to focus attention on active natural processes by requiring their simulation; and, through interactive simulation and calibration, to reduce subjective evaluations of the geologic system. During each computer run, the GSM produces a million-year geologic history that is possible for the region and the repository site. In addition, the GSM records in permanent history files everything that occurred during that time span. Statistical analyses of data in the history files of several hundred simulations are used to classify typical evolutionary paths, to establish the probabilities associated with deviations from the typical paths, and to determine which types of perturbations of the geologic/hydrologic system, if any, are most likely to occur. These simulations will be evaluated by geologists familiar with the repository region to determine validity of the results. Perturbed systems that are determined to be the most realistic, within whatever probability limits are established, will be used for the analyses that involve radionuclide transport and dose models. The GSM is designed to be continuously refined and updated. Simulation models are site specific, and, although the submodels may have limited general applicability, the input data equirements necessitate detailed characterization of each site before application

  17. Linear programming

    CERN Document Server

    Karloff, Howard

    1991-01-01

    To this reviewer’s knowledge, this is the first book accessible to the upper division undergraduate or beginning graduate student that surveys linear programming from the Simplex Method…via the Ellipsoid algorithm to Karmarkar’s algorithm. Moreover, its point of view is algorithmic and thus it provides both a history and a case history of work in complexity theory. The presentation is admirable; Karloff's style is informal (even humorous at times) without sacrificing anything necessary for understanding. Diagrams (including horizontal brackets that group terms) aid in providing clarity. The end-of-chapter notes are helpful...Recommended highly for acquisition, since it is not only a textbook, but can also be used for independent reading and study. —Choice Reviews The reader will be well served by reading the monograph from cover to cover. The author succeeds in providing a concise, readable, understandable introduction to modern linear programming. —Mathematics of Computing This is a textbook intend...

  18. Field Geology/Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Carlton; Jakes, Petr; Jaumann, Ralf; Marshall, John; Moses, Stewart; Ryder, Graham; Saunders, Stephen; Singer, Robert

    1996-01-01

    The field geology/process group examined the basic operations of a terrestrial field geologist and the manner in which these operations could be transferred to a planetary lander. Four basic requirements for robotic field geology were determined: geologic content; surface vision; mobility; and manipulation. Geologic content requires a combination of orbital and descent imaging. Surface vision requirements include range, resolution, stereo, and multispectral imaging. The minimum mobility for useful field geology depends on the scale of orbital imagery. Manipulation requirements include exposing unweathered surfaces, screening samples, and bringing samples in contact with analytical instruments. To support these requirements, several advanced capabilities for future development are recommended. Capabilities include near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy, hyper-spectral imaging, multispectral microscopy, artificial intelligence in support of imaging, x ray diffraction, x ray fluorescence, and rock chipping.

  19. Global Journal of Geological Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal of Geological Sciences is aimed at promoting research in all areas of Geological Sciences including geochemistry, geophysics, engineering geology, hydrogeology, petrology, mineralogy, geochronology, tectonics, mining, structural geology, marine geology, space science etc. Visit the Global Journal Series ...

  20. Surveys of radon levels in homes in the United States: A test of the linear-no-threshold dose-response relationship for radiation carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.L.

    1987-01-01

    The University of Pittsburgh Radon Project for large scale measurements of radon concentrations in homes is described. Its principal research is to test the linear-no threshold dose-response relationship for radiation carcinogenesis by determining average radon levels in the 25 U.S. counties (within certain population ranges) with highest and lowest lung cancer rates. The theory predicts that the former should have about 3 times higher average radon levels than the latter, under the assumption that any correlation between exposure to radon and exposure to other causes of lung cancer is weak. The validity of this assumption is tested with data on average radon level vs replies to items on questionnaires; there is little correlation between radon levels in houses and smoking habits, educational attainment, or economic status of the occupants, or with urban vs rural environs which is an indicator of exposure to air pollution

  1. Global Journal of Geological Sciences: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. Global Journal of Geological Sciences is aimed at promoting research in all areas of geological Sciences including Petrology, Mineralogy, geophysics, hydrogeology, Engineering geology, Petroleum geology, Palaeontology, environmental geology, Economic geology, etc.

  2. Standardization of mapping practices in the British Geological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Peter M.

    1997-07-01

    Because the British Geological Survey (BGS) has had, since its foundation in 1835, a mandate to produce geological maps for the whole of Great Britain, there is a long history of introducing standard practices in the way rocks and rock units have been named, classified and illustrated on maps. The reasons for the failure of some of these practices are examined and assessed in relation to the needs of computerized systems for holding and disseminating geological information.

  3. Winters-Domengine Total Petroleum System—Northern Nonassociated Gas Assessment Unit of the San Joaquin Basin Province: Chapter 21 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas in the San Joaquin Basin Province, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosford Scheirer, Allegra; Magoon, Leslie B.

    2008-01-01

    The Northern Nonassociated Gas Assessment Unit (AU) of the Winters-Domengine Total Petroleum System of the San Joaquin Basin Province consists of all nonassociated gas accumulations in Cretaceous, Eocene, and Miocene sandstones located north of township 15 South in the San Joaquin Valley. The northern San Joaquin Valley forms a northwest-southeast trending asymmetrical trough. It is filled with an alternating sequence of Cretaceous-aged sands and shales deposited on Franciscan Complex, ophiolitic, and Sierran basement. Eocene-aged strata unconformably overlie the thick Cretaceous section, and in turn are overlain unconformably by nonmarine Pliocene-Miocene sediments. Nonassociated gas accumulations have been discovered in the sands of the Panoche, Moreno, Kreyenhagen, andDomengine Formations and in the nonmarine Zilch formation of Loken (1959) (hereafter referred to as Zilch formation). Most hydrocarbon accumulations occur in low-relief, northwest-southeast trending anticlines formed chiefly by differential compaction of sediment and by northeast southwest directed compression during the Paleogene (Bartow, 1991) and in stratigraphic traps formed by pinch out of submarine fan sands against slope shales. To date, 176 billion cubic feet (BCF) of nonassociated recoverable gas has been found in fields within the assessment unit (table 21.1). A small amount of biogenic gas forms near the surface of the AU. Map boundaries of the assessment unit are shown in figures 21.1 and 21.2; in plan view, this assessment unit is identical to the Northern Area Nonassociated Gas play 1007 considered by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in its 1995 National Assessment (Beyer, 1996). The AU is bounded on the east by the mapped limits of Cretaceous sandstone reservoir rocks and on the west by the east flank of the Diablo Range. The southern limit of the AU is the southernmost occurrence of nonassociated thermogenic-gas accumulations. The northern limit of the AU corresponds to the

  4. Linear Motor With Air Slide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bruce G.; Gerver, Michael J.; Hawkey, Timothy J.; Fenn, Ralph C.

    1993-01-01

    Improved linear actuator comprises air slide and linear electric motor. Unit exhibits low friction, low backlash, and more nearly even acceleration. Used in machinery in which positions, velocities, and accelerations must be carefully controlled and/or vibrations must be suppressed.

  5. OneGeology-Europe: architecture, portal and web services to provide a European geological map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellez-Arenas, Agnès.; Serrano, Jean-Jacques; Tertre, François; Laxton, John

    2010-05-01

    OneGeology-Europe is a large ambitious project to make geological spatial data further known and accessible. The OneGeology-Europe project develops an integrated system of data to create and make accessible for the first time through the internet the geological map of the whole of Europe. The architecture implemented by the project is web services oriented, based on the OGC standards: the geological map is not a centralized database but is composed by several web services, each of them hosted by a European country involved in the project. Since geological data are elaborated differently from country to country, they are difficult to share. OneGeology-Europe, while providing more detailed and complete information, will foster even beyond the geological community an easier exchange of data within Europe and globally. This implies an important work regarding the harmonization of the data, both model and the content. OneGeology-Europe is characterised by the high technological capacity of the EU Member States, and has the final goal to achieve the harmonisation of European geological survey data according to common standards. As a direct consequence Europe will make a further step in terms of innovation and information dissemination, continuing to play a world leading role in the development of geosciences information. The scope of the common harmonized data model was defined primarily by the requirements of the geological map of Europe, but in addition users were consulted and the requirements of both INSPIRE and ‘high-resolution' geological maps were considered. The data model is based on GeoSciML, developed since 2006 by a group of Geological Surveys. The data providers involved in the project implemented a new component that allows the web services to deliver the geological map expressed into GeoSciML. In order to capture the information describing the geological units of the map of Europe the scope of the data model needs to include lithology; age; genesis and

  6. Geological heritage of Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elhadi, H.; Tahiri, A.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: The soil and subsoil of Morocco are rich in geological phenomena that bear the imprint of a history that goes back in time more than 2000 million years. Very many sites geologically remarkable exposed in accessible outcrops, with good quality remain unknown to the general public and therefore deserve to be vulgarized. It is a memory to acquaint to the present generations but also to preserve for future generations. In total, a rich geological heritage in many ways: Varied landscapes, international stratotypes, various geological structures, varied rocks, mineral associations, a huge procession of fossiles, remnants of oceanic crust (ophiolites) among oldests ones in the world (800my), etc... For this geological heritage, an approach of an overall inventory is needed, both regionally and nationally, taking into account all the skills of the earth sciences. This will put the item on the natural (geological) potentialities as a lever for sustainable regional development. For this, it is necessary to implement a strategy of ''geoconservation'' for the preservation and assessment of the geological heritage.

  7. Fundamentals of Structural Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, David D.; Fletcher, Raymond C.

    2005-09-01

    Fundamentals of Structural Geology provides a new framework for the investigation of geological structures by integrating field mapping and mechanical analysis. Assuming a basic knowledge of physical geology, introductory calculus and physics, it emphasizes the observational data, modern mapping technology, principles of continuum mechanics, and the mathematical and computational skills, necessary to quantitatively map, describe, model, and explain deformation in Earth's lithosphere. By starting from the fundamental conservation laws of mass and momentum, the constitutive laws of material behavior, and the kinematic relationships for strain and rate of deformation, the authors demonstrate the relevance of solid and fluid mechanics to structural geology. This book offers a modern quantitative approach to structural geology for advanced students and researchers in structural geology and tectonics. It is supported by a website hosting images from the book, additional colour images, student exercises and MATLAB scripts. Solutions to the exercises are available to instructors. The book integrates field mapping using modern technology with the analysis of structures based on a complete mechanics MATLAB is used to visualize physical fields and analytical results and MATLAB scripts can be downloaded from the website to recreate textbook graphics and enable students to explore their choice of parameters and boundary conditions The supplementary website hosts color images of outcrop photographs used in the text, supplementary color images, and images of textbook figures for classroom presentations The textbook website also includes student exercises designed to instill the fundamental relationships, and to encourage the visualization of the evolution of geological structures; solutions are available to instructors

  8. Documentation of methods and inventory of irrigation data collected for the 2000 and 2005 U.S. Geological Survey Estimated use of water in the United States, comparison of USGS-compiled irrigation data to other sources, and recommendations for future compilations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, Jade M.; Forbes, Brandon T.; Cobean, Dylan S.; Tadayon, Saeid

    2011-01-01

    Every five years since 1950, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Use Information Program (NWUIP) has compiled water-use information in the United States and published a circular report titled "Estimated use of water in the United States," which includes estimates of water withdrawals by State, sources of water withdrawals (groundwater or surface water), and water-use category (irrigation, public supply, industrial, thermoelectric, and so forth). This report discusses the impact of important considerations when estimating irrigated acreage and irrigation withdrawals, including estimates of conveyance loss, irrigation-system efficiencies, pasture, horticulture, golf courses, and double cropping.

  9. Geology, Surficial, Little Contentnea Creek Watershed Geomorphology - DRG �Äö?Ñ?¨ Watershed-scale project in Middle Coastal Plain characterize geomorphology, surficial geology, shallow aquifers and confining units; shape file with geomorphic map units interpreted from, Published in 2006, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Geology, Surficial dataset current as of 2006. Little Contentnea Creek Watershed Geomorphology - DRG �Äö?Ñ?¨ Watershed-scale project in Middle Coastal Plain...

  10. Research of the value of linear distortion of renewable surface of part during rotary processing of bulky items without dismantling unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarenko, J. A.; Fedorenko, M. A.; Pogonin, A. A.

    2018-03-01

    The loading and unloading units and grinding mills of raw devices have internal cone type or pipe screw perceive load of incoming and outgoing material. The main part of the support assembly is a pin. Mounting seats for the pipe screws cone have traces of deformation and work hardening, while they themselves have wear of pins and deformation of the inner and outer cylindrical working surface. In the mill body, there are constantly acting dynamic forces causing vibration, which are transmitted to the stud and inner accelerating elements. Under the influence of stress and vibration, the housing spigot is in the stress-compressed state and stretched vertically and horizontally. As a result, the insertion element is deformed and weakened in the fixture. A moving element appears in the gap leading to the fact that it drops lfeedstock and under the influence of variable loads it is destroyed, as well as the seating surfaces of the insert pin member.

  11. Reduction of Linear Programming to Linear Approximation

    OpenAIRE

    Vaserstein, Leonid N.

    2006-01-01

    It is well known that every Chebyshev linear approximation problem can be reduced to a linear program. In this paper we show that conversely every linear program can be reduced to a Chebyshev linear approximation problem.

  12. Geological Effects on Lightning Strike Distributions

    KAUST Repository

    Berdahl, J. Scott

    2016-05-16

    Recent advances in lightning detection networks allow for detailed mapping of lightning flash locations. Longstanding rumors of geological influence on cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning distribution and recent commercial claims based on such influence can now be tested empirically. If present, such influence could represent a new, cheap and efficient geophysical tool with applications in mineral, hydrothermal and oil exploration, regional geological mapping, and infrastructure planning. This project applies statistical analysis to lightning data collected by the United States National Lightning Detection Network from 2006 through 2015 in order to assess whether the huge range in electrical conductivities of geological materials plays a role in the spatial distribution of CG lightning. CG flash densities are mapped for twelve areas in the contiguous United States and compared to elevation and geology, as well as to the locations of faults, railroads and tall towers including wind turbines. Overall spatial randomness is assessed, along with spatial correlation of attributes. Negative and positive polarity lightning are considered separately and together. Topography and tower locations show a strong influence on CG distribution patterns. Geology, faults and railroads do not. This suggests that ground conductivity is not an important factor in determining lightning strike location on scales larger than current flash location accuracies, which are generally several hundred meters. Once a lightning channel is established, however, ground properties at the contact point may play a role in determining properties of the subsequent stroke.

  13. Uruguayan South Geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillemain, H.

    1980-01-01

    This monograph is about the sedimentary geological formation in the southern of Uruguay. According to the previous Gondwana studies there are several concordances between the Uruguayan and Brazilian ground.

  14. Iowa Geologic Sampling Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Point locations of geologic samples/files in the IGS repository. Types of samples include well cuttings, outcrop samples, cores, drillers logs, measured sections,...

  15. Global Geological Map of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, M. A.

    2008-09-01

    Introduction: The Magellan SAR images provide sufficient data to compile a geological map of nearly the entire surface of Venus. Such a global and selfconsistent map serves as the base to address the key questions of the geologic history of Venus. 1) What is the spectrum of units and structures that makes up the surface of Venus [1-3]? 2) What volcanic/tectonic processes do they characterize [4-7]? 3) Did these processes operated locally, regionally, or globally [8- 11]? 4) What are the relationships of relative time among the units [8]? 5) At which length-scale these relationships appear to be consistent [8-10]? 6) What is the absolute timing of formation of the units [12-14]? 7) What are the histories of volcanism, tectonics and the long-wavelength topography on Venus? 7) What model(s) of heat loss and lithospheric evolution [15-21] do these histories correspond to? The ongoing USGS program of Venus mapping has already resulted in a series of published maps at the scale 1:5M [e.g. 22-30]. These maps have a patch-like distribution, however, and are compiled by authors with different mapping philosophy. This situation not always results in perfect agreement between the neighboring areas and, thus, does not permit testing geological hypotheses that could be addressed with a self-consistent map. Here the results of global geological mapping of Venus at the scale 1:10M is presented. The map represents a contiguous area extending from 82.5oN to 82.5oS and comprises ~99% of the planet. Mapping procedure: The map was compiled on C2- MIDR sheets, the resolution of which permits identifying the basic characteristics of previously defined units. The higher resolution images were used during the mapping to clarify geologic relationships. When the map was completed, its quality was checked using published USGS maps [e.g., 22-30] and the catalogue of impact craters [31]. The results suggest that the mapping on the C2-base provided a highquality map product. Units and

  16. Thermoluminescence studies in geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankaran, A.V.; Sunta, C.M.; Nambi, K.S.V.; Bapat, V.N.

    1980-01-01

    Even though the phenomenon of thermoluminescence is well studied, particularly over last 3 decades, its potentialities in the field of geology have not been adequately evaluated. In this report several useful applications of TL in mineralogy, petrogenesis, stratigraphy, tectonics, ore-prospecting and other branches have been identified with particular emphasis to the Indian scene. Important areas in the country that may provide the basic material for such studies are indicated at the end along with brief geological or mineralogical accounts. (auth.)

  17. Advances in planetary geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    The surface of Mars displays a broad range of channel and valley features. There is as great a range in morphology as in scale. Some of the features of Martian geography are examined. Geomorphic mapping, crater counts on selected surfaces, and a detailed study of drainage basins are used to trace the geologic evolution of the Margaritifer Sinus Quandrangle. The layered deposits in the Valles Marineris are described in detail and the geologic processes that could have led to their formation are analyzed

  18. Geologic map of the Montoso Peak quadrangle, Santa Fe and Sandoval Counties, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ren A.; Hudson, Mark R.; Shroba, Ralph R.; Minor, Scott A.; Sawyer, David A.

    2011-01-01

    -horizontal contacts. Those faults characterized as "certain" either have distinct offset of map units or had slip planes that were directly observed in the field. Faults classed as "inferred" were traced based on linear alignments of geologic, topographic and aerial photo features such as vents, lava flow edges, and drainages inferred to preferentially develop on fractured rock. Lineaments defined from magnetic anomalies form an additional constraint on potential fault locations.

  19. The Conterminous United States Mineral Appraisal Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral resources maps of the Tonopah 1 by 2 degree Quadrangle, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, David A.; Nash, J.T.; Plouff, Donald; Whitebread, D.H.

    1991-01-01

    The Tonopah 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangle in south-central Nevada was studied by an interdisciplinary research team to appraise its mineral resources. The appraisal is based on geological, geochemical, and geophysical field and laboratory investigations, the results of which are published as a folio of maps, figures, and tables, with accompanying discussions. This circular provides background information on the investigations and integrates the information presented in the folio. The selected bibliography lists references to the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and mineral deposits of the Tonopah 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangle.

  20. linear-quadratic-linear model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanwiwat Jaikuna

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To develop an in-house software program that is able to calculate and generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram by physical dose conversion using the linear-quadratic-linear (LQL model. Material and methods : The Isobio software was developed using MATLAB version 2014b to calculate and generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histograms. The physical dose from each voxel in treatment planning was extracted through Computational Environment for Radiotherapy Research (CERR, and the accuracy was verified by the differentiation between the dose volume histogram from CERR and the treatment planning system. An equivalent dose in 2 Gy fraction (EQD2 was calculated using biological effective dose (BED based on the LQL model. The software calculation and the manual calculation were compared for EQD2 verification with pair t-test statistical analysis using IBM SPSS Statistics version 22 (64-bit. Results: Two and three-dimensional biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram were displayed correctly by the Isobio software. Different physical doses were found between CERR and treatment planning system (TPS in Oncentra, with 3.33% in high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV determined by D90%, 0.56% in the bladder, 1.74% in the rectum when determined by D2cc, and less than 1% in Pinnacle. The difference in the EQD2 between the software calculation and the manual calculation was not significantly different with 0.00% at p-values 0.820, 0.095, and 0.593 for external beam radiation therapy (EBRT and 0.240, 0.320, and 0.849 for brachytherapy (BT in HR-CTV, bladder, and rectum, respectively. Conclusions : The Isobio software is a feasible tool to generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram for treatment plan evaluation in both EBRT and BT.

  1. Conduct of Geologic Field Work During Planetary Exploration: Why Geology Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppler, Dean B.

    2010-01-01

    The science of field geology is the investigative process of determining the distribution of rock units and structures on a planet fs surface, and it is the first-order data set that informs all subsequent studies of a planet, such as geochemistry, geochronology, geophysics, or remote sensing. For future missions to the Moon and Mars, the surface systems deployed must support the conduct of field geology if these endeavors are to be scientifically useful. This lecture discussed what field geology is all about.why it is important, how it is done, how conducting field geology informs many other sciences, and how it affects the design of surface systems and the implementation of operations in the future.

  2. Geological myths and reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrihansky, Lubor

    2014-05-01

    Myths are the result of man's attempts to explain noteworthy features of his environment stemming from unfounded imagination. It is unbelievable that in 21st century the explanation of evident lithospheric plates movements and origin of forces causing this movement is still bound to myths, They are the myth about mantle convection, myth about Earth's expansion, myth about mantle heterogeneities causing the movement of plates and myth about mantle plumes. From 1971 to 1978 I performed extensive study (Ostřihanský 1980) about the terrestrial heat flow and radioactive heat production of batholiths in the Bohemian Massive (Czech Republic). The result, gained by extrapolation of the heat flow and heat production relationship, revealed the very low heat flow from the mantle 17.7mW m-2 close to the site of the Quarterly volcano active only 115,000 - 15,000 years ago and its last outbreak happened during Holocene that is less than 10,000 years ago. This volcano Komorní Hůrka (Kammerbühls) was known by J. W. Goethe investigation and the digging of 300 m long gallery in the first half of XIX century to reach the basaltic plug and to confirm the Stromboli type volcano. In this way the 19th century myth of neptunists that basalt was a sedimentary deposit was disproved in spite that famous poet and scientist J.W.Goethe inclined to neptunists. For me the result of very low heat flow and the vicinity of almost recent volcanoes in the Bohemian Massive meant that I refused the hypothesis of mantle convection and I focused my investigation to external forces of tides and solar heat, which evoke volcanic effects, earthquakes and the plate movement. To disclose reality it is necessary to present calculation of acting forces using correct mechanism of their action taking into account tectonic characteristics of geologic unites as the wrench tectonics and the tectonic of planets and satellites of the solar system, realizing an exceptional behavior of the Earth as quickly rotating

  3. Geologic coal assessment: The interface with economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.

    2001-01-01

    Geologic resource assessments describe the location, general characteristics, and estimated volumes of resources, whether in situ or technically recoverable. Such compilations are only an initial step in economic resource evaluation. This paper identifies, by examples from the Illinois and Appalachian basins, the salient features of a geologic assessment that assure its usefulness to downstream economic analysis. Assessments should be in sufficient detail to allocate resources to production units (mines or wells). Coal assessments should include the spatial distribution of coal bed characteristics and the ability to allocate parts of the resource to specific mining technologies. For coal bed gas assessment, the production well recoveries and well deliverability characteristics must be preserved and the risk structure should be specified so dryholes and noncommercial well costs are recovered by commercially successful wells. ?? 2001 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  4. The geologic history of Margaritifer basin, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, M. R.; Kraft, M. D.; Edwards, Christopher; Christensen, P.R.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the fluvial, sedimentary, and volcanic history of Margaritifer basin and the Uzboi-Ladon-Morava (ULM) outflow channel system. This network of valleys and basins spans more than 8000 km in length, linking the fluvially dissected southern highlands and Argyre Basin with the northern lowlands via Ares Vallis. Compositionally, thermophysically, and morphologically distinct geologic units are identified and are used to place critical relative stratigraphic constraints on the timing of geologic processes in Margaritifer basin. Our analyses show that fluvial activity was separated in time by significant episodes of geologic activity, including the widespread volcanic resurfacing of Margaritifer basin and the formation of chaos terrain. The most recent fluvial activity within Margaritifer basin appears to terminate at a region of chaos terrain, suggesting possible communication between surface and subsurface water reservoirs. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of these observations on our current knowledge of Martian hydrologic evolution in this important region.

  5. Preliminary Bedrock Geologic Map of the Old Lyme Quadrangle, New London and Middlesex Counties, Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Gregory J.; Scott, Robert B.; Aleinikoff, John N.; Armstrong, Thomas R.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents a preliminary map of the bedrock geology of the Old Lyme quadrangle, New London and Middlesex Counties, Connecticut. The map depicts contacts of bedrock geologic units, faults, outcrops, and structural geologic information. The map was published as part of a study of fractured bedrock aquifers and regional tectonics.

  6. Analyzing the effects of geological and parameter uncertainty on prediction of groundwater head and travel time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, X.; Sonneborg, T.O.; Jørgensen, F.

    2013-01-01

    in three scenarios involving simulation of groundwater head distribution and travel time. The first scenario implied 100 stochastic geological models all assigning the same hydraulic parameters for the same geological units. In the second scenario the same 100 geological models were subjected to model...

  7. Geology at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Both advocates and critics disagree on the significance and interpretation of critical geological features which bear on the safety and suitability of Yucca Mountain as a site for the construction of a high-level radioactive waste repository. Critics believe that there is sufficient geological evidence to rule the site unsuitable for further investigation. Some advocates claim that there is insufficient data and that investigations are incomplete, while others claim that the site is free of major obstacles. We have expanded our efforts to include both the critical evaluations of existing geological and geochemical data and the collection of field data and samples for the purpose of preparing scientific papers for submittal to journals. Summaries of the critical reviews are presented in this paper

  8. Les « granites à tablettes d'orthose » du Vivarais, témoins d'un magmatisme post-épaississement d'âge Dinantien inférieur ; identification d'une unité géologique Nord-Ouest-VivaraisThe orthoclase lath-rich granites from Vivarais, products of a Dinantian post-tectonic magmatism; identification of a NW-Vivarais geological unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briand, Bernard; Duthou, Jean-Louis; Guerrot, Catherine; Chenevoy, Maurice

    On the southern side of the Mont Pilat (eastern French Massif Central), an orthoclase-rich granite, which intrudes orthogneisses overlying a granito-migmatitic complex, gives a Dinantian age (RbSr age: 353±21 Ma; UPb age: 341+8/-5 Ma). Such a dating confirms the reality of a 'northwestern Vivarais' geological unit, whose metamorphic and granitic evolution cannot be assigned to a Late-Carboniferous event. These results impose a re-examination of both the 'granite du Velay' problematic and the geodynamic evolution of the eastern French Massif Central. To cite this article: B. Briand et al., C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 741-747.

  9. Geological Corrections in Gravimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikuška, J.; Marušiak, I.

    2015-12-01

    Applying corrections for the known geology to gravity data can be traced back into the first quarter of the 20th century. Later on, mostly in areas with sedimentary cover, at local and regional scales, the correction known as gravity stripping has been in use since the mid 1960s, provided that there was enough geological information. Stripping at regional to global scales became possible after releasing the CRUST 2.0 and later CRUST 1.0 models in the years 2000 and 2013, respectively. Especially the later model provides quite a new view on the relevant geometries and on the topographic and crustal densities as well as on the crust/mantle density contrast. Thus, the isostatic corrections, which have been often used in the past, can now be replaced by procedures working with an independent information interpreted primarily from seismic studies. We have developed software for performing geological corrections in space domain, based on a-priori geometry and density grids which can be of either rectangular or spherical/ellipsoidal types with cells of the shapes of rectangles, tesseroids or triangles. It enables us to calculate the required gravitational effects not only in the form of surface maps or profiles but, for instance, also along vertical lines, which can shed some additional light on the nature of the geological correction. The software can work at a variety of scales and considers the input information to an optional distance from the calculation point up to the antipodes. Our main objective is to treat geological correction as an alternative to accounting for the topography with varying densities since the bottoms of the topographic masses, namely the geoid or ellipsoid, generally do not represent geological boundaries. As well we would like to call attention to the possible distortions of the corrected gravity anomalies. This work was supported by the Slovak Research and Development Agency under the contract APVV-0827-12.

  10. Remote methods in geological studies. Distantsionnyye metody v geologicheskikh issldovaniyakh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The article cover the use of aerial and space photographic, scanner, radar and thermal photographs in geomorphological and geological study of platform and folded regions, specialized processing of lineaments of a photo image, predicting the quality of images of linear objects, photogrammetry of scanner images and questions of photogrametric processing of aerial photographic materials. The collection is designed for a broad circle of specialists using materials of remote photographs in geological studies and investgation of natural resources.

  11. Geologic Map of the Thaumasia Region, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohm, Janes M.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Hare, Trent M.

    2001-01-01

    objective is to determine the distribution and ages of valleys. In our study, we incorporated detailed photogeologic mapping, comprehensive crater statistics (table 1), and geologic, paleotectonic, and paleoerosional Geographic Information System (GIS) databases. Sheets 1–3 show geologic units, faults and other significant structures, and valleys, respectively. To help unravel the complex geologic history of the Thaumasia region, we transferred the highly detailed geologic unit, paleotectonic, and paleoerosional information of sheets 1–3 into a multilayered GIS database for comparative analysis. The geologic information was transferred from hard copy into a digital format by scanning at 25 micron resolution on a drum scanner. The 2-bit scanned image was then converted to an x,y coordinate system using ARC/INFO's vectorization routine. The geologic unit, structural, and erosional data were transformed into the original map projection, Lambert Conformal. The average transformation root mean square error was 0.25 km (acceptable for the Thaumasia map base at 1:5,000,000 scale). After transformation, the features were properly attributed and tediously checked. Once digitized, the map data can be transformed into any map projection depending on the type of data analysis. For example, the equal-area sinusoidal projection was used for determining the precise area of geologic units (table 1). In addition to the geologic map and its attendant stratigraphic section, correlation chart, and description of map units, we include text sections that clarify the histories and temporal, spatial, and causal relations of the various geologic units and landforms of the Thaumasia region. The geologic summary section defines the sequence of major geologic events.

  12. Public perceptions of geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Hazel; Stewart, Iain; Anderson, Mark; Pahl, Sabine; Stokes, Alison

    2014-05-01

    Geological issues are increasingly intruding on the everyday lives of ordinary people. Whether it be onshore exploration and extraction of oil and gas, deep injection of water for geothermal power or underground storage of carbon dioxide and radioactive waste, many communities across Europe are being faced with potentially contested geological activity under their backyard. As well as being able to communicate the technical aspects of such work, geoscience professionals also need to appreciate that for most people the subsurface is an unfamiliar realm. In order to engage communities and individuals in effective dialogue about geological activities, an appreciation of what 'the public' already know and what they want to know is needed, but this is a subject that is in its infancy. In an attempt to provide insight into these key issues, this study examines the concerns the public have, relating to geology, by constructing 'Mental Models' of people's perceptions of the subsurface. General recommendations for public engagement strategies will be presented based on the results of selected case studies; specifically expert and non-expert mental models for communities in the south-west of England.

  13. Geology and land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    Geologists' eyes are trained to find and trace such natural landmarks as flood plains, landslide scars, retreating shoreline bluffs, or surface traces of active earthquake faults. more and more often, in developing areas, we find these obvious signs of trouble being erased by urban development. A geological hazard concealed by landscaping or hosing is fully as dangerous as when it is visible.

  14. Geology of Venus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basilevsky, A.T.; Head, J.W. III.

    1988-01-01

    This paper summarizes the emerging picture of the surface of Venus provided by high-resolution earth-based radar telescopes and orbital radar altimetry and imaging systems. The nature and significance of the geological processes operating there are considered. The types of information needed to complete the picture are addressed. 71 references

  15. Geological impacts on nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter reviews the nutritional roles of mineral elements, as part of a volume on health implications of geology. The chapter addresses the absorption and post-absorptive utilization of the nutritionally essential minerals, including their physiological functions and quantitative requirements....

  16. Research on geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Masahiro

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this research are to develop criteria for reviewing acceptability of the adequacy of the result of Preliminary and Detailed Investigations submitted by the implementor, and to establish a basic policy to secure safety for safety review. In FY 2010, 13 geology/climate related events for development of acceptance criteria for reviewing the adequacy of the result of Preliminary and Detailed Investigations were extracted. And the accuracy of geophysical exploration methods necessary for the Preliminary Investigation was evaluated. Regarding the research for safety review, we developed an idea of safety concept of Japanese geological disposal, and analyzed basic safety functions to secure safety. In order to verify the groundwater flow evaluation methods developed in regulatory research, the hydrological and geochemical data at Horonobe, northern Hokkaido were obtained, and simulated result of regional groundwater flow were compared with measured data. And we developed the safety scenario of geology/climate related events categorized by geological and geomorphological properties. Also we created a system to check the quality of research results in Japan and other countries in order to utilize for safety regulation, and developed a database system to compile them. (author)

  17. Geological history of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niini, Heikki

    1989-01-01

    Uranium is widely distributed in continental geological environments. The order of magnitude of uranium abundance in felsitic igneous rocks is 2-15 ppm, whereas it is less than 1 ppm in mafic rocks. Sedimentary rocks show a large range: from less than 0.1 ppm U in certain evaporites to over 100 ppm in phosphate rocks and organogenic matter. The content of U in seawater varies from 0.0005 to 0.005 ppm. The isotopic ratio U-238/U-235 is presently 137.5+-0.5, having gradually increased during geological time. The third natural isotope is U-234. On the basis of three fundamental economic criteria for ore reserves assessment (geological assurance, technical feasibility, and the grade and quantity of the deposits), the author finally comes to the following conclusions: Although the global uranium ores are not geologically renewable but continuously mined, they still, due to exploration and technical development, will tend to progressively increase for centuries to come

  18. Canadian geologic isolation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyne, P.J.

    1976-01-01

    The Canadian geologic isolation program is directed at examining the potential of (1) salt deposits and (2) hard rock as repositories for radioactive wastes. It was felt essential from the inception that alternative host rocks be evaluated over a fairly large geographical area. The studies on salt deposits to date are based on existing geological information and have identified the areas that show some potential and merit further study. The factors considered include depth, thickness and purity of the deposit, overlying aquifers, and the potential for gas and oil exploration as well as potash recovery. The studies on hard rock are restricted to plutonic igneous rocks in the Ontario part of the Canadian Shield. Because geological information on their nature and extent is sparse, the study is limited to bodies that are well exposed and for which information is available.for which information is available. Field studies in the next two seasons are aimed at mapping the fault and joint patterns and defining the geologic controls on their development. In 1977 and 1978, two or three of the more favorable sites will be mapped in greater detail, and an exploratory drilling program will be established to determine the extent of fracturing at depth and the hydrology of these fractures. Conceptual designs of mined repositories in hard rock are also being made with the hope of identifying, at an early stage in this program, special problems in hard-rock repositories that may require development and study

  19. Geologic Map of the Shenandoah National Park Region, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southworth, Scott; Aleinikoff, John N.; Bailey, Christopher M.; Burton, William C.; Crider, E.A.; Hackley, Paul C.; Smoot, Joseph P.; Tollo, Richard P.

    2009-01-01

    The geology of the Shenandoah National Park region of Virginia was studied from 1995 to 2008. The focus of the study was the park and surrounding areas to provide the National Park Service with modern geologic data for resource management. Additional geologic data of the adjacent areas are included to provide regional context. The geologic map can be used to support activities such as ecosystem delineation, land-use planning, soil mapping, groundwater availability and quality studies, aggregate resources assessment, and engineering and environmental studies. The study area is centered on the Shenandoah National Park, which is mostly situated in the western part of the Blue Ridge province. The map covers the central section and western limb of the Blue Ridge-South Mountain anticlinorium. The Skyline Drive and Appalachian National Scenic Trail straddle the drainage divide of the Blue Ridge highlands. Water drains northwestward to the South Fork of the Shenandoah River and southeastward to the James and Rappahannock Rivers. East of the park, the Blue Ridge is an area of low relief similar to the physiography of the Piedmont province. The Great Valley section of the Valley and Ridge province is west of Blue Ridge and consists of Page Valley and Massanutten Mountain. The distribution and types of surficial deposits and landforms closely correspond to the different physiographic provinces and their respective bedrock. The Shenandoah National Park is underlain by three general groups of rock units: (1) Mesoproterozoic granitic gneisses and granitoids, (2) Neoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks of the Swift Run Formation and metabasalt of the Catoctin Formation, and (3) siliciclastic rocks of the Lower Cambrian Chilhowee Group. The gneisses and granitoids mostly underlie the lowlands east of Blue Ridge but also rugged peaks like Old Rag Mountain (996 meter). Metabasalt underlies much of the highlands, like Stony Man (1,200 meters). The siliciclastic rocks underlie linear

  20. Geological data integration techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-09-01

    The objectives of this Technical Committee are to bring together current knowledge on geological data handling and analysis technologies as developed in the mineral and petroleum industries for geological, geophysical, geochemical and remote sensing data that can be applied to uranium exploration and resource appraisal. The recommendation for work on this topic was first made at the meeting of the NEA-IAEA Joint Group of Experts on R and D in Uranium Exploration Techniques (Paris, May 1984). In their report, processing of integrated data sets was considered to be extremely important in view of the very extensive data sets built up over the recent years by large uranium reconnaissance programmes. With the development of large, multidisciplinary data sets which includes geochemical, geophysical, geological and remote sensing data, the ability of the geologist to easily interpret large volumes of information has been largely the result of developments in the field of computer science in the past decade. Advances in data management systems, image processing software, the size and speed of computer systems and significantly reduced processing costs have made large data set integration and analysis practical and affordable. The combined signatures which can be obtained from the different types of data significantly enhance the geologists ability to interpret fundamental geological properties thereby improving the chances of finding a significant ore body. This volume is the product of one of a number of activities related to uranium geology and exploration during the past few years with the intent of bringing new technologies and exploration techniques to the IAEA Member States

  1. Regional and site geological frameworks : proposed Deep Geologic Repository, Bruce County, Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raven, K.; Sterling, S.; Gaines, S.; Wigston, A. [Intera Engineering Ltd., Ottawa, ON (Canada); Frizzell, R. [Nuclear Waste Management Organization, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    The Nuclear Waste Management Organization is conducting geoscientific studies on behalf of Ontario Power Generation into the proposed development of a Deep Geologic Repository (DGR) for low and intermediate level radioactive waste (L and ILW) at the Bruce site, near Tiverton, Ontario. This paper presented a regional geological framework for the site that was based on a review of regional drilling; structural geology; paleozoic stratigraphy and sedimentology; a 3D geological framework model; a DGR geological site characterization model; bedrock stratigraphy and marker beds; natural fracture frequency data; and formation predictability. The studies have shown that the depth, thickness, orientation and rock quality of the 34 rock formations, members or units that comprise the 840 m thick Paleozoic bedrock sequence at the Bruce site are very uniform and predictable over distances of several kilometres. The proposed DGR will be constructed as an engineered facility comprising a series of underground emplacement rooms at a depth of 680 metres below ground within argillaceous limestones. The geoscientific studies are meant to provide a basis for the development of descriptive geological, hydrogeological and geomechanical models of the DGR site that will facilitate environmental and safety assessments. 11 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs.

  2. Geoethics and Forensic Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Laurance

    2017-04-01

    The International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS), Initiative on Forensic Geology (IFG) was set up in 2011 to promote and develop the applications of geology to policing and law enforcement throughout the world. This includes the provision of crime scene examinations, searches to locate graves or items of interest that have been buried beneath the ground surface as part of a criminal act and geological trace analysis and evidence. Forensic geologists may assist the police and law enforcement in a range of ways including for example; homicide, sexual assaults, counter terrorism, kidnapping, humanitarian incidents, environmental crimes, precious minerals theft, fakes and fraudulent crimes. The objective of this paper is to consider the geoethical aspects of forensic geology. This includes both delivery to research and teaching, and contribution to the practical applications of forensic geology in case work. The case examples cited are based on the personal experiences of the authors. Often, the technical and scientific aspect of forensic geology investigation may be the most straightforward, after all, this is what the forensic geologist has been trained to do. The associated geoethical issues can be the most challenging and complex to manage. Generally, forensic geologists are driven to carry-out their research or case work with integrity, honesty and in a manner that is law abiding, professional, socially acceptable and highly responsible. This is necessary in advising law enforcement organisations, society and the scientific community that they represent. As the science of forensic geology begins to advance around the world it is desirable to establish a standard set of principles, values and to provide an agreed ethical a framework. But what are these core values? Who is responsible for producing these? How may these become enforced? What happens when geoethical standards are breached? This paper does not attempt to provide all of the answers, as further work

  3. Linear Algebra and Smarandache Linear Algebra

    OpenAIRE

    Vasantha, Kandasamy

    2003-01-01

    The present book, on Smarandache linear algebra, not only studies the Smarandache analogues of linear algebra and its applications, it also aims to bridge the need for new research topics pertaining to linear algebra, purely in the algebraic sense. We have introduced Smarandache semilinear algebra, Smarandache bilinear algebra and Smarandache anti-linear algebra and their fuzzy equivalents. Moreover, in this book, we have brought out the study of linear algebra and vector spaces over finite p...

  4. Regolith-geology mapping with support vector machine: A case study over weathered Ni-bearing peridotites, New Caledonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boissieu, Florian; Sevin, Brice; Cudahy, Thomas; Mangeas, Morgan; Chevrel, Stéphane; Ong, Cindy; Rodger, Andrew; Maurizot, Pierre; Laukamp, Carsten; Lau, Ian; Touraivane, Touraivane; Cluzel, Dominique; Despinoy, Marc

    2018-02-01

    Accurate maps of Earth's geology, especially its regolith, are required for managing the sustainable exploration and development of mineral resources. This paper shows how airborne imaging hyperspectral data collected over weathered peridotite rocks in vegetated, mountainous terrane in New Caledonia were processed using a combination of methods to generate a regolith-geology map that could be used for more efficiently targeting Ni exploration. The image processing combined two usual methods, which are spectral feature extraction and support vector machine (SVM). This rationale being the spectral features extraction can rapidly reduce data complexity by both targeting only the diagnostic mineral absorptions and masking those pixels complicated by vegetation, cloud and deep shade. SVM is a supervised classification method able to generate an optimal non-linear classifier with these features that generalises well even with limited training data. Key minerals targeted are serpentine, which is considered as an indicator for hydrolysed peridotitic rock, and iron oxy-hydroxides (hematite and goethite), which are considered as diagnostic of laterite development. The final classified regolith map was assessed against interpreted regolith field sites, which yielded approximately 70% similarity for all unit types, as well as against a regolith-geology map interpreted using traditional datasets (not hyperspectral imagery). Importantly, the hyperspectral derived mineral map provided much greater detail enabling a more precise understanding of the regolith-geological architecture where there are exposed soils and rocks.

  5. Engineering geology and environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sergeev, E M

    1979-01-01

    A classification is made of the anthropogenic processes in the environment into global, local, universally distributed, zonal, regional, and essentially local processes. Engineering geology is defined as the principal science concerned with the study of the geological medium which in turn involves the study of fossil fuel geology. 22 references.

  6. 77 FR 19032 - Geological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Geological Survey Announcement of National Geospatial Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The National.... Geological Survey (703-648-6283, [email protected] ). Registrations are due by April 13, 2012. While the...

  7. Geological Features Mapping Using PALSAR-2 Data in Kelantan River Basin, Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pour, A. B.; Hashim, M.

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the recently launched Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar-2 (PALSAR-2) onboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite-2 (ALOS-2), remote sensing data were used to map geologic structural and topographical features in the Kelantan river basin for identification of high potential risk and susceptible zones for landslides and flooding areas. A ScanSAR and two fine mode dual polarization level 3.1 images cover Kelantan state were processed for comprehensive analysis of major geological structures and detailed characterizations of lineaments, drainage patterns and lithology at both regional and district scales. Red-Green-Blue (RGB) colour-composite was applied to different polarization channels of PALSAR-2 data to extract variety of geological information. Directional convolution filters were applied to the data for identifying linear features in particular directions and edge enhancement in the spatial domain. Results derived from ScanSAR image indicate that lineament occurrence at regional scale was mainly linked to the N-S trending of the Bentong-Raub Suture Zone (BRSZ) in the west and Lebir Fault Zone in the east of the Kelantan state. Combination of different polarization channels produced image maps contain important information related to water bodies, wetlands and lithological units for the Kelantan state using fine mode observation data. The N-S, NE-SW and NNE-SSW lineament trends were identified in the study area using directional filtering. Dendritic, sub-dendritic and rectangular drainage patterns were detected in the Kelantan river basin. The analysis of field investigations data indicate that many of flooded areas were associated with high potential risk zones for hydro-geological hazards such as wetlands, urban areas, floodplain scroll, meander bend, dendritic and sub-dendritic drainage patterns, which are located in flat topograghy regions. Numerous landslide points were located in rectangular drainage system that associated

  8. GEOLOGICAL FEATURES MAPPING USING PALSAR-2 DATA IN KELANTAN RIVER BASIN, PENINSULAR MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Pour

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the recently launched Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar-2 (PALSAR-2 onboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite-2 (ALOS-2, remote sensing data were used to map geologic structural and topographical features in the Kelantan river basin for identification of high potential risk and susceptible zones for landslides and flooding areas. A ScanSAR and two fine mode dual polarization level 3.1 images cover Kelantan state were processed for comprehensive analysis of major geological structures and detailed characterizations of lineaments, drainage patterns and lithology at both regional and district scales. Red-Green-Blue (RGB colour-composite was applied to different polarization channels of PALSAR-2 data to extract variety of geological information. Directional convolution filters were applied to the data for identifying linear features in particular directions and edge enhancement in the spatial domain. Results derived from ScanSAR image indicate that lineament occurrence at regional scale was mainly linked to the N-S trending of the Bentong-Raub Suture Zone (BRSZ in the west and Lebir Fault Zone in the east of the Kelantan state. Combination of different polarization channels produced image maps contain important information related to water bodies, wetlands and lithological units for the Kelantan state using fine mode observation data. The N-S, NE-SW and NNE-SSW lineament trends were identified in the study area using directional filtering. Dendritic, sub-dendritic and rectangular drainage patterns were detected in the Kelantan river basin. The analysis of field investigations data indicate that many of flooded areas were associated with high potential risk zones for hydro-geological hazards such as wetlands, urban areas, floodplain scroll, meander bend, dendritic and sub-dendritic drainage patterns, which are located in flat topograghy regions. Numerous landslide points were located in rectangular drainage system

  9. Introduction to ore geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    This textbook on ore geology is for second and third year undergraduates and closely parallels the undergraduate course given in this subject at England's University of Leicester. The volume covers three major areas: (1) principles of ore geology, (2) examples of the most important types of ore deposits, and (3) mineralization in space and time. Many chapters have been thoroughly revised for this edition and a chapter on diamonds has been added. Chapters on greisen and pegmatite have also been added, the former in response to the changing situation in tin mining following the recent tin crisis, and the latter in response to suggestions from geologists in a number of overseas countries. Some chapters have been considerably expanded and new sections added, including disseminated gold deposits and unconformity-associated uranium deposits. The author also expands on the importance of viewing mineral deposits from an economic standpoint

  10. Geologic Field Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Hribernik

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to present the field data relational database, which was compiled from data, gathered during thirty years of fieldwork on the Basic Geologic Map of Slovenia in scale1:100.000. The database was created using MS Access software. The MS Access environment ensures its stability and effective operation despite changing, searching, and updating the data. It also enables faster and easier user-friendly access to the field data. Last but not least, in the long-term, with the data transferred into the GISenvironment, it will provide the basis for the sound geologic information system that will satisfy a broad spectrum of geologists’ needs.

  11. Structural geologic study of southeastern Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satterfield, I.R.; Ward, R.A.

    1978-01-01

    A geologic map at 1:62,500 scale was prepared of the Cretaceous (Mesozoic) and Tertiary (cenozoic) sediments and seven major units were recognized with emphasis on faulting. Faulted sediments of Pliocene age (possibly Pleistocene) were observed and younger units are suspected to be involved. Data from hand-augered holes plus water well data were logged and plotted. The feasibility of using physical data (size analysis and pH) as a correlation tool for determining structural disturbance in loess deposits was established

  12. Research on geological disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The aims of this research are to develop criteria for reviewing reliability and suitability of the result from Preliminary Investigations to be submitted by the implementer, and to establish a basic policy for safety review. For development of reliability and suitability criteria for reviewing the result of Preliminary Investigations, we evaluated the uncertainties and their influence from limited amount of investigations, as well as we identified important procedures during investigations and constructions of models, as follows: (1) uncertainties after limited amount of geological exploration and drilling, (2) influence of uncertainties in regional groundwater flow model, (3) uncertainties of DFN (Discrete Fracture Network) models in the fractured rock, (4) analyzed investigation methods described in implementer's report, and (5) identified important aspects in investigation which need to be reviewed and follow QA (Quality Assurance). For development of reliability and suitability criteria for reviewing the result of Detailed Investigations, we analyzed important aspects in investigation which supplies data to design and safety assessment, as well as studied the applicability of pressure interference data during excavation to verify hydrogeological model. Regarding the research for safety review, uncertainties of geologic process in long time-scale was studied. In FY2012, we started to evaluate the structural stabilities of concrete and bentonite in disposal environment. Finally, we continued to accumulate the knowledge on geological disposal into the database system. (author)

  13. Geological remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Charlotte; Rivard, Benoit; de Souza Filho, Carlos; van der Meer, Freek

    2018-02-01

    Geology is defined as the 'study of the planet Earth - the materials of which it is made, the processes that act on these materials, the products formed, and the history of the planet and its life forms since its origin' (Bates and Jackson, 1976). Remote sensing has seen a number of variable definitions such as those by Sabins and Lillesand and Kiefer in their respective textbooks (Sabins, 1996; Lillesand and Kiefer, 2000). Floyd Sabins (Sabins, 1996) defined it as 'the science of acquiring, processing and interpreting images that record the interaction between electromagnetic energy and matter' while Lillesand and Kiefer (Lillesand and Kiefer, 2000) defined it as 'the science and art of obtaining information about an object, area, or phenomenon through the analysis of data acquired by a device that is not in contact with the object, area, or phenomenon under investigation'. Thus Geological Remote Sensing can be considered the study of, not just Earth given the breadth of work undertaken in planetary science, geological features and surfaces and their interaction with the electromagnetic spectrum using technology that is not in direct contact with the features of interest.

  14. Geologic sources of energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundtzen, Thomas K.; Nokleberg, Warren J.; Bundtzen, Thomas K.; Nokleberg, Warren J.; Price, Raymond A.; Scholl, David W.; Stone, David B.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter describes the exploration, development, and geologic setting of petroleum resources (including tar sands), coal resources (including coalbed methane), and geothermal energy resources of the Northern Cordillera.For petroleum resources, the chapter describes: (1) the history of petroleum development and production, first for Alaska and then for the Canadian Cordillera; and (2) generalized basin analysis geologic settings for the six major petroleum basins that are illustrated in summary maps and cross sections. Subsequent sections of the chapter describe the nature and geologic setting of tar sand resources, geothermal energy resources, and coal resources. The area distribution of the energy resources of the region are depicted in the Energy Resources Map that has multiple layers that can be displayed in various arrangements. Employing this map in a separate window while reading the text will be greatly beneficial. Many geographic names are employed in the descriptions throughout this chapter. While reading this chapter, viewing the Geographic Regions Layer of the Energy Resources Map, as needed, will be valuable.

  15. Digital Geological Model (DGM): a 3D raster model of the subsurface of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunnink, J.L.; Maljers, D.; Gessel, S.F. van; Menkovic, A.; Hummelman, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    A 3D geological raster model has been constructed of the onshore of the Netherlands. The model displays geological units for the upper 500 m in 3D in an internally consistent way. The units are based on the lithostratigraphical classification of the Netherlands. This classification is used to

  16. Creating Geologically Based Radon Potential Maps for Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overfield, B.; Hahn, E.; Wiggins, A.; Andrews, W. M., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Radon potential in the United States, Kentucky in particular, has historically been communicated using a single hazard level for each county; however, physical phenomena are not controlled by administrative boundaries, so single-value county maps do not reflect the significant variations in radon potential in each county. A more accurate approach uses bedrock geology as a predictive tool. A team of nurses, health educators, statisticians, and geologists partnered to create 120 county maps showing spatial variations in radon potential by intersecting residential radon test kit results (N = 60,000) with a statewide 1:24,000-scale bedrock geology coverage to determine statistically valid radon-potential estimates for each geologic unit. Maps using geology as a predictive tool for radon potential are inherently more detailed than single-value county maps. This mapping project revealed that areas in central and south-central Kentucky with the highest radon potential are underlain by shales and karstic limestones.

  17. Tsunami geology in paleoseismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuichi Nishimura,; Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2015-01-01

    The 2004 Indian Ocean and 2011 Tohoku-oki disasters dramatically demonstrated the destructiveness and deadliness of tsunamis. For the assessment of future risk posed by tsunamis it is necessary to understand past tsunami events. Recent work on tsunami deposits has provided new information on paleotsunami events, including their recurrence interval and the size of the tsunamis (e.g. [187–189]). Tsunamis are observed not only on the margin of oceans but also in lakes. The majority of tsunamis are generated by earthquakes, but other events that displace water such as landslides and volcanic eruptions can also generate tsunamis. These non-earthquake tsunamis occur less frequently than earthquake tsunamis; it is, therefore, very important to find and study geologic evidence for past eruption and submarine landslide triggered tsunami events, as their rare occurrence may lead to risks being underestimated. Geologic investigations of tsunamis have historically relied on earthquake geology. Geophysicists estimate the parameters of vertical coseismic displacement that tsunami modelers use as a tsunami's initial condition. The modelers then let the simulated tsunami run ashore. This approach suffers from the relationship between the earthquake and seafloor displacement, the pertinent parameter in tsunami generation, being equivocal. In recent years, geologic investigations of tsunamis have added sedimentology and micropaleontology, which focus on identifying and interpreting depositional and erosional features of tsunamis. For example, coastal sediment may contain deposits that provide important information on past tsunami events [190, 191]. In some cases, a tsunami is recorded by a single sand layer. Elsewhere, tsunami deposits can consist of complex layers of mud, sand, and boulders, containing abundant stratigraphic evidence for sediment reworking and redeposition. These onshore sediments are geologic evidence for tsunamis and are called ‘tsunami deposits’ (Figs. 26

  18. Geological mapping of lunar highland crater Lalande: Topographic configuration, morphology and cratering process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Ling, Zongcheng; Zhang, Jiang; Chen, Jian; Liu, ChangQing; Bi, Xiangyu

    2018-02-01

    Highland crater Lalande (4.45°S, 8.63°W; D = 23.4 km) is located on the PKT area of the lunar near side, southeast of the Mare Insularum. It is a complex crater in Copernican era and has three distinguishing features: high silicic anomaly, the highest Th abundance and special landforms on its floor. There are some low-relief bulges on the left of Lalande's floor with regular circle or ellipse shapes. They are ∼250-680 m wide and ∼30-91 m high with maximum flank slopes >20°. There are two possible scenarios for the formation of these low-relief bulges which are impact melt products or young silicic volcanic eruptions. We estimated the absolute model ages of the ejecta deposits, several melt ponds and the hummocky floor and determined the ratio of diameter and depth of the crater Lalande. In addition, we found some similar bugle features within other Copernican-aged craters and there were no volcanic source vents on Lalande's floor. Thus, we hypothesized that these low-relief bulges were most consistent with an origin of impact melts during the crater formation instead of small and young volcanic activities occurring on the floor. Based on Kaguya Terrain Camera (TC) ortho-mosaic and Digital Terrain Model (DTM) data produced by TC imagery in stereo, geological units and some linear features on the floor and wall of Lalande have been mapped. Eight geological units are organized by crater floor units: hummocky floor, central peak and low-relief bulges; and crater wall units: terraced walls, channeled and veneered walls, interior walls, mass wasting areas, blocky areas, and melt ponds. These geological units and linear features provided us a chance to understand some details of the cratering process and elevation differences on the floor. We proposed that subsidence due to melt cooling, late-stage wall collapse and rocks uplifted from beneath the surface could be the possible causes of the observed elevation differences on Lalande's floor.

  19. Proposals of geological sites for L/ILW and HLW repositories. Geological background. Text volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    /ILW repository, for which the time period considered for long-term safety is 100,000 years, there are no large-scale geotectonic units that, as a whole, would be unsuitable from the viewpoint of long-term geological stability and would have to be excluded. Regionally and locally, however, critical zones will have to be avoided when locating the disposal chambers in order to ensure long-term stability. The space required for the L/ILW repository is comparatively small and there is considerable flexibility in arranging the individual disposal chambers. This means that none of the large-scale units need to be deferred because of spatial conditions, although there are significant differences among the units with respect to tectonic dissection and the resulting spatial situation. For the HLW repository, with a time period of 1 million years being considered for long-term safety, the Alps have to be excluded if long-term stability (including uplift and erosion during the period being considered) is to be assured. There are also reservations regarding the long-term geological stability of the Folded Jura, the western Tabular Jura and the western sub-Jurassic zone. Because of strong tectonic dissection and the resulting insufficient spatial conditions, these three units are excluded for a HLW repository; D) The fourth step involves selecting the preferred host rock formations within the large geotectonic units still under consideration. Proposed for the L/ILW repository are the Opalinus Clay with its confining units, the clay stone sequence 'Brauner Dogger' with its confining units, the Effingen Beds and the marl formations of the Helveticum. For the HLW repository, the Opalinus Clay with its confining units is the preferred host formation. Although the crystalline bedrock and the clay-rich formations of the Lower and Upper Freshwater Molasse fulfil the minimum requirements for a host rock, test options have been deferred because of the large variability of rock properties and the

  20. One perspective on spatial variability in geologic mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markewich, H.W.; Cooper, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the differences between geologic mapping and soil mapping, and how the resultant maps are interpreted. The role of spatial variability in geologic mapping is addressed only indirectly because in geologic mapping there have been few attempts at quantification of spatial differences. This is largely because geologic maps deal with temporal as well as spatial variability and consider time, age, and origin, as well as composition and geometry. Both soil scientists and geologists use spatial variability to delineate mappable units; however, the classification systems from which these mappable units are defined differ greatly. Mappable soil units are derived from systematic, well-defined, highly structured sets of taxonomic criteria; whereas mappable geologic units are based on a more arbitrary heirarchy of categories that integrate many features without strict values or definitions. Soil taxonomy is a sorting tool used to reduce heterogeneity between soil units. Thus at the series level, soils in any one series are relatively homogeneous because their range of properties is small and well-defined. Soil maps show the distribution of soils on the land surface. Within a map area, soils, which are often less than 2 m thick, show a direct correlation to topography and to active surface processes as well as to parent material.

  1. Spatial Digital Database for the Geologic Map of Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, George W.; MacLeod, Norman S.; Miller, Robert J.; Raines, Gary L.; Connors, Katherine A.

    2003-01-01

    Introduction This report describes and makes available a geologic digital spatial database (orgeo) representing the geologic map of Oregon (Walker and MacLeod, 1991). The original paper publication was printed as a single map sheet at a scale of 1:500,000, accompanied by a second sheet containing map unit descriptions and ancillary data. A digital version of the Walker and MacLeod (1991) map was included in Raines and others (1996). The dataset provided by this open-file report supersedes the earlier published digital version (Raines and others, 1996). This digital spatial database is one of many being created by the U.S. Geological Survey as an ongoing effort to provide geologic information for use in spatial analysis in a geographic information system (GIS). This database can be queried in many ways to produce a variety of geologic maps. This database is not meant to be used or displayed at any scale larger than 1:500,000 (for example, 1:100,000). This report describes the methods used to convert the geologic map data into a digital format, describes the ArcInfo GIS file structures and relationships, and explains how to download the digital files from the U.S. Geological Survey public access World Wide Web site on the Internet. Scanned images of the printed map (Walker and MacLeod, 1991), their correlation of map units, and their explanation of map symbols are also available for download.

  2. Status Report on the Geology of the Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatcher, R.D., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    This report provides an introduction to the present state of knowledge of the geology of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and a cursory introduction to the hydrogeology. A detailed reported on hydrogeology is being produced in parallel to this one. An important element of this work is the construction of a modern detailed geologic map of the ORR containing subdivisions of all mappable rock units and displaying mesoscopic structural data. Understanding the geologic framework of the ORR is essential to many current and proposed activities related to land-use planning, waste management, environmental restoration, and waste remediation. This interim report is the result of cooperation between geologists in two Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) divisions, Environmental Sciences and Energy, and is a major part of one doctoral dissertation in the Department of Geological Sciences at The University of Tennessee--Knoxville. Major long-term goals of geologic investigations in the ORR are to determine what interrelationships exist between fractures systems in individual rock or tectonic units and the fluid flow regimes, to understand how regional and local geology can be used to help predict groundwater movement, and to formulate a structural-hydrologic model that for the first time would enable prediction of the movement of groundwater and other subsurface fluids in the ORR. Understanding the stratigraphic and structural framework and how it controls fluid flow at depth should be the first step in developing a model for groundwater movement. Development of a state-of-the-art geologic and geophysical framework for the ORR is therefore essential for formulating an integrated structural-hydrologic model. This report is also intended to convey the present state of knowledge of the geologic and geohydrologic framework of the ORR and vicinity and to present some of the data that establish the need for additional geologic mapping and geohydrologic studies. An additional intended

  3. Geologic map of Big Bend National Park, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Kenzie J.; Berry, Margaret E.; Page, William R.; Lehman, Thomas M.; Bohannon, Robert G.; Scott, Robert B.; Miggins, Daniel P.; Budahn, James R.; Cooper, Roger W.; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Anderson, Eric D.; Williams, Van S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this map is to provide the National Park Service and the public with an updated digital geologic map of Big Bend National Park (BBNP). The geologic map report of Maxwell and others (1967) provides a fully comprehensive account of the important volcanic, structural, geomorphological, and paleontological features that define BBNP. However, the map is on a geographically distorted planimetric base and lacks topography, which has caused difficulty in conducting GIS-based data analyses and georeferencing the many geologic features investigated and depicted on the map. In addition, the map is outdated, excluding significant data from numerous studies that have been carried out since its publication more than 40 years ago. This report includes a modern digital geologic map that can be utilized with standard GIS applications to aid BBNP researchers in geologic data analysis, natural resource and ecosystem management, monitoring, assessment, inventory activities, and educational and recreational uses. The digital map incorporates new data, many revisions, and greater detail than the original map. Although some geologic issues remain unresolved for BBNP, the updated map serves as a foundation for addressing those issues. Funding for the Big Bend National Park geologic map was provided by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program and the National Park Service. The Big Bend mapping project was administered by staff in the USGS Geology and Environmental Change Science Center, Denver, Colo. Members of the USGS Mineral and Environmental Resources Science Center completed investigations in parallel with the geologic mapping project. Results of these investigations addressed some significant current issues in BBNP and the U.S.-Mexico border region, including contaminants and human health, ecosystems, and water resources. Funding for the high-resolution aeromagnetic survey in BBNP, and associated data analyses and

  4. Mineral resources, geologic structure, and landform surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattman, L. H.

    1973-01-01

    The use of ERTS-1 imagery for mineral resources, geologic structure, and landform surveys is discussed. Four categories of ERTS imagery application are defined and explained. The types of information obtained by the various multispectral band scanners are analyzed. Samples of land use maps and tectoning and metallogenic models are developed. It is stated that the most striking features visible on ERTS imagery are regional lineaments, or linear patterns in the topography, which reflect major fracture zones extending upward from the basement of the earth.

  5. 3D Geological modelling of the Monfrague synform: a value added to the geologic heritage of the National Park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gumiel, P.; Arias, M.; Monteserin, V.; Segura, M.

    2010-01-01

    3D geological modelling of a tectonic structure called the Monfrague synform has been carried out to obtain a better insight into the geometry of this folding structure. It is a kilometric variscan WNW-ESE trending fold verging towards north and made up by a Palaeozoic sequence (Ordovician-Silurian).This structure with its lithology make up the morphology and the relief of the Park. The Monfrague synform is an asymmetrical folding structure showing southern limb dipping steeply to the south (reverse limb) what is well observed in the Armorican Quartzite at the Salto del Gitano. However, northern limb dips gently (less than 40 degree centigrade) to the south (normal limb). 3D geological modelling has been built on the basis of the geological knowledge and the structural interpretation, using 3D GeoModeller. (www.geomodeller.com). In this software, lithological units are described by a stratigraphic pile. A major original feature of this software is that the 3D description of the geological space is achieved through a potential field formulation in which geological boundaries are isopotential surfaces, and their dips are represented by gradients of the potential. Finally, it is emphasized the idea that a 3D geologic model of these characteristics, with its three-dimensional representation, together with suitable geological sections that clarify the structure in depth, represents a value added to the Geologic Heritage of the National Park and besides it supposes an interesting academic exercise which have a great didactic value. (Author)

  6. Okinawa, Japan: Geologic Battleground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waymack, S. W.; Carrington, M. P.; Harpp, K. S.

    2005-12-01

    One of our main goals as instructors, particularly in introductory courses, is to impart students with an appreciation of how geology has influenced the course of human events. Despite the apparent accessibility of such topics, communicating this in a lively, relevant, and effective way often proves difficult. We use a series of historical events, the Pacific island hopping campaign of WWII, to engage students in an active, guided inquiry exercise to explore how terrain and the underlying geology of an area can shape historical events. Teams of students are assigned the role of planning either the defense or occupation of Okinawa Island, in the Ryukyu arc, in a theoretical version of the 1945 conflict. Students are given a package of information, including geologic and topographic maps, a list of military resources available to them at the time, and some historical background. Students also have access to "reconnaissance" images, 360o digital panoramas of the landscape of Okinawa, keyed to their maps. Each team has a week to plan their strategies and carry out additional research, which they subsequently bring to the table in the form of a written battle plan. With an instructor as arbiter, teams alternate drawing their maneuvers on a map of the island, to which the other team then responds. This continues one move at a time, until the instructor declares a victor. Throughout the exercise, the instructor guides students through analysis of each strategic decision in light of the island's structure and topography, with an emphasis on the appropriate interpretation of the maps. Students soon realize that an understanding of the island's terrain literally meant the difference between life and death for civilians and military participants alike in 1945. The karst landscape of Okinawa posed unique obstacles to both the Japanese and the American forces, including difficult landing sites, networks of natural caves, and sequences of hills aligned perpendicular to the

  7. Lectures in isotope geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, E.; Hunziker, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    Designed for a introductory course in geochronology and the geochemistry of stable isotopes, this text has been written by recognized experts in the field. Emphasis is on the interpretation and on applications, and examples of these are offered along with each technique. Extraterrestrial applications have been avoided and the treatment of pure experimentation has been kept at a minimum. This text will be appreciated by geologists who want to learn more about methods used in isotope geology, how they can be applied, and how to gauge their usefulness. (orig.) [de

  8. Environmental geology of Nampo, Puyo, Sochon, Hamyol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Won Young; Han, Dae Suk; Kim, Yoon Jong; Yu, Il Hyun; Lee, Bong Joo; Jeong, Gyo Cheol; Kim, Kyeong Su [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    An environmental geology map at a scale of 1:100,000 was produced to provide information on land use potential within the area of over 1,300 km{sup 2} consisting of Nampo, Puyo , Sochon and Hamyol. Land use potentiality was quantitatively assigned in accordance with the environmental geologic index(EI) derived from such factors as landslide frequency, engineering geological unit, topography and density of lineament length, being classified into 4 units. Also produced was a landslide susceptibility map at the same scale as the above map, showing five different grades of susceptibility based on hazard index(HI). Besides the above mentioned mapping, an investigation on the soils, rocks and natural aggregates throughout the study area was undertaken to assess their utilization potential as construction materials. Also carried out were the analysis of erosion and sedimentation in/around the Keum river, a geotechnical engineering investigation on the reclaimed tidal zone south of the Taechon beach, and the stability analysis of the cut slopes along the national roads. All the results of the investigations and analyses are presented in the paper. It is expected that the maps and accompanying information could be utilized in formulating regional land-use planning for variable projects. (author). 51 refs., 60 figs., 62 tabs., 3 maps.

  9. Magnetic anomalies over the Andaman Islands and their geological ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    plate boundary zone (e.g., Gahalaut et al. 2008; ... Himalayan arc/collision system in the north and the Indonesian arc system .... prominent linear ridges, (b) geological map of the Andaman Islands (after Pal et al. 2003a) ... ophiolite rocks occur in N–S to NE–SW trending bodies. ... described above gave rise to three areas of.

  10. GIS Data Modeling of a Regional Geological Structure by Integrating Geometric and Semantic Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HE Handong

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Using GIS, data models of geology via geometric descriptions and expressions are being developed. However, the role played by these data models in terms of the description and expression of geological structure phenomenon is limited. To improve the semantic information in geological GIS data models, this study adopts an object-oriented method that describes and expresses the geometric and semantic features of the geological structure phenomenon using geological objects and designs a data model of regional geological structures by integrating geometry and semantics. Moreover, the study designs a semantic "vocabulary-explanation-graph" method for describing the geological phenomenon of structures. Based on the semantic features of regional geological structures and a linear classification method, it divides the regional geological structure phenomenon into 3 divisions, 10 groups, 33 classes and defines the element set and element class. Moreover, it builds the basic geometric network for geological elements based on the geometric and semantic relations among geological objects. Using the ArcGIS Diagrammer Geodatabase, it considers the regional geological structure of the Ning-Zhen Mountains to verify the data model, and the results indicate a high practicability.

  11. Terrestrial analogs, planetary geology, and the nature of geological reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Victor R.

    2014-05-01

    Analogical reasoning is critical to planetary geology, but its role can be misconstrued by those unfamiliar with the practice of that science. The methodological importance of analogy to geology lies in the formulation of genetic hypotheses, an absolutely essential component of geological reasoning that was either ignored or denigrated by most 20th century philosophers of science, who took the theoretical/ experimental methodology of physics to be the sole model for all of scientific inquiry. Following the seminal 19th century work of Grove Karl Gilbert, an early pioneer of planetary geology, it has long been recognized that broad experience with and understanding of terrestrial geological phenomena provide geologists with their most effective resource for the invention of potentially fruitful, working hypotheses. The actions of (1) forming such hypotheses, (2) following their consequences, and (3) testing those consequences comprise integral parts of effective geological practice in regard to the understanding of planetary surfaces. Nevertheless, the logical terminology and philosophical bases for such practice will be unfamiliar to most planetary scientists, both geologists and nongeologists. The invention of geological hypotheses involves both inductive inferences of the type Gilbert termed “empiric classification” and abductive inferences of a logical form made famous by the 19th century American logician Charles Sanders Peirce. The testing and corroboration of geological hypotheses relies less on the correspondence logic of theoretical/ experimental sciences, like physics, and more on the logic of consistency, coherence, and consilience that characterizes the investigative and historical sciences of interpretation exemplified by geology.

  12. Geologic environmental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chun Soo; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Park, Byung Yoon; Koh, Young Kown; Chun, Kwan Sik; Kim, Jhin Wung

    2000-05-01

    The geoscience research works are focused on the production of geologic basic data accompanying with the technical development of geology and hydrogeologic characterization. The lithology of the Korean peninsula consists of a complex structure of 29 rock types from Archean to Quaternary. The wide distribution of Mesozoic plutonic rock is an important consideration as a potential host rock allowing flexibility of siting. The recent tectonic activities are limited to localized particular area, which can be avoided by excluding in the early stage of siting. Three rock types such as plutonic rocks, crystalline gneisses and massive volcanic rocks were suggested as the preferred host rocks for the further study on HLW disposal system. This report contains grouping of regional faults, and on the distributional characteristics of faults and fractures(zones) in terms of lithological domain and tectonical provinces. The regional groundwater regime can be grouped into 3 regimes by tectonic setting and four groundwater regions based on an altitute. Groundwaters can be grouped by their chemistry and host rocks. The origin of groundwater was proposed by isotope ({sup 1}8O, {sup 2}H, {sup 1}3C, {sup 3}4S, {sup 8}7Sr, {sup 1}5N) studies and the residence time of groundwater was inferred from their tritium contents. Based on the geochemical and isotope characteristics, the geochemical evolutions of each types of groundwater were simulated using SOLVEQ/CHILLER and PHREEQC programs.

  13. Geologic environmental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chun Soo; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Park, Byung Yoon; Koh, Young Kown; Chun, Kwan Sik; Kim, Jhin Wung

    2000-05-01

    The geoscience research works are focused on the production of geologic basic data accompanying with the technical development of geology and hydrogeologic characterization. The lithology of the Korean peninsula consists of a complex structure of 29 rock types from Archean to Quaternary. The wide distribution of Mesozoic plutonic rock is an important consideration as a potential host rock allowing flexibility of siting. The recent tectonic activities are limited to localized particular area, which can be avoided by excluding in the early stage of siting. Three rock types such as plutonic rocks, crystalline gneisses and massive volcanic rocks were suggested as the preferred host rocks for the further study on HLW disposal system. This report contains grouping of regional faults, and on the distributional characteristics of faults and fractures(zones) in terms of lithological domain and tectonical provinces. The regional groundwater regime can be grouped into 3 regimes by tectonic setting and four groundwater regions based on an altitute. Groundwaters can be grouped by their chemistry and host rocks. The origin of groundwater was proposed by isotope ( 1 8O, 2 H, 1 3C, 3 4S, 8 7Sr, 1 5N) studies and the residence time of groundwater was inferred from their tritium contents. Based on the geochemical and isotope characteristics, the geochemical evolutions of each types of groundwater were simulated using SOLVEQ/CHILLER and PHREEQC programs

  14. Geology of kilauea volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.B.; Trusdell, F.A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper summarizes studies of the structure, stratigraphy, petrology, drill holes, eruption frequency, and volcanic and seismic hazards of Kilauea volcano. All the volcano is discussed, but the focus is on its lower cast rift zone (LERZ) because active exploration for geothermal energy is concentrated in that area. Kilauea probably has several separate hydrothermal-convection systems that develop in response to the dynamic behavior of the volcano and the influx of abundant meteoric water. Important features of some of these hydrothermal-convection systems are known through studies of surface geology and drill holes. Observations of eruptions during the past two centuries, detailed geologic mapping, radiocarbon dating, and paleomagnetic secular-variation studies indicate that Kilauea has erupted frequently from its summit and two radial rift zones during Quaternary time. Petrologic studies have established that Kilauea erupts only tholeiitic basalt. Extensive ash deposits at Kilauea's summit and on its LERZ record locally violent, but temporary, disruptions of local hydrothermal-convection systems during the interaction of water or steam with magma. Recent drill holes on the LERZ provide data on the temperatures of the hydrothermal-convection systems, intensity of dike intrusion, porosity and permeability, and an increasing amount of hydrothermal alteration with depth. The prehistoric and historic record of volcanic and seismic activity indicates that magma will continue to be supplied to deep and shallow reservoirs beneath Kilauea's summit and rift zones and that the volcano will be affected by eruptions and earthquakes for many thousands of years. ?? 1993.

  15. Geological-genetic classification for uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terentiev, V.M.; Naumov, S.S.

    1997-01-01

    The paper describes a system for classification uranium deposits based on geological and genetic characteristics. The system is based on the interrelation and interdependence of uranium ore formation processes and other geological phenomena including sedimentation, magmatism and tectonics, as well as the evolution of geotectonic structures. Using these aspects, deposits are classified in three categories: endogenic - predominately hydrothermal and hydrothermal-metasomatic; exogenic - sedimentary diagenetic, biogenic sorption, and infiltrational; and polygenetic or composite types. The latter complex types includes: sedimentary/metamorphic and metamorphic and sedimentary/hydrothermal, where different ore generating processes have prevailed over a rock unit at different times. The 3 page classification is given in both the English and Russian languages. (author). 3 tabs

  16. Linearly constrained minimax optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kaj; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans

    1978-01-01

    We present an algorithm for nonlinear minimax optimization subject to linear equality and inequality constraints which requires first order partial derivatives. The algorithm is based on successive linear approximations to the functions defining the problem. The resulting linear subproblems...

  17. Evaluating Geologic Sources of Arsenic in Well Water in Virginia (USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany VanDerwerker

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated if geologic factors are linked to elevated arsenic (As concentrations above 5 μg/L in well water in the state of Virginia, USA. Using geologic unit data mapped within GIS and two datasets of measured As concentrations in well water (one from public wells, the other from private wells, we evaluated occurrences of elevated As (above 5 μg/L based on geologic unit. We also constructed a logistic regression model to examine statistical relationships between elevated As and geologic units. Two geologic units, including Triassic-aged sedimentary rocks and Triassic-Jurassic intrusives of the Culpeper Basin in north-central Virginia, had higher occurrences of elevated As in well water than other geologic units in Virginia. Model results support these patterns, showing a higher probability for As occurrence above 5 μg/L in well water in these two units. Due to the lack of observations (<5% having elevated As concentrations in our data set, our model cannot be used to predict As concentrations in other parts of the state. However, our results are useful for identifying areas of Virginia, defined by underlying geology, that are more likely to have elevated As concentrations in well water. Due to the ease of obtaining publicly available data and the accessibility of GIS, this study approach can be applied to other areas with existing datasets of As concentrations in well water and accessible data on geology.

  18. Semantics-informed cartography: the case of Piemonte Geological Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piana, Fabrizio; Lombardo, Vincenzo; Mimmo, Dario; Giardino, Marco; Fubelli, Giandomenico

    2016-04-01

    In modern digital geological maps, namely those supported by a large geo-database and devoted to dynamical, interactive representation on WMS-WebGIS services, there is the need to provide, in an explicit form, the geological assumptions used for the design and compilation of the database of the Map, and to get a definition and/or adoption of semantic representation and taxonomies, in order to achieve a formal and interoperable representation of the geologic knowledge. These approaches are fundamental for the integration and harmonisation of geological information and services across cultural (e.g. different scientific disciplines) and/or physical barriers (e.g. administrative boundaries). Initiatives such as GeoScience Markup Language (last version is GeoSciML 4.0, 2015, http://www.geosciml.org) and the INSPIRE "Data Specification on Geology" http://inspire.jrc.ec.europa.eu/documents/Data_Specifications/INSPIRE_DataSpecification_GE_v3.0rc3.pdf (an operative simplification of GeoSciML, last version is 3.0 rc3, 2013), as well as the recent terminological shepherding of the Geoscience Terminology Working Group (GTWG) have been promoting information exchange of the geologic knowledge. Grounded on these standard vocabularies, schemas and data models, we provide a shared semantic classification of geological data referring to the study case of the synthetic digital geological map of the Piemonte region (NW Italy), named "GEOPiemonteMap", developed by the CNR Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources, Torino (CNR IGG TO) and hosted as a dynamical interactive map on the geoportal of ARPA Piemonte Environmental Agency. The Piemonte Geological Map is grounded on a regional-scale geo-database consisting of some hundreds of GeologicUnits whose thousands instances (Mapped Features, polygons geometry) widely occur in Piemonte region, and each one is bounded by GeologicStructures (Mapped Features, line geometry). GeologicUnits and GeologicStructures have been spatially

  19. Practical aspects of geological prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallio, W.J.; Peck, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    Nuclear waste disposal requires that geology be a predictive science. The prediction of future events rests on (1) recognizing the periodicity of geologic events; (2) defining a critical dimension of effect, such as the area of a drainage basin, the length of a fault trace, etc; and (3) using our understanding of active processes the project the frequency and magnitude of future events in the light of geological principles. Of importance to nuclear waste disposal are longer term processes such as continental denudation and removal of materials by glacial erosion. Constant testing of projections will allow the practical limits of predicting geological events to be defined. 11 refs

  20. Assessment of effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems. The development and application of a geologic simulation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, M.G.; Petrie, G.M.

    1982-03-01

    The Geologic Simulation Model (GSM) developed under the Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) project at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the Department of Energy is a quasi-deterministic process-response model which simulates the development of the geologic and hydrologic systems of a ground-water basin for a million years into the future. Effects of natural processes on the ground-water hydrologic system are modeled principally by rate equations. The combined effects and synergistic interactions of different processes are approximated by linear superposition of their effects during discrete time intervals in a stepwise-integration approach. The completed AEGIS GSM was used to generate 500 Monte Carlo simulations of the behavior of the geologic/hydrologic system affecting a hypothetical repository in the Pasco Basin over the next million years. These simulations used data which were not subjected to a review adequate to the needs of a real site performance assessment. However, the general care used in generating the data, and the overall behavior of the GSM suggest that the results are plausible at this time

  1. Geologic map of the Bateman Spring Quadrangle, Lander County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramelli, Alan R.; Wrucke, Chester T.; House, P. Kyle

    2017-01-01

    This 1:24,000-scale geologic map of the Bateman Spring 7.5-minute quadrangle in Lander County, Nevada contains descriptions of 24 geologic units and one cross section. Accompanying text includes full unit descriptions and references. This quadrangle includes lower Paleozoic siliciclastic sedimentary rocks of the Roberts Mountain allochthon, Miocene intrusive dikes, alluvial deposits of the northern Shoshone Range piedmont, and riverine deposits of the Reese and Humboldt rivers.Significant findings include: refined age estimates for the Ordovician-Cambrian Valmy Formation and Devonian Slaven Chert, based on new fossil information; and detailed mapping of late Quaternary fault traces along the Shoshone Range fault system.

  2. Foundations of linear and generalized linear models

    CERN Document Server

    Agresti, Alan

    2015-01-01

    A valuable overview of the most important ideas and results in statistical analysis Written by a highly-experienced author, Foundations of Linear and Generalized Linear Models is a clear and comprehensive guide to the key concepts and results of linear statistical models. The book presents a broad, in-depth overview of the most commonly used statistical models by discussing the theory underlying the models, R software applications, and examples with crafted models to elucidate key ideas and promote practical model building. The book begins by illustrating the fundamentals of linear models,

  3. Geology of Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeley, R.; Chyba, C.; Head, J. W.; McCord, T.; McKinnon, W. B.; Pappalardo, R. T.

    2004-01-01

    Europa is a rocky object of radius 1565 km (slightly smaller than Earth s moon) and has an outer shell of water composition estimated to be of order 100 km thick, the surface of which is frozen. The total volume of water is about 3 x 10(exp 9) cubic kilometers, or twice the amount of water on Earth. Moreover, like its neighbor Io, Europa experiences internal heating generated from tidal flexing during its eccentric orbit around Jupiter. This raises the possibility that some of the water beneath the icy crust is liquid. The proportion of rock to ice, the generation of internal heat, and the possibility of liquid water make Europa unique in the Solar System. In this chapter, we outline the sources of data available for Europa (with a focus on the Galileo mission), review previous and on-going research on its surface geology, discuss the astrobiological potential of Europa, and consider plans for future exploration.

  4. Geology of National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffer, Philip W.

    2008-01-01

    This is a set of two sheets of 3D images showing geologic features of many National Parks. Red-and-cyan viewing glasses are need to see the three-dimensional effect. A search on the World Wide Web will yield many sites about anaglyphs and where to get 3D glasses. Red-blue glasses will do but red-cyan glasses are a little better. This publication features a photo quiz game: Name that park! where you can explore, interpret, and identify selected park landscapes. Can you identify landscape features in the images? Can you explain processes that may have helped form the landscape features? You can get the answers online.

  5. Geological terrain models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaupp, V. H.; Macdonald, H. C.; Waite, W. P.

    1981-01-01

    The initial phase of a program to determine the best interpretation strategy and sensor configuration for a radar remote sensing system for geologic applications is discussed. In this phase, terrain modeling and radar image simulation were used to perform parametric sensitivity studies. A relatively simple computer-generated terrain model is presented, and the data base, backscatter file, and transfer function for digital image simulation are described. Sets of images are presented that simulate the results obtained with an X-band radar from an altitude of 800 km and at three different terrain-illumination angles. The simulations include power maps, slant-range images, ground-range images, and ground-range images with statistical noise incorporated. It is concluded that digital image simulation and computer modeling provide cost-effective methods for evaluating terrain variations and sensor parameter changes, for predicting results, and for defining optimum sensor parameters.

  6. Application of PALSAR-2 remote sensing data for structural geology and topographic mapping in Kelantan river basin, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiranvand Pour, Amin; Hashim, Mazlan

    2016-06-01

    Natural hazards of geological origin are one of major problem during heavy monsoons rainfall in Kelantan state, peninsular Malaysia. Several landslides occur in this region are obviously connected to geological and topographical features, every year. Satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data are particularly applicable for detection of geological structural and topographical features in tropical conditions. In this study, Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR-2), remote sensing data were used to identify high potential risk and susceptible zones for landslide in the Kelantan river basin. Adaptive Local Sigma filter was selected and applied to accomplish speckle reduction and preserving both edges and features in PALSAR-2 fine mode observation images. Different polarization images were integrated to enhance geological structures. Additionally, directional filters were applied to the PALSAR-2 Local Sigma resultant image for edge enhancement and detailed identification of linear features. Several faults, drainage patterns and lithological contact layers were identified at regional scale. In order to assess the results, fieldwork and GPS survey were conducted in the landslide affected zones in the Kelantan river basin. Results demonstrate the most of the landslides were associated with N-S, NNW-SSE and NE-SW trending faults, angulate drainage pattern and metamorphic and Quaternary units. Consequently, geologic structural map were produced for Kelantan river basin using recent PALSAR-2 data, which could be broadly applicable for landslide hazard assessment and delineation of high potential risk and susceptible areas. Landslide mitigation programmes could be conducted in the landslide recurrence regions for reducing catastrophes leading to economic losses and death.

  7. Correlation Between Fracture Network Properties and Stress Variability in Geological Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Qinghua; Gao, Ke

    2018-05-01

    We quantitatively investigate the stress variability in fractured geological media under tectonic stresses. The fracture systems studied include synthetic fracture networks following power law length scaling and natural fracture patterns based on outcrop mapping. The stress field is derived from a finite-discrete element model, and its variability is analyzed using a set of mathematical formulations that honor the tensorial nature of stress data. We show that local stress perturbation, quantified by the Euclidean distance of a local stress tensor to the mean stress tensor, has a positive, linear correlation with local fracture intensity, defined as the total fracture length per unit area within a local sampling window. We also evaluate the stress dispersion of the entire stress field using the effective variance, that is, a scalar-valued measure of the overall stress variability. The results show that a well-connected fracture system under a critically stressed state exhibits strong local and global stress variabilities.

  8. Radon as geological tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, T.; Anjos, R.M. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Valladares, D.L.; Rizzotto, M.; Velasco, H.; Ayub, J. Juri [Universidad Nacional de San Luis (Argentina). Inst. de Matematica Aplicada San Luis (IMASL); Silva, A.A.R. da; Yoshimura, E.M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2012-07-01

    Full text: This work presents measurements of {sup 222}Rn levels performed in La Carolina gold mine and Los Condores tungsten mine at the province of San Luis, Argentina, today used for tourist visitation, and can evaluate the potential use of such radioactive noble gas as tracer or marker for geological processes in underground environments. By concentrations of {sup 40}K, {sup 232}Th and {sup 23}'8U were also measured in the walls of tunnels were determined the rocks mineral composition, what indicated that the mines have the same composition. In this sense, we used nuclear trace plastic detectors CR-39, gamma spectrometry of rock samples and Geiger-Muller (GM) monitors The patterns of radon gas transportation processes revealed that La Carolina could be interpreted through a model based on a radioactive gas confined into a single entrance tube, with constant cross section and air velocity. Los Condores, which has a second main entrance, could be interpreted through a model based on a radioactive gas confined into a two entrance tube, allowing a chimney effect for air circulation. The results showed the high potential of using {sup 222}Rn as a geological tracer. In what concerns the occupational hazard, in summer (time of more intense tourist activity in the mine) La Carolina presented a mean concentration of the radioactive noble gas that exceeds in four times the action level of 1,5 kBq m{sup -3} recommended by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP). The chimney effect shows the low mean concentration of radon in Los Condores. (author)

  9. Radon as geological tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacerda, T.; Anjos, R.M.; Silva, A.A.R. da; Yoshimura, E.M.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: This work presents measurements of 222 Rn levels performed in La Carolina gold mine and Los Condores tungsten mine at the province of San Luis, Argentina, today used for tourist visitation, and can evaluate the potential use of such radioactive noble gas as tracer or marker for geological processes in underground environments. By concentrations of 40 K, 232 Th and 23 '8U were also measured in the walls of tunnels were determined the rocks mineral composition, what indicated that the mines have the same composition. In this sense, we used nuclear trace plastic detectors CR-39, gamma spectrometry of rock samples and Geiger-Muller (GM) monitors The patterns of radon gas transportation processes revealed that La Carolina could be interpreted through a model based on a radioactive gas confined into a single entrance tube, with constant cross section and air velocity. Los Condores, which has a second main entrance, could be interpreted through a model based on a radioactive gas confined into a two entrance tube, allowing a chimney effect for air circulation. The results showed the high potential of using 222 Rn as a geological tracer. In what concerns the occupational hazard, in summer (time of more intense tourist activity in the mine) La Carolina presented a mean concentration of the radioactive noble gas that exceeds in four times the action level of 1,5 kBq m -3 recommended by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP). The chimney effect shows the low mean concentration of radon in Los Condores. (author)

  10. Geology of Kilauea volcano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, R.B. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States). Federal Center); Trusdell, F.A. (Geological Survey, Hawaii National Park, HI (United States). Hawaiian Volcano Observatory)

    1993-08-01

    This paper summarizes studies of the structure, stratigraphy, petrology, drill holes, eruption frequency, and volcanic and seismic hazards of Kilauea volcano. All the volcano is discussed, but the focus is on its lower east rift zone (LERZ) because active exploration for geothermal energy is concentrated in that area. Kilauea probably has several separate hydrothermal-convection systems that develop in response to the dynamic behavior of the volcano and the influx of abundant meteoric water. Important features of some of these hydrothermal-convection systems are known through studies of surface geology and drill holes. Observations of eruptions during the past two centuries, detailed geologic mapping, radiocarbon dating, and paleomagnetic secular-variation studies indicate that Kilauea has erupted frequently from its summit and two radial rift zones during Quaternary time. Petrologic studies have established that Kilauea erupts only tholeiitic basalt. Extensive ash deposits at Kilauea's summit and on its LERZ record locally violent, but temporary, disruptions of local hydrothermal-convection systems during the interaction of water or steam with magma. Recent drill holes on the LERZ provide data on the temperatures of the hydrothermal-convection systems, intensity of dike intrusion, porosity and permeability, and an increasing amount of hydrothermal alteration with depth. The prehistoric and historic record of volcanic and seismic activity indicates that magma will continue to be supplied to deep and shallow reservoirs beneath Kilauea's summit and rift zones and that the volcano will be affected by eruptions and earthquakes for many thousands of years. 71 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Hydrogeological Properties of Geological Elements in Geological Model around KURT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Woo; Kim, Kyung Soo; Koh, Yong Kwon; Choi, Jong Won [Korea Atomic Energy Institue, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    To develop site characterization technologies for a radioactive waste disposal research in KAERI, the geological and hydrogeological investigations have been carried out since 1997. In 2006, the KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) was constructed to study a solute migration, a microbiology and an engineered barrier system as well as deeply to understand geological environments in in-situ condition. This study is performed as one of the site characterization works around KURT. Several investigations such as a lineament analysis, a borehole/tunnel survey, a geophyscial survey and logging in borehole, were used to construct the geological model. As a result, the geological model is constructed, which includes the lithological model and geo-structural model in this study. Moreover, from the results of the in-situ hydraulic tests, the hydrogeological properties of elements in geological model were evaluated.

  12. Study on geology and geological structure based on literature studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funaki, Hironori; Ishii, Eiichi; Yasue, Ken-ichi; Takahashi, Kazuharu

    2005-03-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) is proceeding with underground research laboratory (URL) project for the sedimentary rock in Horonobe, Hokkaido. This project is an investigation project which is planned over 20 years. Surface-based investigations (Phase 1) have been conducted for the present. The purposes of the Phase 1 are to construct the geological environment model (geological-structural, hydrogeological, and hydrochemical models) and to confirm the applicability of investigation technologies for the geological environment. The geological-structural model comprises the base for the hydrogeological and hydrochemical models. We constructed the geological-structural model by mainly using data obtained from literature studies. Particulars regarding which data the model is based on and who has performed the interpretation are also saved for traceability. As a result, we explain the understanding of degree and the need of information on stratigraphy and discontinuous structure. (author)

  13. Hydrogeological Properties of Geological Elements in Geological Model around KURT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kyung Woo; Kim, Kyung Soo; Koh, Yong Kwon; Choi, Jong Won

    2012-01-01

    To develop site characterization technologies for a radioactive waste disposal research in KAERI, the geological and hydrogeological investigations have been carried out since 1997. In 2006, the KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) was constructed to study a solute migration, a microbiology and an engineered barrier system as well as deeply to understand geological environments in in-situ condition. This study is performed as one of the site characterization works around KURT. Several investigations such as a lineament analysis, a borehole/tunnel survey, a geophyscial survey and logging in borehole, were used to construct the geological model. As a result, the geological model is constructed, which includes the lithological model and geo-structural model in this study. Moreover, from the results of the in-situ hydraulic tests, the hydrogeological properties of elements in geological model were evaluated.

  14. Status report on the geology of the Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatcher, R.D. Jr.; Lemiszki, P.J.; Foreman, J.L. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences); Dreier, R.B.; Ketelle, R.H.; Lee, R.R.; Lee, Suk Young (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Lietzke, D.A. (Lietzke (David A.), Rutledge, TN (United States)); McMaster, W.M. (McMaster (William M.), Heiskell, TN (United States))

    1992-10-01

    This report provides an introduction to the present state of knowledge of the geology of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and a cursory introduction to the hydrogeology. An important element of this work is the construction of a modern detailed geologic map of the ORR (Plate 1), which remains in progress. An understanding of the geologic framework of the ORR is essential to many current and proposed activities related to land-use planning, waste management, environmental restoration, and waste remediation. Therefore, this report is also intended to convey the present state of knowledge of the geologic and geohydrologic framework of the ORR and vicinity and to present some of the available data that provide the basic framework for additional geologic mapping, subsurface geologic, and geohydrologic studies. In addition, some recently completed, detailed work on soils and other surficial materials is included because of the close relationships to bedrock geology and the need to recognize the weathered products of bedrock units. Weathering processes also have some influence on hydrologic systems and processes at depth.

  15. Status report on the geology of the Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatcher, R.D. Jr.; Lemiszki, P.J.; Foreman, J.L.; Lietzke, D.A.; McMaster, W.M.

    1992-10-01

    This report provides an introduction to the present state of knowledge of the geology of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and a cursory introduction to the hydrogeology. An important element of this work is the construction of a modern detailed geologic map of the ORR (Plate 1), which remains in progress. An understanding of the geologic framework of the ORR is essential to many current and proposed activities related to land-use planning, waste management, environmental restoration, and waste remediation. Therefore, this report is also intended to convey the present state of knowledge of the geologic and geohydrologic framework of the ORR and vicinity and to present some of the available data that provide the basic framework for additional geologic mapping, subsurface geologic, and geohydrologic studies. In addition, some recently completed, detailed work on soils and other surficial materials is included because of the close relationships to bedrock geology and the need to recognize the weathered products of bedrock units. Weathering processes also have some influence on hydrologic systems and processes at depth

  16. Geologic Framework Model (GFM2000)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T. Vogt

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the geologic framework model, version GFM2000 with regard to input data, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results, and the differences between GFM2000 and previous versions. The version number of this model reflects the year during which the model was constructed. This model supersedes the previous model version, documented in Geologic Framework Model (GFM 3.1) (CRWMS M and O 2000 [DIRS 138860]). The geologic framework model represents a three-dimensional interpretation of the geology surrounding the location of the monitored geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain. The geologic framework model encompasses and is limited to an area of 65 square miles (168 square kilometers) and a volume of 185 cubic miles (771 cubic kilometers). The boundaries of the geologic framework model (shown in Figure 1-1) were chosen to encompass the exploratory boreholes and to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the unsaturated zone (UZ). The upper surface of the model is made up of the surface topography and the depth of the model is constrained by the inferred depth of the Tertiary-Paleozoic unconformity. The geologic framework model was constructed from geologic map and borehole data. Additional information from measured stratigraphic sections, gravity profiles, and seismic profiles was also considered. The intended use of the geologic framework model is to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest consistent with the level of detailed needed for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the UZ and for repository design. The model is limited by the availability of data and relative amount of geologic complexity found in an area. The geologic framework model is inherently limited by scale and content. The grid spacing used in

  17. Geologic Framework Model (GFM2000)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Vogt

    2004-08-26

    The purpose of this report is to document the geologic framework model, version GFM2000 with regard to input data, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results, and the differences between GFM2000 and previous versions. The version number of this model reflects the year during which the model was constructed. This model supersedes the previous model version, documented in Geologic Framework Model (GFM 3.1) (CRWMS M&O 2000 [DIRS 138860]). The geologic framework model represents a three-dimensional interpretation of the geology surrounding the location of the monitored geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain. The geologic framework model encompasses and is limited to an area of 65 square miles (168 square kilometers) and a volume of 185 cubic miles (771 cubic kilometers). The boundaries of the geologic framework model (shown in Figure 1-1) were chosen to encompass the exploratory boreholes and to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the unsaturated zone (UZ). The upper surface of the model is made up of the surface topography and the depth of the model is constrained by the inferred depth of the Tertiary-Paleozoic unconformity. The geologic framework model was constructed from geologic map and borehole data. Additional information from measured stratigraphic sections, gravity profiles, and seismic profiles was also considered. The intended use of the geologic framework model is to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest consistent with the level of detailed needed for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the UZ and for repository design. The model is limited by the availability of data and relative amount of geologic complexity found in an area. The geologic framework model is inherently limited by scale and content. The grid spacing used in the

  18. Synthetic geology - Exploring the "what if?" in geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, J. F.; Robertson, J.

    2015-12-01

    The spatial and temporal extent of geological phenomena makes experiments in geology difficult to conduct, if not entirely impossible and collection of data is laborious and expensive - so expensive that most of the time we cannot test a hypothesis. The aim, in many cases, is to gather enough data to build a predictive geological model. Even in a mine, where data are abundant, a model remains incomplete because the information at the level of a blasting block is two orders of magnitude larger than the sample from a drill core, and we have to take measurement errors into account. So, what confidence can we have in a model based on sparse data, uncertainties and measurement error? Synthetic geology does not attempt to model the real world in terms of geological processes with all their uncertainties, rather it offers an artificial geological data source with fully known properties. On the basis of this artificial geology, we can simulate geological sampling by established or future technologies to study the resulting dataset. Conducting these experiments in silico removes the constraints of testing in the field or in production, and provides us with a known ground-truth against which the steps in a data analysis and integration workflow can be validated.Real-time simulation of data sources can be used to investigate crucial questions such as the potential information gain from future sensing capabilities, or from new sampling strategies, or the combination of both, and it enables us to test many "what if?" questions, both in geology and in data engineering. What would we be able to see if we could obtain data at higher resolution? How would real-time data analysis change sampling strategies? Does our data infrastructure handle many new real-time data streams? What feature engineering can be deducted for machine learning approaches? By providing a 'data sandbox' able to scale to realistic geological scenarios we hope to start answering some of these questions.

  19. Displacement measurement system for linear array detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Pengchong; Chen Ziyu; Shen Ji

    2011-01-01

    It presents a set of linear displacement measurement system based on encoder. The system includes displacement encoders, optical lens and read out circuit. Displacement read out unit includes linear CCD and its drive circuit, two amplifier circuits, second order Butterworth low-pass filter and the binarization circuit. The coding way is introduced, and various parts of the experimental signal waveforms are given, and finally a linear experimental test results are given. The experimental results are satisfactory. (authors)

  20. A state geological survey commitment to environmental geology - the Texas Bureau of Economic Geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wermund, E.G.

    1990-01-01

    In several Texas environmental laws, the Bureau of Economic Geology is designated as a planning participant and review agency in the process of fulfilling environmental laws. Two examples are legislation on reclamation of surface mines and regulation of processing low level radioactive wastes. Also, the Bureau is the principal geological reviewer of all Environmental Assessments and Environmental Impact Statements which the Office of the Governor circulates for state review on all major developmental activities in Texas. The BEG continues its strong interest in environmental geology. In February 1988, it recommitted its Land Resources Laboratory, initiated in 1974, toward fulfilling needs of state, county, and city governments for consultation and research on environmental geologic problems. An editorial from another state geological survey would resemble the about description of texas work in environmental geology. State geological surveys have led federal agencies into many developments of environmental geology, complemented federal efforts in their evolution, and continued a strong commitment to the maintenance of a quality environment through innovative geologic studies

  1. Preliminary geologic map of the Lathrop Wells volcanic center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, B.; Harrington, C.; McFadden, L.; Perry, F.; Wells, S.; Turrin, B.; Champion, D.

    1988-12-01

    A preliminary geologic map has been compiled for the bedrock geology of the Lathrop Wells volcanic center. The map was completed through use of a combination of stereo photographic interpretation and field mapping on color aerial photographs. These photographs (scale 1:4000) were obtained from American Aerial Surveys, Inc. They were flown on August 18, 1987, at the request of the Yucca Mountain Project (then Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations). The photographs are the Lathrop Wells VC-Area 25 series, numbers 1--32. The original negatives for these photographs are on file with American Aerial Surveys, Inc. Copies of the negatives have been archived at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Group N-5. The preliminary geologic map is a bedrock geologic map. It does not show alluvial deposits, eolian sands, or scoria fall deposits from the youngest eruptive events. The units will be compiled on separate maps when the geomorphic and soils studies are more advanced

  2. Geology along topographic profile for near-surface test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fecht, K.R.

    1978-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, through the Basalt Waste Isolation Program within Rockwell Hanford Operations, is investigating the feasibility of terminal storage of radioactive waste in deep caverns constructed in the Columbia River Basalt. A portion of the geological work conducted in support of the Engineering Design Unit to evaluate the west end of Gable Mountain as a site for in situ testing of the thermomechanical behavior of basalt is reported. The surficial geology of the west end of Gable Mountain was mapped in a reconnaissance fashion at a scale of 1:62,500 to identify geologic features which could affect siting of the proposed facilities. A detailed study of the geological conditions was conducted along a traverse across the most probable site for the proposed project

  3. On the Geologic Time Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gradstein, F.M.; Ogg, J.G.; Hilgen, F.J.

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes the international divisions and ages in the Geologic Time Scale, published in 2012 (GTS2012). Since 2004, when GTS2004 was detailed, major developments have taken place that directly bear and have considerable impact on the intricate science of geologic time scaling. Precam

  4. Offshore geology and geomorphology from Point Piedras Blancas to Pismo Beach, San Luis Obispo County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Janet Tilden; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Roberts, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Marine geology and geomorphology were mapped along the continental shelf and upper slope between Point Piedras Blancas and Pismo Beach, California. The map area is divided into the following three (smaller) map areas, listed from north to south: San Simeon, Morro Bay, and Point San Luis. Each smaller map area consists of a geologic map and the corresponding geophysical data that support the geologic mapping. Each geophysical data sheet includes shaded-relief multibeam bathymetry, seismic-reflection-survey tracklines, and residual magnetic anomalies, as well as a smaller version of the geologic map for reference. Offshore geologic units were delineated on the basis of integrated analysis of adjacent onshore geology, seafloor-sediment and rock samples, multibeam bathymetry and backscatter imagery, magnetic data, and high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles. Although the geologic maps are presented here at 1:35,000 scale, map interpretation was conducted at scales of between 1:6,000 and 1:12,000.

  5. Comparing Geologic Data Sets Collected by Planetary Analog Traverses and by Standard Geologic Field Mapping: Desert Rats Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wanda; Evans, Cynthia; Gruener, John; Eppler, Dean

    2014-01-01

    Geologic mapping involves interpreting relationships between identifiable units and landforms to understand the formative history of a region. Traditional field techniques are used to accomplish this on Earth. Mapping proves more challenging for other planets, which are studied primarily by orbital remote sensing and, less frequently, by robotic and human surface exploration. Systematic comparative assessments of geologic maps created by traditional mapping versus photogeology together with data from planned traverses are limited. The objective of this project is to produce a geologic map from data collected on the Desert Research and Technology Studies (RATS) 2010 analog mission using Apollo-style traverses in conjunction with remote sensing data. This map is compared with a geologic map produced using standard field techniques.

  6. GIS-technologies as a mechanism to study geological structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharapatov, Abish

    2014-05-01

    Specialized GIS-technologies allow creating multi-parameter models, completing multi-criteria optimisation tasks, and issues of geological profile forecasts using miscellaneous data. Pictorial and attributive geological and geophysical information collected to create GIS database is supplemented by the ERS (Earth's Remote Sensing) data, air spectrometry, space images, and topographic data. Among the important tasks are as follows: a unification of initial geological, geophysical and other types of information on a tectonic position, rock classification and stratigraphic scale; topographic bases (various projectures, scales); the levels of detail and exhaustibility; colors and symbols of legends; data structures and their correlation; units of measurement of physical quantities, and attribute systems of descriptions. Methods of the geological environment investigation using GIS-technology are based on a principle of the research target analogy with a standard. A similarity ratio is quantitative estimate. A geological forecast model is formed by structuring of geological information based on detailed analysis and aggregation of geological and formal knowledge bases on standard targets. Development of a bank of models of the analyzed geological structures of various range, ore-bearing features described by numerous prospecting indicators is the way to aggregate geological knowledge. The south terrain of the Valerianovskaya structure-facies zone (SFZ) of the Torgai paleo-rift structure covered with thick Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks up to 2,000m is considered a so-called training ground for the development of GIS-technology. Parameters of known magnetite deposits located in the north of the SFZ (Sarybaiskoye, Sokolovskoye, etc.) are used to create the standard model. A meaning of the job implemented involves the following: - A goal-seeking nature of the research being performed and integration of the geological, geo-physical and other data (in many cases, efforts of the

  7. Geologic distributions of US oil and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This publication presents nonproprietary field size distributions that encompass most domestic oil and gas fields at year-end 1989. These data are organized by geologic provinces as defined by the American Association of Petroleum Geologists' Committee on Statistics of Drilling (AAPG/CSD), by regional geographic aggregates of the AAPG/CSD provinces, and Nationally. The report also provides partial volumetric distributions of petroleum liquid and natural gas ultimate recoveries for three macro-geologic variables: principal lithology of the reservoir rock, principal trapping condition and geologic age of the reservoir rock, The former two variables are presented Nationally and by geographic region, in more detail than has heretofore been available. The latter variable is provided Nationally at the same level of detail previously available. Eighteen tables and 66 figures present original data on domestic oil and gas occurrence. Unfortunately, volumetric data inadequacy dictated exclusion of Appalachian region oil and gas fields from the study. All other areas of the United States known to be productive of crude oil or natural gas through year-end 1989, onshore and offshore, were included. It should be noted that none of the results and conclusions would be expected to substantively differ had data for the Appalachian region been available for inclusion in the study

  8. Geologic and mineral and water resources investigations in western Colorado using ERTS-1 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knepper, D. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Most of the geologic information in ERTS-1 imagery can be extracted from bulk processed black and white transparencies by a skilled interpreter using standard photogeologic techniques. In central and western Colorado, the detectability of lithologic contacts on ERTS-1 imagery is closely related to the time of year the imagery was acquired. Geologic structures are the most readily extractable type of geologic information contained in ERTS images. Major tectonic features and associated minor structures can be rapidly mapped, allowing the geologic setting of a large region to be quickly accessed. Trends of geologic structures in younger sedimentary appear to strongly parallel linear trends in older metamorphic and igneous basement terrain. Linears and color anomalies mapped from ERTS imagery are closely related to loci of known mineralization in the Colorado mineral belt.

  9. Geology, Surficial, Neuse River Basin Mapping Project Core Locations �Äö?Ñ?¨ Ongoing project in Middle Coastal Plain to characterize geomorphology, surficial geology, and shallow aquifers and confining units; Excel spread sheet with core names, coordinates, and data co, Published in 2006, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Geology, Surficial dataset current as of 2006. Neuse River Basin Mapping Project Core Locations �Äö?Ñ?¨ Ongoing project in Middle Coastal Plain to characterize...

  10. The Geologic Nitrogen Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B. W.; Goldblatt, C.

    2013-12-01

    N2 is the dominant gas in Earth's atmosphere, and has been so through the majority of the planet's history. Originally thought to only be cycled in significant amounts through the biosphere, it is becoming increasingly clear that a large degree of geologic cycling can occur as well. N is present in crustal rocks at 10s to 100s of ppm and in the mantle at 1s to perhaps 10s of ppm. In light of new data, we present an Earth-system perspective of the modern N cycle, an updated N budget for the silicate Earth, and venture to explain the evolution of the N cycle over time. In an fashion similar to C, N has a fast, biologically mediated cycle and a slower cycle driven by plate tectonics. Bacteria fix N2 from the atmosphere into bioavailable forms. N is then cycled through the food chain, either by direct consumption of N-fixing bacteria, as NH4+ (the primary waste form), or NO3- (the most common inorganic species in the modern ocean). Some organic material settles as sediment on the ocean floor. In anoxic sediments, NH4+ dominates; due to similar ionic radii, it can readily substitute for K+ in mineral lattices, both in sedimentary rocks and in oceanic lithosphere. Once it enters a subduction zone, N may either be volatilized and returned to the atmosphere at arc volcanoes as N2 or N2O, sequestered into intrusive igneous rocks (as NH4+?), or subducted deep into the mantle, likely as NH4+. Mounting evidence indicates that a significant amount of N may be sequestered into the solid Earth, where it may remain for long periods (100s m.y.) before being returned to the atmosphere/biosphere by volcanism or weathering. The magnitude fluxes into the solid Earth and size of geologic N reservoirs are poorly constrained. The size of the N reservoirs contained in the solid Earth directly affects the evolution of Earth's atmosphere. It is possible that N now sequestered in the solid Earth was once in the atmosphere, which would have resulted in a higher atmospheric pressure, and

  11. Geological Mapping of the Lada Terra (V-56) Quadrangle, Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P. Senthil; Head, James W., III

    2009-01-01

    Geological mapping of the V-56 quadrangle (Fig. 1) reveals various tectonic and volcanic features and processes in Lada Terra that consist of tesserae, regional extensional belts, coronae, volcanic plains and impact craters. This study aims to map the spatial distribution of different material units, deformational features or lineament patterns and impact crater materials. In addition, we also establish the relative age relationships (e.g., overlapping or cross-cutting relationship) between them, in order to reconstruct the geologic history. Basically, this quadrangle addresses how coronae evolved in association with regional extensional belts, in addition to evolution of tesserae, regional plains and impact craters, which are also significant geological units of Lada Terra.

  12. Geological disposal system development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Chul Hyung; Kuh, J. E.; Kim, S. K. and others

    2000-04-01

    Spent fuel inventories to be disposed of finally and design base spent fuel were determined. Technical and safety criteria for a geological repository system in Korea were established. Based on the properties of spent PWR and CANDU fuels, seven repository alternatives were developed and the most promising repository option was selected by the pair-wise comparison method from the technology point of view. With this option preliminary conceptual design studies were carried out. Several module, e.g., gap module, congruent release module were developed for the overall assessment code MASCOT-K. The prominent overseas databases such as OECD/NEA FEP list were are fully reviewed and then screened to identify the feasible ones to reflect the Korean geo-hydrological conditions. In addition to this the well known scenario development methods such as PID, RES were reviewed. To confirm the radiological safety of the proposed KAERI repository concept the preliminary PA was pursued. Thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis for the near field of repository were performed to verify thermal and mechanical stability for KAERI repository system. The requirements of buffer material were analyzed, and based on the results, the quantitative functional criteria for buffer material were established. The hydraulic and swelling property, mechanical properties, and thermal conductivity, the organic carbon content, and the evolution of pore water chemistry were investigated. Based on the results, the candidate buffer material was selected

  13. NAGRADATA. Code key. Geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, W.H.; Schneider, B.; Staeuble, J.

    1984-01-01

    This reference manual provides users of the NAGRADATA system with comprehensive keys to the coding/decoding of geological and technical information to be stored in or retreaved from the databank. Emphasis has been placed on input data coding. When data is retreaved the translation into plain language of stored coded information is done automatically by computer. Three keys each, list the complete set of currently defined codes for the NAGRADATA system, namely codes with appropriate definitions, arranged: 1. according to subject matter (thematically) 2. the codes listed alphabetically and 3. the definitions listed alphabetically. Additional explanation is provided for the proper application of the codes and the logic behind the creation of new codes to be used within the NAGRADATA system. NAGRADATA makes use of codes instead of plain language for data storage; this offers the following advantages: speed of data processing, mainly data retrieval, economies of storage memory requirements, the standardisation of terminology. The nature of this thesaurian type 'key to codes' makes it impossible to either establish a final form or to cover the entire spectrum of requirements. Therefore, this first issue of codes to NAGRADATA must be considered to represent the current state of progress of a living system and future editions will be issued in a loose leave ringbook system which can be updated by an organised (updating) service. (author)

  14. Geological disposal system development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Chul Hyung; Kuh, J. E.; Kim, S. K. and others

    2000-04-01

    Spent fuel inventories to be disposed of finally and design base spent fuel were determined. Technical and safety criteria for a geological repository system in Korea were established. Based on the properties of spent PWR and CANDU fuels, seven repository alternatives were developed and the most promising repository option was selected by the pair-wise comparison method from the technology point of view. With this option preliminary conceptual design studies were carried out. Several module, e.g., gap module, congruent release module were developed for the overall assessment code MASCOT-K. The prominent overseas databases such as OECD/NEA FEP list were are fully reviewed and then screened to identify the feasible ones to reflect the Korean geo-hydrological conditions. In addition to this the well known scenario development methods such as PID, RES were reviewed. To confirm the radiological safety of the proposed KAERI repository concept the preliminary PA was pursued. Thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis for the near field of repository were performed to verify thermal and mechanical stability for KAERI repository system. The requirements of buffer material were analyzed, and based on the results, the quantitative functional criteria for buffer material were established. The hydraulic and swelling property, mechanical properties, and thermal conductivity, the organic carbon content, and the evolution of pore water chemistry were investigated. Based on the results, the candidate buffer material was selected.

  15. Radon in geological medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hricko, J [GEOCOMPLEX, a.s., Bratislava (Slovakia)

    1996-12-31

    The paper presented deals with behavior of the radon in geological medium and with some results of the radon survey in Bratislava and Kosice regions. 1) The a{sub v} has been detected in the holes 0.80 m deep. The density of observations - 3 reference areas (one represents 20 stations) per 1 km{sup 2}. The radon risk maps in 1:25000 and 1:50000 scales have been compiled. The 56.8% of the project area lies in low radon risk, 37.6% in medium radon risk and 5.6% in high radon risk. Follow-up monitoring of the equivalent volume radon activity (EVRA) at the flats, located in the areas with high radon risk of the surface layer, has showed values several times higher than Slovak limits (Marianka, Raca, Vajnory). The evidence that neotectonic is excellent medium for rising up emanation to the subsurface layer, is shown on the map. The tectonic zone of Liscie udolie in Bratislava-Karlova Ves area has been clearly detected by profile radon survey (a{sub v} > 50 kBq/m{sup 3}). 2) At present, northern half of the area of Kosice in question was covered by radon survey. The low and medium radon risks have been observed here, while localities with high radon risk are small in extent. The part of radon risk and soil permeability map from northern Kosice area is shown. (J.K.) 3 figs., 2 refs.

  16. Geology and seismology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, J.F.; Blanc, B.

    1980-01-01

    For the construction of nuclear power stations, comprehensive site investigations are required to assure the adequacy and suitability of the site under consideration, as well as to establish the basic design data for designing and building the plant. The site investigations cover mainly the following matters: geology, seismology, hydrology, meteorology. Site investigations for nuclear power stations are carried out in stages in increasing detail and to an appreciable depth in order to assure the soundness of the project, and, in particular, to determine all measures required to assure the safety of the nuclear power station and the protection of the population against radiation exposure. The aim of seismological investigations is to determine the strength of the vibratory ground motion caused by an expected strong earthquake in order to design the plant resistant enough to take up these vibrations. In addition, secondary effects of earthquakes, such as landslides, liquefaction, surface faulting, etc. must be studied. For seashore sites, the tsunami risk must be evaluated. (orig.)

  17. Geological disposal concept hearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The article outlines the progress to date on AECL spent-nuclear fuel geological disposal concept. Hearings for discussion, organised by the federal Environmental Assessment Review Panel, of issues related to this type of disposal method occur in three phases, phase I focuses on broad societal issues related to long term management of nuclear fuel waste; phase II will focus on the technical aspects of this method of disposal; and phase III will consist of community visits in New Brunswick, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. This article provides the events surrounding the first two weeks of phase I hearings (extracted from UNECAN NEWS). In the first week of hearings, where submissions on general societal issues was the focus, there were 50 presentations including those by Natural Resources Canada, Energy Probe, Ontario Hydro, AECL, Canadian Nuclear Society, Aboriginal groups, environmental activist organizations (Northwatch, Saskatchewan Environmental Society, the Inter-Church Uranium Committee, and the Canadian Coalition for Nuclear responsibility). In the second week of hearings there was 33 presentations in which issues related to siting and implementation of a disposal facility was the focus. Phase II hearings dates are June 10-14, 17-21 and 27-28 in Toronto

  18. Radon in geological medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hricko, J.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presented deals with behavior of the radon in geological medium and with some results of the radon survey in Bratislava and Kosice regions. 1) The a v has been detected in the holes 0.80 m deep. The density of observations - 3 reference areas (one represents 20 stations) per 1 km 2 . The radon risk maps in 1:25000 and 1:50000 scales have been compiled. The 56.8% of the project area lies in low radon risk, 37.6% in medium radon risk and 5.6% in high radon risk. Follow-up monitoring of the equivalent volume radon activity (EVRA) at the flats, located in the areas with high radon risk of the surface layer, has showed values several times higher than Slovak limits (Marianka, Raca, Vajnory). The evidence that neotectonic is excellent medium for rising up emanation to the subsurface layer, is shown on the map. The tectonic zone of Liscie udolie in Bratislava-Karlova Ves area has been clearly detected by profile radon survey (a v > 50 kBq/m 3 ). 2) At present, northern half of the area of Kosice in question was covered by radon survey. The low and medium radon risks have been observed here, while localities with high radon risk are small in extent. The part of radon risk and soil permeability map from northern Kosice area is shown. (J.K.) 3 figs., 2 refs

  19. Lidar-enhanced geologic mapping, examples from the Medford and Hood River areas, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, T. J.; McClaughry, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    Lidar-based 3-foot digital elevation models (DEMs) and derivatives (slopeshade, hillshade, contours) were used to help map geology across 1700 km2 (650 mi2) near Hood River and Medford, Oregon. Techniques classically applied to interpret coarse DEMs and small-scale topographic maps were adapted to take advantage of lidar's high resolution. Penetration and discrimination of plant cover by the laser system allowed recognition of fine patterns and textures related to underlying geologic units and associated soils. Surficial geologic maps were improved by the ability to examine tiny variations in elevation and slope. Recognition of low-relief features of all sizes was enhanced where pixel elevation ranges of centimeters to meters, established by knowledge of the site or by trial, were displayed using thousands of sequential colors. Features can also be depicted relative to stream level by preparing a DEM that compensates for gradient. Near Medford, lidar-derived contour maps with 1- to 3-foot intervals revealed incised bajada with young, distal lobes defined by concentric contour lines. Bedrock geologic maps were improved by recognizing geologic features associated with surface textures and patterns or topographic anomalies. In sedimentary and volcanic terrain, structure was revealed by outcrops or horizons lying at one stratigraphic level. Creating a triangulated irregular network (TIN) facet from positions of three or more such points gives strike and dip. Each map area benefited from hundreds of these measurements. A more extensive DEM in the plane of the TIN facet can be subtracted from surface elevation (lidar DEM) to make a DEM with elevation zero where the stratigraphic horizon lies at the surface. The distribution of higher and lower stratigraphic horizons can be shown by highlighting areas similarly higher or lower on the same DEM. Poor fit of contacts or faults projected between field traverses suggest the nature and amount of intervening geologic structure

  20. Contributions to micromechanical model of the non linear behavior of the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou-Chakra Guery, A.

    2007-12-01

    This work is performed in the general context of the project of underground disposal of radioactive waste, undertaken by the French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA). Due to its strong density and weak permeability, the formation of Callovo-Oxfordian argillite is chosen as one of possible geological barriers to radionuclides. The objective of the study to develop and validate a non linear homogenization approach of the mechanical behavior of Callovo-Oxfordian argillites. The material is modelled as a composite constituted of an elasto(visco)plastic clay matrix and of linear elastic or elastic damage inclusions. The macroscopic constitutive law is obtained by adapting the incremental method proposed by Hill. The derived model is first compared to Finite Element calculations on unit cell. It is then validated and applied for the prediction of the macroscopic stress-strain responses of the argillite at different geological depths. Finally, the micromechanical model is implemented in a commercial finite element code (Abaqus) for the simulation of a vertical shaft of the underground laboratory. This allows predicting the distribution of damage state and plastic strains and characterizing the excavation damage zone (EDZ). (author)

  1. Geologic mapping procedure: Final draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    Geologic mapping will provide a baseline record of the subsurface geology in the shafts and drifts of the Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF). This information will be essential in confirming the specific repository horizon, selecting representative locations for the in situ tests, providing information for construction and decommissioning seal designs, documenting the excavation effects, and in providing information for performance assessment, which relates to the ultimate suitability of the site as a nuclear waste repository. Geologic mapping will be undertaken on the walls and roof, and locally on the floor within the completed At-Depth Facility (ADF) and on the walls of the two access shafts. Periodic mapping of the exposed face may be conducted during construction of the ADF. The mapping will be oriented toward the collection and presentation of geologic information in an engineering format and the portrayal of detailed stratigraphic information which may be useful in confirmation of drillhole data collected as part of the surface-based testing program. Geologic mapping can be considered as a predictive tool as well as a means of checking design assumptions. This document provides a description of the required procedures for geologic mapping for the ESF. Included in this procedure is information that qualified technical personnel can use to collect the required types of geologic descriptions, at the appropriate level of detail. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  2. Studies of geology and hydrology in the Basin and Range province, southwestern United States, for isolation of high-level radioactive waste: characterization of the Rio Grande Region, New Mexico, and Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedinger, M.S.; Sargent, Kenneth A.; Langer, William H.

    1989-01-01

    The Rio Grande region, New Mexico and Texas, includes most of the area east of the Rio Grande to the Sacramento Mountains. The region encompasses two large basins, the Jornada del Muerto and Tularosa basins, and the intervening San Andres Mountains. The valley surfaces generally have altitudes from 600 to 1,500 meters, and the mountain ranges generally have altitudes from 1,500 to 2,400 meters. About one-half the area is underlain by basin fill. Sedimentary rocks that crop out in the Rio Grande region range in age from Precambrian to Holocene. The oldest Precambrian rocks are metamorphosed and intruded by plutons. Paleozoic rocks are primarily carbonates, with argillaceous beds in the older Paleozoic units. Clastic and gypsum are in greater abundance in younger Paleozoic units of Pennsylvanian and Permian age. The Mesozoic rocks primarily are clastic rocks with some limestone. Cenozoic rocks consist of sequences of conglomerate, sandstone, mudstone, and siltstone, derived from adjacent mountain masses, interbedded with basalt and andesite flows and silicic tuffs. Early to middle Tertiary volcanic and tectonic processes resulted in the implacement of plutonic bodies; volcanic activity continued into the Quaternary. Media considered to have potential for isolation of high-level radioactive waste include intrusive rocks, ash-flow tuff, and basaltic lava flows. Laharic and mudflow breccia and argillaceous beds also may be potential host rocks. These and other rocks may be potential media in areas where the unsaturated zone is thick. Quaternary faults are more common in the southern one-half of the region than in the northern one-half. Range-bounding faults with evidence of Quaternary movement extend northward into the central part of the region. Volcanic activity in the northern part of the region includes basalt flows of Quaternary age. Historical crustal uplift and seismicity have occurred in the vicinity of Socorro, New Mexico. The region is bordered on the west by

  3. Geology and geomorphology of the Lower Deschutes River Canyon, Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin A. Beebee; Jim E. O' Connor; Gordon E. Grant

    2002-01-01

    This field guide is designed for geologists floating the approximately 80 kilometers (50 miles) of the Deschutes River from the Pelton-Round Butte Dam Complex west of Madras to Maupin, Oregon. The first section of the guide is a geologic timeline tracing the formation of the units that compose the canyon walls and the incision of the present canyon. The second section...

  4. Age determination and geological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, R.D.; Delabio, R.N.; Lachance, G.R.

    1982-01-01

    Two hundred and eight potassium-argon age determinations carried out on Canadian rocks and minerals are reported. Each age determination is accompanied by a description of the rock and mineral concentrate used; brief interpretative comments regarding the geological significance of each age are also provided where possible. The experimental procedures employed are described in brief outline and the constants used in the calculation of ages are listed. Two geological time-scales are reproduced in tabular form for ready reference and an index of all Geological Survey of Canada K-Ar age determinations published in this format has been prepared using NTS quadrangles as the primary reference

  5. Correlation chart of Pennsylvanian rocks in Alabama, Tennessee, Kentucky, Virginia, West Virginia, Ohio, Maryland, and Pennsylvania showing approximate position of coal beds, coal zones, and key stratigraphic units: Chapter D.2 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Trippi, Michael H.; Slucher, Ernie R.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    The Appalachian basin, one of the largest Pennsylvanian bituminous coal-producing regions in the world, currently contains nearly one-half of the top 15 coal-producing States in the United States (Energy Information Agency, 2006). Anthracite of Pennsylvanian age occurs in synclinal basins in eastern Pennsylvania, but production is minimal. A simplified correlation chart was compiled from published and unpublished sources as a means of visualizing currently accepted stratigraphic relations between the rock formations, coal beds, coal zones, and key stratigraphic units in Alabama, Tennessee, Kentucky, Virginia, West Virginia, Ohio, Maryland, and Pennsylvania. The thickness of each column is based on chronostratigraphic divisions (Lower, Middle, and Upper Pennsylvanian), not the thickness of strata. Researchers of Pennsylvanian strata in the Appalachian basin also use biostratigraphic markers and other relative and absolute geologic age associations between the rocks to better understand the spatial relations of the strata. Thus, the stratigraphic correlation data in this chart should be considered provisional and will be updated as coal-bearing rocks within the Appalachian coal regions continue to be evaluated.

  6. Geological map of Uruguay Esc 1,100,000. Cuchilla del Ombu. Sheet H-12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montana, J.

    1990-01-01

    This work is about the geological map of Uruguay Esc.1.100.000 (Cuchilla del Ombu) and the explanatory memoranda which describes the geological, lithological and sedimentological characteristics soils. In crystalline rocks have been recognized four basic units: porphyritic granite, Cunapiru granite, Cunapiru subvolcanic microgranite and metamorfites

  7. Kansas Energy Sources: A Geological Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriam, D.F.; Brady, L.L.; Newell, K.D.

    2012-01-01

    Kansas produces both conventional energy (oil, gas, and coal) and nonconventional (coalbed gas, wind, hydropower, nuclear, geothermal, solar, and biofuels) and ranks the 22nd in state energy production in the U. S. Nonrenewable conventional petroleum is the most important energy source with nonrenewable, nonconventional coalbed methane gas becoming increasingly important. Many stratigraphic units produce oil and/or gas somewhere in the state with the exception of the Salina Basin in north-central Kansas. Coalbed methane is produced from shallow wells drilled into the thin coal units in southeastern Kansas. At present, only two surface coal mines are active in southeastern Kansas. Although Kansas has been a major exporter of energy in the past (it ranked first in oil production in 1916), now, it is an energy importer. ?? 2011 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  8. A linear programming manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuey, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    Computer solutions of linear programming problems are outlined. Information covers vector spaces, convex sets, and matrix algebra elements for solving simultaneous linear equations. Dual problems, reduced cost analysis, ranges, and error analysis are illustrated.

  9. The Role of Geologic Mapping in NASA PDSI Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D. A.; Skinner, J. A.; Radebaugh, J.

    2017-12-01

    Geologic mapping is an investigative process designed to derive the geologic history of planetary objects at local, regional, hemispheric or global scales. Geologic maps are critical products that aid future exploration by robotic spacecraft or human missions, support resource exploration, and provide context for and help guide scientific discovery. Creation of these tools, however, can be challenging in that, relative to their terrestrial counterparts, non-terrestrial planetary geologic maps lack expansive field-based observations. They rely, instead, on integrating diverse data types wth a range of spatial scales and areal coverage. These facilitate establishment of geomorphic and geologic context but are generally limited with respect to identifying outcrop-scale textural details and resolving temporal and spatial changes in depositional environments. As a result, planetary maps should be prepared with clearly defined contact and unit descriptions as well as a range of potential interpretations. Today geologic maps can be made from images obtained during the traverses of the Mars rovers, and for every new planetary object visited by NASA orbital or flyby spacecraft (e.g., Vesta, Ceres, Titan, Enceladus, Pluto). As Solar System Exploration develops and as NASA prepares to send astronauts back to the Moon and on to Mars, the importance of geologic mapping will increase. In this presentation, we will discuss the past role of geologic mapping in NASA's planetary science activities and our thoughts on the role geologic mapping will have in exploration in the coming decades. Challenges that planetary mapping must address include, among others: 1) determine the geologic framework of all Solar System bodies through the systematic development of geologic maps at appropriate scales, 2) develop digital Geographic Information Systems (GIS)-based mapping techniques and standards to assist with communicating map information to the scientific community and public, 3) develop

  10. Spent fuel performance in geologic repository environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, D.J.

    1985-10-01

    The performance assessment of the waste package is a current area of study in the United States program to develop a geologic repository for nuclear waste isolation. The waste package is presently envisioned as the waste form and its surrounding containers and possibly a packing material composed of crushed host rock or mixtures of that rock with clays. This waste package is tied to performance criteria set forth in recent legislation. It is the goal of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program to obtain the necessary information on the waste package, in several geologic environments, to show that the waste package provides reasonable assurance of meeting established performance criteria. This paper discusses the United States program directed toward managing high-level radioactive waste, with emphasis on the current effort to define the behavior of irradiated spent fuel in repository groundwaters. Current studies are directed toward understanding the rate and nature (such as valence state, colloid form if any, solid phase controlling solubility) of radionuclide release from the spent fuel. Due to the strong interactive effect of radiation, thermal fields, and waste package components on this release, current spent fuel studies are being conducted primarily in the presence of waste package components over a wide range of potential environments

  11. Geology of the Integrated Disposal Facility Trench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reidel, Steve P.; Fecht, Karl R.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the geology of the integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) Trench. The stratigraphy consists of some of the youngest sediments of the Missoula floods (younger than 770 ka). The lithology is dominated sands with minor silts and gravels that are largely unconsolidated. The stratigraphy can be subdivided into five geologic units that can be mapped throughout the trench. Four of the units were deposited by the Missoula floods and the youngest consists of windblown sand and silt. The sediment has little moisture and is consistent with that observed in the characterization boreholes. The sedimentary layers are flat lying and there are no faults or folds present. Two clastic dikes were encountered, one along the west wall and one that can be traced from the north to the southwall. The north-south clastic dike nearly bifurcates the trench but the west wall clastic dike can not be traced very far east into the trench. The classic dikes consist mainly of sand with clay-lined walls. The sediment in the dikes is compacted to partly cemented and are more resistant than the layered sediments

  12. Linear shaped charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, David; Stofleth, Jerome H.; Saul, Venner W.

    2017-07-11

    Linear shaped charges are described herein. In a general embodiment, the linear shaped charge has an explosive with an elongated arrowhead-shaped profile. The linear shaped charge also has and an elongated v-shaped liner that is inset into a recess of the explosive. Another linear shaped charge includes an explosive that is shaped as a star-shaped prism. Liners are inset into crevices of the explosive, where the explosive acts as a tamper.

  13. Classifying Linear Canonical Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Lorand, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    In this Master's thesis, we consider the problem of classifying, up to conjugation by linear symplectomorphisms, linear canonical relations (lagrangian correspondences) from a finite-dimensional symplectic vector space to itself. We give an elementary introduction to the theory of linear canonical relations and present partial results toward the classification problem. This exposition should be accessible to undergraduate students with a basic familiarity with linear algebra.

  14. Linear-Algebra Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, C. L.; Krogh, F. T.; Gold, S. S.; Kincaid, D. R.; Sullivan, J.; Williams, E.; Hanson, R. J.; Haskell, K.; Dongarra, J.; Moler, C. B.

    1982-01-01

    The Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS) library is a collection of 38 FORTRAN-callable routines for performing basic operations of numerical linear algebra. BLAS library is portable and efficient source of basic operations for designers of programs involving linear algebriac computations. BLAS library is supplied in portable FORTRAN and Assembler code versions for IBM 370, UNIVAC 1100 and CDC 6000 series computers.

  15. Geologic map of the Lada Terra quadrangle (V-56), Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P. Senthil; Head, James W.

    2013-01-01

    This publication provides a geological map of Lada Terra quadrangle (V–56), a portion of the southern hemisphere of Venus that extends from lat 50° S. to 70° S. and from long 0° E. to 60° E. V–56 is bordered by Kaiwan Fluctus (V–44) and Agnesi (V–45) quadrangles in the north and by Mylitta Fluctus (V–61), Fredegonde (V–57), and Hurston (V–62) quadrangles in the west, east, and south, respectively. The geological map of V–56 quadrangle reveals evidence for tectonic, volcanic, and impact processes in Lada Terra in the form of tesserae, regional extensional belts, coronae, and volcanic plains. In addition, the map also shows relative age relations such as overlapping or cross-cutting relations between the mapped geologic units. The geology observed within this quadrangle addresses (1) how coronae evolved in association with regional extensional belts and (2) how tesserae, regional plains, and impact craters, which are also significant geological units observed in Lada Terra quadrangle, were formed.

  16. The Europa Global Geologic Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, E. J.; Patthoff, D. A.; Senske, D. A.; Collins, G. C.

    2018-06-01

    The Europa Global Geologic Map reveals three periods in Europa's surface history as well as an interesting distribution of microchaos. We will discuss the mapping and the interesting implications of our analysis of Europa's surface.

  17. Terrestrial and Lunar Geological Terminology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Christian

    2009-01-01

    This section is largely a compilation of defining geological terms concepts. Broader topics, such as the ramifications for simulant design and in situ resource utilization, are included as necessary for context.

  18. The geological map of Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossi, J.; Ferrando, L.; Fernandez, A.; Elizalde, G.; Morales, H.; Ledesma, J.; Carballo, E.; Medina, E.; Ford, I.; Montana, J.

    1975-01-01

    The geological map of Uruguay is about the morphological characteristics of the soil such as rocks, sediments and granites belong to different periods. These periods are the proterozoic, paleozoic, permian, mesozoic, jurassic, cretaceous, cenozoic and holocene.

  19. Planetary Geologic Mapping Handbook - 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Skinner, J. A.; Hare, T. M.

    2009-01-01

    Geologic maps present, in an historical context, fundamental syntheses of interpretations of the materials, landforms, structures, and processes that characterize planetary surfaces and shallow subsurfaces (e.g., Varnes, 1974). Such maps also provide a contextual framework for summarizing and evaluating thematic research for a given region or body. In planetary exploration, for example, geologic maps are used for specialized investigations such as targeting regions of interest for data collection and for characterizing sites for landed missions. Whereas most modern terrestrial geologic maps are constructed from regional views provided by remote sensing data and supplemented in detail by field-based observations and measurements, planetary maps have been largely based on analyses of orbital photography. For planetary bodies in particular, geologic maps commonly represent a snapshot of a surface, because they are based on available information at a time when new data are still being acquired. Thus the field of planetary geologic mapping has been evolving rapidly to embrace the use of new data and modern technology and to accommodate the growing needs of planetary exploration. Planetary geologic maps have been published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) since 1962 (Hackman, 1962). Over this time, numerous maps of several planetary bodies have been prepared at a variety of scales and projections using the best available image and topographic bases. Early geologic map bases commonly consisted of hand-mosaicked photographs or airbrushed shaded-relief views and geologic linework was manually drafted using mylar bases and ink drafting pens. Map publishing required a tedious process of scribing, color peel-coat preparation, typesetting, and photo-laboratory work. Beginning in the 1990s, inexpensive computing, display capability and user-friendly illustration software allowed maps to be drawn using digital tools rather than pen and ink, and mylar bases became obsolete

  20. NCEI Marine Geology Data Archive

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine Geologic data compilations and reports in the NCEI archive are from academic and government sources around the world. Over ten terabytes of analyses,...

  1. Geology behind nuclear fission technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhana Raju, R.

    2005-01-01

    Geology appears to have played an important role of a precursor to Nuclear Fission Technology (NFT), in the latter's both birth from the nucleus of an atom of and most important application as nuclear power extracted from Uranium (U), present in its minerals. NFT critically depends upon the availability of its basic raw material, viz., nuclear fuel as U and/ or Th, extracted from U-Th minerals of specific rock types in the earth's crust. Research and Development of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle (NFC) depends heavily on 'Geology'. In this paper, a brief review of the major branches of geology and their contributions during different stages of NFC, in the Indian scenario, is presented so as to demonstrate the important role played by 'Geology' behind the development of NFT, in general, and NFC, in particular. (author)

  2. Geological mapping of the moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markov, M. S.; Sukhanov, A. L.; Trifonov, V. G.; Florenskiy, P. V.; Shkerin, L. M.

    1974-01-01

    Compilation and labelling of geological and morphological charts on a scale of 1:1,000,000 are discussed with emphasis on the regions of Maria Tranquilitatis, Crisium, Fecunditatis, Humorum and Nukium as well as certain prominent craters.

  3. The laboratories of geological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This educational document comprises 4 booklets in a folder devoted to the presentation of the ANDRA's activities in geological research laboratories. The first booklet gives a presentation of the missions of the ANDRA (the French agency for the management of radioactive wastes) in the management of long life radioactive wastes. The second booklet describes the approach of waste disposal facilities implantation. The third booklet gives a brief presentation of the scientific program concerning the underground geologic laboratories. The last booklet is a compilation of questions and answers about long-life radioactive wastes, the research and works carried out in geologic laboratories, the public information and the local socio-economic impact, and the storage of radioactive wastes in deep geological formations. (J.S.)

  4. Geology and prospecting in the Carpatians conference excursion guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacko Stanislav

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available We would like to welcome you to the excursions finalizing the Geology and prospecting in the Carpathians Conference, Her¾any –2000. The aim of the excursions is to provide you an overview of these Western Carpathian lithostructural units – and their mineralization respectively, research progress of which has been (at that time closely connected with personal investigation enthusiasm of our Professors - the founders of our Faculty. The current state of geological development knowledge of principal structural units of the Western Carpathians is outlined in papers included in special issue of Mineralia Slovaca magazine you have received at the begining of the Conference. For this reason the content of this Excursion quide is exclusively concentrated to description of routes localities. Broader geological relationships of particular outcrops is possible to find in attached Geological map of the Slovak Republic 1:100 000. The organizers of the excursions gratefully acknowledge the efforts of all colleagues who contributed to this quide. We also like to express our thanks for the financial support to Slovak VEGA grant Agency (Grant No:1/7389/2 and to the following organizations: Association of Metallurgy, Minig Industry and Geology of Slovak Republic, Slovak Geological Society, Management of TU Košice, SAPTU Foundation of TU Košice, Geological Survey of the Slovak Republic Betox JSC. Košice, SMW JSC. Jelšava, Uranpress Ltd. Spišská Nová Ves, TESCO Košice, ŽELBA-Siderite JSC. Nižná Slaná and ŽELBA –JSC. Spišská Nová Ves.

  5. Report on geologic remote sensing of the Columbia Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandness, G.A.; Kimball, C.S.; Schmierer, K.E.; Lindberg, J.W.

    1982-05-01

    The purpose of this remote sensing study is to identify faults or other geologic features which may have a significant bearing on the structural and tectonic character of the Hanford Site and the surrounding region. Landsat imagery, Skylab photographs, and U-2 photographs were analyzed to identify and map geologic photolineaments in the Columbia Plateau. The Landsat and Skylab imagery provided a regional perspective and allowed the identification of large-scale linear features. The U-2 photography provided much greater spatial resolution as well as a stereoscopic viewing capability. This allowed identification of smaller structural or geologic features and the identification of many cultural and nongeologic lineaments detected in the Landsat and Skylab imagery. The area studied totals, approximately 85,000 square miles, and encompasses virtually all exposures of Columbia River Basalt in the states of Washington, Oregon, and Idaho. It also includes an area bordering the Columbia River Basalt outcrop. This border area was studied in order to identify significant structures that may extend into the plateau. Included are a description of the procedures used for image analysis, 20 lineament maps at a scale of 1:250,000, geological summaries for the areas covered by the lineament maps, and discussions of many of the lineaments shown on the maps. Comparisons of the lineament maps with available geologic maps showed that the number of detected lineaments was much greater than the number of known faults and other linear features. Approximately 70% of the faults shown on the geologic maps were detected and are characterized as lineaments. Lineament trends in the northwest-southeast and northeast-southwest directions were found to predominate throughout the study area

  6. The Geologic Story of the Uinta Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Wallace R.

    1969-01-01

    than scientific; his second, more scientific trip was made 2 years later. Powell revisited the Uinta Mountains in 1874 and 1875 to complete the studies begun 6 years earlier. His classic 'Report on the Geology of the Eastern Portion of the Uinta Mountains and a Region of Country Adjacent Thereto' was published in 1876. King's survey?officially 'The United States Geological Exploration of the Fortieth Parallel'?is better known simply as the '40th Parallel Survey.' King began working eastward from California in 1867. The Uinta Mountains region, however, was mapped by S. F. Emmons, under the supervision of King, in the summers of 1869 and 1871. Emmons' work was monumental, and although he emphasized in his letter of transmittal to King the exploratory nature of the work?as the formal title of the report indicates?his maps, descriptions, and conclusions reflect a comprehensive understanding of the country and its rocks. The 40th Parallel report contains the best, most complete early descriptions of the Uinta Mountains. It, indeed, is a treasurechest of information and a landmark contribution to the emerging science of geology. Hayden visited the Uinta Mountains in 1870, descending the valley of Henrys Fork to Flaming Gorge in the fall after having earlier examined the higher part of the range to the west. Most of Hayden's observations were cursory, and he repeatedly expressed regret at having insufficient time for more detailed studies. In reference to the area between Clay Basin and Browns Park, he remarked (Hayden, 1871, p. 67) somewhat dryly that 'the geology of this portion of the Uinta range is very complicated and interesting. To have solved the problem to my entire satisfaction would have required a week or two.' Eighty-odd years later I spent several months there?looking at the same rocks. Powell was perhaps more creative?more intuitive?than either King or Hayden, and his breadth of interest in the fields of geology, physiography, ethnology, an

  7. The 16th International Geological Congress, Washington, 1933

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, C.M.

    2009-01-01

    In 1933, the International Geological Congress (IGC) returned to the United States of America (USA) for its sixteenth meeting, forty-two years after the 5th IGC convened in Washington. The Geological Society of America and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) supplied the major part of the required extra-registration funding after the effects of the Great Depression influenced the 72th U.S. Congress not to do so. A reported 1, 182 persons or organizations, representing fifty-four countries, registered for the 16 th IGC and thirty-four countries sent 141 official delegates. Of the total number of registrants, 665 actually attended the meeting; 500 came from the USA; and fifteen had participated in the 5th IGC. The 16 th Meeting convened in the U.S. Chamber of Commerce Building from 22 to 29 July. The eighteen half-day scientific sections-orogenesis (four), major divisions of the Paleozoic (three), miscellaneous (three), batholiths and related intrusives (two), arid-region geomorphic processes and products (one), fossil man and contemporary faunas (one), geology of copper and other ore deposits (one), geology of petroleum (one), measuring geologic time (one), and zonal relations of metalliferous deposits (one)-included 166 papers, of which fifty (including several of the key contributions) appeared only by title. The Geological Society of Washington, the National Academy of Sciences, and the U.S. Bureau of Mines hosted or contributed to evening presentations or receptions. Twenty-eight of the 16th IGC's thirty new guidebooks and one new USGS Bulletin aided eight pre-meeting, seven during-meeting, and four post-meeting field trips of local, regional, or national scope. The remaining two new guidebooks outlined the USA's structural geology and its stratigraphic nomenclature. The 16th IGC published a two-volume monograph on the world's copper resources (1935) and a two-volume report of its proceedings (1936).

  8. Health benefits of geologic materials and geologic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelman, R.B.

    2006-01-01

    The reemerging field of Medical Geology is concerned with the impacts of geologic materials and geologic processes on animal and human health. Most medical geology research has been focused on health problems caused by excess or deficiency of trace elements, exposure to ambient dust, and on other geologically related health problems or health problems for which geoscience tools, techniques, or databases could be applied. Little, if any, attention has been focused on the beneficial health effects of rocks, minerals, and geologic processes. These beneficial effects may have been recognized as long as two million years ago and include emotional, mental, and physical health benefits. Some of the earliest known medicines were derived from rocks and minerals. For thousands of years various clays have been used as an antidote for poisons. "Terra sigillata," still in use today, may have been the first patented medicine. Many trace elements, rocks, and minerals are used today in a wide variety of pharmaceuticals and health care products. There is also a segment of society that believes in the curative and preventative properties of crystals (talismans and amulets). Metals and trace elements are being used in some of today's most sophisticated medical applications. Other recent examples of beneficial effects of geologic materials and processes include epidemiological studies in Japan that have identified a wide range of health problems (such as muscle and joint pain, hemorrhoids, burns, gout, etc.) that may be treated by one or more of nine chemically distinct types of hot springs, and a study in China indicating that residential coal combustion may be mobilizing sufficient iodine to prevent iodine deficiency disease. ?? 2006 MDPI. All rights reserved.

  9. Discussion on the 3D visualizing of 1:200 000 geological map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaopeng

    2018-01-01

    Using United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) terrain data as digital elevation model (DEM), overlap scanned 1:200 000 scale geological map, program using Direct 3D of Microsoft with C# computer language, the author realized the three-dimensional visualization of the standard division geological map. User can inspect the regional geology content with arbitrary angle, rotating, roaming, and can examining the strata synthetical histogram, map section and legend at any moment. This will provide an intuitionistic analyzing tool for the geological practitioner to do structural analysis with the assistant of landform, dispose field exploration route etc.

  10. Airborne radiometric data - A tool for reconnaissance geological mapping using a GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, D.F.; Bonham-Carter, G.F.

    1993-01-01

    A clustering technique is applied to radioelement data, and the resulting cluster map is compared with a digitized geological map within a GIS software package. The cross tabulation clearly identifies those geological units that have a distinctive radioelement response. By reclassifying the map overlay and imposing a color coding scheme that enhances bedrock geology classes, the relationship between the bedrock geology and radioelement response is enhanced. The degree of correlation between the two cartographic images is site dependent, rather than global. Areas where the two maps differ indicate zones of possible interest for field verification of published field maps for the purposes of mineral exploration. 13 refs

  11. Geology and sinkhole development of the Hagerstown valley : phase II : [research summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to map the western half of the Hagerstown Valley to : determine the distribution of karst features relative to bedrock geologic units using a : global positioning system (GPS).

  12. Environmental geologic analysis of Rio de las Taguas basin Department of Iglesia San Juan, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arroqui Langer, A.; Cardus, A.; Sindern, S.; Nozica G

    2007-01-01

    In this work has been stablished a relation betwwen geological units and mineralizations related with the aim to understand the hydrochemistry in this area for future environmental impact projects measurement

  13. The geological map of Canelones Department scale 1:1000.000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spoturno, J.; Oyhantcabal, P.; Goso, C.; Aubet, N.; Cazaux; S; Huelmo, S.; Morales, E.; Loureiro, J.

    2004-01-01

    The geological map of Canelones Department (Uruguay), scale 1:100.000 is presented. This map shows the distribution of the proterozoic, mesozoic and cenozoic lithological units. A stratigraphic division of this region is included [es

  14. The geological map of Montevideo Department scale 1:50.000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spoturno, J.; Oyhantcabal, P.; Goso, C.; Aubet, N.; Cazaux; S; Huelmo, S.; Morales, E.; Loureiro, J.

    2004-01-01

    The geological map of Montevideo Department (Uruguay), scale 1:50.000 is presented. This map shows the distribution of the proterozoic, mesozoic and cenozoic lithological units. A stratigraphic division of this region is included [es

  15. Subsurface geology off Bombay with paleoclimatic inferences interpreted from shallow seismic profiles

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhattacharya, G.C.; Almeida, F.; Vora, K.H.; Siddiquie, H.N.

    High resolution seismic reflection profiles nearshore areas off Bombay provide information on subsurface geology and permit certain paleoclimatic inferences. Three sedimentary units overlie the acoustic basement: late Pleistocene consolidated...

  16. JET VELOCITY OF LINEAR SHAPED CHARGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vječislav Bohanek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Shaped explosive charges with one dimension significantly larger than the other are called linear shaped charges. Linear shaped charges are used in various industries and are applied within specific technologies for metal cutting, such as demolition of steel structures, separating spent rocket fuel tanks, demining, cutting holes in the barriers for fire service, etc. According to existing theories and models efficiency of linear shaped charges depends on the kinetic energy of the jet which is proportional to square of jet velocity. The original method for measuring velocity of linear shaped charge jet is applied in the aforementioned research. Measurements were carried out for two different linear materials, and the results are graphically presented, analysed and compared. Measurement results show a discrepancy in the measured velocity of the jet for different materials with the same ratio between linear and explosive mass (M/C per unit of surface, which is not described by presented models (the paper is published in Croatian.

  17. A linear maglev guide for machine tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tieste, K D [Inst. of Mechanics, Univ. of Hannover (Germany); Popp, K [Inst. of Mechanics, Univ. of Hannover (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Machine tools require linear guides with high slide velocity and very high position accuracy. The three tasks of a linear guide - supporting, guiding and driving - shall be realised by means of active magnetic bearings (AMB). The resulting linear magnetically levitated (maglev) guide has to accomplish the following characteristics: High stiffness, good damping and low noise as well as low heat production. First research on a one degree-of-freedom (DOF) support magnet unit aimed at the development of components and efficient control strategies for the linear maglev guide. The actual research is directed to realise a five DOF linear maglev guide for machine tools without drive to answer the question whether the maglev principle can be used for a linear axis in a machine tool. (orig.)

  18. Geologic Interpretation of Data Sets Collected by Planetary Analog Geology Traverses and by Standard Geologic Field Mapping. Part 1; A Comparison Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppler, Dean B.; Bleacher, Jacob F.; Evans, Cynthia A.; Feng, Wanda; Gruener, John; Hurwitz, Debra M.; Skinner, J. A., Jr.; Whitson, Peggy; Janoiko, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Geologic maps integrate the distributions, contacts, and compositions of rock and sediment bodies as a means to interpret local to regional formative histories. Applying terrestrial mapping techniques to other planets is challenging because data is collected primarily by orbiting instruments, with infrequent, spatiallylimited in situ human and robotic exploration. Although geologic maps developed using remote data sets and limited "Apollo-style" field access likely contain inaccuracies, the magnitude, type, and occurrence of these are only marginally understood. This project evaluates the interpretative and cartographic accuracy of both field- and remote-based mapping approaches by comparing two 1:24,000 scale geologic maps of the San Francisco Volcanic Field (SFVF), north-central Arizona. The first map is based on traditional field mapping techniques, while the second is based on remote data sets, augmented with limited field observations collected during NASA Desert Research & Technology Studies (RATS) 2010 exercises. The RATS mission used Apollo-style methods not only for pre-mission traverse planning but also to conduct geologic sampling as part of science operation tests. Cross-comparison demonstrates that the Apollo-style map identifies many of the same rock units and determines a similar broad history as the field-based map. However, field mapping techniques allow markedly improved discrimination of map units, particularly unconsolidated surficial deposits, and recognize a more complex eruptive history than was possible using Apollo-style data. Further, the distribution of unconsolidated surface units was more obvious in the remote sensing data to the field team after conducting the fieldwork. The study raises questions about the most effective approach to balancing mission costs with the rate of knowledge capture, suggesting that there is an inflection point in the "knowledge capture curve" beyond which additional resource investment yields progressively

  19. Non linear system become linear system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre Bucur

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper refers to the theory and the practice of the systems regarding non-linear systems and their applications. We aimed the integration of these systems to elaborate their response as well as to highlight some outstanding features.

  20. Linear motor coil assembly and linear motor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    An ironless linear motor (5) comprising a magnet track (53) and a coil assembly (50) operating in cooperation with said magnet track (53) and having a plurality of concentrated multi-turn coils (31 a-f, 41 a-d, 51 a-k), wherein the end windings (31E) of the coils (31 a-f, 41 a-e) are substantially

  1. Remnants of Lost Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] In eastern Arabia Terra, remnants of a once vast layered terrain are evident as isolated buttes, mesas, and deeply-filled craters. The origin of the presumed sediments that created the layers is unknown, but those same sediments, now eroded, may be the source of the thick mantle of dust that covers much of Arabia Terra today.Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 20.5, Longitude 50 East (310 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

  2. Geology Field Trips as Performance Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Callan

    2009-01-01

    One of the most important goals the author has for students in his introductory-level physical geology course is to give them the conceptual skills for solving geologic problems on their own. He wants students to leave his course as individuals who can use their knowledge of geologic processes and logic to figure out the extended geologic history…

  3. Geologic evolution of Tucurui region - Para

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Matta, M.A. da.

    1982-01-01

    The northern part of the Araguaia Belt is exposed in the Tucurui region and their stratigraphic, structural, metamorphic and magmatic features had been studied aiming at contributing for the understanding of the geological evolution of the area. Dating with R-Sr and K-At are also presented, allowing some association for the lythotype of Xingu complex and Araguaia Belt. The oldest stratigraphic unit of the area is represented by the Xingu Complex, composed by gneisses and granites and subordinated schists and anphibolites. Over this unit, during the niddle Proterozoic, the Tucurui group was developed. The bottom of this unit is composed by a sequence of tholeiitic basaltic flows which were here enclosed in the Caripe Formation. The Morrote Formation, is made up of graywackes, and constitutes the upper part of the Tucurui Group. The geossinolinal evolution of the Araguaia Belt took place during the Uruacuano Cycle. This geoteotonic unit is represented in the studied area by the Couto Magalhaes Formation (Tocantins Group) which comprises pelitic and psamitic metasediments. After the metamorphism of the Araguaia Belt, the Couto Magalhaes Formation acted as the place of mafic and ultramafic intrusion and, lately, the Tucurui Fault thrusted the metamorphic rocks of the Tocantins Group over the Tucurui Group lithetypes. (author)

  4. A geologic guide to Wrangell-Saint Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska; a tectonic collage of northbound terranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Gary R.; with contributions by MacKevett, E. M.; Plafker, George; Richter, D.H.; Rosenkrans, D.S.; Schmoll, H.R.

    2000-01-01

    Wrangell-Saint Elias National Park and Preserve, the largest unit in the U.S. National Park System, encompasses near 13.2 million acres of geological wonderments. This geologic guide presents history of exploration and Earth-science investigation; describes the complex geologic makeup; characterizes the vast college of accretion geologic terranes in this area of Alaska's continental margin; recapitulates the effects of earthquakes, volcanoes, and glaciers; characterizes the copper and gold resources of the parklands; and describes outstanding locales within the park and preserve area. A glossary of geologic terms and a categorized list of additional sources of information complete this report.

  5. Geologic map of the Ganiki Planitia quadrangle (V-14), Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosfils, Eric B.; Long, Sylvan M.; Venechuk, Elizabeth M.; Hurwitz, Debra M.; Richards, Joseph W.; Drury, Dorothy E.; Hardin, Johanna

    2011-01-01

    The Ganiki Planitia (V-14) quadrangle on Venus, which extends from 25° N. to 50° N. and from 180° E. to 210° E., derives its name from the extensive suite of plains that dominates the geology of the northern part of the region. With a surface area of nearly 6.5 x 106 km2 (roughly two-thirds that of the United States), the quadrangle is located northwest of the Beta-Atla-Themis volcanic zone and southeast of the Atalanta Planitia lowlands, areas proposed to be the result of large scale mantle upwelling and downwelling, respectively. The region immediately south of Ganiki Planitia is dominated by Atla Regio, a major volcanic rise beneath which localized upwelling appears to be ongoing, whereas the area just to the north is dominated by the orderly system of north-trending deformation belts that characterize Vinmara Planitia. The Ganiki Planitia quadrangle thus lies at the intersection between several physiographic regions where extensive mantle flow-induced tectonic and volcanic processes are thought to have occurred. The geology of the V-14 quadrangle is characterized by a complex array of volcanic, tectonic, and impact-derived features. There are eleven impact craters with diameters from 4 to 64 km, as well as four diffuse 'splotch' features interpreted to be the product of near-surface bolide explosions. Tectonic activity has produced heavily deformed tesserae, belts of complex deformation and rifts as well as a distributed system of fractures and wrinkle ridges. Volcanic activity has produced extensive regional plains deposits, and in the northwest corner of the quadrangle these plains host the initial (or terminal) 700 km of the Baltis Vallis canali, an enigmatic volcanic feature with a net length of ~7,000 km that is the longest channel on Venus. Major volcanic centers in V-14 include eight large volcanoes and eight coronae; all but one of these sixteen features was noted during a previous global survey. The V-14 quadrangle contains an abundance of minor

  6. Linear collider: a preview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedemann, H.

    1981-11-01

    Since no linear colliders have been built yet it is difficult to know at what energy the linear cost scaling of linear colliders drops below the quadratic scaling of storage rings. There is, however, no doubt that a linear collider facility for a center of mass energy above say 500 GeV is significantly cheaper than an equivalent storage ring. In order to make the linear collider principle feasible at very high energies a number of problems have to be solved. There are two kinds of problems: one which is related to the feasibility of the principle and the other kind of problems is associated with minimizing the cost of constructing and operating such a facility. This lecture series describes the problems and possible solutions. Since the real test of a principle requires the construction of a prototype I will in the last chapter describe the SLC project at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center.

  7. Basic linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Blyth, T S

    2002-01-01

    Basic Linear Algebra is a text for first year students leading from concrete examples to abstract theorems, via tutorial-type exercises. More exercises (of the kind a student may expect in examination papers) are grouped at the end of each section. The book covers the most important basics of any first course on linear algebra, explaining the algebra of matrices with applications to analytic geometry, systems of linear equations, difference equations and complex numbers. Linear equations are treated via Hermite normal forms which provides a successful and concrete explanation of the notion of linear independence. Another important highlight is the connection between linear mappings and matrices leading to the change of basis theorem which opens the door to the notion of similarity. This new and revised edition features additional exercises and coverage of Cramer's rule (omitted from the first edition). However, it is the new, extra chapter on computer assistance that will be of particular interest to readers:...

  8. Linear collider: a preview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedemann, H.

    1981-11-01

    Since no linear colliders have been built yet it is difficult to know at what energy the linear cost scaling of linear colliders drops below the quadratic scaling of storage rings. There is, however, no doubt that a linear collider facility for a center of mass energy above say 500 GeV is significantly cheaper than an equivalent storage ring. In order to make the linear collider principle feasible at very high energies a number of problems have to be solved. There are two kinds of problems: one which is related to the feasibility of the principle and the other kind of problems is associated with minimizing the cost of constructing and operating such a facility. This lecture series describes the problems and possible solutions. Since the real test of a principle requires the construction of a prototype I will in the last chapter describe the SLC project at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center

  9. The use of U.S. Geological Survey CD-ROM-based petroleum assessments in undergraduate geology laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eves, R.L.; Davis, L.E.; Dyman, T.S.; Takahashi, K.I.

    2002-01-01

    Domestic oil production is declining and United States reliance on imported oil is increasing. America will be faced with difficult decisions that address the strategic, economic, and political consequences of its energy resources shortage. The geologically literate under-graduate student needs to be aware of current and future United States energy issues. The U.S. Geological Survey periodically provides energy assessment data via digitally-formatted CD-ROM publications. These publications are free to the public, and are well suited for use in undergraduate geology curricula. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 1995 National Assessment of United States Oil and Gas Resources (Digital Data Series or DDS-30) (Gautier and others, 1996) is an excellent resource for introducing students to the strategies of hydrocarbon exploration and for developing skills in problem-solving and evaluating real data. This paper introduces the reader to DDS-30, summarizes the essential terminology and methodology of hydrocarbon assessment, and offers examples of exercises or questions that might be used in the introductory classroom. The USGS contact point for obtaining DDS-30 and other digital assessment volumes is also provided. Completing the sample exercises in this report requires a copy of DDS-30.

  10. Matrices and linear transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Cullen, Charles G

    1990-01-01

    ""Comprehensive . . . an excellent introduction to the subject."" - Electronic Engineer's Design Magazine.This introductory textbook, aimed at sophomore- and junior-level undergraduates in mathematics, engineering, and the physical sciences, offers a smooth, in-depth treatment of linear algebra and matrix theory. The major objects of study are matrices over an arbitrary field. Contents include Matrices and Linear Systems; Vector Spaces; Determinants; Linear Transformations; Similarity: Part I and Part II; Polynomials and Polynomial Matrices; Matrix Analysis; and Numerical Methods. The first

  11. Efficient Non Linear Loudspeakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bo R.; Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2006-01-01

    Loudspeakers have traditionally been designed to be as linear as possible. However, as techniques for compensating non linearities are emerging, it becomes possible to use other design criteria. This paper present and examines a new idea for improving the efficiency of loudspeakers at high levels...... by changing the voice coil layout. This deliberate non-linear design has the benefit that a smaller amplifier can be used, which has the benefit of reducing system cost as well as reducing power consumption....

  12. Processes of Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 16 July 2003This THEMIS visible image captures a complex process of deposition, burial and exhumation. The crater ejecta in the top of the image is in the form of flow lobes, indicating that the crater was formed in volatile-rich terrain. While a radial pattern can be seen in the ejecta, the pattern is sharper in the lower half of the ejecta. This is because the top half of the ejecta is still buried by a thin layer of sediment. It is most likely that at one time the entire area was covered. Wind, and perhaps water erosion have started to remove this layer, once again exposing the what was present underneath.Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -34.3, Longitude 181.2 East (178.8 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  13. IAEA safeguards for geological repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, B.W.

    2005-01-01

    In September. 1988, the IAEA held its first formal meeting on the safeguards requirements for the final disposal of spent fuel and nuclear material-bearing waste. The consensus recommendation of the 43 participants from 18 countries at this Advisory Group Meeting was that safeguards should not terminate of spent fuel even after emplacement in, and closure of, a geologic repository.' As a result of this recommendation, the IAEA initiated a series of consultants' meetings and the SAGOR Programme (Programme for the Development of Safeguards for the Final Disposal of Spent Fuel in Geologic Repositories) to develop an approach that would permit IAEA safeguards to verify the non-diversion of spent fuel from a geologic repository. At the end of this process, in December 1997, a second Advisory Group Meeting, endorsed the generic safeguards approach developed by the SAGOR Programme. Using the SAGOR Programme results and consultants' meeting recommendations, the IAEA Department of Safeguards issued a safeguards policy paper stating the requirements for IAEA safeguards at geologic repositories. Following approval of the safeguards policy and the generic safeguards approach, the Geologic Repository Safeguards Experts Group was established to make recommendations on implementing the safeguards approach. This experts' group is currently making recommendations to the IAEA regarding the safeguards activities to be conducted with respect to Finland's repository programme. (author)

  14. Linear models with R

    CERN Document Server

    Faraway, Julian J

    2014-01-01

    A Hands-On Way to Learning Data AnalysisPart of the core of statistics, linear models are used to make predictions and explain the relationship between the response and the predictors. Understanding linear models is crucial to a broader competence in the practice of statistics. Linear Models with R, Second Edition explains how to use linear models in physical science, engineering, social science, and business applications. The book incorporates several improvements that reflect how the world of R has greatly expanded since the publication of the first edition.New to the Second EditionReorganiz

  15. Linear integrated circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Carr, Joseph

    1996-01-01

    The linear IC market is large and growing, as is the demand for well trained technicians and engineers who understand how these devices work and how to apply them. Linear Integrated Circuits provides in-depth coverage of the devices and their operation, but not at the expense of practical applications in which linear devices figure prominently. This book is written for a wide readership from FE and first degree students, to hobbyists and professionals.Chapter 1 offers a general introduction that will provide students with the foundations of linear IC technology. From chapter 2 onwa

  16. Fault tolerant linear actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesar, Delbert

    2004-09-14

    In varying embodiments, the fault tolerant linear actuator of the present invention is a new and improved linear actuator with fault tolerance and positional control that may incorporate velocity summing, force summing, or a combination of the two. In one embodiment, the invention offers a velocity summing arrangement with a differential gear between two prime movers driving a cage, which then drives a linear spindle screw transmission. Other embodiments feature two prime movers driving separate linear spindle screw transmissions, one internal and one external, in a totally concentric and compact integrated module.

  17. Superconducting linear accelerator cryostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Elkonin, B.V.; Sokolowski, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    A large vertical cryostat for a superconducting linear accelerator using quarter wave resonators has been developed. The essential technical details, operational experience and performance are described. (author)

  18. Geology of the Terra Cimmeria-Utopia Planitia Highland Lowland Transitional Zone: Final Technical Approach and Scientific Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, J. A., Jr.; Tanaka, K. L.

    2010-01-01

    The southern Utopia highland-lowland transitional zone extends from northern Terra Cimmeria to southern Utopia Planitia and contains broad, bench-like platforms with depressions, pitted cones, tholi, and lobate flows. The locally occurring geologic units and landforms contrast other transitional regions and record a spatially partitioned geologic history. We systematically delineated and described the geologic units and landforms of the southern Utopia-Cimmeria highland-lowland transitional zone for the production of a 1:1,000,000-scale geologic map (MTMs 10237, 15237, 20237, 10242, 15242, 20242, 10247, 15247, and 20247). Herein, we present technical and scientific results of this mapping project.

  19. Geologic Mapping in the Hesperia Planum Region of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Tracy K. P.; Crown, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Hesperia Planum, characterized by a high concentration of mare-type wrinkle ridges and ridge rings, encompasses > 2 million square km in the southern highlands of Mars. The most common interpretation is that the plains were emplaced as "flood" lavas with total thicknesses of geologic mapping reveal that the whole of Hesperia Planum is unlikely to be composed of the same materials, emplaced at the same geologic time. To unravel these complexities, we are generating a 1:1.5M-scale geologic map of Hesperia Planum and its surroundings. To date, we have identified 4 distinct plains units within Hesperia Planum and are attempting to determine the nature and relative ages of these materials.

  20. Geologic studies in Alaska by the U.S. Geological Survey, 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Till, Alison B.

    1993-01-01

    This collection of 19 papers continues the annual series of U.S. Geological Survey reports on the geology of Alaska. The contributions, which include full-length Articles and shorter Geologic Notes, cover a broad range of topics including dune formation, stratigraphy, paleontology, isotopic dating, mineral resources, and tectonics. Articles, grouped under four regional headings, span nearly the entire State from the North Slope to southwestern, south-central, and southeastern Alaska (fig. 1).In the section on northern Alaska, Galloway and Carter use new data on dune morphology and radiocarbon ages from the western Arctic Coastal Plain to develop a late Holocene chronology of multiple episodes of dune stabilization and reactivation for the region. Their study has important implications for climatic changes in northern Alaska during the past 4,000 years. In two papers, Dumoulin and her coauthors describe lithofacies and conodont faunas of Carboniferous strata in the western Brooks Range, discuss depositional environments, and propose possible correlations and source areas for some of the strata. Schenk and Bird propose a preliminary division of the Lower Cretaceous stratigraphic section in the central part of the North Slope into depositional sequences. Aleinikoff and others present new U-Pb data for zircons from metaigneous rocks from the central Brooks Range. Karl and Mull, reacting to a proposal regarding terrane nomenclature for northern Alaska that was published in last year's Alaskan Studies Bulletin, provide a historical perspective of the evolution of terminology for tectonic units in the Brooks Range and present their own recommendations.

  1. Geological aspects of acid deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bricker, O.P.

    1984-01-01

    The general pattern of rain falling on the earth and reacting with the materials of the lithosphere (the weathering reactions so familiar to every beginning geology student) began soon after the earth was formed and has continued to the present. Anthropogenic additions to the natural acidic components of the atmosphere have increased since the time of the industrial revolution until they now rival or exceed those of the natural system. The severity of the environmental perturbations caused by these anthropogenic additions to the atmosphere has become a hotly debated topic in scientific forums and in the political arena. The six chapters in this book address various aspects of the acid deposition phenomenon from a geological perspective. It is hoped that the geological approach will be useful in bringing the problem more clearly into focus and may shed light on the geochemical processes that modify the chemical composition of acid deposition after it encounters and reacts with the materials of the lithosphere

  2. Geologic isolation programs in other countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gera, F.

    1976-01-01

    Several nations other than West Germany and The Netherlands have declared their intention to investigate geological formations as potential radioactive waste repositories. In Belgium, the formations underlying the Mol Center have been cored down to about 570 m. The target formation is a bed of tertiary clay 165 to 265 m below the surface. The plan is to produce a 10,000-m 3 cavity in the middle of this clay and to use it for the disposal of intermediate-level and alpha-bearing wastes. France has a program underway to assess salt and crystalline formations as possible waste-disposal sites. In Italy, the feasibility of high-level-waste disposal in clay formations is being explored. In situ experiments will be performed in the massive clays underlying the Trisaia Center in southern Italy. Spain has begun studies on waste disposal in salt, clay, anhydrite, and crystalline formations. In Sweden, attention is focused on the possibility of disposal in Precambrian crystalline bedrock. In Switzerland, where crystalline rocks are always fractured, large formations of salt are not known, and suitable clay or marl formations have not been identified, anhydrite formations are being studied. The United Kingdom has declared its intention to investigate clays and crystalline rocks. Other countries that have revealed plans to assess geologic disposal within their territories include Austria, Denmark, India, the German Democratic Republic, and the Soviet Union

  3. Uranium geology and prospecting in Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steenfelt, A.; Neilson, B.L.; Secher, K.

    1977-01-01

    The Geological Survey of Greenland is responsible for most of the uranium and thorium prospecting activity in Greenland, which involves airborne gamma spectrometry and scintillometry, geochemical sampling, geological investigations and ground scintillometry. Since 1971 large areas of east and west Greenland have been investigated by aerial surveys, geochemical sampling and most of the detailed scintillometric work having been restricted to small areas in east Greenland. Anomalous radioactivity in west Greenland is recorded from carbonatite intrusions, and from units in Proterozoic and Archaean gneisses. No mineralization has been found to date. In south Greenland investigations have been centred on the uranium and thorium deposit at Kvanefjeld, which is situated in a corner of the Ilimaussaq alkaline intrusion. The coincidence of favourable conditions during the differentiation and crystallization of the magma led to an extreme enrichment of uranium and thorium in the rocks that were last formed - the lujavrites. The deposit comprises parts of the lujavrites and a secondary enrichment zone in the contact between lujavrite and basaltic cover rocks. Reasonably assured reserves are 5800 t U with a grade of 310 ppm U. In the Caledonides of east Greenland some gneisses in basement cores, a dark siltstone in late Precambrian sediments and the Devonian acid magmatic rocks are characterized by a higher radiation level. A number of small mineral occurrences have been found, the majority of which are associated with the Devonian acid magmatic rocks. (author)

  4. Ontological Encoding of GeoSciML and INSPIRE geological standard vocabularies and schemas: application to geological mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Vincenzo; Piana, Fabrizio; Mimmo, Dario; Fubelli, Giandomenico; Giardino, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Encoding of geologic knowledge in formal languages is an ambitious task, aiming at the interoperability and organic representation of geological data, and semantic characterization of geologic maps. Initiatives such as GeoScience Markup Language (last version is GeoSciML 4, 2015[1]) and INSPIRE "Data Specification on Geology" (an operative simplification of GeoSciML, last version is 3.0 rc3, 2013[2]), as well as the recent terminological shepherding of the Geoscience Terminology Working Group (GTWG[3]) have been promoting information exchange of the geologic knowledge. There have also been limited attempts to encode the knowledge in a machine-readable format, especially in the lithology domain (see e.g. the CGI_Lithology ontology[4]), but a comprehensive ontological model that connect the several knowledge sources is still lacking. This presentation concerns the "OntoGeonous" initiative, which aims at encoding the geologic knowledge, as expressed through the standard vocabularies, schemas and data models mentioned above, through a number of interlinked computational ontologies, based on the languages of the Semantic Web and the paradigm of Linked Open Data. The initiative proceeds in parallel with a concrete case study, concerning the setting up of a synthetic digital geological map of the Piemonte region (NW Italy), named "GEOPiemonteMap" (developed by the CNR Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources, CNR IGG, Torino), where the description and classification of GeologicUnits has been supported by the modeling and implementation of the ontologies. We have devised a tripartite ontological model called OntoGeonous that consists of: 1) an ontology of the geologic features (in particular, GeologicUnit, GeomorphologicFeature, and GeologicStructure[5], modeled from the definitions and UML schemata of CGI vocabularies[6], GeoScienceML and INSPIRE, and aligned with the Planetary realm of NASA SWEET ontology[7]), 2) an ontology of the Earth materials (as defined by the

  5. Linear colliders - prospects 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, J.

    1985-06-01

    We discuss the scaling laws of linear colliders and their consequences for accelerator design. We then report on the SLAC Linear Collider project and comment on experience gained on that project and its application to future colliders. 9 refs., 2 figs

  6. The SLAC linear collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.

    1985-01-01

    A report is given on the goals and progress of the SLAC Linear Collider. The author discusses the status of the machine and the detectors and give an overview of the physics which can be done at this new facility. He also gives some ideas on how (and why) large linear colliders of the future should be built

  7. Linear Programming (LP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogner, H.H.

    1989-01-01

    The submitted sections on linear programming are extracted from 'Theorie und Technik der Planung' (1978) by W. Blaas and P. Henseler and reformulated for presentation at the Workshop. They consider a brief introduction to the theory of linear programming and to some essential aspects of the SIMPLEX solution algorithm for the purposes of economic planning processes. 1 fig

  8. Racetrack linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, C.H.; Wilton, M.S. de.

    1979-01-01

    An improved recirculating electron beam linear accelerator of the racetrack type is described. The system comprises a beam path of four straight legs with four Pretzel bending magnets at the end of each leg to direct the beam into the next leg of the beam path. At least one of the beam path legs includes a linear accelerator. (UK)

  9. Radionuclide migration in geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbreau, A.; Heremans, R.; Skytte Jensen, B.

    1980-01-01

    Radioactive waste disposal into geological formation is based on the capacity of rocks to confine radioactivity for a long period of time. Radionuclide migration from the repository to the environment depends on different mechanisms and phenomena whose two main ones are groundwater flow and the retention and ion-exchange property of rocks. Many studies are underway presently in EEC countries concerning hydrodynamic characteristics of deep geological formations as well as in radionuclide retention capacity and modelling. Important results have already been achieved which show the complexity of some phenomena and further studies shall principally be developed taking into account real conditions of the repository and its environment

  10. Integrated path towards geological storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchard, R.; Delaytermoz, A.

    2004-01-01

    Among solutions to contribute to CO 2 emissions mitigation, sequestration is a promising path that presents the main advantage of being able to cope with the large volume at stake when considering the growing energy demand. Of particular importance, geological storage has widely been seen as an effective solution for large CO 2 sources like power plants or refineries. Many R and D projects have been initiated, whereby research institutes, government agencies and end-users achieve an effective collaboration. So far, progress has been made towards reinjection of CO 2 , in understanding and then predicting the phenomenon and fluid dynamics inside the geological target, while monitoring the expansion of the CO 2 bubble in the case of demonstration projects. A question arises however when talking about sequestration, namely the time scale to be taken into account. Time is indeed of the essence, and points out the need to understand leakage as well as trapping mechanisms. It is therefore of prime importance to be able to predict the fate of the injected fluids, in an accurate manner and over a relevant period of time. On the grounds of geology, four items are involved in geological storage reliability: the matrix itself, which is the recipient of the injected fluids; the seal, that is the mechanistic trap preventing the injected fluids to flow upward and escape; the lower part of the concerned structure, usually an aquifer, that can be a migration way for dissolved fluids; and the man- made injecting hole, the well, whose characteristics should be as good as the geological formation itself. These issues call for specific competencies such as reservoir engineering, geology and hydrodynamics, mineral chemistry, geomechanics, and well engineering. These competencies, even if put to use to a large extent in the oil industry, have never been connected with the reliability of geological storage as ultimate goal. This paper aims at providing an introduction to these

  11. Semidefinite linear complementarity problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckhardt, U.

    1978-04-01

    Semidefinite linear complementarity problems arise by discretization of variational inequalities describing e.g. elastic contact problems, free boundary value problems etc. In the present paper linear complementarity problems are introduced and the theory as well as the numerical treatment of them are described. In the special case of semidefinite linear complementarity problems a numerical method is presented which combines the advantages of elimination and iteration methods without suffering from their drawbacks. This new method has very attractive properties since it has a high degree of invariance with respect to the representation of the set of all feasible solutions of a linear complementarity problem by linear inequalities. By means of some practical applications the properties of the new method are demonstrated. (orig.) [de

  12. Linear algebra done right

    CERN Document Server

    Axler, Sheldon

    2015-01-01

    This best-selling textbook for a second course in linear algebra is aimed at undergrad math majors and graduate students. The novel approach taken here banishes determinants to the end of the book. The text focuses on the central goal of linear algebra: understanding the structure of linear operators on finite-dimensional vector spaces. The author has taken unusual care to motivate concepts and to simplify proofs. A variety of interesting exercises in each chapter helps students understand and manipulate the objects of linear algebra. The third edition contains major improvements and revisions throughout the book. More than 300 new exercises have been added since the previous edition. Many new examples have been added to illustrate the key ideas of linear algebra. New topics covered in the book include product spaces, quotient spaces, and dual spaces. Beautiful new formatting creates pages with an unusually pleasant appearance in both print and electronic versions. No prerequisites are assumed other than the ...

  13. Conduction cooling systems for linear accelerator cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kephart, Robert

    2017-05-02

    A conduction cooling system for linear accelerator cavities. The system conducts heat from the cavities to a refrigeration unit using at least one cavity cooler interconnected with a cooling connector. The cavity cooler and cooling connector are both made from solid material having a very high thermal conductivity of approximately 1.times.10.sup.4 W m.sup.-1 K.sup.-1 at temperatures of approximately 4 degrees K. This allows for very simple and effective conduction of waste heat from the linear accelerator cavities to the cavity cooler, along the cooling connector, and thence to the refrigeration unit.

  14. Titan's methane cycle and its effect on surface geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, R. M.; Peckyno, R. S.; Le Gall, A. A.; Wye, L.; Stofan, E. R.; Radebaugh, J.; Hayes, A. G.; Aharonson, O.; Wall, S. D.; Janssen, M. A.; Cassini RADAR Team

    2010-12-01

    Titan’s surface geology reflects surface-atmospheric interaction in ways similar to Earth’s. The methane cycle on Titan is a major contributor to the formation of surface features such as lakes, seas, rivers, and dunes. We used data from Cassini RADAR to map the distribution and relative ages of terrains that allow us to determine the geological processes that have shaped Titan’s surface. These SAR swaths (up to Titan flyby T64) cover about ~45% percent of the surface, at a spatial resolution ranging from 350 m to about >2 km. The data are distributed over a wide latitudinal and longitudinal range, enabling some conclusions to be drawn about the global distribution and significance of processes. They reveal a geologically complex surface that has been modified by all the major geologic processes seen on Earth. In this paper, we update the geologic unit map that used flybys up to T30 (Lopes et al., 2010, Icarus, 205, 540-558), representing ~20% of the surface. We find that the overall correlations found previously still hold given more than double the areal coverage. In terms of global areal distribution, both dunes and mountainous terrains (including Xanadu) cover more area (respectively 9.2% and 14.6% of the observed area) than other identified geologic units. In terms of latitudinal distribution, dunes and hummocky, mountainous terrains are located mostly at low latitudes (less than 30 degrees), with no dunes being present above 60 degrees. Channels formed by fluvial activity are present at all latitudes, but lakes filled with liquid are found at high latitudes only (above 60 degrees). Impact structures are mostly located at low latitudes, with no confidently identified craters above 60 degrees latitude, possibly indicating that more resurfacing has occurred at higher latitudes. Putative cryovolcanic features, consisting mostly of flows, are not ubiquitous and are mostly located in the areas surrounding Xanadu. We examine temporal relationships between

  15. Geologic map of the Nepenthes Planum Region, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, James A.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.

    2018-03-26

    This map product contains a map sheet at 1:1,506,000 scale that shows the geology of the Nepenthes Planum region of Mars, which is located between the cratered highlands that dominate the southern hemisphere and the less-cratered sedimentary plains that dominate the northern hemisphere.  The map region contains cone- and mound-shaped landforms as well as lobate materials that are morphologically similar to terrestrial igneous or mud vents and flows. This map is part of an informal series of small-scale (large-area) maps aimed at refining current understanding of the geologic units and structures that make up the highland-to-lowland transition zone. The map base consists of a controlled Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) daytime infrared image mosaic (100 meters per pixel resolution) supplemented by a Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) digital elevation model (463 meters per pixel resolution). The map includes a Description of Map Units and a Correlation of Map Units that describes and correlates units identified across the entire map region. The geologic map was assembled using ArcGIS software by Environmental Systems Research Institute (http://www.esri.com). The ArcGIS project, geodatabase, base map, and all map components are included online as supplemental data.

  16. Handbook on linear motor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-10-01

    This book guides the application for Linear motor. It lists classification and speciality of Linear Motor, terms of linear-induction motor, principle of the Motor, types on one-side linear-induction motor, bilateral linear-induction motor, linear-DC Motor on basic of the motor, linear-DC Motor for moving-coil type, linear-DC motor for permanent-magnet moving type, linear-DC motor for electricity non-utility type, linear-pulse motor for variable motor, linear-pulse motor for permanent magneto type, linear-vibration actuator, linear-vibration actuator for moving-coil type, linear synchronous motor, linear electromagnetic motor, linear electromagnetic solenoid, technical organization and magnetic levitation and linear motor and sensor.

  17. A SKOS-based multilingual thesaurus of geological time scale for interopability of online geological maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, X.; Carranza, E.J.M.; Wu, C.; Meer, F.D. van der; Liu, G.

    2011-01-01

    The usefulness of online geological maps is hindered by linguistic barriers. Multilingual geoscience thesauri alleviate linguistic barriers of geological maps. However, the benefits of multilingual geoscience thesauri for online geological maps are less studied. In this regard, we developed a

  18. The role of geostatistics in medical geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goovaerts, Pierre

    2014-05-01

    Since its development in the mining industry, geostatistics has emerged as the primary tool for spatial data analysis in various fields, ranging from earth and atmospheric sciences, to agriculture, soil science, remote sensing, and more recently environmental exposure assessment. In the last few years, these tools have been tailored to the field of medical geography or spatial epidemiology, which is concerned with the study of spatial patterns of disease incidence and mortality and the identification of potential 'causes' of disease, such as environmental exposure, diet and unhealthy behaviors, economic or socio-demographic factors. On the other hand, medical geology is an emerging interdisciplinary scientific field studying the relationship between natural geological factors and their effects on human and animal health. This paper provides an introduction to the field of medical geology with an overview of geostatistical methods available for the analysis of geological and health data. Key concepts are illustrated using the mapping of groundwater arsenic concentrations across eleven Michigan counties and the exploration of its relationship to the incidence of prostate cancer at the township level. Arsenic in drinking-water is a major problem and has received much attention because of the large human population exposed and the extremely high concentrations (e.g. 600 to 700 μg/L) recorded in many instances. Few studies have however assessed the risks associated with exposure to low levels of arsenic (say water in the United States. In the Michigan thumb region, arsenopyrite (up to 7% As by weight) has been identified in the bedrock of the Marshall Sandstone aquifer, one of the region's most productive aquifers. Epidemiologic studies have suggested a possible associationbetween exposure to inorganic arsenic and prostate cancer mortality, including a study of populations residing in Utah. The information available for the present ecological study (i.e. analysis of

  19. Geologic Framework Model Analysis Model Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Clayton

    2000-12-19

    The purpose of this report is to document the Geologic Framework Model (GFM), Version 3.1 (GFM3.1) with regard to data input, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results, qualification status of the model, and the differences between Version 3.1 and previous versions. The GFM represents a three-dimensional interpretation of the stratigraphy and structural features of the location of the potential Yucca Mountain radioactive waste repository. The GFM encompasses an area of 65 square miles (170 square kilometers) and a volume of 185 cubic miles (771 cubic kilometers). The boundaries of the GFM were chosen to encompass the most widely distributed set of exploratory boreholes (the Water Table or WT series) and to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the unsaturated zone (UZ). The depth of the model is constrained by the inferred depth of the Tertiary-Paleozoic unconformity. The GFM was constructed from geologic map and borehole data. Additional information from measured stratigraphy sections, gravity profiles, and seismic profiles was also considered. This interim change notice (ICN) was prepared in accordance with the Technical Work Plan for the Integrated Site Model Process Model Report Revision 01 (CRWMS M&O 2000). The constraints, caveats, and limitations associated with this model are discussed in the appropriate text sections that follow. The GFM is one component of the Integrated Site Model (ISM) (Figure l), which has been developed to provide a consistent volumetric portrayal of the rock layers, rock properties, and mineralogy of the Yucca Mountain site. The ISM consists of three components: (1) Geologic Framework Model (GFM); (2) Rock Properties Model (RPM); and (3) Mineralogic Model (MM). The ISM merges the detailed project stratigraphy into model stratigraphic units that are most useful for the primary downstream models and the

  20. Geologic Framework Model Analysis Model Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, R.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the Geologic Framework Model (GFM), Version 3.1 (GFM3.1) with regard to data input, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results, qualification status of the model, and the differences between Version 3.1 and previous versions. The GFM represents a three-dimensional interpretation of the stratigraphy and structural features of the location of the potential Yucca Mountain radioactive waste repository. The GFM encompasses an area of 65 square miles (170 square kilometers) and a volume of 185 cubic miles (771 cubic kilometers). The boundaries of the GFM were chosen to encompass the most widely distributed set of exploratory boreholes (the Water Table or WT series) and to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the unsaturated zone (UZ). The depth of the model is constrained by the inferred depth of the Tertiary-Paleozoic unconformity. The GFM was constructed from geologic map and borehole data. Additional information from measured stratigraphy sections, gravity profiles, and seismic profiles was also considered. This interim change notice (ICN) was prepared in accordance with the Technical Work Plan for the Integrated Site Model Process Model Report Revision 01 (CRWMS M and O 2000). The constraints, caveats, and limitations associated with this model are discussed in the appropriate text sections that follow. The GFM is one component of the Integrated Site Model (ISM) (Figure l), which has been developed to provide a consistent volumetric portrayal of the rock layers, rock properties, and mineralogy of the Yucca Mountain site. The ISM consists of three components: (1) Geologic Framework Model (GFM); (2) Rock Properties Model (RPM); and (3) Mineralogic Model (MM). The ISM merges the detailed project stratigraphy into model stratigraphic units that are most useful for the primary downstream models and

  1. The geology of the Romuvaara area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anttila, P.; Paulamaeki, S.; Lindberg, A.; Paananen, M.; Pitkaenen, P.; Front, K.

    1990-12-01

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) is preparing for the final disposal of spent uranium fuel from the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant deep in the Finnish bedrock. The report presents a summary of the geological conditions at Romuvaara in Kuhmo, which was one of the five areas selected in 1987 for the preliminary site investigations. The Romuvaara site and its surroundings belong to the Archaean basement complex, the age of the oldest parts of which is over 2800 Ma. The bedrock consists mainly of migmatic banded gneisses (tonalite, leucotonalite and mica gneiss). These rock types are intersected by granodiorite and metadiabase dykes. Proterozoic metadiabases represent the youngest rock unit in the area. Except for the metadiabase, the rocks have undergone a multiphase Archaean deformation. The bedrock structures are interpreted as representing six deformation phases, after which sharp faults developed during at least four further movement phases

  2. Three-dimensional Subsurface Geological Modeling of the Western Osaka Plane based on Borehole Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonogaki, S.; Masumoto, S.; Nemoto, T.

    2012-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) geological model of subsurface structure plays an important role in developing infrastructures. In particular, the 3D geological model in urban area is quite helpful to solve social problems such as underground utilization, environmental preservation, and disaster assessment. Over the past few years, many studies have been made on algorithms for 3D geological modeling. However, most of them have given little attention to objectivity of the model and traceability of modeling procedures. The purpose of this study is to develop an algorithm for constructing a 3D geological model objectively and for maintaining high-traceability of modeling procedures. For the purpose of our work, we proposed a new algorithm for 3D geological modeling using gridded geological boundary surfaces and the "logical model of geologic structure". The geological boundary surface is given by a form of Digital Elevation Model (DEM). The DEM is generated based on geological information such as elevation, strike and dip by using a unique spline-fitting method. The logical model of geological structure is a mathematical model that defines a positional relation between geological boundary surfaces and geological units. The model is objectively given by recurrence formula derived from a sequence of geological events arranged in chronological order. We applied the proposed algorithm into constructing a 3D subsurface geological model of the western Osaka Plane, southwest Japan. The data used for 3D geological modeling is a set of borehole data provided by Osaka City and Kansai Geoinformatics Agency. As a result, we constructed a 3D model consistent with the subjective model reported in other studies. In addition, all information necessary for modeling, such as the used geological information, the parameters of surface fitting, and the logical model, was stored in text files. In conclusion, we can not only construct 3D geological model objectively but also maintain high

  3. Regional geology of the Pine Creek Geosyncline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Needham, R.S.; Crick, I.H.; Stuart-Smith, P.G.

    1980-01-01

    The Pine Creek Geosyncline comprises about 14km of chronostratigraphic mainly pelitic and psammitic Lower Proterozoic sediments with interlayered tuff units, resting on granitic late Archaean complexes exposed as three small domes. Sedimentation took place in one basin, and most stratigraphic units are represented throughout the basin. The sediments were regionally deformed and metamorphosed at 1800Ma. Tightly folded greenschist facies strata in the centre grade into isoclinally deformed amphibolite facies metamorphics in the west and northeast. Pre and post-orogenic continental tholeiites, and post-orogenic granite diapirs intrude the Lower Proterozoic metasediments, and the granites are surrounded by hornfels zones up to 10km wide in the greenschist facies terrane. Cover rocks of Carpentarian (Middle Proterozoic) and younger ages rest on all these rocks unconformably and conceal the original basin margins. The Lower Proterozoic metasediments are mainly pelites (about 75 percent) which are commonly carbonaceous, lesser psammites and carbonates (about 10 percent each), and minor rudites (about 5 percent). Volcanic rocks make up about 10 percent of the total sequence. The environment of deposition ranges from shallow-marine to supratidal and fluviatile for most of the sequence, and to flysch in the topmost part. Poor exposure and deep weathering over much of the area hampers correlation of rock units; the correlation preferred by the authors is presented, and possible alternatives are discussed. Regional geological observations pertinent to uranium ore genesis are described. (author)

  4. Linear ubiquitination in immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yutaka; Taraborrelli, Lucia; Walczak, Henning

    2015-07-01

    Linear ubiquitination is a post-translational protein modification recently discovered to be crucial for innate and adaptive immune signaling. The function of linear ubiquitin chains is regulated at multiple levels: generation, recognition, and removal. These chains are generated by the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC), the only known ubiquitin E3 capable of forming the linear ubiquitin linkage de novo. LUBAC is not only relevant for activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in various signaling pathways, but importantly, it also regulates cell death downstream of immune receptors capable of inducing this response. Recognition of the linear ubiquitin linkage is specifically mediated by certain ubiquitin receptors, which is crucial for translation into the intended signaling outputs. LUBAC deficiency results in attenuated gene activation and increased cell death, causing pathologic conditions in both, mice, and humans. Removal of ubiquitin chains is mediated by deubiquitinases (DUBs). Two of them, OTULIN and CYLD, are constitutively associated with LUBAC. Here, we review the current knowledge on linear ubiquitination in immune signaling pathways and the biochemical mechanisms as to how linear polyubiquitin exerts its functions distinctly from those of other ubiquitin linkage types. © 2015 The Authors. Immunological Reviews Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Geologic data on atmospheric history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, M.G.

    1966-01-01

    Attention is focussed on the possible existence of an anoxygenic, primeval atmosphere and on the history of atmospheric O2 and CO2. For this purpose, geologic data can be divided into those on fossil remains, on biogenic deposits formed by early life, on “chemicofossils”, and on deposits formed

  6. A Computerized Petroleum Geology Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Louise E.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a package of computer programs developed to implement an oil exploration game that gives undergraduate students practical experience in applying theoretical principles of petroleum geology. The programs facilitate management of the game by the instructor and enhance the learning experience. (Author/MBR)

  7. Geological disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Fourteen papers dealing with disposal of high-level radioactive wastes are presented. These cover disposal in salt deposits, geologic deposits and marine disposal. Also included are papers on nuclear waste characterization, transport, waste processing technology, and safety analysis. All of these papers have been abstracted and indexed

  8. Geology in coal resource utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    The 37 papers in this book were compiled with an overriding theme in mind: to provide the coal industry with a comprehensive source of information on how geology and geologic concepts can be applied to the many facets of coal resource location, extraction, and utilization. The chapters have been arranged to address the major coal geology subfields of Exploration and Reserve Definition, Reserve Estimation, Coalbed Methane, Underground Coal Gasification, Mining, Coal Quality Concerns, and Environmental Impacts, with papers distributed on the basis of their primary emphasis. To help guide one through the collection, the author has included prefaces at the beginning of each chapter. They are intended as a brief lead-in to the subject of the chapter and an acknowledgement of the papers' connections to the subject and contributions to the chapter. In addition, a brief cross-reference section has been included in each preface to help one find papers of interest in other chapters. The subfields of coal geology are intimately intertwined, and investigations in one area may impact problems in another area. Some subfields tend to blur at their edges, such as with reserve definition and reserve estimation. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  9. Geology on a Sand Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Jacqueline

    2004-01-01

    Earth science teachers know how frustrating it can be to spend hundreds of dollars on three-dimensional (3-D) models of Earth's geologic features, to use the models for only a few class periods. To avoid emptying an already limited science budget, the author states that teachers can use a simple alternative to the expensive 3-D models--sand. She…

  10. Hydromechanical coupling in geologic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuzil, C.E.

    2003-01-01

    Earth's porous crust and the fluids within it are intimately linked through their mechanical effects on each other. This paper presents an overview of such "hydromechanical" coupling and examines current understanding of its role in geologic processes. An outline of the theory of hydromechanics and rheological models for geologic deformation is included to place various analytical approaches in proper context and to provide an introduction to this broad topic for nonspecialists. Effects of hydromechanical coupling are ubiquitous in geology, and can be local and short-lived or regional and very long-lived. Phenomena such as deposition and erosion, tectonism, seismicity, earth tides, and barometric loading produce strains that tend to alter fluid pressure. Resulting pressure perturbations can be dramatic, and many so-called "anomalous" pressures appear to have been created in this manner. The effects of fluid pressure on crustal mechanics are also profound. Geologic media deform and fail largely in response to effective stress, or total stress minus fluid pressure. As a result, fluid pressures control compaction, decompaction, and other types of deformation, as well as jointing, shear failure, and shear slippage, including events that generate earthquakes. By controlling deformation and failure, fluid pressures also regulate states of stress in the upper crust. Advances in the last 80 years, including theories of consolidation, transient groundwater flow, and poroelasticity, have been synthesized into a reasonably complete conceptual framework for understanding and describing hydromechanical coupling. Full coupling in two or three dimensions is described using force balance equations for deformation coupled with a mass conservation equation for fluid flow. Fully coupled analyses allow hypothesis testing and conceptual model development. However, rigorous application of full coupling is often difficult because (1) the rheological behavior of geologic media is complex

  11. Digital linear accelerator: The advantages for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andric, S.; Maksimovic, M.; Dekic, M.; Clark, T.

    1998-01-01

    Technical performances of Digital Linear Accelerator were presented to point out its advantages for clinical radiotherapy treatment. The accelerator installation is earned out at Military Medical Academy, Radiotherapy Department, by Medes and Elekta companies. The unit offers many technical advantages with possibility of introduction new conformal treatment techniques as stereotactic radiosurgery, total body and total skin irradiation. In the paper are underlined advantages in relation to running conventional accelerator units at Yugoslav radiotherapy departments, both from technical and medical point of view. (author)

  12. On Associative Conformal Algebras of Linear Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Retakh, Alexander

    2000-01-01

    Lie conformal algebras appear in the theory of vertex algebras. Their relation is similar to that of Lie algebras and their universal enveloping algebras. Associative conformal algebras play a role in conformal representation theory. We introduce the notions of conformal identity and unital associative conformal algebras and classify finitely generated simple unital associative conformal algebras of linear growth. These are precisely the complete algebras of conformal endomorphisms of finite ...

  13. Linearizing W-algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivonos, S.O.; Sorin, A.S.

    1994-06-01

    We show that the Zamolodchikov's and Polyakov-Bershadsky nonlinear algebras W 3 and W (2) 3 can be embedded as subalgebras into some linear algebras with finite set of currents. Using these linear algebras we find new field realizations of W (2) 3 and W 3 which could be a starting point for constructing new versions of W-string theories. We also reveal a number of hidden relationships between W 3 and W (2) 3 . We conjecture that similar linear algebras can exist for other W-algebra as well. (author). 10 refs

  14. Matrices and linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Hans

    1989-01-01

    Linear algebra is one of the central disciplines in mathematics. A student of pure mathematics must know linear algebra if he is to continue with modern algebra or functional analysis. Much of the mathematics now taught to engineers and physicists requires it.This well-known and highly regarded text makes the subject accessible to undergraduates with little mathematical experience. Written mainly for students in physics, engineering, economics, and other fields outside mathematics, the book gives the theory of matrices and applications to systems of linear equations, as well as many related t

  15. Linearity in Process Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Mikkel; Winskel, Glynn

    2002-01-01

    The meaning and mathematical consequences of linearity (managing without a presumed ability to copy) are studied for a path-based model of processes which is also a model of affine-linear logic. This connection yields an affine-linear language for processes, automatically respecting open......-map bisimulation, in which a range of process operations can be expressed. An operational semantics is provided for the tensor fragment of the language. Different ways to make assemblies of processes lead to different choices of exponential, some of which respect bisimulation....

  16. Elements of linear space

    CERN Document Server

    Amir-Moez, A R; Sneddon, I N

    1962-01-01

    Elements of Linear Space is a detailed treatment of the elements of linear spaces, including real spaces with no more than three dimensions and complex n-dimensional spaces. The geometry of conic sections and quadric surfaces is considered, along with algebraic structures, especially vector spaces and transformations. Problems drawn from various branches of geometry are given.Comprised of 12 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to real Euclidean space, followed by a discussion on linear transformations and matrices. The addition and multiplication of transformations and matrices a

  17. Applied linear regression

    CERN Document Server

    Weisberg, Sanford

    2013-01-01

    Praise for the Third Edition ""...this is an excellent book which could easily be used as a course text...""-International Statistical Institute The Fourth Edition of Applied Linear Regression provides a thorough update of the basic theory and methodology of linear regression modeling. Demonstrating the practical applications of linear regression analysis techniques, the Fourth Edition uses interesting, real-world exercises and examples. Stressing central concepts such as model building, understanding parameters, assessing fit and reliability, and drawing conclusions, the new edition illus

  18. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems. Geologic-simulation model for a hypothetical site in the Columbia Plateau. Volume 2: results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, M.G.; Petrie, G.M.; Baldwin, A.J.; Craig, R.G.

    1982-06-01

    This report contains the input data and computer results for the Geologic Simulation Model. This model is described in detail in the following report: Petrie, G.M., et. al. 1981. Geologic Simulation Model for a Hypothetical Site in the Columbia Plateau, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, Washington. The Geologic Simulation Model is a quasi-deterministic process-response model which simulates, for a million years into the future, the development of the geologic and hydrologic systems of the ground-water basin containing the Pasco Basin. Effects of natural processes on the ground-water hydrologic system are modeled principally by rate equations. The combined effects and synergistic interactions of different processes are approximated by linear superposition of their effects during discrete time intervals in a stepwise-integration approach

  19. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems. Geologic-simulation model for a hypothetical site in the Columbia Plateau. Volume 2: results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, M.G.; Petrie, G.M.; Baldwin, A.J.; Craig, R.G.

    1982-06-01

    This report contains the input data and computer results for the Geologic Simulation Model. This model is described in detail in the following report: Petrie, G.M., et. al. 1981. Geologic Simulation Model for a Hypothetical Site in the Columbia Plateau, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, Washington. The Geologic Simulation Model is a quasi-deterministic process-response model which simulates, for a million years into the future, the development of the geologic and hydrologic systems of the ground-water basin containing the Pasco Basin. Effects of natural processes on the ground-water hydrologic system are modeled principally by rate equations. The combined effects and synergistic interactions of different processes are approximated by linear superposition of their effects during discrete time intervals in a stepwise-integration approach.

  20. Surficial geology and land classification, Mackenzie Valley Transportation Corridor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, O L; Pilon, J; Veilette, J

    1974-01-01

    The objective of this project, continued from 1971 and 1972 is to provide an inventory of surficial geology and permafrost distribution data pertinent to pipeline construction, road building, and other land use activities that might take place in the Mackenzie Valley Transportation Corridor. Hughes together with N.W. Rutter devoted one month to reconnaissance examination of the area encompassed by this project and Project 710047 (see this report). A primary objective was to insure uniform usage of map-units throughout the 2 areas. Construction on the Mackenzie Highway was examined in order to evaluate terrain performance of various map-units crossed by the highway. Limited geological studies, including shallow borings and measurement of sections, were conducted to supplement field work of 1971 and 1972. J. Veillette conducted diamond drilling in permanently frozen surficial deposits during the period mid-March to mid-April.

  1. Linear system theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callier, Frank M.; Desoer, Charles A.

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this book is to provide a systematic and rigorous access to the main topics of linear state-space system theory in both the continuous-time case and the discrete-time case; and the I/O description of linear systems. The main thrusts of the work are the analysis of system descriptions and derivations of their properties, LQ-optimal control, state feedback and state estimation, and MIMO unity-feedback systems.

  2. Geology and engineering geology of roads in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Paige-Green, P

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available zone of the Limpopo Belt, South Africa, South African Journal of Geology, Vol 101 (3), pp 201-214. [3] Partridge, T. 1975. Some geomorphic factors influencing the formation and engineering properties of soil materials in South Africa. Proc 5th... land. 2003. Pretoria: Council for Geosciences and South African Institute of Engineering and Environmental Geologists. [23] Varnes, DJ. 1978. Slope movement types and processes. In: Landslides: analysis and control. Edited by RL Schuster and RJ...

  3. USGS National Geologic Map Database Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The National Geologic Map Database (NGMDB) is a Congressionally mandated national archive of geoscience maps, reports, and stratigraphic information. According to...

  4. Use of space applications for geologic research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Presnukhin, V I

    1981-01-01

    Overview of literature published in USSR during 1969-1977 shows broad potential and effectiveness for using satellite imaging of earth in the geologic sciences: geomorphology, tectonics, engineering geology, and searh for useful ore and minerals.

  5. The geology of the Falkland Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Aldiss, D.T.; Edwards, E.J.

    1999-01-01

    This report is complementary to the 1:250 000 scale geological map of the Falkland Islands compiled in 1998. The report and map are products of the Falkland Islands Geological Mapping Project (1996-1998). Geological observation and research in the Islands date from 1764. The Islands were visited during two pioneering scientific cruises in the 19th century. Subsequently, many scientists visited en route to the Antarctic or Patagonia. Geological affinities to other parts of the sout...

  6. Peak thrust operation of linear induction machines from parameter identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z.; Eastham, T.R.; Dawson, G.E. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    1995-12-31

    Various control strategies are being used to achieve high performance operation of linear drives. To maintain minimum volume and weight of the power supply unit on board the transportation vehicle, peak thrust per unit current operation is a desirable objective. True peak thrust per unit current through slip control is difficult to achieve because the parameters of linear induction machines vary during normal operation. This paper first develops a peak thrust per unit current control law based on the per-phase equivalent circuit for linear induction machines. The algorithm for identification of the variable parameters in induction machines is then presented. Application to an operational linear induction machine (LIM) demonstrates the utility of this algorithm. The control strategy is then simulated, based on an operational transit LIM, to show the capability of achieving true peak thrust operation for linear induction machines.

  7. How semantics can inform the geological mapping process and support intelligent queries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Vincenzo; Piana, Fabrizio; Mimmo, Dario

    2017-04-01

    The geologic mapping process requires the organization of data according to the general knowledge about the objects, namely the geologic units, and to the objectives of a graphic representation of such objects in a map, following an established model of geotectonic evolution. Semantics can greatly help such a process in two concerns: the provision of a terminological base to name and classify the objects of the map; on the other, the implementation of a machine-readable encoding of the geologic knowledge base supports the application of reasoning mechanisms and the derivation of novel properties and relations about the objects of the map. The OntoGeonous initiative has built a terminological base of geological knowledge in a machine-readable format, following the Semantic Web tenets and the Linked Data paradigm. The major knowledge sources of the OntoGeonous initiative are GeoScience Markup Language schemata and vocabularies (through its last version, GeoSciML 4, 2015, published by the IUGS CGI Commission) and the INSPIRE "Data Specification on Geology" directives (an operative simplification of GeoSciML, published by INSPIRE Thematic Working Group Geology of the European Commission). The Linked Data paradigm has been exploited by linking (without replicating, to avoid inconsistencies) the already existing machine-readable encoding for some specific domains, such as the lithology domain (vocabulary Simple Lithology) and the geochronologic time scale (ontology "gts"). Finally, for the upper level knowledge, shared across several geologic domains, we have resorted to NASA SWEET ontology. The OntoGeonous initiative has also produced a wiki that explains how the geologic knowledge has been encoded from shared geoscience vocabularies (https://www.di.unito.it/wikigeo/). In particular, the sections dedicated to axiomatization will support the construction of an appropriate data base schema that can be then filled with the objects of the map. This contribution will discuss

  8. Predictive modeling of terrestrial radiation exposure from geologic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Daniel A.

    Aerial gamma ray surveys are an important tool for national security, scientific, and industrial interests in determining locations of both anthropogenic and natural sources of radioactivity. There is a relationship between radioactivity and geology and in the past this relationship has been used to predict geology from an aerial survey. The purpose of this project is to develop a method to predict the radiologic exposure rate of the geologic materials in an area by creating a model using geologic data, images from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), geochemical data, and pre-existing low spatial resolution aerial surveys from the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Survey. Using these data, geospatial areas, referred to as background radiation units, homogenous in terms of K, U, and Th are defined and the gamma ray exposure rate is predicted. The prediction is compared to data collected via detailed aerial survey by our partner National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), allowing for the refinement of the technique. High resolution radiation exposure rate models have been developed for two study areas in Southern Nevada that include the alluvium on the western shore of Lake Mohave, and Government Wash north of Lake Mead; both of these areas are arid with little soil moisture and vegetation. We determined that by using geologic units to define radiation background units of exposed bedrock and ASTER visualizations to subdivide radiation background units of alluvium, regions of homogeneous geochemistry can be defined allowing for the exposure rate to be predicted. Soil and rock samples have been collected at Government Wash and Lake Mohave as well as a third site near Cameron, Arizona. K, U, and Th concentrations of these samples have been determined using inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and laboratory counting using radiation detection equipment. In addition, many sample locations also have

  9. 49 CFR 801.59 - Geological records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Geological records. 801.59 Section 801.59... PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Exemption From Public Disclosure § 801.59 Geological records. Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552(b)(9), records concerning geological wells are exempt from public disclosure. ...

  10. Geological site selection studies in Precambrian crystalline rocks in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuorela, P.

    1988-01-01

    In general geological investigations made since 1977 the Finnish crystalline bedrock has been determined to be suitable for the final disposal of the spent nuclear fuel. Regional investigations have been mainly based on already existing geological studies. Special attention has been paid on the international geological Finland as the Baltic Shield is stiff and stable and situated far outside the zones of volcanic and seismic activity. The present day crustal movements in Finland are related to landuplift process. Movements and possible faults in the bedrock follow fracture zones which devide the bedrock into mosaiclike blocks. As compared to small scale geological maps the bedrock blocks are often indicated as large granite rock formations which are less broken than the surrounding rocks, though the age of granite formations is at least 1500 millions of years. The large bedrock blocks (20-300 km 2 ) are divided to smaller units by different magnitudes of fractures and these smaller bedrock units (5-20 km 2 ) have been selected for further site selection investigations. At the first stage of investigations 327 suitable regional bedrock blocks have been identified on the basis of Landsat-1 winter and summer mosaics of Finland. After two years of investigations 134 investigation areas were selected inside 61 bedrock blocks and classified to four priority classes, the three first of which were redommended for further investigations. Geological criteries used in classification indicated clear differences between the classes one and three, however all classified areas are situated in large rather homogenous bedrock blocks and more exact three dimensional suitability errors may not be observed until deep bore holes have been made

  11. Quality assurance for geologic investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delvin, W.L.; Gustafson, L.D.

    1983-01-01

    A quality assurance handbook was written to provide guidance in the application of quality assurance to geologic work activities associated with the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program. It is intended to help geoscientists and NWTS program managers in applying quality assurance to their work activities and projects by showing how technical and quality assurance practices are integrated to provide control within those activities and projects. The use of the guidance found in this handbook should help provide consistency in the interpretation of quality assurance requirements across the various geologic activities wihtin the NWTS Program. This handbook also can assist quality assurance personnel in understanding the relationships between technical and quality assurance practices. This paper describes the handbook

  12. Shock compression of geological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, S; Braithwaite, C; Williamson, D; Jardine, A

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the shock compression of geological materials is important for many applications, and is particularly important to the mining industry. During blast mining the response to shock loading determines the wave propagation speed and resulting fragmentation of the rock. The present work has studied the Hugoniot of two geological materials; Lake Quarry Granite and Gosford Sandstone. For samples of these materials, the composition was characterised in detail. The Hugoniot of Lake Quarry Granite was predicted from this information as the material is fully dense and was found to be in good agreement with the measured Hugoniot. Gosford Sandstone is porous and undergoes compaction during shock loading. Such behaviour is similar to other granular material and we show how it can be described using a P-a compaction model.

  13. Personnel monitoring in geologic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanova, I.N.; Seredin, Yu.V.

    1981-01-01

    State of radiation safety for the personnel of geologic crews carrying out neutron logging of wells using Po-Be sources has been evaluated. Given are results of development of methods for the evaluation of individual radiation loads for personnel when working with Po-Be neutron sources useful for the application in practice by a geologic logging crew as well as a quantitative evaluation of profissional radiation loads during this kind of work. The following methods are recommended for personnel monitoring: 1) calculation of whole-body irradiation doses and hands from averaged values of radiation dose rate; 2) calculational tabulated determination of irradiation doses during recharging of shanks of well instruments. Personnel monitoring by means of instrumental methods is not necessary in the considered case [ru

  14. Quality assurance for geologic investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delvin, W.L.; Gustafson, L.D.

    1983-01-01

    A quality assurance handbook was written to provide guidance in the application of quality assurance to geologic work activities associated with the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program. It is intended to help geoscientists and NWTS program managers in applying quality assurance to their work activitie and projects by showing how technical and quality assurance practices are integrated to provide control within those activities and projects. The use of the guidance found in this handbook should help provide consistency in the interpretation of quality assurance requirements across the various geologic activities within the NWTS Program. This handbook also can assist quality assurance personnel in understanding the relationships between technical and quality assurance practices. This paper describes the handbook

  15. Geological, geochemical, and geophysical studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in Big Bend National Park, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, W.R.; Turner, K.J.; Bohannon, R.G.; Berry, M.E.; Williams, V.S.; Miggins, D.P.; Ren, M.; Anthony, E.Y.; Morgan, L.A.; Shanks, P.W.C.; Gray, J. E.; Theodorakos, P.M.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Manning, A.H.; Gemery-Hill, P. A.; Hellgren, E.C.; Stricker, C.A.; Onorato, D.P.; Finn, C.A.; Anderson, E.; Gray, J. E.; Page, W.R.

    2008-01-01

    Big Bend National Park (BBNP), Tex., covers 801,163 acres (3,242 km2) and was established in 1944 through a transfer of land from the State of Texas to the United States. The park is located along a 118-mile (190-km) stretch of the Rio Grande at the United States-Mexico border. The park is in the Chihuahuan Desert, an ecosystem with high mountain ranges and basin environments containing a wide variety of native plants and animals, including more than 1,200 species of plants, more than 450 species of birds, 56 species of reptiles, and 75 species of mammals. In addition, the geology of BBNP, which varies widely from high mountains to broad open lowland basins, also enhances the beauty of the park. For example, the park contains the Chisos Mountains, which are dominantly composed of thick outcrops of Tertiary extrusive and intrusive igneous rocks that reach an altitude of 7,832 ft (2,387 m) and are considered the southernmost mountain range in the United States. Geologic features in BBNP provide opportunities to study the formation of mineral deposits and their environmental effects; the origin and formation of sedimentary and igneous rocks; Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic fossils; and surface and ground water resources. Mineral deposits in and around BBNP contain commodities such as mercury (Hg), uranium (U), and fluorine (F), but of these, the only significant mining has been for Hg. Because of the biological and geological diversity of BBNP, more than 350,000 tourists visit the park each year. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been investigating a number of broad and diverse geologic, geochemical, and geophysical topics in BBNP to provide fundamental information needed by the National Park Service (NPS) to address resource management goals in this park. Scientists from the USGS Mineral Resources and National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Programs have been working cooperatively with the NPS and several universities on several research studies within BBNP

  16. Further linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Blyth, T S

    2002-01-01

    Most of the introductory courses on linear algebra develop the basic theory of finite­ dimensional vector spaces, and in so doing relate the notion of a linear mapping to that of a matrix. Generally speaking, such courses culminate in the diagonalisation of certain matrices and the application of this process to various situations. Such is the case, for example, in our previous SUMS volume Basic Linear Algebra. The present text is a continuation of that volume, and has the objective of introducing the reader to more advanced properties of vector spaces and linear mappings, and consequently of matrices. For readers who are not familiar with the contents of Basic Linear Algebra we provide an introductory chapter that consists of a compact summary of the prerequisites for the present volume. In order to consolidate the student's understanding we have included a large num­ ber of illustrative and worked examples, as well as many exercises that are strategi­ cally placed throughout the text. Solutions to the ex...

  17. The EVEREST project: sensitivity analysis of geological disposal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marivoet, Jan; Wemaere, Isabelle; Escalier des Orres, Pierre; Baudoin, Patrick; Certes, Catherine; Levassor, Andre; Prij, Jan; Martens, Karl-Heinz; Roehlig, Klaus

    1997-01-01

    The main objective of the EVEREST project is the evaluation of the sensitivity of the radiological consequences associated with the geological disposal of radioactive waste to the different elements in the performance assessment. Three types of geological host formations are considered: clay, granite and salt. The sensitivity studies that have been carried out can be partitioned into three categories according to the type of uncertainty taken into account: uncertainty in the model parameters, uncertainty in the conceptual models and uncertainty in the considered scenarios. Deterministic as well as stochastic calculational approaches have been applied for the sensitivity analyses. For the analysis of the sensitivity to parameter values, the reference technique, which has been applied in many evaluations, is stochastic and consists of a Monte Carlo simulation followed by a linear regression. For the analysis of conceptual model uncertainty, deterministic and stochastic approaches have been used. For the analysis of uncertainty in the considered scenarios, mainly deterministic approaches have been applied

  18. Quantifying uncertainty of geological 3D layer models, constructed with a-priori geological expertise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunnink, J.J.; Maljers, D.; Hummelman, J.

    2010-01-01

    Uncertainty quantification of geological models that are constructed with additional geological expert-knowledge is not straightforward. To construct sound geological 3D layer models we use a lot of additional knowledge, with an uncertainty that is hard to quantify. Examples of geological expert

  19. Federal Control of Geological Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitze, Arnold W. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2011-04-01

    The United States has economically recoverable coal reserves of about 261 billion tons, which is in excess of a 250-­year supply based on 2009 consumption rates. However, in the near future the use of coal may be legally restricted because of concerns over the effects of its combustion on atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. In response, the U.S. Department of Energy is making significant efforts to help develop and implement a commercial scale program of geologic carbon sequestration that involves capturing and storing carbon dioxide emitted from coal-burning electric power plants in deep underground formations. This article explores the technical and legal problems that must be resolved in order to have a viable carbon sequestration program. It covers the responsibilities of the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the Departments of Energy, Transportation and Interior. It discusses the use of the Safe Drinking Water Act, the Clean Air Act, the National Environmental Policy Act, the Endangered Species Act, and other applicable federal laws. Finally, it discusses the provisions related to carbon sequestration that have been included in the major bills dealing with climate change that Congress has been considering in 2009 and 2010. The article concludes that the many legal issues that exist can be resolved, but whether carbon sequestration becomes a commercial reality will depend on reducing its costs or by imposing legal requirements on fossil-fired power plants that result in the costs of carbon emissions increasing to the point that carbon sequestration becomes a feasible option.

  20. Linear mass reflectron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamyrin, B.A.; Shmikk, D.V.

    1979-01-01

    A description and operating principle of a linear mass reflectron with V-form trajectory of ion motion -a new non-magnetic time-of-flight mass spectrometer with high resolution are presented. The ion-optical system of the device consists of an ion source with ionization by electron shock, of accelerating gaps, reflector gaps, a drift space and ion detector. Ions move in the linear mass refraction along the trajectories parallel to the axis of the analyzer chamber. The results of investigations into the experimental device are given. With an ion drift length of 0.6 m the device resolution is 1200 with respect to the peak width at half-height. Small-sized mass spectrometric transducers with high resolution and sensitivity may be designed on the base of the linear mass reflectron principle

  1. Applied linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Olver, Peter J

    2018-01-01

    This textbook develops the essential tools of linear algebra, with the goal of imparting technique alongside contextual understanding. Applications go hand-in-hand with theory, each reinforcing and explaining the other. This approach encourages students to develop not only the technical proficiency needed to go on to further study, but an appreciation for when, why, and how the tools of linear algebra can be used across modern applied mathematics. Providing an extensive treatment of essential topics such as Gaussian elimination, inner products and norms, and eigenvalues and singular values, this text can be used for an in-depth first course, or an application-driven second course in linear algebra. In this second edition, applications have been updated and expanded to include numerical methods, dynamical systems, data analysis, and signal processing, while the pedagogical flow of the core material has been improved. Throughout, the text emphasizes the conceptual connections between each application and the un...

  2. Theory of linear operations

    CERN Document Server

    Banach, S

    1987-01-01

    This classic work by the late Stefan Banach has been translated into English so as to reach a yet wider audience. It contains the basics of the algebra of operators, concentrating on the study of linear operators, which corresponds to that of the linear forms a1x1 + a2x2 + ... + anxn of algebra.The book gathers results concerning linear operators defined in general spaces of a certain kind, principally in Banach spaces, examples of which are: the space of continuous functions, that of the pth-power-summable functions, Hilbert space, etc. The general theorems are interpreted in various mathematical areas, such as group theory, differential equations, integral equations, equations with infinitely many unknowns, functions of a real variable, summation methods and orthogonal series.A new fifty-page section (``Some Aspects of the Present Theory of Banach Spaces'''') complements this important monograph.

  3. Dimension of linear models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høskuldsson, Agnar

    1996-01-01

    Determination of the proper dimension of a given linear model is one of the most important tasks in the applied modeling work. We consider here eight criteria that can be used to determine the dimension of the model, or equivalently, the number of components to use in the model. Four of these cri......Determination of the proper dimension of a given linear model is one of the most important tasks in the applied modeling work. We consider here eight criteria that can be used to determine the dimension of the model, or equivalently, the number of components to use in the model. Four...... the basic problems in determining the dimension of linear models. Then each of the eight measures are treated. The results are illustrated by examples....

  4. Linear programming using Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Ploskas, Nikolaos

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a theoretical and computational presentation of a variety of linear programming algorithms and methods with an emphasis on the revised simplex method and its components. A theoretical background and mathematical formulation is included for each algorithm as well as comprehensive numerical examples and corresponding MATLAB® code. The MATLAB® implementations presented in this book  are sophisticated and allow users to find solutions to large-scale benchmark linear programs. Each algorithm is followed by a computational study on benchmark problems that analyze the computational behavior of the presented algorithms. As a solid companion to existing algorithmic-specific literature, this book will be useful to researchers, scientists, mathematical programmers, and students with a basic knowledge of linear algebra and calculus.  The clear presentation enables the reader to understand and utilize all components of simplex-type methods, such as presolve techniques, scaling techniques, pivoting ru...

  5. Linear Colliders TESLA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of the TESLA (TeV Superconducting Linear Accelerator) collaboration (at present 19 institutions from seven countries) is to establish the technology for a high energy electron-positron linear collider using superconducting radiofrequency cavities to accelerate its beams. Another basic goal is to demonstrate that such a collider can meet its performance goals in a cost effective manner. For this the TESLA collaboration is preparing a 500 MeV superconducting linear test accelerator at the DESY Laboratory in Hamburg. This TTF (TESLA Test Facility) consists of four cryomodules, each approximately 12 m long and containing eight 9-cell solid niobium cavities operating at a frequency of 1.3 GHz

  6. Instrument for track linear element recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupnov, V.E.; Fedotov, O.P.

    1977-01-01

    Described is the construction of instrument for recognizing linear elements of tracks. For designing this instrument use has been made of the algorithm for conversion of the point data into a set of linear elements. The flowsheet of the instrument shows its major units such as data converter, data representation register unit, local computers, interface with the central computer. The data representation register unit comprises sixteen registers and is capable of presenting data from sixteen lines when raster scanning of a picture taken from a track chamber. The maximum capacity of the code of the coordinate of a point recorded on a picture is up to 16 digits. The time of the inner operating cycle of the instrument is 1.3 μs. The average time required for processing data containing sixteen scanning lines is 250 μs

  7. Geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyde, T.H.

    1977-01-01

    Uranium, base metals, and precious metals exploration is surveyed, and Government role in activities is scrutinized. A review of recent mineral discoveries reveals that several new discoveries can be credited to independent geologists and exploration organizations. Most of these groups develop the exploration programs and then operate them on a fee plus incentive basis for major companies. The high cost of maintaining a large exploration staff often cannot be justified by many large natural resources companies. As a result the exploration companies fulfill the function of a company exploration department at a much reduced cost

  8. Linearly Adjustable International Portfolios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, R. J.; Kuhn, D.; Rustem, B.

    2010-09-01

    We present an approach to multi-stage international portfolio optimization based on the imposition of a linear structure on the recourse decisions. Multiperiod decision problems are traditionally formulated as stochastic programs. Scenario tree based solutions however can become intractable as the number of stages increases. By restricting the space of decision policies to linear rules, we obtain a conservative tractable approximation to the original problem. Local asset prices and foreign exchange rates are modelled separately, which allows for a direct measure of their impact on the final portfolio value.

  9. Linearly Adjustable International Portfolios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, R. J.; Kuhn, D.; Rustem, B.

    2010-01-01

    We present an approach to multi-stage international portfolio optimization based on the imposition of a linear structure on the recourse decisions. Multiperiod decision problems are traditionally formulated as stochastic programs. Scenario tree based solutions however can become intractable as the number of stages increases. By restricting the space of decision policies to linear rules, we obtain a conservative tractable approximation to the original problem. Local asset prices and foreign exchange rates are modelled separately, which allows for a direct measure of their impact on the final portfolio value.

  10. Linear induction motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkman, W.E.; Adams, W.Q.; Berrier, B.R.

    1978-01-01

    A linear induction motor has been operated on a test bed with a feedback pulse resolution of 5 nm (0.2 μin). Slewing tests with this slide drive have shown positioning errors less than or equal to 33 nm (1.3 μin) at feedrates between 0 and 25.4 mm/min (0-1 ipm). A 0.86-m (34-in)-stroke linear motor is being investigated, using the SPACO machine as a test bed. Initial results were encouraging, and work is continuing to optimize the servosystem compensation

  11. Handbook of linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Hogben, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    With a substantial amount of new material, the Handbook of Linear Algebra, Second Edition provides comprehensive coverage of linear algebra concepts, applications, and computational software packages in an easy-to-use format. It guides you from the very elementary aspects of the subject to the frontiers of current research. Along with revisions and updates throughout, the second edition of this bestseller includes 20 new chapters.New to the Second EditionSeparate chapters on Schur complements, additional types of canonical forms, tensors, matrix polynomials, matrix equations, special types of

  12. Linear Algebra Thoroughly Explained

    CERN Document Server

    Vujičić, Milan

    2008-01-01

    Linear Algebra Thoroughly Explained provides a comprehensive introduction to the subject suitable for adoption as a self-contained text for courses at undergraduate and postgraduate level. The clear and comprehensive presentation of the basic theory is illustrated throughout with an abundance of worked examples. The book is written for teachers and students of linear algebra at all levels and across mathematics and the applied sciences, particularly physics and engineering. It will also be an invaluable addition to research libraries as a comprehensive resource book for the subject.

  13. Simulation of Anisotropic Rock Damage for Geologic Fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busetti, S.; Xu, H.; Arson, C. F.

    2014-12-01

    A continuum damage model for differential stress-induced anisotropic crack formation and stiffness degradation is used to study geologic fracturing in rocks. The finite element-based model solves for deformation in the quasi-linear elastic domain and determines the six component damage tensor at each deformation increment. The model permits an isotropic or anisotropic intact or pre-damaged reference state, and the elasticity tensor evolves depending on the stress path. The damage variable, similar to Oda's fabric tensor, grows when the surface energy dissipated by three-dimensional opened cracks exceeds a threshold defined at the appropriate scale of the representative elementary volume (REV). At the laboratory or wellbore scale (1000m) scales the damaged REV reflects early natural fracturing (background or tectonic fracturing) or shear strain localization (fault process zone, fault-tip damage, etc.). The numerical model was recently benchmarked against triaxial stress-strain data from laboratory rock mechanics tests. However, the utility of the model to predict geologic fabric such as natural fracturing in hydrocarbon reservoirs was not fully explored. To test the ability of the model to predict geological fracturing, finite element simulations (Abaqus) of common geologic scenarios with known fracture patterns (borehole pressurization, folding, faulting) are simulated and the modeled damage tensor is compared against physical fracture observations. Simulated damage anisotropy is similar to that derived using fractured rock-mass upscaling techniques for pre-determined fracture patterns. This suggests that if model parameters are constrained with local data (e.g., lab, wellbore, or reservoir domain), forward modeling could be used to predict mechanical fabric at the relevant REV scale. This reference fabric also can be used as the starting material property to pre-condition subsequent deformation or fluid flow. Continuing efforts are to expand the present damage

  14. Geologic Structures in Crater Walls on Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittlefehldt, David W.; Beck, A. W.; Ammannito, E.; Carsenty, U.; DeSanctis, M. C.; LeCorre, L.; McCoy, T. J.; Reddy, V.; Schroeder, S. E.

    2012-01-01

    The Framing Camera (FC) on the Dawn spacecraft has imaged most of the illuminated surface of Vesta with a resolution of apporpx. 20 m/pixel through different wavelength filters that allow for identification of lithologic units. The Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIR) has imaged the surface at lower spatial resolution but high spectral resolution from 0.25 to 5 micron that allows for detailed mineralogical interpretation. The FC has imaged geologic structures in the walls of fresh craters and on scarps on the margin of the Rheasilvia basin that consist of cliff-forming, competent units, either as blocks or semi-continuous layers, hundreds of m to km below the rims. Different units have different albedos, FC color ratios and VIR spectral characteristics, and different units can be juxtaposed in individual craters. We will describe different examples of these competent units and present preliminary interpretations of the structures. A common occurrence is of blocks several hundred m in size of high albedo (bright) and low albedo (dark) materials protruding from crater walls. In many examples, dark material deposits lie below coherent bright material blocks. In FC Clementine color ratios, bright material is green indicating deeper 1 m pyroxene absorption band. VIR spectra show these to have deeper and wider 1 and 2 micron pyroxene absorption bands than the average vestan surface. The associated dark material has subdued pyroxene absorption features compared to the average vestan surface. Some dark material deposits are consistent with mixtures of HED materials with carbonaceous chondrites. This would indicate that some dark material deposits in crater walls are megabreccia blocks. The same would hold for bright material blocks found above them. Thus, these are not intact crustal units. Marcia crater is atypical in that the dark material forms a semi-continuous, thin layer immediately below bright material. Bright material occurs as one or more layers. In

  15. To evaluate ERTS-1 data for usefulness as a geological sensor in the diverse geological terraines of New York State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isachsen, Y. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Linear anomalies dominate the new geological information derived from ERTS-1 imagery, total lengths now exceeding 6000 kms. Experimentation with a variety of viewing techniques suggests that conventional photogeologic analyses of band 7 results in the location of more than 97 percent of all linears found. Bedrock lithologic types are distinguishable only where they are topographically expressed or govern land use signatures. The maxima on rose diagrams for ERTS-1 anomalies correspond well with those for mapped faults and topographic lineaments, despite a difference in relative magnitudes of maxima thought due to solar illumination direction. A multiscale analysis of linears showed that single topographic linears at 1:2,500,000 became dashed jugate linears at 1:500,000, and shorter linears lacking any conspicuous zonal alignment at 1:250,000. Most circular features found were explained away by U-2 airphoto analysis but several remain as anomalies. Visible glacial features include individual drumlins, best seen in winter imagery, drumlinoids, eskers, ice-marginal drainage channels, glacial lake shorelines and sand plains, and end moraines.

  16. Scale determinants of fiscal investment in geological exploration: evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Linna; Lei, Yalin

    2013-01-01

    With the continued growth in demand for mineral resources and China's efforts in increasing investment in geological prospecting, fiscal investment in geological exploration becomes a research hotspot. This paper examines the yearly relationship among fiscal investment in geological exploration of the current term, that of the last term and prices of mining rights over the period 1999-2009. Hines and Catephores' investment acceleration model is applied to describe the scale determinants of fiscal investment in geological exploration which are value-added of mining rights, value of mining rights and fiscal investment in the last term. The results indicate that when value-added of mining rights, value of mining rights or fiscal investment in the last term moves at 1 unit, fiscal investment in the current term will move 0.381, 1.094 or 0.907 units respectively. In order to determine the scale of fiscal investment in geological exploration for the current year, the Chinese government should take fiscal investment in geological exploration for the last year and the capital stock of the previous investments into account. In practice, combination of government fiscal investment in geological exploration with its performance evaluation can create a virtuous circle of capital management mechanism.

  17. Distributed lags time series analysis versus linear correlation analysis (Pearson's r) in identifying the relationship between antipseudomonal antibiotic consumption and the susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates in a single Intensive Care Unit of a tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdeljić, Viktorija; Francetić, Igor; Bošnjak, Zrinka; Budimir, Ana; Kalenić, Smilja; Bielen, Luka; Makar-Aušperger, Ksenija; Likić, Robert

    2011-05-01

    The relationship between antibiotic consumption and selection of resistant strains has been studied mainly by employing conventional statistical methods. A time delay in effect must be anticipated and this has rarely been taken into account in previous studies. Therefore, distributed lags time series analysis and simple linear correlation were compared in their ability to evaluate this relationship. Data on monthly antibiotic consumption for ciprofloxacin, piperacillin/tazobactam, carbapenems and cefepime as well as Pseudomonas aeruginosa susceptibility were retrospectively collected for the period April 2006 to July 2007. Using distributed lags analysis, a significant temporal relationship was identified between ciprofloxacin, meropenem and cefepime consumption and the resistance rates of P. aeruginosa isolates to these antibiotics. This effect was lagged for ciprofloxacin and cefepime [1 month (R=0.827, P=0.039) and 2 months (R=0.962, P=0.001), respectively] and was simultaneous for meropenem (lag 0, R=0.876, P=0.002). Furthermore, a significant concomitant effect of meropenem consumption on the appearance of multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa strains (resistant to three or more representatives of classes of antibiotics) was identified (lag 0, R=0.992, PPearson's correlation coefficient. Correlation coefficient analysis was not able to identify relationships between antibiotic consumption and bacterial resistance when the effect was delayed. These results indicate that the use of diverse statistical methods can yield significantly different results, thus leading to the introduction of possibly inappropriate infection control measures. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  18. Reservoir architecture modeling: Nonstationary models for quantitative geological characterization. Final report, April 30, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, D.; Epili, D.; Kelkar, M.; Redner, R.; Reynolds, A.

    1998-12-01

    The study was comprised of four investigations: facies architecture; seismic modeling and interpretation; Markov random field and Boolean models for geologic modeling of facies distribution; and estimation of geological architecture using the Bayesian/maximum entropy approach. This report discusses results from all four investigations. Investigations were performed using data from the E and F units of the Middle Frio Formation, Stratton Field, one of the major reservoir intervals in the Gulf Coast Basin.

  19. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Nuclear Test Effects and Geologic Data Bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, N.W.

    1976-01-01

    Data on the geology of the USERDA Nevada Test Site have been collected for the purpose of evaluating the possibility of release of radioactivity at proposed underground nuclear test sites. These data, including both the rock physical properties and the geologic structure and stratigraphy of a large number of drill-hole sites, are stored in the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Earth Sciences Division Nuclear Test Effects and Geologic Data Bank. Retrieval programs can quickly provide a geological and geophysical comparison of a particular site with other sites where radioactivity was successfully contained. The data can be automatically sorted, compared, and averaged, and information listed according to site location, drill-hole construction, rock units, depth to key horizons and to the water table, and distance to faults. These programs also make possible ordered listings of geophysical properties (interval bulk density, overburden density, interval velocity, velocity to the surface, grain density, water content, carbonate content, porosity, and saturation of the rocks). The characteristics and capabilities of the data bank are discussed

  20. America, Linearly Cyclical

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    AND VICTIM- ~ vAP BLAMING 4. AMERICA, LINEARLY CYCUCAL AF IMT 1768, 19840901, V5 PREVIOUS EDITION WILL BE USED. C2C Jessica Adams Dr. Brissett...his desires, his failings, and his aspirations follow the same general trend throughout history and throughout cultures. The founding fathers sought

  1. Stanford's linear collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southworth, B.

    1985-01-01

    The peak of the construction phase of the Stanford Linear Collider, SLC, to achieve 50 GeV electron-positron collisions has now been passed. The work remains on schedule to attempt colliding beams, initially at comparatively low luminosity, early in 1987. (orig./HSI).

  2. Dosimetry of linear sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mafra Neto, F.

    1992-01-01

    The dose of gamma radiation from a linear source of cesium 137 is obtained, presenting two difficulties: oblique filtration of radiation when cross the platinum wall, in different directions, and dose connection due to the scattering by the material mean of propagation. (C.G.C.)

  3. Resistors Improve Ramp Linearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinberg, L. L.

    1982-01-01

    Simple modification to bootstrap ramp generator gives more linear output over longer sweep times. New circuit adds just two resistors, one of which is adjustable. Modification cancels nonlinearities due to variations in load on charging capacitor and due to changes in charging current as the voltage across capacitor increases.

  4. LINEAR COLLIDERS: 1992 workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Settles, Ron; Coignet, Guy

    1992-01-01

    As work on designs for future electron-positron linear colliders pushes ahead at major Laboratories throughout the world in a major international collaboration framework, the LC92 workshop held in Garmisch Partenkirchen this summer, attended by 200 machine and particle physicists, provided a timely focus

  5. Linear genetic programming

    CERN Document Server

    Brameier, Markus

    2007-01-01

    Presents a variant of Genetic Programming that evolves imperative computer programs as linear sequences of instructions, in contrast to the more traditional functional expressions or syntax trees. This book serves as a reference for researchers, but also contains sufficient introduction for students and those who are new to the field

  6. On Solving Linear Recurrences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, David E.

    2013-01-01

    A direct method is given for solving first-order linear recurrences with constant coefficients. The limiting value of that solution is studied as "n to infinity." This classroom note could serve as enrichment material for the typical introductory course on discrete mathematics that follows a calculus course.

  7. Review of linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Seishi

    1992-01-01

    The status of R and D of future e + e - linear colliders proposed by the institutions throughout the world is described including the JLC, NLC, VLEPP, CLIC, DESY/THD and TESLA projects. The parameters and RF sources are discussed. (G.P.) 36 refs.; 1 tab

  8. Database for the geologic map of upper Eocene to Holocene volcanic and related rocks in the Cascade Range, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Andrew D.; Ramsey, David W.; Smith, James G.

    2014-01-01

    This geospatial database for a geologic map of the Cascades Range in Washington state is one of a series of maps that shows Cascade Range geology by fitting published and unpublished mapping into a province-wide scheme of lithostratigraphic units. Geologic maps of the Eocene to Holocene Cascade Range in California and Oregon complete the series, providing a comprehensive geologic map of the entire Cascade Range that incorporates modern field studies and that has a unified and internally consistent explanantion. The complete series will be useful for regional studies of volcanic hazards, volcanology, and tectonics.

  9. Digital Geologic Map Database of Medicine Lake Volcano, Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, D. W.; Donnelly-Nolan, J. M.; Felger, T. J.

    2010-12-01

    Medicine Lake volcano, located in the southern Cascades ~55 km east-northeast of Mount Shasta, is a large rear-arc, shield-shaped volcano with an eruptive history spanning nearly 500 k.y. Geologic mapping of Medicine Lake volcano has been digitally compiled as a spatial database in ArcGIS. Within the database, coverage feature classes have been created representing geologic lines (contacts, faults, lava tubes, etc.), geologic unit polygons, and volcanic vent location points. The database can be queried to determine the spatial distributions of different rock types, geologic units, and other geologic and geomorphic features. These data, in turn, can be used to better understand the evolution, growth, and potential hazards of this large, rear-arc Cascades volcano. Queries of the database reveal that the total area covered by lavas of Medicine Lake volcano, which range in composition from basalt through rhyolite, is about 2,200 km2, encompassing all or parts of 27 U.S. Geological Survey 1:24,000-scale topographic quadrangles. The maximum extent of these lavas is about 80 km north-south by 45 km east-west. Occupying the center of Medicine Lake volcano is a 7 km by 12 km summit caldera in which nestles its namesake, Medicine Lake. The flanks of the volcano, which are dotted with cinder cones, slope gently upward to the caldera rim, which reaches an elevation of nearly 2,440 m. Approximately 250 geologic units have been mapped, only half a dozen of which are thin surficial units such as alluvium. These volcanic units mostly represent eruptive events, each commonly including a vent (dome, cinder cone, spatter cone, etc.) and its associated lava flow. Some cinder cones have not been matched to lava flows, as the corresponding flows are probably buried, and some flows cannot be correlated with vents. The largest individual units on the map are all basaltic in composition, including the late Pleistocene basalt of Yellowjacket Butte (296 km2 exposed), the largest unit on the

  10. D Geological Framework Models as a Teaching Aid for Geoscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, H.; Ward, E.; Geological ModelsTeaching Project Team

    2010-12-01

    3D geological models have great potential as a resource for universities when teaching foundation geological concepts as it allows the student to visualise and interrogate UK geology. They are especially useful when dealing with the conversion of 2D field, map and GIS outputs into three dimensional geological units, which is a common problem for all students of geology. Today’s earth science students use a variety of skills and processes during their learning experience including the application of schema’s, spatial thinking, image construction, detecting patterns, memorising figures, mental manipulation and interpretation, making predictions and deducing the orientation of themselves and the rocks. 3D geological models can reinforce spatial thinking strategies and encourage students to think about processes and properties, in turn helping the student to recognise pre-learnt geological principles in the field and to convert what they see at the surface into a picture of what is going on at depth. Learning issues faced by students may also be encountered by experts, policy managers, and stakeholders when dealing with environmental problems. Therefore educational research of student learning in earth science may also improve environmental decision making. 3D geological framework models enhance the learning of Geosciences because they: ● enable a student to observe, manipulate and interpret geology; in particular the models instantly convert two-dimensional geology (maps, boreholes and cross-sections) into three dimensions which is a notoriously difficult geospatial skill to acquire. ● can be orientated to whatever the user finds comfortable and most aids recognition and interpretation. ● can be used either to teach geosciences to complete beginners or add to experienced students body of knowledge (whatever point that may be at). Models could therefore be packaged as a complete educational journey or students and tutor can select certain areas of the model

  11. A multiplicity logic unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bialkowski, J.; Moszynski, M.; Zagorski, A.

    1981-01-01

    The logic diagram principle of operation and some details of the design of the multiplicity logic unit are presented. This unit was specially designed to fulfil the requirements of a multidetector arrangement for gamma-ray multiplicity measurements. The unit is equipped with 16 inputs controlled by a common coincidence gate. It delivers a linear output pulse with the height proportional to the multiplicity of coincidences and logic pulses corresponding to 0, 1, ... up to >= 5-fold coincidences. These last outputs are used to steer the routing unit working with the multichannel analyser. (orig.)

  12. Geologic Map of the Hellas Region of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Gregory J.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.

    2001-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This geologic map of the Hellas region focuses on the stratigraphic, structural, and erosional histories associated with the largest well-preserved impact basin on Mars. Along with the uplifted rim and huge, partly infilled inner basin (Hellas Planitia) of the Hellas basin impact structure, the map region includes areas of ancient highland terrain, broad volcanic edifices and deposits, and extensive channels. Geologic activity recorded in the region spans all major epochs of martian chronology, from the early formation of the impact basin to ongoing resurfacing caused by eolian activity. The Hellas region, whose name refers to the classical term for Greece, has been known from telescopic observations as a prominent bright feature on the surface of Mars for more than a century (see Blunck, 1982). More recently, spacecraft imaging has greatly improved our visual perception of Mars and made possible its geologic interpretation. Here, our mapping at 1:5,000,000 scale is based on images obtained by the Viking Orbiters, which produced higher quality images than their predecessor, Mariner 9. Previous geologic maps of the region include those of the 1:5,000,000-scale global series based on Mariner 9 images (Potter, 1976; Peterson, 1977; King, 1978); the 1:15,000,000-scale global series based on Viking images (Greeley and Guest, 1987; Tanaka and Scott, 1987); and detailed 1:500,000-scale maps of Tyrrhena Patera (Gregg and others, 1998), Dao, Harmakhis, and Reull Valles (Price, 1998; Mest and Crown, in press), Hadriaca Patera (D.A. Crown and R. Greeley, map in preparation), and western Hellas Planitia (J.M. Moore and D.E. Wilhelms, map in preparation). We incorporated some of the previous work, but our map differs markedly in the identification and organization of map units. For example, we divide the Hellas assemblage of Greeley and Guest (1987) into the Hellas Planitia and Hellas rim assemblages and change the way units within these groupings are identified

  13. A New Finite Continuation Algorithm for Linear Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kaj; Nielsen, Hans Bruun; Pinar, Mustafa

    1996-01-01

    We describe a new finite continuation algorithm for linear programming. The dual of the linear programming problem with unit lower and upper bounds is formulated as an $\\ell_1$ minimization problem augmented with the addition of a linear term. This nondifferentiable problem is approximated...... by a smooth problem. It is shown that the minimizers of the smooth problem define a family of piecewise-linear paths as a function of a smoothing parameter. Based on this property, a finite algorithm that traces these paths to arrive at an optimal solution of the linear program is developed. The smooth...

  14. Study on geological environment in the Tono area. An approach to surface-based investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-12-01

    Mizunami Underground Research (MIU) Project has aimed at preparation of basis of investigation, analysis and evaluation of geology of deep underground and basis of engineering technologies of ultra deep underground. This report stated an approach and information of surface-based investigation for ground water flow system and MIU Project by the following contents, 1) objects and preconditions, 2) information of geological environment for analysis of material transition and design of borehole, 3) modeling, 4) tests and investigations and 5) concept of investigation. The reference data consists of results of studies such as the geological construction model, topography, geologic map, structural map, linear structure and estimated fault, permeability, underground stream characteristics, the quality of underground water and rock mechanics. (S.Y.)

  15. Muon Tomography for Geological Repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, D.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Gluyas, J.; Clark, S. J.; Thompson, L. F.; Klinger, J.; Spooner, N. J.; Blackwell, T. B.; Pal, S.; Lincoln, D. L.; Paling, S. M.; Mitchell, C. N.; Benton, C.; Coleman, M. L.; Telfer, S.; Cole, A.; Nolan, S.; Chadwick, P.

    2015-12-01

    Cosmic-ray muons are subatomic particles produced in the upper atmosphere in collisions of primary cosmic rays with atoms in air. Due to their high penetrating power these muons can be used to image the content (primarily density) of matter they pass through. They have already been used to image the structure of pyramids, volcanoes and other objects. Their applications can be extended to investigating the structure of, and monitoring changes in geological formations and repositories, in particular deep subsurface sites with stored CO2. Current methods of monitoring subsurface CO2, such as repeat seismic surveys, are episodic and require highly skilled personnel to operate. Our simulations based on simplified models have previously shown that muon tomography could be used to continuously monitor CO2 injection and migration and complement existing technologies. Here we present a simulation of the monitoring of CO2 plume evolution in a geological reservoir using muon tomography. The stratigraphy in the vicinity of the reservoir is modelled using geological data, and a numerical fluid flow model is used to describe the time evolution of the CO2 plume. A planar detection region with a surface area of 1000 m2 is considered, at a vertical depth of 776 m below the seabed. We find that one year of constant CO2 injection leads to changes in the column density of about 1%, and that the CO2 plume is already resolvable with an exposure time of less than 50 days. The attached figure show a map of CO2 plume in angular coordinates as reconstructed from observed muons. In parallel with simulation efforts, a small prototype muon detector has been designed, built and tested in a deep subsurface laboratory. Initial calibrations of the detector have shown that it can reach the required angular resolution for muon detection. Stable operation in a small borehole within a few months has been demonstrated.

  16. Preliminary geologic map of the Fontana 7.5' quadrangle, Riverside and San Bernardino Counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Douglas M.; Digital preparation by Bovard, Kelly R.

    2003-01-01

    Open-File Report 03-418 is a digital geologic data set that maps and describes the geology of the Fontana 7.5’ quadrangle, Riverside and San Bernardino Counties, California. The Fontana quadrangle database is one of several 7.5’ quadrangle databases that are being produced by the Southern California Areal Mapping Project (SCAMP). These maps and databases are, in turn, part of the nation-wide digital geologic map coverage being developed by the National Cooperative Geologic Map Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). General Open-File Report 03-418 contains a digital geologic map database of the Fontana 7.5’ quadrangle, Riverside and San Bernardino Counties, California that includes: 1. ARC/INFO (Environmental Systems Research Institute, http://www.esri.com) version 7.2.1 coverages of the various elements of the geologic map. 2. A Postscript file (fon_map.ps) to plot the geologic map on a topographic base, and containing a Correlation of Map Units diagram (CMU), a Description of Map Units (DMU), and an index map. 3. An Encapsulated PostScript (EPS) file (fon_grey.eps) created in Adobe Illustrator 10.0 to plot the geologic map on a grey topographic base, and containing a Correlation of Map Units (CMU), a Description of Map Units (DMU), and an index map. 4. Portable Document Format (.pdf) files of: a. the Readme file; includes in Appendix I, data contained in fon_met.txt b. The same graphics as plotted in 2 and 3 above.Test plots have not produced precise 1:24,000-scale map sheets. Adobe Acrobat page size setting influences map scale. The Correlation of Map Units and Description of Map Units is in the editorial format of USGS Geologic Investigations Series (I-series) maps but has not been edited to comply with I-map standards. Within the geologic map data package, map units are identified by standard geologic map criteria such as formation-name, age, and lithology. Where known, grain size is indicated on the map by a subscripted letter or letters following

  17. Portable counter for geological research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, O J

    1949-05-01

    A portable counter which has been developed for prospecting for radio-active uranium and thorium minerals, for general geological investigations, and as an ultra-sensitive detector of lost or mislaid radium, is described. The aforementioned general usage includes the identification of changes in strata by means of the investigation of the slight amount of residual activity pressent in most minerals. The apparatus, which consists essentially of a scaled-down version of a standard laboratory Geiger-Muller counter, is highly sensitive since a variation equivalent to 4% of the cosmic ray background can be detected by a three-minute count.

  18. Geological Factors and Health Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Prieto García

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Geological factors, such as damages, can cause health determinants in people, which were a little-studied and if they have been raised on occasion, usually referred to no communicable diseases. The aim of this work, which is a more or less updated bibliography, has been to develop a holistic idea for a better understanding of a problem and force latent or potential risk that they can carry and consider scientific basis infectious diseases especially complex.  In essence, the focus of ecosystem health that should be considered in terrestrial ecosystems. It also provides the basic elements for the development of new research in this field.

  19. Finite-dimensional linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Gockenbach, Mark S

    2010-01-01

    Some Problems Posed on Vector SpacesLinear equationsBest approximationDiagonalizationSummaryFields and Vector SpacesFields Vector spaces Subspaces Linear combinations and spanning sets Linear independence Basis and dimension Properties of bases Polynomial interpolation and the Lagrange basis Continuous piecewise polynomial functionsLinear OperatorsLinear operatorsMore properties of linear operatorsIsomorphic vector spaces Linear operator equations Existence and uniqueness of solutions The fundamental theorem; inverse operatorsGaussian elimination Newton's method Linear ordinary differential eq

  20. The U.S. Geological Survey's TRIGA® reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBey, Timothy M.; Roy, Brycen R.; Brady, Sally R.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) operates a low-enriched uranium-fueled, pool-type reactor located at the Federal Center in Denver, Colorado. The mission of the Geological Survey TRIGA® Reactor (GSTR) is to support USGS science by providing information on geologic, plant, and animal specimens to advance methods and techniques unique to nuclear reactors. The reactor facility is supported by programs across the USGS and is organizationally under the Associate Director for Energy and Minerals, and Environmental Health. The GSTR is the only facility in the United States capable of performing automated delayed neutron analyses for detecting fissile and fissionable isotopes. Samples from around the world are submitted to the USGS for analysis using the reactor facility. Qualitative and quantitative elemental analyses, spatial elemental analyses, and geochronology are performed. Few research reactor facilities in the United States are equipped to handle the large number of samples processed at the GSTR. Historically, more than 450,000 sample irradiations have been performed at the USGS facility. Providing impartial scientific information to resource managers, planners, and other interested parties throughout the world is an integral part of the research effort of the USGS.